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  1. Tsunami damage in Aceh Province, Sumatra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The island of Sumatra suffered from both the rumblings of the submarine earthquake and the tsunamis that were generated on December 26, 2004. Within minutes of the quake, the sea surged ashore, bringing destruction to the coasts of northern Sumatra. This pair of natural-color images from Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument shows a small area along the Sumatran coast in Aceh province where the tsunami smashed its way ashore. In this region, the wave cut a swath of near-total destruction 1.5 kilometers (roughly one mile) in most places, but penetrating farther in many others. Some of these deeper paths of destruction can be seen especially dramatically in the larger-area ETM+ images linked to above. (North is up in these larger images.) ETM+ collects data at roughly 30 meter resolution, complimenting sensors like NASA's MODIS (onboard both Terra and Aqua satellites) which observed this area at 250-meter resolution to give a wide view and ultra-high-resolution sensors like Space Imaging's IKONOS, which observed the same region at 4-meter resolution to give a detailed, smaller-area view. NASA images created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data provided courtesy of the Landsat 7 Science Project Office

  2. Biological control of Black Pod Disease and Seedling Blight of cacao caused by Phytophthora Species using Trichoderma from Aceh Sumatra

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cocoa tree, Theobroma cacao L., suffers large yield losses in Aceh Indonesia to the disease black pod rot, caused by Phytophthora spp. Despite having the largest area under cacao production in Sumatra, farmers in the Aceh region have low overall production because of losses to insect pests and b...

  3. Penultimate predecessors of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Aceh, Sumatra: Stratigraphic, archeological, and historical evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieh, Kerry; Daly, Patrick; Edwards McKinnon, E.; Pilarczyk, Jessica E.; Chiang, Hong-Wei; Horton, Benjamin; Rubin, Charles M.; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Ismail, Nazli; Vane, Christopher H.; Feener, R. Michael

    2015-01-01

    We present stratigraphic, archeological and historical evidence for two closely timed predecessors of the giant 2004 tsunami on the northern coast of Aceh, northern Sumatra. This is the first direct evidence that a tsunami played a role in a fifteenth century cultural hiatus along the northern Sumatran portion of the maritime silk route. One seacliff exposure on the eastern side of the Lambaro headlands reveals two beds of tsunamigenic coral rubble within a small alluvial fan. Radiocarbon and Uranium-Thorium disequilibrium dates indicate emplacement of the coral rubble after 1344 ± 3 C.E. Another seacliff exposure, on the western side of the peninsula, contains evidence of nearly continuous settlement from ~1240 C.E. to soon after 1366 ± 3 C.E., terminated by tsunami destruction. At both sites, the tsunamis are likely coincident with sudden uplift of coral reefs above the Sunda megathrust 1394 ± 2 C.E., evidence for which has been published previously. The tsunami (or tsunami pair) appears to have destroyed a vibrant port community and led to the temporary recentering of marine trade dominance to more protected locations farther east. The reestablishment of vibrant communities along the devastated coast by about 1500 CE set the stage for the 2004 disaster.

  4. Intestinal and blood parasites of man in Bireuen and Takengon, Aceh Province, Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Stafford, E E; Joesoef, A

    1976-12-01

    A survey for blood and intestinal parasites was carried out in Aceh Province of North Sumatra, Indonesia. A total of 348 stool specimens were obtained from 167 males and 181 females ranging in age from 6 months to 70 years. Over 98% of the population sampled were found infected with at least one intestinal parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm and Entamoeba coli, in that order, were the most common parasites detected. Other intestinal parasites found less frequently were Entamoeba histolytica, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana and Giardia lamblia, Brugia malayi microfilaraemias were detected in 2% of those examined and only in the coastal villages of Cot Ketapang and Rusip Dayah. No malaria was found. PMID:1030850

  5. Predecessors of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in a coastal cave, Aceh Province, Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilarczyk, J.; Rubin, C. M.; Sieh, K.; Horton, B.; Daly, P.; Majewski, J.; Ismail, N.

    2013-12-01

    Geological studies of coral reefs and coastal plains have uncovered short and incomplete records of predecessors for the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Here we present a longer and more-complete mid- to late Holocene tsunami history from an extraordinary sedimentary deposit in northwestern Aceh Province, Sumatra. We exposed clastic sediment in six trenches up to 2 m deep within a sheltered limestone cave 200 m from the present coastline. The trim line of the 2004 tsunami is about 25 m above sea level and 15 m above the top of the 10-m high entrance to the cave. Within the cave, the deposits of 2004 comprise a 15 - 20 cm thick, laterally continuous sand sheet. Beneath this youngest tsunami sand is a <3-cm thick bed rich in guano dropped by insect feeding bats (Microchiroptera). Many similar couplets of sand and bat guano occur lower in the stratigraphic sequence. The sands have many diagnostic features of the 2004 deposit, namely a distinctly marine geochemical signature, high-diversity foraminiferal assemblages that include offshore species, normal grading, basal rip-up clasts, lenticular laminations, and articulated bivalves. Minor, local, non-tectonic normal and decollement faults that break the layers at several locations are likely due to strong ground shaking. Radiocarbon dating of charcoal and molluscs establish a mid- to late Holocene age range for the tsunami sands. Other than the 2004 deposit, layers younger than about 2,000 years are absent, because by about 2,000 years ago, accommodation space beneath the level of the rocky entrance to the cave had been filled. Pending analyses will reveal whether three clay layers within the sequence are of marine or of freshwater origin.

  6. Analysis of afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation following the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake from GPS observations in northern Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, E.; Sagiya, T.; Ito, T.; Kimata, F.; Tabei, T.; Ohta, Y.; Meilano, I.; Abidin, H. Z.; Agustan, A.; Nurdin, I.; Sugiyanto, D.

    2013-12-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) data in northern Sumatra, Andaman Islands and Thailand provides an opportunity to understand the postseismic deformation associated with the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. Previous study of postseismic deformation after the 2004 earthquake reached different conclusions, which attributed to different assumption on the postseismic deformation mechanisms. Also, previous studies use only a certain part (e.g. Andaman Islands only) of observations without investigating postseismic deformation data in northern Sumatra, which is close to the largest coseismic slip rupture of 2004 SAE. In this study, we tackle this problem by taking GPS data in northern Sumatra, Aceh GPS Network for Sumatran Fault System (AGNeSS), into account. AGNeSS data are important because of the following reasons: (1) The network is located in the near-field of the main slip patch of the 2004 SAE. (2) GPS measurements started a few months after the main shock, providing information of early postseismic deformation after the 2004 SAE. (3) Continuous GPS measurements provide a good control on both horizontal and vertical components. (4) GPS data have never been used in analyzing postseismic deformation. The continuous GPS data in northern Sumatra suggest that there are multiple physical mechanisms controls the postseismic deformation, that is afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation. In the first step, we search for the optimum rheology model by fitting vertical component with viscoelastic relaxation model, and consider residual is caused by an afterslip. Using the estimated rheology model, we calculate 'afterslip' displacements by subtracting predicted viscoelastic displacements from observed GPS data, and with these 'afterslip' displacements, we estimate afterslip distribution on the plate interface. Since in the first estimation of the rheology model analyzed displacement data contain afterslip effects, we then correct the afterslip contribution from the original

  7. April 2012 intra-oceanic seismicity off Sumatra boosted by the Banda-Aceh megathrust.

    PubMed

    Delescluse, Matthias; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Cattin, Rodolphe; Fleitout, Luce; Trubienko, Olga; Vigny, Christophe

    2012-10-11

    Large earthquakes nucleate at tectonic plate boundaries, and their occurrence within a plate's interior remains rare and poorly documented, especially offshore. The two large earthquakes that struck the northeastern Indian Ocean on 11 April 2012 are an exception: they are the largest strike-slip events reported in historical times and triggered large aftershocks worldwide. Yet they occurred within an intra-oceanic setting along the fossil fabric of the extinct Wharton basin, rather than on a discrete plate boundary. Here we show that the 11 April 2012 twin earthquakes are part of a continuing boost of the intraplate deformation between India and Australia that followed the Aceh 2004 and Nias 2005 megathrust earthquakes, subsequent to a stress transfer process recognized at other subduction zones. Using Coulomb stress change calculations, we show that the coseismic slips of the Aceh and Nias earthquakes can promote oceanic left-lateral strike-slip earthquakes on pre-existing meridian-aligned fault planes. We further show that persistent viscous relaxation in the asthenospheric mantle several years after the Aceh megathrust explains the time lag between the 2004 megathrust and the 2012 intraplate events. On a short timescale, the 2012 events provide new evidence for the interplay between megathrusts at the subduction interface and intraplate deformation offshore. On a longer geological timescale, the Australian plate, driven by slab-pull forces at the Sunda trench, is detaching from the Indian plate, which is subjected to resisting forces at the Himalayan front.

  8. April 2012 intra-oceanic seismicity off Sumatra boosted by the Banda-Aceh megathrust.

    PubMed

    Delescluse, Matthias; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Cattin, Rodolphe; Fleitout, Luce; Trubienko, Olga; Vigny, Christophe

    2012-10-11

    Large earthquakes nucleate at tectonic plate boundaries, and their occurrence within a plate's interior remains rare and poorly documented, especially offshore. The two large earthquakes that struck the northeastern Indian Ocean on 11 April 2012 are an exception: they are the largest strike-slip events reported in historical times and triggered large aftershocks worldwide. Yet they occurred within an intra-oceanic setting along the fossil fabric of the extinct Wharton basin, rather than on a discrete plate boundary. Here we show that the 11 April 2012 twin earthquakes are part of a continuing boost of the intraplate deformation between India and Australia that followed the Aceh 2004 and Nias 2005 megathrust earthquakes, subsequent to a stress transfer process recognized at other subduction zones. Using Coulomb stress change calculations, we show that the coseismic slips of the Aceh and Nias earthquakes can promote oceanic left-lateral strike-slip earthquakes on pre-existing meridian-aligned fault planes. We further show that persistent viscous relaxation in the asthenospheric mantle several years after the Aceh megathrust explains the time lag between the 2004 megathrust and the 2012 intraplate events. On a short timescale, the 2012 events provide new evidence for the interplay between megathrusts at the subduction interface and intraplate deformation offshore. On a longer geological timescale, the Australian plate, driven by slab-pull forces at the Sunda trench, is detaching from the Indian plate, which is subjected to resisting forces at the Himalayan front. PMID:23023134

  9. Shallow subsurface morpho-tectonics at the Northern offshore Sumatra subduction system using high resolution reflection and refraction seismics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosal, D.; Dibakar Ghosal*, S. C. Singh, A. P. S. Chauhan, H. Carton, N. D. Hananto

    2011-12-01

    The oblique subduction of Indo-Australian plate below the Eurosian plate regulates the subsurface geology of the Sumatra subduction system from south to north. Although many geological, geophysical and geodetic studies have been carried over since several decades nevertheless a high resolution subsurface image describing the detailed structural features over the Northern Sumatra is still missing. To scrutinize the northern part of this subduction system we had carried out a multi channel seismic (MCS) and OBS survey using a 12 km long streamer and 56 ocean bottom seismometers in 2006 and procured a high resolution deep seismic reflection and refraction data over a 500 km long profile mapping the whole subduction setting from the subduction front, forearc high and basin, Sumatra platform, Sumatra fault and volcanic arc. The acoustic basement along the profile is very complex because of its extremities lies in a range of 300 m to 5000 m. In order to overcome the imaging-intricacies caused due to the abrupt changes of water depth, we have downward continued the 12 km streamer data to the seafloor, which provides refraction arrivals from near zero offsets to 12 km, and subsequently a high-resolution travel time tomography keeping node spacing of 50m x 50m has accomplished to procure a detail velocity structure along the profile. We have conducted our analysis in two important areas at northern offshore Sumatra: (1) subduction front and accretionary settings and (2) forearc high and West Anadman Fault. Our main goal lies to observe the nature of shallow subsurface velocity distribution over these regions. Tomographic result of the subduction front demonstrates the changes in velocity gradient along up-dip. The 1D velocity gradients become shallower toward the subduction trench inferring the fact of lithification of accreted sediments around the accretionary wedge. At the forearc high adjacent to the Aceh basin a pile of 1 km thick low velocity sediments is underlain by

  10. Tsunamis as geomorphic crises: Lessons from the December 26, 2004 tsunami in Lhok Nga, West Banda Aceh (Sumatra, Indonesia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paris, Raphaël; Wassmer, Patrick; Sartohadi, Junun; Lavigne, Franck; Barthomeuf, Benjamin; Desgages, Emilie; Grancher, Delphine; Baumert, Philippe; Vautier, Franck; Brunstein, Daniel; Gomez, Christopher

    2009-03-01

    Large tsunamis are major geomorphic crises, since they imply extensive erosion, sediment transport and deposition in a few minutes and over hundreds of kilometres of coast. Nevertheless, little is known about their geomorphologic imprints. The December 26, 2004 tsunami in Sumatra (Indonesia) was one of the largest and deadliest tsunamis in recorded human history. We present a description of the coastal erosion and boulder deposition induced by the 2004 tsunami in the Lhok Nga Bay, located to the West of Banda Aceh (northwest Sumatra). The geomorphological impact of the tsunami is evidenced by: beach erosion (some beaches have almost disappeared); destruction of sand barriers protecting the lagoons or at river mouths; numerous erosion escarpments typically in the order of 0.5-1.5 m when capped by soil and more than 2 m in dunes; bank erosion in the river beds (the retreat along the main river is in the order of 5-15 m, with local retreats exceeding 30 m); large scars typically 20-50 cm deep on slopes; dislodgement of blocks along fractures and structural ramps on cliffs. The upper limit of erosion appears as a continuous trimline at 20-30 m a.s.l., locally reaching 50 m. The erosional imprints of the tsunami extend to 500 m from the shoreline and exceed 2 km along riverbeds. The overall coastal retreat from Lampuuk to Leupung was 60 m (550,000 m 2) and locally exceeded 150 m. Over 276,000 m 3 of coastal sediments were eroded by the tsunami along the 9.2 km of sandy coast. The mean erosion rate of the beaches was ~ 30 m 3/m of coast and locally exceeded 80 m 3/m. The most eroded coasts were tangent to the tsunami wave train, which was coming from the southwest. The fringing reefs were not efficient in reducing the erosional impact of the tsunami. The 220 boulders measured range from 0.3 to 7.2 m large (typically 0.7-1.5 m), with weights from over 50 kg up to 85 t. We found one boulder, less than 1 m large, at 1 km from the coastline, but all the others were

  11. Estimation of postseismic deformation parameters from continuous GPS data in northern Sumatra after the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anugrah, Bimar; Meilano, Irwan; Gunawan, Endra; Efendi, Joni

    2015-12-01

    Continuous global positioning system (GPS) in northern Sumatra detected signal of the ongoing physical process of postseismic deformation after the M9.2 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. We analyze the characteristics of postseismic deformation of the 2004 earthquake based on GPS networks operated by BIG, and the others named AGNeSS, and SuGAr networks located in northern Sumatra. We use a simple analytical logarithmic and exponential function to evaluate the postseismic deformation parameters of the 2004 earthquake. We find that GPS data in northern Sumatra during time periods of 2005-2012 are fit better using the logarithmic function with τlog of 104.2 ± 0.1 than using the exponential function. Our result clearly indicates that other physical mechanisms of postseismic deformation should be taken into account rather than a single physical mechanism of afterslip only.

  12. A comprehensive model of postseismic deformation of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake deduced from GPS observations in northern Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunawan, Endra; Sagiya, Takeshi; Ito, Takeo; Kimata, Fumiaki; Tabei, Takao; Ohta, Yusaku; Meilano, Irwan; Abidin, Hasanuddin Z.; Agustan; Nurdin, Irwandi; Sugiyanto, Didik

    2014-07-01

    We investigate the postseismic deformation of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (SAE) using 5 years of Global Positioning System (GPS) data located in northern Sumatra. Continuous GPS data from northern Sumatra suggest that the relaxation time in the vertical displacement is longer than horizontal displacements. This implies that there are multiple physical mechanisms that control the postseismic deformation, which refer to afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation. In this study, we introduce an analysis strategy of postseismic deformation to simultaneously calculate multiple mechanisms of afterslip and viscoelastic relaxation. The afterslip inversion results indicate that the distribution of the afterslip and the coseismic slip are compensatory of each other. Also, afterslip has a limited contribution to vertical deformation in northern Sumatra. In our rheology model, we use a gravitational Maxwell viscoelastic response and the result indicates that the elastic layer thickness is 65 ± 5 km and the Maxwell viscosity is 8.0 ± 1.0 × 1018 Pa s. We find that afterslip plus Maxwell viscoelastic relaxation are appropriate to explain the deformation in northern Sumatra. We also find that our rheology model reproduces the long-term features of the GPS time series in Thailand. Applying our rheology model to the data in Andaman Islands our afterslip estimation is located at the down-dip part of the plate boundary. Finally, we showed that our rheology model is applicable to the GPS datasets of postseismic deformation of the 2004 SAE located in northern Sumatra, Thailand, and Andaman-Nicobar, respectively.

  13. Parasitology survey in northern Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Cross, J H; Clarke, M D; Cole, W C; Lien, J C; Partono, F; Joesoef, A; Kosin, E H

    1976-06-01

    A parasitology survey was conducted in five villages in North Sumatra, Indonesia. A total of 3,207 blood smears, 2,066 stool specimens and 969 sera were examined. Sixty (1.9%) inhabitants had malaria (Plasmodium vivax 41, P. falciparum 19), and 20 had Brugia malayi microfilaraemia. The most common intestinal helminths were Trichuris trichiura (87%), Ascaris lumbricoides (75%) and hookworm (58%). Other helminths found in low numbers were Enterobius vermicularis, Strongyloides stercoralis, Taenia sp., Fasciolid, Dicrocoeliid and Echinostoma sp. eggs. Entamoeba coli (25%) was the most common intestinal protozoa followed by Endolimax nana (8%), Entamoeba histolytica (7%), Giardia lamblia (6%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (5%), Entamoeba hartmanni (1%) and Chilomastix mesnili (1%). The amoeba prevalence rate was 31 per cent. Testing of sera for Entamoeba histolytica and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the indirect haemagglutination test demonstrated positive reactors in 13 per cent and nine per cent of the population respectively. The greatest number of seropositives for Toxoplasma gondii was at elevations of sea level to five meters and the lowest number at elevations of 5OO-1,000 meters. PMID:950682

  14. Assessment of health-related needs after tsunami and earthquake--three districts, Aceh Province, Indonesia, July-August 2005.

    PubMed

    2006-02-01

    On December 26, 2004, an earthquake measuring 9.2 on the Richter scale off the northwest coast of the island of Sumatra, Indonesia, produced a tsunami that caused the deaths of an estimated 230,000 persons in India, Indonesia, the Maldives, Somalia, Sri Lanka, and Thailand. The majority of casualties were in Aceh Province (population 4.5 million) in northern Sumatra, Indonesia, where an estimated 130,000 persons died. In addition, 500,000 persons were displaced from their homes, and 37,000 remain unaccounted for in the province. In the Aceh Province districts of Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar, an estimated 90,000 persons died; approximately 75% of health workers in Banda Aceh either died or were displaced from their homes. On March 28, 2005, a second major earthquake, measuring 8.7 on the Richter scale, caused large-scale damage to the islands of Simeulue and Nias off the western Sumatra coast; approximately 300 persons died, and thousands were displaced. The international community responded to these events with the largest relief measures ever undertaken for a natural disaster. To determine the health and nutrition status of the affected populations and to evaluate the effectiveness of relief interventions 7 months after the tsunami and 3 months after the second earthquake, Cooperative for Assistance and Relief Everywhere, Inc. (CARE) International Indonesia and CDC conducted surveys in three districts of Aceh Province (Aceh Besar, Banda Aceh, and Simeulue). This report summarizes the results of those surveys, which identified routine vaccinations and provision of toilets or latrines as particular areas for improvement and revealed no significant difference in health indicators between internally displaced persons (IDPs) and nondisplaced populations. The relief response in Aceh Province should target areas needing improvement with programs that serve both IDPs and nondisplaced persons, as measures are implemented to rebuild the public health infrastructure.

  15. Contribution of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) to reconstruct flooding characteristics of a 4220 BP tsunami from a thick unconsolidated structureless deposit (Banda Aceh, Sumatra)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassmer, Patrick; Gomez, Christopher; Iskandasyah, T. Yan W. M.; Lavigne, Franck; Sartohadi, Junun

    2015-07-01

    One of the main concerns of deciphering tsunami sedimentary records along seashore is to link the emplaced layers with marine high energy events. Based on a combination of morphologic features, sedimentary figures, grain size characteristics, fossils content, microfossils assemblages, geochemical elements, heavy minerals presence; it is, in principle, possible to relate the sedimentary record to a tsunami event. However, experience shows that sometimes, in reason of a lack of any visible sedimentary features, it is hard to decide between a storm and a tsunami origin. To solve this issue, the authors have used the Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) to evidence the sediment fabric. The validity of the method for reconstructing flow direction has been proved when applied on sediments in the aftermath of a tsunami event, for which the behaviour was well documented (2004 IOT). We present herein an application of this method for a 56 cm thick paleo-deposit dated 4220 BP laying under the soil covered by the 2004 IOT, SE of Banda Aceh, North Sumatra. We analysed this homogenous deposit, lacking of any visible structure, using methods of classic sedimentology to confirm the occurrence of a high energy event. We then applied AMS technique that allowed the reconstruction of flow characteristics during sediment emplacement. We show that all the sequence was emplaced by uprush phases and that the local topography played a role on the re-orientation of a part of the uprush flow, creating strong reverse current. This particular behaviour was reported by eyewitnesses during the 2004 IOT event.

  16. Analysis of rupture area of aftershocks caused by twin earthquakes (Case study: 11 April 2012 earthquakes of Aceh-North Sumatra)

    SciTech Connect

    Diansari, Angga Vertika Purwana, Ibnu; Subakti, Hendri

    2015-04-24

    The 11 April 2012 earthquakes off-shore Aceh-North Sumatra are unique events for the history of Indonesian earthquake. It is unique because that they have similar magnitude, 8.5 Mw and 8.1 Mw; close to epicenter distance, similar strike-slip focal mechanism, and occuring in outer rise area. The purposes of this research are: (1) comparing area of earthquakes base on models and that of calculation, (2) fitting the shape and the area of earthquake rupture zones, (3) analyzing the relationship between rupture area and magnitude of the earthquakes. Rupture area of the earthquake fault are determined by using 4 different formulas, i.e. Utsu and Seki (1954), Wells and Coppersmith (1994), Ellsworth (2003), and Christophersen and Smith (2000). The earthquakes aftershock parameters are taken from PGN (PusatGempabumiNasional or National Earthquake Information Center) of BMKG (Indonesia Agency Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics). The aftershock epicenters are plotted by GMT’s software. After that, ellipse and rectangular models of aftershock spreading are made. The results show that: (1) rupture areas were calculated using magnitude relationship which are larger than the the aftershock distributions model, (2) the best fitting model for that earthquake aftershock distribution is rectangular associated with Utsu and Seki (1954) formula, (3) the larger the magnitude of the earthquake, the larger area of the fault.

  17. Atmospheric processes in reaction of Northern Sumatra Earthquake sequence Dec 2004-Apr 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouzounov, D.; Pulinets, S.; Cervone, G.; Singh, R.; Taylor, P.

    2005-05-01

    This work describes our first results in analyzing data from different and independent sources ûemitted long-wavelength radiation (OLR), surface latent heat flux (SHLF) and GPS Total Electron Content (TEC) collected from ground based (GPS) and satellite TIR (thermal infra-red) data sources (NOAA/AVHRR, MODIS). We found atmosphere and ionosphere anomalies one week prior to both the Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake (Dec 26, 2004) and M 8.7 - Northern Sumatra, March 28, 2005. We analyzed 118 days of data from December 1, 2004 through April 1, 2005 for the area (0°-10°,north latitude and 90°-100° east longitude) which included 125 earthquakes with M>5.5. Recent analysis of the continuous OLR from the Earth surface indicates anomalous variations (on top of the atmosphere) prior to a number of medium to large earthquakes. In the case of M 9.0 - Sumatra-Andaman Islands event, compared to the reference fields for the months of December between 2001 and 2004, we found strongly OLR anomalous +80 W/m2 signals (two sigma) along the epicentral area on Dec 21, 2004 five days before the event. In the case of M8.7 March 28, 2005 anomalues signatures over the epicenter appears on March 26 is much weaker (only +20W/m2) and have a different topology. Anomalous values of SHLF associated with M9.0 - Sumatra-Andaman Islands were found on Dec 22, 2005 (SLHF +280Wm2) and less intensity on Mar 23, 2005 (SLHF +180Wm2). Ionospheric variations (GPS/TEC) associated with the Northern Sumatra events were determine by five Regional GPS network stations (COCO, BAKO, NTUS, HYDE and BAST2). For every station time series of the vertical TEC (VTEC) were computed together with correlation with the Dst index. On December 22, four days prior to the M9.0 quake GPS/TEC data reach the monthly maximum for COCO with minor DST activity. For the M 8.7-March 28 event, the increased values of GPS/TEC were observed during four days (March 22-25) in quiet geomagnetic background. Our results need additional

  18. Tsunami Damage in Northwest Sumatra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The island of Sumatra suffered from both the rumblings of the submarine earthquake and the tsunamis that were generated on December 26, 2004. Within minutes of the quake, the sea surged ashore, bringing destruction to the coasts of the northern Sumatra. This pair of images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite shows the Aceh province of northern Sumatra, Indonesia, on December 17, 2004, before the quake (bottom), and on December 29, 2004 (top), three days after the catastrophe. Although MODIS was not specifically designed to make the very detailed observations that are usually necessary for mapping coastline changes, the sensor nevertheless observed obvious differences in the Sumatran coastline. On December 17, the green vegetation along the west coast appears to reach all the way to the sea, with only an occasional thin stretch of white that is likely sand. After the earthquake and tsunamis, the entire western coast is lined with a noticeable purplish-brown border. The brownish border could be deposited sand, or perhaps exposed soil that was stripped bare of vegetation when the large waves rushed ashore and then raced away. Another possibility is that parts of the coastline may have sunk as the sea floor near the plate boundary rose. On a moderate-resolution image such as this, the affected area may seem small, but each pixel in the full resolution image is 250 by 250 meters. In places the brown strip reaches inland roughly 13 pixels, equal to a distance of 3.25 kilometers, or about 2 miles. On the northern tip of the island (shown in the large image), the incursion is even larger. NASA images created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data obtained from the MODIS Rapid Response team and the Goddard Earth Sciences DAAC.

  19. A new species of Malayopotamon Bott, 1968 (Crustacea: Decapoda: Brachyura: Potamidae), a freshwater crab from northern Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L

    2014-02-28

    A new species of potamid freshwater crab, Malayopotamon weh sp. nov., is described from the island of Pulau Weh off northern Sumatra, Indonesia. The species superficially resembles three Sumatran species: M. batak Ng & Wowor, 1991, M. tobaense (Bott, 1968), and M. turgeo Ng & Tan, 1999, but can easily be distinguished by various carapace as well as gonopod characters.

  20. Seafloor Changes Offshore Northern Sumatra from 1997-2009 Bathymetric Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frederik, M. C. G.; Gulick, S. P. S.; Austin, J. A., Jr.; Bangs, N. L.; Udrekh, U.; Duncan, D.

    2015-12-01

    Following the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman giant earthquake (Mw 9.1), multiple geology and geophysical surveys were conducted to gain better understanding of the behavior and mechanism of the tsunamigenic event. We present the first regional study of seafloor depth changes offshore of northern Sumatra, covering from the northwest of Northern Sumatra to west of the Simeulue Island, 1-6.5°N and 93-96.5°E. The oldest bathymetric dataset was from Dec 1997-Jan 1998 and the newer datasets were from the multiple surveys between Jan-Feb 2005 and Jan-Mar 2009. Using a re-sampled cell size of 115 m and sample interval of 100 m, we focused our observation on five 30-50 km long, SW-NE transects comparing the 1997/8 data with later surveys of the toe of the accretionary prism. The depth errors are the standard deviation for each dataset. For the five regions discussed, from N to S, we observe for crossing: (1) an average shoaling of ~120 ±31 m between 1997 and 2005 adjacent to and on the seaward flank of a fold closest to the Sunda Trench; (2) a landward shift of the fold closest to the Trench with an average shoaling of ~29 ±9 m between 1997 and 2005 on the landward flank of this fold; (3) the second fold landward of the Trench shows an average deepening of ~43 ±16 m between 1997 and 2005 proximal to a mass-wasting feature and a consequent shoaling of ~44 ±3 m on landward flank of the next fold seaward; (4) a seaward shift and a shoaling of ~38 ±14 m between 1997 and 2005 on the fold closest to the Trench; and (5) a slight landward shift between 1997 and 2005. While uncertainties remain, the 10s of m vertical and 100s of m horizontal changes likely reflect co-seismic motion on the décollement (e.g. crossing 4), post-seismic motion on landward vergent thrusts (e.g. 2), and/or slumping (e.g. 1,3).

  1. Out of Disaster Comes Opportunity: Initial Lessons from Teacher Mentoring in Banda Aceh, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesnick, Joy; Schultz, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    On December 26, 2004, a 9.0 magnitude earthquake--the most powerful in more than 40 years--struck deep under the Indian Ocean. It was centered about 100 miles southwest off the coast of Aceh, Indonesia, and triggered massive tsunamis across the coasts of Asia and Africa. In Aceh province, located at the northwest tip of the island of Sumatra in…

  2. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2012 Sumatra and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Gavin P.; Bernardino, Melissa; Dannemann, Fransiska; Smoczyk, Gregory; Briggs, Richard W.; Benz, Harley M.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The plate boundary southwest of Sumatra is part of a long tectonic collision zone that extends over 8,000 km from Papua, New Guinea, in the east to the Himalayan front in the west. The Sumatra-Andaman part of the collision zone forms a subduction zone plate boundary, which accommodates convergence between the Indo-Australia and Sunda plates. This convergence is responsible for the intense seismicity in Sumatra. The Sumatra Fault, a major transform structure that bisects Sumatra, accommodates the northwest-increasing lateral component of relative plate motion. Most strain accumulation and release between the two plates occurs along the Sunda megathrust. The increasingly oblique convergence moving northwest is accommodated by crustal seismicity along several transform and normal faults, including the Sumatra Fault. Plate-boundary related deformation is also not restricted to the subduction zone and overriding plate: the Indo-Australian plate actually comprises two somewhat independent plates (India and Australia) that are joined along a broad, actively deforming region that produces seismicity up to several hundred kilometers west of the trench. This deformation is exemplified by the recent April 2012 earthquake sequence, which includes the April 11 M 8.6 and M 8.2 strike-slip events and their subsequent aftershocks. Since 2004, much of the Sunda megathrust between the northern Andaman Islands and Enggano Island, a distance of more than 2,000 km, has ruptured in a series of large subduction zone earthquakes—most rupturing the plate boundary south of Banda Aceh. These events include the great M 9.1 earthquake of December 26, 2004; the M 8.6 Nias Island earthquake of March 28, 2005; and two earthquakes on September 12, 2007, of M 8.5 and M 7.9. On October 25, 2010, a M 7.8 on the shallow portion of the megathrust to the west of the Mentawai Islands caused a substantial tsunami on the west coast of those islands.

  3. [Tsunami in South-East Asia--rapid response deployment in Banda Aceh].

    PubMed

    Streuli, Rolf A

    2008-01-01

    On December 26, 2004 the second largest earthquake ever seismographically registered occurred in South-East Asia. It had a magnitude of 9.3 on Richter's scale and its epicentre was located on sea ground 160 km West of Banda Aceh, the capital of the province of Aceh on the island of Sumatra. The earthquake resulted in a tsunami which almost completely destroyed the city of Banda Aceh. Its death toll on the island of Sumatra was 168,000. The Swiss Humanitarian Aid Unit was deployed within a few days after the catastrophe with an advance team, which had to evaluate the need for supplies and personal in Banda Aceh. In close collaboration with relief forces of the Australian armed forces the team was able to deliver efficient medical and technical support. The most prevalent medical problems were: (1) Tsunami associated aspiration pneumonia; (2) Infected wounds of lower extremities; (3) Open bone fractures of lower extremities; (4) Tetanus infection. PMID:18399180

  4. Plate-boundary deformation associated with the great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake.

    PubMed

    Subarya, Cecep; Chlieh, Mohamed; Prawirodirdjo, Linette; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Bock, Yehuda; Sieh, Kerry; Meltzner, Aron J; Natawidjaja, Danny H; McCaffrey, Robert

    2006-03-01

    The Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of 26 December 2004 is the first giant earthquake (moment magnitude M(w) > 9.0) to have occurred since the advent of modern space-based geodesy and broadband seismology. It therefore provides an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the characteristics of one of these enormous and rare events. Here we report estimates of the ground displacement associated with this event, using near-field Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys in northwestern Sumatra combined with in situ and remote observations of the vertical motion of coral reefs. These data show that the earthquake was generated by rupture of the Sunda subduction megathrust over a distance of >1,500 kilometres and a width of <150 kilometres. Megathrust slip exceeded 20 metres offshore northern Sumatra, mostly at depths shallower than 30 kilometres. Comparison of the geodetically and seismically inferred slip distribution indicates that approximately 30 per cent additional fault slip accrued in the 1.5 months following the 500-second-long seismic rupture. Both seismic and aseismic slip before our re-occupation of GPS sites occurred on the shallow portion of the megathrust, where the large Aceh tsunami originated. Slip tapers off abruptly along strike beneath Simeulue Island at the southeastern edge of the rupture, where the earthquake nucleated and where an M(w) = 7.2 earthquake occurred in late 2002. This edge also abuts the northern limit of slip in the 28 March 2005 M(w) = 8.7 Nias-Simeulue earthquake.

  5. Potential Sedimentary Evidence of Two Closely Spaced Tsunamis on the West Coast of Aceh, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monecke, Katrin; Meilianda, Ella; Rushdy, Ibnu; Moena, Abudzar; Yolanda, Irvan P.

    2016-04-01

    estimate of sedimentation rates, are separated by only a few decades. Future microfossil and grain size analysis as well as radiocarbon dating are necessary to assertively interpret the origin, depositional characteristics and age of the two sand layers. Meltzner et al. (2010): Coral evidence for earthquake recurrence and an A.D. 1390 - 1455 earthquake cluster at the south end of the 2004 Aceh-Andaman rupture. J. Geophys. Res. 115, B10402. Sieh et al. (2015): Penultimate predecessors of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Aceh, Sumatra: Stratigraphic, archeological and historical evidence. J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 120, 308-325. Monecke et al. (2008): A 1,000-year sedimentary record of tsunami recurrence in northern Sumatra. Nature, 455, 1232-1234.

  6. Uplift and subsidence associated with the great Aceh-Andaman earthquake of 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meltzner, A.J.; Sieh, K.; Abrams, M.; Agnew, D.C.; Hudnut, K.W.; Avouac, J.-P.; Natawidjaja, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Rupture of the Sunda megathrust on 26 December 2004 produced broad regions of uplift and subsidence. We define the pivot line separating these regions as a first step in defining the lateral extent and the downdip limit of rupture during that great Mw ??? 9.2 earthquake. In the region of the Andaman and Nicobar islands we rely exclusively on the interpretation of satellite imagery and a tidal model. At the southern limit of the great rupture we rely principally on field measurements of emerged coral microatolls. Uplift extends from the middle of Simeulue Island, Sumatra, at ??? 2.5??N, to Preparis Island, Myanmar (Burma), at ??? 14.9??N. Thus the rupture is ??? 1600 km long. The distance from the pivot line to the trench varies appreciably. The northern and western Andaman Islands rose, whereas the southern and eastern portion of the islands subsided. The Nicobar Islands and the west coast of Aceh province, Sumatra, subsided. Tilt at the southern end of the rupture is steep; the distance from 1.5 m of uplift to the pivot line is just 60 km. Our method of using satellite imagery to recognize changes in elevation relative to sea surface height and of using a tidal model to place quantitative bounds on coseismic uplift or subsidence is a novel approach that can be adapted to other forms of remote sensing and can be applied to other subduction zones in tropical regions. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Indonesia: Sumatra

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  Smoke over Sumatra, Indonesia     View Larger Image ... the onset of a weak to moderate El Niño. The governments of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Brunei have agreed to ban open burning in plantation ...

  8. Transition of microbiological and sedimentological features associated with the geochemical gradient in a travertine mound in northern Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugihara, Chiya; Yanagawa, Katsunori; Okumura, Tomoyo; Takashima, Chizuru; Harijoko, Agung; Kano, Akihiro

    2016-08-01

    Modern travertines, carbonate deposits in Ca-rich hydrothermal water with high pCO2, often display a changing environment along the water path, with corresponding variability in the microbial communities. We investigated a travertine-bearing hot spring at the Blue Pool in northern Sumatra, Indonesia. The thermal water of 62 °C with high H2S (200 μM) and pCO2 ( 1 atm) developed a travertine mound 70 m wide. The concentrations of the gas components H2S and CO2, decrease immediately after the water is discharged, while the dissolved oxygen, pH, and aragonite saturation increase in the downstream direction. Responding to the geochemical gradient in the water, the surface biofilms change color from white to pink, light-green, dark-green, and brown as the water flows from the vent; this corresponds to microbial communities characterized by chemolithoautotrophs (Halothiobacillaceae), purple sulfur bacteria (Chromatiaceae), Anaerolineaceae, and co-occurrence of green non-sulfur bacteria (Chloroflexales)-Cyanobacteria, and green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobiales), respectively. In an environment with a certain level of H2S (> 1 μM), sulfur digestion and anoxygenic photosynthesis can be more profitable than oxygenic photosynthesis by Cyanobacteria. The precipitated carbonate mineral consists of aragonite and calcite, with the proportion of aragonite increasing downstream due to the larger Mg2 +/Ca2 + ratio in the water or the development of thicker biofilm. Where the biofilm is well developed, the aragonite travertines often exhibit laminated structures that were likely associated with the daily metabolism of these bacteria. The microbiological and sedimentological features at the Blue Pool may be the modern analogs of geomicrobiological products in the early Earth. Biofilm of anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria had the potential to form ancient stromatolites that existed before the appearance of cyanobacteria.

  9. Transition of microbiological and sedimentological features associated with the geochemical gradient in a travertine mound in northern Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugihara, Chiya; Yanagawa, Katsunori; Okumura, Tomoyo; Takashima, Chizuru; Harijoko, Agung; Kano, Akihiro

    2016-08-01

    Modern travertines, carbonate deposits in Ca-rich hydrothermal water with high pCO2, often display a changing environment along the water path, with corresponding variability in the microbial communities. We investigated a travertine-bearing hot spring at the Blue Pool in northern Sumatra, Indonesia. The thermal water of ~ 62 °C with high H2S (200 μM) and pCO2 (~ 1 atm) developed a travertine mound ~ 70 m wide. The concentrations of the gas components H2S and CO2, decrease immediately after the water is discharged, while the dissolved oxygen, pH, and aragonite saturation increase in the downstream direction. Responding to the geochemical gradient in the water, the surface biofilms change color from white to pink, light-green, dark-green, and brown as the water flows from the vent; this corresponds to microbial communities characterized by chemolithoautotrophs (Halothiobacillaceae), purple sulfur bacteria (Chromatiaceae), Anaerolineaceae, and co-occurrence of green non-sulfur bacteria (Chloroflexales)-Cyanobacteria, and green sulfur bacteria (Chlorobiales), respectively. In an environment with a certain level of H2S (> 1 μM), sulfur digestion and anoxygenic photosynthesis can be more profitable than oxygenic photosynthesis by Cyanobacteria. The precipitated carbonate mineral consists of aragonite and calcite, with the proportion of aragonite increasing downstream due to the larger Mg2 +/Ca2 + ratio in the water or the development of thicker biofilm. Where the biofilm is well developed, the aragonite travertines often exhibit laminated structures that were likely associated with the daily metabolism of these bacteria. The microbiological and sedimentological features at the Blue Pool may be the modern analogs of geomicrobiological products in the early Earth. Biofilm of anoxygenic photosynthetic bacteria had the potential to form ancient stromatolites that existed before the appearance of cyanobacteria.

  10. Tsunami Generation from the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satake, K.

    2005-12-01

    The tsunami caused by the December 26, 2004, Sumatra earthquake (Mw 9.1) propagated across the Indian Ocean and caused the worst tsunami disaster. Factors contributed to the tragedy include the giant size of the earthquake, absence of both tsunami warning system and long-term forecast of future earthquakes in the Indian Ocean. Seismological developments since 1960, when the Chilean earthquake (Mw 9.5) caused Pacific-wide tsunami damage, make it possible to estimate the earthquake source parameters within minutes after the occurrence and utilize it for the tsunami warning purposes. The length of the tsunami source of the December Sumatra-Andaman earthquake is enigmatic. The aftershock zone extended from west of Sumatra through Nicobar Islands all the way to Andaman Islands; the total length is over 1,200 km. The seismic wave analyses indicate the southern half ruptured in rather rapidly while the northern half did slowly. Sea level changes in Andaman and Nicobar Islands indicate that the coseismic crustal deformation extended to Andaman Islands. The tsunami source size was estimated to be about 700 km long from the tsunami arrival times recorded on tide gauges, but the northern end was not well constrained. The tsunami heights in Indian Ocean, captured by Jason-1 and other satellites, support that the tsunami source was about 1,100 km long. For more accurate tsunami computations requires detailed shallow bathymetry data. To document the 2004 tsunami, many scientists from all over the world visited the affected coasts. From Japan alone, several survey teams visited coasts of Indonesia, Thailand, Myanmar, India and Sri Lanka, with collaborators in each country. The tsunami heights in Sumatra Island, particularly around Band Aceh, were mostly larger than 20 m with the maximum of 30 m. The tsunami heights along the Andaman Sea coast were highly variable; they were 5 to 15 m in Thailand but less than 3 m in Myanmar. In fact, the tsunami damage and casualties, reportedly

  11. ICESat Observations of Topographic Change in the Northern Segment of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands Earthquake Rupture Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, David; Sauber, J.; Luthcke, S.; Carabajal, C.; Muller, J

    2005-01-01

    The Andaman Islands are located 120 km east of the Sunda trench in the northern quarter of the 1300 km long rupture zone of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake inferred from the distribution of aftershocks. Initial field reports indicate that several meters of uplift and up to a meter of submergence occurred on the western and eastern shorelines of the Andaman Islands, respectively, associated with the earthquake (Bilham, 2005). Satellite images also document uplift of western shoreline coral reef platforms above sea level. Body-wave (Ji, 2005; Yamamaka, 2005) and tide-gauge (Ortiz, 2005) slip inversions only resolve coseismic slip in the southern one-third to one-half of the rupture zone. The amount of coseismic slip in the Andaman Islands region is poorly constrained by these inversions. The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), a part of the NASA Earth Observing System, is being used to document the spatial pattern of Andaman Islands vertical displacements in order to constrain models of slip distribution in the northern part of the rupture zone. ICESat carries the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) that obtains elevation measurements from 80 m diameter footprints spaced 175 m apart along profiles. For surfaces of low slope, single-footprint absolute elevation and horizontal accuracies of 10 cm and 6 m (1 sigma), respectively, referenced to the ITRF 2002 TOPEX/Poseidon ellipsoid are being obtained. Laser pulse backscatter waveforms enable separation of ground topography and overlying vegetation cover. During each 33-day observing period ICESat acquires three profiles crossing the Andaman Islands. A NNE-SSW oriented track consists of 1600 laser footprints along the western side of North, Middle, and South Andaman Islands and 240 laser footprints across the center of Great Andaman Island. Two NNW-SSE tracks consist of 440 footprints across Middle Andaman Island and 25 footprints across the west side of Sentinel Island. Cloud

  12. ICESat Observations of Topographic Change in the Northern Segment of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands Earthquake Rupture Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, D.; Sauber, J.; Luthcke, S.; Carabajal, C.; Muller, J.

    2005-05-01

    The Andaman Islands are located 120 km east of the Sunda trench in the northern quarter of the 1300 km long rupture zone of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake inferred from the distribution of aftershocks. Initial field reports indicate that several meters of uplift and up to a meter of submergence occurred on the western and eastern shorelines of the Andaman Islands, respectively, associated with the earthquake (Bilham, 2005). Satellite images also document uplift of western shoreline coral reef platforms above sea level. Body-wave (Ji, 2005; Yamamaka, 2005) and tide-gauge (Ortiz, 2005) slip inversions only resolve coseismic slip in the southern one-third to one-half of the rupture zone. The amount of coseismic slip in the Andaman Islands region is poorly constrained by these inversions. The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), a part of the NASA Earth Observing System, is being used to document the spatial pattern of Andaman Islands vertical displacements in order to constrain models of slip distribution in the northern part of the rupture zone. ICESat carries the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) that obtains elevation measurements from 80 m diameter footprints spaced 175 m apart along profiles. For surfaces of low slope, single-footprint absolute elevation and horizontal accuracies of 10 cm and 6 m (1 sigma), respectively, referenced to the ITRF 2002 TOPEX/Poseidon ellipsoid are being obtained. Laser pulse backscatter waveforms enable separation of ground topography and overlying vegetation cover. During each 33-day observing period ICESat acquires three profiles crossing the Andaman Islands. A NNE-SSW oriented track consists of 1600 laser footprints along the western side of North, Middle, and South Andaman Islands and 240 laser footprints across the center of Great Andaman Island. Two NNW-SSE tracks consist of 440 footprints across Middle Andaman Island and 25 footprints across the west side of Sentinel Island. Cloud

  13. Comparison of magmatic structures beneath Redoubt (Alaska) and Toba (Northern Sumatra) volcanoes derived from local earthquake tomography studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasatkina, Ekaterina; Koulakov, Ivan; West, Michael

    2014-05-01

    .3 of BES RAS. 1. Koulakov I., T. Yudistira, B.-G. Luehr, and Wandono, 2009, P, S velocity and VP/VS ratio beneath the Toba caldera complex (Northern Sumatra) from local earthquake tomography, Geophys. J. Int., 177, p. 1121-1139. 2. Koulakov I., 2009, LOTOS code for local earthquake tomographic inversion. Benchmarks for testing tomographic algorithms, Bulletin of the Seismological Society of America, Vol. 99, No. 1, pp. 194-214.

  14. Plate-boundary deformation associated with the great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake.

    PubMed

    Subarya, Cecep; Chlieh, Mohamed; Prawirodirdjo, Linette; Avouac, Jean-Philippe; Bock, Yehuda; Sieh, Kerry; Meltzner, Aron J; Natawidjaja, Danny H; McCaffrey, Robert

    2006-03-01

    The Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of 26 December 2004 is the first giant earthquake (moment magnitude M(w) > 9.0) to have occurred since the advent of modern space-based geodesy and broadband seismology. It therefore provides an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the characteristics of one of these enormous and rare events. Here we report estimates of the ground displacement associated with this event, using near-field Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys in northwestern Sumatra combined with in situ and remote observations of the vertical motion of coral reefs. These data show that the earthquake was generated by rupture of the Sunda subduction megathrust over a distance of >1,500 kilometres and a width of <150 kilometres. Megathrust slip exceeded 20 metres offshore northern Sumatra, mostly at depths shallower than 30 kilometres. Comparison of the geodetically and seismically inferred slip distribution indicates that approximately 30 per cent additional fault slip accrued in the 1.5 months following the 500-second-long seismic rupture. Both seismic and aseismic slip before our re-occupation of GPS sites occurred on the shallow portion of the megathrust, where the large Aceh tsunami originated. Slip tapers off abruptly along strike beneath Simeulue Island at the southeastern edge of the rupture, where the earthquake nucleated and where an M(w) = 7.2 earthquake occurred in late 2002. This edge also abuts the northern limit of slip in the 28 March 2005 M(w) = 8.7 Nias-Simeulue earthquake. PMID:16511486

  15. Sedimentary deposits of the 26 December 2004 tsunami on the northwest coast of Aceh, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, A.; Nishimura, Y.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Kamataki, T.; Triyono, R.

    2006-01-01

    The 2004 Sumatra-Andaman tsunami flooded coastal northern Sumatra to a depth of over 20 m, deposited a discontinuous sheet of sand up to 80 cm thick, and left mud up to 5 km inland. In most places the sand sheet is normally graded, and in some it contains complex internal stratigraphy. Structures within the sand sheet may record the passage of up to 3 individual waves. We studied the 2004 tsunami deposits in detail along a flow-parallel transect about 400 m long, 16 km southwest of Banda Aceh. Near the shore along this transect, the deposit is thin or absent. Between 50 and 400 m inland it ranges in thickness from 5 to 20 cm. The main trend in thickness is a tendency to thicken by filling low spots, most dramatically at pre-existing stream channels. Deposition generally attended inundation - along the transect, the tsunami deposited sand to within about 40 m of the inundation limit. Although the tsunami deposit contains primarily material indistinguishable from material found on the beach one month after the event, it also contains grain sizes and compositions unavailable on the current beach. Along the transect we studied, these grains become increasingly dominant both landward and upward in the deposit; possibly some landward source of sediment was exposed and exploited by the passage of the waves. The deposit also contains the unabraded shells of subtidal marine organisms, suggesting that at least part of the deposit came from offshore. Grain sizes within the deposit tend to fine upward and landward, although individual units within the deposit appear massive, or show reverse grading. Sorting becomes better landward, although the most landward sites generally become poorly sorted from the inclusion of soil clasts. These sites commonly show interlayering of sandy units and soil clast units. Deposits from the 2004 tsunami in Sumatra demonstrate the complex nature of the deposits of large tsunamis. Unlike the deposits of smaller tsunamis, internal stratigraphy is

  16. The December 26, 2004, off the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia, M W=9.0, earthquake and the critical-point-like model of earthquake preparation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Chang-Sheng; Wu, Zhong-Liang

    2005-05-01

    Long-term seismic activity prior to the December 26, 2004, off the west coast of northern Sumatra, Indonesia, M W=9.0 earthquake was investigated using the Harvard CMT catalogue. It is observed that before this great earthquake, there exists an accelerating moment release (AMR) process with the temporal scale of a quarter century and the spatial scale of 1 500 km. Within this spatial range, the M W=9.0 event falls into the piece-wise power-law-like frequency-magnitude distribution. Therefore, in the perspective of the critical-point-like model of earthquake preparation, the failure to forecast/predict the approaching and/or the size of this earthquake is not due to the physically intrinsic unpredictability of earthquakes.

  17. Smoke over Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    At least once a year for a period lasting from a week to several months, northern Sumatra is obscured by smoke and haze produced by agricultural burning and forest fires. These data products from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer document the presence of airborne particulates on March 13, 2002, during Terra orbit 11880. On the left is an image acquired by MISR's 70-degree backward-viewing camera. On the right is a map of aerosol optical depth, a measure of the abundance of atmospheric particulates. This product utilized a test version of the MISR retrieval that incorporates an experimental set of aerosol mixtures. The haze has completely obscured northeastern Sumatra and part of the Strait of Malacca, which separates Sumatra and the Malaysian Peninsula. A northward gradient is apparent as the haze dissipates in the direction of the Malaysian landmass. Each panel covers an area of about 760 kilometers x 400 kilometers.

    Haze conditions had posed a health concern during late February (when schools in some parts of North Sumatra were closed), and worsened considerably in the first two weeks of March. By mid-March, local meteorology officials asked residents of North Sumatra's provincial capital, Medan, to minimize their outdoor activities and wear protective masks. Poor visibility at Medan airport forced a passenger plane to divert to Malaysia on March 14, and visibility reportedly ranged between 100 and 600 meters in some coastal towns southeast of Medan.

    The number and severity of this year's fires was exacerbated by dry weather conditions associated with the onset of a weak to moderate El Nino. The governments of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Brunei have agreed to ban open burning in plantation and forest areas. The enforcement of such fire bans, however, has proven to be an extremely challenging task.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra

  18. Local attitudes and perceptions toward crop-raiding by orangutans (Pongo abelii) and other nonhuman primates in northern Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Smith, Gail; Simanjorang, Hubert V P; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Linkie, Matthew

    2010-09-01

    Human-wildlife conflicts, such as crop-raiding, increase as people expand their agricultural activities into wildlife habitats. Crop-raiding can reduce tolerance toward species that are already threatened, whereas potential dangers posed by conflicts with large-bodied species may also negatively influence local attitudes. Across Asia, wild pigs and primates, such as macaques, tend to be the most commonly reported crop raiders. To date, reports of crop-raiding incidents involving great apes have been less common, but incidents involving orangutans are increasingly emerging in Indonesia. To investigate the interplay of factors that might explain attitudes toward crop-raiding by orangutans (Pongo abelii), focal group discussions and semi-structured interviews were conducted among 822 farmers from 2 contrasting study areas in North Sumatra. The first study area of Batang Serangan is an agroforest system containing isolated orangutans that crop-raid. In contrast, the second area of Sidikalang comprises farmlands bordering extensive primary forest where orangutans are present but not reported to crop-raid. Farmers living in Batang Serangan thought that orangutans were dangerous, irrespective of earlier experience of crop-raiding. Farmers placed orangutans as the third most frequent and fourth most destructive crop pest, after Thomas' leaf monkey (Presbytis thomasi), wild boar (Sus scrofa), and long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis). Although most (57%) farmers across both study areas were not scared of wildlife species, more than a quarter (28%) of the farmers' feared orangutans. Farmers in Batang Serangan were generally more tolerant toward crop-raiding orangutans, if they did not perceive them to present a physical threat. Most (67%) Batang Serangan farmers said that the local Forestry Department staff should handle crop-raiding orangutans, and most (81%) said that these officials did not care about such problems. Our results suggest that efforts to mitigate human

  19. Issues in Indonesia's tsunami disaster management system revealed after the 2004 Sumatra event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, M.; Koyama, A.; Sun, H.; Kang, I.; Arakawa, T.; Kobayashi, J.; Nagata, M.; Nakanishi, R.; Nakano, M.; Noguchi, S.

    2014-12-01

    During the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, Indonesia had the largest number of casualties around 170,000. International society has supported tsunami early warning system, disaster management and disaster education for Indonesia. The past ten years saw several tsunamis in Indonesia after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Construction of tsunami early warning system was not in time the 2006 Pangandaran tsunami in Jawa Island. On the other hand, tsunami science has been developed for this decade. Tsunami early warning system has been developed by deep ocean pressure gauges (DART system), coastal tide gauges, GPS buoys and so on. Tsunami folklore has been collected and used education and connected with tsunami deposit. However, the tsunami early warning system and other science application were not widely used at once in Indonesia. GPS buoys were stolen by fishery people. One tsunami evacuation building are not used for evacuation by local people in Aceh Sumatra Island in 2012 though locations of the buildings were selected by scientific numerical simulation. Big panic and trafic accidents occurred by M8.6 earthquake in Aceh in April 2012 and reveal lack of disaster management planning in urban planning during reconstruction (Fig.1: Trafic jam in Banda Aceh, source MSN news photo). In addition to this, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami reveal fragilities tsunami preparedness. How should we decide to use the tsunami science? We research field situation in Aceh the after 10 years past from the 2004 Sumatra event. This presentation discusses issues of the gap between tsunami science and operations through field research in Aceh now.

  20. Deformation analysis of Aceh April 11{sup th} 2012 earthquake using GPS observation data

    SciTech Connect

    Maulida, Putra; Meilano, Irwan; Sarsito, Dina A.; Susilo

    2015-04-24

    This research tries to estimate the co-seismic deformation of intraplate earthquake occurred off northern Sumatra coast which is about 100-200 km southwest of Sumatrasubduction zone. The earthquake mechanism was strike-slip with magnitude 8.6 and triggering aftershock with magnitude 8.2 two hours later. We estimated the co-seismic deformation by using the GPS (Global Positioning System) continuous data along western Sumatra coast. The GPS observation derived from Sumatran GPS Array (SuGAr) and Geospatial Information Agency (BIG). For data processing we used GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) to estimate the co-seismic deformation. From the GPS daily solution, the result shows that the earthquake caused displacement for the GPS stations in Sumatra. GPS stations in northern Sumatra showed the displacement to the northeast with the average displacement was 15 cm. The biggest displacement was found at station BSIM which is located at Simeuleu Island off north west Sumatra coast. GPS station in middle part of Sumatra, the displacement was northwest. The earthquake also caused subsidence for stations in northern Sumatra, but from the time series there was not sign of subsidence was found at middle part of Sumatra. In addition, the effect of the earthquake was worldwide and affected the other GPS Stations around Hindia oceanic.

  1. Deformation analysis of Aceh April 11th 2012 earthquake using GPS observation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulida, Putra; Meilano, Irwan; Sarsito, Dina A.; Susilo

    2015-04-01

    This research tries to estimate the co-seismic deformation of intraplate earthquake occurred off northern Sumatra coast which is about 100-200 km southwest of Sumatrasubduction zone. The earthquake mechanism was strike-slip with magnitude 8.6 and triggering aftershock with magnitude 8.2 two hours later. We estimated the co-seismic deformation by using the GPS (Global Positioning System) continuous data along western Sumatra coast. The GPS observation derived from Sumatran GPS Array (SuGAr) and Geospatial Information Agency (BIG). For data processing we used GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) to estimate the co-seismic deformation. From the GPS daily solution, the result shows that the earthquake caused displacement for the GPS stations in Sumatra. GPS stations in northern Sumatra showed the displacement to the northeast with the average displacement was 15 cm. The biggest displacement was found at station BSIM which is located at Simeuleu Island off north west Sumatra coast. GPS station in middle part of Sumatra, the displacement was northwest. The earthquake also caused subsidence for stations in northern Sumatra, but from the time series there was not sign of subsidence was found at middle part of Sumatra. In addition, the effect of the earthquake was worldwide and affected the other GPS Stations around Hindia oceanic.

  2. Vertical deformation at western part of Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Febriyani, Caroline Prijatna, Kosasih Meilano, Irwan

    2015-04-24

    This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8 mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5 mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25 mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate.

  3. Vertical deformation at western part of Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Febriyani, Caroline; Prijatna, Kosasih; Meilano, Irwan

    2015-04-01

    This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8 mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5 mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25 mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate.

  4. Indonesia, Sumatra, Singapore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view shows the area around Northeastern Sumatra, Indonesia (1.0N, 104.0E). The city of Singapore and the Singapore Strait is in the center at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula. The Singapore Strait is the eastern extension of the Strait of Malacca and separates the Malay Peninsula from Sumatra. Large sediment plumes from the rivers attest to the local soil erosion and industrial dumping ofd wastes.

  5. Geothermal resource of Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Hochstein, M.P. . Geothermal Inst.); Sudarman, Sayogi . Geothermal Section)

    1993-06-01

    There are at least 30 high temperatures systems (with inferred reservoir temperatures > 200 C) along the active Sumatra Arc that transfer heat from crustal intrusions to the surface. These systems, together with eleven active volcanoes, five degassing volcanoes and one caldera volcano (Lake Toba), are controlled by the Sumatra Fault Zone, an active mega shear zone that follows the median axis of the arc. At least half of the active and degassing volcanoes are associated with volcanic geothermal reservoirs containing magmatic gases and acid fluids. Large, low temperature resources exist in the Tertiary sedimentary basins of east Sumatra (back-arc region), where anomalously higher thermal gradients (up to 8 C/100 m) have been measured. Volcanic activity was not continuous during the Cenozoic; subduction and arc volcanism probably decreased after the Eocene as a result of a clockwise rotation of Sumatra. In the Late Miocene, subduction started again, and andesitic volcanism reached a new peak of intensity in the Pliocene and has been continuous ever since. Rhyolitic volcanism, which has produced voluminous ignimbrite flows, began later (Pliocene/Pleistocene). All known rhyolitic centers associated with ignimbrite flows appear to lie along the Sumatra Fault Zone.

  6. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-H-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Chmiel, Alan J.; Eustace, John; LaBarbera, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Increment 43 - 44 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-H-2) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  7. Management of hospitals in Aceh during the tsunami.

    PubMed

    Kartowisastro, Hermansyur

    2005-01-01

    On December 26th, 2004, Aceh and its vicinity was hit by two natural forces consecutively, an earthquake and a tsunami. Hundreds of thousands of people perished, leaving the remaining of about the same number to become refugees. The writer was assigned by the Ministry of Health to Aceh on duty on the second and third week after the catastrophe, to help the management of Zainoel Abidin General Hospital in Banda Aceh, the province's biggest hospital, revive its operation. PMID:16300161

  8. Rupture process of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake.

    PubMed

    Ammon, Charles J; Ji, Chen; Thio, Hong-Kie; Robinson, David; Ni, Sidao; Hjorleifsdottir, Vala; Kanamori, Hiroo; Lay, Thorne; Das, Shamita; Helmberger, Don; Ichinose, Gene; Polet, Jascha; Wald, David

    2005-05-20

    The 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake initiated slowly, with small slip and a slow rupture speed for the first 40 to 60 seconds. Then the rupture expanded at a speed of about 2.5 kilometers per second toward the north northwest, extending 1200 to 1300 kilometers along the Andaman trough. Peak displacements reached approximately 15 meters along a 600-kilometer segment of the plate boundary offshore of northwestern Sumatra and the southern Nicobar islands. Slip was less in the northern 400 to 500 kilometers of the aftershock zone, and at least some slip in that region may have occurred on a time scale beyond the seismic band.

  9. Likely Human Losses in Future Earthquakes in Central Myanmar, Beyond the Northern end of the M9.3 Sumatra Rupture of 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyss, B. M.; Wyss, M.

    2007-12-01

    We estimate that the city of Rangoon and adjacent provinces (Rangoon, Rakhine, Ayeryarwady, Bago) represent an earthquake risk similar in severity to that of Istanbul and the Marmara Sea region. After the M9.3 Sumatra earthquake of December 2004 that ruptured to a point north of the Andaman Islands, the likelihood of additional ruptures in the direction of Myanmar and within Myanmar is increased. This assumption is especially plausible since M8.2 and M7.9 earthquakes in September 2007 extended the 2005 ruptures to the south. Given the dense population of the aforementioned provinces, and the fact that historically earthquakes of M7.5 class have occurred there (in 1858, 1895 and three in 1930), it would not be surprising, if similar sized earthquakes would occur in the coming decades. Considering that we predicted the extent of human losses in the M7.6 Kashmir earthquake of October 2005 approximately correctly six month before it occurred, it seems reasonable to attempt to estimate losses in future large to great earthquakes in central Myanmar and along its coast of the Bay of Bengal. We have calculated the expected number of fatalities for two classes of events: (1) M8 ruptures offshore (between the Andaman Islands and the Myanmar coast, and along Myanmar's coast of the Bay of Bengal. (2) M7.5 repeats of the historic earthquakes that occurred in the aforementioned years. These calculations are only order of magnitude estimates because all necessary input parameters are poorly known. The population numbers, the condition of the building stock, the regional attenuation law, the local site amplification and of course the parameters of future earthquakes can only be estimated within wide ranges. For this reason, we give minimum and maximum estimates, both within approximate error limits. We conclude that the M8 earthquakes located offshore are expected to be less harmful than the M7.5 events on land: For M8 events offshore, the minimum number of fatalities is estimated

  10. Deforestation in Sumatra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Indonesia is rapidly losing its lowland forests to logging, much of it illegal. At present, logging is claiming the forests at a rate of nearly two million hectares (slightly less than 5 million acres: roughly the same area as the state of Massachusetts) each year. At this rate, the island of Sumatra will have no more lowland forests by 2005, a fate already befallen the island of Sulawesi. Indonesia's lowland forests are home to a wide variety of wildlife and are considered among the richest ecosystems in the world. Among the unique life forms in these forests are the Orangutan and the Sumatra Tiger. Sixteen percent of the entire world's bird species, eleven percent of its plants, and ten percent of all mammals on Earth call these forests home. Many are found nowhere else. In the two Landsat scenes shown above, the pattern of deforestation can be clearly discerned. Deep green in these images shows lush vegetation in the forest cover. In both scenes, deep and pale red shows areas where there is little or no vegetation, often bare ground from where forest has been completely stripped. The latter Landsat scene from 2001 not only shows extensive clear cut areas, but also new logging roads built into the remaining forest to facilitate future cutting. This lowland forest region is located on Indonesia's largest island, Sumatra, roughly 100 km southwest of the provincial capital of Jambi. The first image was acquired by Landsat 5's Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor on June 22, 1992, the second by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 14, 2001. Both are false-color composite images made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and green wavelengths. The area shown above is roughly 30 km x 22 km (19 miles x 14 miles). The large versions of these images show the same general area covering 60 km x 60 km. Images provided by the Tropical Rain Forest Information Center (TRFIC) through the Basic Science and Remote Sensing Initiative (BSRSI) based at Michigan

  11. Wake Vortices and Tropical Cyclogenesis Downstream of Sumatra over the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fine, Caitlin Marie

    with regard to easterly flow between October and December favored flow blocking and splitting, more so for Sumatra's northern tip due to the higher terrain there. Correlations between zonal wind and relative vorticity are more significant near Sumatra's northern tip than near and downstream of the island's southern tip. Cyclonic vorticity was maximized at the level of Sumatra's topography for most easterly wind days west of both the north and south ends of the island, suggesting that topography was contributing to vorticity generation. Thirteen tropical cyclones in the Indian Ocean during the YOTC and DYNAMO campaigns were determined to develop from cyclonic wake vortices downstream of Sumatra, including three tropical cyclone pairs. Over 75% of these tropical cyclones formed between October and December. In four cases, wake vortices were generated by anomalously easterly low-level flow that preceded the active phase of the Madden Julian Oscillation. These vortices proceeded to encounter the MJO convective envelope, which is frequently accompanied by convectively coupled waves and may have altered the environment to be more moist and favorable for tropical cyclogenesis. In many cases, equatorial westerly winds, which may have been related to westerly wind bursts from the MJO or to convectively coupled equatorial Rossby waves, intensified low-level cyclonic circulations. It is suggested that diabatic heating in the vicinity of twin tropical cyclones may disturb the atmosphere enough to invigorate extant convectively coupled Kelvin waves, or contribute to the formation of a Kelvin wave. The research presented herein describes the interaction of the flow with steep topography on Sumatra and its role in tropical cyclogenesis over the Indian Ocean, a mechanism for TC genesis that has heretofore received little attention. iv.

  12. Link between the northward extension of Great Sumatra Fault and continental rifting in the Andaman Sea: new results from seismic reflection studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. C.; Moeremans, R. E.; McArdle, J.; Johansen, K.

    2012-12-01

    The Great Sumatra Fault (GSF) traverses the main land Sumatra from Sunda Strait in the southeast to Banda Aceh in the northwest for about 1900 km, and defines the present day plate boundary between the Sunda Plate in the north and Burmese Sliver Plate in the south. It is formed due to the oblique subduction of the Indo-Australian Plate beneath the Sunda Plate. It has been well studied on land but is poorly studied north of Banda Aceh in the Andaman Sea. Its study is further complicated by the presence of volcanic arc in its vicinity and its interaction with the West Andaman Fault (WAF) further north. Here we present deep seismic reflection images along the northward extension of the GSF over 700 km until it joins the Andaman Spreading Centre and interpret these images in the light of earthquake, gravity and bathymetry data. We find that the GSF has two strands between Banda Aceh and Nicobar Island: a transpression in the south and a deep narrow active rift basin in the north dotted with volcanoes in the center, suggesting that the volcanic arc is coincident with the rifting. Further north of Nicobar Island, an active strike-slip fault cuts through a deep rifted basin until its intersection with Andaman Sea Spreading Centre. The volcanic arc lies just east of the basin. The western margin of this basin seems to be a rifted continental margin, tilted westward flooring the Andaman-Nicobar forearc basin, which was once a part of Malaya Peninsula, suggesting that a significant parts of the Andaman-Nicobar forearc system is underlain by the Sunda continental crust. The Andaman-Nicobar forearc basin is bounded in the west by backthrusts, similar to the West Andaman and Mentawai faults bounding the Aceh and Mentawai forearc basins in the south. The cluster of seismicity after the 2004 great Andaman-Sumatra earthquake just north of Nicobar Island coincides with the intersection of two NW-SE and N-S trending strike-slip fault systems. Some of hypocentre of these earthquakes

  13. GPS Analyses of the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, S. A.; Gudmundsson, Ólafur

    2005-03-01

    The Sumatra, Indonesia, earthquake on 26 December 2004 was one of the most devastating earthquakes in history. With a magnitude of Mw = 9.3 (revised based on normal-mode amplitudes by Stein and Okal, http://www.earth.northwestern.edu/people/seth/research/sumatra.html), it is the second largest earthquake recorded since 1900. It occurred about 100 km off the west coast of northern Sumatra, where the relatively dense Indo-Australian plate moves beneath the lighter Burma plate, resulting in stress accumulation. The average relative velocity of the two plates is about 6 cm/yr. On 26 December 2004, however, the two plates moved by a distance of several meters, releasing the stress accumulated over hundreds of years. The result was a devastating tsunami that hit coastlines across the Indian Ocean, killing about 300,000 people in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Burma, Malaysia, Somalia, and other countries (Guardian, 29 January 2005, http://www.guardian.co.uk/tsunami/story/0,15671,1380895,00.html).

  14. Seismicity associated with the Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of 26 December 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dewey, J.W.; Choy, G.; Presgrave, B.; Sipkin, S.; Tarr, A.C.; Benz, H.; Earle, P.; Wald, D.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey/National Earthquake Information Center (USGS/ NEIC) had computed origins for 5000 earthquakes in the Sumatra-Andaman Islands region in the first 36 weeks after the Sumatra-Andaman Islands mainshock of 26 December 2004. The cataloging of earthquakes of mb (USGS) 5.1 and larger is essentially complete for the time period except for the first half-day following the 26 December mainshock, a period of about two hours following the Nias earthquake of 28 March 2005, and occasionally during the Andaman Sea swarm of 26-30 January 2005. Moderate and larger (mb ???5.5) aftershocks are absent from most of the deep interplate thrust faults of the segments of the Sumatra-Andaman Islands subduction zone on which the 26 December mainshock occurred, which probably reflects nearly complete release of elastic strain on the seismogenic interplate-thrust during the mainshock. An exceptional thrust-fault source offshore of Banda Aceh may represent a segment of the interplate thrust that was bypassed during the mainshock. The 26 December mainshock triggered a high level of aftershock activity near the axis of the Sunda trench and the leading edge of the overthrust Burma plate. Much near-trench activity is intraplate activity within the subducting plate, but some shallow-focus, near-trench, reverse-fault earthquakes may represent an unusual seismogenic release of interplate compressional stress near the tip of the overriding plate. The interplate-thrust Nias earthquake of 28 March 2005, in contrast to the 26 December aftershock sequence, was followed by many interplate-thrust aftershocks along the length of its inferred rupture zone.

  15. Petroleum geology of South Sumatra, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Woodside, P.R.

    1987-05-01

    The South Sumatra basin resulted from horst-graben structures formed from the end of Cretaceous to the early Tertiary. During the Pliocene-Pleistocene orogeny, prominent northwest-trending folds and strike-slip faults were formed within the basin. The depositional history of South Sumatra is similar to the prolific Central Sumatra basin; however, the reservoir sandstone facies in South Sumatra are less well developed. Four major orogenic events resulted in the present framework of the South Sumatra basin. These events occurred during (1) a mid-Mesozoic orogeny which metamorphosed, faulted, and uplifted previously deposited sediments into blocks; (2) the Late Cretaceous-early Oligocene tectonic event with resultant horsts and grabens that controlled Eocene sedimentation; (3) the late Oligocene-Miocene, a period of isostatic subsidence until its tectonic quiescence was broken by middle Miocene diastrophism in the Barisan Mountains and by minor structural movements; and (4) the widespread Pliocene-Pleistocene orogeny reflected in the shallow structures in the Tertiary sediments. The southwestern part of Sumatra corresponds to the uplifted range that folded during the Miocene. Only the Tertiary Lahat (Lamat) and Talang Akar formations were deposited in rugged pre-Tertiary topography. The contact between the Sumatra block and the Sunda-Java block is a north-south-trending right-lateral wrench fault. The anticlines within the South Sumatra basin can be grouped into three groups of anticlinal features. The major anticlinora consist of over 150 individual anticlines. To date, about 50 of the 100 structures tested have proved production. Shales in the upper Oligocene-lower Miocene Talang Akar and lower-middle Miocene Gumai (Telisa) Formations show excellent potential for oil generation.

  16. A Seismic Gap Study in the western offshore of Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haridhi, H. A.; Rizal, S.; Ridha, M.; Lee, C.

    2011-12-01

    The extremely destructive earthquake in December 26th 2004 and by the resulting tsunami was the worst natural disasters in recorded human history. However, the tsunami earthquakes continue to strike the west coast of Sumatra in the last 8 years. There are at least 12 events, the earthquake Magnitude between M = 7 to 8.9. The tragedies continue to add up to the already damaged coastal zone. In 2010 (after 6 years of the 2004 event), an earthquake of a magnitude 7.8 resulting a destructive tsunami was also happened near Mentawai Island at west coast of West Sumatra Province. Several thousand of people died and many houses buried. In order to have a better understanding of the seismic stress distribution and prepare for a future study including an IODP drilling in this area, we adopt the previous studies by French, Japan and German together with the absolute gravity data and seismic networks by the IRIS and Taiwan Central Weather Bureau for this research. In the last eight years, the Sumatra region already experienced two domains of the tsunami earthquake swamps, one in the north of Sumatra and the other in the south. Here, we present broadband earthquake data from the IRIS-NEIC catalogue between 2004 and 2010. The result shows that there is a possible of seismic gap in the border of central - southern domain of Sumatra region. This region included in the Northern Sumatra Province near Batu Island. The historical earthquake along the Sumatra margin since 17th century showed that the last big rapture in this border of central - southern domain was occurred in 1797 by the magnitude of 8.8 (Lange et al., 2010). In the other hand, the free-air gravity anomaly (Barber et al., 2005) shows high values correspond to the N-S oceanic fracture zone. All the high value was found near the trench of Sumatra subduction zone and gradually lower value through the south. Regarding to the stress release of the subducting Indo-Australian Oceanic Plate beneath Eurasian Plate, we also

  17. Rapid response: email, immediacy, and medical humanitarianism in Aceh, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Grayman, Jesse Hession

    2014-11-01

    After more than 20 years of sporadic separatist insurgency, the Free Aceh Movement and the Indonesian government signed an internationally brokered peace agreement in August 2005, just eight months after the Indian Ocean tsunami devastated Aceh's coastal communities. This article presents a medical humanitarian case study based on ethnographic data I collected while working for a large aid agency in post-conflict Aceh from 2005 to 2007. In December 2005, the agency faced the first test of its medical and negotiation capacities to provide psychiatric care to a recently amnestied political prisoner whose erratic behavior upon returning home led to his re-arrest and detention at a district police station. I juxtapose two methodological approaches-an ethnographic content analysis of the agency's email archive and field-based participant-observation-to recount contrasting narrative versions of the event. I use this contrast to illustrate and critique the immediacy of the humanitarian imperative that characterizes the industry. Immediacy is explored as both an urgent moral impulse to assist in a crisis and a form of mediation that seemingly projects neutral and transparent transmission of content. I argue that the sense of immediacy afforded by email enacts and amplifies the humanitarian imperative at the cost of abstracting elite humanitarian actors out of local and moral context. As a result, the management and mediation of this psychiatric case by email produced a bureaucratic model of care that failed to account for complex conditions of chronic political and medical instability on the ground. PMID:24788052

  18. Coseismic topography deformation at Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Xinyue; Lavier, Luc; Tan, Eh

    2016-04-01

    Subduction zones produce the largest earthquakes. However, our understanding of earthquakes' spatial-temporal occurrence and tectonic deformation at convergent margin is limited. Traditional view for subduction earthquake cycle contain three stages: Interseismic - superposition of steady elastic strain accumulation and occasional short-duration aseismic strain release, Coseismic - rapid opposite-direction release of accumulated elastic strain, and Postseismic - superposition of afterslips and viscoelastic flow in mantle wedge and lower crust. However, the way strain accumulated interseismically which is related to the generation of long-term deformation and uplift in the forearc region is still a matter of debate. Moreover, when integrated over time, coseismic uplift poorly matches the longer-term vertical deformation. To better understand these relationships, we investigate numerically how coseismic slip and long-term deformation (vertical uplift) accumulate and interact at subduction zones by using a robust, adaptive, multi-dimensional, finite element method solver, Dynearthsol3D, on a 2D continuum viscoelastoplastic model. We set the conditions in this model to a realistic convergent margin setting that resembles Sumatra region. By introducing bathymetric features, this research also explore mechanisms that could explain how strain accumulation in space and time is modified by the presence of large asperities at the subduction interface.

