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Sample records for ace satellite measurements

  1. Validation of ACE-FTS version 3.5 NOy species profiles using correlative satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheese, Patrick E.; Walker, Kaley A.; Boone, Chris D.; McLinden, Chris A.; Bernath, Peter F.; Bourassa, Adam E.; Burrows, John P.; Degenstein, Doug A.; Funke, Bernd; Fussen, Didier; Manney, Gloria L.; McElroy, C. Thomas; Murtagh, Donal; Randall, Cora E.; Raspollini, Piera; Rozanov, Alexei; Russell, James M., III; Suzuki, Makoto; Shiotani, Masato; Urban, Joachim; von Clarmann, Thomas; Zawodny, Joseph M.

    2016-12-01

    The ACE-FTS (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment - Fourier Transform Spectrometer) instrument on the Canadian SCISAT satellite, which has been in operation for over 12 years, has the capability of deriving stratospheric profiles of many of the NOy (N + NO + NO2+ NO3+ 2 × N2O5+ HNO3+ HNO4+ ClONO2+ BrONO2) species. Version 2.2 of ACE-FTS NO, NO2, HNO3, N2O5, and ClONO2 has previously been validated, and this study compares the most recent version (v3.5) of these five ACE-FTS products to spatially and temporally coincident measurements from other satellite instruments - GOMOS, HALOE, MAESTRO, MIPAS, MLS, OSIRIS, POAM III, SAGE III, SCIAMACHY, SMILES, and SMR. For each ACE-FTS measurement, a photochemical box model was used to simulate the diurnal variations of the NOy species and the ACE-FTS measurements were scaled to the local times of the coincident measurements. The comparisons for all five species show good agreement with correlative satellite measurements. For NO in the altitude range of 25-50 km, ACE-FTS typically agrees with correlative data to within -10 %. Instrument-averaged mean relative differences are approximately -10 % at 30-40 km for NO2, within ±7 % at 8-30 km for HNO3, better than -7 % at 21-34 km for local morning N2O5, and better than -8 % at 21-34 km for ClONO2. Where possible, the variations in the mean differences due to changes in the comparison local time and latitude are also discussed.

  2. Clear Sky Column Closure Studies of Urban-Marine and Mineral-Dust Aerosols Using Aircraft, Ship, Satellite and Ground-Based Measurements in ACE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, Beat; Russell, Philip B.; Livingston, John M.; Gasso, Santiago; Hegg, Dean A.; Collins, Donald R.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.; Oestroem, Elisabeth; Noone, Kevin J.; Durkee, Philip A.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Voss, Kenneth J.; Gordon, Howard R.; Formenti, Paola; Andreae, Meinrat O.; Kapustin, Vladimir N.; Bates, Timothy S.; Quinn, Patricia K.

    2000-01-01

    As part of the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2), European urban-marine and African mineral-dust aerosols were measured aboard the Pelican aircraft, the Research Vessel Vodyanitskiy from the ground and from satellites.

  3. North Atlantic Aerosol Radiative Impacts Based on Satellite Measurements and Aerosol Intensive Properties from TARFOX and ACE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Bergstrom, Robert W.; Schmid, B.; Livingston, J. M.

    2000-01-01

    We estimate the impact of North Atlantic aerosols on the net short-wave flux at the tropopause by combining satellite-derived aerosol optical depth (AOD) maps with model aerosol properties determined via closure analyses in TARFOX and ACE 2. We exclude African dust, primarily by restricting latitudes to 25-60 N. The analyses use in situ aerosol composition measurements and air- and ship-borne sun-photometer measurements of AOD spectra. The aerosol model yields computed flux sensitivities (dFlux/dAOD) that agree with measurements by airborne flux radiometers in TARFOX. Its midvisible single-scattering albedo is 0.9. which is in the range obtained from in situ measurements of scattering and absorption in both TARFOX and ACE 2. Combining satellite-derived AOD maps with the aerosol model yields maps of 24-hour average net radiative flux changes. For simultaneous AVHRR, radiance measurements exceeded the sunphotometer AODs by about 0.04. However. shipboard sunphotometer and AVHRR AODs agreed Within 0.02 for data acquired during satellite overflights on two other days. We discuss attempts to demonstrate column closure within the MBL by comparing shipboard sunphotometer AODs and values calculated from simultaneous shipboard in-situ aerosol size distribution measurements. These comparisons were mostly unsuccessful, but they illustrate the difficulties inherent in this type of closure analysis. Specifically, AODs derived from near-surface in-situ size distribution measurements are extremely sensitive to the assumed hygroscopic growth model that itself requires an assumption of particle composition as a function of height and size, to the radiosonde-measured relative humidity, and to the vertical profile of particle number. We investigate further the effects of hygroscopic particle growth within the MBL by using shipboard lidar aerosol backscatter profiles together with the sunphotometer AOD.

  4. Shipboard Sunphotometer Measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth During ACE-2 and Comparison with Selected Ship, Aircraft and Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, J. M.; Kapustin, V. N.; Schmid, B.; Russell, P. B.; Quinn, P. K.; Bates, T. S.; Durkee, P. A.; Nielsen, K.; Freudenthaler, V.; Wiegner, M.; Covert, D. S.

    2000-01-01

    We present analyses of aerosol optical depth (AOD) measurements taken with a shipboard six-channel tracking sunphotometer during ACE-2. For 10 July 1997, results are also shown for measurements acquired 70 km from the ship with a fourteen-channel airborne tracking sunphotometer.

  5. Polar Sunrise 2008 Comparison of Lidar Water Vapor Measurements from the IASOA PEARL Observatory in Eureka, Canada and ACE Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, A. L.; Sica, R. J.; Strawbridge, K. B.; Walker, K. A.; Manney, G. L.; Drummond, J. R.

    2008-12-01

    Water vapor is an important part of the atmosphere due to its roles in the hydrological cycle, greenhouse heating and ozone chemistry. The stratospheric ozone lidar located at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) in Eureka, Nunavut (80.2° N, 86.4° W) is jointly operated by the Canadian Network for Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC) and Environment Canada. It has recently been upgraded to measure water vapor at 150 m vertical resolution in the polar troposphere up to about six kilometers, with measurements extending above this at lower vertical resolution. Successful validation of these measurements will allow scientific studies to begin with the coincident measurements from the lidar and suite of CANDAC instruments at PEARL. In concert with the lidar's well-established ozone and temperature profiles these new water vapor measurements will allow incidents of stratosphere-troposphere exchange to be monitored as well as, when combined with other measurements from PEARL instrumentation, detailed studies of ozone chemistry to be performed. With the motion of the polar vortex bringing it overhead and away from PEARL during the course of a campaign, it is possible to look at interactions between upper tropospheric jets and the vortex. Water vapor measurements have been taken and analyzed for eleven nights during the Canadian Arctic ACE Validation Campaign in February and March 2008. Calibration of the lidar has been obtained by comparing lidar measurements from seven clear nights to water vapor measurements from the regular radiosonde launches at the Eureka Weather Station. A consistent altitude dependent bias between the two instruments is found, giving us confidence in the calibration. Calibrated lidar measurements are currently being compared to water vapour measurements from overpasses by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite, as well as compared to the ozone measurements obtained during the campaign.

  6. ACE-FTS measurements of HCFC-22

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolonjari, F.; Walker, K. A.; Boone, C. D.; Strahan, S.; McLinden, C. A.; Manney, G. L.; Daffer, W. H.; Bernath, P. F.

    2012-04-01

    In the 1980s scientists discovered an annual springtime minimum in stratospheric ozone over the Antarctic. It was determined that the decline in ozone concentration was primarily caused by catalytic reactions of ozone and chlorine. The emissions of anthropogenic chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) were determined to be major sources of the chlorine. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer (with its subsequent amendments) restricts the emissions of ozone depleting substances. To fulfill the need for safe, stable replacements of CFCs, hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) and hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) were developed. The use of HCFC-22 as a replacement has led to an increase in its atmospheric abundance. This is of concern due to its ozone depletion potential and its global warming potential. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) is a mission on-board the Canadian satellite SCISAT. The primary instrument on SCISAT is a high-resolution infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). With its wide spectral range, the ACE-FTS is capable of measuring an extensive range of gases including key CFC and HCFC species. The altitude distribution from the ACE-FTS profiles provides information that is complementary to the ground-based measurements that have been used to monitor these species. The global distribution of HCFC-22 has been computed from measurements by ACE-FTS. Both seasonal variations and an inter-hemispheric difference are observed. Additionally, a rapid increase in the global concentration of HCFC-22 has been observed since the start of the ACE mission in 2004. Comparisons to ground-based and air-borne measurements show good agreement with the ACE-FTS measurements. The global distributions of HCFC-22 have also been compared to a chemistry and transport model (CTM), the Global Modelling Initiative Combined Stratospheric-Tropospheric Model. There are distinct differences between the model results and ACE-FTS measurements. The causes and

  7. Shipboard Sunphotometer Measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth Spectra and Columnar Water Vapor During ACE-2, and Comparison with Selected Land, Ship, Aircraft, and Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, John M.; Kapustin, Vladimir N.; Schmid, Beat; Russell, Philip B.; Quinn, Patricia K.; Bates, Timothy S.; Durkee, Philip A.; Smith, Peter J.; Freudenthaler, Volker; Wiegner, Matthias

    2000-01-01

    Analyses of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and columnar water vapor (CWV) measurements acquired with NASA Ames Research Center's six-channel Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) operated aboard the R/V (research vehicle) Professor Vodyanitskiy during the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) are discussed. Data are compared with various in situ and remote measurements for selected cases. The focus is on 10 July, when the Pelican airplane flew within 70 km of the ship near the time of a NOAA (National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration)-14/AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) satellite overpass and AOD measurements with the 14-channel Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) above the marine boundary layer (MBL) permitted calculation of AOD within the MBL from the AATS-6 measurements. A detailed column closure test is performed for MBL AOD on 10 July by comparing the AATS-6 MBL AODs with corresponding values calculated by combining shipboard particle size distribution measurements with models of hygroscopic growth and radiosonde humidity profiles (plus assumptions on the vertical profile of the dry particle size distribution and composition). Large differences (30-80% in the mid-visible) between measured and reconstructed AODs are obtained, in large part because of the high sensitivity of the closure methodology to hygroscopic growth models, which vary considerably and have not been validated over the necessary range of particle size/composition distributions. The wavelength dependence of AATS-6 AODs is compared with the corresponding dependence of aerosol extinction calculated from shipboard measurements of aerosol size distribution and of total scattering measured by a shipboard integrating nephelometer for several days. Results are highly variable, illustrating further the great difficulty of deriving column values from point measurements. AATS-6 CWV values are shown to agree well with corresponding values derived from

  8. Shipboard Sunphotometer Measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth Spectra and Columnar Water Vapor During ACE-2 and Comparison with Selected Land, Ship, Aircraft, and Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, John M.; Kapustin, Vladimir N.; Schmid, Beat; Russell, Philip B.; Quinn, Patricia K.; Bates, Timothy S.; Durkee, Philip A.; Smith, Peter J.; Freudenthaler, Volker; Wiegner, Matthias; Covert, Dave S.; Gasso, Santiago; Hegg, Dean; Collins, Donald R.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.; Vitale, Vito; Tomasi, Claudio

    2000-01-01

    Analyses of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and colurnmn water vapor (CWV) measurements acquired with NASA Ames Research Center's 6-channel Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) operated aboard the R/V Professor Vodyanitskiy during the 2nd Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) are discussed. Data are compared with various in situ and remote measurements for selected cases. The focus is on 10 July, when the Pelican airplane flew within 70 km of the ship near the time of a NOAA-14/AVHRR satellite overpass and AOD measurements with the 14-channel Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) above the marine boundary layer (MBL) permitted calculation of AOD within the MBL from the AATS-6 measurements. A detailed column closure test is performed for MBL AOD on 10 July by comparing the AATS-6 MBL AODs with corresponding values calculated by combining shipboard particle size distribution measurements with models of hygroscopic growth and radiosonde humidity profiles (plus assumptions on the vertical profile of the dry particle size distribution and composition). Large differences (30-80% in the mid-visible) between measured and reconstructed AODs are obtained, in large part because of the high sensitivity of the closure methodology to hygroscopic growth models, which vary considerably and have not been validated over the necessary range of particle size/composition distributions. The wavelength dependence of AATS-6 AODs is compared with the corresponding dependence of aerosol extinction calculated from shipboard measurements of aerosol size distribution and of total scattering mearured by a shipboard integrating nephelometer for several days. Results are highly variable, illustrating further the great difficulty of deriving column values from point measurements. AATS-6 CWV values are shown to agree well with corresponding values derived from radiosonde measurements during 8 soundings on 7 days and also with values calculated from measurements taken on 10 July with

  9. CO emission and export from Asia: an analysis combining complementary satellite measurements (MOPITT, SCIAMACHY and ACE-FTS) with global modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turquety, S.; Clerbaux, C.; Law, K.; Coheur, P.-F.; Cozic, A.; Szopa, S.; Hauglustaine, D. A.; Hadji-Lazaro, J.; Gloudemans, A. M. S.; Schrijver, H.; Boone, C. D.; Bernath, P. F.; Edwards, D. P.

    2008-09-01

    This study presents the complementary picture of the pollution outflow provided by several satellite observations of carbon monoxide (CO), based on different observation techniques. This is illustrated by an analysis of the Asian outflow during the spring of 2005, through comparisons with simulations by the LMDz-INCA global chemistry transport model. The CO observations from the MOPITT and SCIAMACHY nadir sounders, which provide vertically integrated information with excellent horizontal sampling, and from the ACE-FTS solar occultation instrument, which has limited spatial coverage but allows the retrieval of vertical profiles, are used. Combining observations from MOPITT (mainly sensitive to the free troposphere) and SCIAMACHY (sensitive to the full column) allows a qualitative evaluation of the boundary layer CO. The model tends to underestimate this residual compared to the observations, suggesting underestimated emissions, especially in eastern Asia. However, a better understanding of the consistency and possible biases between the MOPITT and SCIAMACHY CO is necessary for a quantitative evaluation. Underestimated emissions, and possibly too low lofting and underestimated chemical production in the model, lead to an underestimate of the export to the free troposphere, as highlighted by comparisons with MOPITT and ACE-FTS. Both instruments observe large trans-Pacific transport extending from ~20° N to ~60° N, with high upper tropospheric CO observed by ACE-FTS above the eastern Pacific (with values of up to 300 ppbv around 50° N at 500 hPa and up to ~200 ppbv around 30° N at 300 hPa). The low vertical and horizontal resolutions of the global model do not allow the simulation of the strong enhancements in the observed plumes. However, the transport patterns are well captured, and are mainly attributed to export from eastern Asia, with increasing contributions from South Asia and Indonesia towards the tropics. Additional measurements of C2H2, C2H6 and HCN by

  10. Desert Dust Layers Over Polluted Marine Boundary Layers: ACE-2 Measurements and ACE-Asia Plans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip B.; Schmid, B.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Condon, Estelle P. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Aerosols in ACE-Asia are expected to have some commonalties with those in ACE-2, along with important differences. Among the commonalities are occurrences of desert dust layers over polluted marine boundary layers. Differences include the nature of the dust (yellowish in the East Asia desert outflow, vs. reddish-brown in the Sahara Outflow measured in ACE-2) and the composition of boundary-layer aerosols (e.g., more absorbing, soot and organic aerosol in-the Asian plume, caused by coal and biomass burning, with limited controls). In this paper we present ACE-2 measurements and analyses as a guide to our plans for ACE-2 Asia. The measurements include: (1) Vertical profiles of aerosol optical depth and extinction (380-1558 nm), and of water vapor column and concentration, from the surface through the elevated desert dust, measured by the 14-channel Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14); (2) Comparisons of airborne and shipborne sunphotometer optical depths to satellite-retrieved values, with and without desert dust; (3) Comparisons between airborne Sunphotometer optical depth and extinction spectra and those derived from coincident airborne in situ measurements of aerosol size distribution, scattering and absorption; (4) Comparisons between size distributions measured in situ and retrieved from sunphotometer optical depth spectra; (5) Comparisons between aerosol single scattering albedo values obtained by several techniques, using various combinations of measurements of backscatter, extinction, size distribution, scattering, absorption, and radiative flux. We show how analyses of these data can be used to address questions important to ACE-Asia, such as: (1) How do dust and other absorbing aerosols affect the accuracy of satellite optical depth retrievals? How important are asphericity effects? (2) How important are supermicron dust and seasalt aerosols to overall aerosol optical depth and radiative forcing? How well are these aerosols sampled by aircraft

  11. Satellite remote sensing and spectroscopy: Joint ACE-Odin meeting, October 2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernath, P. F.

    2017-01-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) and Odin satellite teams had a joint meeting in October, 2015 and it was decided to publish some of the papers presented as a special issue of this journal (JQSRT). ACE and Odin measure atmospheric composition by remote sensing from low Earth orbit. This Special Issue also includes papers about other space instruments and related ground-based observations. Remote sensing of the atmosphere relies entirely on spectroscopy so many of the papers report on spectroscopic measurements of atmospheric molecules and computer programs used for spectroscopic analysis.

  12. ACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lumia, R.

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the progress made during the fourth year of the Center for Autonomous Control Engineering (ACE). We currently support 30 graduate students, 52 undergraduate students, 9 faculty members, and 4 staff members. Progress will be divided into two categories. The first category explores progress for ACE in general. The second describes the results of each specific project supported within ACE.

  13. The Canadian Arctic ACE/OSIRIS Validation Project at PEARL: Validating Satellite Observations Over the High Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Kaley A.; Strong, Kimberly; Fogal, Pierre F.; Drummond, James R.

    2016-04-01

    Ground-based measurements provide critical data for the validation of satellite retrievals of atmospheric trace gases and for the assessment of long-term stability of these measurements. As of February 2016, the Canadian-led Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite mission has been making measurements of the Earth's atmosphere for nearly twelve years and Canada's Optical Spectrograph and InfraRed Imager System (OSIRIS) instrument on the Odin satellite has been operating for fourteen years. As ACE and OSIRIS operations have extended beyond their planned two-year missions, there is an ongoing need to validate the trace gas data profiles from the ACE-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS), the Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (ACE-MAESTRO) and OSIRIS. In particular, validation comparisons are needed during Arctic springtime to understand better the measurements of species involved in stratospheric ozone chemistry. To this end, thirteen Canadian Arctic ACE/OSIRIS Validation Campaigns have been conducted during the spring period (February - April in 2004 - 2016) at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) in Eureka, Nunavut (80N, 86W). For the past decade, these campaigns have been undertaken in collaboration with the Canadian Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Change (CANDAC). The spring period coincides with the most chemically active time of year in the Arctic, as well as a significant number of satellite overpasses. A suite of as many as 12 ground-based instruments, as well as frequent balloon-borne ozonesonde and radiosonde launches, have been used in each campaign. These instruments include: a ground-based version of the ACE-FTS (PARIS - Portable Atmospheric Research Interferometric Spectrometer), a terrestrial version of the ACE-MAESTRO, a SunPhotoSpectrometer, two CANDAC zenith-viewing UV-visible grating spectrometers, a Bomem DA8 Fourier transform spectrometer

  14. Badhwar-O'Neil 2007 Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) Model Using Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) Measurements for Solar Cycle 23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    ONeill, P. M.

    2007-01-01

    Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) satellite measurements of the galactic cosmic ray flux and correlation with the Climax Neutron Monitor count over Solar Cycle 23 are used to update the Badhwar O'Neill Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) model.

  15. Aerosols, Chemistry, and Radiative Forcing: A 3-D Model Analysis of Satellite and ACE-Asia data (ACMAP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, Mian; Ginoux, Paul; Torres, Omar; Zhao, Xue-Peng

    2005-01-01

    We propose a research project to incorporate a global 3-D model and satellite data into the multi-national Aerosol Characterization Experiment-Asia (ACE-Asia) mission. Our objectives are (1) to understand the physical, chemical, and optical properties of aerosols and the processes that control those properties over the Asian-Pacific region, (2) to investigate the interaction between aerosols and tropospheric chemistry, and (3) to determine the aerosol radiative forcing over the Asia-Pacific region. We will use the Georgia TecWGoddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model to link satellite observations and the ACE-Asia measurements. First, we will use the GOCART model to simulate aerosols and related species, and evaluate the model with satellite and in-situ observations. Second, the model generated aerosol vertical profiles and compositions will be used to validate the satellite products; and the satellite data will be used for during- and post- mission analysis. Third, we will use the model to analyze and interpret both satellite and ACE- Asia field campaign data and investigate the aerosol-chemistry interactions. Finally, we will calculate aerosol radiative forcing over the Asian-Pacific region, and assess the influence of Asian pollution in the global atmosphere. We propose a research project to incorporate a global 3-D model and satellite data into

  16. Dust Aerosols at the Source Region During ACE-ASIA: A Surface/Satellite Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    ACE (Aerosol Characterization Experiment)-Asia is designed to study the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of both pollution-derived and naturally occurring aerosols, which often exist in high concentrations over eastern Asia and along the rim of the western Pacific. The phase-I of ACE-Asia was conducted from March-May 2001 in the vicinity of the Gobi desert, East Coast of China, Yellow Sea, Korea, and Japan, along the pathway of Kosa (severe events that blanket East Asia with yellow desert dust, peaked in the Spring season). Asian dust typically originates in desert areas far from polluted urban regions. During transport, dust layers can interact with anthropogenic sulfate and soot aerosols from heavily polluted urban areas. Added to the complex effects of clouds and natural marine aerosols, dust particles reaching the marine environment can have drastically different properties than those from the source. Thus, understanding the unique temporal and spatial variations of Asian dust is of special importance in regional-to-global climate issues such as radiative forcing, the hydrological cycle, and primary biological productivity in the mid-Pacific Ocean. During ACE-Asia we have measured continuously aerosol physical/optical/radiative properties, column precipitable water amount, and surface reflectivity over homogeneous areas from surface. The inclusion of flux measurements permits the determination of dust aerosol radiative flux in addition to measurements of loading and optical thickness. At the time of the Terra/MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS and other satellite overpasses, these ground-based observations can provide valuable data to compare with satellite retrievals over land. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed their implications in regional climatic effects.

  17. Characterization of Dust Properties during ACE-Asia and PRIDE: A Column Satellite-Surface Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor); Tsay, Si-Chee; Hsu, N. Christina; Herman, Jay R.; Ji, Q. Jack

    2002-01-01

    Many recent field experiments are designed to study the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of both pollution-derived and naturally occurring aerosols, which often exist in high concentration over particular pathways around the globe. For example, the ACE-Asia (Aerosol Characterization Experiment-Asia) was conducted from March-May 2001 in the vicinity of the Taklimakan and Gobi deserts, East Coast of China, Yellow Sea, Korea, and Japan, along the pathway of Kosa (severe events that blanket East Asia with yellow desert dust, peaked in the Spring season). The PRIDE (Puerto RIco Dust Experiment, July 2000) was designed to measure the properties of Saharan dust transported across the Atlantic Ocean to the Caribbean. Dust particles typically originate in desert areas far from polluted urban regions. During transport, dust layers can interact with anthropogenic sulfate and soot aerosols from heavily polluted urban areas. Added to the complex effects of clouds and natural marine aerosols, dust particles reaching the marine environment can have drastically different properties than those from the source. Thus, understanding the unique temporal and spatial variations of dust aerosols is of special importance in regional-to-global climate issues such as radiative forcing, the hydrological cycle, and primary biological productivity in the ocean. During ACE-Asia and PRIDE we had measured aerosol physical/optical/radiative properties, column precipitable water amount, and surface reflectivity over homogeneous areas from ground-based remote sensing. The inclusion of flux measurements permits the determination of aerosol radiative flux in addition to measurements of loading and optical depth. At the time of the Terra/MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS and other satellite overpasses, these ground-based observations can provide valuable data to compare with satellite retrievals over land. We will present the results and discuss their implications in regional climatic effects.

  18. HDO measurements from ACE-FTS and Odin/SMR: Validation comparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Kaley; Dupuy, Eric; Urban, Joachim; Boone, Chris; Kasai, Yasuko; Baron, Philippe; Bernath, Peter; Murtagh, Donal P.

    Understanding the trend in atmospheric water vapor (H2 O) is of critical importance for predicting climate change and ozone layer evolution. Accurate measurements of H2 O isotopologues, such as HDO, can contribute to a better understanding of water vapor distribution. Therefore, recent satellite missions have included measurements of H2 O isotopologues. A key step in the development of these data products is quality evaluation or validation. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) is a Canadian-led satellite mission launched on 12 August 2003 in a 74° -inclination orbit at an altitude of 650 km. The primary instrument on-board ACE is an infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) operating in the spectral range 750-4400 cm-1 at high spectral resolution (0.02 cm-1 ). ACE-FTS uses the solar occultation technique to measure atmospheric absorption spectra. Vertical profiles of trace constituent abundances, temperature and pressure are provided over altitudes ranging from 5 km to the lower thermosphere. Odin is a Swedish-led international satellite mission launched on 20 February 2001 in a sunsynchronous polar orbit (inclination 98° ) at an altitude of ˜600 km. The Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR) is one of two instruments aboard the platform. It performs limb-sounding measurements of thermal emission from molecular species in the frequency range 486 to 581 GHz. Volume mixing ratio profiles of the target molecules are retrieved mainly in the stratosphere and mesosphere. Deuterated water or HDO is one of the isotopologues of water vapor measured by both instruments. This paper will present the joint effort aiming at a comprehensive validation of the HDO products retrieved from the ACE-FTS and Odin/SMR observations. The first conclusions regarding the quality assessment of both HDO products will be given.

  19. Shipboard Measurements During ACE-Asia: an Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, T. S.; Uematsu, M.; Miura, K.

    2001-12-01

    Shipboard measurements of aerosol properties and related parameters were conducted from the US NOAA R/V Ronald H. Brown and the Japanese R/V Mirai (MR01-K02) during the ACE-Asia Intensive Field Program (http://saga.pmel.noaa.gov/aceasia/). The R/V Brown cruise (14 March - 20 April 2001), with scientists from 22 research institutions, included measurements across the Pacific Ocean from Hawaii to Japan, in the East China Sea and in the Sea of Japan. Measurements were coordinated with the US NSF/NCAR C-130, US CIRPAS Twin Otter, and the Australian ARA King Air Aircraft, Terra and SeaWiFS satellite overpasses, and the ground station at Hachijo, Japan. Distinct aerosol and trace gas signatures were observed from the Miyakejima volcano, the deserts of China and Mongolia, the Chang Jiang Basin, the Korean Peninsula and the islands of Japan. The R/V Mirai cruise (14 - 28 May 2001), with scientists from 10 research institutions, focused on the region east of Japan along 146.5 E from 30 N to 38 N. Enhanced concentrations of radon and super-micron aerosol were measured in a post-frontal air mass along the 146.5 E transect. Observations from a Kytoon and the NIES two-wavelength (1064 nm and 532 nm) dual-polarization lidar detected dust and sulfate aerosol plumes from the Asian continent. The vertical distribution patterns of the dust and sulfate aerosols qualitatively agreed with the model prediction by the Chemical Weather Forecasting System (CFORS).

  20. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Retrievals from Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Solar Occultation Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Chiou, Linda; Boone, Chris; Bernath, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment ACE satellite (SCISAT-1) was launched into an inclined orbit on 12 August 2003 and is now recording high signal-to-noise 0.02 per centimeter resolution solar absorption spectra covering 750-4400 per centimeter (2.3-13 micrometers). A procedure has been developed for retrieving average dry air CO2 mole fractions (X(sub CO2)) in the altitude range 7-10 kilometers from the SCISAT-1 spectra. Using the N2 continuum absorption in a window region near 2500 per centimeter, altitude shifts are applied to the tangent heights retrieved in version 2.2 SCISAT-1 processing, while cloudy or aerosol-impacted measurements are eliminated. Monthly-mean XCO2 covering 60 S to 60 N latitude for February 2004 to March 2008 has been analyzed with consistent trends inferred in both hemispheres. The ACE XCO2 time series have been compared with previously-reported surface network measurements, predictions based on upper tropospheric aircraft measurements, and space-based measurements. The retrieved X(sub CO2) from the ACE-FTS spectra are higher on average by a factor of 1.07 plus or minus 0.025 in the northern hemisphere and by a factor of 1.09 plus or minus 0.019 on average in the southern hemisphere compared to surface station measurements covering the same time span. The ACE derived trend is approximately 0.2% per year higher than measured at surface stations during the same observation period.

  1. Nh and CH in the Ace Satellite Solar Spectrumtitle of your Abstract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernath, P. F.; Ram, R. S.; Colin, R.

    2010-06-01

    The Canadian ACE (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment) mission has a high resolution (0.02 cm-1) Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) in low earth orbit. The primary ACE mission goal is the study ozone chemistry in the stratosphere although it is making a wide range of other measurements, for example, of organic molecules in the troposphere. In the normal operating mode, the ACE-FTS measures a sequence of atmospheric absorption spectra during sunrise and sunset (``solar occultation''). As part of the measurement sequence about 16 high sun exoatmospheric spectra are recorded for each occultation to serve as reference spectra. We have co-added 224782 pure solar spectra to produce the ACE solar atlas in the 750--4400 cm-1 spectral region [Hase et al., JQSRT 111, 521 (2010), see http://www.ace.uwaterloo.ca/solaratlas.html]. The ACE solar spectrum displays prominent vibration-rotation bands of CO, OH, NH and CH, and pure rotational lines of OH and NH. An improved spectroscopic analysis for OH has already been published [Bernath and Colin, JMS 257, 20 (2009)] and we now report on similar work for NH and CH. The vibration-rotation spectra of NH have been reinvestigated using laboratory spectra and infrared solar spectra recorded from orbit by the ACE and ATMOS instruments. In addition to identifying the previously unobserved 6-5 vibration-rotation band in the laboratory spectra, many additional high N rotational lines have been observed. By combining the new observations with the previously published data and recent far infrared data, an improved set of molecular constants and term values have been derived for the NH X^3Σ^- and A^3Π states. Vibration-rotation spectra of the CH X^2Π ground state have also been re-analyzed based on laboratory spectra, the ACE solar spectrum and published data. The previously unobserved 5-4 band has been measured and the other four bands (1-0 to 4-3) have been extended to higher J values. TEXT OF YOUR ABSTRACT

  2. ACE-Asia Aerosol Optical Depth and Water Vapor Measured by Airborne Sunphotometers and Related to Other Measurements and Calculations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, John M.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Eilers, J. A.; Ramirez, S. A.; Kahn, R.; Hegg, D.; Pilewskie, P.; Anderson, T.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In the Spring 2001 phase of the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia), the 6-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) operated on 15 of the 19 research flights of the NCAR C-130, while its 14-channel counterpart (AATS- 14) flew successfully on all 18 research flights of the CIRPAS Twin Otter. ACE-Asia studied aerosol outflow from the Asian continent to the Pacific basin. It was designed to integrate suborbital and satellite measurements and models so as to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosols. AATS-6 and AATS-14 measured solar beam transmission at 6 and 14 wavelengths (380-1021 and 354-1558 nm, respectively), yielding aerosol optical depth (AOD) spectra and column water vapor (CWV). Vertical differentiation in profiles yielded aerosol extinction spectra and water vapor concentration. The wavelength dependence of these AOD and extinction spectra indicates that supermicron dust was often a major component of the ACE-Asia aerosol. Frequently this dust-containing aerosol extended to high altitudes. For example, in AATS- 14 profiles analyzed to date, 36% of full-column AOD at 525 nm was above 3 km. In contrast, only 10% of CWV was above 3 km. Analyses and applications of AATS-6 and AATS-14 data to date include comparisons to (i) extinction products derived using in situ measurements, (ii) extinction profiles derived from lidar measurements, and (iii) AOD retrievals from the Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer (MISR) aboard the TERRA satellite. Other planned collaborative studies include comparisons to results from size spectrometers, chemical measurements, other satellite sensors, flux radiometers, and chemical transport models. Early results of these studies will be presented.

  3. Characterization of Dust Properties Near Source Region During ACE-Asia: A Column Satellite-Surface Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, S. -C.; Ji, Q.; Chu, A.; Hsu, C.; Holben, B.; Campbell, J.; Welton, E. J.; Shu, P. K.

    2002-01-01

    Many recent field experiments are designed to study the compelling variability in spatial and temporal scale of both pollution-derived and naturally occurring aerosols, which often exist in high concentrations over eastern/southeastern Asia and along the rim of the western Pacific. For example, the ACE-Asia was conducted from March-May 2001 in the vicinity of the Taklimakan and Gobi deserts, East Coast of China, Yellow Sea, Korea, and Japan, along the pathway of Kosa (severe events that blanket East Asia with yellow desert dust, peaked in the Spring season). Asian dust typically originates in desert areas far from polluted urban regions. During transport, dust layers can interact with anthropogenic sulfate and soot aerosols from heavily polluted urban areas. Added to the complex effects of clouds and natural marine aerosols, dust particles reaching the marine environment can have drastically different properties than those from the source. Thus, understanding the unique temporal and spatial variations of Asian aerosols is of special importance in regional-to-global climate issues such as radiative forcing, the hydrological cycle, and primary biological productivity in the mid-Pacific Ocean. During ACE-Asia we have measured continuously aerosol physical/optical/radiative properties, column precipitable water amount, and surface reflectivity over homogeneous areas from surface. The inclusion of flux measurements permits the determination of aerosol radiative flux in addition to measurements of loading and optical depth. At the time of the Terra/MODIS, SeaWiFS, TOMS and other satellite overpasses, these ground-based observations can provide valuable data to compare with satellite retrievals over land. Preliminary results will be presented and discussed their implications in regional climatic effects.

  4. Environmental Snapshots for Satellite Multi-Angle Aerosol Retrieval Validation During the ACE-Asia Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph; Anderson, Jim; Anderson, Theodore L.; Bates, Tim; Brechtel, Fred; Clarke, Antony; Dutton, Ellsworth; Flagan, Richard; Fouin, Robert; Fukushima, Hajime

    2003-01-01

    On five occasions spanning the ACE-Asia field experiment in spring 2001, the multi-angle imaging MISR instrument, flying aboard the NASA Earth Observing System s Terra satellite, took quarter-kilometer data over a 400-km-wide swath, coincident with high-quality observations by multiple instruments on two or more participating surface and airborne platforms. The cases capture a range of clean, polluted, and dusty aerosol conditions. They represent some of the best opportunities during ACE- Asia for comparative studies among intensive and extensive aerosol observations in their environmental context. We inter-compare related measurements and discuss the implications of apparent discrepancies for each case, at a level of detail appropriate to the analysis of satellite observations. With a three-stage optical modeling process, we synthesize data from multiple sources into layer-by-layer snapshots that summarize what we know about the state of the atmosphere and surface at key locations during each event, to be used for satellite vicarious calibration and aerosol retrieval validation. Aerosols within a few kilometers of the surface were composed primarily of pollution and Asian dust mixtures, as expected. Accumulation and coarse-mode particle size distributions varied little among the events studied, but column aerosol optical depth changed by more than a factor of four, and the near-surface proportion of dust ranged from about 25% to 50%. The amount of absorbing material in the sub-micron fraction was highest when near-surface winds crossed Beijing and the Korean Peninsula, and was considerably lower for all other cases. Ambiguities remain in segregating size distributions by composition; having simultaneous single scattering albedo measurements at more than a single wavelength would significantly reduce the resulting optical model uncertainties, as would integral constraints from surface and atmospheric radiative flux observations. The consistency of component

  5. Validation of ACE-FTS measurements of CFC-11, CFC-12, and HCFC-22 using ground-based FTIR spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolonjari, F.; Walker, K. A.; Mahieu, E.; Batchelor, R. L.; Bernath, P. F.; Boone, C.; Conway, S. A.; Dan, L.; Griffin, D.; Harrett, A.; Kasai, Y.; Kagawa, A.; Lindenmaier, R.; Strong, K.; Whaley, C.

    2013-12-01

    Satellite datasets can be an effective global monitoring tool for long-lived compounds in the atmosphere. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) is a mission on-board the Canadian satellite SCISAT-1. The primary instrument on SCISAT-1 is a high-resolution infrared Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS) which is capable of measuring a range of gases including key chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and hydrochlorofluorocarbon (HCFC) species. These families of species are of interest because of their significant contribution to anthropogenic ozone depletion and to global warming. To assess the quality of data derived from satellite measurements, validation using other data sources is essential. Ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometers are particularly useful for this purpose. In this study, five FTIR spectrometers located at four sites around the world are used to validate the CFC-11 (CCl3F), CFC-12 (CCl2F2), and HCFC-22 (CHClF2) retrieved profiles from ACE-FTS measurements. These species are related because HCFC-22 was the primary replacement for CFC-11 and CFC-12 in refrigerant and propellant applications. The FTIR spectrometers used in this study record solar absorption spectra at Eureka (Canada), Jungfraujoch (Switzerland), Poker Flat (USA), and Toronto (Canada). The retrieval of CFC-11, CFC-12, and HCFC-22 are not standard products for many of these instruments, and as such, a harmonization of retrieval parameters between the sites has been conducted. The retrievals of these species from the FTIR spectra are sensitive from the surface to approximately 20 km, while the ACE-FTS profiles extend from approximately 6 to 30 km. For each site, partial column comparisons between coincident measurements of the three species and a validation of the observed trends will be discussed.

  6. Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Measurements of Tropospheric and Stratospheric Chemistry and Long-Term Trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Bernath, Peter; Boone, Chris; Nassar, Ray

    2007-01-01

    We highlight chemistry and trend measurement results from the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) which is providing precise middle troposphere to the lower thermosphere measurements with a 0.02/cm resolution Fourier transform spectrometer covering 750-4400/cm

  7. Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Lower Stratospheric Trend Measurements: Approach and Preliminary Results based on Comparisons with ATMOS Midlatitude Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rinsland, C. P.; Bernath, P. F.; McLeod, S.; Boone, C.; McHugh, M.; Walker, K.

    2003-12-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) was successfully launched on August 12, 2003, into a 73.9 degree inclined orbit at an altitude of 650 km onboard a U.S.-supplied Pegasus XL vehicle. The primary goal of the ACE mission is to measure solar occultation spectra from the UV to mid-infrared for a minimum of two years to determine whether or not the stratospheric ozone layer will begin to recover now that chlorofluorocarbon emissions have been banned. Among the instruments carried by the small Canadian-built satellite is a compact Fourier transform spectrometer designed to measure in the 750-4100 cm-1 region at 0.02 cm-1 spectral resolution. The measurements will provide an opportunity to determine lower stratospheric trends at midlatitudes by comparison of ACE measurements with measurements recorded by the Atmospheric Trace MOlecule Spectroscopy (ATMOS) Fourier transform spectometer at 0.01-cm-1 resolution during its first shuttle flight in 1985. We describe the approach to be used for trend determination, the status of the investigation, and the other data relevant for comparisons.

  8. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Satellite-Derived Cloud and Surface Characteristics During FIRE-ACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maslanik, J. A.; Key, J.; Fowler, C. W.; Nguyen, T.; Wang, X.a

    2000-01-01

    Advanced very high resolution radiometer (AVHRR) products calculated for the western Arctic for April-July 1998 are used to investigate spatial, temporal, and regional patterns and variability in energy budget parameters associated with ocean- ice-atmosphere interactions over the Arctic Ocean during the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) project and the First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment - Arctic Cloud Experiment (FIRE-ACE). The AVHRR-derived parameters include cloud fraction, clear-sky and all-sky skin temperature and broadband albedo, upwelling and downwelling shortwave and longwave radiation, cloud top pressure and temperature, and cloud optical depth. The remotely sensed products generally agree well with field observations at the SHEBA site, which in turn is shown to be representative of a surrounding region comparable in size to a climate-model grid cell. Time series of products for other locations in the western Arctic illustrate the magnitude of spatial variability during the study period and provide spatial and temporal detail useful for studying regional processes. The data illustrate the progression of reduction in cloud cover, albedo decrease, and the considerable heating of the open ocean associated with the anomalous decrease in sea ice cover in the eastern Beaufort Sea that began in late spring. Above-freezing temperatures are also recorded within the ice pack, suggesting warming of the open water areas within the ice cover.

  9. Ace: First Full Release of The New 30" Gdem Incoporating Satellite Altimeter Derived Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, P. A. M.; Hilton, R. D.; Johnson, C. P. D.

    Within the last 12 months, a new Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) has been created by fusing the best available ground truth data sets with a unique database of over 100 million satellite altimeter derived heights from the ERS-1 Geodetic Mission to create a radically different global model at 30T spatial resolution. Over 29% of the earths land surface heights have been replaced completely with data derived from the altimeter echoes. A further 16% contain adjusted ground based data that have been corrected for vertical misplacement and height discontinuities. The first version of the new GDEM including a global quality matrix has just been released. This matrix contains not only information on the data source, but also an index of expected data quality derived from global intercomparisons of ground truth with the altimeter based datasets. This matrix allows the user, for the first time, access to detailed quality information and thus allows an informed decision to be made on the appropriateness of the ACE GDEM for the desired application. It is expected that an upgrade to the GDEM will be made following the inclusion of data from ENVISAT, which should allow additional data points to be gathered in mountainous regions.

  10. Atmospheric temperature and pressure measurements from the ACE-MAESTRO space instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowlan, Caroline Rebecca

    A method is developed and tested for determining atmospheric pressure and temperature from space using spectral absorption by the A and B bands of molecular oxygen as measured by the MAESTRO (Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation) space instrument in solar occultation mode. MAESTRO is the UV-visible-near-infrared dual grating spectrometer component of the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) scientific payload, and was launched in August 2003 on the SciSat satellite to investigate atmospheric processes affecting the stratospheric ozone distribution. On-orbit measurements of pressure and temperature are desirable for accurate retrievals of other atmospheric constituents from the instrument, and as independent data products. The constant mixing ratio of molecular oxygen is exploited in these retrievals to derive atmospheric density profiles from oxygen absorption, and the density profiles are then converted to pressure and temperature using hydrostatic balance and the ideal gas taw. A highly accurate fast forward model is developed using a fast-line-by-line approach for modelling the high spectral resolution oxygen absorption lines, and a correlated-k technique is used to calculate analytic weighting functions for the retrieval of density. A global fitting algorithm is developed to simultaneously fit all spectra from one occultation. Retrieval characterization shows a small amount of information is added by the inclusion of the weaker B band to a retrieval using the strong A band absorption, and tests with real data show the B band retrievals alone are less sensitive to instrument characterization uncertainties and perform better than A band retrievals at altitudes below 30 km. The new algorithm is applied to 230 occultation observations collected in the Arctic winter, Arctic spring, and tropical regions, and during the Eureka 2004 and 2005 ACE validation campaigns in the high Arctic. Comparisons with

  11. Stereo Measurements from Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adler, R.

    1982-01-01

    The papers in this presentation include: 1) 'Stereographic Observations from Geosynchronous Satellites: An Important New Tool for the Atmospheric Sciences'; 2) 'Thunderstorm Cloud Top Ascent Rates Determined from Stereoscopic Satellite Observations'; 3) 'Artificial Stereo Presentation of Meteorological Data Fields'.

  12. Educational Measurement. Fourth Edition. ACE/Praeger Series on Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brennan, Robert L., Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Educational Measurement" has been the bible in its field since the first edition was published by ACE in 1951. The importance of this fourth edition of "Educational Measurement" is to extensively update and extend the topics treated in the previous three editions. As such, the fourth edition documents progress in the field and…

  13. Airborne Sunphotometer Measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth and Water Vapor in ACE-Asia and Their Comparisons to Correlative Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J.; Russell, P.; Hegg, D.; Wang, J.; Kahn, R.; Hsu, C.; Masonis, S.; Murayama, T.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    In the Spring 2001 phase of the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia), the 6-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) operated on 15 of the 19 research flights of the NCAR C-130, while its 14-channel counterpart (AATS-14) flew successfully on all 19 research flights of the CIRPAS Twin Otter. ACE-Asia studied aerosol outflow from the Asian continent to the Pacific basin. It was designed to integrate suborbital and satellite measurements and models to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosols. AATS-6 and AATS-14 measured solar beam transmission at six and 14 wavelengths (380-1021 and 354-1558 nm, respectively), yielding aerosol optical depth (AOD) spectra and columnar water vapor (CWV). Vertical differentiation in profiles yielded aerosol extinction spectra and water vapor concentration. In this paper, we plan to present examples of the following, preliminary findings that are based in part on our airborne sunphotometer measurements: (1) The wavelength dependence of sunphotometer-derived AOD and extinction indicates that supermicron dust was often a major component of the aerosol, frequently extending to high altitudes. The percentage of full-column AOD (525 nm) that Jay above 3 km was typically 34+/-13%. In contrast, the analogous percentage of columnar water vapor was only 10+/-4%; (2) Initial comparison studies between AOD data obtained by AATS-6 and AATS-14 during coordinated low-level flight legs show agreement well within the instruments' error bars; (3) Aerosol extinction has been derived from airborne in situ measurements of scattering (nephelometers) and absorption (particle soot/ absorption photometer, PSAP) or calculated from particle size distribution measurements (mobility analyzers and aerodynamic particle sizers). Comparison with corresponding extinction values derived from the Ames airborne sunphotometer measurements shows good agreement for the vertical distribution

  14. Meteorological measurements from satellite platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suomi, V. E.

    1972-01-01

    Quantitative exploitation of meteorological data from geosynchronous satellites is starting to move from the laboratory to operational practice. Investigations of the data applications portion of the total meteorological satellite system include: (1) tropospheric wind shear and the related severe storm circulations; (2) kinematic properties of the tropical atmosphere as derived from cloud motion vectors; (3) application of a geostationary satellite rake system to measurements of rainfall; and (4) pointing error analysis of geosynchronous satellites.

  15. Airborne Sunphotometer, Airborne in-situ, Space-borne, and Ground-Based Measurements of Troposoheric Aerosol in Ace-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, Beat; Collins, D.; Gasso, S.; Ostrom, E.; Powell, D.; Welton, E.; Durkee, P.; Livingstron, J.; Russell, P.; Flagan, R.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We report on clear-sky column closure experiments performed in the Canary Islands during the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) in June/July 1997. We present results obtained by combining airborne sunphotometer and in-situ aerosol measurements taken aboard the Pelican aircraft, space-borne NOAA/AVHRR data and ground-based lidars A wide range of aerosol types was encountered throughout the ACE-2 area, including background Atlantic marine, European pollution-derived, and African mineral dust. During !he two days discussed here, vertical profiles flown in cloud free air masses revealed three distinctly different layers: a marine boundary layer (MBL) with varying pollution levels, an elevated dust layer, and a very clean layer between the MBL and the dust layer. We found that the presence of the elevated dust layer removes the good agreement between satellite and sunphotometer AOD usually found in the absence of the dust layer. Using size-resolved composition information we have computed optical properties of the ambient aerosol from the in-situ measurements and subsequently compared those to the sunphotometer results. In the dust, the agreement in layer aerosol optical depth (380-1060 nm) is 3-8%. In the MBL there is tendency for the in-situ results to be slightly lower than the sunphotometer measurements (10-17% at 525 nm), but these differences are within the combined error bars of the measurements and computations.

  16. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): MLT Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernath, Peter

    2010-05-01

    ACE (also known as SCISAT) is making a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of numerous trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) gives ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. The primary instrument is a high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4400 cm-1). ACE was launched by NASA on 12 August 2003 for a nominal 2-year mission; after 6 years on orbit the ACE-FTS performance is still excellent. The first results of ACE have been presented in a special issue of Geophysics Research Letters (http://www.agu.org/journals/ss/ACECHEM1/) in 2005 and recently a special issue on ACE validation has been prepared for Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/special_issue114.html) by K. Walker and K. Strong; more information can be found at http://www.ace.uwaterloo.ca. The ACE mission goals were initially focussed mainly on polar ozone chemistry, and more recently have shifted more to the troposphere where organic pollutants such as methanol and formaldehyde have been detected. ACE makes limb observations from about 5 km (cloud free scenes) up to nearly 150 km in the lower thermosphere, where CO2 absorption is still weakly detectable. This talk will review ACE-FTS results in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere. Topics covered will include the mesospheric descent of NOx in the polar winter, spectra of polar mesospheric clouds, concentration profiles of CO2 (which do not match model predictions), and combined Odin-Osiris/ACE-FTS observations.

  17. Small satellite radiometric measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.

    1991-01-01

    A critical need for the Mission to Planet Earth is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for the radiation budget. This paper describes a new, compact, flexible radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated data and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on small satellites, aircraft, or remotely piloted vehicles (RPVs). 12 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Methane cross-validation between three Fourier transform spectrometers: SCISAT ACE-FTS, GOSAT TANSO-FTS, and ground-based FTS measurements in the Canadian high Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holl, Gerrit; Walker, Kaley A.; Conway, Stephanie; Saitoh, Naoko; Boone, Chris D.; Strong, Kimberly; Drummond, James R.

    2016-05-01

    We present cross-validation of remote sensing measurements of methane profiles in the Canadian high Arctic. Accurate and precise measurements of methane are essential to understand quantitatively its role in the climate system and in global change. Here, we show a cross-validation between three data sets: two from spaceborne instruments and one from a ground-based instrument. All are Fourier transform spectrometers (FTSs). We consider the Canadian SCISAT Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)-FTS, a solar occultation infrared spectrometer operating since 2004, and the thermal infrared band of the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO)-FTS, a nadir/off-nadir scanning FTS instrument operating at solar and terrestrial infrared wavelengths, since 2009. The ground-based instrument is a Bruker 125HR Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, measuring mid-infrared solar absorption spectra at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) Ridge Laboratory at Eureka, Nunavut (80° N, 86° W) since 2006. For each pair of instruments, measurements are collocated within 500 km and 24 h. An additional collocation criterion based on potential vorticity values was found not to significantly affect differences between measurements. Profiles are regridded to a common vertical grid for each comparison set. To account for differing vertical resolutions, ACE-FTS measurements are smoothed to the resolution of either PEARL-FTS or TANSO-FTS, and PEARL-FTS measurements are smoothed to the TANSO-FTS resolution. Differences for each pair are examined in terms of profile and partial columns. During the period considered, the number of collocations for each pair is large enough to obtain a good sample size (from several hundred to tens of thousands depending on pair and configuration). Considering full profiles, the degrees of freedom for signal (DOFS) are between 0.2 and 0.7 for TANSO-FTS and

  19. Methane cross-validation between three Fourier Transform Spectrometers: SCISAT ACE-FTS, GOSAT TANSO-FTS, and ground-based FTS measurements in the Canadian high Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holl, G.; Walker, K. A.; Conway, S.; Saitoh, N.; Boone, C. D.; Strong, K.; Drummond, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    We present cross-validation of remote sensing measurements of methane profiles in the Canadian high Arctic. Accurate and precise measurements of methane are essential to understand quantitatively its role in the climate system and in global change. Here, we show a cross-validation between three datasets: two from spaceborne instruments and one from a ground-based instrument. All are Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTSs). We consider the Canadian SCISAT Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)-FTS, a solar occultation infrared spectrometer operating since 2004, and the thermal infrared band of the Japanese Greenhouse Gases Observing Satellite (GOSAT) Thermal And Near infrared Sensor for carbon Observation (TANSO)-FTS, a nadir/off-nadir scanning FTS instrument operating at solar and terrestrial infrared wavelengths, since 2009. The ground-based instrument is a Bruker 125HR Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, measuring mid-infrared solar absorption spectra at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) Ridge Lab at Eureka, Nunavut (80° N, 86° W) since 2006. For each pair of instruments, measurements are collocated within 500 km and 24 h. An additional criterion based on potential vorticity values was found not to significantly affect differences between measurements. Profiles are regridded to a common vertical grid for each comparison set. To account for differing vertical resolutions, ACE-FTS measurements are smoothed to the resolution of either PEARL-FTS or TANSO-FTS, and PEARL-FTS measurements are smoothed to the TANSO-FTS resolution. Differences for each pair are examined in terms of profile and partial columns. During the period considered, the number of collocations for each pair is large enough to obtain a good sample size (from several hundred to tens of thousands depending on pair and configuration). Considering full profiles, the degrees of freedom for signal (DOFS) are between 0.2 and 0.7 for TANSO-FTS and between 1.5 and 3

  20. North Atlantic Aerosol Single Scattering Albedos: TARFOX and ACE-2 Results and Their Relation to Radiative Effects Derived from Satellite Optical Depths

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Schmid, B.; Livingston, J. M.; Redemann, J.; Quinn, P. K.; Carrico, C. M.; Rood, M. J.

    2000-01-01

    Bergstrom and Russell estimated direct solar radiative flux changes caused by atmospheric aerosols over the mid-latitude North Atlantic Ocean under cloud-free and cloudy conditions. They excluded African dust aerosols, primarily by restricting calculations to latitudes 25-60 N. As inputs they used midvisible aerosol optical depth (AOD) maps derived from AVHRR satellite measurements and aerosol intensive properties determined primarily in the 1996 IGAC Troposheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX). Those aerosol intensive properties, which included optical depth wavelength dependence and spectra of single scattering albedo (SSA) and scattering asymmetry parameter, were also checked against initial properties from the 1997 North Atlantic Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE 2). Bergstrom and Russell investigated the sensitivity of their derived flux changes to assumed input parameters, including midvisible AOD, SSA, and scattering asymmetry parameter. Although the sensitivity of net flux change at the tropopause to SSA was moderate over the ocean (e.g., a SSA uncertainty of 0.07 produced a flux-change uncertainty of 21%), the sensitivity over common land surfaces can be much larger. Also, flux changes within and below the aerosol layer, which affect atmospheric stability, heating rates, and cloud formation and persistence, are quite sensitive to aerosol SSA. Therefore, this paper focuses on the question: "What have we learned from TARFOX and ACE 2 regarding aerosol single scattering albedo?" Three techniques were used in TARFOX to determine midvisible SSA. One of these derived SSA as a best-fit parameter in comparing radiative flux changes measured by airborne pyranometer to those computed from aerosol properties. Another technique combined airborne measurements of aerosol scattering and absorption by nephelometer and absorption photometer. A third technique obtained SSA from best-fit complex refractive indices derived by comparing

  1. Radiative Flux Changes by Aerosols from North America, Europe, and Africa over the Atlantic Ocean: Measurements and Calculations from TARFOX and ACE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Hignett, P.; Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Chien, A.; Bergstrom, R.; Durkee, P. A.; Hobbs, P. V.; Bates, T. S.; Quinn, P. K.; Condon, Estelle (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Aerosol effects on atmospheric radiative fluxes provide a forcing function that is a major source of uncertainty in understanding the past climate and predicting climate change. To help reduce this uncertainty, the 1996 Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Experiment (TARFOX) and the 1997 second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) measured the properties and radiative effects of American, European, and African aerosols over the Atlantic. In TARFOX, radiative fluxes and microphysics of the American aerosol were measured from the UK C-130 while optical depth spectra, aerosol composition, and other properties were measured by the University of Washington C-131A and the CIRPAS Pelican. Closure studies show that the measured flux changes agree with those derived from the aerosol measurements using several modelling approaches. The best-fit midvisible single-scatter albedos (approx. 0.89 to 0.93) obtained from the TARFOX flux comparisons are in accord with values derived by independent techniques. In ACE-2 we measured optical depth and extinction spectra for both European urban-marine aerosols and free-tropospheric African dust aerosols, using sunphotometers on the R/V Vodyanitskiy and the Pelican. Preliminary values for the radiative flux sensitivities (Delta Flux / Delta Optical depth) computed for ACE-2 aerosols (boundary layer and African dust) over ocean are similar to those found in TARFOX. Combining a satellite-derived optical depth climatology with the aerosol optical model validated for flux sensitivities in TARFOX provides first-cut estimates of aerosol-induced flux changes over the Atlantic Ocean.

  2. Small satellite radiometric measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for the earth`s radiation budget. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on small satellites, aircraft, or remotely piloted aircraft (RPAs). An example of the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite is given. Significant benefits derive from simultaneous measurements of specific narrow (in wavelength) spectral features; such data may be obtained by combining LARI with a compact spectrometer on the same platform. Well-chosen satellite orbits allow one to use data from other satellites (e.g. DMSP) to enhance the data product, or to provide superior coverage of specific locations. 23 refs.

  3. Small satellite radiometric measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.

    1992-01-01

    A critical need for the US Global Change Research Program is to provide continuous, well-calibrated radiometric data for the earth's radiation budget. This paper describes a new, compact, relatively light-weight, adaptable radiometer which will provide both spectrally integrated measurements and data in selected spectral bands. The radiometer design is suitable for use on small satellites, aircraft, or remotely piloted aircraft (RPAs). An example of the implementation of this radiometer on a small satellite is given. Significant benefits derive from simultaneous measurements of specific narrow (in wavelength) spectral features; such data may be obtained by combining LARI with a compact spectrometer on the same platform. Well-chosen satellite orbits allow one to use data from other satellites (e.g. DMSP) to enhance the data product, or to provide superior coverage of specific locations. 23 refs.

  4. Stream Gauges and Satellite Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsdorf, D. E.

    2010-12-01

    Satellite measurements should not be viewed as a replacement for stream gauges. However, occasionally it is suggested that because satellite-based measurements can provide river discharge, a motivation for satellite approaches is an increasing lack of stream gauges. This is an argument for more stream gauges, but not necessarily for satellite measurements. Rather, in-situ and spaceborne methods of estimating discharge are complementary. Stream gauges provide frequent measurements at one point in the river reach whereas satellites have the potential to measure throughout all reaches but at orbital repeat intervals of days to weeks. The Surface Water and Ocean Topography satellite mission (SWOT) is an opportunity to further develop these complements. The motivation for SWOT, and indeed for any satellite based method of estimating discharge, should not be as a replacement for stream gauges. Scientific and application uses should motivate the measurements. For example, understanding floods with their dynamic water surfaces are best sampled from remote platforms that provide water surface elevations throughout the floodwave. As another example, today’s water and energy balance models are giving outputs at increasing spatial resolution and are making use of water surface elevations throughout the modeled basin. These models require a similar resolution in the calibrating and validating observations. We should also be aware of practical limitations. In addition to providing spatially distributed hydrodynamic measurements on rivers, SWOT will be able to measure storage changes in the estimated 30 million lakes in the world that are larger than a hectare. Knowing the storage changes in these lakes is especially important in certain regions such as the Arctic but gauging even a small fraction of these is impractical. Another motivator for satellite methods is that even in the presence of stream gauges, discharge data is not always well shared throughout all countries

  5. First Measurements of the HCFC-142b Trend from Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Solar Occultation Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Chiou, Linda; Boone,Chris; Bernath, Peter; Mahieu, Emmanuel

    2009-01-01

    The first measurement of the HCFC-142b (CH3CClF2) trend near the tropopause has been derived from volume mixing ratio (VMR) measurements at northern and southern hemisphere mid-latitudes for the 2004-2008 time period from spaceborne solar occultation observations recorded at 0.02/cm resolution with the ACE (atmospheric chemistry experiment) Fourier transform spectrometer. The HCFC-142b molecule is currently the third most abundant HCFC (hydrochlorofluorocarbon) in the atmosphere and ACE measurements over this time span show a continuous rise in its volume mixing ratio. Monthly average measurements at northern and southern hemisphere midlatitudes have similar increase rates that are consistent with surface trend measurements for a similar time span. A mean northern hemisphere profile for the time span shows a near constant VMR at 8-20km altitude range, consistent on average for the same time span with in situ results. The nearly constant vertical VMR profile also agrees with model predictions of a long lifetime in the lower atmosphere.

  6. ACE EPAM and Van Allen Probes RBSPICE measurements of interplanetary oxygen injection to the inner magnetosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patterson, J. D.; Manweiler, J. W.; Gerrard, A. J.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    2015-12-01

    On March 17, 2015, a significant oxygen-rich interplanetary event was measure by the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) Electron Proton Alpha Monitor (EPAM) instrument. At the same time the Van Allen Probes Radiation Belt Storm Probes Ion Composition Experiment (RBSPICE) instrument recorded significant enhancements of oxygen in the inner magnetosphere. We present a detailed analysis of this event utilizing a new method of exploiting the EPAM Pulse Height Analyzer (PHA) data to precisely resolve helium and oxygen spectra within the 0.5 to 5 MeV/nuc range. We also present the flux, partial particle pressures, and pitch angle distributions of the ion measurements from RBSPICE. During this event, both EPAM and RBSPICE measured O:He ratios greater than 10:1. The pitch angle distributions from RBSPICE-B show a strong beam of oxygen at an L ~ 5.8 early on March 17th during orbit. The timing between the observations of the oxygen peak at ACE and the beam observed at RBSPICE-B is consistent with the travel-time required for energetic particle transport from L1 to Earth and access to the magnetosphere. We assert that the oxygen seen by RBSPICE during the initial phase of this event is the result of direct injection from the interplanetary medium of energetic ions. This poster contains the observations and detailed calculations to support this assertion.

  7. Evaluation of SIMBADA measurements of marine reflectance and aerosol optical thickness during ACE-Asia and AOPEX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frouin, Robert; Loisel, Hubert; Poteau, Antoine

    2010-10-01

    The SIMBADA radiometer was designed to check the radiometric calibration of satellite ocean-color sensors and evaluate the atmospheric correction of ocean-color imagery. It measures marine reflectance and aerosol optical thickness in 11 spectral bands covering the spectral range 350 to 870 nm. Aerosol optical thickness is obtained by viewing the sun disk and marine reflectance by viewing the ocean surface through a vertical polarizer that minimizes sun glint and reflected skylight. The measurements made by SIMBADA during ACE-Asia (March-April 2001, Japan Sea) and AOPEX (July-August 2004, Mediterranean Sea) are compared with those made concomitantly by other ocean radiometers and sun photometers, i.e., MER, PRR, SPMR, Trios, TSRB, and BOUSSOLE instruments for marine reflectance and CIMEL and Microtops for aerosol optical thickness. Agreement is generally good between the various measurements or estimates. The SIMBADA aerosol optical thickness is within +/-0.02 of the values obtained by other sun photometers. The SIMBADA marine reflectance, after correction for bi-directional effects (Q factor), does not exhibit biases when compared with estimates by other radiometers, which generally agree within +/-10%. In some cases larger discrepancies exist, and they are largely explained by differences in solar irradiance. More accurate SIMBADA estimates may be obtained by improving the radiometric calibration, the correction for angular geometry and water body polarization, the calculation of incident solar irradiance, and the selection of data minimally affected by sky reflection.

  8. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernath, P. F.

    2017-01-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE), also called SCISAT, is a Canadian-led small satellite mission for remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere. ACE was launched into a low Earth circular orbit by NASA on August 12, 2003 and it continues to function nominally. The ACE instruments are a high spectral resolution (0.02 cm-1) Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2.2 to 13.3 μm (750-4400 cm-1), a spectrophotometer known as Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (MAESTRO) with wavelength coverage of 285-1020 nm and two filtered detector arrays to image the Sun at 0.525 and 1.02 μm. ACE operates in solar occultation mode to provide altitude profiles of temperature, pressure, atmospheric extinction and the volume mixing ratios (VMRs) for several dozen molecules and related isotopologues. This paper presents a mission overview and a summary of selected scientific results.

  9. The Canadian Arctic Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Validation Project: Overview and results from ten years of ACE operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Kaley; Strong, Kimberly

    2014-05-01

    As of February 2014, the Canadian-led Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) satellite mission has been making measurements of the Earth's atmosphere for ten years. As ACE operations have extended beyond the initial two-year mission, there is a continuing need to validate the trace gas data products from the ACE-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) and the Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation (ACE-MAESTRO) instruments. Ground-based measurements provide critical data for the validation of satellite retrievals of trace gases and for the assessment of long-term stability of these measurements. In particular, validation comparisons are needed for ACE during Arctic springtime to understand better the measurements of species involved in stratospheric ozone chemistry. To this end, eleven Canadian Arctic Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) Validation Campaigns have been conducted during the spring period (February - April in 2004 - 2014) at the Polar Environment Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) in Eureka, Nunavut (80°N, 86°W). This period coincides with the most chemically active time of year in the Arctic, as well as a significant number of satellite overpasses. A suite of as many as 12 ground-based instruments, as well as frequent balloon-borne ozonesonde and radiosonde launches, have been used in each campaign. These instruments include: a ground-based version of the ACE-FTS (PARIS - Portable Atmospheric Research Interferometric Spectrometer), a terrestrial version of the ACE-MAESTRO, a SunPhotoSpectrometer, two zenith-viewing UV-visible grating spectrometers, a Bomem DA8 Fourier transform spectrometer, a Bruker 125HR Fourier transform spectrometer, a Systeme d'Analyse par Observations Zenithales (SAOZ) instrument, and several Brewer spectrophotometers. In the past several years, these results have been used to validate the measurements by the ACE-FTS and ACE-MAESTRO instruments on SCISAT as well

  10. Shortwave Radiative Fluxes, Solar-Beam Transmissions, and Aerosol Properties: TARFOX and ACE-2 Find More Absorption from Flux Radiometry than from Other Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip B.; Redemann, J.; Schmid, B.; Livingston, J. M.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Ramirez, S. A.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX) and the Second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) made simultaneous measurements of shortwave radiative fluxes, solar-beam transmissions, and the aerosols affecting those fluxes and transmissions. Besides the measured fluxes and transmissions, other obtained properties include aerosol scattering and absorption measured in situ at the surface and aloft; aerosol single scattering albedo retrieved from skylight radiances; and aerosol complex refractive index derived by combining profiles of backscatter, extinction, and size distribution. These measurements of North Atlantic boundary layer aerosols impacted by anthropogenic pollution revealed the following characteristic results: (1) Better agreement among different types of remote measurements of aerosols (e.g., optical depth, extinction, and backscattering from sunphotometers, satellites, and lidars) than between remote and in situ measurements; 2) More extinction derived from transmission measurements than from in situ measurements; (3) Larger aerosol absorption inferred from flux radiometry than from other measurements. When the measured relationships between downwelling flux and optical depth (or beam transmission) are used to derive best-fit single scattering albedos for the polluted boundary layer aerosol, both TARFOX and ACE-2 yield midvisible values of 0.90 +/- 0.04. The other techniques give larger single scattering albedos (i.e. less absorption) for the polluted boundary layer, with a typical result of 0.95 +/- 0.04. Although the flux-based results have the virtue of describing the column aerosol unperturbed by sampling, they are subject to questions about representativeness and other uncertainties (e.g., unknown gas absorption). Current uncertainties in aerosol single scattering albedo are large in terms of climate effects. They also have an important influence on aerosol optical depths retrieved from satellite radiances

  11. SOL ACES: Auto-calibrating EUV/UV spectrometers for measurements onboard the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidtke, G.; Brunner, R.; Eberhard, D.; Halford, B.; Klocke, U.; Knothe, M.; Konz, W.; Riedel, W.-J.; Wolf, H.

