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Sample records for aceh northern sumatra

  1. Tsunami damage in Aceh Province, Sumatra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The island of Sumatra suffered from both the rumblings of the submarine earthquake and the tsunamis that were generated on December 26, 2004. Within minutes of the quake, the sea surged ashore, bringing destruction to the coasts of northern Sumatra. This pair of natural-color images from Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) instrument shows a small area along the Sumatran coast in Aceh province where the tsunami smashed its way ashore. In this region, the wave cut a swath of near-total destruction 1.5 kilometers (roughly one mile) in most places, but penetrating farther in many others. Some of these deeper paths of destruction can be seen especially dramatically in the larger-area ETM+ images linked to above. (North is up in these larger images.) ETM+ collects data at roughly 30 meter resolution, complimenting sensors like NASA's MODIS (onboard both Terra and Aqua satellites) which observed this area at 250-meter resolution to give a wide view and ultra-high-resolution sensors like Space Imaging's IKONOS, which observed the same region at 4-meter resolution to give a detailed, smaller-area view. NASA images created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data provided courtesy of the Landsat 7 Science Project Office

  2. Recurrence of great earthquakes and tsunamis, Aceh Province, Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin, C. M.; Horton, B.; Sieh, K.; Pilarczyk, J.; Hawkes, A. D.; Daly, P.; Kelsey, H. M.; McKinnon, E.; Ismail, N.; Daryono, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    The timing and characterization of ancient earthquakes and tsunamis inferred from a variety of geologic studies in Aceh Province, Sumatra, are helping to understand predecessors of the 2004 event in the Indian Ocean region. We report results from three different depositional environments along the western and northern coast of Aceh Province, Sumatra, that illuminate the history of tsunamis through the past several millennia. Within a coastal cave along the western coast is an extraordinary sedimentary deposit that contains a 7,000-year long sequence of tsunami sands separated by bat guano. In two sea cliff exposures along the northern coast of Aceh is evidence for two closely timed predecessors of the giant 2004 tsunami that destroyed communities along the coast about 500 years ago. In addition, coastal wetlands along the western coast document land-level changes and tsunamis associated with the earthquake cycle in the early- to mid-Holocene. Together these records show a marked variability in recurrence of large tsunamis along the Acehnese coast. Time between inundations averages close to 500 years but range from a few centuries to a millennium.

  3. Biological control of Black Pod Disease and Seedling Blight of cacao caused by Phytophthora Species using Trichoderma from Aceh Sumatra

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cocoa tree, Theobroma cacao L., suffers large yield losses in Aceh Indonesia to the disease black pod rot, caused by Phytophthora spp. Despite having the largest area under cacao production in Sumatra, farmers in the Aceh region have low overall production because of losses to insect pests and b...

  4. Penultimate predecessors of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Aceh, Sumatra: Stratigraphic, archeological, and historical evidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieh, Kerry; Daly, Patrick; Edwards McKinnon, E.; Pilarczyk, Jessica E.; Chiang, Hong-Wei; Horton, Benjamin; Rubin, Charles M.; Shen, Chuan-Chou; Ismail, Nazli; Vane, Christopher H.; Feener, R. Michael

    2015-01-01

    We present stratigraphic, archeological and historical evidence for two closely timed predecessors of the giant 2004 tsunami on the northern coast of Aceh, northern Sumatra. This is the first direct evidence that a tsunami played a role in a fifteenth century cultural hiatus along the northern Sumatran portion of the maritime silk route. One seacliff exposure on the eastern side of the Lambaro headlands reveals two beds of tsunamigenic coral rubble within a small alluvial fan. Radiocarbon and Uranium-Thorium disequilibrium dates indicate emplacement of the coral rubble after 1344 ± 3 C.E. Another seacliff exposure, on the western side of the peninsula, contains evidence of nearly continuous settlement from ~1240 C.E. to soon after 1366 ± 3 C.E., terminated by tsunami destruction. At both sites, the tsunamis are likely coincident with sudden uplift of coral reefs above the Sunda megathrust 1394 ± 2 C.E., evidence for which has been published previously. The tsunami (or tsunami pair) appears to have destroyed a vibrant port community and led to the temporary recentering of marine trade dominance to more protected locations farther east. The reestablishment of vibrant communities along the devastated coast by about 1500 CE set the stage for the 2004 disaster.

  5. Shallow shear-wave reflection seismics in the tsunami struck Krueng Aceh River Basin, Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polom, U.; Arsyad, I.; Kümpel, H.-J.

    2008-01-01

    As part of the project "Management of Georisk" (MANGEONAD) of the Federal Institute for Geosciences and Natural Resources (BGR), Hanover, high resolution shallow shear-wave reflection seismics was applied in the Indonesian province Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, North Sumatra in cooperation with the Government of Indonesia, local counterparts, and the Leibniz Institute for Applied Geosciences, Hanover. The investigations were expected to support classification of earthquake site effects for the reconstruction of buildings and infrastructure as well as for groundwater exploration. The study focussed on the city of Banda Aceh and the surroundings of Aceh Besar. The shear-wave seismic surveys were done parallel to standard geoengineering investigations like cone penetrometer tests to support subsequent site specific statistical calibration. They were also partly supplemented by shallow p-wave seismics for the identification of (a) elastic subsurface parameters and (b) zones with abundance of groundwater. Evaluation of seismic site effects based on shallow reflection seismics has in fact been found to be a highly useful method in Aceh province. In particular, use of a vibratory seismic source was essential for successful application of shear-wave seismics in the city of Banda Aceh and in areas with compacted ground like on farm tracks in the surroundings, presenting mostly agricultural land use areas. We thus were able to explore the mechanical stiffness of the subsurface down to 100 m depth, occasionally even deeper, with remarkably high resolution. The results were transferred into geotechnical site classification in terms of the International Building Code (IBC, 2003). The seismic images give also insights into the history of the basin sedimentation processes of the Krueng Aceh River delta, which is relevant for the exploration of new areas for construction of safe foundations of buildings and for identification of fresh water aquifers in the tsunami flooded region.

  6. Intestinal and blood parasites of man in Bireuen and Takengon, Aceh Province, Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Stafford, E E; Joesoef, A

    1976-12-01

    A survey for blood and intestinal parasites was carried out in Aceh Province of North Sumatra, Indonesia. A total of 348 stool specimens were obtained from 167 males and 181 females ranging in age from 6 months to 70 years. Over 98% of the population sampled were found infected with at least one intestinal parasite. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm and Entamoeba coli, in that order, were the most common parasites detected. Other intestinal parasites found less frequently were Entamoeba histolytica, Iodamoeba bütschlii, Entamoeba hartmanni, Endolimax nana and Giardia lamblia, Brugia malayi microfilaraemias were detected in 2% of those examined and only in the coastal villages of Cot Ketapang and Rusip Dayah. No malaria was found. PMID:1030850

  7. April 2012 intra-oceanic seismicity off Sumatra boosted by the Banda-Aceh megathrust.

    PubMed

    Delescluse, Matthias; Chamot-Rooke, Nicolas; Cattin, Rodolphe; Fleitout, Luce; Trubienko, Olga; Vigny, Christophe

    2012-10-11

    Large earthquakes nucleate at tectonic plate boundaries, and their occurrence within a plate's interior remains rare and poorly documented, especially offshore. The two large earthquakes that struck the northeastern Indian Ocean on 11 April 2012 are an exception: they are the largest strike-slip events reported in historical times and triggered large aftershocks worldwide. Yet they occurred within an intra-oceanic setting along the fossil fabric of the extinct Wharton basin, rather than on a discrete plate boundary. Here we show that the 11 April 2012 twin earthquakes are part of a continuing boost of the intraplate deformation between India and Australia that followed the Aceh 2004 and Nias 2005 megathrust earthquakes, subsequent to a stress transfer process recognized at other subduction zones. Using Coulomb stress change calculations, we show that the coseismic slips of the Aceh and Nias earthquakes can promote oceanic left-lateral strike-slip earthquakes on pre-existing meridian-aligned fault planes. We further show that persistent viscous relaxation in the asthenospheric mantle several years after the Aceh megathrust explains the time lag between the 2004 megathrust and the 2012 intraplate events. On a short timescale, the 2012 events provide new evidence for the interplay between megathrusts at the subduction interface and intraplate deformation offshore. On a longer geological timescale, the Australian plate, driven by slab-pull forces at the Sunda trench, is detaching from the Indian plate, which is subjected to resisting forces at the Himalayan front. PMID:23023134

  8. The correlation of 2D-resistivity and magnetic methods in fault verification at northern Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamaruddin, Nur Aminuda; Saad, Rosli; Nordiana, M. M.; Azwin, I. N.

    2015-04-01

    The Great Sumatra Fault system was split into two sub-parallel lines or segments at the Northern Sumatra. This event is one of the impacts of powerful earthquakes that hit Sumatra Island especially one that occurred in 2004. These two sub-parallel segments known as Aceh and Seulimeum fault. The study is focused on the Seulimeum fault and two geophysical methods chosen aimed to compare and verified the result obtained respectively. 2-D resistivity method is a common geophysical method used in determination of near surface structures such as faults, cavities, voids and sinkholes. Meanwhile, the magnetic method often chosen to delineate subsurface structures, determine depth of magnetic source bodies and possibly sediment thickness. Three survey lines of resistivity method and randomly magnetic stations were carried out covering Krueng district. The resistivity data processed using Res2Dinv and result presented using Surfer software. The fault identified by the contrast of low and high resistivity value. Meanwhile, the magnetic data were presented in magnetic residual contour map and the extended fault system is suspected represent by the contrast value of the magnetic anomalies. Within suspected fault zone, the results of resistivity are tally with magnetic result.

  9. Estimation of postseismic deformation parameters from continuous GPS data in northern Sumatra after the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anugrah, Bimar; Meilano, Irwan; Gunawan, Endra; Efendi, Joni

    2015-12-01

    Continuous global positioning system (GPS) in northern Sumatra detected signal of the ongoing physical process of postseismic deformation after the M9.2 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. We analyze the characteristics of postseismic deformation of the 2004 earthquake based on GPS networks operated by BIG, and the others named AGNeSS, and SuGAr networks located in northern Sumatra. We use a simple analytical logarithmic and exponential function to evaluate the postseismic deformation parameters of the 2004 earthquake. We find that GPS data in northern Sumatra during time periods of 2005-2012 are fit better using the logarithmic function with τlog of 104.2 ± 0.1 than using the exponential function. Our result clearly indicates that other physical mechanisms of postseismic deformation should be taken into account rather than a single physical mechanism of afterslip only.

  10. Parasitology survey in northern Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Cross, J H; Clarke, M D; Cole, W C; Lien, J C; Partono, F; Joesoef, A; Kosin, E H

    1976-06-01

    A parasitology survey was conducted in five villages in North Sumatra, Indonesia. A total of 3,207 blood smears, 2,066 stool specimens and 969 sera were examined. Sixty (1.9%) inhabitants had malaria (Plasmodium vivax 41, P. falciparum 19), and 20 had Brugia malayi microfilaraemia. The most common intestinal helminths were Trichuris trichiura (87%), Ascaris lumbricoides (75%) and hookworm (58%). Other helminths found in low numbers were Enterobius vermicularis, Strongyloides stercoralis, Taenia sp., Fasciolid, Dicrocoeliid and Echinostoma sp. eggs. Entamoeba coli (25%) was the most common intestinal protozoa followed by Endolimax nana (8%), Entamoeba histolytica (7%), Giardia lamblia (6%), Iodamoeba bütschlii (5%), Entamoeba hartmanni (1%) and Chilomastix mesnili (1%). The amoeba prevalence rate was 31 per cent. Testing of sera for Entamoeba histolytica and Toxoplasma gondii antibodies by the indirect haemagglutination test demonstrated positive reactors in 13 per cent and nine per cent of the population respectively. The greatest number of seropositives for Toxoplasma gondii was at elevations of sea level to five meters and the lowest number at elevations of 5OO-1,000 meters. PMID:950682

  11. Analysis of rupture area of aftershocks caused by twin earthquakes (Case study: 11 April 2012 earthquakes of Aceh-North Sumatra)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diansari, Angga Vertika; Purwana, Ibnu; Subakti, Hendri

    2015-04-01

    The 11 April 2012 earthquakes off-shore Aceh-North Sumatra are unique events for the history of Indonesian earthquake. It is unique because that they have similar magnitude, 8.5 Mw and 8.1 Mw; close to epicenter distance, similar strike-slip focal mechanism, and occuring in outer rise area. The purposes of this research are: (1) comparing area of earthquakes base on models and that of calculation, (2) fitting the shape and the area of earthquake rupture zones, (3) analyzing the relationship between rupture area and magnitude of the earthquakes. Rupture area of the earthquake fault are determined by using 4 different formulas, i.e. Utsu and Seki (1954), Wells and Coppersmith (1994), Ellsworth (2003), and Christophersen and Smith (2000). The earthquakes aftershock parameters are taken from PGN (PusatGempabumiNasional or National Earthquake Information Center) of BMKG (Indonesia Agency Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics). The aftershock epicenters are plotted by GMT's software. After that, ellipse and rectangular models of aftershock spreading are made. The results show that: (1) rupture areas were calculated using magnitude relationship which are larger than the the aftershock distributions model, (2) the best fitting model for that earthquake aftershock distribution is rectangular associated with Utsu and Seki (1954) formula, (3) the larger the magnitude of the earthquake, the larger area of the fault.

  12. Contribution of Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) to reconstruct flooding characteristics of a 4220 BP tsunami from a thick unconsolidated structureless deposit (Banda Aceh, Sumatra)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassmer, Patrick; Gomez, Christopher; Iskandasyah, T. Yan W. M.; Lavigne, Franck; Sartohadi, Junun

    2015-07-01

    One of the main concerns of deciphering tsunami sedimentary records along seashore is to link the emplaced layers with marine high energy events. Based on a combination of morphologic features, sedimentary figures, grain size characteristics, fossils content, microfossils assemblages, geochemical elements, heavy minerals presence; it is, in principle, possible to relate the sedimentary record to a tsunami event. However, experience shows that sometimes, in reason of a lack of any visible sedimentary features, it is hard to decide between a storm and a tsunami origin. To solve this issue, the authors have used the Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility (AMS) to evidence the sediment fabric. The validity of the method for reconstructing flow direction has been proved when applied on sediments in the aftermath of a tsunami event, for which the behaviour was well documented (2004 IOT). We present herein an application of this method for a 56 cm thick paleo-deposit dated 4220 BP laying under the soil covered by the 2004 IOT, SE of Banda Aceh, North Sumatra. We analysed this homogenous deposit, lacking of any visible structure, using methods of classic sedimentology to confirm the occurrence of a high energy event. We then applied AMS technique that allowed the reconstruction of flow characteristics during sediment emplacement. We show that all the sequence was emplaced by uprush phases and that the local topography played a role on the re-orientation of a part of the uprush flow, creating strong reverse current. This particular behaviour was reported by eyewitnesses during the 2004 IOT event.

  13. Analysis of rupture area of aftershocks caused by twin earthquakes (Case study: 11 April 2012 earthquakes of Aceh-North Sumatra)

    SciTech Connect

    Diansari, Angga Vertika Purwana, Ibnu; Subakti, Hendri

    2015-04-24

    The 11 April 2012 earthquakes off-shore Aceh-North Sumatra are unique events for the history of Indonesian earthquake. It is unique because that they have similar magnitude, 8.5 Mw and 8.1 Mw; close to epicenter distance, similar strike-slip focal mechanism, and occuring in outer rise area. The purposes of this research are: (1) comparing area of earthquakes base on models and that of calculation, (2) fitting the shape and the area of earthquake rupture zones, (3) analyzing the relationship between rupture area and magnitude of the earthquakes. Rupture area of the earthquake fault are determined by using 4 different formulas, i.e. Utsu and Seki (1954), Wells and Coppersmith (1994), Ellsworth (2003), and Christophersen and Smith (2000). The earthquakes aftershock parameters are taken from PGN (PusatGempabumiNasional or National Earthquake Information Center) of BMKG (Indonesia Agency Meteorology Climatology and Geophysics). The aftershock epicenters are plotted by GMT’s software. After that, ellipse and rectangular models of aftershock spreading are made. The results show that: (1) rupture areas were calculated using magnitude relationship which are larger than the the aftershock distributions model, (2) the best fitting model for that earthquake aftershock distribution is rectangular associated with Utsu and Seki (1954) formula, (3) the larger the magnitude of the earthquake, the larger area of the fault.

  14. Atmospheric processes in reaction of Northern Sumatra Earthquake sequence Dec 2004-Apr 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouzounov, D.; Pulinets, S.; Cervone, G.; Singh, R.; Taylor, P.

    2005-05-01

    This work describes our first results in analyzing data from different and independent sources ûemitted long-wavelength radiation (OLR), surface latent heat flux (SHLF) and GPS Total Electron Content (TEC) collected from ground based (GPS) and satellite TIR (thermal infra-red) data sources (NOAA/AVHRR, MODIS). We found atmosphere and ionosphere anomalies one week prior to both the Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake (Dec 26, 2004) and M 8.7 - Northern Sumatra, March 28, 2005. We analyzed 118 days of data from December 1, 2004 through April 1, 2005 for the area (0°-10°,north latitude and 90°-100° east longitude) which included 125 earthquakes with M>5.5. Recent analysis of the continuous OLR from the Earth surface indicates anomalous variations (on top of the atmosphere) prior to a number of medium to large earthquakes. In the case of M 9.0 - Sumatra-Andaman Islands event, compared to the reference fields for the months of December between 2001 and 2004, we found strongly OLR anomalous +80 W/m2 signals (two sigma) along the epicentral area on Dec 21, 2004 five days before the event. In the case of M8.7 March 28, 2005 anomalues signatures over the epicenter appears on March 26 is much weaker (only +20W/m2) and have a different topology. Anomalous values of SHLF associated with M9.0 - Sumatra-Andaman Islands were found on Dec 22, 2005 (SLHF +280Wm2) and less intensity on Mar 23, 2005 (SLHF +180Wm2). Ionospheric variations (GPS/TEC) associated with the Northern Sumatra events were determine by five Regional GPS network stations (COCO, BAKO, NTUS, HYDE and BAST2). For every station time series of the vertical TEC (VTEC) were computed together with correlation with the Dst index. On December 22, four days prior to the M9.0 quake GPS/TEC data reach the monthly maximum for COCO with minor DST activity. For the M 8.7-March 28 event, the increased values of GPS/TEC were observed during four days (March 22-25) in quiet geomagnetic background. Our results need additional

  15. Tsunami Damage in Northwest Sumatra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The island of Sumatra suffered from both the rumblings of the submarine earthquake and the tsunamis that were generated on December 26, 2004. Within minutes of the quake, the sea surged ashore, bringing destruction to the coasts of the northern Sumatra. This pair of images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on NASA's Terra satellite shows the Aceh province of northern Sumatra, Indonesia, on December 17, 2004, before the quake (bottom), and on December 29, 2004 (top), three days after the catastrophe. Although MODIS was not specifically designed to make the very detailed observations that are usually necessary for mapping coastline changes, the sensor nevertheless observed obvious differences in the Sumatran coastline. On December 17, the green vegetation along the west coast appears to reach all the way to the sea, with only an occasional thin stretch of white that is likely sand. After the earthquake and tsunamis, the entire western coast is lined with a noticeable purplish-brown border. The brownish border could be deposited sand, or perhaps exposed soil that was stripped bare of vegetation when the large waves rushed ashore and then raced away. Another possibility is that parts of the coastline may have sunk as the sea floor near the plate boundary rose. On a moderate-resolution image such as this, the affected area may seem small, but each pixel in the full resolution image is 250 by 250 meters. In places the brown strip reaches inland roughly 13 pixels, equal to a distance of 3.25 kilometers, or about 2 miles. On the northern tip of the island (shown in the large image), the incursion is even larger. NASA images created by Jesse Allen, Earth Observatory, using data obtained from the MODIS Rapid Response team and the Goddard Earth Sciences DAAC.

  16. Out of Disaster Comes Opportunity: Initial Lessons from Teacher Mentoring in Banda Aceh, Indonesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesnick, Joy; Schultz, Katherine

    2006-01-01

    On December 26, 2004, a 9.0 magnitude earthquake--the most powerful in more than 40 years--struck deep under the Indian Ocean. It was centered about 100 miles southwest off the coast of Aceh, Indonesia, and triggered massive tsunamis across the coasts of Asia and Africa. In Aceh province, located at the northwest tip of the island of Sumatra in…

  17. Field data and satellite imagery of tsunami effects in Banda Aceh.

    PubMed

    Borrero, Jose C

    2005-06-10

    After the 26 December 2004 earthquake and tsunami, field data on the extent of the inundation in Banda Aceh, Sumatra, were combined with satellite imagery to quantify the tsunami effects. Flow depths along the shores of Banda Aceh exceeded 9 meters, with inundation reaching 3 to 4 kilometers inland. To the southwest, at Lhoknga, flow depths were more than 15 meters at the shoreline and runup exceeded 25 meters. Erosion and subsidence moved the shoreline of Banda Aceh inland up to 1.5 kilometers, and 65 square kilometers of land between Banda Aceh and Lhoknga were flooded. PMID:15947180

  18. Permian to recent volcanism in northern sumatra, indonesia: a preliminary study of its distribution, chemistry, and peculiarities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, N. M. S.; Syah, H. H.; Davis, A. E.; Hutchison, D.; Styles, M. T.; Lena, Rahayu

    1982-06-01

    Sumatra has been a ‘volcanic arc’, above an NE-dipping subduction zone, since at least the Late Permian. The principal volcanic episodes in Sumatra N of the Equator have been in the Late Permian, Late Mesozoic, Palaeogene, Miocene and Quaternary. Late Permian volcanic rocks, of limited extent, are altered porphyritic basic lavas interstratified with limestones and phyllites. Late Mesozoic volcanic rocks, widely distributed along and W of the major transcurrent. Sumatra Fault System (SFS), which axially bisects Sumatra, include ophiolite-related spilites, andesites and basalts. Possible Palaeogene volcanic rocks include an altered basalt pile with associated dyke-swarm in the extreme NW, intruded by an Early Miocene (19 my) dioritic stock; and variable pyroxene rich basic lavas and agglomerates ranging from alkali basaltic to absarokitic in the extreme SW. Miocene volcanic rocks, widely distributed (especially W of the SFS), and cropping out extensively along the W coast, include calc-alkaline to high-K calc-alkaline basalts, andesites and dacites. Quaternary volcanoes (3 active, 14 dormant or extinct) are irregularly distributed both along and across the arc; thus they lie fore-arc of the SFS near the Equator but well back-arc farther north. The largest concentration of centres, around Lake Toba, includes the >2000 km3 Pleistocene rhyolitic Toba Tuffs. Quaternary volcanics are mainly calc-alkaline andesites, dacites and rhyolites with few basalts; they seem less variable, but on the whole more acid, than the Tertiary. The Quaternary volcanism is anomalous in relation to both southern Sumatra and adjacent Java/Bali: in southern Sumatra, volcanoes are regularly spaced along and successively less active away from the SFS, but neither rule holds in northern Sumatra. Depths to the subduction zone below major calc-alkaline volcanoes in Java/Bali are 160-210 km, but little over 100 km in northern Sumatra, which also lacks the regular K2O-depth correlations seen in

  19. Seismicity of the Earth 1900-2012 Sumatra and vicinity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hayes, Gavin P., (compiler); Bernardino, Melissa; Dannemann, Fransiska; Smoczyk, Gregory; Briggs, Richard W.; Benz, Harley M.; Furlong, Kevin P.; Villaseñor, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    The plate boundary southwest of Sumatra is part of a long tectonic collision zone that extends over 8,000 km from Papua, New Guinea, in the east to the Himalayan front in the west. The Sumatra-Andaman part of the collision zone forms a subduction zone plate boundary, which accommodates convergence between the Indo-Australia and Sunda plates. This convergence is responsible for the intense seismicity in Sumatra. The Sumatra Fault, a major transform structure that bisects Sumatra, accommodates the northwest-increasing lateral component of relative plate motion. Most strain accumulation and release between the two plates occurs along the Sunda megathrust. The increasingly oblique convergence moving northwest is accommodated by crustal seismicity along several transform and normal faults, including the Sumatra Fault. Plate-boundary related deformation is also not restricted to the subduction zone and overriding plate: the Indo-Australian plate actually comprises two somewhat independent plates (India and Australia) that are joined along a broad, actively deforming region that produces seismicity up to several hundred kilometers west of the trench. This deformation is exemplified by the recent April 2012 earthquake sequence, which includes the April 11 M 8.6 and M 8.2 strike-slip events and their subsequent aftershocks. Since 2004, much of the Sunda megathrust between the northern Andaman Islands and Enggano Island, a distance of more than 2,000 km, has ruptured in a series of large subduction zone earthquakes—most rupturing the plate boundary south of Banda Aceh. These events include the great M 9.1 earthquake of December 26, 2004; the M 8.6 Nias Island earthquake of March 28, 2005; and two earthquakes on September 12, 2007, of M 8.5 and M 7.9. On October 25, 2010, a M 7.8 on the shallow portion of the megathrust to the west of the Mentawai Islands caused a substantial tsunami on the west coast of those islands.

  20. [Tsunami in South-East Asia--rapid response deployment in Banda Aceh].

    PubMed

    Streuli, Rolf A

    2008-01-01

    On December 26, 2004 the second largest earthquake ever seismographically registered occurred in South-East Asia. It had a magnitude of 9.3 on Richter's scale and its epicentre was located on sea ground 160 km West of Banda Aceh, the capital of the province of Aceh on the island of Sumatra. The earthquake resulted in a tsunami which almost completely destroyed the city of Banda Aceh. Its death toll on the island of Sumatra was 168,000. The Swiss Humanitarian Aid Unit was deployed within a few days after the catastrophe with an advance team, which had to evaluate the need for supplies and personal in Banda Aceh. In close collaboration with relief forces of the Australian armed forces the team was able to deliver efficient medical and technical support. The most prevalent medical problems were: (1) Tsunami associated aspiration pneumonia; (2) Infected wounds of lower extremities; (3) Open bone fractures of lower extremities; (4) Tetanus infection. PMID:18399180

  1. Numerical Simulation of the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami: Accurate Flooding and drying in Banda Aceh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Haiyang; Pietrzak, Julie; Stelling, Guus; Androsov, Alexey; Harig, Sven

    2010-05-01

    The Indian Ocean Tsunami on December 26, 2004 caused one of the largest tsunamis in recent times and led to widespread devastation and loss of life. One of the worst hit regions was Banda Aceh, which is the capital of the Aceh province, located in the northern part of Sumatra, 150km from the source of the earthquake. A German-Indonesian Tsunami Early Warning System (GITEWS) (www.gitews.de) is currently under active development. The work presented here is carried out within the GITEWS framework. One of the aims of this project is the development of accurate models with which to simulate the propagation, flooding and drying, and run-up of a tsunami. In this context, TsunAWI has been developed by the Alfred Wegener Institute; it is an explicit, () finite element model. However, the accurate numerical simulation of flooding and drying requires the conservation of mass and momentum. This is not possible in the current version of TsunAWi. The P1NC - P1element guarantees mass conservation in a global sense, yet as we show here it is important to guarantee mass conservation at the local level, that is within each individual cell. Here an unstructured grid, finite volume ocean model is presented. It is derived from the P1NC - P1 element, and is shown to be mass and momentum conserving. Then a number of simulations are presented, including dam break problems flooding over both a wet and a dry bed. Excellent agreement is found. Then we present simulations for Banda Aceh, and compare the results to on-site survey data, as well as to results from the original TsunAWI code.

  2. Potential Sedimentary Evidence of Two Closely Spaced Tsunamis on the West Coast of Aceh, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monecke, Katrin; Meilianda, Ella; Rushdy, Ibnu; Moena, Abudzar; Yolanda, Irvan P.

    2016-04-01

    estimate of sedimentation rates, are separated by only a few decades. Future microfossil and grain size analysis as well as radiocarbon dating are necessary to assertively interpret the origin, depositional characteristics and age of the two sand layers. Meltzner et al. (2010): Coral evidence for earthquake recurrence and an A.D. 1390 - 1455 earthquake cluster at the south end of the 2004 Aceh-Andaman rupture. J. Geophys. Res. 115, B10402. Sieh et al. (2015): Penultimate predecessors of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami in Aceh, Sumatra: Stratigraphic, archeological and historical evidence. J. Geophys. Res. Solid Earth, 120, 308-325. Monecke et al. (2008): A 1,000-year sedimentary record of tsunami recurrence in northern Sumatra. Nature, 455, 1232-1234.

  3. Multisatellite observations of an intensified equatorial ionization anomaly in relation to the northern Sumatra earthquake of March 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ryu, K.; Lee, E.; Chae, J. S.; Parrot, M.; Oyama, K.-I.

    2014-06-01

    Here we report multisatellite observations of ionospheric disturbances in relation to the occurrence of the M8.7 northern Sumatra earthquake of 28 March 2005. The DEMETER (Detection of Electro-Magnetic Emissions Transmitted from Earthquake Regions) and CHAMP (Challenging Minisatellite Payload) satellite data were investigated to find possible precursory and postevent phenomena. It was found that EIA (equatorial ionization anomaly) strength expressed in the apex height, derived from the CHAMP plasma density profile, was intensified along the orbits whose longitudes were close to the epicenter within about a week before and after occurrence of the earthquake. Increases in electron and O+ density along the orbits close to the epicenter were also observed in the DEMETER measurements. The normalized equatorial plasma density derived from the DEMETER measurements showed intensification about a week before and after the earthquake reaching maximum the day after the shock and afterward disappearing. In addition, similar behavior of the EIA enhancements related to the M8.0 Pisco earthquake of 15 August 2007 was observed. Surveys of space weather and geomagnetic activities excluded the possibility that these fluctuations were caused by changes in space weather or by a geomagnetic storm. Statistical analyses of the longitudinal variation revealed that the EIA was enhanced in the west of the epicenter and reduced in the east of the epicenter, and this fits the "increased conductivity" model. Based on these observations, we proposed a revised view of seismo-ionospheric coupling in the region of the geomagnetic equator, to explain the EIA features observed in this study.

  4. 26th December 2004 Great Sumatra Earthquake: first insights from the summer 2005 Marion Dufresne cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibuet, J.

    2005-12-01

    The 26th December 2004 Great Sumatra Earthquake is the second biggest earthquake (Mw=9.3) recorded during the past century. It initiated at a depth of 20-30 km, close to an indentation of the Indonesian fore-arc. The rupture propagated about 1200 km northward and terminated north of Andaman Islands. The "Sumatra Aftershocks" cruise performed on the French R/V Marion Dufresne started July 15 in Jakarta and ended August 9, 2005 in Colombo. We carried out a complete swath-bathymetric survey in a 370*75 km stripe located between northern Sumatra and the Indonesia/India boundary and from the trench to northeast of the Sumatra fault. 20 OBSs were deployed in the area and recorded about 2000 earthquakes during that period. Coring, heat-flow and piezometer measurements were also carried out. Offshore northern Sumatra, the Australia/Sundaland motion is 5 cm/yr in the N008° direction (Bock et al., J. Geophys. Res., 2003), which means that both strike-slip and normal components might occur along features parallel to the trench direction. However, focal mechanisms of the 26th December 2004 earthquake as well as co-seismic motions and 5-days post-seismic displacement field determined from GPS sites are essentially perpendicular to the trench direction (Vigny et al., Nature, 2005). There is consequently an apparent mismatch between deformations derived from plate motions and from co-seismic and immediate after-slip motions. This might suggest that long-term post-seismic motions might have also a significant component of strike-slip motion along features parallel to the trench direction. Between the trench and the backstop located southwest of the Aceh forearc basin, numerous trench parallel piggy back basins were mapped, suggesting the existence of numerous thrust faults. On the basis of morphology, coring and heat flow measurements, a major active thrust fault, which might correspond to an active splay fault, was identified southwest of the Aceh forearc basin. The

  5. ICESat Observations of Topographic Change in the Northern Segment of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands Earthquake Rupture Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, David; Sauber, J.; Luthcke, S.; Carabajal, C.; Muller, J

    2005-01-01

    The Andaman Islands are located 120 km east of the Sunda trench in the northern quarter of the 1300 km long rupture zone of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake inferred from the distribution of aftershocks. Initial field reports indicate that several meters of uplift and up to a meter of submergence occurred on the western and eastern shorelines of the Andaman Islands, respectively, associated with the earthquake (Bilham, 2005). Satellite images also document uplift of western shoreline coral reef platforms above sea level. Body-wave (Ji, 2005; Yamamaka, 2005) and tide-gauge (Ortiz, 2005) slip inversions only resolve coseismic slip in the southern one-third to one-half of the rupture zone. The amount of coseismic slip in the Andaman Islands region is poorly constrained by these inversions. The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), a part of the NASA Earth Observing System, is being used to document the spatial pattern of Andaman Islands vertical displacements in order to constrain models of slip distribution in the northern part of the rupture zone. ICESat carries the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) that obtains elevation measurements from 80 m diameter footprints spaced 175 m apart along profiles. For surfaces of low slope, single-footprint absolute elevation and horizontal accuracies of 10 cm and 6 m (1 sigma), respectively, referenced to the ITRF 2002 TOPEX/Poseidon ellipsoid are being obtained. Laser pulse backscatter waveforms enable separation of ground topography and overlying vegetation cover. During each 33-day observing period ICESat acquires three profiles crossing the Andaman Islands. A NNE-SSW oriented track consists of 1600 laser footprints along the western side of North, Middle, and South Andaman Islands and 240 laser footprints across the center of Great Andaman Island. Two NNW-SSE tracks consist of 440 footprints across Middle Andaman Island and 25 footprints across the west side of Sentinel Island. Cloud

  6. ICESat Observations of Topographic Change in the Northern Segment of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands Earthquake Rupture Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, D.; Sauber, J.; Luthcke, S.; Carabajal, C.; Muller, J.