  19. Coseismic Topography Deformation at Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, X.; Lavier, L. L.; Tan, E.

    2015-12-01

    Subduction zones produce the largest earthquakes. However, our understanding of earthquakes' spatial-temporal occurrence and tectonic deformation at convergent margin is limited. Traditional view for subduction earthquake cycle contain three stages: Interseismic - superposition of steady elastic strain accumulation and occasional short-duration aseismic strain release, Coseismic - rapid opposite-direction release of accumulated elastic strain, and Postseismic - superposition of afterslips and viscoelastic flow in mantle wedge and lower crust. However, the way strain accumulated interseismically which is related to the generation of long-term deformation and uplift in the forearc region is still a matter of debate. Moreover, when integrated over time, coseismic uplift poorly matches the longer-term vertical deformation. To better understand these relationships, we investigate numerically how coseismic slip and long-term deformation (vertical uplift) accumulate and interact at subduction zones by using a robust, adaptive, multi-dimensional, finite element method solver, Dynearthsol3D, on a 2D continuum viscoelastoplastic model. We set the conditions in this model to a realistic convergent margin setting that resembles Sumatra region. By introducing bathymetric features, this research also explore mechanisms that could explain how strain accumulation in space and time is modified by the presence of large asperities at the subduction interface.

  20. Postseismic Deformations of the Aceh, Nias and Benkulu Earthquakes and the Viscoelastic Properties of the Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleitout, L.; Garaud, J.; Cailletaud, G.; Vigny, C.; Simons, W. J.; Ambrosius, B. A.; Trisirisatayawong, I.; Satirapod, C.; Geotecdi Song

    2011-12-01

    The giant seism of Aceh (december 2004),followed by the Nias and Bengkulu earthquakes, broke a large portion of the boundary between the Indian ocean and the Sunda block. For the first time in history, the deformations associated with a very large earthquake can be followed by GPS, in particular by the SEAMERGE (far-field) and SUGAR (near-field) GPS networks. A 3D finite element code (Zebulon-Zset) is used to model both the cosismic and the postseismic deformations. The modeled zone is a large portion of spherical shell around Sumatra extanding over more than 60 degrees in latitude and longitude and from the Earth's surface to the core-mantle boundary. The mesh is refined close to the subduction zone. First, the inverted cosismic displacements on the subduction plane are inverted for and provide a very good fit to the GPS data for the three seisms. The observed postseismic displacements, non-dimensionalized by the cosismic displacements, present three very different patterns as function of time: For GPS stations in the far-field, the total horizontal post-seismic displacement after 4 years is as large as the cosismic displacement. The velocities vary slowly over 4 years. A large subsidence affects Thailand and Malaysia. In the near-field, the postseismic displacement reaches only some 15% of the cosismic displacement and it levels off after 2 years. In the middle-field (south-west coast of Sumatra), the postseismic displacement also levels-off with time but more slowly and it reaches more than 30% of the cosismic displacement after four years. In order to fit these three distinct displacement patterns, we need to invoke both viscoelastic deformation in the asthenosphere and a low-viscosity wedge: Neither the vertical subsidence nor the amplitude of the far-field horizontal velocities could be explained by postseismic sliding on the subduction interface. The low viscosity wedge permits to explain the large middle-field velocities. The viscoelastic properties of the

  1. Fuel Cost Estimation for Sumatra Grid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liun, Edwaren

    2010-06-01

    Sumatra has a high growth rate electricity energy demand from the first decade in this century. At the medium of this decade the growth is 11% per annum. On the other side capability of Government of Indonesia cq. PLN authority is limited, while many and most old existing power plants will be retired. The electricity demand growth of Sumatra is increasing the fuel consumption for several next decades. Based on several cases by vary growth scenarios and economic parameters, it shown that some kinds of fossil fuel keep to be required until next several decades. Although Sumatra has abundant coal resource, however, the other fuel types such as fuel oil, diesel, gas and nuclear are needed. On the Base Scenario and discount rate of 10%, the Sumatra System will require 11.6 million tones of coal until 2030 producing 866 TWh with cost of US10558 million. Nuclear plants produce about 501 TWh or 32% by cost of US3.1 billion. On the High Scenario and discount rate 10%, the coal consumption becomes 486.6 million tones by fuel cost of US12.7 billion producing 1033 TWh electricity energy. Nuclear fuel cost required in this scenario is US7.06 billion. The other fuel in large amount consumed is natural gas for combined cycle plants by cost of US1.38 billion producing 11.7 TWh of electricity energy on the Base Scenario and discount rate of 10%. In the High Scenario and discount rate 10% coal plants take role in power generation in Sumatra producing about 866 TWh or 54% of electricity energy. Coal consumption will be the highest on the Base Scenario with discount rate of 12% producing 756 TWh and required cost of US17.1 billion. Nuclear plants will not applicable in this scenario due to its un-competitiveness. The fuel cost will depend on nuclear power role in Sumatra system. Fuel cost will increase correspond to the increasing of coal consumption on the case where nuclear power plants not appear.

  2. Seismology: energy radiation from the Sumatra earthquake.

    PubMed

    Ni, Sidao; Kanamori, Hiroo; Helmberger, Don

    2005-03-31

    We determined the duration of high-frequency energy radiation from Indonesia's great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (26 December 2004) to be about 500 seconds. This duration can be translated into a rupture length of about 1,200 km, which is more than twice as long as that inferred from body-wave analyses performed soon after the event. Our analysis was able rapidly to define the extent of rupture, thereby aiding the assessment of seismic hazard in the immediate future.

  3. Studying Displacement After a Disaster Using Large Scale Survey Methods: Sumatra After the 2004 Tsunami

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Clark; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gillespie, Thomas; Sumantri, Cecep; Thomas, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of human vulnerability to environmental change has advanced in recent years, but measuring vulnerability and interpreting mobility across many sites differentially affected by change remains a significant challenge. Drawing on longitudinal data collected on the same respondents who were living in coastal areas of Indonesia before the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and were re-interviewed after the tsunami, this paper illustrates how the combination of population-based survey methods, satellite imagery and multivariate statistical analyses has the potential to provide new insights into vulnerability, mobility and impacts of major disasters on population well-being. The data are used to map and analyze vulnerability to post-tsunami displacement across the provinces of Aceh and North Sumatra and to compare patterns of migration after the tsunami between damaged areas and areas not directly affected by the tsunami. The comparison reveals that migration after a disaster is less selective overall than migration in other contexts. Gender and age, for example, are strong predictors of moving from undamaged areas but are not related to displacement in areas experiencing damage. In our analyses traditional predictors of vulnerability do not always operate in expected directions. Low levels of socioeconomic status and education were not predictive of moving after the tsunami, although for those who did move, they were predictive of displacement to a camp rather than a private home. This survey-based approach, though not without difficulties, is broadly applicable to many topics in human-environment research, and potentially opens the door to rigorous testing of new hypotheses in this literature. PMID:24839300

  4. Studying Displacement After a Disaster Using Large Scale Survey Methods: Sumatra After the 2004 Tsunami.

    PubMed

    Gray, Clark; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gillespie, Thomas; Sumantri, Cecep; Thomas, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of human vulnerability to environmental change has advanced in recent years, but measuring vulnerability and interpreting mobility across many sites differentially affected by change remains a significant challenge. Drawing on longitudinal data collected on the same respondents who were living in coastal areas of Indonesia before the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and were re-interviewed after the tsunami, this paper illustrates how the combination of population-based survey methods, satellite imagery and multivariate statistical analyses has the potential to provide new insights into vulnerability, mobility and impacts of major disasters on population well-being. The data are used to map and analyze vulnerability to post-tsunami displacement across the provinces of Aceh and North Sumatra and to compare patterns of migration after the tsunami between damaged areas and areas not directly affected by the tsunami. The comparison reveals that migration after a disaster is less selective overall than migration in other contexts. Gender and age, for example, are strong predictors of moving from undamaged areas but are not related to displacement in areas experiencing damage. In our analyses traditional predictors of vulnerability do not always operate in expected directions. Low levels of socioeconomic status and education were not predictive of moving after the tsunami, although for those who did move, they were predictive of displacement to a camp rather than a private home. This survey-based approach, though not without difficulties, is broadly applicable to many topics in human-environment research, and potentially opens the door to rigorous testing of new hypotheses in this literature.

  5. Postseismic deformations following the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake in SE Asia during three and half years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, M.; Fukushima, Y.; Katagi, T.; Hashizume, M.; Satomura, M.; Wu, P.; Ishii, M.; Kato, T.; Fukuda, Y.

    2009-04-01

    Since the occurrence of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (Mw9.2), the Sumatra-Andaman Subduction zone has attracted geophysicists' attention. We have been carrying on CGPS observation in Thailand and Myanmar to detect postseismic deformation following this gigantic event. Since CGPS on land is not enough to clarify the detailed image of postseismic deformation, we also make InSAR analyses in Andaman and Phuket Islands. On September 12, 2007, another Mw8.4 event occurred SW off Sumatra. We report deformations observed with GPS and SAR including co- and postseismic deformation following this event. We have analyzed CGPS data up to the end of 2007 and detected postseismic displacements all over the Indochina peninsula. Phuket, which suffered from about 26cm coseismic displacement, has shifted by ~26cm southwestward till July, 2007. Postseismic transient is clearly recognized and already exceeds coseismic movements at remote sites such as Bangkok and Chiang Mai in Thailand. We try to invert observed postseismic displacement and estimate distribution of afterslip using Yabuki and Matsu'ura's(1992) scheme. Afterslip may have rapidly decayed in and around the source region of the Nias earthquake and beneath the Andaman Islands, while it still continues beneath the northern tip of Sumatra and Nicobar Island. This result implies spatial variation in frictional property on the plate interface. Our GPS sites are located in far field and the afterslip distribution obtained above does not have enough resolution in the depth direction. In order to examine near-field displacement, we also process 3 ALOS/PALSAR images acquired during Jun.19, 2007 and May 6, 2008, in Andaman Islands in order detect postseismic transient. The result shows a negative line-of-sight displacement in the southern part, which is consistent with CGPS observation by Paul et al.(2007). This movement can be simulated by an afterslip on a shallow part of the plate interface.

  6. Tsunami Research driven by Survivor Observations: Sumatra 2004, Tohoku 2011 and the Lituya Bay Landslide (Plinius Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Hermann M.

    2014-05-01

    The 10th anniversary of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami recalls the advent of tsunami video recordings by eyewitnesses. The tsunami of December 26, 2004 severely affected Banda Aceh along the North tip of Sumatra (Indonesia) at a distance of 250 km from the epicenter of the Magnitude 9.0 earthquake. The tsunami flow velocity analysis focused on two survivor videos recorded within Banda Aceh more than 3km from the open ocean. The exact locations of the tsunami eyewitness video recordings were revisited to record camera calibration ground control points. The motion of the camera during the recordings was determined. The individual video images were rectified with a direct linear transformation (DLT). Finally a cross-correlation based particle image velocimetry (PIV) analysis was applied to the rectified video images to determine instantaneous tsunami flow velocity fields. The measured overland tsunami flow velocities were within the range of 2 to 5 m/s in downtown Banda Aceh, Indonesia. The March 11, 2011, magnitude Mw 9.0 earthquake off the coast of Japan caused catastrophic damage and loss of life. Fortunately many survivors at evacuation sites recorded countless tsunami videos with unprecedented spatial and temporal coverage. Numerous tsunami reconnaissance trips were conducted in Japan. This report focuses on the surveys at selected tsunami eyewitness video recording locations along Japan's Sanriku coast and the subsequent tsunami video image analysis. Locations with high quality survivor videos were visited, eyewitnesses interviewed and detailed site topography scanned with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). The analysis of the tsunami videos followed the four step procedure developed for the analysis of 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami videos at Banda Aceh. Tsunami currents up to 11 m/s were measured in Kesennuma Bay making navigation impossible. Further tsunami height and runup hydrographs are derived from the videos to discuss the complex effects of coastal structures

  7. Receiver function study in northern Sumatra and the Malaysian peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieling, Katrin; Roessler, Dirk; Krueger, Frank

    2011-04-01

    In this receiver function study, we investigate the structure of the crust beneath six seismic broadband stations close to the Sunda Arc formed by subduction of the Indo-Australian under the Sunda plate. We apply three different methods to analyse receiver functions at single stations. A recently developed algorithm determines absolute shear-wave velocities from observed frequency-dependent apparent incidence angles of P waves. Using waveform inversion of receiver functions and a modified Zhu and Kanamori algorithm, properties of discontinuities such as depth, velocity contrast, and sharpness are determined. The combination of the methods leads to robust results. The approach is validated by synthetic tests. Stations located on Malaysia show high-shear-wave velocities ( V S) near the surface in the range of 3.4-3.6 km s - 1 attributed to crystalline rocks and 3.6-4.0 km s - 1 in the lower crust. Upper and lower crust are clearly separated, the Moho is found at normal depths of 30-34 km where it forms a sharp discontinuity at station KUM or a gradient at stations IPM and KOM. For stations close to the subduction zone (BSI, GSI and PSI) complexity within the crust is high. Near the surface low V S of 2.6-2.9 km s - 1 indicate sediment layers. High V S of 4.2 km s - 1 are found at depth greater than 6 and 2 km at BSI and PSI, respectively. There, the Moho is located at 37 and 40 km depth. At station GSI, situated closest to the trench, the subducting slab is imaged as a north-east dipping structure separated from the sediment layer by a 10 km wide gradient in V S between 10 and 20 km depth. Within the subducting slab V S ≈ 4.7 km s - 1. At station BSI, the subducting slab is found at depth between 90 and 110 km dipping 20° ± 8° in approximately N 60° E. A velocity increase in similar depth is indicated at station PSI, however no evidence for a dipping layer is found.

  8. Mental health in Aceh--Indonesia: A decade after the devastating tsunami 2004.

    PubMed

    Marthoenis, Marthoenis; Yessi, Sarifah; Aichberger, Marion C; Schouler-Ocak, Meryam

    2016-02-01

    The province of Aceh has suffered enormously from the perennial armed conflict and the devastating Tsunami in 2004. Despite the waves of external aid and national concern geared toward improving healthcare services as part of the reconstruction and rehabilitation efforts after the Tsunami, mental health services still require much attention. This paper aims to understand the mental healthcare system in Aceh Province, Indonesia; its main focus is on the burden, on the healthcare system, its development, service delivery and cultural issues from the devastating Tsunami in 2004 until the present. We reviewed those published and unpublished reports from the local and national government, from international instances (UN bodies, NGOs) and from the academic literature pertaining to mental health related programs conducted in Aceh. To some extent, mental health services in Aceh have been improved compared to their condition before the Tsunami. The development programs have focused on procurement of policy, improvement of human resources, and enhancing service delivery. Culture and religious beliefs shape the pathways by which people seek mental health treatment. The political system also determines the development of the mental health service in the province. The case of Aceh is a unique example where conflict and disaster serve as the catalysts toward the development of a mental healthcare system. Several factors contribute to the improvement of the mental health system, but security is a must. Whilst the Acehnese enjoy the improvements, some issues such as stigma, access to care and political fluctuations remain challenging.

  9. Mental health in Aceh--Indonesia: A decade after the devastating tsunami 2004.

    PubMed

    Marthoenis, Marthoenis; Yessi, Sarifah; Aichberger, Marion C; Schouler-Ocak, Meryam

    2016-02-01

    The province of Aceh has suffered enormously from the perennial armed conflict and the devastating Tsunami in 2004. Despite the waves of external aid and national concern geared toward improving healthcare services as part of the reconstruction and rehabilitation efforts after the Tsunami, mental health services still require much attention. This paper aims to understand the mental healthcare system in Aceh Province, Indonesia; its main focus is on the burden, on the healthcare system, its development, service delivery and cultural issues from the devastating Tsunami in 2004 until the present. We reviewed those published and unpublished reports from the local and national government, from international instances (UN bodies, NGOs) and from the academic literature pertaining to mental health related programs conducted in Aceh. To some extent, mental health services in Aceh have been improved compared to their condition before the Tsunami. The development programs have focused on procurement of policy, improvement of human resources, and enhancing service delivery. Culture and religious beliefs shape the pathways by which people seek mental health treatment. The political system also determines the development of the mental health service in the province. The case of Aceh is a unique example where conflict and disaster serve as the catalysts toward the development of a mental healthcare system. Several factors contribute to the improvement of the mental health system, but security is a must. Whilst the Acehnese enjoy the improvements, some issues such as stigma, access to care and political fluctuations remain challenging. PMID:26957340

  10. Determining the Controlling Factors of Coastal Development along an Active Margin - A Case Study from Aceh, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monecke, Katrin; Meilianda, Ella; Hill, Emma; McAdoo, Brian; Qiang, Qui; Storms, Joep; Walstra, Dirk-Jan; Setiawan, Agus; Masputri, Aisha S.; Mayasari, Cut D.; Riandi, Indra; Nasir, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the recovery of shorelines after catastrophic events is crucial for sustainable coastal development and future hazard mitigation. Here, we present post-seismic coastal development data from West Aceh, Indonesia, an area that was severely affected by the 2004 Sumatra Andaman earthquake and ensuing Indian Ocean tsunami. Using a combined approach of spatial data analysis, field surveys and numerical modeling, we reconstruct the build-up of a new beach ridge along a 10 kilometer long stretch of the western Acehnese coast after the complete destruction of the beach in 2004. The coastline of West Aceh can be characterized as a microtidal, wave dominated environment with the wave climate being controlled by the monsoon seasons reaching a significant wave height of Hs = 1.2 m during the more energetic West Monsoon from April to September. Waves approach the shoreline at a very low angle resulting in minor and variable longshore sediment transport. The beach has an average foreshore slope of 0.07 and is composed of well sorted medium sand. Recently obtained bathymetric data indicates a steep upper shoreface with a slope of 0.03. Further offshore the slope decreases to 0.01 with 14 m water depth being reached in about 700 m distance to the shoreline. Grab samples obtained in 10 m water depth are composed of fine to medium sand but lenses of medium to coarse sand with abundant shell debris do also occur. Beach ridges can be traced up to 2 km inland and indicate long-term coastal progradation and abundant sediment supply to the littoral zone. The western Acehnese shoreline parallels the Sunda trench and subsided 50 to 100 cm during the 2004 rupture. Modeled land elevation changes as a result of afterslip and viscoelastic mantle relaxation, indicate rapid post-seismic uplift of 4.4 cm/year in the year following the earthquake, but more moderate uplift rates of 1.4 cm/year since mid-2006. In 2004, co-seismic subsidence and tsunami scouring caused the coastline to

  11. The role of students' activities in Indonesian realistic mathematics education in primary schools of Aceh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubainur, Cut Morina; Veloo, Arsaythamby; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to explore the implementation of the Indonesian Realistic Mathematics Education (PMRI) in Aceh primary schools, Indonesia. This study investigates the students' mathematics activities involved in the implementation of PMRI and for this purpose; students' mathematics activities in the classroom were observed. Students were observed three times within five weeks during mathematics class, based on PMRI. A total of 25 year five students from a public school participated in this study. Observation check list was used in this study based on ten items. The observation conducted was based on two different time periods which were 105 minutes for group A and 70 minutes for group B. The observation was conducted every 5 minutes. The results show that PMRI is being practised in Aceh, but not completely. This study shows that mathematics activities for those who were taught using PMRI are higher than for those using the traditional approach. Overall, the findings showed that the number of student activities undertaken in PMRI achieved 90.56%. The higher percentage of activities suggests that the Aceh Education Office expands the implementation of PMRI in all primary schools so that learning of mathematics is more effective. This indirectly increases the mathematics achievement of students in Aceh to a higher level on par with Indonesia's national achievement.

  12. Surviving Women's Learning Experiences from the Tsunami in Aceh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teng, Yan Fang Jane; Yusof, Qismullah

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated surviving women's learning experiences from the 2004 tsunami in Aceh. Women were the majority of casualties and the most vulnerable after the tsunami. Almost a decade later, we used a conceptual framework of experiential learning, critical reflection, and transformative learning to understand the surviving women's…

  13. "The Fruit Caught between Two Stones": The Conflicted Position of Teachers within Aceh's Independence Struggle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T.A.; Shah, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the challenging situation faced by teachers as professionals and members of the community in Aceh, Indonesia during the province's civil war. It reveals how teachers' sense of agency during this period was deeply influenced by the economic/material, political and socio-cultural condition at that time -- conditions and…

  14. A paleotsunami record from marshlands in West Aceh Province, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monecke, K.; Finger, W.; Kongko, W.; McAdoo, B.; Moore, A. L.; Sudrajat, S. U.

    2007-12-01

    Constraining the frequency and magnitude of large events in the Indian Ocean region is critical to assess and mitigate tsunami risk along this densely populated coastline in the future. As historical records of large tsunamis in the area are sparse, the geological record provides the best evidence of recurrence rates and size of ancient tsunamis. Based on sediment data from coastal marshland deposits we present a paleotsunami record for West Aceh Province, Indonesia, an area immediately adjacent to the seismic source that was severely affected by the December 2004 tsunami. The recent tsunami deposited a distinct, typically 10-20 cm thick sand sheet up to 2 km inland within a prograding beach ridge plain. Sediment cores from swales in between beach ridges revealed three older sand layers, up to 10 cm thick, and intercalated within organic-rich marshland deposits. At least two of the older sand layers can be followed for several hundred meters along shore normal transects. Coring sites of different transects can be laterally correlated by following pronounced older beach ridges running parallel to the shoreline. The three individual sand layers occur at different distances to the shoreline, with the youngest sand layer at ~500 m distance from the present coast and the oldest one between 1500 m to 2000 m inland within older beach ridge complexes. The spatial distributions as well as grain size trends suggest landward directed flows over a prograding beach ridge plain, which can be best explained by ancient tsunamis. Radiocarbon dating of these deposits indicate three events occurring around 1000 AD, between 1350AD-1550AD, and after 1800AD, with the latter potentially correlating with a historically reported event in 1907AD.

  15. Nighttime lights time series of tsunami damage, recovery, and economic metrics in Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Gillespie, Thomas W; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Chum, Kai Fung; Thomas, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    On 26 December 2004, a magnitude 9.2 earthquake off the west coast of the northern Sumatra, Indonesia resulted in 160,000 Indonesians killed. We examine the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) nighttime light imagery brightness values for 307 communities in the Study of the Tsunami Aftermath and Recovery (STAR), a household survey in Sumatra from 2004 to 2008. We examined night light time series between the annual brightness and extent of damage, economic metrics collected from STAR households and aggregated to the community level. There were significant changes in brightness values from 2004 to 2008 with a significant drop in brightness values in 2005 due to the tsunami and pre-tsunami nighttime light values returning in 2006 for all damage zones. There were significant relationships between the nighttime imagery brightness and per capita expenditures, and spending on energy and on food. Results suggest that Defense Meteorological Satellite Program nighttime light imagery can be used to capture the impacts and recovery from the tsunami and other natural disasters and estimate time series economic metrics at the community level in developing countries.

  16. Development of Ionospheric Tomography using Neural Network and its Application to the 2007 Southern Sumatra Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirooka, Shinji; Hattori, Katsumi; Nishihashi, Masahide; Kon, Shinpei; Takeda, Tatsuoki

    The ionospheric anomaly prior to the 2007 SouthernSumatra earthquake (M8.5) was observed by GPS receivers around Sumatra islands. In this paper, to investigate the three-dimensional structure of electron density in Ionosphere, a tomographic approach (Residual Minimization Training Neural Network; RMTNN) has been performed. The results of the tomographic approach are consistent with those of total electron content (TEC) approaches. We found that the significant decreases take place in the heights of 250-400 km, especially at 330 km height. But the height which gives the maximum electron density is not changed. The obtained structure is that the decreased region exists in the southwest side of Integrated Electron Content (IEC) (400-550 km altitudes) and in the northern side of IEC (250-400 km altitudes). Global tendency of the decreases area is expanded to the east with an altitude and it is concentrated in the southern hemisphere of over the epicenter. These resultsshow that the high capability of RMTNN method for the estimation of the ionospheric electron density distribution possibly associated with earthquake.

  17. Space Radar Image of Central Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a radar image of the central part of the island of Sumatra in Indonesia that shows how the tropical rainforest typical of this country is being impacted by human activity. Native forest appears in green in this image, while prominent pink areas represent places where the native forest has been cleared. The large rectangular areas have been cleared for palm oil plantations. The bright pink zones are areas that have been cleared since 1989, while the dark pink zones are areas that were cleared before 1989. These radar data were processed as part of an effort to assist oil and gas companies working in the area to assess the environmental impact of both their drilling operations and the activities of the local population. Radar images are useful in these areas because heavy cloud cover and the persistent smoke and haze associated with deforestation have prevented usable visible-light imagery from being acquired since 1989. The dark shapes in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image are a chain of lakes in flat coastal marshes. This image was acquired in October 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Environmental changes can be easily documented by comparing this image with visible-light data that were acquired in previous years by the Landsat satellite. The image is centered at 0.9 degrees north latitude and 101.3 degrees east longitude. The area shown is 50 kilometers by 100 kilometers (31 miles by 62 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  18. Epidemic dengue transmission in southern Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Corwin, A L; Larasati, R P; Bangs, M J; Wuryadi, S; Arjoso, S; Sukri, N; Listyaningsih, E; Hartati, S; Namursa, R; Anwar, Z; Chandra, S; Loho, B; Ahmad, H; Campbell, J R; Porter, K R

    2001-01-01

    An outbreak of dengue fever (DF), dengue haemorrhagic fever (DHF), and dengue shock syndrome (DSS) in the city of Palembang, south Sumatra, Indonesia was investigated to (i) validate epidemic occurrence, (ii) confirm dengue virus aetiology and associated serotype(s), (iii) provide a demonstrable measure of community impact, and (iv) identify causative relationship (if any) with climatic El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) influences. Trend analysis based on a 6-year retrospective review of hospital records demonstrates a 3-fold increase in clinical cases for the outbreak period (January-April 1998), relative to historical records. In the 2 hospitals surveyed, the monthly mean number of outbreak-related dengue cases over 4 months was 833 (range 650-995 cases/month); the mean monthly value for the previous 72 months was 107 (range 14-779 cases/month). An apparent trend in epidemic transmission was observed, evolving from a 5-year cyclic phenomenon to an annual occurrence, often indistinguishable from one year to the next. The proportional distribution of clinical outbreak cases into DF, DHF and DSS diagnostic categories was 24%, 66%, and 10%, respectively. The population aged 10-19 years accounted for the largest (35%) proportion of hospitalized DHF cases, followed by children aged 5-9 years (25%) and children aged 4 years (16%). Serum samples obtained during acute illness from 221 hospitalized patients were examined using serology, RT-PCR, and virus isolation in cell culture: 59% of samples had laboratory evidence of a dengue infection. All 4 dengue virus serotypes (DEN 1-4) were identified in epidemic circulation, with DEN 3 predominating (43%). DEN 1 was the principal serotype associated with less severe dengue illness, suggesting that virulence may be, in part, a function of infecting serotype. The climatic influence of ENSO on rainfall and temperature in the months leading up to and during the outbreak was dramatic, and is likely to contribute to favourable

  19. Grassroots development and upwards accountabilities: tensions in the reconstruction of Aceh's fishing industry.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Rowan; McGregor, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the tensions between aid funding and grassroots development goals in the context of post-disaster fisheries reconstruction in Aceh, Indonesia. We argue that both short- and long-term grassroots goals are distorted by upward accountability requirements which lead to unsatisfactory aid outcomes. Our analysis employs the concept of aid webs and draws on fifty-one formal interviews with stakeholders in Aceh in 2007/2008. The findings initially concentrate on the impacts of upward accountability on project cycles, with a particular focus on the problematic incorporation of private boat-building contractors and commercial values during the implementation phase. We then discuss the more subtle, long-term impacts of upward accountability on the professionalization of community institutions — in this case, the Panglima Laot Lhok. We conclude with a few observations about the hybrid institutions — combining elements of local and development cultures — that are produced within the current political economy of aid. PMID:22235491

  20. Forest Fruit Production Is Higher on Sumatra Than on Borneo

    PubMed Central

    Wich, Serge A.; Vogel, Erin R.; Larsen, Michael D.; Fredriksson, Gabriella; Leighton, Mark; Yeager, Carey P.; Brearley, Francis Q.; van Schaik, Carel P.; Marshall, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Various studies have shown that the population densities of a number of forest vertebrates, such as orangutans, are higher on Sumatra than Borneo, and that several species exhibit smaller body sizes on Borneo than Sumatra and mainland Southeast Asia. It has been suggested that differences in forest fruit productivity between the islands can explain these patterns. Here we present a large-scale comparison of forest fruit production between the islands to test this hypothesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on fruit production were collated from Sumatran and Bornean sites. At six sites we assessed fruit production in three forest types: riverine, peat swamp and dryland forests. We compared fruit production using time-series models during different periods of overall fruit production and in different tree size classes. We examined overall island differences and differences specifically for fruiting period and tree size class. The results of these analyses indicate that overall the Sumatran forests are more productive than those on Borneo. This difference remains when each of the three forest types (dryland, riverine, and peat) are examined separately. The difference also holds over most tree sizes and fruiting periods. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that forest fruit productivity is higher on Sumatra than Borneo. This difference is most likely the result of the overall younger and more volcanic soils on Sumatra than Borneo. These results contribute to our understanding of the determinants of faunal density and the evolution of body size on both islands. PMID:21738627

  1. GPS Constrained Coseismic Slip of the 26 December 2004 Great Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Shen, Z.; Wan, Y.; Zeng, Y.

    2005-12-01

    The 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman megathrust earthquake is one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded since 1900. The event took place at the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone between the Australia and Sundaland plate in the south and the India and Burma plate in the north. Despite of its great size and catastrophic consequences, the magnitude and rupture distribution of the earthquake are still not well constrained yet. We ensemble a GPS data set from continuous and survey mode stations in the region to obtain the coseismic displacement field. The continuous data set includes these from the IGS stations located in East Asia and around the Northern Indian Ocean, from the Crustal Motion Observation Network of China in mainland China and South China Sea, and from Caltech's Indonesian GPS network in central Sumatra. Three months and ten days of data before and after the quake respectively are processed to derive the coseismic displacement offsets using the GAMIT and QOCA softwares. Three additional data sets of coseismic displacement offsets are also incorporated, one from the southeast Asia area (Vigny et al., 2005), another from the India subcontinent (Banerjee et al., 2005), and the third from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (http://www.seires.net/content/view/122/52/). These data are used to invert for fault rupture which is devised as dislocation in a layered elastic media. We also adopt the `Earth flattening' method to accommodate the curvature effect of the Earth's surface, which is significant at the far field and should not be neglected. The fault model is composed of multiple tiles, meshing the interface of the subduction slab, with second order smoothing applied to enforce slip continuity. Our result shows dominant thrust faulting for all the patches, ranging from ~2.5 m to 7 m in amplitude, with the largest slip centered around the central section of the rupture zone 5°-10°N latitude. Rupture is also accompanied with meter level right slip for the

  2. A review on earthquake and tsunami hazards of the Sumatran plate boundary: Observing expected and unexpected events after the Aceh-Andaman Mw 9.15 event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natawidjaja, D.

    2013-12-01

    The 600-km Mentawai megathrust had produced two giant historical earthquakes generating big tsunamies in 1797 and 1833. The SuGAr (Sumatran GPS continuous Array) network, first deployed in 2002, shows that the subduction interface underlying Mentawai Islands and the neighboring Nias section in the north are fully locked, thus confirming their potential hazards. Outreach activities to warn people about earthquake and tsunamies had been started since 4 months prior to the 26 December 2004 in Aceh-Andaman earthquake (Mw 9.15). Later in March 2005, the expected megathrust earthquake (Mw 8.7) hit Nias-Simelue area and killed about 2000 people, releasing the accumulated strain since the previous 1861 event (~Mw 8.5). After then many Mw 7s and smaller events occured in Sumatra, filling areas between and around two giant ruptures and heighten seismicities in neighboring areas. In March 2007, the twin earthquake disaster (Mw 6.3 and Mw 6.4) broke two consecutive segments of the transcurrent Sumatran fault in the Singkarak lake area. Only six month later, in September 2007, the rapid-fire-failures of three consecutive megathrust patches (Mw 8.5, Mw 7.9 and Mw 7.0) ruptured a 250-km-section of the southern part of the Mentawai. It was a big surprise since this particular section is predicted as a very-low coupled section from modelling the SuGAr data, and hence, bypassing the more potential fully coupled section of the Mentawai in between the 2005 and 2007 ruptures. In September 2009, a rare unexpected event (Mw 7.6) suddenly ruptured an intracrustal fault in the subducted slab down under Padang City and killed about 500 people. Padang had been in preparation for the next tsunami but not for strong shakes from near by major earthquake. This event seems to have remotely triggered another Mw 6.7 on the Sumatran fault near kerinci Lake, a few hundred kilometers south of Padang, in less than a day. Just a year later, in November 2010, again an unexpected large slow-slip event of

  3. Imaging of Large Earthquake Rupture Processes Using Multiple Teleseismic Arrays: Application to the Sumatra-Andaman Islands Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohrnberger, M.; Krüger, F.

    2005-12-01

    The spatial extent of large earthquake ruptures is usually indirectly inferred from aftershock distributions or by waveform inversion techniques. In this work we present a method which allows the direct estimation of the spatio-temporal characteristics of large earthquake rupture processes. The technique exploits the high-quality records from the stations of the global broadband network using a simple, yet efficient, migration technique. In particular, we combine coherency and beam-power measures which are obtained from curved wavefront stacking of the direct P wave at multiple large aperture arrays surrounding the source region at tele-seismic distances. Applying this method to the Mw=9.3 Sumatra earthquake from 26/12/2004 and the subsequent Nias earthquake from 28/03/2005 (Mw=8.7), we show that it is possible to track the focus of the most coherent/largest energy release in space and time. For the Sumatra event, we confirm the overall extent of the rupture length being in the order of 1150 km. The rupture front propagated during a time span of at least 480-500 s following the trench geometry from the northern tip of Sumatra to the Andaman Islands region. A visualization of the coherent energy accumulation over time suggests the existence of slow after-slip in the northern part of the rupture after the main rupture front has passed. However, due to the interference of large later phases it is not possible to determine whether this afterslipping event persists much longer then the overall duration of the rupture. The final areal estimate of cumulative energy release is in full agreement with the aftershock distribution observed in the months following this earthquake. Including a number of additional seismic phases (e.g. pP, sP) into the migration scheme, it seems for this event feasible to constrain the depth extent of the rupture. For the Nias earthquake we observe unilateral propagation of the rupture in south-eastern direction starting from an area south

  4. T-wave characteristics of a large dataset of Sumatra aftershocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okal, E.

    2009-12-01

    We examine a dataset of T phases recorded at the seismic station` on Diego Garcia from 217 aftershocks of the 2004 Sumatra earthquake, for which CMT solutions are available. Each record is analyzed through its T-Phase Energy Flux and parameter gamma, expressing the ratio of TPEF to seismic moment, as defined by Okal et al. [2003]; and its duration-amplitude discriminant D, as defined by Talandier and Okal [2001]. In addition, the slowness parameter THETA [Newman and Okal, 1998] is computed from worldwide datasets of short-period P waves for all events. While there is no direct correlation between gamma and THETA, we find an increasing maximum gamma for any given THETA, meaning that slow events cannot give rise to large T waves. The extreme northern part of the rupture area (North of 11 deg.N) generally features reduced TPEF, which may express unfavorable source conversion properties. With this exception, we find no correlation of gamma with epicentral location, focal mechanism, or time elapsed since the main shock. Nor can we identify any obvious influence of depth on gamma, bearing in mind that the computation of TPEF is performed in the 2-10 Hz range. Similarly, values of the discriminant D are scattered geographically, with focal mechanism and depth. Furthermore, there is no evident correlation between D and gamma, The main shock itself features relatively low, but not minimal, values of both gamma and D, which is in line with its character of slowness which was previously reported (e.g., from source tomography and normal mode studies). The absence of direct correlations between the various parameters measured probably expresses a profound heterogeneity at the level of the individual faults activated in the wake of the Sumatra event, particularly for those outside the fault plane, which were triggered by stress transfer.

  5. Community Willingness to Participate in a Dengue Study in Aceh Province, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Samsul; Bustaman, Aslam; Radiansyah, Arsil; Angraini, Pradiba; Fasli, Riny; Salwiyadi, Salwiyadi; Bastian, Reza Akbar; Oktiviyari, Ade; Akmal, Imaduddin; Iqbalamin, Muhammad; Adil, Jamalul; Henrizal, Fenni; Darmayanti, Darmayanti; Pratama, Rovy; Fajar, Jonny Karunia; Setiawan, Abdul Malik; Imrie, Allison; Kuch, Ulrich; Groneberg, David Alexander; Sasmono, R. Tedjo; Dhimal, Meghnath; Müller, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue virus infection is the most rapidly spreading vector-borne disease in the world. Essential research on dengue virus transmission and its prevention requires community participation. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the factors that are associated with the willingness of communities in high prevalence areas to participate in dengue research. The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with the willingness of healthy community members in Aceh province, Indonesia, to participate in dengue research that would require phlebotomy. Methodology/Principal Findings A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in nine regencies and municipalities of Aceh from November 2014 to March 2015. Interviews using a set of validated questionnaires were conducted to collect data on demography, history of dengue infection, socioeconomic status, and knowledge, attitude and practice regarding dengue fever. Two-step logistic regression and Spearman’s rank correlation (rs) analysis were used to assess the influence of independent variables on dependent variables. Among 535 participants, less than 20% had a good willingness to participate in the dengue study. The factors associated with good willingness to participate were being female, working as a civil servant, private employee or entrepreneur, having a high socioeconomic status and good knowledge, attitude and practice regarding dengue. Good knowledge and attitude regarding dengue were positive independent predictors of willingness to participate (OR: 2.30 [95% CI: 1.36–3.90] and 3.73 [95% CI: 2.24–6.21], respectively). Conclusion/Significance The willingness to participate in dengue research is very low among community members in Aceh, and the two most important associated factors are knowledge and attitude regarding dengue. To increase participation rate, efforts to improve the knowledge and attitude of community members regarding dengue fever and dengue-related research is required

  6. Bathymetry Offshore Sumatra First Comprehensive map of International Data Sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaedicke, C.; Ladage, S.; Soh, W.; Weinrebe, W.; Tappin, D. R.; Henstock, T.; McNeill, L.; Sibuet, J.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Singh, S.; Flueh, E.; Djajadihardja, Y.

    2006-12-01

    Knowledge of the bathymetry offshore Sumatra is of great importance for geohazard risk assessment, modelling of tsunami runup heights and development of tsunami early warning systems as well as for the general understanding of plate boundary processes and morphotectonic features. Since the devastating December 26, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake and tsunami a number of marine expeditions, funded by Canada, France, Germany, India, Indonesia, Japan, United Kingdom and the United States have acquired bathymetric data over the southern part of the earthquake rupture zone but also along strike the whole Sunda trench. Here we present the first compilation of these bathymetric data sets as one bathymetric map. The bathymetric data acquired up to date covers a vast part of the trench, continental slope and in part also of the fore arc basins. The map incorporates the newest data sets from 2005 of the British high-resolution HMS SCOTT survey, the French Marion-Dufresene "Aftershocks" and the Japanese Natsushima cruises. While these surveys concentrated on the southern rupture zone of the Dec. 26th, 2004 earthquake, the German RV SONNE SeaCause and Sumatra cruises in 2005 and 2006 mapped the March 28th 2005 rupture area as well as large parts of the central Sunda trench and slope and in part the fore arc basins. Surveys reaching back to 1997 covering parts of the Sunda Strait and offshore southern Sumatra are also incorporated. A nearly complete coverage of the Sunda trench and slope area in the north is achieved. In the south data gaps on the slope still exist. This map compilation is a collaborative international effort initiated and partly funded by InterMARGINS. It is a major contribution to the Indonesian and international science community.

  7. Exploration in the Ombilin Intermontane Basin, West Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Koning, T.

    1996-12-31

    The Ombilin Basin is a Tertiary intermontane basin located within the Barisan Mountain Range of Sumatra. Oil exploration commenced in the Ombilin Basin in the early 1980s when geological mapping was carried out, a synthetic aperture radar survey was flown, and a basin-wide geophysical survey was completed. This effort led to the drilling of Sinimar No. 1 to a total depth 3020 m. Sinimar No. 1 was a historic well in Indonesia`s oil industry since it was the first oil exploration well drilled in the Ombilin Basin and also the first well drilled in an intermontane basin in Indonesia. Oil, gas and condensate was tested in the well. An integrated interpretation of the well, geophysical and outcrop data indicates that despite its small areal size (30 km x 50 km), the Ombilin Basin is a deep pull-apart basin containing up to 4500 m of Tertiary sediments, ranging in age from Middle Eocene to Early Miocene. The basin currently is in an intermontane basin structural setting but it was also an intermontane basin during its Early Tertiary depositional history. During the Eocene, alluvial fans and massive debris flows were deposited on the basin margins and a large lake occupied the basin center. Fluvial deposition occurred in the basin during the Oligocene followed by deposition of marine shales, sandstones, and isolated reefs during the Miocene. Although the Ombilin Basin is located within Sumatra`s magmatic arc and is partially covered by volcanics from extinct and active volcanoes, the subsurface temperature gradients of 1.62 deg. F/100 ft. recorded in Sinimar No. I and 1.47 deg F/100 ft. measured in a deep (670 m) coal exploration core hole are significantly cooler than the average subsurface temperature gradients in the Sumatra back-arc basins. Organic-rich Eocene lacustrine shales are the likely source rocks for the hydrocarbons tested in Sinimar No. 1 and the oil seeps located along the basin margins.

  8. Brachiopods, fusulines and palynomorphs of the Mengkarang Formation (Early Permian, Sumatra) and their palaeobiogeographical significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippa, G.; Angiolini, L.; Van Waveren, I.; Crow, M. J.; Hasibuan, F.; Stephenson, M. H.; Ueno, K.

    2014-01-01

    Brachiopods, fusulines and palynomorphs from the Lower Permian Mengkarang Formation (Sumatra, Indonesia) have been studied in order to establish the palaeogeographical position and the palaeolatitude of the West Sumatra Block. The position of the West Sumatra Block within the Palaeo-Tethys and Panthalassa oceans and its relationships to their marginal landmasses, in particular the Gondwana supercontinent and the Cathaysian palaeogeographical area, currently is uncertain.

  9. The 2004 Sumatra Earthquake and Tsunami: Lessons Learned in Subduction Zone Science and Emergency Management for the Cascadia Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, John F.

    2015-03-01

    The 26 December 2004, Mw 9.3 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami was a pivotal turning point in our awareness of the dangers posed by subduction zone earthquakes and tsunamis. This earthquake was the world's largest in 40 years, and it produced the world's deadliest tsunami. This earthquake ruptured a subduction zone that has many similarities to the Cascadia Subduction Zone. In this article, I summarize lessons learned from this tragedy, and make comparisons with potential rupture characteristics, slip distribution, deformation patterns, and aftershock patterns for Cascadia using theoretical modeling and interseismic observations. Both subduction zones are approximately 1,100-1,300 km in length. Both have similar convergence rates and represent oblique subduction. Slip along the subduction fault during the 26 December earthquake is estimated at 15-25 m, similar to values estimated for Cascadia. The width of the rupture, ~80-150 km estimated from modeling seismic and geodetic data, is similar to the width of the "locked and transition zone" estimated for Cascadia. Coseismic subsidence of up to 2 m along the Sumatra coast is also similar to that predicted for parts of northern Cascadia, based on paleoseismic evidence. In addition to scientific lessons learned, the 2004 tsunami provided many critical lessons for emergency management and preparedness. As a result of that tragedy, a number of preparedness initiatives are now underway to promote awareness of earthquake and tsunami hazards along the west coast of North America, and plans are underway to develop prototype tsunami and earthquake warning systems along Cascadia. Lessons learned from the great Sumatra earthquake and tsunami tragedy, both through scientific studies and through public education initiatives, will help to reduce losses during future earthquakes in Cascadia and other subduction zones of the world.

  10. A Slip Model for the Mw 9.0 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake Based on GPS Measurements of Coseismic Displacement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shuler, A. E.; Freymueller, J.; Rajendran, C.

    2005-12-01

    The Mw 9.0 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 2004 caused widespread deformation throughout Asia. We present coseismic displacements for Asia - the result of network solutions from sixty continuous GPS sites throughout the region as well as five sites in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands which had periodic occupations. From these calculations, we created a seven-segment slip model with predicted horizontal displacement vectors in excellent agreement with observations from near-field sites. Slip in the earthquake extended from the northern coast of Sumatra to the northern boundary of the Andaman Islands. Our model had reduced slip in the southernmost part of the rupture zone, with increased slip in the northern half of the rupture zone and a patch of localized large slip near the Nicobar Islands. Convergence vectors were calculated for each fault segment. These indicate significantly different slip azimuths for the Sumatra and Andaman segments of the rupture, with a gradual rotation of the slip vector along the length of the rupture. The oceanic crust in this region is in a diffuse plate boundary between the Capricorn, Indian and Australian plates, and the rotation of the slip vectors is largely consistent with the change in motion of the oceanic plates across this diffuse boundary. In an effort to resolve the issue over whether there was significant slow aseismic slip in the northern part of the rupture zone, we evaluated the contribution of each fault segment to the displacement at each site. In our model, the northernmost segments produced only a small contribution to the total displacements of any medium- to far-field continuous GPS sites (such as Bangkok and Phuket, Thailand), and thus, it is difficult to rule out the possibility of slow slip based on kinematic solutions for these sites. However, our model and those kinematic solutions (Vigny et al., 2005) show that if slow slip was present, it had to be limited to the northernmost extreme of the rupture.

  11. Determining Proportion of Exfoliative Vaginal Cell during Various Stages of Estrus Cycle Using Vaginal Cytology Techniques in Aceh Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Siregar, Tongku N.; Melia, Juli; Rohaya; Thasmi, Cut Nila; Masyitha, Dian; Wahyuni, Sri; Rosa, Juliana; Nurhafni; Panjaitan, Budianto; Herrialfian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the period of estrus cycle in aceh cattle, Indonesia, based on vaginal cytology techniques. Four healthy females of aceh cattle with average weight of 250–300 kg, age of 5–7 years, and body condition score of 3-4 were used. All cattle were subjected to ultrasonography analysis for the occurrence of corpus luteum before being synchronized using intramuscular injections of PGF2 alpha 25 mg. A vaginal swab was collected from aceh cattle, stained with Giemsa 10%, and observed microscopically. Period of estrus cycle was predicted from day 1 to day 24 after estrus synchronization was confirmed using ultrasonography analysis at the same day. The result showed that parabasal, intermediary, and superficial epithelium were found in the vaginal swabs collected from proestrus, metestrus, and diestrus aceh cattle. Proportions of these cells in the particular period of estrus cycle were 36.22, 32.62, and 31.16 (proestrus); 21.33, 32.58, and 46.09 (estrus); 40.75, 37.58, and 21.67 (metestrus); and 41.07, 37.38, and 21.67 (diestrus), respectively. In conclusion, dominant proportion of superficial cell that occurred in estrus period might be used as the base for determining optimal time for insemination. PMID:26977335

  12. Dividing disasters in Aceh, Indonesia: separatist conflict and tsunami, human rights and humanitarianism.

    PubMed

    Zeccola, Paul

    2011-04-01

    This paper examines the interface between human rights and humanitarian action in the context of the conflict and tsunami in Aceh, Indonesia, between 1998 and 2007. It looks at the challenges international humanitarian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) faced as they engaged in human rights work in the conflict period and in conflict-related activities in the post-tsunami period. The paper argues that many large NGOs may have compromised what some would hold to be essential principles for humanitarian action because of domestic political concerns, donor restrictions and resistance among certain NGO chiefs. In contrast with the pre-tsunami period, in which NGOs worked for years amid military operations, in the post-tsunami period NGOs were decidedly apolitical, neglecting the conflict in their tsunami response--despite significant developments that permitted greater political engagement in Aceh's post-conflict transformation. The evidence suggests that NGOs are challenged in contextualising humanitarian responses and that there is a need to underscore donor flexibility and independence in humanitarian action.

  13. Improving health services to displaced persons in Aceh, Indonesia: a balanced scorecard

    PubMed Central

    Parco, Kristin B; Sihombing, Melva E; Tredwell, Susan P; O'Rourke, Edward J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Problem After the Indian Ocean tsunami in December 2004, the International Organization for Migration constructed temporary health clinics to provide medical services to survivors living in temporary accommodation centres throughout Aceh, Indonesia. Limited resources, inadequate supervision, staff turnover and lack of a health information system made it challenging to provide quality primary health services. Approach A balanced scorecard was developed and implemented in collaboration with local health clinic staff and district health officials. Performance targets were identified. Staff collected data from clinics and accommodation centres to develop 30 simple performance measures. These measures were monitored periodically and discussed at meetings with stakeholders to guide the development of health interventions. Local setting Two years after the tsunami, 34 000 displaced persons continued to receive services from temporary health clinics in two districts of Aceh province. From March to December 2007, the scorecard was implemented in seven temporary health clinics. Relevant changes Interventions stimulated and tracked by the scorecard showed measurable improvements in preventive medicine, child health, capacity building of clinic staff and availability of essential drugs. By enhancing communication, the scorecard also led to qualitative benefits. Lessons learnt The balanced scorecard is a practical tool to focus attention and resources to facilitate improvement in disaster rehabilitation settings where health information infrastructure is poor. Introducing a mechanism for rapid improvement fostered communication between nongovernmental organizations, district health officials, clinic health workers and displaced persons. PMID:20865077

  14. Long-period spectral features of the Sumatra-Andaman 2004 earthquake rupture process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clévédé, E.; Bukchin, B.; Favreau, P.; Mostinskiy, A.; Aoudia, A.; Panza, G. F.

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate the spatial variability of the seismic radiation spectral content of the Sumatra-Andaman 2004 earthquake. We determine the integral estimates of source geometry, duration and rupture propagation given by the stress glut moments of total degree 2 of different source models. These models are constructed from a single or a joint use of different observations including seismology, geodesy, altimetry and tide gauge data. The comparative analysis shows coherency among the different models and no strong contradictions are found between the integral estimates of geodetic and altimetric models, and those retrieved from very long period seismic records (up to 2000-3000 s). The comparison between these results and the integral estimates derived from observed surface wave spectra in period band from 500 to 650 s suggests that the northern part of the fault (to the north of 8°N near Nicobar Islands) did not radiate long period seismic waves, that is, period shorter than 650 s at least. This conclusion is consistent with the existing composite short and long rise time tsunami model: with short rise time of slip in the southern part of the fault and very long rise time of slip at the northern part. This complex space-time slip evolution can be reproduced by a simple dynamic model of the rupture assuming a crude phenomenological mechanical behaviour of the rupture interface at the fault scales combining an effective slip-controlled exponential weakening effect, related to possible friction and damage breakdown processes of the fault zone, and an effective linear viscous strengthening effect, related to possible interface lubrication processes. While the rupture front speed remains unperturbed with initial short slip duration, a slow creep wave propagates behind the rupture front in the case of viscous effects accounting for the long slip duration and the radiation characteristics in the northern segment.

  15. Mathematical Understanding and Representation Ability of Public Junior High School in North Sumatra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minarni, Ani; Napitupulu, E. Elvis; Husein, Rahmad

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the result of first phase of the research about the development of students' mathematical understanding and representation ability through Joyful Problem-Based Learning (JPBL) at Public Junior High School in North Sumatra, Indonesia. The population is all of the students of public junior high school (PJHS) in North Sumatra. Samples…

  16. Exploration in the Ombilin Intermontane Basin, West Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Koning, T. Petroleum Co., Lagos )

    1996-01-01

    The Ombilin Basin is a Tertiary intermontane basin located within the Barisan Mountain Range of Sumatra. Oil exploration commenced in the Ombilin Basin in the early 1980s when geological mapping was carried out, a synthetic aperture radar survey was flown, and a basin-wide geophysical survey was completed. This effort led to the drilling of Sinimar No. 1 to a total depth 3020 m. Sinimar No. 1 was a historic well in Indonesia's oil industry since it was the first oil exploration well drilled in the Ombilin Basin and also the first well drilled in an intermontane basin in Indonesia. Oil, gas and condensate was tested in the well. An integrated interpretation of the well, geophysical and outcrop data indicates that despite its small areal size (30 km x 50 km), the Ombilin Basin is a deep pull-apart basin containing up to 4500 m of Tertiary sediments, ranging in age from Middle Eocene to Early Miocene. The basin currently is in an intermontane basin structural setting but it was also an intermontane basin during its Early Tertiary depositional history. During the Eocene, alluvial fans and massive debris flows were deposited on the basin margins and a large lake occupied the basin center. Fluvial deposition occurred in the basin during the Oligocene followed by deposition of marine shales, sandstones, and isolated reefs during the Miocene. Although the Ombilin Basin is located within Sumatra's magmatic arc and is partially covered by volcanics from extinct and active volcanoes, the subsurface temperature gradients of 1.62 deg. F/100 ft. recorded in Sinimar No. I and 1.47 deg F/100 ft. measured in a deep (670 m) coal exploration core hole are significantly cooler than the average subsurface temperature gradients in the Sumatra back-arc basins. Organic-rich Eocene lacustrine shales are the likely source rocks for the hydrocarbons tested in Sinimar No. 1 and the oil seeps located along the basin margins.

  17. Terrestrial heat flow in the tertiary basin of central Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva Carvalho, Humberto; Purwoko; Siswoyo; Thamrin, M.; Vacquier, Victor

    1980-10-01

    Heat flow at 170 locations in the Central Tertiary basin of Sumatra was determined from thermal gradients obtained from the extrapolated oil well bottom hole formation temperature and the assumed temperature of 80°F at the surface. The effective thermal conductivity of the whole rock column, by which the gradient is multiplied to get the heat flow was calculated from measurements on 273 specimens of the geologic section and inspection of 92 well logs. For the whole basin the gradient averaged 3.71 ± 1.04°F/ 100 ft (67.6°C/km) the conductivity 4.83 ± 0.31 mcal °C -1 cm -1 sec -1, giving an average heat flow of 3.27 ± 0.93 10-6 cal cm -2 sec -1 which is about twice the world average. The gradient and the heat flow vary inversely with the depth of the wells most of which bottom in the pre-Tertiary basement. This may result from the basement rocks being several times more conductive than the sediments. Mocel calculations on a narrow heat-flow anomaly which rises from a base level of 3.2 HFU to 8.8 HFU suggest that it can be caused by the intrusion less than 55,000 years ago of an igneous plug or laccolith no deeper than 3 km and 2.2 to 4.6 km wide. Using the gradients from the SEAPEX Geothermal Gradient Map and assuming a conductivity of 5 mcal cm -1 °C -1 sec -1, the heat flow in the North Sumatra basin, the South Sumatra Basin, Sunda Strait and West Java is 2.5 HFU, while in Java east of 110°E longitude it drops to 1.9 HFU. Since subduction off Sumatra dates back at least to the Cretaceous, compression of the Asian plate against the Benioff zone is preventing the opening of a back-arc basin. This does not preclude the possibility of occasional periods of crustal tension corresponding perhaps to episodes of transgression which allow magma to rise into the rocks underlying the basin.

  18. [The population of West Sumatra: a profile, trends, and projections].

    PubMed

    Kamaluddin, R

    1984-06-01

    A review of population trends in West Sumatra, Indonesia, is presented, together with projections up to 1990. The author notes that the population increased at a rate of about 2.21 percent per year between 1971 and 1980 and will continue to increase at about 2.12 percent per year up to 1990. The age composition of the population is expected to remain largely unchanged, with a high proportion of young adults and children. Urbanization levels are expected to remain relatively low and variations in spatial distribution to persist. The implications of these trends for development policy are considered.

  19. Review of the source characteristics of the Great Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menke, William; Abend, Hannah; Bach, Dalia; Newman, Kori; Levin, Vadim

    2006-11-01

    The December 26, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Island earthquake, which ruptured the Sunda Trench subduction zone, is one of the three largest earthquakes to occur since global monitoring began in the 1890s. Its seismic moment was M 0 =1.00 × 1023-1.15 × 1023 Nm, corresponding to a moment-magnitude of M w = 9.3. The rupture propagated from south to north, with the southerly part of fault rupturing at a speed of 2.8 km/s. Rupture propagation appears to have slowed in the northern section, possibly to ˜2.1 km/s, although published estimates have considerable scatter. The average slip is ˜5 m along a shallowly dipping (8°), N31°W striking thrust fault. The majority of slip and moment release appears to have been concentrated in the southern part of the rupture zone, where slip locally exceeded 30 m. Stress loading from this earthquake caused the section of the plate boundary immediately to the south to rupture in a second, somewhat smaller earthquake. This second earthquake occurred on March 28, 2005 and had a moment-magnitude of M w = 8.5.

  20. Real-time forecasting of the April 11, 2012 Sumatra tsunami

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Dailin; Becker, Nathan C.; Walsh, David; Fryer, Gerard J.; Weinstein, Stuart A.; McCreery, Charles S.; ,

    2012-01-01

    The April 11, 2012, magnitude 8.6 earthquake off the northern coast of Sumatra generated a tsunami that was recorded at sea-level stations as far as 4800 km from the epicenter and at four ocean bottom pressure sensors (DARTs) in the Indian Ocean. The governments of India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Maldives issued tsunami warnings for their coastlines. The United States' Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) issued an Indian Ocean-wide Tsunami Watch Bulletin in its role as an Interim Service Provider for the region. Using an experimental real-time tsunami forecast model (RIFT), PTWC produced a series of tsunami forecasts during the event that were based on rapidly derived earthquake parameters, including initial location and Mwp magnitude estimates and the W-phase centroid moment tensor solutions (W-phase CMTs) obtained at PTWC and at the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS). We discuss the real-time forecast methodology and how successive, real-time tsunami forecasts using the latest W-phase CMT solutions improved the accuracy of the forecast.

  1. Insight into the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake from GPS measurements in southeast Asia.

    PubMed

    Vigny, C; Simons, W J F; Abu, S; Bamphenyu, Ronnachai; Satirapod, Chalermchon; Choosakul, Nithiwatthn; Subarya, C; Socquet, A; Omar, K; Abidin, H Z; Ambrosius, B A C

    2005-07-14

    Data collected at approximately 60 Global Positioning System (GPS) sites in southeast Asia show the crustal deformation caused by the 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake at an unprecedented large scale. Small but significant co-seismic jumps are clearly detected more than 3,000 km from the earthquake epicentre. The nearest sites, still more than 400 km away, show displacements of 10 cm or more. Here we show that the rupture plane for this earthquake must have been at least 1,000 km long and that non-homogeneous slip is required to fit the large displacement gradients revealed by the GPS measurements. Our kinematic analysis of the GPS recordings indicates that the centroid of released deformation is located at least 200 km north of the seismological epicentre. It also provides evidence that the rupture propagated northward sufficiently fast for stations in northern Thailand to have reached their final positions less than 10 min after the earthquake, hence ruling out the hypothesis of a silent slow aseismic rupture. PMID:16015320

  2. Hydroacoustic contributions to understanding the December 26th 2004 great Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstoy, Maya; Bohnenstiehl, Delwayne R.

    2006-11-01

    Within the era of modern digital-recording, the December 26th 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake represents an event of unprecedented scale. Hydroacoustic observations have made significant contributions toward our understanding of this great rupture and serve to reiterate the potential use of tertiary (T) waves as a tool in tsunami warning. Small-aperture arrays of hydrophones operated by the International Monitoring System (IMS) recorded the seismically generated, water-borne T-wave within the Indian Ocean. Due to the velocity structure of the oceanic water column, T-wave propagation is both slower and more efficient than radiation within the solid earth. This results in a relatively large amplitude signal that arrives within a time window distinct from the more complex and overlapping pattern of solid earth seismic phases. Hydroacoustic analysis has constrained the rupture length of the fault to be ~1,200 km and the duration on the order of 8 min, with 2-3 phases exhibiting progressively decreasing rupture velocity. These data also indicate that aftershock rates in the first hours following the mainshock correlate with spatial variability in the sourced T-wave amplitude, with far fewer events along the northern section of the main rupture. Although IMS stations telemeter data in near real time, data access for scientists was restricted due to the provisions of the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. The swift dissemination of data will be critical in using hydroacoustic methods to assess the magnitude and tsunamigenic potential of future events.

  3. Basin modeling of Jambi Subbasin, South Sumatra, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Halik, N. ); Wu, C. )

    1994-07-01

    The Jambi Subbasin is part of the South Sumatra Basin, a Tertiary back-arc basin formed by the collision between the Sundaland and Indian Plate. The Oligocene synrift Lahat Formation, and the Miocene postrift Talang Akar, Batu Raja, Gumai, and Air Benakat formations are stratigraphic intervals for potential hydrocarbon exploration. Most of the hydrocarbons have been produced from the Talang Akar and Air Benakat formations. Detailed age-depth relationship, paleobathymetry, and eustatic sea level were studied for 11 wells. Degrees of transgression and regression, and relative movement of fault blocks were predicted from rates of total and tectonic subsidence. The structural evolution of the Jambi Subbasin was reconstructed using the backstripping method. Results from the burial history modeling have helped in predicting thermal maturity, hydrocarbon generation, and structural development of the Jambi Subbasin. The timing of basement uplifting started from middle-late Miocene and reached the maximum in Pliocene-Pleistocene. Two hydrocarbon migration and accumulation mechanisms were proposed. In the depocenter, hydrocarbons were generated, migrated upward along faults, and trapped in the middle Miocene Air Benakat Formation, whereas in the basin flanks, hydrocarbons were migrated laterally from the depocenter and trapped in the Oligocene Talang Akar Formation. The methodology of this study can be applied to other subbasins in South Sumatra.

  4. Status of peatland degradation and development in Sumatra and Kalimantan.

    PubMed

    Miettinen, Jukka; Liew, Soo Chin

    2010-01-01

    Peatlands cover around 13 Mha in Sumatra and Kalimantan, Indonesia. Human activities have rapidly increased in the peatland ecosystems during the last two decades, invariably degrading them and making them vulnerable to fires. This causes high carbon emissions that contribute to global climate change. For this article, we used 94 high resolution (10-20 m) satellite images to map the status of peatland degradation and development in Sumatra and Kalimantan using visual image interpretation. The results reveal that less than 4% of the peatland areas remain covered by pristine peatswamp forests (PSFs), while 37% are covered by PSFs with varying degree of degradation. Furthermore, over 20% is considered to be unmanaged degraded landscape, occupied by ferns, shrubs and secondary growth. This alarming extent of degradation makes peatlands vulnerable to accelerated peat decomposition and catastrophic fire episodes that will have global consequences. With on-going degradation and development the existence of the entire tropical peatland ecosystem in this region is in great danger. PMID:21053723

  5. Sumatra-Andaman Megathrust Earthquake Slip: Insights From Mechanical Modeling of ICESat Surface Deformation Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, D. J.; Miuller, J. R.

    2005-12-01

    Modeling the kinematics of the 2004 Great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake is limited in the northern two-thirds of the rupture zone by a scarcity of near-rupture geodetic deformation measurements. Precisely repeated Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) profiles across the Andaman and Nicobar Islands provide a means to more fully document the spatial pattern of surface vertical displacements and thus better constrain geomechanical modeling of the slip distribution. ICESat profiles that total ~45 km in length cross Car Nicobar, Kamorta, and Katchall in the Nicobar chain. Within the Andamans, the coverage includes ~350 km on North, Central, and South Andaman Islands along two NNE and NNW-trending profiles that provide elevations on both the east and west coasts of the island chain. Two profiles totaling ~80 km in length cross South Sentinel Island, and one profile ~10 km long crosses North Sentinel Island. With an average laser footprint spacing of 175 m, the total coverage provides over 2700 georeferenced surface elevations measurements for each operations period. Laser backscatter waveforms recorded for each footprint enable detection of forest canopy top and underlying ground elevations with decimeter vertical precision. Surface elevation change is determined from elevation profiles, acquired before and after the earthquake, that are repeated with a cross-track separation of less than 100 m by precision pointing of the ICESat spacecraft. Apparent elevation changes associated with cross-track offsets are corrected according to local slopes calculated from multiple post-earthquake repeated profiles. The surface deformation measurements recorded by ICESat are generally consistent with the spatial distribution of uplift predicted by a preliminary slip distribution model. To predict co-seismic surface deformation, we apply a slip distribution, derived from the released energy distribution computed by Ishii et al. (2005), as the displacement discontinuity

  6. Impacts of soil and groundwater salinization on tree crop performance in post-tsunami Aceh Barat, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marohn, C.; Distel, A.; Dercon, G.; Wahyunto; Tomlinson, R.; Noordwijk, M. v.; Cadisch, G.

    2012-09-01

    The Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004 had far reaching consequences for agriculture in Aceh province, Indonesia, and particularly in Aceh Barat district, 150 km from the seaquake epicentre. In this study, the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of soil and groundwater salinity and their impact on tree crops were monitored in Aceh Barat from 2006 to 2008. On 48 sampling points along ten transects, covering 40 km of coastline, soil and groundwater salinity were measured and related to mortality and yield depression of the locally most important tree crops. Given a yearly rainfall of over 3000 mm, initial groundwater salinity declined rapidly from over 10 to less than 2 mS cm-1 within two years. On the other hand, seasonal dynamics of the groundwater table in combination with intrusion of saline water into the groundwater body led to recurring elevated salinity, sufficient to affect crops. Tree mortality and yield depression in the flooded area varied considerably between tree species. Damage to coconut (65% trees damaged) was related to tsunami run-up height, while rubber (50% trees damaged) was mainly affected by groundwater salinity. Coconut yields (-35% in average) were constrained by groundwater Ca2+ and Mg2+, while rubber yields (-65% on average) were related to groundwater chloride, pH and soil sodium. These findings have implications on planting deep-rooted tree crops as growth will be constrained by ongoing oscillations of the groundwater table and salinity.

  7. Deep infrasound radiated by the Sumatra earthquake and tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcés, M.; Caron, P.; Hetzer, C.; Le Pichon, A.; Bass, H.; Drob, D.; Bhattacharyya, J.

    Infrasound arrays in the Pacific and Indian oceans that are part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) recorded distinct signatures associated with the 26 December 2004 Sumatra earthquake (M/9, http://earthquake.usgs.gov/) and tsunami. Although the radiation of infrasound from large continental earthquakes is established [e.g., Le Pichon et al., 2003], the results presented in the present article indicate that islands undergoing significant surface displacements from submarine earthquakes can produce infrasound.Far more intriguing is the possibility that the initiation and propagation of a tsunami may produce low-frequency sound near the source as well as along coastlines and basins. Since distant sound effectively propagates at ˜300 m/s and tsunamis propagate at ˜200 m/s, precursory sound could potentially be used as a discriminant for tsunami genesis.

  8. Seismology: speed and size of the Sumatra earthquake.

    PubMed

    Stein, Seth; Okal, Emile A

    2005-03-31

    Our seismological results reveal that Indonesia's devastating Sumatra-Andaman earthquake on 26 December 2004 was 2.5 times larger than initial reports suggested--second only to the 1960 Chilean earthquake in recorded magnitude. They indicate that it slowly released its energy by slip along a 1,200-km fault, generating a long rupture that contributed to the subsequent tsunami. Now that the entire rupture zone has slipped, the strain accumulated from the subduction of the Indian plate beneath the Burma microplate has been released, and there is no immediate danger of a similar tsunami being generated on this part of the plate boundary, although large earthquakes on segments to the south still present a threat.

  9. Interpretation of Geoelectric Structure at Hululais Prospect Area, South Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Mulyadi

    1995-01-01

    Schlumberger resistivity surveys were conducted in 1993 as part of a combined geological, geophysical and geological program to investigate a geothermal prospect in the Hululais area, Southern Sumatra. These resistivity data resolved the upper conductive layer and were interpreted to define the shallow extent of a possible geothermal system. A follow-up magnetotelluric (MT) survey was carried out to probe deeper than the dc resistivity survey results achieved. However, the resistive sub-stratum below the conductive layer was still poorly resolved. Possible reasons for this include a preferential channeling of the telluric current within the thick shallow very conductive layer, thus limiting the penetration depth of the magnetotelluric signals and poor resolution due to high noise levels caused by significant rain and sferics.

  10. Groundwater Eruption in China Triggered By the 2004 Sumatra Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Z.; Wang, D.; Manga, M.; Wang, C. Y.; Wang, G.

    2014-12-01

    The 2004 Mw9.3 Sumatra earthquake initiated a large, sustained groundwater eruption in Guangdong, China, 3200 km away from the epicenter. The erupted water column reached a height of ~60 m above the ground surface when it was first sighted and the eruption lasted about 10 days. Estimated seismic energy density at the eruption site is only 0.046 J.m-3; thus it is surprising that the earthquake caused such an intense response. A field survey showed that a large amount of gaseous CO2 was released from groundwater during the eruption and suggested that the eruption was caused by the exsolution of CO2 from groundwater. In this study, we use numerical simulation to explore the mechanism of the well eruption. We apply tidal analysis to water level data from 2003 to 2006 to estimate the aquifer parameters before and after the earthquake; the hydraulic diffusivity inferred this way is 0.423 m2/s and 1.371 m2/s before and after the earthquake, respectively. Based on these parameters, we use TOUGH2, a widely used numerical program for simulating two-phase hydrothermal processes, to simulate the evolution of CO2 saturation, the velocity of erupted groundwater and pressure in the well-aquifer system after Sumatra earthquake. The simulations show that the earthquake may have triggered bubbles to nucleate from the CO2-rich groundwater and enhanced the aquifer permeability, leading to increased groundwater discharge to the well. Decreased pore-pressure in the aquifer caused greater exsolution of CO2 and greater discharge, leading to groundwater eruption. Exsolution of CO2 extends radially away from the wellbore as a function of time and the continued exsolution of CO2 sustained the eruption until pressure in the aquifer drops below hydrostatic, which is marked by a ~9 m drop in groundwater level from that before the earthquake. That earthquake trigger eruption and CO2 exsolution has implications for CO2 sequestration.

  11. Paleoenvironmental conditions in the late Paleogene, Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'shea, Natalie; Arthur Bettis, E.; Zaim, Yahdi; Rizal, Yan; Aswan, Aswan; Gunnell, Gregg F.; Zonneveld, John-Paul; Ciochon, Russell L.

    2015-11-01

    A stratified paleosol sequence exposed in an open pit mine in central Sumatra provides a record of the paleoenvironmental conditions in the lower reaches of a large river system in the late Paleogene (latest Eocene or Oligocene). Morphological, geochemical, and stable isotope data suggest that the sequence represents a mosaic of local environmental conditions changing from estuarine to riverine up section. Weakly expressed soils formed on low-lying estuary surfaces, while more well expressed soils formed on higher, better drained surfaces. Peatlands (coal) with clayey subsoils were along the estuary margins. Well-expressed soils with evidence of clay translocation and chemical weathering become more common higher in the section where alluvial deposits associated with a meandering river are dominant. Stable carbon isotope ratios support a paleolandscape dominated by C3 plants with input by C4 vegetation limited to a few intervals. Finally, whole-rock geochemistry suggests moderate chemical weathering consistent with a tropical locality. This multi-proxy paleoenvironmental reconstruction suggests a highly productive lowland forest environment at this locality in the late Paleogene and provides the first direct examination of the terrestrial environment in Sumatra at this time. The limited fossil record in Island Southeast Asia during this time period is likely a result of poor bone and shell preservation in tropical forest environments combined with a general lack of systematic prospecting. However, our continuing work in this area has produced a relatively diverse assemblage of fossil vertebrates, now including fishes, amphibians, turtles, crocodiles, and mammals, as well as a growing diversity of fossil plants.