    The SOL-ACES experiment is prepared to be flown with the ESA SOLAR payload to the International Space Station as planned for the Shuttle mission E1 (Columbus) in August 2006. Four grazing incidence spectrometers of planar geometry cover the wavelength range from 16 to 220 nm with a spectral resolution from 0.5 to 2.3 nm. These high-efficiency spectrometers will be re-calibrated by two three-signal ionization chambers to be operated with 42 band pass filters on routine during the mission. Re-measuring the filter transmissions with the spectrometers also allows a very accurate determination of the changing second order (optical) efficiencies of the spectrometers as well as the stray light contributions to the spectral recording in different wavelength ranges. In this context the primary requirements for measurements of low radiometric uncertainty are discussed in detail. The absorbing gases in the ionization chambers are neon, xenon and a mixture of 10% nitric oxide and 90% xenon. The laboratory measurements confirm very high count rates such that optical attenuators have to be applied. In addition, possible interfering contributions to the recorded data as generated by secondary effects can be determined to a high degree of accuracy by this method. Hence, very accurate irradiance measurements are expected in terms of relative standard uncertainties (RSU) ranging from 5% to 3% depending on the wavelength range.

  12. Development of the assessment for collaborative environments (ACE-15): A tool to measure perceptions of interprofessional "teamness".

    PubMed

    Tilden, Virginia P; Eckstrom, Elizabeth; Dieckmann, Nathan F

    2016-05-01

    As interprofessional education moves from classroom to clinical settings, assessing clinical training sites for a high level of "teamness" to ensure optimal learning environments is critical but often problematic ahead of student placement. We developed a tool (Assessment for Collaborative Environments, or ACE), suitable for a range of clinical settings and health professionals, that allows rapid assessment of a clinical practice's teamwork qualities. We collected evidence of tool validity including content, response process, internal structure, and convergent validity. Expert review and cognitive interviews allowed reduction of the initial 30-item tool to 15 items (the ACE-15). Data from 192 respondents from 17 clinical professions and varied clinical settings (inpatient, ambulatory, urban, and rural) were used for factor analysis, which resulted in a single factor solution. Internal consistency reliability Cronbach's alpha was high at 0.91. Subgroup analysis of 121 respondents grouped by their clinical teams (n = 16 teams) showed a wide range of intra-team agreement. Data from a subsequent sample of 54 clinicians who completed the ACE-15 and a measure of team cohesion indicated convergent validity, with a correlation of the tools at r = 0.81. We conclude that the ACE-15 has acceptable psychometric properties and promising utility for assessing interprofessional teamness in clinical training sites that are settings for learners, and, in addition may be useful for team development.

  13. Development of a micro-satellite compatible FTS sounder for sun-occultation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giaccari, Philippe; Moreau, Louis M.; Giroux, Jacques G.; Soucy, Marc-André

    2009-09-01

    The SciSat/ACE mission provided, and still provides, high quality and high spectral resolution measurements of the atmosphere with a FTS sounder in sun-occultation configuration. Based on the comprehensive results and models of SciSat/ACE it is foreseen that most of the desired information can also be retrieved from lower spectral resolution measurements with higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and appropriate data treatment. With the Canadian Space Agency under the Space Technologies Development Program, ABB Analytical developed a small size sun-occultation sounder compatible with a micro-satellite platform that has identical throughput, spectral bandwidth and vertical resolution as ACE. The spectral resolution is decreased by a factor 25 (0.6 cm-1 instead of 0.024 cm-1 for ACE) whereas the SNR performance is highly increased with an equal factor (target of 2500 instead of 100 for ACE over most of the spectral bandwidth between 750 and 4000 cm-1).A prototype of the sun-occultation sounder was built, tested under various thermal conditions and subjected to vibrations similar to those expected at launch. An outdoor experiment was also conducted to test the instrument in sun-occultation conditions. The good behavior of the instrument indicates interesting opportunities for such small footprint sounder on a low-cost micro-satellite mission and potentially good earth coverage if several of such instruments are used in coordination. Depending on the scientific needs, it is possible to adapt the proposed instrument to increase the vertical resolution and/or to extend the measurements on lower altitudes due to the higher SNR performances.

  14. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernath, P. F.; Boone, C.; Walker, K.; McLeod, S.; Nassar, R.

    2003-12-01

    The ACE mission goals are: (1) to measure and to understand the chemical and dynamical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper troposphere and stratosphere, with a particular emphasis on the Arctic region; (2) to explore the relationship between atmospheric chemistry and climate change; (3) to study the effects of biomass burning in the free troposphere; (4) to measure aerosol number density, size distribution and composition in order to reduce the uncertainties in their effects on the global energy balance. ACE will make a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols, and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) gives ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. The solar occultation advantages are high sensitivity and self-calibration. A high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4100 cm-1) will measure the vertical distribution of trace gases, and the meteorological variables of temperature and pressure. The ACE concept is derived from the now-retired ATMOS FTS instrument, which flew on the Space Shuttle in 1985, 1992, 1993, 1994. Climate-chemistry coupling may lead to the formation of an Arctic ozone hole. ACE will provide high quality data to confront these model predictions and will monitor polar chemistry as chlorine levels decline. The ACE-FTS can measure water vapor and HDO in the tropical tropopause region to study dehydration and strat-trop exchange. The molecular signatures of massive forest fires will evident in the ACE infrared spectra. The CO2 in our spectra can be used to either retrieve atmospheric pressure or (if the instrument pointing knowledge proves to be satisfactory) for an independent retrieval of a CO2 profile for carbon cycle science. Aerosols and clouds will be monitored using the extinction of solar radiation at

  15. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE): Mission Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernath, P.

    2003-04-01

    The ACE mission goals are: (1) to measure and to understand the chemical and dynamical processes that control the distribution of ozone in the upper troposphere and stratosphere, with a particular emphasis on the Arctic region; (2) to explore the relationship between atmospheric chemistry and climate change; (3) to study the effects of biomass burning in the free troposphere; (4) to measure aerosol number density, size distribution and composition in order to reduce the uncertainties in their effects on the global energy balance. ACE will make a comprehensive set of simultaneous measurements of trace gases, thin clouds, aerosols, and temperature by solar occultation from a satellite in low earth orbit. A high inclination (74 degrees) low earth orbit (650 km) will give ACE coverage of tropical, mid-latitudes and polar regions. The solar occultation advantages are high sensitivity and self-calibration. A high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) infrared Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) operating from 2 to 13 microns (750-4100 cm-1) will measure the vertical distribution of trace gases, and the meteorological variables of temperature and pressure. The ACE concept is derived from the now-retired ATMOS FTS instrument, which flew on the Space Shuttle in 1985, 1992, 1993, 1994. Climate-chemistry coupling may lead to the formation of an Arctic ozone hole. ACE will provide high quality data to confront these model predictions and will monitor polar chemistry as chlorine levels decline. The ACE-FTS can measure water vapor and HDO in the tropical tropopause region to study dehydration and strat-trop exchange. The molecular signatures of massive forest fires will evident in the ACE infrared spectra. The CO_2 in our spectra can be used to either retrieve atmospheric pressure or (if the instrument pointing knowledge proves to be satisfactory) for an independent retrieval of a CO_2 profile for carbon cycle science. Aerosols and clouds will be monitored using the extinction of solar

  16. SolACES - Auto-calibrating EUV/UV spectrometers for measurements onboard the International Space Station (ISS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunner, Raimund; Schmidtke, Gerhard; Brunner, Raimund; Konz, Werner; Nikutowski, Bernd

    In the field of terrestrial climatology the most important goal is the quasi-continuous measurement of the solar irradiance with highest possible accuracy within the ISS (ESA) SOLAR mission. SolACES as a part of it will contribute to the solar EUV/UV irradiance aspects. These data will be provided to investigate further the impact of the solar irradiance variability on the Earth's climate changes as well as the thermospheric/ionospheric interactions that are pursued in the TIGER program, too. The four grating spectrometers of SolACES cover the wavelength range from 16 nm to 220 nm. 42 band pass filters are used to select EUV photon fluxes within wavelength subranges in order to determine their irradiances within three-signal recording ionisation chambers that are considered as primary detector standards. . Since spectrometers are not stable with respect to radiometric efficiency, re-measuring the filter transmissions and repeat the determination of the spectrometer efficiencies allow very accurate irradiance observations (2 The concept has been successfully tested with line emissions in the laboratory. Further, broadband as well as monochromatic synchrotron radiation has been used in the PTB laboratory of BESSY II electron synchrotron. There is good agreement with the BESSY II intercomparison. Still, the necessity to apply a re-calibration device showed up strongly. After the successful launch with the shuttle mission STS-122 on February 7th 2008 and the planned activation and commissioning of SolACES at the end of February 2008 we will extensively test all spectrometers and ionization chambers, i.e., we will repeatedly determine all filter transmissions and spectrometer efficiencies in the new environment and compare the results of the laboratory and BESSY II measurements. Additionally, a compare with SOVIM and SOL- SPEC of the SOLAR payload on the Columbus laboratory will help to perform measurements of high quality. First results of the EUV irradiance

  17. Radiation measurements from polar and geosynchronous satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.; Kidder, S. Q.; Hillger, D. W.; Ellis, J. S.

    1978-01-01

    The following topics are discussed: (1) cloud effects in climate determination; (2) annual variation in the global heat balance of the earth; (3) the accuracy of precipitation estimates made from passive microwave measurements from satellites; (4) seasonal oceanic precipitation frequencies; (5) determination of mesoscale temperature and moisture fields over land from satellite radiance measurements; and (6) Nimbus 6 scanning microwave spectrometer data evaluation for surface wind and pressure components in tropical storms.

  18. Upper troposphere and stratosphere distribution of hydrocarbon species in ACE-FTS measurements and GEOS-Chem simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Ja-Ho; Walker, Kaley A.; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Jones, Ashley; Sheese, Patrick E.; Boone, Chris D.; Bernath, Peter F.; Manney, Gloria L.

    2016-04-01

    Measurements of carbon-containing species, referred to herein as "hydrocarbons", are important components needed for describing and understanding the influence of natural and anthropogenic emissions on atmospheric chemistry. Analysis of the global pattern of hydrocarbons contributes to our understanding of the influence of regional and seasonal variation in air pollution and natural fire events. The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) has monitored trace gases in the upper troposphere and stratosphere based on solar occultation measurements for more than ten years. In this study, we investigate the global pattern of seven "hydrocarbon" species (CO, C2H6, C2H2, HCN, H2CO, CH3OH, and HCOOH) and OCS using the ACE-FTS version 3.5 dataset from 2004 to 2013. All hydrocarbons show strong seasonal variation and regional differences, but the detailed pattern differs according to the speciation of the hydrocarbons. For example, in the Northern Hemisphere, CO, C2H6, and C2H2 show the highest mixing ratios in winter, but high CH3OH and HCOOH appear in summer. In the Southern hemisphere, H2CO, HCN, and HCOOH show high mixing ratios in springtime. These patterns indicate the impact of different emission sources including fuel combustion, wildfire emission, and chemical production. By calculating correlations with CO, these results can provide useful information to characterize each hydrocarbon emission. The ACE-FTS measurements have also been compared with GEOS-Chem output to examine the model performance and spatiotemporal patterns in the simulations.

  19. Comparison of nitric oxide measurements in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere from ACE-FTS, MIPAS, SCIAMACHY, and SMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, S.; Sinnhuber, M.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G.; Funke, B.; López-Puertas, M.; Urban, J.; Pérot, K.; Walker, K. A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2014-12-01

    We compare the nitric oxide measurements in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (60 to 150 km) from four instruments: ACE-FTS, MIPAS, SCIAMACHY, and SMR. We use the daily zonal mean data in that altitude range for the years 2004-2010 (ACE-FTS), 2005-2012 (MIPAS), 2008-2012 (SCIAMACHY), and 2003-2012 (SMR). We first compare the data qualitatively with respect to the morphology, focussing on the major features, and then compare the time series directly and quantitatively. In three geographical regions, we compare the vertical density profiles on coincident measurement days. Since none of the instruments delivers continuous daily measurements in this altitude region, we carried out a multi-linear regression analysis. This regression analysis considers annual and semi-annual variability in form of harmonic terms and inter-annual variability by responding linearly to the solar Lyman-α radiation index and the geomagnetic Kp index. This analysis helps to find similarities and differences in the individual data sets with respect to the inter-annual variations caused by geomagnetic and solar variability. We find that the data sets are consistent and that they only disagree on minor aspects. SMR and ACE-FTS deliver the longest time series in the mesosphere and they both agree remarkably well. The shorter time series from MIPAS and SCIAMACHY also agree with them where they overlap. The data agree within ten to twenty percent when the number densities are large, but they can differ by 50 to 100% in some cases.

  20. Comparison of nitric oxide measurements in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere from ACE-FTS, MIPAS, SCIAMACHY, and SMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bender, S.; Sinnhuber, M.; von Clarmann, T.; Stiller, G.; Funke, B.; López-Puertas, M.; Urban, J.; Pérot, K.; Walker, K. A.; Burrows, J. P.

    2015-10-01

    We compare the nitric oxide measurements in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (60 to 150 km) from four instruments: the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment-Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS), the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS), the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY), and the Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR). We use the daily zonal mean data in that altitude range for the years 2004-2010 (ACE-FTS), 2005-2012 (MIPAS), 2008-2012 (SCIAMACHY), and 2003-2012 (SMR). We first compare the data qualitatively with respect to the morphology, focussing on the major features, and then compare the time series directly and quantitatively. In three geographical regions, we compare the vertical density profiles on coincident measurement days. Since none of the instruments delivers continuous daily measurements in this altitude region, we carried out a multi-linear regression analysis. This regression analysis considers annual and semi-annual variability in the form of harmonic terms and inter-annual variability by responding linearly to the solar Lyman-α radiation index and the geomagnetic Kp index. This analysis helps to find similarities and differences in the individual data sets with respect to the inter-annual variations caused by geomagnetic and solar variability. We find that the data sets are consistent and that they only disagree on minor aspects. SMR and ACE-FTS deliver the longest time series in the mesosphere, and they agree with each other remarkably well. The shorter time series from MIPAS and SCIAMACHY also agree with them where they overlap. The data agree within 30 % when the number densities are large, but they can differ by 50 to 100 % in some cases.

  1. Measurement and Analysis of Atmospheric Spectral Optical Depths with NASA Ames Airborne Sunphotometers During TARFOX and ACE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingston, John M.

    1997-01-01

    In accordance with the scope of work of this contract, the following tasks were undertaken and completed during the course of the contract: (1) Participation in the design and development of the 14-channel Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14), including the development and implementation of Visual Basic software for real-time data processing and display and post-acquisition data reduction and analysis. (2) Operation of the six-channel Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-6) aboard the University of Washington C-131A during TARFOX and in-field analysis and presentation of data acquired with the AATS-6. (3) Post-mission analysis of data acquired during TARFOX with the AATS-6 and the AATS-14. (4) Pre-TARFOX calibration of the AATS-6 at Mauna Loa Observatory in May 1996, and post-TARFOX calibration of the AATS-6 and AATS- 14 at Zugspitze, Germany in October 1996, including analyses of all data sets. (5) Analysis of AATS-14 airborne calibration data acquired on 17 November 1996 during a late afternoon Pelican flight over the central California coast. (6) Operational training, instrument preparation, field coordination, and analysis of shipboard measurements of aerosol optical depth with the AATS-6 during ACE-2. (7) Coordination of data acquisition with the AATS-14 aboard the Pelican during ACE-2 and in-field preliminary data analysis and presentation. (8) Calibration of the AATS-6 and AATS-14 in April/May 1997 at Mauna Loa prior to ACE-2, and post-mission calibration of the AATS-6 at Mauna Loa in August 1997.

  2. Measurements of the O2A- and B-bands for determining temperature and pressure profiles from ACE MAESTRO: Forward model and retrieval algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nowlan, C. R.; McElroy, C. T.; Drummond, J. R.

    2007-12-01

    The ACE-MAESTRO (Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Measurement of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation) instrument on the SCISAT satellite is able to measure solar occultation absorption in the A- and B-bands of molecular oxygen with a spectral resolution of 2 nm. Profiles of total atmospheric density are derived by exploiting the constant and known mixing ratio of O2, and are used to determine profiles of pressure and temperature using hydrostatic balance and the ideal gas law. A highly accurate combined fast-line-by-line and extended correlated-k technique is implemented to fast forward model MAESTRO's O2 absorption measurements, which ensures that errors in pressure and temperature resulting from the forward model approximation are essentially negligible. Estimated errors in pressure and temperature are determined for the A-, B-, and combined A B-band retrievals for a typical retrieval, and demonstrate that pressure profiles should be derivable to within 1% and temperature to within 2 K over most altitudes using a combined A B retrieval. The combined retrieval provides an improvement of up to 0.25% in pressure and 0.5 K in temperature over the A-band retrieval alone. The B-band could also be used alone below about 50 km, where its independent retrieval produces error estimates of 1 1.5% in pressure and 2 3 K in temperature.

  3. Satellite Remote Sensing: Aerosol Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, Ralph A.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosols are solid or liquid particles suspended in the air, and those observed by satellite remote sensing are typically between about 0.05 and 10 microns in size. (Note that in traditional aerosol science, the term "aerosol" refers to both the particles and the medium in which they reside, whereas for remote sensing, the term commonly refers to the particles only. In this article, we adopt the remote-sensing definition.) They originate from a great diversity of sources, such as wildfires, volcanoes, soils and desert sands, breaking waves, natural biological activity, agricultural burning, cement production, and fossil fuel combustion. They typically remain in the atmosphere from several days to a week or more, and some travel great distances before returning to Earth's surface via gravitational settling or washout by precipitation. Many aerosol sources exhibit strong seasonal variability, and most experience inter-annual fluctuations. As such, the frequent, global coverage that space-based aerosol remote-sensing instruments can provide is making increasingly important contributions to regional and larger-scale aerosol studies.

  4. Satellite sound broadcast propagation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Torrence, Geoffrey W.

    1991-01-01

    Power transmitted from atop a 17.9 m tower in simulation of a satellite signal, emitted by a tone generator sweeping from 700 to 1800 MHz, was received using a 90 deg beamwidth linearly scanning antenna at many locations inside six buildings of solid brick, corrugated sheet-metal, wood-frame, mobile home, and concrete wall construction. The signal levels are found to have much structure in the spatial and frequency domain but were relatively stable in time. Typically, people moving nearby produced less than 0.5 dB variations, whereas a person blocking the transmission path produces 6 to 10 dB fades. Losses, which at an average position in a room increased from 6 to 12 dB over 750 to 1750 MHz, could be mitigated to 2 to 6 dB by moving the antenna typically less than 30 cm. Severe losses (17.5 dB, mitigated to 12.5 dB) were observed in a concrete wall building, which also exhibited the longest multipath delays (greater than 100 ns). Losses inside a mobile home were even larger (greater than 20 dB) and independent of antenna orientation. The losses showed a clear frequency dependence.

  5. Airborne Sunphotometer Studies of Aerosol Properties and Effects, Including Closure Among Satellite, Suborbital Remote, and In situ Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russlee, Philip B.; Schmid, B.; Redemann, J.; Livingston, J. M.; Bergstrom, R. W.; Ramirez, S. A.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Airborne sunphotometry has been used to measure aerosols from North America, Europe, and Africa in coordination with satellite and in situ measurements in TARFOX (1996), ACE-2 (1997), PRIDE (2000), and SAFARI 2000. Similar coordinated measurements of Asian aerosols are being conducted this spring in ACE-Asia and are planned for North American aerosols this summer in CLAMS. This paper summarizes the approaches used, key results, and implications for aerosol properties and effects, such as single scattering albedo and regional radiative forcing. The approaches exploit the three-dimensional mobility of airborne sunphotometry to access satellite scenes over diverse surfaces (including open ocean with and without sunglint) and to match exactly the atmospheric layers sampled by airborne in situ measurements and other radiometers. These measurements permit tests of the consistency, or closure, among such diverse measurements as aerosol size-resolved chemical composition; number or mass concentration; light extinction, absorption, and scattering (total, hemispheric back and 180 deg.); and radiative fluxes. In this way the airborne sunphotometer measurements provide a key link between satellite and in situ measurements that helps to understand any discrepancies that are found. These comparisons have led to several characteristic results. Typically these include: (1) Better agreement among different types of remote measurements than between remote and in situ measurements. (2) More extinction derived from transmission measurements than from in situ measurements. (3) Larger aerosol absorption inferred from flux radiometry than from in situ measurements. Aerosol intensive properties derived from these closure studies have been combined with satellite-retrieved fields of optical depth to produce fields of regional radiative forcing. We show results for the North Atlantic derived from AVHRR optical depths and aerosol intensive properties from TARFOX and ACE-2. Companion papers

  6. Climate Signal Detection from Multiple Satellite Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y.; Aumann, H.; Yung, Y. L.; Li, K.

    2009-12-01

    Clouds play an important role in the climate change. Many satellites have been observing the clouds over decades, but have not detected any trends in cloud cover (Wylie, DP, 2005). The Principle Component Analysis (PCA) provides a very sensitive tool to the analysis of the cloud signals from the enormous amount of data sets. In this study, we have analyzed measurements from the IRIS spectrometer (Prabhakara, 1988), AIRS (Chahine, 2006) and IASI infrared interferometer (Chalon, 2001). IRIS flew on Nimbus 4 satellite between April 1970 and January 1971, AIRS is on Aqua satellite since May 2, 2002, and IASI was launched on METOP-A satellite in 2006. The changes of the PCA eigenfunctions and eigenvalues from 1970 and 2008 may indicate the climate change due to the cloud variations.

  7. Land subsidence measured by satellite radar altimetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.; Brooks, R. L.

    1981-01-01

    Radar altimeter measurements from the GEOS-3 and SEASAT satellites are being evaluated to assess their potential contribution to terrain mapping. The primary evaluation area is the San Joaquin Valley of southern California; 40,000/sq km of the Valley have been mapped at a contour interval of 10 m from the satellite altimeter measurements. The accuracy of the altimeter derived terrain elevations is being assessed by comparison with 1:24,000 and digitized 1:250,000 maps and by intercomparisons at the crossover altimeter intersections. Comparisons of the altimeter derived elevations with historical maps archived at the U.S. Geological Survey confirms the USGS 1926-1972 subsidence contours for this area. Preliminary results from a similar analysis in the Houston-Galveston area of subsidence also demonstrates a capability of measuring land subsidence by satellite altimetry.

  8. Air pollution measurements from satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, C. B.; Griggs, M.; Malkmus, W.; Bartle, E. R.

    1973-01-01

    A study is presented on the remote sensing of gaseous and particulate air pollutants which is an extension of a previous report. Pollutants can be observed by either active or passive remote sensing systems. Calculations discussed herein indicate that tropospheric CO, CO2, SO2, NO2, NH3, HCHO, and CH4 can be measured by means of nadir looking passive systems. Additional species such as NO, HNO3, O3, and H2O may be measured in the stratosphere through a horizon experiment. A brief theoretical overview of resonance Raman scattering and resonance fluorescence is given. It is found that radiance measurements are most promising for general global applications, and that stratospheric aerosols may be measured using a sun occultation technique. The instrumentation requirements for both active and passive systems are examined and various instruments now under development are described.

  9. Measurement of Organic and Inorganic Chemical Tracers for Source Apportionment of Tropospheric Aerosols Collected During the ACE-Asia Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schauer, J. J.; Park, J.; Duvall, R.; Bae, M.; Shafer, M. M.; Chuang, P.; Chuang, P.; Kim, Y. J.

    2001-12-01

    Naturally occurring dust and anthropogenic air pollutants are important contributors to tropospheric aerosols and impact air quality and the radiative balance of the Earth's atmosphere. In order to better understand the relationship between the origin, chemical composition and ultimate impact of Asian aerosols on climate forcing, aerosol samples were collected as part of the ACE-Asia experiment for detailed chemical analysis. Atmospheric particulate matter samples were collected from March 27, 2001 through May 6, 2001 at the ACE-Asia ground station located on Cheju Island, Korea. During this period, this region is impacted by anthropogenic air pollution emissions from highly urbanized region of Asia and by desert dust originating from northeastern Asia. As part of the experiment, atmospheric particulate matter samplers were also collected in urban and desert locations in Asia that represent regional sources of particulate matter in Asia. Size resolved aerosol samples were analyzed for trace metals by using microwave assisted-acid digestion and ICP-MS analysis, speciated organic compounds using solvent extraction and GC-MS analysis, as well as soluble ions and elemental and organic carbon (ECOC). These measurements provide fingerprints for source apportionment of the atmospheric particulate matter samples collected at the Cheju Island sampling site. The use of these chemical tracers for apportionment of wind-driven long range transported desert dust, local crustal derived dust, biogenically and anthropogenically derived sulfate, specific urban combustion source, and fossil fuel combustion will be presented.

  10. Variability of aerosol optical properties derived from in situ aircraft measurements during ACE-Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Theodore L.; Masonis, Sarah J.; Covert, David S.; Ahlquist, Norman C.; Howell, Steven G.; Clarke, Antony D.; McNaughton, Cameron S.

    2003-12-01

    Airborne measurements of aerosol light scattering (using nephelometers) and absorption (using particle/soot absorption photometers; PSAPs) in the Asian outflow region are presented. Aerosol particles were sampled through a new low turbulence inlet that proved very effective at transmitting coarse-mode particles. Noise and artifacts are characterized using in-flight measurements of particle-free air and measurements with identical instruments operated in parallel. For example, the sensitivities of PSAP noise to changing altitude, changing relative humidity (RH), and particle-loading on the internal filter are quantified. On the basis of these and previous instrument characterizations, we report averages, variations, and uncertainties of optical properties, focusing on data from approximately 300 level-leg samples obtained during 19 research flights in the spring of 2001. Several broad patterns emerge from this analysis. Two dominant components, fine-mode pollution and coarse-mode mineral dust, were observed to vary independently when separated using a cut point of 1 μm aerodynamic diameter at low RH. Fine-mode pollution was found to be moderately absorbing (single scatter albedo at low RH and 550 nm, ω = 0.88 ± 0.03; mean and 95% confidence uncertainty) and moderately hygroscopic (relative increase in scattering from 40% to 85% RH, fRH = 1.7 ± 0.2), while coarse-mode dust was found to have very low absorption (ω = 0.96 ± 0.01) and to be almost nonhygroscopic (fRH = 1.1 ± 0.1). These and other optical properties are intended to serve as constraints on optical models of the Asian aerosol for the purpose of satellite retrievals and calculations of direct radiative effects.

  11. ACE-FTS ozone, water vapour, nitrous oxide, nitric acid, and carbon monoxide profile comparisons with MIPAS and MLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheese, Patrick E.; Walker, Kaley A.; Boone, Chris D.; Bernath, Peter F.; Froidevaux, Lucien; Funke, Bernd; Raspollini, Piera; von Clarmann, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The atmospheric limb sounders, ACE-FTS on the SCISAT satellite, MIPAS on ESA's Envisat satellite, and MLS on NASA's Aura satellite, take measurements used to retrieve atmospheric profiles of O3, N2O, H2O, HNO3, and CO. Each was taking measurements between February 2004 and April 2012 (ACE-FTS and MLS are currently operational), providing hundreds of profile coincidences in the Northern and Southern hemispheres, and during local morning and evening. Focusing on determining diurnal and hemispheric biases in the ACE-FTS data, this study compares ACE-FTS version 3.5 profiles that are collocated with MIPAS and MLS, and analyzes the differences between instrument retrievals for Northern and Southern hemispheres and for local morning and evening data. For O3, ACE-FTS is typically within ±5% of mid-stratospheric MIPAS and MLS data and exhibits a positive bias of 10 to 20% in the upper stratosphere - lower mesosphere. For H2O, ACE-FTS exhibits an average bias of -5% between 20 and 60 km. For N2O, ACE-FTS agrees with MIPAS and MLS within -20 to +10% up to 45 km and 35 km, respectively. For HNO3, ACE-FTS typically agrees within ±10% below 30 km, and exhibits a positive bias of 10 to 20% above 30 km. With respect to MIPAS CO, ACE-FTS exhibits an average -11% bias between 28 and 50 km, and at higher altitudes a positive bias on the order of 10% (>100%) in the winter (summer). With respect to winter MLS CO, ACE-FTS is typically within ±10% between 25 and 40 km, and has an average bias of -11% above 40 km.

  12. Satellite sound broadcast propagation studies and measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Torrence, Geoffrey W.

    1990-01-01

    Satellite Sound Broadcasting is an attractive satellite application. Before regulatory decisions can be made in 1992, the propagation effects encountered have to be characterized. The Electrical Engineering Research Laboratory has nearly completed a system which will allow amplitude measurements to be made over 10 MHz bandwidths in the 800 to 1800 MHz frequency range. The system uses transmission from a transportable tower, and reception inside buildings or in the shadow of trees or utility poles. The goal is to derive propagation models for use by systems engineers who are about to design satellite broadcast systems. The advance of fiber-optics technology has helped to focus future development of satellite services into areas where satellites are uniquely competitive. One of these preferred satellite applications is the broadcasting of high-quality sound for stationary or mobile reception by listeners using low-cost, consumer-grade receivers. Before such services can be provided, however, the political hurdles of spectrum allocation have to be surmounted and the technical questions of standardization for world-wide compatibility have to be resolved. In order to arrive at an optimal system design, efficient in the use of our scarce spectral resources, affordable both to the broadcaster and the listener, and providing predictable performance, the propagation effects to which the service is subjected have to be characterized. Consequently, the objective of the research project is to make basic propagation measurements for direct Satellite Sound Broadcasting Service (SSBS). The data obtained should allow the development of propagation models to be used by communications engineers designing the operational systems. Such models shall describe the effects of shadowing and multipath propagation on SSBS receivers operating in a specified environment, such as inside commercial or residential buildings of various construction and also in the shadow of trees or utility poles

  13. Comparisons of Remote Sensing Retrievals and in situ Measurements of Aerosol Fine Mode Fraction during ACE-Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gasso, Santiago; O'Neill, Norm

    2006-01-01

    We present sunphotometer-retrieved and in situ fine mode fractions (FMF) measured onboard the same aircraft during the ACE-Asia experiment. Comparisons indicate that the latter can be used to identify whether the aerosol under observation is dominated by a mixture of modes or a single mode. Differences between retrieved and in situ FMF range from 5-20%. When profiles contained multiple layers of aerosols, the retrieved and measured FMF were segregated by layers. The comparison of layered and total FMF from the same profile indicates that columnar values are intermediate to those derived from layers. As a result, a remotely sensed FMF cannot be used to distinguish whether the aerosol under observation is composed of layers each with distinctive modal features or all layers with the same modal features. Thus, the use of FMF in multiple layer environments does not provide unique information on the aerosol under observation.

  14. Improved ACE-FTS observations of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy; Chipperfield, Martyn; Boone, Chris; Bernath, Peter

    2016-04-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS), on board the SCISAT satellite, has been recording solar occultation spectra through the Earth's atmosphere since 2004 and continues to take measurements with only minor loss in performance. ACE-FTS time series are available for a range of chlorine 'source' gases, including CCl3F (CFC-11), CCl2F2 (CFC-12), CHF2Cl (HCFC-22), CH3Cl and CCl4. Recently there has been much community interest in carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), a substance regulated by the Montreal Protocol because it leads to the catalytic destruction of stratospheric ozone. Estimated sources and sinks of CCl4 remain inconsistent with observations of its abundance. Satellite observations of CCl4 in the stratosphere are particularly useful in validating stratospheric loss (photolysis) rates; in fact the atmospheric loss of CCl4 is essentially all due to photolysis in the stratosphere. However, the latest ACE-FTS v3.5 CCl4 retrieval is biased high by ˜ 20-30%. A new ACE-FTS retrieval scheme utilising new laboratory spectroscopic measurements of CCl4 and improved microwindow selection has recently been developed. This improves upon the v3.5 retrieval and resolves the issue of the high bias; this new scheme will form the basis for the upcoming v4 processing version of ACE-FTS data. This presentation will outline the improvements made in the retrieval, and a subset of data will be compared with modelled CCl4 distributions from SLIMCAT, a state-of-the-art three-dimensional chemical transport model. The use of ACE-FTS data to evaluate the modelled stratospheric loss rate of CCl4 will also be discussed. The evaluated model, which also includes a treatment of surface soil and ocean sinks, will then be used to quantify current uncertainties in the global budget of CCl4.

  15. Radiation measurements from polar and geosynchronous satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.

    1973-01-01

    During the 1960's, radiation budget measurements from satellites have allowed quantitative study of the global energetics of our atmosphere-ocean system. A continuing program is planned, including independent measurement of the solar constant. Thus far, the measurements returned from two basically different types of satellite experiments are in agreement on the long term global scales where they are most comparable. This fact, together with independent estimates of the accuracy of measurement from each system, shows that the energy exchange between earth and space is now measured better than it can be calculated. Examples of application of the radiation budget data were shown. They can be related to the age-old problem of climate change, to the basic question of the thermal forcing of our circulation systems, and to the contemporary problems of local area energetics and computer modeling of the atmosphere.

  16. Fusion of radar and satellite target measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moy, Gabriel; Blaty, Donald; Farber, Morton; Nealy, Carlton

    2011-06-01

    A potentially high payoff for the ballistic missile defense system (BMDS) is the ability to fuse the information gathered by various sensor systems. In particular, it may be valuable in the future to fuse measurements made using ground based radars with passive measurements obtained from satellite-based EO/IR sensors. This task can be challenging in a multitarget environment in view of the widely differing resolution between active ground-based radar and an observation made by a sensor at long range from a satellite platform. Additionally, each sensor system could have a residual pointing bias which has not been calibrated out. The problem is further compounded by the possibility that an EO/IR sensor may not see exactly the same set of targets as a microwave radar. In order to better understand the problems involved in performing the fusion of metric information from EO/IR satellite measurements with active microwave radar measurements, we have undertaken a study of this data fusion issue and of the associated data processing techniques. To carry out this analysis, we have made use of high fidelity simulations to model the radar observations from a missile target and the observations of the same simulated target, as gathered by a constellation of satellites. In the paper, we discuss the improvements seen in our tests when fusing the state vectors, along with the improvements in sensor bias estimation. The limitations in performance due to the differing phenomenology between IR and microwave radar are discussed as well.

  17. Satellite measurements of tropospheric aerosols

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Griggs, M.

    1981-01-01

    This investigation uses LANDSAT 2 radiance data and ground-truth measurements of the aerosol optical thickness, obtained previously from five inland sites, to study the usefulness and limitations of the near infrared radiance over inland bodies of water. The linear relationship between LANDSAT 2 MSS7 and aerosol content found in this study can be used to estimate the aerosol content with a standard deviation of 0.42N. Analysis of the data for MSS6 and MSS7 suggest that the larger uncertainty is mostly due to water turbidity, with little contribution from the adjacency effect. The relationship found is best applied to determine an average aerosol content over a period of time at a given target, or an area average at a given time over several targets close together.

  18. Signal-to-Noise Ratios of the ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) for Atmospheric CO2 Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, S.

    2015-12-01

    The ASCENDS CarbonHawk Experiment Simulator (ACES) system has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center to advance technologies in support of the NASA Active Sensing of CO2 Emissions over Nights, Days, and Seasons (ASCENDS) mission and to demonstrate them initially from a high-altitude airborne platform. With a multiple fiber-amplifier-based Swept-Frequency Intensity-Modulated Continuous-Wave (SF-IM-CW) high-power laser transmitter and a multiple-aperture receiver, the ACES system provides simultaneous measurements of the differential optical depth at the 1571-nm CO2 absorption line and the associated range between the transmitter and target on an airborne platform. The precise measurement of the CO2 differential optical depth and the range, determined by signal amplitudes and phases in the ACES returns, together with the temperature, pressure, and water vapor information at the same location, make it possible to retrieve the column-averaged CO2 dry air mixing ratio (XCO2). The Signal-to-Noise Ratios (SNRs) of both return-signal amplitudes and phases of three simultaneously-received SF-IM-CW signals in the ACES system directly affect the measurement precision of the differential optical depths and the ranges between the ACES system and the Earth's surface or the tops of intermediate cloud layers. In this paper, we present results from numerical simulations and experimental measurements of ACES SNRs based on the laboratory-determined system parameters and flight experiments over ocean and land areas. These results will be used in the design of an IM-CW CO2 Integrated Path Differential Absorption (IPDA) lidar system for ASCENDS mission.

  19. Latent Heating from TRMM Satellite Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, W.; Takayabu, Y. N.; Shige, S.; Lang, S. E.; Olson, W. S.

    2012-12-01

    Rainfall production is a fundamental process within the Earth's hydrological cycle because it represents both a principal forcing term in surface water budgets, and its energetics corollary, latent heating, is the principal source of atmospheric diabatic heating. Latent heat release itself is a consequence of phase changes between the vapor, liquid, and frozen states of water. The properties of the vertical distribution of latent heat release modulate large-scale meridional and zonal circulations within the Tropics - as well as modify the energetic efficiencies of mid-latitude weather systems. This paper highlights the retrieval of latent heat release from satellite measurements generated by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite observatory, which was launched in November 1997 as a joint American-Japanese space endeavor. Since then, TRMM measurements have been providing an accurate four-dimensional account of rainfall over the global Tropics and sub-tropics - information which can be used to estimate the space-time structure of latent heating across the Earth's low latitudes. A set of algorithm methodologies has been developed to estimate latent heating based on rain rate profile retrievals obtained from TRMM measurements. These algorithms are briefly described followed by a discussion of the foremost latent heating products that can be generated from them. The investigation then provides an overview of how TRMM-derived latent heating information is currently being used in conjunction with global weather and climate models, concluding with remarks intended to stimulate further research on latent heating retrieval from satellites.

  20. Measurement of satellite PCS fading using GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Torrence, Geoffrey W.

    1995-08-01

    A six-channel commercial GPS receiver with a custom-made 40 deg tilted, rotating antenna has been assembled to make fade measurements for personal satellite communications. The system can measure up to two times per minute fades of up to 15 dB in the direction of each tracked satellite from 10 to 90 deg elevation. Photographic fisheye lens images were used to categorize the fade data obtained in several test locations according to fade states of clear, shadowed, or blocked. Multipath effects in the form of annular rings can be observed when most of the sky is clear. Tree fading by a Pecan exceeding 3.5 dB and 12 dB at 50 to 10 percent probability, respectively, compared with median fades of 7.5 dB measured earlier and the discrepancy is attributed to the change in ratio when measuring over an area as opposed to along a line. Data acquired inside buildings revealed 'rf-leaky' ceilings. Satellite diversity gain in a shadowed environment exceeded 6 dB at the 10 percent probability.

  1. Measurement of satellite PCS fading using GPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Torrence, Geoffrey W.

    1995-01-01

    A six-channel commercial GPS receiver with a custom-made 40 deg tilted, rotating antenna has been assembled to make fade measurements for personal satellite communications. The system can measure up to two times per minute fades of up to 15 dB in the direction of each tracked satellite from 10 to 90 deg elevation. Photographic fisheye lens images were used to categorize the fade data obtained in several test locations according to fade states of clear, shadowed, or blocked. Multipath effects in the form of annular rings can be observed when most of the sky is clear. Tree fading by a Pecan exceeding 3.5 dB and 12 dB at 50 to 10 percent probability, respectively, compared with median fades of 7.5 dB measured earlier and the discrepancy is attributed to the change in ratio when measuring over an area as opposed to along a line. Data acquired inside buildings revealed 'rf-leaky' ceilings. Satellite diversity gain in a shadowed environment exceeded 6 dB at the 10 percent probability.

  2. ACE--Some Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Annie, Ed.; Curtin, Penelope, Ed.

    This publication contains four papers that identify issues within the adult and community education (ACE) sector. "Overview" (Annie Campbell, Peter Thomson) considers what defines ACE; who offers ACE programs; who participates in ACE programs and who does not participate; what are the barriers to participation; who is responsible for…

  3. Defense meteorological satellite measurements of total ozone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lovill, J. E.; Ellis, J. S.; Luther, F. M.; Sullivan, T. J.; Weichel, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    A multichannel filter radiometer (MFR) on Defense Meteorological Satellites (DMS) that measured total ozone on a global-scale from March 1977 - February 1980 is described. The total ozone data measured by the MFR were compared with total ozone data taken by surfaced-based Dobson spectrophotometers. When comparisons were made for five months, the Dobson spectrophotometer measured 2-5% more total ozone than the MFR. Comparisons between the Dobson spectrophotometer and the MFR showed a reduced RMS difference as the comparisons were made at closer proximity. A Northern Hemisphere total ozone distribution obtained from MFR data is presented.

  4. ACE and ACE2 in kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Mizuiri, Sonoo; Ohashi, Yasushi

    2015-01-01

    Renin angiotensin system (RAS) activation has a significant influence on renal disease progression. The classical angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-angiotensin II (Ang II)-Ang II type 1 (AT1) axis is considered to control the effects of RAS activation on renal disease. However, since its discovery in 2000 ACE2 has also been demonstrated to have a significant impact on the RAS. The synthesis and catabolism of Ang II are regulated via a complex series of interactions, which involve ACE and ACE2. In the kidneys, ACE2 is expressed in the proximal tubules and less strongly in the glomeruli. The synthesis of inactive Ang 1-9 from Ang I and the catabolism of Ang II to produce Ang 1-7 are the main functions of ACE2. Ang 1-7 reduces vasoconstriction, water retention, salt intake, cell proliferation, and reactive oxygen stress, and also has a renoprotective effect. Thus, in the non-classical RAS the ACE2-Ang 1-7-Mas axis counteracts the ACE-Ang II-AT1 axis. This review examines recent human and animal studies about renal ACE and ACE2. PMID:25664248

  5. ACE-FTS Observation of a Young Biomass Burning Plume: First Reported Measurements of C2H4, C3H6O, H2CO and PAN by Infrared Occultation from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coheur, Pierre-Francois; Herbin, Herve; Clerbaux, Cathy; Hurtmans, Daniel; Wespes, Catherine; Carleer, Michel; Turquety, Solene; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Remedios, John; Hauglustaine, Didier; Boone, Chris D.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2007-01-01

    In the course of our study of the upper tropospheric composition with the infrared 35 Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE FTS), we 36 found an occultation sequence that on 8 October 2005, sampled a remarkable plume near the 37 east coast of Tanzania. Model simulations of the CO distribution in the Southern hemisphere 38 are performed for this period and they demonstrate that the emissions for this event originated 39 from a nearby forest fire, after which the plume was transported from the source region to the 40 upper troposphere. Taking advantage of the very high signal-to-noise ratio of the ACE FTS 41 spectra over a wide wavenumber range (750-4400 cm(exp -1), we present in-depth analyses of the 42 chemical composition of this plume in the middle and upper troposphere, focusing on the 43 measurements of weakly absorbing pollutants. For this specific biomass burning event, we 44 report simultaneous observations of an unprecedented number of organic species. 45 Measurements of C2H4 (ethene), C3H4 (propyne), H2CO (formaldehyde), C3H6O (acetone) 46 and CH3COO2NO2 (perxoxyacetylnitrate, abbreviated as PAN) are the first reported 47 detections using infrared occultation spectroscopy from satellites. Based on the lifetime of the 48 emitted species, we discuss the photochemical age of the plume and also report, whenever 49 possible, the enhancement ratios relative to CO.

  6. Antarctica: measuring glacier velocity from satellite images

    SciTech Connect

    Lucchitta, B.K.; Ferguson, H.M.

    1986-11-28

    Many Landsat images of Antarctica show distinctive flow and crevasse features in the floating part of ice streams and outlet glaciers immediately below their grounding zones. Some of the features, which move with the glacier or ice stream, remain visible over many years and thus allow time-lapse measurements of ice velocities. Measurements taken from Landsat images of features on Byrd Glacier agree well with detailed ground and aerial observations. The satellite-image technique thus offers a rapid and cost-effective method of obtaining average velocities, to a first order of accuracy, of many ice streams and outlet glaciers near their termini.

  7. Aerosol Optical Properties Measured Onboard the Ronald H. Brown During ACE Asia as a Function of Aerosol Chemical Composition and Source Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quinn, P. K.; Coffman, D. J.; Bates, T. S.; Welton, E. J.; Covert, D. S.; Miller, T. L.; Johnson, J. E.; Maria, S.; Russell, L.; Arimoto, R.

    2004-01-01

    During the ACE Asia intensive field campaign conducted in the spring of 2001 aerosol properties were measured onboard the R/V Ronald H. Brown to study the effects of the Asian aerosol on atmospheric chemistry and climate in downwind regions. Aerosol properties measured in the marine boundary layer included chemical composition; number size distribution; and light scattering, hemispheric backscattering, and absorption coefficients. In addition, optical depth and vertical profiles of aerosol 180 deg backscatter were measured. Aerosol within the ACE Asia study region was found to be a complex mixture resulting from marine, pollution, volcanic, and dust sources. Presented here as a function of air mass source region are the mass fractions of the dominant aerosol chemical components, the fraction of the scattering measured at the surface due to each component, mass scattering efficiencies of the individual components, aerosol scattering and absorption coefficients, single scattering albedo, Angstrom exponents, optical depth, and vertical profiles of aerosol extinction. All results except aerosol optical depth and the vertical profiles of aerosol extinction are reported at a relative humidity of 55 +/- 5%. An over-determined data set was collected so that measured and calculated aerosol properties could be compared, internal consistency in the data set could be assessed, and sources of uncertainty could be identified. By taking into account non-sphericity of the dust aerosol, calculated and measured aerosol mass and scattering coefficients agreed within overall experimental uncertainties. Differences between measured and calculated aerosol absorption coefficients were not within reasonable uncertainty limits, however, and may indicate the inability of Mie theory and the assumption of internally mixed homogeneous spheres to predict absorption by the ACE Asia aerosol. Mass scattering efficiencies of non-sea salt sulfate aerosol, sea salt, submicron particulate organic

  8. Latent Heating from TRMM Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, Wei-Kuo; Smith, E. A.; Adler, R.; Haddad, Z.; Hou, A.; Iguchi, T.; Kakar, R.; Krishnamurti, T.; Kummerow, C.; Lang, S.

    2004-01-01

    Rainfall production is the fundamental variable within the Earth's hydrological cycle because it is both the principal forcing term in surface water budgets and its energetics corollary, latent heating, is the principal source of atmospheric diabatic heating. Latent heat release itself is a consequence of phase changes between the vapor, liquid, and frozen states of water. The properties of the vertical distribution of latent heat release modulate large-scale meridional and zonal circulations within the tropics - as well as modifying the energetic efficiencies of midlatitude weather systems. This paper focuses on the retrieval of latent heat release from satellite measurements generated by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) satellite observatory, which was launched in November 1997 as a joint American-Japanese space endeavor. Since then, TRMM measurements have been providing an accurate four-dimensional account of rainfall over the global tropics and sub-tropics, information which can be used to estimate the space-time structure of latent heating across the Earth's low latitudes. The paper examines how the observed TRMM distribution of rainfall has advanced an understanding of the global water and energy cycle and its consequent relationship to the atmospheric general circulation and climate via latent heat release. A set of algorithm methodologies that are being used to estimate latent heating based on rain rate retrievals from the TRMM observations are described. The characteristics of these algorithms and the latent heating products that can be generated from them are also described, along with validation analyses of the heating products themselves. Finally, the investigation provides an overview of how TRMM-derived latent heating information is currently being used in conjunction with global weather and climate models, concluding with remarks intended to stimulate further research on latent heating retrieval from satellites.

  9. Studies of soundings and imagings measurements from geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suomi, V. E.

    1973-01-01

    Soundings and imaging measurements from geostationary satellites are presented. The subjects discussed are: (1) meteorological data processing techniques, (2) sun glitter, (3) cloud growth rate study, satellite stability characteristics, and (4) high resolution optics. The use of perturbation technique to obtain the motion of sensors aboard a satellite is described. The most conditions, and measurement errors. Several performance evaluation parameters are proposed.

  10. Observations and recent evolution of stratospheric water vapour isotopologues derived from satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Joachim; Jones, Ashley; Lossow, Stefan; Murtagh, Donal

    Water vapour, a strong greenhouse gas and source gas of the HOx family, plays an essential role for dynamics and chemistry of the middle atmosphere. Global measurements of isotopologues of water vapour have been made by the Odin Sub-Millimetre Radiometer (SMR) during nearly nine years since 2001. The long-term evolution of stratospheric water vapour has been studied by extending the historical satellite time-series from SAGE and HALOE, available until 2005, to present day by using data from Odin and other more recently launched satellites (Envisat, ACE). The recent evolution and variability of the water vapour isotopologues H2O-17, H2O-18, and HDO, as well as related trace gases and temperature has also been analysed and results of this study will be presented. Comparison and combination of various stratospheric water vapour time-series moreover provides a critical test of the quality of the different new satellite water vapour data sets. Odin is a Swedish-led satellite project funded jointly by Sweden (SNSB), Canada (CSA), Fin-land (TEKES), and France (CNES), with support by the 3rd party mission programme of the European Space Agency (ESA).

  11. The Aerosol, Clouds and Ecosystem (ACE) Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoeberl, M.; Remer, L.; Kahn, R.; Starr, D.; Hildebrand, P.; Colarco, P.; Diner, D.; Vane, D.; Im, E.; Behrenfeld, M.; Stephens, G.; Maring, H.; Bontempi, P.; Martins, J. V.

    2008-12-01

    The Aerosol, Clouds and Ecosystem (ACE) Mission is a second tier Decadal Survey mission designed to characterize the role of aerosols in climate forcing, especially their impact on precipitation and cloud formation. ACE also includes ocean biosphere measurements (chlorophyll and dissolved organic materials) which will be greatly improved by simultaneous measurements of aerosols. The nominal ACE payload includes lidar and multiangle spectropolarimetric polarimetric measurements of aerosols, radar measurements of clouds and multi-band spectrometer for the measurement of ocean ecosystems. An enhancement to ACE payload under consideration includes µ-wave radiometer measurements of cloud ice and water outside the nadir path of the radar/lidar beams. This talk will cover ACE instrument and science options, updates on the science team definition activity and science potential.

  12. Comprehensive Database Service : ACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiroki, Morio; Abe, Tetsuya

    The Data base, ACE commercialized by Chunichi Shimbun in Feb. 1986, aims at covering not only newspaper articles but also the other information which composes different data bases. This paper introduces newspaper articles, new material information and character information which are included in ACE. The content of ACE, how to use the online service, and future subjects are described.

  13. Satellite to measure equatorial ozone layer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Atmosphere Explorer E (Explorer 55) Satellite is described. The satellite will gather information on the earth's upper atmosphere, particularly regarding the condition of the protective ozone layer. The satellite will also provide information concerning the earth's heat balance, and heat flow characteristics, and energy conversion mechanisms.

  14. Satellite Angular Rate Estimation From Vector Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Azor, Ruth; Bar-Itzhack, Itzhack Y.; Harman, Richard R.

    1996-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for estimating the angular rate vector of a satellite which is based on the time derivatives of vector measurements expressed in a reference and body coordinate. The computed derivatives are fed into a spacial Kalman filter which yields an estimate of the spacecraft angular velocity. The filter, named Extended Interlaced Kalman Filter (EIKF), is an extension of the Kalman filter which, although being linear, estimates the state of a nonlinear dynamic system. It consists of two or three parallel Kalman filters whose individual estimates are fed to one another and are considered as known inputs by the other parallel filter(s). The nonlinear dynamics stem from the nonlinear differential equation that describes the rotation of a three dimensional body. Initial results, using simulated data, and real Rossi X ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) data indicate that the algorithm is efficient and robust.

  15. Aerosol Characterization Data from the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Project (ACE-Asia)

    DOE Data Explorer

    The Aerosol Characterization Experiments (ACE) were designed to increase understanding of how atmospheric aerosol particles affect the Earth's climate system. These experiments integrated in-situ measurements, satellite observations, and models to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosol particles and improve the ability of models to predict the influences of aerosols on the Earth's radiation balance. ACE-Asia was the fourth in a series of experiments organized by the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry (IGAC) Program (A Core Project of the International Geosphere Biosphere Program). The Intensive Field Phase for ACE-Asia took place during the spring of 2001 (mid-March through early May) off the coast of China, Japan and Korea. ACE-Asia pursued three specific objectives: 1) Determine the physical, chemical, and radiative properties of the major aerosol types in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region and investigate the relationships among these properties. 2) Quantify the physical and chemical processes controlling the evolution of the major aerosol types and in particular their physical, chemical, and radiative properties. 3) Develop procedures to extrapolate aerosol properties and processes from local to regional and global scales, and assess the regional direct and indirect radiative forcing by aerosols in the Eastern Asia and Northwest Pacific region [Edited and shortened version of summary at http://data.eol.ucar.edu/codiac/projs?ACE-ASIA]. The Ace-Asia collection contains 174 datasets.

  16. Methane Cross-Validation Between Spaceborne Solar Occultation Observations from ACE-FTS, Spaceborne Nadir Sounding from Gosat, and Ground-Based Solar Absorption Measurements, at a High Arctic Site.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holl, G.; Walker, K. A.; Conway, S. A.; Saitoh, N.; Boone, C. D.; Strong, K.; Drummond, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    We present cross-validation of remote sensing observations of methane profiles in the Canadian High Arctic. Methane is the third most important greenhouse gas on Earth, and second only to carbon dioxide in its contribution to anthropogenic global warming. Accurate and precise observations of methane are essential to understand quantitatively its role in the climate system and in global change. The Arctic is a particular region of concern, as melting permafrost and disappearing sea ice might lead to accelerated release of methane into the atmosphere. Global observations require spaceborne instruments, in particular in the Arctic, where surface measurements are sparse and expensive to perform. Satellite-based remote sensing is an underconstrained problem, and specific validation under Arctic circumstances is required. Here, we show a cross-validation between two spaceborne instruments and ground-based measurements, all Fourier Transform Spectrometers (FTS). We consider the Canadian SCISAT ACE-FTS, a solar occultation spectrometer operating since 2004, and the Japanese GOSAT TANSO-FTS, a nadir-pointing FTS operating at solar and terrestrial infrared wavelengths, since 2009. The ground-based instrument is a Bruker Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectrometer, measuring mid-infrared solar absorption spectra at the Polar Environmental and Atmospheric Research Laboratory (PEARL) at Eureka, Nunavut (80°N, 86°W) since 2006. Measurements are collocated considering temporal, spatial, and geophysical criteria and regridded to a common vertical grid. We perform smoothing on the higher-resolution instrument results to account for different vertical resolutions. Then, profiles of differences for each pair of instruments are examined. Any bias between instruments, or any accuracy that is worse than expected, needs to be understood prior to using the data. The results of the study will serve as a guideline on how to use the vertically resolved methane products from ACE and

  17. New developments in satellite oceanography and current measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, N. E.

    1979-01-01

    Principal satellite remote sensing techniques and instruments are described and attention is given to the application of such techniques to ocean current measurement. The use of radiometers, satellite tracking drifters, and altimeters for current measurement is examined. Consideration is also given to other applications of satellite remote sensing in physical oceanography, including measurements of surface wind stress, sea state, tides, ice, sea surface temperature, salinity, ocean color, and oceanic leveling.

  18. Changes in Earth's albedo measured by satellite.

    PubMed

    Wielicki, Bruce A; Wong, Takmeng; Loeb, Norman; Minnis, Patrick; Priestley, Kory; Kandel, Robert

    2005-05-06

    NASA global satellite data provide observations of Earth's albedo, i.e., the fraction of incident solar radiation that is reflected back to space. The satellite data show that the last four years are within natural variability and fail to confirm the 6% relative increase in albedo inferred from observations of earthshine from the moon. Longer global satellite records will be required to discern climate trends in Earth's albedo.

  19. Satellite Measurements Of OH Vibrational Populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Torres, F. J.; Kaufmann, M.; Copeland, R. A.; López-Puertas, M.

    Vibrationally excited OH molecules are generated in the atmosphere between 80 and 90 km by the reaction of hydrogen atoms with ozone and are important in the study of the Earth's mesospheric infrared emissions. Once produced, the OH either fluoresces or undergoes deactivation in collisions with the ambient species present at these alti- tudes. Over the past decade, significant progress has been made in measuring the vi- brational level dependence of the total removal rate constants for collisional processes in laboratory. Using these results we present an updated modelling of the vibrational populations of OH. The results of the model has been used to identify emission from the OH Meinel bands at 4.8mum in the measurements taken by the CRyogenic Infrared Spectrometer and Telescope (CRISTA). CRISTA was an infrared limb sounder designed by the Uni- versity of Wuppertal to measure infrared emissions of the Earth's atmosphere between 15-150 km that successfully completed two missions in 1994 and 1997. In addition, the results of the non-LTE modelling have been used to simulate the mea- surements that will be performed by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive At- mospheric Sounder (MIPAS)/ENVIromental SATellite (ENVISAT) instrument, to be launched the 1st March 2002.

  20. Satellite Experiments Simultaneous with Antarctic Measurements (SESAME)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dudeney, J. R.; Rodger, A. S.; Smith, A. J.; Jarvis, M. J.; Morrison, K.

    1995-02-01

    Satellite Experiments Simultaneous with Antarctic Measurements (SESAME) is one of the four ground-based programmes within the NASA/ISAS Global Geospace Science (GGS) mission, itself part of the International Solar-Terrestrial Physics (ISTP) programme. The scientific objectives of SESAME are carefully selected to make an invaluable contribution to the GGS mission by capitalising on the unique geophysical advantages of Antarctica for geospace research. These arise mainly from the large displacement of the geographic and geomagnetic poles. Specifically, SESAME is designed to study the ionospheric effects of merging at the magnetopause, reconnection in the geomagnetic tail and its relationship to substorms, mapping of significant geospace boundaries to ionospheric altitudes, plasma wave generation and propagation at high latitudes, and ionosphere-thermosphere interactions. The experimental programme is centred at Halley (76° S, 27° W) but also utilises automatic geophysical observatories located poleward of Halley. The suite of instruments provides an excellent image of the inner boundary of geospace and thus is complementary to the GGS spacecraft measurements. The data products that will be supplied askey parameters to the GGS experimenters on a routine basis are described. A brief review of previous results is presented, and some of the significant scientific questions to be addressed using the combination of ground-based and space-based observations are discussed.

  1. Measuring earthquakes from optical satellite images.

    PubMed

    Van Puymbroeck, N; Michel, R; Binet, R; Avouac, J P; Taboury, J

    2000-07-10

    Système pour l'Observation de la Terre images are used to map ground displacements induced by earthquakes. Deformations (offsets) induced by stereoscopic effect and roll, pitch, and yaw of satellite and detector artifacts are estimated and compensated. Images are then resampled in a cartographic projection with a low-bias interpolator. A subpixel correlator in the Fourier domain provides two-dimensional offset maps with independent measurements approximately every 160 m. Biases on offsets are compensated from calibration. High-frequency noise (0.125 m(-1)) is approximately 0.01 pixels. Low-frequency noise (lower than 0.001 m(-1)) exceeds 0.2 pixels and is partially compensated from modeling. Applied to the Landers earthquake, measurements show the fault with an accuracy of a few tens of meters and yields displacement on the fault with an accuracy of better than 20 cm. Comparison with a model derived from geodetic data shows that offsets bring new insights into the faulting process.

  2. Latent Heating from TRMM Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tao, W.-K.; Smith, E.; Olson, W.

    2005-01-01

    Rainfall production is a fundamental process within the Earth;s hydrological cycle because it represents both a principal forcing term in surface water budgets, and its energetics corollary, latent heating, is the principal source of atmospheric diabatic heating. Latent heat release itself is a consequence of phase changes between the vapor, liquid, and frozen states of water. The properties of the vertical distribution of latent heat release modulate large-scale meridional and zonal circulations with the Tropics - as well as modify the energetic efficiencies of mid-latitude weather systems. This paper highlights the retrieval of observatory, which was launched in November 1997 as a joint American-Japanese space endeavor. Since then, TRMM measurements have been providing an accurate four-dimensional amount of rainfall over the global Tropics and sub-tropics - information which can be used to estimate the spacetime structure of latent heating across the Earth's low latitudes. A set of algorithm methodologies has and continues to be developed to estimate latent heating based on rain rate profile retrievals obtained from TRMM measurements. These algorithms are briefly described followed by a discussion of the foremost latent heating products that can be generate from them. The investigation then provides an overview of how TRMM-derived latent heating information is currently being used in conjunction with global weather and climate models, concluding with remarks intended to stimulate further research on latent heating retrieval from satellites.

  3. Integration Of GPS And GLONASS Systems In Geodetic Satellite Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maciuk, Kamil

    2015-12-01

    The article shows the results of satellites measurements elaborations using GPS & GLONASS signals. The aim of this article is to define the influence of adding GLONASS signals on position determination accuracy. It especially concerns areas with big horizon coverages. Object of the study were analysis of DOP coefficients, code and RTK solutions, and usage of satellite techniques in levelling. The performed studies and analysis show that integrated GPS-GLONASS satellite measurements provide possibility to achieve better results than measurements using single navigation satellite system (GPS).

  4. Global stratospheric fluorine inventory for 2004-2009 from Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) measurements and SLIMCAT model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, A. T.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Richards, N. A. D.; Boone, C.; Bernath, P. F.

    2014-01-01

    Fluorine-containing species can be extremely effective atmospheric greenhouse gases. We present fluorine budgets using organic and inorganic species retrieved by the ACE-FTS satellite instrument supplemented with output from the SLIMCAT 3-D chemical transport model. The budgets are calculated between 2004 and 2009 for a number of latitude bands: 70-30° N, 30-00° N, 00° N-30° S, and 30-70° S. At lower altitudes total fluorine profiles are dominated by the contribution from CFC-12, up to an altitude of 20 km in the extra-tropics and 29 km in the tropics; above these altitudes the profiles are dominated by hydrogen fluoride (HF). Our data show that total fluorine profiles at all locations have a negative slope with altitude, providing evidence that overall fluorine emissions (measured by their F content) have been increasing with time. Total stratospheric fluorine is increasing at a similar rate in the tropics: 32.5 ± 4.9 ppt yr-1 (1.31 ± 0.20% per year) in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and 29.8 ± 5.3 ppt yr-1 (1.21 ± 0.22% per year) in the Southern Hemisphere (SH). Extra-tropical total stratospheric fluorine is also increasing at a similar rate in both the NH and SH: 28.3 ± 2.7 ppt per year (1.12 ± 0.11% per year) in the NH and 24.3 ± 3.1 ppt per year (0.96 ± 0.12% per year) in the SH. The calculation of radiative efficiency-weighted total fluorine allows the changes in radiative forcing between 2004 and 2009 to be calculated. These results show an increase in radiative forcing of between 0.23 ± 0.11% per year and 0.45 ± 0.11% per year, due to the increase in fluorine-containing species during this time. The decreasing trends in the mixing ratios of halons and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), due to their prohibition under the Montreal Protocol, have suppressed an increase in total fluorine caused by increasing mixing ratios of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs). This has reduced the impact of fluorine-containing species on global warming.

  5. Clear-Sky Closure Studies of Tropospheric Aerosol and Water Vapor During ACE-2 Using Airborne Sunphotometer, Airborne In-Situ, Space-Borne, and Ground-Based Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, Beat; Collins, Donald R.; Gasso, Santiago; Oestroem, Elisabeth; Powell, Donna M.; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Durkee, Philip A.; Livingston, John M.; Russell, Philip B.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfeld, John H.; Hegg, Dean A.; Noone, Kevin J.; Voss, Kenneth J.; Gordon, Howard R.; Reagan, John A.; Spinhirne, James D.

    2000-01-01

    We report on clear-sky column closure experiments (CLEARCOLUMN) performed in the Canary Islands during the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) in June/July 1997. We present CLEARCOLUMN results obtained by combining airborne sunphotometer and in-situ (a differential mobility analyzer, three optical particle counters, three nephelometers, and one absorption photometer) measurements taken aboard the Pelican aircraft, space-borne NOAA/AVHRR data and ground-based lidars. A wide range of aerosol types was encountered throughout the ACE-2 area, including background Atlantic marine, European pollution-derived, and (although less frequently than expected) African mineral dust. During the two days discussed here, vertical profiles flown in cloud free air masses revealed three distinctly different layers: a marine boundary layer (MBL) with varying pollution levels, an elevated dust layer, and a very clean layer between the MBL and the dust layer. Based on size-resolved composition information we have established an aerosol model that allows us to compute optical properties of the ambient aerosol using the optical particle counter results. In the dust, the agreement in layer AOD (lambda=380-1060 nm) is 3-8%. In the MBL there is a tendency for the in-situ results to be slightly lower than the sunphotometer measurements (10-17% at lambda=525 nm), but these differences are within the combined error bars of the measurements and computations. Aerosol size-distribudon closure based on in-situ size distributions and inverted sunphotometer extinction spectra has been achieved in the MBL (total surface area and volume agree within 0.2, and 7%, respectively) but not in the dust layer. The fact that the three nephelometers operated at three different relative humidities (RH) allowed to parameterize hygroscopic growth and to therefore estimate optical properties at ambient RH. The parameters derived for different aerosol types are themselves useful for the aerosol modeling

  6. Chemical and optical characterization of aerosols measured in spring 2002 at the ACE-Asia supersite, Zhenbeitai, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, S. C.; Gomes, L.; Rajot, J. L.; Lafon, S.; Gaudichet, A.; Chatenet, B.; Maille, M.; Cautenet, G.; Lasserre, F.; Cachier, H.; Zhang, X. Y.

    2003-12-01

    In April 2002, aerosol characteristics have been recorded at Zhenbeitai (ZBT) near the city of Yulin (38°17'N, 109°43'E, Shaanxi province, China). One year earlier, ZBT had been one of the continental supersites of the ACE-Asia international experiment. In spring, this site, located on the southwestern fringe of the Mu Us desert, is at the crossing of the pathways followed by dust originating from the main Chinese dust sources. During the experiment a customized aerosol sampler has been used. It had been specially designed to ensure the best possible sampling isokineticity for all instruments and to minimize coarse particle losses. Its cutoff size (D50) has been computed to be 9 μm. For particles smaller than this size (PM9), mass concentrations, number concentrations, size distributions, elemental composition, and scattering properties were measured at ground level. Vertically integrated characteristics such as aerosol optical thickness (AOT), or single scattering albedo (ϖ0), were also determined by the means of a Sun-tracking photometer. During the measurement period, several dust events, one of them a major dust storm when PM9 mass concentrations became as high as 4650 μg/m3, were observed. At this time the aerosol scattering coefficient reached 2800 Mm-1. These dust events were separated by periods when optical properties were altered, or even dominated, by anthropogenic aerosol of local origin. For these periods, PM9 was significantly less (always below 100 μg/m3) than during dust events, mass concentration in black carbon (BC) was between 0.9 and 6.7 μg/m3, and the aerosol scattering coefficient between 7 and 800 Mm-1. No difference in elemental composition could be detected between the various dust episodes. Measured Fe/Al (0.63 ± 0.04) and Mg/Al (0.32 ± 0.03) ratios are consistent with an aerosol source located in the "northwestern high desert sources." This result is also supported by the air mass back-trajectories coming from a west or northwest

  7. Thermal Conductivity Measurements on Icy Satellite Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Javeed, Aurya; Barmatz, Martin; Zhong, Fang; Choukroun, Mathieu

    2012-01-01

    With regard to planetary science, NASA aspires to: "Advance scientific knowledge of the origin and history of the solar system, the potential for life elsewhere, and the hazards and resources present as humans explore space". In pursuit of such an end, the Galileo and Cassini missions garnered spectral data of icy satellite surfaces implicative of the satellites' structure and material composition. The potential for geophysical modeling afforded by this information, coupled with the plausibility of life on icy satellites, has pushed Jupiter's Europa along with Saturn's Enceladus and Titan toward the fore of NASA's planetary focus. Understanding the evolution of, and the present processes at work on, the aforementioned satellites falls squarely in-line with NASA's cited goal.