    2005-05-01

    The Andaman Islands are located 120 km east of the Sunda trench in the northern quarter of the 1300 km long rupture zone of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake inferred from the distribution of aftershocks. Initial field reports indicate that several meters of uplift and up to a meter of submergence occurred on the western and eastern shorelines of the Andaman Islands, respectively, associated with the earthquake (Bilham, 2005). Satellite images also document uplift of western shoreline coral reef platforms above sea level. Body-wave (Ji, 2005; Yamamaka, 2005) and tide-gauge (Ortiz, 2005) slip inversions only resolve coseismic slip in the southern one-third to one-half of the rupture zone. The amount of coseismic slip in the Andaman Islands region is poorly constrained by these inversions. The Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), a part of the NASA Earth Observing System, is being used to document the spatial pattern of Andaman Islands vertical displacements in order to constrain models of slip distribution in the northern part of the rupture zone. ICESat carries the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) that obtains elevation measurements from 80 m diameter footprints spaced 175 m apart along profiles. For surfaces of low slope, single-footprint absolute elevation and horizontal accuracies of 10 cm and 6 m (1 sigma), respectively, referenced to the ITRF 2002 TOPEX/Poseidon ellipsoid are being obtained. Laser pulse backscatter waveforms enable separation of ground topography and overlying vegetation cover. During each 33-day observing period ICESat acquires three profiles crossing the Andaman Islands. A NNE-SSW oriented track consists of 1600 laser footprints along the western side of North, Middle, and South Andaman Islands and 240 laser footprints across the center of Great Andaman Island. Two NNW-SSE tracks consist of 440 footprints across Middle Andaman Island and 25 footprints across the west side of Sentinel Island. Cloud

  7. Sedimentary deposits of the 26 December 2004 tsunami on the northwest coast of Aceh, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, A.; Nishimura, Y.; Gelfenbaum, G.; Kamataki, T.; Triyono, R.

    2006-01-01

    The 2004 Sumatra-Andaman tsunami flooded coastal northern Sumatra to a depth of over 20 m, deposited a discontinuous sheet of sand up to 80 cm thick, and left mud up to 5 km inland. In most places the sand sheet is normally graded, and in some it contains complex internal stratigraphy. Structures within the sand sheet may record the passage of up to 3 individual waves. We studied the 2004 tsunami deposits in detail along a flow-parallel transect about 400 m long, 16 km southwest of Banda Aceh. Near the shore along this transect, the deposit is thin or absent. Between 50 and 400 m inland it ranges in thickness from 5 to 20 cm. The main trend in thickness is a tendency to thicken by filling low spots, most dramatically at pre-existing stream channels. Deposition generally attended inundation - along the transect, the tsunami deposited sand to within about 40 m of the inundation limit. Although the tsunami deposit contains primarily material indistinguishable from material found on the beach one month after the event, it also contains grain sizes and compositions unavailable on the current beach. Along the transect we studied, these grains become increasingly dominant both landward and upward in the deposit; possibly some landward source of sediment was exposed and exploited by the passage of the waves. The deposit also contains the unabraded shells of subtidal marine organisms, suggesting that at least part of the deposit came from offshore. Grain sizes within the deposit tend to fine upward and landward, although individual units within the deposit appear massive, or show reverse grading. Sorting becomes better landward, although the most landward sites generally become poorly sorted from the inclusion of soil clasts. These sites commonly show interlayering of sandy units and soil clast units. Deposits from the 2004 tsunami in Sumatra demonstrate the complex nature of the deposits of large tsunamis. Unlike the deposits of smaller tsunamis, internal stratigraphy is

  8. Precursory seismicity changes prior to major earthquakes along the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone: a region-time-length algorithm approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukrungsri, Santawat; Pailoplee, Santi

    2015-06-01

    In this study, we investigated the precursory seismicity changes related to the major earthquakes posed along the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone (SASZ) using the region-time-length (RTL) algorithm. Based on the suitable RTL characteristics of r 0 = 100 km and t 0 = 2 years, the anomalous RTL score representing the quiescence stage mostly started 0.1-5.2 years before the subsequent major earthquake, while no activation stage was illustrated. For the spatial investigation, the RTL anomalies also clearly illustrated the location of the subsequent major earthquakes. Thus, in order to determine the prospective areas of upcoming earthquakes, the series of RTL maps calculated during the recent 5-year (2010-2014) time span was used. The obtained results reveal four risk areas along the SASZ that might pose a major earthquake in the future, namely (i) Sittwe city, western Myanmar; (ii) offshore northern Nicobar Islands; (iii) Aceh city, northernmost of Sumatra Island; and (iv) offshore western Sumatra Island. Therefore, both a tsunami hazard in the Indian Ocean and a seismic hazard in the far-field cities should be recognized urgently.

  9. Multibeam Mapping of the West Andaman Fault, NW Sumatra Fault, Andaman Volcanic Arc and Their Tectonic and Magmatic Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattoju, K. A.; Mudholkar, A. V.; Murty, G.; Vadakkeyakath, Y.; Singh, S. C.; Kiranmai, S.; Moeremans, R.

    2012-12-01

    West Andaman Fault (WAF) is a major structural feature in the Andaman Offshore region that plays an important role in modulating the strain partitioning within the Andaman Sea, well known for its complex tectonics and seismic hazard potential. However, detailed configuration of the WAF and its interaction with the Sumatra fault system in the Andaman sector are not well understood. Here we present near complete coverage of about 800 km long section of the WAF with special emphasis on the zone of confluence of the WAF and the Sumatra Fault systems, and the adjacent volcanic arc in the offshore region of the Great Nicobar Island. We have examined the fault system, and the volcanic arc feature by combining the newly acquired multibeam bathymetry data with the available data northwest of Sumatra. New multibeam map revealed a pattern of faults that are formed in the region of joining of the Seulimeum (SEU) and Aceh strands (AS) of the Sumatra fault with the WAF off Great Nicobar Island. Sandwiched between these faults, at this location, is a 50 km long and 7 km wide conspicuous NS elongated block that rises to 500 m from an adjacent seafloor of about 2000 m. The surface of the block has a westward dipping topographic fabric. Serpentinites were recovered from the eastern cliff of this block, suggestive of mantle origin. A deformed zone with corrugated surface is documented southeast of this elongated block at water depth ranging from 1000 to 1500 m. The mantle block and the deformed zone are bifurcated by a fault, which might be a branch of the WAF. Further south the expression of the Sumatra platform, northern boundary of the Aceh basin pinching out to WAF, extension of the SEU, AS strands towards south, and the northern limit of Weh basin are observed. The other prominent feature that is documented for the first time is the expression of the Andaman volcanic arc. Twenty-three submarine volcanoes of varying sizes have been mapped between 6°30‧N to 8°15‧N. Magnetic

  10. Smoke over Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    At least once a year for a period lasting from a week to several months, northern Sumatra is obscured by smoke and haze produced by agricultural burning and forest fires. These data products from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer document the presence of airborne particulates on March 13, 2002, during Terra orbit 11880. On the left is an image acquired by MISR's 70-degree backward-viewing camera. On the right is a map of aerosol optical depth, a measure of the abundance of atmospheric particulates. This product utilized a test version of the MISR retrieval that incorporates an experimental set of aerosol mixtures. The haze has completely obscured northeastern Sumatra and part of the Strait of Malacca, which separates Sumatra and the Malaysian Peninsula. A northward gradient is apparent as the haze dissipates in the direction of the Malaysian landmass. Each panel covers an area of about 760 kilometers x 400 kilometers.

    Haze conditions had posed a health concern during late February (when schools in some parts of North Sumatra were closed), and worsened considerably in the first two weeks of March. By mid-March, local meteorology officials asked residents of North Sumatra's provincial capital, Medan, to minimize their outdoor activities and wear protective masks. Poor visibility at Medan airport forced a passenger plane to divert to Malaysia on March 14, and visibility reportedly ranged between 100 and 600 meters in some coastal towns southeast of Medan.

    The number and severity of this year's fires was exacerbated by dry weather conditions associated with the onset of a weak to moderate El Nino. The governments of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Brunei have agreed to ban open burning in plantation and forest areas. The enforcement of such fire bans, however, has proven to be an extremely challenging task.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra

  11. Local attitudes and perceptions toward crop-raiding by orangutans (Pongo abelii) and other nonhuman primates in northern Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Campbell-Smith, Gail; Simanjorang, Hubert V P; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Linkie, Matthew

    2010-09-01

    Human-wildlife conflicts, such as crop-raiding, increase as people expand their agricultural activities into wildlife habitats. Crop-raiding can reduce tolerance toward species that are already threatened, whereas potential dangers posed by conflicts with large-bodied species may also negatively influence local attitudes. Across Asia, wild pigs and primates, such as macaques, tend to be the most commonly reported crop raiders. To date, reports of crop-raiding incidents involving great apes have been less common, but incidents involving orangutans are increasingly emerging in Indonesia. To investigate the interplay of factors that might explain attitudes toward crop-raiding by orangutans (Pongo abelii), focal group discussions and semi-structured interviews were conducted among 822 farmers from 2 contrasting study areas in North Sumatra. The first study area of Batang Serangan is an agroforest system containing isolated orangutans that crop-raid. In contrast, the second area of Sidikalang comprises farmlands bordering extensive primary forest where orangutans are present but not reported to crop-raid. Farmers living in Batang Serangan thought that orangutans were dangerous, irrespective of earlier experience of crop-raiding. Farmers placed orangutans as the third most frequent and fourth most destructive crop pest, after Thomas' leaf monkey (Presbytis thomasi), wild boar (Sus scrofa), and long-tailed macaque (Macaca fascicularis). Although most (57%) farmers across both study areas were not scared of wildlife species, more than a quarter (28%) of the farmers' feared orangutans. Farmers in Batang Serangan were generally more tolerant toward crop-raiding orangutans, if they did not perceive them to present a physical threat. Most (67%) Batang Serangan farmers said that the local Forestry Department staff should handle crop-raiding orangutans, and most (81%) said that these officials did not care about such problems. Our results suggest that efforts to mitigate human

  12. Deformation analysis of Aceh April 11th 2012 earthquake using GPS observation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maulida, Putra; Meilano, Irwan; Sarsito, Dina A.; Susilo

    2015-04-01

    This research tries to estimate the co-seismic deformation of intraplate earthquake occurred off northern Sumatra coast which is about 100-200 km southwest of Sumatrasubduction zone. The earthquake mechanism was strike-slip with magnitude 8.6 and triggering aftershock with magnitude 8.2 two hours later. We estimated the co-seismic deformation by using the GPS (Global Positioning System) continuous data along western Sumatra coast. The GPS observation derived from Sumatran GPS Array (SuGAr) and Geospatial Information Agency (BIG). For data processing we used GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) to estimate the co-seismic deformation. From the GPS daily solution, the result shows that the earthquake caused displacement for the GPS stations in Sumatra. GPS stations in northern Sumatra showed the displacement to the northeast with the average displacement was 15 cm. The biggest displacement was found at station BSIM which is located at Simeuleu Island off north west Sumatra coast. GPS station in middle part of Sumatra, the displacement was northwest. The earthquake also caused subsidence for stations in northern Sumatra, but from the time series there was not sign of subsidence was found at middle part of Sumatra. In addition, the effect of the earthquake was worldwide and affected the other GPS Stations around Hindia oceanic.

  13. Deformation analysis of Aceh April 11{sup th} 2012 earthquake using GPS observation data

    SciTech Connect

    Maulida, Putra; Meilano, Irwan; Sarsito, Dina A.; Susilo

    2015-04-24

    This research tries to estimate the co-seismic deformation of intraplate earthquake occurred off northern Sumatra coast which is about 100-200 km southwest of Sumatrasubduction zone. The earthquake mechanism was strike-slip with magnitude 8.6 and triggering aftershock with magnitude 8.2 two hours later. We estimated the co-seismic deformation by using the GPS (Global Positioning System) continuous data along western Sumatra coast. The GPS observation derived from Sumatran GPS Array (SuGAr) and Geospatial Information Agency (BIG). For data processing we used GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) to estimate the co-seismic deformation. From the GPS daily solution, the result shows that the earthquake caused displacement for the GPS stations in Sumatra. GPS stations in northern Sumatra showed the displacement to the northeast with the average displacement was 15 cm. The biggest displacement was found at station BSIM which is located at Simeuleu Island off north west Sumatra coast. GPS station in middle part of Sumatra, the displacement was northwest. The earthquake also caused subsidence for stations in northern Sumatra, but from the time series there was not sign of subsidence was found at middle part of Sumatra. In addition, the effect of the earthquake was worldwide and affected the other GPS Stations around Hindia oceanic.

  14. Issues in Indonesia's tsunami disaster management system revealed after the 2004 Sumatra event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, M.; Koyama, A.; Sun, H.; Kang, I.; Arakawa, T.; Kobayashi, J.; Nagata, M.; Nakanishi, R.; Nakano, M.; Noguchi, S.

    2014-12-01

    During the 2004 Indian Ocean Tsunami, Indonesia had the largest number of casualties around 170,000. International society has supported tsunami early warning system, disaster management and disaster education for Indonesia. The past ten years saw several tsunamis in Indonesia after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Construction of tsunami early warning system was not in time the 2006 Pangandaran tsunami in Jawa Island. On the other hand, tsunami science has been developed for this decade. Tsunami early warning system has been developed by deep ocean pressure gauges (DART system), coastal tide gauges, GPS buoys and so on. Tsunami folklore has been collected and used education and connected with tsunami deposit. However, the tsunami early warning system and other science application were not widely used at once in Indonesia. GPS buoys were stolen by fishery people. One tsunami evacuation building are not used for evacuation by local people in Aceh Sumatra Island in 2012 though locations of the buildings were selected by scientific numerical simulation. Big panic and trafic accidents occurred by M8.6 earthquake in Aceh in April 2012 and reveal lack of disaster management planning in urban planning during reconstruction (Fig.1: Trafic jam in Banda Aceh, source MSN news photo). In addition to this, the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami reveal fragilities tsunami preparedness. How should we decide to use the tsunami science? We research field situation in Aceh the after 10 years past from the 2004 Sumatra event. This presentation discusses issues of the gap between tsunami science and operations through field research in Aceh now.

  15. Vertical deformation at western part of Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Febriyani, Caroline; Prijatna, Kosasih; Meilano, Irwan

    2015-04-01

    This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8 mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5 mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25 mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate.

  16. Vertical deformation at western part of Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Febriyani, Caroline Prijatna, Kosasih Meilano, Irwan

    2015-04-24

    This research tries to make advancement in GPS signal processing to estimate the interseismic vertical deformation field at western part of Sumatra Island. The data derived by Continuous Global Positioning System (CGPS) from Badan Informasi Geospasial (BIG) between 2010 and 2012. GPS Analyze at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (GAMIT) software and Global Kalman Filter (GLOBK) software are used to process the GPS signal to estimate the vertical velocities of the CGPS station. In order to minimize noise due to atmospheric delay, Vienna Mapping Function 1 (VMF1) is used as atmospheric parameter model and include daily IONEX file provided by the Center for Orbit Determination in Europe (CODE) as well. It improves GAMIT daily position accuracy up to 0.8 mm. In a second step of processing, the GLOBK is used in order to estimate site positions and velocities in the ITRF08 reference frame. The result shows that the uncertainties of estimated displacement velocity at all CGPS stations are smaller than 1.5 mm/yr. The subsided deformation patterns are seen at the northern and southern part of west Sumatra. The vertical deformation at northern part of west Sumatra indicates postseismic phase associated with the 2010 and 2012 Northern Sumatra earthquakes and also the long-term postseismic associated with the 2004 and 2005 Northern Sumatra earthquakes. The uplifted deformation patterns are seen from Bukit Tinggi to Seblat which indicate a long-term interseismic phase after the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and 2010 Mentawai earthquake. GANO station shows a subsidence at rate 12.25 mm/yr, indicating the overriding Indo-Australia Plate which is dragged down by the subducting Southeast Asian Plate.

  17. Normal-mode frequency band view of the Off-the-West-Coast of Northern Sumatra Earthquake of April 11, 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Igarashi, M.; Tanimoto, T.

    2012-12-01

    Many studies with body-wave and long-period surface wave analyses on the Off-the-West-coast of Northern Sumatra Earthquake of April 11, 2012, have already pointed out complexities of this event (e.g., Meng et al., 2012). A sequence of events with fairly wide spatial and temporal extent are clearly needed to explain many facets of seismic data. In this study, we attempt to summarize a few distinct features from the normal-mode frequency band (0.3-2.0 mHz) which are obviously much simpler by their long wavelength and long periods. We analyzed long-period seismic data from STS1 and KS54000 sensors for the first 12 hours of the main event using the time-domain waveform fitting technique (Tanimoto, et al., 2012). Adoption of this short time series is partly to avoid uncertain Q parameters on amplitudes but also to avoid the effects from two earthquakes in Oregon (Mw6.0) and Mexico (Mw6.7) that occurred about 23rd hour on the same day. These events are much smaller but their effects cannot be ignored in seismic stations in North America. Two major events reported by the Global CMT project, the Mw8.6 main shock and the Mw8.2 aftershock that occurred two hours later, are clearly not sufficient to explain the amplitude data at about 1 mHz (0.6-1.5 mHz). Synthetic seismograms for the two events under-predicts data by about 30 percent. Amplitudes also show two-theta azimuthal variation that indicates a necessity of at least one hidden event (if not rupture propagation). This necessity has already been pointed out by various groups (e.g., Duputel et al., 2012, Shao et al., 2012). Duputel et al. (2012), for example, reports that the Mw8.6 main event by GCMT should be split up by two large events, the Mw8.5 main event and Mw8.3 event that occurred 70 seconds later. Our analysis shows that their three-source solution, including the Mw8.2 event two hours later, satisfies overall amplitude data in the normal-mode frequency band. However, their solution still shows two

  18. Indonesia, Sumatra, Singapore

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view shows the area around Northeastern Sumatra, Indonesia (1.0N, 104.0E). The city of Singapore and the Singapore Strait is in the center at the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula. The Singapore Strait is the eastern extension of the Strait of Malacca and separates the Malay Peninsula from Sumatra. Large sediment plumes from the rivers attest to the local soil erosion and industrial dumping ofd wastes.

  19. Geothermal resource of Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Hochstein, M.P. . Geothermal Inst.); Sudarman, Sayogi . Geothermal Section)

    1993-06-01

    There are at least 30 high temperatures systems (with inferred reservoir temperatures > 200 C) along the active Sumatra Arc that transfer heat from crustal intrusions to the surface. These systems, together with eleven active volcanoes, five degassing volcanoes and one caldera volcano (Lake Toba), are controlled by the Sumatra Fault Zone, an active mega shear zone that follows the median axis of the arc. At least half of the active and degassing volcanoes are associated with volcanic geothermal reservoirs containing magmatic gases and acid fluids. Large, low temperature resources exist in the Tertiary sedimentary basins of east Sumatra (back-arc region), where anomalously higher thermal gradients (up to 8 C/100 m) have been measured. Volcanic activity was not continuous during the Cenozoic; subduction and arc volcanism probably decreased after the Eocene as a result of a clockwise rotation of Sumatra. In the Late Miocene, subduction started again, and andesitic volcanism reached a new peak of intensity in the Pliocene and has been continuous ever since. Rhyolitic volcanism, which has produced voluminous ignimbrite flows, began later (Pliocene/Pleistocene). All known rhyolitic centers associated with ignimbrite flows appear to lie along the Sumatra Fault Zone.

  20. Remote sensing-based neural network mapping of tsunami damage in Aceh, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Aitkenhead, Matthew J; Lumsdon, Parivash; Miller, David R

    2007-09-01

    In addition to the loss of human life, the tsunami event of 26 December 2004 caused extensive damage to coastal areas. The scale of the disaster was such that remote sensing may be the only way to determine its effects on the landscape. This paper presents the results of a neural network-based mapping of part of the region of Aceh, Sumatra. Before-and-after satellite imagery, combined with a novel neural network methodology, enabled a characterisation of landscape change. The neural network technique used a threshold of acceptance for identification, in combination with a bootstrapped identification method for identifying problem pixels. Map analysis allowed identification of urban areas that were inaccessible by road, and which aid agencies could therefore only reach by air or sea. The methods used provide a rapid and effective mapping ability and would be a useful tool for aid agencies, insurance underwriters and environmental monitoring. PMID:17714164

  1. Distribution of Slip at the Northern Sumatran Fault System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Genrich, J. F.; Bock, Y.; McCaffrey, R.; Prawirodirdjo, L.; Stevens, C. W.; Puntodewo, S. S. O.; Subarya, C.; Wdowinski, S.

    2000-01-01

    We model spatial variations in horizontal displacements of 117 geodetic sites measured during annual surveys in 1989-1996 with the Global Positioning System (GPS) as elastic strain across a locked strike-slip fault to infer the contemporary slip rate, locking depth, and location of the Sumatran fault (SF) in northern Sumatra (1 S-3 N). GPS-derived slip rate estimates increase slightly northward from 23 plus or minus 3 mm/yr at 0.8 deg S to 26 plus or minus 2mm/yr at 2.7 N. They agree with geologic estimates north of the Equator, but at 0.5 S they are about 10 mm/yr higher. Strain appears to be distributed asymmetrically about the fault. South of 2 N, about 5 mm/yr of shear is required within the offshore forearc, west of the fault, to achieve a closer agreement of fault locations inferred from GPS velocities with geologically identified traces of the SF. Locking depth estimates are on the order of 10-20 km. The western branch of the major fault bifurcation near 1 N slips at a rate five times higher than the eastern branch. The two main strands of the fault at the northwestern tip of Sumatra (5.5 N) appear to be nearly free of horizontal strain; significant slip must occur away from the two strands, probably further east at two other geologically active branches. The Banda Aceh embayment is extruded to the northwest at a rate of 5 plus or minus 2 mm/yr. Within the estimated velocity uncertainties of several mm/yr, fault-normal deformation along the SF is insignificant. Almost strain free, the northern part of the back-arc basin is part of a rigid Sunda shelf, while the northern forearc is subjected to 8 plus or minus 5 x 10 (exp -8)/yr of extension nearly parallel to the arc.

  2. Andaman-Sumatra island arc: II. The December 26, 2004 earthquake as one of the key episodes in seismogenic activation of the arc in the beginning of XXI century

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakina, L. M.; Moskvina, A. G.

    2013-03-01

    The interpretation of the nature and parameters of the source for the earthquake that occurred in Sumatra on December 26, 2004 is suggested. Our study relies on a variety of data on the geological structure of the region, long-term seismicity, spatial distribution of the foreshocks and aftershocks, and focal mechanisms; and the pattern of shaking and tsunami, regularities in the occurrence of the earthquakes, and the genetic relationship between the seismic and geological parameters inherent in various types of seismogenic zones including island arcs. The source of the Sumatran earthquake is a steep reverse fault striking parallel to the island arc and dipping towards the ocean. The length of the fault is ˜450 km, and its probable bedding depth is ˜70-100 km. The magnitude of this seismic event corresponding to the length of its source is 8.9-9.0. The vertical displacement in the source probably reached 9-13 m. The fault is located near the inner boundary of the Aceh Depression between the epicenter of the earthquake and the northern tip of the depression. The strike-slip and strike-slip reverse the faults cutting the island arc form the northern and southern borders of the source. The location and source parameters in the suggested interpretation account quite well for the observed pattern of shaking and tsunami. The Aceh Depression and its environs probably also host other seismic sources in the form of large reverse faults. The Sumatran earthquake, which was the culmination of the seismogenic activation of the Andaman-Sumatra island arc in the beginning of XXI century, is a typical tsunamigenic island-arc earthquake. By its characteristics, this event is an analogue to the M W = 9 Kamchatka earthquake of November 4, 1952. The spatial distribution of the epicenters and the focal mechanisms of the aftershocks indicate that the repeated shocks during the Sumatran event were caused by the activation of a complex system of geological structures in various parts of

  3. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-H-2)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Chmiel, Alan J.; Eustace, John; LaBarbera, Melissa

    2015-01-01

    Increment 43 - 44 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-H-2) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  4. Management of hospitals in Aceh during the tsunami.

    PubMed

    Kartowisastro, Hermansyur

    2005-01-01

    On December 26th, 2004, Aceh and its vicinity was hit by two natural forces consecutively, an earthquake and a tsunami. Hundreds of thousands of people perished, leaving the remaining of about the same number to become refugees. The writer was assigned by the Ministry of Health to Aceh on duty on the second and third week after the catastrophe, to help the management of Zainoel Abidin General Hospital in Banda Aceh, the province's biggest hospital, revive its operation. PMID:16300161

  5. Likely Human Losses in Future Earthquakes in Central Myanmar, Beyond the Northern end of the M9.3 Sumatra Rupture of 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyss, B. M.; Wyss, M.

    2007-12-01

    We estimate that the city of Rangoon and adjacent provinces (Rangoon, Rakhine, Ayeryarwady, Bago) represent an earthquake risk similar in severity to that of Istanbul and the Marmara Sea region. After the M9.3 Sumatra earthquake of December 2004 that ruptured to a point north of the Andaman Islands, the likelihood of additional ruptures in the direction of Myanmar and within Myanmar is increased. This assumption is especially plausible since M8.2 and M7.9 earthquakes in September 2007 extended the 2005 ruptures to the south. Given the dense population of the aforementioned provinces, and the fact that historically earthquakes of M7.5 class have occurred there (in 1858, 1895 and three in 1930), it would not be surprising, if similar sized earthquakes would occur in the coming decades. Considering that we predicted the extent of human losses in the M7.6 Kashmir earthquake of October 2005 approximately correctly six month before it occurred, it seems reasonable to attempt to estimate losses in future large to great earthquakes in central Myanmar and along its coast of the Bay of Bengal. We have calculated the expected number of fatalities for two classes of events: (1) M8 ruptures offshore (between the Andaman Islands and the Myanmar coast, and along Myanmar's coast of the Bay of Bengal. (2) M7.5 repeats of the historic earthquakes that occurred in the aforementioned years. These calculations are only order of magnitude estimates because all necessary input parameters are poorly known. The population numbers, the condition of the building stock, the regional attenuation law, the local site amplification and of course the parameters of future earthquakes can only be estimated within wide ranges. For this reason, we give minimum and maximum estimates, both within approximate error limits. We conclude that the M8 earthquakes located offshore are expected to be less harmful than the M7.5 events on land: For M8 events offshore, the minimum number of fatalities is estimated

  6. Conflict nightmares and trauma in Aceh.

    PubMed

    Grayman, Jesse Hession; Good, Mary-Jo Delvecchio; Good, Byron J

    2009-06-01

    In both the Acehnese and Indonesian languages, there is no single lexical term for "nightmare." And yet findings from a large field research project in Aceh that examined post traumatic experience during Aceh's nearly 30-year rebellion against the Indonesian state and current mental distress revealed a rich variety of dream narratives that connect directly and indirectly to respondents' past traumatic experiences. The results reported below suggest that even in a society that has a very different cultural ideology about dreams, where "nightmares" as such are not considered dreams but rather the work of mischievous spirits called jin, they are still a significant part of the trauma process. We argue that it is productive to distinguish between terrifying and repetitive dreams that recreate the traumatic moment and the more ordinary varieties of dreams that Acehnese reported to their interviewers. Nightmares that refer back to conflict events do not appear as an elaborated feature of trauma as the condition is understood by people in Aceh, but when asked further about their dreams, respondents who reported symptoms suggestive of PTSD were more likely to report PTSD-like dreams, memory intrusions that repeat the political violence of the past. PMID:19283458

  7. Deforestation in Sumatra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Indonesia is rapidly losing its lowland forests to logging, much of it illegal. At present, logging is claiming the forests at a rate of nearly two million hectares (slightly less than 5 million acres: roughly the same area as the state of Massachusetts) each year. At this rate, the island of Sumatra will have no more lowland forests by 2005, a fate already befallen the island of Sulawesi. Indonesia's lowland forests are home to a wide variety of wildlife and are considered among the richest ecosystems in the world. Among the unique life forms in these forests are the Orangutan and the Sumatra Tiger. Sixteen percent of the entire world's bird species, eleven percent of its plants, and ten percent of all mammals on Earth call these forests home. Many are found nowhere else. In the two Landsat scenes shown above, the pattern of deforestation can be clearly discerned. Deep green in these images shows lush vegetation in the forest cover. In both scenes, deep and pale red shows areas where there is little or no vegetation, often bare ground from where forest has been completely stripped. The latter Landsat scene from 2001 not only shows extensive clear cut areas, but also new logging roads built into the remaining forest to facilitate future cutting. This lowland forest region is located on Indonesia's largest island, Sumatra, roughly 100 km southwest of the provincial capital of Jambi. The first image was acquired by Landsat 5's Thematic Mapper (TM) sensor on June 22, 1992, the second by Landsat 7's Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) sensor on January 14, 2001. Both are false-color composite images made using shortwave infrared, infrared, and green wavelengths. The area shown above is roughly 30 km x 22 km (19 miles x 14 miles). The large versions of these images show the same general area covering 60 km x 60 km. Images provided by the Tropical Rain Forest Information Center (TRFIC) through the Basic Science and Remote Sensing Initiative (BSRSI) based at Michigan

  8. Coseismic deformation induced by the Sumatra earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boschi, E.; Casarotti, E.; Devoti, R.; Melini, D.; Piersanti, A.; Pietrantonio, G.; Riguzzi, F.

    2006-08-01

    The giant Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of December 26, 2004 caused permanent deformations effects in a region of previously never observed extension. The GPS data from the worldwide network of permanent IGS sites show significant coseismic displacements in an area exceeding 10 7 km 2, reaching most of South-East Asia, besides Indonesia and India. We have analyzed long GPS time series histories in order to characterize the noise type of each site and, consequently, to precisely assess the formal errors of the coseismic offset estimates. The synthetic simulations of the coseismic displacement field obtained by means of a spherical model using different rupture histories indicate that a major part of the energy release took place in a fault plane similar to that obtained by Ammon et al. (2005) and Vigny et al. (2005) but with a larger amount of compressional slip on the northern segment of the fault area.

  9. Wake Vortices and Tropical Cyclogenesis Downstream of Sumatra over the Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fine, Caitlin Marie

    with regard to easterly flow between October and December favored flow blocking and splitting, more so for Sumatra's northern tip due to the higher terrain there. Correlations between zonal wind and relative vorticity are more significant near Sumatra's northern tip than near and downstream of the island's southern tip. Cyclonic vorticity was maximized at the level of Sumatra's topography for most easterly wind days west of both the north and south ends of the island, suggesting that topography was contributing to vorticity generation. Thirteen tropical cyclones in the Indian Ocean during the YOTC and DYNAMO campaigns were determined to develop from cyclonic wake vortices downstream of Sumatra, including three tropical cyclone pairs. Over 75% of these tropical cyclones formed between October and December. In four cases, wake vortices were generated by anomalously easterly low-level flow that preceded the active phase of the Madden Julian Oscillation. These vortices proceeded to encounter the MJO convective envelope, which is frequently accompanied by convectively coupled waves and may have altered the environment to be more moist and favorable for tropical cyclogenesis. In many cases, equatorial westerly winds, which may have been related to westerly wind bursts from the MJO or to convectively coupled equatorial Rossby waves, intensified low-level cyclonic circulations. It is suggested that diabatic heating in the vicinity of twin tropical cyclones may disturb the atmosphere enough to invigorate extant convectively coupled Kelvin waves, or contribute to the formation of a Kelvin wave. The research presented herein describes the interaction of the flow with steep topography on Sumatra and its role in tropical cyclogenesis over the Indian Ocean, a mechanism for TC genesis that has heretofore received little attention. iv.

  10. Aceh Free Pasung: Releasing the mentally ill from physical restraint

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical restraint and confinement of the mentally ill (called pasung in Indonesia) is common in Aceh. In early 2010, the local government initiated a program called Aceh Free Pasung 2010. The main goal of the program is to release the mentally ill in the province from restraint and to provide appropriate medical treatment and care. The aim of the paper is to report the findings of a preliminary investigation of the demographic and clinical characteristics of patients who have been admitted to the Banda Aceh Mental Hospital as part of the Aceh Free Pasung program. Methods This is a cross-sectional descriptive study conducted at the Banda Aceh Mental Hospital, where people who had been restrained or confined in the community are being admitted for psychiatric treatment and, where necessary, physical rehabilitation, as part of the Aceh Free Pasung program. Results Fifty-nine of former ex-pasung patients were examined. The majority (88.1%) of the patients were male, aged 18 to 68 years. The duration of pasung varied from a few days to 20 years, with a mean duration of 4.0 years. The reasons for applying pasung are many, with concerns about dangerousness being most common. The great majority (89.8%) had a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Discussion The development of a community mental health system and the introduction of a health insurance system in Aceh (together with the national health insurance scheme for the poor) has enabled access to free hospital treatment for people with severe mental disorders, including those who have been in pasung. The demographic and clinical characteristics of this group of ex-pasung patients are broadly similar to those reported in previous studies. Conclusions The Aceh Free Pasung program is an important mental health and human rights initiative that can serve to inform similar efforts in other parts of Indonesia and other low and middle-income countries where restraint and confinement of the mentally ill is receiving

  11. Seismicity associated with the Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of 26 December 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dewey, J.W.; Choy, G.; Presgrave, B.; Sipkin, S.; Tarr, A.C.; Benz, H.; Earle, P.; Wald, D.

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey/National Earthquake Information Center (USGS/ NEIC) had computed origins for 5000 earthquakes in the Sumatra-Andaman Islands region in the first 36 weeks after the Sumatra-Andaman Islands mainshock of 26 December 2004. The cataloging of earthquakes of mb (USGS) 5.1 and larger is essentially complete for the time period except for the first half-day following the 26 December mainshock, a period of about two hours following the Nias earthquake of 28 March 2005, and occasionally during the Andaman Sea swarm of 26-30 January 2005. Moderate and larger (mb ???5.5) aftershocks are absent from most of the deep interplate thrust faults of the segments of the Sumatra-Andaman Islands subduction zone on which the 26 December mainshock occurred, which probably reflects nearly complete release of elastic strain on the seismogenic interplate-thrust during the mainshock. An exceptional thrust-fault source offshore of Banda Aceh may represent a segment of the interplate thrust that was bypassed during the mainshock. The 26 December mainshock triggered a high level of aftershock activity near the axis of the Sunda trench and the leading edge of the overthrust Burma plate. Much near-trench activity is intraplate activity within the subducting plate, but some shallow-focus, near-trench, reverse-fault earthquakes may represent an unusual seismogenic release of interplate compressional stress near the tip of the overriding plate. The interplate-thrust Nias earthquake of 28 March 2005, in contrast to the 26 December aftershock sequence, was followed by many interplate-thrust aftershocks along the length of its inferred rupture zone.