  12. Apes in Space: Saving an Imperilled Orangutan Population in Sumatra

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Smith, Gail; Campbell-Smith, Miran; Singleton, Ian; Linkie, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Deforestation rates in Sumatra are amongst the highest in the tropics. Lowland forests, which support the highest densities of orangutans, are particularly vulnerable to clearance and fragmentation because they are highly accessible. Consequently, many orangutans will, in the future, live in strictly or partially isolated populations. Whilst orangutans have been extensively studied in primary forests, their response to living in human-dominated landscapes remains poorly known, despite it being essential for their future management. Here, we focus on an isolated group of critically endangered Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii) that co-exist with farmers in a mixed agroforest system consisting of degraded natural forest, smallholder (predominantly rubber) farms and oil palm plantations. Over 24 months we conducted the first ever spatial assessment of orangutan habitat use in the human-transformed landscape of Batang Serangan, North Sumatra. From 1,204 independent crop-raiding incidents recorded, orangutans showed strong foraging preference for mixed farmland/degraded forest habitat over oil palm patches. The core home range areas of the eight adult orangutans encompassed only 14% of the available study area. Monthly home range sizes averaged 423 ha (±139, SD) for males, and 131±46 ha for females, and were positively influenced by wild and cultivated fruit presence, and by crop consumption. The average daily distance travelled was similar for both adult males (868 m±350, SD) and females (866 m±195), but increased when orangutans raided crops. These findings show that orangutans can survive, demographically, in certain types of degraded landscapes, foraging on a mixture of crops and wild fruits. However, the poor quality habitat offered to orangutans by oil palm plantations, in terms of low food availability and as a barrier to female movements, is cause for concern since this is the land use type that is most rapidly replacing the preferred forest habitat across

  13. Apes in space: saving an imperilled orangutan population in Sumatra.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Smith, Gail; Campbell-Smith, Miran; Singleton, Ian; Linkie, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Deforestation rates in Sumatra are amongst the highest in the tropics. Lowland forests, which support the highest densities of orangutans, are particularly vulnerable to clearance and fragmentation because they are highly accessible. Consequently, many orangutans will, in the future, live in strictly or partially isolated populations. Whilst orangutans have been extensively studied in primary forests, their response to living in human-dominated landscapes remains poorly known, despite it being essential for their future management. Here, we focus on an isolated group of critically endangered Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii) that co-exist with farmers in a mixed agroforest system consisting of degraded natural forest, smallholder (predominantly rubber) farms and oil palm plantations. Over 24 months we conducted the first ever spatial assessment of orangutan habitat use in the human-transformed landscape of Batang Serangan, North Sumatra. From 1,204 independent crop-raiding incidents recorded, orangutans showed strong foraging preference for mixed farmland/degraded forest habitat over oil palm patches. The core home range areas of the eight adult orangutans encompassed only 14% of the available study area. Monthly home range sizes averaged 423 ha (±139, SD) for males, and 131 ± 46 ha for females, and were positively influenced by wild and cultivated fruit presence, and by crop consumption. The average daily distance travelled was similar for both adult males (868 m ± 350, SD) and females (866 m ± 195), but increased when orangutans raided crops. These findings show that orangutans can survive, demographically, in certain types of degraded landscapes, foraging on a mixture of crops and wild fruits. However, the poor quality habitat offered to orangutans by oil palm plantations, in terms of low food availability and as a barrier to female movements, is cause for concern since this is the land use type that is most rapidly replacing the preferred forest habitat

  14. Controls on early retention and late enhancement of microporosity in reefal gas reservoirs, offshore north Sumatra basin

    SciTech Connect

    Moshier, S.O.

    1989-03-01

    Chalky lime-matrix texture is pervasive in 300 m of coralgal and skeletal carbonates in the NSB-A (North Sumatra basin-A) gas field (lower-middle Miocene), offshore northern Sumatra. Much of the reservoir quality can be attributed to matrix with abundant intercrystalline, vuggy, and channel-form micropores. Matrix is composed of calcite microrhombs which are interpreted to have developed during stabilization of the precursor mud. On the same shelf, the smaller NSB-H oil field is composed of more than 45-m thick buildup of similar lithofacies which lack abundant microporosity. In both fields, early diagenesis included dissolution of aragonitic skeletal material, matrix neomorphism, and precipitation of nonluminescent calcite followed by zoned, luminescent calcite cements. Stable isotopes from matrix reflect a more open or water-dominated matrix diagenesis at NSB-H field. More active flushing of oversaturated, organically charged meteoric waters was responsible for thorough matrix cementation and microporosity occlusion at NSB-H field. Calcite cements show progressive enrichment of iron and manganese and depletion of magnesium and strontium during growth. The matrix at NSB-H field contains iron-rich dolomite. At A field, remnant matrix microporosity and intraparticle microporosity in calcitic skeletal material were greatly enhanced after all phases of cementation. Some pore-rimming cements are partially dissolved. At NSB-H field, late-phase dissolution is limited to the vicinity of open fractures where matrix-calcite and dolomite crystals are leached. Reservoir brines have a limey marine origin but are depleted in Ca and Mg relative to seawater, and carbon dioxide accounts for 31% of reservoir gas. If present brines are carbonate undersaturated, they may be substantially enhanced microporosity at NSB-A field. Late-stage dissolution is insignificant at NSB-H field due to the lack of early formed matrix microporosity.

  15. Crustal shear-wave velocity structure beneath Sumatra from receiver function modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, Dipok K.; Borah, Kajaljyoti; Goyal, Ayush

    2016-05-01

    We estimated the shear-wave velocity structure and Vp/Vs ratio of the crust beneath the Sumatra region by inverting stacked receiver functions from five three-component broadband seismic stations, located in diverse geologic setting, using a well known non-linear direct search approach, Neighborhood Algorithm (NA). Inversion results show significant variation of sediment layer thicknesses from 1 km beneath the backarc basin (station BKNI and PMBI) to 3-7 km beneath the coastal part of Sumatra region (station LHMI and MNAI) and Nias island (station GSI). Average sediment layer shear velocity (Vss) beneath all the stations is observed to be less (∼1.35 km/s) and their corresponding Vp/Vs ratio is very high (∼2.2-3.0). Crustal thickness beneath Sumatra region varies between 27 and 35 km, with exception of 19 km beneath Nias island, with average crustal Vs ∼3.1-3.4 km/s (Vp/Vs ∼1.8). It is well known that thick sediments with low Vs (and high Vp/Vs) amplify seismic waves even from a small-magnitude earthquake, which can cause huge damage in the zone. This study can provide the useful information of the crust for the Sumatra region. Since, Sumatra is an earthquake prone zone, which suffered the strong shaking of Great Andaman-Sumatra earthquake; this study can also be helpful for seismic hazard assessment.

  16. Utilization of the Local Government Health Insurance Scheme (JKA) for Maternal Health Services Among Women Living in Underdeveloped Areas of Aceh Province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kesuma, Zurnila Marli; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2015-04-01

    Aceh province of Indonesia created its own health coverage scheme called Jaminan Kesehatan Aceh (JKA) to cover Aceh's populations who were not registered under insurance for the poor (Jamkesmas). This study aims to compare the utilization rate of maternal health care (MHC) services and contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) before JKA, during the transition period, and after JKA had been established. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted from June 2011 to July 2012. Utilization of MHC services and CPR during the 3 periods was assessed using a questionnaire. The Mantel-Haenszel χ(2) test was used to examine the association between period and coverage. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to examine utilization and type of service, period of service, and type of scheme. Coverage of utilization of skilled birth attendants significantly improved among the JKA holders (odds ratio = 1.84; 95% confidence interval = 1.18-2.89). JKA, thus, has shown its positive impact.

  17. Time Reversal of Seismic Waves and the Great Sumatra Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagner, J.; Larmat, C.; Fink, M.; Capdeville, Y.; Clevede, E.; Tourin, A.

    2005-12-01

    The occurrence of the disastrous Sumatra-Andaman earthquake on dec. 26, 2004 makes it necessary to develop innovative techniques for studying the complex spatio-temporal rupture mechanism of this giant earthquake. We present here the first application of time-reversal to seismic data. This concept was previously successfully applied for acoustic waves in many fields such as medical imaging, oceanography and non destructive testing. Time-reversal experiments are using the time reversal invariance and the spatial reciprocity of the wave equation. Their primary goal is the refocusing of energy at the location and the time of an acoustic source by time-reversing the recorded signals. As in acoustics, seismic waves are also potentially reversible. In order to achieve a time reversal experiment within the three-dimensional Earth, we take advantage of the increasing power of numerical methods (such as spectral elements methods), which enable to simulate more and more accurately the propagation of seismic waves in heterogeneous media. In addition, at very long period (longer than 200s), the available earth models are sufficiently good to enable the backpropagation of 3-component seismic waves of real data. For the first time, we have performed several synthetic and real data time-reversal experiments for seismic waves by a purely numerical technique. The seismograms of the FDSN Global network used as an active network, seismic waves are backpropagated by numerical calculation in reversed time. The time reversal technique is applied to real data at very long period (T>200s). For a point source,the coordinates of the earthquake and the strike of the fault plane are correctly retrieved, and the focusing in space and time is sharp. When time-reversing seismic data of the recent Great Sumatra- Andaman earthquake (Dec 26, 2004, Magnitude 9.3), in spite of the large extension of the source in space and time, it is shown that we still refocus at the location and time of the

  18. Malaria prevalence in Nias District, North Sumatra Province, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Syafruddin, Din; Asih, Puji BS; Wahid, Isra; Dewi, Rita M; Tuti, Sekar; Laowo, Idaman; Hulu, Waozidohu; Zendrato, Pardamean; Laihad, Ferdinand; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2007-01-01

    Background The Nias district of the North Sumatra Province of Indonesia has long been known to be endemic for malaria. Following the economic crisis at the end of 1998 and the subsequent tsunami and earthquake, in December 2004 and March 2005, respectively, the malaria control programme in the area deteriorated. The present study aims to provide baseline data for the establishment of a suitable malaria control programme in the area and to analyse the frequency distribution of drug resistance alleles associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. Methods Malariometric and entomology surveys were performed in three subdistricts. Thin and thick blood smears were stained with Giemsa and examined under binocular light microscopy. Blood blots on filter paper were also prepared for isolation of parasite and host DNA to be used for molecular analysis of band 3 (SAO), pfcrt, pfmdr1, dhfr, and dhps. In addition, haemoglobin measurement was performed in the second and third surveys for the subjects less than 10 years old. Results Results of the three surveys revealed an average slide positivity rate of 8.13%, with a relatively higher rate in certain foci. Host genetic analysis, to identify the Band 3 deletion associated with Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis (SAO), revealed an overall frequency of 1.0% among the 1,484 samples examined. One hundred six Plasmodium falciparum isolates from three sub-districts were successfully analysed. Alleles of the dhfr and dhps genes associated with resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, dhfr C59R and S108N, and dhps A437G and K540E, were present at frequencies of 52.2%, 82.5%, 1.18% and 1.18%, respectively. The pfmdr1 alleles N86Y and N1042D, putatively associated with mefloquine resistance, were present at 31.4% and 2%, respectively. All but one sample carried the pfcrt 76T allele associated with chloroquine resistance. Entomologic surveys identified three potential anopheline vectors in the area, Anopheles

  19. Outbreak of tetanus cases following the tsunami in Aceh Province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    Aceh Province in Indonesia was the area most severely affected by the tsunami of 26 December 2004. Extensive loss of life, property, and livelihood left a large segment of the population without basic needs and vulnerable to epidemic-prone diseases. Following the tsunami, a surveillance/early warning and response system was implemented to detect, investigate, and respond to outbreaks of communicable diseases. Fixed and mobile clinics, hospitals, and laboratories, operating all over the affected areas, reported weekly figures and daily alerts. Over 1 month following the tsunami, 106 cases of clinically diagnosed tetanus were reported. Most cases occurred among adults. The case fatality ratio was 18.9%, higher among older patients and among those with short incubation periods. No other major outbreaks occurred in the acute phase of the emergency. This series of tetanus cases was the largest cluster reported following a natural disaster or mass casualty event, overtaken only by the recent earthquake in the Kashmir (139 cases reported), and reflects the high number of injuries which occurred during the tsunami and poor prior immunization status of the population. In the context of natural disasters, preventive measures against tetanus, including wound cleaning and active and passive immunization, should be routinely conducted. Immediate disaster relief should include supplies for the management of wounds and cases of tetanus.

  20. Influence of coastal vegetation on the 2004 tsunami wave impact in west Aceh

    PubMed Central

    Laso Bayas, Juan Carlos; Marohn, Carsten; Dercon, Gerd; Dewi, Sonya; Piepho, Hans Peter; Joshi, Laxman; van Noordwijk, Meine; Cadisch, Georg

    2011-01-01

    In a tsunami event human casualties and infrastructure damage are determined predominantly by seaquake intensity and offshore properties. On land, wave energy is attenuated by gravitation (elevation) and friction (land cover). Tree belts have been promoted as “bioshields” against wave impact. However, given the lack of quantitative evidence of their performance in such extreme events, tree belts have been criticized for creating a false sense of security. This study used 180 transects perpendicular to over 100 km on the west coast of Aceh, Indonesia to analyze the influence of coastal vegetation, particularly cultivated trees, on the impact of the 2004 tsunami. Satellite imagery; land cover maps; land use characteristics; stem diameter, height, and planting density; and a literature review were used to develop a land cover roughness coefficient accounting for the resistance offered by different land uses to the wave advance. Applying a spatial generalized linear mixed model, we found that while distance to coast was the dominant determinant of impact (casualties and infrastructure damage), the existing coastal vegetation in front of settlements also significantly reduced casualties by an average of 5%. In contrast, dense vegetation behind villages endangered human lives and increased structural damage. Debris carried by the backwash may have contributed to these dissimilar effects of land cover. For sustainable and effective coastal risk management, location of settlements is essential, while the protective potential of coastal vegetation, as determined by its spatial arrangement, should be regarded as an important livelihood provider rather than just as a bioshield. PMID:22065751

  1. Influence of coastal vegetation on the 2004 tsunami wave impact in west Aceh.

    PubMed

    Laso Bayas, Juan Carlos; Marohn, Carsten; Dercon, Gerd; Dewi, Sonya; Piepho, Hans Peter; Joshi, Laxman; van Noordwijk, Meine; Cadisch, Georg

    2011-11-15

    In a tsunami event human casualties and infrastructure damage are determined predominantly by seaquake intensity and offshore properties. On land, wave energy is attenuated by gravitation (elevation) and friction (land cover). Tree belts have been promoted as "bioshields" against wave impact. However, given the lack of quantitative evidence of their performance in such extreme events, tree belts have been criticized for creating a false sense of security. This study used 180 transects perpendicular to over 100 km on the west coast of Aceh, Indonesia to analyze the influence of coastal vegetation, particularly cultivated trees, on the impact of the 2004 tsunami. Satellite imagery; land cover maps; land use characteristics; stem diameter, height, and planting density; and a literature review were used to develop a land cover roughness coefficient accounting for the resistance offered by different land uses to the wave advance. Applying a spatial generalized linear mixed model, we found that while distance to coast was the dominant determinant of impact (casualties and infrastructure damage), the existing coastal vegetation in front of settlements also significantly reduced casualties by an average of 5%. In contrast, dense vegetation behind villages endangered human lives and increased structural damage. Debris carried by the backwash may have contributed to these dissimilar effects of land cover. For sustainable and effective coastal risk management, location of settlements is essential, while the protective potential of coastal vegetation, as determined by its spatial arrangement, should be regarded as an important livelihood provider rather than just as a bioshield.

  2. Outbreak of tetanus cases following the tsunami in Aceh Province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    Aceh Province in Indonesia was the area most severely affected by the tsunami of 26 December 2004. Extensive loss of life, property, and livelihood left a large segment of the population without basic needs and vulnerable to epidemic-prone diseases. Following the tsunami, a surveillance/early warning and response system was implemented to detect, investigate, and respond to outbreaks of communicable diseases. Fixed and mobile clinics, hospitals, and laboratories, operating all over the affected areas, reported weekly figures and daily alerts. Over 1 month following the tsunami, 106 cases of clinically diagnosed tetanus were reported. Most cases occurred among adults. The case fatality ratio was 18.9%, higher among older patients and among those with short incubation periods. No other major outbreaks occurred in the acute phase of the emergency. This series of tetanus cases was the largest cluster reported following a natural disaster or mass casualty event, overtaken only by the recent earthquake in the Kashmir (139 cases reported), and reflects the high number of injuries which occurred during the tsunami and poor prior immunization status of the population. In the context of natural disasters, preventive measures against tetanus, including wound cleaning and active and passive immunization, should be routinely conducted. Immediate disaster relief should include supplies for the management of wounds and cases of tetanus. PMID:19153905

  3. Crisis into opportunity: setting up community mental health services in post-tsunami Aceh.

    PubMed

    Jones, L M; Ghani, H A; Mohanraj, A; Morrison, S; Smith, P; Stube, D; Asare, J

    2007-01-01

    The Asian Tsunami killed more than 130,000 people and made 400,000 homeless in Aceh, an area in Indonesia already affected by over thirty years of conflict. This paper examines an approach taken by an International Non-Governmental Organisation (INGO) to address emergency mental health and psychosocial needs in an integrated way, by providing a continuum of care incorporating psychosocial support for the wider community and clinical services for the more severely affected. The model included outreach to the indigenous system. Psychosocial activities were developed in partnership with the local communities. Community-based clinical mental health services were established by identifying and building locally-based capacity at the primary health care level, and potentially sustainable services were established in collaboration with the Ministry of Health. By December 2005, four hundred and eighty three patients had been seen. More than one third suffered from serious mental disorders that predated the Tsunami. Thus, crisis provided an opportunity to address longstanding community mental health needs. The lessons learned from this approach are also discussed.

  4. Rebuilt risk: involuntary return, voluntary migration, and socioeconomic segregation in post-tsunami Aceh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaughey, Jamie; Daly, Patrick; Mundzir, Ibnu; Mahdi, Saiful; Patt, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    In light of growing coastal populations and rising relative sea levels, understanding the consequences of infrequent, high-impact coastal hazards for human migration is a key ingredient for meeting the challenges of sustainable development. Using new quantitative and qualitative evidence from 1160 households and 121 village leaders, we examine longer-term migration in the city of Banda Aceh, Indonesia, following the devastating 2004 tsunami and an international aid response that offered most survivors only resettlement back in the tsunami-affected area. While many survivors wanted to return, some preferred to relocate further from the coast but did not have the chance to do so. Since that time, selective out-migration by those with the means and socioeconomic sorting of newcomers have led to a new socioeconomic segregation of the tsunami-affected parts of the city. More broadly, these findings suggest that short-distance socioeconomic sorting into and out from vulnerable areas may be an important migratory response to a newly recognized risk.

  5. Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae): a review of conservation status.

    PubMed

    Wibisono, Hariyo T; Pusparini, Wulan

    2010-12-01

    The majority of wild Sumatran tigers are believed to live in 12 Tiger Conservation Landscapes covering approximately 88,000 km(2) . However, the actual distribution of tigers across Sumatra has never been accurately mapped. Over the past 20 years, conservation efforts focused on the Sumatran tigers have increased, but the population continues to decline as a result of several key threats. To identify the status of the Sumatran tiger distribution across the island, an island-wide questionnaire survey comprised of 35 respondents from various backgrounds was conducted between May and June 2010. The survey found that Sumatran tigers are positively present in 27 habitat patches larger than 250 km(2) and possibly present in another 2. In addition, a review on major published studies on the Sumatran tiger was conducted to identify the current conservation status of the Sumatran tiger. Collectively, these studies have identified several key factors that have contributed to the decline of Sumatran tiger populations, including: forest habitat fragmentation and loss, direct killing of tigers and their prey, and the retaliatory killing of tigers due to conflict with villagers. The present paper provides management authorities and the international community with a recent assessment and a base map of the actual distribution of Sumatran tigers as well as a general overview on the current status and possible future conservation challenges of Sumatran tiger management.

  6. Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae): a review of conservation status.

    PubMed

    Wibisono, Hariyo T; Pusparini, Wulan

    2010-12-01

    The majority of wild Sumatran tigers are believed to live in 12 Tiger Conservation Landscapes covering approximately 88,000 km(2) . However, the actual distribution of tigers across Sumatra has never been accurately mapped. Over the past 20 years, conservation efforts focused on the Sumatran tigers have increased, but the population continues to decline as a result of several key threats. To identify the status of the Sumatran tiger distribution across the island, an island-wide questionnaire survey comprised of 35 respondents from various backgrounds was conducted between May and June 2010. The survey found that Sumatran tigers are positively present in 27 habitat patches larger than 250 km(2) and possibly present in another 2. In addition, a review on major published studies on the Sumatran tiger was conducted to identify the current conservation status of the Sumatran tiger. Collectively, these studies have identified several key factors that have contributed to the decline of Sumatran tiger populations, including: forest habitat fragmentation and loss, direct killing of tigers and their prey, and the retaliatory killing of tigers due to conflict with villagers. The present paper provides management authorities and the international community with a recent assessment and a base map of the actual distribution of Sumatran tigers as well as a general overview on the current status and possible future conservation challenges of Sumatran tiger management. PMID:21392349

  7. Embedded wisdom or rooted problems? Aid workers' perspectives on local social and political infrastructure in post-tsunami Aceh.

    PubMed

    Daly, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    This paper analyses the role of local social, cultural, and political institutions in post-disaster reconstruction projects. It contends that such institutions are important considerations within community-driven reconstruction initiatives, but are often viewed with ambivalence by external aid organisations. This paper draws upon in-depth qualitative interviews with aid workers involved in the post-tsunami reconstruction in Aceh, Indonesia, to establish: (i) what roles community institutions were suited to play in the reconstruction; (ii) what were the limitations of community institutions when engaging with external aid agencies; (iii) how did external aid agencies engage with local community institutions; and (iv) how did external aid agencies perceive community institutions.

  8. Radiocarbon Content of Intermediate Waters off West Sumatra During the Last 45,000 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pol-Holz, R.; Mohtadi, M.; Southon, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Radiocarbon content of intermediate waters originating from the Southern Ocean is held as a likely smoking gun of the events that triggered the atmospheric CO2 rise and its radiocarbon decline during the last glacial-interglacial transition. Late Glacial depleted radiocarbon water masses have been found at intermediate depths off the coast of Baja California, the Galapagos, the Arabian Sea, but not unequivocally elsewhere. Knowing the route of the old water is therefore central for the required mechanistic linkage of Southern Ocean processes and the atmospheric response. A common approach to search for the old water reservoir is the radiocarbon difference between planktonic and benthic foraminifera or 'apparent ventilation age'. Caveats of this approach are due to the fact that it relies strongly on the knowledge of the surface water reservoir age. In this study, we present a high-resolution radiocarbon difference between surface and intermediate depth waters off west Sumatra in the attempt to elucidate a possible route of the old water from its hypothetical source in the high latitudes near Antarctica on its way to the lower latitude sites where it has been observed. Samples come from core SO189-39KL (0°47'S, 99°55'E, 517 m), a 1350 cm hemipelagic sedimentary sequence that spans the last 45,000 years. Radiocarbon determinations were made at centennial time resolution on both planktonic and benthic species. Calibration of the planktonic radiocarbon as age control points allowed us to infer the Δ14C of the intermediate waters. Our results show that throughout the LGM and the entire deglaciation, radiocarbon content of intermediate depths in the area remained with an almost constant age difference with the contemporaneous atmosphere. Unless we have grossly underestimated the local planktonic reservoir age, our results discard this area as a probable route for the spreading of the old water along its way to northern latitudes. In light of recent evidence from the

  9. Long Continuous Deformation during 2008-2012 Sumatra Earthquakes Using DINSAR and GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur Cahyadi, C. N.

    2015-12-01

    Indonesia located in three tectonic plates. This situation caused many earthquakes and long continuous movement of plate tectonics. The island which has big tectonic movement phenomena was Sumatra Island. We monitored long deformation process during interseismic and coseismic of three earthquakes in this Island. The three earthquakes were Mentawai 2008, Padang 2009 and North Sumatra 2012 earthquakes. We used Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DINSAR) and Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite in order to monitor the displacement. We used GAMIT software for GPS and open source software ROYPAC for DINSAR. Sumatra GPS Array (SUGAR) Networks were used to analyze the displacement rate. The result of displacement was very different year to year, Mw 7.6 Padang earthquake had 15.8 cm up and caused subduction zone of trench Sumatra movement about 1.8 cm to 7 cm up. The displacements was continued by Mw 7.7 Mentawai earthquake 2008. We monitored intersesismic, coseismic and postseismic phase. Coseismic phase was 0.222m in horizontal direction and 0.1415 m in vertical direction (SLBU station). The interseismic phase was smaller about 0.118 m in BSAT stations (south east direction). The biggest deformation was detected during interseismic and postseismic North Sumatra 2012 earthquakes with deformation 0.300-3.00 meter.

  10. Detailed seafloor morphology in the epicentral region of the Great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake from the compilation of 2005-2006 French and British swath bathymetric data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graindorge, D.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Sibuet, J.; Permana, H.; Dessa, J.; Singh, S.; Dean, S.; White, N.; Carton, H.; Chauhan, A.; Greenroyd, C. J.; Royle, G.; Aryawan, K. G.; Chaubey, A. K.; Galih, D. R.; Laesanpura, A.; Prihantono, J.; Shankar, U.; McNeill, L. C.; Henstock, T. J.; Tappin, D.

    2006-12-01

    The 26th December 2004 Great Sumatra Earthquake is the second largest earthquake (Mw=9.1) recorded during the past century. In order to investigate the sea-floor morphology and potentially recent fault activity related to the seismic activity, swath bathymetric mapping was conducted by the French vessel R/V Marion Dufresne during Sumatra-Aftershocks 2005 cruise and complemented during SAGER-OBS in 2006. The 2005 box was a 370 km x 75 km strip located between northern Sumatra and the Indonesia/India boundary (Sibuet et al, 2005). These data complemented the data acquired by HMS Scott (Henstock et al, 2006) earlier in 2005. This year, we filled the gap in the 2005 surveys and added two more boxes. Box A is located over the outer ridge and wedge, east of the area covered during the Sumatra Aftershocks cruise. Box B is in the vicinity of the epicentre and completes the existing data set on the outer ridge, north of the West Andaman Fault (WAF). These data, combined with the HMS Scott data represent about 70 percent of the surface area between west Simeulue Island and the India-Indonesia boundary, from the trench to north- west Sumatra. This dataset provides for the first time the detailed morphology of the vast epicentral region, which permits us to identify fine-scale as well large-scale geo-morphological features related to subduction processes. New data outline the major discontinuity of the deflection of the outer ridge where it crosses the WAF. As identified last year, some of the active deformation in the wedge and at the base of the outer ridge could be interpreted as the emergence of major splay faults that may accommodate part of the December 26th earthquake thrusting. Apart from thrusting, the upper part of the wedge shows folds and pull-apart basins that indicate a significant strike motion. To the south, the outer ridge is well developed in the continuity of Simeulue Island forming a 60 km wide, relatively smooth 1000 m deep plateau. The entire data

  11. Design and testing of fish drier system utilizing geothermal energy resource in Ie Suum, Aceh Besar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubarak, Amir Zaki; Maulana, M. Ilham; Syuhada, Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    In an effort to increase the value of fish produced by the community in Krueng Raya Sub-district, it has been designed and tested a fish drier system utilizing geothermal energy resource in IeSuum Village, Krueng Raya Sub-district, Aceh Besar District. The geothermal energy is in the form of hot water with the temperature range is between 86 and 86.4 °C. Based on the design consideration, it is used a terraced rack type drier system. The drier system consists of a heat exchanger, drying chamber, and a blower to blow the air. Hot water from the geothermal source is passed into the heat exchanger to increase the air temperature outside it. The air is then blown into the drying chamber. Based on the design analysis is obtained that to dry 200 kg of fish in 24 hour, it is required a drying chamber with 1m long, 1 m width and 0.4 m high, the temperature of hot water entering the exchanger is 80 °C and the temperature of the air entering the drying chamber is maintained at 60°C. The average time required to dry fish till 10% of water level is 18-20 jam. The research is then continued by developing and testing the drying system with three layer rack to put in the fish. From the experimental result is obtained that the average water temperature flows out of the chamber is in the range of 76-78 °C and the temperature in the chamber is in the range of 57-62 °C. In addition, the weight of the fish, which initially is 20 kg, becomes12 kg in average after 18 hours drying process.

  12. Spawning seasons of Rasbora tawarensis (Pisces: Cyprinidae) in Lake Laut Tawar, Aceh Province, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rasbora tawarensis is an endemic freshwater fish in Lake Laut Tawar, Aceh Province, Indonesia. Unfortunately, its status is regarded as critical endangered with populations decreasing in recent years. To date no information on the spawning activities of the fish are available. Therefore, this study provides a contribution to the knowledge on reproductive biology of R. tawarensis especially on spawning seasons as well as basic information for conservation of the species. Methods Monthly sampling was conducted from April 2008 to March 2009 by using selective gillnets. The gonadosomatic index, size composition and sex ratio were assessed. The gonadal development was evaluated based on macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the gonads. Results The gonadosomatic index (GSI) varied between 6.65 to 18.16 in female and 4.94 to 8.56 for male. GSI of the female R. tawarensis was higher in March, September and December indicating the onset of reproductive seasons, the GSI and oocyte size being directly correlated with gonadal development stages. Although, a greater proportion of mature male than female was detected during the study, the sex ratio showed that the overall number of female was higher than male. The ovaries had multiple oocyte size classes at every stage of gonadal development, thus R. tawarensis can be classified as a group synchronous spawner or a fractional multiple spawner. Conclusion The spawning seasons of R. tawarensis were three times a year and September being the peak of the reproductive season and the female was the predominant sex. This species is classified as a group synchronous spawner. PMID:20482777

  13. Future fire emissions associated with projected land use change in Sumatra.

    PubMed

    Marlier, Miriam E; DeFries, Ruth; Pennington, Derric; Nelson, Erik; Ordway, Elsa M; Lewis, Jeremy; Koplitz, Shannon N; Mickley, Loretta J

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia has experienced rapid land use change over the last few decades as forests and peatswamps have been cleared for more intensively managed land uses, including oil palm and timber plantations. Fires are the predominant method of clearing and managing land for more intensive uses, and the related emissions affect public health by contributing to regional particulate matter and ozone concentrations and adding to global atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Here, we examine emissions from fires associated with land use clearing and land management on the Indonesian island of Sumatra and the sensitivity of this fire activity to interannual meteorological variability. We find ~80% of 2005-2009 Sumatra emissions are associated with degradation or land use maintenance instead of immediate land use conversion, especially in dry years. We estimate Sumatra fire emissions from land use change and maintenance for the next two decades with five scenarios of land use change, the Global Fire Emissions Database Version 3, detailed 1-km2 land use change maps, and MODIS fire radiative power observations. Despite comprising only 16% of the original study area, we predict that 37-48% of future Sumatra emissions from land use change will occur in fuel-rich peatswamps unless this land cover type is protected effectively. This result means that the impact of fires on future air quality and climate in Equatorial Asia will be decided in part by the conservation status given to the remaining peatswamps on Sumatra. Results from this article will be implemented in an atmospheric transport model to quantify the public health impacts from the transport of fire emissions associated with future land use scenarios in Sumatra. PMID:25044917

  14. Future fire emissions associated with projected land use change in Sumatra.

    PubMed

    Marlier, Miriam E; DeFries, Ruth; Pennington, Derric; Nelson, Erik; Ordway, Elsa M; Lewis, Jeremy; Koplitz, Shannon N; Mickley, Loretta J

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia has experienced rapid land use change over the last few decades as forests and peatswamps have been cleared for more intensively managed land uses, including oil palm and timber plantations. Fires are the predominant method of clearing and managing land for more intensive uses, and the related emissions affect public health by contributing to regional particulate matter and ozone concentrations and adding to global atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Here, we examine emissions from fires associated with land use clearing and land management on the Indonesian island of Sumatra and the sensitivity of this fire activity to interannual meteorological variability. We find ~80% of 2005-2009 Sumatra emissions are associated with degradation or land use maintenance instead of immediate land use conversion, especially in dry years. We estimate Sumatra fire emissions from land use change and maintenance for the next two decades with five scenarios of land use change, the Global Fire Emissions Database Version 3, detailed 1-km2 land use change maps, and MODIS fire radiative power observations. Despite comprising only 16% of the original study area, we predict that 37-48% of future Sumatra emissions from land use change will occur in fuel-rich peatswamps unless this land cover type is protected effectively. This result means that the impact of fires on future air quality and climate in Equatorial Asia will be decided in part by the conservation status given to the remaining peatswamps on Sumatra. Results from this article will be implemented in an atmospheric transport model to quantify the public health impacts from the transport of fire emissions associated with future land use scenarios in Sumatra.

  15. Contemporary Minangkabau food culture in West Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Lipoeto, N I; Mmedsci; Agus, Z; Oenzil, F; Masrul, M; Wattanapenpaiboon, N

    2001-01-01

    Diet has a strong relationship with food culture and changes in it are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of newly emergent degenerative diseases. To obtain in-depth opinions about the food culture of Minangkabau people, focus group discussions were conducted in a Minangkabau region, represented by four villages in West Sumatra, Indonesia, from January to March 1999. The members of the discussion groups were principally women aged from 35 to 82 years old. Minangkabau culture is matriarchal and matrilineal which accounts for female gender dominants in the discussions. Rice, fish, coconut and chilli are the basic ingredients of the Minangkabau meals. Meat, especially beef and chicken, is mainly prepared for special occasions; pork is not halal and therefore not eaten by Muslim Minangkabau people; and for reasons of taste preference and availability, lamb, goat and wild game are rarely eaten. However, rendang, a popular meat dish, has been identified as one of the Minangkabau food culture characteristic dishes. Vegetables are consumed daily. Fruit is mainly seasonal, although certain kinds of fruit, such as banana, papaya and citrus, can be found all year around. Coconut has an important role in Minangkabau food culture and is the main source of dietary fat. While almost all food items consumed by the Minangkabau can be cooked with coconut milk, fried food with coconut oil is considered to be a daily basic food. Desiccated coconut is also used as a food ingredient on about a weekly basis and in snack foods almost every day. Although there have been no changes in food preparation and there is a slight difference in taste preference between the young and the old generations, there has been a dramatic shift in food preferences, which is reflected in the changing percentage of energy consumed over the past 15 years. The traditional combination of rice, fish and coconut in Minangkabau culture goes back hundreds of years, long before the emergence of the degenerative

  16. Contemporary Minangkabau food culture in West Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Lipoeto, N I; Mmedsci; Agus, Z; Oenzil, F; Masrul, M; Wattanapenpaiboon, N

    2001-01-01

    Diet has a strong relationship with food culture and changes in it are likely to be involved in the pathogenesis of newly emergent degenerative diseases. To obtain in-depth opinions about the food culture of Minangkabau people, focus group discussions were conducted in a Minangkabau region, represented by four villages in West Sumatra, Indonesia, from January to March 1999. The members of the discussion groups were principally women aged from 35 to 82 years old. Minangkabau culture is matriarchal and matrilineal which accounts for female gender dominants in the discussions. Rice, fish, coconut and chilli are the basic ingredients of the Minangkabau meals. Meat, especially beef and chicken, is mainly prepared for special occasions; pork is not halal and therefore not eaten by Muslim Minangkabau people; and for reasons of taste preference and availability, lamb, goat and wild game are rarely eaten. However, rendang, a popular meat dish, has been identified as one of the Minangkabau food culture characteristic dishes. Vegetables are consumed daily. Fruit is mainly seasonal, although certain kinds of fruit, such as banana, papaya and citrus, can be found all year around. Coconut has an important role in Minangkabau food culture and is the main source of dietary fat. While almost all food items consumed by the Minangkabau can be cooked with coconut milk, fried food with coconut oil is considered to be a daily basic food. Desiccated coconut is also used as a food ingredient on about a weekly basis and in snack foods almost every day. Although there have been no changes in food preparation and there is a slight difference in taste preference between the young and the old generations, there has been a dramatic shift in food preferences, which is reflected in the changing percentage of energy consumed over the past 15 years. The traditional combination of rice, fish and coconut in Minangkabau culture goes back hundreds of years, long before the emergence of the degenerative

  17. Performance of Buildings in the 2009 Western Sumatra Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deierlein, G.; Hart, T.; Alexander, N.; Hausler, E.; Henderson, S.; Wood, K.; Cedillos, V.; Wijanto, S.; Cabrera, C.; Rudianto, S.

    2009-12-01

    The M7.6 earthquake of 30 September 2009 in Western Sumatra, Indonesia caused significant damage and collapse to hundreds of buildings and the deaths of 1,117 people. In Padang City, with a population of about 900,000 people, building collapse was the primary cause of deaths and serious injuries (313 deaths and 431 serious injuries). The predominant building construction types in Padang are concrete moment frames with brick infill and masonry bearing wall systems. Concrete frames are common in multistory commercial retail buildings, offices, schools, and hotels; and masonry bearing wall systems are primarily used in low-rise (usually single story) residential and school buildings. In general, buildings that collapsed did not conform to modern seismic engineering practices that are required by the current Indonesian building code and would be expected in regions of moderate to high seismicity. While collapse of multi-story concrete buildings was more prevalent in older buildings (more than 10 years old), there were several newer buildings that collapsed. Primary deficiencies identified in collapsed or severely damaged buildings included: (a) soft or weak stories that failed in either by sidesway mechanisms or shear failures followed by loss of axial capacity of columns, (b) lack of ductile reinforcing bar detailing in concrete beams, columns, and beam-column joints, (c) poor quality concrete and mortar materials and workmanship, (d) vulnerable building configurations and designs with incomplete or deficient load paths, and (e) out-of-plane wall failures in unreinforced (or marginally reinforced) masonry. While these deficiencies may be expected in older buildings, damage and collapse to some modern (or recently rennovated buildings) indicates a lack of enforcement of building code provisions for design and construction quality assurance. Many new buildings whose structural systems were undamaged were closed due to extensive earthquake damage to brick infill walls

  18. Assessment of shale-oil resources of the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 459 million barrels of shale oil, 275 billion cubic feet of associated gas, and 23 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia.

  19. Assessment of shale-oil resources of the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2015-11-12

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 459 million barrels of shale oil, 275 billion cubic feet of associated gas, and 23 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia.

  20. Deformations Associated With Large Interplate Earthquakes Along the Sumatra-Andaman Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, M.; Fukushima, Y.; Katagi, T.; Hashizume, M.; Satomura, M.; Wu, P.; Kato, T.

    2008-12-01

    Since the occurrence of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (Mw9.2), the Sumatra-Andaman Subduction zone has attracted geophysicists' attention. We have been carrying on CGPS observation in Thailand and Myanmar to detect postseismic deformation following this gigantic event. Since CGPS on land is not enough to clarify the detailed image of postseismic deformation, we also make InSAR analyses in Andaman and Phuket Islands. On September 12, 2007, another Mw8.4 event occurred SW off Sumatra. We report deformations observed with GPS and SAR including co- and postseismic deformation following this event. We have analyzed CGPS data up to the end of 2007 and detected postseismic displacements all over the Indochina peninsula. Phuket, which suffered from about 26cm coseismic displacement, has shifted by 26cm southwestward till July, 2007. Postseismic transient is clearly recognized and already exceeds coseismic movements at remote sites such as Bangkok and Chiang Mai in Thailand. We processed ALOS/PALSAR data in Andaman and Phuket islands. No remarkable deformation is found in Andaman and Phuket Islands, since the operation period of ALOS/PALSAR is not long enough and the wavelength of postseismic deformation may be much longer than the swath. We try to synthesize the postseismic displacement using a 3-D viscoelastic FEM model. Its results imply that viscoelastic relaxation in mantle with a typical mantle viscosity may play an important role for the observed postseismic transients except during the first six month. An extremely low viscosity is not required beneath the Andaman Sea, though this back arc is now actively opening. Coseismic motion following the 2007 Sumatra event is detected north of Benkgulu on the coast of southern Sumatra with InSAR. The largest LOS displacement of about 35cm is observed 100km NW of Bengkulu. Coseismic westward displacements of 3.5cm from the 2007 Sumatra event are also observed at Singapore, whose epicentral distance is about 700km, with

  1. Intraplate Splay Faults and Near-field Tsunami Generation during Giant Megathrust Earthquakes in Chile, Alaska, and Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plafker, G.; Savage, J. C.; Lee, W. H.

    2010-12-01

    The Mw 9.5 Chile earthquake sequence (21-22/05/1960), the largest instrumentally-recorded seismic event in history, was generated by a megathrust rupture of the southern end of the Peru-Chile Arc about 850 km long and 60-150 km wide down dip. Within Chile, the accompanying tsunami reached 15 m high and took an estimated 1,000 of the more than 2,000 lives lost. The trans-Pacific tsunami killed 230 people in Japan, Hawaii and the Philippine Islands. The tsunami source was primarily due to regional offshore upwarp, with possible superimposed larger local uplift due to displacement on splay faults. The Mw 9.2 Alaska earthquake (27/03/1964) ruptured major segments of the eastern Aleutian Arc 800 km long by 250-350 km wide down dip. Coseismic uplift along splay faults offshore generated a major near-field tsunami reaching 13 m high in Alaska that took at least 21 lives. Local earthquake-triggered submarine landslides in fiords along the rugged Kenai and Chugach mountains generated local (non-tsunami) waves with run up to 52 m high that took about 77 lives and caused major damage to coastal communities. Tectonically-generated tsunami waves were also generated over the continental shelf and slope due to regional uplift that averaged about 2 m; these waves added to the damage in coastal Alaska and caused 15 deaths and local property damage as far away as Oregon and California. The Mw 9.15 Sumatra earthquake (26/12/2004) ruptured segments of the Sunda Arc more than 1200 km long by 150-200 km wide down dip. The accompanying near-field tsunami was as high as 36 m in northern Sumatra where it caused 169,000 casualties along 200 km of shoreline while the far-field tsunami took an additional 63,000 lives throughout the Indian Ocean region. This made it the deadliest tsunami in recorded history. In addition to a few meters of regional uplift caused by slip on the megathrust, large-slip splay fault sources are inferred from intraplate seismicity, and from early tsunami arrival

  2. Preliminary study on detection sediment contamination in soil affected by the Indian Ocean giant tsunami 2004 in Aceh, Indonesia using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idris, Nasrullah; Ramli, Muliadi; Hedwig, Rinda; Lie, Zener Sukra; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik

    2016-03-01

    This work is intended to asses the capability of LIBS for the detection of the tsunami sediment contamination in soil. LIBS apparatus used in this work consist of a laser system and an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) system. The soil sample was collected from in Banda Aceh City, Aceh, Indonesia, the most affected region by the giant Indian Ocean tsunami 2004. The laser beam was focused onto surface of the soil pellet using a focusing lens to produce luminous plasma. The experiment was conducted under air as surrounding gas at 1 atmosphere. The emission spectral lines from the plasma were detected by the OMA system. It was found that metal including heavy metals can surely be detected, thus implying the potent of LIBS technique as a fast screening tools of tsunami sediment contamination.

  3. Monitoring the UPS and Downs of Sumatra and Java with D-Insar Time-Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaussard, E.; Amelung, F.

    2010-12-01

    We performed, for the first time, a global D-InSAR survey of the Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Java to define locations where deformation is occurring. The goals of this study are 1) to create an inventory of actively deforming volcanic centers and 2) monitor all types of ground motion. This work provides ground deformation data for previously unmonitored areas and can assist the Indonesian authorities to improve hazards assessment. The D-InSAR survey covers an area of about 500 000 km2 and 3000 km long on the islands of Sumatra, Java and Bali. We used ALOS data from 45 tracks and more than 1500 granules obtained from the Alaska Satellite Facility (ASF) through the US Government Research Consortium (USGRC). We completed more than 1000 interferograms spanning a period from the end of 2006 to the beginning of 2009. L-band SAR images enable deformation mapping at global scales even in highly vegetated areas where C-band signal experiences loss of coherence. To identify locations where ground deformations are occurring, we used multiple SAR acquisitions of the same area and performed time series analysis using the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) method. Interferograms with a maximum spatial baseline of 3000 m were phase-unwrapped and subsequently inverted for the phase with respect to the first acquisition. Temporal coherence of each pixel is computed on the set of interferograms in order to select only pixels with high temporal coherence. The compiled InSAR velocity map reveals the background level of activity of the 84 volcanic centers constituting the Sumatra, Java and Bali volcanic arcs. We identified possible uplift at 6 volcanic centers: Agung (Bali), Lamongan (Java), Lawu (Java), Slamet (Java), Kerinci (Sumatra) and Sinabung (Sumatra). Moreover, we identified subsidence in 5 major cities and 1 coastal area. Subsidence rates range from 6 cm/yr in Medan, the largest city of Sumatra, to more than 15 cm/yr in Jakarta. These major subsidence areas are probably due

  4. Uplift and Subsidence Associated with the Great Aceh-Andaman Earthquake of 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The magnitude 9.2 Indian Ocean earthquake of December 26, 2004, produced broad regions of uplift and subsidence. In order to define the lateral extent and the downdip limit of rupture, scientists from Caltech, Pasadena, Calif.; NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.; Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif.; the U.S. Geological Survey, Pasadena, Calif.; and the Research Center for Geotechnology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Bandung, Indonesia; first needed to define the pivot line separating those regions. Interpretation of satellite imagery and a tidal model were one of the key tools used to do this.

    These pre-Sumatra earthquake (a) and post-Sumatra earthquake (b) images of North Sentinel Island in the Indian Ocean, acquired from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft, show emergence of the coral reef surrounding the island following the earthquake. The tide was 30 plus or minus 14 centimeters lower in the pre-earthquake image (acquired November 21, 2000) than in the post-earthquake image (acquired February 20, 2005), requiring a minimum of 30 centimeters of uplift at this locality. Observations from an Indian Coast Guard helicopter on the northwest coast of the island suggest that the actual uplift is on the order of 1 to 2 meters at this site.

    In figures (c) and (d), pre-earthquake and post-earthquake ASTER images of a small island off the northwest coast of Rutland Island, 38 kilometers east of North Sentinel Island, show submergence of the coral reef surrounding the island. The tide was higher in the pre-earthquake image (acquired January 1, 2004) than in the post-earthquake image (acquired February 4, 2005), requiring subsidence at this locality. The pivot line must run between North Sentinel and Rutland islands. Note that the scale for the North Sentinel Island images differs from that for the Rutland Island images.

    The tidal model used

  5. Coseismic Slip and Afterslip Associated to The Mw9.14 Aceh-Andaman Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chlieh, M.; Avouac, J.; Sieh, K.; Prawirodirdjo, L.; Bock, Y.; Hjorleifsdottir, V.; Ji, C.; Hebert, H.; Sladen, A.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Subarya, C.; Galetzka, J.

    2005-12-01

    The Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of December 26, 2004 is the first giant earthquake to occur since the advent of modern space-based geodesy and broadband seismology and therefore provides an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the characteristics of one of these most dreadful and rare events. We determine co-seismic and post-seismic deformation over the first month following the main shock using a variety of geodetic data. These include ground displacements from near-field Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys in northwestern Sumatra and in-situ paleogeodetic and remotely sensed observations of the vertical motion of coral reefs, campaign data and continuous GPS measurements from Thailand and Malaysia. The co-seismic model is mainly constrained from co-seismic displacement derived from daily solutions at 34 cGPS stations. It shows that earthquake ruptured the Sunda subduction megathrust over a distance of about 1300 km and a width of less than 150 km releasing a total moment of 6.7-7.0 1022 Nm, (equivalent to Mw=9.15. This moment is slightly in excess of the 6.2 1022 Nm moment released over the first 500s, as estimated from the inversion of seismic records. The latitudinal distribution of released moment derived from the two models compare remarkably well. This pattern is also found consistent with the 500s long source time function and rupture velocity derived from T waves recorded in the Indian Ocean. Finally, this co-seismic model is found consistent with the observed tsunami as measured from altimetric satellite measurements of the tsunami by JASON and TOPEX, as well as with the arrival times of the tsunami recorded by tide gage records at a number of sites bordering the Indian Ocean and Andaman Sea. We find no need for slow slip or delayed slip as proposed in some early studies. However, the geodetic data postdating the main shock by up to 40 days, require that slip must have continued on the plate interface after the 500s long seismic rupture. The

  6. Ischnura foylei sp. nov. (Odonata, Coenagrionidae) from the highlands of Sumatra.

    PubMed

    Kosterin, Oleg E

    2015-01-01

    Ischnura foylei sp. nov. is described from Indonesia, Sumatra, Jambi Province, Danau Gunung Tujuh (or Danau Sakti), a lake situated in an extinct volcanic crater, 1°41'15"S, 101°25'28"S, 1995 m a.s.l. Structurally it is close to I. senegalensis but larger and with differently shaped cerci in males and a more trilobate posterior lobe of the prothorax; males and androchromatic females have a unique colour pattern. PMID:26624348

  7. Imaging of 3-D seismic velocity structure of Southern Sumatra region using double difference tomographic method

    SciTech Connect

    Lestari, Titik; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2015-04-24

    Southern Sumatra region has a high level of seismicity due to the influence of the subduction system, Sumatra fault, Mentawai fault and stretching zone activities. The seismic activities of Southern Sumatra region are recorded by Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA’s) Seismograph network. In this study, we used earthquake data catalog compiled by MCGA for 3013 events from 10 seismic stations around Southern Sumatra region for time periods of April 2009 – April 2014 in order to invert for the 3-D seismic velocities structure (Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio). We applied double-difference seismic tomography method (tomoDD) to determine Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs ratio with hypocenter adjustment. For the inversion procedure, we started from the initial 1-D seismic velocity model of AK135 and constant Vp/Vs of 1.73. The synthetic travel time from source to receiver was calculated using ray pseudo-bending technique, while the main tomographic inversion was applied using LSQR method. The resolution model was evaluated using checkerboard test and Derivative Weigh Sum (DWS). Our preliminary results show low Vp and Vs anomalies region along Bukit Barisan which is may be associated with weak zone of Sumatran fault and migration of partial melted material. Low velocity anomalies at 30-50 km depth in the fore arc region may indicated the hydrous material circulation because the slab dehydration. We detected low seismic seismicity in the fore arc region that may be indicated as seismic gap. It is coincides contact zone of high and low velocity anomalies. And two large earthquakes (Jambi and Mentawai) also occurred at the contact of contrast velocity.

  8. Rupture and frequency-dependent seismic radiation of the 2012 Mw 8.6 Sumatra strike-slip earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jiuxun; Yao, Huajian

    2016-06-01

    On 2012 April 11, a great strike-slip earthquake (moment magnitude of Mw 8.6) occurred off the west coast of northern Sumatra area followed by an Mw 8.2 aftershock 2 hr later. Different geophysical data and methods have been used to investigate the mechanism, faulting, seismic radiation and slip propagation of this event, but frequency-dependent features of its rupture process have not been discussed much. In this study, we use a compressive sensing method based on sparsity inversion in the frequency domain to study the frequency-dependent seismic radiation and rupture process of this event. Our results indicate a very complex rupture process concerning at least three different rupture stages on multiple subfaults with nearly conjugate geometries. The main shock has triggered seismicity on a series of ridge-perpendicular or ridge-parallel conjugate strike-slip faults around the Nighty East Ridge. Obvious frequency-dependent rupture process has been presented and discussed. Combining results from slip inversion based on the finite-fault model, we observe that in the beginning stage of the rupture lower frequency radiation appears to originate from the areas with large slip, while the high-frequency radiation is located at the boundary of large-slip region or rupture front. Some radiation probably originates from the repeating slip on the main faults or triggered events on some nearby faults in the rupture area. The complex frequency-dependent seismic radiation patterns observed in this study provide important information for future investigation of rupture physics of this complex strike-slip event.

  9. Increasing potential of biomass burning over Sumatra, Indonesia induced by anthropogenic tropical warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartika Lestari, R.; Watanabe, Masahiro; Imada, Yukiko; Shiogama, Hideo; Field, Robert D.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Kimoto, Masahide

    2014-10-01

    Uncontrolled biomass burning in Indonesia during drought periods damages the landscape, degrades regional air quality, and acts as a disproportionately large source of greenhouse gas emissions. The expansion of forest fires is mostly observed in October in Sumatra favored by persistent droughts during the dry season from June to November. The contribution of anthropogenic warming to the probability of severe droughts is not yet clear. Here, we show evidence that past events in Sumatra were exacerbated by anthropogenic warming and that they will become more frequent under a future emissions scenario. By conducting two sets of atmospheric general circulation model ensemble experiments driven by observed sea surface temperature for 1960-2011, one with and one without an anthropogenic warming component, we found that a recent weakening of the Walker circulation associated with tropical ocean warming increased the probability of severe droughts in Sumatra, despite increasing tropical-mean precipitation. A future increase in the frequency of droughts is then suggested from our analyses of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 model ensembles. Increasing precipitation to the north of the equator accompanies drier conditions over Indonesia, amplified by enhanced ocean surface warming in the central equatorial Pacific. The resultant precipitation decrease leads to a ˜25% increase in severe drought events from 1951-2000 to 2001-2050. Our results therefore indicate the global warming impact to a potential of wide-spreading forest fires over Indonesia, which requires mitigation policy for disaster prevention.

  10. Viscoelastic relaxation in a heterogeneous Earth following the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Kelly; Bürgmann, Roland; Freed, Andrew M.; Banerjee, Paramesh

    2015-12-01

    Consideration of the three-dimensional heterogeneity of mantle rheology allows models of viscoelastic relaxation following the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake to simultaneously fit both the observed far-field and near-field postseismic deformation. We use horizontal and vertical campaign and continuous GPS observations from the Andaman, Nicobar, and Sumatran forearc islands, mainland Sumatra, Thailand, the Malay Peninsula, the Indian Ocean, and southern India, spanning the first five years of postseismic deformation. The postseismic relaxation models consider contributions from the 2004 Mw 9.2 Sumatra-Andaman, the 2005 Mw 8.7 Nias, and 2007 Mw 8.4 Bengkulu earthquakes. Far-field motions to the east of the ruptures are equally well fit by homogeneous or laterally variable earth models. However, only models with contrasting rheology across the subducting slab, a ten-times higher mantle viscosity under the Indian Ocean lithosphere than the backarc mantle, can also produce the observed enduring postseismic uplift along the forearc and lack of far-field transient displacements in southern India. While postseismic uplift of forearc stations can also be produced by rapid and enduring down-dip afterslip, the inferred rheology structure is consistent with the distribution of mantle temperature inferred from seismic tomography.

  11. Processes of inclusion and adverse incorporation: oil palm and agrarian change in Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, John

    2010-01-01

    Changes in globalised agriculture raise critical questions as rapid agricultural development leads to widespread social and environmental transformation. With increased global demand for vegetable oils and biofuel, in Indonesia the area under oil palm has doubled over the last decade. This paper presents a case study of how micro-processes that are linked to wider dynamics shape oil palm related agrarian change in villages in Sumatra, Indonesia. It pursues related questions regarding the impact of agribusiness-driven agriculture, the fate of smallholders experiencing contemporary agrarian transition, and the impact of increased demand for vegetable oils and biofuels on agrarian structures in Sumatra. It argues that the paths of agrarian change are highly uneven and depend on how changing livelihood strategies are enabled or constrained by economic, social and political relations that vary over time and space. In contrast to simplifying narratives of inclusion/exclusion, it argues that outcomes depend on the terms under which smallholders engage with oil palm. Distinguishing between exogenous processes of agribusiness expansion and endogenous commodity market expansion, it finds each is associated with characteristic processes of change. It concludes that the way successive policy interventions have worked with the specific characteristics of oil palm have cumulatively shaped the space where agrarian change occurs in Sumatra.

  12. Caldera-Fill Sediments at Toba Caldera, Sumatra, Indonesia: A Field Reconnaissance Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesner, C. A.; Barbee, O. A.; Lesmana, Z.; Nasution, A.

    2013-12-01

    The 74 ka Toba Caldera in northern Sumatra offers a unique opportunity to study caldera-fill sedimentation and its implications on the dynamic post-collapse history of Earth's largest Quaternary resurgent caldera. Although the complete 74,000 year sedimentation record is hidden beneath Lake Toba, a significant portion (~20-74 ka) of the post-caldera sedimentary sequence has been uplifted above lake level and is exposed on the 45 x 18 km Samosir Island resurgent dome. This extensive sedimentary record, over 100 m thick in places, is exposed by stream incision, and in resurgent dome fault scarps. Reconnaissance mapping and sampling of the sedimentary veneer covering Samosir Island was conducted in 2012-2013 to supplement recent sub-bottom seismic reflection profiling (chirp sonar) of the younger sediments and provide the basis for a more detailed caldera-fill sedimentation study at Toba. Our preliminary mapping indicates that distinct lacustrine and fluvial sedimentary sequences occur on Samosir Island. The lacustrine sequence dominates the surface exposures across the island and consists of interbedded clays, silts, sands, and diatomites. Different depositional environments and processes are suggested by regional variations in the componentry (i.e. abundance of diatoms, pumice clasts, reworked lake sediment clasts, rafted pumice blocks, etc.), but no significant ash-beds have been identified. An underlying coarse-grained indurated fluvial sequence is exposed in deeply incised drainages and fault scarps. This sequence consists mostly of coarse oxidized sands in eastern Samosir (approximately in the center of the caldera) that thicken and become coarser in western Samosir towards the caldera wall, where breccias and debris flows are also common. Blocks and boulders up to several meters in diameter derived from the basement rocks in the western caldera walls suggest a wedge of alluvial sediments formed before the lake reached its maximum level. Samples have been

  13. Cryptic speciation within Asthenodipsas vertebralis (Boulenger, 1900) (Squamata: Pareatidae), the description of a new species from Peninsular Malaysia, and the resurrection of A. tropidonotus (Lidth de Jude, 1923) from Sumatra: an integrative taxonomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Loredo, Ariel I; Wood, Perry L; Quah, Evan S H; Anuar, Shahrul; Greer, Lee F; Ahmad, Norhayati; Grismer, L Lee

    2013-01-01

    A review of the taxonomic status of the Asian Slug Snake, Asthenodipsas vertebralis (Boulenger, 1900) based on an integrative taxonomic approach using molecular, morphological, color pattern, and ecological data indicate it is composed of three well supported monophyletic lineages: (1) Pulau Tioman and Fraser's Hill, Pahang and Bukit Larut, Perak; Peninsular Malaysia; (2) its sister lineage from Northern Sumatra; and (3) the remaining basal lineage from Peninsular Malaysia. Furthermore, we consider the high sequence divergence (6.3%-10.2%) between these lineages (especially in areas of sympatry) and discrete differences in their morphology, color pattern, and microhabitat preference as evidence they are not conspecific. As such, we resurrect the name A. tropidonotus (Lidth de Jeude, 1923) for the Sumatra populations, restrict the name A. vertebralis to the populations from Pulau Tioman, Genting Highlands, Fraser's Hill, Gunung Benom, and Bukit Larut that contain terrestrial, banded adults; and consider A. lasgalenensis sp. nov. to be restricted to the populations from Fraser's Hill, Cameron Highlands, and Bukit Larut that contain arboreal, unbanded adults.

  14. Prototype Tsunami Evacuation Park in Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, B. E.; Cedillos, V.; Deierlein, G.; Di Mauro, M.; Kornberg, K.

    2012-12-01

    Padang, Indonesia, a city of some 900,000 people, half of whom live close to the coast and within a five-meter elevation above sea level, has one of the highest tsunami risks in the world due to its close offshore thrust-fault seismic hazard, flat terrain and dense population. There is a high probability that a tsunami will strike the shores of Padang, flooding half of the area of the city, within the next 30 years. If that tsunami occurred today, it is estimated that several hundred thousand people would die, as they could not reach safe ground in the ~30 minute interval between the earthquake's occurrence and the tsunami's arrival. Padang's needs have been amply demonstrated: after earthquakes in 2007, 2009, 2011 and 2012, citizens, thinking that those earthquakes might cause a tsunami, tried to evacuate in cars and motorbikes, which created traffic jams, and most could not reach safe ground in 30 minutes. Since 2008, GeoHazards International (GHI) and Stanford University have studied a range of options for improving this situation, including ways to accelerate evacuation to high ground with pedestrian bridges and widened roads, and means of "vertical" evacuation in multi-story buildings, mosques, pedestrian overpasses, and Tsunami Evacuation Parks (TEPs), which are man-made hills with recreation facilities on top. TEPs proved most practical and cost-effective for Padang, given the available budget, technology and time. The Earth Observatory Singapore (EOS) developed an agent-based model that simulates pedestrian and vehicular evacuation to assess tsunami risk and risk reduction interventions in Southeast Asia. EOS applied this model to analyze the effectiveness in Padang of TEPs over other tsunami risk management approaches in terms of evacuation times and the number of people saved. The model shows that only ~24,000 people (20% of the total population) in the northern part of Padang can reach safe ground within 30 minutes, if people evacuate using cars and

  15. Interannual variation of ocean heat content in outer Indonesian waters in warming ocean (Case study: West Sumatra waters)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radjawane, Ivonne M.; Bernawis, Lamona I.; Priyono, Bayu; Fadli, Muh.; Putuhena, Hugo S.

    2015-09-01

    This research was intended observe of interannual variation of Ocean Heat Content (OHC) in outer Indonesian Water within the boundary of Indonesia Economic Exclusive Zone (EEZ) with study case focused West Sumatra waters that related to global ocean warming. The temperature data were obtained from ARGO floats as well as other observations data from 2002-2010. OHC was calculated following the equations adopted from Young et al.(2009) using a two-layer ocean models which are above and below the thermocline, where the heat content is calculated from the surface to depth of 28° C isotherm of upper thermocline.The results show trend of increasing OHC and varies interannual in West Sumatra water. The OHC ranges from 425 MJ/m2 to 4720 MJ/m2 in West Sumatra. The signal of OHC in West Sumatra influenced by Indian Ocean Dipole Mode phenomena. When positive IOD event occurs then decrease of OHC in West Sumatra due to decrease in SST over the areas.

  16. The future of forests and orangutans (Pongo abelii) in Sumatra: predicting impacts of oil palm plantations, road construction, and mechanisms for reducing carbon emissions from deforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Wich, Serge; Epting, Justin; Juhn, Daniel; Kanninen, Markku; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2009-09-01

    Payments for reduced carbon emissions from deforestation (RED) are now attracting attention as a way to halt tropical deforestation. Northern Sumatra comprises an area of 65 000 km2 that is both the site of Indonesia's first planned RED initiative, and the stronghold of 92% of remaining Sumatran orangutans. Under current plans, this RED initiative will be implemented in a defined geographic area, essentially a newly established, 7500 km2 protected area (PA) comprising mostly upland forest, where guards will be recruited to enforce forest protection. Meanwhile, new roads are currently under construction, while companies are converting lowland forests into oil palm plantations. This case study predicts the effectiveness of RED in reducing deforestation and conserving orangutans for two distinct scenarios: the current plan of implementing RED within the specific boundary of a new upland PA, and an alternative scenario of implementing RED across landscapes outside PAs. Our satellite-based spatially explicit deforestation model predicts that 1313 km2 of forest would be saved from deforestation by 2030, while forest cover present in 2006 would shrink by 22% (7913 km2) across landscapes outside PAs if RED were only to be implemented in the upland PA. Meanwhile, orangutan habitat would reduce by 16% (1137 km2), resulting in the conservative loss of 1384 orangutans, or 25% of the current total population with or without RED intervention. By contrast, an estimated 7824 km2 of forest could be saved from deforestation, with maximum benefit for orangutan conservation, if RED were to be implemented across all remaining forest landscapes outside PAs. Here, RED payments would compensate land users for their opportunity costs in not converting unprotected forests into oil palm, while the construction of new roads to service the marketing of oil palm would be halted. Our predictions suggest that Indonesia's first RED initiative in an upland PA may not significantly reduce

  17. How much does it cost to achieve coverage targets for primary healthcare services? A costing model from Aceh, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Asnawi; Hort, Krishna; Abidin, Azwar Zaenal; Amin, Fadilah M

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant investment in improving service infrastructure and training of staff, public primary healthcare services in low-income and middle-income countries tend to perform poorly in reaching coverage targets. One of the factors identified in Aceh, Indonesia was the lack of operational funds for service provision. The objective of this study was to develop a simple and transparent costing tool that enables health planners to calculate the unit costs of providing basic health services to estimate additional budgets required to deliver services in accordance with national targets. The tool was developed using a standard economic approach that linked the input activities to achieving six national priority programs at primary healthcare level: health promotion, sanitation and environment health, maternal and child health and family planning, nutrition, immunization and communicable diseases control, and treatment of common illness. Costing was focused on costs of delivery of the programs that need to be funded by local government budgets. The costing tool consisting of 16 linked Microsoft Excel worksheets was developed and tested in several districts enabled the calculation of the unit costs of delivering of the six national priority programs per coverage target of each program (such as unit costs of delivering of maternal and child health program per pregnant mother). This costing tool can be used by health planners to estimate additional money required to achieve a certain level of coverage of programs, and it can be adjusted for different costs and program delivery parameters in different settings.

  18. The prevalence of long-term post-traumatic stress symptoms among adolescents after the tsunami in Aceh.

    PubMed

    Agustini, E N; Asniar, I; Matsuo, H

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify long-term post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in Aceh 4.5 years after the tsunami and to examine whether certain factors affected the severity of PTSD symptoms among adolescents. The PTSD symptoms of 482 adolescents aged 11 to 19 years were assessed according to the Child Post-Traumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPTSD-RI). The severity of the disaster was identified by the Traumatic Exposure Severity Scale (TESS). Of the adolescents who completed the questionnaire, 54 (11.2%), 124 (25.7%), 196 (40.7%), 103 (21.4%) and 5 (1%), respectively, reported none, mild, moderate, severe and very severe symptoms on CPTSD-RI. Gender, loss of parents, somatic response and support level were significantly associated with the total score on CPTSD-RI (P < 0.05). The TESS-Occurrence Scale and CPTSD-RI were significantly correlated (r= 0.33, P < 0.05). The TESS-Distress Scale was significantly correlated with CPTSD-RI (r= 0.48, P < 0.05). The study indicated that the symptoms of PTSD, ranging from very severe to moderate, could persist for a long time after the tsunami and be affected by gender, loss of parents, somatic response, support level and severity of the disaster.

  19. Tsunami damage reduction performance of a mangrove forest in Banda Aceh, Indonesia inferred from field data and a numerical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanagisawa, H.; Koshimura, S.; Miyagi, T.; Imamura, F.

    2010-06-01

    Since the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, the role of mangrove forests as natural defenses protecting coastal communities from tsunami disaster has been highlighted. However, some mangrove forests were destroyed by that tsunami. They are expected to have lost their protective functions. In this study, we develop a fragility function to assess the mangrove trees' vulnerability, expressed as the damage probability of mangrove trees, based on field surveys and numerical modeling of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Banda Aceh, Indonesia. Based on the fragility function, we reconstruct a numerical model of tsunami inundation including the performance of mangrove forests in terms of reducing tsunami damage. The model reveals that a 10 year old mangrove forest in a 500 m wide area can reduce a tsunami's hydrodynamic force by approximately 70% for an incident wave of 3.0 m inundation depth and a wave period of 40 min at the shoreline. The model also shows, for a tsunami inundation depth of greater than 4 m, that a 10 year old mangrove forest would be mostly destroyed and that it would lose its force reduction capacity. Moreover, approximately 80% of a 30 year old mangrove forest would survive a 5 m tsunami and absorb 50% of the tsunami's hydrodynamic force.

  20. Post Disaster Governance, Complexity and Network Theory: Evidence from Aceh, Indonesia After the Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004.

    PubMed

    Lassa, Jonatan A

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to understand the organizational network typology of large--scale disaster intervention in developing countries and to understand the complexity of post--disaster intervention, through the use of network theory based on empirical data from post--tsunami reconstruction in Aceh, Indonesia, during 2005/-2007. The findings suggest that the ' degrees of separation' (or network diameter) between any two organizations in the field is 5, thus reflecting 'small- world' realities and therefore making no significant difference with the real human networks, as found in previous experiments. There are also significant loops in the network reflecting the fact that some actors tend to not cooperate, which challenges post- disaster coordination. The findings show the landscape of humanitarian actors is not randomly distributed. Many actors were connected to each other through certain hubs, while hundreds of actors make 'scattered' single 'principal--client' links. The paper concludes that by understanding the distribution of degree, centrality, 'degrees of separation' and visualization of the network, authorities can improve their understanding of the realities of coordination, from macro to micro scales.

  1. Thumb-pads up-a new species of thick-thumbed bat from Sumatra (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae: Glischropus).

    PubMed

    Csorba, Gábor; Görföl, Tamás; Wiantoro, Sigit; Kingston, Tigga; Bates, Paul J J; Huang, Joe Chun-Chia

    2015-01-01

    To date, three species of the genus Glischropus are recognized from the Indomalayan zoogeographic region-G. bucephalus from the Indochinese subregion, G. tylopus from the Sundaic subregion (Peninsular Thailand and Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra, Moluccas) and G. javanus, restricted to Java. The investigation of the holotype and three topotype specimens of G. batjanus supported the view that the name was previously correctly regarded as the junior subjective synonym of G. tylopus. During review of material recently collected in southwestern Sumatra, Indonesia, one specimen of a yet undescribed species of Thick-thumbed bat was identified. G. aquilus n. sp. markedly differs from its congeners by its dark brown pelage, nearly black ear and tragus, and in skull proportions. The phylogenetic analysis based on cytb sequences also supports the specific distinctness of G. aquilus n. sp. Its discovery brings the count to 88 species of bats known from Sumatra. PMID:26249952

  2. An evaluation of public, private, and mobile health clinic usage for children under age 5 in Aceh after the tsunami: implications for future disasters

    PubMed Central

    Rassekh, Bahie Mary; Shu, Winnie; Santosham, Mathuram; Burnham, Gilbert; Doocy, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aceh, Indonesia, was the hardest-hit area in the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, with more than 500,000 people displaced, 120,000 people dead, and total damages and losses estimated at $4.5 billion. The relief effort following the tsunami was also immense. Objectives: This study aimed to determine and assess utilization patterns of formal public versus private and mobile health services for children under age 5 with diarrhea, cough and difficulty breathing, fever, or skin disease and to identify determinants of care usage. Methods: A household survey of 962 households was administered to caretakers of children aged 1–5 years. A sample of clusters within Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar were selected and those caretakers within the cluster who fit the inclusion criteria were interviewed. Results: Of those caretakers who utilized formal health services as the first line of care for their sick child, 62% used a public health facility, 30% used a private health facility, and 8% used a mobile clinic. In terms of significant factors associated with public, private, and mobile care utilization, mobile clinics were at one side of the spectrum and private clinics were at the other side overall, with public care somewhere in between. This was true for several variables. Mobile clinic users reported the lowest cost of services and medicine and the highest perceived level of accessibility, and private care users reported the highest perceived level of satisfaction. Conclusions: Utilization of formal health services for children was quite high after the tsunami. The caretaker's perceived satisfaction with public health services could have been improved. Mobile clinics were an accessible source of health care and could be used in future disaster relief efforts to target those populations that seek less care for their sick children, including displaced populations, and those children whose parents have died. PMID:25750788

  3. Spatial and Temporal Habitat Use of an Asian Elephant in Sumatra

    PubMed Central

    Sitompul, Arnold F.; Griffin, Curtice R.; Rayl, Nathaniel D.; Fuller, Todd K.

    2013-01-01

    Simple Summary A wild Sumatran elephant radio-monitored near a conservation center from August 2007–May 2008 used medium- and open-canopy land cover more than expected, but closed canopy forests were used more during the day than at night. When in closed canopy forests, elephants spent more time near the forest edge. Effective elephant conservation strategies in Sumatra need to focus on forest restoration of cleared areas and providing a forest matrix that includes various canopy types. Abstract Increasingly, habitat fragmentation caused by agricultural and human development has forced Sumatran elephants into relatively small areas, but there is little information on how elephants use these areas and thus, how habitats can be managed to sustain elephants in the future. Using a Global Positioning System (GPS) collar and a land cover map developed from TM imagery, we identified the habitats used by a wild adult female elephant (Elephas maximus sumatranus) in the Seblat Elephant Conservation Center, Bengkulu Province, Sumatra during 2007–2008. The marked elephant (and presumably her 40–60 herd mates) used a home range that contained more than expected medium canopy and open canopy land cover. Further, within the home range, closed canopy forests were used more during the day than at night. When elephants were in closed canopy forests they were most often near the forest edge vs. in the forest interior. Effective elephant conservation strategies in Sumatra need to focus on forest restoration of cleared areas and providing a forest matrix that includes various canopy types. PMID:26479527

  4. Persistent Behaviors of the Sunda Megathrust in Sumatra: Opportunities to Forecast Destructive Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieh, K.

    2007-12-01

    The 2000-km-long Sumatran section of the Sunda megathrust is a treasure trove of information about the long- term behavior of a great active fault. This is due principally to the presence of an island chain along the Sumatran outer arc, which provides a platform for both man-made and natural instruments atop the shallow, seismogenic part of the megathrust. My students, colleagues and I have been using these "instruments" to understand the megathrust's past and to forecast its future behavior. We recognize three long segments that produce great earthquakes separated by two short patches of low seismic coupling. Two of the long segments have just ruptured and the other is nearing the end of its seismic cycle. The largest seismic rupture along the Sumatran megathrust in the 20th century was a M 7.7 earthquake at the Equator in 1935 (G&R, 1954). GPS geodesy and coral paleogeodesy, historical seismograms and coral paleoseismology show that the rupture is embedded in a 120-km section of the megathrust that slips primarily aseismically. The ~2.3-m rupture of 1935 is the largest seismic event on this Batu Islands patch in at least the past 250 years, despite its high (45 mm/yr) rate of plate convergence. Immediately north of the Equator is the 350-km-long section of the megathrust that generated the Mw8.7 Nias- Simeulue earthquake of 2005. Analysis of records from several continuous GPS stations above the rupture and about a hundred vertically displaced living corals shows that large seismic slippage was confined to depths between 14 and 35 km. In contrast, post-seismic deformations recorded at the cGPS stations reflect concentrations of slip updip and downdip of the seismic rupture. Fossil corals record previous large earthquakes in 1861 and in about 1800 and 1845. This history, though still incomplete, suggests that a cluster of three overlapping large seismic ruptures ended the previous earthquake cycle there. The 1600-km Mw9.15 Aceh-Andaman rupture of 2004 began still

  5. The Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake and Tsunami of 2004: the hazards, events, and damage.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Patrice A; O'Rourke, Ann P; Schmidman, Dana L; Dopkin, Wendy A; Birnbaum, Marvin L

    2005-01-01

    The Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake and subsequent Asian Tsunami of 26 December 2004 affected multiple countries in the Indian Ocean and beyond, creating disasters of a scale unprecedented in recorded history. Using the Conceptual Framework and terminology described in the Disaster Health Management: Guidelines for Evaluation and Research in the Utstein Style, the hazard, events, and damage associated with the Earthquake and Tsunami are described. Many gaps in the available information regarding this event are present. Standardized indicators and reporting criteria are necessary for research on future disasters and the development of best practice standards internationally.

  6. The Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake and Tsunami of 2004: the hazards, events, and damage.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Patrice A; O'Rourke, Ann P; Schmidman, Dana L; Dopkin, Wendy A; Birnbaum, Marvin L

    2005-01-01

    The Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake and subsequent Asian Tsunami of 26 December 2004 affected multiple countries in the Indian Ocean and beyond, creating disasters of a scale unprecedented in recorded history. Using the Conceptual Framework and terminology described in the Disaster Health Management: Guidelines for Evaluation and Research in the Utstein Style, the hazard, events, and damage associated with the Earthquake and Tsunami are described. Many gaps in the available information regarding this event are present. Standardized indicators and reporting criteria are necessary for research on future disasters and the development of best practice standards internationally. PMID:16496614

  7. Slope Stability: Factor of Safety along the Seismically Active Continental Slope Offshore Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, J. R.; Goldfinger, C.; Djadjadihardja, Y.; None, U.