  8. Improving Estuarine Transport Models using Satellite Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. 1. REPORT DATE 30 SEP 2013 2 . REPORT TYPE 3. DATES...REPORT unclassified b. ABSTRACT unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 Following...and Aqua satellites. Level 2 satellite data with atmospheric corrections are obtained from http://ladsweb.nascom.nasa.gov/, while in-situ data are

  9. Ground-based laser radar measurements of satellite vibrations.

    PubMed

    Schultz, K I; Fisher, S

    1992-12-20

    Vibration signatures from the low-power atmospheric compensation (LACE) satellite are obtained by using the MIT Lincoln Laboratory Firepond coherent CO(2) laser radar facility located in Westford, Mass. The LACE satellite is equipped with IR germanium retroreflectors on deployable/retractable booms to enhance ground-based IR laser radar measurements of on-orbit boom vibrations. Analysis of pulsed cw laser radar measurements of the satellite during and subsequent to boom retraction indicates the presence of a complex time-varying model structure. The observed vibration spectra include vibration modes not previously predicted. These data represent the first observations of satellite vibration modes from a ground-based laser radar.

  10. Marketing ACE in Victoria.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This publication presents options raised through various forums for marketing adult and community education (ACE) in Victoria, Australia, and suggested strategies. After an introduction (chapter 1), chapters 2 and 3 provide a broad view of the current situation for marketing ACE. Chapter 2 discusses general issues in the current position--ACE…

  11. North Atlantic Aerosol Properties for Radiative Impact Assessments. Derived from Column Closure Analyses in TARFOX and ACE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip A.; Bergstrom, Robert A.; Schmid, Beat; Livingston, John M.

    2000-01-01

    Aerosol effects on atmospheric radiative fluxes provide a forcing function that can change the climate in potentially significant ways. This aerosol radiative forcing is a major source of uncertainty in understanding the climate change of the past century and predicting future climate. To help reduce this uncertainty, the 1996 Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX) and the 1997 Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) measured the properties and radiative effects of aerosols over the Atlantic Ocean. Both experiments used remote and in situ measurements from aircraft and the surface, coordinated with overpasses by a variety of satellite radiometers. TARFOX focused on the urban-industrial haze plume flowing from the United States over the western Atlantic, whereas ACE-2 studied aerosols over the eastern Atlantic from both Europe and Africa. These aerosols often have a marked impact on satellite-measured radiances. However, accurate derivation of flux changes, or radiative forcing, from the satellite measured radiances or retrieved aerosol optical depths (AODs) remains a difficult challenge. Here we summarize key initial results from TARFOX and ACE-2, with a focus on closure analyses that yield aerosol microphysical models for use in improved assessments of flux changes. We show how one such model gives computed radiative flux sensitivities (dF/dAOD) that agree with values measured in TARFOX and preliminary values computed for the polluted marine boundary layer in ACE-2. A companion paper uses the model to compute aerosol-induced flux changes over the North Atlantic from AVHRR-derived AOD fields.

  12. Studies of soundings and imaging measurements from geostationary satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suomi, V. E.

    1973-01-01

    Soundings and imaging measurements obtained from geostationary satellites for the period 1 Nov. 1972 to 31 Jan. 1973 are reported. The subjects discussed are: (1) investigation of meteorological data processing techniques, (2) sun glitter, (3) cloud growth rate, and (4) comparative studies in satellite stability.

  13. Radiation measurements from polar and geosynchronous satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonderhaar, T. H.

    1974-01-01

    Nimbus 5 satellite data and its use to study climate and develop climate model experiments are examined. Data cover: (1) physical basis for understanding long range and climate monitoring and prediction problem, (2) delineating energy loss to space between contributions from land, ocean, and atmosphere, (3) temporal and spatial distribution in earth's energy budget and its variations due to global cloud fields, and (4) studies of the frequency of occurrence of precipitation over ocean areas.

  14. Interference susceptibility measurements for an MSK satellite communication link

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Fujikawa, Gene

    1992-01-01

    The results are presented of measurements of the degradation of an MSK satellite link due to modulated and CW (unmodulated) interference. These measurements were made using a hardware based satellite communication link simulator at NASA-Lewis. The results indicate the amount of bit error rate degradation caused by CW interference as a function of frequency and power level, and the degradation caused by adjacent channel and cochannel modulated interference as a function of interference power level. Results were obtained for both the uplink case (including satellite nonlinearity) and the downlink case (linear channel).

  15. The Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems Mission (ACE)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoeberl, Mark

    2008-01-01

    The goals and measurement strategy of the Aerosol/Cloud/Ecosystems Mission (ACE) are described. ACE will help to answer fundamental science questions associated with aerosols, clouds, air quality and global ocean ecosystems. Specifically, the goals of ACE are: 1) to quantify aerosol-cloud interactions and to assess the impact of aerosols on the hydrological cycle and 2) determine Ocean Carbon Cycling and other ocean biological processes. It is expected that ACE will: narrow the uncertainty in aerosol-cloud-precipitation interaction and quantify the role of aerosols in climate change; measure the ocean ecosystem changes and precisely quantify ocean carbon uptake; and, improve air quality forecasting by determining the height and type of aerosols being transported long distances. Overviews are provided of the aerosol-cloud community measurement strategy, aerosol and cloud observations over South Asia, and ocean biology research goals. Instruments used in the measurement strategy of the ACE mission are also highlighted, including: multi-beam lidar, multiwavelength high spectra resolution lidar, the ocean color instrument (ORCA)--a spectroradiometer for ocean remote sensing, dual frequency cloud radar and high- and low-frequency micron-wave radiometer. Future steps for the ACE mission include refining measurement requirements and carrying out additional instrument and payload studies.

  16. New and Improved Infrared Spectroscopy of Halogen-Containing Species for ACE-FTS Retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy J.

    2014-06-01

    The Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier transform spectrometer (ACE-FTS), onboard the SCISAT-1 satellite, is a high-resolution (0.02 cm-1) instrument covering the 750-4400 cm-1 spectral region in solar occultation mode. Launched in August 2003, the ACE-FTS has been taking atmospheric measurements for over ten years. With long atmospheric pathlengths (˜300 km) and the sun as a radiation source, the ACE-FTS provides a low detection threshold for trace species in the atmosphere. In fact, it measures the vertical profiles of more molecules in the atmosphere than any other satellite instrument.

    Fluorine- and chlorine-containing molecules in the atmosphere are very strong greenhouse gases, meaning that even small amounts of these gases contribute significantly to the radiative forcing of climate. Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and hydrochlorofluorocarbons (HCFCs) are regulated by the 1987 Montreal Protocol because they deplete the ozone layer. Hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs), which do not deplete the ozone layer and are not regulated by the Montreal Protocol, have been introduced as replacements for CFCs and HCFCs. HFCs have global-warming potentials many times greater than carbon dioxide, and are increasing in the atmosphere at a very fast rate. The quantification of the atmospheric abundances of such molecules from measurements taken by the ACE-FTS and other satellite instruments crucially requires accurate quantitative infrared spectroscopy. HITRAN contains absorption cross section datasets for a number of these species, but many of them have minor deficiencies that introduce systematic errors into satellite retrievals. This talk will focus on new and improved laboratory measurements for a number of important halogenated species.

  17. Land mobile satellite propagation measurements in Japan using ETS-V satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Obara, Noriaki; Tanaka, Kenji; Yamamoto, Shin-Ichi; Wakana, Hiromitsu

    1993-01-01

    Propagation characteristics of land mobile satellite communications channels have been investigated actively in recent years. Information of propagation characteristics associated with multipath fading and shadowing is required to design commercial land mobile satellite communications systems, including protocol and error correction method. CRL (Communications Research Laboratory) has carried out propagation measurements using the Engineering Test Satellite-V (ETS-V) at L band (1.5 GHz) through main roads in Japan by a medium gain antenna with an autotracking capability. This paper presents the propagation statistics obtained in this campaign.

  18. Measuring Wildfires From Aircraft And Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brass, J. A.; Arvesen, J. C.; Ambrosia, V. G.; Riggan, P. J.; Meyers, J. S.

    1991-01-01

    Aircraft and satellite systems yield wide-area views, providing total coverage of affected areas. System developed for use aboard aircraft includes digital scanner that records data in 12 channels. Transmits data to ground station for immediate use in fighting fires. Enables researchers to estimate gaseous and particulate emissions from fires. Provides information on temperatures of flame fronts and soils, intensities and rate of spread of fires, characteristics of fuels and smoke plumes, energy-release rates, and concentrations and movements of trace gases. Data relates to heating and cooling of soils, loss of nutrients, and effects on atmospheric, terrestrial, and aquatic systems.

  19. Column Closure Studies of Lower Tropospheric Aerosol and Water Vapor During ACE-Asia Using Airborne Sunphotometer, Airborne In-Situ and Ship-Based Lidar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, B.; Hegg, A.; Wang, J.; Bates, D.; Redemann, J.; Russells, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Jonsson, H. H.; Welton, E. J.; Seinfield, J. H.

    2003-01-01

    We assess the consistency (closure) between solar beam attenuation by aerosols and water vapor measured by airborne sunphotometry and derived from airborne in-situ, and ship-based lidar measurements during the April 2001 Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia). The airborne data presented here were obtained aboard the Twin Otter aircraft. Comparing aerosol extinction o(550 nm) from four different techniques shows good agreement for the vertical distribution of aerosol layers. However, the level of agreement in absolute magnitude of the derived aerosol extinction varied among the aerosol layers sampled. The sigma(550 nm) computed from airborne in-situ size distribution and composition measurements shows good agreement with airborne sunphotometry in the marine boundary layer but is considerably lower in layers dominated by dust if the particles are assumed to be spherical. The sigma(550 nm) from airborne in-situ scattering and absorption measurements are about approx. 13% lower than those obtained from airborne sunphotometry during 14 vertical profiles. Combining lidar and the airborne sunphotometer measurements reveals the prevalence of dust layers at altitudes up to 10 km with layer aerosol optical depth (from 3.5 to 10 km altitude) of approx. 0.1 to 0.2 (500 nm) and extinction-to-backscatter ratios of 59-71 sr (523 nm). The airborne sunphotometer aboard the Twin Otter reveals a relatively dry atmosphere during ACE- Asia with all water vapor columns less than 1.5 cm and water vapor densities w less than 12 g/cu m. Comparing layer water vapor amounts and w from the airborne sunphotometer to the same quantities measured with aircraft in-situ sensors leads to a high correlation (r(sup 3)=0.96) but the sunphotometer tends to underestimate w by 7%.

  20. Arctic Collaborative Environment (ACE)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    distribution is unlimited. Key Data Requirements • Sea Ice – Location: Area, Onset, Growth, Drift, and Decay – Characterization: % Coverage, Thickness...Cloud ACE Developmental Server hosted at UAHuntsville ACE User Community Public Internet Tailored Ice Product Generation (NIC) Arctic Research...distribution is unlimited. Arctic Map 26 July 2012 13 Multi-sensor Analyzed Sea Ice Extent; National Data Buoy Center DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A

  1. Satellite measurements of the earth's crustal magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnetzler, C. C.

    1989-01-01

    The literature associated with the Magsat mission has evaluated the capabilities and limitations of satellite measurements of the earth's crustal magnetic field, and demonstrated that there exists a 300-3000 km magnetic field, related to major features in the earth's crust, which is primarily caused by induction. Due to its scale and sensitivity, satellite data have been useful in the development of models for such large crustal features as subduction zones, submarine platforms, continental accretion boundaries, and rifts. Attention is presently given to the lack of agreement between laboratory and satellite estimates of lower crustal magnetization.

  2. Measurement of multipath delay profile in land mobile satellite channels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ikegami, Tetsushi; Arakaki, Yoshiya; Wakana, Hiromitsu; Suzuki, Ryutaro

    1993-01-01

    Mobile satellite communication channel has been evaluated mainly with fading statistics of signal. When bandwidth of transmitting signal becomes wider, frequency selectivity of fading becomes a significant factor of the channel. Channel characteristics, not only signal variation but multipath delay spread should be evaluated. A multipath measurement system is proposed and developed for mobile satellite applications. With this system and ETS-V satellite, multipath delay profiles are measured in various environments including Tokyo metropolis and Sapporo city at 1.5 GHz. Results show that the maximum excess delay is within 1 microsec and the maximum delay spread is 0.2 microsecs at elevation angles of 40 to 47 degrees. In wideband signal transmission of about 1 MHz and more, designers should consider the effect of selective fading due to the multipath of land mobile satellite channel.

  3. Seasonal variability of upper tropospheric acetone using ACE-FTS observations and LMDz-INCA model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dufour, Gaëlle; Harrison, Jeremy; Szopa, Sophie; Bernath, Peter

    2014-05-01

    The vertically-resolved distributions of oxygenated organic compounds (oVOCs) are mainly inferred from surface and airborne measurements with limited spatial and temporal coverage. This results in a limited understanding of the atmospheric budget of these compounds and of their impact on the upper tropospheric chemistry. In the last decade, satellite observations which complement in-situ measurements have become available, providing global distributions of several oVOCs. For example, Scisat-1, also known as the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) has measured several oVOCs including methanol and formaldehyde. ACE is a Canadian-led satellite mission for remote sensing of the Earth's atmosphere that has been in operation since 2004. The primary instrument on board is a Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) featuring broad spectral coverage in the infrared (750-4400 cm-1) with high spectral resolution (0.02 cm-1). The FTS instrument can measure down to 5 km altitude with a high signal-to-noise ratio using solar occultation. The ACE-FTS has the ability to measure seasonal and height-resolved distributions of minor tropospheric constituents on a near-global scale and provides the opportunity to evaluate our understanding of important atmospheric oxygenated organic species. ACE-FTS acetone retrievals will be presented. The spatial distribution and seasonal variability of acetone will be described and compared to LMDz-INCA model simulations.

  4. Automatic GPS satellite based subsidence measurements for Ekofisk

    SciTech Connect

    Mes, M.J.; Luttenberger, C.; Landau, H.; Gustavsen, K.

    1995-12-01

    A fully automatic procedure for the measurement of subsidence of many platforms in almost real time is presented. Such a method is important for developments which may be subject to subsidence and where reliable subsidence and rate measurements are needed for safety, planning of remedial work and verification of subsidence models. Automatic GPS satellite based subsidence measurements are made continuously on platforms in the North Sea Ekofisk Field area. A description of the system is given. The derivation of those parameters which give optimal measurement accuracy is described, the results of these derivations are provided. GPS satellite based measurements are equivalent to pressure gauge based platform subsidence measurements, but they are much cheaper to install and maintain. In addition, GPS based measurements are not subject to drift of any gauges. GPS measurements were coupled to oceanographic quantities such as the platform deck clearance. These quantities now follow from GPS based measurements.

  5. Measuring snow and glacier ice properties from satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    KöNig, Max; Winther, Jan-Gunnar; Isaksson, Elisabeth

    2001-02-01

    Satellite remote sensing is a convenient tool for studying snow and glacier ice, allowing us to conduct research over large and otherwise inaccessible areas. This paper reviews various methods for measuring snow and glacier ice properties with satellite remote sensing. These methods have been improving with the use of new satellite sensors, like the synthetic aperture radar (SAR) during the last decade, leading to the development of new and powerful methods, such as SAR interferometry for glacier velocity, digital elevation model generation of ice sheets, or snow cover mapping. Some methods still try to overcome the limitations of present sensors, but future satellites will have much increased capability, for example, the ability to measure the whole optical spectrum or SAR sensors with multiple polarization or frequencies. Among the methods presented are the satellite-derived determination of surface albedo, snow extent, snow volume, snow grain size, surface temperature, glacier facies, glacier velocities, glacier extent, and ice sheet topography. In this review, emphasis is put on the principles and theory of each satellite remote sensing method. An extensive list of references, with an emphasis on studies from the 1990s, allows the reader to delve into specific topics.

  6. Satellite data sets for the atmospheric radiation measurement (ARM) program

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, L.; Bernstein, R.L.

    1996-04-01

    This abstract describes the type of data obtained from satellite measurements in the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program. The data sets have been widely used by the ARM team to derive cloud-top altitude, cloud cover, snow and ice cover, surface temperature, water vapor, and wind, vertical profiles of temperature, and continuoous observations of weather needed to track and predict severe weather.

  7. Satellites

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, J.A.; Matthews, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The present work is based on a conference: Natural Satellites, Colloquium 77 of the IAU, held at Cornell University from July 5 to 9, 1983. Attention is given to the background and origins of satellites, protosatellite swarms, the tectonics of icy satellites, the physical characteristics of satellite surfaces, and the interactions of planetary magnetospheres with icy satellite surfaces. Other topics include the surface composition of natural satellites, the cratering of planetary satellites, the moon, Io, and Europa. Consideration is also given to Ganymede and Callisto, the satellites of Saturn, small satellites, satellites of Uranus and Neptune, and the Pluto-Charon system.

  8. North Atlantic Aerosol Properties and Direct Radiative Effects: Key Results from TARFOX and ACE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Bergstrom, R. A.; Hignett, P.; Hobbs, P. V.; Durkee, P. A.; Condon, Estelle (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    Aerosol effects on atmospheric radiative fluxes provide a forcing function that can change the climate in potentially significant ways. This aerosol radiative Forcing is a major source of uncertainty in understanding the observed climate change of the past century and in predicting, future climate. To help reduce this uncertainty, the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project (IGAC) has endorsed a series of multiplatform aerosol field campaigns. The Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX) and the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) were the first IGAC campaigns to address the impact of anthropogenic aerosols. Both TARFOX and ACE-2 gathered extensive data sets on aerosol properties and radiative effects. TARFOX focused on the urban-industrial haze plume flowing from the eastern United States over the western Atlantic Ocean, whereas ACE-2 studied aerosols carried over the eastern Atlantic from both European urban/industrial and African mineral sources. These aerosols often have a marked influence on the top-of-atmosphere radiances measured by satellites, as illustrated in Figure 1. Shown there are contours of aerosol optical depth derived from radiances measured by the AVHRR sensor on the NOAA-11 satellite. The contours readily show that aerosols originating in North America, Europe, and Africa impact the radiative properties of air over the North Atlantic. However, the accurate derivation of flux chances, or radiative forcing, from the satellite-measured radiances or 'etrieved optical depths remains a difficult challenge. In this paper we summarize key Initial results from TARFOX and, to a lesser extent ACE-2, with a focus on those results that allow an improved assessment of the flux changes caused by North Atlantic aerosols at middle and high latitudes.

  9. North Atlantic Aerosol Properties and Direct Radiative Effects: Key Results from TARFOX and ACE-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, P. B.; Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Bergstrom, Robert A.; Hignett, P.; Hobbs, P. V.; Durkee, P. A.

    2000-01-01

    Aerosol effects on atmospheric radiative fluxes provide a forcing function that can change the climate In potentially significant ways. This aerosol radiative forcing is a major source of uncertainty in understanding the observed climate change of the past century and in predicting future climate. To help reduce this uncertainty, the International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Project (IGAC) has endorsed a series of multiplatform aerosol field campaigns. The Tropospheric Aerosol Radiative Forcing Observational Experiment (TARFOX) and the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) were the first IGAC campaigns to address the impact of anthropogenic aerosols, Both TARFOX and ACE-2 gathered extensive data sets on aerosol properties and radiative effects, TARFOX focused on the urban-industrial haze plume flowing from the eastern United States over the western Atlantic Ocean, whereas ACE-2 studied aerosols carried over the eastern Atlantic from both European urban/industrial and African mineral sources. These aerosols often have a marked influence on the top-of-atmosphere radiances measured by satellites. Shown there are contours of aerosol optical depth derived from radiances measured by the AVHRR sensor on the NOAA-11 satellite. The contours readily show that aerosols originating in North America, Europe, and Africa impact the radiative properties of air over the North Atlantic. However, the accurate derivation of flux changes, or radiative forcing, from the satellite measured radiances or retrieved optical depths remains a difficult challenge. In this paper we summarize key initial results from TARFOX and, to a lesser extent, ACE-2, with a focus on those results that allow an improved assessment of the flux changes caused by North Atlantic aerosols at middle latitudes.

  10. Satellite Gravity Measurements Confirm Accelerated Melting of Greenland Ice Sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J. L.; Wilson, C. R.; Tapley, B. D.

    2006-09-01

    Using time-variable gravity measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission, we estimate ice mass changes over Greenland during the period April 2002 to November 2005. After correcting for the effects of spatial filtering and limited resolution of GRACE data, the estimated total ice melting rate over Greenland is -239 +/- 23 cubic kilometers per year, mostly from East Greenland. This estimate agrees remarkably well with a recent assessment of -224 +/- 41 cubic kilometers per year, based on satellite radar interferometry data. GRACE estimates in southeast Greenland suggest accelerated melting since the summer of 2004, consistent with the latest remote sensing measurements.

  11. Results of ionospheric measurements, got on micro satellite "Compass-2"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dokukin, Vladimir; Kuznetsov, V. D.; Garipov, G. K.; Kapustina, O.; Mikhailov, Yu. M.; Mikhailova, G. A.; Ruzhin, Yu. Ya.; Sinelnikov, V. M.; Shirokov, A. V.; Yashin, I. V.; Danilkin, V. A.; Degtyar, V. G.

    Results of measurements, executed by complex of scientific instruments of micro satellite Compass-2 in the period of 2006-2007, are presented. The project was aimed on registration and study of ionospheric effects, related to the natural and anthropogenic anomalous phenomena. The effects of interaction of solar wind with magnetosphere in the period of flare activity of the Sun and anomalous low frequency radiations, happened one day before the earthquake with magnitude 4.2, are registered. The data was got on measurements of corpuscular radiation, wide band radiations and low frequency waves along the orbit of satellite.

  12. Select Methodology for Validating Advanced Satellite Measurement Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larar, Allen M.; Zhou, Daniel K.; Liu, Xi; Smith, William L.

    2008-01-01

    Advanced satellite sensors are tasked with improving global measurements of the Earth's atmosphere, clouds, and surface to enable enhancements in weather prediction, climate monitoring capability, and environmental change detection. Measurement system validation is crucial to achieving this goal and maximizing research and operational utility of resultant data. Field campaigns including satellite under-flights with well calibrated FTS sensors aboard high-altitude aircraft are an essential part of the validation task. This presentation focuses on an overview of validation methodology developed for assessment of high spectral resolution infrared systems, and includes results of preliminary studies performed to investigate the performance of the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) instrument aboard the MetOp-A satellite.

  13. Effects of surface clutter on rain measurements from the tropical rainfall measuring mission satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manabe, Takeshi; Ihara, Toshio; Okamoto, Ken'ich

    The effects of sea-surface clutter on rain measurements with a satellite-borne rain radar are quantitatively evaluated for clutter interferences through antenna sidelobes and pulse-compression range sidelobes. Calculations are made for a dual-frequency radar operating at 13.8 and 24.15 GHz proposed for the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission satellite.

  14. Global stratospheric chlorine inventories for 2004-2009 from Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, A. T.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Dhomse, S.; Boone, C.; Bernath, P. F.

    2013-09-01

    We present chlorine budgets calculated between 2004 and 2009 for four latitude bands (70° N-30° N, 30° N-0° N, 0° N-30° S, and 30° S-70° S). The budgets were calculated using ACE-FTS version 3.0 retrievals of the volume mixing ratios (VMRs) of 9 chlorine-containing species: CCl4, CFC-12 (CCl2F2), CFC-11 (CCl3F), COCl2, COClF, HCFC-22 (CHF2Cl), CH3Cl, HCl and ClONO2. These data were supplemented with calculated VMRs from the SLIMCAT 3-D chemical transport model (CFC-113, CFC-114, CFC-115, H-1211, H-1301, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, ClO and HOCl). The total chlorine profiles are dominated by chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons up to 24 km in the tropics and 19 km in the extra-tropics. In this altitude range CFCs and halons account for 58% of the total chlorine VMR. Above this altitude HCl increasingly dominates the total chlorine profile, reaching a maximum of 95% of total chlorine at 54 km. All total chlorine profiles exhibit a positive slope with altitude, suggesting that the total chlorine VMR is now decreasing with time. This conclusion is supported by the time series of the mean stratospheric total chlorine budgets which show mean decreases in total stratospheric chlorine of 0.38 ± 0.03% per year in the Northern Hemisphere extra-tropics, 0.35 ± 0.07% per year in the Northern Hemisphere tropical stratosphere, 0.54 ± 0.16% per year in the Southern Hemisphere tropics and 0.53 ± 0.12% per year in the Southern Hemisphere extra-tropical stratosphere for 2004-2009. Globally stratospheric chlorine is decreasing by 0.46 ± 0.02% per year. Both global warming potential-weighted chlorine and ozone depletion potential-weighted chlorine are decreasing at all latitudes. These results show that the Montreal Protocol has had a significant effect in reducing emissions of both ozone-depleting substances and greenhouse gases.

  15. Satellite measurements of minor constituents in the middle atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, F. W.

    The past, present and future role of satellite sensors for the global measurement of minor constituents in the stratosphere is reviewed. Some of the results from SAMS and LIMS on Nimbus 7 and ATMOS on Spacelab 3 are discussed, and some of the prospects for new instruments and programs are described.

  16. ACES--Today and Tomorrow.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hackney, Harold

    1991-01-01

    Presents text of Presidential Address delivered March 24, 1991, at the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES) luncheon, part of the American Association for Counseling and Development Convention held in Reno, Nevada. Comments on past, present, and future of ACES, particularly on future challenges and role of ACES. (ABL)

  17. Chemical Processing and Transport in the Stratospheric Vortex and Subvortex from Satellite Measurements and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santee, Michelle; Manney, Gloria; MacKenzie, Ian; Chipperfield, Martyn; Feng, Wuhu; Sander, Stanley; Froidevaux, Lucien; Livesey, Nathaniel; Bernath, Peter; Walker, Kaley; Boone, Chris

    A suite of atmospheric composition measurements from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on NASA's Aura satellite and the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) on Canada's SCISAT-1 mission is used to study chemical processing in and dispersal of chemically-processed air from the lower stratospheric polar vortices. In particular, interannual and interhemispheric variability in chlorine activation and deactivation are investigated using measurements of ClO, HCl, and ClONO2. Theoretical understanding is assessed by comparing measurements to customized runs of the SLIMCAT 3D chemical transport model. Results are shown from a newly-updated version of the model that incorporates a sophisticated microphysical scheme as a fully-coupled module, allowing polar stratospheric cloud formation and sedimentation to be calculated interactively in full-chemistry simulations. The impact of recently-published ClOOCl absorption cross sections, which yield a stratospheric ClOOCl photolysis rate substantially lower than previous estimates, on the agreement between modelled and measured chlorine species is evaluated. In addition, measurements of HNO3 and O3 and SLIMCAT results are related to mixing diagnostics to track the springtime export of denitrified, ozone-depleted air from the "subvortex", the transition zone (potential temperatures of 350-450 K) between the region above of strong confinement inside the polar vortex and the region below of less restricted exchange with lower-latitude air. Particularly over Antarctica, such mixing of processed air out of the subvortex may significantly affect the composition of the midlatitude lowermost stratosphere and upper troposphere.

  18. Stratospheric thickness determined directly from satellite radiance measurements.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quiroz, R. S.; Gelman, M. E.

    1972-01-01

    Discussion of the use of satellite radiance data for determining the thickness of deep stratospheric layers. Empirical regression equations are shown to provide better estimates of stratospheric thickness than do mean weighted temperatures obtained from the Planck equation. The best regression equations were found for thick layers emitting a substantial portion of the CO2-band infrared radiation measured by satellites. By adding the layer thickness to the observed height field for the lower boundary, it is possible to construct constant-pressure maps at very high altitudes.

  19. Analysis of Satellite and Sub-Orbital Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleason, James (Technical Monitor); Martin, Randall V.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this project is to support the INTEX aircraft mission by developing experience in the integrated analysis of existing sub-orbital observations and satellite observations with numerical models. Specific tasks include providing guidance to INTEX by identifying discrepancies in satellite observations with (1) in situ measurements, (2) bottom-up emission inventories of nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds, and (3) model calculations of the export of pollution from North America to the global atmosphere. An important focus area is developing and improving bottom-up emission inventories by combining top-down and bottom-up information.

  20. Relativistic Electron Measurements by JAXA Satellites and ISS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obara, Takahiro

    In order to monitor space environment and its temporal variations, JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) Space Environment Group has been conducting space environment mea-surements for more than 20 years. JAXA installed space radiation detectors, magnetometers and plasma detectors on LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellites, GEO (Geostationary Orbit) satel-lites, GTO (Geostationary Transfer Orbit) satellites and JEM (Japanese Experimental Module) of the ISS (International Space Station). With these data, some distinguish achievements on space environment science have been obtained and an assessment of space environment models are under taken. Solar proton advanced model has recently been proposed to ISO (International Standard Organization) and an advanced radiation belt model, which accommodates temporal and spatial variations of relativistic electrons in the outer radiation belts, will be proposed to ISO shortly. Intensity of MeV electrons seems to be controlled by solar wind velocity as well as magnetic activities. We confirmed that solar wind velocity controls MeV electron intensity in the vicinity of GEO altitude on the centrally magnetic activities decide MeV electron intensity in the heart of outer radiation belt. With these relations, we have constructed advanced outer radiation belt model. Transport of MeV electrons into the inner radiation belt was also identi-fied. MeV electrons penetrate into the inner belt across the slot region only during the recovery phase of the very big magnetic storms. This penetration will be one of the supply processes of MeV electrons in the inner radiation belt. JAXA is also using the real-time space environ-ment data brought by JAXA satellites and ISS/JEM to inform warnings to operators of JAXA satellites as well as ISS/JEM, when the space environment will be dangerous. In the talk, we will highlight some distinguish achievements by measurements with some applications and then explain forthcoming project; i.e. Quasi Zenith

  1. Inferring surface solar absorption from broadband satellite measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cess, Robert D.; Vulis, Inna L.

    1989-01-01

    An atmospheric solar radiation model and surface albedo models that include wavelength dependence and surface anisotropy are combined to study the possibility of inferring the surface solar absorption from satellite measurements. The model includes ocean, desert, pasture land, savannah, and bog surface categories. Problems associated with converting narrowband measurements to broadband quantities are discussed, suggesting that it would be easier to infer surface solar absorption from broadband measurements directly. The practice of adopting a linear relationship between planetary and surface albedo to estimate surface albedos from satellite measurements is examined, showing that the linear conversion between broadband planetary and surface albedos is strongly dependent on vegetation type. It is suggested that there is a linear slope-offset relationship between surface and surface-atmosphere solar absorption.

  2. A New Satellite System for Measuring BRDF from Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiscombe, W.; Kaufman, Y.; Herman, J.

    1999-01-01

    Formation flying of satellites is at the beginning of an explosive growth curve. Spacecraft buses are shrinking to the point where we will soon be able to launch 10 micro-satellites or 100 nano-satellites on a single launch vehicle. Simultaneously, spectrometers are just beginning to be flown in space by both the U.S. and Europe. On-board programmable band aggregation will soon allow exactly the spectral bands desired to be returned to Earth. Further efforts are being devoted to radically shrink spectrometers both in size and weight. And GPS positioning and attitude determination, plus new technologies for attitude control, will allow fleets of satellites to all point at the same Earth target. All these advances, in combination, make possible for the first time the proper measurement of Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution (BRDF) form space. Previously space BDRF's were mere composites, built up over time by viewing different types of scenes at different times, then creating catalogs of BDRF functions whose use relied upon correct "scene identification" --the weak link. Formation-flying micro-satellites, carrying programmable spectrometers and precision-pointing at the same Earth target, can measure the full BDRF simultaneously, in real time. This talk will review these technological advances and discuss an actual proposed concept, based on these advances, to measure Earth-target BDRF's (clouds as well as surface) across the full solar spectrum in the 2010 timeframe. This concept is part of a larger concept called Leonardo for properly measuring the radiative forcing of Earth for climate purposes; lack of knowing of BDRF and of diurnal cycle are at present the two limiting factors preventing improved estimates of this forcing.

  3. Cosmic Ray Helium Intensities over the Solar Cycle from ACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeNolfo, G. A.; Yanasak, N. E.; Binns, W. R.; Cohen, C. M. S.; Cummings, A. C.; Davis, A. J.; George, J. S.; Hink. P. L.; Israel, M. H.; Lave, K.; Leske, R. A.; Mewaldt, R. A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Ogliore, R.; Stone, E. C.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.; Wiedenback, M. E.

    2007-01-01

    Observations of cosmic-ray helium energy spectra provide important constraints on cosmic ray origin and propagation. However, helium intensities measured at Earth are affected by solar modulation, especially below several GeV/nucleon. Observations of helium intensities over a solar cycle are important for understanding how solar modulation affects galactic cosmic ray intensities and for separating the contributions of anomalous and galactic cosmic rays. The Cosmic Ray Isotope Spectrometer (CRIS) on ACE has been measuring cosmic ray isotopes, including helium, since 1997 with high statistical precision. We present helium elemental intensities between approx. 10 to approx. 100 MeV/nucleon from the Solar Isotope Spectrometer (SIS) and CRIS observations over a solar cycle and compare these results with the observations from other satellite and balloon-borne instruments, and with GCR transport and solar modulation models.

  4. Satellite measurements of large-scale air pollution - Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Fraser, Robert S.

    1990-06-01

    A technique for deriving large-scale pollution parameters from NIR and visible satellite remote-sensing images obtained over land or water is described and demonstrated on AVHRR images. The method is based on comparison of the upward radiances on clear and hazy days and permits simultaneous determination of aerosol optical thickness with error Delta tau(a) = 0.08-0.15, particle size with error + or - 100-200 nm, and single-scattering albedo with error + or - 0.03 (for albedos near 1), all assuming accurate and stable satellite calibration and stable surface reflectance between the clear and hazy days. In the analysis of AVHRR images of smoke from a forest fire, good agreement was obtained between satellite and ground-based (sun-photometer) measurements of aerosol optical thickness, but the satellite particle sizes were systematically greater than those measured from the ground. The AVHRR single-scattering albedo agreed well with a Landsat albedo for the same smoke.

  5. Monitoring Surface Climate With its Emissivity Derived From Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu

    2012-01-01

    Satellite thermal infrared (IR) spectral emissivity data have been shown to be significant for atmospheric research and monitoring the Earth fs environment. Long-term and large-scale observations needed for global monitoring and research can be supplied by satellite-based remote sensing. Presented here is the global surface IR emissivity data retrieved from the last 5 years of Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) measurements observed from the MetOp-A satellite. Monthly mean surface properties (i.e., skin temperature T(sub s) and emissivity spectra epsilon(sub v) with a spatial resolution of 0.5x0.5-degrees latitude-longitude are produced to monitor seasonal and inter-annual variations. We demonstrate that surface epsilon(sub v) and T(sub s) retrieved with IASI measurements can be used to assist in monitoring surface weather and surface climate change. Surface epsilon(sub v) together with T(sub s) from current and future operational satellites can be utilized as a means of long-term and large-scale monitoring of Earth 's surface weather environment and associated changes.

  6. Sensitivity of satellite magnetic measurements to mantle magnetization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwillus, Wolfgang; Ebbing, Jörg; Baykiev, Eldar

    2016-04-01

    Satellite magnetic measurements provide global coverage and increasing resolution, which allows studying the large-scale magnetic properties of the lithosphere. The long-wavelength component of the magnetic field can be used to estimate the maximum depth of magnetic sources. Often, it is assumed that the base of the magnetic lithosphere coincides with the Moho boundary.However, the Curie temperature might also lie below the Moho, allowing for mantle magnetization, provided magnetizable minerals are present in the mantle lithosphere. We tested whether sources in the magnetic lithosphere are detectable with satellite magnetic measurements. To this end we constructed a simple, global lithospheric model based on gravity, seismological and heat-flow data. Results form forward calculation of the magnetic field can be compared with the observed field at satellite height. Our results show that for some parts of the world it is reasonable to assume upper mantle magnetization. There are large anomalies observed at satellite height that cannot be explained with only crustal magnetization. However, interpretation is difficult, because the very long wavelength component of the lithospheric field is veiled by the core field.

  7. Satellite measurements of large-scale air pollution - Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Ferrare, Richard A.; Fraser, Robert S.

    1990-01-01

    A technique for deriving large-scale pollution parameters from NIR and visible satellite remote-sensing images obtained over land or water is described and demonstrated on AVHRR images. The method is based on comparison of the upward radiances on clear and hazy days and permits simultaneous determination of aerosol optical thickness with error Delta tau(a) = 0.08-0.15, particle size with error + or - 100-200 nm, and single-scattering albedo with error + or - 0.03 (for albedos near 1), all assuming accurate and stable satellite calibration and stable surface reflectance between the clear and hazy days. In the analysis of AVHRR images of smoke from a forest fire, good agreement was obtained between satellite and ground-based (sun-photometer) measurements of aerosol optical thickness, but the satellite particle sizes were systematically greater than those measured from the ground. The AVHRR single-scattering albedo agreed well with a Landsat albedo for the same smoke.

  8. Satellite measurement of ionospheric-induced vhf distortion

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, W.T.; Murphy, T.; Roussel-Dupre, R.; Carter, M.J.; Blevins, B.

    1992-01-01

    BLACKBEARD is a satellite RF experiment designed to study distortion and interference effects on transient transionospheric VHF signals. RF distortion will be characterized by a frequency-coherence bandwidth for different ionospheric conditions. Limitations of broad-band measurements from the frequency-coherence bandwidth of the ionosphere and broadcast interference signals will be established through these studies. Distinction between multi-path distortion resulting from large scale, coherent perturbations and small scale, random perturbations to the ionosphere will be emphasized. Ionospheric transfer function models, trans-ionospheric signal predictions, and coherence bandwidth predictions will be tested and optimized with these measurements. A global data base for both broadcast and lightning interference will also derive from these studies. This database will form the basis for interference feature extraction, signal typing, and possible neural network cataloging. The specific missions of the BLACKBEARD experiment include: perform broad-band VHF measurements of transient signals originating from a controlled pulsed ground beacon, to characterize broad-band ionospheric distortion, perform narrow-band VHF measurements of cw signals from a multi-chord interferometry ground beacon array, to characterize ionospheric structure contributing to transmission distortion, and survey power envelopes of lightning and man-made interference in selectable VHF bands, for background rejection purposes. BLACKBEARD is part of the ALEMS soft x-ray measurement satellite, a small satellite system designed for a PEGASUS launch into a 70{degrees} inclination, low earth orbit in late 1992.

  9. Satellite measurement of ionospheric-induced vhf distortion

    SciTech Connect

    Armstrong, W.T.; Murphy, T.; Roussel-Dupre, R.; Carter, M.J.; Blevins, B.

    1992-09-01

    BLACKBEARD is a satellite RF experiment designed to study distortion and interference effects on transient transionospheric VHF signals. RF distortion will be characterized by a frequency-coherence bandwidth for different ionospheric conditions. Limitations of broad-band measurements from the frequency-coherence bandwidth of the ionosphere and broadcast interference signals will be established through these studies. Distinction between multi-path distortion resulting from large scale, coherent perturbations and small scale, random perturbations to the ionosphere will be emphasized. Ionospheric transfer function models, trans-ionospheric signal predictions, and coherence bandwidth predictions will be tested and optimized with these measurements. A global data base for both broadcast and lightning interference will also derive from these studies. This database will form the basis for interference feature extraction, signal typing, and possible neural network cataloging. The specific missions of the BLACKBEARD experiment include: perform broad-band VHF measurements of transient signals originating from a controlled pulsed ground beacon, to characterize broad-band ionospheric distortion, perform narrow-band VHF measurements of cw signals from a multi-chord interferometry ground beacon array, to characterize ionospheric structure contributing to transmission distortion, and survey power envelopes of lightning and man-made interference in selectable VHF bands, for background rejection purposes. BLACKBEARD is part of the ALEMS soft x-ray measurement satellite, a small satellite system designed for a PEGASUS launch into a 70{degrees} inclination, low earth orbit in late 1992.

  10. Satellite measurement of ionospheric-induced VHF distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armstrong, W. T.; Murphy, T.; Roussel-Dupre, R.; Carter, M. J.; Blevins, B.

    BLACKBEARD is a satellite RF experiment designed to study distortion and interference effects on transient transionospheric VHF signals. RF distortion will be characterized by a frequency-coherence bandwidth for different ionospheric conditions. Limitations of broad-band measurements from the frequency-coherence bandwidth of the ionosphere and broadcast interference signals will be established through these studies. Distinction between multi-path distortion resulting from large scale, coherent perturbations and small scale, random perturbations to the ionosphere will be emphasized. Ionospheric transfer function models, trans-ionospheric signal predictions, and coherence bandwidth predictions will be tested and optimized with these measurements. A global data base for both broadcast and lightning interference will also derive from these studies. This database will form the basis for interference feature extraction, signal typing, and possible neural network cataloging. The specific missions of the BLACKBEARD experiment include: perform broad-band VHF measurements of transient signals originating from a controlled pulsed ground beacon, to characterize broad-band ionospheric distortion, perform narrow-band VHF measurements of cw signals from a multi-chord interferometry ground beacon array, to characterize ionospheric structure contributing to transmission distortion, and survey power envelopes of lightning and man-made interference in selectable VHF bands, for background rejection purposes. BLACKBEARD is part of the ALEMS soft x-ray measurement satellite, a small satellite system designed for a PEGASUS launch into a 70 deg inclination, low earth orbit in late 1992.

  11. The Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, William L., Jr.; Charlock, Thomas; Wielicki, Bruce; Kahn, Ralph; Martins, J. Vanderlei; Gatebe, Charles; Hobbs, Peter V.; Purgold, G. Carl; Redemann, Jens; Remer, Lorraine

    2004-01-01

    NASA has developed an Earth Observing System (EOS) consisting of a series of satellites designed to study global change from space. The EOS flagship is the EOS TERRA satellite, launched in December 1999, equipped with five unique sensors to monitor and study the Earth s heat budget and many of the key controlling variables governing the Earth's climate system. CLAMS, the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites field campaign was conducted from NASA Wallops Flight Facility and successfully executed over the middle Atlantic eastern seaboard from July 10 August 2, 2001. CLAMS is primarily a shortwave closure experiment designed to validate and improve EOS TERRA satellite data products being derived from three sensors: CERES (Clouds and Earth's Radiant Energy System), MISR (Multi-angle Imaging Spectro-Radiometer) and MODIS (MODerate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer). CLAMS is jointly sponsored by the CERES, MISR and MODIS instrument teams and the NASA GEWEX Global Aerosol Climatology Project (GACP). CLAMS primary objectives are to validate satellite-based retrievals of aerosol properties and vertical profiles of radiative flux, temperature and water vapor. Central to CLAMS measurement strategy is the Chesapeake Lighthouse, a stable sea platform located in the Atlantic Ocean, 13 miles east of Virginia Beach near the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay and the site of an ongoing CERES Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE). Six research aircraft were deployed to make detailed measurements of the atmosphere and ocean surface in the vicinity of COVE, over the surrounding ocean, over nearby NOAA buoys and over a few land sites. The measurements are used to validate and provide ground truth for simultaneous products being derived from TERRA data, a key step toward an improved understanding and ability to predict changes in the Earth's climate. One of the two CERES instruments on-board TERRA was programmed for Rotating Azimuth Plane Scans (RAPS) during CLAMS

  12. A comparative study of measurements from radiosondes, rocketsondes, and satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nestler, M. S.

    1983-01-01

    Direct comparisons of operational products derived from measurements of radiance by satellites to measurements from conventional in situ sensors are important for the evaluation of satellite systems. However, errors in the in situ measurements themselves complicate such comparisons. Atmospheric temporal and spatial variability are also influential. These issues are investigated by means of a special field program composed of flights of dual radiosondes and multiple radiosondes launched near the time of NOAA-6 overpasses. Satellite derived mean layer temperatures, geopotential heights, and winds are compared with the same quantities determined from the in situ sensors. Of particular interest is the impact of in situ errors on these comparisons. It is shown that the radiosonde provides a precise pressure height relationship and therefore precise data for synoptic type use. Radar tracking of the radiosondes reveals, however, an imprecise pressure measurement which causes large differences between the actual altitude of the radiosonde and the altitude at which it is calculated to be. Radiosondes should be radar tracked and pressures calculated if the data are to be used for purposes other than synoptic use. Evaluation of rocketsonde data reveals a temperature precision of 1 to 2 K below about 55 km. Above 55 km, the precision decreases rapidly; rms differences of up to 11 K are obtained.

  13. Altitude Differentiated Aerosol Extinction Over Tenerife (North Atlantic Coast) During ACE-2 by Means of Ground and Airborne Photometry and Lidar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Formenti, P.; Elias, T.; Welton, J.; Diaz, J. P.; Exposito, F.; Schmid, B.; Powell, D.; Holben, B. N.; Smirnov, A.; Andreae, M. O.; Devaux, C.; Voss, K.; Lelieveld, J.; Livingston, J. M.; Russell, P. B.; Durkee, P. A.

    2000-01-01

    Retrievals of spectral aerosol optical depths (tau(sub a)) by means of sun photometers have been undertaken in Tenerife (28 deg 16' N, 16 deg 36' W) during ACE-2 (June-July 1997). Five ground-based sites were located at four different altitudes in the marine boundary layer and in the free troposphere, from 0 to 3570 m asl. The goal of the investigation was to provide estimates of the vertical aerosol extinction over the island, both under clean and turbid conditions. Inversion of spectral tau(sub a) allowed to retrieve size distributions, from which the single scattering albedo omega(sub 0) and the asymmetry factor g could be estimated as a function of altitude. These parameters were combined to calculate aerosol forcing in the column. Emphasis is put on episodes of increased turbidity, which were observed at different locations simultaneously, and attributed to outbreaks of mineral dust from North Africa. Differentiation of tau(sub a) as a function of altitude provided the vertical profile of the extinction coefficient sigma(sub e). For dust outbreaks, aerosol extinction is concentrated in two distinct layers above and below the strong subsidence inversion around 1200 m asl. Vertical profiles of tau(sub a) and sigma(sub e) are shown for July 8. In some occasions, vertical profiles are compared to LIDAR observations, performed both at sea level and in the low free troposphere, and to airborne measurements of aerosol optical depths.

  14. Cloud and Thermodynamic Parameters Retrieved from Satellite Ultraspectral Infrared Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Smith, William L.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Taylor, Jonathan P.; Schluessel, Peter; Strow, L. Larrabee; Mango, Stephen A.

    2008-01-01

    Atmospheric-thermodynamic parameters and surface properties are basic meteorological parameters for weather forecasting. A physical geophysical parameter retrieval scheme dealing with cloudy and cloud-free radiance observed with satellite ultraspectral infrared sounders has been developed and applied to the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) and the Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS). The retrieved parameters presented herein are from radiance data gathered during the Joint Airborne IASI Validation Experiment (JAIVEx). JAIVEx provided intensive aircraft observations obtained from airborne Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) systems, in-situ measurements, and dedicated dropsonde and radiosonde measurements for the validation of the IASI products. Here, IASI atmospheric profile retrievals are compared with those obtained from dedicated dropsondes, radiosondes, and the airborne FTS system. The IASI examples presented here demonstrate the ability to retrieve fine-scale horizontal features with high vertical resolution from satellite ultraspectral sounder radiance spectra.

  15. New Approaches For Validating Satellite Global Precipitation Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Eric A.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The scientific successes of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) and additional recent satellite-focused precipitation retrieval projects, particularly those based on use of passive microwave radiometer measurements, have paved the way for a more advanced mission currently under development as the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission. This new mission is motivated by a number of scientific questions that TRMM research has posed over a range of space-time scales and within a variety of scientific disciplines that are becoming more integrated into earth system science modeling.

  16. NOx emission trends in megacities derived from satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, Igor; Beekmann, Matthias; Richter, Andreas

    2010-05-01

    The effects of air pollutant emissions on both local air quality in megacities and composition of the atmosphere on regional and global scales are currently an important issue of atmospheric researches. In order to properly evaluate these effects, atmospheric models should be provided with accurate information on emissions of major air pollutants. However, such information is frequently very uncertain, as it is documented in literature. The quantification of emissions and related effects is an especially difficult task in the case of developing countries. Recently, it has been demonstrated that satellite measurements of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) can be used as a source of independent information on NOx emissions. In particular, the satellite measurements were used in our earlier studies to improve spatial allocation of NOx emissions, to estimate multi-annual changes of NOx emissions on regional scales and to validate data of traditional emission inventories (see Ref. 1, 2). The goals of the present study are (1) developing an efficient method for estimation of NOx emissions trend in megacity regions by using satellite measurements and an inverse modeling technique and (2) obtaining independent estimates of NOx emission trends in several megacities in Europe and the Middle East in the period from 1996 to 2008. The study is based on the synergetic use of the data for tropospheric NO2 column amounts derived from the long-term GOME and SCIAMACHY measurements and simulations performed by the CHIMERE chemistry transport model. We performed the analysis involving methods of different complexity ranging from estimation of linear trends in the tropospheric NO2 columns retrieved from satellite measurements to evaluation of nonlinear trends in NOx emission estimates obtained with the inverse modeling approach, which, in the given case, involves only very simple and transparent formulations. The most challenging part of the study is the nonlinear trend estimation, which is

  17. Exospheric density measurements from the drag-free satellite Triad

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moe, K.; Debra, D. B.; Van Patten, R. A.; Moe, M. M.; Oelker, G.; Ruggera, M. B., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The Triad satellite is maintained within 1 mm of its proof mass (a small metal ball) in a purely gravitational orbit, using a drag-free control system, named Discos, as the disturbance compensation system. The Discos proof mass is surrounded by an outer shell which holds fuel tanks and cold gas jets. The shell shields the proof mass from such nongravitational forces as radiation pressure, atmospheric drag, and micrometeorite impact. Whenever these forces displace the outer shell relative to the proof mass, an error signal is generated by a capacitive bridge sensor, and the satellite is propelled by gas jets to remain centered on the proof mass when the error reaches 1 mm. Local atmospheric densities near 800 km were measured, using ball position data, and the observed accelerations were corrected for the effects of solar radiation pressure. The measured densities reveal a greater dependence on latitude than that indicated by balloon satellites, and also a dependence on longitude. Only a small dependence on Kp, however, was observed in the region where the measurements were made.

  18. Detecting Climate Signatures with High Spectral Resolution Infrared Satellite Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deslover, D. H.; Tobin, D.; Knuteson, R. O.; Revercomb, H. E.

    2013-12-01

    Upwelling atmospheric infrared radiances can be accurately monitored from high spectral resolution satellite observations. The high spectral resolution nature of these measurements affords the ability to track various climate relevant parameters such as window channels sensitive to surface temperature and clouds, channels with higher sensitivity to trace gases including CO2, CH4, SO2, HNO3, as well as channels sensitive only to upper tropospheric or lower stratospheric temperature. NASA's Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) provides a data record that extends from its 2002 launch to the present. The Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) onboard Metop- (A launched in 2006, B in 2012), as well as the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) launched in 2011, complement this data record. Future infrared sounders with similar capabilities will augment these measurements into the distant future. We have created a global data set from the aforementioned satellite observations. Our analysis yields a channel dependent approach that can be further constrained in terms of diurnal, seasonal and geographic limits, with measurement accuracies of better than a few tenths of degree Kelvin. In this study, we have applied this concept to obtain a better understanding of long-term stratospheric temperature trends. We will present a survey of temperature trends for spectral channels that were chosen to be sensitive to stratospheric emission. Results will be shown for tropical, mid-latitude and polar stratospheric observations.

  19. Satellite-Borne Measurements of Middle-Atmosphere Composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Russell, J. M.; McCormick, M. P.

    1987-11-01

    A number of satellite experiments have been launched in recent years with the goal of providing fundamental data needed for analysis of photochemistry, radiation, dynamics, and transport processes. Collectively, these experiments have accumulated information on the vertical and horizontal distributions of a host of minor constituents in the middle atmosphere. The combined satellite data set includes new global measurements of O3, NO2, N2O, HNO3, CH4, H2O, and aerosols, and more-limited data on CO, N2O5, ClONO2, HNO4, COF2, and CH3Cl. These data have provided descriptions of (1) the geographic extent and year-to-year change in the recently discovered Antarctic ozone hole; (2) interannual variability in N2O and CH4; (3) the winter high latitude NO2 `cliff'; (4) exchange of NO2 from the mesosphere to the stratosphere during polar night; (5) a lower limit total odd nitrogen distribution that displays a maximum that exceeds model calculated values; (6) variations in the newly discovered polar stratospheric clouds (PSCS) seen in the north and south polar regions; and (7) details of latitudinal and temporal aerosol variability. The existing satellite data set is deficient in certain key measurements including OH, HO2, H2O2, polar night N2O5, radiatively important aerosol properties, and simultaneous measurements of aerosols and gases involved in heterogeneous processes.

  20. Overview of A-Train Satellite Cloud Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maring, H.

    2007-12-01

    NASA satellites make a wide variety of cloud measurements for climate and meteorological research and prediction. The A-Train is a constellation of satellites in coordinated low earth orbits with an extensive array of sensors making a wide variety of complementary observations of the earth system. The satellite constellation provides synergistic measurements enabling data from several different satellites/sensors to be used together to obtain comprehensive information about various key components and processes of the earth system. The A-Train consists of the following satellites and sensors currently in operation: Aqua, launched 4 May 2002 carries: Atmospheric Infrared Sounder-high spectral resolution (2378 channels) grating spectrometer. Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-15 channel microwave radiometer. Humidity Sounder for Brazil is a 4 channel microwave radiometer, which provided data until February 2003. Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS-12 channel, 6 frequency microwave radiometer. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer-36 band visible and infrared imaging spectroradiometer. Cloud's and the Earth's Radiant Energy System-3 channel scanning visible and infrared radiometers. Aura, launched 15 July 2004 carries: High Resolution Dynamics Limb Sounder-multi channel infrared radiometer. Microwave Limb Sounder-multi channel microwave radiometer. Ozone Monitoring Instrument-visible and ultra violet hyperspectral imaging spectrometers. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer-high-resolution, infrared Fourier transform spectrometer. Polarization & Anisotropy of Reflectances for Atmospheric Sciences coupled with Observations from a Lidar-launched 18 December 2004 by the French space agency Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and carries a polarimeter. CloudSat and CALIPSO launched together 28 April 2005. CloudSat-US/Canadian cooperative project carries a 94 GHz nadir cloud profiling radar. Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite

  1. Intercomparisons of Airborne Measurements of Aerosol Ionic Chemical Composition during TRACE-P and ACE-Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Y.; Weber, R. J.; Maxwell-Meier, K.; Orsini, D. A.; Lee, Y.-N.; Huebert, B. J.; Howell, S. G.; Bertram, T.; Talbot, R. W.

    2003-01-01

    As part of the two field studies, Transport and Chemical Evolution over the Pacific (TRACE-P), and the Asian Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACEAsia), the inorganic chemical composition of tropospheric aerosols was measured over the western Pacific from three separate aircraft using various methods. Comparisons are made between the rapid online techniques of the Particle Into Liquid Sampler (PILS) for measurement of a suite of fine particle ionic compounds and a mist chamber (MC/IC) measurement of fine sulfate, and the longer time-integrated filter and multi-orifice impactor (MOI) measurements. Comparisons between identical PILS on two separate aircraft flying in formation showed that they were highly correlated (e.g., sulfate r(sup 2) of 0.95), but were systematically different by 10 +/- 5% (linear regression slope and 95% confidence bounds), and had generally higher concentrations on the aircraft with a low turbulence inlet and shorter inlet-to-instrument transmission tubing. Comparisons of PILS and mist chamber measurements of fine sulfate on two different aircraft during formation flying had an 3 of 0.78 and a relative difference of 39% +/- 5%. MOI ionic data integrated to the PILS upper measurement size of 1.3 pm sampling from separate inlets on the same aircraft showed that for sulfate, PILS and MOI were within 14% +/- 6% and correlated with an r(sup 2) of 0.87. Most ionic compounds were within f 30%, which is in the range of differences reported between PILS and integrated samplers from ground-based comparisons. In many cases, direct intercomparison between the various instruments is difficult due to differences in upper-size detection limits. However, for this study, the results suggest that the fine particle mass composition measured from aircraft agree to within 30-40%.

  2. Evaluation of Aerosol Properties in GCMs using Satellite Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y.; Jiang, J. H.; Su, H.; Zhang, H.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols from natural or anthropogenic sources have profound impacts on the regional and global climate. Currently the radiative forcing of aerosols predicted by global climate models remains highly uncertain, representing the largest uncertainty in climate predictions. The uncertainty mainly arises from the complicated aerosol chemical and physical properties, coarse emission inventories for pre-cursor gases as well as unrealistic representations of aerosol activation and cloud processing in global climate models. In this study, we will utilize multiple satellite measurements including MODIS, MISR and CALIPSO to quantitatively evaluate aerosol simulations from climate models. Our analyses show that the global means in AOD climatology from NCAR CAM5 and GFDL AM3 simulations are comparable with satellite measurements. However, the overall correlation coefficient between the AOD spatial patterns from CAM5 and satellite is only 0.4. Moreover, at finer scales, the magnitude of AOD in CAM5 is much lower than satellite measurements for most of the non-dust regions, especially over East Asia. GFDL AM3 shows better AOD simulations over East Asia. The underestimated AOD over remote maritime areas in CAM5 was attributed to the unrealistic wet removal processes in convective clouds of CAM5. Over continents, biases on AOD could stem from underestimations in the emissions inventory and unresolved sub-grid variations of relative humidity due to the model's coarse resolution. Uncertainty from emission inventory over developing countries in East Asia will be assessed using the newly updated Regional Emission inventory in Asia (REAS) and Multi-resolution Emission Inventory in China (MEIC) in the model simulations.

  3. The ACES Mission: System Tests Results and Development Status

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacciapuoti, Luigi

    Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space (ACES) is a mission of the European Space Agency (ESA) testing fundamental laws of physics with high-performance atomic clocks1 . Operated on-board the International Space Station, the ACES payload will distribute a clock signal with fractional frequency instability and inaccuracy of 1·10-16 . This frequency reference is resulting from the medium-term stability of an active hydrogen maser (SHM) and the long-term stability and accuracy of a primary standard based on samples of laser cooled Cs atoms (PHARAO). The ACES clocks are combined by two servo-loops, the first stabilizing the PHARAO local oscillator on SHM, the second controlling the long-term instabilities of SHM using the error signal generated by the PHARAO Cesium resonator. A link in the microwave domain (MWL) and an optical link (ELT) will make the ACES clock signal available to ground laboratories equipped with atomic clocks, connecting them in a worldwide network. Space-to-ground and ground-to-ground comparisons of atomic frequency standards will be used to test Einstein's theory of general relativity including a precision measurement of the gravitational red-shift, a search for time variations of fundamental constants, and Lorentz Invariance tests. Applications in geodesy, optical time transfer, and ranging will also be supported. The ACES main instruments and subsystems have now reached an advanced status of devel-opment, demonstrated by the completion and the successful test of their engineering models. In particular, a dedicated test campaign has recently verified the performance of the ACES system, where PHARAO and SHM, locked together via the ACES servo loops, are operated as a unique oscillator to generate the ACES frequency reference. The test campaign conducted 1 Luigi Cacciapuoti and Christophe Salomon, Space Clocks and Fundamental Tests: The ACES Experiment, EPJ Special topics 172, 57 (2009). at CNES premises in Toulouse between July and November 2009 concluded

  4. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Brown, Dan; Eustace, John

    2015-01-01

    Increment 45 - 46 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  5. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-H-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Chmiel, Alan J.; Eustace, John; LaBarbera, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Increment 43 - 44 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-H-2) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  6. MISR Browse Images: Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS)

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2016-06-13

    ... Images: Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS)   These MISR Browse images ... the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) field campaign. CLAMS focused on understanding pieces of the ...

  7. Land-mobile-satellite fade measurements in Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Goldhirsh, Julius; Hase, Yoshihiro

    1992-01-01

    Attenuation measurements were implemented at L-band (1.5 GHz) in southeastern Australia during an 11-day period in October 1988 as part of a continuing examination of the propagation effects due to roadside trees and terrain for mobile-satellite service. Beacon transmissions from the geostationary ETS-V and IPORS satellites were observed. The Australian campaign expanded to another continent our Mobile Satellite Service data base of measurements executed in the eastern and southwestern United States regions. An empirical fade distribution model based on U.S. data predicted the Australian results with errors generally less than 1 dB in the 1-20 percent probability region. Directive antennas are shown to suffer deeper fades under severe shadowing conditions (3 dB excess at 4 percent), the equal-probability isolation between co- and cross-polarized transmissions deteriorated to 10 dB at the 5 dB fade level, and antenna diversity reception may reduce unavailability of the system by a factor of 2-8.

  8. 50th Anniversary of Radiation Budget Measurements from Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raschke, Ehrhard, ,, Dr.; Kinne, Stefan, ,, Dr.

    2010-05-01

    The "space race" between the USA and the Soviet Union supported rapid developments of instruments to measure properties of the atmosphere from satellite platforms. The satellite Explorer 7 (launch on 13 October 1959) was the first to carry sensors which were sensitive to the fluxes of solar (shortwave) and terrestrial (longwave) radiation leaving the Earth to space. Improved versions of those sensors and more complicated radiometers were flown on various operational and experimental satellites of the Nimbus, ESSA, TIROS, COSMOS, and NOAA series. There results, although often inherent to strong sampling insufficiencies, provided already a general picture on the spatial distribution and seasonal variability of radiation budget components at the Top of the Atmosphere, which finally could be refined with the more recent and more accurate and complete data sets of the experiments ERBE, CERES and ScRaB. Numerical analyses of climate data complemented such measurements to obtain a complete picture on the radiation budget at various levels within the atmosphere and at ground. These data is now used to validate the performance of climate models.

  9. Satellite Remote Sensing: Passive-Microwave Measurements of Sea Ice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parkinson, Claire L.; Zukor, Dorothy J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Satellite passive-microwave measurements of sea ice have provided global or near-global sea ice data for most of the period since the launch of the Nimbus 5 satellite in December 1972, and have done so with horizontal resolutions on the order of 25-50 km and a frequency of every few days. These data have been used to calculate sea ice concentrations (percent areal coverages), sea ice extents, the length of the sea ice season, sea ice temperatures, and sea ice velocities, and to determine the timing of the seasonal onset of melt as well as aspects of the ice-type composition of the sea ice cover. In each case, the calculations are based on the microwave emission characteristics of sea ice and the important contrasts between the microwave emissions of sea ice and those of the surrounding liquid-water medium.

  10. Eruption column height: a comparison between ground and satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scollo, Simona; Prestifilippo, Michele; Pecora, Emilio; Corradini, Stefano; Merucci, Luca; Spata, Gaetano; Coltelli, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    The eruption column height estimation is an essential parameter to evaluate the total mass eruption rate, the gas and aerosol plume dispersal and retrievals. The column height may be estimated using different systems (e.g. satellite, aircraft and ground observations) which may present marked differences. In this work we use the calibrated images collected by the video-surveillance system of the Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Osservatorio Etneo, from the visible camera located in Catania, 27 km from the vent. The analysis is carried out on twenty lava fountains from the New South East Crater during the recent Etna explosive activity. Firstly, we calibrated the camera to estimate its intrinsic parameters and the full camera model. Furthermore, we selected the images which recorded the maximum phase of the eruptive activity. Hence, we applied an appropriate correction to take into account the wind effect. The column height was also evaluated using SEVIRI and MODIS satellite images collected at the same time of the video camera measurements. The satellite column height retrievals is realized by comparing the 11 μm brightness temperature of the most opaque plume pixels with the atmospheric temperature profile measured at Trapani WMO Meteo station (the nearest WMO station to the Etnean area). The comparison between satellite and ground data show a good agreement and the column altitudes ranges between 7.5 and 9 km (upper limit of the camera system). For nine events we evaluated also the thickness of the volcanic plumes in the umbrella region (near the vent) which ranges between 2 and 3 km. The proposed approach help to quantitatively evaluate the column height that may be used by volcanic ash dispersal and sedimentation models for improving forecasts and reducing risks to aviation during volcanic crisis.

  11. Intercomparison of Desert Dust Optical Depth from Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carboni, E.; Thomas, G. E.; Sayer, A. M.; Siddans, R.; Poulsen, C. A.; Grainger, R. G.; Ahn, C.; Antoine, D.; Bevan, S.; Braak, R.; Brindley, H.; DeSouza-Machado, S.; Deuze, J. L.; Diner, D.; Ducos, F.; Grey, W.; Hsu, C.; Kalashnikova, O. V.; Kahn, R.; North, P. R. J.; Salustro, C.; Smith, A.; Tanre, D.; Torres, O.; Veihelmann, B,

    2012-01-01

    This work provides a comparison of satellite retrievals of Saharan desert dust aerosol optical depth (AOD) during a strong dust event through March 2006. In this event, a large dust plume was transported over desert, vegetated, and ocean surfaces. The aim is to identify the differences between current datasets. The satellite instruments considered are AATSR, AIRS, MERIS, MISR, MODIS, OMI, POLDER, and SEVIRI. An interesting aspect is that the different algorithms make use of different instrument characteristics to obtain retrievals over bright surfaces. These include multi-angle approaches (MISR, AATSR), polarisation measurements (POLDER), single-view approaches using solar wavelengths (OMI, MODIS), and the thermal infrared spectral region (SEVIRI, AIRS). Differences between instruments, together with the comparison of different retrieval algorithms applied to measurements from the same instrument, provide a unique insight into the performance and characteristics of the various techniques employed. As well as the intercomparison between different satellite products, the AODs have also been compared to co-located AERONET data. Despite the fact that the agreement between satellite and AERONET AODs is reasonably good for all of the datasets, there are significant differences between them when compared to each other, especially over land. These differences are partially due to differences in the algorithms, such as assumptions about aerosol model and surface properties. However, in this comparison of spatially and temporally averaged data, it is important to note that differences in sampling, related to the actual footprint of each instrument on the heterogeneous aerosol field, cloud identification and the quality control flags of each dataset can be an important issue.

  12. ACEE composite structures technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klotzsche, M. (Compiler)

    1984-01-01

    The NASA Aircraft Energy Efficiency (ACEE) Composite Primary Aircraft Structures Program has made significant progress in the development of technology for advanced composites in commercial aircraft. Commercial airframe manufacturers have demonstrated technology readiness and cost effectiveness of advanced composites for secondary and medium primary components and have initiated a concerted program to develop the data base required for efficient application to safety-of-flight wing and fuselage structures. Oral presentations were compiled into five papers. Topics addressed include: damage tolerance and failsafe testing of composite vertical stabilizer; optimization of composite multi-row bolted joints; large wing joint demonstation components; and joints and cutouts in fuselage structure.

  13. Scenarios and performance measures for advanced ISDN satellite design and experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pepin, Gerard R.

    1991-01-01

    Described here are the contemplated input and expected output for the Interim Service Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Satellite (ISIS) and Full Service ISDN Satellite (FSIS) Models. The discrete event simulations of these models are presented with specific scenarios that stress ISDN satellite parameters. Performance measure criteria are presented for evaluating the advanced ISDN communication satellite designs of the NASA Satellite Communications Research (SCAR) Program.