  12. GPS Analyses of the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, S. A.; Gudmundsson, Ólafur

    2005-03-01

    The Sumatra, Indonesia, earthquake on 26 December 2004 was one of the most devastating earthquakes in history. With a magnitude of Mw = 9.3 (revised based on normal-mode amplitudes by Stein and Okal, http://www.earth.northwestern.edu/people/seth/research/sumatra.html), it is the second largest earthquake recorded since 1900. It occurred about 100 km off the west coast of northern Sumatra, where the relatively dense Indo-Australian plate moves beneath the lighter Burma plate, resulting in stress accumulation. The average relative velocity of the two plates is about 6 cm/yr. On 26 December 2004, however, the two plates moved by a distance of several meters, releasing the stress accumulated over hundreds of years. The result was a devastating tsunami that hit coastlines across the Indian Ocean, killing about 300,000 people in Indonesia, Sri Lanka, India, Thailand, Burma, Malaysia, Somalia, and other countries (Guardian, 29 January 2005, http://www.guardian.co.uk/tsunami/story/0,15671,1380895,00.html).

  13. The 2004 Aceh-Andaman Earthquake: Early clay dehydration controls shallow seismic rupture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geersen, Jacob; McNeill, Lisa; Henstock, Timothy J.; Gaedicke, Christoph

    2013-09-01

    The physical state of the shallow plate-boundary fault governs the updip extent of seismic rupture during powerful subduction zone earthquakes and thus on a first order impacts on the tsunamigenic hazard of such events. During the 2004 Mw 9.2 Aceh-Andaman Earthquake seismic rupture extended unusually far seaward below the accretionary prism causing the disastrous Indian Ocean Tsunami. Here we show that the formation of a strong bulk sediment section and a high fluid-pressured predécollement, that likely enabled the 2004 rupture to reach the shallow plate-boundary, result from thermally controlled diagenetic processes in the upper oceanic basement and overlying sediments. Thickening of the sediment section to >2 km ˜160 km seaward of the subduction zone increases temperatures at the sediment basement interface and triggers mineral transformation and dehydration (e.g., smectite-illite) prior to subduction. The liberated fluids migrate into a layer that likely host high porosity and permeability and that is unique to the 2004 rupture area where they generate a distinct overpressured predécollement. Clay mineral transformation further supports processes of semilithification, induration of sediments, and coupled with compaction dewatering all amplified by the thick sediment section together strengthens the bulk sediments. Farther south, where the 2005 Sumatra Earthquake did not include similar shallow rupture, sediment thickness on the oceanic plate is significantly smaller. Therefore, similar diagenetic processes occur later and deeper in the subduction zone. Hence, we propose that shallow seismic rupture during the 2004 earthquake is primarily controlled by the thickness and composition of oceanic plate sediments.

  14. A Seismic Gap Study in the western offshore of Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haridhi, H. A.; Rizal, S.; Ridha, M.; Lee, C.

    2011-12-01

    The extremely destructive earthquake in December 26th 2004 and by the resulting tsunami was the worst natural disasters in recorded human history. However, the tsunami earthquakes continue to strike the west coast of Sumatra in the last 8 years. There are at least 12 events, the earthquake Magnitude between M = 7 to 8.9. The tragedies continue to add up to the already damaged coastal zone. In 2010 (after 6 years of the 2004 event), an earthquake of a magnitude 7.8 resulting a destructive tsunami was also happened near Mentawai Island at west coast of West Sumatra Province. Several thousand of people died and many houses buried. In order to have a better understanding of the seismic stress distribution and prepare for a future study including an IODP drilling in this area, we adopt the previous studies by French, Japan and German together with the absolute gravity data and seismic networks by the IRIS and Taiwan Central Weather Bureau for this research. In the last eight years, the Sumatra region already experienced two domains of the tsunami earthquake swamps, one in the north of Sumatra and the other in the south. Here, we present broadband earthquake data from the IRIS-NEIC catalogue between 2004 and 2010. The result shows that there is a possible of seismic gap in the border of central - southern domain of Sumatra region. This region included in the Northern Sumatra Province near Batu Island. The historical earthquake along the Sumatra margin since 17th century showed that the last big rapture in this border of central - southern domain was occurred in 1797 by the magnitude of 8.8 (Lange et al., 2010). In the other hand, the free-air gravity anomaly (Barber et al., 2005) shows high values correspond to the N-S oceanic fracture zone. All the high value was found near the trench of Sumatra subduction zone and gradually lower value through the south. Regarding to the stress release of the subducting Indo-Australian Oceanic Plate beneath Eurasian Plate, we also

  15. Rapid response: email, immediacy, and medical humanitarianism in Aceh, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Grayman, Jesse Hession

    2014-11-01

    After more than 20 years of sporadic separatist insurgency, the Free Aceh Movement and the Indonesian government signed an internationally brokered peace agreement in August 2005, just eight months after the Indian Ocean tsunami devastated Aceh's coastal communities. This article presents a medical humanitarian case study based on ethnographic data I collected while working for a large aid agency in post-conflict Aceh from 2005 to 2007. In December 2005, the agency faced the first test of its medical and negotiation capacities to provide psychiatric care to a recently amnestied political prisoner whose erratic behavior upon returning home led to his re-arrest and detention at a district police station. I juxtapose two methodological approaches-an ethnographic content analysis of the agency's email archive and field-based participant-observation-to recount contrasting narrative versions of the event. I use this contrast to illustrate and critique the immediacy of the humanitarian imperative that characterizes the industry. Immediacy is explored as both an urgent moral impulse to assist in a crisis and a form of mediation that seemingly projects neutral and transparent transmission of content. I argue that the sense of immediacy afforded by email enacts and amplifies the humanitarian imperative at the cost of abstracting elite humanitarian actors out of local and moral context. As a result, the management and mediation of this psychiatric case by email produced a bureaucratic model of care that failed to account for complex conditions of chronic political and medical instability on the ground. PMID:24788052

  16. Petroleum geology of South Sumatra, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Woodside, P.R.

    1987-05-01

    The South Sumatra basin resulted from horst-graben structures formed from the end of Cretaceous to the early Tertiary. During the Pliocene-Pleistocene orogeny, prominent northwest-trending folds and strike-slip faults were formed within the basin. The depositional history of South Sumatra is similar to the prolific Central Sumatra basin; however, the reservoir sandstone facies in South Sumatra are less well developed. Four major orogenic events resulted in the present framework of the South Sumatra basin. These events occurred during (1) a mid-Mesozoic orogeny which metamorphosed, faulted, and uplifted previously deposited sediments into blocks; (2) the Late Cretaceous-early Oligocene tectonic event with resultant horsts and grabens that controlled Eocene sedimentation; (3) the late Oligocene-Miocene, a period of isostatic subsidence until its tectonic quiescence was broken by middle Miocene diastrophism in the Barisan Mountains and by minor structural movements; and (4) the widespread Pliocene-Pleistocene orogeny reflected in the shallow structures in the Tertiary sediments. The southwestern part of Sumatra corresponds to the uplifted range that folded during the Miocene. Only the Tertiary Lahat (Lamat) and Talang Akar formations were deposited in rugged pre-Tertiary topography. The contact between the Sumatra block and the Sunda-Java block is a north-south-trending right-lateral wrench fault. The anticlines within the South Sumatra basin can be grouped into three groups of anticlinal features. The major anticlinora consist of over 150 individual anticlines. To date, about 50 of the 100 structures tested have proved production. Shales in the upper Oligocene-lower Miocene Talang Akar and lower-middle Miocene Gumai (Telisa) Formations show excellent potential for oil generation.

  17. Numerical Modeling and Forecasting of Strong Sumatra Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, H. L.; Yin, C.

    2007-12-01

    ESyS-Crustal, a finite element based computational model and software has been developed and applied to simulate the complex nonlinear interacting fault systems with the goal to accurately predict earthquakes and tsunami generation. With the available tectonic setting and GPS data around the Sumatra region, the simulation results using the developed software have clearly indicated that the shallow part of the subduction zone in the Sumatra region between latitude 6S and 2N has been locked for a long time, and remained locked even after the Northern part of the zone underwent a major slip event resulting into the infamous Boxing Day tsunami. Two strong earthquakes that occurred in the distant past in this region (between 6S and 1S) in 1797 (M8.2) and 1833 (M9.0) respectively are indicative of the high potential for very large destructive earthquakes to occur in this region with relatively long periods of quiescence in between. The results have been presented in the 5th ACES International Workshop in 2006 before the recent 2007 Sumatra earthquakes occurred which exactly fell into the predicted zone (see the following web site for ACES2006 and detailed presentation file through workshop agenda). The preliminary simulation results obtained so far have shown that there seem to be a few obvious events around the previously locked zone before it is totally ruptured, but apparently no indication of a giant earthquake similar to the 2004 M9 event in the near future which is believed to happen by several earthquake scientists. Further detailed simulations will be carried out and presented in the meeting.

  18. Postseismic Deformations of the Aceh, Nias and Benkulu Earthquakes and the Viscoelastic Properties of the Mantle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleitout, L.; Garaud, J.; Cailletaud, G.; Vigny, C.; Simons, W. J.; Ambrosius, B. A.; Trisirisatayawong, I.; Satirapod, C.; Geotecdi Song

    2011-12-01

    The giant seism of Aceh (december 2004),followed by the Nias and Bengkulu earthquakes, broke a large portion of the boundary between the Indian ocean and the Sunda block. For the first time in history, the deformations associated with a very large earthquake can be followed by GPS, in particular by the SEAMERGE (far-field) and SUGAR (near-field) GPS networks. A 3D finite element code (Zebulon-Zset) is used to model both the cosismic and the postseismic deformations. The modeled zone is a large portion of spherical shell around Sumatra extanding over more than 60 degrees in latitude and longitude and from the Earth's surface to the core-mantle boundary. The mesh is refined close to the subduction zone. First, the inverted cosismic displacements on the subduction plane are inverted for and provide a very good fit to the GPS data for the three seisms. The observed postseismic displacements, non-dimensionalized by the cosismic displacements, present three very different patterns as function of time: For GPS stations in the far-field, the total horizontal post-seismic displacement after 4 years is as large as the cosismic displacement. The velocities vary slowly over 4 years. A large subsidence affects Thailand and Malaysia. In the near-field, the postseismic displacement reaches only some 15% of the cosismic displacement and it levels off after 2 years. In the middle-field (south-west coast of Sumatra), the postseismic displacement also levels-off with time but more slowly and it reaches more than 30% of the cosismic displacement after four years. In order to fit these three distinct displacement patterns, we need to invoke both viscoelastic deformation in the asthenosphere and a low-viscosity wedge: Neither the vertical subsidence nor the amplitude of the far-field horizontal velocities could be explained by postseismic sliding on the subduction interface. The low viscosity wedge permits to explain the large middle-field velocities. The viscoelastic properties of the

  19. Fuel Cost Estimation for Sumatra Grid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liun, Edwaren

    2010-06-01

    Sumatra has a high growth rate electricity energy demand from the first decade in this century. At the medium of this decade the growth is 11% per annum. On the other side capability of Government of Indonesia cq. PLN authority is limited, while many and most old existing power plants will be retired. The electricity demand growth of Sumatra is increasing the fuel consumption for several next decades. Based on several cases by vary growth scenarios and economic parameters, it shown that some kinds of fossil fuel keep to be required until next several decades. Although Sumatra has abundant coal resource, however, the other fuel types such as fuel oil, diesel, gas and nuclear are needed. On the Base Scenario and discount rate of 10%, the Sumatra System will require 11.6 million tones of coal until 2030 producing 866 TWh with cost of US10558 million. Nuclear plants produce about 501 TWh or 32% by cost of US3.1 billion. On the High Scenario and discount rate 10%, the coal consumption becomes 486.6 million tones by fuel cost of US12.7 billion producing 1033 TWh electricity energy. Nuclear fuel cost required in this scenario is US7.06 billion. The other fuel in large amount consumed is natural gas for combined cycle plants by cost of US1.38 billion producing 11.7 TWh of electricity energy on the Base Scenario and discount rate of 10%. In the High Scenario and discount rate 10% coal plants take role in power generation in Sumatra producing about 866 TWh or 54% of electricity energy. Coal consumption will be the highest on the Base Scenario with discount rate of 12% producing 756 TWh and required cost of US17.1 billion. Nuclear plants will not applicable in this scenario due to its un-competitiveness. The fuel cost will depend on nuclear power role in Sumatra system. Fuel cost will increase correspond to the increasing of coal consumption on the case where nuclear power plants not appear.

  20. Tsunami inundation modeling for western Sumatra

    PubMed Central

    Borrero, José C.; Sieh, Kerry; Chlieh, Mohamed; Synolakis, Costas E.

    2006-01-01

    A long section of the Sunda megathrust south of the great tsunamigenic earthquakes of 2004 and 2005 is well advanced in its seismic cycle and a plausible candidate for rupture in the next few decades. Our computations of tsunami propagation and inundation yield model flow depths and inundations consistent with sparse historical accounts for the last great earthquakes there, in 1797 and 1833. Numerical model results from plausible future ruptures produce flow depths of several meters and inundation up to several kilometers inland near the most populous coastal cities. Our models of historical and future tsunamis confirm a substantial exposure of coastal Sumatran communities to tsunami surges. Potential losses could be as great as those that occurred in Aceh in 2004. PMID:17170141

  1. Studying Displacement After a Disaster Using Large Scale Survey Methods: Sumatra After the 2004 Tsunami

    PubMed Central

    Gray, Clark; Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Gillespie, Thomas; Sumantri, Cecep; Thomas, Duncan

    2014-01-01

    Understanding of human vulnerability to environmental change has advanced in recent years, but measuring vulnerability and interpreting mobility across many sites differentially affected by change remains a significant challenge. Drawing on longitudinal data collected on the same respondents who were living in coastal areas of Indonesia before the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami and were re-interviewed after the tsunami, this paper illustrates how the combination of population-based survey methods, satellite imagery and multivariate statistical analyses has the potential to provide new insights into vulnerability, mobility and impacts of major disasters on population well-being. The data are used to map and analyze vulnerability to post-tsunami displacement across the provinces of Aceh and North Sumatra and to compare patterns of migration after the tsunami between damaged areas and areas not directly affected by the tsunami. The comparison reveals that migration after a disaster is less selective overall than migration in other contexts. Gender and age, for example, are strong predictors of moving from undamaged areas but are not related to displacement in areas experiencing damage. In our analyses traditional predictors of vulnerability do not always operate in expected directions. Low levels of socioeconomic status and education were not predictive of moving after the tsunami, although for those who did move, they were predictive of displacement to a camp rather than a private home. This survey-based approach, though not without difficulties, is broadly applicable to many topics in human-environment research, and potentially opens the door to rigorous testing of new hypotheses in this literature. PMID:24839300

  2. Mental health in Aceh--Indonesia: A decade after the devastating tsunami 2004.

    PubMed

    Marthoenis, Marthoenis; Yessi, Sarifah; Aichberger, Marion C; Schouler-Ocak, Meryam

    2016-02-01

    The province of Aceh has suffered enormously from the perennial armed conflict and the devastating Tsunami in 2004. Despite the waves of external aid and national concern geared toward improving healthcare services as part of the reconstruction and rehabilitation efforts after the Tsunami, mental health services still require much attention. This paper aims to understand the mental healthcare system in Aceh Province, Indonesia; its main focus is on the burden, on the healthcare system, its development, service delivery and cultural issues from the devastating Tsunami in 2004 until the present. We reviewed those published and unpublished reports from the local and national government, from international instances (UN bodies, NGOs) and from the academic literature pertaining to mental health related programs conducted in Aceh. To some extent, mental health services in Aceh have been improved compared to their condition before the Tsunami. The development programs have focused on procurement of policy, improvement of human resources, and enhancing service delivery. Culture and religious beliefs shape the pathways by which people seek mental health treatment. The political system also determines the development of the mental health service in the province. The case of Aceh is a unique example where conflict and disaster serve as the catalysts toward the development of a mental healthcare system. Several factors contribute to the improvement of the mental health system, but security is a must. Whilst the Acehnese enjoy the improvements, some issues such as stigma, access to care and political fluctuations remain challenging. PMID:26957340

  3. Receiver function study in northern Sumatra and the Malaysian peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieling, Katrin; Roessler, Dirk; Krueger, Frank

    2011-04-01

    In this receiver function study, we investigate the structure of the crust beneath six seismic broadband stations close to the Sunda Arc formed by subduction of the Indo-Australian under the Sunda plate. We apply three different methods to analyse receiver functions at single stations. A recently developed algorithm determines absolute shear-wave velocities from observed frequency-dependent apparent incidence angles of P waves. Using waveform inversion of receiver functions and a modified Zhu and Kanamori algorithm, properties of discontinuities such as depth, velocity contrast, and sharpness are determined. The combination of the methods leads to robust results. The approach is validated by synthetic tests. Stations located on Malaysia show high-shear-wave velocities ( V S) near the surface in the range of 3.4-3.6 km s - 1 attributed to crystalline rocks and 3.6-4.0 km s - 1 in the lower crust. Upper and lower crust are clearly separated, the Moho is found at normal depths of 30-34 km where it forms a sharp discontinuity at station KUM or a gradient at stations IPM and KOM. For stations close to the subduction zone (BSI, GSI and PSI) complexity within the crust is high. Near the surface low V S of 2.6-2.9 km s - 1 indicate sediment layers. High V S of 4.2 km s - 1 are found at depth greater than 6 and 2 km at BSI and PSI, respectively. There, the Moho is located at 37 and 40 km depth. At station GSI, situated closest to the trench, the subducting slab is imaged as a north-east dipping structure separated from the sediment layer by a 10 km wide gradient in V S between 10 and 20 km depth. Within the subducting slab V S ≈ 4.7 km s - 1. At station BSI, the subducting slab is found at depth between 90 and 110 km dipping 20° ± 8° in approximately N 60° E. A velocity increase in similar depth is indicated at station PSI, however no evidence for a dipping layer is found.

  4. Tsunami Research driven by Survivor Observations: Sumatra 2004, Tohoku 2011 and the Lituya Bay Landslide (Plinius Medal Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fritz, Hermann M.

    2014-05-01

    The 10th anniversary of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami recalls the advent of tsunami video recordings by eyewitnesses. The tsunami of December 26, 2004 severely affected Banda Aceh along the North tip of Sumatra (Indonesia) at a distance of 250 km from the epicenter of the Magnitude 9.0 earthquake. The tsunami flow velocity analysis focused on two survivor videos recorded within Banda Aceh more than 3km from the open ocean. The exact locations of the tsunami eyewitness video recordings were revisited to record camera calibration ground control points. The motion of the camera during the recordings was determined. The individual video images were rectified with a direct linear transformation (DLT). Finally a cross-correlation based particle image velocimetry (PIV) analysis was applied to the rectified video images to determine instantaneous tsunami flow velocity fields. The measured overland tsunami flow velocities were within the range of 2 to 5 m/s in downtown Banda Aceh, Indonesia. The March 11, 2011, magnitude Mw 9.0 earthquake off the coast of Japan caused catastrophic damage and loss of life. Fortunately many survivors at evacuation sites recorded countless tsunami videos with unprecedented spatial and temporal coverage. Numerous tsunami reconnaissance trips were conducted in Japan. This report focuses on the surveys at selected tsunami eyewitness video recording locations along Japan's Sanriku coast and the subsequent tsunami video image analysis. Locations with high quality survivor videos were visited, eyewitnesses interviewed and detailed site topography scanned with a terrestrial laser scanner (TLS). The analysis of the tsunami videos followed the four step procedure developed for the analysis of 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami videos at Banda Aceh. Tsunami currents up to 11 m/s were measured in Kesennuma Bay making navigation impossible. Further tsunami height and runup hydrographs are derived from the videos to discuss the complex effects of coastal structures

  5. Determining the Controlling Factors of Coastal Development along an Active Margin - A Case Study from Aceh, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monecke, Katrin; Meilianda, Ella; Hill, Emma; McAdoo, Brian; Qiang, Qui; Storms, Joep; Walstra, Dirk-Jan; Setiawan, Agus; Masputri, Aisha S.; Mayasari, Cut D.; Riandi, Indra; Nasir, Muhammad

    2016-04-01

    Understanding the recovery of shorelines after catastrophic events is crucial for sustainable coastal development and future hazard mitigation. Here, we present post-seismic coastal development data from West Aceh, Indonesia, an area that was severely affected by the 2004 Sumatra Andaman earthquake and ensuing Indian Ocean tsunami. Using a combined approach of spatial data analysis, field surveys and numerical modeling, we reconstruct the build-up of a new beach ridge along a 10 kilometer long stretch of the western Acehnese coast after the complete destruction of the beach in 2004. The coastline of West Aceh can be characterized as a microtidal, wave dominated environment with the wave climate being controlled by the monsoon seasons reaching a significant wave height of Hs = 1.2 m during the more energetic West Monsoon from April to September. Waves approach the shoreline at a very low angle resulting in minor and variable longshore sediment transport. The beach has an average foreshore slope of 0.07 and is composed of well sorted medium sand. Recently obtained bathymetric data indicates a steep upper shoreface with a slope of 0.03. Further offshore the slope decreases to 0.01 with 14 m water depth being reached in about 700 m distance to the shoreline. Grab samples obtained in 10 m water depth are composed of fine to medium sand but lenses of medium to coarse sand with abundant shell debris do also occur. Beach ridges can be traced up to 2 km inland and indicate long-term coastal progradation and abundant sediment supply to the littoral zone. The western Acehnese shoreline parallels the Sunda trench and subsided 50 to 100 cm during the 2004 rupture. Modeled land elevation changes as a result of afterslip and viscoelastic mantle relaxation, indicate rapid post-seismic uplift of 4.4 cm/year in the year following the earthquake, but more moderate uplift rates of 1.4 cm/year since mid-2006. In 2004, co-seismic subsidence and tsunami scouring caused the coastline to

  6. Seismology: energy radiation from the Sumatra earthquake.

    PubMed

    Ni, Sidao; Kanamori, Hiroo; Helmberger, Don

    2005-03-31

    We determined the duration of high-frequency energy radiation from Indonesia's great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (26 December 2004) to be about 500 seconds. This duration can be translated into a rupture length of about 1,200 km, which is more than twice as long as that inferred from body-wave analyses performed soon after the event. Our analysis was able rapidly to define the extent of rupture, thereby aiding the assessment of seismic hazard in the immediate future. PMID:15800612

  7. Surviving Women's Learning Experiences from the Tsunami in Aceh

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teng, Yan Fang Jane; Yusof, Qismullah

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated surviving women's learning experiences from the 2004 tsunami in Aceh. Women were the majority of casualties and the most vulnerable after the tsunami. Almost a decade later, we used a conceptual framework of experiential learning, critical reflection, and transformative learning to understand the surviving women's…

  8. "The Fruit Caught between Two Stones": The Conflicted Position of Teachers within Aceh's Independence Struggle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopes Cardozo, Mieke T.A.; Shah, Ritesh

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the challenging situation faced by teachers as professionals and members of the community in Aceh, Indonesia during the province's civil war. It reveals how teachers' sense of agency during this period was deeply influenced by the economic/material, political and socio-cultural condition at that time -- conditions and…

  9. The role of students' activities in Indonesian realistic mathematics education in primary schools of Aceh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubainur, Cut Morina; Veloo, Arsaythamby; Khalid, Rozalina

    2015-05-01

    This study aims to explore the implementation of the Indonesian Realistic Mathematics Education (PMRI) in Aceh primary schools, Indonesia. This study investigates the students' mathematics activities involved in the implementation of PMRI and for this purpose; students' mathematics activities in the classroom were observed. Students were observed three times within five weeks during mathematics class, based on PMRI. A total of 25 year five students from a public school participated in this study. Observation check list was used in this study based on ten items. The observation conducted was based on two different time periods which were 105 minutes for group A and 70 minutes for group B. The observation was conducted every 5 minutes. The results show that PMRI is being practised in Aceh, but not completely. This study shows that mathematics activities for those who were taught using PMRI are higher than for those using the traditional approach. Overall, the findings showed that the number of student activities undertaken in PMRI achieved 90.56%. The higher percentage of activities suggests that the Aceh Education Office expands the implementation of PMRI in all primary schools so that learning of mathematics is more effective. This indirectly increases the mathematics achievement of students in Aceh to a higher level on par with Indonesia's national achievement.

  10. 3D Visualization of Recent Sumatra Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Atul; Kilb, Debi

    2005-04-01

    Scientists and visualization experts at the Scripps Institution of Oceanography have created an interactive three-dimensional visualization of the 28 March 2005 magnitude 8.7 earthquake in Sumatra. The visualization shows the earthquake's hypocenter and aftershocks recorded until 29 March 2005, and compares it with the location of the 26 December 2004 magnitude 9 event and the consequent seismicity in that region. The 3D visualization was created using the Fledermaus software developed by Interactive Visualization Systems (http://www.ivs.unb.ca/) and stored as a ``scene'' file. To view this visualization, viewers need to download and install the free viewer program iView3D (http://www.ivs3d.com/products/iview3d).

  11. Tracking the rupture of the Mw = 9.3 Sumatra earthquake over 1,150 km at teleseismic distance.

    PubMed

    Krüger, Frank; Ohrnberger, Matthias

    2005-06-16

    On 26 December 2004, a moment magnitude Mw = 9.3 earthquake occurred along Northern Sumatra, the Nicobar and Andaman islands, resulting in a devastating tsunami in the Indian Ocean region. The rapid and accurate estimation of the rupture length and direction of such tsunami-generating earthquakes is crucial for constraining both tsunami wave-height models as well as the seismic moment of the events. Compressional seismic waves generated at the hypocentre of the Sumatra earthquake arrived after about 12 min at the broadband seismic stations of the German Regional Seismic Network (GRSN), located approximately 9,000 km from the event. Here we present a modification of a standard array-seismological approach and show that it is possible to track the propagating rupture front of the Sumatra earthquake over a total rupture length of 1,150 km. We estimate the average rupture speed to be 2.3-2.7 km s(-1) and the total duration of rupture to be at least 430 s, and probably between 480 and 500 s. PMID:15908983

  12. Constraints on rupture of the December 26, 2004, Sumatra earthquake from far-field GPS observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catherine, Joshi K.; Gahalaut, Vineet K.; Sahu, Vipul K.

    2005-09-01

    We use Global Positioning System (GPS) data from nine permanent GPS sites surrounding the epicentre of the December 26, 2004, Sumatra earthquake to infer coseismic displacements at these sites. The results suggest that GPS site at SAMP, Medan in Sumatra Island, the nearest site from the epicentre, experienced a westward coseismic horizontal displacement of about 14 cm, while sites in southern India, namely, HYDE and IISC experienced predominantly eastward coseismic horizontal displacement of about 6-11 mm. We estimated the slip on the mainshock rupture and rupture extent in a uniform half space by analysing these coseismic displacements. We estimate an average reverse slip of about 11 m on the southern part of the rupture and an oblique slip of about 10 m on the northern part of the 1200 × 100-175-km 2 rupture. Our results of estimated coseismic horizontal displacement in the Andaman and Nicobar region using the above rupture parameters are also consistent with the near-field GPS measured coseismic displacements in the region.

  13. Nighttime lights time series of tsunami damage, recovery, and economic metrics in Sumatra, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    GILLESPIE, THOMAS W.; FRANKENBERG, ELIZABETH; CHUM, KAI FUNG; THOMAS, DUNCAN

    2014-01-01

    On 26 December 2004, a magnitude 9.2 earthquake off the west coast of the northern Sumatra, Indonesia resulted in 160,000 Indonesians killed. We examine the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program-Operational Linescan System (DMSP-OLS) nighttime light imagery brightness values for 307 communities in the Study of the Tsunami Aftermath and Recovery (STAR), a household survey in Sumatra from 2004 to 2008. We examined night light time series between the annual brightness and extent of damage, economic metrics collected from STAR households and aggregated to the community level. There were significant changes in brightness values from 2004 to 2008 with a significant drop in brightness values in 2005 due to the tsunami and pre-tsunami nighttime light values returning in 2006 for all damage zones. There were significant relationships between the nighttime imagery brightness and per capita expenditures, and spending on energy and on food. Results suggest that Defense Meteorological Satellite Program nighttime light imagery can be used to capture the impacts and recovery from the tsunami and other natural disasters and estimate time series economic metrics at the community level in developing countries. PMID:25419471

  14. Grassroots development and upwards accountabilities: tensions in the reconstruction of Aceh's fishing industry.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Rowan; McGregor, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This article explores the tensions between aid funding and grassroots development goals in the context of post-disaster fisheries reconstruction in Aceh, Indonesia. We argue that both short- and long-term grassroots goals are distorted by upward accountability requirements which lead to unsatisfactory aid outcomes. Our analysis employs the concept of aid webs and draws on fifty-one formal interviews with stakeholders in Aceh in 2007/2008. The findings initially concentrate on the impacts of upward accountability on project cycles, with a particular focus on the problematic incorporation of private boat-building contractors and commercial values during the implementation phase. We then discuss the more subtle, long-term impacts of upward accountability on the professionalization of community institutions — in this case, the Panglima Laot Lhok. We conclude with a few observations about the hybrid institutions — combining elements of local and development cultures — that are produced within the current political economy of aid. PMID:22235491

  15. Space Radar Image of Central Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This is a radar image of the central part of the island of Sumatra in Indonesia that shows how the tropical rainforest typical of this country is being impacted by human activity. Native forest appears in green in this image, while prominent pink areas represent places where the native forest has been cleared. The large rectangular areas have been cleared for palm oil plantations. The bright pink zones are areas that have been cleared since 1989, while the dark pink zones are areas that were cleared before 1989. These radar data were processed as part of an effort to assist oil and gas companies working in the area to assess the environmental impact of both their drilling operations and the activities of the local population. Radar images are useful in these areas because heavy cloud cover and the persistent smoke and haze associated with deforestation have prevented usable visible-light imagery from being acquired since 1989. The dark shapes in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image are a chain of lakes in flat coastal marshes. This image was acquired in October 1994 by the Spaceborne Imaging Radar C/X-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) onboard the space shuttle Endeavour. Environmental changes can be easily documented by comparing this image with visible-light data that were acquired in previous years by the Landsat satellite. The image is centered at 0.9 degrees north latitude and 101.3 degrees east longitude. The area shown is 50 kilometers by 100 kilometers (31 miles by 62 miles). The colors in the image are assigned to different frequencies and polarizations of the radar as follows: red is L-band horizontally transmitted, horizontally received; green is L-band horizontally transmitted, vertically received; blue is L-band vertically transmitted, vertically received. SIR-C/X-SAR, a joint mission of the German, Italian and United States space agencies, is part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth program.

  16. A review on earthquake and tsunami hazards of the Sumatran plate boundary: Observing expected and unexpected events after the Aceh-Andaman Mw 9.15 event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natawidjaja, D.

    2013-12-01

    The 600-km Mentawai megathrust had produced two giant historical earthquakes generating big tsunamies in 1797 and 1833. The SuGAr (Sumatran GPS continuous Array) network, first deployed in 2002, shows that the subduction interface underlying Mentawai Islands and the neighboring Nias section in the north are fully locked, thus confirming their potential hazards. Outreach activities to warn people about earthquake and tsunamies had been started since 4 months prior to the 26 December 2004 in Aceh-Andaman earthquake (Mw 9.15). Later in March 2005, the expected megathrust earthquake (Mw 8.7) hit Nias-Simelue area and killed about 2000 people, releasing the accumulated strain since the previous 1861 event (~Mw 8.5). After then many Mw 7s and smaller events occured in Sumatra, filling areas between and around two giant ruptures and heighten seismicities in neighboring areas. In March 2007, the twin earthquake disaster (Mw 6.3 and Mw 6.4) broke two consecutive segments of the transcurrent Sumatran fault in the Singkarak lake area. Only six month later, in September 2007, the rapid-fire-failures of three consecutive megathrust patches (Mw 8.5, Mw 7.9 and Mw 7.0) ruptured a 250-km-section of the southern part of the Mentawai. It was a big surprise since this particular section is predicted as a very-low coupled section from modelling the SuGAr data, and hence, bypassing the more potential fully coupled section of the Mentawai in between the 2005 and 2007 ruptures. In September 2009, a rare unexpected event (Mw 7.6) suddenly ruptured an intracrustal fault in the subducted slab down under Padang City and killed about 500 people. Padang had been in preparation for the next tsunami but not for strong shakes from near by major earthquake. This event seems to have remotely triggered another Mw 6.7 on the Sumatran fault near kerinci Lake, a few hundred kilometers south of Padang, in less than a day. Just a year later, in November 2010, again an unexpected large slow-slip event of

  17. Forest Fruit Production Is Higher on Sumatra Than on Borneo

    PubMed Central

    Wich, Serge A.; Vogel, Erin R.; Larsen, Michael D.; Fredriksson, Gabriella; Leighton, Mark; Yeager, Carey P.; Brearley, Francis Q.; van Schaik, Carel P.; Marshall, Andrew J.