    2013-12-01

    Recent papers have documented the probability that turbidites deposited along and downslope of subduction zone accretionary prisms are likely the result of strong ground shaking from great earthquakes. Given the damaging nature of these earthquakes, along with the casualties from the associated tsunamis, the spatial and temporal patterns of these earthquakes can only be evaluated with paleoseismologic coring and seismic reflection methods. We evaluate slope stability for seafloor topography along the Sunda subduction offshore Sumatra, Indonesia. We use sediment material properties, from local (Sumatra) and analogous sites, to constrain our estimates of static slope stability Factor of Safety (FOS) analyses. We then use ground motion prediction equations (GMPE's) to estimate ground motion intensity (Arias Intensity, AI) and acceleration (Peak Ground Acceleration, PGA), as possibly generated by fault rupture, to constrain seismic loads for pseudostatic slope stability FOS analyses. The ground motions taper rapidly with distance from the fault plane, consistent with ground motion - fault distance relations measured during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki subduction zone earthquake. Our FOS analyses include a Morgenstern method of slices probabilistic analysis for 2-D profiles along with Critical Acceleration (Ac) and Newmark Displacement (Dn) analysis of multibeam bathymetry of the seafloor. In addition, we also use estimates of ground motion modeled with a 2004 Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone (SASZ) earthquake fault slip model, to also compare with our static FOS analyses of seafloor topography. All slope and trench sites are statically stable (FOS < 1) and sensitive to ground motions generated by earthquakes of magnitude greater than 7. We conclude that for earthquakes of magnitude 6 to 9, PGA of 0.4-0.6 to 1.4-2.5 g would be expected, respectively, from existing GMPE's. However, saturation of accelerations in the accretionary wedge may limit actual accelerations to less than 1

  8. Parathelphusa pardus, a new species of lowland freshwater crab from swamps in central Sumatra, Indonesia (Crustacea: Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae).

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L; Riady, Rikhi; Windarti, Windarti

    2016-02-29

    A new species of gecarcinucid freshwater crab of the genus Parathelphusa H. Milne Edwards, 1853, is described from freshwater swamp habitats in Pekanbaru, Riau Province, in central-eastern Sumatra, Indonesia. Parathelphusa pardus sp. nov., has a very distinctive colour pattern, and in this respect, resembles P. maindroni (Rathbun, 1902) from Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia; P. batamensis Ng, 1992, from Batam Island, Indonesia; P. reticulata Ng, 1990, from Singapore; and P. oxygona Nobili, 1901, from western Sarawak. It can be distinguished from these species and congeners by a suite of carapace, ambulatory leg, thoracic sternal and most importantly, male first gonopod characters.

  9. Parathelphusa pardus, a new species of lowland freshwater crab from swamps in central Sumatra, Indonesia (Crustacea: Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae).

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L; Riady, Rikhi; Windarti, Windarti

    2016-01-01

    A new species of gecarcinucid freshwater crab of the genus Parathelphusa H. Milne Edwards, 1853, is described from freshwater swamp habitats in Pekanbaru, Riau Province, in central-eastern Sumatra, Indonesia. Parathelphusa pardus sp. nov., has a very distinctive colour pattern, and in this respect, resembles P. maindroni (Rathbun, 1902) from Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia; P. batamensis Ng, 1992, from Batam Island, Indonesia; P. reticulata Ng, 1990, from Singapore; and P. oxygona Nobili, 1901, from western Sarawak. It can be distinguished from these species and congeners by a suite of carapace, ambulatory leg, thoracic sternal and most importantly, male first gonopod characters. PMID:27394277

  10. Results from SCS Profiling of the Sumatra accretionary prism: insights into tsnamigenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, D.; Mosher, D.; Austin, J.; Gulick, S.; Moran, K.; Masterlark, T.

    2007-12-01

    The SEATOS high resolution single-channel seismic reflection survey of the Sumatran accretionary prism depicts a landward-vergent thrust front, with active folding characterizing part of the December 2004 Mw9.2 earthquake rupture zone. Structure and bathymetry co-vary at distinct wavelengths along a 220-km-long profile crossing the prism and the Aceh (forearc) Basin. At the largest wavelength (tens of kms), the prism surface is defined by a steep (8-12 degrees), 55-km-wide outer slope, a 110-km-wide upper slope forming a broad depression between two forearc highs, and a 25 km-wide, steep inner slope between the landward high and the forearc basin. Anticlinal ridges spaced ~13 km apart display landward- and seaward-vergent folds along the inner and outer slopes, respectively; symmetric folding occurs across the upper slope. We suggest that the long-wavelength variations are consistent with the existence of a strong inner wedge beneath the upper slope. The ~13 km anticline spacing implies deformation of a slope apron deforming independently of this stronger wedge interior. Seismic profiles crossing the toe of the prism image a series of landward vergent, fault-related folds, suggesting that the shallow fill of the Sunda Trench is delaminated from the predominantly seaward-vergent plate boundary system and is uptilted along a triangle zone. Profiles crossing the seaward flank of the Aceh Basin reveal a near- vertical, undulatory deformation front that appears to mark the location of the West Andaman-Mentawai right- lateral strike-slip fault zone. Our model for prism architecture based on these geophysical results involves advance of the strong inner wedge during great earthquakes like the 2004 event, which then peels up shallower and less competent trench fill, deforming the toe and the upper slope of the forearc, producing massive uplift that is likely tsunamigenic. Seismic rupture was limited to the megathrust westward of the West Andaman fault and ROV observations

  11. Coseismic slip distributions of the 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman and 28 March 2005 Nias earthquakes from GPS static offsets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banerjee, P.; Pollitz, F.; Nagarajan, B.; Burgmann, R.

    2007-01-01

    Static offsets produced by the 26 December 2004 M ???9 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake as measured by Global Positioning System (GPS) reveal a large amount of slip along the entire ???1300 km-long rupture. Most seismic slip inversions place little slip on the Andaman segment. whereas both near-field and far-field GPS offsets demand large slip on the Andaman segment. We compile available datasets of the static offset to render a more detailed picture of the static-slip distribution. We construct geodetic offsets such that postearthquake positions of continuous GPS sites are reckoned to a time 1 day after the earthquake and campaign GPS sites are similarly corrected for postseismic motions. The newly revised slip distribution (Mw 9.22) reveals substantial segmentation of slip along the Andaman Islands, with the southern quarter slipping ???15 m in unison with the adjacent Nicobar and northern Sumatran segments of length ???700 km. We infer a small excess of geodetic moment relative to the seismic moment. A similar compilation of GPS offsets from the 28 March 2005 Nias earthquake is well explained with dip slip averaging several meters (Mw = 8.66) distributed primarily at depths greater than 20 km.

  12. Geochemistry and petrology of selected coal samples from Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belkin, H.E.; Tewalt, S.J.; Hower, J.C.; Stucker, J.D.; O'Keefe, J. M. K.

    2009-01-01

    Indonesia has become the world's largest exporter of thermal coal and is a major supplier to the Asian coal market, particularly as the People's Republic of China is now (2007) and perhaps may remain a net importer of coal. Indonesia has had a long history of coal production, mainly in Sumatra and Kalimantan, but only in the last two decades have government and commercial forces resulted in a remarkable coal boom. A recent assessment of Indonesian coal-bed methane (CBM) potential has motivated active CBM exploration. Most of the coal is Paleogene and Neogene, low to moderate rank and has low ash yield and sulfur (generally < 10 and < 1??wt.%, respectively). Active tectonic and igneous activity has resulted in significant rank increase in some coal basins. Eight coal samples are described that represent the major export and/or resource potential of Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua. Detailed geochemistry, including proximate and ultimate analysis, sulfur forms, and major, minor, and trace element determinations are presented. Organic petrology and vitrinite reflectance data reflect various precursor flora assemblages and rank variations, including sample composites from active igneous and tectonic areas. A comparison of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) elements abundance with world and US averages show that the Indonesian coals have low combustion pollution potential.

  13. A new species of tree frog genus Rhacophorus from Sumatra, Indonesia Amphibia, Anura).

    PubMed

    Hamidy, Amir; Kurniati, Hellen

    2015-01-01

    A small-sized tree frog of the genus Rhacophorus is described on the basis of 18 specimens collected from three different localities on Sumatra Island, Indonesia. Rhacophorus indonesiensis sp. nov. is divergent from all other Rhacophorus species genetically and morphologically. The new species is distinguished from its congeners by a combination of: the presence of black spots on the ventral surfaces of the hand and foot webbing, an absence of vomerine teeth, a venter with a white kite-shaped marking, raised white spots on the dorsum or on the head, and a reddish brown dorsum with irregular dark brown blotches and distinct black dots. With the addition of this new species, fifteen species of Rhacophorus are now known from Sumatra, the highest number of species of this genus in the Sundaland region. However, with the increasing conversion of forest to oil palm cultivation or mining, the possibility of the extinction of newly described or as yet undiscovered species is of great concern. PMID:25947718

  14. South Sumatra Basin Province, Indonesia; the Lahat/Talang Akar-Cenozoic total petroleum system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Michele G.

    2000-01-01

    Oil and gas are produced from the onshore South Sumatra Basin Province. The province consists of Tertiary half-graben basins infilled with carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks unconformably overlying pre-Tertiary metamorphic and igneous rocks. Eocene through lower Oligocene lacustrine shales and Oligocene through lower Miocene lacustrine and deltaic coaly shales are the mature source rocks. Reserves of 4.3 billion barrels of oil equivalent have been discovered in reservoirs that range from pre-Tertiary basement through upper Miocene sandstones and carbonates deposited as synrift strata and as marine shoreline, deltaic-fluvial, and deep-water strata. Carbonate and sandstone reservoirs produce oil and gas primarily from anticlinal traps of Plio-Pleistocene age. Stratigraphic trapping and faulting are important locally. Production is compartmentalized due to numerous intraformational seals. The regional marine shale seal, deposited by a maximum sea level highstand in early middle Miocene time, was faulted during post-depositional folding allowing migration of hydrocarbons to reservoirs above the seal. The province contains the Lahat/Talang Akar-Cenozoic total petroleum system with one assessment unit, South Sumatra.

  15. The goblin spider genus Ischnothyreus (Araneae, Oonopidae) in Java and Sumatra.

    PubMed

    Richard, Miguel; Graber, Werner; Kropf, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The genus Ischnothyreus Simon, 1893 from Java and Sumatra is revised with the description of seven new species from Java (I. baltenspergerae sp. nov., I. bauri sp. nov., I. gigeri sp. nov., I. ligulatus sp. nov., I. nentwigorum sp. nov., I. sigridae sp. nov., I. ujungkulon sp. nov) and eight from Sumatra (I. ascifer sp. nov., I. concavus sp. nov., I. habeggeri sp. nov., I. haymozi sp. nov., I. lucidus sp. nov., I. marggii sp. nov., I. microphthalmus sp. nov., I. obscurus sp. nov.). Furthermore the male of I. serpentinum Saaristo, 2001 is described for the first time and the female redescribed in detail. Special morphological features of Ischnothyreus males and females are described and discussed, such as peculiar trochanter projections, partially fused pedipalp segments, processes on the cheliceral fang base in males and external and internal genitalic structures in females. This work is part of the Planetary Biodiversity Inventory (PBI) of goblin spiders (http://research.amnh.org/oonopidae/).. PMID:27615819

  16. Survey for soil-transmitted helminths in Asahan Regency, North Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Imai, J; Sakamoto, O; Munthe, F E; Sinulingga, S

    1985-09-01

    The survey on soil-transmitted helminthiasis was carried out in the three villages of Asahan Regency, North Sumatra, Indonesia, between October 1981 and December 1982. The prevalence rates of geohelminthiasis proved to be extremely high (average 97%) in the three villages and more than 70% harboured three or more helminths, especially Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm. Necator americanus and Ancylostoma duodenale were detected in 61.1% and 52.2% of 835 fecal specimens, respectively. The effects of two anthelmintics, Combantrin and Trivexan, were essentially the same against A. lumbricoides and hookworm, although Trivexan was better than Combantrin against T. trichiura. The kinetic changes of parasitic infection in community after mass treatment were examined. Ten months after the first drug treatment, the incidence of Ascariasis or trichuriasis reverted nearly to pre-treatment level, while hookworm infection rate remained significantly low. Four months after the second mass treatment, the reinfection rate of A. lumbricoides was most prevalent followed by trichuriasis and hookworm infection. The reinfection rate (63.6%) of A. lumbricoides in children was about six times higher than that (10.4%) in adults at four month after the mass treatment. This study indicates that mass treatment with Trivexan at two month intervals for children and four month intervals for adults is necessary for the effective helminth control scheme in highly endemic areas of North Sumatra.

  17. Vertical motions in Thailand after the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake from GPS observations and its geophysical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satirapod, C.; Trisirisatayawong, I.; Fleitout, L.; Garaud, J. D.; Simons, W. J. F.

    2013-04-01

    Following previous findings from ongoing GPS research in Thailand since 2004 we continue to exploit the GPS technique to monitor and model land motions induced by the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake. Our latest results show that up to the end of 2010, Thailand has been co-seismically displaced and is subsequently undergoing a post-seismic horizontal deformation with total displacements (co-seismic plus post-seismic) ranging from 10.5 to 74.7 cm. We observed the largest horizontal displacements in the southern part of Thailand and moderate and small displacements in the central and northern parts. In addition to horizontal displacements throughout Thailand, continuous GPS measurements show that large parts of Thailand are subsiding at rates up to 1 cm/yr. It is the first time that such vertical post-seismic deformations at large distances (650-1500 km away from the Earthquake's epicentre) have been recorded. We have investigated the physical processes leading to the observed subsidence. While after-slip on the subduction interface induces negligible or even slightly positive vertical motions, relaxation in the asthenosphere is associated with a sizable subsidence. Predictions from a 3D finite element model feature an asthenosphere with an effective viscosity of the order of 3 \\midast 1018 Pas, fit the horizontal post-seismic data and the observed subsidence well. This model is then used to predict the subsidence over the whole seismic cycle. The subsidence should go on with a diminishing rate through the next two decades and its final magnitude should not exceed 10 cm in the Bangkok area.The post-seismic subsidence makes it difficult to identify other geophysical signals, particularly sea level rise, when observed from tide gauge data and thus there is a need for reliable estimation of subsidence velocities. This phenomenon may also worsen coastal erosion and flooding from sea water and so cause a considerable impact on the socio-economic development of coastal and low

  18. Health diplomacy through collaboration and a story of hope in tsunami-ravaged Banda Aceh, Indonesia: A U.S. Public Health Service nurse officer perspective.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Thomas

    2006-10-01

    As a registered nurse, I have witnessed the powerful influence of bedside care for > 10 years. Yet my experience aboard the USNS Mercy--the first interagency deployment designed to provide humanitarian assistance to tsunami-stricken Indonesia--revealed a direct link between individual bedside care and health diplomacy. Despite desperate medical and humanitarian needs in the province of Banda Aceh, the Mercy was met with suspicion and resistance by the Indonesian government. In the first few days, it seemed uncertain that the Mercy would be asked to assist in any humanitarian capacity. The Mercy crew and staff agreed only to assist at the request of the Indonesian government. Ultimately it was the emergent medical needs of a 10-year-old survior, evacuated to the ship by Australian and German organizations, which established the seeds of health diplomacy between the United States and Indonesia. This article explores the ways in which health diplomacy can be fostered by individual medical and nursing care, through the story of one young survivor of the East Asian tsunami. My experience of compassionate and culturally centered care aboard the USNS Mercy touched the hearts and minds of care providers and, ultimately, won the trust of local government officials and the people of Banda Aceh.

  19. Health diplomacy through collaboration and a story of hope in tsunami-ravaged Banda Aceh, Indonesia: A U.S. Public Health Service nurse officer perspective.

    PubMed

    Pryor, Thomas

    2006-10-01

    As a registered nurse, I have witnessed the powerful influence of bedside care for > 10 years. Yet my experience aboard the USNS Mercy--the first interagency deployment designed to provide humanitarian assistance to tsunami-stricken Indonesia--revealed a direct link between individual bedside care and health diplomacy. Despite desperate medical and humanitarian needs in the province of Banda Aceh, the Mercy was met with suspicion and resistance by the Indonesian government. In the first few days, it seemed uncertain that the Mercy would be asked to assist in any humanitarian capacity. The Mercy crew and staff agreed only to assist at the request of the Indonesian government. Ultimately it was the emergent medical needs of a 10-year-old survior, evacuated to the ship by Australian and German organizations, which established the seeds of health diplomacy between the United States and Indonesia. This article explores the ways in which health diplomacy can be fostered by individual medical and nursing care, through the story of one young survivor of the East Asian tsunami. My experience of compassionate and culturally centered care aboard the USNS Mercy touched the hearts and minds of care providers and, ultimately, won the trust of local government officials and the people of Banda Aceh. PMID:17447623

  20. Postseismic Displacement Following the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake Detected by Continuous GPS Observation and the Effect of Viscoelastic Relaxation Using 3D- FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katagi, T.; Hashimoto, M.; Hashizume, M.; Choosakul, N.; Takemoto, S.; Fukuda, Y.; Fujimori, K.; Satomura, M.; Wu, P.; Otsuka, Y.; Takiguchi, H.; Saito, S.; Maruyama, T.; Kato, T.

    2007-12-01

    We have studied postseismic displacement following the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of December 26, 2004 in Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries using continuous GPS observation. We will report the results of our GPS analysis from the beginning of 2001 to the end of October 2007. We have also constructed 3D-FEM to evaluate the effect of viscoelastic relaxation following the earthquake. We will also report this result. We used continuous GPS data from 6 sites operated by Chulalongkorn Univ. and Kyoto Univ. or JAMSTEC, 2 sites by Shizuoka Univ. and JAMSTEC, 3 sites by NICT in Thailand and Myanmar, 1 site by STE-Lab, Nagoya Univ., and IGS sites which are located in countries surrounding the Indian Ocean include Japan, China and Australia. Bernese 5.0 was used for the processing of 30 sec. sampling data to obtain static solutions. From our analysis, no significant motions were detected at each site until the day of the earthquake. Although postseismic displacements still have been detected at CHMI and SIS2 in northern Thailand, far from the epicenter, they seem to be decelerated. On the other hand, at SAMP and PHKT, close to the epicenter, where postseismic displacements also became smaller, but still may take a time to stop. An about 29 cm SW-ward motion was detected at PHKT from just after the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake to June 2007, which is larger than its coseismic displacement, about 26 cm. We have constructed 3D-FEM model to estimate how much viscoelastic relaxation affects postseismic displacements after the earthquake. We adopted a Maxwell viscoelastic body as well as Katagi et al. (2006), and modeled around the Andaman-Sea area using isoparametric hexahedral elements with 8 nodes (Zienkiewicz and Cheng, 1967). The Andaman-Sea is well known as a back arc basins, and its ocean floor is still spreading. Therefore, the mantle viscosity under the Sunda-plate may be smaller because of upwelling warm mantle. We are going to investigate and report the

  1. Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    1998-01-01

    The anti-choice lobby has expressed concern that the government may consider reviewing or reforming abortion law in Northern Ireland. The legal status of abortion is similar to that in Britain before the introduction of the 1967 Abortion Act. However, the commemoration of the 30th anniversary of abortion law reform in Britain presents an opportunity to discuss the benefits of such change in Northern Ireland. Such discussion may cause ministers to reconsider the status of abortion. Anticipating possible discussion, some anti-choice Northern Ireland Members of Parliament tabled Early Day Motion (EDM) 352 "Northern Ireland and the Abortion Act," opposing the introduction of abortion services into Northern Ireland. Member of Parliament Harry Barnes tabled an amendment to the motion noting that current abortion law in Northern Ireland violates the standards of international human rights law and that about 2000 women travel from Northern Ireland annually for abortions. EDM 352 has been signed by 17 Members of Parliament; the amendment, by 13. PMID:12321442

  2. Coral Radiocarbon Records of Indian Ocean Water Mass Mixing and Wind-Induced Upwelling Along the Coast of Sumatra, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Guilderson, T P; Grumet, N S; Abram, N J; Beck, J W; Dunbar, R B; Gagan, M K; Hantoro, W S; Suwargadi, B W

    2004-02-06

    Radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) in the skeletal aragonite of annually banded corals track radiocarbon concentrations in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in surface seawater. As a result of nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s, oceanic uptake of excess {sup 14}C in the atmosphere has increased the contrast between surface and deep ocean {sup 14}C concentrations. We present accelerator mass spectrometric (AMS) measurements of radiocarbon isotope ({Delta}{sup 14}C) in Porites corals from the Mentawai Islands, Sumatra (0 S, 98 E) and Watamu, Kenya (3 S, 39 E) to document the temporal and spatial evolution of the {sup 14}C gradient in the tropical Indian Ocean. The rise in {Delta}{sup 14}C in the Sumatra coral, in response to the maximum in nuclear weapons testing, is delayed by 2-3 years relative to the rise in coral {Delta}{sup 14}C from the coast of Kenya. Kenya coral {Delta}{sup 14}C values rise quickly because surface waters are in prolonged contact with the atmosphere. In contrast, wind-induced upwelling and rapid mixing along the coast of Sumatra entrains {sup 14}C-depleted water from the subsurface, which dilutes the effect of the uptake of bomb-laden {sup 14}C by the surface-ocean. Bimonthly AMS {Delta}{sup 14}C measurements on the Mentawai coral reveal mainly interannual variability with minor seasonal variability. The interannual signal may be a response to changes in the Walker circulation, the development of easterly wind anomalies, shoaling of the eastern thermocline, and upwelling of {sup 14}C-depleted water along the coast of Sumatra. Singular spectrum analysis of the Sumatra coral {Delta}{sup 14}C record reveals a significant 3-year periodicity. The results lend support to the concept that ocean atmosphere interactions between the Pacific and Indian Oceans operate in concert with the El Ni{tilde n}o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

  3. P, S velocity and VP/VS ratio beneath the Toba caldera complex (Northern Sumatra) from local earthquake tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koulakov, Ivan; Yudistira, Tedi; Luehr, Birger-G.; Wandono

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, we investigate the crustal and uppermost mantle structure beneath Toba caldera, which is known as the location of one of the largest Cenozoic eruptions on Earth. The most recent event occurred 74000 yr BP, and had a significant global impact on climate and the biosphere. In this study, we revise data on local seismicity in the Toba area recorded by a temporary PASSCAL network in 1995. We applied the newest version of the LOTOS-07 algorithm, which includes absolute source location, optimization of the starting 1-D velocity model, and iterative tomographic inversion for 3-D seismic P, S (or the VP/VS ratio) and source parameters. Special attention is paid to verification of the obtained results. Beneath the Toba caldera and other volcanoes of the arc, we observe relatively moderate (for volcanic areas) negative P- and S-velocity anomalies that reach 18 per cent in the uppermost layer, 10-12 per cent in the lower crust and about 7 per cent in the uppermost mantle. Much stronger contrasts are observed for the VP/VS ratio that is a possible indicator of dominant effect of melting in origin of seismic anomalies. At a depth of 5 km beneath active volcanoes, we observe small patterns (7-15 km size) with a high VP/VS ratio that might be an image of actual magmatic chambers filled with partially molten material feeding the volcanoes. In the mantle wedge, we observe a vertical anomaly with low P and S velocities and a high VP/VS ratio that link the cluster of events at 120-140 km depth with Toba caldera. This may be an image of ascending fluids and melts released from the subducted slab due to phase transitions. However, taking into account poor vertical resolution, these results should be interpreted with prudence. Although the results show clear signatures that are quite typical for volcanic areas (low velocity and high VP/VS ratio beneath volcanoes), we do not observe any specific features in seismic structure that could characterize Toba as a super volcano.

  4. Tsunamigenic potential due to frontal rupturing in the Sumatra locked zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuncoro, Alvina K.; Cubas, Nadaya; Singh, Satish C.; Etchebes, Marie; Tapponnier, Paul

    2015-12-01

    The Sumatra subduction zone is one of the most seismically active subduction zones. Although there have been three Mw ≥ 8.4 earthquakes in the region, including the disastrous 2004 Mw = 9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, a 500 km long patch around Mentawai Islands is still locked and could produce a large megathrust earthquake. If the rupture propagates to the subduction front, as it most likely occurred during the 2004 earthquake, it may lead to a devastating tsunami. Here, we present high-resolution reflection seismic data from the Sumatra locked zone that shows the subduction interface down to 20 km depth. The seismic data also show that the wedge is composed of two layers: a shallow layer formed by mixed to landward vergent thrusts, termed as pop-ups, and a deeper layer showing sub-horizontal reflectors. The lower layer is most probably formed by duplexes, whose roof serves as a pseudo-décollement for the mixed to landward thrust systems. Based on the seismic results, we perform mechanical modeling in order to understand the formation of these structures and to retrieve the associated frictional properties. We first show that the activation of the pseudo-décollement requires (1) either a sudden increase of effective friction along the plate interface or an irregular geometry of the plate interface, (2) a lower effective friction along the pseudo-décollement than along the plate interface. We then show that low effective frictional values (≤0.1) are required to reproduce the observed frontal structures. The low effective friction along the pseudo-décollement could either be due to the presence of a long-term high pore pressure layer or to dynamic weakening associated with earthquakes. Since similar structures are present in the 2010 tsunami earthquake area, we favor the dynamic weakening hypothesis. According to the mechanical modeling, if the next rupture propagates up to the toe rupturing the three most frontal pop-up structures, we could expect at least

  5. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for Sumatra, Indonesia and across the Southern Malaysian Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.D.; Dewey, J.; Hartzell, S.; Mueller, C.; Harmsen, S.; Frankel, A.D.; Rukstales, K.

    2004-01-01

    The ground motion hazard for Sumatra and the Malaysian peninsula is calculated in a probabilistic framework, using procedures developed for the US National Seismic Hazard Maps. We constructed regional earthquake source models and used standard published and modified attenuation equations to calculate peak ground acceleration at 2% and 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years for rock site conditions. We developed or modified earthquake catalogs and declustered these catalogs to include only independent earthquakes. The resulting catalogs were used to define four source zones that characterize earthquakes in four tectonic environments: subduction zone interface earthquakes, subduction zone deep intraslab earthquakes, strike-slip transform earthquakes, and intraplate earthquakes. The recurrence rates and sizes of historical earthquakes on known faults and across zones were also determined from this modified catalog. In addition to the source zones, our seismic source model considers two major faults that are known historically to generate large earthquakes: the Sumatran subduction zone and the Sumatran transform fault. Several published studies were used to describe earthquakes along these faults during historical and pre-historical time, as well as to identify segmentation models of faults. Peak horizontal ground accelerations were calculated using ground motion prediction relations that were developed from seismic data obtained from the crustal interplate environment, crustal intraplate environment, along the subduction zone interface, and from deep intraslab earthquakes. Most of these relations, however, have not been developed for large distances that are needed for calculating the hazard across the Malaysian peninsula, and none were developed for earthquake ground motions generated in an interplate tectonic environment that are propagated into an intraplate tectonic environment. For the interplate and intraplate crustal earthquakes, we have applied ground

  6. How Robust are Science-Based Disaster Preparedness Strategies? Lessons from Western Sumatra (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, R.; McCloskey, J.; McDowell, S.

    2009-12-01

    Forecasts of the next likely megathrust earthquake which will occur off the western coast of Sumatra, possibly in the near future, indicate that it will likely be tsunamigenic and could be more devastating than the 2004 event. Hundreds of simulations of potential earthquakes and their tsunamis show that, while the earthquake is fundamentally unpredictable, many scenarios would see dangerous inundation of low-lying areas along the west coast of Sumatra; the cities of Padang and Bengkulu broadside-on to the areas of highest seismic potential have a combined population of over one million. Understanding how the science of unpredictable, high probability events is absorbed by society is essential for the development of effective mitigation and preparedness campaigns. A five month field investigation conducted in Padang and Bengkulu aimed to conceptualise the main issues driving risk perception of tsunami hazard, and explore its influence upon preparedness. Of specific interest was the role of scientifically quantified hazard information upon risk perception and hazard preparedness. Target populations were adult community members (n=270) and senior high school students (n=90). Preliminary findings indicate that scientific knowledge of earthquake and tsunami threat amongst respondents in both cities is good. However the relationship between respondent’s hazard knowledge, desired risk perception, and the adoption of preparedness measures was often non-linear and is susceptible to the negative effects of unscientific forecasts disseminated by government and mass media. Evidence suggests that ‘mystic’ predictions often portrayed in the media as being scientific, have been readily absorbed by the public; when these fail to materialise the credibility of authentic science and scientists plummets. As a result levels of sustainable earthquake and tsunami preparedness measures adopted by those living in tsunami threatened areas can be detrimentally impacted. It is

  7. The 2007 Sumatra seismic sequence revealed by a regional seismic network in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, M.; Inoue, H.; Kumagai, H.; Yamashina, T.; Sunarjo; Fauzi; Suhardjono

    2007-12-01

    On September 12, 2007, a great earthquake with Mw 8.4 occurred at 11:10 (UTC) off Bengkulu, Sumatra, Indonesia. This event was followed by a large earthquake with Mw 8.0, which occurred at 23:49 (UTC) on the same day in the northwest of the Mw 8.4 earthquake. Another earthquake with Mw 6.8 occurred off Padang, in the northwest of the second earthquake, at 03:35 (UTC) on the next day. These earthquakes caused dozens of casualties and damage to the buildings in Bengkulu and Padang areas. Tsunami with a hight of 1m was observed in Padang, but no severe damage by tsunami was reported. We have been developing an automated system for rapid source parameter determinations of earthquakes in Indonesia, using data obtained from a broadband seismic network in this country (JISNET). This network is operated by NIED and Indonesia Meteorological and Geophysical Agency (BMG). In our method, the moment function is estimated simultaneously with a centroid moment tensor (CMT) solution based on the waveform inversion carried out in the frequency domain. The source parameters for an earthquake greater than Mw 5 can be determined automatically by our system within 15 minutes after the occurrence of an earthquake. The automatic inversion result is then checked manually. The source parameters of earthquakes that are not determined by the automatic system are also determined manually. The source parameters of the 2007 Sumatra earthquakes were succesfully determined by our system. The estimated focal mechanisms show similar thrust-type faultings, suggesting that these earthquakes occurred in association with the subduction of the Indo-Australian Plate beneath Sumatra Island. Both the Mw 8.4 and 8.0 events occurred at a depth of about 20 km. The rupture durations estimated from the moment functions are 140 s and 108 s for the Mw 8.4 and Mw 8.0 events, respectively. These rupture durations are slightly longer than typical values for earthquakes of these magnitudes. The aftershocks are

  8. On reported occurrences of shock-deformed clasts in the volcanic ejecta from Toba caldera, Sumatra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpton, V. L.; Schuraytz, B. C.

    1989-01-01

    Reports of shock-deformed phenocrysts from the Toba ignimbrite deposits, Sumatra, have prompted considerable debate over whether shock-deformation products are clear evidence of a meteorite impact origin for the K/T boundary deposits as well as terresrial 'cryptoexplosion' structures. Evidence presented in favor of volcanically induced shock at Toba includes kinked biotites and rare occurrences of single set of lamellae in quartz grains but rests most heavily upon occurrences of mosaic extinction patterns in plagioclase phenocrysts. The present analysis of several of the same Toba samples reveals that these mosaic patterns ae related to distinct compositional zoning and cannot be attributed to deformation of the crystal lattice that shock would produce. Additionally, in more than 200 quartz grains examined, no occurrences of microdeformation features or mosaic textures similar to those associated with known impact structures and the K/T boundary are detected. It is concluded that evidence of shock deformation in the Toba deposits has not been demonstrated.

  9. Earthquake in a Maze: Compressional Rupture Branching During the 2012 Mw 8.6 Sumatra Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, L.; Ampuero, J.-P.; Stock, J.; Duputel, Z.; Luo, Y.; Tsai, V. C.

    2012-08-01

    Seismological observations of the 2012 moment magnitude 8.6 Sumatra earthquake reveal unprecedented complexity of dynamic rupture. The surprisingly large magnitude results from the combination of deep extent, high stress drop, and rupture of multiple faults. Back-projection source imaging indicates that the rupture occurred on distinct planes in an orthogonal conjugate fault system, with relatively slow rupture speed. The east-southeast-west-northwest ruptures add a new dimension to the seismotectonics of the Wharton Basin, which was previously thought to be controlled by north-south strike-slip faulting. The rupture turned twice into the compressive quadrant, against the preferred branching direction predicted by dynamic Coulomb stress calculations. Orthogonal faulting and compressional branching indicate that rupture was controlled by a pressure-insensitive strength of the deep oceanic lithosphere.

  10. Geodetic observations of interseismic strain segmentation at the Sumatra Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prawirodirdjo, L.; Bocl, Y.; McCaffrey, R.; Genrich, J.; Calais, E.; Stevens, C.; Puntodewo, S. S. O.; Subarya, C.; Rais, J.; Zwick, P.; Fauzi, R. McCaffrey

    Deformation above the Sumatra subduction zone, revealed by Global Positioning System (GPS) geodetic surveys, shows nearly complete coupling of the forearc to the subducting plate south of 0.5°S and half as much to the north. The abrupt change in plate coupling coincides with the boundary between the rupture zones of the 1833 and 1861 (Mw>8) thrust earthquakes. The rupture boundary appears as an abrupt change in strain accumulation well into the interseismic cycle, suggesting that seismic segmentation is controlled by properties of the plate interface that persist through more than one earthquake cycle. Structural evidence indicates that differences in basal shear stress may be related to elevated pore pressure in the north.

  11. Fluctuation of diptera larvae in phytotelmata and relation with climate variation in West Sumatra Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Emantis; Dahelmi; Salmah, Siti; Syamsuardi

    2014-07-01

    Research of fluctuations in Diptera's larvae in Phytotelmata had been conducted at three locations in West Sumatra, Indonesia; Padang, Bukittinggi and Payakumbuh; which aimed to determine the number and fluctuations Diptera larvae in Phytotelmata. The results obtained; the highest number of individual larvae Diptera in Phytotelmata was 7109 Aedes albopictus larvae (49.56%), followed by larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus with 2409 individuals (16.80%). Larvae fluctuated every month and tent to increase in November and December. There was no difference in the number of Diptera larvae individuals inhabiting pandan, taro, and pineapple, but there were significant differences between the three types of Phytotelmata (pandanus, taro and pineapple) with bamboo (p < 0.05). Number of individual larvae in Phytotelmata negatively correlated with temperature and rainfall, but positively correlated with humidity (r = 0.44: p < 0.05). PMID:26035947

  12. Social dimensions of science-humanitarian collaboration: lessons from Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Shannon, Rachel; Hope, Max; McCloskey, John; Crowley, Dominic; Crichton, Peter

    2014-07-01

    This paper contains a critical exploration of the social dimensions of the science-humanitarian relationship. Drawing on literature on the social role of science and on the social dimensions of humanitarian practice, it analyses a science-humanitarian partnership for disaster risk reduction (DRR) in Padang, Sumatra, Indonesia, an area threatened by tsunamigenic earthquakes. The paper draws on findings from case study research that was conducted between 2010 and 2011. The case study illustrates the social processes that enabled and hindered collaboration between the two spheres, including the informal partnership of local people and scientists that led to the co-production of earthquake and tsunami DRR and limited organisational capacity and support in relation to knowledge exchange. The paper reflects on the implications of these findings for science-humanitarian partnering in general, and it assesses the value of using a social dimensions approach to understand scientific and humanitarian dialogue.

  13. Paleoseismic Records of Multiple Great Earthquakes from the Subduction Zones of Sumatra, Chile, and Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dura, T.; Horton, B.; Briggs, R. W.; Cisternas, M.; Ely, L. L.; Kelsey, H. M.; Nelson, A. R.; Rubin, C. M.

    2014-12-01

    Instrumental and historical records have proved too short to estimate the potential magnitudes and recurrence intervals of rare events such as the 2004 Indian Ocean and 2011 Tohoku-Oki great earthquakes and tsunamis. Paleoseismology improves our understanding of subduction zone hazards by extending earthquake histories thousands of years into the past. Through paleoseismic investigations at subduction zones, we scrutinize coastal sediments in low-energy depositional environments to reconstruct relative sea-level (RSL) changes related to upper-plate deformation from past earthquakes and tsunami inundation. Microfossils—long recognized as valuable RSL indicators—in coastal sediment provide an independent test of earthquake related RSL change and tsunami deposition inferred from coastal stratigraphy. Here, we illustrate the value and potential of paleoseismic methods at megathrust sites in Sumatra, Chile, and the eastern Aleutian Islands to identify both coseismic subsidence and uplift. In western Sumatra, coastal sediments beneath a lowland near the city of Padang contain stratigraphic evidence for two mid Holocene earthquakes, each resulting in > 1 m of coseismic subsidence. A site along the most populated portion of the central Chilean coast near Valparaíso records stratigraphic and diatom evidence of six instances of early to mid-Holocene coseismic uplift (< 1 m) accompanied by tsunamis. Coastal marsh sediment on the eastern Aleutian Island of Sitkinak contains stratigraphic and diatom evidence for three instances of uplift and two of subsidence during great earthquakes. Such biostratigraphic evidence of past great earthquakes and tsunamis shows that the absence of great megathrust events near our sites in the last 200-300 years is not representative of the potential for great events on the megathrusts. In addition, we discuss how our earthquake and tsunami records fit within the context of past regional RSL histories and emphasize the importance of RSL on

  14. Revisiting the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake in a Bayesian framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bletery, Q.; Sladen, A.; Jiang, J.; Simons, M.

    2015-12-01

    The 2004 Mw 9.25 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake is the largest seismic event of the modern instrumental era. Despite considerable effort to analyze the characteristics of its rupture, the different available observations have proven difficult to simultaneously integrate jointly into a finite-fault slip model. In particular, the critical near-field geodetic records contain variable and significant post-seismic signal (between 2 weeks and 2 months) while the satellite altimetry records of the associated tsunami are affected by various sources of uncertainties (e.g. source rupture velocity, meso-scale oceanic currents). In this study, we investigate the quasi-static slip distribution of the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake by carefully accounting for the different sources of uncertainties in the joint inversion of an extended set of geodetic and tsunami data. To do so, we use non-diagonal covariance matrices reflecting both data and model uncertainties in a fully Bayesian inversion framework. As model errors are particularly large for mega-earthquakes, we also rely on advanced simulation codes (normal mode theory on a layered spherical Earth for the static displacement field and non-hydrostatic equations for the tsunami) and account for the 3D curvature of the megathrust interface to reduce the associated epistemic uncertainties. The fully Bayesian inversion framework then enables us to derive the families of possible models compatible with the unevenly distributed and sometimes ambiguous measurements. We find two regions of high slip at latitudes 3°-4°N and 7°-8°N with amplitudes that probably reached values as large as 40 m and possibly larger. Such amounts of slip were not proposed by previous studies, which might have been biased by smoothing regularizations. We also find significant slip (around 20 m) offshore Andaman islands absent in earlier studies. Furthermore, we find that the rupture very likely involved shallow slip, with the possibility of reaching the trench.

  15. Preliminary Results of Paleotsunami Deposits Along the Sunda Megathrust, Simeulue Island, Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitlow, K. F.; Yulianto, E.; Fujino, S.; Sieh, K.

    2006-12-01

    Although great megathrust earthquakes have been previously documented by coral microatoll studies, the timing of past tsunamis on Simeulue Island, west Sumatra, are poorly documented. According to local residents and our recent reconnaissance, a large megathrust earthquake along the Sunda arc occurred in 1907 and generated a tsunami along the west coast of Sumatra. U/Th dates from a microatoll offshore from one of our field localities, Busong Bay, show an event that occurred in 1799. Our recent studies have identified candidate paleotsunami deposits at three different locations on Simeulue Island between 2o and 3o N at Inor, Busong Bay, and Langi Bay. Shallow excavations at each site exposed candidate tsunami deposits. At Inor, excavations made parallel to a river that runs perpendicular to the ocean document the inland extent of past tsunamis. At both Busong Bay and Langi Bay, excavations were made parallel to the shoreline. Diatom and grain size analyses of candidate tsunami deposits will help to determine if the sand layers are marine or terrestrially derived. Coral blocks at Busong Bay and Langi Bay may have been deposited by recent (2004) and past tsunamis. U/Th dating of a buried coral boulder found on a candidate tsunami sand in a trench exposure at Busang Bay will constrain the age of the Simeulue Island paleotsunami deposit. AMS radiocarbon dating of woody fragments from peat layers will also help to constrain the age of the candidate paleotsunami deposit. By constraining the age of the paleotsunami deposit, we will determine recurrence intervals for the portion of the Sumatran subduction zone that broke in 2004. Characterizing depositional settings and the origin of candidate tsunami deposits (marine or terrestrial) will help to understand tsunami preservation in the geologic record.

  16. Regional air quality impacts of future fire emissions in Sumatra and Kalimantan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlier, Miriam E.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Kim, Patrick S.; Gaveau, David L. A.; Koplitz, Shannon N.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Margono, Belinda A.; Myers, Samuel S.

    2015-05-01

    Fire emissions associated with land cover change and land management contribute to the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, which can affect regional air quality and climate. Mitigating these impacts requires a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between fires and different land cover change trajectories and land management strategies. We develop future fire emissions inventories from 2010-2030 for Sumatra and Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) to assess the impact of varying levels of forest and peatland conservation on air quality in Equatorial Asia. To compile these inventories, we combine detailed land cover information from published maps of forest extent, satellite fire radiative power observations, fire emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database, and spatially explicit future land cover projections using a land cover change model. We apply the sensitivities of mean smoke concentrations to Indonesian fire emissions, calculated by the GEOS-Chem adjoint model, to our scenario-based future fire emissions inventories to quantify the different impacts of fires on surface air quality across Equatorial Asia. We find that public health impacts are highly sensitive to the location of fires, with emissions from Sumatra contributing more to smoke concentrations at population centers across the region than Kalimantan, which had higher emissions by more than a factor of two. Compared to business-as-usual projections, protecting peatlands from fires reduces smoke concentrations in the cities of Singapore and Palembang by 70% and 40%, and by 60% for the Equatorial Asian region, weighted by the population in each grid cell. Our results indicate the importance of focusing conservation priorities on protecting both forested (intact or logged) peatlands and non-forested peatlands from fire, even after considering potential leakage of deforestation pressure to other areas, in order to limit the impact of fire emissions on atmospheric smoke concentrations and

  17. Tsunami remote sensing from and with satellites: observations and perspectives after Sumatra 2004 and Tohoku 2011.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lognonne, Philippe; Makela, Jonathan J.; Astafyeva, Elvira; alam Kherani, Esfhan; Occhipinti, Giovanni; Rolland, Lucie; McCoy, Bob; Hebert, Helene; Coisson, Pierdavide; De Raucourt, Sebastien; Lamouroux, Julien

    2012-07-01

    With various observations following the Sumatra 2004 and Tohoku 2011 tsunamis, space observations have demonstrated their capability for the monitoring of the tsunami propagation in open ocean. Observations are very diverse and based on spaceborn optical high resolution imaging of the tsunami arrival on the coast, on the monitoring by space altimeters of the sea level displacement, but also on the ionospheric perturbation generated by the tsunami, detected by altimeters and GNSS receivers. New ground airglow observations performed in Hawaii for the Tohoku tsunami have furthermore opened new perspectives for real time observations from space, based on visible or UV airglow monitoring. We review the different observations and show that the most interesting perspectives are associated to the ionospheric observations, able to detect very small tsunamis in amplitudes and even to open perspective in the detection of possible slow slip precursors of the giant quakes. We illustrate these observations with transoceanic tsunamis of the last decade (Sumatra, 2004, Kuril, 2006, Samoa, 2009, Chili, 2010, Tohoku, 2011) and present the coupling mechanisms responsible for these observations. A special focus is given on the observations and modeling performed during the Tohoku 2011 tsunami, with observations from GPS ionospheric sounding over Japan and further in the Pacific ocean, with joint observation from GPS, Jason and airglow. We show that the first ionospheric signals generated by the rupture have been not only observed about 17 minutes before the arrival of the tsunami on the japanese east-coast, but also that a precursor signal has been generated before the earthquake, likely associated with a slow slip event which has triggered the giant earthquake. We also show that the ionospheric monitoring has been able to follow and image the propagation of the tsunami. We finally present the perspectives and focus on two different approaches and associated projects aiming to monitor

  18. Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols emitted from peatland fire in Riau, Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yusuke; Iriana, Windy; Oda, Masafumi; Puriwigati, Astiti; Tohno, Susumu; Lestari, Puji; Mizohata, Akira; Huboyo, Haryono Setiyo

    2014-04-01

    Biomass burning is a significant source of fine particulate matter (PM2.5). Forest, bush, and peat fires in Kalimantan and Sumatra, Indonesia are major sources of transboundary haze pollution in Southeast Asia. However, limited data exist regarding the chemical characteristics of aerosols at sources. We conducted intensive field studies in Riau Province, Sumatra, Indonesia, during the peatland fire and non-burning seasons in 2012. We characterized PM2.5 carbonaceous aerosols emitted from peatland fire based on ground-based source-dominated sampling. PM2.5 aerosols were collected with two mini-volume samplers using Teflon and quartz fiber filters. Background aerosols were also sampled during the transition period between the non-burning and fire seasons. We analyzed the carbonaceous content (organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC)) by a thermal optical reflectance utilizing the IMPROVE_A protocol and the major organic components of the aerosols by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. PM2.5 aerosols emitted from peatland fire were observed in high concentrations of 7120 ± 3620 μg m-3 and were primarily composed of OC (71.0 ± 5.11% of PM2.5 mass). Levoglucosan exhibited the highest total ion current and was present at concentrations of 464 ± 183 μg m-3. The OC/EC ratios (36.4 ± 9.08), abundances of eight thermally-derived carbon fractions, OC/Levoglucosan ratios (10.6 ± 1.96), and Levoglucosan/Mannosan ratios (10.6 ± 2.03) represent a signature profile that is inherent in peatland fire. These data will be useful in identifying contributions from single or multiple species in atmospheric aerosol samples collected from peatland fires.

  19. Precursory seismic quiescence along the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone: past and present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukrungsri, Santawat; Pailoplee, Santi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the seismic quiescence prior to hazardous earthquakes was analyzed along the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone (SASZ). The seismicity data were screened statistically with mainshock earthquakes of M w ≥ 4.4 reported during 1980-2015 being defined as the completeness database. In order to examine the possibility of using the seismic quiescence stage as a marker of subsequent earthquakes, the seismicity data reported prior to the eight major earthquakes along the SASZ were analyzed for changes in their seismicity rate using the statistical Z test. Iterative tests revealed that Z factors of N = 50 events and T = 2 years were optimal for detecting sudden rate changes such as quiescence and to map these spatially. The observed quiescence periods conformed to the subsequent major earthquake occurrences both spatially and temporally. Using suitable conditions obtained from successive retrospective tests, the seismicity rate changes were then mapped from the most up-to-date seismicity data available. This revealed three areas along the SASZ that might generate a major earthquake in the future: (i) Nicobar Islands (Z = 6.7), (ii) the western offshore side of Sumatra Island (Z = 7.1), and (iii) western Myanmar (Z = 6.7). The performance of a stochastic test using a number of synthetic randomized catalogues indicated these levels of anomalous Z value showed the above anomaly is unlikely due to chance or random fluctuations of the earthquake. Thus, these three areas have a high possibility of generating a strong-to-major earthquake in the future.

  20. Is there a best source model of the Sumatra 2004 earthquake for simulating the consecutive tsunami?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisson, B.; Oliveros, C.; Pedreros, R.

    2011-06-01

    Many studies have attempted to invert the fault source of the Sumatra 2004 event. Whereas they mostly consider the same fault geometry, they lead to a wide range of potential slip distributions. Using tsunami modelling with GEOWAVE, a model based on fully non-linear Boussinesq equations, we investigate the influence of five distinct source models of various origins and the influence of rupture kinematics on the generated tsunami. The simulation results are considered both at ocean-scale and at country-scale. We then compare the results along the Jason-1 track to the corresponding sea surface height anomaly (SSHA) profile, and examine the patterns of maximum sea surface elevation around the Bay of Bengal and on the eastern and southern coastlines of Sri Lanka. In most cases, the synthetic SSHA profiles are not very consistent with the observed one, although they all display a prevailing first wave. The divergence in maximum sea surface elevation appears in particular along the Sri Lankan coast, where three of the models lead to a clearly underestimated tsunami impact. The best models derive from purely seismic and geodetic studies that did not consider any tsunami modelling, thus suggesting that the methods to invert a fault model from tsunami data still need some adjustment, especially concerning the handling of coastal data. In addition, it is important to consider the rupture kinematics along such a long fault, as the generated tsunami is more significant than when considering an instantaneous rupture. In the case of the Sumatra 2004 event, the tsunami impact on Sri Lanka is notably underestimated if modelled without the rupture kinematics. We conclude that for tsunami modelling, a complex description of the fault source model is not absolutely necessary, but some significant parameters such as rupture kinematics should be taken into account.

  1. The Spatio-temporal Context of the December 26, 2004 Aceh-Andaman Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, C.; Rajendran, K.; Earnest, A.

    2005-12-01

    The available seismic history of the Andaman-Nicobar region indicates that in terms of size and fault length (1300 km), the M 9.3 December 26, 2004 earthquake is unprecedented in the region. A tsunamigenic earthquake (M ~7.5) is known to have occurred off Car Nicobar in 1881, reportedly defining a 300- km-long segment. Another event occurred in 1941 ruptured 300-400 km of the subduction interface, extending from middle to south Andamans. Available tide gauge data and eyewitness accounts suggest that the 1941 event, unlike the 1881 earthquake, may not have generated any tsunami. An earlier one occurred in the Andaman offshore on 28 January 1679 with its far-field felt area similar to the 1941 event. Historical data and estimations based on convergence rate from the Andaman-Nicobar region indicate a recurrence period of 200+-50 yr for the large earthquakes (M 7.5-8.0). Our field observations on coseismic uplift at various locations of the Andaman-Nicobar arc and the sites on the east coast of India, however, argue for a longer recurrence interval for the giant tsunamigenic earthquakes. The available age data of the coral terraces indicate that two major onshore uplift events (about 1 m) around 1000 and 3000 yr-BP. Historical information and stratigraphic context of suspected tsunami deposits from an archaeological site (7-12th century A.D) located in the east coast of India hint at the possible occurrence of a great tsunami around 900 A.D. From the available data, it appears that the 2004-type, megathrust events may be rare, aperiodical events. The temporal irregularity of such events vis-a-vis the more frequent segment-specific large events (e.g. 1679, 1881, and 1941), may be characteristic specific to the subduction zone. The northern segment between the North Andamans and the Burmese Coast (the Irrawady delta) is the most potential segment that remains to be broken. Historically this segment is quiescent, but we observed indications of previous liquefaction in the

  2. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  3. Uncovering the factors that can support and impede post-disaster EIA practice in developing countries: The case of Aceh Province, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, Tom; Fischer, Thomas B.

    2014-01-15

    The close relationship between environmental degradation and the occurrence and severity of disaster events has in recent years raised the profile of environmental assessment (EA) in the disaster management field. EA has been identified as a potentially supportive tool in the global effort to reduce disaster risk. As a component of this, attention has been brought specifically to the importance of the application of EA in the aftermath of disaster events in order to help prevent recurrence and promote sustainability. At the same time, however, it has also been recognised that post-disaster environments may be unfavourable to such practices. Looking at the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), this paper reports on a study which sought to identify more specifically the factors which can both support and hinder such practice following disaster events in a developing country context. Analysing the situation in Aceh Province, Indonesia, after the impact of two tsunamigenic earthquakes in late 2004 and early 2005, it is concluded that if EIA is to have a central role in the post-disaster period, pre-disaster preparation could be a key. -- Highlights: • Close relationship between environmental degradation and occurrence/severity of disaster events has raised profile of EA. • EA as a potentially supportive tool in the global effort to reduce disaster risk • Application of EA in the aftermath of disaster events to help prevent recurrence and promote sustainability • The paper looks at factors which can both support and hinder EA following disaster events in a developing country context. • We analyse the situation in Aceh Province, Indonesia, after the impact of two tsunamigenic earthquakes in 2004 and 2005.

  4. The 2004 Sumatra Earthquake Mw 9.3: Seismological and Geophysical Investigations in the Andaman-Nicobar Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kayal, J.; Mooney, W. D.

    2007-12-01

    The December 26, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (MW 9.3) is the fourth largest event (M=9.0) in the world during the last 100 years. It occurred by thrust faulting on the interplate thrust of the subducting Indian plate and overriding Burmese platelet. The main shock rupture, ~1300 km long and 200 km wide, propagated from north of Sumatra to Andaman Nicobar Islands; the slow rupture generated a tsunami which killed about 300,000 people. The epicenter of the earthquake is located at 3.90°N and 94.26°E with a focal depth at 28 km (USGS). The past significant earthquakes in this zone are the 31 December, 1881 (M 7.9), 26 June, 1941 (M 7.7), 20 January, 1982 (M 6.3) and 14 September, 2002 (M 6.0).

  5. Coral radiocarbon records of Indian Ocean water mass mixing and wind-induced upwelling along the coast of Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grumet, N. S.; Abram, N. J.; Beck, J. W.; Dunbar, R. B.; Gagan, M. K.; Guilderson, T. P.; Hantoro, W. S.; Suwargadi, B. W.

    2004-05-01

    Radiocarbon (14C) in the skeletal aragonite of annually banded corals track radiocarbon concentrations in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in surface seawater. As a result of nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s, oceanic uptake of excess 14C in the atmosphere has increased the contrast between surface and deep ocean 14C concentrations. We present accelerator mass spectrometric (AMS) measurements of 14C/12C ratios (Δ14C) in Porites corals from the Mentawai Islands, Sumatra (0°S, 98°E) and Watamu, Kenya (3°S, 39°E) to document the temporal and spatial evolution of the 14C zonal gradient in the tropical Indian Ocean. The rise in Δ14C in the Sumatra coral, in response to the maximum in nuclear weapons testing, is delayed by 2-3 years relative to the rise in coral Δ14C from the coast of Kenya. Kenya coral Δ14C values rise quickly because surface waters are in prolonged contact with the atmosphere. In contrast, wind-induced upwelling and rapid mixing along the coast of Sumatra entrains 14C-depleted water from the subsurface, which dilutes the effect of the uptake of bomb-produced 14C by the surface ocean. Bimonthly AMS Δ14C measurements on the Mentawai coral reveal mainly interannual variability with minor seasonal variability. Singular spectrum analysis of the Sumatra coral Δ14C record reveals a significant 3-year periodicity. These results lend support to the concept that interannual variability in Indian Ocean upwelling and sea surface temperatures is related to ENSO-like teleconnections over the Indo-Pacific basin.

  6. Extent, duration and speed of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake imaged by the Hi-Net array.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Miaki; Shearer, Peter M; Houston, Heidi; Vidale, John E

    2005-06-16

    The disastrous Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of 26 December 2004 was one of the largest ever recorded. The damage potential of such earthquakes depends on the extent and magnitude of fault slip. The first reliable moment magnitude estimate of 9.0 was obtained several hours after the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, but more recent, longer-period, normal-mode analyses have indicated that it had a moment magnitude of 9.3, about 2.5 times larger. Here we introduce a method for directly imaging earthquake rupture that uses the first-arriving compressional wave and is potentially able to produce detailed images within 30 min of rupture initiation. We used the Hi-Net seismic array in Japan as an antenna to map the progression of slip by monitoring the direction of high-frequency radiation. We find that the rupture spread over the entire 1,300-km-long aftershock zone by propagating northward at roughly 2.8 km s(-1) for approximately 8 minutes. Comparisons with the aftershock areas of other great earthquakes indicate that the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake did indeed have a moment magnitude of approximately 9.3. Its rupture, in both duration and extent, is the longest ever recorded.

  7. Geochemistry of Selected Coal Samples from Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belkin, Harvey E.; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Indonesia is an archipelago of more than 17,000 islands that stretches astride the equator for about 5,200 km in southeast Asia (figure 1) and includes major Cenozoic volcano-plutonic arcs, active volcanoes, and various related onshore and offshore basins. These magmatic arcs have extensive Cu and Au mineralization that has generated much exploration and mining in the last 50 years. Although Au and Ag have been mined in Indonesia for over 1000 years (van Leeuwen, 1994), it was not until the middle of the nineteenth century that the Dutch explored and developed major Sn and minor Au, Ag, Ni, bauxite, and coal resources. The metallogeny of Indonesia includes Au-rich porphyry Cu, porphyry Mo, skarn Cu-Au, sedimentary-rock hosted Au, epithermal Au, laterite Ni, and diamond deposits. For example, the Grasberg deposit in Papua has the world's largest gold reserves and the third-largest copper reserves (Sillitoe, 1994). Coal mining in Indonesia also has had a long history beginning with the initial production in 1849 in the Mahakam coal field near Pengaron, East Kalimantan; in 1891 in the Ombilin area, Sumatra, (van Leeuwen, 1994); and in South Sumatra in 1919 at the Bukit Asam mine (Soehandojo, 1989). Total production from deposits in Sumatra and Kalimantan, from the 19thth century to World War II, amounted to 40 million metric tons (Mt). After World War II, production declined due to various factors including politics and a boom in the world-wide oil economy. Active exploration and increased mining began again in the 1980's mainly through a change in Indonesian government policy of collaboration with foreign companies and the global oil crises (Prijono, 1989). This recent coal revival (van Leeuwen, 1994) has lead Indonesia to become the largest exporter of thermal (steam) coal and the second largest combined thermal and metallurgical (coking) coal exporter in the world market (Fairhead and others, 2006). The exported coal is desirable as it is low sulfur

  8. Evidence of Postseismic Deformation Signal of the 2007 M8.5 Bengkulu Earthquake and the 2012 M8.6 Indian Ocean Earthquake in Southern Sumatra, Indonesia, Based on GPS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alif, Satrio Muhammad; Meilano, Irwan; Gunawan, Endra; Efendi, Joni

    2016-06-01

    GPS data in southern Sumatra, Indonesia, indicate crustal deformation associated to subduction zone and inland fault of Great Sumatran Fault (GSF). We analyze these deformation characteristics using campaign and continuous GPS data available in southern Sumatra from 2006-2014. After removing the effect of GSF in southern Sumatra and coseismic displacements of 2007 Bengkulu and 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake, we find that GPS sites experienced northwest-ward direction. These GPS velocities correspond to postseismic deformation of the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and the 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake. We analyze strain using these velocities, and we find that postseismic strains in southern Sumatra are in the range of 0.8-20 nanostrain.

  9. CO2 and energy fluxes from an oil palm plantation in Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijide, Ana; Herbst, Mathias; Knohl, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Oil palm plantations are expanding in Indonesia due to global increased demand of palm oil. Such plantations are usually set in previously forested land and in Sumatra, massive transformation of lowland forest into oil palm plantations is taking place. These land transformations have been identified as a potential driver of climate change, as they might result in changes of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. However, very limited information is available on GHG fluxes from oil palm plantations and their sink or source strength at ecosystem scale is yet unknown. An eddy covariance tower was therefore installed in a 2 year old oil palm plantation in the province of Jambi, Sumatra (1° 50' 7'S, 103° 17' 44'E), with the aim of studying carbon dioxide, water and energy fluxes during the non-productive phase of oil palm cultivation. The canopy was not yet closed and trees were around 2m high. The eddy covariance system consists of a Licor 7500A and an ultrasonic Metek Anemometer, operating at 10 Hz and installed on a 7m tower. In addition to the eddy covariance measurements, the site is equipped with a weather station, measuring short and long wave radiation, PAR, rainfall, profiles of air temperature, air humidity and wind speed, soil temperature and moisture and soil heat fluxes. Measurements started in July 2013 until January 2014, in order to capture possible differences which may happen during the dry (July-October) and wet (November-February) seasons. A large CO2 uptake would have been expected at this young oil palm plantation, as palm trees during this period of their cultivation are growing fast. However, our preliminary results show that during the first 5 months of measurements, the ecosystem was a small carbon source (below 10 g CO2 m-2). Latent heat flux was higher than sensible heat flux during the period of study, indicative of the high evaporation taking place. Our results show that both for CO2 and energy fluxes, large differences were observed between the

  10. Constraints for the 2004 Sumatra Earthquake Source Process From Coseismic Ionospheric Disturbances Observed by GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heki, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Choosakul, N.; Hemmakorn, N.; Komolmis, T.; Maruyama, T.

    2005-12-01

    Coseismic ionospheric total electron content (TEC) perturbations, observable with Global Positioning System (GPS), are caused by the three kinds of atmospheric waves, i.e. (1) direct acoustic wave from the focal area, (2) gravity wave propagating obliquely upward, and (3) secondary acoustic wave excited by the Rayleigh surface wave. They have been detected for the 2003 Tokachi-oki, Japan (Heki and Ping, 2005), the 2001 Peru (Artru et al., 2005), and the 2002 Denali (Ducic et al., 2003) earthquakes, respectively, all with dense GPS arrays. They have different apparent propagation speeds, and the first one has a latitude-dependent directivity due to the Lorentz force. Here we demonstrate that observed coseismic ionospheric disturbances could constrain the source rupture process of the 2004 December Great Sumatra earthquake. After that earthquake, we observed two kinds of ionospheric perturbations, i.e. the surface wave induced perturbation detected by the Japanese GEONET, and those by direct acoustic waves detected by nine continuous GPS stations in Indonesia and Thailand. The latter disturbances amounted to a few TEC units, an order of magnitude larger than the 2003 Tokachi-oki case, and propagated by about 1 km/sec. Their apparent periods were 4-5 minutes or longer. We assumed linear distribution of point sources for acoustic wave generation along the fault from NW Sumatra to the Andaman Islands, and calculated TEC variation waveforms by simulating the acoustic wave propagation from individual sources to the intersections of line-of-sights and ionosphere through the atmosphere with height-dependent sound velocities, by ray-tracing. Then, we tried to reproduce the combined TEC perturbations similar to the observed ones, for several different satellite-receiver pairs, by optimizing the relative strengths of the linearly distributed point sources. The strongest sources were found near G. Nicobar Island, which is consistent with seismological studies and displacements

  11. Degraded peatlands as a source of riverine organic carbon and enhanced river outgassing in Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wit, Francisca; Rixen, Tim

    2014-05-01

    Sumatra, Indonesia, is well known for its widespread tropical peat lands. However, silvi- and agricultural purposes are currently inducing large-scale degradation of peat lands, transforming the landscape into mainly palm-oil plantations. The degradation induces loss of carbon via direct CO2 emissions, but also via riverine outflow of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC, respectively) due to leaching. This organic carbon is then decomposed along the way towards the coast and is hypothesized to enhance coastal and river outgassing of CO2. In the framework of SPICE III, Science for the Protection of Indonesian Coastal Ecosystems, we are quantifying these carbon budgets and fluxes in the rivers and coastal areas of northeast Sumatra. Using underway instruments, we have gathered continuous measurements of various parameters, including pCO2, pH, temperature, salinity and oxygen. In addition, water samples were obtained for DOC, POC, δ13CDIC, alkalinity and nutrient analyses. The results of the first analyses show that pCO2 values in the coastal areas range between 400-600 μatm. However, in the vicinity of the rivers pCO2 concentrations increase tremendously, ranging from 600 near the estuaries to a staggering 9000 μatm further upstream. These values are much higher than the marine pCO2 value of 390 μatm in the South China Sea. When adding carbon isotope results into the story, while knowing that upstream river life is greatly reduced due to oxygen depletion as a result of high DOC decomposition, it appears to be clear from the values, which range between -20 to -24‰ δ13CDIC, that the main source of the organic carbon is indeed originating from the degrading peat lands. In conclusion, our hypothesis can be deemed correct: degrading peat lands enhance organic carbon outflow and therefore elevated decomposition in the rivers, which results in increased river outgassing of CO2. Further analyses will be conducted to precisely quantify the budgets and

  12. Earthquake and tsunami hazard in West Sumatra: integrating science, outreach, and local stakeholder needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaughey, J.; Lubis, A. M.; Huang, Z.; Yao, Y.; Hill, E. M.; Eriksson, S.; Sieh, K.

    2012-04-01

    The Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS) is building partnerships with local to provincial government agencies, NGOs, and educators in West Sumatra to inform their policymaking, disaster-risk-reduction, and education efforts. Geodetic and paleoseismic studies show that an earthquake as large as M 8.8 is likely sometime in the coming decades on the Mentawai patch of the Sunda megathrust. This earthquake and its tsunami would be devastating for the Mentawai Islands and neighboring areas of the western Sumatra coast. The low-lying coastal Sumatran city of Padang (pop. ~800,000) has been the object of many research and outreach efforts, especially since 2004. Padang experienced deadly earthquakes in 2007 and 2009 that, though tragedies in their own right, served also as wake-up calls for a larger earthquake to come. However, there remain significant barriers to linking science to policy: extant hazard information is sometimes contradictory or confusing for non-scientists, while turnover of agency leadership and staff means that, in the words of one local advocate, "we keep having to start from zero." Both better hazard knowledge and major infrastructure changes are necessary for risk reduction in Padang. In contrast, the small, isolated villages on the outlying Mentawai Islands have received relatively fewer outreach efforts, yet many villages have the potential for timely evacuation with existing infrastructure. Therefore, knowledge alone can go far toward risk reduction. The tragic October 2010 Mentawai tsunami has inspired further disaster-risk reduction work by local stakeholders. In both locations, we are engaging policymakers and local NGOs, providing science to help inform their work. Through outreach contacts, the Mentawai government requested that we produce the first-ever tsunami hazard map for their islands; this aligns well with scientific interests at EOS. We will work with the Mentawai government on the presentation and explanation of the hazard map, as

  13. A study of aerosol optical properties at the global GAW station Bukit Kototabang, Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhayati, N.; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2012-01-01

    There have been very few studies carried out in Indonesia on the atmospheric aerosol optical properties and their impact on the earth climate. This study utilized solar radiation and aerosol measurement results of Indonesian GAW station Bukit Kototabang in Sumatra. The radiation data of nine years were used as input to a radiation simulation code for retrieving optically equivalent parameters of aerosols, i.e., aerosol optical thickness (AOT), coarse particle to fine particle ratio ( γ-ratio), and soot fraction. Retrieval of aerosol properties shows that coarse particles dominated at the station due to high relative humidity (RH) reaching more than 80% throughout the year. AOT time series showed a distinct two peak structure with peaks in MJJ and NDJ periods. The second peak corresponds to the period of high RH suggesting it was formed by active particle growth with large RH near 90%. On the other hand the time series of hot spot number, though it is only for the year of 2004, suggests the first peak was strongly contributed by biomass burning aerosols. The γ-ratio took a value near 10 throughout the year except for November and December when it took a larger value. The soot fraction varies in close relation with the γ-ratio, i.e. low values when γ was large, as consistent with our proposal of active particle growth in the high relative periods.

  14. Physics of the environment: possible Sumatra Tsunami warning times for large animals in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, David G.; Scheifele, Peter M.; Vonwinkle, William A.

    2005-04-01

    There has previously been significant anecdotal evidence that animals can anticipate or sense seismic events. It is known that large animals, specifically elephants, sense and utilize low frequency sound. The object of this paper is to estimate the possible warning times that large animals in Sri Lanka could have had of the Sumatra Tsunami, assuming they could sense low frequency wave transmission from the initial earthquake arriving by either atmospheric, ocean, or bottom paths. The atmospheric path appears to be the least efficient due to relatively high attenuation and poor coupling to the source. It would also give the shortest warning time: approximately 30 minutes. The ocean path via the deep sound channel, which has been shown by a previous Bermuda experiment to be an efficient means of coupling seismic energy to an island, would give a warning time of more than 1.5 hours. The bottom path(s), which gave strong received signals at a Sri Lanka seismic station, would give a warning time of about 2 hours. These estimates should provide a context for animal behavior reports.

  15. Particle precipitation prior to large earthquakes of both the Sumatra and Philippine Regions: A statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidani, Cristiano

    2015-12-01

    A study of statistical correlation between low L-shell electrons precipitating into the atmosphere and strong earthquakes is presented. More than 11 years of the Medium Energy Protons Electrons Detector data from the NOAA-15 Sun-synchronous polar orbiting satellite were analysed. Electron fluxes were analysed using a set of adiabatic coordinates. From this, significant electron counting rate fluctuations were evidenced during geomagnetic quiet periods. Electron counting rates were compared to earthquakes by defining a seismic event L-shell obtained radially projecting the epicentre geographical positions to a given altitude towards the zenith. Counting rates were grouped in every satellite semi-orbit together with strong seismic events and these were chosen with the L-shell coordinates close to each other. NOAA-15 electron data from July 1998 to December 2011 were compared for nearly 1800 earthquakes with magnitudes larger than or equal to 6, occurring worldwide. When considering 30-100 keV precipitating electrons detected by the vertical NOAA-15 telescope and earthquake epicentre projections at altitudes greater that 1300 km, a significant correlation appeared where a 2-3 h electron precipitation was detected prior to large events in the Sumatra and Philippine Regions. This was in physical agreement with different correlation times obtained from past studies that considered particles with greater energies. The Discussion below of satellite orbits and detectors is useful for future satellite missions for earthquake mitigation.

  16. Seismic and deformation precursory to the small explosions of Marapi Volcano, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, D.; Patria, C.; Gunawan, H.; Taisne, B.; Nurfiani, D.; Avila, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Marapi Volcano is one of the active volcanoes of Indonesia located near the city of Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, Indonesia. Its activity is characterized by small vulcanian explosions with occasional VEI 2 producing tephra and pyroclastic flows. Due to its activity, it is being monitored by Centre for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM). Four seismic stations consists of 2 broadband and 2 short period instruments have been established since 2009. In collaboration with CVGHM, Earth Observatory of Singapore added 5 seismic stations around the volcano in 2014, initially with short period instruments but later upgraded to broadbands. We added one tilt station at the summit of Marapi. These seismic and tilt stations are telemetered by 5.8GHz radio to Marapi Observatory Post where data are archived and displayed for Marapi observers for their daily volcanic activity monitoring work. We also archive the data in the EOS and CVGHM main offices. Here we are presenting examples of seismic and deformation data from Marapi prior, during, and after the vulcanian explosion. Our study attempt to understand the state of the volcano based on monitoring data and in order to enable us to better estimate the hazards associated with the future eruptions of this or similar volcano.

  17. Evaluating physiological stress in Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) managed in Australian zoos.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Tempe; Narayan, Edward J; Magrath, Michael J L; Roe, Sheila; Clark, Giles; Nicolson, Vere; Martin-Vegue, Patrick; Mucci, Al; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoid quantification using non-invasive methods provides a powerful tool for assessing the health and welfare of wildlife in zoo-based programmes. In this study, we provide baseline data on faecal-based glucocorticoid (cortisol) monitoring of Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) managed at the Melbourne Zoo in Victoria, Australia. We sampled five tigers daily for 60 days. Faecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs) in tiger faecal extracts were quantified using enzyme immunoassays that were successfully validated using parallelism and accuracy recovery checks. Two female tigers had significantly higher mean FCM levels than the two males and another female, suggesting that females may have higher FCM levels. A significant elevation was noted in the FCM levels for one female 2 days after she was darted and anaesthetized; however, the FCM levels returned to baseline levels within 3 days after the event. Comparative analysis of FCM levels of tigers sampled at Melbourne Zoo with tigers sampled earlier at two other Australian Zoos (Dreamworld Themepark and Australia Zoo) showed that FCM levels varied between zoos. Differences in the enclosure characteristics, timing of sampling, size and composition of groupings and training procedures could all contribute to this variation. Overall, we recommend the use of non-invasive sampling for the assessment of adrenocortical activity of felids managed in zoos in Australia and internationally in order to improve the welfare of these charismatic big cats. PMID:27293659

  18. Congenital vestibular disease in captive Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) in Australasia.

    PubMed

    Wheelhouse, Jaimee L; Hulst, Frances; Beatty, Julia A; Hogg, Carolyn J; Child, Georgina; Wade, Claire M; Barrs, Vanessa R

    2015-11-01

    The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) is a critically endangered species in the wild. To ensure that demographic and genetic integrity are maintained in the longer term, those Sumatran tigers held in captivity are managed as a global population under a World Association of Zoos and Aquariums Global Species Management Plan (GSMP). A retrospective study, including segregation and pedigree analysis, was conducted to investigate potential cases of congenital vestibular disease (CVD) in captive Sumatran tigers in Australasian zoos using medical and husbandry records, as well as video footage obtained from 50 tigers between 1975 and 2013. Data from the GSMP Sumatran tiger studbook were made available for pedigree and segregation analysis. Fourteen cases of CVD in 13 Sumatran tiger cubs and one hybrid cub (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae × Panthera tigris) were identified. Vestibular signs including head tilt, circling, ataxia, strabismus and nystagmus were observed between birth and 2 months of age. These clinical signs persisted for a median of 237 days and had resolved by 2 years of age in all cases. Pedigree analysis revealed that all affected tigers were closely related and shared a single common ancestor in the last four generations. A genetic cause for the disease is suspected and, based on pedigree and segregation analysis, an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance is likely. Further investigations to determine the world-wide prevalence and underlying pathology of this disorder are warranted. PMID:26403953

  19. Sedimentology and diagenesis of a rift basin lacustrine sandstone: Pematang group, central Sumatra, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Janks, J.S.; Kelley, P.A.; Williams, H.H.

    1986-05-01

    The Central Sumatra basin is a back-arc basin that formed during the Paleocene as a series of half-graben structures. These early formed half-graben structures were filled with nonmarine clastics and lacustrine sediments of the Pematang Group, sourced from local highland areas. The Pematang Group consists of the Lower Red Beds, Brown Shale, Coal Zone Member, and Lake Fill Formation (in ascending order). The Pematang Group sedimentology is intimately related to the regional and basinal tectonic development and history. Sandstones of the Pematang Group are predominantly sublitharenites and litharenites; feldspars are rare. Sandstone diagenesis is relatively uniform regardless of the depositional environment. Diagenetic modifications include compaction, early calcite and dolomite cementation, quartz overgrowth formation, unstable rock-fragment dissolution, kaolinite precipitation, siderite formation, and local illite formation. Secondary porosity accounts for up to 50% of the effective porosity and was created by rock-fragment dissolution. This dissolution is probably caused by the organic acids released during kerogen maturation. Stable isotope data from diagenetic siderite are presented.

  20. Congenital vestibular disease in captive Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) in Australasia.

    PubMed

    Wheelhouse, Jaimee L; Hulst, Frances; Beatty, Julia A; Hogg, Carolyn J; Child, Georgina; Wade, Claire M; Barrs, Vanessa R

    2015-11-01

    The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) is a critically endangered species in the wild. To ensure that demographic and genetic integrity are maintained in the longer term, those Sumatran tigers held in captivity are managed as a global population under a World Association of Zoos and Aquariums Global Species Management Plan (GSMP). A retrospective study, including segregation and pedigree analysis, was conducted to investigate potential cases of congenital vestibular disease (CVD) in captive Sumatran tigers in Australasian zoos using medical and husbandry records, as well as video footage obtained from 50 tigers between 1975 and 2013. Data from the GSMP Sumatran tiger studbook were made available for pedigree and segregation analysis. Fourteen cases of CVD in 13 Sumatran tiger cubs and one hybrid cub (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae × Panthera tigris) were identified. Vestibular signs including head tilt, circling, ataxia, strabismus and nystagmus were observed between birth and 2 months of age. These clinical signs persisted for a median of 237 days and had resolved by 2 years of age in all cases. Pedigree analysis revealed that all affected tigers were closely related and shared a single common ancestor in the last four generations. A genetic cause for the disease is suspected and, based on pedigree and segregation analysis, an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance is likely. Further investigations to determine the world-wide prevalence and underlying pathology of this disorder are warranted.