  14. Satellite observations and instrumentation for measuring energetic neutral atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Voss, H.D.; Mobilia, J.; Collin, H.L.; Imhof, W.L. . Space Sciences Lab.)

    1993-12-01

    Direct measurements of energetic neutral atoms (ENA) and ions have been obtained with the cooled solid state detectors on the low-altitude (220 km) three-axis stabilized S81-1/ stimulated emissions of energetic particles (SEEP) satellite and on the spinning 400 km [times] 5.5 R[sub e] (where R[sub e] is Earth radii) Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES). During magnetic storms ENA and ion precipitation (E > 10 keV) are evident over the low-altitude equatorial region based on data from the SEEP (ONR 804) spectrometers and CRRES ion mass spectrometer (IMS-HI) (ONR 307-8-3) ion composition and ENA instrument. The IMS-HI neutral atom spectrometer covers the energy range from 20 to 1,500 keV with a geometrical factor of 10[sub [minus]3] cm[sup 2] sr and uses a 7-kG magnetic field to screen out protons less than about 50 MeV. During the strong magnetic storm of 24 March 1991 the first ENA and ion mass composition measurements were obtained of ring current particles below the inner belt and these fluxes are compared to the IMS-HI flux measurements in the ring current. Recently, an advanced spectrometer, the Source/Loss-cone Energetic Particle Spectrometer (SEPS), has been developed to image electrons, ions, and neutrals on the despun platform of the POLAR satellite ([approximately]1.8 [times] 9 R[sub e]) for launch in the mid 1990s as part of NASA's International Solar Terrestrial Physics/Global Geospace Science (ISTP/GGS) program.

  15. Accurate measurement of mean sea level changes by altimetric satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Born, G. H.; Tapley, B. D.; Ries, J. C.; Stewart, R. H.

    1986-01-01

    A technique for monitoring changes in global mean sea levels using altimeter data from a well-tracked satellite is examined. The usefulness of this technique is evaluated by analyzing Seasat altimeter data obtained during July-September 1978. The effects of orbit errors, geoid errors, sampling intervals, tides, and atmosphere refraction on the calculation of the mean sea level are investigated. The data reveal that the stability of an altimeter can be determined with an accuracy of + or - 7 cm using globally averaged sea surface height measurements. The application of this procedure to the US/French Ocean Topography Experiment is discussed.

  16. Measuring thermal budgets of active volcanoes by satellite remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaze, L.; Francis, P. W.; Rothery, D. A.

    1989-01-01

    Thematic Mapper measurements of the total radiant energy flux Q at Lascar volcano in north Chile for December 1984 are reported. The results are consistent with the earlier suggestion that a lava lake is the source of a reported thermal budget anomaly, and with values for 1985-1986 that are much lower, suggesting that fumarolic activity was then a more likely heat source. The results show that satellite remote sensing may be used to monitor the activity of a volcano quantitatively, in a way not possible by conventional ground studies, and may provide a method for predicting eruptions.

  17. Marine stratocumulus cloud characteristics from multichannel satellite measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durkee, Philip A.; Mineart, Gary M.

    1990-01-01

    Understanding the effects of aerosols on the microphysical characteristics of marine stratocumulus clouds, and the resulting influence on cloud radiative properties, is a primary goal of FIRE. The potential for observing variations of cloud characteristics that might be related to variations of available aerosols is studied. Some results from theoretical estimates of cloud reflectance are presented. Also presented are the results of comparisons between aircraft measured microphysical characteristics and satellite detected radiative properties of marine stratocumulus clouds. These results are extracted from Mineart where the analysis procedures and a full discussion of the observations are presented. Only a brief description of the procedures and the composite results are presented.

  18. ACES's Challenges: Past Presidents Comment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheeley, Vernon Lee

    1990-01-01

    Recognizes the golden anniversary of the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES) and presents the statements of 15 past presidents of the association. Presidential leaders briefly review the association's past and suggest opportunities to help create a promising future for ACES. Outlines nine challenges which confront members of…

  19. FIRE_ACE_SHIP_SSFR

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-10-28

    FIRE_ACE_SHIP_SSFR Project Title:  FIRE III ACE Discipline:  ... Level:  L3 Platform:  SHEBA Ship Instrument:  Solar Spectral Flux Radiometer ... Info:  Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) Ship SCAR-B Block:  SCAR-B Products ...

  20. FIRE_ACE_UTRECHT_TOWER

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-10-28

    FIRE_ACE_UTRECHT_TOWER Project Title:  FIRE II ACE Discipline:  ... L3 Platform:  SHEBA Ship Site; Meteorological tower Instrument:  Eppley precision pyrgeometers Meteorological tower Spatial Coverage:  Fairbanks, Alaska and the surrounding ...

  1. Overview of ACE-Asia Spring 2001 Investigations on Aerosol Radiative Effects and Related Aerosol Properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, Philip B.; Valero, F. P. J.; Flatau, P. J.; Bergin, M.; Holben, B.; Nakajima, T.; Pilewskie, P.; Bergstrom, R.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A primary, ACE-Asia objective was to quantify the interactions between aerosols and radiation in the Asia-Pacific region. Toward this end, radiometric and related aerosol measurements were made from ocean, land, air and space platforms. Models that predict aerosol fields guided the measurements and are helping integrate and interpret results. Companion overview's survey these measurement and modeling components. Here we illustrate how these components were combined to determine aerosol radiative. impacts and their relation to aerosol properties. Because clouds can obscure or change aerosol direct radiative effects, aircraft and ship sorties to measure these effects depended on predicting and finding cloud-free areas and times with interesting aerosols present. Pre-experiment satellite cloud climatologies, pre-flight aerosol and cloud forecasts, and in-flight guidance from satellite imagery all helped achieve this. Assessments of aerosol regional radiative impacts benefit from the spatiotemporal coverage of satellites, provided satellite-retrieved aerosol properties are accurate. Therefore, ACE-Asia included satellite retrieval tests, as part of many comparisons to judge the consistency (closure) among, diverse measurements. Early results include: (1) Solar spectrally resolved and broadband irradiances and optical depth measurements from the C-130 aircraft and at Kosan, Korea yielded aerosol radiative forcing efficiencies, permitting comparisons between efficiencies of ACE-Asia and INDOEX aerosols, and between dust and "pollution" aerosols. Detailed results will be presented in separate papers. (2) Based on measurements of wavelength dependent aerosol optical depth (AOD) and single scattering albedo the estimated 24-h a average aerosol radiative forcing efficiency at the surface for photosynthetically active radiation (400 - 700 nm) in Yulin, China is approx. 30 W sq m per AOD(500 nm). (3) The R/V Brown cruise from Honolulu to Sea of Japan sampled an aerosol optical

  2. Ocean Raman Scattering in Satellite Backscatter UV Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vasilkov, Alexander P.; Joiner, Joanna; Gleason, James; Bhartia, Pawan; Bhartia, P. K. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ocean Raman scattering significantly contributes to the filling-in of solar Fraunhofer lines measured by satellite backscatter ultraviolet (buy) instruments in the cloudless atmosphere over clear ocean waters. A model accounting for this effect in buy measurements is developed and compared with observations from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GONE). The model extends existing models for ocean Raman scattering to the UV spectral range. Ocean Raman scattering radiance is propagated through the atmosphere using a concept of the Lambert equivalent reflectively and an accurate radiative transfer model for Rayleigh scattering. The model and observations can be used to evaluate laboratory measurements of pure water absorption in the UV. The good agreement between model and observations suggests that buy instruments may be useful for estimating chlorophyll content.

  3. Determining Small Scale Albedos Using High Resolution Multiangle Satellite Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markowski, G. R.; Davies, R.

    2005-05-01

    Current satellite short-wave (SW) albedo measurements, such as CERES's, have only a broad spatial resolution and cannot by themselves accurately measure reflectance (roughly solar "forcing") on small space and time scales. The major difficulty is that earth's surface reflectivity, including the atmosphere and clouds, is substantially anisotropic. However, accurate regional and time-dependent albedos are needed for studying causes of climate variability and change, and improving models from global to at least cloud resolving scales. A first step to obtain these albedos, for which we show results, is to accurately relate (and verify) the high resolution spatial and angular surface narrow-band MISR (Multi-Angle Imaging Spectroradiometer) radiance measurements aboard the Terra satellite to coincident total shortwave broadband (SWB) low resolution measurements from the onboard CERES instrument. Because MISR measures radiance of the same points along an orbital swath, it becomes possible to check and improve Angular (reflection) Distribution Models (ADMs) at small scales (< 1 km). The ADMs can later be used to invert a measured angular radiance to a local albedo. The difficulty lies in obtaining accurate ADMs for earth's highly varied surface and lighting conditions. We show prediction accuracy examples of CERES SWB vs. single and multiple band MISR data regressions. We include view angle dependence (9 angles: nadir plus 26, 46, 60, and 70 degrees fore and aft) and show improved accuracy when surface data, e.g., solar zenith and scattering angle, and surface type are included. In many cases, we predict angular (bidirectional) reflectance to ~ 0.01, or about 10 watts/sq m in irradiance. We also show examples of "difficult" scene types, such as varying levels of broken clouds, where accuracy degrades by a factor of ~2.

  4. Measurement of Sun Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence Using Hyperspectral Satellite Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irteza, S. M.; Nichol, J. E.

    2016-06-01

    Solar Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF), can be used as an indicator of stress in vegetation. Several scientific approaches have been made and there is considerable evidence that steady state Chlorophyll fluorescence is an accurate indicator of plant stress hence a reliable tool to monitor vegetation health status. Retrieval of Chlorophyll fluorescence provides an insight into photochemical and carbon sequestration processes within vegetation. Detection of Chlorophyll fluorescence has been well understood in the laboratory and field measurement. Fluorescence retrieval methods were applied in and around the atmospheric absorption bands 02B (Red wavelength) approximately 690 nm and 02A (Far red wavelengths) 740 nm. Hyperion satellite images were acquired for the years 2012 to 2015 in different seasons. Atmospheric corrections were applied using the 6S Model. The Fraunhofer Line Discrimanator (FLD) method was applied for retrieval of SIF from the Hyperion images by measuring the signal around the absorption bands in both vegetated and non vegetated land cover types. Absorption values were extracted in all the selected bands and the fluorescence signal was detected. The relationships between NDVI and Fluorescence derived from the satellite images are investigated to understand vegetation response within the absorption bands.

  5. Cloud cover models derived from satellite radiation measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bean, S. J.; Somerville, P. N.

    1979-01-01

    Using daily measurement of day and night infrared and incoming and absorbed solar radiation obtained from a TIROS satellite over a period of approximately 45 months, and integrated over 2.5 degree latitude-longitude grids, the proportion of cloud cover over each grid each day was derived for the entire period. For each of four three-month periods, estimates a and b of the two parameters of the best-fit beta distribution were obtained for each grid location. The (a,b) plane was divided into a number of regions. All the geographical locations whose (a,b) estimates were in the same region in the (a,b) plane were said to have the same cloud cover type for that season. For each season, the world was thus divided into separate cloud cover types. Using estimates of mean cloud cover for each season, the world was again divided into separate cloud cover types. The process was repeated for standard deviations. Thus for each season, three separate cloud cover models were obtained using the criteria of shape of frequency distribution, mean cloud cover, and variability of cloud cover. The cloud cover statistics were derived from once-a-day, near-local-noon satellite radiation measurements.

  6. Highlights from 40 Years of Satellite UV Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bhartia, Pawan K.

    2010-01-01

    This year we are celebrating the 40th anniversary of the launch of the Backscatter Ultraviolet (BUV) instrument on NASA's Nimbus-4 satellite. The purpose of this instrument was to demonstrate the capability to measure total column ozone and its vertical distribution from space. The success of this instrument led to about a dozen instruments of this type on various NASA and NOAA satellites. These instruments used a single photomultiplier tube (PMT) that restricted the measurements to 6-12 discrete wavelengths in the 250-380 nm range. With the availability of solid-state detector arrays in the past decade it has been possible to make similar measurements but with hyperspectral (contiguous in wavelength) sampling and enhanced spectral resolution. This has allowed global mapping of several weakly-absorbing trace gases including S0 2, NO2, BrO, HCHO, and CIIOCHO. Since these measurements are affected by clouds and aerosols, a great deal of effort has gone into understanding their effect on ultraviolet radiation- both upwelling and downwelling. The downwelling UV radiation is chemically and biologically active and has both negative (genetic damage, air pollution) and positive (production of vitamin D and OH radical) environmental effects. I will discuss how the interaction of Rayleigh-scattered UV radiation with clouds and aerosols produce a variety of interesting effects that are leading to new methods of remote sensing of their properties. The UV measurements can greatly enhance the information that one derives from more traditional methods that use infrared and visible part of the solar spectrum.

  7. Satellite Occultation Measurements-Contributions to Middle Atmosphere Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.

    2003-12-01

    Solar occultation measurements from earth-orbit began with two orbits of data from aboard Apollo during the Apollo-Soyuz test project flight in 1975. The instrument was called SAM for the Stratospheric Aerosol Measurement. It was a simple proof-of-principle, one-spectral channel experiment that led to the long-duration occultation measurement series beginning in 1978 with the launch of SAM II aboard Nimbus 7. SAGE I, II, and III followed with increasing instrument complexity and capability. SAGE II and III are presently in orbit providing excellent high vertically-resolved measurements of aerosol, ozone, and other constituents. Other occultation sensors for long-duration measurements were launched in the 1990s including HALOE and POAM. This paper will present a historical overview of satellite occultation missions from 1975 to the present. The fundamentals of the occultation technique will be presented along with its advantages and comparison with other remote sensors. The occultation sensors, to-date, have produced exceedingly important measurements that have contributed to atmospheric and climate science. These have included such measurements as: the naming and characterization of Polar Stratospheric Clouds; aerosol and ozone associated with the wintertime polar vortex phenomena; ozone, HCl and HF trends associated with the effects of CFCs; the impact of volcanic aerosols; and aerosol and cirrus cloud distributions and trends. As the lead-off paper in this session, examples of the above data will be presented. Finally, some "lessons-learned" from these occultation missions will be discussed.

  8. Measurement of Artificial-Satellite Spectra with a Small Telescope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-01

    context, satellites positions must be frequently reacquired to maintain an accurate knowledge of their orbital parameters . However, acquiring several...positions must be reacquired frequently to maintain an accurate knowledge of their orbital parameters . However, acquiring several satellites in the...continuously combined with rapid variations of satellite orbital parameters . Those orbital characteristic changes account for many missing objects and are

  9. MEaSUREs Land Surface Temperature from GOES satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinker, Rachel T.; Ma, Yingtao; Chen, Wen; Hulley, Glynn; Borbas, Eva; Hain, Chris; Hook, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Information on Land Surface Temperature (LST) can be generated from observations made from satellites in low Earth orbit (LEO) such as MODIS and ASTER and by sensors in geostationary Earth orbit (GEO) such as GOES. Both observations have unique advantages, however, when combined, introduced are challenges related to inhomogeneity of the resulting information. NASA has identified a major need for developing long-term, consistent, and calibrated data and products that are consistent across multiple missions and satellite sensors. Under a project titled: "A Unified and Coherent Land Surface Temperature and Emissivity Earth System Data Record (ESDR) for Earth Science" led by Jet Propulsion Laboratory, such an effort is underway. In this presentation we will describe part of that effort, dealing with the generation of an approach to derive LST information from the GOES satellites from 2000 and onward. Since implementation of the well-established split window approach is not possible after mid-2003 (will be possible again after the launch of GOES-R in October of 2016), there is a need to focus on retrievals from a single thermal channel in order to provide continuity in the LST record. The methodology development requires the generation of consistently calibrated GOES observations, identification of clear sky radiances, and development of retrieval algorithms that benefit from most recent advances in related fields that provide auxiliary information required for driving the inference schemes. Results will be presented from two approaches. One is based on a regression approach that utilizes a wide range of simulations using MODTRAN, SeeBor Version 5.0 global atmospheric profiles and. The second approach uses MERRA-2 reanalysis fields with the RTTOV radiative transfer model approach to derive LST from the LEO satellites, adjusted for the GEO characteristics. The advantage of this latter approach is in the consistency between this retrieval approaches and those used at JPL

  10. A GPS measurement system for precise satellite tracking and geodesy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yunck, T. P.; Wu, S.-C.; Lichten, S. M.

    1985-01-01

    NASA is pursuing two key applications of differential positioning with the Global Positioning System (GPS): sub-decimeter tracking of earth satellites and few-centimeter determination of ground-fixed baselines. Key requirements of the two applications include the use of dual-frequency carrier phase data, multiple ground receivers to serve as reference points, simultaneous solution for use position and GPS orbits, and calibration of atmospheric delays using water vapor radiometers. Sub-decimeter tracking will be first demonstrated on the TOPEX oceanographic satellite to be launched in 1991. A GPS flight receiver together with at least six ground receivers will acquire delta range data from the GPS carriers for non-real-time analysis. Altitude accuracies of 5 to 10 cm are expected. For baseline measurements, efforts will be made to obtain precise differential pseudorange by resolving the cycle ambiguity in differential carrier phase. This could lead to accuracies of 2 or 3 cm over a few thousand kilometers. To achieve this, a high-performance receiver is being developed, along with improved calibration and data processing techniques. Demonstrations may begin in 1986.

  11. Propulsion Options for the Global Precipitation Measurement Core Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardiff, Eric H.; Davis, Gary T.; Folta, David C.

    2003-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate several propulsion system options for the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) core satellite. Orbital simulations showed clear benefits for the scientific data to be obtained at a constant orbital altitude rather than with a decay/reboost approach. An orbital analysis estimated the drag force on the satellite will be 1 to 12 mN during the five-year mission. Four electric propulsion systems were identified that are able to compensate for these drag forces and maintain a circular orbit. The four systems were the UK-10/TS and the NASA 8 cm ion engines, and the ESA RMT and RITl0 EVO radio-frequency ion engines. The mass, cost, and power requirements were examined for these four systems. The systems were also evaluated for the transfer time from the initial orbit of 400 x 650 km altitude orbit to a circular 400 km orbit. The transfer times were excessive, and as a consequence a dual system concept (with a hydrazine monopropellant system for the orbit transfer and electric propulsion for drag compensation) was examined. Clear mass benefits were obtained with the dual system, but cost remains an issue because of the larger power system required for the electric propulsion system. An electrodynamic tether was also evaluated in this trade study.

  12. A comparison of satellite systems for gravity field measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Argentiero, P. D.; Lowrey, B. E.

    1977-01-01

    A detailed and accurate earth gravity field model is important to the understanding of the structure and composition of the earth's crust and upper mantle. Various satellite-based techniques for providing more accurate models of the gravity field are analyzed and compared. A high-low configuration satellite-to-satellite tracking mission is recommended for the determination of both the long wavelength and short wavelength portions of the field. Satellite altimetry and satellite gradiometry missions are recommended for determination of the short wavelength portion of the field.

  13. The role of satellites in snow and ice measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiesnet, D. R.

    1974-01-01

    Earth-orbiting polar satellites are desirable platforms for the remote sensing of snow and ice. Geostationary satellites at a very high altitude (35,900 km) are also desirable platforms for many remote sensors, for communications relay, for flood warning systems, and for telemetry of data from unattended instrumentation in remote, inaccessible places such as the Arctic, Antarctic, or mountain tops. Optimum use of satellite platforms is achieved only after careful consideration of the temporal, spatial, and spectral requirements of the environmental mission. The National Environmental Satellite Service will maintain both types of environmental satellites as part of its mission.

  14. Accuracy of Satellite-Measured Wave Heights in the Australian Region for Wave Power Applications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meath, Sian E.; Aye, Lu; Haritos, Nicholas

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the accuracy of satellite data, which may then be used in wave power applications. The satellite data are compared to data from wave buoys, which are currently considered to be the most accurate of the devices available for measuring wave characteristics. This article presents an analysis of satellite- (Topex/Poseidon) and…

  15. Develop and fabricate a radiation dose measurement system for satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morel, Paul R.; Hanser, Frederick; Belue, Jeff; Cohen, Ram

    1994-11-01

    A second generation Dosimeter has been designed to fulfill the need for accurate radiation dose measurements. Two identical Dosimeters, a flight unit and a backup unit, have been fabricated, tested and calibrated. The backup Dosimeter was integrated into the payload of the Advanced Photovoltaic and Electronic Expedients (APEX) satellite, as part of the Photovoltaic Array Space Power Plus Diagnostics (PASP Plus) experiment. APEX was launched shortly after 1430 UT on 8/3/94, with the initial orbit having apogee/perigee in the equatorial plane. The Dosimeter was turned on in Rev. 20, at about 0410 UT on 8/5/94. The initial turn on showed no anomalies with the Dosimeter operating properly. The Dosimeter was then monitored for several days and proper operation has been verified.

  16. Estimation of Fire Emissions from Satellite-Based Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, Charles; Kaufman, Yoram J.

    2004-01-01

    Biomass burning is a worldwide phenomenon affecting many vegetated parts of the globe regularly. Fires emit large quantities of aerosol and trace gases into the atmosphere, thus influencing the atmospheric chemistry and climate. Traditional methods of fire emissions estimation achieved only limited success, because they were based on peripheral information such as rainfall patterns, vegetation types and changes, agricultural practices, and surface ozone concentrations. During the last several years, rapid developments in satellite remote sensing has allowed more direct estimation of smoke emissions using remotely-sensed fire data. However, current methods use fire pixel counts or burned areas, thereby depending on the accuracy of independent estimations of the biomass fuel loadings, combustion efficiency, and emission factors. With the enhanced radiometric range of its 4-micron fire channel, the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor, which flies aboard both of the Earth Observing System EOS) Terra and Aqua Satellites, is able to measure the rate of release of fire radiative energy (FRE) in MJ/s (something that older sensors could not do). MODIS also measures aerosol distribution. Taking advantage of these new resources, we have developed a procedure combining MODIS fire and aerosol products to derive FRE-based smoke emission coefficients (C(e), in kg/MJ) for different regions of the globe. These coefficients are simply used to multiply FRE from MODIS to derive the emitted smoke aerosol mass. Results from this novel methodology are very encouraging. For instance, it was found that the smoke total particulate mass emission coefficient for the Brazilian Cerrado ecosystem (approximately 0.022 kg/MJ) is about twice the value for North America, Western Europe, or Australia, but about 50% lower than the value for southern Africa.

  17. Analysis of satellite-derived ozone and water vapor measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanford, John L.

    1992-01-01

    Research under this grant has involved analyses of satellite-derived measurements of water vapor and total ozone. Upper tropospheric water vapor data from the Nimbus 7 temperature-humidity infrared radiometer (THIR) 6.7 micron channel were analyzed by Fourier transformation to provide wavenumber spectra for a case of an upper level system over Europe. The power law spectrum for horizontal scales from 60 to several hundred km suggests that when convective cloud energy sources are not present, the enstrophy-cascading process (with variance proportional to the minus three power of wavenumber) may hold to much smaller scales than previously thought. Several investigations of the middle atmosphere (stratosphere and mesosphere) were also conducted. Slow atmospheric oscillations with periods of 1-2 months were investigated in total ozone measurements and in ionospheric data. Using one-point correlation maps and total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) data, strong statistical evidence was found for the planetary-scale oscillations at these periods. A dipole-like pattern in the tropical equatorial Indian ocean-western Pacific region was documented, along with wavetrain-like patterns emanating into the extratropics. While attempting to follow the oscillations upward above stratosphere, oscillations were studied in ionospheric data (D-region radio wave absorption, in the upper mesosphere, around 80-90 km altitude). Cross-spectral analyses with solar flux data revealed that much of the observed 1-2 month variance in the ionospheric D-region was well correlated to solar variations. Further research has involved investigations of the photochemical lifetime of greenhouse gases methane and nitrous oxide. Using Nimbus 7 satellite data, a new analysis technique was employed to determine the lifetime of these gases in situ in the upper stratosphere. The lifetimes are found to be in good agreement with theoretical estimates.

  18. Implications of GRACE Satellite Gravity Measurements for Diverse Hydrological Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yirdaw-Zeleke, Sitotaw

    Soil moisture plays a major role in the hydrologic water balance and is the basis for most hydrological models. It influences the partitioning of energy and moisture inputs at the land surface. Because of its importance, it has been used as a key variable for many hydrological studies such as flood forecasting, drought studies and the determination of groundwater recharge. Therefore, spatially distributed soil moisture with reasonable temporal resolution is considered a valuable source of information for hydrological model parameterization and validation. Unfortunately, soil moisture is difficult to measure and remains essentially unmeasured over spatial and temporal scales needed for a number of hydrological model applications. In 2002, the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite platform was launched to measure, among other things, the gravitational field of the earth. Over its life span, these orbiting satellites have produced time series of mass changes of the earth-atmosphere system. The subsequent outcome of this, after integration over a number of years, is a time series of highly refined images of the earth's mass distribution. In addition to quantifying the static distribution of mass, the month-to-month variation in the earth's gravitational field are indicative of the integrated value of the subsurface total water storage for specific catchments. Utilization of these natural changes in the earth's gravitational field entails the transformation of the derived GRACE geopotential spherical harmonic coefficients into spatially varying time series estimates of total water storage. These remotely sensed basin total water storage estimates can be routinely validated against independent estimates of total water storage from an atmospheric-based water balance approach or from well calibrated macroscale hydrologic models. The hydrological relevance and implications of remotely estimated GRACE total water storage over poorly gauged, wetland

  19. [ACE inhibitors and the kidney].

    PubMed

    Hörl, W H

    1996-01-01

    Treatment with ACE inhibitors results in kidney protection due to reduction of systemic blood pressure, intraglomerular pressure, an antiproliferative effect, reduction of proteinuria and a lipid-lowering effect in proteinuric patients (secondary due to reduction of protein excretion). Elderly patients with diabetes melitus, coronary heart disease or peripheral vascular occlusion are at risk for deterioration of kidney function due to a high frequency of renal artery stenosis in these patients. In patients with renal insufficiency dose reduction of ACE inhibitors is necessary (exception: fosinopril) but more important is the risk for development of hyperkalemia. Patients at risk for renal artery stenosis and patients pretreated with diuretics should receive a low ACE inhibitor dosage initially ("start low - go slow"). For compliance reasons once daily ACE inhibitor dosage is recommended.

  20. Atmospheric Constituent Explorer System (ACES)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Darrach, M. R.; Madzunkov, S.; Neidholdt, E.; Simcic, J.

    2016-10-01

    We report on the Atmospheric Constituent Explorer System (ACES), a mass spectrometer based instrument for atmospheric probe missions (e.g. Venus and ice giant) that can determine abundances and isotopic ratios of the noble-gases and trace species.

  1. ACE3 Draft Indicators: Health

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The page information was provided by EPA in conjunction with the opportunity for public comment on the draft indicators for ACE3, which ran from March 8 – April 21, 2011. The public comment period is now closed.

  2. ACE3 Draft Indicators: Biomonitoring

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The page information was provided by EPA in conjunction with the opportunity for public comment on the draft indicators for ACE3, which ran from March 8 – April 21, 2011. The public comment period is now closed.

  3. Air Quality Science and Regulatory Efforts Require Geostationary Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickering, Kenneth E.; Allen, D. J.; Stehr, J. W.

    2006-01-01

    Air quality scientists and regulatory agencies would benefit from the high spatial and temporal resolution trace gas and aerosol data that could be provided by instruments on a geostationary platform. More detailed time-resolved data from a geostationary platform could be used in tracking regional transport and in evaluating mesoscale air quality model performance in terms of photochemical evolution throughout the day. The diurnal cycle of photochemical pollutants is currently missing from the data provided by the current generation of atmospheric chemistry satellites which provide only one measurement per day. Often peak surface ozone mixing ratios are reached much earlier in the day during major regional pollution episodes than during local episodes due to downward mixing of ozone that had been transported above the boundary layer overnight. The regional air quality models often do not simulate this downward mixing well enough and underestimate surface ozone in regional episodes. Having high time-resolution geostationary data will make it possible to determine the magnitude of this lower-and mid-tropospheric transport that contributes to peak eight-hour average ozone and 24-hour average PM2.5 concentrations. We will show ozone and PM(sub 2.5) episodes from the CMAQ model and suggest ways in which geostationary satellite data would improve air quality forecasting. Current regulatory modeling is typically being performed at 12 km horizontal resolution. State and regional air quality regulators in regions with complex topography and/or land-sea breezes are anxious to move to 4-km or finer resolution simulations. Geostationary data at these or finer resolutions will be useful in evaluating such models.

  4. An overview of ACE-Asia: Strategies for quantifying the relationships between Asian aerosols and their climatic impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huebert, Barry J.; Bates, Timothy; Russell, Philip B.; Shi, Guangyu; Kim, Young Joon; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Carmichael, Greg; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2003-12-01

    The International Global Atmospheric Chemistry Program (IGAC) has conducted a series of Aerosol Characterization Experiments (ACE) that integrate in situ measurements, satellite observations, and models to reduce the uncertainty in calculations of the climate forcing due to aerosol particles. ACE-Asia, the fourth in this series of experiments, consisted of two focused components: (1) An intensive field study that sought to quantify the spatial and vertical distribution of aerosol concentrations and properties, the processes controlling their formation, evolution, and fate, and the column-integrated radiative effect of the aerosol (late March through May 2001). (2) A longer-term network of ground stations that used in situ and column-integrated measurements to quantify the chemical, physical, and optical properties of aerosols in the ACE-Asia study area and to assess their spatial and temporal (seasonal and interannual) variability (2000-2003). The approach of the ACE-Asia science team was to make simultaneous measurements of aerosol chemical, physical, and optical properties and their radiative impacts in a variety of air masses, often coordinated with satellite overpasses. Three aircraft, two research ships, a network of lidars, and many surface sites gathered data on Asian aerosols. Chemical transport models (CTMs) were integrated into the program from the start, being used in a forecast mode during the intensive observation period to identify promising areas for airborne and ship observations and then later as tools for integrating observations. The testing and improvement of a wide range of aerosol models (including microphysical, radiative transfer, CTM, and global climate models) was one important way in which we assessed our understanding of the properties and controlling processes of Asian aerosols. We describe here the scientific goals and objectives of the ACE-Asia experiment, its observational strategies, the types of observations made by the mobile

  5. Coherent uncertainty analysis of aerosol measurements from multiple satellite sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, M.; Ichoku, C.

    2013-02-01

    Aerosol retrievals from multiple spaceborne sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua), MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS - altogether, a total of 11 different aerosol products - were comparatively analyzed using data collocated with ground-based aerosol observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations within the Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS, http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/mapss/ and http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/aerostat/). The analysis was performed by comparing quality-screened satellite aerosol optical depth or thickness (AOD or AOT) retrievals during 2006-2010 to available collocated AERONET measurements globally, regionally, and seasonally, and deriving a number of statistical measures of accuracy. We used a robust statistical approach to detect and remove possible outliers in the collocated data that can bias the results of the analysis. Overall, the proportion of outliers in each of the quality-screened AOD products was within 12%. Squared correlation coefficient (R2) values of the satellite AOD retrievals relative to AERONET exceeded 0.6, with R2 for most of the products exceeding 0.7 over land and 0.8 over ocean. Root mean square error (RMSE) values for most of the AOD products were within 0.15 over land and 0.09 over ocean. We have been able to generate global maps showing regions where the different products present advantages over the others, as well as the relative performance of each product over different landcover types. It was observed that while MODIS, MISR, and SeaWiFS provide accurate retrievals over most of the landcover types, multi-angle capabilities make MISR the only sensor to retrieve reliable AOD over barren and snow/ice surfaces. Likewise, active sensing enables CALIOP to retrieve aerosol properties over bright-surface shrublands more accurately than the

  6. Coherent uncertainty analysis of aerosol measurements from multiple satellite sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrenko, M.; Ichoku, C.

    2013-07-01

    Aerosol retrievals from multiple spaceborne sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua), MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS - altogether, a total of 11 different aerosol products - were comparatively analyzed using data collocated with ground-based aerosol observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations within the Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS, http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/mapss/ and http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/aerostat/. The analysis was performed by comparing quality-screened satellite aerosol optical depth or thickness (AOD or AOT) retrievals during 2006-2010 to available collocated AERONET measurements globally, regionally, and seasonally, and deriving a number of statistical measures of accuracy. We used a robust statistical approach to detect and remove possible outliers in the collocated data that can bias the results of the analysis. Overall, the proportion of outliers in each of the quality-screened AOD products was within 7%. Squared correlation coefficient (R2) values of the satellite AOD retrievals relative to AERONET exceeded 0.8 for many of the analyzed products, while root mean square error (RMSE) values for most of the AOD products were within 0.15 over land and 0.07 over ocean. We have been able to generate global maps showing regions where the different products present advantages over the others, as well as the relative performance of each product over different land cover types. It was observed that while MODIS, MISR, and SeaWiFS provide accurate retrievals over most of the land cover types, multi-angle capabilities make MISR the only sensor to retrieve reliable AOD over barren and snow/ice surfaces. Likewise, active sensing enables CALIOP to retrieve aerosol properties over bright-surface closed shrublands more accurately than the other sensors, while POLDER, which

  7. Coherent Uncertainty Analysis of Aerosol Measurements from Multiple Satellite Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrenko, M.; Ichoku, C.

    2013-01-01

    Aerosol retrievals from multiple spaceborne sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua), MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS altogether, a total of 11 different aerosol products were comparatively analyzed using data collocated with ground-based aerosol observations from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) stations within the Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS, http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/mapss/ and http://giovanni.gsfc.nasa.gov/aerostat/). The analysis was performed by comparing quality-screened satellite aerosol optical depth or thickness (AOD or AOT) retrievals during 2006-2010 to available collocated AERONET measurements globally, regionally, and seasonally, and deriving a number of statistical measures of accuracy. We used a robust statistical approach to detect and remove possible outliers in the collocated data that can bias the results of the analysis. Overall, the proportion of outliers in each of the quality-screened AOD products was within 12%. Squared correlation coefficient (R2) values of the satellite AOD retrievals relative to AERONET exceeded 0.6, with R2 for most of the products exceeding 0.7 over land and 0.8 over ocean. Root mean square error (RMSE) values for most of the AOD products were within 0.15 over land and 0.09 over ocean. We have been able to generate global maps showing regions where the different products present advantages over the others, as well as the relative performance of each product over different landcover types. It was observed that while MODIS, MISR, and SeaWiFS provide accurate retrievals over most of the landcover types, multi-angle capabilities make MISR the only sensor to retrieve reliable AOD over barren and snow / ice surfaces. Likewise, active sensing enables CALIOP to retrieve aerosol properties over bright-surface shrublands more accurately than the other sensors, while POLDER, which is the only one of the sensors capable of measuring polarized aerosols, outperforms other sensors in

  8. Relation between CO and Black Carbon from Satellite Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, S. S.; Kim, J.; Lim, H.; Mok, J.

    2014-12-01

    The Black Carbon (BC) is designated by one of the potential factor for global warming (IPCC, 2007). Furthermore, carbon monoxide (CO) is also important gas to modify chemical, physical and climatological properties of tropospheric chemistry. Both CO and carbonaceous aerosol, especial to the black carbon, are similar emission sources, fuel combustion and biomass burning. Previously, the MODIS-OMI algorithm (MOA) identified the BC amount and its location by using Angstrom Exponent (AE) from MODIS and Aerosol Index (AI) from OMI. In addition, the CO amount has been traced by the Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) since 1999. Therefore, the correlation between the AOD of BC (AODBC) and total column densities of CO (TCDCO) can be estimated by MOA and MOPITT. The correlation between AODBC and TCDCO becomes better than that between fine mode AOD and TCDCO in most global regions. Highly correlated case is the region with biomass burning and wild fires. In Southern Africa, however, the correlation coefficient between AODBC and TCDCO is lower than those between fine mode AOD and TCDCO. It is explained by the characteristics of wind fields, sources of aerosols, and distance from the source regions from the difference in the correlation. The results from correlation studies propose the possibilities that CO can be used as surrogates of BC and reference of the validation for the aerosol classification algorithm of BC from satellite measurements.

  9. Seasat A Satellite Scatterometer measurements of equatorial surface winds

    SciTech Connect

    Halpern, D. )

    1989-04-15

    Seasat A Satellite Scatterometer measurements of surface wind components were made under normal weather conditions with unsurpassed space and time resolutions during August and September 1978. Longitudinal distributions of the monthly mean zonal component were markedly different in each ocean: in the Pacific the zonal profile resembled a semicircle; a linear change occurred in the Atlantic, and quasi-uniform values prevailed in the Indian Ocean. Only in the Atlantic and Pacific was the prevailing direction of the zonal component westward. In the Pacific the monthly mean standard deviations increased towards the west. This indicated that the larger day-to-day wind variability observed at the western islands compared to moored buoy measurements in the eastern region was a natural phenomenon and not caused by islands. The average monthly mean slope of the wave number spectra throughout the 550- to 2,200-km wavelength band was {minus}1.7, which was approximately equal to the {minus}5/3 power law associated with turbulent motions. That the spectra levels of the zonal wind, but not the meridional component, were substantially different in each equatorial ocean represents an enigma. Largest spectral values occurred in the Atlantic where variances were nearly 10 times greater than in the Pacific, which contained the smallest values.

  10. Benefits Derived From Laser Ranging Measurements for Orbit Determination of the GPS Satellite Orbit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welch, Bryan W.

    2007-01-01

    While navigation systems for the determination of the orbit of the Global Position System (GPS) have proven to be very effective, the current research is examining methods to lower the error in the GPS satellite ephemerides below their current level. Two GPS satellites that are currently in orbit carry retro-reflectors onboard. One notion to reduce the error in the satellite ephemerides is to utilize the retro-reflectors via laser ranging measurements taken from multiple Earth ground stations. Analysis has been performed to determine the level of reduction in the semi-major axis covariance of the GPS satellites, when laser ranging measurements are supplemented to the radiometric station keeping, which the satellites undergo. Six ground tracking systems are studied to estimate the performance of the satellite. The first system is the baseline current system approach which provides pseudo-range and integrated Doppler measurements from six ground stations. The remaining five ground tracking systems utilize all measurements from the current system and laser ranging measurements from the additional ground stations utilized within those systems. Station locations for the additional ground sites were taken from a listing of laser ranging ground stations from the International Laser Ranging Service. Results show reductions in state covariance estimates when utilizing laser ranging measurements to solve for the satellite s position component of the state vector. Results also show dependency on the number of ground stations providing laser ranging measurements, orientation of the satellite to the ground stations, and the initial covariance of the satellite's state vector.

  11. Relationships between near-surface plankton concentrations, hydrography, and satellite-measured sea surface temperature

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, A. C.; Emery, W. J.

    1988-01-01

    Sea surface temperatures (SSTs) mapped by IR satellite images and in situ hydrographic measurements off the west coast of British Columbia for early-winter and midsummer periods were correlated with in situ measurements of surface chlorophyll and zooplankton concentration. Correlations between winter log(e) transformed zooplankton concentrations and SSTs demonstrated that IR satellite imagery could explain 49 percent of the sampled zooplankton concentration variance. A least-squares-fit nonlinear equation showed that satellite-measured SST patterns explained 72 percent of the log(e) transformed chlorophyll variance. However, summer zooplankton concentrations were not consistently related to satellite temperature patterns.

  12. Satellite and Skin Layer Effects on the Accuracy of Sea Surface Temperature Measurements from the GOES Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wick, Gary A.; Bates, John J.; Scott, Donna J.

    2000-01-01

    The latest Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES) have facilitated significant improvements in our ability to measure sea surface temperature (SST) from geostationary satellites. Nonetheless, difficulties associated with sensor calibration and oceanic near-surface temperature gradients affect the accuracy of the measurements and our ability to estimate and interpret the diurnal cycle of the bulk SST. Overall, measurements of SST from the GOES Imagers on the GOES 8-10 satellites are shown to have very small bias (less than 0.02 K) and rms differences of between 0.6 and 0.9 K relative to buoy observations. Separate consideration of individual measurement times, however, demonstrates systematic bias variations of over 0.6 K with measurement hour. These bias variations significantly affect both the amplitude and shape of estimates of the diurnal SST cycle. Modeled estimates of the temperature difference across the oceanic cool skin and diurnal thermocline show that bias variations up to 0.3 K can result from variability in the near-surface layer. Oceanic near-surface layer and known "satellite midnight" calibration effects, however, explain only a portion of the observed bias variations, suggesting other possible calibration concerns. Methods of explicitly incorporating skin layer and diurnal thermocline effects in satellite bulk SST measurements were explored in an effort to further improve the measurement accuracy. While the approaches contain more complete physics, they do not yet significantly improve the accuracy of bulk SST measurements due to remaining uncertainties in the temperature difference across the near-surface layer.

  13. Measuring Geosynchronous Satellites from Stellar Appulses with AO

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    geosynchronous satellites using adaptive optics on our 3.5 m telescope with a Laser Guide Star (LGS) and without a laser (Natural Guide Star, NGS), we found two...adaptive optics on our 3.5 m telescope with a Laser Guide Star (LGS) and without a laser (Natural Guide Star, NGS), we found two satellites in the... telescope using NGS AO, we targeted a geo, satellite 28868 ANIK F1-R, for study. We imaged it intermittently for 23 minutes, noticing 7 passing stars in

  14. Global Land Surface Emissivity Retrieved From Satellite Ultraspectral IR Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, D. K.; Larar, A. M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, W. L.; Strow, L. L.; Yang, Ping; Schlussel, P.; Calbet, X.

    2011-01-01

    Ultraspectral resolution infrared (IR) radiances obtained from nadir observations provide information about the atmosphere, surface, aerosols, and clouds. Surface spectral emissivity (SSE) and surface skin temperature from current and future operational satellites can and will reveal critical information about the Earth s ecosystem and land-surface-type properties, which might be utilized as a means of long-term monitoring of the Earth s environment and global climate change. In this study, fast radiative transfer models applied to the atmosphere under all weather conditions are used for atmospheric profile and surface or cloud parameter retrieval from ultraspectral and/or hyperspectral spaceborne IR soundings. An inversion scheme, dealing with cloudy as well as cloud-free radiances observed with ultraspectral IR sounders, has been developed to simultaneously retrieve atmospheric thermodynamic and surface or cloud microphysical parameters. This inversion scheme has been applied to the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI). Rapidly produced SSE is initially evaluated through quality control checks on the retrievals of other impacted surface and atmospheric parameters. Initial validation of retrieved emissivity spectra is conducted with Namib and Kalahari desert laboratory measurements. Seasonal products of global land SSE and surface skin temperature retrieved with IASI are presented to demonstrate seasonal variation of SSE.

  15. Laboratory measurements on radon exposure effects on local environmental temperature: Implications for satellite TIR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinelli, Giovanni; Solecki, Andrzej Tomasz; Tchorz-Trzeciakiewicz, Dagmara Eulalia; Piekarz, Magdalena; Karolina Grudzinska, Katarzyna

    Surface latent heat flux (SLHF) is proportional to the heat released by phase changes during solidification, evaporation or melting. Effects of SLHF on the earth's surface could be measured by satellite techniques capable of measuring thermal infrared radiation (TIR). Recent studies have found a possible correlation between SLHF and earthquakes, hence satellite techniques are widely used in research into the possible link between SLHF and earthquakes. Possible fluctuations in SLHF values during seismic periods have been attributed to different causes, such as the expulsion from the ground of greenhouse gases or because of radon. In particular, ionization processes due to radon decay could lead to changes in air temperature. Laboratory experiments have been carried out to highlight the possible role of radon in the thermal environmental conditions of a laboratory-controlled atmospheric volume.

  16. TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission): A satellite mission to measure tropical rainfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, Joanne (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) is presented. TRMM is a satellite program being studied jointly by the United States and Japan which would carry out the systematic study of tropical rainfall required for major strides in weather and climate research. The scientific justification for TRMM is discussed. The implementation process for the scientific community, NASA management, and the other decision-makers and advisory personnel who are expected to evaluate the priority of the project is outlined.

  17. Observing convection with satellite, radar, and lightning measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Ulrich; Nisi, Luca; Clementi, Lorenzo; Ventura, Jordi Figueras i.; Gabella, Marco; Hering, Alessandro M.; Sideris, Ioannis; Trefalt, Simona; Germann, Urs

    2015-04-01

    Heavy precipitation, hail, and wind gusts are the fundamental meteorological hazards associated with strong convection and thunderstorms. The thread is particularly severe in mountainous areas, e.g. it is estimated that on average between 50% and 80% of all weather-related damage in Switzerland is caused by strong thunderstorms (Hilker et al., 2010). Intense atmospheric convection is governed by processes that range from the synoptic to the microphysical scale and are considered to be one of the most challenging and difficult weather phenomena to predict. Even though numerical weather prediction models have some skills to predict convection, in general the exact location of the convective initialization and its propagation cannot be forecasted by these models with sufficient precision. Hence, there is a strong interest to improve the short-term forecast by using statistical, object oriented and/or heuristic nowcasting methods. MeteoSwiss has developed several operational nowcasting systems for this purpose such as TRT (Hering, 2008) and COALITION (Nisi, 2014). In this contribution we analyze the typical development of convection using measurements of the Swiss C-band Dual Polarization Doppler weather radar network, the MSG SEVIRI satellite, and the Météorage lighting network. The observations are complemented with the analysis and forecasts of the COSMO model. Special attention is given to the typical evolutionary stages like the pre-convective environment, convective initiation, cloud top glaciation, start, maximum, and end of precipitation and lightning activity. The pre-convective environment is examined using instability indices derived from SEVIRI observations and the COSMO forecasts. During the early development satellite observations are used to observe the rise of the cloud top, the growth of the cloud droplet or crystals, and the glaciation of the cloud top. SEVIRI brightness temperatures, channel differences, and temporal trends as suggested by

  18. Marine fluorescence from high spectrally resolved satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolanin, Aleksandra; Dinter, Tilman; Rozanov, Vladimir; Noël, Stefan; Vountas, Marco; Burrows, John P.; Bracher, Astrid

    2014-05-01

    When chlorophyll molecules absorb light, most of this energy is transformed into chemical energy in a process of photosynthesis. However, a fraction of the energy absorbed is reemitted as fluorescence. As a result of its relationship to photosynthetic e?ciency, information about chlorophyll fluorescence can be used to assess the physiological state of phytoplankton (Falkowski and Kolber,1995). In-situ measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence are widespread in physiological and ecophysiological studies. When retrieved from space, chlorophyll fluorescence can improve our knowledge of global biogeochemical cycles and phytoplankton productivity (Behrenfeld et al., 2009; Huot et al., 2013) by providing high coverage and periodicity. So far, the only satellite retrieval of sun-induced marine fluorescence, Fluorescence Line Height (FLH), was designed for MODIS (Abbott and Letelier, 1999), and later also applied to the similar sensor MERIS (Gower et al., 2004). However, it could so far not be evaluated on global scale. Here, we present a different approach to observe marine chlorophyll fluorescence, based on the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) technique (Perner and Platt, 1979) applied to the hyperspectral data from Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2). Since fluorescence, as a trans-spectral process, leads to the shift of the wavelength of the radiation, it can be observed in the filling-in of Fraunhofer lines. In our retrieval, we evaluate the filling-in of the Zeeman triplet Fraunhofer line FeI at 684.3 nm, which is located very close to the emission peak of marine fluorescence (~685 nm). In order to conduct the chlorophyll fluorescence retrieval with the DOAS method, we calculated the reference spectra for chlorophyll fluorescence, based on simulations performed with the coupled ocean-atmosphere radiative transfer model SCIATRAN (Rozanov et al., 2014

  19. Helium and heavy ion measurements with the CRRES satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clayton, Edmund Gary

    The CRRES satellite was in service from July 1990 to October 1991, during a period of high solar modulation and solar activity. The ONR-604 experiment aboard CRRES measured helium with isotopic resolution in the energy range 38-110 MeV/nucleon, and heavy ions through iron at 200-500 MeV/nucleon. Although solar modulation was high throughout the CRRES mission, the mission included periods of solar quiescence as well as a number of large solar flares and associated solar energetic particle events. Measurements were made of helium and heavy ions during both the quiet times and the flare periods. A study was made to search for anomalous component helium in the Earth's magnetosphere using the magnetic field as a rigidity filter. This effort was inconclusive due to background in the outer electron radiation belt. During the solar quiet times, the helium spectrum above 60 MeV/nucleon is consistent with the galactic cosmic rays. Below that energy, a separate component appears early in the mission and rises in prominence over the course of the mission, dominating over the galactic cosmic rays below 60 MeV/nucleon. The distinctness of this component is seen both in the helium spectra and the 3He/4He ratio. An association of this component with interplanetary shocks driven by coronal mass ejections is suggested. During the March and June 1991 flare periods, helium spectral characteristics and isotopic ratios are measured. The results are compared to related diagnostic phenomena of gradual and impulsive solar energetic particle acceleration. The average 3He/4He ratio in both periods is enriched relative to the solar wind; 0.01 in June 1991 and 0.07 in March. The March period contains spikes in the isotopic ratio rising to 0.22. Signatures of known solar phenomena are compared to attempt to identify the predominant acceleration mechanism of each major flare. The development of the CRRES/SPACERAD Heavy Ion Model of the Environment (CHIME) is described and the results presented.

  20. First ultraviolet reflectance measurements of several Kuiper Belt objects, Kuiper Belt object satellites, and new ultraviolet measurements of A Centaur

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, S. A.; Schindhelm, E.; Cunningham, N. J.

    2014-05-01

    We observed the 2600-3200 Å (hereafter, mid-UV) reflectance of two Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs), two KBO satellites, and a Centaur, using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS). Other than measurements of the Pluto system, these constitute the first UV measurements obtained of KBOs, and KBO satellites, and new HST UV measurements of the Centaur 2060 Chiron. We find significant differences among these objects, constrain the sizes and densities of Haumea's satellites, and report the detection of a possible spectral absorption band in Haumea's spectrum near 3050 Å. Comparisons of these objects to previously published UV reflectance measurements of Pluto and Charon are also made here.

  1. The Absolute Solar Irradiance Spectrum at Solar Minimum Activity Measured by the SOLSPEC and SOL-ACES Spectrometers from 17 to 3000 nm Placed on Board the International Space Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thuillier, Gerard; Bolsee, David; Schmidtke, Gerhard; Schmutz, Werner; Shapiro, Alexander; Nikutowski, Bernd

    Two instruments placed on the COLOMBUS laboratory on the International Space Station constitute a payload named SOLAR measuring the spectral solar irradiance from 17 to 3000 nm for solar, atmospheric and climatology physics for which the sun-climate connection also re-quires the precise and absolute knowledge of the solar spectral irradiance. Given the significant improvements in atmosphere, climate and solar modelling, accurate data are needed. SOL-SPEC primary objectives are the measurement of the Sun absolute spectral irradiance and its variability from 165 to 3080 nm. SOLSPEC has been developed by LATMOS (France), Institut d'Aéronomie Spatiale (Belgique), and Landessternwarte (Germany). It has been calibrated in the absolute scale by using the blackbody of the Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), Braunschweig. SOL-ACES primary objectives are the measurements of the Sun absolute spec-tral irradiance from 17 to 140 nm. This instrument as developed by the Fraunhofer Institute (Freiburg, Germany) uses three-current ionisation chambers repeatedly filled with different gases to re-calibrate the three spectrometers, which are changing their efficiencies e.g. by the interaction with solar radiation. We present a composite solar spectrum for the July 2008 period, at a very low solar as occurred at the end of solar cycle 23. It has been built using SOLSPEC, SOL-ACES and TIMED SEE data. Comparison with data obtained during the ATLAS 3 period (November 1994), SORCE measurements and theoretical modelling using the COSI code will be presented. Differences will be commented (difference of the two activity levels, accuracy).

  2. POMS, Polar Meteorological Satellite: A contribution for global radiation budget measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Puls, J.

    1981-01-01

    A proposal for a climate research mission specialized to Earth radiation budget measurements is given. This mission requires daily global coverage established by a system of three orbiting satellites. One of them is represented by the European Space Agency satellite SEOCS that is on a drifting orbit with respect to the Sun with 57 degrees inclination. The two others are polar orbiting satellites (POMS). The mission concept is treated with reference to the payload side requirements, the choice of orbit, orbital analysis, and satellite requirements.

  3. Arctic Stratus Cloud Properties and Their Effect on the Surface Radiation Budget: Selected Cases from FIRE ACE

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doug, Xiquan; Mace, Gerald G.; Minnis, Patrick; Young, David F.

    2001-01-01

    To study Arctic stratus cloud properties and their effect on the surface radiation balance during the spring transition season, analyses are performed using data taken during three cloudy and two clear days in May 1998 as part of the First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Arctic Cloud Experiment (ACE). Radiative transfer models are used in conjunction with surface- and satellite-based measurements to retrieve the layer-averaged microphysical and shortwave radiative properties. The surface-retrieved cloud properties in Cases 1 and 2 agree well with the in situ and satellite retrievals. Discrepancies in Case 3 are due to spatial mismatches between the aircraft and the surface measurements in a highly variable cloud field. Also, the vertical structure in the cloud layer is not fully characterized by the aircraft measurements. Satellite data are critical for understanding some of the observed discrepancies. The satellite-derived particle sizes agree well with the coincident surface retrievals and with the aircraft data when they were collocated. Optical depths derived from visible-channel data over snow backgrounds were overestimated in all three cases, suggesting that methods currently used in satellite cloud climatologies derive optical depths that are too large. Use of a near-infrared channel with a solar infrared channel to simultaneously derive optical depth and particle size appears to alleviate this overestimation problem. Further study of the optical depth retrieval is needed. The surface-based radiometer data reveal that the Arctic stratus clouds produce a net warming of 20 W m(exp -2) in the surface layer during the transition season suggesting that these clouds may accelerate the spring time melting of the ice pack. This surface warming contrasts with the net cooling at the top of the atmosphere (TOA) during the same period. All analysis of the complete FIRE ACE data sets will be valuable for understanding the role of clouds during the entire melting and

  4. Measurement of air pollutants from satellites. I - Feasibility considerations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, C. B.; Griggs, M.; Malkmus, W.; Bartle, E. R.

    1974-01-01

    The feasibility of observing air pollutants from satellite-borne sensors is investigated. Radiative transfer calculations, using both line-by-line and band-model methods, are made to establish the signal changes that originate from the presence of various amounts of pollutants in the atmosphere. The effect of interfering species is considered.

  5. Global measurements of air pollution from satellites. [employing radiometer techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, L. L.; Bartle, E. R.; Griggs, M.; Hall, G. D.; Hesketh, W. D.; Ludwig, C. B.; Malkmus, W.; Reichle, H.

    1974-01-01

    The conceptual design of an FOV nadir radiometer was examined for its applicability to monitoring the radiation process in the atmosphere as it relates to aerosol behavior. The instrument employs a gas filter correlation technique and is suitable for transportation onboard satellite.

  6. Estimating water vapour along the radio path between two LEO satellites through multifrequency differential power measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facheris, Luca; Cuccoli, Fabrizio

    2013-04-01

    The Normalized Differential Spectral Attenuation (NDSA) concept was proposed in 2002 by the authors for tropospheric water vapour sounding by means of a couple of LEO (Low Earth Orbit) satellites (one carrying a transmitter, the other a receiver and operating in the Ku/K bands) in limb geometry. In those years, in the course of the ACE+ mission studies (second call for proposal of the ESA Earth Explorer Opportunity Mission), the problem arose of the severe impact of scintillation due to tropospheric turbulence on the water vapour estimates provided by radio occultation measurements made in limb mode between two LEO satellites. In following ESA studies (AlmetLeo - 2004, ACTLIMB -2009) it was demonstrated that NDSA, thanks to its normalised differential approach, is effective for limiting scintillation and for estimating the Integrated Water Vapor (IWV) along the propagation path between the two LEO satellites. NDSA relies on the conversion of a spectral parameter (the spectral sensitivity S), into the IWV through IWV-S relationships. S is a finite-difference approximation of the derivative of the spectral attenuation at a given frequency fo, normalized to the spectral attenuation itself. To measure Sat fo,it is required that two tone signals with equal power at relatively close frequencies f1 and f2 (f1 > f2) symmetrically placed around fo are simultaneously transmitted. The two pertinent received powers P1 and P2 are simultaneously measured and S is provided by: S = -P2--P1- (f1 - f2 )P2 From the very beginning of the NDSA studies, it was evident that in ideal measurement conditions (no disturbance at the receiver nor propagation impairments) S is tightly correlated to the IWV. To verify this, we accounted for natural variations of the atmospheric conditions by generating simulated spherically symmetric atmospheres using real radiosonde profiles. We computed IWV along the radio path and simulated S separately obtaining IWV-S relationships at various altitudes

  7. Multiphysics Applications of ACE3P

    SciTech Connect

    K.H. Lee, C. Ko, Z. Li, C.-K. Ng, L. Xiao, G. Cheng, H. Wang

    2012-07-01

    The TEM3P module of ACE3P, a parallel finite-element electromagnetic code suite from SLAC, focuses on the multiphysics simulation capabilities, including thermal and mechanical analysis for accelerator applications. In this pa- per, thermal analysis of coupler feedthroughs to supercon- ducting rf (SRF) cavities will be presented. For the realistic simulation, internal boundary condition is implemented to capture RF heating effects on the surface shared by a di- electric and a conductor. The multiphysics simulation with TEM3P matched the measurement within 0.4%.

  8. A scheme for bandpass filtering magnetometer measurements to reconstruct tethered satellite skiprope motion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Polites, M. E.

    1991-01-01

    A scheme is presented for reconstructing tethered satellite skiprope motion by ground processing of satellite magnetometer measurements. The measurements are modified based on ground knowledge of the earth's magnetic field and passed through bandpass filters tuned to the skiprope frequency. Simulation results are presented which verify the scheme and show it to be quite robust. The concept is not just limited to tethered satellites. Indeed, it can be applied wherever there is a need to reconstruct the coning motion of a body about a known axis, given measurements of a known vector in body-fixed axes.

  9. Measurements of Integration Gain for the Cospas-Sarsat System from Geosynchronous Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein-Lebbink, Elizabeth; Christo, James; Peters, Robert; Nguyen, Xuan

    2015-01-01

    The GOES-R satellite is the first satellite to use a standard straight bent pipe transponder with no on-board re-modulation to support Search and Rescue (SAR) operations. Here, we report on the link measurements with a high fidelity satellite transponder simulator made up of satellite EDU (Engineering Design Units) components using an uplink from a beacon simulator and received by a GEOLUT (GEOsynchronous satellite Local User Terminal). We also report on the first ever measurements showing the performance gain obtained by the signal integration performed by the GEOLUT. In addition, a simulator made of commercially available off-the-shelf components assembled to develop the test plan was found to perform very close to the high fidelity simulator. In this paper, we describe what message integration is, how it is implemented in the particular satellite receiving station model used for this tests, and show the measured improvement in message decoding due to this integration process. These are the first tests to quantify the integration gain and are the first tests on the new SARSAT standard for the bent pipe (no onboard re-modulation) repeater used in GOES-R. An inexpensive satellite simulator to run test scripts built from off the shelf components was also found to have the same performance as a high fidelity simulator using actual satellite EDUs.

  10. Calculation of smoke plume mass from passive UV satellite measurements by GOME-2 polarization measurement devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penning de Vries, M. J. M.; Tuinder, O. N. E.; Wagner, T.; Fromm, M.

    2012-04-01

    The Wallow wildfire of 2011 was one of the most devastating fires ever in Arizona, burning over 2,000 km2 in the states of Arizona and New Mexico. The fire originated in the Bear Wallow Wilderness area in June, 2011, and raged for more than a month. The intense heat of the fire caused the formation of a pyro-convective cloud. The resulting smoke plume, partially located above low-lying clouds, was detected by several satellite instruments, including GOME-2 on June 2. The UV Aerosol Index, indicative of aerosol absorption, reached a maximum of 12 on that day, pointing to an elevated plume with moderately absorbing aerosols. We have performed extensive model calculations assuming different aerosol optical properties to determine the total aerosol optical depth of the plume. The plume altitude, needed to constrain the aerosol optical depth, was obtained from independent satellite measurements. The model results were compared with UV Aerosol Index and UV reflectances measured by the GOME-2 polarization measurement devices, which have a spatial resolution of roughly 10x40 km2. Although neither the exact aerosol optical properties nor optical depth can be obtained with this method, the range in aerosol optical depth values that we calculate, combined with the assumed specific extinction mass factor of 5 m2/kg lead us to a rough estimate of the smoke plume mass that cannot, at present, be assessed in another way.

  11. Radiometric gains of satellite sensors of reflected solar radiation - Results from NASA ER-2 aircraft measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, Peter; Galimore, Reginald; Cooper, John

    1992-01-01

    A method for using congruent aircraft-satellite observations to calibrate a satellite sensor is presented. A calibrated spectroradiometer at an altitude of 19 km above White Sands, NM, is oriented to view White Sands at the satellite overpass time along the same view vector as the satellite sensor. Collected data are transformed into corresponding estimates of sensor band radiance at the satellite (derived from the aircraft measurements), and average count (from the sensor measurements). These are both averaged across the footprint of the spectroradiometer. Results are presented for the evolution of NOAA-11 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) (Bands 1 and 2) gain between November 1988 and October 1990, and for GOES-6 and GOES-7 VISSR/VAS visible bands during the same period. Estimates of uncertainty in the results are presented, as well as ideas for their reduction in future flights.

  12. Comparison of Remote Spectrophotometric and Lidar Measurements of O3, NO2, and Temperature with Data of Satellite Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazhenov, O. E.; Burlakov, V. D.; Grishaev, M. V.; Gridnev, Yu. V.; Dolgii, S. I.; Makeev, A. P.; Nevzorov, A. V.; Salnikova, N. S.

    2016-06-01

    We consider the results of remote spectrophotometric and lidar measurements of the total ozone and nitrogen dioxide contents and temperature, obtained at the Siberian Lidar Station (SLS) of V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics, Siberian Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences (Tomsk: 56.5°N; 85.0°E) in comparison with the results of analogous satellite measurements. The ground-based measurements of the total ozone (TO) content are performed with the help of M-124 ozonometer; and the measurements of the nitrogen dioxide (NO2) content are carried out with automatic spectrophotometer. The groundbased lidar measurements of temperature are conducted on the basis of SLS measurement complex. These measurements are compared with data of balloon-sonde and satellite measurements. The satellite measurements are performed by the TOMS and IASI instrumentation.

  13. Satellite measurements of daily variations in soil NOx emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertram, Timothy H.; Heckel, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Burrows, John P.; Cohen, Ronald C.

    2005-12-01

    Soil NOx emission from agricultural regions in the western United States has been investigated using satellite observations of NO2 from the SCIAMACHY instrument. We show that the SCIAMACHY observations over a 2 million hectare agricultural region in Montana capture the short intense NOx pulses following fertilizer application and subsequent precipitation and we demonstrate that these variations can be reproduced by tuning the mechanistic parameters in an existing model of soil NOx emissions.

  14. Satellite measurements of large-scale air pollution: Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufman, Y.J.; Fraser, R.S.; Ferrare, R.A. )

    1990-06-20

    A method is presented for simultaneous determination of the aerosol optical thickness ({tau}{sub a}), particle size (r{sub m}, geometric mean mass radius for a lognormal distribution) and the single scattering albedo ({omega}{sub 0}, ratio between scattering and scattering + absorption) from satellite imagery. The method is based on satellite images of the surface (land and water) in the visible and near-IR bands and is applied here to the first two channels of the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor. The aerosol characteristics are obtained from the difference in the upward radiances, detected by the satellite, between a clear and a hazy day. Therefore the method is mainly useful for remote sensing of large-scale air pollution (e.g., smoke from a large fire or concentrated anthropogenic pollution), which introduces dense aerosol into the atmosphere (aerosol optical thickness {ge}0.4) on top of an existing aerosol. The method is very sensitive to the stability of the surface reflectance between the clear day and the hazy day. It also requires accurate satellite calibration (preferably not more than 5% error) and stable calibration with good relative values between the two bands used in the analysis. With these requirements, the aerosol optical thickness can be derived with an error of {Delta}{tau}{sub a} = 0.08-0.15. For an assumed lognormal size distribution, the particle geometrical mean mass radius r{sub m} can be derived (if good calibration is available) with an error of {Delta}r{sub m} = {plus minus}(0.10-0.20){mu}m, and {omega}{sub 0} with {Delta}{omega}{sub 0} = {plus minus}0.03 for {omega}{sub 0} close to 1 and {Delta}{sub omega}{sub 0} = {plus minus}(0.03-0.07) for {omega}{sub 0} about 0.8. The method was applied to AVHRR images of a forest fire smoke.

  15. Satellite SAR Exploitation and Imaging and Measurement of Oceanic Phenomena

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-30

    of Oceanic Phenomena Hans C. Graber CSTARS - University of Miami 11811 SW 168th Street Miami, FL 33177-, USA phone: (305) 421-4952, fax: (305... Oceanic Phenomena 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT...typhoons, internal waves, ocean surface features, sea state prediction and coastal dynamics. To achieve this, a variety of satellite SAR sensors with

  16. Satellite ozone measurements and the detection of trends

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilsenrath, Ernest

    1990-01-01

    Due to the international scientific community's concern with the problem of anthropogenic gas-caused depletion of the ozone layer, an international observational program has been established to conduct stratospheric studies for at least a decade. These observations, which will be performed both by the Space Shuttle and the Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite, will encompass the energy input by solar UV irradiance, source and intermediate gases in ozone chemistry, and the global distributions of these ozone-affecting gases by winds.

  17. Processing Satellite Data for Slant Total Electron Content Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, Philip John (Inventor); Komjathy, Attila (Inventor); Wilson, Brian D. (Inventor); Mannucci, Anthony J. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A method, system, and apparatus provide the ability to estimate ionospheric observables using space-borne observations. Space-borne global positioning system (GPS) data of ionospheric delay are obtained from a satellite. The space-borne GPS data are combined with ground-based GPS observations. The combination is utilized in a model to estimate a global three-dimensional (3D) electron density field.

  18. Low-altitude satellite measurements of pulsating auroral electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samara, M.; Michell, R. G.; Redmon, R. J.

    2015-09-01

    We present observations from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program and Reimei satellites, where common-volume high-resolution ground-based auroral imaging data are available. These satellite overpasses of ground-based all-sky imagers reveal the specific features of the electron populations responsible for different types of pulsating aurora modulations. The energies causing the pulsating aurora mostly range from 3 keV to 20 keV but can at times extend up to 30 keV. The secondary, low-energy electrons (<1 keV) are diminished from the precipitating distribution when there are strong temporal variations in auroral intensity. There are often persistent spatial structures present inside regions of pulsating aurora, and in these regions there are secondary electrons in the precipitating populations. The reduction of secondary electrons is consistent with the strongly temporally varying pulsating aurora being associated with field-aligned currents and hence parallel potential drops of up to 1 kV.