    2011-01-01

    Background Various studies have shown that the population densities of a number of forest vertebrates, such as orangutans, are higher on Sumatra than Borneo, and that several species exhibit smaller body sizes on Borneo than Sumatra and mainland Southeast Asia. It has been suggested that differences in forest fruit productivity between the islands can explain these patterns. Here we present a large-scale comparison of forest fruit production between the islands to test this hypothesis. Methodology/Principal Findings Data on fruit production were collated from Sumatran and Bornean sites. At six sites we assessed fruit production in three forest types: riverine, peat swamp and dryland forests. We compared fruit production using time-series models during different periods of overall fruit production and in different tree size classes. We examined overall island differences and differences specifically for fruiting period and tree size class. The results of these analyses indicate that overall the Sumatran forests are more productive than those on Borneo. This difference remains when each of the three forest types (dryland, riverine, and peat) are examined separately. The difference also holds over most tree sizes and fruiting periods. Conclusions/Significance Our results provide strong support for the hypothesis that forest fruit productivity is higher on Sumatra than Borneo. This difference is most likely the result of the overall younger and more volcanic soils on Sumatra than Borneo. These results contribute to our understanding of the determinants of faunal density and the evolution of body size on both islands. PMID:21738627

  18. The global reach of the 26 December 2004 Sumatra tsunami.

    PubMed

    Titov, Vasily; Rabinovich, Alexander B; Mofjeld, Harold O; Thomson, Richard E; González, Frank I

    2005-09-23

    Numerical model simulations, combined with tide-gauge and satellite altimetry data, reveal that wave amplitudes, directionality, and global propagation patterns of the 26 December 2004 Sumatra tsunami were primarily determined by the orientation and intensity of the offshore seismic line source and subsequently by the trapping effect of mid-ocean ridge topographic waveguides. PMID:16123264

  19. GPS Constrained Coseismic Slip of the 26 December 2004 Great Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, M.; Shen, Z.; Wan, Y.; Zeng, Y.

    2005-12-01

    The 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman megathrust earthquake is one of the largest earthquakes ever recorded since 1900. The event took place at the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone between the Australia and Sundaland plate in the south and the India and Burma plate in the north. Despite of its great size and catastrophic consequences, the magnitude and rupture distribution of the earthquake are still not well constrained yet. We ensemble a GPS data set from continuous and survey mode stations in the region to obtain the coseismic displacement field. The continuous data set includes these from the IGS stations located in East Asia and around the Northern Indian Ocean, from the Crustal Motion Observation Network of China in mainland China and South China Sea, and from Caltech's Indonesian GPS network in central Sumatra. Three months and ten days of data before and after the quake respectively are processed to derive the coseismic displacement offsets using the GAMIT and QOCA softwares. Three additional data sets of coseismic displacement offsets are also incorporated, one from the southeast Asia area (Vigny et al., 2005), another from the India subcontinent (Banerjee et al., 2005), and the third from the Andaman and Nicobar Islands (http://www.seires.net/content/view/122/52/). These data are used to invert for fault rupture which is devised as dislocation in a layered elastic media. We also adopt the `Earth flattening' method to accommodate the curvature effect of the Earth's surface, which is significant at the far field and should not be neglected. The fault model is composed of multiple tiles, meshing the interface of the subduction slab, with second order smoothing applied to enforce slip continuity. Our result shows dominant thrust faulting for all the patches, ranging from ~2.5 m to 7 m in amplitude, with the largest slip centered around the central section of the rupture zone 5°-10°N latitude. Rupture is also accompanied with meter level right slip for the

  20. Community Willingness to Participate in a Dengue Study in Aceh Province, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Anwar, Samsul; Bustaman, Aslam; Radiansyah, Arsil; Angraini, Pradiba; Fasli, Riny; Salwiyadi, Salwiyadi; Bastian, Reza Akbar; Oktiviyari, Ade; Akmal, Imaduddin; Iqbalamin, Muhammad; Adil, Jamalul; Henrizal, Fenni; Darmayanti, Darmayanti; Pratama, Rovy; Fajar, Jonny Karunia; Setiawan, Abdul Malik; Imrie, Allison; Kuch, Ulrich; Groneberg, David Alexander; Sasmono, R. Tedjo; Dhimal, Meghnath; Müller, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue virus infection is the most rapidly spreading vector-borne disease in the world. Essential research on dengue virus transmission and its prevention requires community participation. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the factors that are associated with the willingness of communities in high prevalence areas to participate in dengue research. The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with the willingness of healthy community members in Aceh province, Indonesia, to participate in dengue research that would require phlebotomy. Methodology/Principal Findings A community-based cross-sectional study was carried out in nine regencies and municipalities of Aceh from November 2014 to March 2015. Interviews using a set of validated questionnaires were conducted to collect data on demography, history of dengue infection, socioeconomic status, and knowledge, attitude and practice regarding dengue fever. Two-step logistic regression and Spearman’s rank correlation (rs) analysis were used to assess the influence of independent variables on dependent variables. Among 535 participants, less than 20% had a good willingness to participate in the dengue study. The factors associated with good willingness to participate were being female, working as a civil servant, private employee or entrepreneur, having a high socioeconomic status and good knowledge, attitude and practice regarding dengue. Good knowledge and attitude regarding dengue were positive independent predictors of willingness to participate (OR: 2.30 [95% CI: 1.36–3.90] and 3.73 [95% CI: 2.24–6.21], respectively). Conclusion/Significance The willingness to participate in dengue research is very low among community members in Aceh, and the two most important associated factors are knowledge and attitude regarding dengue. To increase participation rate, efforts to improve the knowledge and attitude of community members regarding dengue fever and dengue-related research is required

  1. RESIDENTIAL WATER USE IN BANDA ACEH BEFORE AND AFTER DISASTER RECONSTRUCTION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwata, Yasuko; Nagasawa, Masaharu

    This study focuses on the residential consciousness on water use in the background of disaster reconstruction of water supply system in Banda Aceh, Indonesia after the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami. Itwas turned out that half of residents started usingwater supply system after the earthquake and the water supply system user satisfies water quality rather than the domestic water user does. The satisfaction on water supply stability is not obtained well though there is a problem in resident's manner. Finally, the disaster countermeasure to the area where earthquake and tsunami are high potential and where the water supply system is not developed yet were discussed.

  2. Intermediate water radiocarbon off west Sumatra during the last 45,000 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pol-Holz, R.; Mohtadi, M.; Southon, J.

    2012-04-01

    Radiocarbon content of intermediate waters originating from the Southern Ocean is held as the likely smoking gun of the events that triggered the atmospheric CO2 rise and its radiocarbon content decline during the last glacial-interglacial transition. Extremely depleted radiocarbon has been found off the coast of Baja California, the Galapagos and the Arabian Sea, but not unequivocally elsewhere. Knowing the route of the old water is therefore central for the mechanistic linkage of Southern Ocean processes and the atmospheric response. Here, we present high-resolution radiocarbon content of intermediate depth waters off west Sumatra in the attempt to trace the hypothetical route of old water emanating near Antarctica. Sediment core SO189-39KL (0°47'S, 99°55'E, 517 m) resulted in a 1350 cm hemipelagic sedimentary sequence that spans the last 45,000 years and it was sampled for planktonic and benthic foraminifera radiocarbon determinations at a centennial time resolution. Besides the planktonic radiocarbon age control points, we attempted an independent stratigraphy based on the Mg/Ca sea surface temperature evolution and its apparent similarity with Antarctic Ice core records. This allowed us to infer surface reservoir ages as well as the D14C of the intermediate waters. Our results show that throughout the LGM and the entire deglaciation, radiocarbon content at 500 m depth off west Sumatra remained in equilibrium with the contemporaneous atmosphere, discarding this area as a probable route for the spreading of the old water along its way to northern latitudes. These results add up to increasing evidence that the radiocarbon content of intermediate waters originating from the Southern Ocean was not influenced by the upwelling of a large abyssal old water reservoir, as it has been hypothesized in order to explain the atmospheric deglacial records.

  3. The Diverse Slip Behavior of the Banyak Islands Section of the Sunda Megathrust Offshore Sumatra.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morgan, P. M.; Feng, L.; Qiu, Q.; Meltzner, A. J.; Tsang, L. L.; Hill, E.

    2015-12-01

    We examine the long-term slip history of the Banyak Islands section of the Sunda megathrust, which stretches for ~100 km between the islands of Simeulue and Nias offshore northern Sumatra. In the last decade this section has ruptured in two large earthquakes: the great Mw 8.6 2005 Nias-Simeulue earthquake and a previously unstudied Mw 7.8 earthquake that occurred five years later in April 2010. Using data from the Sumatra GPS Array (SuGAr), we model the coseismic slip distributions of these earthquakes. The 2005 rupture had a low-slip patch near the Banyak Islands (with higher slip patches on either side along-strike), and we show that the 2010 earthquake rupture coincides with this low-slip patch. The uplift pattern in the coral records suggest that the 2005 rupture might have been similar to its 1861 predecessor [Meltzner et al., 2015]. We investigate whether the low coseismic slip behavior of the Banyak Islands section is persistent for great earthquakes in this region. Coral records also show that the Banyak Islands section had a 15-year-long slow slip event between 1966 and 1981, immediately down-dip of the 2010 rupture patch [Tsang et al., 2015, in press]. The complex slip history in this section might result from differences in frictional properties, or structural features that could include a transform fault in the downgoing slab, a bend in the megathrust, and an extension of the Batee fault zone in the upper plate. We explore candidates for the cause of the diverse slip behavior of this patch. Understanding these structural and morphological controls on megathrust slip behavior has important implications for seismic hazard analyses.

  4. Determining Proportion of Exfoliative Vaginal Cell during Various Stages of Estrus Cycle Using Vaginal Cytology Techniques in Aceh Cattle

    PubMed Central

    Siregar, Tongku N.; Melia, Juli; Rohaya; Thasmi, Cut Nila; Masyitha, Dian; Wahyuni, Sri; Rosa, Juliana; Nurhafni; Panjaitan, Budianto; Herrialfian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the period of estrus cycle in aceh cattle, Indonesia, based on vaginal cytology techniques. Four healthy females of aceh cattle with average weight of 250–300 kg, age of 5–7 years, and body condition score of 3-4 were used. All cattle were subjected to ultrasonography analysis for the occurrence of corpus luteum before being synchronized using intramuscular injections of PGF2 alpha 25 mg. A vaginal swab was collected from aceh cattle, stained with Giemsa 10%, and observed microscopically. Period of estrus cycle was predicted from day 1 to day 24 after estrus synchronization was confirmed using ultrasonography analysis at the same day. The result showed that parabasal, intermediary, and superficial epithelium were found in the vaginal swabs collected from proestrus, metestrus, and diestrus aceh cattle. Proportions of these cells in the particular period of estrus cycle were 36.22, 32.62, and 31.16 (proestrus); 21.33, 32.58, and 46.09 (estrus); 40.75, 37.58, and 21.67 (metestrus); and 41.07, 37.38, and 21.67 (diestrus), respectively. In conclusion, dominant proportion of superficial cell that occurred in estrus period might be used as the base for determining optimal time for insemination. PMID:26977335

  5. The 2004 Sumatra Earthquake and Tsunami: Lessons Learned in Subduction Zone Science and Emergency Management for the Cascadia Subduction Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassidy, John F.

    2015-03-01

    The 26 December 2004, Mw 9.3 Sumatra earthquake and tsunami was a pivotal turning point in our awareness of the dangers posed by subduction zone earthquakes and tsunamis. This earthquake was the world's largest in 40 years, and it produced the world's deadliest tsunami. This earthquake ruptured a subduction zone that has many similarities to the Cascadia Subduction Zone. In this article, I summarize lessons learned from this tragedy, and make comparisons with potential rupture characteristics, slip distribution, deformation patterns, and aftershock patterns for Cascadia using theoretical modeling and interseismic observations. Both subduction zones are approximately 1,100-1,300 km in length. Both have similar convergence rates and represent oblique subduction. Slip along the subduction fault during the 26 December earthquake is estimated at 15-25 m, similar to values estimated for Cascadia. The width of the rupture, ~80-150 km estimated from modeling seismic and geodetic data, is similar to the width of the "locked and transition zone" estimated for Cascadia. Coseismic subsidence of up to 2 m along the Sumatra coast is also similar to that predicted for parts of northern Cascadia, based on paleoseismic evidence. In addition to scientific lessons learned, the 2004 tsunami provided many critical lessons for emergency management and preparedness. As a result of that tragedy, a number of preparedness initiatives are now underway to promote awareness of earthquake and tsunami hazards along the west coast of North America, and plans are underway to develop prototype tsunami and earthquake warning systems along Cascadia. Lessons learned from the great Sumatra earthquake and tsunami tragedy, both through scientific studies and through public education initiatives, will help to reduce losses during future earthquakes in Cascadia and other subduction zones of the world.

  6. Geoelectrical dimensionality analyses in Sumatran Fault (Aceh segment) using magnetotelluric phase tensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prihantoro, Rudy; Nurhasan, Sutarno, Doddy; Ogawa, Yasuo; Priahadena, Has; Fitriani, Dini

    2014-03-01

    Earth electrical / geoelectrical conductivity may vary in any direction in a complex earth model. When conductivity only varying within one direction such as depth, it is considered as an one-dimensional (1-D) structure model. Two-dimensional (2-D) and three-dimensional (3-D) structure have more degrees of conductivity variation. In magnetotelluric (MT) surveys localized heterogeneities in conductivity near the Earth's surface distort the electromagnetic (EM) response produced by the underlying or 'regional' conductivity structure under investigation. Several attempts had been done to remove this distortion effect in measured MT transfer functions (impedances tensor) by a series of techniques and general conductivity models of increasing complexity. The most common technique are Bahr's method and Groom-Bailey decompositions, that is restricted by assumption of two dimensional (2D) regional conductivity structure. MT phase tensor technique proposed by Caldwell et al. (2004) requires no assumption about the dimensionality of the regional conductivity structure and is applicable where both the heterogeneity and the regional conductivity structure are 3-D. Here, we examine the dimensionality analyses using the MT phase tensor to measured data of Sumatran Fault (SF) Aceh segment that we've collected during July 2012. A small value of phase tensor dimensionality indicator (β) was found along the profile. This result indicate a strong a two dimensionality of regional conductivity structure of SF Aceh segment.

  7. Dividing disasters in Aceh, Indonesia: separatist conflict and tsunami, human rights and humanitarianism.

    PubMed

    Zeccola, Paul

    2011-04-01

    This paper examines the interface between human rights and humanitarian action in the context of the conflict and tsunami in Aceh, Indonesia, between 1998 and 2007. It looks at the challenges international humanitarian non-governmental organisations (NGOs) faced as they engaged in human rights work in the conflict period and in conflict-related activities in the post-tsunami period. The paper argues that many large NGOs may have compromised what some would hold to be essential principles for humanitarian action because of domestic political concerns, donor restrictions and resistance among certain NGO chiefs. In contrast with the pre-tsunami period, in which NGOs worked for years amid military operations, in the post-tsunami period NGOs were decidedly apolitical, neglecting the conflict in their tsunami response--despite significant developments that permitted greater political engagement in Aceh's post-conflict transformation. The evidence suggests that NGOs are challenged in contextualising humanitarian responses and that there is a need to underscore donor flexibility and independence in humanitarian action. PMID:21054497

  8. Exploration in the Ombilin Intermontane Basin, West Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Koning, T.

    1996-12-31

    The Ombilin Basin is a Tertiary intermontane basin located within the Barisan Mountain Range of Sumatra. Oil exploration commenced in the Ombilin Basin in the early 1980s when geological mapping was carried out, a synthetic aperture radar survey was flown, and a basin-wide geophysical survey was completed. This effort led to the drilling of Sinimar No. 1 to a total depth 3020 m. Sinimar No. 1 was a historic well in Indonesia`s oil industry since it was the first oil exploration well drilled in the Ombilin Basin and also the first well drilled in an intermontane basin in Indonesia. Oil, gas and condensate was tested in the well. An integrated interpretation of the well, geophysical and outcrop data indicates that despite its small areal size (30 km x 50 km), the Ombilin Basin is a deep pull-apart basin containing up to 4500 m of Tertiary sediments, ranging in age from Middle Eocene to Early Miocene. The basin currently is in an intermontane basin structural setting but it was also an intermontane basin during its Early Tertiary depositional history. During the Eocene, alluvial fans and massive debris flows were deposited on the basin margins and a large lake occupied the basin center. Fluvial deposition occurred in the basin during the Oligocene followed by deposition of marine shales, sandstones, and isolated reefs during the Miocene. Although the Ombilin Basin is located within Sumatra`s magmatic arc and is partially covered by volcanics from extinct and active volcanoes, the subsurface temperature gradients of 1.62 deg. F/100 ft. recorded in Sinimar No. I and 1.47 deg F/100 ft. measured in a deep (670 m) coal exploration core hole are significantly cooler than the average subsurface temperature gradients in the Sumatra back-arc basins. Organic-rich Eocene lacustrine shales are the likely source rocks for the hydrocarbons tested in Sinimar No. 1 and the oil seeps located along the basin margins.

  9. A melt inclusion study of the Toba Tuffs, Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesner, Craig A.; Luhr, James F.

    2010-11-01

    The Toba Caldera in Northern Sumatra, Indonesia is the site of Earth's largest Quaternary volcanic eruption. This eruption, dated at 74 ka, produced the 2800 km 3 Youngest Toba Tuff (YTT) and ash-fall. Quartz-bearing silicic pumices ranging from 68 to 77 wt.% SiO 2 indicate that the YTT magma was zoned compositionally and mineralogically. Prior to the YTT eruption, two other silicic quartz-bearing tuffs known as the Middle Toba Tuff (MTT) and the Oldest Toba Tuff (OTT) were erupted from Toba at 0.501 Ma and 0.840 Ma respectively. Although the volatile contents of the Toba magmas are poorly constrained, aerosols generated by the YTT eruption are generally thought to have caused a global volcanic winter. An evaluation of the pre-eruptive dissolved gas contents of the YTT magma is fundamental to understanding the global effects of this eruption. We used melt inclusions in quartz crystals to determine the dissolved H 2O, CO 2, S, Cl, and F contents of the YTT, MTT, and OTT magmas. Quartz crystals selected from pumice blocks and welded tuffs that spanned the compositional ranges of the three units were chosen for study. Major and trace element analyses of melt inclusions were also conducted to characterize melt evolution and provide context to the volatile data. Melt inclusions from the YTT, MTT, and OTT are rhyolitic in composition (73-77 wt.% SiO 2) and have overlapping, indistinguishable major element trends. Inclusions from the large eruptions (YTT and OTT) have similar geochemical relationships where the most evolved melt inclusions occur in the least silicic bulk rock samples and are more evolved than their matrix glasses. In contrast, the least evolved melt inclusions occur in the most silicic samples and either overlap with, or are less evolved than their matrix glasses. These patterns can be explained if quartz crystals in the least silicic magmas were inherited from more evolved melt, while those in the most silicic melt formed in-situ. Several lines of

  10. Long-period spectral features of the Sumatra-Andaman 2004 earthquake rupture process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clévédé, E.; Bukchin, B.; Favreau, P.; Mostinskiy, A.; Aoudia, A.; Panza, G. F.

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this study is to investigate the spatial variability of the seismic radiation spectral content of the Sumatra-Andaman 2004 earthquake. We determine the integral estimates of source geometry, duration and rupture propagation given by the stress glut moments of total degree 2 of different source models. These models are constructed from a single or a joint use of different observations including seismology, geodesy, altimetry and tide gauge data. The comparative analysis shows coherency among the different models and no strong contradictions are found between the integral estimates of geodetic and altimetric models, and those retrieved from very long period seismic records (up to 2000-3000 s). The comparison between these results and the integral estimates derived from observed surface wave spectra in period band from 500 to 650 s suggests that the northern part of the fault (to the north of 8°N near Nicobar Islands) did not radiate long period seismic waves, that is, period shorter than 650 s at least. This conclusion is consistent with the existing composite short and long rise time tsunami model: with short rise time of slip in the southern part of the fault and very long rise time of slip at the northern part. This complex space-time slip evolution can be reproduced by a simple dynamic model of the rupture assuming a crude phenomenological mechanical behaviour of the rupture interface at the fault scales combining an effective slip-controlled exponential weakening effect, related to possible friction and damage breakdown processes of the fault zone, and an effective linear viscous strengthening effect, related to possible interface lubrication processes. While the rupture front speed remains unperturbed with initial short slip duration, a slow creep wave propagates behind the rupture front in the case of viscous effects accounting for the long slip duration and the radiation characteristics in the northern segment.

  11. Mathematical Understanding and Representation Ability of Public Junior High School in North Sumatra

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minarni, Ani; Napitupulu, E. Elvis; Husein, Rahmad

    2016-01-01

    This paper is the result of first phase of the research about the development of students' mathematical understanding and representation ability through Joyful Problem-Based Learning (JPBL) at Public Junior High School in North Sumatra, Indonesia. The population is all of the students of public junior high school (PJHS) in North Sumatra. Samples…

  12. Exploration in the Ombilin Intermontane Basin, West Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Koning, T. Petroleum Co., Lagos )

    1996-01-01

    The Ombilin Basin is a Tertiary intermontane basin located within the Barisan Mountain Range of Sumatra. Oil exploration commenced in the Ombilin Basin in the early 1980s when geological mapping was carried out, a synthetic aperture radar survey was flown, and a basin-wide geophysical survey was completed. This effort led to the drilling of Sinimar No. 1 to a total depth 3020 m. Sinimar No. 1 was a historic well in Indonesia's oil industry since it was the first oil exploration well drilled in the Ombilin Basin and also the first well drilled in an intermontane basin in Indonesia. Oil, gas and condensate was tested in the well. An integrated interpretation of the well, geophysical and outcrop data indicates that despite its small areal size (30 km x 50 km), the Ombilin Basin is a deep pull-apart basin containing up to 4500 m of Tertiary sediments, ranging in age from Middle Eocene to Early Miocene. The basin currently is in an intermontane basin structural setting but it was also an intermontane basin during its Early Tertiary depositional history. During the Eocene, alluvial fans and massive debris flows were deposited on the basin margins and a large lake occupied the basin center. Fluvial deposition occurred in the basin during the Oligocene followed by deposition of marine shales, sandstones, and isolated reefs during the Miocene. Although the Ombilin Basin is located within Sumatra's magmatic arc and is partially covered by volcanics from extinct and active volcanoes, the subsurface temperature gradients of 1.62 deg. F/100 ft. recorded in Sinimar No. I and 1.47 deg F/100 ft. measured in a deep (670 m) coal exploration core hole are significantly cooler than the average subsurface temperature gradients in the Sumatra back-arc basins. Organic-rich Eocene lacustrine shales are the likely source rocks for the hydrocarbons tested in Sinimar No. 1 and the oil seeps located along the basin margins.

  13. An Overview of SEATOS: Sumatra Earthquake and Tsunami Offshore Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, K.; Grilli, S.; Tappin, D.

    2005-12-01

    In May 2005, an international, interdisciplinary team of scientists conducted a detailed survey of the seafloor in the vicinity of the epicenter of the Great Sumatra earthquake of December 26, 2004-dubbed Sumatra Earthquake and Tsunami Offshore Survey (SEATOS 2005). The overall goal of the survey was to gather data to improve models of seafloor displacement and the resulting tsunami waves. To accomplish this goal, SEATOS conducted detailed investigations at seven sites: a large underwater landslide, initially thought to be the result of the December 26th earthquake: a ~20km long trench feature at the deformation front that was interpreted to represent recent seafloor displacement; seafloor locations at three sites on the forearc high; and a steep mound north of Sumatra, interpreted as volcanic. High resolution seismic lines were run across the margin and between detailed study sites to characterize the overall style of the subduction zone (see abstract by Mosher et al., this session). At each site, detailed surveys including seismic, and remotely operated vehicles (ROV) were conducted. ROV surveys included high definition television-quality video imaging of the seafloor, as well as core sampling for biological and geotechnical analyses. During SEATOS, tsunami simulations were also conducted using a wave model based on fully nonlinear Boussinesq equations (see Grilli et al. abstract, this session). Such a model better represents the oscillatory wave trains that were typically observed during the event. Early results suggest seafloor disturbances (from the Dec. 26th 2004 earthquake) and the formation of new seafloor features occurred at the deformation front and stable seafloor conditions prevailed at the forearc high. These data are currently being analyzed, along with recently published seismic inversion analyses, to develop a seafloor displacement model that best represents the Dec. 26th event. Also, the comparison of wave model results with observations at tide

  14. Real-time forecasting of the April 11, 2012 Sumatra tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Dailin; Becker, Nathan C.; Walsh, David; Fryer, Gerard J.; Weinstein, Stuart A.; McCreery, Charles S.; Sardiña, Victor; Hsu, Vindell; Hirshorn, Barry F.; Hayes, Gavin P.; Duputel, Zacharie; Rivera, Luis; Kanamori, Hiroo; Koyanagi, Kanoa K.; Shiro, Brian

    2012-10-01

    The April 11, 2012, magnitude 8.6 earthquake off the northern coast of Sumatra generated a tsunami that was recorded at sea-level stations as far as 4800 km from the epicenter and at four ocean bottom pressure sensors (DARTs) in the Indian Ocean. The governments of India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Maldives issued tsunami warnings for their coastlines. The United States' Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) issued an Indian Ocean-wide Tsunami Watch Bulletin in its role as an Interim Service Provider for the region. Using an experimental real-time tsunami forecast model (RIFT), PTWC produced a series of tsunami forecasts during the event that were based on rapidly derived earthquake parameters, including initial location and Mwp magnitude estimates and the W-phase centroid moment tensor solutions (W-phase CMTs) obtained at PTWC and at the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS). We discuss the real-time forecast methodology and how successive, real-time tsunami forecasts using the latest W-phase CMT solutions improved the accuracy of the forecast.

  15. Real-time forecasting of the April 11, 2012 Sumatra tsunami

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, Dailin; Becker, Nathan C.; Walsh, David; Fryer, Gerard J.; Weinstein, Stuart A.; McCreery, Charles S.; and others

    2012-01-01

    The April 11, 2012, magnitude 8.6 earthquake off the northern coast of Sumatra generated a tsunami that was recorded at sea-level stations as far as 4800 km from the epicenter and at four ocean bottom pressure sensors (DARTs) in the Indian Ocean. The governments of India, Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Thailand, and Maldives issued tsunami warnings for their coastlines. The United States' Pacific Tsunami Warning Center (PTWC) issued an Indian Ocean-wide Tsunami Watch Bulletin in its role as an Interim Service Provider for the region. Using an experimental real-time tsunami forecast model (RIFT), PTWC produced a series of tsunami forecasts during the event that were based on rapidly derived earthquake parameters, including initial location and Mwp magnitude estimates and the W-phase centroid moment tensor solutions (W-phase CMTs) obtained at PTWC and at the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS). We discuss the real-time forecast methodology and how successive, real-time tsunami forecasts using the latest W-phase CMT solutions improved the accuracy of the forecast.

  16. Anomalous variation in GPS TEC prior to the 11 April 2012 Sumatra earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Fuying; Zhou, Yiyan; Wu, Yun

    2013-06-01

    On 11 April 2012, a strong earthquake of magnitude Ms8.6 occurred near the west coast of Northern Sumatra, Indonesia. In this paper, we investigated the morphological characteristics of anomalous variations in Global Positioning System Total Electron Content (GPS TEC) prior to the earthquake by the method of the statistical analysis. It was found the TEC anomaly was firstly decreased, then, it became more enhanced, finally, it decreased, the peak of anomaly enhancement arose from 13:00-17:00 LT on April 5 lasted for ˜4 hours and the anomalous ionospheric regions extended to ˜40∘ in longitude and ˜20∘ in latitude, its location did not coincide with the vertical projection of the epicenter, but lies at the north and south of the geomagnetic equator, meanwhile, corresponding ionospheric anomalies are also observed in the magneto conjugate region. Potential causes of these results are discussed,eliminating the ionospheric anomalies that may be caused by solar activities and magnetic storms, it can be concluded that the observed obvious anomalous variation in GPS TEC on April 5 were possibly related to the earthquake.

  17. Terrestrial heat flow in the tertiary basin of central Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da Silva Carvalho, Humberto; Purwoko; Siswoyo; Thamrin, M.; Vacquier, Victor

    1980-10-01

    Heat flow at 170 locations in the Central Tertiary basin of Sumatra was determined from thermal gradients obtained from the extrapolated oil well bottom hole formation temperature and the assumed temperature of 80°F at the surface. The effective thermal conductivity of the whole rock column, by which the gradient is multiplied to get the heat flow was calculated from measurements on 273 specimens of the geologic section and inspection of 92 well logs. For the whole basin the gradient averaged 3.71 ± 1.04°F/ 100 ft (67.6°C/km) the conductivity 4.83 ± 0.31 mcal °C -1 cm -1 sec -1, giving an average heat flow of 3.27 ± 0.93 10-6 cal cm -2 sec -1 which is about twice the world average. The gradient and the heat flow vary inversely with the depth of the wells most of which bottom in the pre-Tertiary basement. This may result from the basement rocks being several times more conductive than the sediments. Mocel calculations on a narrow heat-flow anomaly which rises from a base level of 3.2 HFU to 8.8 HFU suggest that it can be caused by the intrusion less than 55,000 years ago of an igneous plug or laccolith no deeper than 3 km and 2.2 to 4.6 km wide. Using the gradients from the SEAPEX Geothermal Gradient Map and assuming a conductivity of 5 mcal cm -1 °C -1 sec -1, the heat flow in the North Sumatra basin, the South Sumatra Basin, Sunda Strait and West Java is 2.5 HFU, while in Java east of 110°E longitude it drops to 1.9 HFU. Since subduction off Sumatra dates back at least to the Cretaceous, compression of the Asian plate against the Benioff zone is preventing the opening of a back-arc basin. This does not preclude the possibility of occasional periods of crustal tension corresponding perhaps to episodes of transgression which allow magma to rise into the rocks underlying the basin.

  18. Impacts of soil and groundwater salinization on tree crop performance in post-tsunami Aceh Barat, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marohn, C.; Distel, A.; Dercon, G.; Wahyunto; Tomlinson, R.; Noordwijk, M. v.; Cadisch, G.

    2012-09-01

    The Indian Ocean tsunami of December 2004 had far reaching consequences for agriculture in Aceh province, Indonesia, and particularly in Aceh Barat district, 150 km from the seaquake epicentre. In this study, the spatial distribution and temporal dynamics of soil and groundwater salinity and their impact on tree crops were monitored in Aceh Barat from 2006 to 2008. On 48 sampling points along ten transects, covering 40 km of coastline, soil and groundwater salinity were measured and related to mortality and yield depression of the locally most important tree crops. Given a yearly rainfall of over 3000 mm, initial groundwater salinity declined rapidly from over 10 to less than 2 mS cm-1 within two years. On the other hand, seasonal dynamics of the groundwater table in combination with intrusion of saline water into the groundwater body led to recurring elevated salinity, sufficient to affect crops. Tree mortality and yield depression in the flooded area varied considerably between tree species. Damage to coconut (65% trees damaged) was related to tsunami run-up height, while rubber (50% trees damaged) was mainly affected by groundwater salinity. Coconut yields (-35% in average) were constrained by groundwater Ca2+ and Mg2+, while rubber yields (-65% on average) were related to groundwater chloride, pH and soil sodium. These findings have implications on planting deep-rooted tree crops as growth will be constrained by ongoing oscillations of the groundwater table and salinity.

  19. Sumatra-Andaman Megathrust Earthquake Slip: Insights From Mechanical Modeling of ICESat Surface Deformation Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, D. J.; Miuller, J. R.

    2005-12-01

    Modeling the kinematics of the 2004 Great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake is limited in the northern two-thirds of the rupture zone by a scarcity of near-rupture geodetic deformation measurements. Precisely repeated Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) profiles across the Andaman and Nicobar Islands provide a means to more fully document the spatial pattern of surface vertical displacements and thus better constrain geomechanical modeling of the slip distribution. ICESat profiles that total ~45 km in length cross Car Nicobar, Kamorta, and Katchall in the Nicobar chain. Within the Andamans, the coverage includes ~350 km on North, Central, and South Andaman Islands along two NNE and NNW-trending profiles that provide elevations on both the east and west coasts of the island chain. Two profiles totaling ~80 km in length cross South Sentinel Island, and one profile ~10 km long crosses North Sentinel Island. With an average laser footprint spacing of 175 m, the total coverage provides over 2700 georeferenced surface elevations measurements for each operations period. Laser backscatter waveforms recorded for each footprint enable detection of forest canopy top and underlying ground elevations with decimeter vertical precision. Surface elevation change is determined from elevation profiles, acquired before and after the earthquake, that are repeated with a cross-track separation of less than 100 m by precision pointing of the ICESat spacecraft. Apparent elevation changes associated with cross-track offsets are corrected according to local slopes calculated from multiple post-earthquake repeated profiles. The surface deformation measurements recorded by ICESat are generally consistent with the spatial distribution of uplift predicted by a preliminary slip distribution model. To predict co-seismic surface deformation, we apply a slip distribution, derived from the released energy distribution computed by Ishii et al. (2005), as the displacement discontinuity

  20. Basin modeling of Jambi Subbasin, South Sumatra, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Halik, N. ); Wu, C. )

    1994-07-01

    The Jambi Subbasin is part of the South Sumatra Basin, a Tertiary back-arc basin formed by the collision between the Sundaland and Indian Plate. The Oligocene synrift Lahat Formation, and the Miocene postrift Talang Akar, Batu Raja, Gumai, and Air Benakat formations are stratigraphic intervals for potential hydrocarbon exploration. Most of the hydrocarbons have been produced from the Talang Akar and Air Benakat formations. Detailed age-depth relationship, paleobathymetry, and eustatic sea level were studied for 11 wells. Degrees of transgression and regression, and relative movement of fault blocks were predicted from rates of total and tectonic subsidence. The structural evolution of the Jambi Subbasin was reconstructed using the backstripping method. Results from the burial history modeling have helped in predicting thermal maturity, hydrocarbon generation, and structural development of the Jambi Subbasin. The timing of basement uplifting started from middle-late Miocene and reached the maximum in Pliocene-Pleistocene. Two hydrocarbon migration and accumulation mechanisms were proposed. In the depocenter, hydrocarbons were generated, migrated upward along faults, and trapped in the middle Miocene Air Benakat Formation, whereas in the basin flanks, hydrocarbons were migrated laterally from the depocenter and trapped in the Oligocene Talang Akar Formation. The methodology of this study can be applied to other subbasins in South Sumatra.