  1. Evaluating physiological stress in Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) managed in Australian zoos.

    PubMed

    Parnell, Tempe; Narayan, Edward J; Magrath, Michael J L; Roe, Sheila; Clark, Giles; Nicolson, Vere; Martin-Vegue, Patrick; Mucci, Al; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoid quantification using non-invasive methods provides a powerful tool for assessing the health and welfare of wildlife in zoo-based programmes. In this study, we provide baseline data on faecal-based glucocorticoid (cortisol) monitoring of Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) managed at the Melbourne Zoo in Victoria, Australia. We sampled five tigers daily for 60 days. Faecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs) in tiger faecal extracts were quantified using enzyme immunoassays that were successfully validated using parallelism and accuracy recovery checks. Two female tigers had significantly higher mean FCM levels than the two males and another female, suggesting that females may have higher FCM levels. A significant elevation was noted in the FCM levels for one female 2 days after she was darted and anaesthetized; however, the FCM levels returned to baseline levels within 3 days after the event. Comparative analysis of FCM levels of tigers sampled at Melbourne Zoo with tigers sampled earlier at two other Australian Zoos (Dreamworld Themepark and Australia Zoo) showed that FCM levels varied between zoos. Differences in the enclosure characteristics, timing of sampling, size and composition of groupings and training procedures could all contribute to this variation. Overall, we recommend the use of non-invasive sampling for the assessment of adrenocortical activity of felids managed in zoos in Australia and internationally in order to improve the welfare of these charismatic big cats.

  2. Evaluating physiological stress in Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) managed in Australian zoos

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, Tempe; Narayan, Edward J.; Magrath, Michael J. L.; Roe, Sheila; Clark, Giles; Nicolson, Vere; Martin-Vegue, Patrick; Mucci, Al; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoid quantification using non-invasive methods provides a powerful tool for assessing the health and welfare of wildlife in zoo-based programmes. In this study, we provide baseline data on faecal-based glucocorticoid (cortisol) monitoring of Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) managed at the Melbourne Zoo in Victoria, Australia. We sampled five tigers daily for 60 days. Faecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs) in tiger faecal extracts were quantified using enzyme immunoassays that were successfully validated using parallelism and accuracy recovery checks. Two female tigers had significantly higher mean FCM levels than the two males and another female, suggesting that females may have higher FCM levels. A significant elevation was noted in the FCM levels for one female 2 days after she was darted and anaesthetized; however, the FCM levels returned to baseline levels within 3 days after the event. Comparative analysis of FCM levels of tigers sampled at Melbourne Zoo with tigers sampled earlier at two other Australian Zoos (Dreamworld Themepark and Australia Zoo) showed that FCM levels varied between zoos. Differences in the enclosure characteristics, timing of sampling, size and composition of groupings and training procedures could all contribute to this variation. Overall, we recommend the use of non-invasive sampling for the assessment of adrenocortical activity of felids managed in zoos in Australia and internationally in order to improve the welfare of these charismatic big cats. PMID:27293659

  3. Translating Developing Science into Public Awareness and Social Organisation in W. Sumatra.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, R.; McDowell, S.; McCloskey, J.

    2009-04-01

    Social idiosyncrasies confounding cross-cultural scientific interventions on an intra-regional and international scale continue to blight the positive benefits robust science offers to vulnerable communities inhabiting areas prone to natural hazards. The sustained malice inflicted by these phenomena upon socioeconomic systems epitomises the perilous task facing mitigation bodies attempting to communicate scientific forecasts and interweave technical knowledge into social policy internationally. This quandary continues to confront disaster officials and scientists in Sumatra. Palaeoseismological studies, coupled with a developing understanding of stress transference between earthquakes, reveal that the Mentawai segment of the Sumatran forearc is the most plausible candidate for future rupture. Simulations of tsunami propagation and inundation illustrate that the coastal regions of western Sumatran, inhabited by approximately 2 million people, lie in immediate mortal threat. Many Sumatrans' live with stark memories of the 1600 km megathrust rupture in December 2004, which spawned one of the worst global natural atrocities of recent time. The earthquake accelerated collaboration between seismologists, geophysicists and geologists and has produced unrivalled advances in understanding fault locations, geometries and potential rupture characteristics of the Sumatran forearc. Nowhere else on earth are scientists more aware of the impending threat of another magnitude 8+ megathrust earthquake. However with the twenty-first century being tainted by natural disasters which have typified the blatantly ambiguous linkages which exist between science and society, assessing to what extent this notion is exemplified in the Sumatran context is imperative. Here we begin to present the results from a social survey, conducted in the Sumatran cities of Padang and Bengkulu between May and September 2008. The campaign sought to dissect the broader societal complexities and moral values

  4. Precipitation microstructure in different Madden-Julian Oscillation phases over Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzuki; Hashiguchi, Hiroyuki; Kozu, Toshiaki; Shimomai, Toyoshi; Shibagaki, Yoshiaki; Takahashi, Yukihiro

    2016-02-01

    Intraseasonal variations of precipitation and its microstructure are investigated using measurements of the Equatorial Atmospheric Radar (EAR) facilities at Kototabang, west Sumatra, Indonesia (0.20°S, 100.32°E, 864 m above sea level). Raindrop size distribution (DSD) observations are obtained from a 2D-Video Disdrometer (2DVD) with a near continuous record of operation over eight consecutive years (2003-2010). Precipitation types are classified using 1.3-GHz wind profiler observation, and are partitioned according to active and inactive convective phases of Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). It is found that precipitation systems during the inactive phase are more continental in nature than those during the active phase. Cloud propagation from brightness temperature data indicates that Sumatra receives the rainfall mainly from maritime clouds during the active phase, while it is mainly from the continental clouds (land-based convection) during the inactive phase. Other remarkable differences between active and inactive phase precipitation systems are also observed from the vertical structure of precipitation. The precipitation during the inactive phase has deeper storms, a higher reflectivity aloft, more lightning activity and less stratiform characteristics, as compared to the active phase. Assessment of cloud effective radius of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data also shows a slight difference in the cloud droplet between the active and the inactive MJO phases. Different convective storms in different MJO phases lead to different DSD characteristics and Z-R relationships. The DSD during the inactive phase tends to have a higher concentration of medium and large-size drops than the active counterpart, consistent with the previous study during the first campaign of Coupling Processes in the Equatorial Atmosphere project. Although the DSD parameters and coefficient of Z-R relationships fall within the range of tropical maritime

  5. Nutrient leaching losses in lowland forests converted to oil palm and rubber plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniawan, Syahrul; Corre, Marife D.; Rahayu Utami, Sri; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-04-01

    In the last two decades, Sumatra, Indonesia is experiencing rapid expansion of oil palm and rubber plantations by conversion of rainforest. This is evident from the 2.9 thousand km2 decrease in forest area in this region over the last 15 years. Such rapid land-use change necessitates assessment of its environmental impacts. Our study was aimed to assess the impact of forest conversion to oil palm and rubber plantations on nutrient leaching losses. Land-use conversion increases nutrient leaching losses due to changes in vegetation litter input, rooting depth, nutrient cycling and management (e.g. fertilization) practices. Our study area was in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. We selected two soil landscapes in this region: loam and clay Acrisol soils. At each soil landscape, we investigated four land-use systems: lowland secondary rainforest, secondary forest with regenerating rubber (referred here as jungle rubber), rubber (7-17 years old) and oil palm plantations (9-16 years old). Each land use in each soil landscape was represented by four sites as replicates, totaling to 32 sites. We measured leaching losses using suction lysimeters installed at 1.5-m soil depth, which was well below the rooting depth, with bi-weekly to monthly sampling from February to December 2013. In general, the loam Acrisol landscape, particularly the forest and oil palm plantations, had lower soil solution pH and higher leaching fluxes of dissolved organic N, Na, Ca, Mg, total Al, total S and Cl than the clay Acrisol of the same land uses (all P ≤ 0.05). Among land uses in the loam Acrisol landscape, oil palm had lower soil solution pH and higher leaching fluxes of NH4+, NO3-, dissolved organic C, total P, total S and Cl than rubber plantation whereas forest and jungle rubber showed intermediate fluxes (all P ≤ 0.05, except P ≤ 0.09 for total P); oil palm had also higher Na, Ca, Mg and total Al leaching fluxes than all the other land uses (all P ≤ 0.05, except P ≤ 0.09 for Na

  6. Spatio-temporal analysis on land transformation in a forested tropical landscape in Jambi Province, Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melati, Dian N.; Nengah Surati Jaya, I.; Pérez-Cruzado, César; Zuhdi, Muhammad; Fehrmann, Lutz; Magdon, Paul; Kleinn, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) in forested tropical landscapes is very dynamically developing. In particular, the pace of forest conversion in the tropics is a global concern as it directly impacts the global carbon cycle and biodiversity conservation. Expansion of agriculture is known to be among the major drivers of forest loss especially in the tropics. This is also the case in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia where it is the mainly expansion of tree crops that triggers deforestation: oil palm and rubber trees. Another transformation system in Jambi is the one from natural forest into jungle rubber, which is an agroforestry system where a certain density of forest trees accompanies the rubber tree crop, also for production of wood and non-wood forest products. The spatial distribution and the dynamics of these transformation systems and of the remaining forests are essential information for example for further research on ecosystem services and on the drivers of land transformation. In order to study land transformation, maps from the years 1990, 2000, 2011, and 2013 were utilized, derived from visual interpretation of Landsat images. From these maps, we analyze the land use/land cover change (LULCC) in the study region. It is found that secondary dryland forest (on mineral soils) and secondary swamp forest have been transformed largely into (temporary) shrub land, plantation forests, mixed dryland agriculture, bare lands and estate crops where the latter include the oil palm and rubber plantations. In addition, we present some analyses of the spatial pattern of land transformation to better understand the process of LULC fragmentation within the studied periods. Furthermore, the driving forces are analyzed.

  7. Geological Investigation and analysis in response to Earthquake Induced Landslide in West Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnawati, D.; Wilopo, W.; Salahudin, S.; Sudarno, I.; Burton, P.

    2009-12-01

    Substantial socio-economical loss occurred in response to the September 30. 2009 West Sumatra Earthquake with magnitude of 7.6. Damage of houses and engineered structures mostly occurred at the low land of alluvium sediments due to the ground amplification, whilst at the high land of mountain slopes several villages were buried by massive debris of rocks and soils. It was recorded that 1115 people died due to this disasters. Series of geological investigation was carried out by Geological Engineering Department of Gadjah Mada University, with the purpose to support the rehabilitation program. Based on this preliminary investigation it was identified that most of the house and engineered structural damages at the alluvial deposits mainly due to by the poor quality of such houses and engineered structures, which poorly resist the ground amplification, instead of due to the control of geological conditions. On the other hand, the existence and distribution of structural geology (faults and joints) at the mountaineous regions are significant in controlling the distribution of landslides, with the types of rock falls, debris flows and debris falls. Despite the landslide susceptibility mapping conducted by Geological Survey of Indonesia, more detailed investigation is required to be carried out in the region surrounding Maninjau Lake, in order to provide safer places for village relocation. Accordingly Gadjah Mada University in collaboration with the local university (Andalas University) as well as with the local Government of Agam Regency and the Geological Survey of Indonesia, serve the mission for conducting rather more detailed geological and landslide investigation. It is also crucial that the investigation (survey and mapping) on the social perception and expectation of local people living in this landslide susceptible area should also be carried out, to support the mitigation effort of any future potential earthquake induced landslides.

  8. Temporal changes of surface wave velocity associated with major Sumatra earthquakes from ambient noise correlation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhen J.; Song, Xiaodong

    2009-01-01

    Detecting temporal changes of the medium associated with major earthquakes has implications for understanding earthquake genesis. Here we report temporal changes of surface wave velocity over a large area associated with 3 major Sumatra earthquakes in 2004, 2005, and 2007. We use ambient noise correlation to retrieve empirical Green's function (EGF) of surface waves between stations. Because the process is completely repeatable, the technique is powerful in detecting possible temporal change of medium. We find that 1 excellent station pair (PSI in Indonesia and CHTO in Thailand) shows significant time shifts (up to 1.44 s) after the 2004 and 2005 events in the Rayleigh waves at 10–20 s but not in the Love waves, suggesting that the Rayleigh time shifts are not from clock error. The time shifts are frequency dependent with the largest shifts at the period band of 11–16 s. We also observe an unusual excursion ∼1 month before the 2004 event. We obtain a total of 17 pairs for June, 2007 to June, 2008, which allow us to examine the temporal and spatial variation of the time shifts. We observed strong anomalies (up to 0.68 s) near the epicenter after the 2007 event, but not in the region further away from the source or before the event or 3 months after the event. The observations are interpreted as stress changes and subsequent relaxation in upper-mid crust in the immediate vicinity of the rupture and the broad area near the fault zone. PMID:19667205

  9. Constructivist learning at the science-policy interface: tsunami science informing disaster policy in West Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaughey, J.; Dewi, P. R.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Sieh, K. E.

    2012-12-01

    Science communication often falls short when it is based on the blank-slate assumption that if we can just get the message right, then the information will be received and understood as intended. In contrast, constructivist learning theory and practice suggest that we all actively construct our knowledge from a variety of information sources and through particular, novel associations with our prior knowledge. This constructed knowledge can be quite different from any of its original sources, such as a particular science communication. Successful communication requires carefully examining how people construct their knowledge of the topic of interest. Examples from our outreach work to connect hazard-science research with disaster-risk reduction practice in West Sumatra illustrate the mismatch between expert and stakeholder/public mental models of the characteristics of tsunamigenic earthquakes. There are incorrect conceptions that seawater always withdraws before a tsunami, and that a tsunami can be produced by an earthquake only if the epicenter is located at the ocean trench. These incorrect conceptions arise from generalizations based on recent, local earthquake experiences, as well as from unintended consequences of science outreach, science education, and, in one case, the way that tsunami modelling is graphically presented in scientific journals. We directly address these incorrect conceptions in our discussions with government officials and others; as a result, the local disaster-management agency has changed its policies to reflect an increased understanding of the hazard. This outreach success would not have been possible without eliciting the prior knowledge of our audiences through dialogue.

  10. Seismotectonics of a diffuse plate boundary: Observations off the Sumatra-Andaman trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aderhold, K.; Abercrombie, R. E.

    2016-05-01

    The actively deforming Indo-Australian intraplate region off the Sumatra-Andaman trench hosted the largest strike-slip earthquake recorded by modern instruments, the 2012 Mw 8.6 Wharton Basin earthquake, closely followed by a Mw 8.2 aftershock. These two large events ruptured either parallel north-south trending faults or a series of north-south and nearly perpendicular east-west fault planes. No active east-west faults had been identified in the region prior to these earthquakes, and the seismic rupture for these two earthquakes extended past the 800°C isotherm for lithosphere of this age, deep into the oceanic mantle and possibly beyond the inferred transition to ductile failure. To investigate the seismic behavior of this region, we calculate moment tensors with teleseismic body waves for 6.0 ≤ Mw ≤ 8.0 intraplate strike-slip earthquakes. The centroid depths are located throughout the seismogenic mantle and could extend through the oceanic crust, but are generally well constrained by the 600°C isotherm and do not appear to rupture beyond the 800°C isotherm. We conclude that while many earthquakes are consistent with a thermal limit to depth, large magnitude earthquakes may be able to rupture typically aseismic zones. We also perform finite-fault modeling for Mw ≥ 7.0 earthquakes and find a slight preference for rupture on east-west oriented faults for the 2012 Mw 7.2 and 2005 Mw 7.2 earthquakes. This lends support for the presence of active east-west faults in this region, consistent with the majority of previously published models of the 2012 M8+ earthquakes.

  11. Differences in tsunami generation between the December 26, 2004 and March 28, 2005 Sumatra earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, E.L.; Bilek, S.L.; Arcas, D.; Titov, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    Source parameters affecting tsunami generation and propagation for the Mw > 9.0 December 26, 2004 and the Mw = 8.6 March 28, 2005 earthquakes are examined to explain the dramatic difference in tsunami observations. We evaluate both scalar measures (seismic moment, maximum slip, potential energy) and finite-source repre-sentations (distributed slip and far-field beaming from finite source dimensions) of tsunami generation potential. There exists significant variability in local tsunami runup with respect to the most readily available measure, seismic moment. The local tsunami intensity for the December 2004 earthquake is similar to other tsunamigenic earthquakes of comparable magnitude. In contrast, the March 2005 local tsunami was deficient relative to its earthquake magnitude. Tsunami potential energy calculations more accurately reflect the difference in tsunami severity, although these calculations are dependent on knowledge of the slip distribution and therefore difficult to implement in a real-time system. A significant factor affecting tsunami generation unaccounted for in these scalar measures is the location of regions of seafloor displacement relative to the overlying water depth. The deficiency of the March 2005 tsunami seems to be related to concentration of slip in the down-dip part of the rupture zone and the fact that a substantial portion of the vertical displacement field occurred in shallow water or on land. The comparison of the December 2004 and March 2005 Sumatra earthquakes presented in this study is analogous to previous studies comparing the 1952 and 2003 Tokachi-Oki earthquakes and tsunamis, in terms of the effect slip distribution has on local tsunamis. Results from these studies indicate the difficulty in rapidly assessing local tsunami runup from magnitude and epicentral location information alone.

  12. Temporal changes of surface wave velocity associated with major Sumatra earthquakes from ambient noise correlation.

    PubMed

    Xu, Zhen J; Song, Xiaodong

    2009-08-25

    Detecting temporal changes of the medium associated with major earthquakes has implications for understanding earthquake genesis. Here we report temporal changes of surface wave velocity over a large area associated with 3 major Sumatra earthquakes in 2004, 2005, and 2007. We use ambient noise correlation to retrieve empirical Green's function (EGF) of surface waves between stations. Because the process is completely repeatable, the technique is powerful in detecting possible temporal change of medium. We find that 1 excellent station pair (PSI in Indonesia and CHTO in Thailand) shows significant time shifts (up to 1.44 s) after the 2004 and 2005 events in the Rayleigh waves at 10-20 s but not in the Love waves, suggesting that the Rayleigh time shifts are not from clock error. The time shifts are frequency dependent with the largest shifts at the period band of 11-16 s. We also observe an unusual excursion approximately 1 month before the 2004 event. We obtain a total of 17 pairs for June, 2007 to June, 2008, which allow us to examine the temporal and spatial variation of the time shifts. We observed strong anomalies (up to 0.68 s) near the epicenter after the 2007 event, but not in the region further away from the source or before the event or 3 months after the event. The observations are interpreted as stress changes and subsequent relaxation in upper-mid crust in the immediate vicinity of the rupture and the broad area near the fault zone. PMID:19667205

  13. Population Genetic Structure and Reproductive Strategy of the Introduced Grass Centotheca lappacea in Tropical Land-Use Systems in Sumatra.

    PubMed

    Hodač, Ladislav; Ulum, Fuad Bahrul; Opfermann, Nicole; Breidenbach, Natalie; Hojsgaard, Diego; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri Sudarmiyati; Vornam, Barbara; Finkeldey, Reiner; Hörandl, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Intensive transformation of lowland rainforest into oil palm and rubber monocultures is the most common land-use practice in Sumatra (Indonesia), accompanied by invasion of weeds. In the Jambi province, Centotheca lappacea is one of the most abundant alien grass species in plantations and in jungle rubber (an extensively used agroforest), but largely missing in natural rainforests. Here, we investigated putative genetic differentiation and signatures for adaptation in the introduced area. We studied reproductive mode and ploidy level as putative factors for invasiveness of the species. We sampled 19 populations in oil palm and rubber monocultures and in jungle rubber in two regions (Bukit Duabelas and Harapan). Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) revealed a high diversity of individual genotypes and only a weak differentiation among populations (FST = 0.173) and between the two regions (FST = 0.065). There was no significant genetic differentiation between the three land-use systems. The metapopulation of C. lappacea consists of five genetic partitions with high levels of admixture; all partitions appeared in both regions, but with different proportions. Within the Bukit Duabelas region we observed significant isolation-by-distance. Nine AFLP loci (5.3% of all loci) were under natural diversifying selection. All studied populations of C. lappacea were diploid, outcrossing and self-incompatible, without any hints of apomixis. The estimated residence time of c. 100 years coincides with the onset of rubber and oil palm planting in Sumatra. In the colonization process, the species is already in a phase of establishment, which may be enhanced by efficient selection acting on a highly diverse gene pool. In the land-use systems, seed dispersal might be enhanced by adhesive spikelets. At present, the abundance of established populations in intensively managed land-use systems might provide opportunities for rapid dispersal of C. lappacea across rural landscapes

  14. Evidence of self organization in great Sumatra earthquake recurrence times: Implications for coupling of tidal forcing and tectonic stress accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, R. K.; Puli, K.

    2012-12-01

    We analyzed inter- event time series of earthquake activities (M≥ 5) of Sumatra region spanning over 1973 to 2009 using techniques of nonlinear dynamics. The earthquake data were taken from the USGS catalogue centered on latitude 3.240N and longitude 95.825E. As a first step, in our analyses we computed the rank order statistics which revealed mixed response of earthquake dynamics indicating distinct breaks in slope of the rank order. This suggests that earthquake dynamics in this region is partly unstable and partly "self-organized" with a random tail. Comparison of return maps of the earthquakes inter- event time series with those representing random, stochastic and chaotic processes shows a quasi-deterministic behavior of earthquake genesis in the region. We further assessed the dimensionality of earthquake-generating mechanisms using a nonlinear predictor technique on two dimensional phase portrait constructed by recurrence time series. The nonlinear forecasting analysis suggests that the earthquake processes in the Sumatra region evolve on a non-random low-dimensional chaotic plane. Further, "K2" Entropy revealed a coherent structure indicating the deterministic dynamical pattern. This analysis is consistent with "self-organized" processes which could be explained invoking earth's internal dynamics, where, impulsively derived interdependencies cascades through the stress generated by tectonic plate movement. Our results, however, do not preclude the role of coupling of the above self-organized system with tidal forcing. Evidence for such a coupling in this region exists as 'triggering force". Keywords: Sumatra Earthquakes, Quasi-deterministic, Stochastic, Chaotic, Self-organized, K2 entropy, Phase portrait.

  15. Information on the Earth's Deep Interior Conveyed by the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake Using Superconducting Gravimeter Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosat, S.; Watada, S.; Sato, T.; Tamura, Y.

    2005-12-01

    The recent Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of magnitude Mw > 9 on 2004 December 26th has strongly excited the low-frequency seismic modes and, in particular, the degree one 2S1 mode is observed for the first time without any stacking. This mode corresponds to the first overtone of the sub-seismic mode 1S1, the so-called Slichter triplet (Slichter, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 1961). On the one hand, theoretical computations suggest that the Slichter modes could not have been excited with sufficient amplitude to be detected by superconducting gravimeters (SGs) on the Earth's surface. The maximum surface gravity effect of 1S1 after Sumatra event is 0.3 nGal, that is to say 0.3 10-12 g, where g is the mean absolute gravity value on the Earth's surface, corresponding to a free air displacement of 10-3 mm (1 nm). On the other hand, the core-sensitive mode 3S2 and the fundamental radial mode 0S0 were strongly excited, meaning that the earthquake radiated much energy toward the core. 0S0 is a radial fundamental spheroidal mode called "breathing mode" of the Earth and corresponds to changes in the Earth's circumference. The high stability of SG records has enabled us to follow the time decay of 0S0 amplitude till the second Sumatra event on March 28th 2005 and to estimate 0S0 quality factor at a value of 5513 +- 8 from the weighted mean of 12 SG record estimates. Amplitude measurements of 0S0 at most SG sites in the world reveal a latitude dependency that we try to explain by theory. The amplitude deviation of 0S0 reaches +- 2% while the calibration errors of SGs are usually less than 0.2%.

  16. Population Genetic Structure and Reproductive Strategy of the Introduced Grass Centotheca lappacea in Tropical Land-Use Systems in Sumatra

    PubMed Central

    Hodac̆, Ladislav; Ulum, Fuad Bahrul; Opfermann, Nicole; Breidenbach, Natalie; Hojsgaard, Diego; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri Sudarmiyati; Vornam, Barbara; Finkeldey, Reiner; Hörandl, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Intensive transformation of lowland rainforest into oil palm and rubber monocultures is the most common land-use practice in Sumatra (Indonesia), accompanied by invasion of weeds. In the Jambi province, Centotheca lappacea is one of the most abundant alien grass species in plantations and in jungle rubber (an extensively used agroforest), but largely missing in natural rainforests. Here, we investigated putative genetic differentiation and signatures for adaptation in the introduced area. We studied reproductive mode and ploidy level as putative factors for invasiveness of the species. We sampled 19 populations in oil palm and rubber monocultures and in jungle rubber in two regions (Bukit Duabelas and Harapan). Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) revealed a high diversity of individual genotypes and only a weak differentiation among populations (FST = 0.173) and between the two regions (FST = 0.065). There was no significant genetic differentiation between the three land-use systems. The metapopulation of C. lappacea consists of five genetic partitions with high levels of admixture; all partitions appeared in both regions, but with different proportions. Within the Bukit Duabelas region we observed significant isolation-by-distance. Nine AFLP loci (5.3% of all loci) were under natural diversifying selection. All studied populations of C. lappacea were diploid, outcrossing and self-incompatible, without any hints of apomixis. The estimated residence time of c. 100 years coincides with the onset of rubber and oil palm planting in Sumatra. In the colonization process, the species is already in a phase of establishment, which may be enhanced by efficient selection acting on a highly diverse gene pool. In the land-use systems, seed dispersal might be enhanced by adhesive spikelets. At present, the abundance of established populations in intensively managed land-use systems might provide opportunities for rapid dispersal of C. lappacea across rural landscapes

  17. From Sumatra 2004 to Tuhoku-Oki 2011: what we learn about Earthquake & Tsunami detection by ionospheric sounding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Occhipinti, G.; Rolland, L. M.; Coisson, P.; Watada, S.; Lognonne, P.

    2012-12-01

    The recent tsunamigenic Tohoku earthquake (2011) strongly affirms, again, after the 26 December 2004, the necessity to open new paradigms in oceanic monitoring. Detection of ionospheric anomalies following the Sumatra earthquake tsunami (e.g., Occhipinti et al. 2006, 2008, 2010) demonstrated that ionosphere is sensitive to earthquake and tsunami propagation: ground and oceanic vertical displacement induces acoustic-gravity waves propagating within the neutral atmosphere and detectable in the ionosphere. Observations supported by modelling proved that tsunamigenic ionospheric anomalies are deterministic and reproducible by numerical modeling via the ocean/neutral- atmosphere/ionosphere coupling mechanism. To prove that the tsunami signature in the ionosphere is routinely detected We show here perturbations of total electron content (TEC) measured by GPS and following tsunamigenic eartquakes from 2004 to 2010 (Rolland et al. 2010), nominally, Sumatra (26 December, 2004 and 12 September, 2007), Chile (14 November, 2007), Samoa (29 September, 2009) and the recent Tohoku-Oki (11 Mars, 2011). In addition to GPS/TEC observations close to the epicenter and measured by GEONET network, new exciting measurements in the far-field were performed by Airglow measurement in Hawaii: those measurements show the propagation of the IGWs induced by the Tohoku tsunami in the Pacific Ocean (Occhipinti et al., 2011). Based on the observations close to the epicenter, mainly performed by GPS networks located in Sumatra, Chile and Japan, we highlight the TEC perturbation observed within the first hour after the seismic rupture. This perturbation contains informations about the ground displacement, as well as the consequent sea surface displacement resulting in the tsunami. In this talk we present all this new tsunami observations in the ionosphere and we discuss, under the light of modelling, the potential role of ionospheric sounding in the oceanic monitoring and future tsunami warning

  18. From Sumatra 2004 to Tuhoku-Oki 2011: what we learn about Tsunami detection by ionospheric sounding.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Occhipinti, G.; Rolland, L.; Coisson, P.; Watada, S.; Makela, J. J.; Hebert, H.; Lognonne, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    The recent tsunamigenic Tohoku earthquake (2011) strongly affirms, again, after the 26 December 2004, the necessity to open new paradigms in oceanic monitoring. Detection of ionospheric anomalies following the Sumatra earthquake tsunami (e.g., Occhipinti et al. 2006) demonstrated that ionosphere is sensitive to earthquake and tsunami propagation: ground and oceanic vertical displacement induces acoustic-gravity waves propagating within the neutral atmosphere and detectable in the ionosphere. Observations supported by modelling proved that tsunamigenic ionospheric anomalies are deterministic and reproducible by numerical modeling via the ocean/neutral-atmosphere/ionosphere coupling mechanism (Occhipinti et al., 2008). To prove that the tsunami signature in the ionosphere is routinely detected we show here perturbations of total electron content (TEC) measured by GPS and following tsunamigenic eartquakes from 2004 to 2010 (Rolland et al. 2010, Occhipinti et al., 2013, Occhipinti, 2014), nominally, Sumatra (26 December, 2004 and 12 September, 2007), Chile (14 November, 2007), Samoa (29 September, 2009) and the recent Tohoku-Oki (11 Mars, 2011). In addition to GPS/TEC observations close to the epicenter and measured by GEONET network, new exciting measurements in the far-field were performed by Airglow measurement in Hawaii: those measurements show the propagation of the IGWs induced by the Tohoku tsunami in the Pacific Ocean (Occhipinti et al., 2011). Based on the observations close to the epicenter, mainly performed by GPS networks located in Sumatra, Chile and Japan, we highlight the TEC perturbation observed within the first hour after the seismic rupture. This perturbation contains informations about the ground displacement, as well as the consequent sea surface displacement resulting in the tsunami. In this talk we present all this new tsunami observations in the ionosphere and we discuss, under the light of modelling, the potential role of ionospheric sounding

  19. Population Genetic Structure and Reproductive Strategy of the Introduced Grass Centotheca lappacea in Tropical Land-Use Systems in Sumatra.

    PubMed

    Hodač, Ladislav; Ulum, Fuad Bahrul; Opfermann, Nicole; Breidenbach, Natalie; Hojsgaard, Diego; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri Sudarmiyati; Vornam, Barbara; Finkeldey, Reiner; Hörandl, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Intensive transformation of lowland rainforest into oil palm and rubber monocultures is the most common land-use practice in Sumatra (Indonesia), accompanied by invasion of weeds. In the Jambi province, Centotheca lappacea is one of the most abundant alien grass species in plantations and in jungle rubber (an extensively used agroforest), but largely missing in natural rainforests. Here, we investigated putative genetic differentiation and signatures for adaptation in the introduced area. We studied reproductive mode and ploidy level as putative factors for invasiveness of the species. We sampled 19 populations in oil palm and rubber monocultures and in jungle rubber in two regions (Bukit Duabelas and Harapan). Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) revealed a high diversity of individual genotypes and only a weak differentiation among populations (FST = 0.173) and between the two regions (FST = 0.065). There was no significant genetic differentiation between the three land-use systems. The metapopulation of C. lappacea consists of five genetic partitions with high levels of admixture; all partitions appeared in both regions, but with different proportions. Within the Bukit Duabelas region we observed significant isolation-by-distance. Nine AFLP loci (5.3% of all loci) were under natural diversifying selection. All studied populations of C. lappacea were diploid, outcrossing and self-incompatible, without any hints of apomixis. The estimated residence time of c. 100 years coincides with the onset of rubber and oil palm planting in Sumatra. In the colonization process, the species is already in a phase of establishment, which may be enhanced by efficient selection acting on a highly diverse gene pool. In the land-use systems, seed dispersal might be enhanced by adhesive spikelets. At present, the abundance of established populations in intensively managed land-use systems might provide opportunities for rapid dispersal of C. lappacea across rural landscapes

  20. Time-series analysis of multi-resolution optical imagery for quantifying forest cover loss in Sumatra and Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broich, Mark; Hansen, Matthew C.; Potapov, Peter; Adusei, Bernard; Lindquist, Erik; Stehman, Stephen V.

    2011-04-01

    Monitoring loss of humid tropical forests via remotely sensed imagery is critical for a number of environmental monitoring objectives, including carbon accounting, biodiversity, and climate modeling science applications. Landsat imagery, provided free of charge by the U.S. Geological Survey Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (USGS/EROS), enables consistent and timely forest cover loss updates from regional to biome scales. The Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Kalimantan are a center of significant forest cover change within the humid tropics with implications for carbon dynamics, biodiversity maintenance and local livelihoods. Sumatra and Kalimantan feature poor observational coverage compared to other centers of humid tropical forest change, such as Mato Grosso, Brazil, due to the lack of ongoing acquisitions from nearby ground stations and the persistence of cloud cover obscuring the land surface. At the same time, forest change in Indonesia is transient and does not always result in deforestation, as cleared forests are rapidly replaced by timber plantations and oil palm estates. Epochal composites, where single best observations are selected over a given time interval and used to quantify change, are one option for monitoring forest change in cloudy regions. However, the frequency of forest cover change in Indonesia confounds the ability of image composite pairs to quantify all change. Transient change occurring between composite periods is often missed and the length of time required for creating a cloud-free composite often obscures change occurring within the composite period itself. In this paper, we analyzed all Landsat 7 imagery with <50% cloud cover and data and products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to quantify forest cover loss for Sumatra and Kalimantan from 2000 to 2005. We demonstrated that time-series approaches examining all good land observations are more accurate in mapping forest cover change in

  1. Efficient post-disaster patient transportation and transfer: experiences and lessons learned in emergency medical rescue in Aceh after the 2004 Asian tsunami.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-Hui; Zheng, Jing-Chen

    2014-08-01

    This descriptive study aimed to present experiences and lessons learned in emergency medical rescue after the 2004 Asian tsunami in terms of transportation and transfer of patients and coordination of medical rescue forces. After the tsunami, numerous rescue institutions and international organizations rushed to Aceh province to aid in the rescue work. To coordinate various aspects of medical rescue efforts, an airport-based joint patient transfer center was developed. Within the framework of the joint transport center, rescue teams, militaries, and international institutions worked together to jointly triage, rapidly treat, and transfer patients. As members of the Chinese International Search and Rescue team, we were involved in the rescue efforts in the joint patient transfer center, and treated and transferred a total of 217 injured patients, the majority of whom were triaged as level II, followed by level III, and level I. The top three diseases were trauma/wound infection, respiratory system disease, and digestive system disease. The airport-based joint patient transfer center provided an efficient mechanism for successfully coordinating various aspects of the medical rescue efforts to transfer patients. Large-scale air transport, available health resources, and effective triage criteria also played an essential role in patient transportation and transfer. PMID:25102536

  2. Efficient post-disaster patient transportation and transfer: experiences and lessons learned in emergency medical rescue in Aceh after the 2004 Asian tsunami.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-Hui; Zheng, Jing-Chen

    2014-08-01

    This descriptive study aimed to present experiences and lessons learned in emergency medical rescue after the 2004 Asian tsunami in terms of transportation and transfer of patients and coordination of medical rescue forces. After the tsunami, numerous rescue institutions and international organizations rushed to Aceh province to aid in the rescue work. To coordinate various aspects of medical rescue efforts, an airport-based joint patient transfer center was developed. Within the framework of the joint transport center, rescue teams, militaries, and international institutions worked together to jointly triage, rapidly treat, and transfer patients. As members of the Chinese International Search and Rescue team, we were involved in the rescue efforts in the joint patient transfer center, and treated and transferred a total of 217 injured patients, the majority of whom were triaged as level II, followed by level III, and level I. The top three diseases were trauma/wound infection, respiratory system disease, and digestive system disease. The airport-based joint patient transfer center provided an efficient mechanism for successfully coordinating various aspects of the medical rescue efforts to transfer patients. Large-scale air transport, available health resources, and effective triage criteria also played an essential role in patient transportation and transfer.

  3. Effect of 3-D viscoelastic structure on post-seismic relaxation from the 2004 M = 9.2 Sumatra earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.; Banerjee, P.; Grijalva, K.; Nagarajan, B.; Burgmann, R.

    2008-01-01

    The 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake profoundly altered the state of stress in a large volume surrounding the ???1400 km long rupture. Induced mantle flow fields and coupled surface deformation are sensitive to the 3-D rheology structure. To predict the post-seismic motions from this earthquake, relaxation of a 3-D spherical viscoelastic earth model is simulated using the theory of coupled normal modes. The quasi-static deformation basis set and solution on the 3-D model is constructed using: a spherically stratified viscoelastic earth model with a linear stress-strain relation; an aspherical perturbation in viscoelastic structure; a 'static'mode basis set consisting of Earth's spheroidal and toroidal free oscillations; a "viscoelastic" mode basis set; and interaction kernels that describe the coupling among viscoelastic and static modes. Application to the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake illustrates the profound modification of the post-seismic flow field at depth by a slab structure and similarly large effects on the near-field post-seismic deformation field at Earth's surface. Comparison with post-seismic GPS observations illustrates the extent to which viscoelastic relaxation contributes to the regional post-seismic deformation. ?? Journal compilation ?? 2008 RAS.

  4. Utilization of formal health services for children aged 1–5 in Aceh after the 2004 tsunami: Which children did not receive the health care they needed? Implications for other natural disaster relief efforts

    PubMed Central

    Rassekh, Bahie Mary; Santosham, Mathuram

    2014-01-01

    Aceh, Indonesia, was the hardest-hit area in the December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, with more than 500,000 people displaced, 120,000 people dead, and total damages and losses estimated at $4.5 billion. The relief effort following the tsunami was also immense, with billions of dollars of aid pledged to this province alone. Since then, there have been several natural disasters, including Typhoon Haiyan, which have caused great loss of life and displacement and for which these results are applicable. This study aimed to determine and assess utilization patterns of health services for children under the age of five with diarrhea, cough and difficulty breathing, fever, or skin disease and to identify determinants of formal and non-formal healthcare usage. A household survey of 1439 households was administered to caretakers of children aged 1–5 years. A sample of clusters within Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar were selected and those caretakers within the cluster who fit the inclusion criteria were interviewed. In the two weeks prior to the survey, 78.3% of respondents utilized formal health services as the first line of care for their child's illness episode. Factors significantly associated with decreased formal healthcare usage for the sick children were if the children were living in a displaced household, if the children's mother or father were not living, and if the children's caretaker was not the mother. Although utilization of formal health services for children was quite high after the tsunami, there were certain children who received significantly less care, including those who were displaced, those who were being cared for by someone other than their mother, and those for whom one or both parents had died. Among the recommendations are suggestions to target these children to ensure that they receive the health care they need. PMID:25750772

  5. The 2013-2014 Effusive Eruption of Sinabung Volcano, Sumatra, Indonesia: Satellite Thermal Observations and Ground-Based Photogrammetry of a Growing Lava Lobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, B. B.; Vanderkluysen, L.; Clarke, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Sinabung is a 2460 m high andesitic volcano located in northern Sumatra, Indonesia. Sinabung had no confirmed historical activity until a small (VEI 2) explosive eruption in August-September 2010. In September 2013, explosions began again and were accompanied by lava dome growth and subsequent dome-collapse generated pyroclastic flows (Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network 35:07; 39:01). The Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (Indonesia) estimated dome growth at 3.5 m3/s in late December 2013. From January to March 2014 lava extrusion continued and formed a lobe down Sinabung's south flank. As of this writing, effusion and growth of the lava lobe continues, but at a much slower rate. Pyroclastic flows generated by collapse of the steep sides of the lobe remain a hazard. We use thermal infrared (TIR) images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiomter (MODIS) to observe volcanic activity at Sinabung during the 2013-2014 eruption and estimate effusion rates following the methods of Harris & Ripepe (2007, Geophys. Res. Let. 34). We also use new analysis of those thermal images to characterize style of activity, distinguishing pyroclastic flow activity from pure lava lobe growth. Preliminary results from satellite images show an average effusion rate of 1.1 m3/s during January-March 2014, with peak effusion rates from individual TIR images of 4-7 m3/s in mid-January. These numbers are in good agreement with the ground-based estimates, and they provide improved temporal resolution of the activity as it evolved. Since March, effusion rates have decreased to below 0.01 m3/s on average. Using the MODIS images, we estimate the maximum possible total erupted volume to be 7 million m3, and have constrained the accuracy of this estimate using Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry from ground-based visual images of the lava lobe. Following explosions in 2010 and 2013 and high effusion rates from January to March 2014, the ongoing slow

  6. Variability of raindrop size distribution over Sumatra and its effect on the Z-R relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzuki, Marzuki; Randeu, W. L.; Kozu, T.; Shimomai, T.; Hashiguchi, H.; Schoenhuber, M.

    2010-05-01

    A systematic and intensive analysis is performed on 2 years (2006-2007) of two-dimensional video distrometer (2DVD) data to re-investigate the variability of raindrop size distributions (DSDs) over Sumatra and their impact on the radar reflectivity (Z) to rainfall rate (R) conversion. Linear regression on log-transformed values both R over Z (LREG1) and Z over R (LREG2), minimizing the root mean square difference (RMSD), and probability matching method (PMM) are used to calculate the coefficient A and exponent b of the Z - R relationship. The sequential intensity filtering technique (SIFT) and sorting and averaging based on two parameters (SATP) are used to minimizes the effect of the spurious variability on 2DVD data. From a whole dataset, the Z - R relationship before (and after) the filtering procedure are Z = 155R1.54 (153R1.55), Z = 166R1.40 (191R1.40), Z = 158R1.47 (171R1.47), Z = 204R1.41 (314R1.31), for LREG1, LREG2, PMM, RMSD respectively. It is found that SATP (SIFT) increase (decrease) the coefficient A, in comparison with the values estimated from non-filtered data. During 2006-2007, we analyzed 385 rain events. Of 385 Z - R relations, the diurnal variation is observed, consistent with previous results. A-coefficients during 00-06, 06-12, 12-18 and 18-24 local time (LT) are in an interval of 98-249 (86 % of the values < 200), 93-220 (99 % of the values < 200), 98-283 (87 % of the values < 200) and 88-301 (89 % of the values < 200), respectively. Other scales (seasonal, intraseasonal, rain type, time average, rainfall rate threshold) of the DSD variability and their effect on rainfall intensity R estimation from radar reflectivity Z are explored in terms of bias and random errors. In addition, we also discussed the effect of binning procedure of 2DVD data on the Z - R relation. Physical processes leading to the formation of DSDs are then classified according to the vertical structure of radar data as measured by a 1.3GHz wind profiler collocated with the

  7. Coral 13C/12C records of vertical seafloor displacement during megathrust earthquakes west of Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagan, Michael K.; Sosdian, Sindia M.; Scott-Gagan, Heather; Sieh, Kerry; Hantoro, Wahyoe S.; Natawidjaja, Danny H.; Briggs, Richard W.; Suwargadi, Bambang W.; Rifai, Hamdi

    2015-12-01

    The recent surge of megathrust earthquakes and tsunami disasters has highlighted the need for a comprehensive understanding of earthquake cycles along convergent plate boundaries. Space geodesy has been used to document recent crustal deformation patterns with unprecedented precision, however the production of long paleogeodetic records of vertical seafloor motion is still a major challenge. Here we show that carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) in the skeletons of massive Porites corals from west Sumatra record abrupt changes in light exposure resulting from coseismic seafloor displacements. Validation of the method is based on the coral δ13C response to uplift (and subsidence) produced by the March 2005 Mw 8.6 Nias-Simeulue earthquake, and uplift further south around Sipora Island during a M ∼ 8.4 megathrust earthquake in February 1797. At Nias, the average step-change in coral δ13C was 0.6 ± 0.1 ‰ /m for coseismic displacements of +1.8 m and -0.4 m in 2005. At Sipora, a distinct change in Porites microatoll growth morphology marks coseismic uplift of 0.7 m in 1797. In this shallow water setting, with a steep light attenuation gradient, the step-change in microatoll δ13C is 2.3 ‰ /m, nearly four times greater than for the Nias Porites. Considering the natural variability in coral skeletal δ13C, we show that the lower detection limit of the method is around 0.2 m of vertical seafloor motion. Analysis of vertical displacement for well-documented earthquakes suggests this sensitivity equates to shallow events exceeding Mw ∼ 7.2 in central megathrust and back-arc thrust fault settings. Our findings indicate that the coral 13C /12C paleogeodesy technique could be applied to convergent tectonic margins throughout the tropical western Pacific and eastern Indian oceans, which host prolific coral reefs, and some of the world's greatest earthquake catastrophes. While our focus here is the link between coral δ13C, light exposure and coseismic crustal deformation, the

  8. Coral 13C/12C records of vertical seafloor displacement during megathrust earthquakes west of Sumatra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gagan, Michael K.; Sosdian, Sindia M.; Scott-Gagan, Heather; Sieh, Kerry; Hantoro, Wahyoe S.; Natawidjaja, Danny H.; Briggs, Richard W.; Suwargadi, Bambang W.; Rifai, Hamdi

    2015-01-01

    The recent surge of megathrust earthquakes and tsunami disasters has highlighted the need for a comprehensive understanding of earthquake cycles along convergent plate boundaries. Space geodesy has been used to document recent crustal deformation patterns with unprecedented precision, however the production of long paleogeodetic records of vertical seafloor motion is still a major challenge. Here we show that carbon isotope ratios () in the skeletons of massive Porites   corals from west Sumatra record abrupt changes in light exposure resulting from coseismic seafloor displacements. Validation of the method is based on the coral  response to uplift (and subsidence) produced by the March 2005 Mw 8.6 Nias–Simeulue earthquake, and uplift further south around Sipora Island during a M∼8.4 megathrust earthquake in February 1797. At Nias, the average step-change in coral  was 0.6±0.1‰/m for coseismic displacements of +1.8 m and −0.4 m in 2005. At Sipora, a distinct change in Porites  microatoll growth morphology marks coseismic uplift of 0.7 m in 1797. In this shallow water setting, with a steep light attenuation gradient, the step-change in microatoll  is2.3‰/m, nearly four times greater than for the Nias Porites  . Considering the natural variability in coral skeletal , we show that the lower detection limit of the method is around 0.2 m of vertical seafloor motion. Analysis of vertical displacement for well-documented earthquakes suggests this sensitivity equates to shallow events exceedingMw∼7.2 in central megathrust and back-arc thrust fault settings. Our findings indicate that the coral  paleogeodesy technique could be applied to convergent tectonic margins throughout the tropical western Pacific and eastern Indian oceans, which host prolific coral reefs, and some of the world's greatest earthquake catastrophes. While our focus here is the link between coral , light exposure and coseismic crustal deformation, the same principles

  9. Evidence of Fluid/Gas Along the Backthrust Offshore Central Sumatra from Seismic Full Waveform Inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. C.; Huot, G.

    2014-12-01

    The Sumatra subduction zone is one of the most seismically active zones on the earth and has experienced great earthquakes in the last decade, including one of the largest earthquakes of the 21st century on December 26, 2004 (M 9.3) producing a devastating tsunami. Geodetic and seismological studies suggest that a part of the subduction is still fully locked and may produce a great earthquake up to Mw=9 in the coming future. In order to understand the earthquake and subduction zone processes, we applied elastic full waveform inversion (FWI) on 50km deep seismic reflection data from Benkulu forearc basin. Data were acquired in partnership with CGG in 2009 using a 15 km ultra-long offset streamer, with shots every 50m and receivers every 12.5m. Unlike usual exploration data, the streamer was dived at 22.5m and the source was triggered at 15m. These characteristics provided wide aperture and low frequencies to the data which are required for FWI. To match our modelling with the observed data before applying FWI, we first estimated the source wavelet from simulated far-offset signature. Then, the same pass-band filter was applied to both the source and the observed data from 1 to 15 Hz frequency bandwidth. Additionally, an f-k filter was applied to the real data to remove the remaining swell noise up to 4 Hz, without losing any useful signal. Our starting 2D Vp model was found by applying traveltime tomography to a smooth 1D model. Our Vs model was linked by empirical relationship to our Vp model. By inverting first for far-offset refraction to recover the background velocity model and using a multi-scale strategy by going from 1Hz to 15Hz, we image the forearc basin down to 10km depth. We highlight the presence of a 10km wide low velocity structure at 3km depth. The sharp velocity change from 4km/s to 2km/s indicates the presence of gaz or fluid which could come from the mantle through the backthrust fault. The complexity of the sea floor makes the reflection

  10. Quantifying above- and belowground biomass carbon loss with forest conversion in tropical lowlands of Sumatra (Indonesia).

    PubMed

    Kotowska, Martyna M; Leuschner, Christoph; Triadiati, Triadiati; Meriem, Selis; Hertel, Dietrich

    2015-10-01

    Natural forests in South-East Asia have been extensively converted into other land-use systems in the past decades and still show high deforestation rates. Historically, lowland forests have been converted into rubber forests, but more recently, the dominant conversion is into oil palm plantations. While it is expected that the large-scale conversion has strong effects on the carbon cycle, detailed studies quantifying carbon pools and total net primary production (NPPtotal ) in above- and belowground tree biomass in land-use systems replacing rainforest (incl. oil palm plantations) are rare so far. We measured above- and belowground carbon pools in tree biomass together with NPPtotal in natural old-growth forests, 'jungle rubber' agroforests under natural tree cover, and rubber and oil palm monocultures in Sumatra. In total, 32 stands (eight plot replicates per land-use system) were studied in two different regions. Total tree biomass in the natural forest (mean: 384 Mg ha(-1) ) was more than two times higher than in jungle rubber stands (147 Mg ha(-1) ) and >four times higher than in monoculture rubber and oil palm plantations (78 and 50 Mg ha(-1) ). NPPtotal was higher in the natural forest (24 Mg ha(-1)  yr(-1) ) than in the rubber systems (20 and 15 Mg ha(-1)  yr(-1) ), but was highest in the oil palm system (33 Mg ha(-1)  yr(-1) ) due to very high fruit production (15-20 Mg ha(-1)  yr(-1) ). NPPtotal was dominated in all systems by aboveground production, but belowground productivity was significantly higher in the natural forest and jungle rubber than in plantations. We conclude that conversion of natural lowland forest into different agricultural systems leads to a strong reduction not only in the biomass carbon pool (up to 166 Mg C ha(-1) ) but also in carbon sequestration as carbon residence time (i.e. biomass-C:NPP-C) was 3-10 times higher in the natural forest than in rubber and oil palm plantations. PMID:25980371

  11. Faecal cortisol metabolites in Bengal (Panthera tigris tigris) and Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae).

    PubMed

    Narayan, Edward J; Parnell, Tempe; Clark, Giles; Martin-Vegue, Patrick; Mucci, Al; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2013-12-01

    The tiger (Panthera tigris) faces a great risk of extinction as its wild numbers have plummeted due to poaching and habitat destruction so ex-situ conservation programs are becoming ever more necessary. Reliable non-invasive biomarkers of the stress hormone (cortisol) are necessary for assessing the health and welfare of tigers in captivity. To our knowledge, non-invasive stress endocrinology methods have not been tested as widely in tigers. The first aim of this study was to describe and validate a faecal cortisol metabolite enzyme-immmunoassay (FCM EIA) for two tiger sub-species, the Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) and the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae). Individual tigers (n=22) were studied in two large Zoos in Queensland, Australia (Dreamworld Theme Park and Australia Zoo). Fresh faecal samples (<12 h old) were collected each morning from both Zoos over a study period of 21 days. Biological validation was conducted separately by collecting feces 5 days before and 5 days after blood was taken from four male and five female tigers. Results showed that mean FCM levels increased by 138% and 285% in the male and female tigers within 1 day after bloods were taken, returning to baseline in 5 days. Laboratory validations of the FCM EIA were done using an extraction efficiency test and parallelism. Results showed >89% recovery of the cortisol standard that was added to tiger faecal extract. We also obtained parallel displacement of the serially diluted cortisol standard against serially diluted tiger faecal extract. Our second aim was to determine whether the FCM levels were significantly different between tiger sub-species and sex. Results showed no significant difference in mean FCM levels between the Bengal and Sumatran tiger sub-species. Mean levels of FCMs were significantly higher in females than in male tigers. Those male and female tigers with reported health issues during the study period expressed higher FCM levels than the reportedly healthy

  12. Large scale dynamic rupture scenario of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman megathrust earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Thomas; Madden, Elizabeth H.; Wollherr, Stephanie; Gabriel, Alice A.

    2016-04-01

    The Great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of 26 December 2004 is one of the strongest and most devastating earthquakes in recent history. Most of the damage and the ~230,000 fatalities were caused by the tsunami generated by the Mw 9.1-9.3 event. Various finite-source models of the earthquake have been proposed, but poor near-field observational coverage has led to distinct differences in source characterization. Even the fault dip angle and depth extent are subject to debate. We present a physically realistic dynamic rupture scenario of the earthquake using state-of-the-art numerical methods and seismotectonic data. Due to the lack of near-field observations, our setup is constrained by the overall characteristics of the rupture, including the magnitude, propagation speed, and extent along strike. In addition, we incorporate the detailed geometry of the subducting fault using Slab1.0 to the south and aftershock locations to the north, combined with high-resolution topography and bathymetry data.The possibility of inhomogeneous background stress, resulting from the curved shape of the slab along strike and the large fault dimensions, is discussed. The possible activation of thrust faults splaying off the megathrust in the vicinity of the hypocenter is also investigated. Dynamic simulation of this 1300 to 1500 km rupture is a computational and geophysical challenge. In addition to capturing the large-scale rupture, the simulation must resolve the process zone at the rupture tip, whose characteristic length is comparable to smaller earthquakes and which shrinks with propagation distance. Thus, the fault must be finely discretised. Moreover, previously published inversions agree on a rupture duration of ~8 to 10 minutes, suggesting an overall slow rupture speed. Hence, both long temporal scales and large spatial dimensions must be captured. We use SeisSol, a software package based on an ADER-DG scheme solving the spontaneous dynamic earthquake rupture problem with high

  13. Deterioration of soil fertility by land use changes in South Sumatra, Indonesia: from 1970 to 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumbanraja, Jamalam; Syam, Tamaluddin; Nishide, Hiroyo; Kabul Mahi, Ali; Utomo, Muhajir; Sarno; Kimura, Makoto

    1998-10-01

    We monitored the land use changes in a hilly area of West Lampung, South Sumatra, Indonesia, from 1970 to 1990. The main data sources were the land use maps produced in 1970, 1978, 1984 and 1990 covering the area of 27 km×27 km. Transmigration and the resultant effect of increased population were the major driving forces in land use changes. Fifty-seven per cent of the study area was covered with primary forests in 1970, but only 13% in 1990. Areas under plantations, which were absent in 1970, increased to 60% in 1990. In addition, the change from monoculture plantations (mostly coffee plantation) to mixed plantations was noticeable from 1984 to 1990. Total upland areas including upland areas under shifting cultivation and upland fields with crops and vegetables decreased from 21% in 1970 to 0·1% in 1990. Soil chemical properties (total organic C, total N, available P, total P, exchangeable cations, cation exchangeable capacity (CEC), etc.) were analysed for lands under different land use forms after deforestation in the study area. Soil samples (surface layers, 0-20 cm, and subsurface layers, 20-40 cm) were collected from three different locations, each comprised of four different land use systems: i.e. primary forests, secondary forests, coffee plantations and cultivated lands. The contents of total organic C, total N, available P, total P, exchangeable cations and CEC decreased significantly with land use change from primary forests to the other land use forms. Cultivated lands exhibited the lowest values. Although less remarkable than in the surface layers, the amounts of total organic C, total N, total P, exchangeable cations and CEC were also decreased by forest clearing in the subsurface layers.Based on the land use changes from 1978 in the study area and the deterioration of soil chemical properties by forest clearing, total decreases in the amounts of nutrients in the surface and subsurface layers were estimated. The land use changes were estimated to

  14. Quantifying above- and belowground biomass carbon loss with forest conversion in tropical lowlands of Sumatra (Indonesia).

    PubMed

    Kotowska, Martyna M; Leuschner, Christoph; Triadiati, Triadiati; Meriem, Selis; Hertel, Dietrich

    2015-10-01

    Natural forests in South-East Asia have been extensively converted into other land-use systems in the past decades and still show high deforestation rates. Historically, lowland forests have been converted into rubber forests, but more recently, the dominant conversion is into oil palm plantations. While it is expected that the large-scale conversion has strong effects on the carbon cycle, detailed studies quantifying carbon pools and total net primary production (NPPtotal ) in above- and belowground tree biomass in land-use systems replacing rainforest (incl. oil palm plantations) are rare so far. We measured above- and belowground carbon pools in tree biomass together with NPPtotal in natural old-growth forests, 'jungle rubber' agroforests under natural tree cover, and rubber and oil palm monocultures in Sumatra. In total, 32 stands (eight plot replicates per land-use system) were studied in two different regions. Total tree biomass in the natural forest (mean: 384 Mg ha(-1) ) was more than two times higher than in jungle rubber stands (147 Mg ha(-1) ) and >four times higher than in monoculture rubber and oil palm plantations (78 and 50 Mg ha(-1) ). NPPtotal was higher in the natural forest (24 Mg ha(-1)  yr(-1) ) than in the rubber systems (20 and 15 Mg ha(-1)  yr(-1) ), but was highest in the oil palm system (33 Mg ha(-1)  yr(-1) ) due to very high fruit production (15-20 Mg ha(-1)  yr(-1) ). NPPtotal was dominated in all systems by aboveground production, but belowground productivity was significantly higher in the natural forest and jungle rubber than in plantations. We conclude that conversion of natural lowland forest into different agricultural systems leads to a strong reduction not only in the biomass carbon pool (up to 166 Mg C ha(-1) ) but also in carbon sequestration as carbon residence time (i.e. biomass-C:NPP-C) was 3-10 times higher in the natural forest than in rubber and oil palm plantations.

  15. Faecal cortisol metabolites in Bengal (Panthera tigris tigris) and Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae).

    PubMed

    Narayan, Edward J; Parnell, Tempe; Clark, Giles; Martin-Vegue, Patrick; Mucci, Al; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2013-12-01

    The tiger (Panthera tigris) faces a great risk of extinction as its wild numbers have plummeted due to poaching and habitat destruction so ex-situ conservation programs are becoming ever more necessary. Reliable non-invasive biomarkers of the stress hormone (cortisol) are necessary for assessing the health and welfare of tigers in captivity. To our knowledge, non-invasive stress endocrinology methods have not been tested as widely in tigers. The first aim of this study was to describe and validate a faecal cortisol metabolite enzyme-immmunoassay (FCM EIA) for two tiger sub-species, the Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) and the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae). Individual tigers (n=22) were studied in two large Zoos in Queensland, Australia (Dreamworld Theme Park and Australia Zoo). Fresh faecal samples (<12 h old) were collected each morning from both Zoos over a study period of 21 days. Biological validation was conducted separately by collecting feces 5 days before and 5 days after blood was taken from four male and five female tigers. Results showed that mean FCM levels increased by 138% and 285% in the male and female tigers within 1 day after bloods were taken, returning to baseline in 5 days. Laboratory validations of the FCM EIA were done using an extraction efficiency test and parallelism. Results showed >89% recovery of the cortisol standard that was added to tiger faecal extract. We also obtained parallel displacement of the serially diluted cortisol standard against serially diluted tiger faecal extract. Our second aim was to determine whether the FCM levels were significantly different between tiger sub-species and sex. Results showed no significant difference in mean FCM levels between the Bengal and Sumatran tiger sub-species. Mean levels of FCMs were significantly higher in females than in male tigers. Those male and female tigers with reported health issues during the study period expressed higher FCM levels than the reportedly healthy

  16. Impact of The N - S Fracture Zone Along The Indo-Australia Plate Analyzed from Local Seismic Data In The Western Offshore of Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haridhi, H. A.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Huang, B. S.; Lee, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    Large subduction earthquake have repeatedly occurred along the Sumatra and Andaman subduction zones where the Indo-Australia plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian plate. We have analyzed earthquake data from local seismic network along the Sumatra region that provided by the Meteorology Climatology Geophysical Agencies of Indonesia (MCGAI), giving a reliable P-wave velocity model by using joint inversion of picked P-wave travel time using VELEST and a re-scanned single channel seismic reflection of Sumatra cruise I and II. As much as 1,503 events are being analyzed, that is from two years and three months of data recording (2009/04 - 2011/07). The VELEST and DD technique are used to relocate all events by forcing the obtained velocity model. It is found that the surface deformation and earthquake cluster are strongly influenced by the impact of an N - S subparalel fracture zone along the Indo-Australia plate. This also explains the seismic gaps along the Sumatra and Andaman subduction zones. So far, the intriguing seismogenic behaviour and forearc structure are not well explained by the existing models. Therefore, the planned IODP Expedition 362 is trying to ground truth the scientific questions. The aftershock earthquake data are huge, but they will provide a gateway to help the understanding of this shallow megathrust slip and reduce its devastated harzards.

  17. The energy radiated by the 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake estimated from 10-minute P-wave windows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choy, G.L.; Boatwright, J.

    2007-01-01

    The rupture process of the Mw 9.1 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake lasted for approximately 500 sec, nearly twice as long as the teleseismic time windows between the P and PP arrival times generally used to compute radiated energy. In order to measure the P waves radiated by the entire earthquake, we analyze records that extend from the P-wave to the S-wave arrival times from stations at distances ?? >60??. These 8- to 10-min windows contain the PP, PPP, and ScP arrivals, along with other multiply reflected phases. To gauge the effect of including these additional phases, we form the spectral ratio of the source spectrum estimated from extended windows (between TP and TS) to the source spectrum estimated from normal windows (between TP and TPP). The extended windows are analyzed as though they contained only the P-pP-sP wave group. We analyze four smaller earthquakes that occurred in the vicinity of the Mw 9.1 mainshock, with similar depths and focal mechanisms. These smaller events range in magnitude from an Mw 6.0 aftershock of 9 January 2005 to the Mw 8.6 Nias earthquake that occurred to the south of the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake on 28 March 2005. We average the spectral ratios for these four events to obtain a frequency-dependent operator for the extended windows. We then correct the source spectrum estimated from the extended records of the 26 December 2004 mainshock to obtain a complete or corrected source spectrum for the entire rupture process (???600 sec) of the great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. Our estimate of the total seismic energy radiated by this earthquake is 1.4 ?? 1017 J. When we compare the corrected source spectrum for the entire earthquake to the source spectrum from the first ???250 sec of the rupture process (obtained from normal teleseismic windows), we find that the mainshock radiated much more seismic energy in the first half of the rupture process than in the second half, especially over the period range from 3 sec to 40 sec.

  18. From Sumatra 2004 to Tuhoku-Oki 2011: what we learn about Tsunami detection by ionospheric sounding.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Occhipinti, G.; Rolland, L. M.; Watada, S.; Coisson, P.; Aden-Antoniow, F.; Bablet, A.; Lognonne, P. H.; Makela, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    The recent tsunamigenic Tohoku earthquake (2011) strongly affirms, again, after the 26 December 2004, the necessity to open new paradigms in oceanic monitoring. Detection of ionospheric anomalies following the Sumatra earthquake tsunami (e.g., Occhipinti et al. 2006) demonstrated that ionosphere is sensitive to earthquake and tsunami propagation: ground and oceanic vertical displacement induces acoustic-gravity waves propagating within the neutral atmosphere and detectable in the ionosphere. Observations supported by modelling proved that tsunamigenic ionospheric anomalies are deterministic and reproducible by numerical modeling via the ocean/neutral-atmosphere/ionosphere coupling mechanism (Occhipinti et al., 2008). To prove that the tsunami signature in the ionosphere is routinely detected we show here perturbations of total electron content (TEC) measured by GPS and following tsunamigenic eartquakes from 2004 to 2010 (Rolland et al. 2010, Occhipinti et al., 2013), nominally, Sumatra (26 December, 2004 and 12 September, 2007), Chile (14 November, 2007), Samoa (29 September, 2009) and the recent Tohoku-Oki (11 Mars, 2011). In addition to GPS/TEC observations close to the epicenter and measured by GEONET network, new exciting measurements in the far-field were performed by Airglow measurement in Hawaii: those measurements show the propagation of the IGWs induced by the Tohoku tsunami in the Pacific Ocean (Occhipinti et al., 2011). Based on the observations close to the epicenter, mainly performed by GPS networks located in Sumatra, Chile and Japan, we highlight the TEC perturbation observed within the first hour after the seismic rupture. This perturbation contains informations about the ground displacement, as well as the consequent sea surface displacement resulting in the tsunami. In this talk we present all this new tsunami observations in the ionosphere and we discuss, under the light of modelling, the potential role of ionospheric sounding in the oceanic

  19. The potential for giant tsunamigenic earthquakes in the northern Bay of Bengal.

    PubMed

    Cummins, Phil R

    2007-09-01

    The great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake and Indian Ocean tsunami of 2004 came as a surprise to most of the earth science community. Although it is now widely recognized that the risk of another giant earthquake is high off central Sumatra, just east of the 2004 earthquake, there seems to be relatively little concern about the subduction zone to the north, in the northern Bay of Bengal along the coast of Myanmar. Here I show that similar indicators suggest a high potential for giant earthquakes along the coast of Myanmar. These indicators include the tectonic environment, which is similar to other subduction zones that experience giant megathrust earthquakes, stress and crustal strain observations, which indicate that the seismogenic zone is locked, and historical earthquake activity, which indicates that giant tsunamigenic earthquakes have occurred there in the past. These are all consistent with active subduction in the Myanmar subduction zone and I suggest that the seismogenic zone extends beneath the Bengal Fan. I conclude therefore that giant earthquakes probably occur off the coast of Myanmar, and that a large and vulnerable population is thereby exposed to a significant earthquake and tsunami hazard.

  20. The Potential for Giant Tsunamigenic Earthquakes in the Northern Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cummins, P. R.

    2007-12-01

    The Great Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake and Indian Ocean Tsunami of 2004 came as a surprise to most of the earth science community. While it is now widely recognised that the risk of another giant earthquake is high off central Sumatra, just east of the 2004 earthquake, there seems to be relatively little concern about the subduction zone to the north, in the northern Bay of Bengal along the coast of Myanmar. It is shown here that similar indicators suggest the potential for giant earthquake activity is high: (1) the tectonic environment is similar to other subduction zones that experience giant megathrust earthquakes; (2) stress and crustal strain observations indicate the seismogenic zone is locked; and, (3) historical earthquake activity indicates that giant tsunamigenic earthquakes have occurred in the past. These are all consistent with active subduction in the Myanmar subduction zone, and it is hypothesized here that the seismogenic zone there extends beneath the Bengal Fan. The results suggest that giant earthquakes do occur off the coast of Myanmar, and that a very large and vulnerable population is thereby exposed to a significant earthquake and tsunami hazard.

  1. Translating Developing Science into Public Awareness and Social Organisation in W. Sumatra.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, R.; McDowell, S.; McCloskey, J.

    2009-04-01

    Social idiosyncrasies confounding cross-cultural scientific interventions on an intra-regional and international scale continue to blight the positive benefits robust science offers to vulnerable communities inhabiting areas prone to natural hazards. The sustained malice inflicted by these phenomena upon socioeconomic systems epitomises the perilous task facing mitigation bodies attempting to communicate scientific forecasts and interweave technical knowledge into social policy internationally. This quandary continues to confront disaster officials and scientists in Sumatra. Palaeoseismological studies, coupled with a developing understanding of stress transference between earthquakes, reveal that the Mentawai segment of the Sumatran forearc is the most plausible candidate for future rupture. Simulations of tsunami propagation and inundation illustrate that the coastal regions of western Sumatran, inhabited by approximately 2 million people, lie in immediate mortal threat. Many Sumatrans' live with stark memories of the 1600 km megathrust rupture in December 2004, which spawned one of the worst global natural atrocities of recent time. The earthquake accelerated collaboration between seismologists, geophysicists and geologists and has produced unrivalled advances in understanding fault locations, geometries and potential rupture characteristics of the Sumatran forearc. Nowhere else on earth are scientists more aware of the impending threat of another magnitude 8+ megathrust earthquake. However with the twenty-first century being tainted by natural disasters which have typified the blatantly ambiguous linkages which exist between science and society, assessing to what extent this notion is exemplified in the Sumatran context is imperative. Here we begin to present the results from a social survey, conducted in the Sumatran cities of Padang and Bengkulu between May and September 2008. The campaign sought to dissect the broader societal complexities and moral values

  2. Contrasting décollement and prism properties over the Sumatra 2004-2005 earthquake rupture boundary.

    PubMed

    Dean, Simon M; McNeill, Lisa C; Henstock, Timothy J; Bull, Jonathan M; Gulick, Sean P S; Austin, James A; Bangs, Nathan L B; Djajadihardja, Yusuf S; Permana, Haryadi

    2010-07-01

    Styles of subduction zone deformation and earthquake rupture dynamics are strongly linked, jointly influencing hazard potential. Seismic reflection profiles across the trench west of Sumatra, Indonesia, show differences across the boundary between the major 2004 and 2005 plate interface earthquakes, which exhibited contrasting earthquake rupture and tsunami generation. In the southern part of the 2004 rupture, we interpret a negative-polarity sedimentary reflector approximately 500 meters above the subducting oceanic basement as the seaward extension of the plate interface. This predécollement reflector corresponds to unusual prism structure, morphology, and seismogenic behavior that are absent along the 2005 rupture zone. Although margins like the 2004 rupture zone are globally rare, our results suggest that sediment properties influence earthquake rupture, tsunami hazard, and prism development at subducting plate boundaries.

  3. The first geophilid centipedes from Malesia: a new genus with two new species from Sumatra (Chilopoda, Geophilidae).

    PubMed

    Bonato, Lucio; Klarner, Bernhard; Widyastuti, Rahayu; Scheu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    A new genus Sundageophilus is here described for two new species of geophilid centipedes (Chilopoda: Geophilidae) from Sumatra, Indonesia. Both Sundageophilus bidentatus sp. n. and Sundageophilus poriger sp. n. feature a minute body size (less than 1 cm long with 31-35 pairs of legs), a similar structure of the maxillae, elongated forcipules, and few coxal organs. Sundageophilus bidentatus is unique among geophilids because the ultimate article of the forcipule is armed with two conspicuous denticles, one dorsal to the other, instead of a single one or none. The two species of Sundageophilus are the first genuine Geophilidae ever found in Malesia, and among the very few representatives of this family in the entire south-eastern Asia. PMID:27551212

  4. The first geophilid centipedes from Malesia: a new genus with two new species from Sumatra (Chilopoda, Geophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bonato, Lucio; Klarner, Bernhard; Widyastuti, Rahayu; Scheu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new genus Sundageophilus is here described for two new species of geophilid centipedes (Chilopoda: Geophilidae) from Sumatra, Indonesia. Both Sundageophilus bidentatus sp. n. and Sundageophilus poriger sp. n. feature a minute body size (less than 1 cm long with 31–35 pairs of legs), a similar structure of the maxillae, elongated forcipules, and few coxal organs. Sundageophilus bidentatus is unique among geophilids because the ultimate article of the forcipule is armed with two conspicuous denticles, one dorsal to the other, instead of a single one or none. The two species of Sundageophilus are the first genuine Geophilidae ever found in Malesia, and among the very few representatives of this family in the entire south-eastern Asia. PMID:27551212

  5. Decade-scale decrease in b value prior to the M9-class 2011 Tohoku and 2004 Sumatra quakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanjo, K. Z.; Hirata, N.; Obara, K.; Kasahara, K.

    2012-10-01

    The Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude distribution of earthquakes has become well established in seismology. The slope of the relation between frequency and magnitude (b value) is typically 1, but it often shows variations around 1. Based on an analysis of seismicity prior to the 2011 Tohoku and 2004 Sumatra earthquakes (both in magnitude (M) 9 class), we show that the pronounced decade-scale decrease in b value was a common precursor to both mega-quakes around their hypocenters. This is the first report on M9-class quakes to confirm a change in b value, which has been predicted based on the results of laboratory experiments. We propose that the b value is an important indicator of an impending great earthquake, and has great potential in terms of predicting a future large quake off the Pacific coast of Hokkaido, Japan.

  6. Male replacement and stability of territorial boundary in a group of agile gibbons (Hylobates agilis agilis) in West Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Koda, Hiroki; Oyakawa, Chisako; Nurulkamilah, Santi; Rizaldi; Sugiura, Hideki; Bakar, Amsir; Masataka, Nobuo

    2012-10-01

    We report membership change in a group of wild agile gibbons, Hylobates agilis agilis, in West Sumatra, Indonesia. During 6-month observational periods, we focused on a particular unit of individuals known as the B group. We confirmed that the group consisted of five individuals: one adult female, one adult male, one subadult male, one subadult female, and one infant male. During our observations, the resident adult male and the two subadult individuals dispersed or disappeared, and a new adult male took over the group. We examined the effects of the male replacement on the territorial boundary, using the auditory census technique. The boundary was stable. We also documented the succession of the home range. Our results indicate a flexible social structure in this species and contribute some useful data to an ongoing debate on their social dynamics.

  7. Variation in perikymata counts between repetitive episodes of linear enamel hypoplasia among orangutans from Sumatra and Borneo.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Mark F

    2014-05-01

    The goal of this study is to evaluate whether repetitive linear enamel hypoplasia (rLEH) in apes is ecologically informative. LEH, which appears as grooves of thinner enamel often caused by malnutrition and/or disease, is a permanent record of departures from developmental homeostasis in infant and juvenile apes. Orangutans were selected for the study as they are a threatened species, have a remarkably high prevalence of rLEH, and because Sumatra is deemed a better habitat for orangutans than is Borneo, facilitating an ecological comparison. Objectives are to determine: a) whether periodicity of rLEH in orangutans corresponds to monsoon-mediated cycles in precipitation or food; and b) whether patterning of rLEH supports the view that Borneo is an inferior habitat. This study compares the counts of perikymata between adjacent LEH from 9 Sumatran and 26 Bornean orangutans to estimate the periodicity of rLEH. A total of 131 nonredundant inter-LEH perikymata counts were transformed to natural log values to reveal clusters of counts in a multiplicative series. Using a value of 10 days to form one perikyma, rLEH tends to recur semiannually in both populations. However, Sumatran orangutans show significantly fewer semiannual intervals and more annually recurring episodes. Bornean orangutans show mostly semiannual intervals and are more variable in inter-LEH perikymata counts. It is concluded that: a) developmental conditions for infant orangutans in Sumatra protect them somewhat from seasonal and environmental variation; b) temporal patterning of rLEH indicates that Borneo is the poorer habitat for orangutans; and c) the study of rLEH can be ecologically informative.

  8. Coral Radiocarbon Record of Interannual Variability in Wind-induced Upwelling Along the Coast of Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grumet, N. S.; Abram, N. J.; Beck, J. W.; Dunbar, R. B.; Gagan, M. K.