  19. Low-Altitude Satellite Measurements of Pulsating Auroral Electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samara, M.; Michell, R. G.; Redmon, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    We present observations from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program and Reimei satellites, where common-volume high-resolution ground-based auroral imaging data are available. These satellite overpasses of ground-based all-sky imagers reveal the specific features of the electron populations responsible for different types of pulsating aurora modulations. The energies causing the pulsating aurora mostly range from 3 keV to 20 keV but can at times extend up to 30 keV. The secondary, low-energy electrons (<1 keV) are diminished from the precipitating distribution when there are strong temporal variations in auroral intensity. There are often persistent spatial structures present inside regions of pulsating aurora, and in these regions there are secondary electrons in the precipitating populations. The reduction of secondary electrons is consistent with the strongly temporally varying pulsating aurora being associated with field-aligned currents and hence parallel potential drops of up to 1 kV.

  20. Contemplating Synergistic Algorithms for the NASA ACE Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mace, Gerald G.; Starr, David O.; Marchand, Roger; Ackerman, Steven A.; Platnick, Steven E.; Fridlind, Ann; Cooper, Steven; Vane, Deborah G.; Stephens, Graeme L.

    2013-01-01

    ACE is a proposed Tier 2 NASA Decadal Survey mission that will focus on clouds, aerosols, and precipitation as well as ocean ecosystems. The primary objective of the clouds component of this mission is to advance our ability to predict changes to the Earth's hydrological cycle and energy balance in response to climate forcings by generating observational constraints on future science questions, especially those associated with the effects of aerosol on clouds and precipitation. ACE will continue and extend the measurement heritage that began with the A-Train and that will continue through Earthcare. ACE planning efforts have identified several data streams that can contribute significantly to characterizing the properties of clouds and precipitation and the physical processes that force these properties. These include dual frequency Doppler radar, high spectral resolution lidar, polarimetric visible imagers, passive microwave and submillimeter wave radiometry. While all these data streams are technologically feasible, their total cost is substantial and likely prohibitive. It is, therefore, necessary to critically evaluate their contributions to the ACE science goals. We have begun developing algorithms to explore this trade space. Specifically, we will describe our early exploratory algorithms that take as input the set of potential ACE-like data streams and evaluate critically to what extent each data stream influences the error in a specific cloud quantity retrieval.

  1. Calibration of Ocean Wave Measurements by the TOPEX, Jason-1, and Jason-2 Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Beckley, B. D.

    2012-01-01

    The calibration and validation of ocean wave height measurements by the TOPEX, Jason-1, and Jason-2 satellite altimeters is addressed by comparing the measurements internally among them- selves and against independent wave measurements at moored buoys. The two six-month verification campaigns, when two of the satellites made near-simultaneous measurements along the same ground track, are invaluable for such work and reveal subtle aspects that otherwise might go undetected. The two Jason satellites are remarkably consistent; Topex reports waves generally 1-2% larger. External calibration is complicated by some systematic errors in the buoy data. We confirm a recent report by Durrant et al. that Canadian buoys underestimate significant wave heights by about 10% relative to U.S. buoys. Wave heights from all three altimetric satellites require scaling upwards by 5 6% to be consistent with U.S. buoys.

  2. Spatiotemporal Path-Matching for Comparisons Between Ground- Based and Satellite Lidar Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berkoff, Timothy A.; Valencia, Sandra; Welton, Ellsworth J.; Spinhirne, James D.

    2005-01-01

    The spatiotemporal sampling differences between ground-based and satellite lidar data can contribute to significant errors for direct measurement comparisons. Improvement in sample correspondence is examined by the use of radiosonde wind velocity to vary the time average in ground-based lidar data to spatially match coincident satellite lidar measurements. Results are shown for the 26 February 2004 GLAS/ICESat overflight of a ground-based lidar stationed at NASA GSFC. Statistical analysis indicates that improvement in signal correlation is expected under certain conditions, even when a ground-based observation is mismatched in directional orientation to the satellite track.

  3. Satellite (Timed, Aura, Aqua) and In Situ (Meteorological Rockets, Balloons) Measurement Comparability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmidlin, F. J.; Goldberg, Richard A.; Feofilov, A.; Rose, R.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements using the inflatable falling sphere often are requested to provide density data in support of special sounding rocket launchings into the mesosphere and thermosphere. To insure density measurements within narrow time frames and close in space, the inflatable falling sphere is launched within minutes of the major test. Sphere measurements are reliable for the most part, however, availability of these rocket systems has become more difficult and, in fact, these instruments no longer are manufactured resulting in a reduction of the meager stockpile of instruments. Sphere measurements also are used to validate remotely measured temperatures and have the advantage of measuring small-scale atmospheric features. Even so, with the dearth of remaining falling spheres perhaps it is time to consider whether the remote measurements are mature enough to stand alone. Presented are two field studies, one in 2003 from Northern Sweden and one in 2010 from the vicinity of Kwajalein Atoll that compare temperature retrievals between satellite and in situ failing spheres. The major satellite instruments employed are SABER, MLS, and AIRS. The comparisons indicate that remotely measured temperatures mimic the sphere temperature measurements quite well. The data also confirm that satellite retrievals, while not always at the exact location required for individual studies, are adaptable enough and highly useful. Although the falling sphere will provide a measurement at a specific location and time, satellites only pass a given location daily or less often. This report reveals that averaged satellite measurements can provide temperatures and densities comparable to the falling sphere.

  4. Measurements of the Size-Resolved Chemical Composition of Marine Boundary Layer Aerosols in Asian Outflow During the ACE-Asia Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guazzotti, S. A.; Sodeman, D. A.; Moffet, R.; Prather, K. A.

    2003-12-01

    The size and chemical composition of individual particles were evaluated with high temporal resolution during the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Chemical Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia) using a transportable aerosol time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ATOFMS) aboard the NOAA Research Vessel Ronald H. Brown. ATOFMS allows characterization of the aerodynamic diameter and chemical composition of individual particles from a polydisperse aerosol. This technique couples aerodynamic particle sizing with time-of-flight mass spectrometry in a single instrument, providing both positive and negative ion mass spectra for each detected particle which are employed to classify the particles into different classes using criteria based searches and a neural network algorithm, ART-2a. Size-resolved chemical characteristics of sampled particles under different synoptic meteorological patterns and at various locations and distances from continental influences are discussed in detail, with special focus given to the associations among different species and the variability in the degrees of aging, reaction, and/or mixing, which can alter the optical properties of these particles. Changes in the aerosol chemical characteristics due to heterogeneous reactions are evidenced in the mass spectra of detected particles by the presence and intensity of specific ion markers (e.g., sulfate, nitrate). The ability to differentiate between particles that have undergone heterogeneous reactions is relevant since these reactions affect several aerosol attributes, such as hygroscopic, optical, and radiative properties. Particularly, heterogeneous reactions/ nucleation on sea-salt and dust particles are discussed together with results of comparison efforts with some relevant laboratory and source characterization studies that allow determination of corresponding ion markers, relative ratios among species, and probable sources from a single particle perspective.

  5. History of satellite missions and measurements of the Earth Radiation Budget (1957-1984)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    House, F. B.; Gruber, A.; Hunt, G. E.; Mecherikunnel, A. T.

    1986-01-01

    The history of satellite missions and their measurements of the earth radiation budget from the beginning of the space age until the present time are reviewed. The survey emphasizes the early struggle to develop instrument systems to monitor reflected shortwave and emitted long-wave exitances from the earth, and the problems associated with the interpretation of these observations from space. In some instances, valuable data sets were developed from satellite measurements whose instruments were not specifically designed for earth radiation budget observations.

  6. Calculation of the satellite "Sich-1M" orientation on onboard magnetometric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suhorukov, A.; Kozak, L.

    2005-04-01

    The satellite "Sich-1M" was launched on 24 December 2004. It came out onto the elliptic orbit with the perigee height near 280 km except planned earlier higher near circle orbit. In addition, the satellite has gotten a non-planned rotation (about 2 rotations per turn). Later the gravitational beam had been pulled out from the satellite which partly stabilized it. A rotation of the satellite was superseded by its oscillation with a period near 2-4 swings per turn and amplitude 50 degrees. The oscillations have an unstable character. Rotations and oscillations of the satellite set inessential limitations on realization of scientific tasks of the project "Variant" because there is a possibility to determine the satellite orientation for a given time moment with the help of measurements of ferrosonde magnetometer FZM or onboard magnetometer. The device FZM measures three components of magnetic field Bx, By, Bz of the Earth in coordinate system of the satellite. To determine the satellite orientation we have used the fact that each of the component of the magnetic field at the present time moment is a function of geographical coordinates of the satellite (latitude, longitude, height over sea level), its orientation and components of a vector of Earth magnetic field in this point, calculated from magnetosphere model. Thus, having direct satellite measurements of Bx, By, Bz at given time moment in given point, orbital elements and position of the satellite on the orbit and using the standard model of Earth's magnetosphere one can calculate the satellite orientation as function of time. For the calculation we have used the magnetosphere model "The International Geomagnetic Reference Field" (IGRF) which empirically calculates the components of magnetic field of the Earth and is recommended for scientific investigations by International Association of Geomagnetism and Aeronomy (IAGA). Coefficients of IGRF model are based on accessible information sources including

  7. Spatial Distribution of Aerosols in Four U.S. Regions: Impacts on Satellite Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyersdorf, A. J.; Ziemba, L. D.; Berkoff, T.; Burton, S. P.; Chen, G.; Corr, C.; Collins, J. E., Jr.; Crumeyrolle, S.; Cook, A. L.; Fenn, M. A.; Ferrare, R. A.; Hair, J. W.; Harper, D. B.; Hostetler, C. A.; Lin, J. J.; Martin, R.; Moore, R.; Rogers, R. R.; Scarino, A. J.; Seaman, S. T.; Shook, M.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Crawford, J. H.; Anderson, B. E.

    2015-12-01

    Aerosol measurements from satellites in geosynchronous orbit allow for a unique opportunity to measure urban air quality at higher spatial and temporal resolution than possible with current ground-based monitoring and satellites in low earth orbit. Geosynchronous satellites will be able to measure air quality throughout the day for a specific region of interest (such as North America for the planned NASA TEMPO satellite). However, a key constraint on satellite measurements is the spatial resolution of the retrieved data products. As the satellite footprint increases, the precision of aerosol properties improves but the ability of the satellite to measure small-scale variations in pollution diminishes. Currently, TEMPO is planned to measure aerosol optical depth (AOD) with a spatial resolution of 36 square-km. In this study, sub-pixel variability is used as a metric of how representative the satellite measurement is of ground-based air quality. Data from the DISCOVER-AQ airborne project are used to determine the sub-pixel variability in AOD, boundary layer extinction and other aerosol properties in four U.S. regions: Baltimore, Maryland, Houston, Texas, Denver, Colorado, and California's San Joaquin Valley. Sub-pixel variability in boundary layer extinction was lowest in Denver (one sigma variability of 3 /Mm at 36 square-km spatial resolution) due to low aerosol loadings and highest in the San Joaquin Valley (19 /Mm) due to variable boundary layer depths and stagnant conditions. Variability in AOD (measured by an airborne high-spectral resolution lidar) was more consistent among the sites (0.017 to 0.035) due to a reduced dependence on changes in the planetary boundary layer. The effects of our analysis will also be discussed in relation to the use of satellite measurements to infer air quality attainment. Larger satellite data footprints reduce the ability of satellites to identify small regions in urban areas with elevated pollution (i.e. hotspots) which was

  8. Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES)

    SciTech Connect

    Greenbaum, Daniel; Costantini, Maria; Van Erp, Annemoon; Shaikh, Rashid; Bailey, Brent; Tennant, Chris; Khalek, Imad; Mauderly, Joe; McDonald, Jacob; Zielinska, Barbara; Bemis, Jeffrey; Storey, John; Hallberg, Lance; Clark, Nigel

    2013-12-31

    The objective of the Advanced Collaborative Emissions Study (ACES) was to determine before widespread commercial deployment whether or not the new, energy-efficient, heavy duty diesel engines (2007 and 2010 EPA Emissions Standards Compliant) may generate anticipated toxic emissions that could adversely affect the environment and human health. ACES was planned to take place in three phases. In Phase 1, extensive emissions characterization of four production-intent prototype engine and control systems designed to meet 2007 standards for nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) was conducted at an existing emissions characterization facility: Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). One of the tested engines was selected (at random, after careful comparison of results) for health testing in Phase 3. In Phase 2, extensive emission characterization of three production-intent prototype engine and control systems meeting the 2010 standards (including more advanced NOx controls to meet the more stringent 2010 NOx standards) was conducted at the same test facility. In Phase 3, one engine/aftertreatment system selected from Phase 1 was further characterized during health effects studies (at an existing inhalation toxicology laboratory: Lovelace Respiratory Research Institute, [LRRI]) to form the basis of the ACES safety assessment. The Department of Energy (DOE) award provided funding for emissions characterization in Phases 1 and 2 as well as exposure characterization in Phase 3. The main health analyses in Phase 3 were funded separately and are not reported here.

  9. Spin period and attitude of satellites and space debris measured by using photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakun, Leonid; Koshkin, Nikolay; Korobeynikova, Elena; Strakhova, Svetlana; Melikyants, Seda; Ryabov, Andrey

    2016-07-01

    Photometry is an essential method for studying of the properties of the proper rotation of satellites and space debris. The observation method with high time resolution is used in the Odessa astronomical observatory for observations of artificial satellites. This method provides the measuring of the orbital motion and the proper rotation of satellites. Worth note, that the time resolution of the light curve and the accuracy of positioning in time of the details in the light curve are more important for the interpretation of the brightness variations than the precise measuring of the brightness. The rapid photometry allows not only registering of the flashes caused by mirror surfaces of structure satellite elements but also determining the indicatrix of the corresponding structure satellite element. This principal change of the photometric quality allows significant improving the interpretation of the satellites' light curves. We obtained a large amount of the photometric observations sequences of the satellites with time resolution 0.02 sec on the 50 cm telescope during last 11 years. We used this data for determination of the rotational parameters of several space objects. We present the method and results of the data analysis for the inactive satellites such as Envisat, Cbers-2B, Topex and other. Each of them changes its rotational parameters in its own way. For some satellites, the rotation period increases, for other it decreases. The rotation axis also change their orientation in space. The obtained information about rotation characteristics can be used for the precise numerical models of the satellite orbital motion and for the future Active Debris Removal missions.

  10. A comparative study of aerosol extinction measurements made by the SAM II and SAGE satellite experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yue, G. K.; Mccormick, M. P.; Chu, W. P.

    1984-01-01

    SAM II and SAGE are two satellite experiments designed to measure stratospheric aerosol extinction using the technique of solar occultation or limb extinction. Although each sensor is mounted aboard a different satellite, there are occasions when their measurement locations are nearly coincident, thereby providing opportunities for a measurement comparison. In this paper, the aerosol extinction profiles and daily contour plots for some of these events in 1979 are reported. The comparisons shown in this paper demonstrate that SAM II and SAGE are producing similar aerosol extinction profiles within their measurement errors and that since SAM II has been previously validated, these results show the validity of the SAGE aerosol measurements.

  11. Clear-Sky Closure Studies of Lower Tropospheric Aerosol and Water Vapor During ACE-2 Using Airborne Sunphotometer, Airborne In-Situ, Space-Borne, and Ground-Based Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmid, Beat; Livingston, John M.; Russell, Philip B.; Durkee, Philip A.; Jonsson, Haflidi H.; Collins, Donald R.; Flagan, Richard C.; Seinfield, John H.; Gasso, Santiago; Hegg, Dean A.

    2000-01-01

    We report on clear-sky column closure experiments (CLEARCOLUMN) performed in the Canary Islands during the second Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-2) in June/July 1997. We present CLEARCOLUMN results obtained by combining airborne sunphotometer and in-situ (optical particle counter, nephelometer, and absorption photometer) measurements taken aboard the Pelican aircraft, space-borne NOAA/AVHRR data and ground-based lidar and sunphotometer measurements. During both days discussed here, vertical profiles flown in cloud-free air masses revealed 3 distinctly different layers: a marine boundary layer (MBL) with varying pollution levels, an elevated dust layer, and a very clean layer between the MBL and the dust layer. A key result of this study is the achievement of closure between extinction or layer aerosol optical depth (AOD) computed from continuous in-situ aerosol size-distributions and composition and those measured with the airborne sunphotometer. In the dust, the agreement in layer AOD (lambda = 380-1060 nm) is 3-8%. In the MBL there is a tendency for the in-situ results to be slightly lower than the sunphotometer measurements (10-17% at lambda = 525 nm), but these differences are within the combined error bars of the measurements and computations.

  12. Satellite Ocean Biology: Past, Present, Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClain, Charles R.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1978 when the first satellite ocean color proof-of-concept sensor, the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner, was launched, much progress has been made in refining the basic measurement concept and expanding the research applications of global satellite time series of biological and optical properties such as chlorophyll-a concentrations. The seminar will review the fundamentals of satellite ocean color measurements (sensor design considerations, on-orbit calibration, atmospheric corrections, and bio-optical algorithms), scientific results from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and Moderate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) missions, and the goals of future NASA missions such as PACE, the Aerosol, Cloud, Ecology (ACE), and Geostationary Coastal and Air Pollution Events (GeoCAPE) missions.

  13. Combining Suborbital Measurements of Aerosol Optical Depth and Columnar Water Vapor for Satellite Sensor Validations in the CLAMS (Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites) Experiment, 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redemann, J.; Schmid, B.; Livingston, J. M.; Russell, P. B.; Eilers, J. A.; Hobbs, P. V.; Kahn, R.; Smith, W. L.; Holben, B. N.; Rutledge, C. K.; Pitts, M. C.; Mishchenko, M. I.; Chowdhary, J.; Martins, J. V.; Plana-Fattori, A.; Charlock, T. P.

    2002-05-01

    As part of the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) experiment, July 10 - August 2, 2001, the 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) was operated successfully aboard the University of Washington Convair-580 during 10 research flights (~45 flight hours). The CLAMS campaign was a clear sky, shortwave (SW) closure campaign that entailed measurements from the Chesapeake Lighthouse research platform, several land sites, 6 research aircraft and the Terra satellite. CLAMS research goals included validation of satellite-based retrievals of aerosol properties, vertical profiles of radiative fluxes, temperature and water vapor. Suborbital measurements of aerosol optical depth (AOD) and columnar water vapor (CWV) were carried out at several AERONET sites and aboard five of the six airborne platforms using a variety of techniques. AATS-14 measures the direct solar beam transmission at 14 discrete wavelengths (354-1558 nm), yielding aerosol optical depth spectra and columnar water vapor. During coordinated flights of the UW Convair-580, AATS-14 measured full column aerosol optical depth spectra at exact Terra overpass time on at least 7 occasions. For five of these opportunities, AOD at 499nm was at or below 0.1. During Terra overpass on July 17, 2001, AATS-14 measured the largest AOD encountered during the entire experiment (~0.48 at 499nm), including a horizontal gradient in AOD of more than 0.1 over a distance of ~80 kilometers. We will illustrate how the spatially resolved measurements by AATS-14 and the temporally resolved AERONET measurements can be usefully combined for satellite validation purposes by constraining the small-scale aerosol variability off the US East coast. While the first part of this paper is focused on AATS-14 measurements, in the remainder of this paper we will show comparisons to other suborbital measurements obtained using (i) the AERONET sun/sky radiometer at the Chesapeake Lighthouse, (ii

  14. ACE: Detecting Volatile Organic Compounds from Orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Jeremy J.; Allen, Nicholas D. C.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2010-12-01

    High-resolution infrared absorption cross sections for ethane, propane (both in the 3 μm region) and acetone (in the 3 μm and 5-8 μm regions) have been determined from spectra recorded using a high-resolution FTIR spectrometer (Bruker IFS 125/HR). Data are presented for mixtures with dry synthetic air at 0.015 cm-1 resolution (calculated as 0.9/MOPD using the Bruker definition of resolution), at a number of temperatures and pressures appropriate for atmospheric conditions. Intensities were calibrated using spectra taken from the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) IR database. Methane measurements are currently being performed in the 3 μm region in order to retrieve line mixing parameters, which will be used in an improved ACE forward model to minimize CH4 residuals in the retrievals of organic species. Preliminary retrievals of acetone from ACE spectra using a microwindow from 1364.7 to 1367.1 cm-1 have been performed.

  15. Near-simultaneous measurement of low-energy electrons by sounding rocket and satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rearwin, S.; Hones, E. W., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    An auroral sounding rocket was launched from Fort Churchill at 0453 UT on April 24, 1968. At the time of the rocket flight, the Vela 3B satellite was passing through the magnetotail plasma sheet at very nearly the same magnetic local time. Electron spectra obtained from experiments on these vehicles are well described by central Maxwell-Boltzmann populations, with indications of a high-energy tail; the satellite spectra also suggest the presence of a low-energy tail. The higher-temperature spectra measured on the rocket may be derived from the satellite spectra by adiabatic compression.

  16. Crystal motion measurement by means of satellite techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siry, J. W.

    1973-01-01

    A system for monitoring precursory crustal motions is presented. It involves a set of automated corner reflector stations tracked by means of a laser operating in the Geopause satellite. It is possible to range some three times during every Geopause pass to each of the sites in such an ensemble, weather permitting. One centimeter range data gathered during a quarter of a year can yield position component accuracies of the order of a couple of centimeters. A laser beam of a tenth of a milliradian in diameter would, illuminate a single station in such an array. A broader beam would generate reflections from several sites, yielding overlapping data. A chain or pattern of such overlapping regions can strengthen the solution for site positions. Pressure, temperature and humidity gauges can provide refraction correction data. Turnaround transponders interrogated by the Geopause radio tracking system can furnish corresponding data in excessively cloudy regions.

  17. Determination of vegetated fraction of surface from satellite measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cary, Ernestine; Rosenzweig, Cynthia

    1987-01-01

    One input to the ground hydrology component of general circulation models is the fraction of gridbox covered (i.e., shaded) by vegetation. The FV is needed in order to specify the partitioning of evaporation between vegetated and nonvegetated surfaces. Satellite data could provide global and seasonally varying specification of FV. In this work, FV is derived from Landsat data for a site in western Kenya; the accuracy of the estimate is evaluated and then compared to the accuracy requirements of a ground hydrology model. Results show that the accuracy of Landsat estimation of FV is + or - 5 percent and that transpiration, evaporation from bare soil and the seasonality of evapotranspiration are strongly dependent on FV.

  18. Miltipath measurements for land mobile satellite service using global positioning system signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lemmon, John J.

    1988-01-01

    A proposed multipath system for the land mobile satellite radio channel using the Global Positioning System (GPS) is presented. The measurement technique and equipment used to make multipath measurements on communications links are briefly described. The system configuration and performance specifications of the proposed measurement system are discussed.

  19. Defective intestinal amino acid absorption in Ace2 null mice.

    PubMed

    Singer, Dustin; Camargo, Simone M R; Ramadan, Tamara; Schäfer, Matthias; Mariotta, Luca; Herzog, Brigitte; Huggel, Katja; Wolfer, David; Werner, Sabine; Penninger, Josef M; Verrey, François

    2012-09-15

    Mutations in the main intestinal and kidney luminal neutral amino acid transporter B(0)AT1 (Slc6a19) lead to Hartnup disorder, a condition that is characterized by neutral aminoaciduria and in some cases pellagra-like symptoms. These latter symptoms caused by low-niacin are thought to result from defective intestinal absorption of its precursor L-tryptophan. Since Ace2 is necessary for intestinal B(0)AT1 expression, we tested the impact of intestinal B(0)AT1 absence in ace2 null mice. Their weight gain following weaning was decreased, and Na(+)-dependent uptake of B(0)AT1 substrates measured in everted intestinal rings was defective. Additionally, high-affinity Na(+)-dependent transport of L-proline, presumably via SIT1 (Slc6a20), was absent, whereas glucose uptake via SGLT1 (Slc5a1) was not affected. Measurements of small intestine luminal amino acid content following gavage showed that more L-tryptophan than other B(0)AT1 substrates reach the ileum in wild-type mice, which is in line with its known lower apparent affinity. In ace2 null mice, the absorption defect was confirmed by a severalfold increase of L-tryptophan and of other neutral amino acids reaching the ileum lumen. Furthermore, plasma and muscle levels of glycine and L-tryptophan were significantly decreased in ace2 null mice, with other neutral amino acids displaying a similar trend. A low-protein/low-niacin diet challenge led to differential changes in plasma amino acid levels in both wild-type and ace2 null mice, but only in ace2 null mice to a stop in weight gain. Despite the combination of low-niacin with a low-protein diet, plasma niacin concentrations remained normal in ace2 null mice and no pellagra symptoms, such as photosensitive skin rash or ataxia, were observed. In summary, mice lacking Ace2-dependent intestinal amino acid transport display no total niacin deficiency nor clear pellagra symptoms, even under a low-protein and low-niacin diet, despite gross amino acid homeostasis alterations.

  20. SERIES-X test results. [for measuring TOPEX earth satellite orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crow, R. B.; Bletzacker, F. R.; Najarian, R. J.; Purcell, G. H., Jr.; Statman, J. I.; Thomas, J. B.

    1984-01-01

    The SERIES-X project which demonstrates the feasibility of a method involving measurements of the distance from the TOPEX earth satellite and various points on the ground to Global Positioning System (GPS) satellites is described. The features of SERIES-X are compared with three better-known geodetic-quality GPS systems (Geostar, Macrometer, and SERIES). It is shown that the system is capable of measuring the positions of isolated stations, but its accuracy is improved when it measures baselines. Test results of some measurements of baselines ranging in length from 15 to 171,000 m are presented and discussed.

  1. ACE2 alterations in kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Soler, María José; Wysocki, Jan; Batlle, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a monocarboxypeptidase that degrades angiotensin (Ang) II to Ang-(1–7). ACE2 is highly expressed within the kidneys, it is largely localized in tubular epithelial cells and less prominently in glomerular epithelial cells and in the renal vasculature. ACE2 activity has been shown to be altered in diabetic kidney disease, hypertensive renal disease and in different models of kidney injury. There is often a dissociation between tubular and glomerular ACE2 expression, particularly in diabetic kidney disease where ACE2 expression is increased at the tubular level but decreased at the glomerular level. In this review, we will discuss alterations in circulating and renal ACE2 recently described in different renal pathologies and disease models as well as their possible significance. PMID:23956234

  2. Optical aurora and its relationship to measurements from satellites, VHF radar and incoherent scatter radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Romick, G. J.

    1974-01-01

    Examples are given of coordinated programs in Alaska which involve satellites, radars, ground optical instrumentation, and other types of observing satellites for the study of atmospheric and magnetospheric geophysics. Programs include coincidence data acquisition, scheduled data acquisition, and planned experiments. The use of optical triangulation techniques to determine the position of the aurora in order to place the other measurements in the perspective of the overall auroral morphology is detailed.

  3. Coarse initial orbit determination for a geostationary satellite using single-epoch GPS measurements.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ghangho; Kim, Chongwon; Kee, Changdon

    2015-04-01

    A practical algorithm is proposed for determining the orbit of a geostationary orbit (GEO) satellite using single-epoch measurements from a Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver under the sparse visibility of the GPS satellites. The algorithm uses three components of a state vector to determine the satellite's state, even when it is impossible to apply the classical single-point solutions (SPS). Through consideration of the characteristics of the GEO orbital elements and GPS measurements, the components of the state vector are reduced to three. However, the algorithm remains sufficiently accurate for a GEO satellite. The developed algorithm was tested on simulated measurements from two or three GPS satellites, and the calculated maximum position error was found to be less than approximately 40 km or even several kilometers within the geometric range, even when the classical SPS solution was unattainable. In addition, extended Kalman filter (EKF) tests of a GEO satellite with the estimated initial state were performed to validate the algorithm. In the EKF, a reliable dynamic model was adapted to reduce the probability of divergence that can be caused by large errors in the initial state.

  4. RNAi of ace1 and ace2 in Blattella germanica reveals their differential contribution to acetylcholinesterase activity and sensitivity to insecticides.

    PubMed

    Revuelta, L; Piulachs, M D; Bellés, X; Castañera, P; Ortego, F; Díaz-Ruíz, J R; Hernández-Crespo, P; Tenllado, F

    2009-12-01

    Cyclorrhapha insect genomes contain a single acetylcholinesterase (AChE) gene while other insects contain at least two ace genes (ace1 and ace2). In this study we tested the hypothesis that the two ace paralogous from Blattella germanica have different contributions to AChE activity, using RNA interference (RNAi) to knockdown each one individually. Paralogous-specific depletion of Bgace transcripts was evident in ganglia of injected cockroaches, although the effects at the protein level were less pronounced. Using spectrophotometric and zymogram measurements, we obtained evidence that BgAChE1 represents 65-75% of the total AChE activity in nerve tissue demonstrating that ace1 encodes a predominant AChE. A significant increase in sensitivity of Bgace1-interfered cockroaches was observed after 48 h of exposure to chlorpyrifos. In contrast, Bgace2 knockdown had a negligible effect on mortality to this organophosphate. These results point out a key role, qualitative and/or quantitative, of AChE1 as target of organophosphate insecticides in this species. Silencing the expression of Bgace1 but not Bgace2 also produced an increased mortality in insects when synergized with lambda-cyhalothrin, a situation which resembles the synergistic effects observed between organophosphates and pyrethroids. Gene silencing of ace genes by RNAi offers an exciting approach for examining a possible functional differentiation in ace paralogous.

  5. ACE-Asia Chemical Transport Modeling Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    UNO, I.; Chin, M.; Collins, W.; Ginoux, P.; Rasch, P.; Carmichael, G. R.; Yienger, J. J.

    2001-12-01

    ACE-Asia (Asia Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment) was designed to increase our understanding of how atmospheric aerosol particles affect the Earth?s climate system. The intensive observation period was carried out during March to May, 2001, and more than 100 researchers from several countries (United States, Japan, Korea, China, and many other Asian countries) participated using aircraft, a research vessel, surface stations and numerical models. Aerosol transport forecast activities played an important role during the ACE-Asia intensive observation period. Three independent modeling groups operated chemical transport models in forecast mode and participated in flight planning activities at the operations center. These models were: MATCH (Model of Atmospheric Transport and Chemistry; Rasch and Collins); GOCART (Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport model; Chin and Ginour) and CFORS (Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University + University of Iowa - Chemical weather FORecast System; Uno, Carmichael and Yienger). The MATCH model used in ACE-Asia was a transport model applied for the Asia region, driven by NCEP forecast meteorology. A unique feature of this model was that it assimilated satellite derived optical depths into its forecast algorithm. The GOCART model provided global aerosol forecast using forecast meteorological fields provided by the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS). The CFORS model provided regional forecasts using a limited area transport model coupled with Regional Meteorological Modeling System (RAMS), initialized by NCEP and JMA forecasts. All models produced 3-d aerosol forecast products consisting of aerosol mass distributions and optical depths for sulfate, black carbon, organic carbon, sea salt, and dust. In the field these model products were made available to all participating scientists via the Web, and were also presented during the

  6. Terrestrial outgoing radiation measurements with small satellite mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ping; Dewitte, Steven; Karatekin, Ozgur; Chevalier, André; Conscience, Christian

    2015-04-01

    The solar force is the main driver of the Earth's climate. For a balanced climate system, the incoming solar radiation is equal to the sum of the reflected visible and reemitted thermal radiation at top of the atmosphere (TOA). Thus the energy imbalance plays an important role to diagnose the health of nowadays climate. However it remains a challenge to directly track the small Energy imbalance in Earth's Radiation Budget (EIERB) from space due to the complicities of the Earth's climate system and the limitation on long term stability of space instrument. The terrestrial outgoing radiation (TOR) has been recoded with a Bolometric Oscillation Sensor onboard PICAD microsatellite. In this presentation, we will report the three years TOR observed with PICARD-BOS and its further comparison with the CERES product. However the data acquired from this mission is still not enough to derive the EIERB. But the heritage gained from this experiment shields a light on the EIERB tracking with the small satellite even a cubesat mission.

  7. On requirements for a satellite mission to measure tropical rainfall

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thiele, Otto W. (Editor)

    1987-01-01

    Tropical rainfall data are crucial in determining the role of tropical latent heating in driving the circulation of the global atmosphere. Also, the data are particularly important for testing the realism of climate models, and their ability to simulate and predict climate accurately on the seasonal time scale. Other scientific issues such as the effects of El Nino on climate could be addressed with a reliable, extended time series of tropical rainfall observations. A passive microwave sensor is planned to provide information on the integrated column precipitation content, its areal distribution, and its intensity. An active microwave sensor (radar) will define the layer depth of the precipitation and provide information about the intensity of rain reaching the surface, the key to determining the latent heat input to the atmosphere. A visible/infrared sensor will provide very high resolution information on cloud coverage, type, and top temperatures and also serve as the link between these data and the long and virtually continuous coverage by the geosynchronous meteorological satellites. The unique combination of sensor wavelengths, coverages, and resolving capabilities together with the low-altitude, non-Sun synchronous orbit provide a sampling capability that should yield monthly precipitation amounts to a reasonable accuracy over a 500- by 500-km grid.

  8. Characterization of ACE and ACE2 Expression within Different Organs of the NOD Mouse.

    PubMed

    Roca-Ho, Heleia; Riera, Marta; Palau, Vanesa; Pascual, Julio; Soler, Maria Jose

    2017-03-05

    Renin angiotensin system (RAS) is known to play a key role in several diseases such as diabetes, and renal and cardiovascular pathologies. Its blockade has been demonstrated to delay chronic kidney disease progression and cardiovascular damage in diabetic patients. In this sense, since local RAS has been described, the aim of this study is to characterize angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 activities, as well as protein expression, in several tissues of the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice model. After 21 or 40 days of diabetes onset, mouse serums and tissues were analyzed for ACE and ACE2 enzyme activities and protein expression. ACE and ACE2 enzyme activities were detected in different tissues. Their expressions vary depending on the studied tissue. Thus, whereas ACE activity was highly expressed in lungs, ACE2 activity was highly expressed in pancreas among the studied tissues. Interestingly, we also observed that diabetes up-regulates ACE mainly in serum, lung, heart, and liver, and ACE2 mainly in serum, liver, and pancreas. In conclusion, we found a marked serum and pulmonary alteration in ACE activity of diabetic mice, suggesting a common regulation. The increase of ACE2 activity within the circulation in diabetic mice may be ascribed to a compensatory mechanism of RAS.

  9. Characterization of ACE and ACE2 Expression within Different Organs of the NOD Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Roca-Ho, Heleia; Riera, Marta; Palau, Vanesa; Pascual, Julio; Soler, Maria Jose

    2017-01-01

    Renin angiotensin system (RAS) is known to play a key role in several diseases such as diabetes, and renal and cardiovascular pathologies. Its blockade has been demonstrated to delay chronic kidney disease progression and cardiovascular damage in diabetic patients. In this sense, since local RAS has been described, the aim of this study is to characterize angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and ACE2 activities, as well as protein expression, in several tissues of the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice model. After 21 or 40 days of diabetes onset, mouse serums and tissues were analyzed for ACE and ACE2 enzyme activities and protein expression. ACE and ACE2 enzyme activities were detected in different tissues. Their expressions vary depending on the studied tissue. Thus, whereas ACE activity was highly expressed in lungs, ACE2 activity was highly expressed in pancreas among the studied tissues. Interestingly, we also observed that diabetes up-regulates ACE mainly in serum, lung, heart, and liver, and ACE2 mainly in serum, liver, and pancreas. In conclusion, we found a marked serum and pulmonary alteration in ACE activity of diabetic mice, suggesting a common regulation. The increase of ACE2 activity within the circulation in diabetic mice may be ascribed to a compensatory mechanism of RAS. PMID:28273875

  10. Comparisons of satellite-derived and in situ global sea surface temperature measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, Eni G.

    1985-01-01

    Attention is given to a series of three workshops held between January 1983 and February 1984 to compare presently available techniques for measuring SST. Measurements from SST from four satellite sensors were evaluated by direct comparison with one another and with measurements from ships, expendible bathythermographs, and buoys. The satellite data showed good agreement in a global rms sense (about 0.5-1.0 C), but several anomalous regional biases were observed. The biases are ascribed in some cases to instrument calibration deficiencies. In other cases, inadequacies of the retrieval algorithms are suspected to be the case. Suggestions for improving sensors and retrieval methods are discussed.

  11. The Louisiana ACES student-built BalloonSat program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellison, Brad; Giammanco, James; Guzik, T. Gregory; Johnson, Karen; Wefel, John P.

    2006-01-01

    A major concern of many aerospace industries and space agencies worldwide is the continuing decrease in undergraduate student enrollment and graduation from aerospace and closely related degree programs. With a decreasing number of new aerospace workforce candidates, expanding or sustaining our exploration of the universe over the coming decades could be at risk. In Louisiana, we have developed the Aerospace Catalyst Experiences for Students (ACES) program to address this issue by attracting new students to aerospace-related programs and providing interdisciplinary training on how to design, build, and manage aerospace payloads. Based upon the National Space Grant Student Satellite Program "Crawl, Walk, Run, Fly!" methodology, ACES closely ties cross-discipline content knowledge with extensive hands-on experiences to instill skills that are then applied by the students to design, document, build, test, and operate a small balloon-borne scientific payload. The ACES concept was initially piloted during 2002-2003 and now includes a semi-formal "Student Ballooning Course", five Louisiana institutions and serves ˜45 students.

  12. Current-voltage characteristics of the tethered satellite system: Measurements and uncertainties due to temperature variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, C. L.; Drobot, A. T.; Papadopoulos, K.; Wright, K. H.; Stone, N. H.; Gurgiolo, C.; Winningham, J. D.; Bonifazi, C.

    One of the primary goals of the Tethered Satellite System reflight mission (TSS-1R) is to determine the current-voltage characteristics of the TSS satellite orbiting in the ionosphere. While the collected current was measured directly with high reliability, the satellite potential could only be deduced from a circuit model or from interpretation of measurement data below satellite potentials of 500 Volts. The greatest uncertainty in the circuit model is the value of tether resistance R. We have provided quantitative calibration of the resistance based on instrument data for Vs < 100 Volts. We have reached the important conclusion that the R value in the TSS circuit model is correlated to temperature changes associated with the diurnal cycles along the TSS flight path. We have also applied the calibrated R value in the TSS circuit equation to construct the I-V curves that extend to high voltages. The resulting I-V characteristics are presented with error bounds on satellite potential to indicate the uncertainty associated with the tether resistance determination. The I-V relation exhibits different scalings in the high (> 100 Volts) and low (< 10 Volts) voltage regimes, which indicates a fundamental transition for the current collection physics in the ionospheric plasma surrounding the satellite.

  13. Comparison of atomic oxygen measurements by incoherent scatter and satellite-borne mass spectrometer techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hedin, A. E.; Alcayde, D.

    1974-01-01

    Atomic oxygen densities determined by the incoherent scatter technique are compared to densities deduced from satellite-borne mass spectrometer measurements and are found to agree within experimental error. The diurnal variations inferred from the incoherent scatter measurements do show, however, some departure from diurnal variations found by modeling the mass spectrometer results. Some implications of these departures are briefly discussed.

  14. Measurement of the Earth-Observer-1 Satellite X-Band Phased Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perko, Kenneth; Dod, Louis; Demas, John

    2003-01-01

    The recent launch and successful orbiting of the EO-1 Satellite has provided an opportunity to validate the performance of a newly developed X-Band transmit-only phased array aboard the satellite. This paper will compare results of planar near-field testing before and after spacecraft installation as well as on-orbit pattern characterization. The transmit-only array is used as a high data rate antenna for relaying scientific data from the satellite to earth stations. The antenna contains distributed solid-state amplifiers behind each antenna element that cannot be monitored except for radiation pattern measurements. A unique portable planar near-field scanner allows both radiation pattern measurements and also diagnostics of array aperture distribution before and after environmental testing over the ground-integration and prelaunch testing of the satellite. The antenna beam scanning software was confirmed from actual pattern measurements of the scanned beam positions during the spacecraft assembly testing. The scanned radiation patterns on-orbit were compared to the near-field patterns made before launch to confirm the antenna performance. The near-field measurement scanner has provided a versatile testing method for satellite high gain data-link antennas.

  15. Effects of sea maturity on satellite altimeter measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glazman, Roman E.; Pilorz, Stuart H.

    1990-01-01

    For equilibrium and near-equilibrium sea states, the wave slope variance is a function of wind speed U and of the sea maturity. The influence of both factors on the altimeter measurements of wind speed, wave height, and radar cross section is studied experimentally on the basis of 1 year's worth of Geosat altimeter observations colocated with in situ wind and wave measurements by 20 NOAA buoys. Errors and biases in altimeter wind speed and wave height measurements are investigted. A geophysically significant error trend correlated with the sea maturity is found in wind-speed measurements. This trend is explained by examining the effect of the generalized wind fetch on the curves of the observed dependence. It is concluded that unambiguous measurements of wind speed by altimeter, in a wide range of sea states, are impossible without accounting for the actual degree of wave development.

  16. Magsat: A satellite for measuring near earth magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langel, R. A.; Regan, R. D.; Murphy, J. P.

    1977-01-01

    Magsat, designed for making measurements of the geomagnetic vector field, is evaluated. For accurate vector measurements the attitude of the fluxgate magnetometer will be determined to about 15 arc-seconds. Expected measurement accuracy will be 6 (gamma) in each component and 3 in magnitude. The Magsat data will be applied to solid earth studies including modeling of the Earth's main magnetic field, delineation of regional magnetic anomalies of crustal origin, and interpretation of those anomalies in terms of geologic and geophysical models. An opportunity will be presented to the scientific community to participate in data use investigations.

  17. Satellite Infrared Radiation Measurements Prior to the Major Earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ouzounov, Dimitar; Pulintes, S.; Bryant, N.; Taylor, Patrick; Freund, F.

    2005-01-01

    This work describes our search for a relationship between tectonic stresses and increases in mid-infrared (IR) flux as part of a possible ensemble of electromagnetic (EM) phenomena that may be related to earthquake activity. We present and &scuss observed variations in thermal transients and radiation fields prior to the earthquakes of Jan 22, 2003 Colima (M6.7) Mexico, Sept. 28 .2004 near Parkfield (M6.0) in California and Northern Sumatra (M8.5) Dec. 26,2004. Previous analysis of earthquake events has indicated the presence of an IR anomaly, where temperatures increased or did not return to its usual nighttime value. Our procedures analyze nighttime satellite data that records the general condtion of the ground after sunset. We have found from the MODIS instrument data that five days before the Colima earthquake the IR land surface nighttime temperature rose up to +4 degrees C in a 100 km radius around the epicenter. The IR transient field recorded by MODIS in the vicinity of Parkfield, also with a cloud free environment, was around +1 degree C and is significantly smaller than the IR anomaly around the Colima epicenter. Ground surface temperatures near the Parkfield epicenter four days prior to the earthquake show steady increase. However, on the night preceding the quake, a significant drop in relative humidity was indicated, process similar to those register prior to the Colima event. Recent analyses of continuous ongoing long- wavelength Earth radiation (OLR) indicate significant and anomalous variability prior to some earthquakes. The cause of these anomalies is not well understood but could be the result of a triggering by an interaction between the lithosphere-hydrosphere and atmospheric related to changes in the near surface electrical field and/or gas composition prior to the earthquake. The OLR anomaly usually covers large areas surrounding the main epicenter. We have found strong anomalies signal (two sigma) along the epicentral area signals on Dec 21

  18. Mapping the human footprint from satellite measurements in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fan; Matsushita, Bunkei; Yang, Wei; Fukushima, Takehiko

    2014-02-01

    Due to increasing global urbanization and climate change, the quantification of "human footprints" has become an urgent goal in the fields of biodiversity conservation and regional environment management. A human footprint is defined as the impact of a particular human activity on the Earth's surface, which can be represented mainly by impervious surfaces (related to industry and urbanization) and cropland (related to agriculture). Here we present a method called sorted temporal mixture analysis with post-classification (STMAP) for mapping impervious surfaces and cropland simultaneously at the subpixel level to fill the demand for precise human footprint information on a national scale. The STMAP method applies a four-endmember sorted temporal mixture analysis to provide the initial fractions of evergreen forests, deciduous forests, cropland, and impervious surfaces as a first step. Endmembers are selected from the sorted temporal profiles of the MODIS-normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), as guided by a principal component analysis. The yearly maximum land surface temperatures and averaged stable nighttime light are then statistically analyzed to provide the thresholds for post-classification to further separate cropland from deciduous forest and bare land from impervious surface. As the four outputs of STMAP, the fractions of forest, cropland, impervious surfaces and bare land are derived. We used the reference maps of impervious surfaces and cropland obtained from the Landsat/TM and ALOS precise land-use/land-cover map at the subpixel level to evaluate the performance of the proposed method, respectively. Historical satellite images with high spatial resolution were used to further evaluate the cropland results derived with the STMAP method. The results showed that the STMAP method has promising accuracy for estimating impervious surfaces and cropland in Japan. The root mean square errors obtained with the STMAP method were 6.3% for the estimation of

  19. Validation of satellite data with IASOA observatories and shipboard measurements in Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repina, Irina; Artamonov, Arseniy; Mazilkina, Alexandra; Valiullin, Denis; Stanichny, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    The paper shows the possibility of using surface observation data at high latitudes for the validation of different satellite products. We use data from International Arctic Systems for Observing the Atmosphere (IASOA) observatories and data from Nansen and Amundsen basins observation system (NABOS) project. The NABOS field experiment was carried out in the central part of the Arctic and in the eastern Arctic seas during summer and fall period of 2004-2009, 2013 and 2015. Newly improved satellite products and surface observations provide an opportunity to revisit remote-sensing capabilities for estimating shortwave and longwave radiative fluxes, as well as turbulent fluxes at high latitudes. Estimates of SW fluxes from the MODIS and LW fluxes from the NOAA satellites are evaluated against land observations from IASOA observatories, and unique shipboard measurements. Results show that the satellite products are in better agreement with observations than those from numerical models. Therefore, the large scale satellite based estimates should be useful for model evaluation and for providing information in formulating energy budgets at high latitudes. Visible and near-infrared albedos over snow and ice surfaces are retrieved from AVHRR. Comparison with surface measurements of albedo in arctic observatories and Arctic ocean shows very good agreement. Meteorological and micrometeorological observations were used to validate the surface temperature and surface heat fluxes in the satellite data. Compared data arrays are independent and sufficiently detailed to perform trustworthy evaluations. The spatial and temporal patterns of the resulting flux fields are investigated and compared with those derived from satellite observations such as HOAPS, from blended data such as AOFLUX (in the open water cases). A computation of the sensible heat flux at the surface is formulated on the basis of spatial variations of the surface temperature estimated from satellite data. Based on

  20. ACE program/UNIX user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Feng-Berman, S.K.

    1993-01-12

    This report the following: How to use the ace program?; Introduction to the ace program; Online command; Define a macro file; Macro commands; Counters and MCA; Counters usage; Counters database; Feedback Counter Database; MCA functions and macro command; X window Interclient Communication; and How to get around in UNIX?

  1. ACE program/UNIX user manual

    SciTech Connect

    Feng-Berman, S.K.

    1993-01-12

    This report the following: How to use the ace program ; Introduction to the ace program; Online command; Define a macro file; Macro commands; Counters and MCA; Counters usage; Counters database; Feedback Counter Database; MCA functions and macro command; X window Interclient Communication; and How to get around in UNIX

  2. Fade-durations derived from land-mobile-satellite measurements in Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hase, Yoshihiro; Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Goldhirsh, Julius

    1991-01-01

    Transmissions from the Japanese ETS-V geostationary satellite were measured at L band (1.5 GHz) in a vehicle driving on roads of southeastern Australia. The measurements were part of a program designed to characterize propagation effects due to roadside trees and terrain for mobile satellite service. It is shown that the cumulative distributions of fade and nonfade durations follow a lognormal and power law, respectively. At 1 percent probability, fades last 2-8 m, and nonfades 10-100 m, depending on the degree of shadowing. Phase fluctuations are generally small, allowing the channel characteristics to be estimated from levels only.

  3. Convective cloud top vertical velocity estimated from geostationary satellite rapid-scan measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamada, Atsushi; Takayabu, Yukari N.

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate that the rate of development of cumulus clouds, as inferred from the so-called geostationary satellite "rapid-scan" measurements, is a good proxy for convective cloud top vertical velocity related to deep convective clouds. Convective cloud top vertical velocity is estimated from the decreasing rate of infrared brightness temperature observed by the Multi-functional Transport SATellite-1R (MTSAT-1R) over the ocean south of Japan during boreal summer. The frequency distribution of the estimated convective cloud top vertical velocity at each height is shown to distribute lognormally, and it is consistent with the statistical characteristics of direct measurements acquired in previous studies.

  4. Diurnal variability of the planetary albedo - An appraisal with satellite measurements and general circulation models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, G. L.; Cess, R. D.; Minnis, P.; Harrison, E. F.; Ramanathan, V.

    1988-01-01

    An atmospheric radiation model is used here to illustrate several features associated with modeling the diurnal cycle of the planetary albedo. It is found that even for clear regions there appear to be deficiencies in our knowledge of how to model this quantity. The diurnal amplitude factor, defined as the ratio of the diurnally averaged planetary albedo to that at noon, between two GCMs and measurements made from a geostationary satellite. While reasonable consistency is found, the comparisons underscore difficulties associated with converting local-time albedo measurements, as made from sun-synchronous satellites, to diurnally averaged albedos.

  5. Mobile satellite system propagation measurements at L-band using Marecs-B2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Goldhirsh, Julius

    1990-01-01

    A mobile satellite system (MSS) propagation experiment at 1.5 GHz was performed near the east coast of the United States in central Maryland during December 1987 using the Marecs-B2 satellite as a transmitter platform. A receiving system in a vehicle measured signal fades caused by shadowing and multipath from roadside trees and utility poles. The propagation degradations were characterized for a system of three roads previously examined using a helicopter as the transmitter platform. The objectives of the Marecs-B2 MSS tests were to: (1) establish cumulative fade distributions for the particular satellite geometry for both rural and suburban roads; (2) validate the consistency of previous roadside tree measurements which employed a helicopter as the transmitter platform for the same system of roads; (3) obtain an additional set of fade levels at a lower angle hitherto not measured in central Maryland; and (4) combine the satellite-acquired data set with previous helicopter results and establish an analytic, empirically derived function describing the cumulative fade distributions for a family of path angles. An analysis of the satellite data has demonstrated the successful achievement of these objectives.

  6. The IOSMOS (IOnian Sea water quality MOnitoring by Satellite data) project: integration of satellite data and in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacava, Teodosio; Bernini, Guido; Ciancia, Emanuele; Coviello, Irina; Di Polito, Carmine; Madonia, Alice; Marcelli, Marco; Pascucci, Simone; Paciello, Rossana; Palombo, Angelo; Pergola, Nicola; Piermattei, Viviana; Pignatti, Stefano; Santini, Federico; Satriano, Valeria; Tournaviti, Paraskevi; Tramutoli, Valerio; Vallianatos, Filippos

    2014-05-01

    Coastal zones are complex and dynamic ecosystems representing one of the most productive areas of the marine environment. These areas deserve the development and the implementation of a monitoring system able to guarantee their continuous and reliable control for a timely and accurate identification of any possible sign of degradation. Remote sensing data can give a relevant contribution in this framework, offering the capability to provide the information about the spatial distribution of water constituents over large areas with high temporal rates and at relatively low costs. In this context, the main objective of the IOSMOS (IOnian Sea water quality MOnitoring by Satellite data) Project - a European Transnational Cooperation action co-funded by the ERDF Operational Programme Basilicata 2007-2013 is the development of advanced satellite products and techniques for the study and the monitoring of the Ionian sea water quality along Basilicata (Italy) and Crete Island (Greece) coasts. In particular, the RST (Robust Satellite Technique) approach has been applied to more than 10 years of MODIS-Ocean Colour products in order to identify the areas at highest level of degradation and/or at greatest potential risk. Following RST approach anomalous space-time variations of optical variables (e.g. upwelling normalized water-leaving radiances) and bio-optical parameters such as chlorophyll-a concentration, Cromophormic Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM), diffuse attenuation coefficient at 490 nm (Kd490), etc. have been identified taking into account the site history (in terms of expected values and normal variability of each selected parameter) as obtained from long-term, multi-temporal time series analysis. Such an approach allowed to generate similar products both for shallow and deep water. Specific measurements campaigns have been carried out with the collection of in-situ (radiometric and chemical/physical measurements) and airborne (radiometric measurements) data, in

  7. Evaluation of the Geomagnetic Field Models based on Magnetometer Measurements for Satellite's Attitude Determination System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cilden, Demet; Kaymaz, Zerefsan; Hajiyev, Chingiz

    2016-07-01

    Magnetometers are common attitude determination sensors for small satellites at low Earth orbit; therefore, magnetic field model of the Earth is necessary to estimate the satellite's attitude angles. Difference in the components of the magnetic field vectors -mostly used as unit vector. Therefore the angle between them (model and measurement data) affects the estimation accuracy of the satellite's attitude. In this study, geomagnetic field models are compared with satellite magnetic field observations in order to evaluate the models using the magnetometer results with high accuracy. For attitude determination system, IGRF model is used in most of the cases but the difference between the sensor and model increases when the geomagnetic activity occurs. Hence, several models including the empirical ones using the external variations in the Earth's geomagnetic field resulting from the solar wind and interplanetary magnetic field are of great importance in determination of the satellite's attitude correctly. IGRF model describes the internal-part of the geomagnetic field, on the other hand candidate models to IGRF, such as recently developed POMME-6 model based on Champ data, CHAOS-5 (CHAmp, Oersted, Swarm), T89 (Tsyganenko's model), include simple parameterizations of external fields of magnetospheric sources in addition to the internal field especially for low Earth orbiting satellites. Those models can be evaluated to see noticeable difference on extraterrestrial field effects on satellite's attitude determination system changing with its height. The comparisons are made between the models and observations and between the models under various magnetospheric activities. In this study, we will present our preliminary results from the comparisons and discuss their implications from the satellite attitude perspective.

  8. Stratospheric measurement requirements and satellite-borne remote sensing capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carmichael, J. J.; Eldridge, R. G.; Frey, E. J.; Friedman, E. J.; Ghovanlou, A. H.

    1976-01-01

    The capabilities of specific NASA remote sensing systems to provide appropriate measurements of stratospheric parameters for potential user needs were assessed. This was used to evaluate the capabilities of the remote sensing systems to perform global monitoring of the stratosphere. The following conclusions were reached: (1) The performance of current remote stratospheric sensors, in some cases, compares quite well with identified measurement requirements. Their ability to measure other species has not been demonstrated. (2) None of the current, in-situ methods have the capability to satisfy the requirements for global monitoring and the temporal constraints derived from the users needs portion of the study. (3) Existing, non-remote techniques will continue to play an important role in stratospheric investigations for both corroboration of remotely collected data and in the evolutionary development of future remote sensors.

  9. Non-Linear Optimization Applied to Angle-of-Arrival Satellite-Based Geolocation with Correlated Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    NON-LINEAR OPTIMIZATION APPLIED TO ANGLE-OF-ARRIVAL SATELLITE -BASED GEOLOCATION WITH CORRELATED MEASUREMENTS THESIS Joshua S. Sprang, 2d Lt, USAF...APPLIED TO ANGLE-OF-ARRIVAL SATELLITE -BASED GEOLOCATION WITH CORRELATED MEASUREMENTS THESIS Presented to the Faculty Department of Electrical and Computer...ARRIVAL SATELLITE -BASED GEOLOCATION WITH CORRELATED MEASUREMENTS THESIS Joshua S. Sprang, B.S.E.E., B.S.Cp.E 2d Lt, USAF Committee Membership: Dr. A

  10. Thermospheric and geomagnetic responses to interplanetary coronal mass ejections observed by ACE and GRACE: Statistical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, S.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A.; Baur, O.; Lammer, H.

    2015-10-01

    For the period July 2003 to August 2010, the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) catalogue maintained by Richardson and Cane lists 106 Earth-directed events, which have been measured in situ by plasma and field instruments on board the ACE satellite. We present a statistical investigation of the Earth's thermospheric neutral density response by means of accelerometer measurements collected by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, which are available for 104 ICMEs in the data set, and its relation to various geomagnetic indices and characteristic ICME parameters such as the impact speed (vmax), southward magnetic field strength (Bz). The majority of ICMEs causes a distinct density enhancement in the thermosphere, with up to a factor of 8 compared to the preevent level. We find high correlations between ICME Bz and thermospheric density enhancements (≈0.9), while the correlation with the ICME impact speed is somewhat smaller (≈0.7). The geomagnetic indices revealing the highest correlations are Dst and SYM-H(≈0.9); the lowest correlations are obtained for Kp and AE (≈0.7), which show a nonlinear relation with the thermospheric density enhancements. Separating the response for the shock-sheath region and the magnetic structure of the ICME, we find that the Dst and SYM-H reveal a tighter relation to the Bz minimum in the magnetic structure of the ICME, whereas the polar cap indices show higher correlations with the Bz minimum in the shock-sheath region. Since the strength of the Bz component—either in the sheath or in the magnetic structure of the ICME—is highly correlated (≈0.9) with the neutral density enhancement, we discuss the possibility of satellite orbital decay estimates based on magnetic field measurements at L1, i.e., before the ICME hits the Earth magnetosphere. These results are expected to further stimulate progress in space weather understanding and applications regarding satellite operations.

  11. Optimum satellite orbits for accurate measurement of the earth's radiation budget, summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, G. G.; Vonderhaar, T. H.

    1978-01-01

    The optimum set of orbit inclinations for the measurement of the earth radiation budget from spacially integrating sensor systems was estimated for two and three satellite systems. The best set of the two were satellites at orbit inclinations of 80 deg and 50 deg; of three the inclinations were 80 deg, 60 deg and 50 deg. These were chosen on the basis of a simulation of flat plate and spherical detectors flying over a daily varying earth radiation field as measured by the Nimbus 3 medium resolution scanners. A diurnal oscillation was also included in the emitted flux and albedo to give a source field as realistic as possible. Twenty three satellites with different inclinations and equator crossings were simulated, allowing the results of thousand of multisatellite sets to be intercompared. All were circular orbits of radius 7178 kilometers.

  12. A thermodynamic geography: night-time satellite imagery as a proxy measure of emergy.

    PubMed

    Coscieme, Luca; Pulselli, Federico M; Bastianoni, Simone; Elvidge, Christopher D; Anderson, Sharolyn; Sutton, Paul C

    2014-11-01

    Night-time satellite imagery enables the measurement, visualization, and mapping of energy consumption in an area. In this paper, an index of the "sum of lights" as observed by night-time satellite imagery within national boundaries is compared with the emergy of the nations. Emergy is a measure of the solar energy equivalent used, directly or indirectly, to support the processes that characterize the economic activity in a country. Emergy has renewable and non-renewable components. Our results show that the non-renewable component of national emergy use is positively correlated with night-time satellite imagery. This relationship can be used to produce emergy density maps which enable the incorporation of spatially explicit representations of emergy in geographic information systems. The region of Abruzzo (Italy) is used to demonstrate this relationship as a spatially disaggregate case.

  13. Propagation measurements for an Australian land mobile satellite system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bundrock, Anthony J.; Harvey, Robert

    1988-01-01

    Measurements of attenuation statistics using a helicopter and an instrumented van are discussed. Results are given for two different tree densities, for elevation angles of 30, 45 and 60 degrees and for frequencies of 893, 1550 and 2660 MHz. These results show that at 1550 MHz and 45 degrees elevation angle, attenuation values of 5.0 and 8.6 dB were exceeded 10 percent of the time for roadside tree densities of 35 percent and 85 percent respectively. Comparisons with other results made in the Northern Hemisphere are made and show general agreement. The implication of the measured values on system design are discussed, and it is shown that, for Australia, an adaptive margin allocation scheme would require an average margin of approximately 5 dB.

  14. Measurement of oceanic wind vector using satellite microwave radiometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wentz, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    A feasibility study of deriving both a wind speed and direction from microwave radiometer measurements of the ocean is presented. The study was based on the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I) measurements in conjunction with buoy reports from the National Data Buoy Center. It was found that the SSM/I minus the buoy wind speed difference is correlated with wind direction due to a wind direction signal in the brightness temperatures. When this wind direction signal is removed the rms difference between the SSM/I and buoy winds reduces to 1.3 m/s. The wind direction signal was used to make global, low-resolution maps of the monthly mean oceanic wind vector.

  15. Deformation of Alaskan Volcanoes, Measured by Satellite Radar Inferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freymueller, Jeff; Dean, Ken; Wyss, Max

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to determine the suitability of measuring active deformation of volcanoes in Alaska using Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (INSAR) techniques. Work sponsored by this grant supported one graduate student (for almost 2 years) and one postdoc (for several months), and has resulted in two published peer-reviewed papers and a front-page article in EOS. An additional paper is in review and a fourth is in preparation. An additional paper in preparation was based in part on research supported by this grant and in part by a successor grant from NASA's Solid Earth Natural Hazards program. Over the course of this research, we documented measurable uplift of Trident volcano in the Katmai group, conducted a systematic study of the change in phase coherence over time on volcanic surfaces, and measured and modeled the spectacular 1.5 m deflation of Okmok caldera associated with its 1997 eruption. We also generated initial interferograms spanning the 1996 seismic swarm of Akutan volcano; however, during the period covered by this project we were not able to remove topography. That has been done under the subsequent funding and a paper is now in preparation. This report summarizes work done under two separate contracts because both were based on the same proposal to NASA's ADRO (Application Development and Research Opportunity) program. The first year was funded out of a grant from NASA Headquarters and the second and third years out of a grant through Goddard. The work, however, was a continuous three year effort.

  16. A new satellite simulator tool for global model-measurements intercomparisons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khlystova, Iryna; Schreier, Mathias; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Sausen, Robert; Burrows, John P.

    A new satellite simulation tool has been developed at the University of Bremen in cooperation with the DLR IPA in Muenchen. The original objective of this tool was to simplify and unify all typical comparison steps performed repeatedly by different research groups for comparisons of the global measurements of an atmospheric trace species with corresponding model fields. To answer the main requirements, the SatSim tool was designed as an extendable (based on concepts of Object-Oriented Programming) and flexible relative to the format of the input data tool. The latter allows the integration of the SatSim into a chemistry-transport model facility as a post-processing routine as well as its independent usage. Additionally, as it has become clear through the development process, SatSim can be also used as a validation tool for different satellite measurements. Being independent of the retrieval procedure, which is required in order to obtain a trace-species information from satellites radiometric measurements, this tool allows comparisons of the modelled fields of several atmospheric trace species as if they were measured by satellite instruments. Such approach provides an insight into the differences of the instrumental measurement precision caused only by the difference in the ground tracks geometry and related differences in the cloud coverage of the observed scenes. An example of the simulated SCIAMACHY and MOPITT CO observations based on the ECHAM5/Messy1 simulated global CO fields will be presented.

  17. Ionospheric wave measurements with satellite-borne cross-power spectrum analyzers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harker, K. J.; Crawford, F. W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper studies the feasibility of using the cross-power spectrum analyzer on a satellite such as the Space Shuttle to measure the spectrum of potential and charged particle density fluctuations and macroscopic parameters in the ionosphere. The integration time required to make a measurement of a cross-power spectral density to a given accuracy, or its equivalent, the spatial resolution of a measurement to a given accuracy is examined.

  18. Automated Historical and Real-Time Cyclone Discovery With Multimodal Remote Satellite Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, S.; Talukder, A.; Liu, T.; Tang, W.; Bingham, A.

    2008-12-01

    Existing cyclone detection and tracking solutions involve extensive manual analysis of modeled-data and field campaign data by teams of experts. We have developed a novel automated global cyclone detection and tracking system by assimilating and sharing information from multiple remote satellites. This unprecedented solution of combining multiple remote satellite measurements in an autonomous manner allows leveraging off the strengths of each individual satellite. Use of multiple satellite data sources also results in significantly improved temporal tracking accuracy for cyclones. Our solution involves an automated feature extraction and machine learning technique based on an ensemble classifier and Kalman filter for cyclone detection and tracking from multiple heterogeneous satellite data sources. Our feature-based methodology that focuses on automated cyclone discovery is fundamentally different from, and actually complements, the well-known Dvorak technique for cyclone intensity estimation (that often relies on manual detection of cyclonic regions) from field and remote data. Our solution currently employs the QuikSCAT wind measurement and the merged level 3 TRMM precipitation data for automated cyclone discovery. Assimilation of other types of remote measurements is ongoing and planned in the near future. Experimental results of our automated solution on historical cyclone datasets demonstrate the superior performance of our automated approach compared to previous work. Performance of our detection solution compares favorably against the list of cyclones occurring in North Atlantic Ocean for the 2005 calendar year reported by the National Hurricane Center (NHC) in our initial analysis. We have also demonstrated the robustness of our cyclone tracking methodology in other regions over the world by using multiple heterogeneous satellite data for detection and tracking of three arbitrary historical cyclones in other regions. Our cyclone detection and tracking

  19. Saharan dust detection using multi-sensor satellite measurements.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Sriharsha; Qu, John J; Hao, X

    2017-02-01

    Contemporary scientists have vested interest in trying to understand the climatology of the North Atlantic Basin since this region is considered as the genesis for hurricane formation that eventually get shipped to the tropical Atlantic region and the Caribbean. The effects of atmospheric water cycle and the climate of West Africa and the Atlantic basin are hugely impacted by the radiative forcing of Saharan dust. The focus area in this paper would be to improve the dust detection schemes by employing the use of multi sensor measurements in the thermal emissive wavelengths using legacy sensors such as Terra (T) and Aqua (A) MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), fusing with Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI). Previous work by Hao and Qu (2007) had considered a limited number of thermal infrared channels which led to a correlation coefficient R(2) value of 0.765 between the Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) at 550 nm and the modeled dust index. In this work, we extend the thermal infrared based dust detection by employing additional channels: the 8.55 μm which has shown high sensitivity to the Saharan dust, along with water vapor channel of 7.1 μm and cloud top channel of 13.1 μm. Also, the dust pixels were clearly identified using the OMI based aerosol types. The dust pixels were cleanly segregated from the other aerosol types such as sulfates, biomass, and other carbonaceous aerosols. These improvements led to a much higher correlation coefficient R(2) value of 0.85 between the modified dust index and the AOT in comparison to the previous work. The key limitations from the current AOT products based on MODIS and were put to test by validating the improved dust detection algorithm. Two improvements were noted. First, the dust measurement radiometry using MODIS is significantly improved by at least an order of 2. Second the spatial measurements are enhanced by a factor of at least 10.

  20. Measurement of Satellite Impact Test Fragments for Modeling Orbital Debris

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hill, Nicole M.

    2009-01-01

    There are over 13,000 pieces of catalogued objects 10cm and larger in orbit around Earth [ODQN, January 2009, p12]. More than 6000 of these objects are fragments from explosions and collisions. As the earth-orbiting object count increases, debris-generating collisions in the future become a statistical inevitability. To aid in understanding this collision risk, the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office has developed computer models that calculate quantity and orbits of debris both currently in orbit and in future epochs. In order to create a reasonable computer model of the orbital debris environment, it is important to understand the mechanics of creation of debris as a result of a collision. The measurement of the physical characteristics of debris resulting from ground-based, hypervelocity impact testing aids in understanding the sizes and shapes of debris produced from potential impacts in orbit. To advance the accuracy of fragment shape/size determination, the NASA Orbital Debris Program Office recently implemented a computerized measurement system. The goal of this system is to improve knowledge and understanding of the relation between commonly used dimensions and overall shape. The technique developed involves scanning a single fragment with a hand-held laser device, measuring its size properties using a sophisticated software tool, and creating a three-dimensional computer model to demonstrate how the object might appear in orbit. This information is used to aid optical techniques in shape determination. This more automated and repeatable method provides higher accuracy in the size and shape determination of debris.