  1. Utilization of the Local Government Health Insurance Scheme (JKA) for Maternal Health Services Among Women Living in Underdeveloped Areas of Aceh Province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Kesuma, Zurnila Marli; Chongsuvivatwong, Virasakdi

    2015-04-01

    Aceh province of Indonesia created its own health coverage scheme called Jaminan Kesehatan Aceh (JKA) to cover Aceh's populations who were not registered under insurance for the poor (Jamkesmas). This study aims to compare the utilization rate of maternal health care (MHC) services and contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR) before JKA, during the transition period, and after JKA had been established. A cross-sectional household survey was conducted from June 2011 to July 2012. Utilization of MHC services and CPR during the 3 periods was assessed using a questionnaire. The Mantel-Haenszel χ(2) test was used to examine the association between period and coverage. Generalized estimating equations (GEEs) were used to examine utilization and type of service, period of service, and type of scheme. Coverage of utilization of skilled birth attendants significantly improved among the JKA holders (odds ratio = 1.84; 95% confidence interval = 1.18-2.89). JKA, thus, has shown its positive impact. PMID:24566605

  2. Statistical Analysis of Seismicity in the Sumatra Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bansal, A.; Main, I.

    2007-12-01

    We examine the effect of the great M=9.0 Boxing day 2004 earthquake on the statistics of seismicity in the Sumatra region by dividing data from the NEIC catalogue into two time windows before and after the earthquake. First we determine a completeness threshold of magnitude 4.5 for the whole dataset from the stability of the maximum likelihood b-value with respect to changes in the threshold. The split data sets have similar statistical sampling, with 2563 events before and 3701 after the event. Temporal clustering is first quantified broadly by the fractal dimension of the time series to be respectively 0.137, 0.259 and 0.222 before, after and for the whole dataset, compared to a Poisson null hypothesis of 0, indicating a significant increase in temporal clustering after the event associated with aftershocks. To quantify this further we apply the Epidemic Type Aftershock Sequence (ETAS) model. The background random seismicity rate £g and the coefficient Ñ, a measure of an efficiency of a magnitude of an earthquake in generating its aftershocks, do not change significantly when averaged over the two time periods. In contrast the amplitude A of aftershock generation changes by a factor 4 or so, and there is a small but statistically significant increase in the Omori decay exponent p, indicating a faster decay rate of the aftershocks after the Sumatra earthquake. The ETAS model parameters are calculated for different magnitude threshold (i.e. 4.5, 5.0, 5.5) with similar results for the different magnitude thresholds. The Ñ values increases from near 1 to near 1.5, possibly reflecting known changes in the scaling exponent between scalar moment and magnitude with increasing magnitude. A simple relation of magnitude and span of aftershock activity indicates that detectable aftershock activity of the Sumatra earthquake may last up to 8.7 years. Earthquakes are predominantly in the depth range 30-40 km before 20-30 km after the mainshock, compared to a CMT centroid

  3. Southern extension of the Sumatra Fault and its tectonic significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soh, W.; Gaedicke, C.; Djajadihardja, Y. S.; Saito, S.

    2003-12-01

    Mode of slip partitioning in a fore arc of Sunda Arc between near trench normal thrusting and trench-parallel strike-slip faulting has been postulated mainly from the study of earthquake slip vectors and slip rate of the strike slip Sumatra Fault. However, there is no dependable geomorphic data, despite great attention for the area off the Sunda Strait which represent the junction between normal subduction off Java and oblique subduction off Sumatra. New single channel and bathymetric data were obtained by R/V Yokosuka, YK01-02/YK02-07 cruises and they provide a quite different geomorphologic view to the previously knowledge. New discovery of the southern extension of the Sumatra Fault is an example. In the southern extension, Shinkai 6500 dives allow us to identify more or less a meter of vertical topographic displacement along the SSE-trending active fault. Several amount of mud diapir mounds and a few sink hole are first recognized in the area where corresponds to a significant negative Bouguer anomaly zone. A methan content anomaly is detected in the summit of the mounds and bottom floor of the sink hole, together with Calyptogena colony. On the other hand, geomorphologic feature in the junction area is quite different to those of forearc setting; the area is covered by a bundle of tectonic blocks including the Genteng Bank, that well demarcated by the SSE- and east-trending conjugate lineaments. The junction area extending toward SSE occupies between the fore arc basin and the outer arc high and is demarcated by faults. The boundary fault cuts the preexisting geomorphology including trench-parallel strike slip fault in the outer arc high; e.g. Mentaiwai Faults. Consequently these geomorphic feature, as an accumulation of crustal deformation (plastic strain), is most likely to be caused by stretching of the fore arc crust. This study suggests that strain (plastic) partitioning in a fore arc occurs within the localized (or concentrated) area such as the junction

  4. Controls on early retention and late enhancement of microporosity in reefal gas reservoirs, offshore north Sumatra basin

    SciTech Connect

    Moshier, S.O.

    1989-03-01

    Chalky lime-matrix texture is pervasive in 300 m of coralgal and skeletal carbonates in the NSB-A (North Sumatra basin-A) gas field (lower-middle Miocene), offshore northern Sumatra. Much of the reservoir quality can be attributed to matrix with abundant intercrystalline, vuggy, and channel-form micropores. Matrix is composed of calcite microrhombs which are interpreted to have developed during stabilization of the precursor mud. On the same shelf, the smaller NSB-H oil field is composed of more than 45-m thick buildup of similar lithofacies which lack abundant microporosity. In both fields, early diagenesis included dissolution of aragonitic skeletal material, matrix neomorphism, and precipitation of nonluminescent calcite followed by zoned, luminescent calcite cements. Stable isotopes from matrix reflect a more open or water-dominated matrix diagenesis at NSB-H field. More active flushing of oversaturated, organically charged meteoric waters was responsible for thorough matrix cementation and microporosity occlusion at NSB-H field. Calcite cements show progressive enrichment of iron and manganese and depletion of magnesium and strontium during growth. The matrix at NSB-H field contains iron-rich dolomite. At A field, remnant matrix microporosity and intraparticle microporosity in calcitic skeletal material were greatly enhanced after all phases of cementation. Some pore-rimming cements are partially dissolved. At NSB-H field, late-phase dissolution is limited to the vicinity of open fractures where matrix-calcite and dolomite crystals are leached. Reservoir brines have a limey marine origin but are depleted in Ca and Mg relative to seawater, and carbon dioxide accounts for 31% of reservoir gas. If present brines are carbonate undersaturated, they may be substantially enhanced microporosity at NSB-A field. Late-stage dissolution is insignificant at NSB-H field due to the lack of early formed matrix microporosity.

  5. Deep infrasound radiated by the Sumatra earthquake and tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcés, M.; Caron, P.; Hetzer, C.; Le Pichon, A.; Bass, H.; Drob, D.; Bhattacharyya, J.

    Infrasound arrays in the Pacific and Indian oceans that are part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) of the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) recorded distinct signatures associated with the 26 December 2004 Sumatra earthquake (M/9, http://earthquake.usgs.gov/) and tsunami. Although the radiation of infrasound from large continental earthquakes is established [e.g., Le Pichon et al., 2003], the results presented in the present article indicate that islands undergoing significant surface displacements from submarine earthquakes can produce infrasound.Far more intriguing is the possibility that the initiation and propagation of a tsunami may produce low-frequency sound near the source as well as along coastlines and basins. Since distant sound effectively propagates at ˜300 m/s and tsunamis propagate at ˜200 m/s, precursory sound could potentially be used as a discriminant for tsunami genesis.

  6. Interpretation of Geoelectric Structure at Hululais Prospect Area, South Sumatra

    SciTech Connect

    Mulyadi

    1995-01-01

    Schlumberger resistivity surveys were conducted in 1993 as part of a combined geological, geophysical and geological program to investigate a geothermal prospect in the Hululais area, Southern Sumatra. These resistivity data resolved the upper conductive layer and were interpreted to define the shallow extent of a possible geothermal system. A follow-up magnetotelluric (MT) survey was carried out to probe deeper than the dc resistivity survey results achieved. However, the resistive sub-stratum below the conductive layer was still poorly resolved. Possible reasons for this include a preferential channeling of the telluric current within the thick shallow very conductive layer, thus limiting the penetration depth of the magnetotelluric signals and poor resolution due to high noise levels caused by significant rain and sferics.

  7. Apes in Space: Saving an Imperilled Orangutan Population in Sumatra

    PubMed Central

    Campbell-Smith, Gail; Campbell-Smith, Miran; Singleton, Ian; Linkie, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Deforestation rates in Sumatra are amongst the highest in the tropics. Lowland forests, which support the highest densities of orangutans, are particularly vulnerable to clearance and fragmentation because they are highly accessible. Consequently, many orangutans will, in the future, live in strictly or partially isolated populations. Whilst orangutans have been extensively studied in primary forests, their response to living in human-dominated landscapes remains poorly known, despite it being essential for their future management. Here, we focus on an isolated group of critically endangered Sumatran orangutans (Pongo abelii) that co-exist with farmers in a mixed agroforest system consisting of degraded natural forest, smallholder (predominantly rubber) farms and oil palm plantations. Over 24 months we conducted the first ever spatial assessment of orangutan habitat use in the human-transformed landscape of Batang Serangan, North Sumatra. From 1,204 independent crop-raiding incidents recorded, orangutans showed strong foraging preference for mixed farmland/degraded forest habitat over oil palm patches. The core home range areas of the eight adult orangutans encompassed only 14% of the available study area. Monthly home range sizes averaged 423 ha (±139, SD) for males, and 131±46 ha for females, and were positively influenced by wild and cultivated fruit presence, and by crop consumption. The average daily distance travelled was similar for both adult males (868 m±350, SD) and females (866 m±195), but increased when orangutans raided crops. These findings show that orangutans can survive, demographically, in certain types of degraded landscapes, foraging on a mixture of crops and wild fruits. However, the poor quality habitat offered to orangutans by oil palm plantations, in terms of low food availability and as a barrier to female movements, is cause for concern since this is the land use type that is most rapidly replacing the preferred forest habitat across

  8. Paleoenvironmental conditions in the late Paleogene, Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'shea, Natalie; Arthur Bettis, E.; Zaim, Yahdi; Rizal, Yan; Aswan, Aswan; Gunnell, Gregg F.; Zonneveld, John-Paul; Ciochon, Russell L.

    2015-11-01

    A stratified paleosol sequence exposed in an open pit mine in central Sumatra provides a record of the paleoenvironmental conditions in the lower reaches of a large river system in the late Paleogene (latest Eocene or Oligocene). Morphological, geochemical, and stable isotope data suggest that the sequence represents a mosaic of local environmental conditions changing from estuarine to riverine up section. Weakly expressed soils formed on low-lying estuary surfaces, while more well expressed soils formed on higher, better drained surfaces. Peatlands (coal) with clayey subsoils were along the estuary margins. Well-expressed soils with evidence of clay translocation and chemical weathering become more common higher in the section where alluvial deposits associated with a meandering river are dominant. Stable carbon isotope ratios support a paleolandscape dominated by C3 plants with input by C4 vegetation limited to a few intervals. Finally, whole-rock geochemistry suggests moderate chemical weathering consistent with a tropical locality. This multi-proxy paleoenvironmental reconstruction suggests a highly productive lowland forest environment at this locality in the late Paleogene and provides the first direct examination of the terrestrial environment in Sumatra at this time. The limited fossil record in Island Southeast Asia during this time period is likely a result of poor bone and shell preservation in tropical forest environments combined with a general lack of systematic prospecting. However, our continuing work in this area has produced a relatively diverse assemblage of fossil vertebrates, now including fishes, amphibians, turtles, crocodiles, and mammals, as well as a growing diversity of fossil plants.

  9. Crustal shear-wave velocity structure beneath Sumatra from receiver function modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bora, Dipok K.; Borah, Kajaljyoti; Goyal, Ayush

    2016-05-01

    We estimated the shear-wave velocity structure and Vp/Vs ratio of the crust beneath the Sumatra region by inverting stacked receiver functions from five three-component broadband seismic stations, located in diverse geologic setting, using a well known non-linear direct search approach, Neighborhood Algorithm (NA). Inversion results show significant variation of sediment layer thicknesses from 1 km beneath the backarc basin (station BKNI and PMBI) to 3-7 km beneath the coastal part of Sumatra region (station LHMI and MNAI) and Nias island (station GSI). Average sediment layer shear velocity (Vss) beneath all the stations is observed to be less (∼1.35 km/s) and their corresponding Vp/Vs ratio is very high (∼2.2-3.0). Crustal thickness beneath Sumatra region varies between 27 and 35 km, with exception of 19 km beneath Nias island, with average crustal Vs ∼3.1-3.4 km/s (Vp/Vs ∼1.8). It is well known that thick sediments with low Vs (and high Vp/Vs) amplify seismic waves even from a small-magnitude earthquake, which can cause huge damage in the zone. This study can provide the useful information of the crust for the Sumatra region. Since, Sumatra is an earthquake prone zone, which suffered the strong shaking of Great Andaman-Sumatra earthquake; this study can also be helpful for seismic hazard assessment.

  10. Outbreak of tetanus cases following the tsunami in Aceh Province, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    Aceh Province in Indonesia was the area most severely affected by the tsunami of 26 December 2004. Extensive loss of life, property, and livelihood left a large segment of the population without basic needs and vulnerable to epidemic-prone diseases. Following the tsunami, a surveillance/early warning and response system was implemented to detect, investigate, and respond to outbreaks of communicable diseases. Fixed and mobile clinics, hospitals, and laboratories, operating all over the affected areas, reported weekly figures and daily alerts. Over 1 month following the tsunami, 106 cases of clinically diagnosed tetanus were reported. Most cases occurred among adults. The case fatality ratio was 18.9%, higher among older patients and among those with short incubation periods. No other major outbreaks occurred in the acute phase of the emergency. This series of tetanus cases was the largest cluster reported following a natural disaster or mass casualty event, overtaken only by the recent earthquake in the Kashmir (139 cases reported), and reflects the high number of injuries which occurred during the tsunami and poor prior immunization status of the population. In the context of natural disasters, preventive measures against tetanus, including wound cleaning and active and passive immunization, should be routinely conducted. Immediate disaster relief should include supplies for the management of wounds and cases of tetanus. PMID:19153905

  11. Rebuilt risk: involuntary return, voluntary migration, and socioeconomic segregation in post-tsunami Aceh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaughey, Jamie; Daly, Patrick; Mundzir, Ibnu; Mahdi, Saiful; Patt, Anthony

    2016-04-01

    In light of growing coastal populations and rising relative sea levels, understanding the consequences of infrequent, high-impact coastal hazards for human migration is a key ingredient for meeting the challenges of sustainable development. Using new quantitative and qualitative evidence from 1160 households and 121 village leaders, we examine longer-term migration in the city of Banda Aceh, Indonesia, following the devastating 2004 tsunami and an international aid response that offered most survivors only resettlement back in the tsunami-affected area. While many survivors wanted to return, some preferred to relocate further from the coast but did not have the chance to do so. Since that time, selective out-migration by those with the means and socioeconomic sorting of newcomers have led to a new socioeconomic segregation of the tsunami-affected parts of the city. More broadly, these findings suggest that short-distance socioeconomic sorting into and out from vulnerable areas may be an important migratory response to a newly recognized risk.

  12. Influence of coastal vegetation on the 2004 tsunami wave impact in west Aceh

    PubMed Central

    Laso Bayas, Juan Carlos; Marohn, Carsten; Dercon, Gerd; Dewi, Sonya; Piepho, Hans Peter; Joshi, Laxman; van Noordwijk, Meine; Cadisch, Georg

    2011-01-01

    In a tsunami event human casualties and infrastructure damage are determined predominantly by seaquake intensity and offshore properties. On land, wave energy is attenuated by gravitation (elevation) and friction (land cover). Tree belts have been promoted as “bioshields” against wave impact. However, given the lack of quantitative evidence of their performance in such extreme events, tree belts have been criticized for creating a false sense of security. This study used 180 transects perpendicular to over 100 km on the west coast of Aceh, Indonesia to analyze the influence of coastal vegetation, particularly cultivated trees, on the impact of the 2004 tsunami. Satellite imagery; land cover maps; land use characteristics; stem diameter, height, and planting density; and a literature review were used to develop a land cover roughness coefficient accounting for the resistance offered by different land uses to the wave advance. Applying a spatial generalized linear mixed model, we found that while distance to coast was the dominant determinant of impact (casualties and infrastructure damage), the existing coastal vegetation in front of settlements also significantly reduced casualties by an average of 5%. In contrast, dense vegetation behind villages endangered human lives and increased structural damage. Debris carried by the backwash may have contributed to these dissimilar effects of land cover. For sustainable and effective coastal risk management, location of settlements is essential, while the protective potential of coastal vegetation, as determined by its spatial arrangement, should be regarded as an important livelihood provider rather than just as a bioshield. PMID:22065751

  13. Influence of coastal vegetation on the 2004 tsunami wave impact in west Aceh.

    PubMed

    Laso Bayas, Juan Carlos; Marohn, Carsten; Dercon, Gerd; Dewi, Sonya; Piepho, Hans Peter; Joshi, Laxman; van Noordwijk, Meine; Cadisch, Georg

    2011-11-15

    In a tsunami event human casualties and infrastructure damage are determined predominantly by seaquake intensity and offshore properties. On land, wave energy is attenuated by gravitation (elevation) and friction (land cover). Tree belts have been promoted as "bioshields" against wave impact. However, given the lack of quantitative evidence of their performance in such extreme events, tree belts have been criticized for creating a false sense of security. This study used 180 transects perpendicular to over 100 km on the west coast of Aceh, Indonesia to analyze the influence of coastal vegetation, particularly cultivated trees, on the impact of the 2004 tsunami. Satellite imagery; land cover maps; land use characteristics; stem diameter, height, and planting density; and a literature review were used to develop a land cover roughness coefficient accounting for the resistance offered by different land uses to the wave advance. Applying a spatial generalized linear mixed model, we found that while distance to coast was the dominant determinant of impact (casualties and infrastructure damage), the existing coastal vegetation in front of settlements also significantly reduced casualties by an average of 5%. In contrast, dense vegetation behind villages endangered human lives and increased structural damage. Debris carried by the backwash may have contributed to these dissimilar effects of land cover. For sustainable and effective coastal risk management, location of settlements is essential, while the protective potential of coastal vegetation, as determined by its spatial arrangement, should be regarded as an important livelihood provider rather than just as a bioshield. PMID:22065751

  14. Slow rupture in Andaman during 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake: a probable consequence of subduction of 90°E ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahalaut, V. K.; Subrahmanyam, C.; Kundu, B.; Catherine, J. K.; Ambikapathy, A.

    2010-03-01

    One of the most enigmatic features of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake was the slow rupture speed and low slip on the northern part of the rupture under the Andaman region. We propose that the aseismic 90°E Ridge (NER) on the Indian Plate obliquely subducts under the Andaman frontal arc region. Though other possibilities also exist, we hypothesized that this ridge probably acted as a structural barrier influencing rupture characteristics of the earthquake. Here we present several features of the Andaman region that favour NER subduction under the region, which include (i) comparatively shallow bathymetry and trench depth, (ii) low seismicity, (iii) significant variation in the azimuths of coseismic horizontal offsets due to the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, (iv) lack of post-seismic afterslip on the coseismic rupture in the Andaman frontal arc region, (v) low P wave with only small decrease in S wave speed from tomographic studies, (vi) gravity anomalies on the Indian Plate indicating continuation of the ridge under the Andaman frontal arc and (vii) lack of back arc volcanoes in the Andaman region.

  15. Modeling Stress Changes Following the 2004-2005 Sumatra Earthquake Sequence: Exploring Triggering of the 2007 Rupture and its Relationship to the 1797 and 1833 Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grijalva, K. A.; Apel, E. V.; Bürgmann, R.

    2007-12-01

    The September 2007 Sumatra M8.4 earthquake initiated in the southern section of the 1833 rupture segment. Twelve hours later a deeper M7.9 aftershock ruptured further to the north. Their occurrence, close in time and space to the 2004 M9.2 and 2005 M8.7 Sumatra earthquakes, suggest the possibility of these being triggered events. Earlier studies of vertical motion, derived from coral growth histories, suggest that interseismic strain accumulated along the 1833 segment has approached levels relieved in the historic earthquake. Along the 1797 segment the accumulated interseismic strain appears to have exceeded previously relieved levels. Following the 2004 and 2005 events, investigations of coseismic and viscoelastic deformation show that the 1797 segment had higher Coulomb failure stress changes than the 1833 segment. Therefore, it is puzzling that the 1797 and northern 1833 rupture zones did not recur before the southern 1833 segment. We model additional postseismic processes, including afterslip and poroelastic rebound, in an attempt to find scenarios that can explain why the southern 1833 segment was triggered prior to the 1797 segment.

  16. Malaria prevalence in Nias District, North Sumatra Province, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Syafruddin, Din; Asih, Puji BS; Wahid, Isra; Dewi, Rita M; Tuti, Sekar; Laowo, Idaman; Hulu, Waozidohu; Zendrato, Pardamean; Laihad, Ferdinand; Shankar, Anuraj H

    2007-01-01

    Background The Nias district of the North Sumatra Province of Indonesia has long been known to be endemic for malaria. Following the economic crisis at the end of 1998 and the subsequent tsunami and earthquake, in December 2004 and March 2005, respectively, the malaria control programme in the area deteriorated. The present study aims to provide baseline data for the establishment of a suitable malaria control programme in the area and to analyse the frequency distribution of drug resistance alleles associated with resistance to chloroquine and sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine. Methods Malariometric and entomology surveys were performed in three subdistricts. Thin and thick blood smears were stained with Giemsa and examined under binocular light microscopy. Blood blots on filter paper were also prepared for isolation of parasite and host DNA to be used for molecular analysis of band 3 (SAO), pfcrt, pfmdr1, dhfr, and dhps. In addition, haemoglobin measurement was performed in the second and third surveys for the subjects less than 10 years old. Results Results of the three surveys revealed an average slide positivity rate of 8.13%, with a relatively higher rate in certain foci. Host genetic analysis, to identify the Band 3 deletion associated with Southeast Asian Ovalocytosis (SAO), revealed an overall frequency of 1.0% among the 1,484 samples examined. One hundred six Plasmodium falciparum isolates from three sub-districts were successfully analysed. Alleles of the dhfr and dhps genes associated with resistance to sulphadoxine-pyrimethamine, dhfr C59R and S108N, and dhps A437G and K540E, were present at frequencies of 52.2%, 82.5%, 1.18% and 1.18%, respectively. The pfmdr1 alleles N86Y and N1042D, putatively associated with mefloquine resistance, were present at 31.4% and 2%, respectively. All but one sample carried the pfcrt 76T allele associated with chloroquine resistance. Entomologic surveys identified three potential anopheline vectors in the area, Anopheles

  17. Radiocarbon Content of Intermediate Waters off West Sumatra During the Last 45,000 Years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Pol-Holz, R.; Mohtadi, M.; Southon, J. R.

    2014-12-01

    Radiocarbon content of intermediate waters originating from the Southern Ocean is held as a likely smoking gun of the events that triggered the atmospheric CO2 rise and its radiocarbon decline during the last glacial-interglacial transition. Late Glacial depleted radiocarbon water masses have been found at intermediate depths off the coast of Baja California, the Galapagos, the Arabian Sea, but not unequivocally elsewhere. Knowing the route of the old water is therefore central for the required mechanistic linkage of Southern Ocean processes and the atmospheric response. A common approach to search for the old water reservoir is the radiocarbon difference between planktonic and benthic foraminifera or 'apparent ventilation age'. Caveats of this approach are due to the fact that it relies strongly on the knowledge of the surface water reservoir age. In this study, we present a high-resolution radiocarbon difference between surface and intermediate depth waters off west Sumatra in the attempt to elucidate a possible route of the old water from its hypothetical source in the high latitudes near Antarctica on its way to the lower latitude sites where it has been observed. Samples come from core SO189-39KL (0°47'S, 99°55'E, 517 m), a 1350 cm hemipelagic sedimentary sequence that spans the last 45,000 years. Radiocarbon determinations were made at centennial time resolution on both planktonic and benthic species. Calibration of the planktonic radiocarbon as age control points allowed us to infer the Δ14C of the intermediate waters. Our results show that throughout the LGM and the entire deglaciation, radiocarbon content of intermediate depths in the area remained with an almost constant age difference with the contemporaneous atmosphere. Unless we have grossly underestimated the local planktonic reservoir age, our results discard this area as a probable route for the spreading of the old water along its way to northern latitudes. In light of recent evidence from the

  18. Design and testing of fish drier system utilizing geothermal energy resource in Ie Suum, Aceh Besar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubarak, Amir Zaki; Maulana, M. Ilham; Syuhada, Ahmad

    2016-03-01

    In an effort to increase the value of fish produced by the community in Krueng Raya Sub-district, it has been designed and tested a fish drier system utilizing geothermal energy resource in IeSuum Village, Krueng Raya Sub-district, Aceh Besar District. The geothermal energy is in the form of hot water with the temperature range is between 86 and 86.4 °C. Based on the design consideration, it is used a terraced rack type drier system. The drier system consists of a heat exchanger, drying chamber, and a blower to blow the air. Hot water from the geothermal source is passed into the heat exchanger to increase the air temperature outside it. The air is then blown into the drying chamber. Based on the design analysis is obtained that to dry 200 kg of fish in 24 hour, it is required a drying chamber with 1m long, 1 m width and 0.4 m high, the temperature of hot water entering the exchanger is 80 °C and the temperature of the air entering the drying chamber is maintained at 60°C. The average time required to dry fish till 10% of water level is 18-20 jam. The research is then continued by developing and testing the drying system with three layer rack to put in the fish. From the experimental result is obtained that the average water temperature flows out of the chamber is in the range of 76-78 °C and the temperature in the chamber is in the range of 57-62 °C. In addition, the weight of the fish, which initially is 20 kg, becomes12 kg in average after 18 hours drying process.

  19. Spawning seasons of Rasbora tawarensis (Pisces: Cyprinidae) in Lake Laut Tawar, Aceh Province, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Rasbora tawarensis is an endemic freshwater fish in Lake Laut Tawar, Aceh Province, Indonesia. Unfortunately, its status is regarded as critical endangered with populations decreasing in recent years. To date no information on the spawning activities of the fish are available. Therefore, this study provides a contribution to the knowledge on reproductive biology of R. tawarensis especially on spawning seasons as well as basic information for conservation of the species. Methods Monthly sampling was conducted from April 2008 to March 2009 by using selective gillnets. The gonadosomatic index, size composition and sex ratio were assessed. The gonadal development was evaluated based on macroscopic and microscopic examinations of the gonads. Results The gonadosomatic index (GSI) varied between 6.65 to 18.16 in female and 4.94 to 8.56 for male. GSI of the female R. tawarensis was higher in March, September and December indicating the onset of reproductive seasons, the GSI and oocyte size being directly correlated with gonadal development stages. Although, a greater proportion of mature male than female was detected during the study, the sex ratio showed that the overall number of female was higher than male. The ovaries had multiple oocyte size classes at every stage of gonadal development, thus R. tawarensis can be classified as a group synchronous spawner or a fractional multiple spawner. Conclusion The spawning seasons of R. tawarensis were three times a year and September being the peak of the reproductive season and the female was the predominant sex. This species is classified as a group synchronous spawner. PMID:20482777

  20. Long Continuous Deformation during 2008-2012 Sumatra Earthquakes Using DINSAR and GPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nur Cahyadi, C. N.

    2015-12-01

    Indonesia located in three tectonic plates. This situation caused many earthquakes and long continuous movement of plate tectonics. The island which has big tectonic movement phenomena was Sumatra Island. We monitored long deformation process during interseismic and coseismic of three earthquakes in this Island. The three earthquakes were Mentawai 2008, Padang 2009 and North Sumatra 2012 earthquakes. We used Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DINSAR) and Global Positioning System (GPS) satellite in order to monitor the displacement. We used GAMIT software for GPS and open source software ROYPAC for DINSAR. Sumatra GPS Array (SUGAR) Networks were used to analyze the displacement rate. The result of displacement was very different year to year, Mw 7.6 Padang earthquake had 15.8 cm up and caused subduction zone of trench Sumatra movement about 1.8 cm to 7 cm up. The displacements was continued by Mw 7.7 Mentawai earthquake 2008. We monitored intersesismic, coseismic and postseismic phase. Coseismic phase was 0.222m in horizontal direction and 0.1415 m in vertical direction (SLBU station). The interseismic phase was smaller about 0.118 m in BSAT stations (south east direction). The biggest deformation was detected during interseismic and postseismic North Sumatra 2012 earthquakes with deformation 0.300-3.00 meter.

  1. Landslides and mass wasting offshore Sumatra - results from the Sumatra Earthquake HMS Scott survey January-February 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tappin, D. R.; Henstock, T.; McNeill, L.; Grilli, S.; Biscontin, G.; Watts, P.

    2005-12-01

    Earthquakes are a commonly cited mechanism for triggering submarine landslides that have the potential to generate damaging tsunamis (e.g. Papua New Guinea 1998). Notwithstanding, the Indian Ocean earthquake of December 26th 2005 has been cited as the cause of both far field and local tsunami runups that have been measured at over 35 metres on the west coast of Sumatra. On the basis of present modelling this seems to be the case. However, if earthquakes are such a common trigger for landslides then the magnitude 9.3 earthquake of December 26th might be expected to have caused numerous seabed failures within the area of rupture that may have contributed to local tsunami runup. This contribution discusses the seabed morphology offshore of Sumatra acquired during the survey carried out by HMS Scott in January and February 2005. Utilising a unique high resolution 12 kHz, 361-beam hull-mounted Sass IV sonar, over 40,000 square kilometres of seabed were mapped. The objective was to identify seabed movements that were the result of the earthquake and to identify submarine slope failures that may have contributed to the tsunami. This paper reports on the results of the survey using Fledermaus imaging software. The area mapped is an accretionary complex formed as the two plates have converged over the past 40 million years. From the data several seabed failure mechanisms of different ages have been identified. Along the plate margin in the west of the survey area the deformation front comprises a series of young thrust folds up to 1000m in elevation and tens of kilometres in length. In places the seaward faces of these folds have failed cohesively and slumped blocks 100's of metres high and up to several kilometres long have been displaced up to 13 kilometres onto the inner trench floor. At other locations older episodes of failure are identified by the presence of displaced slumped blocks located on the crests of the folds; the slumps thus predating uplift. Where young

  2. Future fire emissions associated with projected land use change in Sumatra.

    PubMed

    Marlier, Miriam E; DeFries, Ruth; Pennington, Derric; Nelson, Erik; Ordway, Elsa M; Lewis, Jeremy; Koplitz, Shannon N; Mickley, Loretta J

    2015-01-01

    Indonesia has experienced rapid land use change over the last few decades as forests and peatswamps have been cleared for more intensively managed land uses, including oil palm and timber plantations. Fires are the predominant method of clearing and managing land for more intensive uses, and the related emissions affect public health by contributing to regional particulate matter and ozone concentrations and adding to global atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Here, we examine emissions from fires associated with land use clearing and land management on the Indonesian island of Sumatra and the sensitivity of this fire activity to interannual meteorological variability. We find ~80% of 2005-2009 Sumatra emissions are associated with degradation or land use maintenance instead of immediate land use conversion, especially in dry years. We estimate Sumatra fire emissions from land use change and maintenance for the next two decades with five scenarios of land use change, the Global Fire Emissions Database Version 3, detailed 1-km2 land use change maps, and MODIS fire radiative power observations. Despite comprising only 16% of the original study area, we predict that 37-48% of future Sumatra emissions from land use change will occur in fuel-rich peatswamps unless this land cover type is protected effectively. This result means that the impact of fires on future air quality and climate in Equatorial Asia will be decided in part by the conservation status given to the remaining peatswamps on Sumatra. Results from this article will be implemented in an atmospheric transport model to quantify the public health impacts from the transport of fire emissions associated with future land use scenarios in Sumatra. PMID:25044917

  3. Embedded wisdom or rooted problems? Aid workers' perspectives on local social and political infrastructure in post-tsunami Aceh.

    PubMed

    Daly, Patrick

    2015-04-01

    This paper analyses the role of local social, cultural, and political institutions in post-disaster reconstruction projects. It contends that such institutions are important considerations within community-driven reconstruction initiatives, but are often viewed with ambivalence by external aid organisations. This paper draws upon in-depth qualitative interviews with aid workers involved in the post-tsunami reconstruction in Aceh, Indonesia, to establish: (i) what roles community institutions were suited to play in the reconstruction; (ii) what were the limitations of community institutions when engaging with external aid agencies; (iii) how did external aid agencies engage with local community institutions; and (iv) how did external aid agencies perceive community institutions. PMID:25442350

  4. Fast performance tool for Tsunami Flood Hazard Assessment and Early Warning, Banda Aceh (2004) and American Samoan case (2009)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vatvani, Deepak; Kie Thio, Hong; Gelfenbaum, Guy

    2010-05-01

    Recent tsunami flood disasters in the American Samoa and in 2004 in the Indian Ocean region have shown the need for obtaining a quick estimate on the flooding extent caused by a tsunamigenic earthquakes. An overview of the flooding is crucial to help plan the first relief operation and damage estimate. An estimate of tsunami height along the coast using a relatively coarse grid numerical model and assumed tsunami source based on earthquake parameters could, theoretically, be performed shortly after an earthquake event. Inundation models, however, requires very high resolution numerical models which still needs large amount of computation time. Based on a Digital Terrain Model (DTM) and an empirical relation (derived from numerical experiments and analytical expressions from well known publications), a fast 2D tsunami flooding and run-up estimation tool has been built that can produce sufficiently accurate overall run-up and flooding estimate caused by the tsunami. The accuracy of the tool depends on the quality of the underlying DTM and tsunami heights fed to the tool. Because of its speed, this tool may even be used in near real time / early warning system to obtain a good indication of the area under threat in case of an approaching tsunami. The tool may also be used to produce flood (hazard/vulnerability) maps that may occur in future. The model has been tested for the 2004 tsunami event in Banda Aceh and 2009 tsunami event in American Samoa. The inundation and run-up maps for Banda Aceh event were compared to numerical model results (Delft3D) as well as survey data. The American Samoa event were compared to numerical model run by URS and preliminary survey data from USGS.