    2002-12-01

    Radiocarbon measurements from annually banded corals have been shown to track radiocarbon levels of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in the surrounding surface water. As a result of nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s, production of excess radiocarbon has increased the contrast between surface and deep ocean carbon-14 concentrations. The temporal evolution of this gradient in radiocarbon is preserved in a coral record from the Mentawai Islands, Sumatra (0S, 98E), in the eastern Indian Ocean. During the southeast monsoon, alongshore winds generate Ekman upwelling along the Java-Sumatra coasts, which transports 14C-depleted thermocline water toward the surface-dwelling Mentawai corals. The strength of upwelling in the Mentawai Islands, which is characterized by lower sea surface temperatures, a shallower thermocline and lower sea surface height, reflects variability in the monsoon winds and is modulated by interannual atmosphere-ocean teleconnections. Bimonthly AMS-14C measurements on the Mentawai coral show that the seasonal radiocarbon signal is relatively weak, while the interannual signal is clearly marked by episodic depletions in radiocarbon levels. These events are most likely responding to a relaxation of the westerly trades and subsequent strengthening of the easterlies. Easterly anomalies are linked to a large scale adjustment of the sea surface height along the equator and a shallower eastern thermocline. Our results suggest that interannual climate variability is the dominant forcing mechanism with seasonal variability secondary. Together, bimonthly coral oxygen isotope and radiocarbon records capture variability in upwelling, and hence the strength of the southeast monsoon. Comparison with a coral radiocarbon record from the western Indian Ocean provides insights into oceanic processes across the Indian Ocean basin and the question of the existence of an Indian Ocean Dipole.

  9. The impact of education programs on smoking prevention: a randomized controlled trial among 11 to 14 year olds in Aceh, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background School-based smoking prevention programs have been shown to increase knowledge of the negative effects of smoking and prevent tobacco smoking. The majority of evidence on effectiveness comes from Western countries. This study investigated the impact of school-based smoking prevention programs on adolescents’ smoking knowledge, attitude, intentions and behaviors (KAIB) in Aceh, Indonesia. Methods We conducted a 2 × 2 factorial randomized controlled trial among 7th and 8th grade students aged 11 to 14 years. Eight schools were randomly assigned to a control group or one of three school-based programs: health-based, Islamic-based, or a combined program. Students in the intervention groups received eight classroom sessions on smoking prevention education over two months. The KAIB impact of the program was measured by questionnaires administered one week before and one week after the intervention. Results A total of 477 students participated (58% female, 51% eighth graders). Following the intervention, there was a significant main effect of the Health based intervention for health knowledge scores (β = 3.9 ± 0.6, p < 0.001). There were significant main effects of the Islamic-based intervention in both health knowledge (β = 3.8 ± 0.6, p < 0.001) and Islamic knowledge (β = 3.5 ± 0.5, p < 0.001); an improvement in smoking attitude (β = −7.1 ± 1.5, p < 0.001). The effects of Health and Islam were less than additive for the health and Islamic factors for health knowledge (β = −3.5 ± 0.9, p < 0.01 for interaction) and Islamic knowledge (β = −2.0 ± 0.8, p = 0.02 for interaction). There were no significant effects on the odds of intention to smoke or smoking behaviors. Conclusions Both Health and Islamic school-based smoking prevention programs provided positive effects on health and Islamic related knowledge respectively among adolescents in Indonesia. Tailoring program interventions with

  10. PORE PRESSURE RECOVERY AND COULOMB STRESS EVOLUTION FOLLOWING THE 2004 M9.2 SUMATRA-ANDAMAN EARTHQUAKE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, K. L.; Masterlark, T.

    2009-12-01

    The 26 December 2004 M9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (SAE) ruptured a 1200 km segment of the plate boundary separating the Indo-Australian plate and Burma microplate. Three months later on 28 March 2005, the M8.7 Nias earthquake (NE) ruptured a 400 km segment adjacent to, and south of, the SAE rupture. The spatial and temporal proximity of these two earthquakes suggests that the earthquakes were coupled; that is, the evolution of stress and pore pressure induced by the SAE advanced the timing of the NE. We construct 3D finite element models (FEMs) to simulate the coseismic and postseismic deformation of the SAE for a problem domain having a distribution of material properties expected for the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone (SASZ), based on seismic tomography, gravity models, and observed geologic structures. The coseismic slip distribution, having both thrust and strike-slip components, is estimated from near-field GPS data, FEM-generated Green's Functions, and damped-least-squares inverse methods. The coseismic rupture of the SAE perturbs the stress and pore pressure fields in the region, as described by poroelastic mechanics. Following the SAE, the excess pore pressure recovers to equilibrium via fluid-flow driven by the excess pressure gradients. Characterizing this interplay of stress and pore pressure along nearby faults is key to predicting earthquake coupling. Coulomb stress quantifies this interplay as the change in tendency for slip to occur along a fault and is defined as Δσc = Δσs + f(Δσn + ΔP), where σc is Coulomb stress, σs is shear stress, f is friction, σn is normal stress, and P is pore pressure. Preliminary results suggest that the SAE initially increased Coulomb stress near the location of the NE hypocenter by about 1.0 MPa, even though pore pressure decreased by a similar amount. Pore pressure recovered during the three months separating the SAE and NE. Consequently, Coulomb stress increased during this three-month interval by about 0

  11. Soil Nitrogen-Cycling Responses to Conversion of Lowland Forests to Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kara; Corre, Marife D; Tjoa, Aiyen; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in Sumatra, Indonesia is presently occurring due to the expansion of palm oil and rubber production, fueled by an increasing global demand. Our study aimed to assess changes in soil-N cycling rates with conversion of forest to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations. In Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia, we selected two soil landscapes - loam and clay Acrisol soils - each with four land-use types: lowland forest and forest with regenerating rubber (hereafter, "jungle rubber") as reference land uses, and rubber and oil palm as converted land uses. Gross soil-N cycling rates were measured using the 15N pool dilution technique with in-situ incubation of soil cores. In the loam Acrisol soil, where fertility was low, microbial biomass, gross N mineralization and NH4+ immobilization were also low and no significant changes were detected with land-use conversion. The clay Acrisol soil which had higher initial fertility based on the reference land uses (i.e. higher pH, organic C, total N, effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) and base saturation) (P≤0.05-0.09) had larger microbial biomass and NH4+ transformation rates (P≤0.05) compared to the loam Acrisol soil. Conversion of forest and jungle rubber to rubber and oil palm in the clay Acrisol soil decreased soil fertility which, in turn, reduced microbial biomass and consequently decreased NH4+ transformation rates (P≤0.05-0.09). This was further attested by the correlation of gross N mineralization and microbial biomass N with ECEC, organic C, total N (R=0.51-0. 76; P≤0.05) and C:N ratio (R=-0.71 - -0.75, P≤0.05). Our findings suggest that the larger the initial soil fertility and N availability, the larger the reductions upon land-use conversion. Because soil N availability was dependent on microbial biomass, management practices in converted oil palm and rubber plantations should focus on enriching microbial biomass.

  12. Soil Nitrogen-Cycling Responses to Conversion of Lowland Forests to Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kara; Corre, Marife D; Tjoa, Aiyen; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in Sumatra, Indonesia is presently occurring due to the expansion of palm oil and rubber production, fueled by an increasing global demand. Our study aimed to assess changes in soil-N cycling rates with conversion of forest to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations. In Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia, we selected two soil landscapes - loam and clay Acrisol soils - each with four land-use types: lowland forest and forest with regenerating rubber (hereafter, "jungle rubber") as reference land uses, and rubber and oil palm as converted land uses. Gross soil-N cycling rates were measured using the 15N pool dilution technique with in-situ incubation of soil cores. In the loam Acrisol soil, where fertility was low, microbial biomass, gross N mineralization and NH4+ immobilization were also low and no significant changes were detected with land-use conversion. The clay Acrisol soil which had higher initial fertility based on the reference land uses (i.e. higher pH, organic C, total N, effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) and base saturation) (P≤0.05-0.09) had larger microbial biomass and NH4+ transformation rates (P≤0.05) compared to the loam Acrisol soil. Conversion of forest and jungle rubber to rubber and oil palm in the clay Acrisol soil decreased soil fertility which, in turn, reduced microbial biomass and consequently decreased NH4+ transformation rates (P≤0.05-0.09). This was further attested by the correlation of gross N mineralization and microbial biomass N with ECEC, organic C, total N (R=0.51-0. 76; P≤0.05) and C:N ratio (R=-0.71 - -0.75, P≤0.05). Our findings suggest that the larger the initial soil fertility and N availability, the larger the reductions upon land-use conversion. Because soil N availability was dependent on microbial biomass, management practices in converted oil palm and rubber plantations should focus on enriching microbial biomass. PMID:26222690

  13. Population status, demography and habitat preferences of the threatened lipstick palm Cyrtostachys renda Blume in Kerumutan Reserve, Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widyatmoko, Didik; Burgman, Mark A.; Guhardja, Edi; Mogea, Johanis P.; Walujo, Eko B.; Setiadi, Dede

    2005-09-01

    Population status and demography of a population of the threatened lipstick palm Cyrtostachys renda in a peat swamp ecosystem of Kerumutan Reserve, Sumatra (one of the largest remaining populations) was documented at 16 different sites, covering a wide range of forest and habitat types, vegetation associations, and population sizes. Population sizes were dominated by suckers comprising 89% of the total population. Individuals with stem heights between 0 and 4 m (47.5%), stem diameters between 4 and 10 cm (82.0%), and leaf scar numbers between 0 and 60 (69.2%) dominated. Ages of individuals were estimated and used to fit a curvilinear relationship between age and stem height. Wild plants reach reproductive maturity within 25-30 years, or when they have stem heights in excess of 2.0 m, or when they have 15-25 leaf scars. They can survive more than 80 years. Cultivated plants appear to reproduce earlier and produce more seeds than wild plants. Individual growth was plant size-dependent with the adult stage being the most productive. Higher mortality was experienced by suckers, especially in continuously waterlogged conditions and locations with dense canopies. Sucker growth was faster than seedling growth, an adaptation that may allow the species to cope with periodically waterlogged conditions. Population abundances varied with habitat types; well-drained areas were the most suitable habitat. To conserve the most important remaining populations of the lipstick palm, it is crucial to protect well-drained sites in Kerumutan Reserve.

  14. Rupture details of the 28 March 2005 Sumatra Mw 8.6 earthquake imaged with teleseismic P waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Kristoffer T.; Ishii, Miaki; Shearer, Peter M.

    2005-12-01

    We image the rupture of the 28 March 2005 Sumatra Mw 8.6 earthquake by back-projecting teleseismic P waves recorded by the Global Seismic Network and the Japanese Hi-net to their source. The back-projected energy suggests that the rupture started slowly, had a total duration of about 120 s, and propagated at 2.9 to 3.3 km/s from the hypocenter in two different directions: first toward the north for ~100 km and then, after a ~40 s delay, toward the southeast for ~200 km. Our images are consistent with a rupture area of ~40,000 km2, the locations of the first day of aftershocks, and the Harvard CMT Mw of 8.6, which implies an average slip of ~6 m. The earthquake is similar in its location, size, and geometry to a Mw ~8.5 event in 1861. Our estimated average slip is consistent with a partially coupled subduction interface, GPS forearc velocities, and the ~59 mm/yr convergence rate if the 2005 earthquake released elastic strain that accumulated over many hundreds of years rather than just since the last 1861 event.

  15. 16,000 Years of Tropical Eastern Ocean Climate Variability Recorded in a Speleothem From Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurtzel, J. B.; Abram, N.; Hantoro, W. S.; Rifai, H.; Hellstrom, J. C.; Heslop, D.; Troitzsch, U.; Eggins, S.

    2015-12-01

    Holocene climate variability in the Indo-Pacific has largely been inferred from sediment cores primarily from the central and eastern Warm Pool region. A limited number of speleothem oxygen-isotope records have provided decadally-resolved time-series of past rainfall variability over the central Indo-Pacific Warm Pool region, however no records currently exist for the Indian Ocean sector of the IPWP. Here we present the first continuous, high-resolution (~15year) speleothem record from the eastern tropical Indian Ocean, collected from central western Sumatra, Indonesia. Petrographic and geochemical analysis reveals that the sample is primarily composed of aragonite but is punctuated by intervals of primary calcite growth. In addition to Raman spectroscopy, trace element analysis by laser ablation ICP-MS reveals strongly antiphased behaviour between magnesium and strontium, attributed to the strong preference of those elements for the calcite and aragonite lattices, respectively. This relationship is utilized to develop a quantitative correction for the stable isotope fractionation offset between the two calcium carbonate polymorphs identified in the speleothem. The corrected oxygen isotope record shows a rapid transition from drier conditions during the Younger Dryas (YD) into a wetter Holocene, similar in timing and pattern to that recorded in Dongge Cave, China. This is strikingly different from other IPWP speleothem records, which show no YD or a wetter YD, suggesting that different mechanisms may be controlling rainfall amount in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean. These disparate responses are further explored through proxy-model comparison.

  16. Percutaneous ureteral stent placement for the treatment of a benign ureteral obstruction in a Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae).

    PubMed

    Delk, Katie W; Wack, Raymund F; Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Palm, Carrie A; Zwingenberger, Allison; Glaiberman, Craig B; Ferguson, Kenneth H; Culp, William T N

    2015-01-01

    A 15-year-old, 113 kg intact male Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) was evaluated for weight loss, polydipsia, and intermittent hematuria. The tiger was immobilized for diagnostic testing including blood work, urinalysis, and abdominal ultrasound. Laboratory testing demonstrated macro- and microhematuria, azotemia, and an increased urine protein:creatinine ratio. Abdominal ultrasound revealed bilateral ureterolithiasis as well as hydronephrosis and ureteral dilation. Ultrasonography performed 5 months later revealed worsening of the right-sided hydronephrosis and hydroureter and a decrease in the severity of dilation on the left side presumably from passage of the left-sided ureteral calculi. Nephroureteral decompression via the placement of a stent was elected. A pigtail ureteral catheter (8.2 French diameter) was placed in the right ureter via an antegrade percutaneous approach utilizing ultrasound and fluoroscopic-guidance. Following stent placement, macrohematuria resolved although microhematuria was noted in opportunistic urine samples. Five months after stent placement, the azotemia had mildly progressed, the urine protein:creatinine ratio was improved, the right hydronephrosis and hydroureter had completely resolved, and the ureteral stent remained in the appropriate position. The tiger had clinically improved with a substantial increase in appetite, weight, and activity level. Ureteral stenting allowed for nephroureteral decompression in the captive large felid of this report, and no complications were encountered. Ureteral stenting provided a minimally invasive method of managing ureteral obstruction in this patient and could be considered in future cases due to the clinical improvement and low morbidity.

  17. Hydrothermal minerals and microstructures in the Silangkitang geothermal field along the Great Sumatran fault zone, Sumatra, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Diane E.; Hickman, S.; Lockner, D.A.; Dobson, P.F.

    2001-01-01

    Detailed study of core samples of silicic tuff recovered from three geothermal wells along the strike-slip Great Sumatran fault zone near Silangkitang, North Sumatra, supports a model for enhanced hydrothermal circulation adjacent to this major plate-boundary fault. Two wells (A and C) were drilled nearly vertically ??1 km southwest of the eastern (i.e., the principal) fault trace, and the third, directional well (B) was drilled eastward from the site of well A to within ??100 m of the principal fault trace. The examined core samples come from depths of 1650-2120 m at measured well temperatures of 180-320 ??C. The samples collected near the principal fault trace have the highest temperatures, the largest amount of secondary pore space that correlates with high secondary permeability, and the most extensive hydrothermal mineral development. Secondary permeability and the degree of hydrothermal alteration decrease toward the southwestern margin of the fault zone. These features indicate episodic, localized flow of hot, possibly CO2-rich fluids within the fault zone. The microstructure populations identified in the core samples correlate to the subsidiary fault patterns typical of strike-slip faults. The geothermal reservoir appears to be centered on the fault zone, with the principal fault strands and adjoining, highly fractured and hydrothermally altered rock serving as the main conduits for vertical fluid flow and advective heat transport from deeper magmatic sources.

  18. Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols emitted from peatland fire in Riau, Sumatra, Indonesia (2): Identification of organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yusuke; Kawamoto, Haruo; Tohno, Susumu; Oda, Masafumi; Iriana, Windy; Lestari, Puji

    2015-06-01

    Smoke emitted from Indonesian peatland fires has caused dense haze and serious air pollution in Southeast Asia such as visibility impairment and adverse health impacts. To mitigate the Indonesian peatland fire aerosol impacts, an effective strategy and international framework based on the latest scientific knowledge needs to be established. Although several attempts have been made, limited data exist regarding the chemical characteristics of peatland fire smoke for the source apportionment. In order to identify the key organic compounds of peatland fire aerosols, we conducted intensive field studies based on ground-based and source-dominated sampling of PM2.5 in Riau Province, Sumatra, Indonesia, during the peatland fire seasons in 2012. Levoglucosan was the most abundant compound among the quantified organic compounds at 8.98 ± 2.28% of the PM2.5 mass, followed by palmitic acid at 0.782 ± 0.163% and mannosan at 0.607 ± 0.0861%. Potassium ion was not appropriate for an indicator of Indonesian peatland fires due to extremely low concentrations associated with smoldering fire at low temperatures. The vanillic/syringic acids ratio was 1.06 ± 0.155 in this study and this may be a useful signature profile for peatland fire emissions. Particulate n-alkanes also have potential for markers to identify impact of Indonesian peatland fire source at a receptor site.

  19. Percutaneous ureteral stent placement for the treatment of a benign ureteral obstruction in a Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae).

    PubMed

    Delk, Katie W; Wack, Raymund F; Burgdorf-Moisuk, Anne; Palm, Carrie A; Zwingenberger, Allison; Glaiberman, Craig B; Ferguson, Kenneth H; Culp, William T N

    2015-01-01

    A 15-year-old, 113 kg intact male Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) was evaluated for weight loss, polydipsia, and intermittent hematuria. The tiger was immobilized for diagnostic testing including blood work, urinalysis, and abdominal ultrasound. Laboratory testing demonstrated macro- and microhematuria, azotemia, and an increased urine protein:creatinine ratio. Abdominal ultrasound revealed bilateral ureterolithiasis as well as hydronephrosis and ureteral dilation. Ultrasonography performed 5 months later revealed worsening of the right-sided hydronephrosis and hydroureter and a decrease in the severity of dilation on the left side presumably from passage of the left-sided ureteral calculi. Nephroureteral decompression via the placement of a stent was elected. A pigtail ureteral catheter (8.2 French diameter) was placed in the right ureter via an antegrade percutaneous approach utilizing ultrasound and fluoroscopic-guidance. Following stent placement, macrohematuria resolved although microhematuria was noted in opportunistic urine samples. Five months after stent placement, the azotemia had mildly progressed, the urine protein:creatinine ratio was improved, the right hydronephrosis and hydroureter had completely resolved, and the ureteral stent remained in the appropriate position. The tiger had clinically improved with a substantial increase in appetite, weight, and activity level. Ureteral stenting allowed for nephroureteral decompression in the captive large felid of this report, and no complications were encountered. Ureteral stenting provided a minimally invasive method of managing ureteral obstruction in this patient and could be considered in future cases due to the clinical improvement and low morbidity. PMID:25653150

  20. The trap-jaw ant genus Odontomachus Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Sumatra, with a new species description.

    PubMed

    Satria, Rijal; Kurushima, Hiroaki; Herwina, Henny; Yamane, Seiki; Eguchi, Katsuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The ant genus Odontomachus Latreille is reviewed for Sumatra, the sixth largest island in the world and located in western Indonesia. Previously three species were recorded from the island: O. simillimus F. Smith, O. rixosus F. Smith, and O. latidens Mayr. We add two species to the fauna, O. procerus Emery stat. nov and Odontomachus minangkabau sp. nov. The new species belongs to O. rixosus species group, and it is morphologically most similar to O. rixosus and O. pararixosus Terayama & Ito. However, it can be separated from the latter two by its large body (HL 3.13-3.55 mm, WL 4.15-4.65 mm), the masticatory margin with 11-14 denticles, and dark-colored body. Odontomachus latidens subsp. sumatranus Emery is newly synonymized with O. procerus. The castes and sexes of the known species are also described, including the first descriptions of the male for O. latidens, O. procerus, and O. rixosus. A key to the Sumatran species based on the worker caste is provided, and the bionomics of each species is summarized. PMID:26624734

  1. Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols emitted from peatland fire in Riau, Sumatra, Indonesia (2): Identification of organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yusuke; Kawamoto, Haruo; Tohno, Susumu; Oda, Masafumi; Iriana, Windy; Lestari, Puji

    2015-06-01

    Smoke emitted from Indonesian peatland fires has caused dense haze and serious air pollution in Southeast Asia such as visibility impairment and adverse health impacts. To mitigate the Indonesian peatland fire aerosol impacts, an effective strategy and international framework based on the latest scientific knowledge needs to be established. Although several attempts have been made, limited data exist regarding the chemical characteristics of peatland fire smoke for the source apportionment. In order to identify the key organic compounds of peatland fire aerosols, we conducted intensive field studies based on ground-based and source-dominated sampling of PM2.5 in Riau Province, Sumatra, Indonesia, during the peatland fire seasons in 2012. Levoglucosan was the most abundant compound among the quantified organic compounds at 8.98 ± 2.28% of the PM2.5 mass, followed by palmitic acid at 0.782 ± 0.163% and mannosan at 0.607 ± 0.0861%. Potassium ion was not appropriate for an indicator of Indonesian peatland fires due to extremely low concentrations associated with smoldering fire at low temperatures. The vanillic/syringic acids ratio was 1.06 ± 0.155 in this study and this may be a useful signature profile for peatland fire emissions. Particulate n-alkanes also have potential for markers to identify impact of Indonesian peatland fire source at a receptor site.

  2. Post-seismic relaxation following the great 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake on a compressible self-gravitating Earth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.; Burgmann, R.; Banerjee, P.

    2006-01-01

    he Mw ??? 9.0 2004 December 26 Sumatra-Andaman and Mw =8.7 2005 March 28 Nias earthquakes, which collectively ruptured approximately 1800 km of the Andaman and Sunda subduction zones, are expected to be followed by vigorous viscoelastic relaxation involving both the upper and lower mantle. Because of these large spatial dimensions it is desirable to fully account for gravitational coupling effects in the relaxation process. We present a stable method of computing relaxation of a spherically-stratified, compressible and self-gravitating viscoelastic Earth following an impulsive moment release event. The solution is cast in terms of a spherical harmonic expansion of viscoelastic normal modes. For simple layered viscoelastic models, which include a low-viscosity oceanic asthenosphere, we predict substantial post-seismic effects over a region several 100s of km wide surrounding the eastern Indian Ocean. We compare observed GPS time-series from ten regional sites (mostly in Thailand and Indonesia), beginning in 2004 December, with synthetic time-series that include the coseismic and post-seismic effects of the 2004 December 26 and 2005 March 28 earthquakes. A viscosity structure involving a biviscous (Burgers body) rheology in the asthenosphere explains the pattern and amplitude of post-seismic offsets remarkably well. ?? 2006 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2006 RAS.

  3. The tsunami of 2007 September 12, Bengkulu province, Sumatra, Indonesia: post-tsunami field survey and numerical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrero, Jose C.; Weiss, Robert; Okal, Emile A.; Hidayat, Rahman; Suranto; Arcas, Diego; Titov, Vasily V.

    2009-07-01

    The Mw = 8.4 earthquake on 2007 September 12, offshore of the Bengkulu province of Sumatra, Indonesia, generated a moderate tsunami with run-up heights of up to 4 m as measured by Indonesian and international researchers in the days following the earthquake. The tsunami was observed along 250 km of coastline and caused damage at several locations. The largest wave heights and most severe inundation were observed about 50 km to the northwest of Bengkulu; elsewhere the effects were less severe-with the exception of substantial inundation at a site 150 km to the south. In addition to presenting the field data, we conduct a modelling study and compare the run-up heights and water-level predictions from four different seismic deformation models used to initialize a tsunami propagation and inundation model. Our comparative results suggest that, for this event, the estimates of fault parameters available immediately after determination of the earthquake size and location predicted the near-field run-up heights and distribution and far-field wave equally well as estimates obtained using more detailed descriptions of the seafloor deformation, as typically available hours or days after an event. We conclude that while detailed slip patterns can be important to the near-field run-up distribution, simple fault models can be used to rapidly assess the likely near- and far-field tsunami effects of a particular earthquake.

  4. Determination of the onset time in polarization power ratio Z/H for precursor of Sumatra earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Ahadi, S.; Puspito, N. T.; Ibrahim, G.; Saroso, S.

    2014-09-25

    Determination of onset time precursors of strong earthquakes (Mw > 5) and distance (d < 500 km) using geomagnetic data from Geomagnetic station KTB, Sumatra and two station references DAV, Philippine and DAW, Australia. separate techniques are required in its determination. Not the same as that recorded in the kinetic wave seismograms can be determined by direct time domain. Difficulties associated with electromagnetic waves seismogenic activities require analysis of the transformed signal in the frequency domain. Determination of the frequency spectrum will determine the frequency of emissions emitted from the earthquake source. The aim is to analyze the power amplitude of the ULF emissions in the horizontal component (H) and vertical component (Z). Polarization power ratio Z/H is used for determining the sign of earthquake precursors controlled by the standard deviation. The pattern recognition polarization ratio should be obtained which can differentiate emissions from seismogenic effects of geomagnetic activity. ULF emission patterns generated that seismogenic effect has duration > 5 days and the dominance of emission intensity recorded at the Z component and for the dominance of the emission intensity of geomagnetic activity recorded in the component H. The result shows that the onset time is determined when the polarization power ratio Z/H standard deviation over the limit (p ± 2 σ) which has a duration of > 5 days.

  5. Ichnological constraints on the depositional environment of the Sawahlunto Formation, Kandi, northwest Ombilin Basin, west Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonneveld, J.-P.; Zaim, Y.; Rizal, Y.; Ciochon, R. L.; Bettis, E. A.; Aswan; Gunnell, G. F.

    2012-02-01

    A low diversity trace fossil assemblage is described from the Oligocene Sawahlunto Formation near Kandi, in the northwestern part of the Ombilin Basin in western Sumatra, Indonesia. This trace fossil assemblage includes six ichnogenera attributed to invertebrate infaunal and epifaunal activities ( Arenicolites, Diplocraterion, Planolites, Monocraterion/ Skolithos and Coenobichnus) and two ichnotaxa attributed to vertebrate activity (avian footprints: two species of Aquatilavipes). Arenicolites, Diplocraterion and Monocraterion/ Skolithos record the suspension feeding activities of either arthropods (most likely amphipods) or vermiform organisms. Planolites reflects the presence of an infaunal deposit feeder. Coenobichnus records the walking activities of hermit crabs. Both the Coenobichnus and the avian footprints record the surficial detritus scavenging of epifaunal organisms within a subaerial setting. These traces occur within a fine-grained sandstone succession characterized by planar laminae and low-relief, asymmetrical, commonly mud-draped (locally bidirectional) ripples. The presence of traces attributable to suspension feeders implies deposition in a subaqueous setting. Their occurrence (particularly the presence of Arenicolites and Diplocraterion) in a sandstone bed characterized by mud-draped and bidirectional ripples implies emplacement in a tidally-influenced marine to marginal marine setting. Co-occurrence of these traces with well-preserved avian footprints ( Aquatilavipes) further implies periodic subaerial exposure. Thus, it is most likely that the Sawahlunto Formation near Kandi records deposition within an intertidal flat setting. Definitive evidence of marine influences in the Oligocene interval of the Ombilin Basin implies a more complex tectono-stratigraphic history than has previously been implied.

  6. Stress changes along the Sunda trench following the 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman and 28 March 2005 Nias earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.; Banerjee, P.; Burgmann, R.; Hashimoto, M.; Choosakul, N.

    2006-01-01

    The 26 December 2004 Mw = 9.2 and 28 March 2005 Mw = 8.7 earthquakes on the Sumatra megathrust altered the state of stress over a large region surrounding the earthquakes. We evaluate the stress changes associated with coseismic and postseismic deformation following these two large events, focusing on postseismic deformation that is driven by viscoelastic relaxation of a low-viscosity asthenosphere. Under Coulomb failure stress (CFS) theory, the December 2004 event increased CFS on the future hypocentral zone of the March 2005 event by about 0.25 bar, with little or no contribution from viscous relaxation. Coseismic stresses around the rupture zones of the 1797 and 1833 Sunda trench events are negligible, but postseismic stress perturbations since December 2004 are predicted to result in CFS increases of 0.1 to 0.2 bar around these rupture zones between 2 and 8 years after the December 2004 event. These are considerable stress perturbations given that the 1797 and 1833 rupture zones are likely approaching the end of a complete seismic cycle. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Field Survey of Tsunami Effects in Sri Lanka due to the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of December 26, 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Shusaku; Wijeyewickrema, Anil C.; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Miura, Hiroyuki; Gunaratna, Priyantha; Madurapperuma, Manoj; Sekiguchi, Toru

    2007-03-01

    The December 26, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake that registered a moment magnitude (M w ) of 9.1 was one of the largest earthquakes in the world since 1900. The devastating tsunami that resulted from this earthquake caused more casualties than any previously reported tsunami. The number of fatalities and missing persons in the most seriously affected countries were Indonesia - 167,736, Sri Lanka - 35,322, India - 18,045 and Thailand - 8,212. This paper describes two field visits to assess tsunami effects in Sri Lanka by a combined team of Japanese and Sri Lankan researchers. The first field visit from December 30, 2004 January 04, 2005 covered the western and southern coasts of Sri Lanka including the cities of Moratuwa, Beruwala, Bentota, Pereliya, Hikkaduwa, Galle, Talpe, Matara, Tangalla and Hambantota. The objectives of the first field visit were to investigate the damage caused by the tsunami and to obtain eyewitness information about wave arrival times. The second field visit from March 10 18, 2005 covered the eastern and southern coasts of Sri Lanka and included Trincomalee, Batticaloa, Arugam Bay, Yala National Park and Kirinda. The objectives of the second visit were mainly to obtain eyewitness information about wave arrival times and inundation data, and to take relevant measurements using GPS instruments.

  8. Urban shear-wave reflection seismics: Reconstruction support by combined shallow seismic and engineering geology investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polom, U.; Guenther, A.; Arsyad, I.; Wiyono, P.; Krawczyk, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    After the big 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, the massive reconstruction activities in the Aceh province (Northern Sumatra) were promoted by the Republic of Indonesia and the Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development. The aims of the project MANGEONAD (Management of Georisk Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam). are to establish geoscientific on the ground support for a sustainable development and management of save building constructions, lifelines, infrastructure and also natural resources. Therefore, shallow shear-wave reflection seismics was applied in close combination to engineering geology investigations in the period between 2005-2009 since depth and internal structure of the Krueng Aceh River delta (mainly young alluvial sediments) were widely unknown. Due to the requirements in the densely populated Banda Aceh region, lacking also traffic infrastructure, a small and lightweight engineering seismic setup of high mobility and high subsurface resolution capability was chosen. The S-wave land streamer system with 48 channels was applied successfully together with the ELVIS vibratory source using S- and P-waves on paved roads within the city of Banda Aceh. The performance of the S-wave system enabled the detailed seismic investigation of the shallow subsurface down to 50-150 m depth generating shaking frequencies between 20 Hz to 200 Hz. This also provides depth information extending the maximum depths of boreholes and Standard Penetrometer Testings (SPT), which could only be applied to max. 20 m depth. To integrate the results gained from all three methods, and further to provide a fast statistical analysis tool for engineering use, the Information System Engineering Geology (ISEG, BGR) was developed. This geospatial information tool includes the seismic data, all borehole information, geotechnical SPT and laboratory results from samples available in the investigation area. Thereby, the geotechnical 3D analysis of the subsurface units is enabled. The

  9. Multiple Magma Batches Recorded in Tephra Deposits from the Toba Complex, Sumatra.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, N. J. G.; Westgate, J.; Gatti, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Toba Caldera Complex is the largest Quaternary caldera on Earth, and has generated three voluminous and compositionally similar rhyolitic tuffs, viz. the Oldest (OTT, 800 ka), Middle (MTT, ~500 ka) and Youngest Toba Tuffs (YTT, 75 ka). These tephra deposits are widespread across Indonesia, Malaysia, South China Sea, Sea of Bengal, India and Indian Ocean and provide useful stratigraphic markers in oceanic, lacustrine and terrestrial environments. Single shard trace element analysis of these deposits reveals the changing availability of different batches of magma through time, with Sr, Ba and Y contents defining 5 discrete magma populations in YTT, 4 populations in MTT and only a single, low Ba population in OTT. Within an individual eruption these populations are clearly distinct, but between eruptions (e.g. MTT and YTT) some of these populations overlap while others do not, indicating both the longevity (and/or continuous supply of fresh material) and evolution of these magma batches in the Toba Complex. Major element compositions of the different groups show equilibration at different pressures (based on Q'-Ab'-Or'), with the equilibration of low Ba populations at ~160 MPa, increasing to depths of ~210 MPa for the highest Ba population. The proportions of different populations of glass in distal YTT shows that relatively little of the high Ba population makes it into the distal record across India, and that this population appears to be over-represented in the proximal free glass and pumice from the caldera walls. This data may shed light on magma availability and tephra dispersal during the YTT eruption. Similarly, the glass composition of individual pumices from proximal deposits record regional, compositional and temporal differences in the erupted products. These show, for example, the apparent mingling of some of the magma batches and also that the high Ba population appears early (i.e. stratigraphically lower) in the northern caldera wall.

  10. Genetics Home Reference: Northern epilepsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Northern epilepsy Northern epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Northern epilepsy is a genetic condition that causes recurrent seizures ( ...

  11. Interseismic Strain Along the Sumatra Subduction Zone: A Case for a Locked Fault Portion Extending Well Below the Forearc Moho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoes, M.; Avouac, J.; Cattin, R.; Henry, P.; Natawidjaja, D. H.

    2003-12-01

    A current and most accepted view about the seismogenic zone along subduction zones is that the downdip extent of the locked fault portion would correspond either to the 350° C isotherm if this temperature is reached above the Moho, or to the intersection with the forearc Moho for colder subduction zones [Oleskevich et al., 1999]. This limit would reflect the transition from slip-weakening friction to aseismic stable-sliding, or else ductile flow. In the first case, when the downdip end of the locked zone is temperature-controlled, stable-sliding of quartzo-feldspathic rocks would be the controlling factor, while the systematic presence of serpentinite or other hydrated minerals is advocated to explain aseismic interplate slip in the mantle at temperatures much less that the 750° C needed for ductile flow of mantle rocks [Peacock and Hyndman, 1999]. Here, we consider the case of the Sumatra subduction zone where the ~53 Myr Indian oceanic crust subducts below an island-arc characterized by a relatively thin crust, with a Moho depth estimated to ~23 km. We model interseismic deformation from a creeping dislocation embedded in an elastic half-space, using the back-slip approach. In addition to recently published GPS velocities, we take advantage of recent data on the pattern and rate of interseismic uplift that have been obtained from the study of coral growth [Natawidjaja, 2003; Sieh et al., 1999]. These data are found to put tight constraints on the horizontal position of the downdip limit of the locked fault zone, at 127 +/- 4/2 km from the trench. This position corresponds to a depth between 40 and 58 km and to a temperature of 269° C +/- 155° C, when compared with thermal modeling. So, in this particular setting, the locked fault portion extends well into the mantle. However, temperature is not high enough to advocate stable sliding or ductile flow of unaltered or altered mantle rocks. This case appeals to some reappraisal of the physical control on the depth

  12. Dietary intake and the risk of coronary heart disease among the coconut-consuming Minangkabau in West Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Lipoeto, Nur I; Agus, Zulkarnain; Oenzil, Fadil; Wahlqvist, Mark; Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana

    2004-01-01

    Several nutrition and non-nutritional pathways are recognised in the development and occurrence of cardiovascular disease. In many populations, high intakes of saturated fat are associated with elevated serum cholesterol concentrations and increased coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality. However, several studies report that hyperlipidaemia and heart diseases are not common among populations who consume coconut, a source of saturated fat. A case-control study was conducted among the Minangkabau known to be high coconut consumers to examine the difference in food patterns and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) between the coronary cases and their gender- and age-matched apparently healthy counterparts serving as controls. Eligible subjects with CHD were identified through the co-operation of five participating hospitals located in Padang and Bukittinggi in West Sumatra, Indonesia. A total of 93 eligible cases (62 men and 31 women) in the Case group and 189 subjects (113 men and 76 women) in the Control group were recruited. Information on the intakes of individual foods and dishes over the preceding 12 months was obtained using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The Case groups had significantly higher intakes of meats, eggs, sugar, tea, coffee and fruits, but lower intakes of soy products, rice and cereals compared to the controls. Coconut consumption as flesh or milk was not different between cases and controls. The cases had significantly higher intakes of protein and cholesterol, but lower intake of carbohydrate. Similar intakes of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids between the cases and controls indicated that the consumption of total fat or saturated fat, including that from coconut, was not a predictor for CHD in this food culture. However, the intakes of animal foods, total protein, dietary cholesterol and less plant derived carbohydrates were predictors of CHD. PMID:15563444

  13. Coseismic Ground level Changes Associated with the Great Andaman-Sumatra Earthquake: A Tour from Nicobar to North Andaman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, K.; Rajendran, C.; Earnest, A.; Freymueller, J.

    2005-12-01

    The 26 December 2004 in the Andaman-Sumatra subduction zone led to significant ground level changes, uplift as well as subsidence of land, along the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Falling nearly 400 km north of the epicenter of the main shock, and extending northwards, the second phase of the rupture observed in these islands account for more about two thirds of the total rupture. Ground level changes were observed along both the eastern and western margins of the islands. The western margins were generally characterized by uplift of about 1m, while the eastern margins subsided by nearly 1 m, permanently submerging many parts of these islands. Elevated beaches, uplifted coral colonies and biological markers such as mangroves, lines of barnacles on rock exposures and man-made structures provide spectacular visual effects of ground uplift. Along the western margin of the Interview Island, in the middle Andamans, we observed at least two older terraces, probably formed by the predecessors of the 2004 earthquake. In the Diglipur region, north Andaman, we observed elevation change of about 1 m, and in this part of the arc, both the western and eastern margins are characterized by uplift. Coseismic vertical offset observed from GPS data suggest a change of +0.6m at Diglipur, a region that also marks the termination of rupture in the north. Field observations conform to nearly +1m change in this region. Maximum subsidence of nearly 1.5 m was documented in Campbell Bay, Great Nicobar, and a GPS site there shows a change in elevation of -1.05m. This paper gives a short tour of the sites of ground level changes from Car Nicobar in the south to Diglipur in the North Andaman.

  14. Dietary intake and the risk of coronary heart disease among the coconut-consuming Minangkabau in West Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Lipoeto, Nur I; Agus, Zulkarnain; Oenzil, Fadil; Wahlqvist, Mark; Wattanapenpaiboon, Naiyana

    2004-01-01

    Several nutrition and non-nutritional pathways are recognised in the development and occurrence of cardiovascular disease. In many populations, high intakes of saturated fat are associated with elevated serum cholesterol concentrations and increased coronary heart disease (CHD) mortality. However, several studies report that hyperlipidaemia and heart diseases are not common among populations who consume coconut, a source of saturated fat. A case-control study was conducted among the Minangkabau known to be high coconut consumers to examine the difference in food patterns and risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) between the coronary cases and their gender- and age-matched apparently healthy counterparts serving as controls. Eligible subjects with CHD were identified through the co-operation of five participating hospitals located in Padang and Bukittinggi in West Sumatra, Indonesia. A total of 93 eligible cases (62 men and 31 women) in the Case group and 189 subjects (113 men and 76 women) in the Control group were recruited. Information on the intakes of individual foods and dishes over the preceding 12 months was obtained using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The Case groups had significantly higher intakes of meats, eggs, sugar, tea, coffee and fruits, but lower intakes of soy products, rice and cereals compared to the controls. Coconut consumption as flesh or milk was not different between cases and controls. The cases had significantly higher intakes of protein and cholesterol, but lower intake of carbohydrate. Similar intakes of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids between the cases and controls indicated that the consumption of total fat or saturated fat, including that from coconut, was not a predictor for CHD in this food culture. However, the intakes of animal foods, total protein, dietary cholesterol and less plant derived carbohydrates were predictors of CHD.

  15. Coseismic and post-seismic signatures of the Sumatra 2004 December and 2005 March earthquakes in GRACE satellite gravity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panet, I.; Mikhailov, V.; Diament, M.; Pollitz, F.; King, G.; de Viron, O.; Holschneider, M.; Biancale, R.; Lemoine, J.-M.

    2007-01-01

    The GRACE satellite mission has been measuring the Earth's gravity field and its temporal variations since 2002 April. Although these variations are mainly due to mass transfer within the geofluid envelops, they also result from mass displacements associated with phenomena including glacial isostatic adjustment and earthquakes. However, these last contributions are difficult to isolate because of the presence of noise and of geofluid signals, and because of GRACE's coarse spatial resolution (>400 km half-wavelength). In this paper, we show that a wavelet analysis on the sphere helps to retrieve earthquake signatures from GRACE geoid products. Using a wavelet analysis of GRACE geoids products, we show that the geoid variations caused by the 2004 December (Mw = 9.2) and 2005 March (Mw = 8.7) Sumatra earthquakes can be detected. At GRACE resolution, the 2004 December earthquake produced a strong coseismic decrease of the gravity field in the Andaman Sea, followed by relaxation in the area affected by both the Andaman 2004 and the Nias 2005 earthquakes. We find two characteristic timescales for the relaxation, with a fast variation occurring in the vicinity of the Central Andaman ridge. We discuss our coseismic observations in terms of density changes of crustal and upper-mantle rocks, and of the vertical displacements in the Andaman Sea. We interpret the post-seismic signal in terms of the viscoelastic response of the Earth's mantle. The transient component of the relaxation may indicate the presence of hot, viscous material beneath the active Central Andaman Basin. ?? 2007 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2007 RAS.

  16. Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane at a Marine Methane Seep in a Forearc Sediment Basin off Sumatra, Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Siegert, Michael; Krüger, Martin; Teichert, Barbara; Wiedicke, Michael; Schippers, Axel

    2011-01-01

    A cold methane seep was discovered in a forearc sediment basin off the island Sumatra, exhibiting a methane-seep adapted microbial community. A defined seep center of activity, like in mud volcanoes, was not discovered. The seep area was rather characterized by a patchy distribution of active spots. The relevance of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) was reflected by 13C-depleted isotopic signatures of dissolved inorganic carbon. The anaerobic conversion of methane to CO2 was confirmed in a 13C-labeling experiment. Methane fueled a vital microbial community with cell numbers of up to 4 × 109 cells cm−3 sediment. The microbial community was analyzed by total cell counting, catalyzed reporter deposition–fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD–FISH), quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). CARD–FISH cell counts and qPCR measurements showed the presence of Bacteria and Archaea, but only small numbers of Eukarya. The archaeal community comprised largely members of ANME-1 and ANME-2. Furthermore, members of the Crenarchaeota were frequently detected in the DGGE analysis. Three major bacterial phylogenetic groups (δ-Proteobacteria, candidate division OP9, and Anaerolineaceae) were abundant across the study area. Several of these sequences were closely related to the genus Desulfococcus of the family Desulfobacteraceae, which is in good agreement with previously described AOM sites. In conclusion, the majority of the microbial community at the seep consisted of AOM-related microorganisms, while the relevance of higher hydrocarbons as microbial substrates was negligible. PMID:22207865

  17. Integrated radar and lidar analysis reveals extensive loss of remaining intact forest on Sumatra 2007-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, M. B.; Mitchard, E. T. A.

    2015-11-01

    Forests with high above-ground biomass (AGB), including those growing on peat swamps, have historically not been thought suitable for biomass mapping and change detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR). However, by integrating L-band (λ = 0.23 m) SAR from the ALOS and lidar from the ICESat Earth-Observing satellites with 56 field plots, we were able to create a forest biomass and change map for a 10.7 Mha section of eastern Sumatra that still contains high AGB peat swamp forest. Using a time series of SAR data we estimated changes in both forest area and AGB. We estimate that there was 274 ± 68 Tg AGB remaining in natural forest (≥ 20 m height) in the study area in 2007, with this stock reducing by approximately 11.4 % over the subsequent 3 years. A total of 137.4 kha of the study area was deforested between 2007 and 2010, an average rate of 3.8 % yr-1. The ability to attribute forest loss to different initial biomass values allows for far more effective monitoring and baseline modelling for avoided deforestation projects than traditional, optical-based remote sensing. Furthermore, given SAR's ability to penetrate the smoke and cloud which normally obscure land cover change in this region, SAR-based forest monitoring can be relied on to provide frequent imagery. This study demonstrates that, even at L-band, which typically saturates at medium biomass levels (ca. 150 Mg ha-1), in conjunction with lidar data, it is possible to make reliable estimates of not just the area but also the carbon emissions resulting from land use change.

  18. Evidence of Frontal Rupturing in the Mentawai Gap, SW Sumatra, Newly Acquired High-Resolution Seismic Reflection and Bathymetry Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hananto, N.; Singh, S. C.; Tapponnier, P.; Sieh, K.; Carton, H. D.; Leclerc, F.; Carson, S.; Wei, S.; Nugroho, A. B.; Avianto, P.; Gemilang, W. A.; Duperray, R.; Permana, H.

    2015-12-01

    We present here the first results of the Mentawai Gap Tsunami Earthquake Research Assessment (MEGATERA) survey, conducted onboard R/V Falkor of the Schmidt Ocean Institute from 23 May-29 July 2015. The Mentawai Gap, located along the Sunda subduction zone offshore SW Sumatra, has been inferred to have the potential to produce a devastating great earthquake in the near future. Along this segment of the megathrust, only limited/small patches ruptured on 12 September 2007, during a twin earthquake of Mw = 8.5 and 7.9, and on October 25th, 2010, during the Mw=7.8 shallow earthquake that generated a large tsunami with run-up of up to ~8 m on Pagai islands. To better understand the mechanism of tsunamigenesis in general and better assess this hazard in the Mentawai locked zone in particular, we acquired a total of 1725 km high-resolution seismic reflection data across the subduction front along with more than 10000 km2 of multibeam bathymetry data. Along the Mentawai trench, we imaged the 2010 tsunami earthquake rupture zone, the Mentawai locked zone, the region impinged by the Investigator Fracture zone as well as the bending-related normal faults dissecting the incoming plate. We find that the morphology of the frontal accretionary wedge section within both the region ruptured in 2010 and the locked segment consists of multiple folds bounded by double-vergent active faults, which when activated during a megathrust event could generate a large tsunami. We also find evidence of mass wasting along thrust escarpments, which could be erosional features or more likely landslides scars triggered by earthquake shaking. The density and distribution of these geologic features along strike could give clues on the seismic history of the segments. These new data will allow us to elucidate the tsunamigenic potential of the Mentawai locked zone.

  19. Systematical Search for remotely triggered earthquakes in Tibet Plateau following the 2004 M9.2 Sumatra and the 2005 M8.6 Nias earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, D.; Peng, Z.; Meng, X.

    2013-12-01

    The continuous collision between the Indian Plate and Eurasian Plate gives rise to the formation of Tibet Plateau, one of the most complex tectonic environments in the world. In this study, we search for remotely triggered earthquakes in Tibet Plateau following the 2004 M9.2 Sumatra and the 2005 M8.6 Nias Earthquakes. During 2002 to 2005, the Hi-CLIMB (Himalayan-Tibetan Continental Lithosphere during Mountain Building) experiment (IRIS network code XF) was operated in South-Central Tibet, extending from the Ganges lowland, across the Himalayas and into the central Tibetan plateau. Over 200 sites were occupied over this experiment, providing unprecedented continuous recordings around the 2004 Sumatra and the 2005 Nias Earthquakes. On April 7th 2005, nearly 10 days after the 2005 Nias Earthquake, Zhongba was shaken by an Mw 6.3 Earthquake, raising the question on whether this event was delay-triggered by the Nias Earthquake. The Zhongba region is characterized by many NS-trending rift systems that accommodate EW extension, and several moderate-size earthquakes since 2004 suggest that this region is seismically active. Here we use a recently developed matched filter technique to examine seismicity rate changes associated with the 2004 Sumatra and 2005 Nias earthquakes. Specifically, we use 32 relocated earthquakes in Zhongba as templates to detect additional local events between 12/2004 and 05/2005. Although we have detected more than 45 times more events during this time period, we find no statistically significant change in the seismicity rate following the Nias earthquake and before the 2005 Zhongba mainshock. Hence, it is difficult to establish a triggering relationship between these two events. However, after manual inspection of the continuous data during the surface wave trains of the 2004 Sumatra and the 2005 Nias earthquakes, we identify many triggered microearthquakes 350 km north of Zhongba. These dynamically triggered events were located in southern part

  20. Implications of the 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake on tsunami forecast and assessment models for great subduction-zone earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, Eric L.; Titov, Vasily V.; Arcas, Diego; Pollitz, Fred F.; Bilek, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    Results from different tsunami forecasting and hazard assessment models are compared with observed tsunami wave heights from the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Forecast models are based on initial earthquake information and are used to estimate tsunami wave heights during propagation. An empirical forecast relationship based only on seismic moment provides a close estimate to the observed mean regional and maximum local tsunami runup heights for the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami but underestimates mean regional tsunami heights at azimuths in line with the tsunami beaming pattern (e.g., Sri Lanka, Thailand). Standard forecast models developed from subfault discretization of earthquake rupture, in which deep- ocean sea level observations are used to constrain slip, are also tested. Forecast models of this type use tsunami time-series measurements at points in the deep ocean. As a proxy for the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, a transect of deep-ocean tsunami amplitudes recorded by satellite altimetry is used to constrain slip along four subfaults of the M >9 Sumatra–Andaman earthquake. This proxy model performs well in comparison to observed tsunami wave heights, travel times, and inundation patterns at Banda Aceh. Hypothetical tsunami hazard assessments models based on end- member estimates for average slip and rupture length (Mw 9.0–9.3) are compared with tsunami observations. Using average slip (low end member) and rupture length (high end member) (Mw 9.14) consistent with many seismic, geodetic, and tsunami inversions adequately estimates tsunami runup in most regions, except the extreme runup in the western Aceh province. The high slip that occurred in the southern part of the rupture zone linked to runup in this location is a larger fluctuation than expected from standard stochastic slip models. In addition, excess moment release (∼9%) deduced from geodetic studies in comparison to seismic moment estimates may generate additional tsunami energy, if the

  1. Outer-rise stress regime post 2004 mega-thrust rupture: Constraints from source process of selected Sumatra - Andaman outer-rise earthquakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earnest, A.; K, S.

    2014-12-01

    The outer-rise region of a subducting margin will be in a compressional state prior to a megathrust event and in a tensional state afterwards due to the large co-seismic displacements. In coupled subduction zones, tensional earthquakes are occasionally observed post a megathrust rupture, as tensional stress from slab pull is temporarily transmitted to the outer-rise. In this study we analyze some of the significant outer-rise events along the Sumatra-Andaman margin post 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, like those occurred on January 2005 (Mw=6.5), July 2005 (Mw=7.1), August 2009 (Mw=7.5 ), March 2010 (Mw=6.6) and June 2010 (Mw=7.5). We will be discussing the source parameters,kinematic rupture process, directivity and the average stress drop of these events which are derived using seismic body wave inversion. We adopted teleseismic body wave inversion methodology of Kikuchi and Kanamori (1982, 1986 and 1991). We will be discussing the stress drop patterns and a possible asperity model for this margin and compare with other major outer-rise events post Tohoku-Oki (2011) and Maule (2010) events. The stress regimes inferred from the P & T axis orientations and its temporal evolution from inter-seismic to post-seismic phase also will be discussed.

  2. Southeast Asian Summer Burning: A Micro Pulse Lidar Network Study of Aerosol Particle Physical Properties near Fires in Borneo and Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lolli, S.; Welton, E. J.; Holben, B. N.; Campbell, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    In August and September 2012, as part of the continuing Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) project, three autonomous elastic-scattering 355 nm lidars were deployed by the NASA Micro Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) to Sumatra and Borneo, measuring the vertical profile of aerosol particle scattering during peak burning season. In coordination with the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), a regional characterization of aerosol particle physical properties and distribution was performed. In addition to a permanent regional network site at Singapore, the three temporary sites established for this research include Jambi (Sumatra, Indonesia), Kuching (northwest Borneo, Malaysia) and Palangkaraya (south-central Borneo, Indonesia). In this paper, we discuss the mission and instruments, and introduce data products available to the community through the MPLNET online website. We further describe initial results of the study, including a contrast of mean vertical scattering profiles versus those observed near active fire sources at Jambi and Palangkaraya, and resolve longer-range particle evolution at receptor sites, like Kuching, that are most commonly 1-2 days downwind of larger fire complexes.

  3. Raindrop axis ratios, fall velocities and size distribution over Sumatra from 2D-Video Disdrometer measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzuki; Randeu, Walter L.; Kozu, Toshiaki; Shimomai, Toyoshi; Hashiguchi, Hiroyuki; Schönhuber, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Raindrop axis ratio, falling velocity and size distribution are important in broad list of applications. However, they are not frequently observed in the equatorial region. This paper elucidated the characteristics of raindrop axis ratio, falling velocity and size distribution based on 2D-Video Disdrometer (2DVD) data that have been collected in the equatorial Indonesia, particularly at Kototabang (hereafter called KT), west Sumatra, Indonesia (0.20°S, 100.32°E, 864 m above sea level). A comprehensive follow-up of the previous study on the natural variability of raindrop size distributions (DSDs) is presented. Precipitation was classified through 1.3-GHz wind profiler observation. The dependence of raindrop falling velocity and axis ratio on rainfall type was not clearly observed. Overall, measured raindrop fall velocities were in good agreement with Gunn-Kinzer's data. Raindrop axis ratio at KT was more spherical than that of artificial rain and equilibrium model, and close to the values reported in the turbulent high shear zone of surface layer which can be partially due to the effect of the instrument errors (e.g., location and container shape). Of some natural variations of DSD investigated, the dependence of DSD on rainfall rate and rainfall type as well as diurnal variation was clearly visible. A striking contrast between the stratiform and convective rains is that the size distributions from the stratiform (convective) rains tend to narrow (broaden) with increasing rainfall rates. For rainfall rate R < 10 mm/h, the size distribution of stratiform was broader than that of convective. On the other hand, at higher rainfall rate more large-sized drops were found in convective rain. During the convective rain, very large-sized drops were found mainly at the very start of rain event while for the stratiform they were found to be associated with a strong bright band. In diurnal basis, the DSDs in the morning hours were narrower than those in the evening which was

  4. CO2 and CH4 fluxes from oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia: effects of palm age and environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijide, A.; Hassler, E.; Corre, M. D.; June, T.; Sabajo, C.; Veldkamp, E.; Knohl, A.

    2015-12-01

    Global increasing demand of palm oil is leading to the expansion of oil palm plantations, particularly in SE Asia, which in Sumatran lowlands has resulted in a 21% forest area loss. Large photosynthesis rates are expected for oil palms, due to their high growth and yield production. However, there is very limited information on their effect on carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and their sink or source strength at ecosystem scale. For methane (CH4) fluxes, research has mainly focused in oil palm plantations located on peatlands, but no information is available at ecosystem level from plantations on mineral soils. With the aim of studying CO2 fluxes during the non-productive and productive phases of oil palm cultivation, an eddy covariance (EC) tower was installed in a 2 year old oil palm plantation, where it was measuring for 8 months, and was subsequently moved to a 12 year old plantation, both in the province of Jambi, Sumatra. The EC system consisted of a Licor 7500A and an ultrasonic Metek anemometer, operating at 10 Hz, installed on a 7m and 22m tower respectively. In the 12 year old plantation, the tower was also equipped with a Los Gatos FGGA-24EP, to assess CH4 fluxes. Chamber measurements were also carried out to obtain information on respiration and CH4 fluxes from the soil. Radiation was the major driver controlling net carbon uptake, while soil moisture did not play a significant role. Average net ecosystem exchange in the hours of the day with higher radiation for the whole measurement period was 10 μmol m-2 s-1 for the 2 year old plantation and -22 μmol m-2 s-1 in the 12 year old. The analysis of the cumulative fluxes show that the non-productive plantation was a carbon source of around 636 g CO2 m-2 during the 8 months of measurements, while in the productive period, it acted as a strong carbon sink (-794 g CO2 m-2 yr-1). Methane uptake was observed in the soil in both plantations and also for the whole ecosystem in the 12 year old one, but its

  5. The Ongoing Lava Flow Eruption of Sinabung Volcano (Sumatra, Indonesia): Observations from Structure-from-Motion and Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, B. B.; Clarke, A. B.; Arrowsmith, R.; Vanderkluysen, L.

    2015-12-01

    Sinabung is a 2460 m high andesitic stratovolcano in North Sumatra, Indonesia. Its ongoing eruption has produced a 2.9 km long lava flow with two active summit lobes and frequent pyroclastic flows (≤ 5 km long) with associated plumes over 5 km high. Large viscous lava flows of this type are common at volcanoes around the world, but are rarely observed while active. This eruption therefore provides a special opportunity to observe and study the mechanisms of emplacement and growth of an active lava flow. In September 2014, we conducted a field campaign to collect ground-based photographs to analyze with Structure-from-Motion photogrammetric techniques. We built multiple 3D models from which we estimate the volume of the lava flow and identify areas where the flow was most active. Thermal infrared and visual satellite images provide information on the effusive eruption from its initiation in December 2013 to the present and allow us to estimate the eruption rate, advance rate and rheological characteristics of the flow. According to our DEMs the flow volume as of September 2014 was 100 Mm3, providing an average flow rate of 4.5 m3/s, while comparison of two DEMs from that month suggests that most growth occurred at the SE nose of the flow. Flow advancement was initially controlled by the yield strength of the flow crust while eruption and flow advance rates were at their highest in January-March 2014. A period of slow front advancement and inflation from March - October 2014 suggests that the flow's interior had cooled and that propagation was limited by the interior yield strength. This interpretation is supported by the simultaneous generation of pyroclastic flows due to collapse of the upper portion of the lava flow and consequent lava breakout and creation of new flow lobes originating from the upper reaches in October 2014 and June 2015. Both lobes remain active as of August 2015 and present a significant hazard for collapse and generation of pyroclastic flows

  6. Quartenary Gede Salak volcanic complex, Banten area, at the junction between Sumatra arc and Java arc, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniawan, I.; Hasenaka, T.; Suparka, E.

    2011-12-01

    Pleistocene Gede Salak volcanic complex is located at Banten, northwestern edge of Java island (NWJ), forming a part of Sunda arc. The volcanism is associated with the subduction of the India-Australia plate beneath Eurasian plate at the rate of 7 cm/y. This volcanic complex consists of Gede, Salak, Batur and Wadas volcanoes. To southeast is located Pinang volcano, and to south is volcanic complex of Rawa Dano. These volcanoes are located near Sunda Strait, a transitional zone between Java arc and Sumatera arc where oblique subduction is observed. The distance of all these volcanoes from Java trench varies from 250 km to 300 km. This study is the first geochemical study of volcanic rocks characterizing across-arc variation of Java-Sumatra junction. Gede Salak volcanic complex consists of pyroclastic flow deposits in the western part and lava flows in the eastern part. The later development of dome Wadas formation is probably associated with fault structures trending northwest to southeast. Pinang volcano mainly consists of basaltic lavas. Rawa Dano volcanic complex consists of two caldera, Anyer caldera and Dano caldera, which produced large amount of volcanic tuff called Tufa Banten. Samples from this volcanic complex include basaltic to trachytic rocks, in the range of medium-K to high-K. MgO content is less than 3 %. Elements of Rb, Zr, Ce, and La increase with increasing SiO2. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns are similar to those of island arc basalts. When compared to volcanic samples from western Java volcanoes (WJ), REE pattern is similar to those from back-arc volcanoes. Gede Salak volcano is slightly enriched in the subduction component, as illustrated by the low Nb/Zr and elevated Ba/Zr ratios. B/Nb and B/Zr ratios are in the range of 1.5 - 5.4 and 0.03 - 0.10 respectively, which are higher than those of the back arc volcano in central Java (CJ), but lower than those of the frontal volcanoes there. Across arc variation of NWJ including GSVC, Pinang and

  7. Evapotranspiration components determined by eddy covariance and sap flux measurements in oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijide, Ana; Röll, Alexander; Niu, Furong; June, Tania; Hölscher, Dirk; Knohl, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The expansion of oil palm cultivation fueled by the increasing global demand for palm oil is leading to massive land transformations in tropical areas, particularly in South-East Asia. Conversions of forest land to oil palm plantations likely affect ecosystem water fluxes. However, there is a lack of information on water fluxes from oil palm plantations as well as on the partitioning of these fluxes into its different components such as transpiration and evaporation. It is expected that water fluxes from oil palm plantations vary temporally, both long-term, i.e. between different age-classes of plantations, and short-term, i.e. from day to day within a certain plantation (e.g. during or after periods of rainfall). A proper evaluation of water fluxes from oil palm plantations thus requires an experimental design encompassing these types of variability. To assess evapotranspiration (ET) rates, an eddy covariance tower was installed in a 2-year-old oil palm plantation in the lowlands of Jambi, Sumatra; it was subsequently moved to a 12-year-old oil palm plantation located in the same region. In parallel to the ET, sap flux density was measured on 16 leaf petioles on four oil palms; stand transpiration rates were derived from these measurements with stand inventory data. The parallel measurements ran for several weeks in both plantations. Preliminary results for our period of study show that the average ET rate of the 2-year-old oil palm plantation was 5.2 mm day-1; values up to 7.0 mm day-1 were observed on dry, sunny days with non-limiting soil moisture. Stand transpiration (T) by the young oil palms was very low, 0.3 mm day-1on average, and only showed a small variation between days. Under optimal environmental conditions, the ratio of T to total ET was up to 0.08 in the young plantation, while in the mature, 12-year-old plantation, it was significantly higher and reached 0.5. Transpiration rates in the mature oil palm plantation were about six- to seven-fold higher

  8. Northern Plains 'Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    10 December 2004 The lower left (southwest) corner of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the location of a somewhat filled and buried meteor impact crater on the northern plains of Mars. The dark dots are boulders. A portion of a similar feature is seen in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image. This picture, showing landforms (including the odd mound north/northeast of the crater) that are typical of the martian northern lowland plains, was obtained as part of the MGS MOC effort to support the search for a landing site for the Phoenix Mars Scout lander. Phoenix will launch in 2007 and land on the northern plains in 2008. This image is located near 68.0oN, 227.4oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  9. Northern Pintail (Anas acuta)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Austin, J.E.; Miller, M.R.; Poole, A.; Gill, F.

    1995-01-01

    The Northern Pintail is a medium-sized dabbling duck of slender, elegant lines and conservative plumage coloration. It is circumpolar in distribution and abundant in North America, with core nesting habitat in Alaska and the Prairie Pothole Region of southern Canada and the northern Great Plains. Breeders favor shallow wetlands interspersed throughout prairie grasslands or arctic tundra. An early fall migrant, the species arrives on wintering areas beginning in August, after wing molt, often forming large roosting and feeding flocks on open, shallow wetlands and flooded agricultural fields. The birds consume grains, marsh plant seeds, and aquatic invertebrates throughout the fall and winter. Northern Pintails are among the earliest nesting ducks in North America, beginning shortly after ice-out in many northern areas. Individuals form new pair bonds each winter but are highly promiscuous during the nesting season, with mated and unmated males often involved in vigorous, acrobatic Pursuit Flights. Annual nest success and productivity vary with water conditions, predation, and weather. Females build nests on the ground, often long distances from water. Only the female incubates; her mate leaves shortly after incubation begins. Ducklings hatch together in one day, follow the female to water after a day in the nest, and fledge by July or August. Adults and ducklings consume mainly aquatic invertebrates during the breeding season. Predators and farming operations destroy many thousands of Northern Pintail nests annually; farming has also greatly reduced the amount of quality nesting cover available. Winter habitats are threatened by water shortages, agricultural development, contamination, and urbanization. Periods of extended drought in prairie nesting regions have caused dramatic population declines, usually followed by periods of recovery. Over the long term, however, the continental population of Northern Pintails has declined significantly from 6 million birds in

  10. Forearc Basin Structure in the Andaman-Nicobar Segment of the Sumatra-Andaman Subduction Zone: Insight from High-Resolution Seismic Reflection Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeremans, R. E.; Singh, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Andaman-Nicobar subduction is the northernmost segment of the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone and marks the western boundary of the Andaman Sea, which is a complex backarc extensional basin. We present the interpretation of a new set of deep seismic reflection data acquired across the Andaman-Nicobar forearc basin, from 8°N to 11°N, to understand the structure and evolution of the forearc basin, focusing on how the obliquity of convergence affects deformation in the forearc, as well as on the Diligent (DF) and Eastern Margin Faults (EMF). Constraining the evolution of this basin, which is strongly related to the collision of India and Eurasia, can help shed light onto present-day deformation processes along this segment of the subduction zone, where convergence is highly oblique and little data is available. We find that he DF is a backthrust and corresponds to the Mentawai (MFZ) and West Andaman Fault (WAF) systems further south, offshore Sumatra. The DF is expressed as a series of mostly landward verging folds and faults, deforming the early to late Miocene sediments. The DF seems to root from the boundary between the accretionary complex and the continental backstop, where it meets the EMF. The EMF marks the western boundary of the forearc basin; it is associated with subsidence and is expressed as a deep piggyback basin, associated with recent Pliocene to Pleistocene subsidence at the western edge of the forearc basin. The eastern edge of the forearc basin is marked by the Invisible Bank (IB), which is thought to be tilted and uplifted continental crustal block. Subsidence along the EMF and uplift and tilting of the IB seem to be related to different opening phases in the Andaman Sea. The sliver Andaman-Nicobar Fault (ANF), which is the active northward extension of the Great Sumatra sliver Fault (GSF), lies to the east of the IB, and marks the boundary between continental crust underlying the forearc basin and crust accreted at the Andaman Sea Spreading

  11. Glacial to Holocene dynamics of Indonesian precipitation - New insights from plant-wax dD off Northwest Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermeyer, E. M.; Mohtadi, M.; Sessions, A. L.; Feakins, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    We used the stable hydrogen and stable carbon isotopic composition (dD and d13C, respectively) of terrestrial plant leaf waxes as a proxy for past rainfall variations over northwestern Indonesia. Our study site lies within the western boundary of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP), a key evaporative site for the global hydrologic cycle. At present, rainfall intensity in tropical Indonesia is influenced by the Pacific Ocean El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) (see Kirono et al., 1999), the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) mode (Saji et al., 1999), and to some extend by the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) (e.g. Koutavas and Lynch-Stieglitz, 2005). Paleoclimate studies show that these systems have varied in the past, however, the impact of these changes on regional paelo-hydrology of Indonesia is yet unknown. We worked on marine sediment core SO189-144KL (1°09,300 N; 98°03,960 E) retrieved at 480 m water depth off Northwest Sumatra from the eastern Indian Ocean. Sediments consist of material from marine and terrestrial sources, and radiocarbon dating indicates an age of ~300 years at the core top and of ~24,000 years at the base. We used d13C and dD values of the n-C30 alkanoic acid as proxies for changes in vegetation composition (C3 vs. C4 plants) and rainfall variability on land, respectively. Values of d13C show only little variation and suggest persistent dominance of tropical trees throughout the past 24,000 years. Values of dD display distinct variability throughout the record, however, mean rainfall intensities during the late Last Glacial compare to those during the Holocene. This is in agreement with rather consistent vegetation at the study site but in sharp contrast with reconstructions of contemporaneous rainfall patterns at the nearby islands Borneo (Partin et al., 2007) and Flores (Griffiths et al., 2009), indicating multiple controls on regional hydrology of Indonesia. In combination with previous studies of late Pleistocene to Holocene

  12. Trends in atmospheric haze induced by peat fires in Sumatra Island, Indonesia and El Niño phenomenon from 1973 to 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yonghe; Field, Robert D.; Roswintiarti, Orbita

    2004-02-01

    Visibility was used as a long-term indicator of atmospheric haze caused by peat fires on the peat land area of the island of Sumatra, Indonesia. Visibility and the anomalies of sea surface temperature in the Niño 3.4 region from 1973 to 2003 were analyzed. A significant linear relationship existed between the visibility and time, and the two signals shared two periodic components of 45 months (3.7 yr) and 61 months (5.1 yr), corresponding with the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) variability. Visibility decrease occurred about 3 months earlier than peak ENSO, suggesting fires initiated during the ENSO onset stage. The study demonstrated the connection of inter-annual climate variability, biomass burning, and air quality in the region. The study could facilitate the prediction of change in fire occurrence and air quality from ENSO monitoring data.

  13. Distribution and burial of organic carbon in sediments from the Indian Ocean upwelling region off Java and Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgart, Anne; Jennerjahn, Tim; Mohtadi, Mahyar; Hebbeln, Dierk

    2010-03-01

    Sediments were sampled and oxygen profiles of the water column were determined in the Indian Ocean off west and south Indonesia in order to obtain information on the production, transformation, and accumulation of organic matter (OM). The stable carbon isotope composition (δ 13C org) in combination with C/N ratios depicts the almost exclusively marine origin of sedimentary organic matter in the entire study area. Maximum concentrations of organic carbon (C org) and nitrogen (N) of 3.0% and 0.31%, respectively, were observed in the northern Mentawai Basin and in the Savu and Lombok basins. Minimum δ 15N values of 3.7‰ were measured in the northern Mentawai Basin, whereas they varied around 5.4‰ at stations outside this region. Minimum bottom water oxygen concentrations of 1.1 mL L -1, corresponding to an oxygen saturation of 16.1%, indicate reduced ventilation of bottom water in the northern Mentawai Basin. This low bottom water oxygen reduces organic matter decomposition, which is demonstrated by the almost unaltered isotopic composition of nitrogen during early diagenesis. Maximum C org accumulation rates (CARs) were measured in the Lombok (10.4 g C m -2 yr -1) and northern Mentawai basins (5.2 g C m -2 yr -1). Upwelling-induced high productivity is responsible for the high CAR off East Java, Lombok, and Savu Basins, while a better OM preservation caused by reduced ventilation contributes to the high CAR observed in the northern Mentawai Basin. The interplay between primary production, remineralisation, and organic carbon burial determines the regional heterogeneity. CAR in the Indian Ocean upwelling region off Indonesia is lower than in the Peru and Chile upwellings, but in the same order of magnitude as in the Arabian Sea, the Benguela, and Gulf of California upwellings, and corresponds to 0.1-7.1% of the global ocean carbon burial. This demonstrates the relevance of the Indian Ocean margin off Indonesia for the global OM burial.

  14. The effects of three-dimensional heterogeneous Earth model of coseismic displacement changes of the Sumatra earthquake of 26 December 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Wulin; Zhang, Bei; Huang, Luyuan; Cheng, Huihong; Shi, Yaolin

    2016-04-01

    The 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) of 9.1 to 9.3 is the first great earthquake recorded by digital broadband, high-dynamic-range seismometers and global positioning system (GPS) equipment, which recorded many high-quality geophysical data sets. The spherical curvature is not negligible in far field especially for large event and the real Earth is laterally inhomogeneity and the analytical results still are difficult to explain the geodetic measurements. We use equivalent body force finite elements method Zhang et al. (2015) and mesh the whole earth, to compute global co-seismic displacements using four fault slip models of the 2004 Sumatra earthquake provided by different authors. Comparisons of calculated co-seismic displacements and GPS show that the confidences are well in near field for four models, and the confidences are according to different models. In the whole four models, the Chlieh model (Chlieh et al., 2007) is the best as this slip model not only accord well with near field data but also far field data. And then we use the best slip model, Chlieh model to explore influence of three dimensional lateral earth structure on both layered spherically symmetric (PREM) and real 3-D heterogeneous earth model (Crust 1.0 model and GyPSuM). Results show that the effects of 3-D heterogeneous earth model are not negligible and decrease concomitantly with increasing distance from the epicenter. The relative effects of 3-D crust model are 23% and 40% for horizontal and vertical displacements, respectively. The effects of the 3-D mantle model are much smaller than that of 3-D crust model but with wider impacting area.

  15. Northern Plains Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-513, 14 October 2003

    Patterns are common on the northern plains of Mars. Like their terrestrial counterparts in places like Siberia, Alaska, and northern Canada, patterned ground on Mars might be an indicator of the presence of ground ice. Whether it is true that the patterns on Mars are related to ground ice and whether the ice is still present beneath the martian surface are unknown. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows an example of patterned ground on the martian northern plains near 72.4oN, 252.6oW. The dark dots and lines are low mounds and chains of mounds. The circular feature near the center of the image is the location of a buried meteor impact crater; its presence today is marked only by the dark boulders on its rim and ejecta blanket that have managed to remain uncovered at the martian surface. The area shown is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  16. Soil carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from lowland forests converted to oil palm and rubber plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preuss, Evelyn; Corre, Marife D.; Damris, Muhammad; Tjoa, Aiyen; Rahayu Utami, Sri; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-04-01

    Demand for palm oil has increased strongly in recent decades. Global palm oil production quadrupled between 1990 and 2009, and although almost half of the global supply is already produced in Indonesia, a doubling of current production is planned for the next ten years. This agricultural expansion is achieved by conversion of rainforest. Land-use conversion affects soil carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes through changes in nutrient availability and soil properties which, in turn, influence plant productivity, microbial activity and gas diffusivity. Our study was aimed to assess changes in soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes with forest conversion to oil palm and rubber plantations. Our study area was Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. We selected two soil landscapes in this region: loam and clay Acrisol soils. At each landscape, we investigated four land-use systems: lowland secondary rainforest, secondary forest with regenerating rubber (referred here as jungle rubber), rubber (7-17 years old) and oil palm plantations (9-16 years old). Each land use in each soil landscape was represented by four sites as replicates, totaling to 32 sites. We measured soil-atmosphere CH4 and CO2 fluxes using vented static chamber method with monthly sampling from November 2012 to December 2013. There were no differences in soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes (all P > 0.05) between soil landscapes for each land-use type. For soil CO2 fluxes, in both clay and loam Acrisol soil landscapes oil palm were lower compared to the other land uses (P < 0.007). In the clay Acrisol, soil CO2 fluxes were 107.2 ± 7.2 mg C m-2 h-1 for oil palm, and 195.9 ± 13.5 mg C m-2 h-1for forest, 185.3 ± 9.4 mg C m-2 h-1for jungle rubber and 182.8 ± 16.2 mg C m2 h-1for rubber. In the loam Acrisol, soil CO2 fluxes were 115.7 ± 11.0 mg CO2-C m2 h-1 for oil palm, and 186.6 ± 13.7, 178.7 ± 11.2, 182.9 ± 14.5 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 for forest, jungle rubber and rubber, respectively. The seasonal patterns of soil CO2 fluxes

  17. Seismicity in Northern Germany

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bischoff, Monika; Gestermann, Nicolai; Plenefisch, Thomas; Bönnemann, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Northern Germany is a region of low tectonic activity, where only few and low-magnitude earthquakes occur. The driving tectonic processes are not well-understood up to now. In addition, seismic events during the last decade concentrated at the borders of the natural gas fields. The source depths of these events are shallow and in the depth range of the gas reservoirs. Based on these observations a causal relationship between seismicity near gas fields and the gas production is likely. The strongest of these earthquake had a magnitude of 4.5 and occurred near Rotenburg in 2004. Also smaller seismic events were considerably felt by the public and stimulated the discussion on the underlying processes. The latest seismic event occurred near Langwedel on 22nd November 2012 and had a magnitude of 2.8. Understanding the causes of the seismicity in Northern Germany is crucial for a thorough evaluation. Therefore the Seismological Service of Lower Saxony (NED) was established at the State Office for Mining, Energy and Geology (LBEG) of Lower Saxony in January 2013. Its main task is the monitoring and evaluation of the seismicity in Lower Saxony and adjacent areas. Scientific and technical questions are addressed in close cooperation with the Seismological Central Observatory (SZO) at the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR). The seismological situation of Northern Germany will be presented. Possible causes of seismicity are introduced. Rare seismic events at greater depths are distributed over the whole region and probably are purely tectonic whereas events in the vicinity of natural gas fields are probably related to gas production. Improving the detection threshold of seismic events in Northern Germany is necessary for providing a better statistical basis for further analyses answering these questions. As a first step the existing seismic network will be densified over the next few years. The first borehole station was installed near Rethem by BGR

  18. Northern plants and ozone.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Sirkku; Huttunen, Satu; Tømmervik, Hans; Hole, Lars R; Solberg, Sverre

    2009-12-01

    Forests in northern Fennoscandia are mainly composed of the O3-sensitive species--Scots pine and downy, mountain, and silver birches. Seminatural vegetation also contributes to biodiversity, carbon cycling, and ecosystem services as a part of forests, mires, meadows, and road verges. Fumigation experiments show that current O3 concentrations of 30-50 ppb reduce plant biomass production and reproduction. Visible foliar injury is attributable to peak O3 concentrations and relates to fast phenological development and high growth rate. Trees can acclimate to O3-induced water stress by producing more xeromorphic leaves or needles. The direct effects of O3 on grassland vegetation also translate to changes in the structure and size of the soil microbial community, and ecosystem N cycling. It is necessary to reduce the emission of O3 precursors and maintain high biodiversity to protect northern ecosystems. Regular, systematic, countrywide monitoring and validation as well as quantification of the effects of O3 on plants in the Nordic countries are also necessary. PMID:20175438

  19. A combined full wave equation tomography - full waveform inversion and its application to 12 km long streamer data from offshore western Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, H.; Singh, S. C.; Ghosal, D.