  1. Japanese Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission status and application of satellite-based global rainfall map

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachi, Misako; Shimizu, Shuji; Kubota, Takuji; Yoshida, Naofumi; Oki, Riko; Kojima, Masahiro; Iguchi, Toshio; Nakamura, Kenji

    2010-05-01

    As accuracy of satellite precipitation estimates improves and observation frequency increases, application of those data to societal benefit areas, such as weather forecasts and flood predictions, is expected, in addition to research of precipitation climatology to analyze precipitation systems. There is, however, limitation on single satellite observation in coverage and frequency. Currently, the Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission is scheduled under international collaboration to fulfill various user requirements that cannot be achieved by the single satellite, like the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM). The GPM mission is an international mission to achieve high-accurate and high-frequent rainfall observation over a global area. GPM is composed of a TRMM-like non-sun-synchronous orbit satellite (GPM core satellite) and constellation of satellites carrying microwave radiometer instruments. The GPM core satellite carries the Dual-frequency Precipitation Radar (DPR), which is being developed by the Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) and the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT), and microwave radiometer provided by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Development of DPR instrument is in good progress for scheduled launch in 2013, and DPR Critical Design Review has completed in July - September 2009. Constellation satellites, which carry a microwave imager and/or sounder, are planned to be launched around 2013 by each partner agency for its own purpose, and will contribute to extending coverage and increasing frequency. JAXA's future mission, the Global Change Observation Mission (GCOM) - Water (GCOM-W) satellite will be one of constellation satellites. The first generation of GCOM-W satellite is scheduled to be launched in 2011, and it carries the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer 2 (AMSR2), which is being developed based on the experience of the AMSR-E on EOS Aqua satellite

  2. Comparison of total ozone amounts derived from satellite and ground-based measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Planet, Walter G.; Miller, Alvin J.; Angell, James K.

    1988-01-01

    Total ozone amounts derived from the NOAA operational sounder (TOVS) are compared to measurements from Nimbus-7 SBUV and ground-based Dobson spectrophotometer observations over a seven-year period. The global trends of the data, in terms of deviations from long-term averages, derived from measurements by each satellite instrument show qualitative agreement until mid-1984 when the data diverge with the TOVS-derived data showing higher values. Additionally, more significant differences appear in both the north and south temperate zones' records. The trends derived from the satellite systems' measurements also show differences from that of the Dobson instrument measurements with the trend of the TOVS measurements showing generally better overall agreement with the Dobson data record.

  3. Derivation of the radiation budget at ground level from satellite measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raschke, E.

    1982-01-01

    Determination of the Earth radiaton budget and progress in measurement of the budget components and in the treatment of imaging data from satellites are described. Methods for calculating the radiation budget in a general circulation model, radiative transfer characteristics of clouds, computation of solar radiation at ground level using meteorological data and development of a 10-channel radiometer are discussed.

  4. A middle atmosphere temperature reference model from satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, J. J.; Corney, M.

    Temperature fields in the stratosphere and mesosphere have been derived from radiance measurements made by the Nimbus 5 SCR, the Nimbus 6 PMR, and the Nimbus 7 SAMS and LIMS radiometers. These instruments cover different latitude and height ranges and different times during the 1973-1983 period. The problems of combining different data sets are discussed, and examples from a proposed model atmosphere for the stratosphere and mesosphere are presented. The model is given in terms of zonal means and amplitude and phase of zonal waves 1 and 2 for temperature and geopotential height, as functions of latitude and pressure for each calendar month. Comparisons are made with the CIRA 1972 and the Koshelkov Southern Hemisphere models and with the SAMS results and in-situ rocket/radio sondes.

  5. Deep Blue Retrievals of Asian Aerosol Properties During ACE-Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, Si-Cee; King, Michael D.; Herman, Jay R.

    2006-01-01

    During the ACE-Asia field campaign, unprecedented amounts of aerosol property data in East Asia during springtime were collected from an array of aircraft, shipboard, and surface instruments. However, most of the observations were obtained in areas downwind of the source regions. In this paper, the newly developed satellite aerosol algorithm called "Deep Blue" was employed to characterize the properties of aerosols over source regions using radiance measurements from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Based upon the ngstr m exponent derived from the Deep Blue algorithm, it was demonstrated that this new algorithm is able to distinguish dust plumes from fine-mode pollution particles even in complex aerosol environments such as the one over Beijing. Furthermore, these results were validated by comparing them with observations from AERONET sites in China and Mongolia during spring 2001. These comparisons show that the values of satellite-retrieved aerosol optical thickness from Deep Blue are generally within 20%-30% of those measured by sunphotometers. The analyses also indicate that the roles of mineral dust and anthropogenic particles are comparable in contributing to the overall aerosol distributions during spring in northern China, while fine-mode particles are dominant over southern China. The spring season in East Asia consists of one of the most complex environments in terms of frequent cloudiness and wide ranges of aerosol loadings and types. This paper will discuss how the factors contributing to this complexity influence the resulting aerosol monthly averages from various satellite sensors and, thus, the synergy among satellite aerosol products.

  6. Linear and Nonlinear Relative Navigation Strategies for Small Satellite Formation Flying Based on Relative Position Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaomin; Zheng, You

    Based on linear and nonlinear mathematical model of spacecraft formation flying and technology of relative position measurement of small satellites, the linear and nonlinear relative navigation strategies are developed in this paper. The dynamical characteristics of multi spacecraft formation flying have been researched in many references, including the authors' several International Astronautical Congress papers with numbers of IAF-98-A.2.06, IAA-99-IAA.11.1.09, IAA-01-IAA.11.4.08. Under conditions of short distance and short time, the linear model can describe relative orbit motion; otherwise, nonlinear model must be adopted. Furthermore the means of measurement and their error will influence relative navigation. Thus three kinds of relative navigation strategy are progressed. With consideration of difficulty in relative velocity measurement of small satellites, the three relative navigation strategies are proposed and only depend on sequential data of relative position through measuring the relative distance and relative orientation. The first kind of relative navigation strategy is based on linear model. The second relative navigation strategy is based on nonlinear model, with inclusion of the second order item. In fact the measurement error can not be avoided especially for small satellites, it is mainly considered in the third relative navigation strategy. This research is theoretical yet and a series of formulas of relative navigation are presented in this paper. Also the authors analyzed the three strategies qualitatively and quantitatively. According to results of simulation, the ranges of application are indicated and suggested in allusion to the three strategies of relative navigation. On the view of authors, the relative navigation strategies for small satellite formation flying based on relative position measurement are significant for engineering of small satellite formation flying.

  7. Satellite altimetric measurements of the ocean. Report of the TOPEX Science Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, R.

    1981-01-01

    The scientific usefulness of satellite measurements of ocean topography for the study of ocean circulation was investigated. The following topics were studied: (1) scientific problems which use altimetric measurements of ocean topography; (2) the extent in which in situ measurements are complementary or required; (3) accuracy, precision, and spatial and temporal resolutions which are required of the topographic measurements; (4) errors associated with measurement techniques; and (5) influences of these errors on scientific problems. An operational system for measuring ocean topography, was defined and the cost of conducting such a topographic experiment, was estimated.

  8. Association of Increased Serum ACE Activity with Logical Memory Ability in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment.

    PubMed

    Tian, Sai; Han, Jing; Huang, Rong; Xia, Wenqing; Sun, Jie; Cai, Rongrong; Dong, Xue; Shen, Yanjue; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is involved in the chronic complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease. This study aimed to assess the pathogenetic roles of ACE and the genetic predisposition of its insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among T2DM patients. Methods: A total of 210 T2DM patients were enrolled. Among these patients, 116 satisfied the MCI diagnostic criteria and 94 exhibited healthy cognition. The cognitive functions of the patients were extensively assessed. The serum level and activity of ACE were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and ultraviolet spectrophotography. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms of I/D gene of ACE were analyzed. Results: The serum level and activity of ACE in diabetic MCI patients (p = 0.022 and p = 0.008, respectively) were both significantly higher than those in the healthy controls. A significant negative correlation was found between their ACE activity and logical memory test score (LMT) (p = 0.002). Multiple stepwise regression iterated the negative correlation between ACE activity and LMT score (p = 0.035). Although no significant difference was found in the genotype or allele distribution of ACE I/D polymorphism between the groups, the serum levels and activity of ACE were higher in the DD group than in the ID and II groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Serum ACE activity could better predict logical memory in T2DM patients than ACE level. Further investigations on a large population size are necessary to test whether the D-allele of the ACE gene polymorphism is susceptible to memory deterioration.

  9. Association of Increased Serum ACE Activity with Logical Memory Ability in Type 2 Diabetic Patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Sai; Han, Jing; Huang, Rong; Xia, Wenqing; Sun, Jie; Cai, Rongrong; Dong, Xue; Shen, Yanjue; Wang, Shaohua

    2016-01-01

    Background: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) is involved in the chronic complications of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and Alzheimer's disease. This study aimed to assess the pathogenetic roles of ACE and the genetic predisposition of its insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) among T2DM patients. Methods: A total of 210 T2DM patients were enrolled. Among these patients, 116 satisfied the MCI diagnostic criteria and 94 exhibited healthy cognition. The cognitive functions of the patients were extensively assessed. The serum level and activity of ACE were measured via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and ultraviolet spectrophotography. The single-nucleotide polymorphisms of I/D gene of ACE were analyzed. Results: The serum level and activity of ACE in diabetic MCI patients (p = 0.022 and p = 0.008, respectively) were both significantly higher than those in the healthy controls. A significant negative correlation was found between their ACE activity and logical memory test score (LMT) (p = 0.002). Multiple stepwise regression iterated the negative correlation between ACE activity and LMT score (p = 0.035). Although no significant difference was found in the genotype or allele distribution of ACE I/D polymorphism between the groups, the serum levels and activity of ACE were higher in the DD group than in the ID and II groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Serum ACE activity could better predict logical memory in T2DM patients than ACE level. Further investigations on a large population size are necessary to test whether the D-allele of the ACE gene polymorphism is susceptible to memory deterioration. PMID:28066203

  10. ATM Quality of Service Parameters at 45 Mbps Using a Satellite Emulator: Laboratory Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivancic, William D.; Bobinsky, Eric A.

    1997-01-01

    Results of 45-Mbps DS3 intermediate-frequency loopback measurements of asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) quality of service parameters (cell error ratio and cell loss ratio) are presented. These tests, which were conducted at the NASA Lewis Research Center in support of satellite-ATM interoperability research, represent initial efforts to quantify the minimum parameters for stringent ATM applications, such as MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 video transmission. Portions of these results were originally presented to the International Telecommunications Union's ITU-R Working Party 4B in February 1996 in support of their Draft Preliminary Recommendation on the Transmission of ATM Traffic via Satellite.

  11. Determination of the heat balance of the earth: Interpretation of radiation measurements from satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Laughlin, C. R.

    1977-01-01

    A method is developed for estimating the mean and mean-square variation of the flux at an altitude arbitrarily chosen to represent the top of the atmosphere. When applied to practical satellite measurements, the method is shown to be optimum in that the estimated mean is unbiased and the mean square variation of the estimates converges to that of the true flux. Data from the Meteor-1 and -2 satellites support the essential assumptions and provide a quantitative indication of the performance that can be expected.

  12. Candidate configuration trade study, Stellar-inertial Measurement Systems (SIMS) for an Earth Observation Satellite (EOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ogletree, G.; Coccoli, J.; Mckern, R.; Smith, M.; White, R.

    1972-01-01

    The results of analytical and simulation studies of the stellar-inertial measurement system (SIMS) for an earth observation satellite are presented. Subsystem design analyses and sensor design trades are reported. Three candidate systems are considered: (1) structure-mounted gyros with structure-mounted star mapper, (2) structure-mounted gyros with gimbaled star tracker, and (3) gimbaled gyros with structure-mounted star mapper. The purpose of the study is to facilitate the decisions pertaining to gimbaled versus structure-mounted gyros and star sensors, and combinations of systems suitable for the EOS satellite.

  13. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) dimerization is the initial step in the ACE inhibitor-induced ACE signaling cascade in endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kohlstedt, Karin; Gershome, Cynthia; Friedrich, Matthias; Müller-Esterl, Werner; Alhenc-Gelas, François; Busse, Rudi; Fleming, Ingrid

    2006-05-01

    The binding of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors to ACE initiates a signaling cascade that involves the phosphorylation of the enzyme on Ser1270 as well as activation of the c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) and leads to alterations in gene expression. To clarify how ACE inhibitors activate this pathway, we determined their effect on the ability of the enzyme to dimerize and the role of ACE dimerization in the initiation of the ACE signaling cascade. In endothelial cells, ACE was detected as a monomer as well as a dimer in native gel electrophoresis and dimerization/oligomerization was confirmed using the split-ubiquitin assay in yeast. ACE inhibitors elicited a rapid, concentration-dependent increase in the dimer/monomer ratio that correlated with that of the ACE inhibitorinduced phosphorylation of ACE. Cell treatment with galactose and glucose to prevent the putative lectin-mediated self-association of ACE or with specific antibodies shielding the N terminus of ACE failed to affect either the basal or the ACE inhibitor-induced dimerization of the enzyme. In ACE-expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells, ACE inhibitors elicited ACE dimerization and phosphorylation as well as the activation of JNK with similar kinetics to those observed in endothelial cells. However, these effects were prevented by the mutation of the essential Zn2+-complexing histidines in the C-terminal active site of the enzyme. Mutation of the N-terminal active site of ACE was without effect. Together, our data suggest that ACE inhibitors can initiate the ACE signaling pathway by inducing ACE dimerization, most probably via the C-terminal active site of the enzyme.

  14. Global climatology based on the ACE-FTS version 3.5 dataset: Addition of mesospheric levels and carbon-containing species in the UTLS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koo, Ja-Ho; Walker, Kaley A.; Jones, Ashley; Sheese, Patrick E.; Boone, Chris D.; Bernath, Peter F.; Manney, Gloria L.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new climatology based on the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS) version 3.5 data set from February 2004 to February 2013. This extends the ACE-FTS climatology to include profile information in the mesosphere and carbon-containing species in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. Climatologies of 21 species, based on nine years of observations, are calculated, providing the most comprehensive and self-consistent climatology available from limb-viewing satellite measurements. Pressure levels from the upper troposphere to the mesosphere and lower thermosphere are included with 3 to 4 km vertical resolution up to 10-4 hPa ( 105 km). Volume mixing ratio values are filtered prior to the climatology estimation using the ACE-FTS data quality recommendations. The multi-year mean climatology contains zonal mean profiles for monthly and three-monthly (DJF, MAM, JJA, and SON) periods. These are provided with 5-degree spacing in either latitude or equivalent latitude. Also, the local daytime and nighttime distributions are provided separately for nitrogen-containing species, enabling diurnal differences to be investigated. Based on this climatology, examples of typical spatiotemporal patterns for trace gases in the mesosphere and for carbon-containing gases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere are discussed.

  15. Error characterization in iQuam SSTs using triple collocations with satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Feng; Ignatov, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    Various types of in situ sea surface temperature (SST) measurements have dominated during different periods of the satellite era. Their corresponding errors should be characterized to curtail the nonuniformities in calibration and validation of reprocessed historical satellite SST data. SSTs from several major in situ platform types reported in the NOAA in situ Quality Monitor (iQuam) system have been collocated with NOAA-17 Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) and Envisat Advanced Along Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR) satellite SSTs from 2003 to 2009, produced by the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI) program. The standard deviations of errors in iQuam in situ and nighttime satellite CCI SSTs estimated using triple-collocation analyses are 0.75 K for ships, 0.21-0.22 K for drifters and Argo floats, 0.17 K and 0.40 K for tropical and coastal moorings, 0.35-0.38 K for AVHRR, and 0.15-0.30 K for AATSR. The distribution of in situ and satellite errors in space and time is also analyzed, along with their single-sensor error distributions.

  16. In situ autonomous optical radiometry measurements for satellite ocean color validation in the Western Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zibordi, G.; Mélin, F.; Berthon, J.-F.; Talone, M.

    2015-03-01

    The accuracy of primary satellite ocean color data products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer on-board Aqua (MODIS-A) and the Visible/Infrared Imager/Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) is investigated in the Western Black Sea using in situ measurements from the Gloria site included in the ocean color component of the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET-OC). The analysis is also extended to an additional well-established AERONET-OC site in the northern Adriatic Sea characterized by optically complex coastal waters exhibiting similarities to those observed at the Gloria site. Results from the comparison of normalized water-leaving radiance LWN indicate biases of a few percent between satellite-derived and in situ data at the center wavelengths relevant for the determination of chlorophyll a concentrations (443-547 nm, or equivalent). Remarkable is the consistency between the annual cycle determined with time series of satellite-derived and in situ LWN ratios at these center wavelengths. Contrarily, the differences between in situ and satellite-derived LWN are pronounced at the blue (i.e., 412 nm) and red (i.e., 667 nm, or equivalent) center wavelengths, confirming difficulties in confidently applying satellite-derived radiometric data from these spectral regions for quantitative analysis in optically complex waters.

  17. Satellite-derived surface temperature and in situ measurement at Solfatara of Pozzuoli (Naples, Italy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestri, M.; Cardellini, C.; Chiodini, G.; Buongiorno, M. F.

    2016-06-01

    Ground thermal anomalies in volcanic-hydrothermal systems, where the outflow of hot fluids gives rise to fumarolic fields, soil degassing, and hot soils, have, up to now, rarely been investigated by using satellite. Here we report a comparison between surface temperature derived by satellite data and a large data set of measured soil temperatures and CO2 fluxes for a volcanic-hydrothermal system, the Solfatara of Pozzuoli (Campi Flegrei, Italy). Surface temperatures derived from ASTER (Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer) data are compared with soil temperatures and CO2 fluxes from four surveys performed in 2003, 2010, and in 2014. The good match between the spatial distributions of computed and measured temperatures suggests the adequacy of satellite data to describe the Solfatara thermal anomaly, while the correspondence between temperatures and CO2 fluxes, evidences the link between degassing and heating processes. The ASTER derived surface temperatures (14-37°C) are coherent with those measured in the soil (10-97°C at 10 cm depth), considering the effect of the thermal gradients which characterize the degassing area of Solfatara. This study shows that satellite data can be a very powerful tool with which to study surface thermal anomalies, and can provide a supplementary tool to monitor thermal evolution of restless volcanoes.

  18. Global measurements of sea surface temperature, wind speed and atmospheric water content from satellite microwave radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Njoku, E. G.; Swanson, L.

    1983-01-01

    The Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) was launched on the Seasat and Nimbus 7 satellites in 1978. The SMMR has the ability to measure sea surface temperature and wind speed with the aid of microwaves. In addition, the instrument was designed to measure water vapor and cloud liquid water with better spatial resolution than previous microwave radiometers, and to make sea-ice measurements with higher precision. A description is presented of the results of global analyses of sea surface temperature, wind speed, water vapor, and cloud liquid water, taking into account data provided by the SMMR on the Seasat satellite. It is found that the SMMR data show good self-consistency, and can usefully measure global distributions of sea surface temperatures, surface winds, water vapor, and cloud liquid water.

  19. Advanced control evaluation for structures (ACES) programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearson, Jerome; Waites, Henry

    1988-01-01

    The ACES programs are a series of past, present, and future activities at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Ground facility for Large Space Structure Control Verification (GF/LSSCV). The main objectives of the ACES programs are to implement control techniques on a series of complex dynamical systems, to determine the control/structure interaction for the control techniques, and to provide a national facility in which dynamics and control verification can be effected. The focus is on these objectives and how they are implemented under various engineering and economic constraints. Future plans that will be effected in upcoming ACES programs are considered.

  20. Verification of Satellite Rainfall Estimates from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission over Ground Validation Sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, B. L.; Wolff, D. B.; Silberstein, D. S.; Marks, D. M.; Pippitt, J. L.

    2007-12-01

    The Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission's (TRMM) Ground Validation (GV) Program was originally established with the principal long-term goal of determining the random errors and systematic biases stemming from the application of the TRMM rainfall algorithms. The GV Program has been structured around two validation strategies: 1) determining the quantitative accuracy of the integrated monthly rainfall products at GV regional sites over large areas of about 500 km2 using integrated ground measurements and 2) evaluating the instantaneous satellite and GV rain rate statistics at spatio-temporal scales compatible with the satellite sensor resolution (Simpson et al. 1988, Thiele 1988). The GV Program has continued to evolve since the launch of the TRMM satellite on November 27, 1997. This presentation will discuss current GV methods of validating TRMM operational rain products in conjunction with ongoing research. The challenge facing TRMM GV has been how to best utilize rain information from the GV system to infer the random and systematic error characteristics of the satellite rain estimates. A fundamental problem of validating space-borne rain estimates is that the true mean areal rainfall is an ideal, scale-dependent parameter that cannot be directly measured. Empirical validation uses ground-based rain estimates to determine the error characteristics of the satellite-inferred rain estimates, but ground estimates also incur measurement errors and contribute to the error covariance. Furthermore, sampling errors, associated with the discrete, discontinuous temporal sampling by the rain sensors aboard the TRMM satellite, become statistically entangled in the monthly estimates. Sampling errors complicate the task of linking biases in the rain retrievals to the physics of the satellite algorithms. The TRMM Satellite Validation Office (TSVO) has made key progress towards effective satellite validation. For disentangling the sampling and retrieval errors, TSVO has developed

  1. A novel method for measuring the polarization angle of satellite radio waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antoniadis, D. A.

    1974-01-01

    One of the most important parameters for the study of the physics of the ionosphere is the columnar electron content. This can be obtained indirectly by measuring the Faraday rotation of signals emitted from satellites. Many different types of polarimeters have been developed for this purpose. Efforts to develop a new type of polarimeter, suitable for extensive network operation, led to a novel technique for measuring the polarization angle.

  2. Quantitative measurements of Jupiter, Saturn, their rings and satellites made from Voyager imaging data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, S. A.; Bunker, A. S.

    1983-01-01

    The Voyager spacecraft cameras use selenium-sulfur slow scan vidicons to convert focused optical images into sensible electrical signals. The vidicon-generated data thus obtained are the basis of measurements of much greater precision than was previously possible, in virtue of their superior linearity, geometric fidelity, and the use of in-flight calibration. Attention is given to positional, radiometric, and dynamical measurements conducted on the basis of vidicon data for the Saturn rings, the Saturn satellites, and the Jupiter atmosphere.

  3. Zonal average earth radiation budget measurements from satellites for climate studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ellis, J. S.; Haar, T. H. V.

    1976-01-01

    Data from 29 months of satellite radiation budget measurements, taken intermittently over the period 1964 through 1971, are composited into mean month, season and annual zonally averaged meridional profiles. Individual months, which comprise the 29 month set, were selected as representing the best available total flux data for compositing into large scale statistics for climate studies. A discussion of spatial resolution of the measurements along with an error analysis, including both the uncertainty and standard error of the mean, are presented.

  4. Comparison of Satellite-Derived Wind Measurements with Other Wind Measurement Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Susko, Michael; Herman, Leroy

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the good data from the Jimsphere launches with the data from the satellite system. By comparing the wind speeds from the Fixed Pedestal System 16 (FPS-16) Radar/Jimsphere Wind System and NASA's 50-MHz Radar Wind Profiler, the validation of winds from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite 7 (GOES-7) is performed. This study provides an in situ data quality check for the GOES-7 satellite winds. Comparison was made of the flowfields in the troposphere and the lower stratosphere of case studies of pairs of Jimsphere balloon releases and Radar Wind Profiler winds during Space Shuttle launches. The mean and standard deviation of the zonal component statistics, the meridional component statistics, and the power spectral density curves show good agreement between the two wind sensors. The standard deviation of the u and v components for the STS-37 launch (consisting of five Jimsphere/Radar Wind Profiler data sets) was 1.92 and 1.67 m/s, respectively; for the STS-43 launch (there were six Jimsphere/Wind Profiler data sets) it was 1.39 and 1.44 m/s, respectively. The overall standard deviation was 1.66 m/s for the u component and 1.55 m/s tor the v component, and a standard deviation of 2.27 m/s tor the vector wind difference. The global comparison of satellite with Jimsphere balloon vector winds shows a standard deviation of 3.15 m/s for STS-43 and 4.37 m/s for STS-37. The overall standard deviation of the vector wind was 3.76 m/s, with a root-mean-square vector difference of 4.43 m/s. These data have demonstrated that this unique comparison of the Jimsphere and satellite winds provides excellent ground truth and a frame of reference during testing and validation of satellite data

  5. Intercomparison among tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide data obtained by satellite- and ground-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noguchi, K.; Urita, N.; Ohta, E.; Hayashida, S.; Richter, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Liu, X.; Chance, K.; Ziemke, J. R.

    2005-12-01

    Rapid economical growth and industrial development in East Asian regions are causing serious air pollution. The influence of such air pollution is not limited to a local scale but reaches an intercontinental or hemispheric scale. Satellite-borne observations can monitor the behaviors of air pollutants in a global scale for long periods with a single instrument. In particular, ozone and nitrogen dioxide in the troposphere have a crucial role in air pollution, and many studies have tried to derive those species. Recently, instrumentations and retrieval techniques have made a lot of progress in measurements of tropospheric constituents. However, tropospheric observations from space need careful validation because of difficulties in detecting signals from the lower atmosphere through the middle atmosphere. In the present study, we intercompare the tropospheric ozone and nitrogen dioxide data obtained by satellite- and ground-based measurements in order to validate the satellite measurements. For the validation of tropospheric ozone, we utilize ozonesonde data provided by WOUDC, and three satellite-borne data (Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TOR), Cloud Slicing, and GOME) are intercompared. For nitrogen dioxide, we compare GOME observations with ground-based air monitoring measurements in Japan which are operationally conducted by the Ministry of the Environment Japan. This study demonstrates the validity and potential of those satellite datasets to apply for quantitative analysis of dispersion of air pollutants and their chemical lifetime. Acknowledgments. TOR data is provided by J. Fishman via http://asd-www.larc.nasa.gov/TOR/data.html. The ground observation data of nitrogen dioxide over Japan is provided by National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES) under the collaboration study with NIES and Nara Women's University.

  6. Establishing the Antarctic Dome C community reference standard site towards consistent measurements from Earth observation satellites

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cao, C.; Uprety, S.; Xiong, J.; Wu, A.; Jing, P.; Smith, D.; Chander, G.; Fox, N.; Ungar, S.

    2010-01-01

    Establishing satellite measurement consistency by using common desert sites has become increasingly more important not only for climate change detection but also for quantitative retrievals of geophysical variables in satellite applications. Using the Antarctic Dome C site (75°06′S, 123°21′E, elevation 3.2 km) for satellite radiometric calibration and validation (Cal/Val) is of great interest owing to its unique location and characteristics. The site surface is covered with uniformly distributed permanent snow, and the atmospheric effect is small and relatively constant. In this study, the long-term stability and spectral characteristics of this site are evaluated using well-calibrated satellite instruments such as the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). Preliminary results show that despite a few limitations, the site in general is stable in the long term, the bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) model works well, and the site is most suitable for the Cal/Val of reflective solar bands in the 0.4–1.0 µm range. It was found that for the past decade, the reflectivity change of the site is within 1.35% at 0.64 µm, and interannual variability is within 2%. The site is able to resolve calibration biases between instruments at a level of ~1%. The usefulness of the site is demonstrated by comparing observations from seven satellite instruments involving four space agencies, including OrbView-2–SeaWiFS, Terra–Aqua MODIS, Earth Observing 1 (EO-1) – Hyperion, Meteorological Operational satellite programme (MetOp) – Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), Envisat Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) – dvanced Along-Track Scanning Radiometer (AATSR), and Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+). Dome C is a promising candidate site for climate quality calibration of satellite radiometers towards more consistent satellite measurements, as part

  7. Determination of Spring Onset and Growing Season Duration using Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Min, Q.; Lin, Bing

    2006-01-01

    An integrated approach to retrieve microwave emissivity difference vegetation index (EDVI) over land regions has been developed from combined multi-platform/multi-sensor satellite measurements, including SSM/I measurements. A possible relationship of the remotely sensed EDVI and the leaf physiology of canopy is exploited at the Harvard Forest site for two growing seasons. This study finds that the EDVI is sensitive to leaf development through vegetation water content of the crown layer of the forest canopy, and has demonstrated that the spring onset and growing season duration can be determined accurately from the time series of satellite estimated EDVI within uncertainties about 3 and 7 days for spring onsets and growing season duration, respectively, compared to in-situ observations. The leaf growing stage may also be quantitatively monitored by a normalized EDVI. Since EDVI retrievals from satellite are generally possible during both daytime and nighttime under non-rain conditions, the EDVI technique studied here may provide higher temporal resolution observations for monitoring the onset of spring and the duration of growing season compared to currently operational satellite methods.

  8. SIRS: An Experiment to Measure the Free Air Temperature from a Satellite.

    PubMed

    Wark, D Q

    1970-08-01

    The Satellite Infrared Spectrometer (SIRS) on the Nimbus III satellite was designed to measure the earth's spectral radiances in the 15-microm band of carbon dioxide. From simultaneous measurements of spectral radiances it is possible to obtain the vertical temperature profile of the atmosphere. The measurements are approximated by the integral equation of radiative transfer, modified by one or two layers of clouds. A solution requires that the surface radiative temperature and the surface air temperature be known. By iteration, a solution based upon the statistical behavior of the atmosphere is obtained for the free air temperature and the cloud heights and amounts. Examples are presented, comparing the SIRS soundings with coincident radiosonde soundings. The results from this experiment indicate that the technique can be applied as a routine observing tool for meteorological use.

  9. Comparison of the simulated performance of a VSAT satellite link with measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mwanakatwe, M.; Willis, M. J.; Evans, B. G.

    1991-06-01

    The transmisson performance of a Ka-band VSAT system (CODE) has been simulated to verify the systems design and to demonstrate the adequacy of the implementation margin and phase noise. A detailed simulation of phase noise effects on VSAT systems design is also presented. Hardware measurements and BOSS simulations for the test set-up show a good agreement for values of Eb/N0 up to 7dB. The simulated results indicate an increased error when the TWTA is operated in the nonlinear region, with the simulations indicating larger degradation than the measurement. The phase noise performance of the digital TRL modem is found to be consistently better than that of the simulated model. There appears to be closer agreement with the BOSS simulations than with the TOPSIM III simulations. The discrepancy between the TOPSIM III and BOSS phase noise simulations was only resolved by measurements taken using the Olympus satellite and BTI satellite simulator.

  10. The inference of atmospheric ozone using satellite nadir measurements in the 1042/cm band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, J. M., III; Drayson, S. R.

    1973-01-01

    A description and detailed analysis of a technique for inferring atmospheric ozone information from satellite nadir measurements in the 1042 cm band are presented. A method is formulated for computing the emission from the lower boundary under the satellite which circumvents the difficult analytical problems caused by the presence of atmospheric clouds and the watervapor continuum absorption. The inversion equations are expanded in terms of the eigenvectors and eigenvalues of a least-squares-solution matrix, and an analysis is performed to determine the information content of the radiance measurements. Under favorable conditions there are only two pieces of independent information available from the measurements: (1) the total ozone and (2) the altitude of the primary maximum in the ozone profile.

  11. ACE3 Draft Indicators: Environments and Contaminants

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The information on this page was provided by EPA in conjunction with the opportunity for public comment on the draft indicators for ACE3, which ran from March 8 – April 21, 2011. The public comment period is now closed.

  12. FIRE_ACE_ER2_MAS

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-10-28

    ... First ISCCP Regional Experiment (FIRE) Arctic Cloud Experiment (ACE) NASA ER-2 Moderate Resolution Imaging ... SSFR Location:  Northern Alaska Arctic Ocean Spatial Coverage:  Fairbanks, Alaska and the surrounding ...

  13. ACE3 Draft Indicators: Special Features

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The page information was provided by EPA in conjunction with the opportunity for public comment on the draft indicators for ACE3, which ran from March 8 – April 21, 2011. The public comment period is now closed.

  14. Vertical Profiles of Aerosol Optical Properties Over Central Illinois and Comparison with Surface and Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheridan P. J.; Andrews, E.; Ogren, J A.; Tackett, J. L.; Winker, D. M.

    2012-01-01

    Between June 2006 and September 2009, an instrumented light aircraft measured over 400 vertical profiles of aerosol and trace gas properties over eastern and central Illinois. The primary objectives of this program were to (1) measure the in situ aerosol properties and determine their vertical and temporal variability and (2) relate these aircraft measurements to concurrent surface and satellite measurements. Underflights of the CALIPSO satellite show reasonable agreement in a majority of retrieved profiles between aircraft-measured extinction at 532 nm (adjusted to ambient relative humidity) and CALIPSO-retrieved extinction, and suggest that routine aircraft profiling programs can be used to better understand and validate satellite retrieval algorithms. CALIPSO tended to overestimate the aerosol extinction at this location in some boundary layer flight segments when scattered or broken clouds were present, which could be related to problems with CALIPSO cloud screening methods. The in situ aircraft-collected aerosol data suggest extinction thresholds for the likelihood of aerosol layers being detected by the CALIOP lidar. These statistical data offer guidance as to the likelihood of CALIPSO's ability to retrieve aerosol extinction at various locations around the globe.

  15. Comprehensive Comparisons of Satellite Data, Signals, and Measurements between the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System and the Global Positioning System †

    PubMed Central

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Tao, An-Lin

    2016-01-01

    The Chinese BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) aims to provide global positioning service by 2020. The combined use of BDS and Global Positioning System (GPS) is proposed to provide navigation service with more stringent requirements. Actual satellite data, signals and measurements were collected for more than one month to analyze the positioning service qualities from both BDS and GPS. In addition to the conversions of coordinate and timing system, five data quality analysis (DQA) methods, three signal quality analysis (SQA) methods, and four measurement quality analysis (MQA) methods are proposed in this paper to improve the integrated positioning performance of BDS and GPS. As shown in the experiment results, issues related to BDS and GPS are resolved by the above proposed quality analysis methods. Thus, the anomalies in satellite data, signals and measurements can be detected by following the suggested resolutions to enhance the positioning performance of the combined use of BDS and GPS in the Asia Pacific region. PMID:27187403

  16. Comprehensive Comparisons of Satellite Data, Signals, and Measurements between the BeiDou Navigation Satellite System and the Global Positioning System.

    PubMed

    Jan, Shau-Shiun; Tao, An-Lin

    2016-05-13

    The Chinese BeiDou navigation satellite system (BDS) aims to provide global positioning service by 2020. The combined use of BDS and Global Positioning System (GPS) is proposed to provide navigation service with more stringent requirements. Actual satellite data, signals and measurements were collected for more than one month to analyze the positioning service qualities from both BDS and GPS. In addition to the conversions of coordinate and timing system, five data quality analysis (DQA) methods, three signal quality analysis (SQA) methods, and four measurement quality analysis (MQA) methods are proposed in this paper to improve the integrated positioning performance of BDS and GPS. As shown in the experiment results, issues related to BDS and GPS are resolved by the above proposed quality analysis methods. Thus, the anomalies in satellite data, signals and measurements can be detected by following the suggested resolutions to enhance the positioning performance of the combined use of BDS and GPS in the Asia Pacific region.

  17. Electromagnetic bias in sea surface range measurements at frequencies of the TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite

    SciTech Connect

    Hevizi, L.G.; McIntosh, R.E. ); Walsh, E.J.; Vandemark, D.; Hines, D.E.; Swift, R.N.; Scott, J.F. )

    1993-03-01

    Range measurements made by satellite radar altimeters experience an electromagnetic (EM) bias toward the troughs of ocean waves. This EM bias was measured at the 13.6 GHz and 5.3 GHz operating frequencies of the NASA altimeter on the TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite in a series of 11 aircraft flights from January 17, 1991, through March 4, 1991, during the Surface WAve Dynamics Experiment (SWADE). The data are consistent with an earlier set of airborne measurements and indicate that EM bias is slightly higher at 5.3 GHz than at 13.6 GHz, and that the magnitudes of both biases increase with increasing wind speed, as does their difference. With some exceptions, EM bias shows little variation over a mesoscale region on a given day or within 1 or 2 h, but it can change significantly over a 6-h period. An examination of recent tower, airborne, and satellite measurements shows a consistency in the characteristics of the wind speed dependence but suggests that there may be a height dependence in the determinations, with the bias decreasing with increasing altitude. The airborne measurements appear to be the most reasonable basis for correcting the NASA altimeter range data from the TOPEX/POSEIDON satellite. In addition, a preliminary analysis of a very limited amount of the data acquired at 20.3 m s[sup [minus]1] in Southern Ocean Waves Experiment (SOWEX) has given confidence that the quadratic models for the prelaunch EM bias corrections are more appropriate for wind speed dependence than are the linear models initially considered.

  18. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors from Jasminum azoricum and Jasminum grandiflorum.

    PubMed

    Somanadhan, B; Smitt, U W; George, V; Pushpangadan, P; Rajasekharan, S; Duus, J O; Nyman, U; Olsen, C E; Jaroszewski, J W

    1998-04-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of extracts of the aerial parts of Jasminum azoricum var. travancorense, using an in vitro ACE inhibition assay, led to isolation of three oligomeric, iridoid-type compounds, which were named sambacein I-III. Their structures are based on spectroscopic and chemical evidence. Similarly, fractionation of extracts of aerial parts of J. grandiflorum resulted in the isolation of the previously reported ACE inhibitor, oleacein. The IC50 values of purified ACE inhibitors were 26-36 microM. Moreover, 2-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethanol, isoquercitrin and ursolic acid were isolated from J. grandiflorum. Sambaceins and oleacein are formed from genuine iridoid glucosides during processing of the plant material. NMR spectroscopy was used to measure the level of the ACE inhibitors in the traditional medicines prepared in Kerala from these Jasminum species.

  19. The Measurement of Landfill Gas Emissions with the Orbiting Carbon Observatory and CarbonSAT Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vigil, S. A.; Bovensmann, H.

    2010-12-01

    Landfill gas is a significant contributor to anthropogenic emissions of CH4 and CO2. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has estimated the total U.S. 2007 emissions of the CH4 component of landfill gas at 132.9 Tg CO2 Equivalent. This compares to total CH4 emission from all US sources in 2007 at 585.3 Tg CO2 Equivalent. Worldwide CH4 emissions from landfill gas have been estimated at 668 Tg CO2 Equivalent. Satellite remote sensing can also be used to characterize landfill gas emissions. The NASA Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO-2) and the proposed CarbonSAT (University of Bremen) satellites are particularly suited for this purpose. The Orbiting Carbon Observatory (OCO) was designed to provided high spatial resolution ( < 3 km2 footprints) and high accuracy ( 0.5 to 3 ppm) CO2 measurements. The original OCO satellite failed to achieve orbit in February 2009. A replacement satellite (OCO-2) is under construction and scheduled for launch in February 2013. These characteristics will allow the measurement of CO2 emissions from large landfills on the orbit path. Because surface landfill gas emissions include both CH4 and CO2 , the CH4 concentration can be inferred from CO2 concentrations. The CarbonSAT satellite which is being designed by the University of Bremen, Institute for Environmental Physics, has similar characteristics to OCO-2 but it has been optimized for measurement of both CH4 and CO2 . Key specifications for the CarbonSAT satellite include XCO2 single measurement error of < 1 to 3 ppm and XCH4 single measurement error of < 10 to 18 ppb. These characteristics will make it possible to detect both CO2 and CH4 emissions from large landfills. The spatial resolution and accuracy of the CO2 measurements from OCO-2 and CO2 and CH4 measurements from CarbonSAT present a unique opportunity to measure landfill gas emissions from large landfills such as exist in the United States and other developed countries. In general, landfills in the developed countries have

  20. Effects of satellite data resolution on measuring the space/time variations of surfaces and clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seze, Genevieve; Rossow, William B.

    1991-01-01

    The correlated distributions of satellite-measured visible and infrared radiances, caused by spatial and temporal variations in clouds and surfaces, have been found to be characteristic of the major climate regimes and can be described by the attributes of bidimensional and monodimensional histograms and time-composite images. Most of the variability of both the surfaces and clouds is found to occur at scales larger than the minimum resolved by satellite imagery. Since satellite imaging data sets are difficult to analyze because of their large volumes, many studies reduce the volume by various sampling or averaging schemes. The effects of data resolution and sampling on the radiance histogram statistics and on the time-composite image characteristics are examined. In particular, the sampling strategy used by the International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project is tested. This sampling strategy is found to preserve the statistics of smaller cloud variations for most regions, with the exception of very rare events, if they are accumulated over large enough areas (at least 500 km in dimension) and long enough time periods (at least one month).

  1. Recent Direct Measurements by Satellites of Cosmic Dust in the Vicinity of the Earth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LaGow, H. E.; Alexander, W. M.

    1960-01-01

    Direct measurements of the space density of cosmic dust particles in the vicinity of the earth have been made from rockets, satellites, and space probes. The largest data samples have been obtained from crystal transducer sensors that detect the impact-impulses occurring from the collision of dust particles on sensitive surfaces of space vehicles. Preliminary results from satellite 1959 Eta show: (1) over 1500 impacts and an area-time product greater than 10(exp 1O) sq cm-sec; and (2) a daily variation in the dust particle density near the earth. The dust particle instrumentation of 1959 Eta and sensor calibration techniques are discussed in this paper. The results of direct measurements from space vehicles prior to 1959 Eta are summarized with respect to 1959 Eta information.

  2. Lessons Learned during Thermal Hardware Integration on the Global Precipitation Measurement Satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cottingham, Christine; Dwivedi, Vivek H.; Peters, Carlton; Powers, Daniel; Yang, Kan

    2012-01-01

    The Global Precipitation Measurement mission is a joint NASA/JAXA mission scheduled for launch in late 2013. The integration of thermal hardware onto the satellite began in the Fall of 2010 and will continue through the Summer of 2012. The thermal hardware on the mission included several constant conductance heat pipes, heaters, thermostats, thermocouples radiator coatings and blankets. During integration several problems arose and insights were gained that would help future satellite integrations. Also lessons learned from previous missions were implemented with varying degrees of success. These insights can be arranged into three categories. 1) the specification of flight hardware using analysis results and the available mechanical resources. 2) The integration of thermal flight hardware onto the spacecraft, 3) The preparation and implementation of testing the thermal flight via touch tests, resistance measurements and thermal vacuum testing.

  3. Air Quality Measurements from Satellites during the 2008 Beijing Olympics and Paralympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, J. C.; Schoeberl, M.; Douglass, A.; Gleason, J.; Krotkov, N.; Gille, J.; Pickering, K.; Livesey, N.

    2009-05-01

    In preparation for the Olympic and Paralympic games in August and September 2008 in Beijing, China, the Chinese government imposed strict controls on industrial emissions and motor vehicle traffic in and around the city and vicinity before and during the events to improve the air quality for the competitors and visitors. To test the efficacy of these measures, we used satellite data from NASA's Aura/Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and Terra/Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) over Beijing and surrounding areas during the Olympic and Paralympic period. The satellite instruments recorded significant reductions in nitrogen dioxide of up to 50%, up to 10% in tropospheric column ozone, 20-40% in boundary layer sulfur dioxide, and 10-20% reductions in carbon monoxide concentrations below 700 hPa.

  4. Application of remote sensing to thermal pollution analysis. [satellite sea surface temperature measurement assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hiser, H. W.; Lee, S. S.; Veziroglu, T. N.; Sengupta, S.

    1975-01-01

    A comprehensive numerical model development program for near-field thermal plume discharge and far field general circulation in coastal regions is being carried on at the University of Miami Clean Energy Research Institute. The objective of the program is to develop a generalized, three-dimensional, predictive model for thermal pollution studies. Two regions of specific application of the model are the power plants sites at the Biscayne Bay and Hutchinson Island area along the Florida coastline. Remote sensing from aircraft as well as satellites are used in parallel with in situ measurements to provide information needed for the development and verification of the mathematical model. This paper describes the efforts that have been made to identify problems and limitations of the presently available satellite data and to develop methods for enhancing and enlarging thermal infrared displays for mesoscale sea surface temperature measurements.

  5. A Strategy to Assess Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing of Climate Using Satellite Radiation Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Yoram J.; Tanre, Didier; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols have a complex internal chemical composition and optical properties. Therefore it is difficult to model their impact on redistribution and absorption of solar radiation, and the consequent impact on atmospheric dynamics and climate. The use in climate models of isolated aerosol parameters retrieved from satellite data (e.g. optical thickness) may result in inconsistent calculations, if the model assumptions differ from these of the satellite retrieval schemes. Here we suggest a strategy to assess the direct impact of aerosol on the radiation budget at the top and bottom of the atmosphere using satellite and ground based measurements of the spectral solar radiation scattered by the aerosol. This method ensures consistent use of the satellite data and increases its accuracy. For Kaufman and Tanre: Strategy for aerosol direct forcing anthropogenic aerosol in the fine mode (e.g. biomass burning smoke and urban pollution) consistent use of satellite derived optical thickness can yield the aerosol impact on the spectral solar flux with accuracy an order of magnitude better than the optical thickness itself. For example, a simulated monthly average smoke optical thickness of 0.5 at 0.55 microns (forcing of 40-50 W/sq m) derived with an error of 20%, while the forcing can be measured directly with an error of only 0-2 W/sq m. Another example, the effect of large dust particles on reflection of solar flux can be derived three times better than retrievals of optical thickness. Since aerosol impacts not only the top of the atmosphere but also the surface irradiation, a combination of satellite and ground based measurements of the spectral flux, can be the most direct mechanism to evaluate the aerosol effect on climate and assimilate it in climate models. The strategy is applied to measurements from SCAR-B and the Tarfox experiments. In SCAR-B aircraft spectral data are used to derive the 24 hour radiative forcing of smoke at the top of the atmosphere of

  6. Test of general relativity and measurement of the lense-thirring effect with two earth satellites

    PubMed

    Ciufolini; Pavlis; Chieppa; Fernandes-Vieira; Perez-Mercader

    1998-03-27

    The Lense-Thirring effect, a tiny perturbation of the orbit of a particle caused by the spin of the attracting body, was accurately measured with the use of the data of two laser-ranged satellites, LAGEOS and LAGEOS II, and the Earth gravitational model EGM-96. The parameter &mgr;, which measures the strength of the Lense-Thirring effect, was found to be 1.1 +/- 0.2; general relativity predicts &mgr; identical with 1. This result represents an accurate test and measurement of one of the fundamental predictions of general relativity, that the spin of a body changes the geometry of the universe by generating space-time curvature.

  7. Measurements for satellite validation made from R/V ``Alliance`` during October and November 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Minnett, P.J.

    1993-08-01

    Measurements of sea-surface temperature, surface meteorology and atmospheric profiles taken from the R/V Alliance between 1 October and 9 November 1991. During this time the ship sailed from Amsterdam to La Spezia and then was deployed in the western Mediterranean Sea. The measurements are presented in graphical form, and daily statistics are given as tables. True winds, net long-wave radiation and turbulent air-sea fluxes have been calculated and are also presented. The measurements were made for application to studies of the accuracies of the retrieval of sea-surface temperature and atmospheric precipitable water from satellite radiometers.

  8. Algorithmic Foundation of Spectral Rarefaction for Measuring Satellite Imagery Heterogeneity at Multiple Spatial Scales

    PubMed Central

    Rocchini, Duccio

    2009-01-01

    Measuring heterogeneity in satellite imagery is an important task to deal with. Most measures of spectral diversity have been based on Shannon Information theory. However, this approach does not inherently address different scales, ranging from local (hereafter referred to alpha diversity) to global scales (gamma diversity). The aim of this paper is to propose a method for measuring spectral heterogeneity at multiple scales based on rarefaction curves. An algorithmic solution of rarefaction applied to image pixel values (Digital Numbers, DNs) is provided and discussed. PMID:22389600

  9. A prospective study of frequency and characteristics of cough during ACE inhibitor treatment.

    PubMed

    Sato, Atsuhisa; Fukuda, Seiichi

    2015-01-01

    Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors are reportedly effective, and positively indicated in patients with chronic heart failure with decreased contractility, after myocardial infarction, after cerebrovascular disorders, and in those with chronic kidney disease. However, the biggest challenge to continuous use of ACE inhibitors is the adverse reaction of cough. Accordingly, in the present study, we investigated the present state and characteristics of ACE inhibitor-induced cough in patients with essential hypertension currently being treated with an ACE inhibitor for an average of 18 months, who could be regularly checked for cough. Subjects in this study were 176 patients overall (mean age 67 ± 11 years old), 90 men and 86 women. The adverse reaction of cough was observed in 20% of patients, and more frequently in women than in men. However, in 26 of the patients with cough, the cough either resolved naturally or completely disappeared while the treatment continued, after which patients could continue taking the medication. Specifically, ACE inhibitor treatment was eventually discontinued due to cough in 5.1% of patients. Cough occurred less frequently with concomitant calcium antagonists or diuretics than with ACE inhibitor monotherapy. Cough as an adverse reaction occurred at a low frequency when medication was taken at bedtime. We considered a number of measures to counteract cough, then in addition to starting the ACE inhibitor treatment as early as possible, it is important to devise ways for the ACE inhibitor treatment to be continued for as long as possible, through the adept use of these measures.

  10. Combining satellite, aerial and ground measurements to assess forest carbon stocks in Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaumont, Benjamin; Bouvy, Alban; Stephenne, Nathalie; Mathoux, Pierre; Bastin, Jean-François; Baudot, Yves; Akkermans, Tom

    2015-04-01

    Monitoring tropical forest carbon stocks changes has been a rising topic in the recent years as a result of REDD+ mechanisms negotiations. Such monitoring will be mandatory for each project/country willing to benefit from these financial incentives in the future. Aerial and satellite remote sensing technologies offer cost advantages in implementing large scale forest inventories. Despite the recent progress made in the use of airborne LiDAR for carbon stocks estimation, no widely operational and cost effective method has yet been delivered for central Africa forest monitoring. Within the Maï Ndombe region of Democratic Republic of Congo, the EO4REDD project develops a method combining satellite, aerial and ground measurements. This combination is done in three steps: [1] mapping and quantifying forest cover changes using an object-based semi-automatic change detection (deforestation and forest degradation) methodology based on very high resolution satellite imagery (RapidEye), [2] developing an allometric linear model for above ground biomass measurements based on dendrometric parameters (tree crown areas and heights) extracted from airborne stereoscopic image pairs and calibrated using ground measurements of individual trees on a data set of 18 one hectare plots and [3] relating these two products to assess carbon stocks changes at a regional scale. Given the high accuracies obtained in [1] (> 80% for deforestation and 77% for forest degradation) and the suitable, but still to be improved with a larger calibrating sample, model (R² of 0.7) obtained in [2], EO4REDD products can be seen as a valid and replicable option for carbon stocks monitoring in tropical forests. Further improvements are planned to strengthen the cost effectiveness value and the REDD+ suitability in the second phase of EO4REDD. This second phase will include [A] specific model developments per forest type; [B] measurements of afforestation, reforestation and natural regeneration processes and

  11. EHL Transition Temperature Measurements on a Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Filter Wheel Bearing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jansen, Mark J.; Jones, William R., Jr.; Pepper, Stephen V.; Predmore, Roamer E.; Shogrin, Bradley A.

    2001-01-01

    The elastohydrodynamic lubrication (EHL) transition temperature was measured for a Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) sounder filter wheel bearing in a vacuum tribometer. Conditions included both an 89 N (20 lb.) hard and soft load, 600 rpm, temperatures between 23 C (73 F) and 85 C (185 F), and a vacuum of approximately 1.3 x 10(exp -5) Pa. Elastohydrodynamic to mixed lubrication started to occur at approximately 70 C (158 F).

  12. Aircraft and satellite measurement of ocean wave directional spectra using scanning-beam microwave radars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, F. C.; Walton, W. T.; Baker, P. L.

    1982-01-01

    A microwave radar technique for remotely measuring the vector wave number spectrum of the ocean surface is described. The technique, which employs short-pulse, noncoherent radars in a conical scan mode near vertical incidence, is shown to be suitable for both aircraft and satellite application, the technique was validated at 10 km aircraft altitude, where we have found excellent agreement between buoy and radar-inferred absolute wave height spectra.

  13. Estimation of Aerosol Direct Radiative Effects from Satellite and In Situ Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstrom, Robert W.; Russell, Philip B.; Schmid, Beat; Redemann, Jens; McIntosh, Dawn

    2000-01-01

    Ames researchers have combined measurements from satellite, aircraft, and the surface to estimate the effect of airborne particles (aerosols) on the solar radiation over the North Atlantic region. These aerosols (which come from both natural and pollution sources) can reflect solar radiation, causing a cooling effect that opposes the warming caused by carbon dioxide. Recently, increased attention has been paid to aerosol effects to better understand the Earth climate system.

  14. Integrating Satellite Measurements from Polar-orbiting instruments into Smoke Disperson Forecasts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, N.; Pierce, R. B.; Barnet, C.; Gambacorta, A.; Davies, J. E.; Strabala, K.

    2015-12-01

    The IDEA-I (Infusion of Satellite Data into Environmental Applications-International) is a real-time system that currently generates trajectory-based forecasts of aerosol dispersion and stratospheric intrusions. Here we demonstrate new capabilities that use satellite measurements from the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Suomi-NPP (S-NPP) instruments (operational since 2012) in the generation of trajectory-based predictions of smoke dispersion from North American wildfires. Two such data products are used, namely the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) and the combined Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) and Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS) NOAA-Unique CrIS-ATMS Processing System (NUCAPS) carbon monoxide (CO) retrievals. The latter is a new data product made possible by the release of full spectral-resolution CrIS measurements since December 2014. Once NUCAPS CO becomes operationally available it will be used in real-time applications such as IDEA-I along with VIIRS AOD and meteorological forecast fields to support National Weather Service (NWS) Incident Meteorologist (IMET) and air quality management decision making. By combining different measurements, the information content of the IDEA-I transport and dispersion forecast is improved within the complex terrain features that dominate the Western US and Alaska. The primary user community of smoke forecasts is the Western regions of the National Weather Service (NWS) and US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) due to the significant impacts of wildfires in these regions. With this we demonstrate the quality of the smoke dispersion forecasts that can be achieved by integrating polar-orbiting satellite measurements with forecast models to enable on-site decision support services for fire incident management teams and other real-time air quality agencies.

  15. Impact of coronal mass ejections on the Earth's thermosphere and geoeffectiveness observed by ACE and GRACE: Statistical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, Sandro; Temmer, Manuela; Veronig, Astrid; Baur, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    For the period July 2003 to August 2010, the interplanetary coronal mass ejection (ICME) catalogue maintained by Richardson and Cane lists 106 Earth-directed events, which have been measured in situ by plasma and field instruments on board the ACE satellite. We present a statistical investigation of the Earth's thermospheric neutral density response by means of accelerometer measurements collected by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites, which are available for 104 ICMEs in the data set. We relate the thermospheric density increase to various geomagnetic indices (e.g. Dst, AE, Kp, a-indices, ...) and characteristic ICME parameters (impact speed, southward magnetic field strength Bz). We find high correlations between the ICME Bz and thermospheric density enhancements as well as with most of the geomagnetic indices. Separating the response for the shock-sheath region and the magnetic structure of the ICME, we find for instance that the Dst and SYM-H indices reveal a tighter relation to the Bz minimum in the magnetic structure of the ICME, whereas the polar cap indices show higher correlations with the Bz minimum in the shock-sheath region. These results are expected to further stimulate progress in space weather understanding and applications regarding satellite operations.

  16. Satellite measurements of the backscattered ultraviolet to determine ozone trends, volcanic SO2, and nitric oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcpeters, Richard

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the atmospheric backscattered UV albedo have been used from satellites for more than 20 years to measure ozone. The longest continuous record has been from the Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet instrument (SBUV) and TOMS on the Nimbus 7 satellite, which have been in operation since November of 1978. Because of degradation in space of the diffuser plate used to measure extraterrestrial solar flux, it has been necessary to develop new techniques to maintain the calibration of these instruments. Calibration is maintained by requiring that ozone measured by different wavelength pairs be consistent, and by requiring that ozone measured at different solar zenith angles be consistent. This technique of using a geophysical quantity, ozone, as a transfer standard for wavelength calibration is very powerful. The recalibrated data have been used to measure total ozone trends to an accuracy of +/- 1.3 percent 2(sigma) error over ten years. No significant trends are found near the equator, but significant trends larger than predicted by homogeneous chemistry are found at middle to high latitudes in both hemispheres. In addition, UV albedo data have been used to measure SO2 using band structure in the 300-310 nm range, and to measure nitric oxide in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere using the (10) and (02) NO gamma band fluorescence features.

  17. Computer-aided evaluation of the railway track geometry on the basis of satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Specht, Cezary; Koc, Władysław; Chrostowski, Piotr

    2016-05-01

    In recent years, all over the world there has been a period of intensive development of GNSS (Global Navigation Satellite Systems) measurement techniques and their extension for the purpose of their applications in the field of surveying and navigation. Moreover, in many countries a rising trend in the development of rail transportation systems has been noticed. In this paper, a method of railway track geometry assessment based on mobile satellite measurements is presented. The paper shows the implementation effects of satellite surveying railway geometry. The investigation process described in the paper is divided on two phases. The first phase is the GNSS mobile surveying and the analysis obtained data. The second phase is the analysis of the track geometry using the flat coordinates from the surveying. The visualization of the measured route, separation and quality assessment of the uniform geometric elements (straight sections, arcs), identification of the track polygon (main directions and intersection angles) are discussed and illustrated by the calculation example within the article.

  18. Comparison of global precipitation climatology products derived from ground- and satellite-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhong

    2014-11-01

    Satellite-based products increasingly take an important role in filling data gaps in data sparse regions around the world. In recent years, precipitation products that utilize multi-satellite and multi-sensor datasets have been gaining more popularity than products from a single sensor or satellite. Adjusted with gauge and ground radar data, satellitebased products have been significantly improved. However the history of satellite-based precipitation products is relatively short compared to the length of 30 years in the definition for climatology from the World Meteorological Organization (WMO). For example, the NASA/JAXA Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) has been in operation for over 16 years since 1997. The length of TRMM is far shorter than those from ground observations, raising a question whether TRMM climatology products are good enough for research and applications. In this study, three climatologies derived from ground observations (Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) and Willmott and Matsuura (WM)) and a blended product (the TRMM Multi-Satellite Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) monthly product or 3B43) are compared on a global scale to assess the performance and weaknesses of the TMPAderived climatology. Results show that the 3B43 climatology matches well with the two gauge-based climatologies in all seasons in terms of spatial distribution, zonal means as well as seasonal variations. However, high variations in rain rates are found in light rain regions such as the Sahara Desert. Large negative biases (3B43

  19. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS) Current Technical Performance Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, S.; Panas, M.; Jamilkowski, M. L.; Miller, S. W.

    2015-12-01

    ABSTRACT The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS has demonstrated its scalability and flexibility to incorporate multiple missions efficiently and with minimal cost, schedule and risk, while strengthening global partnerships in weather and environmental monitoring. The CGS architecture is being upgraded to Block 2.0 in 2015 to "operationalize" S-NPP, leverage lessons learned to date in multi-mission support, take advantage of more reliable and efficient technologies, and satisfy new requirements and constraints in the continually evolving budgetary environment. To ensure the CGS meets these needs, we have developed 49 Technical Performance Measures (TPMs) across 10 categories, such as data latency, operational availability and scalability. This paper will provide an overview of the CGS Block 2.0 architecture, with particular focus on the 10 TPM categories listed above. We will provide updates on how we ensure the deployed architecture meets these TPMs to satisfy our multi-mission objectives with the deployment of Block 2.0.

  20. [Job satisfaction among the professionals of AceS Baixo Vouga II].

    PubMed

    Santana, Silvina; Cerdeira, José

    2011-12-01

    Job satisfaction is a measure of quality of life at work and is related to emotional states. The interest for this theme is increasing and, in the last years, many studies have attempted to demonstrate its relation with professional performance. Primary care professionals are in the first line of the Serviço Nacional de Saúde (SNS). Therefore, it is necessary that they feel satisfaction with their jobs, in order to perform the tasks with the quality required. Several factors seem to have impact in the satisfaction of these professionals, such as payment, promotion, recognition from supervisors and peers, physical conditions at work and available resources, opportunities for personal development, among others. Insatisfaction may lead to absentism and in the limit to job quit. The main objective of this work is to study job satisfaction among the professionals working at the health centers of ACeS Baixo Vouga II, namely, the relationship between job characteristics and job satisfaction and between job characteristics and considering job quit as a serious option. All the professionals working in the four health centers were inquired. Results show that job characteristics are defined by six dimensions: leadership and supervision, task characteristics and autonomy, payment, personal and professional development and promotion, peers and relations inside the organization and work environment. Globally, payment and opportunities for personal and professional development and promotion are perceived at low level by all the professional groups. Results also show that there are differences by gender and professional groups regarding job satisfaction and the will to quit job. Considering the specificity of the tasks performed by these professionals, measures should be taken in order to improve job satisfaction in the Portuguese health centers.

  1. Characteristics of satellite accelerometer measurements of thermospheric neutral winds at high latitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doornbos, E.; Ridley, A. J.; Cnossen, I.; Aruliah, A. L.; Foerster, M.

    2015-12-01

    Thermospheric neutral winds play an important part in the coupled thermosphere-ionosphere system at high latitudes. Neutral wind speeds have been derived from the CHAMP and GOCE satellites, which carried precise accelerometers in low Earth orbits. Due to the need to simultaneously determine thermosphere neutral density from the accelerometer in-track measurements, only information on the wind component in the cross-track direction, perpendicular to the flight direction can be derived. However, contrary to ground-based Fabry-Perot interferometer and scanning Doppler imager observations of the thermosphere wind, these satellite-based measurements provide equally distributed coverage over both hemispheres. The sampling of seasonal and local time variations depend on the precession rate of the satellite's orbital plane, with CHAMP covering about 28 cycles of 24-hour local solar time coverage, during its 10 year mission (2000-2010), while the near sun-synchronous orbit of GOCE resulted in a much more limited local time coverage ranging from 6:20 to 8:00 (am and pm), during a science mission duration of 4 years (2009-2013). For this study, the wind data from both CHAMP and GOCE have been analysed in terms of seasonal variations and geographic and geomagnetic local solar time and latitude coordinates, in order to make statistical comparisons for both the Northern and Southern polar areas. The wind data from both satellites were studied independently and in combination, in order to investigate how the strengths and weaknesses of the instruments and orbit parameters of these missions affect investigations of interhemispheric differences. Finally, the data have been compared with results from coupled ionosphere-thermosphere models and from ground-based FPI and SDI measurements.

  2. Application of Vision Metrology to In-Orbit Measurement of Large Reflector Onboard Communication Satellite for Next Generation Mobile Satellite Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akioka, M.; Orikasa, T.; Satoh, M.; Miura, A.; Tsuji, H.; Toyoshima, M.; Fujino, Y.

    2016-06-01

    Satellite for next generation mobile satellite communication service with small personal terminal requires onboard antenna with very large aperture reflector larger than twenty meters diameter because small personal terminal with lower power consumption in ground base requires the large onboard reflector with high antenna gain. But, large deployable antenna will deform in orbit because the antenna is not a solid dish but the flexible structure with fine cable and mesh supported by truss. Deformation of reflector shape deteriorate the antenna performance and quality and stability of communication service. However, in case of digital beam forming antenna with phased array can modify the antenna beam performance due to adjustment of excitation amplitude and excitation phase. If we can measure the reflector shape precisely in orbit, beam pattern and antenna performance can be compensated with the updated excitation amplitude and excitation phase parameters optimized for the reflector shape measured every moment. Softbank Corporation and National Institute of Information and Communications Technology has started the project "R&D on dynamic beam control technique for next generation mobile communication satellite" as a contracted research project sponsored by Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communication of Japan. In this topic, one of the problem in vision metrology application is a strong constraints on geometry for camera arrangement on satellite bus with very limited space. On satellite in orbit, we cannot take many images from many different directions as ordinary vision metrology measurement and the available area for camera positioning is quite limited. Feasibility of vision metrology application and general methodology to apply to future mobile satellite communication satellite is to be found. Our approach is as follows: 1) Development of prototyping simulator to evaluate the expected precision for network design in zero order and first order 2) Trial

  3. T-lymphocyte induction of human monocyte angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is not dependent upon T-lymphocyte proliferation

    SciTech Connect

    Vuk-Pavlovic, Z.; Rohrbach, M.S.

    1986-03-05

    Human peripheral blood monocytes cultured in serum free media for seven days show a basal activity of the ectoenzyme ACE which is augmented 2-3 times by the presence of autologous peripheral blood T-lymphocytes. Since these two cell types are also involved in autologous mixed lymphocyte reaction if serum is present, the authors compared the ability of T-cells to stimulate ACE activity in the presence or absence of proliferation (measured by /sup 3/H-thymidine incorporation). By the seventh day, cultures with 5% AB/sup +/ serum showed significant increase in proliferation but no increase in ACE activity compared to the serum free cultures. Even higher proliferation rate achieved by co-culturing T-lymphocytes with allogeneic monocytes did not increase ACE production; on the contrary, ACE activity remained at the basal level. Monocyte-T-cell co-cultures stimulated with increasing concentrations of ConA or PHA showed dose dependent increases in proliferation but parallel decreases in ACE activity. Addition of soluble antigen (Candida albicans) also enhanced proliferation but not ACE synthesis. They conclude that T-lymphocyte induction of monocyte ACE is a result of cooperation between autologous cells which is not dependent upon T-cell proliferation.

  4. Single and combined influence of ACE and ACTN3 genotypes on muscle phenotypes in octogenarians.

    PubMed

    Garatachea, Nuria; Fiuza-Luces, Carmen; Torres-Luque, Gema; Yvert, Thomas; Santiago, Catalina; Gómez-Gallego, Félix; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Lucia, Alejandro

    2012-07-01

    We studied the single and combined influence of the ACE I/D and the ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms on muscle phenotypes (thigh muscles' cross-sectional area assessed with magnetic resonance imaging) and strength (maximal handgrip, 30-s chair stand test), functional ability during activities of daily living (Barthel index) and bone mineral density (proximal femur) in Caucasian (Spanish) community-dwelling old people [n = 81, 59 women; mean age 82.8 ± 4.8 years (range 71-93 years)]. We found no significantly differences in the aforementioned phenotypes across ACE and ACTN3 genotypes (all P > 0.05), except for handgrip in the ACE I/D recessive model (DD 19.5 ± 6.7 kg, ID 24.0 ± 9.1 kg, II 22.1 ± 7.9; P = 0.047), yet statistical significance disappeared after correction for multiple comparisons. Likewise, the analyses of the combined effects between genotypes did not yield any significant difference (all P > 0.05) between the two 'extreme' genotypes [theoretically 'power or muscularity oriented' [(ACTN3 RR + RX & ACE DD) versus 'non-power' (ACTN3 XX & ACE II + ID)]. The aforementioned analyses were adjusted by sex, age and physical activity levels as covariates. Logistic regression analysis revealed no significant association of single or combined effect of ACE and ACTN3 genotypes or genotype combination group (ACE + ACTN3) with sarcopenia (i.e. being in the lowest 25th sex-specific percentile for a combined score of the muscle and functional phenotypes we measured). Though ACE I/D and ACTN3 R577X polymorphisms are candidates to modulate exercise-related phenotypes in adults, our data suggest that they do not exert a major influence in the muscle phenotypes of old people. More studies with larger sample sizes are needed.