  5. Intraplate Splay Faults and Near-field Tsunami Generation during Giant Megathrust Earthquakes in Chile, Alaska, and Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plafker, G.; Savage, J. C.; Lee, W. H.

    2010-12-01

    The Mw 9.5 Chile earthquake sequence (21-22/05/1960), the largest instrumentally-recorded seismic event in history, was generated by a megathrust rupture of the southern end of the Peru-Chile Arc about 850 km long and 60-150 km wide down dip. Within Chile, the accompanying tsunami reached 15 m high and took an estimated 1,000 of the more than 2,000 lives lost. The trans-Pacific tsunami killed 230 people in Japan, Hawaii and the Philippine Islands. The tsunami source was primarily due to regional offshore upwarp, with possible superimposed larger local uplift due to displacement on splay faults. The Mw 9.2 Alaska earthquake (27/03/1964) ruptured major segments of the eastern Aleutian Arc 800 km long by 250-350 km wide down dip. Coseismic uplift along splay faults offshore generated a major near-field tsunami reaching 13 m high in Alaska that took at least 21 lives. Local earthquake-triggered submarine landslides in fiords along the rugged Kenai and Chugach mountains generated local (non-tsunami) waves with run up to 52 m high that took about 77 lives and caused major damage to coastal communities. Tectonically-generated tsunami waves were also generated over the continental shelf and slope due to regional uplift that averaged about 2 m; these waves added to the damage in coastal Alaska and caused 15 deaths and local property damage as far away as Oregon and California. The Mw 9.15 Sumatra earthquake (26/12/2004) ruptured segments of the Sunda Arc more than 1200 km long by 150-200 km wide down dip. The accompanying near-field tsunami was as high as 36 m in northern Sumatra where it caused 169,000 casualties along 200 km of shoreline while the far-field tsunami took an additional 63,000 lives throughout the Indian Ocean region. This made it the deadliest tsunami in recorded history. In addition to a few meters of regional uplift caused by slip on the megathrust, large-slip splay fault sources are inferred from intraplate seismicity, and from early tsunami arrival

  6. Preliminary study on detection sediment contamination in soil affected by the Indian Ocean giant tsunami 2004 in Aceh, Indonesia using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Idris, Nasrullah; Ramli, Muliadi; Hedwig, Rinda; Lie, Zener Sukra; Kurniawan, Koo Hendrik

    2016-03-01

    This work is intended to asses the capability of LIBS for the detection of the tsunami sediment contamination in soil. LIBS apparatus used in this work consist of a laser system and an optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) system. The soil sample was collected from in Banda Aceh City, Aceh, Indonesia, the most affected region by the giant Indian Ocean tsunami 2004. The laser beam was focused onto surface of the soil pellet using a focusing lens to produce luminous plasma. The experiment was conducted under air as surrounding gas at 1 atmosphere. The emission spectral lines from the plasma were detected by the OMA system. It was found that metal including heavy metals can surely be detected, thus implying the potent of LIBS technique as a fast screening tools of tsunami sediment contamination.

  7. Assessment of shale-oil resources of the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia, 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schenk, Christopher J.; Charpentier, Ronald R.; Klett, Timothy R.; Tennyson, Marilyn E.; Mercier, Tracey J.; Brownfield, Michael E.; Pitman, Janet K.; Gaswirth, Stephanie B.; Leathers-Miller, Heidi M.

    2015-01-01

    Using a geology-based assessment methodology, the U.S. Geological Survey estimated means of 459 million barrels of shale oil, 275 billion cubic feet of associated gas, and 23 million barrels of natural gas liquids in the Central Sumatra Basin, Indonesia.

  8. Rupture characteristics of 28 March 2005 Sumatra earthquake from GPS measurements and its implication for tsunami generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahalaut, V. K.; Catherine, J. K.

    2006-09-01

    The great earthquake of 28 March 2005 (Mw 8.6) that occurred off the western coast of Sumatra did not cause a much-anticipated major tsunami, despite its large magnitude and its similarities with the giant 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. The later earthquake caused a deadly tsunami. Here, we analyse the coseismic displacements estimated from Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements in the Sumatra region, which provide constraints on the rupture characteristics. We suggest that since majority of the slip on rupture of this earthquake occurred under the island belt and under shallow water east of it, it could only cause a minor tsunami.

  9. Performance of Buildings in the 2009 Western Sumatra Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deierlein, G.; Hart, T.; Alexander, N.; Hausler, E.; Henderson, S.; Wood, K.; Cedillos, V.; Wijanto, S.; Cabrera, C.; Rudianto, S.

    2009-12-01

    The M7.6 earthquake of 30 September 2009 in Western Sumatra, Indonesia caused significant damage and collapse to hundreds of buildings and the deaths of 1,117 people. In Padang City, with a population of about 900,000 people, building collapse was the primary cause of deaths and serious injuries (313 deaths and 431 serious injuries). The predominant building construction types in Padang are concrete moment frames with brick infill and masonry bearing wall systems. Concrete frames are common in multistory commercial retail buildings, offices, schools, and hotels; and masonry bearing wall systems are primarily used in low-rise (usually single story) residential and school buildings. In general, buildings that collapsed did not conform to modern seismic engineering practices that are required by the current Indonesian building code and would be expected in regions of moderate to high seismicity. While collapse of multi-story concrete buildings was more prevalent in older buildings (more than 10 years old), there were several newer buildings that collapsed. Primary deficiencies identified in collapsed or severely damaged buildings included: (a) soft or weak stories that failed in either by sidesway mechanisms or shear failures followed by loss of axial capacity of columns, (b) lack of ductile reinforcing bar detailing in concrete beams, columns, and beam-column joints, (c) poor quality concrete and mortar materials and workmanship, (d) vulnerable building configurations and designs with incomplete or deficient load paths, and (e) out-of-plane wall failures in unreinforced (or marginally reinforced) masonry. While these deficiencies may be expected in older buildings, damage and collapse to some modern (or recently rennovated buildings) indicates a lack of enforcement of building code provisions for design and construction quality assurance. Many new buildings whose structural systems were undamaged were closed due to extensive earthquake damage to brick infill walls

  10. Uplift and Subsidence Associated with the Great Aceh-Andaman Earthquake of 2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    The magnitude 9.2 Indian Ocean earthquake of December 26, 2004, produced broad regions of uplift and subsidence. In order to define the lateral extent and the downdip limit of rupture, scientists from Caltech, Pasadena, Calif.; NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.; Scripps Institution of Oceanography, La Jolla, Calif.; the U.S. Geological Survey, Pasadena, Calif.; and the Research Center for Geotechnology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences, Bandung, Indonesia; first needed to define the pivot line separating those regions. Interpretation of satellite imagery and a tidal model were one of the key tools used to do this.

    These pre-Sumatra earthquake (a) and post-Sumatra earthquake (b) images of North Sentinel Island in the Indian Ocean, acquired from the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) instrument on NASA's Terra spacecraft, show emergence of the coral reef surrounding the island following the earthquake. The tide was 30 plus or minus 14 centimeters lower in the pre-earthquake image (acquired November 21, 2000) than in the post-earthquake image (acquired February 20, 2005), requiring a minimum of 30 centimeters of uplift at this locality. Observations from an Indian Coast Guard helicopter on the northwest coast of the island suggest that the actual uplift is on the order of 1 to 2 meters at this site.

    In figures (c) and (d), pre-earthquake and post-earthquake ASTER images of a small island off the northwest coast of Rutland Island, 38 kilometers east of North Sentinel Island, show submergence of the coral reef surrounding the island. The tide was higher in the pre-earthquake image (acquired January 1, 2004) than in the post-earthquake image (acquired February 4, 2005), requiring subsidence at this locality. The pivot line must run between North Sentinel and Rutland islands. Note that the scale for the North Sentinel Island images differs from that for the Rutland Island images.

    The tidal model used

  11. Coseismic Slip and Afterslip Associated to The Mw9.14 Aceh-Andaman Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chlieh, M.; Avouac, J.; Sieh, K.; Prawirodirdjo, L.; Bock, Y.; Hjorleifsdottir, V.; Ji, C.; Hebert, H.; Sladen, A.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Subarya, C.; Galetzka, J.

    2005-12-01

    The Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of December 26, 2004 is the first giant earthquake to occur since the advent of modern space-based geodesy and broadband seismology and therefore provides an unprecedented opportunity to investigate the characteristics of one of these most dreadful and rare events. We determine co-seismic and post-seismic deformation over the first month following the main shock using a variety of geodetic data. These include ground displacements from near-field Global Positioning System (GPS) surveys in northwestern Sumatra and in-situ paleogeodetic and remotely sensed observations of the vertical motion of coral reefs, campaign data and continuous GPS measurements from Thailand and Malaysia. The co-seismic model is mainly constrained from co-seismic displacement derived from daily solutions at 34 cGPS stations. It shows that earthquake ruptured the Sunda subduction megathrust over a distance of about 1300 km and a width of less than 150 km releasing a total moment of 6.7-7.0 1022 Nm, (equivalent to Mw=9.15. This moment is slightly in excess of the 6.2 1022 Nm moment released over the first 500s, as estimated from the inversion of seismic records. The latitudinal distribution of released moment derived from the two models compare remarkably well. This pattern is also found consistent with the 500s long source time function and rupture velocity derived from T waves recorded in the Indian Ocean. Finally, this co-seismic model is found consistent with the observed tsunami as measured from altimetric satellite measurements of the tsunami by JASON and TOPEX, as well as with the arrival times of the tsunami recorded by tide gage records at a number of sites bordering the Indian Ocean and Andaman Sea. We find no need for slow slip or delayed slip as proposed in some early studies. However, the geodetic data postdating the main shock by up to 40 days, require that slip must have continued on the plate interface after the 500s long seismic rupture. The

  12. Numerical modelling of potential submarine landslides and generated tsunami in Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Nieto, E.; Mangeney, A.; Singh, S. C.; Chauhan, A.; Bouchut, F.; Castro Díaz, M.

    2010-12-01

    Recent studies suggests that tsunami risk along the SW coast of Sumatra could be due to co-seismic slip along a backthrust at the NE Margin of the Mentawai Island and associated landslides (Singh et al., 2010). Using a combination of high-resolution seismic reflection and bathymetry data, they observed deposits of large submarine landslides at the NE margin of Mentawai Island and suggest that the high wave that occurred in 1797 might have been enhanced by landslides, producing a large localised tsunami. Until now most of the work devoted to tsunami hazard assessment in the area of Sumatra Island focussed on megaearthquakes earthquakes generated tsunamis. Therefore, estimating the run up heights due to submarine landslides is essential for risk mitigation along the SW coast of Sumatra. A series of numerical scenarios are performed here to simulate potential submarine landslides and generated tsunamis in the area of Sumatra Island. The height and velocity of the water wave and the impact zones are calculated using a new numerical model solving the depth-averaged shallow water equations with high order finite volume methods. This model corresponds to the 2D extension of the model developed by Fernández-Nieto et al., 2008. The fluidized mass is modeled using a generalization of the Savage-Hutter model [Savage and Hutter, 1989] by including the role of buoyancy and fluid into the thin-layer equations with a Coulomb-type friction law. Our model takes into account the coupling between the fluid and the landslides and incorporates the rigorous description of topography effects that play a key role in the dynamics of landslides. We study the magnitude of variation of the wave expected depending on the location and volume released. These results shows that landslide generated tsunamis have to be taken into account for risk assessment in the area of Sumatra Island. E.D. Fernández-Nieto, F. Bouchut, D. Bresch, M.J. Castro, A. Mangeney, 2008. A new Savage-Hutter type model

  13. Rupture and frequency-dependent seismic radiation of the 2012 Mw 8.6 Sumatra strike-slip earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Jiuxun; Yao, Huajian

    2016-06-01

    On 2012 April 11, a great strike-slip earthquake (moment magnitude of Mw 8.6) occurred off the west coast of northern Sumatra area followed by an Mw 8.2 aftershock 2 hr later. Different geophysical data and methods have been used to investigate the mechanism, faulting, seismic radiation and slip propagation of this event, but frequency-dependent features of its rupture process have not been discussed much. In this study, we use a compressive sensing method based on sparsity inversion in the frequency domain to study the frequency-dependent seismic radiation and rupture process of this event. Our results indicate a very complex rupture process concerning at least three different rupture stages on multiple subfaults with nearly conjugate geometries. The main shock has triggered seismicity on a series of ridge-perpendicular or ridge-parallel conjugate strike-slip faults around the Nighty East Ridge. Obvious frequency-dependent rupture process has been presented and discussed. Combining results from slip inversion based on the finite-fault model, we observe that in the beginning stage of the rupture lower frequency radiation appears to originate from the areas with large slip, while the high-frequency radiation is located at the boundary of large-slip region or rupture front. Some radiation probably originates from the repeating slip on the main faults or triggered events on some nearby faults in the rupture area. The complex frequency-dependent seismic radiation patterns observed in this study provide important information for future investigation of rupture physics of this complex strike-slip event.

  14. Constraining the Rupture Length, Duration and Speed of the Great Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake Using Hydroacoustic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstoy, M.; Bohnenstiehl, D. R.

    2005-12-01

    Hydroacoustic data from the International Monitoring System Diego Garcia South hydrophone station have been used to track the rupture of the Great Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake using the T-wave arrival. T-waves are generated by radiation of seismic energy at the crust-water interface, and they can travel great distances with relatively little loss in energy through a low-velocity waveguide known as the SOund Fixing and Ranging (SOFAR) channel. For this event the T-wave allows us to provide a relatively high-resolution picture of changes in the rupture speed and character. A single station approach allows topographic steering effects to be minimized. Results show that there were at least two large-scale phases of rupture with the first 180 seconds having an average speed of 2.8 km/s and the next 300 seconds having an average rupture speed of 2.1 km/s. Waveform amplitudes show two primary pulses of energy coincident with the two phases of rupture speed. Results also show that the full-length of the northern portion of the fault zone ruptured up to the latitude of the pole of rotation between the Burma and Indian Plates where subduction ends. Aftershock patterns mapped using the hydroacoustic data illustrate that in the first 30mins to few hours following the mainshock, aftershock numbers/size tracked the amplitude of waveform from the mainshock. T-wave data have the potential to address a number of fundamental questions of the rupture of this large event and also provide another tool for rapid assessment of the scale of a shallow submarine event and its tsunamigenic potential.

  15. Estimates of potential new production in the Java-Sumatra upwelling system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xing; Liao, Xiaomei; Zhan, Haigang; Liu, Hailong

    2012-11-01

    The Java-Sumatra upwelling is one of the most important upwelling systems in the Indian Ocean, with maximum upwelling intensity in July through August. To estimate the nitrate supplied by upwelling, we developed a three-dimensional hydrodynamic model to calculate the mean vertical speed and determine the depth of upwelling. We used in-situ vertical nitrate profiles to assess nitrate concentration in the upwelled waters, and calculated the nitrate supply as the product of nitrate concentration and vertical transport obtained from the numerical model. The calculated result represents potential new production generated in the upwelling region. We found that on the event time scale (monthly) of Java-Sumatra upwelling, water brought to the surface originated from locations 100-m deep, giving a nitrate supply of 93.77×103 mol/s and potential new production of 1.02×1014 gC/a.

  16. Imaging of 3-D seismic velocity structure of Southern Sumatra region using double difference tomographic method

    SciTech Connect

    Lestari, Titik; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2015-04-24

    Southern Sumatra region has a high level of seismicity due to the influence of the subduction system, Sumatra fault, Mentawai fault and stretching zone activities. The seismic activities of Southern Sumatra region are recorded by Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA’s) Seismograph network. In this study, we used earthquake data catalog compiled by MCGA for 3013 events from 10 seismic stations around Southern Sumatra region for time periods of April 2009 – April 2014 in order to invert for the 3-D seismic velocities structure (Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio). We applied double-difference seismic tomography method (tomoDD) to determine Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs ratio with hypocenter adjustment. For the inversion procedure, we started from the initial 1-D seismic velocity model of AK135 and constant Vp/Vs of 1.73. The synthetic travel time from source to receiver was calculated using ray pseudo-bending technique, while the main tomographic inversion was applied using LSQR method. The resolution model was evaluated using checkerboard test and Derivative Weigh Sum (DWS). Our preliminary results show low Vp and Vs anomalies region along Bukit Barisan which is may be associated with weak zone of Sumatran fault and migration of partial melted material. Low velocity anomalies at 30-50 km depth in the fore arc region may indicated the hydrous material circulation because the slab dehydration. We detected low seismic seismicity in the fore arc region that may be indicated as seismic gap. It is coincides contact zone of high and low velocity anomalies. And two large earthquakes (Jambi and Mentawai) also occurred at the contact of contrast velocity.

  17. Ischnura foylei sp. nov. (Odonata, Coenagrionidae) from the highlands of Sumatra.

    PubMed

    Kosterin, Oleg E

    2015-01-01

    Ischnura foylei sp. nov. is described from Indonesia, Sumatra, Jambi Province, Danau Gunung Tujuh (or Danau Sakti), a lake situated in an extinct volcanic crater, 1°41'15"S, 101°25'28"S, 1995 m a.s.l. Structurally it is close to I. senegalensis but larger and with differently shaped cerci in males and a more trilobate posterior lobe of the prothorax; males and androchromatic females have a unique colour pattern. PMID:26624348

  18. Imaging of 3-D seismic velocity structure of Southern Sumatra region using double difference tomographic method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lestari, Titik; Nugraha, Andri Dian

    2015-04-01

    Southern Sumatra region has a high level of seismicity due to the influence of the subduction system, Sumatra fault, Mentawai fault and stretching zone activities. The seismic activities of Southern Sumatra region are recorded by Meteorological Climatological and Geophysical Agency (MCGA's) Seismograph network. In this study, we used earthquake data catalog compiled by MCGA for 3013 events from 10 seismic stations around Southern Sumatra region for time periods of April 2009 - April 2014 in order to invert for the 3-D seismic velocities structure (Vp, Vs, and Vp/Vs ratio). We applied double-difference seismic tomography method (tomoDD) to determine Vp, Vs and Vp/Vs ratio with hypocenter adjustment. For the inversion procedure, we started from the initial 1-D seismic velocity model of AK135 and constant Vp/Vs of 1.73. The synthetic travel time from source to receiver was calculated using ray pseudo-bending technique, while the main tomographic inversion was applied using LSQR method. The resolution model was evaluated using checkerboard test and Derivative Weigh Sum (DWS). Our preliminary results show low Vp and Vs anomalies region along Bukit Barisan which is may be associated with weak zone of Sumatran fault and migration of partial melted material. Low velocity anomalies at 30-50 km depth in the fore arc region may indicated the hydrous material circulation because the slab dehydration. We detected low seismic seismicity in the fore arc region that may be indicated as seismic gap. It is coincides contact zone of high and low velocity anomalies. And two large earthquakes (Jambi and Mentawai) also occurred at the contact of contrast velocity.

  19. Marapi an active West-Central Sumatra Volcano: a geological and petrological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Marmol, M.; Budianto, A.; Fournelle, J.; Jacobs, P.; Elburg, M. A.

    2010-12-01

    Marapi volcano (West - Central Sumatra), Sumatra’s most active volcano (not to be confused with Merapi on Java), located in a densely populated area and where more than 50 explosive eruptions have been recorded in the last 200 years has been studied in detail in the field to gain fundamental understanding of the volcano's activity in terms of its basic geology, petrology and geochemistry. Marapi is one of a few active volcanoes among many dormant volcanoes of this island. Large deposits of the nearby Maninjau caldera, dated 50 ka (n=3), associated with very silica-rich volcanic products is another reason for concern, since caldera formation is linked with severe explosive activity. Those deposits are found at the base of the volcano and largely in the deeply incised valley which follows the Sumatra fault extending parallel to the Sumatra volcanic front. A possible landslide parallel to the Sumatra fault is recognized on the LANDSAT image. Landslides on the external old external side have allowed the collection of the oldest part of the volcano as most of it is covered with a thick primary forest. These landslides occurring on old volcanic terrain are a threat to the surrounding population living nearby the rivers especially during the heavy rainy seasons. A 20 m high stratigraphic column has been studied, with the volcano’s explosive nature seen in the collected samples (i.e. bombs and pumices). A new sketch map of the area of the craters (6 over 2km) replaces the one made in 1921 at the Dutch colonial time. A geological and hazard map have been created showing the extension of the various deposits.

  20. Deep Seismic Reflection Images of the Sumatra Seismic and Aseismic Gaps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, S. C.; Hananto, N. D.; Chauhan, A.; Carton, H. D.; Midenet, S.; Djajadihardja, Y.

    2009-12-01

    The Sumatra subduction zone is seismically most active region on the Earth, and has been the site of three great earthquakes only in the last four years. The first of the series, the 2004 Boxing Day earthquake, broke 1300 km of the plate boundary and produced the devastating tsunami around the Indian Ocean. The second great earthquake occurred three months later in March 2005, about 150 km SE of the 2004 event. The Earth waited for three years, and then broke again in September 2007 at 1300 km SE of the 2004 event producing a twin earthquake of magnitudes of 8.5 and 7.9 at an interval of 12 hours, leaving a seismic gap of about 600 km between the second and third earthquake, the Sumatra Seismic Gap. Seismological and geodetic studies suggest that this gap is fully locked and may break any time. In order to study the seismic and tsunami risk in this locked region, a deep seismic reflection survey (Tsunami Investigation Deep Evaluation Seismic -TIDES) was carried out in May 2009 using the CGGVeritas vessel Geowave Champion towing a 15 long streamer, the longest ever used during a seismic survey, to image the nature of the subducting plate and associated features, including the seismogenic zone, from seafloor down to 50 km depth. A total of 1700 km of deep seismic reflection data were acquired. Three dip lines traverse the Sumatra subduction zone; one going through the Sumatra Seismic Gap, one crossing the region that broke during the 2007 great earthquake, and one going through the aseismic zone. These three dip profiles should provide insight about the locking mechanism and help us to understand why an earthquake occurs in one zone and not in aseismic zone. A strike-line was shot in the forearc basin connecting the locked zone with broken zone profiles, which should provide insight about barriers that might have stopped propagation of 2007 earthquake rupture further northward.

  1. Rapid decision tool to predict earthquake destruction in Sumatra by using first motion study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhakta, Shardul Sanjay

    The main idea of this project is to build an interactive and smart Geographic Information system tool which can help predict intensity of real time earthquakes in Sumatra Island of Indonesia. The tool has an underlying intelligence to predict the intensity of an earthquake depending on analysis of similar earthquakes in the past in that specific region. Whenever an earthquake takes place in Sumatra, a First Motion Study is conducted; this decides its type, depth, latitude and longitude. When the user inputs this information into the input string, the tool will try to find similar earthquakes with a similar First Motion Survey and depth. It will do a survey of similar earthquakes and predict if this real time earthquake can be disastrous or not. This tool has been developed in JAVA. I have used MOJO (Map Objects JAVA Objects) to show map of Indonesia and earthquake locations in the form of points. ESRI has created MOJO which is a set of JAVA API's. The Indonesia map, earthquake location points and its co-relation was all designed using MOJO. MOJO is a powerful tool which made it easy to design the tool. This tool is easy to use and the user has to input only a few parameters for the end result. I hope this tool justifies its use in prediction of earthquakes and help save lives in Sumatra.

  2. Semi-Idealized COAMPS®* Simulations of Sumatra Squall Lines: the Role of Boundary Forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Lan; Lim, Hock

    Sumatra squall line is a fairly impactive convective storm that often forms along the Malacca Straits and sweeps across Singapore in the early mornings of April to November each year. To understand and better predict this phenomenon, cloud resolving simulations with COAMPS at 3 km horizontal resolution are performed in a 3-D semi-idealized framework starting from a horizontally uniform atmosphere initialized by observed radiosonde data. Realistic boundary forcing effects by land-sea distribution, radiative fluxes, topography, and sea surface temperature (SST) are evaluated. Five ellipsoidal warm bubbles are prescribed to line up along the Malacca Straits to spawn a squall line. The bubbles are excluded in some cases to see if the squall line can be triggered without the initial external perturbation. Results demonstrate that line convection can be initiated by SST heating under no initial thermal perturbation; warm SST is conducive to kicking off convection. The diurnal circulations driven by the land sea thermal contrast play an important role in the intensification of the Sumatra squall line and its eastward migration. The shallow convection is enhanced by the convergence resulting from colliding land breezes from the west and the east coast of the Malacca Straits. It is found that the high relieves along west Sumatra and northwest Malaysia act to veer the low to mid tropospheric westerly winds into northerly flows, which converge into the strait with the southwest monsoonal flows from the south. The low-level convergence may then trigger and sustain the squall line.

  3. Processes of inclusion and adverse incorporation: oil palm and agrarian change in Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, John

    2010-01-01

    Changes in globalised agriculture raise critical questions as rapid agricultural development leads to widespread social and environmental transformation. With increased global demand for vegetable oils and biofuel, in Indonesia the area under oil palm has doubled over the last decade. This paper presents a case study of how micro-processes that are linked to wider dynamics shape oil palm related agrarian change in villages in Sumatra, Indonesia. It pursues related questions regarding the impact of agribusiness-driven agriculture, the fate of smallholders experiencing contemporary agrarian transition, and the impact of increased demand for vegetable oils and biofuels on agrarian structures in Sumatra. It argues that the paths of agrarian change are highly uneven and depend on how changing livelihood strategies are enabled or constrained by economic, social and political relations that vary over time and space. In contrast to simplifying narratives of inclusion/exclusion, it argues that outcomes depend on the terms under which smallholders engage with oil palm. Distinguishing between exogenous processes of agribusiness expansion and endogenous commodity market expansion, it finds each is associated with characteristic processes of change. It concludes that the way successive policy interventions have worked with the specific characteristics of oil palm have cumulatively shaped the space where agrarian change occurs in Sumatra. PMID:20873030

  4. Viscoelastic relaxation in a heterogeneous Earth following the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiseman, Kelly; Bürgmann, Roland; Freed, Andrew M.; Banerjee, Paramesh

    2015-12-01

    Consideration of the three-dimensional heterogeneity of mantle rheology allows models of viscoelastic relaxation following the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake to simultaneously fit both the observed far-field and near-field postseismic deformation. We use horizontal and vertical campaign and continuous GPS observations from the Andaman, Nicobar, and Sumatran forearc islands, mainland Sumatra, Thailand, the Malay Peninsula, the Indian Ocean, and southern India, spanning the first five years of postseismic deformation. The postseismic relaxation models consider contributions from the 2004 Mw 9.2 Sumatra-Andaman, the 2005 Mw 8.7 Nias, and 2007 Mw 8.4 Bengkulu earthquakes. Far-field motions to the east of the ruptures are equally well fit by homogeneous or laterally variable earth models. However, only models with contrasting rheology across the subducting slab, a ten-times higher mantle viscosity under the Indian Ocean lithosphere than the backarc mantle, can also produce the observed enduring postseismic uplift along the forearc and lack of far-field transient displacements in southern India. While postseismic uplift of forearc stations can also be produced by rapid and enduring down-dip afterslip, the inferred rheology structure is consistent with the distribution of mantle temperature inferred from seismic tomography.

  5. Geological structure of the offshore Sumatra forearc region estimated from high-resolution MCS reflection survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misawa, Ayanori; Hirata, Kenji; Seeber, Leonard; Arai, Kohsaku; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Rahardiawan, Riza; Udrekh; Fujiwara, Toshiya; Kinoshita, Masataka; Baba, Hisatoshi; Kameo, Katsura; Adachi, Keita; Sarukawa, Hiroshi; Tokuyama, Hidekazu; Permana, Haryadi; Djajadihardja, Yusuf S.; Ashi, Juichiro

    2014-01-01

    To investigate detailed fault distributions and shallow geological structure offshore northwestern Sumatra, we obtained high-resolution Multi-Channel Seismic (MCS) reflection data around the Sunda Trench, trench slope, and forearc high regions offshore northwestern Sumatra. In general, trench-parallel anticlinal ridges are distributed from trench slope region to forearc high region. Two kinds of different vergence systems are characterized in the Sumatra forearc region; landward vergence is dominant in the lower trench slope region, and seaward vergence is dominant in the forearc high region. Moreover, piggyback or slope basins are recognized between anticlinal ridges. Deformation in the uppermost part of these basins, that is referred to ‘recent’ deformation in this paper, can be identified not only along major thrusts but also between major thrusts and the lower trench slope, suggesting these are related to recently active faulting. Several but the largest number of such deformation are distributed along a major thrust located in the middle of the forearc high region, whereas few are done along other major thrusts.

  6. Increasing potential of biomass burning over Sumatra, Indonesia induced by anthropogenic tropical warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartika Lestari, R.; Watanabe, Masahiro; Imada, Yukiko; Shiogama, Hideo; Field, Robert D.; Takemura, Toshihiko; Kimoto, Masahide

    2014-10-01

    Uncontrolled biomass burning in Indonesia during drought periods damages the landscape, degrades regional air quality, and acts as a disproportionately large source of greenhouse gas emissions. The expansion of forest fires is mostly observed in October in Sumatra favored by persistent droughts during the dry season from June to November. The contribution of anthropogenic warming to the probability of severe droughts is not yet clear. Here, we show evidence that past events in Sumatra were exacerbated by anthropogenic warming and that they will become more frequent under a future emissions scenario. By conducting two sets of atmospheric general circulation model ensemble experiments driven by observed sea surface temperature for 1960-2011, one with and one without an anthropogenic warming component, we found that a recent weakening of the Walker circulation associated with tropical ocean warming increased the probability of severe droughts in Sumatra, despite increasing tropical-mean precipitation. A future increase in the frequency of droughts is then suggested from our analyses of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 model ensembles. Increasing precipitation to the north of the equator accompanies drier conditions over Indonesia, amplified by enhanced ocean surface warming in the central equatorial Pacific. The resultant precipitation decrease leads to a ˜25% increase in severe drought events from 1951-2000 to 2001-2050. Our results therefore indicate the global warming impact to a potential of wide-spreading forest fires over Indonesia, which requires mitigation policy for disaster prevention.

  7. Caldera-Fill Sediments at Toba Caldera, Sumatra, Indonesia: A Field Reconnaissance Report

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chesner, C. A.; Barbee, O. A.; Lesmana, Z.; Nasution, A.

    2013-12-01

    The 74 ka Toba Caldera in northern Sumatra offers a unique opportunity to study caldera-fill sedimentation and its implications on the dynamic post-collapse history of Earth's largest Quaternary resurgent caldera. Although the complete 74,000 year sedimentation record is hidden beneath Lake Toba, a significant portion (~20-74 ka) of the post-caldera sedimentary sequence has been uplifted above lake level and is exposed on the 45 x 18 km Samosir Island resurgent dome. This extensive sedimentary record, over 100 m thick in places, is exposed by stream incision, and in resurgent dome fault scarps. Reconnaissance mapping and sampling of the sedimentary veneer covering Samosir Island was conducted in 2012-2013 to supplement recent sub-bottom seismic reflection profiling (chirp sonar) of the younger sediments and provide the basis for a more detailed caldera-fill sedimentation study at Toba. Our preliminary mapping indicates that distinct lacustrine and fluvial sedimentary sequences occur on Samosir Island. The lacustrine sequence dominates the surface exposures across the island and consists of interbedded clays, silts, sands, and diatomites. Different depositional environments and processes are suggested by regional variations in the componentry (i.e. abundance of diatoms, pumice clasts, reworked lake sediment clasts, rafted pumice blocks, etc.), but no significant ash-beds have been identified. An underlying coarse-grained indurated fluvial sequence is exposed in deeply incised drainages and fault scarps. This sequence consists mostly of coarse oxidized sands in eastern Samosir (approximately in the center of the caldera) that thicken and become coarser in western Samosir towards the caldera wall, where breccias and debris flows are also common. Blocks and boulders up to several meters in diameter derived from the basement rocks in the western caldera walls suggest a wedge of alluvial sediments formed before the lake reached its maximum level. Samples have been

  8. How much does it cost to achieve coverage targets for primary healthcare services? A costing model from Aceh, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Asnawi; Hort, Krishna; Abidin, Azwar Zaenal; Amin, Fadilah M

    2012-01-01

    Despite significant investment in improving service infrastructure and training of staff, public primary healthcare services in low-income and middle-income countries tend to perform poorly in reaching coverage targets. One of the factors identified in Aceh, Indonesia was the lack of operational funds for service provision. The objective of this study was to develop a simple and transparent costing tool that enables health planners to calculate the unit costs of providing basic health services to estimate additional budgets required to deliver services in accordance with national targets. The tool was developed using a standard economic approach that linked the input activities to achieving six national priority programs at primary healthcare level: health promotion, sanitation and environment health, maternal and child health and family planning, nutrition, immunization and communicable diseases control, and treatment of common illness. Costing was focused on costs of delivery of the programs that need to be funded by local government budgets. The costing tool consisting of 16 linked Microsoft Excel worksheets was developed and tested in several districts enabled the calculation of the unit costs of delivering of the six national priority programs per coverage target of each program (such as unit costs of delivering of maternal and child health program per pregnant mother). This costing tool can be used by health planners to estimate additional money required to achieve a certain level of coverage of programs, and it can be adjusted for different costs and program delivery parameters in different settings. PMID:22887349

  9. Post Disaster Governance, Complexity and Network Theory: Evidence from Aceh, Indonesia After the Indian Ocean Tsunami 2004.