    2012-12-01

    near the seafloor. We applied this technique to a part of 12-km-long steamer data acquired by WesternGeco offshore western Sumatra to study the 2004 great Sumatra Andaman earthquake. Along a 60 km long profile at the Sumatra deformation front, the average water depth is 4.5 km, which hinders the refraction waves to be early arrivals and also poses computation burden for inversion if full wavefield inversion methods are adapted. So we downward continued this dataset to a horizon just 200 meters above the seafloor before inversion to enhance long-offset refraction arrivals using a Kirchhoff extrapolation approach. Preliminary inversion result shows qualitative velocity model with much better resolution (up to 150 meters) than previous ray-based tomography result. Generally the velocity increases with depth and fine sedimentary layers are observed in the final model. A small velocity dip across the profile is also observed, which coincides with pre-stack migration image. The result also shows small-scale lateral heterogeneity in the sediment layers. The detail shallow velocity helps to image the deep structure, such as the basement and oceanic Moho, more accurately and hence increases the reliability of interpretation.

  20. Estimating Aboveground Forest Carbon Stock of Major Tropical Forest Land Uses Using Airborne Lidar and Field Measurement Data in Central Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapa, R. B.; Watanabe, M.; Motohka, T.; Shiraishi, T.; shimada, M.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical forests are providing environmental goods and services including carbon sequestration, energy regulation, water fluxes, wildlife habitats, fuel, and building materials. Despite the policy attention, the tropical forest reserve in Southeast Asian region is releasing vast amount of carbon to the atmosphere due to deforestation. Establishing quality forest statistics and documenting aboveground forest carbon stocks (AFCS) are emerging in the region. Airborne and satellite based large area monitoring methods are developed to compliment conventional plot based field measurement methods as they are costly, time consuming, and difficult to implement for large regions. But these methods still require adequate ground measurements for calibrating accurate AFCS model. Furthermore, tropical region comprised of varieties of natural and plantation forests capping higher variability of forest structures and biomass volumes. To address this issue and the needs for ground data, we propose the systematic collection of ground data integrated with airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. Airborne LiDAR enables accurate measures of vertical forest structure, including canopy height and volume demanding less ground measurement plots. Using an appropriate forest type based LiDAR sampling framework, structural properties of forest can be quantified and treated similar to ground measurement plots, producing locally relevant information to use independently with satellite data sources including synthetic aperture radar (SAR). In this study, we examined LiDAR derived forest parameters with field measured data and developed general and specific AFCS models for tropical forests in central Sumatra. The general model is fitted for all types of natural and plantation forests while the specific model is fitted to the specific forest type. The study region consists of natural forests including peat swamp and dry moist forests, regrowth, and mangrove and plantation forests

  1. Poroelastic stress-triggering of the 2005 M8.7 Nias earthquake by the 2004 M9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, K.L.H.; Masterlark, Timothy; Mooney, W.D.

    2010-01-01

    The M9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (SAE) occurred three months prior to the M8.7 Nias earthquake (NE). We propose that the NE was mechanically triggered by the SAE, and that poroelastic effects were a major component of this triggering. This study uses 3D finite element models (FEMs) of the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone (SASZ) to predict the deformation, stress, and pore pressure fields of the SAE. The coseismic slip distribution for the SAE is calibrated to near-field GPS data using FEM-generated Green's Functions and linear inverse methods. The calibrated FEM is then used to predict the postseismic poroelastic contribution to stress-triggering along the rupture surface of the NE, which is adjacent to the southern margin of the SAE. The coseismic deformation of the SAE, combined with the rheologic configuration of the SASZ produces two transient fluid flow regimes having separate time constants. SAE coseismic pore pressures in the relatively shallow forearc and volcanic arc regions (within a few km depth) dissipate within one month after the SAE. However, pore pressures in the oceanic crust of the down-going slab persist several months after the SAE. Predictions suggest that the SAE initially induced MPa-scale negative pore pressure near the hypocenter of the NE. This pore pressure slowly recovered (increased) during the three-month interval separating the SAE and NE due to lateral migration of pore fluids, driven by coseismic pressure gradients, within the subducting oceanic crust. Because pore pressure is a fundamental component of Coulomb stress, the MPa-scale increase in pore pressure significantly decreased stability of the NE fault during the three-month interval after the SAE and prior to rupture of the NE. A complete analysis of stress-triggering due to the SAE must include a poroelastic component. Failure to include poroelastic mechanics will lead to an incomplete model that cannot account for the time interval between the SAE and NE. Our transient

  2. Northern Sinus Meridiani Stereo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-341, 25 April 2003

    This is a stereo (3-d anaglyph) composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) wide angle images of northern Sinus Meridiani near 2oN, 0oW. The light-toned materials at the south (bottom) end of the picture are considered to be thick (100-200 meters; 300-600 ft) exposures of sedimentary rock. Several ancient meteor impact craters are being exhumed from within these layered materials. To view in stereo, use '3-d' glasses with red over the left eye, and blue over the right. The picture covers an area approximately 113 km (70 mi) wide; north is up.

  3. Smoke Blankets Northern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Lightning strikes have sparked more than a thousand fires in northern California. This image was captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera on 27 June 2008. Cape Mendocino is at the center of the image and Mt. Shasta is near the upper right. Concentrated smoke is visible in several river valleys and the large smoke cloud extends over the Pacific Ocean for hundreds of kilometers.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  4. Glyphosate in northern ecosystems.

    PubMed

    Helander, Marjo; Saloniemi, Irma; Saikkonen, Kari

    2012-10-01

    Glyphosate is the main nonselective, systemic herbicide used against a wide range of weeds. Its worldwide use has expanded because of extensive use of certain agricultural practices such as no-till cropping, and widespread application of glyphosate-resistant genetically modified crops. Glyphosate has a reputation of being nontoxic to animals and rapidly inactivated in soils. However, recent evidence has cast doubts on its safety. Glyphosate may be retained and transported in soils, and there may be cascading effects on nontarget organisms. These processes may be especially detrimental in northern ecosystems because they are characterized by long biologically inactive winters and short growing seasons. In this opinion article, we discuss the potential ecological, environmental and agricultural risks of intensive glyphosate use in boreal regions.

  5. Stress imparted by the great 2004 Sumatra earthquake shut down transforms and activated rifts up to 400 km away in the Andaman Sea

    PubMed Central

    Sevilgen, Volkan; Stein, Ross S.; Pollitz, Fred F.

    2012-01-01

    The origin and prevalence of triggered seismicity and remote aftershocks are under debate. As a result, they have been excluded from probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and aftershock hazard notices. The 2004 M = 9.2 Sumatra earthquake altered seismicity in the Andaman backarc rift-transform system. Here we show that over a 300-km-long largely transform section of the backarc, M≥4.5 earthquakes stopped for five years, and over a 750-km-long backarc section, the rate of transform events dropped by two-thirds, while the rate of rift events increased eightfold. We compute the propagating dynamic stress wavefield and find the peak dynamic Coulomb stress is similar on the rifts and transforms. Long-period dynamic stress amplitudes, which are thought to promote dynamic failure, are higher on the transforms than on the rifts, opposite to the observations. In contrast to the dynamic stress, we calculate that the mainshock brought the transform segments approximately 0.2 bar (0.02 MPa) farther from static Coulomb failure and the rift segments approximately 0.2 bar closer to static failure, consistent with the seismic observations. This accord means that changes in seismicity rate are sufficiently predictable to be included in post-mainshock hazard evaluations. PMID:22949694

  6. Implications of postseismic gravity change following the great 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake from the regional harmonic analysis of GRACE intersatellite tracking data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Han, S.-C.; Sauber, J.; Luthcke, S.B.; Ji, C.; Pollitz., F. F.

    2008-01-01

    We report Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite observations of coseismic displacements and postseismic transients from the great Sumatra-Andaman Islands (thrust event; Mw ???9.2) earthquake in December 2004. Instead of using global spherical harmonic solutions of monthly gravity fields, we estimated the gravity changes directly using intersatellite range-rate data with regionally concentrated spherical Slepian basis functions every 15-day interval. We found significant step-like (coseismic) and exponential-like (postseismic) behavior in the time series of estimated coefficients (from May 2003 to April 2007) for the spherical Slepian function's. After deriving coseismic slip estimates from seismic and geodetic data that spanned different time intervals, we estimated and evaluated postseismic relaxation mechanisms with alternate asthenosphere viscosity models. The large spatial coverage and uniform accuracy of our GRACE solution enabled us to clearly delineate a postseismic transient signal in the first 2 years of postearthquake GRACE data. Our preferred interpretation of the long-wavelength components of the postseismic avity change is biviscous viscoelastic flow. We estimated a transient viscosity of 5 ??17 Pa s and a steady state viscosity of 5 ?? 1018 - 1019 Pa s. Additional years of the GRACE observations should provide improved steady state viscosity estimates. In contrast to our interpretation of coseismic gravity change, the prominent postearthquake positive gravity change around the Nicobar Islands is accounted for by seafloor uplift with less postseismic perturbation in intrinsic density in the region surrounding the earthquake. Copyright 2008 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Watershed-scale assessment of oil palm cultivation impact on water quality and nutrient fluxes: a case study in Sumatra (Indonesia).

    PubMed

    Comte, Irina; Colin, François; Grünberger, Olivier; Whalen, Joann K; Harto Widodo, Rudi; Caliman, Jean-Pierre

    2015-05-01

    High fertilizer input is necessary to sustain high yields in oil palm agroecosystems, but it may endanger neighboring aquatic ecosystems when excess nutrients are transported to waterways. In this study, the hydrochemical dynamics of groundwater and streams under baseflow conditions were evaluated with bi-monthly measurements for 1 year on 16 watersheds. Hydrochemical measurements were related to the spatial distribution of soil and fertilization practices across a landscape of 100 km(2), dominated by oil palm cultivation, in Central Sumatra, Indonesia. The low nutrient concentrations recorded in streams throughout the landscape indicated that the mature oil palm plantations in this study did not contribute to eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. This was ascribed to high nutrient uptake by oil palm, a rational fertilizer program, and dilution of nutrient concentrations due to heavy rainfall in the study area. Soil type controlled dissolved inorganic N and total P fluxes, with greater losses of N and P from loamy-sand uplands than loamy lowlands. Organic fertilization helped to reduce nutrient fluxes compared to mineral fertilizers. However, when K inputs exceeded the oil palm requirement threshold, high K export occurred during periods when groundwater had a short residence time. For higher nutrient use efficiency in the long term, the field-scale fertilizer management should be complemented with a landscape-scale strategy of fertilizer applications that accounts for soil variability.

  8. Estimating Carbon STOCK Changes of Mangrove Forests Using Satellite Imagery and Airborne LiDAR Data in the South Sumatra State, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Y.; Fukushima, A.; Imai, Y.; Tanahashi, Y.; Nakama, E.; Ohta, S.; Kawazoe, K.; Akune, N.

    2016-06-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) to estimate the biomass in the mangrove forests using satellite imagery and airborne LiDAR data, and 2) to estimate the amount of carbon stock changes using biomass estimated. The study area is located in the coastal area of the South Sumatra state, Indonesia. This area is approximately 66,500 ha with mostly flat land features. In this study, the following procedures were carried out: (1) Classification of types of tree species using Satellite imagery in the study area, (2) Development of correlation equations between spatial volume based on LiDAR data and biomass stock based on field survey for each types of tree species, and estimation of total biomass stock and carbon stock using the equation, and (3) Estimation of carbon stock change using Chronological Satellite Imageries. The result showed the biomass and the amount of carbon stock changes can be estimated with high accuracy, by combining the spatial volume based on airborne LiDAR data with the tree species classification based on satellite imagery. Quantitative biomass monitoring is in demand for projects related to REDD+ in developing countries, and this study showed that combining airborne LiDAR data with satellite imagery is one of the effective methods of monitoring for REDD+ projects.

  9. Stress imparted by the great 2004 Sumatra earthquake shut down transforms and activated rifts up to 400 km away in the Andaman Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sevilgen, Volkan; Stein, Ross S.; Pollitz, Fred F.

    2012-01-01

    The origin and prevalence of triggered seismicity and remote aftershocks are under debate. As a result, they have been excluded from probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and aftershock hazard notices. The 2004 M = 9.2 Sumatra earthquake altered seismicity in the Andaman backarc rift-transform system. Here we show that over a 300-km-long largely transform section of the backarc, M ≥ 4.5 earthquakes stopped for five years, and over a 750-km-long backarc section, the rate of transform events dropped by two-thirds, while the rate of rift events increased eightfold. We compute the propagating dynamic stress wavefield and find the peak dynamic Coulomb stress is similar on the rifts and transforms. Long-period dynamic stress amplitudes, which are thought to promote dynamic failure, are higher on the transforms than on the rifts, opposite to the observations. In contrast to the dynamic stress, we calculate that the mainshock brought the transform segments approximately 0.2 bar (0.02 MPa) farther from static Coulomb failure and the rift segments approximately 0.2 bar closer to static failure, consistent with the seismic observations. This accord means that changes in seismicity rate are sufficiently predictable to be included in post-mainshock hazard evaluations.

  10. Stress imparted by the great 2004 Sumatra earthquake shut down transforms and activated rifts up to 400 km away in the Andaman Sea.

    PubMed

    Sevilgen, Volkan; Stein, Ross S; Pollitz, Fred F

    2012-09-18

    The origin and prevalence of triggered seismicity and remote aftershocks are under debate. As a result, they have been excluded from probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and aftershock hazard notices. The 2004 M = 9.2 Sumatra earthquake altered seismicity in the Andaman backarc rift-transform system. Here we show that over a 300-km-long largely transform section of the backarc, M≥4.5 earthquakes stopped for five years, and over a 750-km-long backarc section, the rate of transform events dropped by two-thirds, while the rate of rift events increased eightfold. We compute the propagating dynamic stress wavefield and find the peak dynamic Coulomb stress is similar on the rifts and transforms. Long-period dynamic stress amplitudes, which are thought to promote dynamic failure, are higher on the transforms than on the rifts, opposite to the observations. In contrast to the dynamic stress, we calculate that the mainshock brought the transform segments approximately 0.2 bar (0.02 MPa) farther from static Coulomb failure and the rift segments approximately 0.2 bar closer to static failure, consistent with the seismic observations. This accord means that changes in seismicity rate are sufficiently predictable to be included in post-mainshock hazard evaluations.

  11. Watershed-scale assessment of oil palm cultivation impact on water quality and nutrient fluxes: a case study in Sumatra (Indonesia).

    PubMed

    Comte, Irina; Colin, François; Grünberger, Olivier; Whalen, Joann K; Harto Widodo, Rudi; Caliman, Jean-Pierre

    2015-05-01

    High fertilizer input is necessary to sustain high yields in oil palm agroecosystems, but it may endanger neighboring aquatic ecosystems when excess nutrients are transported to waterways. In this study, the hydrochemical dynamics of groundwater and streams under baseflow conditions were evaluated with bi-monthly measurements for 1 year on 16 watersheds. Hydrochemical measurements were related to the spatial distribution of soil and fertilization practices across a landscape of 100 km(2), dominated by oil palm cultivation, in Central Sumatra, Indonesia. The low nutrient concentrations recorded in streams throughout the landscape indicated that the mature oil palm plantations in this study did not contribute to eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems. This was ascribed to high nutrient uptake by oil palm, a rational fertilizer program, and dilution of nutrient concentrations due to heavy rainfall in the study area. Soil type controlled dissolved inorganic N and total P fluxes, with greater losses of N and P from loamy-sand uplands than loamy lowlands. Organic fertilization helped to reduce nutrient fluxes compared to mineral fertilizers. However, when K inputs exceeded the oil palm requirement threshold, high K export occurred during periods when groundwater had a short residence time. For higher nutrient use efficiency in the long term, the field-scale fertilizer management should be complemented with a landscape-scale strategy of fertilizer applications that accounts for soil variability. PMID:25843822

  12. Characterization and source apportionment of particulate matter < or = 2.5 micrometer in Sumatra, Indonesia, during a recent peat fire episode.

    PubMed

    See, Siao Wei; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar; Rianawati, Elisabeth; Karthikeyan, Sathrugnan; Streets, David G

    2007-05-15

    An intensive field study was conducted in Sumatra, Indonesia, during a peat fire episode to investigate the physical and chemical characteristics of particulate emissions in peat smoke and to provide necessary data for source-receptor analyses. Ambient air sampling was carried out at three different sites located at varying distances from the peatfires to determine changes in mass and number concentrations of PM2.5 and its chemical composition (carbonaceous and nitrogenous materials, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, water-soluble inorganic and organic ions, and total and water-soluble metals). The three sites represent a rural site directly affected by the local peat combustion, a semirural site, and an urban site situated downwind of the peat fires. The mass concentration of PM2.5 and the number concentration of airborne particles were as high as 1600 microg/m3 and 1.7 x 10(5) cm(-3), respectively, in the vicinity of peat fires. The major components of PM2.5 in peat smoke haze were carbonaceous particles, particularly organic carbon, NO3-, and SO4(2-), while the less abundant constituents included ions such as NH4+, NO2-, Na+, K+, organic acids, and metals such as Al, Fe, and Ti. Source apportionment by chemical mass balance receptor modeling indicates that peat smoke can travel long distances and significantly affect the air quality at locations downwind.

  13. Livelihood Change and Livelihood Sustainability in the Uplands of Lembang Subwatershed, West Sumatra, Indonesia, in a Changing Natural Resource Management Context

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdi; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.; Schmidt-Vogt, Dietrich

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes livelihood change and livelihood sustainability of households in the upland part of the Lembang subwatershed, West Sumatra, in response to changes in the natural resource management context during the last decade. Using the sustainable livelihood framework (SLF), we measured livelihood changes at two separate points in time, 1996 and 2006, and assessed their environmental, economic, social, and institutional sustainability. We found that people with a low income had less access to capital assets than people from middle- and high-income groups. Our analysis revealed, however, that access to capital assets increased over time, and that poor households experienced economic improvement, indicating an overall increase in economic sustainability. Environmental sustainability, however, is threatened by intensive agricultural practices such as high agrochemical input and intensive soil tillage on steep slopes, leading to pollution and soil erosion. Social sustainability is also a matter of concern: while social exclusion has been reduced, income inequity has increased. Institutional sustainability is likely to remain uncertain, as local institutions for natural resource management are still weak, despite the fact that decentralization has been implemented during the last 8 years. External facilitation is needed to improve the livelihood of upland people while, at the same time, enhancing the sustainability of watershed management. Strengthening local institutions, conserving natural resources, and promoting environmentally sound agricultural practices are the three most important policies to be promoted within the watershed.

  14. Telemedicine in northern Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    Roberge, F. A.; Pagé, G.; Sylvestre, J.; Chahlaoui, J.

    1982-01-01

    Television transmission of diagnostic and educational information can help to improve specialized medical care in remote and underserviced areas. This paper describes a pilot study in which the Canadian satellite Anik-B was used to link the James Bay area in northern Quebec with two large Montreal teaching hospitals. Broad-band real-time television was well suited for tele-education and teleconsultation activities. A much less costly method, using narrow-band slow-scan television, was also examined, but it requires improvements. The technology of telemedicine is in place, but its future use is impeded by the prohibitive costs of operating an efficient two-way broad-band television system for several remote health care sites. A solution to this problem may be an intermediate-band system combining some of the low-cost features of narrowband slow-scan television with the interactive high-resolution advantages of broad-band real-time television. PMID:7139483

  15. MISR Views Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of tropical northern Australia acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry season. Left: color composite of vertical (nadir) camera blue, green, and red band data. Right: multi-angle composite of red band data only from the cameras viewing 60 degrees aft, 60 degrees forward, and nadir. Color and contrast have been enhanced to accentuate subtle details. In the left image, color variations indicate how different parts of the scene reflect light differently at blue, green, and red wavelengths; in the right image color variations show how these same scene elements reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter makes the water look brighter at the aft camera's view angle. The prominent inland water body is Lake Argyle, the largest human-made lake in Australia, which supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the top is the southern edge of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf; the major inlet at the left is Cambridge Gulf, the location of the town of Wyndham (pop. 850), the port for this region. This area is sparsely populated, and is known for its remote, spectacular mountains and gorges. Visible along much of the coastline are intertidal mudflats of mangroves and low shrubs; to the south the terrain is covered by open woodland merging into open grassland in the lower half of the pictures.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  16. Tornadoes Strike Northern Wisconsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A series of tornadoes ripped through the Upper Midwest region of the United States in the evening of June 7, 2007. At least five different tornadoes touched down in Wisconsin, according to the Associated Press, one of which tore through the Bear Paw Resort in northern Wisconsin. Despite dropping as much as fifteen centimeters (six inches) of rain in some places and baseball-size hail in others, authorities were reporting no deaths attributable to the storm system, and only a smattering of injuries, but considerable property damage in some areas. When the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite observed the area on June 9, 2007, the track torn through the woods by one of the tornadoes stands out quite clearly. This photo-like image uses data collected by MODIS in the normal human vision range to give a familiar natural-looking appearance. The landscape is largely a checkerboard of farms, towns, roads, and cities. The pale land is predominantly farmland where crops have not fully grown in yet. Dark blue shows the winding path of rivers and lakes dotting the landscape. The large blue lake on the east (right) side of the image is Lake Michigan. Towns and cities, including the city of Green Bay, are gray. To the north side, farmland gives way to dark green as land use shifts from agriculture to the Menominee Indian Reservation and Nicolet National Forest. The diagonal slash through the dark green forested land shows the tornado track. Bare land was revealed where the tornado tore down trees or stripped vegetation off the branches. The high-resolution image provided above is at MODIS' full spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response System provides this image at additional resolutions.

  17. Reconstruction of the effects of the 2004 Sumatra tsunami on the peculiar morphology of the Seychelles Islands: an application to the island of Praslin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonini, R.; Tinti, S.; Pagnoni, G.; Gallazzi, S. C.; Armigliato, A.

    2009-12-01

    The Seychelles archipelago is located 1600 km east to the African coasts, in front of Kenya. The 26 December 2004 Sumatra tsunami hit these islands killing two people and causing huge damage to structures and facilities. The impact was more moderate than it could be, because the highest waves arrived during the lowest tide cycle. The difference between low and high tide is about 1.4 meters and this situation limited substantially the inundation inland. The maximun observed runups were no greater than 4 meters above sea level. All the Seychelles islands lie on a very shallow platform. This platform differentiates from the surrounding sea bottom with a rapid change of the bathymetry that leads the ocean depth from 2 km to 70-80 m over a very short horizontal distance. This peculiar morphology of the bathymetry has very interesting effects on the tsunami propagation. In facts the platform is capable of modifying significantly the tsunami signal with respect to the surrounding open sea. The main island of the archipelago is Mahé. Here the tsunami was recorded by the Pointe La Rue station that is located at the end of the international airport in the east side of the island. Praslin is the second largest island of the group of the Seychelles Archipelago and it was chosen as benchmark for testing numerical models by the research teams involved in the framework of the EU-funded SCHEMA (Scenarios for Hazard-induced Emergencies Management) project. The Tsunami Research Team of the Bologna University, Italy, is partner in the project and here it presents the results obtained for Praslin, computing the inundation maps for the 2004 case, basing on the source model proposed by PMEL/NOAA (M=9.3, average slip 18 m, L=700 km, W=100-150 km). Here we present the results concerning the propagation and inundation in the island of Praslin that have been computed by means of the UBO-TSUFD code developed and maintained by the Tsunami Research Team of the University of Bologna. The code

  18. Spectral-finite element approach to post-seismic relaxation in a spherical compressible Earth: application to gravity changes due to the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Hasegawa, T.; Tsuruoka, H.; Klemann, V.; Martinec, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) have revealed that a mega-thrust earthquake that occurs in an island-arc trench system causes post-seismic crustal deformation. Such crustal deformation data have been interpreted by combining three mechanisms: afterslip, poroelastic rebound and viscoelastic relaxation. It is seismologically important to determine the contribution of each mechanism because it provides frictional properties between the plate boundaries and viscosity estimates in the asthenosphere which are necessary to evaluate the stress behaviour during earthquake cycles. However, the observation sites of GNSS are mostly deployed over land and can detect only a small part of the large-scale deformation, which precludes a clear separation of the mechanisms. To extend the spatial coverage of the deformation area, recent studies started to use satellite gravity data that can detect long-wavelength deformations over the ocean. To date, compared with theoretical models for calculating the post-seismic crustal deformation, a few models have been proposed to interpret the corresponding gravity variations. Previous approaches have adopted approximations for the effects of compressibility, sphericity and self-gravitation when computing gravity changes. In this study, a new spectral-finite element approach is presented to consider the effects of material compressibility for Burgers viscoelastic earth model with a laterally heterogeneous viscosity distribution. After the basic principles are explained, it is applied to the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. For this event, post-seismic deformation mechanisms are still a controversial topic. Using the developed approach, it is shown that the spatial patterns of gravity change generated by the above three mechanisms clearly differ from one another. A comparison of the theoretical simulation results with the satellite gravity data obtained from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment reveals that both afterslip and

  19. The influence of agroforestry and other land-use types on the persistence of a Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) population: an individual-based model approach.

    PubMed

    Imron, Muhammad Ali; Herzog, Sven; Berger, Uta

    2011-08-01

    The importance of preserving both protected areas and their surrounding landscapes as one of the major conservation strategies for tigers has received attention over recent decades. However, the mechanism of how land-use surrounding protected areas affects the dynamics of tiger populations is poorly understood. We developed Panthera Population Persistence (PPP)--an individual-based model--to investigate the potential mechanism of the Sumatran tiger population dynamics in a protected area and under different land-use scenarios surrounding the reserve. We tested three main landscape compositions (single, combined and real land-uses of Tesso-Nilo National Park and its surrounding area) on the probability of and time to extinction of the Sumatran tiger over 20 years in Central Sumatra. The model successfully explains the mechanisms behind the population response of tigers under different habitat landscape compositions. Feeding and mating behaviours of tigers are key factors, which determined population persistence in a heterogeneous landscape. All single land-use scenarios resulted in tiger extinction but had a different probability of extinction within 20 years. If tropical forest was combined with other land-use types, the probability of extinction was smaller. The presence of agroforesty and logging concessions adjacent to protected areas encouraged the survival of tiger populations. However, with the real land-use scenario of Tesso-Nilo National Park, tigers could not survive for more than 10 years. Promoting the practice of agroforestry systems surrounding the park is probably the most reasonable way to steer land-use surrounding the Tesso-Nilo National Park to support tiger conservation.

  20. The Influence of Agroforestry and Other Land-Use Types on the Persistence of a Sumatran Tiger ( Panthera tigris sumatrae) Population: An Individual-Based Model Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imron, Muhammad Ali; Herzog, Sven; Berger, Uta

    2011-08-01

    The importance of preserving both protected areas and their surrounding landscapes as one of the major conservation strategies for tigers has received attention over recent decades. However, the mechanism of how land-use surrounding protected areas affects the dynamics of tiger populations is poorly understood. We developed Panthera Population Persistence (PPP)—an individual-based model—to investigate the potential mechanism of the Sumatran tiger population dynamics in a protected area and under different land-use scenarios surrounding the reserve. We tested three main landscape compositions (single, combined and real land-uses of Tesso-Nilo National Park and its surrounding area) on the probability of and time to extinction of the Sumatran tiger over 20 years in Central Sumatra. The model successfully explains the mechanisms behind the population response of tigers under different habitat landscape compositions. Feeding and mating behaviours of tigers are key factors, which determined population persistence in a heterogeneous landscape. All single land-use scenarios resulted in tiger extinction but had a different probability of extinction within 20 years. If tropical forest was combined with other land-use types, the probability of extinction was smaller. The presence of agroforesty and logging concessions adjacent to protected areas encouraged the survival of tiger populations. However, with the real land-use scenario of Tesso-Nilo National Park, tigers could not survive for more than 10 years. Promoting the practice of agroforestry systems surrounding the park is probably the most reasonable way to steer land-use surrounding the Tesso-Nilo National Park to support tiger conservation.

  1. Geochemistry, strontium isotope data, and potassium-argon ages of the andesite-rhyolite association in the Padang area, West Sumatra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leo, G.W.; Hedge, C.E.; Marvin, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    Quaternary volcanoes in the Padang area on the west coast of Sumatra have produced two-pyroxene, calc-alkaline andesite and volumetrically subordinate rhyolitic and andesitic ash-flow tuffs. A sequence of andesite (pre-caldera), rhyolitic tuff and andesitic tuff, in decreasing order of age, is related to Maninjau caldera. Andesite compositions range from 55.0 to 61.2% SiO2 and from 1.13 to 2.05% K2O. Six K-Ar whole-rock age determinations on andesites show a range of 0.27 ?? 0.12 to 0.83 ?? 0.42 m.y.; a single determination on the rhyolitic ashflow tuff gave 0.28 ?? 0.12 m.y. Eight 57Sr/26Sr ratios on andesites and rhyolite tuff west of the Semangko fault zone are in the range 0.7056 - 0.7066. These ratios are higher than those elsewhere in the Sunda arc but are comparable to the Taupo volcanic zone of New Zealand and calc-alkaline volcanics of continental margins. An 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7048 on G. Sirabungan east of the Semangko fault is similar to an earlier determination on nearby G. Marapi (0.7047), and agrees with 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the rest of the Sunda arc. The reason for this distribution of 87Sr/86Sr ratios is unknown. The high 87Sr/86Sr ratios are tentatively regarded to reflect a crustal source for the andesites, while moderately fractionated REE patterns with pronounced negative Eu anomalies suggest a residue enriched in plagioclase with hornblende and/or pyroxenes. Generation of associated andesite and rhyolite could have been caused by hydrous fractional melting of andesite or volcanogenic sediments under adiabatic decompression. ?? 1980.

  2. Variations in Organic Matter Burial and Composition in Sediments from the Indian Ocean Continental Margin Off SW Indonesia (Sumatra - Java - Flores) Since the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennerjahn, T. C.; Gesierich, K.; Schefuß, E.; Mohtadi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Global climate change is a mosaic of regional changes to a large extent determined by region-specific feedbacks between climate and ecosystems. At present the ocean is forming a major sink in the global carbon cycle. Organic matter (OM) storage in sediments displays large regional variations and varied over time during the Quaternary. Upwelling regions are sites of high primary productivity and major depocenters of organic carbon (OC), the least understood of which is the Indian Ocean upwelling off Indonesia. In order to reconstruct the burial and composition of OM during the Late Quaternary, we analyzed five sediment cores from the Indian Ocean continental margin off the Indonesian islands Sumatra to Flores spanning the last 20,000 years (20 kyr). Sediments were analyzed for bulk composition, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes of OM, amino acids and hexosamines and terrestrial plant wax n-alkanes and their stable carbon isotope composition. Sedimentation rates hardly varied over time in the western part of the transect. They were slightly lower in the East during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and deglaciation, but increased strongly during the Holocene. The amount and composition of OM was similar along the transect with maximum values during the deglaciation and the late Holocene. High biogenic opal covarying with OM content indicates upwelling-induced primary productivity dominated by diatoms to be a major control of OM burial in sediments in the East during the past 20 kyr. The content of labile OM was low throughout the transect during the LGM and increased during the late Holocene. The increase was stronger and the OM less degraded in the East than in the West indicating that continental margin sediments off Java and Flores were the major depocenter of OC burial along the Indian Ocean margin off SW Indonesia. Temporal variations probably resulted from changes in upwelling intensity and terrestrial inputs driven by variations in monsoon strength.

  3. The influence of agroforestry and other land-use types on the persistence of a Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) population: an individual-based model approach.

    PubMed

    Imron, Muhammad Ali; Herzog, Sven; Berger, Uta

    2011-08-01

    The importance of preserving both protected areas and their surrounding landscapes as one of the major conservation strategies for tigers has received attention over recent decades. However, the mechanism of how land-use surrounding protected areas affects the dynamics of tiger populations is poorly understood. We developed Panthera Population Persistence (PPP)--an individual-based model--to investigate the potential mechanism of the Sumatran tiger population dynamics in a protected area and under different land-use scenarios surrounding the reserve. We tested three main landscape compositions (single, combined and real land-uses of Tesso-Nilo National Park and its surrounding area) on the probability of and time to extinction of the Sumatran tiger over 20 years in Central Sumatra. The model successfully explains the mechanisms behind the population response of tigers under different habitat landscape compositions. Feeding and mating behaviours of tigers are key factors, which determined population persistence in a heterogeneous landscape. All single land-use scenarios resulted in tiger extinction but had a different probability of extinction within 20 years. If tropical forest was combined with other land-use types, the probability of extinction was smaller. The presence of agroforesty and logging concessions adjacent to protected areas encouraged the survival of tiger populations. However, with the real land-use scenario of Tesso-Nilo National Park, tigers could not survive for more than 10 years. Promoting the practice of agroforestry systems surrounding the park is probably the most reasonable way to steer land-use surrounding the Tesso-Nilo National Park to support tiger conservation. PMID:20967444

  4. Northern Arizona Volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Northern Arizona is best known for the Grand Canyon. Less widely known are the hundreds of geologically young volcanoes, at least one of which buried the homes of local residents. San Francisco Mtn., a truncated stratovolcano at 3887 meters, was once a much taller structure (about 4900 meters) before it exploded some 400,000 years ago a la Mt. St. Helens. The young cinder cone field to its east includes Sunset Crater, that erupted in 1064 and buried Native American homes. This ASTER perspective was created by draping ASTER image data over topographic data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Data.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 20.4 by 24.6 kilometers (12.6 by 15.2 miles) Location: 35.3 degrees North latitude, 111

  5. Carbon Cycling in Northern Peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2010-11-01

    Northern peatlands span only 3 million square kilometers, about 3% of the terrestrial area of the globe, yet they represent a significant terrestrial sink for carbon dioxide. They are also important emitters of methane, an even more potent greenhouse gas. Despite their substantial role in the global carbon cycle, peatlands are not typically incorporated into global climate models. The AGU Monograph Carbon Cycling in Northern Peatlands, edited by Andrew J. Baird, Lisa R. Belyea, Xavier Comas, A. S. Reeve, and Lee D. Slater, looks at the disproportionate role peatlands play in the global carbon budget. In this interview, Eos talks with Andy Baird, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

  6. Titan's stratospheric condensibles at high northern latitudes during northern winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C.; Samuelson, R.; Achterberg, R.

    2012-04-01

    The Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument on board Voyager 1 caught the first glimpse of an unidentified particulate feature in Titan’s stratosphere that spectrally peaks at 221 cm-1. Until recently, this feature that we have termed ‘the haystack,’ has been seen persistently at high northern latitudes with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument onboard Cassini. The strength of the haystack emission feature diminishes rapidly with season, becoming drastically reduced at high northern latitudes, as Titan transitions from northern winter into spring. In contrast to IRIS whose shortest wavenumber was 200 cm-1, CIRS extends down to 10 cm-1, thus revealing an entirely unexplored spectral region in which nitrile ices have numerous broad lattice vibration features. Unlike the haystack, which is only found at high northern latitudes during northern winter/early northern spring, this geometrically thin nitrile cloud pervades Titan’s lower stratosphere, spectrally peaking at 160 cm-1, and is almost global in extent spanning latitudes 85°N to 60°S. The inference of nitrile ices are consistent with the highly restricted altitude ranges over which these features are observed, and appear to be dominated by a mixture of HCN and HC3N. The narrow range in altitude over which the nitrile ices extend is unlike the haystack, whose vertical distribution is significantly broader, spanning roughly 70 km in altitude in Titan’s lower stratosphere. The nitrile clouds that CIRS observes are located in a dynamically stable region of Titan’s atmosphere, whereas CH4 clouds, which ordinarily form in the troposphere, form in a more dynamically unstable region, where convective cloud systems tend to occur. In the unusual situation where Titan’s tropopause cools significantly from the HASI 70.5K temperature minimum, CH4 should condense in Titan’s lower stratosphere, just like the aforementioned nitrile clouds, although in significantly larger

  7. Titan's Stratospheric Condensibles at High Northern Latitudes During Northern Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, R.; Achterberg, R.

    2012-01-01

    The Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument on board Voyager 1 caught the first glimpse of an unidentified particulate feature in Titan's stratosphere that spectrally peaks at 221 per centimeter. Until recently, this feature that we have termed 'the haystack,' has been seen persistently at high northern latitudes with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument onboard Cassini, The strength of the haystack emission feature diminishes rapidly with season, becoming drastically reduced at high northern latitudes, as Titan transitions from northern winter into spring, In contrast to IRIS whose shortest wavenumber was 200 per centimeter, CIRS extends down to 10 per centimeter, thus revealing an entirely unexplored spectral region in which nitrile ices have numerous broad lattice vibration features, Unlike the haystack, which is only found at high northern latitudes during northern winter/early northern spring, this geometrically thin nitrile cloud pervades Titan's lower stratosphere, spectrally peaking at 160 per centimeter, and is almost global in extent spanning latitudes 85 N to 600 S, The inference of nitrile ices are consistent with the highly restricted altitude ranges over which these features are observed, and appear to be dominated by a mixture of HCN and HC3N, The narrow range in altitude over which the nitrile ices extend is unlike the haystack, whose vertical distribution is significantly broader, spanning roughly 70 kilometers in altitude in Titan's lower stratosphere, The nitrile clouds that CIRS observes are located in a dynamically stable region of Titan's atmosphere, whereas CH4 clouds, which ordinarily form in the troposphere, form in a more dynamically unstable region, where convective cloud systems tend to occur. In the unusual situation where Titan's tropopause cools significantly from the HASI 70.5K temperature minimum, CH4 should condense in Titan's lower stratosphere, just like the aforementioned nitrile clouds, although

  8. NUMA: A Northern Paiute History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, Reno.

    One in a series of four histories of native Nevadans, this volume presents the story of the Northern Paiute people, or Numa, who lived, hunted, and travelled in the Great Basin area which occupies one-third of present day Nevada and parts of Oregon, Idaho, and California. Based on interviews with tribal elders and research conducted at numerous…

  9. Fishing farmers or farming fishers? Fishing typology of inland small-scale fishing households and fisheries management in singkarak lake, west sumatra, indonesia.

    PubMed

    Yuerlita; Perret, Sylvain Roger; Shivakoti, Ganesh P

    2013-07-01

    Technical and socio-economic characteristics are known to determine different types of fishers and their livelihood strategies. Faced with declining fish and water resources, small-scale fisheries engage into transformations in livelihood and fishing practices. The paper is an attempt to understand these changes and their socio-economic patterns, in the case of Singkarak Lake in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Based upon the hypothesis that riparian communities have diverse, complex yet structured and dynamic livelihood systems, the paper's main objective is to study, document and model the actual diversity in livelihood, practices and performance of inland small-scale fisheries along the Singkarak Lake, to picture how households are adapted to the situation, and propose an updated, workable model (typology) of those for policy. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to develop a typology of fishing households. The results show that small-scale fishers can be classified into different types characterized by distinct livelihood strategies. Three household types are identified, namely "farming fishers" households (type I, 30 %), "fishing farmers" households (type II, 30 %), and "mainly fishers" households (type III, 40 %). There are significant differences among these groups in the number of boats owned, annual fishing income, agriculture income and farming experience. Type I consists of farming fishers, well equipped, with high fishing costs and income, yet with the lowest return on fishing assets. They are also landowners with farming income, showing the lowest return on land capital. Type II includes poor fishing farmers, landowners with higher farming income; they show the highest return on land asset. They have less fishing equipment, costs and income. Type III (mainly fishers) consists of poorer, younger fishers, with highest return on fishing assets and on fishing costs. They have little land, low farming income, and diversified livelihood

  10. Fishing Farmers or Farming Fishers? Fishing Typology of Inland Small-Scale Fishing Households and Fisheries Management in Singkarak Lake, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuerlita; Perret, Sylvain Roger; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.

    2013-07-01

    Technical and socio-economic characteristics are known to determine different types of fishers and their livelihood strategies. Faced with declining fish and water resources, small-scale fisheries engage into transformations in livelihood and fishing practices. The paper is an attempt to understand these changes and their socio-economic patterns, in the case of Singkarak Lake in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Based upon the hypothesis that riparian communities have diverse, complex yet structured and dynamic livelihood systems, the paper's main objective is to study, document and model the actual diversity in livelihood, practices and performance of inland small-scale fisheries along the Singkarak Lake, to picture how households are adapted to the situation, and propose an updated, workable model (typology) of those for policy. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to develop a typology of fishing households. The results show that small-scale fishers can be classified into different types characterized by distinct livelihood strategies. Three household types are identified, namely "farming fishers" households (type I, 30 %), "fishing farmers" households (type II, 30 %), and "mainly fishers" households (type III, 40 %). There are significant differences among these groups in the number of boats owned, annual fishing income, agriculture income and farming experience. Type I consists of farming fishers, well equipped, with high fishing costs and income, yet with the lowest return on fishing assets. They are also landowners with farming income, showing the lowest return on land capital. Type II includes poor fishing farmers, landowners with higher farming income; they show the highest return on land asset. They have less fishing equipment, costs and income. Type III (mainly fishers) consists of poorer, younger fishers, with highest return on fishing assets and on fishing costs. They have little land, low farming income, and diversified livelihood

  11. 27 CFR 9.70 - Northern Sonoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.70 Northern Sonoma. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Northern Sonoma... the Northern Sonoma viticultural area are titled: (1) Sonoma County, California, scale 1:100 000,...

  12. 27 CFR 9.70 - Northern Sonoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL AMERICAN VITICULTURAL AREAS Approved American Viticultural Areas § 9.70 Northern Sonoma. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Northern Sonoma... the Northern Sonoma viticultural area are titled: (1) Sonoma County, California, scale 1:100 000,...

  13. Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The oval shaped basin of the sedimentary rocks of the Hammersley Range, northern Western Australia (23.0S, 119.0E) dominates the center of this near nadir view. The Fortescue River is the remarkably straight, fault controlled feature bordering the Hammersley on the north. Sand dunes are the main surface features in the northeast and southwest. Many dry lakebeds can be seen to the east as light grey colored patches along the watercourses.

  14. The northern Egyptian continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Mohamed, Gad; Omar, Khaled; Farid, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Africa displays a variety of continental margin structures, tectonics and sedimentary records. The northern Egyptian continental margin represents the NE portion of the North African passive continental margin. Economically, this region is of great importance as a very rich and productive hydrocarbon zone in Egypt. Moreover, it is characterized by remarkable tectonic setting accompanied by active tectonic processes from the old Tethys to recent Mediterranean. In this article, seismicity of the northern Egyptian continental margin has been re-evaluated for more than 100-years and the source parameters of three recent earthquakes (October 2012, January 2013 and July 2013) have been estimated. Moment tensor inversions of 19th October 2012 and 17th January 2013 earthquakes reveal normal faulting mechanism with strike-slip component having seismic moment of 3.5E16 N m and 4.3E15 N m respectively. The operation of the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) since the end of 1997 has significantly enhanced the old picture of earthquake activity across northern Egyptian continental margin whereas; the record-ability (annual rate) has changed from 2-events/year to 54-event/year before and after ENSN respectively. The spatial distribution of earthquakes foci indicated that the activity tends to cluster at three zones: Mediterranean Ridge (MR), Nile Cone (NC) and Eratosthenes Seamount (ERS). However, two seismic gaps are reported along Levant Basin (LEV) and Herodotus Basin (HER).

  15. Twin predecessor of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami: Implications for rebuilt coastal communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieh, K.; Daly, P.; McKinnon, E.; Chiang, H.; Pilarczyk, J.; Daryono, M. R.; Horton, B.; Shen, C.; Rubin, C. M.; Ismail, N.; Kelsey, H. M.

    2013-12-01

    We present stratigraphic, historical and archeological evidence for two closely timed predecessors of the giant 2004 tsunami on the northern coast of Aceh, northern Sumatra. Beachcliff exposures reveal two beds of tsunamigenic coral rubble within a small alluvial fan. Stratigraphical consistent radiocarbon and Uranium-Thorium disequilibrium dates indicate the the two beds were emplaced in the mid- to late 14th century, correlative with paleoseismic evidence of sudden uplifts of coral reefs on nearby Simeulue island in AD 1394 and, again in AD 1450. A nearby seacliff exposure contains evidence of nearly continuous settlement from ~AD 1240 to 1367, followed by tsunami destruction. Evidence of continuous settlement included South Asian ceramic and stoneware fragments, as well as a single Chinese coin dating to AD 1111-1118. Our data may solve the mysterious 15th century discontinuity in cultures along the northern Sumatran coast of the maritime silk route. This history of a doublet tsunami has implications for communities around the Indian Ocean that were rebuilt after the devastation of 2004, since reconstruction occurred with the tacit belief that such an event would not happen in the foreseeable future. History, geology and archeology hint that such a view may prove tragically incorrect.

  16. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp., Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon spp. and Giardia intestinalis in Wild, Semi-Wild and Captive Orangutans (Pongo abelii and Pongo pygmaeus) on Sumatra and Borneo, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Mynářová, Anna; Foitová, Ivona; Kváč, Martin; Květoňová, Dana; Rost, Michael; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen; Nurcahyo, Wisnu; Nguyen, Cathleen; Supriyadi, Supriyadi; Sak, Bohumil

    2016-01-01

    Background Orangutans are critically endangered primarily due to loss and fragmentation of their natural habitat. This could bring them into closer contact with humans and increase the risk of zoonotic pathogen transmission. Aims To describe the prevalence and diversity of Cryptosporidium spp., microsporidia and Giardia intestinalis in orangutans at seven sites on Sumatra and Kalimantan, and to evaluate the impact of orangutans’ habituation and location on the occurrence of these zoonotic protists. Result The overall prevalence of parasites in 298 examined animals was 11.1%. The most prevalent microsporidia was Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype II, found in 21 animals (7.0%). Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype D (n = 5) and novel genotype Pongo 2 were detected only in six individuals (2.0%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of these parasites in orangutans. Eight animals were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. (2.7%), including C. parvum (n = 2) and C. muris (n = 6). Giardia intestinalis assemblage B, subtype MB6, was identified in a single individual. While no significant differences between the different human contact level groups (p = 0.479–0.670) or between the different islands (p = 0.992) were reported in case of E. bieneusi or E. cuniculi, Cryptosporidium spp. was significantly less frequently detected in wild individuals (p < 2×10−16) and was significantly more prevalent in orangutans on Kalimantan than on Sumatra (p < 2×10−16). Conclusion Our results revealed that wild orangutans are significantly less frequently infected by Cryptosporidium spp. than captive and semi-wild animals. In addition, this parasite was more frequently detected at localities on Kalimantan. In contrast, we did not detect any significant difference in the prevalence of microsporidia between the studied groups of animals. The sources and transmission modes of infections were not determined, as this would require repeated sampling of individuals

  17. Geothermal systems of northern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hose, Richard Kenneth; Taylor, Bruce Edward

    1974-01-01

    Hot springs are numerous and nearly uniformly distributed in northern Nevada. Most occur on the flanks of basins, along Basin and Range (late Miocene to Holocene) faults, while some occur in the inner parts of the basins. Surface temperatures of the springs range from slightly above ambient to, boiling; some springs are superheated. Maximum subsurface water temperatures calculated on the basis of quartz solubility range as high as 252?C, although most are below 190?C. Flows range from a trickle to several hundred liters per minute. The Nevada geothermal systems differ markedly from the power-producing system at The Geysers, Calif., and from those areas with a high potential, for power production (e.g., Yellowstone Park, Wyo.; Jemez Mountains, N. Mex.). These other systems are associated with Quaternary felsic volcanic rocks and probably derive their heat from cooling magma rather high in the crust. In northern Nevada, however, felsic volcanic rocks are virtually all older than 10 million years, and. analogous magmatic heat sources are, therefore, probably lacking. Nevada is part of an area of much higher average heat flow than the rest of the United States. In north-central Nevada, geothermal gradients are as great as 64?C per kilometer in bedrock and even higher in basin fill. The high gradients probably result from a combination of thin crust and high temperature upper mantle. We suggest that the geothermal systems of northern Nevada result from circulation of meteoric waters along Basin and Range faults and that their temperature chiefly depends upon (1) depth of circulation and (2) the geothermal gradient near the faults.

  18. Geothermal development plan: northern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Much of the northern counties (Apache, Coconino, Gila, Mohave, Navajo and Yavapai) is located in the Colorado Plateau province, a region of low geothermal potential. Two areas that do show some potential are the Flagstaff - San Francisco Peaks area and the Springerville area. Flagstaff is rapidly becoming the manufacturing center of Arizona and will have many opportunities to use geothermal energy to satisfy part of its increasing need for energy. Using a computer simulation model, projections of geothermal energy on line as a function of time are made for both private and city-owned utility development of a resource.

  19. General Practice in Northern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Black, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of general practice in northern Norway where conditions are similar to parts of rural Canada. The Norwegian general practitioner has developed expertise in the preventive and psychosocial aspects of practice and the team concept is highly developed. Since the general practitioner is separated from the hospital, his facilities for procedures and diagnostic workups are primitive. Involvement of general practitioners in medical education is not yet well developed although all new graduates spend a compulsory period in rural practice. PMID:20469187

  20. Structural features offshore northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yicheng Yang, Eason; Liu, Char-Shine; Chang, Jih-Hsin; Chiu, Chien-Hsuan

    2016-04-01

    The area offshore northern Taiwan is the place where East China Sea Shelf extends into the Southern Okinawa Trough, and where pre-Pleistocene arc-continental collision had occurred. Comparison between fault distribution in the area with previously published results suggests that the fault distribution and regional structural framework are still controversial. Using marine multichannel seismic reflection data collected in 3 marine geophysical survey cruises, we remapped the fault distribution in the northern offshore area of Taiwan. By analyzing all the seismic profiles using the KINGDOM suite (a seismic interpretation software), a new fault distribution map is presented, and a subsurface unconformity PRSB (Pliocene reflection sequence boundary) is identified. Six major NE-SW trending high-angle normal faults cut the PRSB can be traced to the fault systems on land northernmost Taiwan. These normal faults are located between the Southern Okinawa Trough and the East China Sea continental shelf basin, and have been suggested to be reactivated from pre-existing reverse faults. The offsets of fault ramps in PRSB increase toward southeast. The isopach map of the study area compiled shows that sediment strata overlying PRSB thin toward northwest.

  1. Climate modelling: Northern Hemisphere circulation.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Nathan P

    2005-09-22

    Air pressure at sea level during winter has decreased over the Arctic and increased in the Northern Hemisphere subtropics in recent decades, a change that has been associated with 50% of the Eurasian winter warming observed over the past 30 years, with 60% of the rainfall increase in Scotland and with 60% of the rainfall decrease in Spain. This trend is inconsistent with the simulated response to greenhouse-gas and sulphate-aerosol changes, but it has been proposed that other climate influences--such as ozone depletion--could account for the discrepancy. Here I compare observed Northern Hemisphere sea-level pressure trends with those simulated in response to all the major human and natural climate influences in nine state-of-the-art coupled climate models over the past 50 years. I find that these models all underestimate the circulation trend. This inconsistency suggests that we cannot yet simulate changes in this important property of the climate system or accurately predict regional climate changes.

  2. Bullying in Schools: A Northern Ireland Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Katrina; McAleavy, Gerry; Adamson, Gary

    2004-01-01

    Northern Ireland, unlike the Republic of Ireland or England, has no province-wide information on bullying in schools. This study provided baseline information on this complex issue across 120 schools in all five Education and Library Boards in Northern Ireland, comprising 60 primary and 60 post-primary schools, 1079 primary pupils (Year 6) and…

  3. Woodcock nesting habitat in northern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gregg, L.E.; Hale, J.B.

    1977-01-01

    Of 32 woodcock nests studied in northern Wisconsin, 29 were in forest stands dominated by aspen, and 3 were in northern hardwoods. Well-drained, upland nest sites near the brushy edges of poorly stocked poletimber stands were apparently preferred. More than 30 woody plant species were found at the 32 nest sites. Hazel was the most important shrub species noted.

  4. The Alcoholism Situation in a Northern City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martynov, M. Iu.; Martynova, D. Iu.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in Russia has been increasing in recent years, especially in northern regions, as has the incidence of alcohol-related disease rates. A survey was conducted in Surgut (the Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug) that determined the factors lending to the prevalence of alcohol abuse among the population of the northern city and assessed the…

  5. Political Strategies in Northern School Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, David J.; And Others

    This is a study of school desegregation as it was fought in 91 Northern and Western Cities between 1963 and 1969. In the summer of 1963, the de facto school segregation issue exploded in dozens of Northern cities; in the next 6 years school integration was front page news in most cities. What this book attempts to do in effect is to record a…

  6. Environmental overview of geothermal development: northern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Slemmons, D.B.; Stroh, J.M.; Whitney, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    Regional environmental problems and issues associated with geothermal development in northern Nevada are studied to facilitate environmental assessment of potential geothermal resources. The various issues discussed are: environmental geology, seismicity of northern Nevada, hydrology and water quality, air quality, Nevada ecosystems, noise effects, socio-economic impacts, and cultural resources and archeological values. (MHR)

  7. Meeting Northern Arizona's Supported Employment Training Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, William E., Jr.; And Others

    In 1989 Northern Arizona University established a Supported Employment Training Center (SETC) to increase the number of trained job coaches in northern Arizona and provide knowledge and skills in supported employment to personnel from cooperating schools and agencies. First-year SETC activities focused on assessment of the training needs of…

  8. Northern Parkway PTA Makes Health a Habit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferdinand, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    Health and fitness have been on the agenda of Northern Parkway Elementary School for quite some time, thanks to the concerted efforts of its involved and active PTA officers and members. For the past five years, the Northern Parkway PTA has held a popular and well-attended Family Fun and Fitness Night and has complemented the activities and…

  9. Farmer's lung in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, C F; Hall, G; Chivers, A; Martin, B; Nicholls, D P; Evans, J

    1990-01-01

    A total of 381 farmers in Northern Ireland were studied using a questionnaire, pulmonary function tests, and antibody levels to Micropolyspora faena to assess the incidence of farmer's lung. Twenty (4.9%) had a history of a previous diagnosis of farmer's lung by their doctor. Forty four (10.4%) had delayed onset symptoms compatible with farmer's lung, 32 (7.9%) had precipitant antibody, and 61 (15%) had raised antibody by the enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA) method. Restricted lungs were present physiologically in 40 (9.8%). A confirmation of delayed symptoms and precipitant antibody was present in seven (1.7%) whereas delayed symptoms and ELISA antibody was present in nine (2.2%). Using either antibody method only two (0.5%) had a combination of antibody to M faenae, delayed onset symptoms, and restricted pulmonary physiology. PMID:2357452

  10. Farmer's lung in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Stanford, C F; Hall, G; Chivers, A; Martin, B; Nicholls, D P; Evans, J

    1990-05-01

    A total of 381 farmers in Northern Ireland were studied using a questionnaire, pulmonary function tests, and antibody levels to Micropolyspora faena to assess the incidence of farmer's lung. Twenty (4.9%) had a history of a previous diagnosis of farmer's lung by their doctor. Forty four (10.4%) had delayed onset symptoms compatible with farmer's lung, 32 (7.9%) had precipitant antibody, and 61 (15%) had raised antibody by the enzyme linked immunosorbent (ELISA) method. Restricted lungs were present physiologically in 40 (9.8%). A confirmation of delayed symptoms and precipitant antibody was present in seven (1.7%) whereas delayed symptoms and ELISA antibody was present in nine (2.2%). Using either antibody method only two (0.5%) had a combination of antibody to M faenae, delayed onset symptoms, and restricted pulmonary physiology. PMID:2357452

  11. Ultraviolet resources over Northern Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Chubarova, Natalia; Zhdanova, Yekaterina

    2013-10-01

    We propose a new climatology of UV resources over Northern Eurasia, which includes the assessments of both detrimental (erythema) and positive (vitamin D synthesis) effects of ultraviolet radiation on human health. The UV resources are defined by using several classes and subclasses - UV deficiency, UV optimum, and UV excess - for 6 different skin types. To better quantifying the vitamin D irradiance threshold we accounted for an open body fraction S as a function of effective air temperature. The spatial and temporal distribution of UV resources was estimated by radiative transfer (RT) modeling (8 stream DISORT RT code) with 1×1° grid and monthly resolution. For this purpose special datasets of main input geophysical parameters (total ozone content, aerosol characteristics, surface UV albedo, UV cloud modification factor) have been created over the territory of Northern Eurasia. The new approaches were used to retrieve aerosol parameters and cloud modification factor in the UV spectral region. As a result, the UV resources were obtained for clear-sky and mean cloudy conditions for different skin types. We show that the distribution of UV deficiency, UV optimum and UV excess is regulated by various geophysical parameters (mainly, total ozone, cloudiness and open body fraction) and can significantly deviate from latitudinal dependence. We also show that the UV optimum conditions can be simultaneously observed for people with different skin types (for example, for 4-5 skin types at the same time in spring over Western Europe). These UV optimum conditions for different skin types occupy a much larger territory over Europe than that over Asia.

  12. Young children's awareness of violence in Northern Ireland: the influence of Northern Irish television in Scotland and Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Cairns, E; Hunter, D; Herring, L

    1980-02-01

    Children aged 5 to 6 years living in either a suburb of London or in a small town in Northern Ireland which has been virtually free from violence, were asked to make up stories in response to a series of pictures depicting such things as derelict houses or a train crash. More Northern Irish children mentioned bombs and explosions than did the London children. To investigate the possibility that this knowledge of explosions might be the result of at least incidental exposure to coverage of such events on Northern Irish television news a further study was initiated. Children from another relatively quiet part of Northern Ireland were compared with children from two separate areas of Scotland where television reception is only possible from Northern Ireland and from a third area in Scotland where Northern Ireland television news cannot be received. Children from those areas where Northern Irish television news can be received again outnumbered those from the control area in terms of mentions of the words bomb or explosion. PMID:7357227

  13. Middle Cretaceous dinosaur assemblages from northern Brazil and northern Africa and their implications for northern Gondwanan composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candeiro, Carlos Roberto A.

    2015-08-01

    Dinosaurs are one of the most dominant groups in Cretaceous reptilian faunas. A summary of their record in northern Brazil and northern Africa during the middle of the Cretaceous Period (Aptian-Cenomanian) is presented here. Dinosaurs are represented by 32 species (three ornithischians, six sauropods and 23 theropods) from Brazil, Egypt, Lybia, Morocco, Niger, Sudan and Tunisia. These dinosaur assemblages provide fundamental data about distribution and composition of sauropods and theropods in northern Gondwana during the middle of the Cretaceous Period and confirm these assemblages to be among the most important dinosaur faunas in the north Gondwana areas.

  14. Biomarker studies in northern Bohemia.

    PubMed Central

    Binková, B; Lewtas, J; Mísková, I; Rössner, P; Cerná, M; Mrácková, G; Peterková, K; Mumford, J; Meyer, S; Srám, R

    1996-01-01

    Studies were conducted in northern Bohemia to simultaneously evaluate personal exposures to air pollution in the form of respirable particles containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and biomarkers of exposure, biological effective dose, genetic effects, and metabolic susceptibility. The series of biomarkers included PAH metabolites in urine, urine mutagenicity, PAH-DNA adducts in white blood cells determined by 32P-postlabeling, PAH-albumin adducts determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), DNA damage in lymphocytes detected by comet assay, chromosomal aberrations, sister chromatid exchanges, and glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) genotypes. For these studies, a group of women who work outdoors about 30% of their daily time was selected. In a pilot study, a group of women from a polluted area of the Teplice district (northern Bohemia) was compared with a group of women from a control district of southern Bohemia (Prachatice). In a follow-up repeated-measures study, a group of nonsmoking women from Teplice was sampled repeatedly during the winter season of 1993 to 1994. Personal exposure monitoring for respirable particles (< 2.5 microns) was conducted for the 24-hr period before collection of blood and urine. Particle extracts were analyzed for carcinogenic PAHs. In the pilot study and in the follow-up study, a highly significant correlation between individual personal exposures to PAHs and DNA adducts was found (r = 0.54, p = 0.016; r = 0.710, p < 0.001, respectively). The comet parameter (percentage DNA in tail; %T) correlated with exposures to respirable particles (r = 0.304, p = 0.015). The GSTM1 genotype had a significant effect on urinary PAH metabolites, urine mutagenicity, and comet parameters (% T and tail moment) when the GSTM1 genotype was considered as a single factor affecting these biomarkers. Multifactor analysis o variance considering exposure and adjusting the data for GSTM1, age, and diet showed that the effect of

  15. Decomposition in northern Minnesota peatlands

    SciTech Connect

    Farrish, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    Decomposition in peatlands was investigated in northern Minnesota. Four sites, an ombrotrophic raised bog, an ombrotrophic perched bog and two groundwater minerotrophic fens, were studied. Decomposition rates of peat and paper were estimated using mass-loss techniques. Environmental and substrate factors that were most likely to be responsible for limiting decomposition were monitored. Laboratory incubation experiments complemented the field work. Mass-loss over one year in one of the bogs, ranged from 11 percent in the upper 10 cm of hummocks to 1 percent at 60 to 100 cm depth in hollows. Regression analysis of the data for that bog predicted no mass-loss below 87 cm. Decomposition estimates on an area basis were 2720 and 6460 km/ha yr for the two bogs; 17,000 and 5900 kg/ha yr for the two fens. Environmental factors found to limit decomposition in these peatlands were reducing/anaerobic conditions below the water table and cool peat temperatures. Substrate factors found to limit decomposition were low pH, high content of resistant organics such as lignin, and shortages of available N and K. Greater groundwater influence was found to favor decomposition through raising the pH and perhaps by introducing limited amounts of dissolved oxygen.

  16. Northern European Satellite Test Bed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuster-Bruce, Alan; Lawson, James; Quinlan, Michael; McGregor, Andrew

    Satellite Based Augmentation Systems are being developed in Europe (EGNOS), the USA (WAAS), and in Japan (MSAS). As part of their support to EGNOS, NATS and Racal have developed and deployed a prototype SBAS system called the Northern European Satellite Test Bed (NEST Bed). NEST Bed uses GPS L1/L2 reference stations at: Aberdeen, Rotterdam, Ankara, Cadiz, Keflavik, and Bronnoysund. Data is sent to the Master Control Centre at NATS Gatwick Services Management Centre for processing. The resulting 250 bits-per-second message is sent to Goonhilly for up-linking by BT to the Navigation Payload of either the Inmarsat AOR-E or F5 spare satellite. NEST Bed was deployed and commissioned during summer 1998, and flight tests were successfully demonstrated at the September 1998 Farnborough Air Show where approaches were flown to Boscombe Down on the DERA BAC1-11 aircraft. In October 1998, a NATS/FAA flight trial was held in Iceland involving NEST Bed and the FAA NSTB. NEST Bed is also being used for SARPS validation.

  17. Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2009-01-01

    The Northern Prairie Wildlife Research Center (NPWRC) conducts integrated research to fulfill the Department of the Interior's responsibilities to the Nation's natural resources. Located on 600 acres along the James River Valley near Jamestown, North Dakota, the NPWRC develops and disseminates scientific information needed to understand, conserve, and wisely manage the Nation's biological resources. Research emphasis is primarily on midcontinental plant and animal species and ecosystems of the United States. During the center's 40-year history, its scientists have earned an international reputation for leadership and expertise on the biology of waterfowl and grassland birds, wetland ecology and classification, mammalian behavior and ecology, grassland ecosystems, and application of statistics and geographic information systems. To address current science challenges, NPWRC scientists collaborate with researchers from other U.S. Geological Survey centers and disciplines (Biology, Geography, Geology, and Water) and with biologists and managers in the Department of the Interior (DOI), other Federal agencies, State agencies, universities, and nongovernmental organizations. Expanding upon its scientific expertise and leadership, the NPWRC is moving in new directions, including invasive plant species, restoration of native habitats, carbon sequestration and marketing, and ungulate management on DOI lands.

  18. LEECHES (ANNELIDA: EUHIRUDINEA) OF NORTHERN ARKANSAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty-one lotic and lentic environments throughout central and northern Arkansas were surveyed for the presence of leeches during June 2004, and April, July - October, 2005. Fourteen species of leeches (Desserobdella cryptobranchii, Desserobdella phalera, Desserobdella picta, H...

  19. Huge Filament Rises From Sun's Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Video Gallery

    On August 1, 2010 following a C3-class solar flare from sunspot 1092, an enormous magnetic filament stretching across the sun's northern hemisphere erupted. This 304 angstrom video shows that filam...

  20. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354... § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary... 1 X 1 EPA designation only. Northern Mariana Islands—1971 Sulfur Dioxide NAAQS (Primary...

  1. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354... § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary... 1 X 1 EPA designation only. Northern Mariana Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet...

  2. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354... § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary... 1 X 1 EPA designation only. Northern Mariana Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet...

  3. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 17 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354... § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary... 1 X 1 EPA designation only. Northern Mariana Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet...

  4. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354... § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary... 1 X 1 EPA designation only. Northern Mariana Islands—SO2 Designated area Does not meet...

  5. 75 FR 41842 - Northern Border Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Border Pipeline Company; Notice of Application July 12, 2010. Take notice that on July 2, 2010, Northern Border Pipeline Company (Northern Border), 717 Texas Street... Northern Border's mainline system in Bureau County, Illinois, to a point of interconnection with...

  6. Northern Polar Spring in IR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 12 March 2004

    The Odyssey spacecraft has completed a full Mars year of observations of the red planet. For the next several weeks the Image of the Day will look back over this first mars year. It will focus on four themes: 1) the poles - with the seasonal changes seen in the retreat and expansion of the caps; 2) craters - with a variety of morphologies relating to impact materials and later alteration, both infilling and exhumation; 3) channels - the clues to liquid surface flow; and 4) volcanic flow features. While some images have helped answer questions about the history of Mars, many have raised new questions that are still being investigated as Odyssey continues collecting data as it orbits Mars.

    Infrared images taken during the daytime exhibit both the morphological and thermophysical properties of the surface of Mars. Morphologic details are visible due to the effect of sun-facing slopes receiving more energy than antisun-facing slopes. This creates a warm (bright) slope and cool (dark) slope appearance that mimics the light and shadows of a visible wavelength image. Thermophysical properties are seen in that dust heats up more quickly than rocks. Thus dusty areas are bright and rocky areas are dark.

    This image was collected October 19, 2002 during the northern spring season. The top half of this daytime IR image shows the North Polar sand sea.

    Image information: IR instrument. Latitude 76.2, Longitude 226.8 East (133.2 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in

  7. Climatic variability, plant phenology, and northern ungulates

    SciTech Connect

    Post, E.; Stenseth, N.C.

    1999-06-01

    Models of climate change predict that global temperatures and precipitation will increase within the next century, with the most pronounced changes occurring in northern latitudes and during winter. A large-scale atmospheric phenomenon, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), is a strong determinant of both interannual variation and decadal trends in temperatures and precipitation during winter in northern latitudes, and its recent persistence in one extreme phase may be a substantial component of increases in global temperatures. Hence, the authors investigated the influences of large-scale climatic variability on plant phenology and ungulate population ecology by incorporating the NAO in statistical analyses of previously published data on: (1) the timing of flowering by plants in Norway, and (2) phenotypic and demographic variation in populations of northern ungulates. The authors analyzed 137 time series on plant phenology for 13 species of plants in Norway spanning up to 50 yr and 39 time series on phenotypic and demographic traits of 7 species of northern ungulates from 16 populations in North America and northern Europe spanning up to 30 yr.

  8. Phototaxis of larval and juvenile northern pike

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zigler, S.J.; Dewey, M.R.

    1995-01-01

    Age- Phi northern pike Esox lucius prefer vegetated habitats that are difficult to sample with standard towed gears. Light traps can be effective for sampling larval fishes in dense vegetation, given positive phototaxis of fish. We evaluated the phototactic response of young northern pike by comparing the catches of larvae and juveniles obtained with plexiglass traps deployed with a chemical light stick versus traps deployed without a light source (controls) in a laboratory raceway and in a vegetated pond. In the laboratory tests, catches of protolarvae and mesolarvae in lighted traps were 11-35 times greater than catches in control traps. The catches of juvenile northern pike in field and laboratory experiments were 3-15 times greater in lighted traps than in control traps, even though the maximum body width of the larger juveniles was similar to the width of the entrance slots of the traps (5 mm). Larval and juvenile northern pike were photopositive; thus, light traps should effectively sample age-0 northern pike for at least 6 weeks after hatching.

  9. Climate impacts on northern Canada: regional background.

    PubMed

    Prowse, Terry D; Furgal, Chris; Bonsal, Barrie R; Peters, Daniel L

    2009-07-01

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 degrees C in the south to as low as -20 degrees C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be > 700 mm y(-1) in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y(-1) over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  10. Climate impacts on northern Canada: regional background.

    PubMed

    Prowse, Terry D; Furgal, Chris; Bonsal, Barrie R; Peters, Daniel L

    2009-07-01

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 degrees C in the south to as low as -20 degrees C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be > 700 mm y(-1) in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y(-1) over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  11. Coastal geomorphology of the Martian northern plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Timothy J.; Gorsline, Donn S.; Saunders, Stephen R.; Pieri, David C.; Schneeberger, Dale M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper considers the question of the formation of the outflow channels and valley networks discovered on the Martian northern plains during the Mariner 9 mission. Parker and Saunders (1987) and Parker et al. (1987, 1989) data are used to describe key features common both in the lower reaches of the outflow channels and within and along the margins of the entire northern plains. It is suggested, that of the geological processes capable of producing similar morphologies on earth, lacustrine or marine deposition and subsequent periglacial modification offer the simplest and most consistent explanation for the suit of features found on Mars.

  12. Earth System Studies in Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Gulev, Sergey; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2014-04-01

    During recent decades, northern Eurasia (north of 40°N and east of 15°E) was affected by unprecedented climate and environmental changes. Several droughts, including a heat wave in 2010 (that in European Russia may have been the cause of up to an additional 60,000 deaths in July-August of that year, compared to the previous year; see http://ifaran.ru/science/seminars/Summer2010.html); alternated with hazardous extreme precipitation and flood events. Permafrost thaw, retreating Arctic sea ice, increasing areas of forest fire, and dramatic regional warming buffeted this region, tossing northern Eurasia from one extreme condition to the next.

  13. Rural telemedicine project in northern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Zink, S.; Hahn, H.; Rudnick, J.; Snell, J.; Forslund, D.; Martinez, P.

    1998-12-31

    A virtual electronic medical record system is being deployed over the Internet with security in northern New Mexico using TeleMed, a multimedia medical records management system that uses CORBA-based client-server technology and distributed database architecture. The goal of the NNM Rural Telemedicine Project is to implement TeleMed into fifteen rural clinics and two hospitals within a 25,000 square mile area of northern New Mexico. Evaluation of the project consists of three components: job task analysis, audit of immunized children, and time motion studies. Preliminary results of the evaluation components are presented.

  14. GPS measurements of crustal deformation across the northern Apennines, northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennett, R. A.; Elosegui, P.; Normandeau, J. E.; Serpelloni, E.

    2003-12-01

    Continuous GPS stations within and around the northern Apennines, northern Italy, provide sparse but very precise constraints on crustal deformation associated with Africa, Eurasia, and Adriatic plate interactions. We analyzed data acquired by these stations during the time period of 1996 to 2003.5, finding distributed northwest range-parallel crustal shortening, totaling some 2 mm/yr, and northeast directed crustal extension across the Apennines hinterland, totaling 2.5--3.0 mm/yr or more. Extensional strain rates vary as a function of latitude within the northern Apennines, with higher strain rates across a narrow belt in the central part of the northern Apennines (latitude ˜43N) and lower strain rates across a broader zone further north (latitude ˜44N). Northeast directed crustal extension is prominent in the geology and seismicity of the Apennines hinterland, and forms an important observational basis for contemporary geodynamical models describing present-day deformation processes in northern Italy. Range-parallel crustal shortening is less well understood, however, because there are very few geological or seismological indicators of northwest directed crustal shortening for the northern Apennines. On the other hand, combined paleomagnetic and tomographic inferences suggest that the northern Apennines is an orocline, achieving its arcuate shape as a result of progressive bending of an originally straight orogen. The rates and patterns of range-parallel deformation may thus provide important new constraints on geodynamical models for this complex region.

  15. Attenuation of free spheroidal oscillations of the Earth after the M = 9 Earthquake in Sumatra and the super-deep Earthquake in the Sea of Okhotsk: I. the Admissible Q-factor range for the fundamental mode and overtones of the free spheroidal oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molodenskii, S. M.; Molodenskaya, M. S.