  5. First results of measurements of extreme ultraviolet radiation onboard a geostationary satellite "ELECTRO-L"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nusinov, Anatoliy; Kazachevskaya, Tamara; Gonjukh, David

    Measurements of the intensity of EUV emission in the hydrogen Lyman-alpha line were conducted by a broadband photometer VUSS-E onboard geostationary Hydrometeorological satellite "Electro" since March 2011. The solar hydrogen Lyman-alpha line (lambda = 121.6 nm) was monitored. The photomultiplier with LiF window used as a detector insensitive to visible light. Long-wavelength limit of the spectral band sensitivity of the instrument is about 200 nm, so the signal of the device is defined as the flux of solar radiation in the region of 123-200 nm. Its exclusion was carried out by calculation. Since the satellite "Electro" designed for remote sensing of the Earth, its line of sight focused on Earth. Alignment of instrument in the Sun direction was achieved by installing it on the solar panel, periodically moved in the solar direction. Correction of instrument readings, reduced due to the deviation of its axis from the Sun direction, carried out by calculation. Measurements were carried out every second. The first results of the measurements are presented. The difference in absolute calibration Electro-L/VUSS-E is within 5% of corresponding values for measurements TIMED satellite in those days, that is in agreement with laboratory calibrations. It is useful to measure the temperature of the instrument, as its variation on a small interval of time makes change the value of the output signal about 1-2 %. During first year of operation, the sensitivity of the apparatus remained within ± 2% of measured value, significant degradation of sensitivity was not observed. Over time of observation there have been several large flares of X class. The increase of the signal in the ultraviolet range does not exceed a few percent during these flares.

  6. Temporal and spatial assessments of minimum air temperature using satellite surface temperature measurements in Massachusetts, USA

    PubMed Central

    Kloog, Itai; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel

    2015-01-01

    Although meteorological stations provide accurate air temperature observations, their spatial coverage is limited and thus often insufficient for epidemiological studies. Satellite data expand spatial coverage, enhancing our ability to estimate near surface air temperature (Ta). However, the derivation of Ta from surface temperature (Ts) measured by satellites is far from being straightforward. In this study, we present a novel approach that incorporates land use regression, meteorological variables and spatial smoothing to first calibrate between Ts and Ta on a daily basis and then predict Ta for days when satellite Ts data were not available. We applied mixed regression models with daily random slopes to calibrate Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Ts data with monitored Ta measurements for 2003. Then, we used a generalized additive mixed model with spatial smoothing to estimate Ta in days with missing Ts. Out-of-sample tenfold cross-validation was used to quantify the accuracy of our predictions. Our model performance was excellent for both days with available Ts and days without Ts observations (mean out-of-sample R2=0.946 and R2=0.941 respectively). Furthermore, based on the high quality predictions we investigated the spatial patterns of Ta within the study domain as they relate to urban vs. non-urban land uses. PMID:22721687

  7. Temporal and spatial assessments of minimum air temperature using satellite surface temperature measurements in Massachusetts, USA.

    PubMed

    Kloog, Itai; Chudnovsky, Alexandra; Koutrakis, Petros; Schwartz, Joel

    2012-08-15

    Although meteorological stations provide accurate air temperature observations, their spatial coverage is limited and thus often insufficient for epidemiological studies. Satellite data expand spatial coverage, enhancing our ability to estimate near surface air temperature (Ta). However, the derivation of Ta from surface temperature (Ts) measured by satellites is far from being straightforward. In this study, we present a novel approach that incorporates land use regression, meteorological variables and spatial smoothing to first calibrate between Ts and Ta on a daily basis and then predict Ta for days when satellite Ts data were not available. We applied mixed regression models with daily random slopes to calibrate Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) Ts data with monitored Ta measurements for 2003. Then, we used a generalized additive mixed model with spatial smoothing to estimate Ta in days with missing Ts. Out-of-sample tenfold cross-validation was used to quantify the accuracy of our predictions. Our model performance was excellent for both days with available Ts and days without Ts observations (mean out-of-sample R(2)=0.946 and R(2)=0.941 respectively). Furthermore, based on the high quality predictions we investigated the spatial patterns of Ta within the study domain as they relate to urban vs. non-urban land uses.

  8. Comparison of Ice Cloud Particle Sizes Retrieved From Satellite Data Derived From In Situ Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Han, Qingyuan; Rossow, William B.; Chou, Joyce; Welch, Ronald M.

    1997-01-01

    Cloud microphysical parameterizations have attracted a great deal of attention in recent years due to their effect on cloud radiative properties and cloud-related hydrological processes in large-scale models. The parameterization of cirrus particle size has been demonstrated as an indispensable component in the climate feedback analysis. Therefore, global-scale, long-term observations of cirrus particle sizes are required both as a basis of and as a validation of parameterizations for climate models. While there is a global scale, long-term survey of water cloud droplet sizes (Han et al. 1994), there is no comparable study for cirrus ice crystals. In this paper a near-global survey of cirrus ice crystal sizes is conducted using ISCCP satellite data analysis. The retrieval scheme uses phase functions based upon hexagonal crystals calculated by a ray tracing technique. The results show that global mean values of D(e) are about 60 micro-m. This study also investigates the possible reasons for the significant difference between satellite retrieved effective radii (approx. 60 micro-m) and aircraft measured particle sizes (approx. 200 micro-m) during the FIRE I IFO experiment. They are (1) vertical inhomogeneity of cirrus particle sizes; (2) lower limit of the instrument used in aircraft measurements; (3) different definitions of effective particle sizes; and (4) possible inappropriate phase functions used in satellite retrieval.

  9. Analysis of the role of urban vegetation in local climate of Budapest using satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongracz, Rita; Bartholy, Judit; Dezso, Zsuzsanna; Fricke, Cathy

    2016-08-01

    Urban areas significantly modify the natural environment due to the concentrated presence of humans and the associated anthropogenic activities. In order to assess this effect, it is essential to evaluate the relationship between urban and vegetated surface covers. In our study we focused on the Hungarian capital, Budapest, in which about 1.7 million inhabitants are living nowadays. The entire city is divided by the river Danube into the hilly, greener Buda side on the west, and the flat, more densely built-up Pest side on the east. Most of the extended urban vegetation, i.e., forests are located in the western Buda side. The effects of the past changing of these green areas are analyzed using surface temperature data calculated from satellite measurements in the infrared channels, and NDVI (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) derived from visible and near-infrared satellite measurements. For this purpose, data available from sensor MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) of NASA satellites (i.e., Terra and Aqua) are used. First, the climatological effects of forests on the urban heat island intensity are evaluated. Then, we also aim to evaluate the relationship of surface temperature and NDVI in this urban environment with special focus on vegetation-related sections of the city where the vegetation cover either increased or decreased remarkably.

  10. Simultaneous Ocean Wave Measurements by the Jason and Topex Satellites, With Buoy and Model Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, Richard D.; Beckley, B. D.

    2003-01-01

    The verification phase of the Jason-1 satellite altimeter mission presents a unique opportunity for comparing near-simultaneous, independent satellite measurements. We here examine simultaneous significant wave height measurements by the Jason-1 and Topex/Poseidon altimeters. These data are also compared with in-situ measurements from deep-ocean buoys and with predicted wave heights from the Wave Watch 111 operational model. The rms difference between Jason and Topex wave heights is 21 cm, and this can be further lowered by application of median filters to reduce high-frequency noise. This noise is slightly larger in the Jason dataset, amounting to about 7 cm rms for frequencies above 0.05 Hz, which is the frequency at which the coherence between Topex and Jason measurements drops to zero. The probability density function for Jason shows a dearth of small waves relative to Topex. Buoy comparisons confirm that this problem lies with the Jason measurements. The buoy comparisons confirm previous reports that Topex wave heights are roughly 5% smaller than buoy measurements for waves between 2 and 5m; Jason heights in general are 2.7% smaller than Topex. Spurious dips in the Topex density function for 3- and 6-meter waves, a problem that has existed since the beginning of the mission, can be solved by waveform retracking..

  11. "Cloud Slicing": A New Technique to Derive Upper Tropospheric Ozone from Satellite Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandra, Sushil; Ziemke, Jerald; Bhartia, Pawan K.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    A new technique called "cloud slicing" is introduced in this study to determine tropospheric ozone profile information. This method is unique because all previous methods incorporating satellite data were only capable of estimating the total column of ozone in the troposphere. Cloud slicing takes advantage of the opaque property of water vapor clouds to ultraviolet wavelength radiation. Measurements of above-cloud column ozone from the Nimbus 7 total ozone mapping spectrometer (TOMS) instrument are combined together with Nimbus 7 temperature humidity and infrared radiometer (THIR) cloud-top pressure data to derive ozone column amounts in the upper troposphere. In this study, tropical TOMS and THIR data for the period 1979-1984 are analyzed. Our investigation examines several case studies and illustrates the robust nature of this new technique for future satellite missions.

  12. A climate index derived from satellite measured spectral infrared radiation. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, M. D.; Fox, S. K.

    1982-01-01

    The vertical infrared radiative emitting structure (VIRES) climate index, based on radiative transfer theory and derived from the spectral radiances typically used to retrieve temperature profiles, is introduced. It is assumed that clouds and climate are closely related and a change in one will result in a change in the other. The index is a function of the cloud, temperature, and moisture distributions. It is more accurately retrieved from satellite data than is cloudiness per se. The VIRES index is based upon the shape and relative magnitude of the broadband weighting function of the infrared radiative transfer equation. The broadband weighting curves are retrieved from simulated satellite infrared sounder data (spectral radiances). The retrieval procedure is described and the error error sensitivities of the method investigated. Index measuring options and possible applications of the VIRES index are proposed.

  13. Comparative analysis of UVB exposure between Nimbus 7/TOMS satellite estimates and ground-based measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Zhiqiang; Gao, Wei

    2010-08-01

    This study describes the patterns of variation in ultraviolet (UV) exposure across time and space using two continental scale data sets on UV radiation and conducts a comparative analysis of two sources of noontime UV-B exposure data across the continental US. One dataset was collected from 37 ground-based stations equipped with broadband UV-B-1 Pyranometers across North America whereas the other dataset was of synchronous satellite data collected from the Nimbus-7/TOMS sensor. Comparisons of these datasets confirmed agreement between the ground-based measurements and the TOMS satellite estimates with correlation coefficients of 0.87 and 0.95 for daily and monthly UV Index time series (i.e., a common metric of UV radiation exposure), respectively.

  14. The proper weighting function for retrieving temperatures from satellite measured radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arking, A.

    1976-01-01

    One class of methods for converting satellite measured radiances into atmospheric temperature profiles, involves a linearization of the radiative transfer equation: delta r = the sum of (W sub i) (delta T sub i) where (i=1...s) and where delta T sub i is the deviation of the temperature in layer i from that of a reference atmosphere, delta R is the difference in the radiance at satellite altitude from the corresponding radiance for the reference atmosphere, and W sub i is the discrete (or vector) form of the T-weighting (i.e., temperature weighting) function W(P), where P is pressure. The top layer of the atmosphere corresponds to i = 1, the bottom layer to i = s - 1, and i = s refers to the surface. Linearization in temperature (or some function of temperature) is at the heart of all linear or matrix methods. The weighting function that should be used is developed.

  15. Measuring the Lense-Thirring precession using a second Lageos satellite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tapley, B. D.; Ciufolini, I.

    1989-01-01

    A complete numerical simulation and error analysis was performed for the proposed experiment with the objective of establishing an accurate assessment of the feasibility and the potential accuracy of the measurement of the Lense-Thirring precession. Consideration was given to identifying the error sources which limit the accuracy of the experiment and proposing procedures for eliminating or reducing the effect of these errors. Analytic investigations were conducted to study the effects of major error sources with the objective of providing error bounds on the experiment. The analysis of realistic simulated data is used to demonstrate that satellite laser ranging of two Lageos satellites, orbiting with supplemental inclinations, collected for a period of 3 years or more, can be used to verify the Lense-Thirring precession. A comprehensive covariance analysis for the solution was also developed.

  16. Absorbed dose measurements on external surface of Kosmos-satellites with glass thermoluminescent detectors.

    PubMed

    Akatov YuA; Arkhangelsky, V V; Kovalev, E E; Spurny, F; Votochkova, I

    1989-01-01

    In this paper we present absorbed dose measurements with glass thermoluminescent detectors on external surface of satellites of Kosmos-serie flying in 1983-87. Experiments were performed with thermoluminescent aluminophosphate glasses of thicknesses 0.1, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 1 mm. They were exposed in sets of total thickness between 5 and 20 mm, which were protected against sunlight with thin aluminized foils. In all missions, extremely high absorbed dose values were observed in the first layers of detectors, up to the thickness of 0.2 to 0.5 gcm-2. These experimental results confirm that, during flights at 250 to 400 km, doses on the surface of the satellites are very high, due to the low energy component of the proton and electron radiation.

  17. Ionizing radiation fluxes and dose measurements during the Kosmos 1887 satellite flight.

    PubMed

    Charvat, J; Spurny, F; Kopecka, B; Votockova, I

    1990-01-01

    The results of dosimetric experiments performed during the flight of Kosmos 1887 biosatellite are presented. Two kinds of measurements were performed on the external surface of the satellite. First, the fluences and spectra of low energy charged particles were established. It was found that most of the particles registered by means of solid state nuclear track detectors are helium nuclei. Tracks of oxygen nuclei and some heavier charged particles were also observed. Thermoluminescent detectors were used to establish absorbed doses in open space on the satellite's surface and behind thin shielding. It was found that these doses were rather high; nevertheless, their decrease with shielding thickness is very rapid. Dosimetric and other consequences of the results obtained are analyzed and discussed.

  18. Earth Radiation Budget Satellite extraterrestrial solar constant measurements - 1986-1987 increasing trend

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Robert B., III; Barkstrom, Bruce R.; Harrison, Edwin F.; Gibson, Michael A.; Natarajan, Sudha M.; Edmonds, William L.; Mecherikunnel, Ann T.; Kyle, H. Lee

    1988-01-01

    From June 1986 through Nov 1987, the Earth Radiation Budget Satellite (ERBS) pyrheliometric measurements indicated that the solar constant was increasing approximately +0.02 percent per year. Earlier ERBS measurements indicated that the solar constant was declining approximately -0.03 percent per year during the 1984 through mid-1986 period. Since mid-1986 represents the beginning of solar cycle 22, it is believed that the reversal in the long-term solar constant trend may be linked to increased solar activity associated with the beginning of the 11-year sunspot cycle. The typical value of the solar constant was found to be 1365 Wm-2.

  19. Calibration of satellite measurements of river discharge using a global hydrology model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robert Brakenridge, G.; Cohen, Sagy; Kettner, Albert J.; De Groeve, Tom; Nghiem, Son V.; Syvitski, James P. M.; Fekete, Balazs M.

    2012-12-01

    SummaryMeasurements of river discharge and watershed runoff are essential to water resources management, efficient hydropower generation, accurate flood prediction and control, and improved understanding of the global water cycle. Previous work demonstrates that orbital remote sensing can measure river discharge variation in a manner closely analogous to its measurement at ground stations, and using reach flow surface area instead of stage as the discharge estimator. For international measurements, hydrological modeling can, in principle, be used to provide the needed calibration of sensor data to discharge. The present study tests this approach and investigates the accuracy of the results. We analyze six sites within the US where gauging station, satellite measurements, and WBM model results are all available. Knowledge is thereby gained concerning how accurately satellite sensors can measure discharge, if the signal is calibrated only from global modeling results without any ground-based information. The calibration (rating) equations obtained for the remote sensing signal are similar, whether based on gauging station or on model information: r2 correlation coefficients for least squares fits at one example site (#524; White River, Indiana) are both .66 (n = 144, comparing monthly daily maxima, minima, and mean, 2003-2006). Space-based 4-day mean discharge values for this site when using the model calibration are accurate to within ±67% on the average (n = 1824; largest percent errors occur at low discharges), and annual total runoff is accurate to ±9%, 2003-2008. Comparison of gauging station versus modeled discharge commonly indicates a small positive model bias; the observed errors of satellite-observed annual runoff are also positive and could be improved by bias removal from the rating curves. Also, analysis of a large flood event, along the Indus River in 2010, shows that the model does not capture flood wave attenuation by overbank flow, and thus

  20. Error analysis for the proposed close grid geodynamic satellite measurement system (CLOGEOS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, I. I.; Vangelder, B. H. W.; Kumar, M.

    1975-01-01

    The close grid geodynamic measurement system experiment which envisages an active ranging satellite and a grid of retro-reflectors or transponders in the San Andreas fault area is a detailed simulated study for recovering the relative positions in the grid. The close grid geodynamic measurement system for determining the relative motion of two plates in the California region (if feasible) could be used in other areas of the world to delineate and complete the picture of crustal motions over the entire globe and serve as a geodetic survey system. In addition, with less stringent accuracy standards, the system would also find usage in allied geological and marine geodesy fields.

  1. Validated ligand mapping of ACE active site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuster, Daniel J.; Marshall, Garland R.

    2005-08-01

    Crystal structures of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) complexed with three inhibitors (lisinopril, captopril, enalapril) provided experimental data for testing the validity of a prior active site model predicting the bound conformation of the inhibitors. The ACE active site model - predicted over 18 years ago using a series of potent ACE inhibitors of diverse chemical structure - was recreated using published data and commercial software. Comparison between the predicted structures of the three inhibitors bound to the active site of ACE and those determined experimentally yielded root mean square deviation (RMSD) values of 0.43-0.81 Å, among the distances defining the active site map. The bound conformations of the chemically relevant atoms were accurately deduced from the geometry of ligands, applying the assumption that the geometry of the active site groups responsible for binding and catalysis of amide hydrolysis was constrained. The mapping of bound inhibitors at the ACE active site was validated for known experimental compounds, so that the constrained conformational search methodology may be applied with confidence when no experimentally determined structure of the enzyme yet exists, but potent, diverse inhibitors are available.

  2. New Satellite Measurements of Aerosol Direct Radiative Forcing from MODIS, MISR, and POLDER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y.

    2000-01-01

    New set of satellites, MODIS and MISR launched on EOS-Terra and POLDER launched on ADEOS-1, and scheduled for ADEOS-II and PARASOL in orbit with EOS-AQUA, open exciting opportunities to measure aerosol and their radiative forcing of climate. Each of these instruments has a different approach to invert remote sensing data to derive the aerosol properties. MODIS is using wide spectral range 0.47-2.1 micron. MISR is using narrower spectral range (0.44 to 0.87 micron) but observing the same spot from 9 different angles along the satellite track. POLDER using similar wavelengths, uses two dimensional view with a wide angle optics and adds polarization to the inversion process. Among these instruments, we expect to measure the global distribution of aerosol, to distinguish small pollution particles from large particles from deserts and ocean spray. We shall try to measure the aerosol absorption of solar radiation, and their refractive index that indicates the effect of liquid water on the aerosol size and interaction with sunlight. The radiation field measured by these instruments in variety of wavelengths and angles, is also used to derive the effect of the aerosol on reflection of sunlight spectral fluxes to space. When combined with flux measurements at the ground, it gives a complete characterization of the effect of aerosol on solar illumination, heating in the atmosphere and reflection to space.

  3. Simultaneous Ocean Wave Measurements by the JASON and TOPEX Satellites, With Buoy and Model Comparisons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ray, R. D.; Beckley, B. D.

    2003-01-01

    The verification phase of the Jason-1 satellite altimeter mission presents a unique opportunity for comparing near-simultaneous, independent satellite measurements. We here examine simultaneous significant wave height measurements by the Jason-1 and Topex/Poseidon altimeters. These data are also compared with in-situ measurements from deep-ocean buoys and with predicted wave heights from the WaveWatch 111 operational model. The rms difference between Jason and Topex wave heights is 28 cm, and this can be lowered by half through improved outlier editing and filtering of high-frequency noise. Noise is slightly larger in the Jason dataset, exceeding Topex by about 7 cm rms at frequencies above 0.05 Hz, which is the frequency at which the coherence between Topex and Jason measurements drops to zero. Jason wave heights are more prone to outliers, especially during periods of moderate to high backscatter. Buoy comparisons confirm previous reports that Topex wave heights are roughly 5% smaller than buoy measurements for waves between 2 and 5m; Jason heights in general are 3% smaller than Topex. Spurious dips in the Topex density function for 3- and 6-meter waves, a problem that has existed since the beginning of the mission, can be solved by waveform retracking.

  4. Airborne Sunphotometry in Support of the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) Experiment, 2001

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Redemann, J.; Schmid, B.; Livingston, J. M.; Russell, P. B.; Eilers, J. A.; Hobbs, P. V.; Kahn, R.; Smith, W. L.

    2001-12-01

    As part of the Chesapeake Lighthouse and Aircraft Measurements for Satellites (CLAMS) experiment, July 10 - August 2, 2001, the 14-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) was operated successfully aboard the University of Washington CV-580 during 10 research flights, totaling 45.09 flight hours. The CLAMS campaign was a clear sky, shortwave (SW) closure campaign sponsored by CERES, MISR, MODIS-Atmospheres, and the NASA/GEWEX Global Aerosol Climatology Project (GACP), and entailed measurements from the Chesapeake Lighthouse research platform, several land sites, 6 research aircraft and the TERRA satellite. Among the CLAMS research goals were the validation of satellite-based retrievals of aerosol properties, vertical profiles of radiative fluxes, temperature and water vapor. AATS-14 measures the direct solar beam transmission at 14 discrete wavelengths (354-1558 nm), yielding aerosol optical depth (AOD) spectra, columnar water vapor and columnar ozone. Differentiation of AOD (CWV) with respect to altitude in favorable flight patterns, allows the derivation of aerosol extinction (water vapor density). During coordinated flights of the UW CV-580, AATS-14 measured full column aerosol optical depth spectra at exact TERRA overpass time on at least 7 occasions. For five of these opportunities, AOD at 499nm was at or below 0.1. During TERRA overpass time on July 17, 2001, AATS-14 measured the highest AOD encountered during the entire experiment (ca. 0.48 at 499nm), including a horizontal gradient in AOD of more than 0.1 over a horizontal distance of ca. 80 kilometers. In this paper, we will show first sunphotometer-derived results regarding the spatial variation of AOD and CWV during TERRA overpass time at key locations for the CLAMS experiment. Preliminary comparison studies between our AOD/aerosol extinction data and results from (i) extinction products derived using in situ measurements aboard the UW CV-580 and (ii) AOD retrievals using the Multi

  5. Online data base of satellite sounder and insitu measurements covering two solar cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilitza, D.; Reinisch, B.; Benson, R.; Grebowsky, J.; Papitashvili, N.; Huang, X.; Schar, W.; Hills, K.

    Accurate descriptions of the solar cycle variations of ionospheric parameters are an important goal of ionospheric modeling. Reliable predictions of these variations are of essential importance for almost all applications of ionospheric models. Unfortunately there are very few global data sources that cover a solar cycle or more. In an effort to expand the solar cycle coverage of data readily available for ionospheric modeling, we have processed a large number of satellite data sets from the sixties, seventies, and early eighties and have made them online accessible as part of NSSDC's ftp archive (http://nssdcftp.gsfc.nasa.gov/spacecraft data/) and it's ATMOWeb retrieval and plotting system (http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/atmoweb/). We report about two data restoration efforts supported through NASA's Applied Information Systems Research Program (AISRP). The first project deals with insitu data from a large number of US, Canadian, Japanese and German satellites that measured ionospheric densities and temperatures from 1964 to 1983. The accumulated data base includes data from the BE-B, DME-A, AE-B, Alouette 2, ISIS 1, 2, OGO-6, AEROS A, AE-C, -D, -E, Hinotori, ISS-b and DE-2 satellite missions. The second project involves the production of digital topside sounder ionograms from the ISIS 1 and 2 satellites and their subsequent inversion to produce electron-density profiles. Approximately 340,000 ionograms are available from NSSDC as of July 2002. An automatic topside ionogram scaler with true height algorithm (TOPIST) was developed as part of this project and is now being used to obtain electron density profiles from these ionograms. Providing global coverage over more than two solar cycles the database established by this two projects is a valuable asset for improvements of the International Reference Ionosphere model and for ionospheric research.

  6. Requirements for a mobile communications satellite system. Volume 3: Large space structures measurements study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akle, W.

    1983-01-01

    This study report defines a set of tests and measurements required to characterize the performance of a Large Space System (LSS), and to scale this data to other LSS satellites. Requirements from the Mobile Communication Satellite (MSAT) configurations derived in the parent study were used. MSAT utilizes a large, mesh deployable antenna, and encompasses a significant range of LSS technology issues in the areas of structural/dynamics, control, and performance predictability. In this study, performance requirements were developed for the antenna. Special emphasis was placed on antenna surface accuracy, and pointing stability. Instrumentation and measurement systems, applicable to LSS, were selected from existing or on-going technology developments. Laser ranging and angulation systems, presently in breadboard status, form the backbone of the measurements. Following this, a set of ground, STS, and GEO-operational were investigated. A third scale (15 meter) antenna system as selected for ground characterization followed by STS flight technology development. This selection ensures analytical scaling from ground-to-orbit, and size scaling. Other benefits are cost and ability to perform reasonable ground tests. Detail costing of the various tests and measurement systems were derived and are included in the report.

  7. Cloud effects on atmospheric solar absorption in light of most recent surface and satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakuba, Maria Z.; Folini, Doris; Wild, Martin; Long, Charles N.; Schaepman-Strub, Gabriela; Stephens, Graeme L.

    2017-02-01

    At 36 locations worldwide, we estimate the cloud radiative effect (CREatm) on atmospheric solar absorption (ASRatm) by combining ground-based measurements of surface solar radiation (SSR) with collocated satellite-derived surface albedo and top-of-atmosphere net irradiance under both all-sky and clear-sky conditions. To derive continuous clear-sky SSR from Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) in-situ measurements of global and diffuse SSR, we make use of the Long and Ackerman (2000) algorithm that identifies clear-sky measurements and empirically fits diurnal clear-sky irradiance functions using the cosine of the solar zenith angle as the independent variable. The 11-year average (2000-2010) CREatm (all-sky minus clear-sky) is overall positive at around +11 Wm-2 using direct measurements form ground and space, and at 4 Wm-2 in the CERES EBAF dataset. This discrepancy arises from a potential overestimation in clear-sky absorption by the satellite product or underestimation by the combined BSRN/CERES dataset. The forcing ratio R shows that clouds enhance ASRatm most distinctly at desert-like locations that overall experience little occurrence of clouds. This relationship is captured by both the combined dataset and CERES EBAF.

  8. Satellite accelerometer measurements of neutral density and winds during geomagnetic storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marcos, F. A.; Forbes, J. M.

    1986-01-01

    A new thermospheric wind measurement technique is reported which is based on a Satellite Electrostatic Triaxial Accelerometer (SETA) system capable of accurately measuring accelerations in the satellite's in-track, cross-track and radial directions. Data obtained during two time periods are presented. The first data set describes cross-track winds measured between 170 and 210 km during a 5-day period (25 to 29 March 1979) of mostly high geomagnetic activity. In the second data set, cross-track winds and neutral densities from SETA and exospheric temperatures from the Millstone Hill incoherent scatter radar are examined during an isolated magnetic substorm occurring on 21 March 1979. A polar thermospheric wind circulation consisting of a two cell horizontal convection pattern is reflected in both sets of cross-track acceleration measurements. The density response is highly asymmetric with respect to its day/night behavior. Latitude structures of the density response at successive times following the substorm peak suggest the equatorward propagation of a disturbance with a phase speed between 300 and 600 m/s. A deep depression in the density at high latitudes (less than 70 deg) is evident in conjunction with this phenomenon. The more efficient propagation of the disturbance to lower latitudes during the night is probably due to the midnight surge effect.

  9. Global carbon monoxide products from combined AIRS, TES and MLS measurements on A-train satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, J. X.; Yang, R.; Wei, Z.; Carminati, F.; Tangborn, A.; Sun, Z.; Lahoz, W.; Attié, J.-L.; El Amraoui, L.; Duncan, B.

    2013-06-01

    This study tests a novel methodology to add value to satellite datasets. This methodology, data fusion, is similar to data assimilation, except that the background model-based field is replaced by a satellite dataset, in this case AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) carbon monoxide (CO) measurements. The observational information comes from CO measurements with lower spatial coverage than AIRS, namely, from TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) and MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder). We show that combining these datasets with data fusion uses the higher spectral resolution of TES to extend AIRS CO observational sensitivity to the lower troposphere, a region especially important for air quality studies. We also show that combined CO measurements from AIRS and MLS provide enhanced information in the UTLS (upper troposphere/lower stratosphere) region compared to each product individually. The combined AIRS/TES and AIRS/MLS CO products are validated against DACOM (differential absorption mid-IR diode laser spectrometer) in situ CO measurements from the INTEX-B (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment: MILAGRO and Pacific phases) field campaign and in situ data from HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) flights. The data fusion results show improved sensitivities in the lower and upper troposphere (20-30% and above 20%, respectively) as compared with AIRS-only retrievals, and improved coverage compared with TES and MLS CO data.

  10. Global carbon monoxide products from combined AIRS, TES and MLS measurements on A-train satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warner, J. X.; Yang, R.; Wei, Z.; Carminati, F.; Tangborn, A.; Sun, Z.; Lahoz, W.; Attié, J.-L.; El Amraoui, L.; Duncan, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests a novel methodology to add value to satellite data sets. This methodology, data fusion, is similar to data assimilation, except that the background model-based field is replaced by a satellite data set, in this case AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) carbon monoxide (CO) measurements. The observational information comes from CO measurements with lower spatial coverage than AIRS, namely, from TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) and MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder). We show that combining these data sets with data fusion uses the higher spectral resolution of TES to extend AIRS CO observational sensitivity to the lower troposphere, a region especially important for air quality studies. We also show that combined CO measurements from AIRS and MLS provide enhanced information in the UTLS (upper troposphere/lower stratosphere) region compared to each product individually. The combined AIRS-TES and AIRS-MLS CO products are validated against DACOM (differential absorption mid-IR diode laser spectrometer) in situ CO measurements from the INTEX-B (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment: MILAGRO and Pacific phases) field campaign and in situ data from HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) flights. The data fusion results show improved sensitivities in the lower and upper troposphere (20-30% and above 20%, respectively) as compared with AIRS-only version 5 CO retrievals, and improved daily coverage compared with TES and MLS CO data.

  11. Global Carbon Monoxide Products from Combined AIRS, TES and MLS Measurements on A-Train Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Juying X.; Yang, R.; Wei, Z.; Carminati, F.; Tangborn, A.; Sun, Z.; Lahoz, W.; Attie, J. L.; El Amraoui, L.; Duncan, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests a novel methodology to add value to satellite data sets. This methodology, data fusion, is similar to data assimilation, except that the background modelbased field is replaced by a satellite data set, in this case AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) carbon monoxide (CO) measurements. The observational information comes from CO measurements with lower spatial coverage than AIRS, namely, from TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) and MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder). We show that combining these data sets with data fusion uses the higher spectral resolution of TES to extend AIRS CO observational sensitivity to the lower troposphere, a region especially important for air quality studies. We also show that combined CO measurements from AIRS and MLS provide enhanced information in the UTLS (upper troposphere/lower stratosphere) region compared to each product individually. The combined AIRS-TES and AIRS-MLS CO products are validated against DACOM (differential absorption mid-IR diode laser spectrometer) in situ CO measurements from the INTEX-B (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment: MILAGRO and Pacific phases) field campaign and in situ data from HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) flights. The data fusion results show improved sensitivities in the lower and upper troposphere (20-30% and above 20%, respectively) as compared with AIRS-only version 5 CO retrievals, and improved daily coverage compared with TES and MLS CO data.

  12. Stiffening of the ACES deployable space boom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sidwell, Vince

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this design project was to design an active planar stiffening device for the existing ACES (Acoustic Containerless Experiment System) structure. the ACES structure was modeled using simple beam theory. Various concepts were generated about how the stiffening device should be configured in order to perform at an optimum level. The optimum configuration was selected to be a single set of spreaders located approximately 63% of the distance down the beam. Actuation was to be provided by a DC electric motor. From the test results, the design group was able to draw conclusions and make recommendations about the utility of further research into this area.

  13. Ocean Wave Studies with Applications to Ocean Modeling and Improvement of Satellite Altimeter Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glazman, Roman E.

    1999-01-01

    Combining analysis of satellite data (altimeter, scatterometer, high-resolution visible and infrared images, etc.) with mathematical modeling of non-linear wave processes, we investigate various ocean wave fields (on scales from capillary to planetary), their role in ocean dynamics and turbulent transport (of heat and biogeochemical quantities), and their effects on satellite altimeter measuring accuracy. In 1998 my attention was focused on long internal gravity waves (10 to 1000 km), known also as baroclinic inertia-gravity (BIG) waves. We found these waves to be a major factor of altimeter measurements "noise," resulting in a greater uncertainty [up to 10 cm in terms of sea surface height (SSH) amplitude] in the measured SSH signal than that caused by the sea state bias variations (up to 5 cm or so). This effect still remains largely overlooked by the satellite altimeter community. Our studies of BIG waves address not only their influence on altimeter measurements but also their role in global ocean dynamics and in transport and turbulent diffusion of biogeochemical quantities. In particular, in collaboration with Prof Peter Weichman, Caltech, we developed a theory of turbulent diffusion caused by wave motions of most general nature. Applied to the problem of horizontal turbulent diffusion in the ocean, the theory yielded the effective diffusion coefficient as a function of BIG wave parameters obtainable from satellite altimeter data. This effort, begun in 1997, has been successfully completed in 1998. We also developed a theory that relates spatial fluctuations of scalar fields (such as sea surface temperature, chlorophyll concentration, drifting ice concentration, etc.) to statistical characteristics of BIG waves obtainable from altimeter measurements. A manuscript is in the final stages of preparation. In order to verify the theoretical predictions and apply them to observations, we are now analyzing Sea-viewing Wide Field of view Sensor (SeaWiFS) and Field of

  14. Precise measurement method for ionospheric total electron content using signals from GPS satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Imae, Michito; Kiuchi, Hitoshi; Kaneko, Akihiro; Hama, Shinichi; Miki, Chihiro

    1990-01-01

    A GPS codeless receiver called GTR-2 was for measuring total electron content (TEC) along the line of sight to the GPS satellite by using the cross correlation amplitude of the received P-code signals carried by L1(1575.42 MHz) and L2(1227.6 MHz). This equipment has the performance of uncertainty in the measurement of TEC of about 2 X 10(exp 16) electrons/sq m when a 10 dBi gain antenna was used. To increase the measurement performance, an upper version of GTR-2 called GTR-3 is planned which uses the phase information of the continuous signals obtained by making a cross correlation or multiplication of the received L1 and L2 P-code signals. By using the difference of these measured phases values, the ionospheric delay with the ambiguities of the periods of L1+L2 and L1-L2 signals can be estimated.

  15. Retrieval of ozone column content from airborne Sun photometer measurements during SOLVE II: comparison with coincident satellite and aircraft measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Livingston, J. M.; Schmid, B.; Russell, P. B.; Eilers, J. A.; Kolyer, R. W.; Redemann, J.; Ramirez, S. R.; Yee, J.-H.; Swartz, W. H.; Trepte, C. R.; Thomason, L. W.; Pitts, M. C.; Avery, M. A.; Randall, C. E.; Lumpe, J. D.; Bevilacqua, R. M.; Bittner, M.; Erbertseder, T.; McPeters, R. D.; Shetter, R. E.; Browell, E. V.; Kerr, J. B.; Lamb, K.

    2005-08-01

    During the 2003 SAGE (Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment) III Ozone Loss and Validation Experiment (SOLVE) II, the fourteen-channel NASA Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) was mounted on the NASA DC-8 aircraft and measured spectra of total and aerosol optical depth (TOD and AOD) during the sunlit portions of eight science flights. Values of ozone column content above the aircraft have been derived from the AATS-14 measurements by using a linear least squares method that exploits the differential ozone absorption in the seven AATS-14 channels located within the Chappuis band. We compare AATS-14 columnar ozone retrievals with temporally and spatially near-coincident measurements acquired by the SAGE III and the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM) III satellite sensors during four solar occultation events observed by each satellite. RMS differences are 19 DU (7% of the AATS value) for AATS-SAGE and 10 DU (3% of the AATS value) for AATS-POAM. In these checks of consistency between AATS-14 and SAGE III or POAM III ozone results, the AATS-14 analyses use airmass factors derived from the relative vertical profiles of ozone and aerosol extinction obtained by SAGE III or POAM III.

    We also compare AATS-14 ozone retrievals for measurements obtained during three DC-8 flights that included extended horizontal transects with total column ozone data acquired by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) and the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) satellite sensors. To enable these comparisons, the amount of ozone in the column below the aircraft is estimated either by assuming a climatological model or by combining SAGE and/or POAM data with high resolution in-situ ozone measurements acquired by the NASA Langley Research Center chemiluminescent ozone sensor, FASTOZ, during the aircraft vertical profile at the start or end of each flight. Resultant total column ozone values agree with corresponding TOMS and GOME

  16. Improved Ozone Profile Retrievals Using Multispectral Measurements from NASA 'A Train' Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, D.; Worden, J.; Livesey, N. J.; Irion, F. W.; Schwartz, M. J.; Bowman, K. W.; Pawson, S.; Wargan, K.

    2013-12-01

    Ozone, a radiatively and chemically important trace gas, plays various roles in different altitude ranges in the atmosphere. In the stratosphere, it absorbs the solar UV radiation from the Sun and protects us from sunburn and skin cancers. In the upper troposphere, ozone acts as greenhouse gas. Ozone in the middle troposphere reacts with many anthropogenic pollutants and cleans up the atmosphere. Near surface ozone is harmful to human health and plant life. Accurate monitoring of ozone vertical distributions is crucial for a better understanding of air quality and climate change. The Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are both in orbit on the Earth Observing System Aura satellite and are providing ozone concentration profile measurements. MLS observes limb signals from 118 GHz to 2.5 THz, and measures upper tropospheric and stratospheric ozone concentration (among many other species) with a vertical resolution of about 3 km. OMI is a nadir-viewing pushbroom ultraviolet-visible (UV-VIS) imaging spectrograph that measures backscattered radiances covering the 270-500 nm wavelength range. AIRS is a grating spectrometer, on EOS Aqua satellite, that measures the thermal infrared (TIR) radiances emitted by Earth's surface and by gases and particles in the spectral range 650 - 2665 cm-1. We present an approach to combine simultaneously measured UV and TIR radiances together with the retrieved MLS ozone fields, to improve the ozone sounding. This approach has the potential to provide a decadal record of ozone profiles with an improved spatial coverage and vertical resolution from space missions. For evaluating the quality of retrieved profiles, we selected a set of AIRS and OMI measurements, whose ground pixels were collocated with ozonesonde launch sites. The results from combination of these measurements are presented and discussed. The improvements on vertical resolution of tropospheric ozone profiles from the MLS/AIRS/OMI joint

  17. Validating Satellite-Derived Land Surface Temperature with in Situ Measurements: A Public Health Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Brines, Shannon J.; Brown, Daniel G.; Dvonch, J. Timothy; Gronlund, Carina J.; Zhang, Kai; Oswald, Evan M.; O’Neill, Marie S.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Land surface temperature (LST) and percent surface imperviousness (SI), both derived from satellite imagery, have been used to characterize the urban heat island effect, a phenomenon in which urban areas are warmer than non-urban areas. Objectives: We aimed to assess the correlations between LSTs and SI images with actual temperature readings from a ground-based network of outdoor monitors. Methods: We evaluated the relationships among a) LST calculated from a 2009 summertime satellite image of the Detroit metropolitan region, Michigan; b) SI from the 2006 National Land Cover Data Set; and c) ground-based temperature measurements monitored during the same time period at 19 residences throughout the Detroit metropolitan region. Associations between these ground-based temperatures and the average LSTs and SI at different radii around the point of the ground-based temperature measurement were evaluated at different time intervals. Spearman correlation coefficients and corresponding p-values were calculated. Results: Satellite-derived LST and SI values were significantly correlated with 24-hr average and August monthly average ground temperatures at all but two of the radii examined (100 m for LST and 0 m for SI). Correlations were also significant for temperatures measured between 0400 and 0500 hours for SI, except at 0 m, but not LST. Statistically significant correlations ranging from 0.49 to 0.91 were observed between LST and SI. Conclusions: Both SI and LST could be used to better understand spatial variation in heat exposures over longer time frames but are less useful for estimating shorter-term, actual temperature exposures, which can be useful for public health preparedness during extreme heat events. PMID:23777856

  18. Assessing satellite-derived start-of-season measures in the conterminous USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schwartz, Mark D.; Reed, Bradley C.; White, Michael A.

    2002-01-01

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)-series satellites, carrying advanced very high-resolution radiometer (AVHRR) sensors, have allowed moderate resolution (1 km) measurements of the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to be collected from the Earth's land surfaces for over 20 years. Across the conterminous USA, a readily accessible and decade-long data set is now available to study many aspects of vegetation activity in this region. One feature, the onset of deciduous plant growth at the start of the spring season (SOS) is of special interest, as it appears to be crucial for accurate computation of several important biospheric processes, and a sensitive measure of the impacts of global change. In this study, satellite-derived SOS dates produced by the delayed moving average (DMA) and seasonal midpoint NDVI (SMN) methods, and modelled surface phenology (spring indices, SI) were compared at widespread deciduous forest and mixed woodland sites during 1990–93 and 1995–99, and these three measures were also matched to native species bud-break data collected at the Harvard Forest (Massachusetts) over the same time period. The results show that both SOS methods are doing a modestly accurate job of tracking the general pattern of surface phenology, but highlight the temporal limitations of biweekly satellite data. Specifically, at deciduous forest sites: (1) SMN SOS dates are close in time to SI first bloom dates (average bias of +0.74 days), whereas DMA SOS dates are considerably earlier (average bias of −41.24 days) and also systematically earlier in late spring than in early spring; (2) SMN SOS tracks overall yearly trends in deciduous forests somewhat better than DMA SOS, but with larger average error (MAEs 8.64 days and 7.37 days respectively); and (3) error in both SOS techniques varies considerably by year. Copyright © 2002 Royal Meteorological Society.

  19. Pursuing atmospheric water vapor retrieval through NDSA measurements between two LEO satellites: evaluation of estimation errors in spectral sensitivity measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Facheris, L.; Cuccoli, F.; Argenti, F.

    2008-10-01

    NDSA (Normalized Differential Spectral Absorption) is a novel differential measurement method to estimate the total content of water vapor (IWV, Integrated Water Vapor) along a tropospheric propagation path between two Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites. A transmitter onboard the first LEO satellite and a receiver onboard the second one are required. The NDSA approach is based on the simultaneous estimate of the total attenuations at two relatively close frequencies in the Ku/K bands and of a "spectral sensitivity parameter" that can be directly converted into IWV. The spectral sensitivity has the potential to emphasize the water vapor contribution, to cancel out all spectrally flat unwanted contributions and to limit the impairments due to tropospheric scintillation. Based on a previous Monte Carlo simulation approach, through which we analyzed the measurement accuracy of the spectral sensitivity parameter at three different and complementary frequencies, in this work we examine such accuracy for a particularly critical atmospheric status as simulated through the pressure, temperature and water vapor profiles measured by a high resolution radiosonde. We confirm the validity of an approximate expression of the accuracy and discuss the problems that may arise when tropospheric water vapor concentration is lower than expected.

  20. Temperature and Emissivity Measurements with the Multispectral Thermal Imager Satellite at Ivanpah Playa

    SciTech Connect

    Villa-Aleman, E.

    2003-01-06

    The Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) is a research and development satellite sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) for accurate water surface temperature retrieval. MTI uses five thermal spectral bands to retrieve ground temperatures. The application of MTI for land-based temperature and emissivity retrieval has been limited. Savannah River Technology Center conducted several ground truth campaigns at Ivanpah Playa to measure reflectance, temperature and emissivity. The results of MTI temperature and emissivity retrievals and material identification will be discussed in context with the ground truth data.

  1. Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS): Design and on-orbit performance measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gargione, F.; Acosta, R.; Coney, T.; Krawczyk, R.

    1995-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS), developed and built by Lockheed Martin Astro space for the NASA Lewis Research Center, was launched in September 1993 on the shuttle STS 51 mission. ACTS is a digital experimental communications test bed that incorporates gigahertz bandwidth transponders operating at Ka band, hopping spot beams, on-board storage and switching, and dynamic rain fade compensation. This paper describes the ACTS enabling technologies, the design of the communications payload, the constraints imposed on the spacecraft bus, and the measurements conducted to verify the performance of the system in orbit.

  2. Spatial and temporal variation in CO over Alberta using measurements from satellites, aircraft, and ground stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J.

    2015-04-01

    Alberta is Canada's largest oil producer, and its oil sands deposits comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves. The process of bitumen extraction and upgrading releases trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. In this study we present satellite-based analysis to explore, for the first time, various contributing factors that affect tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) levels over Alberta. The multispectral product that uses both near-infrared (NIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR) radiances for CO retrieval from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) is examined for the 12-year period from 2002 to 2013. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly product from 2001 to 2013 is employed to investigate the seasonal and temporal variations in forest fires. Additionally, in situ CO measurements at industrial and urban sites are compared to satellite data. Furthermore, the available MOZAIC/IAGOS (Measurement of Ozone, Water Vapor, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide by Airbus In-Service Aircraft/In service Aircraft for Global Observing System) aircraft CO profiles (April 2009-December 2011) are used to validate MOPITT CO data. The climatological time curtain plot and spatial maps for CO over northern Alberta indicate the signatures of transported CO for two distinct biomass burning seasons: summer and spring. Distinct seasonal patterns of CO at the urban sites (Edmonton and Calgary) point to the strong influence of traffic. Meteorological parameters play an important role in the CO spatial distribution at various pressure levels. Northern Alberta shows a stronger upward lifting motion which leads to larger CO total column values, while the poor dispersion in central and southern Alberta exacerbates the surface CO pollution. Interannual variations in satellite data depict a slightly decreasing trend for both regions, while the decline trend is more evident from ground observations, especially at the urban sites. MOPITT CO vertical

  3. Spatial and temporal variation of CO over Alberta using measurements from satellite, aircrafts, and ground stations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marey, H. S.; Hashisho, Z.; Fu, L.; Gille, J.

    2014-12-01

    Alberta is Canada's largest oil producer and its oil sand deposits comprise 30% of the world's oil reserves. The process of bitumen extraction and upgrading releases trace gases and aerosols to the atmosphere. In this study we present satellite-based analysis to explore, for the first time, various contributing factors that affect tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) levels over Alberta. The multispectral product that uses both near-infrared (NIR) and the thermal-infrared (TIR) radiances for CO retrieval from the Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) are examined for the 12 year period from 2002-2013. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) thermal anomaly product from 2001 to 2013 is employed to investigate the seasonal and temporal variations of forest fires. Additionally, in situ CO measurements at industrial and urban sites are compared to satellite data. Furthermore, the available MOZAIC/IAGOS (Measurement of Ozone, Water Vapor, Carbon Monoxide, Nitrogen Oxide by Airbus In-Service Aircraft/In service Aircraft for Global Observing System) aircraft CO profiles (April 2009-December 2011) are used to validate MOPITT CO data. The climatological time curtain plot and spatial maps for CO over northern Alberta indicate the signatures of transported CO for two distinct biomass burning seasons, summer and spring. Distinct seasonal patterns of CO at the urban site s (Edmonton and Calgary cities) point to the strong influence of traffic. Meteorological parameters play an important role on the CO spatial distribution at various pressure levels. Northern Alberta shows stronger upward lifting motion which leads to larger CO total column values while the poor dispersion in central and south Alberta exacerbates the surface CO pollution. Inter-annual variations of satellite data depict a slightly decreasing trend for both regions while the decline trend is more evident from ground observations, especially at the urban sites. MOPITT CO vertical

  4. Note: Inter-satellite laser range-rate measurement by using digital phase locked loop.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yu-Rong; Duan, Hui-Zong; Xiao, Xin-Long; Wei, Bing-Bing; Yeh, Hsien-Chi

    2015-01-01

    This note presents an improved high-resolution frequency measurement system dedicated for the inter-satellite range-rate monitoring that could be used in the future's gravity recovery mission. We set up a simplified common signal test instead of the three frequencies test. The experimental results show that the dominant noises are the sampling time jitter and the thermal drift of electronic components, which can be reduced by using the pilot-tone correction and passive thermal control. The improved noise level is about 10(-8) Hz/Hz(1/2)@0.01Hz, limited by the signal-to-noise ratio of the sampling circuit.

  5. Monolithic sensors for low frequency motion measurement and control of spacecrafts and satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, F.; Giordano, G.; Acernese, F.; Romano, R.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper we describe the characteristics and performances of a monolithic sensor designed for low frequency motion measurement and control of spacecrafts and satellites, whose mechanics is based on the UNISA Folded Pendulum. The latter, developed for ground-based applications, exhibits unique features (compactness, lightness, scalability, low resonance frequency and high quality factor), consequence of the action of the gravitational force on its inertial mass. In this paper we introduce and discuss the general methodology used to extend the application of ground-based folded pendulums to space, also in total absence of gravity, still keeping all their peculiar features and characteristics.

  6. Particulate matter air quality assessment over southeast United States using satellite and ground measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Pawan

    Fine particles (PM2.5, particles with aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 mum) can penetrate deep inside the human lungs and recent scientific studies have shown thousands of deaths occur each year around the world, prematurely, due to a high concentration of particulate matter. Therefore, monitoring and forecasting of surface level fine particulate matter air quality is very important. Typically air quality measurements are made from ground stations. In recent years, linear regression relationships between satellite derived aerosol optical thickness (AOT) and surface measured PM2.5 mass concentration are formed and used to estimate PM2.5 in the areas where surface measurements are not available. This type of simple linear relationships varies with regions and seasons, and does not provide accurate enough estimation of surface level pollution and many studies have shown that AOT alone is not sufficient for PM2.5 mass concentration estimations. Furthermore, AOT represents aerosol loading in the entire column of the atmosphere whereas PM2.5 is measured at the surface; hence, the knowledge of vertical distribution of aerosols coupled with meteorology becomes critical in PM2.5 estimations. In this dissertation I used three years (2004-2006) of coincident hourly PM2.5, MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived AOT, and Rapid Update Cycle (RUC) analyzed meteorological fields to assess PM2.5 air quality in the Southeast United States. I explored the use of two-variate (TVM), multi-variate (MVM) and artificial neural network (ANN) methods for estimating PM2.5 over 85 stations in the region. First, satellite data were analyzed for sampling biases, quality, and impact of clouds. Results show that MODIS-Terra AOT data was available only about 50% of the days in any given month due to cloud over and unfavorable surface conditions, but this produced a sampling bias of less than 2 mugm-3. Results indicate that there is up to three fold improvements in the

  7. Measurements on the satellite-mobile channel at L and S bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, H.; Gardiner, J. G.; Barton, S. K.

    An experiment is described in which measurements are made on the satellite-mobile channel at L and S bands. A light aircraft carrying a c.w. beacon is flown at elevation angles of 40, 60 and 80 degrees to a mobile receiver. The signal strength at the mobile is recorded in open, urban, suburban and tree shadowed environments. This data is then analyzed to produce statistics for the channel with respect to frequency, elevation angle, and environment. Results are presented together with a brief discussion, suggested interpretation, and conclusion.

  8. Vertical information content of nadir measurements of tropospheric NO2 from satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilboll, Andreas; Richter, Andreas; Burrows, John P.

    2014-05-01

    When applying satellite measurements in atmospheric pollution research, one commonly used species are tropospheric NO2 columns. They can be useful for the identification and evaluation of natural and anthropogenic NOx emissions and their changes over time as well as for process studies and for the investigation of atmospheric transport events. However, the lack of vertical resolution is one major limitation of the commonly used DOAS retrievals of NO2 columns from satellite observed radiances. Combined with the altitude-dependence of retrieval sensitivity, this entails the use of a priori information on the NO2 vertical profile. This significantly contributes to the retrieval uncertainties, which could be reduced if information on the vertical location of the NO2 could be retrieved from the measurements themselves. In this study, we investigate the vertical information content of nadir NO2 observations in the UV/visible wavelength range. For this purpose, we revisit the vertical sensitivity of DOAS retrievals of NO2, which is encoded in the averaging kernels, and contrast these findings with the results from a formal solution to the inverse radiative transfer problem, using synthetic spectra representing measurements over polluted regions. As a result, we can show that in certain cases, it is indeed possible to derive information on the vertical distribution of NO2 from the DOAS analysis alone, reducing the dependence of the retrievals on a priori information in these situations.

  9. A lithospheric magnetic field model derived from the Swarm satellite magnetic field measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hulot, G.; Thebault, E.; Vigneron, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Swarm constellation of satellites was launched in November 2013 and has since then delivered high quality scalar and vector magnetic field measurements. A consortium of several research institutions was selected by the European Space Agency (ESA) to provide a number of scientific products which will be made available to the scientific community. Within this framework, specific tools were tailor-made to better extract the magnetic signal emanating from Earth's the lithospheric. These tools rely on the scalar gradient measured by the lower pair of Swarm satellites and rely on a regional modeling scheme that is more sensitive to small spatial scales and weak signals than the standard spherical harmonic modeling. In this presentation, we report on various activities related to data analysis and processing. We assess the efficiency of this dedicated chain for modeling the lithospheric magnetic field using more than one year of measurements, and finally discuss refinements that are continuously implemented in order to further improve the robustness and the spatial resolution of the lithospheric field model.

  10. Retrieval of Black Carbon Absorption from Proposed Satellite Measurements Over the Ocean Glint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaufman, Y. J.; Matins, J. V.; Remer, L. A.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Yamasoe, M. A.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Haze and air pollution includes many chemicals that together form small particles suspended in the air called aerosols. One of the main ingredients found to affect climate and human health is Black Carbon. Black particles emitted from engines that do not burn the fuel completely, e.g. old trucks. Black carbon absorption of sunlight emerges as one of the key components of man-made forcing of climate. However, global characterization of black carbon emissions, distribution and pathways in which it can affect the amount of solar radiation absorbed by the atmosphere is very uncertain. A new method is proposed to measure sunlight absorption by fine aerosol particles containing black carbon over the ocean glint from a satellite mission designed for this purpose. The satellite will scan the same spot over the ocean in the glint plane and a plane 40 degrees off-glint a minute apart, collecting measurements of the reflected light across the solar spectrum. First the dark ocean off the glint is used to derive aerosol properties. Then the black carbon absorption is derived prop the attenuation of the bright glint by the aerosol layer. Such measurements if realized in a proposed future mission - COBRA are expected to produce global monthly climatology of black carbon absorption with high accuracy (110 to 15%) that can show their effect on climate.

  11. Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Common Ground System (CGS) Architecture Overview and Technical Performance Measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grant, K. D.; Johnson, B. R.; Miller, S. W.; Jamilkowski, M. L.

    2014-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). The Joint Polar Satellite System will replace the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA. The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological and geophysical observations of the Earth. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS). Developed and maintained by Raytheon Intelligence, Information and Services (IIS), the CGS is a multi-mission enterprise system serving NOAA, NASA and their national and international partners. The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions. Originally designed to support S-NPP and JPSS, the CGS has demonstrated its scalability and flexibility to incorporate all of these other important missions efficiently and with minimal cost, schedule and risk, while strengthening global partnerships in weather and environmental monitoring. The CGS architecture will be upgraded to Block 2.0 in 2015 to satisfy several key objectives, including: "operationalizing" S-NPP, which had originally been intended as a risk reduction mission; leveraging lessons learned to date in multi-mission support; taking advantage of newer, more reliable and efficient technologies; and satisfying new requirements and constraints due to the continually evolving budgetary environment. To ensure the CGS meets these needs, we have developed 48 Technical Performance Measures (TPMs) across 9 categories: Data Availability, Data Latency, Operational Availability, Margin, Scalability, Situational Awareness, Transition (between environments and sites), WAN Efficiency, and Data Recovery Processing. This

  12. Validation of Satellite Observed Soil Moisture Using In-Situ Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Velde, Rogier; Yu, Xiaolong; Zheng, Donghai; Benninga, Harm-Jan F.; Shahmohamadi, Mohamad Ali; Hendriks, Dimmie; Hunnink, Joachim; Coliander, Andreas; Jackson, Thomas J.; Bindlish, Rajat; Chan, Steven K.; Su, Bob

    2016-08-01

    Although with in-situ techniques soil moisture can be measured reliably at point-scale, it remains a challengeto translate a collection of point measurements tothe scale of satellite footprints (> 10 km). Spatially distributed soil moisture simulations by the Dutch Landelijk Hydro-logisch Model (LHM, De Lange et al. 2014) are here employed for this task. The upscaled in- situ measurements are subsequently utilized to assess the CATDS (Centre Aval de Traitement des Données SMOS, Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity, Jacquette et al. 2010) L3 and the NASA SMAP (Soil Moisture Active Passive)L2 radiometer-only soil moisture products (O'Neill et al. 2015).

  13. Comparison of MTI Satellite-Derived Surface Water Temperatures and In-Situ Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzeja, R.

    2001-07-26

    Temperatures of the water surface of a cold, mid-latitude lake and the tropical Pacific Ocean were determined from MTI images and from in situ concurrent measurements. In situ measurements were obtained at the time of the MTI image with a floating, anchored platform, which measured the surface and bulk water temperatures and relevant meteorological variables, and also from a boat moving across the target area. Atmospheric profiles were obtained from concurrent radiosonde soundings. Radiances at the satellite were calculated with the Modtran radiative transfer model. The MTI infrared radiances were within 1 percent of the calculated values at the Pacific Ocean site but were 1-2 percent different over the mid-latitude lake.

  14. Geophysical interpretation of satellite laser ranging measurements of crustal movement in California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, S. C.

    1984-01-01

    As determined by satellite laser ranging the rate of contraction of a 900 kilometer baseline between sites located near Quincy in northern California and San Diego in southern California is about 61 to 65 mm/yr with a formal uncertainty of about 10 mm/yr. The measured changes in baseline length are a manifestation of the relative motion between the North America and Pacific tectonic plates. This long baseline result is compared to measurements made by more conventional means on shorter baselines. Additional information based on seismicity, geology, and theoretical modelling is also analyzed. Deformation lying within a few tens of kilometers about the major faults in southern California accounts for most, but not all of the observed motion. Further motion is attributable to a broader scale deformation in southern California. Data suggesting crustal movements north of the Garlock fault, in and near the southern Sierra Nevada and local motion at an observatory are also critically reviewed. The best estimates of overall motion indicated by ground observations lie between 40 and 60 mm/yr. This lies within one or two standard deviations of that deduced by satellite ranging but the possibility of some unresolved deficit cannot be dismissed. The long time scale RM2 plate tectonic model of Minster and Jordan predicts a contraction between 47 and 53 mm/yr depending on the extension rate of the Basin and Range. Thus the ground based observations, satellite laser ranging (SLR) results, and RM2 rates differ at about the 10 mm/yr level and are consistent with one another within the data and model uncertainties.

  15. Geophysical interpretation of satellite laser ranging measurements of crustal movement in California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, S. C.

    1984-08-01

    As determined by satellite laser ranging the rate of contraction of a 900 kilometer baseline between sites located near Quincy in northern California and San Diego in southern California is about 61 to 65 mm/yr with a formal uncertainty of about 10 mm/yr. The measured changes in baseline length are a manifestation of the relative motion between the North America and Pacific tectonic plates. This long baseline result is compared to measurements made by more conventional means on shorter baselines. Additional information based on seismicity, geology, and theoretical modelling is also analyzed. Deformation lying within a few tens of kilometers about the major faults in southern California accounts for most, but not all of the observed motion. Further motion is attributable to a broader scale deformation in southern California. Data suggesting crustal movements north of the Garlock fault, in and near the southern Sierra Nevada and local motion at an observatory are also critically reviewed. The best estimates of overall motion indicated by ground observations lie between 40 and 60 mm/yr. This lies within one or two standard deviations of that deduced by satellite ranging but the possibility of some unresolved deficit cannot be dismissed. The long time scale RM2 plate tectonic model of Minster and Jordan predicts a contraction between 47 and 53 mm/yr depending on the extension rate of the Basin and Range. Thus the ground based observations, satellite laser ranging (SLR) results, and RM2 rates differ at about the 10 mm/yr level and are consistent with one another within the data and model uncertainties.

  16. Targeting ACE and ECE with dual acting inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Hanessian, Stephen; Guesné, Sébastien; Riber, Ludivine; Marin, Julien; Benoist, Alain; Mennecier, Philippe; Rupin, Alain; Verbeuren, Tony J; De Nanteuil, Guillaume

    2008-02-01

    A series of urea analogues related to SA6817 and a GSK phosphonic acid with reported ACE inhibitory activity were prepared and tested for dual ACE and ECE activities. Although excellent ACE and NEP inhibition was achieved, only modest ECE inhibition was observed with one analogue.

  17. Spectralon BRDF and DHR Measurements in Support of Satellite Instruments Operating Through Shortwave Infrared

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Georgiev, Georgi T.; Butler, James J.; Thome, Kurt; Cooksey, Catherine; Ding, Leibo

    2016-01-01

    Satellite instruments operating in the reflective solar wavelength region require accurate and precise determination of the Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDFs) of the laboratory and flight diffusers used in their pre-flight and on-orbit calibrations. This paper advances that initial work and presents a comparison of spectral Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Function (BRDF) and Directional Hemispherical Reflectance (DHR) of Spectralon*, a common material for laboratory and onorbit flight diffusers. A new measurement setup for BRDF measurements from 900 nm to 2500 nm located at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is described. The GSFC setup employs an extended indium gallium arsenide detector, bandpass filters, and a supercontinuum light source. Comparisons of the GSFC BRDF measurements in the ShortWave InfraRed (SWIR) with those made by the NIST Spectral Trifunction Automated Reference Reflectometer (STARR) are presented. The Spectralon sample used in this study was 2 inch diameter, 99% white pressed and sintered Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) target. The NASA/NIST BRDF comparison measurements were made at an incident angle of 0 deg and viewing angle of 45 deg. Additional BRDF data not compared to NIST were measured at additional incident and viewing angle geometries and are not presented here The total combined uncertainty for the measurement of BRDF in the SWIR range made by the GSFC scatterometer is less than 1% (k=1). This study is in support of the calibration of the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS) Radiation Budget Instrument (RBI) and Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) of and other current and future NASA remote sensing missions operating across the reflected solar wavelength region.

  18. Developing Communities: Serving ACE through Tertiary Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sofo, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to review the focus and practice of Adult and Community Education (ACE) as well as its conceptualization and delivery and to suggest parameters for an approach based on excellence, a balanced scorecard and performance to meet community needs. Design/methodology/approach: The review examines key aspects of the…

  19. Ace the Verbal on the SAT

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meierding, Loren

    2005-01-01

    Many students are not accepted in to certain colleges and universities because of low SAT scores. Loren Meierding has written Ace the Verbal on the SAT to help students with minimal preparation do well by improving their vocabulary and use better techniques for finding the answers to the questions. This book provides strategies needed to score…

  20. Model simulations of the first aerosol indirect effect and comparison of cloud susceptibility fo satellite measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Chuang, C; Penner, J E; Kawamoto, K

    2002-03-08

    Present-day global anthropogenic emissions contribute more than half of the mass in submicron particles primarily due to sulfate and carbonaceous aerosol components derived from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning. These anthropogenic aerosols modify the microphysics of clouds by serving as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) and enhance the reflectivity of low-level water clouds, leading to a cooling effect on climate (the Twomey effect or first indirect effect). The magnitude of the first aerosol indirect effect is associated with cloud frequency as well as a quantity representing the sensitivity of cloud albedo to changes in cloud drop number concentration. This quantity is referred to as cloud susceptibility [Twomey, 1991]. Analysis of satellite measurements demonstrates that marine stratus clouds are likely to be of higher susceptibility than continental clouds because of their lower number concentrations of cloud drops [Platnick and Twomey, 1994]. Here, we use an improved version of the fully coupled climate/chemistry model [Chuang et al., 1997] to calculate the global concentrations Of sulfate, dust, sea salt, and carbonaceous aerosols (biomass smoke and fossil fuel organic matter and black carbon). We investigated the impact of anthropogenic aerosols on cloud susceptibility and calculated the associated changes of shortwave radiative fluxes at the top of the atmosphere. We also examined the correspondence between the model simulation of cloud susceptibility and that inferred from satellite measurements to test whether our simulated aerosol concentrations and aerosol/cloud interactions give a faithful representation of these features.

  1. Horizontal crustal motion in the central and eastern Mediterranean inferred from Satellite Laser Ranging measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, David E.; Kolenkiewicz, Ron; Robbins, John W.; Dunn, Peter J.; Torrence, Mark H.

    1994-01-01

    Four campaigns to acquire Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) measurements at sites in the Mediterranean region have been completed. These measurements to the LAGEOS satellite, made largely by mobile systems, cover a time span beginning in November 1985 and ending in June 1993. The range data from 18 sites in the central and eastern Mediterranean have been simultaneously analyzed with data acquired by the remainder of the global laser tracking network. Estimates of horizontal motion were placed into a regional, northern Europe-fixed, kinematic reference frame. Uncertainties are on the order of 5 mm/yr for sites having at least four occupations by mobile systems and approach 1 mm/yr for permanently located sites with long histories of tracking. The resulting relative motion between sites in the Aegean exhibit characteristics of broadly distributed pattern of radial extension, but at rates that are about 50% larger than those implied from studies of seismic strain rates based on seismicity of magnitude 6 or greater or across the region. The motion estimated for sites in Turkey exhibit velocity components associated with the westward motion of the Anatolian Block relative to Eurasia. These results provide a present-day 'snapshot' of ongoing deformational processes as experienced by the locations occupied by SLR systems.

  2. Ionospheric ion composition from satellite measurements made during 1970-1980 - Altitude profiles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoegy, W. R.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Brace, L. H.

    1991-01-01

    Ion-mass spectrometers were carried by a number of satellites in the 1970s. The ion-composition measurements from two of these missions, the Orbiting Geophysical Observatory-6 and the Atmosphere Explorer-C, are collected into an ion composition data base to evaluate several widely used empirical and theoretical models for the species H(+), He(+), N(+), O(+), NO(+), N2(+), and O2(+). The data base covers all latitudes and local times, and the altitude range from 150 km to 1200 km, but here altitude plots are presented of the ion densities at noon and at dip latitudes of 20-40 deg N. The satellite data are compared with an early ion-density profile, with the Koehnlein and IRI-90 empirical models, and with the Utah State University theoretical ionosphere model. These comparisons serve to verify some aspects of the models, but they also reveal some outstanding differences. The solar activity dependence of H(+), He(+), N(+), and O(+) is demonstrated, although this has not been possible for the molecular ions because low altitude measurements have not been made near solar maximum.