    PubMed

    Lassa, Jonatan A

    2015-01-01

    This research aims to understand the organizational network typology of large--scale disaster intervention in developing countries and to understand the complexity of post--disaster intervention, through the use of network theory based on empirical data from post--tsunami reconstruction in Aceh, Indonesia, during 2005/-2007. The findings suggest that the ' degrees of separation' (or network diameter) between any two organizations in the field is 5, thus reflecting 'small- world' realities and therefore making no significant difference with the real human networks, as found in previous experiments. There are also significant loops in the network reflecting the fact that some actors tend to not cooperate, which challenges post- disaster coordination. The findings show the landscape of humanitarian actors is not randomly distributed. Many actors were connected to each other through certain hubs, while hundreds of actors make 'scattered' single 'principal--client' links. The paper concludes that by understanding the distribution of degree, centrality, 'degrees of separation' and visualization of the network, authorities can improve their understanding of the realities of coordination, from macro to micro scales. PMID:26236562

  10. The future of forests and orangutans (Pongo abelii) in Sumatra: predicting impacts of oil palm plantations, road construction, and mechanisms for reducing carbon emissions from deforestation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaveau, David L. A.; Wich, Serge; Epting, Justin; Juhn, Daniel; Kanninen, Markku; Leader-Williams, Nigel

    2009-09-01

    Payments for reduced carbon emissions from deforestation (RED) are now attracting attention as a way to halt tropical deforestation. Northern Sumatra comprises an area of 65 000 km2 that is both the site of Indonesia's first planned RED initiative, and the stronghold of 92% of remaining Sumatran orangutans. Under current plans, this RED initiative will be implemented in a defined geographic area, essentially a newly established, 7500 km2 protected area (PA) comprising mostly upland forest, where guards will be recruited to enforce forest protection. Meanwhile, new roads are currently under construction, while companies are converting lowland forests into oil palm plantations. This case study predicts the effectiveness of RED in reducing deforestation and conserving orangutans for two distinct scenarios: the current plan of implementing RED within the specific boundary of a new upland PA, and an alternative scenario of implementing RED across landscapes outside PAs. Our satellite-based spatially explicit deforestation model predicts that 1313 km2 of forest would be saved from deforestation by 2030, while forest cover present in 2006 would shrink by 22% (7913 km2) across landscapes outside PAs if RED were only to be implemented in the upland PA. Meanwhile, orangutan habitat would reduce by 16% (1137 km2), resulting in the conservative loss of 1384 orangutans, or 25% of the current total population with or without RED intervention. By contrast, an estimated 7824 km2 of forest could be saved from deforestation, with maximum benefit for orangutan conservation, if RED were to be implemented across all remaining forest landscapes outside PAs. Here, RED payments would compensate land users for their opportunity costs in not converting unprotected forests into oil palm, while the construction of new roads to service the marketing of oil palm would be halted. Our predictions suggest that Indonesia's first RED initiative in an upland PA may not significantly reduce

  11. An evaluation of public, private, and mobile health clinic usage for children under age 5 in Aceh after the tsunami: implications for future disasters

    PubMed Central

    Rassekh, Bahie Mary; Shu, Winnie; Santosham, Mathuram; Burnham, Gilbert; Doocy, Shannon

    2014-01-01

    Background: Aceh, Indonesia, was the hardest-hit area in the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, with more than 500,000 people displaced, 120,000 people dead, and total damages and losses estimated at $4.5 billion. The relief effort following the tsunami was also immense. Objectives: This study aimed to determine and assess utilization patterns of formal public versus private and mobile health services for children under age 5 with diarrhea, cough and difficulty breathing, fever, or skin disease and to identify determinants of care usage. Methods: A household survey of 962 households was administered to caretakers of children aged 1–5 years. A sample of clusters within Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar were selected and those caretakers within the cluster who fit the inclusion criteria were interviewed. Results: Of those caretakers who utilized formal health services as the first line of care for their sick child, 62% used a public health facility, 30% used a private health facility, and 8% used a mobile clinic. In terms of significant factors associated with public, private, and mobile care utilization, mobile clinics were at one side of the spectrum and private clinics were at the other side overall, with public care somewhere in between. This was true for several variables. Mobile clinic users reported the lowest cost of services and medicine and the highest perceived level of accessibility, and private care users reported the highest perceived level of satisfaction. Conclusions: Utilization of formal health services for children was quite high after the tsunami. The caretaker's perceived satisfaction with public health services could have been improved. Mobile clinics were an accessible source of health care and could be used in future disaster relief efforts to target those populations that seek less care for their sick children, including displaced populations, and those children whose parents have died. PMID:25750788

  12. Interannual variation of ocean heat content in outer Indonesian waters in warming ocean (Case study: West Sumatra waters)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radjawane, Ivonne M.; Bernawis, Lamona I.; Priyono, Bayu; Fadli, Muh.; Putuhena, Hugo S.

    2015-09-01

    This research was intended observe of interannual variation of Ocean Heat Content (OHC) in outer Indonesian Water within the boundary of Indonesia Economic Exclusive Zone (EEZ) with study case focused West Sumatra waters that related to global ocean warming. The temperature data were obtained from ARGO floats as well as other observations data from 2002-2010. OHC was calculated following the equations adopted from Young et al.(2009) using a two-layer ocean models which are above and below the thermocline, where the heat content is calculated from the surface to depth of 28° C isotherm of upper thermocline.The results show trend of increasing OHC and varies interannual in West Sumatra water. The OHC ranges from 425 MJ/m2 to 4720 MJ/m2 in West Sumatra. The signal of OHC in West Sumatra influenced by Indian Ocean Dipole Mode phenomena. When positive IOD event occurs then decrease of OHC in West Sumatra due to decrease in SST over the areas.

  13. Northern Nutrition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Northwest Territories Dept. of Education, Yellowknife.

    This guide contains nutrition information and nutrition education strategies aimed at residents of the Canadian Arctic. Section I: (1) defines nutrition terms; (2) describes the sources and functions of essential nutrients; (3) explains Canada's food guide and special considerations for the traditional northern Native diet and for lactose…

  14. Thumb-pads up-a new species of thick-thumbed bat from Sumatra (Chiroptera: Vespertilionidae: Glischropus).

    PubMed

    Csorba, Gábor; Görföl, Tamás; Wiantoro, Sigit; Kingston, Tigga; Bates, Paul J J; Huang, Joe Chun-Chia

    2015-01-01

    To date, three species of the genus Glischropus are recognized from the Indomalayan zoogeographic region-G. bucephalus from the Indochinese subregion, G. tylopus from the Sundaic subregion (Peninsular Thailand and Malaysia, Borneo, Sumatra, Moluccas) and G. javanus, restricted to Java. The investigation of the holotype and three topotype specimens of G. batjanus supported the view that the name was previously correctly regarded as the junior subjective synonym of G. tylopus. During review of material recently collected in southwestern Sumatra, Indonesia, one specimen of a yet undescribed species of Thick-thumbed bat was identified. G. aquilus n. sp. markedly differs from its congeners by its dark brown pelage, nearly black ear and tragus, and in skull proportions. The phylogenetic analysis based on cytb sequences also supports the specific distinctness of G. aquilus n. sp. Its discovery brings the count to 88 species of bats known from Sumatra. PMID:26249952

  15. Prototype Tsunami Evacuation Park in Padang, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, B. E.; Cedillos, V.; Deierlein, G.; Di Mauro, M.; Kornberg, K.

    2012-12-01

    Padang, Indonesia, a city of some 900,000 people, half of whom live close to the coast and within a five-meter elevation above sea level, has one of the highest tsunami risks in the world due to its close offshore thrust-fault seismic hazard, flat terrain and dense population. There is a high probability that a tsunami will strike the shores of Padang, flooding half of the area of the city, within the next 30 years. If that tsunami occurred today, it is estimated that several hundred thousand people would die, as they could not reach safe ground in the ~30 minute interval between the earthquake's occurrence and the tsunami's arrival. Padang's needs have been amply demonstrated: after earthquakes in 2007, 2009, 2011 and 2012, citizens, thinking that those earthquakes might cause a tsunami, tried to evacuate in cars and motorbikes, which created traffic jams, and most could not reach safe ground in 30 minutes. Since 2008, GeoHazards International (GHI) and Stanford University have studied a range of options for improving this situation, including ways to accelerate evacuation to high ground with pedestrian bridges and widened roads, and means of "vertical" evacuation in multi-story buildings, mosques, pedestrian overpasses, and Tsunami Evacuation Parks (TEPs), which are man-made hills with recreation facilities on top. TEPs proved most practical and cost-effective for Padang, given the available budget, technology and time. The Earth Observatory Singapore (EOS) developed an agent-based model that simulates pedestrian and vehicular evacuation to assess tsunami risk and risk reduction interventions in Southeast Asia. EOS applied this model to analyze the effectiveness in Padang of TEPs over other tsunami risk management approaches in terms of evacuation times and the number of people saved. The model shows that only ~24,000 people (20% of the total population) in the northern part of Padang can reach safe ground within 30 minutes, if people evacuate using cars and

  16. Coseismic slip distributions of the 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman and 28 March 2005 Nias earthquakes from GPS static offsets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banerjee, P.; Pollitz, F.; Nagarajan, B.; Burgmann, R.

    2007-01-01

    Static offsets produced by the 26 December 2004 M ???9 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake as measured by Global Positioning System (GPS) reveal a large amount of slip along the entire ???1300 km-long rupture. Most seismic slip inversions place little slip on the Andaman segment. whereas both near-field and far-field GPS offsets demand large slip on the Andaman segment. We compile available datasets of the static offset to render a more detailed picture of the static-slip distribution. We construct geodetic offsets such that postearthquake positions of continuous GPS sites are reckoned to a time 1 day after the earthquake and campaign GPS sites are similarly corrected for postseismic motions. The newly revised slip distribution (Mw 9.22) reveals substantial segmentation of slip along the Andaman Islands, with the southern quarter slipping ???15 m in unison with the adjacent Nicobar and northern Sumatran segments of length ???700 km. We infer a small excess of geodetic moment relative to the seismic moment. A similar compilation of GPS offsets from the 28 March 2005 Nias earthquake is well explained with dip slip averaging several meters (Mw = 8.66) distributed primarily at depths greater than 20 km.

  17. Parathelphusa pardus, a new species of lowland freshwater crab from swamps in central Sumatra, Indonesia (Crustacea: Brachyura: Gecarcinucidae).

    PubMed

    Ng, Peter K L; Riady, Rikhi; Windarti, Windarti

    2016-01-01

    A new species of gecarcinucid freshwater crab of the genus Parathelphusa H. Milne Edwards, 1853, is described from freshwater swamp habitats in Pekanbaru, Riau Province, in central-eastern Sumatra, Indonesia. Parathelphusa pardus sp. nov., has a very distinctive colour pattern, and in this respect, resembles P. maindroni (Rathbun, 1902) from Sumatra and Peninsular Malaysia; P. batamensis Ng, 1992, from Batam Island, Indonesia; P. reticulata Ng, 1990, from Singapore; and P. oxygona Nobili, 1901, from western Sarawak. It can be distinguished from these species and congeners by a suite of carapace, ambulatory leg, thoracic sternal and most importantly, male first gonopod characters. PMID:27394277

  18. Bicentennial Earthquake Supercycles Inferred from Relative Sealevel Changes in Corals off West Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieh, K.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Meltzner, A. J.; Shen, C.; Suwargadi, B. W.; Galetzka, J.; Li, K.; Cheng, H.; Edwards, R.

    2008-12-01

    Records of strain accumulation and relief extracted from corals of the Mentawai islands, Sumatra, imply that this 700-km-long section of the Sunda megathrust has generated sequences of great earthquakes about every two centuries for at least the past 700 years. Episodes in the 14th and 16th/17th centuries resemble broadly the great rupture pair of 1797-1833. The MW8.4 earthquake of September 2007 represents the first in a series of large partial failures of the Mentawai section that will likely occur within the next several decades.

  19. The Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake and Tsunami of 2004: the hazards, events, and damage.

    PubMed

    Kohl, Patrice A; O'Rourke, Ann P; Schmidman, Dana L; Dopkin, Wendy A; Birnbaum, Marvin L

    2005-01-01

    The Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake and subsequent Asian Tsunami of 26 December 2004 affected multiple countries in the Indian Ocean and beyond, creating disasters of a scale unprecedented in recorded history. Using the Conceptual Framework and terminology described in the Disaster Health Management: Guidelines for Evaluation and Research in the Utstein Style, the hazard, events, and damage associated with the Earthquake and Tsunami are described. Many gaps in the available information regarding this event are present. Standardized indicators and reporting criteria are necessary for research on future disasters and the development of best practice standards internationally. PMID:16496614

  20. Crustal dilatation observed by GRACE after the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake.

    PubMed

    Han, Shin-Chan; Shum, C K; Bevis, Michael; Ji, Chen; Kuo, Chung-Yen

    2006-08-01

    We report the detection of an earthquake by a space-based measurement. The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellites observed a +/-15-microgalileo gravity change induced by the great December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. Coseismic deformation produces sudden changes in the gravity field by vertical displacement of Earth's layered density structure and by changing the densities of the crust and mantle. GRACE's sensitivity to the long spatial wavelength of gravity changes resulted in roughly equal contributions of vertical displacement and dilatation effects in the gravity measurements. The GRACE observations provide evidence of crustal dilatation resulting from an undersea earthquake. PMID:16888136

  1. Periodically triggered seismicity at Mount Wrangell, Alaska, after the Sumatra earthquake.

    PubMed

    West, Michael; Sánchez, John J; McNutt, Stephen R

    2005-05-20

    As surface waves from the 26 December 2004 earthquake in Sumatra swept across Alaska, they triggered an 11-minute swarm of 14 local earthquakes near Mount Wrangell, almost 11,000 kilometers away. Earthquakes occurred at intervals of 20 to 30 seconds, in phase with the largest positive vertical ground displacements during the Rayleigh surface waves. We were able to observe this correlation because of the combination of unusually long surface waves and seismic stations near the local earthquakes. This phase of Rayleigh wave motion was dominated by horizontal extensional stresses reaching 25 kilopascals. These observations imply that local events were triggered by simple shear failure on normal faults. PMID:15905395

  2. Slope Stability: Factor of Safety along the Seismically Active Continental Slope Offshore Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, J. R.; Goldfinger, C.; Djadjadihardja, Y.; None, U.

    2013-12-01

    Recent papers have documented the probability that turbidites deposited along and downslope of subduction zone accretionary prisms are likely the result of strong ground shaking from great earthquakes. Given the damaging nature of these earthquakes, along with the casualties from the associated tsunamis, the spatial and temporal patterns of these earthquakes can only be evaluated with paleoseismologic coring and seismic reflection methods. We evaluate slope stability for seafloor topography along the Sunda subduction offshore Sumatra, Indonesia. We use sediment material properties, from local (Sumatra) and analogous sites, to constrain our estimates of static slope stability Factor of Safety (FOS) analyses. We then use ground motion prediction equations (GMPE's) to estimate ground motion intensity (Arias Intensity, AI) and acceleration (Peak Ground Acceleration, PGA), as possibly generated by fault rupture, to constrain seismic loads for pseudostatic slope stability FOS analyses. The ground motions taper rapidly with distance from the fault plane, consistent with ground motion - fault distance relations measured during the 2011 Tohoku-Oki subduction zone earthquake. Our FOS analyses include a Morgenstern method of slices probabilistic analysis for 2-D profiles along with Critical Acceleration (Ac) and Newmark Displacement (Dn) analysis of multibeam bathymetry of the seafloor. In addition, we also use estimates of ground motion modeled with a 2004 Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone (SASZ) earthquake fault slip model, to also compare with our static FOS analyses of seafloor topography. All slope and trench sites are statically stable (FOS < 1) and sensitive to ground motions generated by earthquakes of magnitude greater than 7. We conclude that for earthquakes of magnitude 6 to 9, PGA of 0.4-0.6 to 1.4-2.5 g would be expected, respectively, from existing GMPE's. However, saturation of accelerations in the accretionary wedge may limit actual accelerations to less than 1

  3. Remittances and circulation behavior in the livelihood process: transmigrant families in South Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Leinbach, T R; Watkins, J F

    1998-01-01

    The impact of migrant remittances in Indonesia is examined using data gathered in interviews undertaken in 21 households and with village leaders participating in the transmigration program in Cinta Karya, Sumatra, Indonesia. "Our findings illustrate that remittance behavior is spatially controlled and temporally variable, as families balance their labor and capital resources among farm production, local industry and investments, and the often unpredictable nature of circulation employment and remittances. We emphasize the linked and recursive nature of elements in the livelihood process and the related importance of temporal family dynamics in decision-making strategies." PMID:12321332

  4. Persistent Behaviors of the Sunda Megathrust in Sumatra: Opportunities to Forecast Destructive Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieh, K.

    2007-12-01

    The 2000-km-long Sumatran section of the Sunda megathrust is a treasure trove of information about the long- term behavior of a great active fault. This is due principally to the presence of an island chain along the Sumatran outer arc, which provides a platform for both man-made and natural instruments atop the shallow, seismogenic part of the megathrust. My students, colleagues and I have been using these "instruments" to understand the megathrust's past and to forecast its future behavior. We recognize three long segments that produce great earthquakes separated by two short patches of low seismic coupling. Two of the long segments have just ruptured and the other is nearing the end of its seismic cycle. The largest seismic rupture along the Sumatran megathrust in the 20th century was a M 7.7 earthquake at the Equator in 1935 (G&R, 1954). GPS geodesy and coral paleogeodesy, historical seismograms and coral paleoseismology show that the rupture is embedded in a 120-km section of the megathrust that slips primarily aseismically. The ~2.3-m rupture of 1935 is the largest seismic event on this Batu Islands patch in at least the past 250 years, despite its high (45 mm/yr) rate of plate convergence. Immediately north of the Equator is the 350-km-long section of the megathrust that generated the Mw8.7 Nias- Simeulue earthquake of 2005. Analysis of records from several continuous GPS stations above the rupture and about a hundred vertically displaced living corals shows that large seismic slippage was confined to depths between 14 and 35 km. In contrast, post-seismic deformations recorded at the cGPS stations reflect concentrations of slip updip and downdip of the seismic rupture. Fossil corals record previous large earthquakes in 1861 and in about 1800 and 1845. This history, though still incomplete, suggests that a cluster of three overlapping large seismic ruptures ended the previous earthquake cycle there. The 1600-km Mw9.15 Aceh-Andaman rupture of 2004 began still

  5. Postseismic Displacement Following the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake Detected by Continuous GPS Observation and the Effect of Viscoelastic Relaxation Using 3D- FEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katagi, T.; Hashimoto, M.; Hashizume, M.; Choosakul, N.; Takemoto, S.; Fukuda, Y.; Fujimori, K.; Satomura, M.; Wu, P.; Otsuka, Y.; Takiguchi, H.; Saito, S.; Maruyama, T.; Kato, T.

    2007-12-01

    We have studied postseismic displacement following the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of December 26, 2004 in Thailand and other Southeast Asian countries using continuous GPS observation. We will report the results of our GPS analysis from the beginning of 2001 to the end of October 2007. We have also constructed 3D-FEM to evaluate the effect of viscoelastic relaxation following the earthquake. We will also report this result. We used continuous GPS data from 6 sites operated by Chulalongkorn Univ. and Kyoto Univ. or JAMSTEC, 2 sites by Shizuoka Univ. and JAMSTEC, 3 sites by NICT in Thailand and Myanmar, 1 site by STE-Lab, Nagoya Univ., and IGS sites which are located in countries surrounding the Indian Ocean include Japan, China and Australia. Bernese 5.0 was used for the processing of 30 sec. sampling data to obtain static solutions. From our analysis, no significant motions were detected at each site until the day of the earthquake. Although postseismic displacements still have been detected at CHMI and SIS2 in northern Thailand, far from the epicenter, they seem to be decelerated. On the other hand, at SAMP and PHKT, close to the epicenter, where postseismic displacements also became smaller, but still may take a time to stop. An about 29 cm SW-ward motion was detected at PHKT from just after the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake to June 2007, which is larger than its coseismic displacement, about 26 cm. We have constructed 3D-FEM model to estimate how much viscoelastic relaxation affects postseismic displacements after the earthquake. We adopted a Maxwell viscoelastic body as well as Katagi et al. (2006), and modeled around the Andaman-Sea area using isoparametric hexahedral elements with 8 nodes (Zienkiewicz and Cheng, 1967). The Andaman-Sea is well known as a back arc basins, and its ocean floor is still spreading. Therefore, the mantle viscosity under the Sunda-plate may be smaller because of upwelling warm mantle. We are going to investigate and report the

  6. Vertical motions in Thailand after the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake from GPS observations and its geophysical modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satirapod, C.; Trisirisatayawong, I.; Fleitout, L.; Garaud, J. D.; Simons, W. J. F.

    2013-04-01

    Following previous findings from ongoing GPS research in Thailand since 2004 we continue to exploit the GPS technique to monitor and model land motions induced by the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake. Our latest results show that up to the end of 2010, Thailand has been co-seismically displaced and is subsequently undergoing a post-seismic horizontal deformation with total displacements (co-seismic plus post-seismic) ranging from 10.5 to 74.7 cm. We observed the largest horizontal displacements in the southern part of Thailand and moderate and small displacements in the central and northern parts. In addition to horizontal displacements throughout Thailand, continuous GPS measurements show that large parts of Thailand are subsiding at rates up to 1 cm/yr. It is the first time that such vertical post-seismic deformations at large distances (650-1500 km away from the Earthquake's epicentre) have been recorded. We have investigated the physical processes leading to the observed subsidence. While after-slip on the subduction interface induces negligible or even slightly positive vertical motions, relaxation in the asthenosphere is associated with a sizable subsidence. Predictions from a 3D finite element model feature an asthenosphere with an effective viscosity of the order of 3 \\midast 1018 Pas, fit the horizontal post-seismic data and the observed subsidence well. This model is then used to predict the subsidence over the whole seismic cycle. The subsidence should go on with a diminishing rate through the next two decades and its final magnitude should not exceed 10 cm in the Bangkok area.The post-seismic subsidence makes it difficult to identify other geophysical signals, particularly sea level rise, when observed from tide gauge data and thus there is a need for reliable estimation of subsidence velocities. This phenomenon may also worsen coastal erosion and flooding from sea water and so cause a considerable impact on the socio-economic development of coastal and low

  7. Geochemistry and petrology of selected coal samples from Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belkin, H.E.; Tewalt, S.J.; Hower, J.C.; Stucker, J.D.; O'Keefe, J. M. K.

    2009-01-01

    Indonesia has become the world's largest exporter of thermal coal and is a major supplier to the Asian coal market, particularly as the People's Republic of China is now (2007) and perhaps may remain a net importer of coal. Indonesia has had a long history of coal production, mainly in Sumatra and Kalimantan, but only in the last two decades have government and commercial forces resulted in a remarkable coal boom. A recent assessment of Indonesian coal-bed methane (CBM) potential has motivated active CBM exploration. Most of the coal is Paleogene and Neogene, low to moderate rank and has low ash yield and sulfur (generally < 10 and < 1??wt.%, respectively). Active tectonic and igneous activity has resulted in significant rank increase in some coal basins. Eight coal samples are described that represent the major export and/or resource potential of Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua. Detailed geochemistry, including proximate and ultimate analysis, sulfur forms, and major, minor, and trace element determinations are presented. Organic petrology and vitrinite reflectance data reflect various precursor flora assemblages and rank variations, including sample composites from active igneous and tectonic areas. A comparison of Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) elements abundance with world and US averages show that the Indonesian coals have low combustion pollution potential.

  8. South Sumatra Basin Province, Indonesia; the Lahat/Talang Akar-Cenozoic total petroleum system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Michele G.

    2000-01-01

    Oil and gas are produced from the onshore South Sumatra Basin Province. The province consists of Tertiary half-graben basins infilled with carbonate and clastic sedimentary rocks unconformably overlying pre-Tertiary metamorphic and igneous rocks. Eocene through lower Oligocene lacustrine shales and Oligocene through lower Miocene lacustrine and deltaic coaly shales are the mature source rocks. Reserves of 4.3 billion barrels of oil equivalent have been discovered in reservoirs that range from pre-Tertiary basement through upper Miocene sandstones and carbonates deposited as synrift strata and as marine shoreline, deltaic-fluvial, and deep-water strata. Carbonate and sandstone reservoirs produce oil and gas primarily from anticlinal traps of Plio-Pleistocene age. Stratigraphic trapping and faulting are important locally. Production is compartmentalized due to numerous intraformational seals. The regional marine shale seal, deposited by a maximum sea level highstand in early middle Miocene time, was faulted during post-depositional folding allowing migration of hydrocarbons to reservoirs above the seal. The province contains the Lahat/Talang Akar-Cenozoic total petroleum system with one assessment unit, South Sumatra.

  9. Constraints on 2004 Sumatra Andaman earthquake rupture from GPS measurements in Andaman Nicobar Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahalaut, V. K.; Nagarajan, B.; Catherine, J. K.; Kumar, S.

    2006-02-01

    The 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (Mw 9.0-9.3) is the greatest earthquake of the modern seismological era. The rupture characteristics of the earthquake, particularly in the Andaman-Nicobar region, are not well resolved from seismological or far-field geodetic data. Here, in this article we present, campaign mode Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements of coseismic displacements at 13 sites in the Andaman-Nicobar Islands before and after the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. These measurements provide improved estimates of rupture characteristics in the region. Coseismic horizontal ground displacement of 1.5-6.5 m towards the southwest and coseismic vertical displacement, mostly subsidence, of 0.5-2.8 m occurred along the Andaman-Nicobar Islands with maximum displacements in the Nicobar Islands. We estimate coseismic slip under the Andaman and Nicobar Islands as 3.8-7.9 m and 11-15 m, respectively. The length of the rupture is estimated to be about 1500 km with a width varying from 120 km under Middle Andaman Island to 160 km under Great Nicobar Island. GPS measurements during January 11-22, 2005 from Port Blair suggest rapid afterslip in the postseismic period. Limited GPS data available from 1995 measurements at two sites in Andaman provide evidence of strain accumulation that varied significantly in the 10 yr preceding the earthquake.

  10. Study of Genetic Diversity among Simmental Cross Cattle in West Sumatra Based on Microsatellite Markers

    PubMed Central

    Agung, Paskah Partogi; Saputra, Ferdy; Septian, Wike Andre; Lusiana; Zein, Moch. Syamsul Arifin; Sulandari, Sri; Anwar, Saiful; Wulandari, Ari Sulistyo; Said, Syahruddin; Tappa, Baharuddin

    2016-01-01

    A study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity among Simmental Cross cattle in West Sumatra using microsatellite DNA markers. A total of 176 individual cattle blood samples was used for obtaining DNA samples. Twelve primers of microsatellite loci as recommended by FAO were used to identify the genetic diversity of the Simmental Cross cattle population. Multiplex DNA fragment analysis method was used for allele identification. All the microsatellite loci in this study were highly polymorphic and all of the identified alleles were able to classify the cattle population into several groups based on their genetic distance. The heterozygosity values of microsatellite loci in this study ranged from 0.556 to 0.782. The polymorphism information content (PIC) value of the 12 observed loci is high (PIC>0.5). The highest PIC value in the Simmental cattle population was 0.893 (locus TGLA53), while the lowest value was 0.529 (locus BM1818). Based on the genetic distance value, the subpopulation of the Simmental Cross-Agam and the Simmental Cross-Limapuluh Kota was exceptionally close to the Simmental Purebred thus indicating that a grading-up process has taken place with the Simmental Purebred. In view of the advantages possessed by the Simmental Cross cattle and the evaluation of the genetic diversity results, a number of subpopulations in this study can be considered as the initial (base) population for the Simmental Cross cattle breeding programs in West Sumatra, Indonesia. PMID:26732442

  11. The goblin spider genus Ischnothyreus (Araneae, Oonopidae) in Java and Sumatra.

    PubMed

    Richard, Miguel; Graber, Werner; Kropf, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The genus Ischnothyreus Simon, 1893 from Java and Sumatra is revised with the description of seven new species from Java (I. baltenspergerae sp. nov., I. bauri sp. nov., I. gigeri sp. nov., I. ligulatus sp. nov., I. nentwigorum sp. nov., I. sigridae sp. nov., I. ujungkulon sp. nov) and eight from Sumatra (I. ascifer sp. nov., I. concavus sp. nov., I. habeggeri sp. nov., I. haymozi sp. nov., I. lucidus sp. nov., I. marggii sp. nov., I. microphthalmus sp. nov., I. obscurus sp. nov.). Furthermore the male of I. serpentinum Saaristo, 2001 is described for the first time and the female redescribed in detail. Special morphological features of Ischnothyreus males and females are described and discussed, such as peculiar trochanter projections, partially fused pedipalp segments, processes on the cheliceral fang base in males and external and internal genitalic structures in females. This work is part of the Planetary Biodiversity Inventory (PBI) of goblin spiders (http://research.amnh.org/oonopidae/).. PMID:27615819

  12. Study of Genetic Diversity among Simmental Cross Cattle in West Sumatra Based on Microsatellite Markers.

    PubMed

    Agung, Paskah Partogi; Saputra, Ferdy; Septian, Wike Andre; Lusiana; Zein, Moch Syamsul Arifin; Sulandari, Sri; Anwar, Saiful; Wulandari, Ari Sulistyo; Said, Syahruddin; Tappa, Baharuddin

    2016-02-01

    A study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity among Simmental Cross cattle in West Sumatra using microsatellite DNA markers. A total of 176 individual cattle blood samples was used for obtaining DNA samples. Twelve primers of microsatellite loci as recommended by FAO were used to identify the genetic diversity of the Simmental Cross cattle population. Multiplex DNA fragment analysis method was used for allele identification. All the microsatellite loci in this study were highly polymorphic and all of the identified alleles were able to classify the cattle population into several groups based on their genetic distance. The heterozygosity values of microsatellite loci in this study ranged from 0.556 to 0.782. The polymorphism information content (PIC) value of the 12 observed loci is high (PIC>0.5). The highest PIC value in the Simmental cattle population was 0.893 (locus TGLA53), while the lowest value was 0.529 (locus BM1818). Based on the genetic distance value, the subpopulation of the Simmental Cross-Agam and the Simmental Cross-Limapuluh Kota was exceptionally close to the Simmental Purebred thus indicating that a grading-up process has taken place with the Simmental Purebred. In view of the advantages possessed by the Simmental Cross cattle and the evaluation of the genetic diversity results, a number of subpopulations in this study can be considered as the initial (base) population for the Simmental Cross cattle breeding programs in West Sumatra, Indonesia. PMID:26732442

  13. Earthquake Nonconcordancies in the Aceh-Nias and Mentawai Forearcs: Implications for the Energetics of Earthquakes and Tsunamis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choy, G. L.; Kirby, S. H.

    2012-12-01

    The identification and characterization of nonconcordant events, by virtue of their strong influence on rupture geometry and extent, will be valuable for estimating seismic and tsunami potential. We classify thrust earthquakes at the subduction zone as nonconcordant if (1) their depths are unequivocally off the slab interface; (2) neither nodal plane of their focal mechanisms is compatible with the dip of the slab interface; or (3) their radiated energies are anomalously high (having taua > 1 MPa, where taua is apparent stress mu ES/M_O). We find that about 12% of large (M > 5.5) thrust earthquakes in the subduction zone occur off the slab interface. Other earthquakes with hypocenters that are not distinguishable from the slab interface have nonconcordant focal mechanisms. Another subset of earthquakes is characterized by high apparent stress. This is an indicator of nonconcordancy because high energy radiation is associated with immature faults. [In contrast, the subducting-plate interface is a mature fault on which thrust events radiate generally low energy (Choy and Kirby, 2004)]. The environments in which nonconcordant high-energy events typically occur are intraslab or regions of plate reorganization. On the other hand, nonconcordant mid-energy events (taua < 1 MPa) often correlate with subducted topography or splay faults. Transoceanic tsunamis are often associated with slow earthquakes which are characterized by an anomalous depletion of high frequency energy. However, some recent large earthquakes in the Aceh-Nias and Mentawai forearcs show (1) that tsunamis generated by mid- and high-energy earthquakes are possible, and (2) that regional tsunami wave heights can be associated with intraslab and intracrustal earthquakes. Furthermore, epicenters of nonconcordant earthquakes in the Sunda arc can help define the rupture zone of large earthquakes as they tend to be located on the periphery of the rupture zones. Clusters of high-energy nonconcordant events

  14. Coral Radiocarbon Records of Indian Ocean Water Mass Mixing and Wind-Induced Upwelling Along the Coast of Sumatra, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Guilderson, T P; Grumet, N S; Abram, N J; Beck, J W; Dunbar, R B; Gagan, M K; Hantoro, W S; Suwargadi, B W

    2004-02-06

    Radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) in the skeletal aragonite of annually banded corals track radiocarbon concentrations in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in surface seawater. As a result of nuclear weapons testing in the 1950s, oceanic uptake of excess {sup 14}C in the atmosphere has increased the contrast between surface and deep ocean {sup 14}C concentrations. We present accelerator mass spectrometric (AMS) measurements of radiocarbon isotope ({Delta}{sup 14}C) in Porites corals from the Mentawai Islands, Sumatra (0 S, 98 E) and Watamu, Kenya (3 S, 39 E) to document the temporal and spatial evolution of the {sup 14}C gradient in the tropical Indian Ocean. The rise in {Delta}{sup 14}C in the Sumatra coral, in response to the maximum in nuclear weapons testing, is delayed by 2-3 years relative to the rise in coral {Delta}{sup 14}C from the coast of Kenya. Kenya coral {Delta}{sup 14}C values rise quickly because surface waters are in prolonged contact with the atmosphere. In contrast, wind-induced upwelling and rapid mixing along the coast of Sumatra entrains {sup 14}C-depleted water from the subsurface, which dilutes the effect of the uptake of bomb-laden {sup 14}C by the surface-ocean. Bimonthly AMS {Delta}{sup 14}C measurements on the Mentawai coral reveal mainly interannual variability with minor seasonal variability. The interannual signal may be a response to changes in the Walker circulation, the development of easterly wind anomalies, shoaling of the eastern thermocline, and upwelling of {sup 14}C-depleted water along the coast of Sumatra. Singular spectrum analysis of the Sumatra coral {Delta}{sup 14}C record reveals a significant 3-year periodicity. The results lend support to the concept that ocean atmosphere interactions between the Pacific and Indian Oceans operate in concert with the El Ni{tilde n}o-Southern Oscillation (ENSO).