    2015-11-01

    The problem of reconstructing the depth distribution of density and the depth and frequency dependences of the mechanical Q-factor in the Earth's mantle from the entire set of the present-day seismic and astrometric data on the travel times and periods of seismic waves and the amplitudes and phases of forced nutations is considered. The solution of the problem is refined by including the new data about the attenuation of the free oscillations of the Earth excited by the Sumatra earthquake ( M = 9) and super-deep earthquake in the Sea of Okhotsk. The actual accuracy of the Q-factor is studied in the first part of the paper. To this end, we analyze (1) the convergence of the Q-factor estimated from the time series of different length shifted along the time axis and (2) the convergence of the results based on the different data. Since the accuracy of identifying all the periods and attenuation factors for the free oscillations from the Sumatra earthquake is significantly higher than for the earthquake with M = 9 in Japan, the data are only compared for the Sumatra and Okhotsk events. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is analyzed based on the records from different Global Seismographic Network (GSN) stations including the station in Obninsk, the Kurchatov station in Kazakhstan, and the main ERM and MAJO stations in Japan. It is found that the highest SNR was observed in Obninsk. The inverse problem of reconstructing the density and Q-factor is solved for the frequency dependent real parts of the shear moduli with allowance for the most accurate data about the attenuation factors for the fundamental spheroidal modes of the free oscillations of the Earth.

  16. Construction Services at Northern Arizona University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dyke, Gary

    Construction Services is an innovative response to a chronic construction-remodeling problem at Northern Arizona State University. It is an in-house facilities maintenance department designed to address a variety of needs: prevention of construction or remodeling done by individual staff or faculty members without regard for applicable codes;…

  17. Orality in Northern Cree Indigenous Worlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber-Pillwax, Cora

    2001-01-01

    Examines the importance and centrality of orality, rather than literacy, in the shared lives of the Cree of northern Alberta. Discusses orality consciousness related to the practice of shared memories and personal and communal healing during the "dance of the ancestors" or "ghost dance." Includes a short history of the Cree people and their…

  18. The visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Cromie, H.

    1995-01-01

    Since 1989 there has been a burgeoning of the visual arts in Northern Ireland hospitals. This paper compares the three organisational models for hospital arts currently operating within the Province and in an overview discusses ways to coordinate working practice for future development of the visual arts in local hospitals. Images Fig 1 Fig 2 Fig 3 PMID:8533183

  19. Gas hydrate resources of northern Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Collett, T.S.

    1997-01-01

    Large amounts of natural gas, composed mainly of methane, can occur in arctic sedimentary basins in the form of gas hydrates under appropriate temperature and pressure conditions. Gas hydrates are solids, composed of rigid cages of water molecules that trap molecules of gas. These substances are regarded as a potential unconventional source of natural gas because of their enormous gas-storage capacity. Most published gas hydrate resource estimates are highly simplified and based on limited geological data. The gas hydrate resource assessment for northern Alaska presented in this paper is based on a "play analysis" scheme, in which geological factors controlling the accumulation and preservation of gas hydrates are individually evaluated and risked for each hydrate play. This resource assessment identified two gas hydrate plays; the in-place gas resources within the gas hydrates of northern Alaska are estimated to range from 6.7 to 66.8 trillion cubic metres of gas (236 to 2,357 trillion cubic feet of gas), at the 0.50 and 0.05 probability levels respectively. The mean in-place hydrate resource estimate for northern Alaska is calculated to be 16.7 trillion cubic metres of gas (590 trillion cubic feet of gas). If this assessment is valid, the amount of natural gas stored as gas hydrates in northern Alaska could be almost seven times larger then the estimated total remaining recoverable conventional natural gas resources in the entire United States.

  20. The Northern Ireland Resource File and Aspire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, David; Montgomery, Brenda

    2016-01-01

    The paper begins by identifying issues as to how initial teacher training and in-service training for teachers inadequately prepares them for teaching the pupils with special educational needs (SEN). The paper then provides a brief legislative background to SEN in the Northern Ireland context, before describing two elements of educational reform…

  1. Nutritional condition of Northern Yellowstone Elk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cook, R.C.; Cook, J.G.; Mech, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasonography and body condition scoring was used to estimate nutritional condition of northern Yellowstone elk in late winter. Probability of pregnancy was related to body fat, and lactating cows had 50% less fat than non-lactating cows. For mild to normal winters, most of the elk were in good condition.

  2. A Grammar of Northern and Southern Gumuz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahland, Colleen Anne

    2012-01-01

    Gumuz is a Nilo-Saharan dialect cluster spoken in the river valleys of northwestern Ethiopia and the southeastern part of the Republic of the Sudan. There are approximately 200,000 speakers, the majority of which reside in Ethiopia. This study is a phonological and grammatical analysis of two main dialects/languages: Northern Gumuz and Southern…

  3. VHF radar measurements over Andoya (Northern Norway)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czechowsky, P.; Reid, I. M.; Ruester, R.; Schmidt, G.

    1989-01-01

    The Mobile SOUSY Radar was operated during the MAP/WINE, the MAC/SINE, and MAC/Epsilon campaigns at Andoya in Northern Norway. A comparison between summer and winter results is presented, in particular the generation and development of the scattering regions, the different power spectral densities and the aspect sensitivities which were derived from six different beam directions.

  4. Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonzahn, U.

    1982-01-01

    The scientific aims, work plan, and organization of the Middle Atmosphere Program winter in northern Europe (MAP/WINE) are described. Proposed contributions to the MAP/WINE program from various countries are enumerated. Specific atmospheric parameters to be examined are listed along with the corresponding measurement technique.

  5. Regional health library service in northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Crawford, D S

    1990-10-01

    The regional medical library service provided to physicians, hospitals, nurses, social workers, and health care administrators throughout Northern Ireland by the Queen's University of Belfast is described. A brief outline of the National Health Service in the United Kingdom is given, and the library service is described in terms of collections, cataloging, interlibrary loan, and reference. PMID:2224299

  6. From Poetry to Music: "Northern Lullaby"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2011-01-01

    Nancy White Carlstrom's children's book, "Northern Lullaby," conjures through poetry the beauty of the Alaskan landscape in the evening. The book provides an opportunity for music teachers to help their students transform text and visual images to music. The author describes connections for reading comprehension in the general music classroom and…

  7. Unemployment and suicide in Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Snyder, M L

    1992-06-01

    For Northern Ireland, yearly mean percentages of unemployment and suicide rates (per 100,000 population) for specific age groups and by sex were compared over a 19-year period. Significant results were obtained for only two age groups of males (15-24 yr. and 45-54 yr.) and none for females. PMID:1496080

  8. Variation and Change in Northern Bavarian Quantity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Derek

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents new research on the "Bavarian Quantity Law" (the BQL) in the northern Bavarian dialect of Hahnbach. Building upon earlier investigation of the BQL (cf. Bannert 1976a,b for Central Bavarian) this study examines the historical, phonological, and phonetic motivations for this feature as well the variability in its…

  9. 1. GREAT NORTHERN ELEVATORS. 1900 STEEL ELEVATOR WITH SQUARE BINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. GREAT NORTHERN ELEVATORS. 1900 STEEL ELEVATOR WITH SQUARE BINS (AS OPPOSED) TO THE SIMILAR STEEL ELEVATOR IN BUFFALO NEW YORK WITH ROUND ELEVATOR BINS. - Great Northern Elevator "S", Saint Louis Bay, Superior, Douglas County, WI

  10. LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD NORTHERN AVE. SWING BRIDGE. BOSTON TEA PARTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD NORTHERN AVE. SWING BRIDGE. BOSTON TEA PARTY SHIP AT ANCHOR IN FOREGROUND. - Northern Avenue Swing Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel at boundary between Boston & South Boston, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  11. 64. Photocopy of drawing (from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. Photocopy of drawing (from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office, Seattle) STRESS SHEET - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  12. 68. Photocopy of drawing (from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Photocopy of drawing (from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office) STRESS DIAGRAM - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  13. Aerial view of reroofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of re-roofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa 1957. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  14. Late Cenozoic Basins of northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nilsen, Tor H.; Clarke, Samuel H.

    1989-12-01

    The late Cenozoic basins of northern California developed in response to both convergent tectonics associated with subduction of the Farallon plate (and its modern representatives, the Juan de Fuca and Gorda plates) and transform tectonics associated with northward migration of the Mendocino triple junction and formation of the San Andreas fault system. The modern Eel River basin north of the Mendocino triple junction is an active forearc basin located between the Cascade magmatic arc to the east and the trench at the foot of the continental slope of northern California and Oregon to the west. Five different types of late Cenozoic basins or fragments of basins are preserved in onshore northern California south of the Mendocino triple junction: (1) remnants of a formerly more extensive Neogene forearc basin preserved locally in downdropped blocks within the San Andreas fault system; (2) remnants of slightly older trench-slope basins that generally developed west of but which may locally structurally underlie the younger forearc basin; (3) younger strike-slip-related structural basins that have developed along active right-lateral faults of the San Andreas fault system; (4) broad shallow embayments, perhaps similar to the modern San Francisco Bay, that were connected to the deeper Pacific Ocean to the west; and (5) structurally emplaced remnants of oceanic crust and its overlying sedimentary cover (the King Range terrane). Our preliminary stratigraphic and sedimentologic studies suggest that much of northern California was covered during the Neogene by a forearc basin that may have extended as far south as the San Francisco Bay region and into the southern San Joaquin Valley. As the Mendocino triple junction migrated northward during the late Cenozoic, the southern margin of the forearc basin was uplifted, basin deposits were stripped off by erosion, and the locus of forearc sedimentation shifted progressively northward through time. Preserved but isolated fragments

  15. Caribbean basin framework, 2: Northern Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Tyburski, S.A.; Gordon, M.B.; Mann, P. )

    1991-03-01

    There are four Jurassic to Recent basin-forming periods in northern Central America (honduras, Honduran Borderlands, Belize, Guatemala, northern Nicaragua): (1) Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous rifting and subsidence along normal faults in Honduras and Guatemala; rifts are suggested but are not well defined in Honduras by the distribution of clastic sediments and associated volcanic rocks. Rifting is attributed to the separation of Central America from the southern margin of the North American plate; (2) Cretaceous subsidence recorded by the development of a Cretaceous carbonate platform in Honduras, Guatemala, and Belize; subsidence is attributed to thermal subsidence of the rifted margins of the various blocks; (3) Late Cretaceous-Recent development of a volcanic arc along the western margin of Middle America and the northern margin of Honduras; (4) Late Cretaceous large-scale folding in Honduras, ophiolite obduction, and formation of a foredeep basin in Guatemala (Sepur trough); deformation is attributed to the collision between a north-facing arc in northern Honduras and the Nicaraguan Rise and the passive margin of Guatemala and Belize; and (5) Eocene to Recent strike-slip faulting along the present-day North American-Caribbean plate boundary in Guatemala, northern Honduras, and Belize. Strike-slip faults and basins form a California-type borderlands characterized by elongate basins that appear as half-grabens in profile. Counterclockwise rotation of the central honduras plateau, a thicker and topographically higher-than-average block within the plate boundary zone, is accommodated by rifting or strike-slip faults at its edges.

  16. Annotated bibliography of the Black Warrior basin area, northern Alabama - northern Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Ward-McLemore, E.

    1983-01-01

    This bibliography contains 1964 records related to the geology of the Black Warrior basin of northern Alabama and northern Mississippi. Specific topics include, but are not limited to: coal, petroleum, and natural gas deposits; mineralogy; lithology; paleontology; petrology; stratigraphy; tectonics; bauxite; iron ores; geologic correlations; earthquakes; fossils; gold deposits; geological surveys; hydrology; and water resources. The subject index provides listings of records related to each county and the geologic ages covered by this area. Some of the items (54) are themselves bibliographies.

  17. AmeriFlux CA-Man Manitoba - Northern Old Black Spruce (former BOREAS Northern Study Area)

    SciTech Connect

    Amiro, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-Man Manitoba - Northern Old Black Spruce (former BOREAS Northern Study Area). Site Description - 55.880° N, 98.481° W, elevation of 259 m, Boreal coniferous: Black spruce; occasional larch present in poorly-drained areas. Groundcover is moss (feathermosses and Sphagnum), Labrador Tea, Vaccinium, and willows are a main component of the understory. It was established in 1993 as a BOREAS site.

  18. 76 FR 44625 - Northern Lights Variable Trust, et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... COMMISSION Northern Lights Variable Trust, et al.; Notice of Application July 19, 2011. AGENCY: Securities.... APPLICANTS: Northern Lights Variable Trust (the ``Fund'') and Gemini Fund Services, LLC (``Gemini.... Northern Lights Variable Trust, c/o Emile Molineaux, Esquire, Gemini Fund Services, LLC, 450...

  19. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards...

  20. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards...

  1. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards...

  2. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards...

  3. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards...

  4. 77 FR 35958 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 30, 2012, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124... regulations and section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act, to abandon by sale to DKM Enterprises, LLC (DKM)...

  5. 78 FR 51716 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 1, 2013, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124, filed an application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act and part 157 of the...

  6. 75 FR 35779 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application June 16, 2010. Take notice that on June 2, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha... Natural Gas Act, for a certificate of public convenience and necessity authorizing the increase...

  7. 78 FR 8501 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 18, 2013, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124, filed in Docket No. CP13-53-000, an application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act...

  8. 76 FR 12721 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on February 18, 2011, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103 Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124-1000, filed in Docket No. CP11-98-000, an application pursuant to section 7(b) of the Natural Gas...

  9. Hubble Spots Northern Hemispheric Clouds on Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Using visible light, astronomers for the first time this century have detected clouds in the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, taken July 31 and Aug. 1, 1997 with NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, show banded structure and multiple clouds. Using these images, Dr. Heidi Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and colleagues Wes Lockwood (Lowell Observatory) and Kathy Rages (NASA Ames Research Center) plan to measure the wind speeds in the northern hemisphere for the first time.

    Uranus is sometimes called the 'sideways' planet, because its rotation axis tipped more than 90 degrees from the planet's orbit around the Sun. The 'year' on Uranus lasts 84 Earth years, which creates extremely long seasons - winter in the northern hemisphere has lasted for nearly 20 years. Uranus has also been called bland and boring, because no clouds have been detectable in ground-based images of the planet. Even to the cameras of the Voyager spacecraft in 1986, Uranus presented a nearly uniform blank disk, and discrete clouds were detectable only in the southern hemisphere. Voyager flew over the planet's cloud tops near the dead of northern winter (when the northern hemisphere was completely shrouded in darkness).

    Spring has finally come to the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, both the visible-wavelength ones described here and those taken a few days earlier with the Near Infrared and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) by Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), show a planet with banded structure and detectable clouds.

    Two images are shown here. The 'aqua' image (on the left) is taken at 5,470 Angstroms, which is near the human eye's peak response to wavelength. Color has been added to the image to show what a person on a spacecraft near Uranus might see. Little structure is evident at this wavelength, though with image-processing techniques, a small cloud can be seen near the planet's northern limb

  10. HUBBLE SPOTS NORTHERN HEMISPHERIC CLOUDS ON URANUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Using visible light, astronomers for the first time this century have detected clouds in the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, taken July 31 and Aug. 1, 1997 with NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, show banded structure and multiple clouds. Using these images, Dr. Heidi Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and colleagues Wes Lockwood (Lowell Observatory) and Kathy Rages (NASA Ames Research Center) plan to measure the wind speeds in the northern hemisphere for the first time. Uranus is sometimes called the 'sideways' planet, because its rotation axis is tipped more than 90 degrees from the planet's orbit around the Sun. The 'year' on Uranus lasts 84 Earth years, which creates extremely long seasons - winter in the northern hemisphere has lasted for nearly 20 years. Uranus has also been called bland and boring, because no clouds have been detectable in ground-based images of the planet. Even to the cameras of the Voyager spacecraft in 1986, Uranus presented a nearly uniform blank disk, and discrete clouds were detectable only in the southern hemisphere. Voyager flew over the planet's cloud tops near the dead of northern winter (when the northern hemisphere was completely shrouded in darkness). Spring has finally come to the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, both the visible-wavelength ones described here and those taken a few days earlier with the Near Infrared and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) by Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), show a planet with banded structure and detectable clouds. Two images are shown here. The 'aqua' image (on the left) is taken at 5,470 Angstroms, which is near the human eye's peak response to wavelength. Color has been added to the image to show what a person on a spacecraft near Uranus might see. Little structure is evident at this wavelength, though with image-processing techniques, a small cloud can be seen near the planet's northern limb (rightmost

  11. Quaternary Tipping Points in Tropical Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Patrick; Dunbar, Gavin; Croke, Jacky; Katunar, Rosie

    2016-04-01

    Tropical northern Queensland, particularly the volcanic Atherton Tableland, contains some of the most detailed and longest terrestrial palaeoenvironmental archives in Australia and when combined with adjacent marine sediment records provides key insight into potential environmental 'tipping points' for the entire Quaternary period and beyond. This presentation will provide an overview of some of the key tipping points (i.e. significant landscape transformation) that have occurred within the tropical northern Australian region over the Quaternary, as well as discussing potential causes and subsequent impacts of these transformation episodes. These events include the development of the Great Barrier Reef, transition from obliquity to eccentricity dominated glacial-interglacial cycles, the Mid-Brunhes event, the Oxygen Isotope Stage 6 episode, the arrival of people into the region, Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition and European settlement.

  12. Amphibians of the northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.; Euliss, Ned H.; Lannoo, Michael J.; Mushet, David M.; Mac, M.J.; Opler, P.A.; Puckett Haecker, C. E.; Doran, P.D.

    1998-01-01

    No cry of alarm has been sounded over the fate of amphibian populations in the northern grasslands of North America, yet huge percentages of prairie wetland habitat have been lost, and the destruction continues. Scarcely 30% of the original mixedgrass prairie remains in Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota (See Table 1 in this chapter). If amphibian populations haven’t declined, why haven’t they? Or, have we simply failed to notice? Amphibians in the northern grasslands evolved in a boom-or-bust environment: species that were unable to survive droughts lasting for years died out long before humans were around to count them. Species we find today are expert at seizing the rare, wet moment to rebuild their populations in preparation for the next dry season. When numbers can change so rapidly, who can say if a species is rare or common? A lot depends on when you look.

  13. Wildfires threaten mercury stocks in northern soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Turetsky, M.R.; Harden, J.W.; Friedli, H.R.; Flannigan, M.; Payne, N.; Crock, J.; Radke, L.

    2006-01-01

    With climate change rapidly affecting northern forests and wetlands, mercury reserves once protected in cold, wet soils are being exposed to burning, likely triggering large releases of mercury to the atmosphere. We quantify organic soil mercury stocks and burn areas across western, boreal Canada for use in fire emission models that explore controls of burn area, consumption severity, and fuel loading on atmospheric mercury emissions. Though renowned as hotspots for the accumulation of mercury and its transformation to the toxic methylmercury, boreal wetlands might soon transition to hotspots for atmospheric mercury emissions. Estimates of circumboreal mercury emissions from this study are 15-fold greater than estimates that do not account for mercury stored in peat soils. Ongoing and projected increases in boreal wildfire activity due to climate change will increase atmospheric mercury emissions, contributing to the anthropogenic alteration of the global mercury cycle and exacerbating mercury toxicities for northern food chains. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Cardiac surgical experience in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwiloh, J; Edaigbini, S; Danbauchi, S; Babaniyi, I; Aminu, M; Adamu, Y; Oyati, A

    2012-09-01

    A pilot study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of establishing a heart surgery programme in northern Nigeria. During three medical missions by a visiting US team, in partnership with local physicians, 18 patients with heart diseases underwent surgery at two referral hospitals in the region. Sixteen (88.9%) patients underwent the planned operative procedure with an observed 30-day mortality of 12.5% (2/16) and 0% morbidity. Late complications were anticoagulant related in mechanical heart valve patients and included a first-trimester abortion one year postoperatively, and a death at two years from haemorrhage during pregnancy. This has prompted us to now consider bioprosthetics as the valve of choice in women of childbearing age in this patient population. This preliminary result has further stimulated the interest of all stakeholders on the urgency to establish open-heart surgery as part of the armamentarium to combat the ravages of heart diseases in northern Nigeria. PMID:22453514

  15. Exploration potential of offshore northern California basins

    SciTech Connect

    Bachman, S.B.; Crouch, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    A series of exploratory wells was drilled in the northern California offshore basins in the 1960s following leasing of federal tracts off northern California, Oregon, and Washington. The drilling, although encountering numerous oil shows, was considered at the time to indicate low prospectivity in an area that extended as far south as the offshore Santa Maria basin. However, subsequent major discoveries in this decade in the offshore Santa Maria basin, such as the Point Arguello field, indicate that these offshore basins may be highly prospective exploration targets. Many of the key features of Monterey production in central and southern California are also present in the offshore basins of northern California. A new 5-year leasing plan has scheduled leasing in the northern California OCS starting in early 1989. The first basins on the schedule, the Point Arena and Eel River basins, differ in some respects. The Point Arena basin is more typical of a Monterey basin, with the potential for fractured chert reservoirs and organic-rich sections, deep burial of basinal sections to enhance the generation of higher gravity oils, and complex folding and faulting. The Eel River basin is more clastic-rich in its gas-producing, onshore extension. Key questions in the Eel River basin include whether the offshore, more distal stratigraphy will include Monterey-like biogenic sediments, and whether the basin has oil potential in addition to its proven gas potential. The Outer Santa Cruz basin shares a similar stratigraphy, structure, and hydrocarbon potential with the Point Arena basin. The Santa Cruz-Bodega basin, also with a similar stratigraphy, may have less exploration potential because erosion has thinned the Monterey section in parts of the basin.

  16. Climate change signal over Northern Adriatic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zampieri, M.; Lionello, P.; Nikulin, G.

    2009-04-01

    In this study we collect the results of several regional climate models from various projects (PRUDENCE, ENSEMBLES, and others). Temperature, precipitation, Sea Level Pressure, 500hPa geopotential height and wind speed are analyzed for Venetia and the Northern Adriatic region. The agreement among models is analyzed for the control runs and for the scenario simulations, and the dispersion among models is evaluated. The importance of resolutions is addressed as well as the changes of climate extremes in future scenarios.

  17. Mars’ Northern Dunes: Volatiles and Geology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Candice; Bridges, N.; Bourke, M.; Byrne, S.; Diniega, S.; Dundas, C.; Herkenhoff, K.; McEwen, A.; Portyankina, G.; Thomas, N.; Colon, C.

    2010-10-01

    Mars has a vast sea of sand dunes at high northern latitudes known as the north polar erg. These dunes are blanketed with seasonal CO2 frost in the winter and early spring. Sharp dune crests, steep slipfaces and lack of craters suggest that these northern dunes have experienced geologically recent resurfacing. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) imaged a limited number of sites in the dunes with resolution better than 1 m to look for changes. New HiRISE images show extensive erosion of northern hemisphere dunes associated with seasonal CO2 ice sublimation in the spring. With 2 Mars years of observations we have observed the CO2-ice-free state of the dunes in the first year, frost-covered in late winter, the spring sublimation process, and the ice-free state of the dunes again in the second year. Temporal sequences of images of individual sites were acquired to monitor the sublimation process throughout spring. Ice-free images have been compared between northern summer in MRO year 1 (Mars Year 29) and MRO year 2. New alcoves and aprons are detected on numerous dunes in several sites. In one particular barchan dune field 20% of the dunes show substantial changes and 20% show minor changes. These changes can be traced to locations of early enhanced CO2 ice sublimation. The sublimation activity manifests itself on the dunes as cracks along the dune crest from which dark streaks of sand and dust move down the slipface. The sand travels out onto patterned ground, enabling measurement of the extent of the new aprons, in some cases meters from the dune boundary one year earlier. In order to maintain fresh dunes against such erosion the dune-building processes must still be at work on Mars today. This work was partially supported by JPL/CIT/NASA.

  18. Attenuation of free spheroidal oscillations of the Earth after the M = 9 earthquake in Sumatra and super-deep earthquake in the Sea of Okhotsk: II. interpretation of the observed Q-factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molodenskii, S. M.; Molodenskii, M. S.

    2015-11-01

    In the first part of the paper, the range of the admissible values of the Q-factor for the fundamental spheroidal modes and overtones was calculated from the records of the free oscillations of the Earth after the earthquake with M = 9 in Sumatra and the super-deep earthquake in the Sea of Okhotsk. Below, the interpretation of the data obtained in the first part of the paper is presented. By orthogonalization of the functional derivatives of the eigenfrequencies with respect to the density and Q-factor of the mantle, the model distributions of these parameters which best fit the whole set of the data about the attenuation of the free oscillations and the phases of forced nutations of the Earth are reconstructed. The use of the attenuation data for the free oscillations recorded after the super-deep earthquake in the Sea of Okhotsk on May 24, 2013 significantly improves the accuracy of the Q-factor reconstruction at different depths in the mantle. The implications of the free oscillations' attenuation data for the solution of the inverse problem of reconstructing the profiles of density and creep function of the mantle in the interval of periods from 1 s to one day are studied. Without the allowance for the attenuation data, the reconstruction errors for the density profiles were about 0.1 g/cm3, and for the shear moduli at the oscillation period of 200 s, about 4 × 109 dyn/cm2. The use of the free oscillation attenuation data largely removes this uncertainty. Although the relative measurement accuracy of the Q-factor is by about two orders of magnitude lower than the measurement accuracy of all eigenfrequencies, the weights of relative residuals of Q in the minimand functional of the weighted mean square deviations should be of the same order of magnitude as the weights for the relative changes in the free oscillation frequencies. With the allowance for the new attenuation data obtained in the first part of the paper, the reconstruction errors for these parameters

  19. Nature and Role of Subducting Sediments on the Megathrust and Forearc Evolution in the 2004 Great Sumatra Earthquake Rupture Zone: Results from Full Waveform Inversion of Long Offset Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. C.; Qin, Y.

    2015-12-01

    On active accretionary margins, the nature of incoming sediments defines the locking mechanism on the megathrust, and the development and evolution of the accretionary wedge. Drilling is the most direct method to characterise the nature of these sediments, but the drilling is very expensive, and provide information at only a few locations. In north Sumatra, an IODP drilling is programmed to take place in July-August 2016. We have performed seismic full waveform inversion of 12 km long offset seismic reflection data acquired by WesternGeco in 2006 over a 35 km zone near the subduction front in the 2004 earthquake rupture zone area that provide detailed quantitative information on the characteristics of the incoming sediments. We first downward continue the surface streamer data to the seafloor, which removes the effect of deep water (~5 km) and brings out the refraction arrivals as the first arrivals. We carry out travel time tomography, and then performed full waveform inversion of seismic refraction data followed by the full waveform inversion of reflection data providing detailed (10-20 m) velocity structure. The sediments in this area are 3-5 km thick where the P-wave velocity increases from 1.6 km/s near the seafloor to more than 4.5 km/s above the oceanic crust. The high velocity of sediments above the basement suggests that the sediments are highly compacted, strengthened the coupling near the subduction front, which might have been responsible for 2004 earthquake rupture propagation up to the subduction front, enhancing the tsunami. We also find several thin velocity layers within the sediments, which might be due to high pore-pressure fluid or free gas. These layers might be responsible for the formation of pseudo-decollement within the forearc sediments that acts as a conveyer belt between highly compacted subducting lower sediments and accreted sediments above. The presence of well intact sediments on the accretionary prism supports this interpretation

  20. Stratigraphic evolution of paleozoic erathem, northern Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.L. Jr.

    1985-02-01

    Unmetamorphosed Paleozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks have been drilled in numerous wells throughout northern Florida and southern Georgia, in what is today a gently folded and block-faulted relict continental fragment of northwest Africa and northeast South America. Stratigraphic and lithologic equivalents of these North American Paleozoic units are prolific hydrocarbon producers in North Africa. The northern Florida Paleozoic sediments were deposited on Pan-African and Cadoman basement. Widespread continental glaciation from late Precambrian to Early Cambrian introduced a thick sequence of fine-grained marine sandstones (glacial flour), which overlie medium to coarse-grained glaciofluvial sandstones. Basinward of the sand shelf, the accretion of a volcanic island arc complex began during the Ordovician. A fluctuating transgression, accompanying a major glacial minimum, brought open-marine, graptolitic, black shales onto the sand shelf, producing an interbedded shoreface-shelf sand and black shale section during the Middle and Late Ordovician. At the Ordovician-Silurian boundary, renewed continental glaciation lowered sea level, producing a widespread unconformity. A Late Silurian major marine transgression returned black, graptolitic, highly organic shales onto the sand shelf. Devonian deltaic sands from Avalonia(.) to the north and the craton to the south closed the Paleozoic sedimentary record of northern Florida.

  1. Ellesmere Island (Canada) and Northern Greenland

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    In late July, our planet.s northernmost land masses appear to finally be responding to the warmth of Northern Hemisphere summer. Ellesmere Island, Canada, (top left) and northern Greenland (right) have decided kick off their snowy winter garments in this true-color Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) image from July 3, 200. Bare brown soils are exposed along the coasts of the still frozen (but thawing!) Arctic waters. Several large, permanent ice caps and glaciers will remain on Ellesmere Island year-round, and Greenland does little more than remove her mittens, but thinning, blue ice is showing up in the many fjords and inlets in the rocky coastlines, showing that temperatures are on the rise. The Nares Strait, which separates the two land masses, still has a way to go before a passage opens up between Baffin Bay to the south and the Artic Ocean to the north. Although Ellesmere Island appears to be 'higher' or farther north than Greenland, that is simply a result of the way the high-latitude scene was projected into an image. To better picture the terrain, imagine that you took a printed copy of the rectangular image and rolled it into a cylinder along its northeast-southwest axis. If you held that cylinder straight up in front of you, you would find that Peary Land, Greenland (right of center), is actually the more northern terrain. In fact Peary Land is the northernmost point on land on the Earth.

  2. Geothermal development plan: northern Arizona counties

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Northern Counties Area Development Plan evaluated the regional market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. This study identified five potential geothermal resource areas, four of which have low temperature (<90{sup 0}C, 194{sup 0}F) potential and one possible igneous system. The average population growth rate in the Northern Counties is expected to be five percent per year over the next 40 years, with Mohave and Yavapai Counties growing the fastest. Rapid growth is anticipated in all major employment sectors, including trade, service, manufacturing, mining and utilities. A regional energy use analysis is included, containing information on current energy use patterns for all user classes. Water supplies are expected to be adequate for expected growth generally, though Yavapai and Gila Counties will experience water deficiencies. A preliminary district heating analysis is included for the towns of Alpine and Springerville. Both communities are believed located on geothermal resource sites. The study also contains a section identifying potential geothermal resource users in northern Arizona.

  3. Phenylketonuria and the peoples of Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Zschocke, J; Mallory, J P; Eiken, H G; Nevin, N C

    1997-08-01

    The comparison of regional patterns of recessive disease mutations is a new source of information for studies of population genetics. The analysis of phenylketonuria (PKU) mutations in Northern Ireland shows that most major episodes of immigration have left a record in the modern genepool. The mutation 165T can be traced to the Palaeolithic people of western Europe who, in the Mesolithic period, first colonised Ireland. R408W (on haplotype 1) in contrast, the most common Irish PKU mutation, may have been prevalent in the Neolithic farmers who settled in Ireland after 4500 BC. No mutation was identified that could represent European Celtic populations, supporting the view that the adoption of Celtic culture and language in Ireland did not involve major migration from the continent. Several less common mutations can be traced to the Norwegian Atlantic coast and were probably introduced into Ireland by Vikings. This indicates that PKU has not been brought to Norway from the British Isles, as was previously argued. The rarity in Northern Ireland of IVS12nt1, the most common mutation in Denmark and England, indicates that the English colonialization of Ireland did not alter the local genepool in a direction that could be described as Anglo-Saxon. Our results show that the culture and language of a population can be independent of its genetic heritage, and give some insight into the history of the peoples of Northern Ireland.

  4. Wildfires in Northern Siberian Larch Dominated Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khaurk, Viacheslav I.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Im, Sergey T.

    2011-01-01

    The fire history of the northern larch forests within the permafrost zone in a portion of northern Siberia (approx 66 deg N, 100 deg E) was studied. Since there is little to no human activities in this area fires within the study area were mostly caused by lightning. Fire return intervals (FRI) were estimated based on burn marks on tree stems and dates of tree natality. FRI values varied from 130 yr to 350 yr with 200 +/- 50 yr mean. In southerly larch dominated communities FRI was found to be shorter (77 +/- 20 yr at approx 61 deg. N, and 82 +/- 7 at 64 deg N), and longer at the northern boundary (approx 71 deg) of larch stands (320 +/- 50 yr). During the Little Ice Age period in the 16th to 18th centuries FRI was approximately twice as long as recorded in this study. Fire caused changes in the soil including increases in soil drainage and permafrost thawing depth and a radial growth increase of about 2 times (with more than 6 times observed). This effect may simulate the predicted warming impact on the larch growth in the permafrost zone.

  5. PERSPECTIVE: REDD pilot project scenarios: are costs and benefits altered by spatial scale?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.

    2009-09-01

    Kimberly M Carlson Payments for reducing carbon emissions due to deforestation and degradation (REDD) have garnered considerable global interest and investments. These financial incentives aim to alter the drivers of land use change by reducing opportunity costs of retaining forest cover, and are often promoted as multipartite solutions that not only generate profits and reduce carbon emissions but provide benefits for human development and biodiversity. Currently, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is debating a post-Kyoto protocol with national or sub-national emission reduction targets. Anticipating the inclusion of REDD in this agreement, >80% of pilot REDD projects are being established in tropical regions (table 1). While the capacity of REDD projects to meet their stated objectives must be assessed post- implementation, land use change models are powerful tools for generating potential outcomes from these pilot initiatives. Table 1. Extent and emissions reductions for all REDD projects as reported by Ecosystem Marketplace, which maintains a comprehensive and up-to-date inventory of REDD projects that are selling credits and/or are verified by a third-party verifier. Adapted from Forest Carbon Portal (2009). Geographical zoneContinentProjects (#) Area (km2) Emissions reductions (Mt C) Tropical and Subtropical Africa2775019.50 Asia28100109.60 South America 9183 880278.24 TemperateAustralia1140.18 North America115N/A Totals15199 759407.52 In this issue of ERL, Gaveau et al (2009) use a spatially-explicit model to explore the potential of a REDD pilot project in northern Sumatra, Indonesia, to reduce deforestation and conserve orangutan biodiversity. This project is conceived by the Provincial Government of Aceh, financed by Merrill Lynch, and co-managed by carbon trading firm Carbon Conservation and NGO Flora and Fauna International. Project managers estimate CO2 emissions reductions at 3.4 Mt y-1 over 30 years across a 7500 km2

  6. Northern Eurasian Heat Waves and Droughts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Wang, Hailan; Koster, Randal; Suarez, Max; Groisman, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews our understanding of the characteristics and causes of northern Eurasian summertime heat waves and droughts. Additional insights into the nature of temperature and precipitation variability in Eurasia on monthly to decadal time scales and into the causes and predictability of the most extreme events are gained from the latest generation of reanalyses and from supplemental simulations with the NASA GEOS-5 AGCM. Key new results are: 1) the identification of the important role of summertime stationary Rossby waves in the development of the leading patterns of monthly Eurasian surface temperature and precipitation variability (including the development of extreme events such as the 2010 Russian heat wave), 2) an assessment of the mean temperature and precipitation changes that have occurred over northern Eurasia in the last three decades and their connections to decadal variability and global trends in SST, and 3) the quantification (via a case study) of the predictability of the most extreme simulated heat wave/drought events, with some focus on the role of soil moisture in the development and maintenance of such events. A literature survey indicates a general consensus that the future holds an enhanced probability of heat waves across northern Eurasia, while there is less agreement regarding future drought, reflecting a greater uncertainty in soil moisture and precipitation projections. Substantial uncertainties remain in our understanding of heat waves and drought, including the nature of the interactions between the short-term atmospheric variability associated with such extremes and the longer-term variability and trends associated with soil moisture feedbacks, SST anomalies, and an overall warming world.

  7. Evaporite karst of northern lower Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Michigan has three main zones of evaporite karst: collapse breccia in Late Silurian deposits of the Mackinac Straits region; breccia, collapse sinks, and mega-block collapse in Middle Devonian deposits of Northern Lower Michigan, which overlaps the preceding area; and areas of soil swallows in sinks of Mississippian deposits between Turner and Alabaster in Arenac and Iosco counties, and near Grand Rapids in Kent County. The author has focused his study on evaporite karst of the Middle Devonian deposits. The Middle Devonian depos its are the Detroit River Group: a series consisting of limestone, dolomite, shale, salt, gypsum, and anhydrite. The group occurs from subcrop, near the surface, to nearly 1400 feet deep from the northern tip of the Southern Peninsula to the south edge of the "solution front" Glacial drift is from zero to 350 feet thick. Oil and gas exploration has encountered some significant lost-circulation zones throughout the area. Drilling without fluid returns, casing-seal failures, and lost holes are strong risks in some parts of the region. Lost fluid returns near the top of the group in nearby areas indicate some karst development shortly after deposition. Large and irregular lost-circulation zones, linear and patch trends of large sink holes, and 0.25 mile wide blocks of down-dropped land in the northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan were caused by surface- and ground-water movement along faults into the Detroit River Group. Glaciation has removed some evidence of the karst area at the surface. Sinkhole development, collapse valleys, and swallows developed since retreat of the glacier reveal an active solution front in the Detroit River Group.

  8. Recent earthquakes in northern New York

    SciTech Connect

    Revetta, F.A.; Bockus, C.; O'Brian, B. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    The Massena, New York area located along the St. Lawrence River in northern New York has been the site of significant earthquake activity including the largest earthquake in New York (m = 6.0) on September 5, 1944. Historic earthquake data indicates the Cornwall-Massena area is a region of relatively high seismic activity, and the earthquake activity has been persistent for over a 400 year period. During the past year eleven small earthquakes have been recorded by the Potsdam Seismic Network in northern New York. Four of these earthquakes had epicenters located in the Massena-Cornwall area. One epicenter was located along the Carthage-Colton Mylonite Zone and one epicenter was located n the epicentral region of the October 7, 1984 Goodnow earthquake. Five earthquakes had epicenters located in Ontario and Quebec. These earthquake epicenters lie in a belt of seismicity that extends north-westerly from the northern Adirondacks into the Canadian Shield of western Quebec. Several explanations that have been presented to explain these earthquakes are (1) mafic intrusions (2) unmapped northwest trending faults (3) extension of the New England seamount chain and (4) crustal fractures due to the area passing over a hotspot. Four earthquakes in the Massena area lie very near extensions of the Gloucester and Winchester Spring faults into New York and may be related to the faults. Focal mechanism solutions of two earthquakes indicate thrusting along NW striking fault planes. Another possibility is the earthquakes are related to the Carthage-Colton Mylonite Zone. One earthquake is within four kms of the CCMZ and if the zone is extended northward beneath the lower Paleozoics, it passes through the epicenters on the Cornwall-Massena area.

  9. Quantitative paleogeography and accretionary history, northern Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Pluijm, B.A. van der; Voo, R. van der . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Ongoing paleomagnetic work on Early and Middle Paleozoic units provides quantitative data on paleogeography, latitudinal separation and latitudinal drift rates of tectonic elements that characterize the history of the northern segment of the Appalachian orogen. Following rifting and opening of Iapetus, the southern margin of Laurentia moved from ca 15S in the Ordovician to ca. 30S in the late Silurian: the northern margin of Avalon drifted northward (separate from Gondwana) from > 50--30S during the same time interval. Paleolatitudes from volcanic units of the intervening Central Mobile Belt that yield primary magnetizations are: Newfoundland: Ordovician arc-back arc basin: 11[degree]S; Ordovician ocean island/arc: 31[degree]S; Silurian continental cover: Botwood Gp: 24[degree]S, Springdale Gp: 17[degree]S New Brunswick: Ordovician rift-subduction complex: 53[degree]S. Maine: Munsungun Volcanic Terrane 18[degree]S; Winterville Volcanic Terrane 15--20[degree]S; upper part Lunksoos Composite Terrane: 20[degree]S. The Ordovician results indicate several near-Laurentian volcanic terranes and back-arc basins, landward-dipping subduction complexes on opposite margins of Iapetus, and intra-Iapetus ocean islands/arcs. Silurian paleogeographic and tectonostratigraphic data show that closure of Iapetus and progressive outboard accretion in the northern portion of the Appalachian orogen was complete by the late Silurian. This closure is accompanied by considerable Ordovician to Early Silurian left-lateral strike slip and subsequent right-lateral displacement based on the relative positions of Laurentia, Avalon and Gondwana in Early and Middle Paleozoic times.

  10. Neotectonics in the northern equatorial Brazilian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetti, Dilce F.; Souza, Lena S. B.; Prado, Renato; Elis, Vagner R.

    2012-08-01

    An increasing volume of publications has addressed the role of tectonics in inland areas of northern Brazil during the Neogene and Quaternary, despite its location in a passive margin. Hence, northern South America plate in this time interval might have not been as passive as usually regarded. This proposal needs further support, particularly including field data. In this work, we applied an integrated approach to reveal tectonic structures in Miocene and late Quaternary strata in a coastal area of the Amazonas lowland. The investigation, undertaken in Marajó Island, mouth of the Amazonas River, consisted of shallow sub-surface geophysical data including vertical electric sounding and ground penetrating radar. These methods were combined with morphostructural analysis and sedimentological/stratigraphic data from shallow cores and a few outcrops. The results revealed two stratigraphic units, a lower one with Miocene age, and an upper one of Late Pleistocene-Holocene age. An abundance of faults and folds were recorded in the Miocene deposits and, to a minor extent, in overlying Late Pleistocene-Holocene strata. In addition to characterize these structures, we discuss their origin, considering three potential mechanisms: Andean tectonics, gravity tectonics related to sediment loading in the Amazon Fan, and rifting at the continental margin. Amongst these hypotheses, the most likely is that the faults and folds recorded in Marajó Island reflect tectonics associated with the history of continental rifting that gave rise to the South Atlantic Ocean. This study supports sediment deposition influenced by transpression and transtension associated with strike-slip divergence along the northern Equatorial Brazilian margin in the Miocene and Late Pleistocene-Holocene. This work records tectonic evidence only for the uppermost few ten of meters of this sedimentary succession. However, available geological data indicate a thickness of up to 6 km, which is remarkably thick for

  11. Ticks infesting humans in Northern Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lamattina, Daniela; Nava, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This work presents records of ticks infesting humans in northern Misiones Province, Argentina. Also, notes on potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens are included. A total of 282 ticks attached to researchers were collected and identified by their morphological characters. Eight tick species were found: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. Some of these species as A. dubitatum, A. ovale and R. sanguineus have been found infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae pathogenic to humans in Brazil and Argentina. The potential role as vectors of humans pathogens of the ticks found attached to humans in this study is discussed. PMID:27135846

  12. Forest Fires in Russia and Northern China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Smoke plumes from forest fires scattered along the border between the Russian Far East and northern China are clearly visible in this true-color image from the Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on June 16, 2000. Fires in Siberia occur every summer, and severe outbreaks occur every ten years or so, with the most recent in 1998. The fires are ignited by lightning, and are so remote that it is impossible to fight them effectively. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  13. Trace element content of northern Ontario peat

    SciTech Connect

    Glooschenko, W.A.; Capoblanco, J.A.

    1982-03-01

    Peat samples were collected at 0-20- and 20-40-cm depths from several peatland ecosystems located in northern Ontario, Canada. Analysis was made for the trace metals Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd, and Hg. Concentration values in general were in the low ppm range and did not significantly differ in terms of peatland type or depth except for Pb. This element was signficantly higher in surface peats in bogs and fens. Concentration of metals in peats found in the study were equivalent to those in US coals, suggesting caution during combustion in terms of potential atmospheric input of metals.

  14. PREFACE: Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2009-12-01

    The Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) was launched five years ago with the release of its Science Plan (http://neespi.org). Gradually, the Initiative was joined by numerous international projects and launched in the European Union, Russia, United States, Canada, Japan, and China. Currently, serving as an umbrella for more than 130 individual research projects (always with international participation) and with a 15M annual budget, this highly diverse initiative is in full swing. Since the first NEESPI focus issue (Pavel Groisman et al 2007 Environ. Res. Lett. 2 045008 (1pp)) in December 2007, several NEESPI Workshops and Sessions at International Meetings have been held that strengthen the NEESPI grasp on biogeochemical cycle and cryosphere studies, climatic and hydrological modeling, and regional NEESPI components in the Arctic, non- boreal Eastern Europe, Central Asia, northern Siberia, and mountainous regions of the NEESPI domain. In May 2009, an overview NEESPI paper was published in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) (Pavel Groisman et al 2009 Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 90 671). This paper also formulated a requirement to the next generation of NEESPI studies to work towards attaining a higher level of integration of observation programs, process studies, and modeling, across disciplines. Three books devoted to studies in different regions of Northern Eurasia prepared by the members of the NEESPI team have appeared and/or are scheduled to appear in 2009. This (second) ERL focus issue dedicated to climatic and environmental studies in Northern Eurasia is composed mostly from the papers that were presented at two NEESPI Open Science Sessions at the Annual Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union (December 2008, San Francisco, CA) and at the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union (April 2009, Vienna, Austria), as well as at the specialty NEESPI Workshops convened in Jena, Helsinki, Odessa, Urumqi

  15. The Northern Walker Lane Seismic Refraction Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louie, J. N.; Smith, S. B.; Thelen, W.; Scott, J. B.; Clark, M.

    2002-12-01

    We are developing a three-dimensional reference seismic velocity model for the western Great Basin region of Nevada and eastern California. The northern Walker Lane had not been characterized well by previous work. In May 2002 we collected a new crustal refraction profile from Battle Mountain, Nev. across western Nevada, the Reno area, Lake Tahoe, and the northern Sierra to Auburn, Calif. Mine blasts and earthquakes were recorded by 199 Texan instruments (loaned by the PASSCAL Instrument Center) extending across this more than 450-km-long transect. The seismic sources at the eastern end were mining blasts at Barrick's GoldStrike pit. We recorded additional blasts at the Florida Canyon and other mines between Lovelock and Battle Mountain, Nevada. The GoldStrike mine produced several ripple-fired blasts using 10,000-40,000 kg of ANFO each. First arrivals from the larger blasts are obvious to distances exceeding 250 km in the raw records. A M2.4 earthquake near Bridgeport, Calif. also produced pickable P-wave arrivals across at least half the transect, providing fan-shot data. We recorded only during working hours, and so missed an M4 earthquake that occurred at night. Events of M2 occurred during our recording to the west on the San Andreas fault near Pinnacles, Calif.; M3 events occurred near Portola and Mammoth Lakes, Calif. Arrivals from M5 events in the Mariana and Kuril Islands also appear in the records. Time-picks from these earthquakes may be possible after more work on synthetic-time modeling, data filtering, and display. We plan to record blasts at quarries in the western Sierra in future experiments, for a direct refraction reversal. We will compare our time picks against times generated from regional velocity models, to identify potential crustal and upper-mantle velocity anomalies. Such anomalies may be associated with the Battle Mountain heat-flow high, the northern Walker Lane belt, or the northern Sierran block.

  16. Ticks infesting humans in Northern Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lamattina, Daniela; Nava, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This work presents records of ticks infesting humans in northern Misiones Province, Argentina. Also, notes on potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens are included. A total of 282 ticks attached to researchers were collected and identified by their morphological characters. Eight tick species were found: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. Some of these species as A. dubitatum, A. ovale and R. sanguineus have been found infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae pathogenic to humans in Brazil and Argentina. The potential role as vectors of humans pathogens of the ticks found attached to humans in this study is discussed.

  17. Saturn's northern auroras as observed using the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, J. D.; Badman, S. V.; Bunce, E. J.; Clarke, J. T.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Hunt, G. J.; Provan, G.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the features of Saturn's northern FUV auroras as observed during a program of Hubble Space Telescope observations which executed over 2011-2013 and culminated, along with Cassini observations, in a comprehensive multi-spectral observing campaign. Our 2011-2013 observations of the northern aurora are also compared with those from our 2007-2008 observation of the southern aurora. We show that the variety of morphologies of the northern auroras is broadly consistent with the southern, and determine the statistical equatorward and poleward boundary locations. We find that our boundaries are overall consistent with previous observations, although a modest poleward displacement of the poleward boundaries is due to the increased prevalence of poleward auroral patches in the noon and afternoon sectors during this program, likely due to the solar wind interaction. We also show that the northern auroral oval oscillates with the northern planetary period oscillation (PPO) phase in an elongated ellipse with semi-major axis ∼1.6° oriented along the post-dawn/post-dusk direction. We further show that the northern auroras exhibit dawn-side brightenings at zero northern magnetic PPO phase, although there is mixed evidence of auroral emissions fixed in the rotating frame of the northern PPO current system, such that overall the dependence of the auroras on northern magnetic phase is somewhat weak.

  18. Environmental Education in Northern Ireland: Concern and Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Tom

    1982-01-01

    Reviews the current status of environmental education in primary and secondary schools in Northern Ireland, identifying issues and concerns, and summarizing recent developments that address these concerns. (DC)

  19. The 2012 Sumatra great earthquake sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duputel, Zacharie; Kanamori, Hiroo; Tsai, Victor C.; Rivera, Luis; Meng, Lingsen; Ampuero, Jean-Paul; Stock, Joann M.

    2012-10-01

    The equatorial Indian Ocean is a well known place of active intraplate deformation defying the conventional view of rigid plates separated by narrow boundaries where deformation is confined. On 11 April 2012, this region was hit in a couple of hours by two of the largest strike-slip earthquakes ever recorded (moment magnitudes Mw=8.6 and 8.2). Broadband seismological observations of the Mw=8.6 mainshock indicate a large centroid depth (˜30 km) and remarkable rupture complexity. Detailed study of the surface-wave directivity and moment rate functions clearly indicates the partition of the rupture into at least two distinct subevents. To account for these observations, we developed a procedure to invert for multiple-point-source parameters. The optimum source model at long period consists of two point sources separated by about 209 km with magnitudes Mw=8.5 and 8.3. To explain the remaining discrepancies between predicted and observed surface waves, we can refine this model by adding directivity along the WNW-ESE axis. However, we do not exclude more complicated models. To analyze the Mw=8.2 aftershock, we removed the perturbation due to large surface-wave arrivals of the Mw=8.6 mainshock by subtracting the corresponding synthetics computed for the two-subevent model. Analysis of the surface-wave amplitudes suggests that the Mw=8.2 aftershock had a large centroid depth between 30 km and 40 km. This major earthquake sequence brings a new perspective to the seismotectonics of the equatorial Indian Ocean and reveals active deep lithospheric deformation.

  20. Classification of earthquake site effects by shallow reflection seismics using a shear-wave land-streamer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polom, U.; Arsyad, I.; Wiyono, S.; Krawczyk, C. M.

    2007-12-01

    Touched in the SW by the Great Sumatra Fault, the densely populated delta of the Krueng Aceh River consists mainly of young alluvial sediments of clay, sand and gravel with partially high organic content. The depth of this sediment body and its internal structure are widely unknown. Whereas traditional timber constructed buildings are mostly unaffected by strong earthquakes, the change to concrete building techniques added a significant new and locally unknown seismic risk in this region. The classification of earthquake site effects in the city of Banda Aceh and the surrounding region of Aceh Besar was the aim of a high-resolution shear-wave reflection seismic survey in the Indonesian province Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam. In cooperation with the Government of Indonesia and local counterparts, this was part of the Project "Management of Georisk" of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources. Using shear-wave reflection seismics in combination with a land streamer has proven to be an enormously useful method in the sedimentary regions of the Aceh province with an easy and fast recording operation. In addition, the specialized seismic system accounts for compacted soil surfaces which allows a wide range of applications within cities, industrial sites, paved roads and also on small dirt roads. Using a vibrator seismic source, this technique was applied successfully also in areas of high building density in the city of Banda Aceh or in the surrounding mostly agricultural environment. Combined with standard geoengineering investigations like cone penetrometer tests, it was possible to evaluate the soil stiffness in populated urban areas down to 100 m depth in terms of the IBC2003. This is important for the exploration of new areas for save building foundation and groundwater aquifer detection in the tsunami-flooded region.

  1. Illuminating Northern California’s Active Faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prentice, Carol S.; Crosby, Christopher J.; Whitehill, Caroline S.; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon; Furlong, Kevin P.; Philips, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Newly acquired light detection and ranging (lidar) topographic data provide a powerful community resource for the study of landforms associated with the plate boundary faults of northern California (Figure 1). In the spring of 2007, GeoEarthScope, a component of the EarthScope Facility construction project funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, acquired approximately 2000 square kilometers of airborne lidar topographic data along major active fault zones of northern California. These data are now freely available in point cloud (x, y, z coordinate data for every laser return), digital elevation model (DEM), and KMZ (zipped Keyhole Markup Language, for use in Google EarthTM and other similar software) formats through the GEON OpenTopography Portal (http://www.OpenTopography.org/data). Importantly, vegetation can be digitally removed from lidar data, producing high-resolution images (0.5- or 1.0-meter DEMs) of the ground surface beneath forested regions that reveal landforms typically obscured by vegetation canopy (Figure 2)

  2. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-12-01

    Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ∼ 10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China.

  3. Northern New Mexico regional airport market feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

    1998-06-01

    This report is about the market for airline travel in northern New Mexico. Interest in developing a northern New Mexico regional airport has periodically surfaced for a number of years. The New Mexico State Legislature passed a memorial during the 1998 Second Session calling for the conduct of a study to determine the feasibility of building a new regional airport in NNM. This report is a study of the passenger market feasibility of such an airport. In addition to commercial passenger market feasibility, there are other feasibility issues dealing with siting, environmental impact, noise, economic impact, intermodal transportation integration, region-wide transportation services, airport engineering requirements, and others. These other feasibility issues are not analyzed in any depth in this report although none were discovered to be show-stoppers as a by-product of the authors doing research on the passenger market itself. Preceding the need for a detailed study of these other issues is the determination of the basic market need for an airport with regular commercial airline service in the first place. This report is restricted to an in-depth look at the market for commercial passenger air service in NNM. 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Mineralogy of fossil resins in Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdasarov, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    The investigation is focused on identification and origin of fossil resins from the Cretaceous, Tertiary, and Quaternary sediments of Northern Eurasia on the basis of detailed study of their physical and chemical characteristics: morphology; size; mass; density; optical, mechanical, and thermal properties; chemical composition; etc. The composition of amorphous organic minerals with polymeric structure, fossil resins included, is studied with IR spectrometry, the EPR method, derivatography at low heating rates, XRD, chemical analysis, emission spectrometry, etc. The results of investigation summarized for the Baltic-Dnieper, North Siberian, and Far East amber-bearing provinces show some similarity of fossil resins in combination with specific features inherent to each province. Resins from the Baltic-Dnieper province should be termed as amber (succinite). Their variety is the most characteristic of Northern and Eastern Europe. Amber-like fossil resins from the North Siberian and Far East provinces are irrelevant to succinite. They usually occur as brittle resins, namely, retinite and gedanite, without jewelry value. Viscous fossil resin rumänite with an expected high economic value occurs in the Far East, on the shore of Sakhalin Island.

  5. Provenance of Norphlet sandstone, northern Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, W.P.; Ward, W.C.; Kuglar, R.L.

    1987-09-01

    The Upper Jurassic Norphlet sandstone of the northern Gulf Coast is predominantly subarkose, with some arkose in the eastern area and sublitharenite and quartzarenite in the western area. Despite great depths of burial and despite feldspar and rock-fragment constituents, diagenesis has not appreciably altered the composition of Norphlet sandstone. Therefore, reconstruction of original composition of Norphlet sandstone presented little difficulty. Variation in detrital modes of the Norphlet suggests compositionally distinct source terranes. Samples from Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi reflect the influence of metamorphic and plutonic rocks of the Appalachian Piedmont Province and of Triassic-Jurassic volcanic rocks. Sandstones in east Texas, northern Louisiana, and southern Arkansas were derived from sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks of the Ouachita system. The Arbuckle Mountains and Llano uplift may have supplied trace amounts of quartzo-feldspathic and volcanic-rock fragments to the extreme western part of the study area. Norphlet sandstones represent a mixture of collision-orogen-derived sediment from the Appalachian and/or Ouachita system and continental-block-derived sediment from paleohighs and uplifts within the Gulf basin. However, Norphlet sandstones plot in the craton-interior and transitional-continental fields on Q-F-L and QM-F-Lt tectonic-provenance diagrams, because of mineralogically mature source rocks, elimination of unstable grains by abrasion and sorting during deposition, and/or sediment mixing from different source terranes.

  6. Floods in Canada and Northern Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    During the first half of June, heavy rains inundated northern Minnesota and southern Canada, giving rise to floods that drove hundreds of people from their homes and drenched more than 300,000 acres of prime farmland. This false-color image of the flood (right) was acquired on June 15, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The worst of the flooding occurred on the border of Canada and Minnesota along the Roseau River, which now resembles a lake in the center of the image. The town of Roseau, Minnesota, which sits in the eastern end of the newly formed lake, was hit the hardest. Nearly all the buildings in the town took heavy water damage and many residents were forced to leave. Widespread flooding across an eight county region in Minnesota has drenched nearly 300,000 to 500,000 acres of farmland altogether. Many of the farmers hit lost 100 percent of their crops and will be unable to plant again for the season. Last week, President Bush declared northern Minnesota a disaster area. Normally, the Roseau River cannot even be seen on a MODIS image (left, acquired May 21, 2002), and the surrounding area is dry. In the false-color images, sage green, rusty orange, and blue is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  7. Zinc and lead deposits of northern Arkansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKnight, Edwin T.

    1935-01-01

    Zinc and lead ores occur in the northern counties of Arkansas, from the Arkansas-Oklahoma line on the west to the Coastal Plain, in Lawrence County, on the east, but are concentrated chiefly in Marion, Boone, Newton, Searcy, Sharp, and Lawrence Counties.  Lead ore was reported in the region as early as 1818, and small reduction plants were built in the vicinity of Lead Hill in 1851 or 1852.  The Confederate forces obtained lead from northern Arkansas during the Civil War.  Zinc mining began at a somewhat later date and reached its peak between 1914 and 1917, but since that time mining has been at a low ebb.  The later history of lead mining in the region has closely paralleled that of zinc.  The production from the region since 1907, according to statistics compiled by the United States Geological Survey, has been, in round numbers, 1,900 tons of lead sulphide concentrates, 11,5000 tons of zinc sulphide concentrates, and 51,3000 tons of zinc carbonate and silicate concentrates.

  8. Foraminifera from the Northern Olympic Peninsula, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rau, Weldon W.

    1964-01-01

    Foraminifera from a Tertiary sequence that crops out on the northern part of the Olympic Peninsula, Wash., show stratigraphic and ecologic significance. Forty-two species that are important both to correlations and to ecologic interpretations are illustrated and systematically discussed. The Foraminifera indicate that some of the rocks may be as old as early Eocene. The oldest rocks are tentatively referred to the Penutian stage of Mallory. Other parts of the sequence are referred to the Ulatisian and Narizian stages of Mallory, the Refugian stage of Schenck and Kieinpell, and the Zemorrian and Saucesian stages of Kleinpell. Several short periods of shallow, sheltered sea conditions are suggested by the Foraminifera from several parts of the stratigraphic sequence, but Foraminifera from most of the rocks suggest relatively deep, open-sea conditions. With the exception of shallow, warm-water conditions in rocks of probable middle Eocene age, the Foraminifera suggest that cool-to-cold water temperatures, regardless of depth, prevailed during the deposition of most of the rocks of Tertiary age in the northern Olympic Peninsula.

  9. Rainfall variability and seasonality in northern Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Sheikh Hefzul; Hussain, Md. Manjurul; Husna, Noor-E.-Ashmaul

    2016-05-01

    This paper aimed at the analysis of rainfall seasonality and variability for the northern part of South-Asian country, Bangladesh. The coefficient of variability was used to determine the variability of rainfall. While rainfall seasonality index (SI ) and mean individual seasonality index ( overline{SI_i} ) were used to identify seasonal contrast. We also applied Mann-Kendall trend test and sequential Mann-Kendall test to determine the trend in seasonality. The lowest variability was found for monsoon among the four seasons whereas winter has the highest variability. Observed variability has a decreasing tendency from the northwest region towards the northeast region. The mean individual seasonality index (0.815378 to 0.977228) indicates that rainfall in Bangladesh is "markedly seasonal with a long dry season." It was found that the length of the dry period is lower at the northeastern part of northern Bangladesh. Trend analysis results show no significant change in the seasonality of rainfall in this region. Regression analysis of overline{SI_i} and SI, and longitude and mean individual seasonality index show a significant linear correlation for this area.

  10. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-01-01

    Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ∼10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China. PMID:25422439

  11. Opsin gene repertoires in northern archaic hominids.

    PubMed

    Taylor, John S; Reimchen, Thomas E

    2016-08-01

    The Neanderthals' northern distribution, hunting techniques, and orbit breadths suggest that they were more active in dim light than modern humans. We surveyed visual opsin genes from four Neanderthals and two other archaic hominids to see if they provided additional support for this hypothesis. This analysis was motivated by the observation that alleles responsible for anomalous trichromacy in humans are more common in northern latitudes, by data suggesting that these variants might enhance vision in mesopic conditions, and by the observation that dim light active species often have fewer opsin genes than diurnal relatives. We also looked for evidence of convergent amino acid substitutions in Neanderthal opsins and orthologs from crepuscular or nocturnal species. The Altai Neanderthal, the Denisovan, and the Ust'-Ishim early modern human had opsin genes that encoded proteins identical to orthologs in the human reference genome. Opsins from the Vindija Cave Neanderthals (three females) had many nonsynonymous substitutions, including several predicted to influence colour vision (e.g., stop codons). However, the functional implications of these observations were difficult to assess, given that "control" loci, where no substitutions were expected, differed from humans to the same extent. This left unresolved the test for colour vision deficiencies in Vindija Cave Neanderthals.

  12. Fences and grazing management in northern Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudat, Brice; Bloemertz, Lena; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Since Namibian independence, many fences have been erected in the communal land of the Ohangwena region in northern Namibia. Most fencing issues discussed so far in the region concern large-scale fencing of communal land by the new Namibian elite. Rarely discussed are the fences erected around small-scale farmers' parcels. This paper will discuss the impact of such increased small-scale fencing activities in northern Namibia. Fencing of land has different functions, including protection of fields against livestock and securing property rights. However, not all community members can afford the monetary and labor costs involved. In the annual agricultural cycle of the study area, livestock is left un-herded after the harvest of most crops. They can then feed on available crop remains and grass on the fields. The livestock then freely utilizes unfenced and unprotected land. This system has the advantage to accelerate crop degradation and fertilize the soils. However, by erecting efficient fences, the new middle-class community members concentrate fertility in their own field, thereby degrading agricultural soils of poorer farmers. Potentially, such small-scale fencing of land has therefore an impact on sol quality and thus fosters degradation of unfenced cropland. By using fences as features to determine the limits of the new land rights, the ongoing Communal Land Reform may not only promote the erection of fences, but may also have a negative impact on soil quality and potentially food security of small-scale farmers without cattle.

  13. Opsin gene repertoires in northern archaic hominids.

    PubMed

    Taylor, John S; Reimchen, Thomas E

    2016-08-01

    The Neanderthals' northern distribution, hunting techniques, and orbit breadths suggest that they were more active in dim light than modern humans. We surveyed visual opsin genes from four Neanderthals and two other archaic hominids to see if they provided additional support for this hypothesis. This analysis was motivated by the observation that alleles responsible for anomalous trichromacy in humans are more common in northern latitudes, by data suggesting that these variants might enhance vision in mesopic conditions, and by the observation that dim light active species often have fewer opsin genes than diurnal relatives. We also looked for evidence of convergent amino acid substitutions in Neanderthal opsins and orthologs from crepuscular or nocturnal species. The Altai Neanderthal, the Denisovan, and the Ust'-Ishim early modern human had opsin genes that encoded proteins identical to orthologs in the human reference genome. Opsins from the Vindija Cave Neanderthals (three females) had many nonsynonymous substitutions, including several predicted to influence colour vision (e.g., stop codons). However, the functional implications of these observations were difficult to assess, given that "control" loci, where no substitutions were expected, differed from humans to the same extent. This left unresolved the test for colour vision deficiencies in Vindija Cave Neanderthals. PMID:27463216

  14. Separation of coseismic and postseismic gravity changes for the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake from 4.6 yr of GRACE observations and modelling of the coseismic change by normal-modes summation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Linage, Caroline; Rivera, Luis; Hinderer, Jacques; Boy, Jean-Paul; Rogister, Yves; Lambotte, Sophie; Biancale, Richard

    2009-03-01

    This paper is devoted to the simultaneous determination of the coseismic and postseismic gravitational changes caused by the great 2004 December 26 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake from the time-variable global gravity fields recovered by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission. Furthermore, a complete modelling of the elasto-gravitational response of a self-gravitating, spherically layered, elastic earth model is carried out using a normal-modes summation for comparison with the observed coseismic gravitational change. Special attention is paid to the ocean mass redistribution. Special care is paid during the inversion of the data to avoid contamination of tectonic gravity changes by ocean tidal model errors, seasonal and interannual signals originating from continental hydrology and oceanic circulation as well as contamination of the coseismic gravity change by the postseismic relaxation. We use a 4.6-yr-long time-series of global gravity solutions including 26 months of postseismic data, provided by the Groupe de Recherche en Géodésie Spatiale (GRGS). For comparison, the Release-04 solutions of the Center for Space Research (CSR) are also investigated after a spectral windowing or a Gaussian spatial smoothing. Results are shown both in terms of geoid height changes and gravity variations. Coseismic and postseismic gravitational changes estimated from the different gravity solutions are globally similar, although their spatial extent and amplitude depend on the type of filter used in the processing of GRACE fields. The highest signal-to-noise ratio is found with the GRGS solutions. The postseismic signature has a spectral content closer to the GRACE bandwidth than the coseismic signature and is therefore better detected by GRACE. The coseismic signature consists mainly of a strong gravity decrease east of the Sunda trench, in the Andaman Sea. A gravity increase is also detected at a smaller scale, west of the trench. The model for the coseismic

  15. Trophic ecology of largemouth bass and northern pike in allopatric and sympatric assemblages in northern boreal lakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Soupir, Craig A.; Brown, Michael L.; Kallemeyn, Larry W.

    2000-01-01

    Largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides) and northern pike (Esox lucius) are top predators in the food chain in most aquatic environments that they occupy; however, limited information exists on species interactions in the northern reaches of largemouth bass distribution. We investigated the seasonal food habits of allopatric and sympatric assemblages of largemouth bass and northern pike in six interior lakes within Voyageurs National Park, Minnesota. Percentages of empty stomachs were variable for largemouth bass (38-54%) and northern pike (34.7-66.7%). Fishes (mainly yellow perch, Perca flavescens) comprised greater than 60% (mean percent mass, MPM) of the northern pike diet during all seasons in both allopatric and sympatric assemblages. Aquatic insects (primarily Odonata and Hemiptera) were important in the diets of largemouth bass in all communities (0.0-79.7 MPM). Although largemouth bass were observed in the diet of northern pike, largemouth bass apparently did not prey on northern pike. Seasonal differences were observed in the proportion of aquatic insects (P = 0.010) and fishes (P = 0.023) in the diets of northern pike and largemouth bass. Based on three food categories, jackknifed classifications correctly classified 77 and 92% of northern pike and largemouth bass values, respectively. Percent resource overlap values were biologically significant (greater than 60%) during at least one season in each sympatric assemblage, suggesting some diet overlap.

  16. Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H

    2010-01-01

    Since 1985, scientists have been documenting a hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico each year. The hypoxic zone, an area of low dissolved oxygen that cannot support marine life, generally manifests itself in the spring. Since marine species either die or flee the hypoxic zone, the spread of hypoxia reduces the available habitat for marine species, which are important for the ecosystem as well as commercial and recreational fishing in the Gulf. Since 2001, the hypoxic zone has averaged 16,500 km{sup 2} during its peak summer months, an area slightly larger than the state of Connecticut, and ranged from a low of 8,500 km{sup 2} to a high of 22,000 km{sup 2}. To address the hypoxia problem, the Mississippi River/Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient Task Force (or Task Force) was formed to bring together representatives from federal agencies, states, and tribes to consider options for responding to hypoxia. The Task Force asked the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy to conduct a scientific assessment of the causes and consequences of Gulf hypoxia through its Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (CENR). In 2000 the CENR completed An Integrated Assessment: Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (or Integrated Assessment), which formed the scientific basis for the Task Force's Action Plan for Reducing, Mitigating, and Controlling Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (Action Plan, 2001). In its Action Plan, the Task Force pledged to implement ten management actions and to assess progress every 5 years. This reassessment would address the nutrient load reductions achieved, the responses of the hypoxic zone and associated water quality and habitat conditions, and economic and social effects. The Task Force began its reassessment in 2005. In 2006 as part of the reassessment, USEPA's Office of Water, on behalf of the Task Force, requested that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Science Advisory Board (SAB) convene an independent panel to

  17. Cenozoic stratigraphy of the Sahara, Northern Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swezey, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Cenozoic stratigraphic record in the Sahara, and shows that the strata display some remarkably similar characteristics across much of the region. In fact, some lithologies of certain ages are exceptionally widespread and persistent, and many of the changes from one lithology to another appear to have been relatively synchronous across the Sahara. The general stratigraphic succession is that of a transition from early Cenozoic carbonate strata to late Cenozoic siliciclastic strata. This transition in lithology coincides with a long-term eustatic fall in sea level since the middle Cretaceous and with a global climate transition from a Late Cretaceous–Early Eocene “warm mode” to a Late Eocene–Quaternary “cool mode”. Much of the shorter-term stratigraphic variability in the Sahara (and even the regional unconformities) also can be correlated with specific changes in sea level, climate, and tectonic activity during the Cenozoic. Specifically, Paleocene and Eocene carbonate strata and phosphate are suggestive of a warm and humid climate, whereas latest Eocene evaporitic strata (and an end-Eocene regional unconformity) are correlated with a eustatic fall in sea level, the build-up of ice in Antarctica, and the appearance of relatively arid climates in the Sahara. The absence of Oligocene strata throughout much of the Sahara is attributed to the effects of generally low eustatic sea level during the Oligocene and tectonic uplift in certain areas during the Late Eocene and Oligocene. Miocene sandstone and conglomerate are attributed to the effects of continued tectonic uplift around the Sahara, generally low eustatic sea level, and enough rainfall to support the development of extensive fluvial systems. Middle–Upper Miocene carbonate strata accumulated in northern Libya in response to a eustatic rise in sea level, whereas Upper Miocene mudstone accumulated along the south side of the Atlas Mountains because uplift of the

  18. Megafans of the Northern Kalahari Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, M. J.; Miller, R. McG.; Eckardt, F.; Kreslavsky, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    We identify eleven megafans (partial cones of fluvial sediment, >80 km radius) in the northern Kalahari Basin, using several criteria based on VIS and IR remotely sensed data and SRTM-based surface morphology reconstructions. Two other features meet fewer criteria of the form which we class as possible megafans. The northern Kalahari megafans are located in a 1700 km arc around the southern and eastern flanks of the Angola's Bié Plateau, from northern Namibia through northwest Botswana to western Zambia. Three lie in the Owambo subbasin centered on the Etosha Pan, three in the relatively small Okavango rift depression, and five in the Upper Zambezi basin. The population includes the well-known Okavango megafan (150 km), Namibia's Cubango megafan, the largest megafan in the region (350 km long), and the largest nested group (the five major contiguous megafans on the west slopes of the upper Zambezi Valley). We use new, SRTM-based topographic roughness data to discriminate various depositional surfaces within the flat N. Kalahari landscapes. We introduce the concepts of divide megafans, derived megafans, and fan-margin rivers. Conclusions. (i) Eleven megafan cones total an area of 190,000 sq km. (ii) Different controls on megafan size operate in the three component basins: in the Okavango rift structural controls become the prime constraint on megafan length by controlling basin dimensions. Megafans in the other les constricted basins appear to conform to classic relationships fan area, slope, and feeder-basin area. (iii) Active fans occupy the Okavango rift depression with one in the Owambo basin. The rest of the population are relict but recently active fans (surfaces are relict with respect to activity by the feeder river). (iv) Avulsive behavior of the formative river-axiomatic for the evolution of megafans-has resulted in repeated rearrangements of regional drainage, with likely effects in the study area well back into the Neogene. Divide megafans comprise the

  19. Ongoing Climatic Changes in Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, P. Ya.; Bulygina, O. N.; Razuvaev, V. N.; Meshcherskaya, A. V.; Ivanov, S. V.; Akhmadiyeva, Zh. K.; Speranskaya, N. A.; Zhai, P.; Shein, K.

    2009-04-01

    Northern Eurasia is the region where the contemporary warming and associated climatic and environmental changes are among the most pronounced globally, with winter temperature increased by more than 2K and summer temperature by 1.35K during the period of instrumental observations since 1881. The summer warming is a new phenomenon observed during the past several decades. Summer temperature controls most of vegetation in the polar region, where surface radiation balance (SRB) is positive only for a short period of the year. But, in the middle of this period, it exceeds the SRB values in Sahara or southern California. North of the Eurasian coast, the Arctic Ocean is moving to perennial ice-free conditions and has already lost nearly half of its end-of-summer extent since the late 1970s. This changes the regional albedo and dramatically affects the cold season heat fluxes from the ocean to the atmosphere. Thus, Northern Eurasia and, particularly, its Arctic part is being affected by global and regional factors that are contributing to these observed changes and the positive feedbacks to this forcing may further exaggerate the situation. Climatic changes over Northern Eurasia during the 20th century have been reflected in many atmospheric and terrestrial variables. These include various snow cover, agricultural and phenological characteristics, temperature and precipitation changes, as well as changes in derived variables of economic, social and ecological interest. Among these variables are the frequency of extremes in precipitation and temperature; frequency and duration of no-rain periods; agricultural and hydrological droughts; frequency of thaws and days with severe fire danger; heating degree days; growing season duration; sum of temperatures above/below a given threshold; days without frost; day-to-day temperature variability; precipitation frequency; and precipitation type fraction. We shall systematically present these changes observed during the past 50 to

  20. Barriers to Adult Learners of an Isolated Northern Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hilts, David J.

    In 1991, a study was conducted to determine perceptions regarding the deterrents to college attendance among adult learners in an isolated northern community. The study consisted of a survey of 40 students at the Fort Nelson campus of Northern Lights College (NLC) in British Columbia, and a follow-up interview of eight of the survey respondents.…

  1. 77 FR 61595 - Northern Illinois Municipal Power; Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Illinois Municipal Power; Notice of Filing October 2, 2012. Take notice that on October 1, 2012, Northern Illinois Municipal Power filed its Revised and...

  2. Geographical and Environmental Education in the Northern Territory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Battalis, Chrissie; Boland, Judy

    2006-01-01

    The Northern Territory is a semi-a