  3. Measurement and modeling of land mobile satellite propagation at UHF and L-band

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Hong, Ui-Seok

    1988-01-01

    A propagation experiment is described in which a stratospheric balloon served as a transmitter platform at 870 and 1502 MHz in simulation of a land mobile satellite. A vehicle followed the drifting balloon along roads of western Texas and New Mexico, collecting at L-band amplitude and phase, and at UHF amplitude information only for elevation angles between 25 and 45 deg. The data obtained have been analyzed and are presented along with results from modeling of multipath scattering and roadside tree attenuation. The signal, with variations caused by multipath propagation and tree shadowing, was reduced by 3 dB at L-band and 2 dB at UHF for one percent of all locations. A median ratio of 3.9 was found between peak-to-peak phase (degrees) and power (dB) fluctuations. The ratio between L-band and UHF dB attenuation averages varied from 1.3 to 1.0 at fade levels from 6 to 23 dB. Optical sky brightness was measured and used to predict fade distribution with great accuracy. A single-scatterer multipath model is introduced. It is used to duplicate some of the measured data and to show the dependence of power variations on satellite elevation angle. Using Fresnel diffraction theory, the attenuation caused by a model tree was calculated to be near 10 dB and the maximum fade was found to increase by the logarithm of the number of branches.

  4. Large-scale variability in marine stratocumulus clouds defined from simultaneous aircraft and satellite measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Albrecht, Bruce A.; Barlow, Roy W.

    1990-01-01

    Satellite images often show significant variations in the structure of marine stratocumulus clouds on scales ranging from 10 to 1000 km. This is illustrated where a GOES West satellite image shows a well-defined variation in cloud structure near 32 N, 122 W on 30 June 1987. Aircraft measurements were made with the UK C-130 and the NCAR Electra on this day as part of the FIRE Marine Stratocumulus Intensive Field Observations (IFO). The mean, turbulent, and the microphysical structure of the clouds sampled in these two areas are compared an an attempt is made to explain the differences in cloud structure. In an attempt to identify any systematic differences between the measurements made with the two aircraft, data were analyzed that were collected on 14 July 1987 with the C-130 and the Electra flying in close formation at an altitude of 250 m. The microphysical and turbulence data are being compared in an attempt to explain the differences in the cloud liquid water content obtained with the two aircraft and the differences in cloud structure shown by the GOES image. In addition, data are being analyzed for three other days during the experiment when coordinated downstream flights were made with the Electra and the C-130.

  5. Analysis of satellite and airborne wind measurements during the SEMAPHORE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Tournadre, J.; Hauser, D.

    1994-12-31

    During the SEMAPHORE experiment Intensive Observation Period (IOP), held in October and November 1993 in the Azores-Madeira region, two airplanes, instrumented for atmospheric research, and two oceanographic research vessels have conducted in situ measurements in a 500km x 500km domain. Within the framework of SEMAPHORE, the SOFIA program is dedicated to the study of the air-sea fluxes and interactions from local scale up to mesoscale. The analysis of the structure of the wind and wave fields and their relations to the surface fluxes (especially near oceanic fronts) and the validation of the satellite data are two of the main goals of the SOFIA program. During the IOP, the experiment domain was regularly overflown by the ERS-1 and Topex-Poseidon (TP) satellites. This study presents a preliminary analysis of the ERS-1 and TP altimeter wind and wave measurement and ERS-1 scatterometer wind fields. The data from the airborne RESSAC (a radar ocean wave spectrometer) are also presented.

  6. Measuring snow cover using satellite imagery during 1973 and 1974 melt season: North Santiam, Boise, and Upper Snake Basins, phase 1. [LANDSAT satellites, imaging techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiegman, E. J.; Evans, W. E.; Hadfield, R.

    1975-01-01

    Measurements are examined of snow coverage during the snow-melt season in 1973 and 1974 from LANDSAT imagery for the three Columbia River Subbasins. Satellite derived snow cover inventories for the three test basins were obtained as an alternative to inventories performed with the current operational practice of using small aircraft flights over selected snow fields. The accuracy and precision versus cost for several different interactive image analysis procedures was investigated using a display device, the Electronic Satellite Image Analysis Console. Single-band radiance thresholding was the principal technique employed in the snow detection, although this technique was supplemented by an editing procedure involving reference to hand-generated elevation contours. For each data and view measured, a binary thematic map or "mask" depicting the snow cover was generated by a combination of objective and subjective procedures. Photographs of data analysis equipment (displays) are shown.

  7. A phase 1 study of ACE-536, a regulator of erythroid differentiation, in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Attie, Kenneth M; Allison, Mark J; McClure, Ty; Boyd, Ingrid E; Wilson, Dawn M; Pearsall, Amelia E; Sherman, Matthew L

    2014-07-01

    ACE-536, a recombinant protein containing a modified activin receptor type IIB, is being developed for the treatment of anemias caused by ineffective erythropoiesis, such as thalassemias and myelodysplastic syndromes. ACE-536 acts through a mechanism distinct from erythropoiesis-stimulating agents to promote late-stage erythroid differentiation by binding to transforming growth factor-β superfamily ligands and inhibiting signaling through transcription factors Smad 2/3. The goal of this Phase 1 study was to evaluate the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamic effects of ascending dose levels of ACE-536 in healthy volunteers. Thirty-two postmenopausal women were randomized in sequential cohorts of eight subjects each to receive up to two doses of either ACE-536 (0.0625-0.25 mg/kg) or placebo (3:1 randomization) given subcutaneously every 2 weeks. Mean baseline age was 59.4 years, and hemoglobin was 13.2 g/dL. ACE-536 was well tolerated at dose levels up to 0.25 mg/kg over the 1-month treatment period. There were no serious or severe adverse events, nor clinically meaningful changes in safety laboratory measures or vital signs. Mean ACE-536 AUC0-14d and Cmax increased proportionally after first dose; mean t½ was 15-16 days. Dose-dependent increases in hemoglobin concentration were observed, beginning 7 days after initiation of treatment and maintained for several weeks following treatment. The proportion of subjects with a hemoglobin increase ≥1.0 g/dL increased in a dose-dependent manner to 83.3% of subjects in the highest dose group, 0.25 mg/kg. ACE-536 was well tolerated and resulted in sustained increases in hemoglobin levels in healthy postmenopausal women.

  8. Global Fine Particulate Matter Concentrations and Trends Inferred from Satellite Observations, Modeling, and Ground-Based Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Randall; van Donkelaar, Aaron; Boys, Brian; Philip, Sajeev; Lee, Colin; Snider, Graydon; Weagle, Crystal

    2014-05-01

    Outdoor fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a leading environmentally-related cause of premature mortality worldwide. However, ground-level PM2.5 monitors remain sparse in many regions of the world. Satellite remote sensing from MODIS, MISR, and SeaWiFS yields a powerful global data source to address this issue. Global modeling (GEOS-Chem) plays a critical role in relating these observations to ground-level concentrations. The resultant satellite-based estimates of PM2.5 indicate dramatic variation around the world, with implications for global public health. A new ground-based aerosol network (SPARTAN) offers valuable measurements to understand the relationship between satellite observations of aerosol optical depth and ground-level PM2.5 concentrations. This talk will highlight recent advances in combining satellite remote sensing, global modeling, and ground-based measurements to improve understanding of global population exposure to outdoor fine particulate matter.

  9. Spectral Absorption of Solar Radiation by Aerosols during ACE-Asia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergstrom, R. W.; Pilewskie, P.; Pommier, J.; Rabbette, M.; Russell, P. B.; Schmid, B.; Redermann, J.; Higurashi, A.; Nakajima, T.; Quinn, P. K.

    2004-01-01

    As part of the Asian Pacific Regional Aerosol Characterization Experiment (ACE-Asia), the upward and downward spectral solar radiant fluxes were measured with the Spectral Solar Flux Radiometer (SSFR), and the aerosol optical depth was measured with the Ames Airborne Tracking Sunphotometer (AATS-14) aboard the Center for INterdisciplinary Remotely-Piloted Aircraft Studies (CIRPAS) Twin Otter aircraft. IN this paper, we examine the data obtained for two cases: a moderately thick aerosol layer, 12 April, and a relatively thin aerosol case, 16 April 2001. ON both days, the Twin Otter flew vertical profiles in the Korean Strait southeast of Gosan Island. For both days we determine the aerosol spectral absorption of the layer and estimate the spectral aerosol absorption optical depth and single-scattering albedo. The results for 12 April show that the single-scattering albedo increases with wavelength from 0.8 at 400 nm to 0.95 at 900 nm and remains essentially constant from 950 to 1700 nm. On 16 April the amount of aerosol absorption was very low; however, the aerosol single-scattering albedo appears to decrease slightly with wavelength in the visible region. We interpret these results in light of the two absorbing aerosol species observed during the ACE-asia study: mineral dust and black carbon. The results for 12 April are indicative of a mineral dust-black carbon mixture. The 16 April results are possibly caused by black carbon mixed with nonabsorbing pollution aerosols. For the 12 April case we attempt to estimate the relative contributions of the black carbon particles and the mineral dust particles. We compare our results with other estimates of the aerosol properties from a Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) satellite analysis and aerosol measurements made aboard the Twin Otter, aboard the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Ronald H Brown ship, and at ground sites in Gosan and Japan. The results indicate a relatively complicated aerosol

  10. Synergy benefit in temperature, humiditiy and cloud property profiling by integrating ground based and satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebell, K.; Orlandi, E.; Hünerbein, A.; Crewell, S.; Löhnert, U.

    2012-12-01

    Accurate, highly vertically resolved temperature, humidity and cloud property profiles are needed for many applications. They are essential for climate monitoring, a better process understanding and the subsequent improvement of parameterizations in numerical weather prediction and climate models. In order to provide such profiles with a high temporal resolution, multiple wavelength active and passive remote sensing techniques available at ground based observatories, e.g. the Atmospheric Radiation Measruement (ARM) Program and Cloudnet facilities, need to be exploited. In particular, the Integrated Profiling Technique (IPT, Löhnert et al., 2008) has been successfully applied to simultaneously derive profiles of temperature, humidity and liquid water by a Bayesian based retrieval using a combination of ground based microwave radiometer, cloud radar and a priori information. Within the project ICOS (Integrating Cloud Observations from Ground and Space - a Way to Combine Time and Space Information), we develop a flexible IPT, which allows for the combination of a variety of ground based measurements from cloud radar, microwave radiometer (MWR) and IR spectrometer as well as satellite based information from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) onboard of METEOSAT. As ground based observations are mainly sensitive to the lower parts of the troposphere, the satellite measurements provide complementary information and are thus expected to improve the estimates of the thermodynamic and cloud property profiles, i. e. hydrometeor content and effective radius, considerably. In addition to the SEVIRI IR measurements, which are provided with a high repetition time, information from polar orbiting satellites could be included. In paticular, the potential of the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) and Microwave Sounding Unit (MHS) in the retrieval is investigated. In order to understand the improvement by integrating the measurements of the above

  11. An Assessment of Biases in Satellite CO2 Measurements Using Atmospheric Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D. F.; O'Dell, C.

    2014-12-01

    Column-integrated CO2 mixing ratio measurements from satellite should provide a new view of the global carbon cycle, thanks to their ability to measure with great coverage in places that are poorly sampled by the in situ network (e.g. the tropics) using a new approach (full-column averages rather than point measurements). For this new insight to be useful, however, systematic errors in these data must first be identified and removed. Here we use atmospheric transport modeling to perform a global comparison of satellite CO2 measurements to higher-quality reference data (in situ data from flasks and aircraft, column CO2 data from the upward-looking spectrometers of the TCCON network) to assess systematic errors in the satellite data. This broad comparison is meant to complement the more direct validation done at specific TCCON sites. A suite of 3-D CO2 mixing ratio histories are generated across 2009-2014 using combinations of several different a priori fossil fuel, land biospheric, and oceanic CO2 fluxes run through the PCTM off-line atmospheric transport model driven by MERRA 1°x1.25° winds and vertical mixing parameters. Each member of the suite is forced to agree with in situ CO2 measurements (flask, tall tower, and routine light aircraft profiles) through use of a variational carbon data assimilation (4Dvar) system. The optimized 3-D CO2 fields are then compared to ACOS column CO2 retrievals of GOSAT data, with the differences being fit to different independent variables (aerosol optical depth, atmospheric path length, surface albedo, etc.) to derive a GOSAT bias correction. ACOS-GOSAT CO2 retrievals, corrected by this scheme, as well as with the "official" ACOS bias correction, will then be assimilated using the same 4Dvar approach. The benefit of the GOSAT data with and without the bias corrections will then be assessed by comparing the optimized CO2 fields to independent data (TCCON column data, as well as aircraft data left out of the in situ inversions

  12. Triple ACE-ECE-NEP inhibition in heart failure: a comparison with ACE and dual ECE-NEP inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mellin, Virginie; Jeng, Arco Y; Monteil, Christelle; Renet, Sylvanie; Henry, Jean Paul; Thuillez, Christian; Mulder, Paul

    2005-09-01

    Mortality remains high in chronic heart failure (CHF) because under ACE inhibitor treatment other neurohumoral systems remain/become (de)activated, such as the endothelin and atrial natriuretic peptide pathways. Dual endothelin-converting enzyme-neutral endopeptidase (ECE-NEP) inhibition exerts beneficial effects in experimental CHF, but whether "triple" ACE-ECE-NEP inhibition is superior to ACE or ECE-NEP inhibition is unknown. We compared, in rats with CHF, ACE-ECE-NEP to ACE or ECE-NEP inhibition in terms of left ventricular (LV) hemodynamics and remodeling. Benazepril (2 mg/kg/d) or the ECE-NEP inhibitor CGS26303 (10 mg/kg/d) were administered alone or in combination (subcutaneously for 28 days starting 7 days after coronary ligation). ACE-ECE-NEP inhibition reduced blood pressure more markedly than ACE or ECE-NEP inhibition. All treatments increased cardiac output to the same extent, but ACE-ECE-NEP inhibition reduced LV diameter and LV end-diastolic pressure more markedly than ACE or ECE-NEP inhibition. The reduction of LV weight and collagen accumulation in the "viable" myocardium was most pronounced after ACE-ECE-NEP inhibition. These results, obtained in experimental CHF, illustrate a further improvement of LV hemodynamics and structure after ACE-ECE-NEP inhibition compared with either ACE or ECE-NEP inhibition, but whether this is associated with a further improvement of exercise tolerance and/or survival remains to be determined.

  13. Comparison of ground and satellite based measurements of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by tall-grass prairie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demetriades-Shah, T. H.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Flitcroft, I.; Su, H.

    1990-01-01

    The fraction, of photosynthetically active radiation absorbed by vegetation, F sub ipar, is an important requirement for estimating vegetation biomass productivity and related quantities. This was an integral part of a large international effort; the First ISLSCP Field Experiment (FIFE). The main objective of FIFE was to study the effects of vegetation on the land atmosphere interactions and to determine if these interactions can be assessed from satellite spectral measurements. The specific purpose of this experiment was to find out how well measurements of F sub ipar relate to ground, helicopter, and satellite based spectral reflectance measurements. Concurrent measurements of F sub ipar and ground, helicopter, and satellite based measurements were taken at 13 tall grass prairie sites in Kansas. The sites were subjected to various combinations of burning and grazing managements.

  14. ACE Gene I/D Polymorphism and Obesity in 1,574 Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Min; Huang, Yan-Mei; Wang, Ying-Hui; Chen, Yin-Ling; Geng, Li-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Association between ACE gene I/D polymorphism and the risk of overweight/obesity remains controversial. We investigated the possible relationship between ACE gene I/D polymorphism and obesity in Chinese type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients. In this study, obesity was defined as a body mass index (BMI) value ≥ 25 kg/m2 and subjects were classified into 4 groups (lean, normal, overweight, and obese). PCR (polymerase chain reaction) was used to detect the ACE gene I/D polymorphism in T2DM patients. Metabolic measurements including blood glucose, lipid profile, and blood pressure were obtained. Frequencies of the ACE genotypes (DD, ID, and II) were not significant among the 4 groups of BMI-defined patients (P = 0.679) while ACE II carriers showed higher systolic blood pressure (SBP) and pulse pressure (PP) (all P < 0.050). Hyperglycemia, hypertension, and dyslipidemia in these T2DM patients were found to be significantly associated with BMI. In conclusion, the relationship of ACE gene I/D polymorphism with obesity is insignificant in Chinese patients with T2DM. SBP and PP might be higher in the ACE II carriers than in the DD and ID carriers. PMID:28115791

  15. Validation of NH3 satellite observations by ground-based FTIR measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dammers, Enrico; Palm, Mathias; Van Damme, Martin; Shephard, Mark; Cady-Pereira, Karen; Capps, Shannon; Clarisse, Lieven; Coheur, Pierre; Erisman, Jan Willem

    2016-04-01

    Global emissions of reactive nitrogen have been increasing to an unprecedented level due to human activities and are estimated to be a factor four larger than pre-industrial levels. Concentration levels of NOx are declining, but ammonia (NH3) levels are increasing around the globe. While NH3 at its current concentrations poses significant threats to the environment and human health, relatively little is known about the total budget and global distribution. Surface observations are sparse and mainly available for north-western Europe, the United States and China and are limited by the high costs and poor temporal and spatial resolution. Since the lifetime of atmospheric NH3 is short, on the order of hours to a few days, due to efficient deposition and fast conversion to particulate matter, the existing surface measurements are not sufficient to estimate global concentrations. Advanced space-based IR-sounders such as the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES), the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) enable global observations of atmospheric NH3 that help overcome some of the limitations of surface observations. However, the satellite NH3 retrievals are complex requiring extensive validation. Presently there have only been a few dedicated satellite NH3 validation campaigns performed with limited spatial, vertical or temporal coverage. Recently a retrieval methodology was developed for ground-based Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) instruments to obtain vertical concentration profiles of NH3. Here we show the applicability of retrieved columns from nine globally distributed stations with a range of NH3 pollution levels to validate satellite NH3 products.

  16. Earth's gravity field modelling based on satellite accelerations derived from onboard GPS phase measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, X.; Ditmar, P.; Zhao, Q.; Klees, R.; Farahani, H. H.

    2017-02-01

    GPS data collected by satellite gravity missions can be used for extracting the long-wavelength part of the Earth's gravity field. We propose a new data processing method which makes use of the `average acceleration' approach to gravity field modelling. In this method, satellite accelerations are directly derived from GPS carrier phase measurements with an epoch-differenced scheme. As a result, no ambiguity solutions are needed and the systematic errors that do not change much from epoch to epoch are largely eliminated. The GPS data collected by the Gravity Field and Steady-State Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite mission are used to demonstrate the added value of the proposed method. An analysis of the residual accelerations shows that accelerations derived in this way are more precise, with noise being reduced by about 20 and 5% at the cross-track component and the other two components, respectively, as compared to those based on kinematic orbits. The accelerations obtained in this way allow the recovery of the gravity field to a slightly higher maximum degree compared to the solution based on kinematic orbits. Furthermore, the gravity field solution has an overall better performance. Errors in spherical harmonic coefficients are smaller, especially at low degrees. The cumulative geoid height error is reduced by about 15 and 5% up to degree 50 and 150, respectively. An analysis in the spatial domain shows that large errors along the geomagnetic equator, which are caused by a high electron density coupled with large short-term variations, are substantially reduced. Finally, the new method allows for a better observation of mass transport signals. In particular, sufficiently realistic signatures of regional mass anomalies in North America and south-west Africa are obtained.

  17. Satellite IR Thermal Measurements Prior to the September 2004 Earthquakes in Central California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ouzounov, D.; Logan, T.; Taylor, Patrick

    2004-01-01

    We present and discuss observed variations in thermal transients and radiation fields prior to the earthquakes of September 18 near Bodie (M5.5) and September 28,2004 near Parkfield(M6.0) in California. Previous analysis of earthquake events have indicated the presence of a thermal anomaly, where temperatures increased or did not return to its usual nighttime value. The procedures used in our work is to analyze weather satellite data taken at night and to record the general condition where the ground cools after sunset. Two days before the Bodie earthquake lower temperature radiation was observed by the NOAA/AVHRR satellite. This occurred when the entire region was relatively cloud-free. IR land surface nighttime temperature from the MODIS instrument rose to +4 C in a 100 km radius around the Bodie epicenter. The thermal transient field recorded by MODIS in the vicinity of Parkfield, also with a cloud free environment, was around +l C and it is significantly smaller than the Parkfield epicenter, however, for that period showed a steady increase 4 days prior to the earthquake and a significant drop of the night before the quake. Geosynchronous weather satellite thermal IR measurements taken every half hour from sunset to dawn, were also recorded for 10 days prior to the Parkfield event and 5 days after as well as the day of the quake. To establish a baseline we also obtained GOES data for the same Julian sets were then used to systematically observe and record any thermal anomaly prior to the events that deviated from the baseline. Our recent results support the hypothesis of a possible relationship between an thermodynamic processes produced by increasing tectonic stress in the Earth's crust and a subsequent electro-chemical interaction between this crust and the atmosphere/ionosphere.

  18. Inferring the State of Tidally-heated Satellite Ice Shells from Global Shape Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmo, F.; Thomas, P. C.; Pappalardo, R. T.; Moore, W. B.

    2006-12-01

    Several icy satellites of the outer solar system, notably Europa and Enceladus, are sufficiently tidally heated that they likely possess ice shells overlying oceans. Because tidal heating varies spatially [1], variations in ice shell thickness are likely to occur [2]. Lateral variations in shell thickness will in turn give rise to global topographic variations. The amplitude of this long-wavelength topography is potentially comparable to shape variations due to tidal and rotational stresses [3]. Thus, careful measurement of satellite shapes from limb profiles may be used to infer the nature of shell thickness variations, and thus the state of the ice shell. We demonstrate that limb profiles of Europa give no evidence for lateral shell thickness variations, in contrast to theoretical predictions [2] for a conductive ice shell above liquid water. There are two possible explanations: 1) the ice shell is sufficiently thick (> ~10 km) that lateral shell flow has smoothed out any variations; 2) the shell is heated mainly from below, resulting in a uniform, thin (~3 km) shell. Based on local topography from limb profiles and stereo topography [4] we favour the former explanation: a constant shell thickness rules out isostatic support, and the thin shell model is unable to flexurally support topography with amplitudes of ~1 km. Given sufficiently good limb profiles, a similar analysis may be carried out for Enceladus. Lateral variations in ice shell thickness also affect the tendency of a satellite to reorient itself [5]; thus, reorientation of Enceladus [6] may provide another constraint on the nature of the ice shell there. [1] G. Tobie et al., Icarus 177, 534-549, 2005. [2] Ojakangas and Stevenson, Icarus 81, 220-241, 1989 [3] Murray and Dermott, Solar System Dynamics, 2000 [4] Prockter and Schenk, Icarus 177, 305-326, 2005. [5] Ojakangas and Stevenson, Icarus 81, 242-270, 1989 [6] Nimmo and Pappalardo, Nature 441, 614-616, 2006.

  19. NGSLR's Measurement of the Retro-Reflector Array Response of Various LEO to GNSS Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGarry, Jan; Clarke, Christopher; Degnan, John; Donovan, Howard; Hall, Benjamin; Hovarth, Julie; Zagwodzki, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    "NASA's Next Generation Satellite Laser Ranging System (NGSLR) has successfully demonstrated daylight and nighttime tracking this year to s atellites from LEO to GNSS orbits, using a 7-8 arcsecond beam divergence, a 43% QE Hamamatsu MCP-PMT with single photon detection, a narrow field of view (11 arcseconds), and a 1 mJ per pulse 2kHz repetition rate laser. We have compared the actual return rates we are getting against the theoretical link calculations, using the known system confi guration parameters, an estimate of the sky transmission using locall y measured visibility, and signal processing to extract the signal from the background noise. We can achieve good agreement between theory and measurement in most passes by using an estimated pOinting error. We will s.()w the results of this comparison along with our conclusio ns."

  20. Low elevation angle KU-band satellite measurements at Austin, Texas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vogel, Wolfhard J.; Torrence, Geoffrey W.; Ranganathan, Murali

    1989-01-01

    At low elevation angles, the propagation of satellite signals is affected by precipitation as well as by inhomogeneties of the refractive index. Whereas precipitation causes fades for relatively small percentages of time, the refractive index variability causes scintillations which can be observed for most of the time. An experiment is now under way in Austin, Texas, in which the right hand circularly polarized 12 GHz beacon of INTELSAT-V/F10 is observed at a 5.8 deg elevation angle, along with the radiometric sky temperature, rainfall rate, humidity, pressure, temperature, and wind speed and direction. The objective of these measurements is to accumulate a database over a period of 2 years and to analyze the probabilities and dynamical behavior of the signal variations in relation to the meteorological parameters. The hardware and software used for the data acquisition and analysis is described and the results from the first year of measurements are presented.

  1. Boundary layer stratus clouds - Inferred from satellite infrared spectral measurements over oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabhakara, C.; Yoo, J.-M.; Kratz, D. P.; Dalu, G.

    1993-01-01

    A method to remotely sense marine stratus clouds, that are underneath the boundary layer inversion produced by strong subsidence, is developed with the help of the measurements made by the Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) on board the Nimbus 4 satellite. These measurements, which had a spectral resolution of 2.8/cm and a field view of about 100 km in the region 870-980/cm, allow one to compare the weak absorption due to water vapor lines with that of the weak nu3-nu1 band of CO2. From such a comparison it is possible to sense the presence of these boundary layer stratus clouds. Maps of these clouds over subsidence regions of the tropical and subtropical oceans deduced from IRIS data show the usefulness of the technique to climatological studies.

  2. The characterization of an air pollution episode using satellite total ozone measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fishman, Jack; Shipham, Mark C.; Vukovich, Fred M.; Cahoon, Donald R.

    1987-01-01

    A case study is presented which demonstrates that measurements of total ozone from a space-based platform can be used to study a widespread air pollution episode over the southeastern U.S. In particular, the synoptic-scale distribution of surface-level ozone obtained from an independent analysis of ground-based monitoring stations appears to be captured by the synoptic-scale distribution of total ozone, even though about 90 percent of the total ozone is in the stratosphere. Additional analyses of upper air meteorological data, other satellite imagery, and in situ aircraft measurements of ozone likewise support the fact that synoptic-scale variability of tropospheric ozone is primarily responsible for the observed variability in total ozone under certain conditions. The use of the type of analysis discussed in this study may provide an important technique for understanding the global budget of tropospheric ozone.

  3. System noise analysis of the dumbbell tethered satellite for gravity-gradient measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, G.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of the dumbbell gravity gradiometer concept for measuring short wavelength variations in the earth's gravity gradient is presented. Variations in the gradient are recorded by measuring tension variations in a vertically stabilized satellite consisting of heavy masses connected by a long wire or rod. Tension noise arises from the excitation of various mechanical oscillations of the system. The principal noise sources that were identified are fluctuations in atmospheric drag heating and drag force resulting from density variations and winds. Approximate analytical expressions are presented for the tension noise as a function of the system design parameters for various possible configurations. Computer simulations using numerical integration were performed to study the tension noise for several sample cases. Three designs consistent with Shuttle launch capabilities are discussed.

  4. Characterization of an air pollution episode using satellite total ozone measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Fishman, J.; Vukovich, F.M.; Cahoon, D.R.; Shipham, M.C.

    1987-12-01

    A case study is presented which demonstrates that measurements of total ozone from a space-based platform can be used to study a widespread air pollution episode over the southeastern United States. In particular, the synoptic-scale distribution of surface-level ozone obtained from an independent analysis of ground-based monitoring stations appears to be captured by the synoptic-scale distribution of total ozone, even though approx. =90% of the total ozone is in the stratosphere. Additional analyses of upper air meteorological data, other satellite imagery, and in situ aircraft measurements of ozone likewise support the fact that synoptic-scale variability of tropospheric ozone is primarily responsible for the observed variability in total ozone under certain conditions. The use of the type of analysis discussed in this study may provide an important technique for understanding the global budget of tropospheric ozone.

  5. Angiotensin(1-7) and ACE2, “The Hot Spots” of Renin-Angiotensin System, Detected in the Human Aqueous Humor

    PubMed Central

    Holappa, Mervi; Valjakka, Jarkko; Vaajanen, Anu

    2015-01-01

    Background: The main purpose of the study was to establish whether essential components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) exist in the human aqueous humor. Methods: Forty-five patients ≥ 60 (74±7) years of age undergoing cataract surgery at Tampere University Hospital were randomly selected for the prospective study. The exclusion criterion was the use of oral antihypertensive medicine acting via renin-angiotensin system. Aqueous humor samples were taken at the beginning of normal cataract extraction. The samples were frozen and stored at -80 °C. The concentrations of intraocular endogenous RAS components Ang(1-7), ACE2, and ACE1 were measured using ELISA. Results: Concentration medians of Ang(1-7), ACE2, and ACE1 in the aqueous humor were: Ang(1-7) 4.08 ng/ml, ACE2 2.32 ng/ml and ACE1 0.35 ng/ml. The concentrations were significantly higher in glaucomatous than in non-glaucomatous eyes, ACE1 (p=0.014) and Ang(1-7) (p=0.026) vs non-glaucomatous eyes. Conclusions: Ang(1-7), ACE2 and ACE1 are found in the human aqueous humor. The observations are consistent with the conception that local tissue-RAS exists in the human eye and it might have a role in the control of intraocular pressure. PMID:25926900

  6. Measuring the coral reef distribution of Kuroshima Island by satellite remote sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Miyazaki, Tadakuni; Harashima, Akira; Nakatani, Yukihiro

    1995-12-31

    Coral reefs are the major sites for photo-synthesis and calcification in the present ocean. Estimating the production rate of calcification by the coral reefs or investigating the sink/source mechanism of CO{sub 2} by the coral reefs in the ocean, the distribution of the coral reefs in the world wide must be identified. Measuring the spectral signatures of underwater coral reefs and mapping of coral reefs by satellite remote sensing are described. The spectral signatures of different species of the coral reefs were measured using a spectroradiometer at off Kuroshima Island, Okinawa, Japan and investigated spectral difference between different species of the coral reefs. As well as the field experiments, laboratory experiments for measuring the spectral signatures of 9 different species of coral reefs were carried out with the same spectroradiometer. The spectral reflectance of each coral reef showed a significant result that a narrow absorption band exists in the spectral region between 660 and 680 nm, and very strong spectral reflectance from about 700 nm towards the longer wavelength range. On the other hand, absorption and the high reflectance region were not observed from the bottom sands or bare rocks underwater. These experiments suggested that there is a significant spectral difference between coral reefs and bottom sands or bare rocks and so the best spectral range for separating the coral reefs from other underwater objects in the ocean would be between 700 and 800 nm. As well as the basic spectral measurement either in the field or at the laboratory, SPOT satellite imageries were used to classify the underwater coral reefs. Classification methods used here were the principal component analysis, and the maximum likelihood. Finally, the evaluation of classification method for extracting the coral reefs was introduced.

  7. CLAIRE: a Canadian Small Satellite Mission for Measurement of Greenhouse Gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sloan, James; Grant, Cordell; Germain, Stephane; Durak, Berke; McKeever, Jason; Latendresse, Vincent

    2016-07-01

    CLAIRE, a Canadian mission operated by GHGSat Inc. of Montreal, is the world's first satellite designed to measure greenhouse gas emissions from single targeted industrial facilities. Claire was launched earlier this year into a 500 km polar sun-synchronous orbit selected to provide an acceptable balance between return frequency and spatial resolution. Extensive simulations of oil & gas facilities, power plants, hydro reservoirs and even animal feedlots were used to predict the mission performance. The principal goal is to measure the emission rates of carbon dioxide and methane from selected targets with greater precision and lower cost than ground-based alternatives. CLAIRE will measure sources having surface areas less than 10 x 10 km2 with a spatial resolution better than 50 m, thereby providing industrial site operators and government regulators with the information they need to understand, manage and ultimately to reduce greenhouse gas emissions more economically. The sensor is based on a Fabry-Perot interferometer, coupled with a 2D InGaAs focal plane array operating in the short-wave infrared with a spectral resolution of about 0.1 nm. The patented, high étendue, instrument design provides signal to noise ratios that permit quantification of emission rates with accuracies adequate for most regulatory reporting thresholds. The very high spatial resolution of the density maps produced by the CLAIRE mission resolves plume shapes and emitter locations so that advanced dispersion models can derive accurate emission rates of multiple sources within the field of view. The satellite bus, provided by the University of Toronto's Space Flight Laboratory, is based on the well-characterized NEMO architecture, including hardware that has significant spaceflight heritage. The mission is currently undergoing initial test and validation measurements in preparation for commercial operation later this year.

  8. How Consistent are Recent Variations in the Tropical Energy and Water Cycle Resolved by Satellite Measurements?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, F. R.; Lu, H.-I.

    2004-01-01

    One notable aspect of Earth's climate is that although the planet appears to be very close to radiative balance at top-of-atmosphere (TOA), the atmosphere itself and underlying surface are not. Profound exchanges of energy between the atmosphere and oceans, land and cryosphere occur over a range of time scales. Recent evidence from broadband satellite measurements suggests that even these TOA fluxes contain some detectable variations. Our ability to measure and reconstruct radiative fluxes at the surface and at the top of atmosphere is improving rapidly. One question is 'How consistent, physically, are these diverse remotely-sensed data sets'? The answer is of crucial importance to understanding climate processes, improving physical models, and improving remote sensing algorithms. In this work we will evaluate two recently released estimates of radiative fluxes, focusing primarily on surface estimates. The International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project 'FD' radiative flux profiles are available from mid-1983 to near present and have been constructed by driving the radiative transfer physics from the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) global model with ISCCP clouds and TOVS (TIROS Operational Vertical Sounder)thermodynamic profiles. Full and clear sky SW and LW fluxes are produced. A similar product from the NASA/GEWEX Surface Radiation Budget Project using different radiative flux codes and thermodynamics from the NASA/Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-1) assimilation model makes a similar calculation of surface fluxes. However this data set currently extends only through 1995. We also employ precipitation measurements from the Global Precipitation Climatology Project (GPCP) and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM). Finally, ocean evaporation estimates from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) are considered as well as derived evaporation from the NCAR/NCEP Reanalysis. Additional information is included in the original extended

  9. Environmental Satellites: Strategy Needed to Sustain Critical Climate and Space Weather Measurements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    which is when solar activities such as solar flares and solar winds are expected to affect space and earth assets (including satellites, airplanes... affect key assets, including communication satellites or the electric power grid. When collected over time, satellite data can also be used to observe...global coverage of conditions that affect weather and climate. Each satellite makes about 14 orbits a day. As the earth rotates beneath it, each

  10. Estimation of fossil-fuel CO2 emissions using satellite measurements of "proxy" species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konovalov, Igor B.; Berezin, Evgeny V.; Ciais, Philippe; Broquet, Grégoire; Zhuravlev, Ruslan V.; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet

    2016-11-01

    Fossil-fuel (FF) burning releases carbon dioxide (CO2) together with many other chemical species, some of which, such as nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and carbon monoxide (CO), are routinely monitored from space. This study examines the feasibility of estimation of FF CO2 emissions from large industrial regions by using NO2 and CO column retrievals from satellite measurements in combination with simulations by a mesoscale chemistry transport model (CTM). To this end, an inverse modeling method is developed that allows estimating FF CO2 emissions from different sectors of the economy, as well as the total CO2 emissions, in a given region. The key steps of the method are (1) inferring "top-down" estimates of the regional budget of anthropogenic NOx and CO emissions from satellite measurements of proxy species (NO2 and CO in the case considered) without using formal a priori constraints on these budgets, (2) the application of emission factors (the NOx-to-CO2 and CO-to-CO2 emission ratios in each sector) that relate FF CO2 emissions to the proxy species emissions and are evaluated by using data of "bottom-up" emission inventories, and (3) cross-validation and optimal combination of the estimates of CO2 emission budgets derived from measurements of the different proxy species. Uncertainties in the top-down estimates of the NOx and CO emissions are evaluated and systematic differences between the measured and simulated data are taken into account by using original robust techniques validated with synthetic data. To examine the potential of the method, it was applied to the budget of emissions for a western European region including 12 countries by using NO2 and CO column amounts retrieved from, respectively, the OMI and IASI satellite measurements and simulated by the CHIMERE mesoscale CTM, along with the emission conversion factors based on the EDGAR v4.2 emission inventory. The analysis was focused on evaluation of the uncertainty levels for the top-down NOx and CO emission

  11. ACE-Asia: Asian Aerosol Transport Into Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, C. F.; Perry, K. D.; Cliff, S. S.; Jimenez-Cruz, M. P.; Cahill, T. A.

    2001-12-01

    Adak Island, one of the southernmost Aleutian Islands, and the Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR), approximately 30 miles north of Fairbanks, Alaska, both experienced Asian dust transport during the ACE-Asia campaign in March/April 2001. The Asian soil reaching both Adak and PFRR appeared in both the sub-micron (0.07-0.34 and 0.34-1.15 micron) and super-micron (1.15-2.5 micron) stages of the 3-stage DRUM aerosol impactor. This contrasts with the 'typical Arctic haze' event observed at PFRR in which the aerosol is predominantly sub-micron. Although Asian soil and anthropogenic emissions reaching PFRR caused a significant deterioration in local visibility, the models and satellites did not show the dust reaching PFRR. However, back-trajectory modeling does point to Asia as the origin of the aerosol at PFRR. In contrast to PFRR, the soil reaching Adak was predicted by models, visible to satellites, concentrated enough to set off volcanic ash alarms in the Aleutians, and caused 'brown snow' near Valdez, Alaska. In addition to the dust, a suite of typically anthropogenic fine metals were seen during the six week experiment, confirming the back-trajectory indications of an Asian source. The study also provided additional information on the optically important sub-micron component of sea salt aerosols for comparison to similar observations with DRUM technology at the Mace Head Research Facility on the western coast of Ireland.

  12. Comparison of ground and satellite based measurements of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by tall-grass prairie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demetriades-Shah, T. H.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Flitcroft, I.; Su, H.

    1991-01-01

    The fraction, of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by vegetation, F(sub ipar) is an important parameter for modeling the interactions between the land-surface and atmosphere and for estimating vegetation biomass productivity. This study was; therefore, an integral part of FIFE. The specific purpose of this experiment was to find out how well definitive measurements of F(sub ipar) on the ground relate to near-ground and satellite based spectral reflectance measurements. Concurrent measurements of F(sub ipar) and ground, helicopter, and satellite based reflectance measurements were taken at thirteen tall-grass prairie sites within the FIFE experimental area. The sites were subjected to various combinations of burning and grazing managements. The ground and helicopter based reflectance measurements were taken on the same day or few days from the time of the overpass of LANDSAT and SPOT satellites. Ground-based reflectance measurements and sun photometer readings taken at the times of the satellite overpasses were used to correct for atmospheric attenuation. Hand-held radiometer spectral indices were strongly correlated with helicopter and satellite based values (r=0.94 for helicopter, 0.93 for LANDSAT Thematic Mapper, and 0.86 for SPOT). However, the ground, helicopter, and satellite based normalized difference spectral vegetation indices showed low sensitivity to changes in F(sub ipar). Reflectance measurements were only moderately well correlated with measurements of F(sub ipar) (r=0.82 for hand-held radiometer, 0.84 for helicopter measurements, and 0.75 for the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper and SPOT). Improved spectral indices which can compensate for site differences are needed in order to monitor F(sub ipar) more reliably.

  13. Comparison of ground and satellite based measurements of the fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by tall-grass prairie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demetriades-Shah, T. H.; Kanemasu, E. T.; Flitcroft, I. D.; Su, H.

    1992-01-01

    The fraction of photosynthetically active radiation intercepted by vegetation, F(sub ipar) is an important parameter for modeling the interactions between the land-surface and atmosphere and for estimating vegetation biomass productivity. This study was, therefore, an integral part of FIFE. The specific purpose of this experiment was to find out how well definitive measurements of F(sub ipar) on the ground relate to near-ground and satellite based spectral reflectance measurements. Concurrent measurements of F(sub ipar) and ground, helicopter, and satellite based reflectance measurements were taken at thirteen tall-grass prairie sites within the FIFE experimental area. The sites were subjected to various combinations of burning and grazing managements. The ground and helicopter based reflectance measurements were taken on the same day or few days from the time of the overpass of LANDSAT and SPOT satellites. Ground-based reflectance measurements and sun photometer readings taken at the times of the satellite overpasses were used to correct for atmospheric attenuation. Hand-held radiometer spectral indices were strongly correlated with helicopter and satellite based values (r = 0.94 for helicopter, 0.93 for LANDSAT Thematic Mapper, and 0.86 for SPOT). However, the ground, helicopter, and satellite based normalized difference spectral vegetation indices showed low sensitivity to changes in F(sub ipar). Reflectance measurements were only moderately well correlated with measurements of F(sub ipar) (r = 0.82 for hand-held radiometer, 0.84 for helicopter measurements, and 0.75 for the LANDSAT Thematic Mapper and SPOT). Improved spectral indices which can compensate for site differences are needed in order to monitor F(sub ipar) more reliably.

  14. Satellite quenching time-scales in clusters from projected phase space measurements matched to simulated orbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oman, Kyle A.; Hudson, Michael J.

    2016-12-01

    We measure the star formation quenching efficiency and time-scale in cluster environments. Our method uses N-body simulations to estimate the probability distribution of possible orbits for a sample of observed Sloan Digital Sky Survey galaxies in and around clusters based on their position and velocity offsets from their host cluster. We study the relationship between their star formation rates and their likely orbital histories via a simple model in which star formation is quenched once a delay time after infall has elapsed. Our orbit library method is designed to isolate the environmental effect on the star formation rate due to a galaxy's present-day host cluster from `pre-processing' in previous group hosts. We find that quenching of satellite galaxies of all stellar masses in our sample (109-10^{11.5}M_{⊙}) by massive (> 10^{13} M_{⊙}) clusters is essentially 100 per cent efficient. Our fits show that all galaxies quench on their first infall, approximately at or within a Gyr of their first pericentric passage. There is little variation in the onset of quenching from galaxy-to-galaxy: the spread in this time is at most ˜2 Gyr at fixed M*. Higher mass satellites quench earlier, with very little dependence on host cluster mass in the range probed by our sample.

  15. Surface Emissivity Retrieved with Satellite Ultraspectral IR Measurements for Monitoring Global Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhou, Daniel K.; Larar, Allen M.; Liu, Xu; Smith, William L.; Schluessel, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Surface and atmospheric thermodynamic parameters retrieved with advanced ultraspectral remote sensors aboard Earth observing satellites are critical to general atmospheric and Earth science research, climate monitoring, and weather prediction. Ultraspectral resolution infrared radiance obtained from nadir observations provide atmospheric, surface, and cloud information. Presented here is the global surface IR emissivity retrieved from Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI) measurements under "clear-sky" conditions. Fast radiative transfer models, applied to the cloud-free (or clouded) atmosphere, are used for atmospheric profile and surface parameter (or cloud parameter) retrieval. The inversion scheme, dealing with cloudy as well as cloud-free radiances observed with ultraspectral infrared sounders, has been developed to simultaneously retrieve atmospheric thermodynamic and surface (or cloud microphysical) parameters. Rapidly produced surface emissivity is initially evaluated through quality control checks on the retrievals of other impacted atmospheric and surface parameters. Surface emissivity and surface skin temperature from the current and future operational satellites can and will reveal critical information on the Earth s ecosystem and land surface type properties, which can be utilized as part of long-term monitoring for the Earth s environment and global climate change.

  16. An Ad-hoc Satellite Network to Measure Filamentary Current Structures in the Auroral Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nabong, C.; Fritz, T. A.; Semeter, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    An ad-hoc cubesat-based satellite network project known as ANDESITE is under development at Boston University. It aims to develop a dense constellation of easy-to-use, rapidly-deployable low-cost wireless sensor nodes in space. The objectives of the project are threefold: 1) Demonstrate viability of satellite based sensor networks by deploying an 8-node miniature sensor network to study the filamentation of the field aligned currents in the auroral zones of the Earth's magnetosphere. 2) Test the scalability of proposed protocols, including localization techniques, tracking, data aggregation, and routing, for a 3 dimensional wireless sensor network using a "flock" of nodes. 3) Construct a 6U Cube-sat running the Android OS as an integrated constellation manager, data mule and sensor node deplorer. This small network of sensor nodes will resolve current densities at different spatial resolutions in the near-Earth magnetosphere using measurements from magnetometers with 1-nT sensitivities and 0.2 nT/√Hz self-noise. Mapping of these currents will provide new constraints for models of auroral particle acceleration, wave-particle interactions, ionospheric destabilization, and other kinetic processes operating in the low-beta plasma of the near Earth magnetosphere.

  17. A global ETCCDI based precipitation climatology from satellite and rain gauge measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietzsch, Felix; Andersson, Axel; Schröder, Marc; Ziese, Markus; Becker, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    The project framework MiKlip ("Mittelfristige Klimaprognosen") is focused onto the development of an operational forecast system for decadal climate predictions. The objective of the "Daily Precipitation Analysis for the validation of Global medium-range Climate predictions Operationalized" (DAPAGLOCO) project, is the development and operationalization of a global precipitation dataset for forecast validation of the MPI-ESM experiments used in MiKlip. The dataset is a combination of rain gauge measurement data over land and satellite-based precipitation retrievals over ocean. Over land, gauge data from the Global Precipitation Climatology Centre (GPCC) at Deutscher Wetterdienst (DWD) are used. Over ocean, retrievals from the Hamburg Ocean Atmosphere Parameters and Fluxes from Satellite Data (HOAPS) dataset are used as data source. The currently available dataset consists of 21 years of data (1988-2008) and has a spatial resolution of 1°. So far, the MiKlip forecast validation is based upon the Expert Team on Climate Change and Detection Indices (ETCCDI). These indices focus on precipitation extrema in terms of spell durations, percentiles, averaged precipitation amounts and further more. The application of these indices on the DAPAGLOCO dataset in its current state delivers insight into the global distribution of precipitation characteristics and extreme events. The resulting global patterns of these characteristics and extrema are the main objective of the presentation.

  18. Individual and combined influence of ACE and ACTN3 genes on muscle phenotypes in Polish athletes.

    PubMed

    Orysiak, Joanna; Mazur-Różycka, Joanna; Busko, Krzysztof; Gajewski, Jan; Szczepanska, Beata; Malczewska-Lenczowska, Jadwiga

    2017-02-08

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between ACE and ACTN3 genes, independently or in combination, and muscle strength and power in male and female athletes. The study involved 398 young male (n=266) and female (n=132) athletes representing various sport disciplines (ice hockey, canoeing, swimming, volleyball). All were Caucasians. The following measurements were taken: height of jump and mechanical power in countermovement jump (CMJ) and spike jump (SPJ), and muscle strength of 10 muscle groups (flexors and extensors of the elbow, shoulder, hip, knee and trunk). The ID polymorphism of ACE and the R577X polymorphism of ACTN3 were typed using PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and PCR-RFLP (polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism), respectively. The genotype distribution of the ACE and ACTN3 genes did not differ significantly between groups of athletes for either sex. There was no association between ACE and ACTN3 genotypes (alone or in combination) and sum of muscle strength, height of jump or mechanical power in both jump tests (CMJ and SPJ) for male and female athletes. These findings do not support an influential role of the ACE and ACTN3 genes in determining power/strength performance of elite athletes.

  19. Internal waves in the Black Sea: satellite observations and in-situ measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavrova, Olga Yu.; Mityagina, Marina I.; Serebryany, Andrey N.; Sabinin, Konstantin D.; Kalashnikova, Nina A.; Krayushkin, Evgeny V.; Khymchenko, Ielizaveta

    2014-10-01

    Satellite radar (SAR) and visible band data from Envisat ASAR, ERS-2 SAR, Lansat-5,7,8 sensors were used to investigate internal waves (IWs) in the Black Sea. The three main areas of the Black Sea where surface manifestations of internal waves (SMIWs) were mostly observed are: the Danube Delta, Crimea Peninsula and the northeastern region near Novorossiysk. The main goal of our investigation was to define the mechanisms of IW generation in the non-tidal sea. In the first area, IWs are observed rather often due to surface intrusions of fresh waters of the Danube River. In contrast to usual soliton-like IW trains caused by river plumes, soliton trains near the Danuba Delta propagate in different directions and often subject to nonlinear interactions. The interrelation between location and orientation of IW trains and fresh water fronts is discussed. In the area off Crimea, in our opinion, IWs are generated mainly by upwelling relaxation and interaction between internal inertial waves and bottom topography features. SMIW in the northeastern part of the Black Sea are scarce, though IWs are regularly revealed by in-situ measurements. Field measurements were conducted in the northeastern part of the Black Sea from a small boat and from scientific sea platform near Crimea employing CTD probes, thermistor chain and Acoustic Doppler Current Profilers (ADCP). ADCP measurements allowed us to detect a number of IW trains. Their amplitudes were estimated to reach 5-8 m. Joint analysis of satellite SAR and subsatellite data gave an assessment of their typical wavelength at 90-100 m.

  20. Photon path length distributions for cloudy atmospheres from GOSAT satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kremmling, Beke; Penning de Vries, Marloes; Wagner, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The presence of clouds in the atmosphere has significant influence on the photon paths of the scattered sunlight. Besides reflections of radiation at the cloud top, additional scattering events inside the cloud may occur and thus lengthening or shortening of the photon path in the atmosphere. Clouds consisting of multiple layers or patches may lead to a "ping pong" behaviour of the photons due to reflections at the individual surfaces. The objective of our study is the retrieval of photon path length distributions for various atmospheric cloud situations which will lead to a better understanding of the influence of clouds on the atmospheric radiative transport. Following principles from ground based photon path length retrieval (Funk et al., 2003), our research uses the combination of space based measurements of the oxygen A-band and radiative transfer simulations. The experimental spectra originate from the Japanese Greenhouse gases Observing SATellite (GOSAT), more precisely the Fourier Transform Spectrometer TANSO-FTS. Its high spectral resolution allows to almost completely resolve the individual absorption lines which is a prerequisite to our study. The Monte Carlo radiative transfer model McArtim (Deutschmann et al., 2011) is used to model the measured spectra. This model allows user-defined input for the altitude dependent cross sections and furthermore the incorporation of three dimensional cloud shapes and properties. From the simulation output and the sun-satellite geometry, photon path length distributions can be obtained. Distributions of photon path lengths are presented for a selection of GOSAT observations of entirely cloud covered atmospheres with similar measurement geometries.

  1. Design and operational characteristics of electrostatic charge measurement onboard Intelsat VIII & VIII-A communication satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozkul, A.; Scali, F.; Liu, D.; Bowman, C.

    1996-12-01

    Six INTELSAT VIII/VIIIA satellites currently under construction at Lockheed Martin Astrospace facilities in Princeton, New Jersey, USA, will be equipped with electrostatic charge sensors and associated equipment in order to monitor external and internal charging via normal spacecraft telemetry measurement. This paper will describe the design, implementation, measurement strategy, deployments plans associated with the two types of sensors to be installed on these satellites. The discharge threat model which will use the sensor telemetry data as input will also be described. The planned utilization of near real time charge distribution predictions as determined from this model versus the detection and mitigation of the internal and surface electrostatic discharge threat will be discussed. The first INTELSAT VIII satellite equipped with these sensors is planned to be launched in early 1997 and the following five satellites are planned to be launched four months apart following the first. Two types of sensors are planned to be installed on each INTELSAT VIII/VIIIA satellite. The first type of sensor is called "Surface Charge Monitor" which consists of a 2x2 inch alluminum plate painted with Chemglaze dielectric paint and bonded to the spacecraft structure with a non-conductive adhesive. It is designed to measure charging by magnetospheric plasma electrons with energies from 5 keV to 20 keV and with worst case current density from 0.1 to 1 nA/cm2. This range was chosen because it has the probability of occuring of 99%. The charge monitor will indicate when such an environment is present at the spacecraft's orbital location. Two of these units, one on the anti-earth panel another on either the north or south transponder panel, are being mounted onboard each INTELSAT VIII/VIIIA satellite. The second type of sensor is called "Dosimeter/Internal Charge Monitor" consisting of a sensor housing plate equipped with four identical radiation sensitive p-FET device each shielded

  2. Global top-down smoke-aerosol emissions estimation using satellite fire radiative power measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichoku, C.; Ellison, L.

    2014-07-01

    Fire emissions estimates have long been based on bottom-up approaches that are not only complex, but also fraught with compounding uncertainties. We present the development of a global gridded (1° × 1°) emission coefficients (Ce) product for smoke total particulate matter (TPM) based on a top-down approach using coincident measurements of fire radiative power (FRP) and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensors aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. This new Fire Energetics and Emissions Research version 1.0 (FEER.v1) Ce product has now been released to the community and can be obtained from http://feer.gsfc.nasa.gov/, along with the corresponding 1-to-1 mapping of their quality assurance (QA) flags that will enable the Ce values to be filtered by quality for use in various applications. The regional averages of Ce values for different ecosystem types were found to be in the ranges of 16-21 g MJ-1 for savanna and grasslands, 15-32 g MJ-1 for tropical forest, 9-12 g MJ-1 for North American boreal forest, and 18-26 g MJ-1 for Russian boreal forest, croplands and natural vegetation. The FEER.v1 Ce product was multiplied by time-integrated FRP data to calculate regional smoke TPM emissions, which were compared with equivalent emissions products from three existing inventories. FEER.v1 showed higher and more reasonable smoke TPM estimates than two other emissions inventories that are based on bottom-up approaches and already reported in the literature to be too low, but portrayed an overall reasonable agreement with another top-down approach. This suggests that top-down approaches may hold better promise and need to be further developed to accelerate the reduction of uncertainty associated with fire emissions estimation in air-quality and climate research and applications. Results of the analysis of FEER.v1 data for 2004-2011 show that 65-85 Tg yr-1 of

  3. Global Top-Down Smoke-Aerosol Emissions Estimation Using Satellite Fire Radiative Power Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ichoku, C.; Ellison, L.

    2014-01-01

    Fire emissions estimates have long been based on bottom-up approaches that are not only complex, but also fraught with compounding uncertainties. We present the development of a global gridded (1 deg ×1 deg) emission coefficients (Ce) product for smoke total particulate matter (TPM) based on a top-down approach using coincident measurements of fire radiative power (FRP) and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensors aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. This new Fire Energetics and Emissions Research version 1.0 (FEER.v1) Ce product has now been released to the community and can be obtained from http://feer.gsfc. nasa.gov/, along with the corresponding 1-to-1 mapping of their quality assurance (QA) flags that will enable the Ce values to be filtered by quality for use in various applications. The regional averages of Ce values for different ecosystem types were found to be in the ranges of 16-21/gMJ-1 for savanna and grasslands, 15-32/gMJ-1 for tropical forest, 9-12/gMJ-1 for North American boreal forest, and 18- 26/MJ-1 for Russian boreal forest, croplands and natural vegetation. The FEER.v1 Ce product was multiplied by time-integrated FRP data to calculate regional smoke TPM emissions, which were compared with equivalent emissions products from three existing inventories. FEER.v1 showed higher and more reasonable smoke TPM estimates than two other emissions inventories that are based on bottom-up approaches and already reported in the literature to be too low, but portrayed an overall reasonable agreement with another top-down approach. This suggests that top-down approaches may hold better promise and need to be further developed to accelerate the reduction of uncertainty associated with fire emissions estimation in air-quality and climate research and applications. Results of the analysis of FEER.v1 data for 2004-2011 show that 65-85 Tg yr-1 of TPM is emitted globally from open biomass burning, with a

  4. Helium at Interplanetary Discontinuities: ACE STEREO Observations and Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moebius, E.; Kucharek, H.; Allegrini, F.; Desai, M.; Klecker, B.; Popecki, M.; Farrugia, C.; Galvin, A.; Bochsler, P.; Karrer, R.; Opitz, A.; Simunac, K.

    2007-12-01

    ACE/SEPICA observations showed that, on average, energetic He+ is after H+ and He2+ the third most abundant energetic particle species in the heliosphere. Depending on the type of the energetic population the He+/He2+ ratio can reach unusually high values in the energy range 250 - 800keV/n ratios up to unity. As a major source of energetic He+ interplanetary pickup ions have been identified that are preferentially accelerated at co-rotating interaction regions (CIRs), transient interaction regions (TIRs), and interplanetary traveling shocks. Most recent data from STEREO/PLASTIC in the energy range of 0.2-80keV/Q show clear evidence of abundant He+ at interplanetary discontinuities. Thus PLASTIC extends the energy range into injection region of the source. Furthermore, ACE/ULEIS and ACE/SEPICA measurements showed that very often 3He2+ and He+ are also accelerated simultaneously at CME-driven IP shocks. This is surprising because, these to species originate from different sources. However, this may indicate that the injection, or the acceleration efficiency of the accelerator for different source population may be similar. From observations, however, this cannot be differentiated easily. In numerical simulations this can be done because there is control over species and distribution functions. In a numerical study we applied test particle simulations and multi-dimensional hybrid simulations to address the contribution of source, injection and acceleration efficiency at shocks to the variability of the helium ratio. These, simulations with and without superimposed turbulence in the shock region will be compared with observations.

  5. Comparison of Satellite and Aircraft Measurements of Cloud Microphysical Properties in Icing Conditions During ATREC/AIRS-II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, Louis; Minnis, Patrick; Spangenberg, Douglas A.; Nordeen, Michele L.; Palikonda, Rabindra; Khaiyer, Mandana M.; Gultepe, Ismail; Reehorst, Andrew L.

    2004-01-01

    Satellites are ideal for continuous monitoring of aircraft icing conditions in many situations over extensive areas. The satellite imager data are used to diagnose a number of cloud properties that can be used to develop icing intensity indices. Developing and validating these indices requires comparison with objective "cloud truth" data in addition to conventional pilot reports (PIREPS) of icing conditions. Minnis et al. examined the relationships between PIREPS icing and satellite-derived cloud properties. The Atlantic-THORPEX Regional Campaign (ATReC) and the second Alliance Icing Research Study (AIRS-II) field programs were conducted over the northeastern USA and southeastern Canada during late 2003 and early 2004. The aircraft and surface measurements are concerned primarily with the icing characteristics of clouds and, thus, are ideal for providing some validation information for the satellite remote sensing product. This paper starts the process of comparing cloud properties and icing indices derived from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) with the aircraft in situ measurements of several cloud properties during campaigns and some of the The comparisons include cloud phase, particle size, icing intensity, base and top altitudes, temperatures, and liquid water path. The results of this study are crucial for developing a more reliable and objective icing product from satellite data. This icing product, currently being derived from GOES data over the USA, is an important complement to more conventional products based on forecasts, and PIREPS.

  6. Quantifying Above-Cloud Aerosols through Integrating Multi-Sensor Measurements from A-Train Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Yan

    2012-01-01

    Quantifying above-cloud aerosols can help improve the assessment of aerosol intercontinental transport and climate impacts. Large-scale measurements of aerosol above low-level clouds had been generally unexplored until very recently when CALIPSO lidar started to acquire aerosol and cloud profiles in June 2006. Despite CALIPSO s unique capability of measuring above-cloud aerosol optical depth (AOD), such observations are substantially limited in spatial coverage because of the lidar s near-zero swath. We developed an approach that integrates measurements from A-Train satellite sensors (including CALIPSO lidar, OMI, and MODIS) to extend CALIPSO above-cloud AOD observations to substantially larger areas. We first examine relationships between collocated CALIPSO above-cloud AOD and OMI absorbing aerosol index (AI, a qualitative measure of AOD for elevated dust and smoke aerosol) as a function of MODIS cloud optical depth (COD) by using 8-month data in the Saharan dust outflow and southwest African smoke outflow regions. The analysis shows that for a given cloud albedo, above-cloud AOD correlates positively with AI in a linear manner. We then apply the derived relationships with MODIS COD and OMI AI measurements to derive above-cloud AOD over the whole outflow regions. In this talk, we will present spatial and day-to-day variations of the above-cloud AOD and the estimated direct radiative forcing by the above-cloud aerosols.

  7. Interaction of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) with membrane-bound carboxypeptidase M (CPM) - a new function of ACE.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoou; Wiesner, Burkhard; Lorenz, Dorothea; Papsdorf, Gisela; Pankow, Kristin; Wang, Po; Dietrich, Nils; Siems, Wolf-Eberhard; Maul, Björn

    2008-12-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) demonstrates, besides its typical dipeptidyl-carboxypeptidase activity, several unusual functions. Here, we demonstrate with molecular, biochemical, and cellular techniques that the somatic wild-type murine ACE (mACE), stably transfected in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) or Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells, interacts with endogenous membranal co-localized carboxypeptidase M (CPM). CPM belongs to the group of glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins. Here we report that ACE, completely independent of its known dipeptidase activities, has GPI-targeted properties. Our results indicate that the spatial proximity between mACE and the endogenous CPM enables an ACE-evoked release of CPM. These results are discussed with respect to the recently proposed GPI-ase activity and function of sperm-bound ACE.

  8. An Analysis of Satellite, Radiosonde, and Lidar Observations of Upper Tropospheric Water Vapor from the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program

    SciTech Connect

    Soden, Brian J.; Turner, David D.; Lesht, B. M.; Miloshevich, Larry M.

    2004-02-25

    To improve our understanding of the distribution and radiative effects of water vapor, the U.S. Department of Energy's Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) program has conducted a series of coordinated water vapor Intensive Observational Periods (IOPs). This study uses observations collected from four ARM IOPs to accomplish two goals: first, we compare radiosonde and Raman lidar observations of upper tropospheric water vapor with co-located geostationary satellite radiances at 6.7 micrometers. During all four IOPs, we find excellent agreement between the satellite and Raman lidar observations of upper tropospheric humidity with systematic differences of ~10%. In contrast, radiosondes equipped with Vaisala sensors are shown to be systematically drier in the upper troposphere by ~40% relative to both the lidar and satellite measurements. Second, we assess the performance of various "correction" strategies designed to rectify known deficiencies in the radiosonde measurements. It is shown that existing methods for correcting the radiosonde dry bias, while effective in the lower troposphere, offer little improvement in the upper troposphere. An alternative method based on variational assimilation of satellite radiances is presented and, when applied to the radiosonde measurements, is shown to significantly improve their agreement with coincident Raman lidar observations. It is suggested that a similar strategy could be used to improve the quality of the global historical record of radiosonde water vapor observations during the satellite era.

  9. ICESat-2: the next generation satellite for altimetric measurements of the Earth's surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLennan, Douglas; Leon, John; Markus, Thorsten; Neumann, Thomas; Busch, James; Henegar-Leon, Joy; Flanagan, Mark; Richardson, Cathy; Martino, Anthony; Satrom, John

    2014-10-01

    Understanding the causes and magnitude of change in the cryosphere remains a priority for earth science research. Over the past decade, NASA earth observing satellites have documented a decrease in both the extent and thickness of Arctic sea ice, and ongoing loss of grounded ice from the Greenland and Antarctic ice sheets. Understanding the pace and mechanisms of these changes requires long-term observations of ice sheets, sea ice thickness and sea ice extent. In response to this need, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is developing the ICESat-2 mission, a nextgeneration laser altimeter designed to measure changes in ice sheet elevation, sea ice thickness, and vegetation canopy height. Scheduled for launch in late 2017 with a three year mission life, ICESat-2 will use a photon-counting micropulse laser altimeter, the advanced topographic laser altimeter system (ATLAS) instrument to collect these key data.

  10. The rationale and suggested approaches for research geosynchronous satellite measurements for severe storm and mesoscale investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenk, W. E.; Adler, R. F.; Chesters, D.; Susskind, J.; Uccellini, L.

    1984-01-01

    The measurements from current and planned geosynchronous satellites provide quantitative estimates of temperature and moisture profiles, surface temperature, wind, cloud properties, and precipitation. A number of significant observation characteristics remain, they include: (1) temperature and moisture profiles in cloudy areas; (2) high vertical profile resolution; (3) definitive precipitation area mapping and precipitation rate estimates on the convective cloud scale; (4) winds from low level cloud motions at night; (5) the determination of convective cloud structure; and (6) high resolution surface temperature determination. Four major new observing capabilities are proposed to overcome these deficiencies: a microwave sounder/imager, a high resolution visible and infrared imager, a high spectral resolution infrared sounder, and a total ozone mapper. It is suggested that the four sensors are flown together and used to support major mesoscale and short range forecasting field experiments.

  11. Note: Inter-satellite laser range-rate measurement by using digital phase locked loop

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Yu-Rong; Duan, Hui-Zong; Xiao, Xin-Long; Wei, Bing-Bing; Yeh, Hsien-Chi

    2015-01-15

    This note presents an improved high-resolution frequency measurement system dedicated for the inter-satellite range-rate monitoring that could be used in the future’s gravity recovery mission. We set up a simplified common signal test instead of the three frequencies test. The experimental results show that the dominant noises are the sampling time jitter and the thermal drift of electronic components, which can be reduced by using the pilot-tone correction and passive thermal control. The improved noise level is about 10{sup −8} Hz/Hz{sup 1/2}@0.01Hz, limited by the signal-to-noise ratio of the sampling circuit.

  12. Global top-down smoke aerosol emissions estimation using satellite fire radiative power measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ichoku, C.; Ellison, L.

    2013-10-01

    Biomass burning occurs seasonally in most vegetated parts of the world, consuming large amounts of biomass fuel, generating intense heat energy, and emitting corresponding amounts of smoke plumes that comprise different species of aerosols and trace gases. Accurate estimates of these emissions are required as model inputs to evaluate and forecast smoke plume transport and impacts on air quality, human health, clouds, weather, radiation, and climate. Emissions estimates have long been based on bottom-up approaches that are not only complex, but also fraught with compounding uncertainties. Fortunately, a series of recent studies have revealed that both the rate of biomass consumption and the rate of emission of aerosol particulate matter (PM) by open biomass burning are directly proportional to the rate of release of fire radiative energy (FRE), which is fire radiative power (FRP) that is measurable from satellite. This direct relationship enables the determination of coefficients of emission (Ce), which can be used to convert FRP or FRE to smoke aerosol emissions in the same manner as emission factors (EFs) are used to convert burned biomass to emissions. We have leveraged this relationship to generate the first global 1° × 1° gridded Ce product for smoke aerosol or total particulate matter (TPM) emissions using coincident measurements of FRP and aerosol optical thickness (AOT) from the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) sensors aboard the Terra and Aqua satellites. This new Fire Energetics and Emissions Research version 1.0 (FEER.v1) Ce product has now been released to the community and can be obtained from http://feer.gsfc.nasa.gov/, along with the corresponding 1-to-1 mapping of their quality assurance (QA) flags that will enable the Ce values to be filtered by quality for use in various applications. The regional averages of Ce values for different ecosystem types were found to be in

  13. Increase in the upper atmospheric temperature over tropospheric sources: Analysis of satellite measurements and numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozak, L. V.; Pilipenko, S. G.; Motsyk, O. A.

    2015-09-01

    Variations in the temperature of the upper atmosphere caused by hurricanes are considered in this work on the basis of UARS satellite measurements. Analysis of the temperature variations shows that the temperature increases by 24-25 K in the mesopause over high-power tropospheric formations. Atmospheric gravity wav