  15. Tsunamigenic potential due to frontal rupturing in the Sumatra locked zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuncoro, Alvina K.; Cubas, Nadaya; Singh, Satish C.; Etchebes, Marie; Tapponnier, Paul

    2015-12-01

    The Sumatra subduction zone is one of the most seismically active subduction zones. Although there have been three Mw ≥ 8.4 earthquakes in the region, including the disastrous 2004 Mw = 9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, a 500 km long patch around Mentawai Islands is still locked and could produce a large megathrust earthquake. If the rupture propagates to the subduction front, as it most likely occurred during the 2004 earthquake, it may lead to a devastating tsunami. Here, we present high-resolution reflection seismic data from the Sumatra locked zone that shows the subduction interface down to 20 km depth. The seismic data also show that the wedge is composed of two layers: a shallow layer formed by mixed to landward vergent thrusts, termed as pop-ups, and a deeper layer showing sub-horizontal reflectors. The lower layer is most probably formed by duplexes, whose roof serves as a pseudo-décollement for the mixed to landward thrust systems. Based on the seismic results, we perform mechanical modeling in order to understand the formation of these structures and to retrieve the associated frictional properties. We first show that the activation of the pseudo-décollement requires (1) either a sudden increase of effective friction along the plate interface or an irregular geometry of the plate interface, (2) a lower effective friction along the pseudo-décollement than along the plate interface. We then show that low effective frictional values (≤0.1) are required to reproduce the observed frontal structures. The low effective friction along the pseudo-décollement could either be due to the presence of a long-term high pore pressure layer or to dynamic weakening associated with earthquakes. Since similar structures are present in the 2010 tsunami earthquake area, we favor the dynamic weakening hypothesis. According to the mechanical modeling, if the next rupture propagates up to the toe rupturing the three most frontal pop-up structures, we could expect at least

  16. How Robust are Science-Based Disaster Preparedness Strategies? Lessons from Western Sumatra (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, R.; McCloskey, J.; McDowell, S.

    2009-12-01

    Forecasts of the next likely megathrust earthquake which will occur off the western coast of Sumatra, possibly in the near future, indicate that it will likely be tsunamigenic and could be more devastating than the 2004 event. Hundreds of simulations of potential earthquakes and their tsunamis show that, while the earthquake is fundamentally unpredictable, many scenarios would see dangerous inundation of low-lying areas along the west coast of Sumatra; the cities of Padang and Bengkulu broadside-on to the areas of highest seismic potential have a combined population of over one million. Understanding how the science of unpredictable, high probability events is absorbed by society is essential for the development of effective mitigation and preparedness campaigns. A five month field investigation conducted in Padang and Bengkulu aimed to conceptualise the main issues driving risk perception of tsunami hazard, and explore its influence upon preparedness. Of specific interest was the role of scientifically quantified hazard information upon risk perception and hazard preparedness. Target populations were adult community members (n=270) and senior high school students (n=90). Preliminary findings indicate that scientific knowledge of earthquake and tsunami threat amongst respondents in both cities is good. However the relationship between respondent’s hazard knowledge, desired risk perception, and the adoption of preparedness measures was often non-linear and is susceptible to the negative effects of unscientific forecasts disseminated by government and mass media. Evidence suggests that ‘mystic’ predictions often portrayed in the media as being scientific, have been readily absorbed by the public; when these fail to materialise the credibility of authentic science and scientists plummets. As a result levels of sustainable earthquake and tsunami preparedness measures adopted by those living in tsunami threatened areas can be detrimentally impacted. It is

  17. Probabilistic seismic hazard analysis for Sumatra, Indonesia and across the Southern Malaysian Peninsula

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Petersen, M.D.; Dewey, J.; Hartzell, S.; Mueller, C.; Harmsen, S.; Frankel, A.D.; Rukstales, K.

    2004-01-01

    The ground motion hazard for Sumatra and the Malaysian peninsula is calculated in a probabilistic framework, using procedures developed for the US National Seismic Hazard Maps. We constructed regional earthquake source models and used standard published and modified attenuation equations to calculate peak ground acceleration at 2% and 10% probability of exceedance in 50 years for rock site conditions. We developed or modified earthquake catalogs and declustered these catalogs to include only independent earthquakes. The resulting catalogs were used to define four source zones that characterize earthquakes in four tectonic environments: subduction zone interface earthquakes, subduction zone deep intraslab earthquakes, strike-slip transform earthquakes, and intraplate earthquakes. The recurrence rates and sizes of historical earthquakes on known faults and across zones were also determined from this modified catalog. In addition to the source zones, our seismic source model considers two major faults that are known historically to generate large earthquakes: the Sumatran subduction zone and the Sumatran transform fault. Several published studies were used to describe earthquakes along these faults during historical and pre-historical time, as well as to identify segmentation models of faults. Peak horizontal ground accelerations were calculated using ground motion prediction relations that were developed from seismic data obtained from the crustal interplate environment, crustal intraplate environment, along the subduction zone interface, and from deep intraslab earthquakes. Most of these relations, however, have not been developed for large distances that are needed for calculating the hazard across the Malaysian peninsula, and none were developed for earthquake ground motions generated in an interplate tectonic environment that are propagated into an intraplate tectonic environment. For the interplate and intraplate crustal earthquakes, we have applied ground

  18. Uncovering the factors that can support and impede post-disaster EIA practice in developing countries: The case of Aceh Province, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, Tom; Fischer, Thomas B.

    2014-01-15

    The close relationship between environmental degradation and the occurrence and severity of disaster events has in recent years raised the profile of environmental assessment (EA) in the disaster management field. EA has been identified as a potentially supportive tool in the global effort to reduce disaster risk. As a component of this, attention has been brought specifically to the importance of the application of EA in the aftermath of disaster events in order to help prevent recurrence and promote sustainability. At the same time, however, it has also been recognised that post-disaster environments may be unfavourable to such practices. Looking at the practice of environmental impact assessment (EIA), this paper reports on a study which sought to identify more specifically the factors which can both support and hinder such practice following disaster events in a developing country context. Analysing the situation in Aceh Province, Indonesia, after the impact of two tsunamigenic earthquakes in late 2004 and early 2005, it is concluded that if EIA is to have a central role in the post-disaster period, pre-disaster preparation could be a key. -- Highlights: • Close relationship between environmental degradation and occurrence/severity of disaster events has raised profile of EA. • EA as a potentially supportive tool in the global effort to reduce disaster risk • Application of EA in the aftermath of disaster events to help prevent recurrence and promote sustainability • The paper looks at factors which can both support and hinder EA following disaster events in a developing country context. • We analyse the situation in Aceh Province, Indonesia, after the impact of two tsunamigenic earthquakes in 2004 and 2005.

  19. The 2007 Sumatra seismic sequence revealed by a regional seismic network in Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakano, M.; Inoue, H.; Kumagai, H.; Yamashina, T.; Sunarjo; Fauzi; Suhardjono

    2007-12-01

    On September 12, 2007, a great earthquake with Mw 8.4 occurred at 11:10 (UTC) off Bengkulu, Sumatra, Indonesia. This event was followed by a large earthquake with Mw 8.0, which occurred at 23:49 (UTC) on the same day in the northwest of the Mw 8.4 earthquake. Another earthquake with Mw 6.8 occurred off Padang, in the northwest of the second earthquake, at 03:35 (UTC) on the next day. These earthquakes caused dozens of casualties and damage to the buildings in Bengkulu and Padang areas. Tsunami with a hight of 1m was observed in Padang, but no severe damage by tsunami was reported. We have been developing an automated system for rapid source parameter determinations of earthquakes in Indonesia, using data obtained from a broadband seismic network in this country (JISNET). This network is operated by NIED and Indonesia Meteorological and Geophysical Agency (BMG). In our method, the moment function is estimated simultaneously with a centroid moment tensor (CMT) solution based on the waveform inversion carried out in the frequency domain. The source parameters for an earthquake greater than Mw 5 can be determined automatically by our system within 15 minutes after the occurrence of an earthquake. The automatic inversion result is then checked manually. The source parameters of earthquakes that are not determined by the automatic system are also determined manually. The source parameters of the 2007 Sumatra earthquakes were succesfully determined by our system. The estimated focal mechanisms show similar thrust-type faultings, suggesting that these earthquakes occurred in association with the subduction of the Indo-Australian Plate beneath Sumatra Island. Both the Mw 8.4 and 8.0 events occurred at a depth of about 20 km. The rupture durations estimated from the moment functions are 140 s and 108 s for the Mw 8.4 and Mw 8.0 events, respectively. These rupture durations are slightly longer than typical values for earthquakes of these magnitudes. The aftershocks are

  20. A comprehensive field and laboratory study of scale control and scale squeezes in Sumatra, Indonesia

    SciTech Connect

    Oddo, J.E.; Reizer, J.M.; Sitz, C.D.; Setia, D.E.A.; Hinrichsen, C.J.; Sujana, W.

    1999-11-01

    Scale squeezes were performed on thirteen wells in the Duri Field, Sumatra. At the time the squeezes were completed, seven were designed to be `Acid Squeezes` and six were designed to be `Neutral Squeezes.` In the course of preparing for the scale squeezes, produced waters were collected and analyzed. In addition, scale inhibitor evaluations, and inhibitor compatibility studies were completed. Simulated squeezes were done in the laboratory to predict field performance. The methodologies and results of the background work are reported. In addition, the relative effectiveness of the two sets of squeezes is discussed. The inhibitor flowback concentrations alter the squeezes, in all cases, can be explained using speciation chemistry and the amorphous and crystalline phase solubilities of the inhibitor used. The wells squeezed with a more acidic inhibitor have more predictable and uniform inhibitor return concentration curves than the wells squeezed with a more neutral scale inhibitor.

  1. Fluctuation of diptera larvae in phytotelmata and relation with climate variation in West Sumatra Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Emantis; Dahelmi; Salmah, Siti; Syamsuardi

    2014-07-01

    Research of fluctuations in Diptera's larvae in Phytotelmata had been conducted at three locations in West Sumatra, Indonesia; Padang, Bukittinggi and Payakumbuh; which aimed to determine the number and fluctuations Diptera larvae in Phytotelmata. The results obtained; the highest number of individual larvae Diptera in Phytotelmata was 7109 Aedes albopictus larvae (49.56%), followed by larvae of Culex tritaeniorhynchus with 2409 individuals (16.80%). Larvae fluctuated every month and tent to increase in November and December. There was no difference in the number of Diptera larvae individuals inhabiting pandan, taro, and pineapple, but there were significant differences between the three types of Phytotelmata (pandanus, taro and pineapple) with bamboo (p < 0.05). Number of individual larvae in Phytotelmata negatively correlated with temperature and rainfall, but positively correlated with humidity (r = 0.44: p < 0.05). PMID:26035947

  2. On reported occurrences of shock-deformed clasts in the volcanic ejecta from Toba caldera, Sumatra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharpton, V. L.; Schuraytz, B. C.

    1989-01-01

    Reports of shock-deformed phenocrysts from the Toba ignimbrite deposits, Sumatra, have prompted considerable debate over whether shock-deformation products are clear evidence of a meteorite impact origin for the K/T boundary deposits as well as terresrial 'cryptoexplosion' structures. Evidence presented in favor of volcanically induced shock at Toba includes kinked biotites and rare occurrences of single set of lamellae in quartz grains but rests most heavily upon occurrences of mosaic extinction patterns in plagioclase phenocrysts. The present analysis of several of the same Toba samples reveals that these mosaic patterns ae related to distinct compositional zoning and cannot be attributed to deformation of the crystal lattice that shock would produce. Additionally, in more than 200 quartz grains examined, no occurrences of microdeformation features or mosaic textures similar to those associated with known impact structures and the K/T boundary are detected. It is concluded that evidence of shock deformation in the Toba deposits has not been demonstrated.

  3. Geodetic Observations of Interseismic Strain Segmentation at the Sumatra Subduction Zone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prawirodirdjo, L.; Bock, Y.; McCaffrey, R.; Genrich, J.; Calais, E.; Puntodewo, S. S. O.; Subarya, C.; Rais, J.; Zwick, P.; Fauzi

    1997-01-01

    Deformation above the Sumatra subduction zone, revealed by Global Positioning System (GPS) geodetic surveys, shows nearly complete coupling of the forearc to the subducting plate south of 0.5 deg S and half as much to north. The abrupt change in plate coupling coincides with the boundary between the rupture zones of the 1833 and 1861 (Mw greater than 8) thrust earthquakes. The rupture boundary appears as an abrupt change in strain accumulation well into the interseismic cycle, suggesting that seismic segmentation is controlled by properties of the plate interface that persist occupied through more than one earthquake cycle. Structural evidence indicates that differences in basal shear stress may be related to elevated pore pressure in the north.

  4. A Science Teacher Experience in the Sumatra Earthquake and Tsunami Offshore Survey Expedition of May 2005

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, K.; Holt, S.; Grilli, S.

    2005-12-01

    Through the NSF-funded ARMADA Project, K-12 teachers can participate in scientific expeditions to gain a first-hand, and usually exciting, research experience. ARMADA Master Teachers decode this research opportunity that includes data collection and experimentation, into methodology development, and technology for use in their classrooms. Their experiences have broader impact because each teacher mentors other teachers in their school district and directly participates in the National Science Teachers Association Annual Convention to share the knowledge to an even broader educational audience. A science teacher, Susan Holt (from Arcadia High School in Phoenix, Arizona) participated as part of an international scientific party on a recent cruise to study the seafloor in the area of the December 26th Great Sumatra earthquake and tsunami-the Sumatra Earthquake And Tsunami Offshore Survey (SEATOS). She participated in all aspects of the expedition: geophysical surveys, Remotely Operated Vehicle (ROV) "watch", sample preparation and recovery, science planning and review meetings, and by interacting with the expert ship's crew. Susan posted reports regularly on a website and prepared a daily log that that was useful not only for her students, but also for other teachers in the Scottsdale Unified School District in Arizona and the Montgomery County School District in Tennessee, science team members' families, friends, and local press. Overall, the experience benefited all parties: the teacher by learning and experiencing a shipboard geophysical operation; the scientists by Susan's fresh perspective that encouraged everyone to re-examine their first assumptions and interpretations; the SEATOS expedition by Susan's assistance in science operations; and the shipboard environment where she was able to break down the typical artificial barriers between the science `crew' and the ship's crew through frank and open dialogue. We present a summary of the SEATOS expedition, the

  5. Regional air quality impacts of future fire emissions in Sumatra and Kalimantan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marlier, Miriam E.; DeFries, Ruth S.; Kim, Patrick S.; Gaveau, David L. A.; Koplitz, Shannon N.; Jacob, Daniel J.; Mickley, Loretta J.; Margono, Belinda A.; Myers, Samuel S.

    2015-05-01

    Fire emissions associated with land cover change and land management contribute to the concentrations of atmospheric pollutants, which can affect regional air quality and climate. Mitigating these impacts requires a comprehensive understanding of the relationship between fires and different land cover change trajectories and land management strategies. We develop future fire emissions inventories from 2010-2030 for Sumatra and Kalimantan (Indonesian Borneo) to assess the impact of varying levels of forest and peatland conservation on air quality in Equatorial Asia. To compile these inventories, we combine detailed land cover information from published maps of forest extent, satellite fire radiative power observations, fire emissions from the Global Fire Emissions Database, and spatially explicit future land cover projections using a land cover change model. We apply the sensitivities of mean smoke concentrations to Indonesian fire emissions, calculated by the GEOS-Chem adjoint model, to our scenario-based future fire emissions inventories to quantify the different impacts of fires on surface air quality across Equatorial Asia. We find that public health impacts are highly sensitive to the location of fires, with emissions from Sumatra contributing more to smoke concentrations at population centers across the region than Kalimantan, which had higher emissions by more than a factor of two. Compared to business-as-usual projections, protecting peatlands from fires reduces smoke concentrations in the cities of Singapore and Palembang by 70% and 40%, and by 60% for the Equatorial Asian region, weighted by the population in each grid cell. Our results indicate the importance of focusing conservation priorities on protecting both forested (intact or logged) peatlands and non-forested peatlands from fire, even after considering potential leakage of deforestation pressure to other areas, in order to limit the impact of fire emissions on atmospheric smoke concentrations and

  6. Equivalent Body Force Finite Elements Method and 3-D Earth Model Applied In 2004 Sumatra Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, W.; Cheng, H.; Shi, Y.

    2015-12-01

    The 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) of 9.1 to 9.3 is the first great earthquake recorded by digital broadband, high-dynamic-range seismometers and global positioning system (GPS) equipment, which recorded many high-quality geophysical data sets. The spherical curvature is not negligible in far field especially for large event and the real Earth is laterally inhomogeneity and the analytical results still are difficult to explain the geodetic measurements. We use equivalent body force finite elements method Zhang et al. (2015) and mesh the whole earth, to compute global co-seismic displacements using four fault slip models of the 2004 Sumatra earthquake provided by different authors. Comparisons of calculated co-seismic displacements and GPS show that the confidences are well in near field for four models, and the confidences are according to different models. In the whole four models, the Chlieh model (Chlieh et al., 2007) is the best as this slip model not only accord well with near field data but also far field data. And then we use the best slip model, Chlieh model to explore influence of three dimensional lateral earth structure on both layered spherically symmetric (PREM) and real 3-D heterogeneous earth model (Crust 1.0 model and GyPSuM). Results show that the effects of 3-D heterogeneous earth model are not negligible and decrease concomitantly with increasing distance from the epicenter. The relative effects of 3-D crust model are 23% and 40% for horizontal and vertical displacements, respectively. The effects of the 3-D mantle model are much smaller than that of 3-D crust model but with wider impacting area.

  7. Precursory seismic quiescence along the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone: past and present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sukrungsri, Santawat; Pailoplee, Santi

    2016-07-01

    In this study, the seismic quiescence prior to hazardous earthquakes was analyzed along the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone (SASZ). The seismicity data were screened statistically with mainshock earthquakes of M w ≥ 4.4 reported during 1980-2015 being defined as the completeness database. In order to examine the possibility of using the seismic quiescence stage as a marker of subsequent earthquakes, the seismicity data reported prior to the eight major earthquakes along the SASZ were analyzed for changes in their seismicity rate using the statistical Z test. Iterative tests revealed that Z factors of N = 50 events and T = 2 years were optimal for detecting sudden rate changes such as quiescence and to map these spatially. The observed quiescence periods conformed to the subsequent major earthquake occurrences both spatially and temporally. Using suitable conditions obtained from successive retrospective tests, the seismicity rate changes were then mapped from the most up-to-date seismicity data available. This revealed three areas along the SASZ that might generate a major earthquake in the future: (i) Nicobar Islands (Z = 6.7), (ii) the western offshore side of Sumatra Island (Z = 7.1), and (iii) western Myanmar (Z = 6.7). The performance of a stochastic test using a number of synthetic randomized catalogues indicated these levels of anomalous Z value showed the above anomaly is unlikely due to chance or random fluctuations of the earthquake. Thus, these three areas have a high possibility of generating a strong-to-major earthquake in the future.

  8. Indonesia: Sumatra

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    ... map of aerosol optical depth, a measure of the abundance of atmospheric particulates. This product used a test version of the MISR ... their outdoor activities and wear protective masks. Poor visibility at Medan airport forced a passenger plane to divert to Malaysia on ...

  9. A Strong Stress Shadow Effect of the 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake on the Andaman Sea Transform-Rift System 250 km Away

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sevilgen, V.; Stein, R. S.

    2010-12-01

    The 26 December 2004 earthquake ruptured a 1,300-km section of the Sunda megathrust. A transform-rift back-arc system accommodates most of the trench-parallel component of the highly oblique subduction. We used the NEIC earthquake catalog at its M≥4.7 completeness level since 1999, and at M≥4.8 since 1975, to examine the seismicity rate along the transform-rift system. We also combined teleseismic double-difference earthquake relocations from Pesicek et al (JGR, 2010) with Global CMT mechanisms, to more accurately associate focal mechanisms with their fault systems. We find a strong drop in seismicity rate along the Andaman Sea transform system east of the northern end of the 2004 rupture zone. This occurs immediately following the Sumatra-Andaman mainshock and persists to this day. The rate drop is associated with strike-slip mechanisms only; along the portions of the rift system with normal-faulting mechanisms, the seismicity rate increased. We calculate that the Sagaing-West Andaman transform in this region was subjected to a static Coulomb stress drop of 0.25 bar (for an assumed fault friction of 0.4), whereas the rift segments sustained stress increases greater than 1 bar. Both of these calculations are in accord with the observations. Because of the large distance between the megathrust source and the back-arc receiver faults, the imparted stresses are insensitive to the unknown details of the megathrust slip and geometry; because the 2004 slip is so large, the imparted stresses are nevertheless substantial 200-300 km east of the trench, where the seismicity rate changes are observed. Thus, the seismicity shutdown associated with the 2004 earthquake stress shadow furnishes an important test of the static Coulomb stress triggering hypothesis.

  10. Evidence of Postseismic Deformation Signal of the 2007 M8.5 Bengkulu Earthquake and the 2012 M8.6 Indian Ocean Earthquake in Southern Sumatra, Indonesia, Based on GPS Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alif, Satrio Muhammad; Meilano, Irwan; Gunawan, Endra; Efendi, Joni

    2016-06-01

    GPS data in southern Sumatra, Indonesia, indicate crustal deformation associated to subduction zone and inland fault of Great Sumatran Fault (GSF). We analyze these deformation characteristics using campaign and continuous GPS data available in southern Sumatra from 2006-2014. After removing the effect of GSF in southern Sumatra and coseismic displacements of 2007 Bengkulu and 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake, we find that GPS sites experienced northwest-ward direction. These GPS velocities correspond to postseismic deformation of the 2007 Bengkulu earthquake and the 2012 Indian Ocean earthquake. We analyze strain using these velocities, and we find that postseismic strains in southern Sumatra are in the range of 0.8-20 nanostrain.

  11. 2008 Little Andaman aftershock: Genetic linkages with the subducting 90°E ridge and 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catherine, J. K.; Gahalaut, V. K.; Ambikapathy, A.; Kundu, Bhaskar; Subrahmanyam, C.; Jade, S.; Bansal, Amit; Chadha, R. K.; Narsaiah, M.; Premkishore, L.; Gupta, D. C.

    2009-12-01

    We analyse the June 27, 2008 Little Andaman aftershock (Mw 6.6) of December 26, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (Mw 9.2) that occurred near the trench in the subducting India plate beneath the Sunda Plate. Unlike majority of the other aftershocks in the frontal arc, the Little Andaman aftershock and its own aftershocks occurred through normal slip on the north-south oriented steep planes. We use the coseismic and ongoing postseismic deformation due to the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake at a GPS site nearest to the Little Andaman aftershock and compute changes in the Coulomb stresses due to the coseismic slip and postseismic afterslip. The Coulomb stress on the Little Andaman aftershock fault plane progressively increased since the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake which probably led to the occurrence of the Little Andaman aftershock on the pre-existing N-S oriented strike-slip steep planes of the subducting 90°E ridge that were reactivated through normal slip.

  12. The 2005 volcano-tectonic earthquake swarm in the Andaman Sea: Triggered by the 2004 great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Bhaskar; Legrand, Denis; Gahalaut, Kalpna; Gahalaut, Vineet K.; Mahesh, P.; Kamesh Raju, K. A.; Catherine, J. K.; Ambikapthy, A.; Chadha, R. K.

    2012-10-01

    A 6 day duration earthquakes swarm occurred in the Andaman Sea, 31 days after the giant 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (Mw 9.2). The swarm occurred less than 100 km from the eastern edge of the 2004 earthquake rupture and is the most energetic ever recorded in the world. The earthquakes swarm appear to have occurred on en echelon fault system bounded by the two main right-lateral strike-slip faults, namely, the Seulimeum Strand of Sumatra Fault system (SEU) and the West Andaman Fault (WAF). At the beginning of the swarm, earthquakes with predominantly strike-slip focal mechanisms occurred which were followed by earthquakes with predominantly normal faulting focal mechanisms having significant deviatoric component. Highbvalue, presence of double slope in the Gutenberg-Richter relation, presence of monogenetic submarine volcanoes in the region of the swarm and the earthquake focal mechanisms suggest that the swarm was of volcano-tectonic origin and fluid flow played an important role in its occurrence. Indeed, our modeling suggests that it was triggered by the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake through poroelastic relaxation of the coseismic stresses.

  13. Geochemistry of Selected Coal Samples from Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Papua, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Belkin, Harvey E.; Tewalt, Susan J.

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Indonesia is an archipelago of more than 17,000 islands that stretches astride the equator for about 5,200 km in southeast Asia (figure 1) and includes major Cenozoic volcano-plutonic arcs, active volcanoes, and various related onshore and offshore basins. These magmatic arcs have extensive Cu and Au mineralization that has generated much exploration and mining in the last 50 years. Although Au and Ag have been mined in Indonesia for over 1000 years (van Leeuwen, 1994), it was not until the middle of the nineteenth century that the Dutch explored and developed major Sn and minor Au, Ag, Ni, bauxite, and coal resources. The metallogeny of Indonesia includes Au-rich porphyry Cu, porphyry Mo, skarn Cu-Au, sedimentary-rock hosted Au, epithermal Au, laterite Ni, and diamond deposits. For example, the Grasberg deposit in Papua has the world's largest gold reserves and the third-largest copper reserves (Sillitoe, 1994). Coal mining in Indonesia also has had a long history beginning with the initial production in 1849 in the Mahakam coal field near Pengaron, East Kalimantan; in 1891 in the Ombilin area, Sumatra, (van Leeuwen, 1994); and in South Sumatra in 1919 at the Bukit Asam mine (Soehandojo, 1989). Total production from deposits in Sumatra and Kalimantan, from the 19thth century to World War II, amounted to 40 million metric tons (Mt). After World War II, production declined due to various factors including politics and a boom in the world-wide oil economy. Active exploration and increased mining began again in the 1980's mainly through a change in Indonesian government policy of collaboration with foreign companies and the global oil crises (Prijono, 1989). This recent coal revival (van Leeuwen, 1994) has lead Indonesia to become the largest exporter of thermal (steam) coal and the second largest combined thermal and metallurgical (coking) coal exporter in the world market (Fairhead and others, 2006). The exported coal is desirable as it is low sulfur

  14. Tectonics and Relative Plate Motions Around the Andaman Sea and Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eguchi, T.; Murakoshi, T.

    2005-12-01

    There are several R-F-R models of the active back-arc opening system in the Andaman Sea proposed by authors, e.g., Curray et al. (1978), Eguchi et al. (1979), Eguchi (1991), Mantovani et al. (2001) and Nielsen et al. (2004). Most of the previous authors, except Eguchi et al. (1978) and Eguchi (1991), documented NW-SE or NNW-SSE striking relative plate motion at the Central Andaman Rift. Recent multi-beam bathymetry study by GEODYSSEA Project group confirmed the detailed configuration of the ENE-WSW striking Central Andaman Rift and adjacent transcurrent faults. All of data from the marine survey and recent shallow earthquakes as well as their strike-slip type focal mechanisms along the N-S striking fault segment at 95.2E from 11N to 12.5N support the approximate N-S opening at the adjacent Central Andaman Rift. The magnetic anomaly survey data of Curray et al. (1978) suggest that, in the case of N-S opening, the rate becomes 4.0 cm/y, although Curray et al. (1978) proposed the total rate of 3.7 cm/y in the case of NNW-SSE opening. We then studied the realistic geometry of plate boundaries from Sumatra through the Andaman sea including the Central Andaman Rift to Myanmar, using recent seismological data and GPS studies. As is important, the Sundaland is not part of the Eurasia plate as revealed by recent GPS surveys. Furthermore, based on data of GPS velocity vectors w.r.t. Eurasia plate (e.g., Pradirodirdjo et al., 1997; Michel et. al., 2001), we can recognize some differential motion within the NW-SE striking fore-arc block, which is bounded by the Sumatra transcurrent fault and Java trench. The GPS data indicate 'differential motion' in both the trench-parallel and trench-normal directions within the NW-SE striking fore-arc block. We must resolve whether such kind differential movement within the fore-arc block is steady or not, to investigate the detailed spatio-temporal nature of dynamic coupling at the subduction zones with intermittent activity of larger

  15. The June 2000 Enggano earthquake, South Sumatra, and the role of the Mentawai Fault

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milsom, J.; Abercrombie, R. E.

    2003-04-01

    Sumatra is widely regarded as a type example of strain-partitioning during oblique subduction. In the simplest view, arc-orthogonal motion is accomodated at the trench and arc-parallel motion is accomodated at the strike-slip Sumatra Fault System along the volcanic line. There is, however, a third, more enigmatic, feature that runs the length of the oceanward side of the forearc basin and defines, in many cases, steep eastern margins to the forearc islands. This 'Mentawai Fault' has been variously interpreted as a fold and as a fault with strike-slip, normal or high-angle reverse motion. Seismic reflection images vary considerably from place to place, and the role of the feature in the subduction process remains controversial. It is, however, significant that repeat GPS measurements in the vicinity of Enggano, the southernmost of the forearc islands, indicated that much of the convergence between the Indian Ocean and Southeast Asian plates was being absorbed within the forearc basin during the period of observation. The Mentawai Fault is the only feature observed on the seismic sections that appears capable of accomodating this convergence. The subduction zone beneath Sumatra has been the site of repeated large earthquakes, most recently in June 2000 when a Magnitude 7.9 earthquake occurred near Enggano followed by a strong aftershock sequence. Analysis of the main shock, using body and surface waves, indicates that there were two distinct sub-events occurring a few seconds apart. The first, involving strike-slip within the subducting Indian Ocean Plate, evidently triggered reverse slip on the subduction interface. Both sub-events were too deep, and in the wrong locations, to be due to failure on the Mentawai Fault. They do, however, provide important insights into its likely role. The GPS results indicate that in areas such as Enggano, and possibly only for short periods, the forearc wedge moves with the subducting plate. It must therefore compress against the

  16. Degraded peatlands as a source of riverine organic carbon and enhanced river outgassing in Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wit, Francisca; Rixen, Tim

    2014-05-01

    Sumatra, Indonesia, is well known for its widespread tropical peat lands. However, silvi- and agricultural purposes are currently inducing large-scale degradation of peat lands, transforming the landscape into mainly palm-oil plantations. The degradation induces loss of carbon via direct CO2 emissions, but also via riverine outflow of dissolved and particulate organic carbon (DOC and POC, respectively) due to leaching. This organic carbon is then decomposed along the way towards the coast and is hypothesized to enhance coastal and river outgassing of CO2. In the framework of SPICE III, Science for the Protection of Indonesian Coastal Ecosystems, we are quantifying these carbon budgets and fluxes in the rivers and coastal areas of northeast Sumatra. Using underway instruments, we have gathered continuous measurements of various parameters, including pCO2, pH, temperature, salinity and oxygen. In addition, water samples were obtained for DOC, POC, δ13CDIC, alkalinity and nutrient analyses. The results of the first analyses show that pCO2 values in the coastal areas range between 400-600 μatm. However, in the vicinity of the rivers pCO2 concentrations increase tremendously, ranging from 600 near the estuaries to a staggering 9000 μatm further upstream. These values are much higher than the marine pCO2 value of 390 μatm in the South China Sea. When adding carbon isotope results into the story, while knowing that upstream river life is greatly reduced due to oxygen depletion as a result of high DOC decomposition, it appears to be clear from the values, which range between -20 to -24‰ δ13CDIC, that the main source of the organic carbon is indeed originating from the degrading peat lands. In conclusion, our hypothesis can be deemed correct: degrading peat lands enhance organic carbon outflow and therefore elevated decomposition in the rivers, which results in increased river outgassing of CO2. Further analyses will be conducted to precisely quantify the budgets and

  17. Long Term Slip Deficit Modelling for the Sunda Megathrust beneath the Mentawai Islands, Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCloskey, J.; Nalbant, S. S.; Simao, N.; Lindsay, T.

    2012-04-01

    Shallow earthquakes are a response of crustal faults to stress. Faults are loaded by the slow, heterogeneous accumulation of tectonic stress and the almost instantaneous interaction with neighbouring earthquakes. These effects allow us to model the increase of stress on known active faults. In particular we can calculate changes in stress that can help identify regions of known active faults where secular loading is rapid, elapsed time since the last large event (normalised to the estimated recurrence time for large events) is long and interactions stresses due to recent events suggest that earthquake hazard is particularly high. However, these models implicitly assume a uniform zero stress on the studied fault at the beginning of the study period which is clearly wrong. Even assuming a constant loading rate over a known distribution of fault coupling, earthquakes in the recent past have left stress footprints (both positive and negative) on the fault which must have a first-order effect on the contemporary stress field and therefore on the future activity of the fault. The geographical distribution of these footprints is in principle determinable if the slip distribution on the past earthquakes can be estimated. In general this estimation is unsatisfactory since the resolution of the slip distribution in past earthquakes is in general no better than an unfeasible box-car slip function with a data-consistent moment. Coral paleo-geodesy on the Mentawai Islands off western Sumatra has produced a multi-seismic-cycle geodetic record which provides physical constraints on the slip distributions of large and great earthquakes. Here we describe a new unifying description of the reconstruction of the evolution of slip deficit (the difference between loading and cumulative seismic and aseismic slip) in which we include 330 years of heterogeneous loading of the Sunda megathrust and slip due to more than 30 historical and instrumentally recorded earthquakes. This complex slip

  18. CO2 and energy fluxes from an oil palm plantation in Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijide, Ana; Herbst, Mathias; Knohl, Alexander

    2014-05-01

    Oil palm plantations are expanding in Indonesia due to global increased demand of palm oil. Such plantations are usually set in previously forested land and in Sumatra, massive transformation of lowland forest into oil palm plantations is taking place. These land transformations have been identified as a potential driver of climate change, as they might result in changes of greenhouse gas (GHG) fluxes. However, very limited information is available on GHG fluxes from oil palm plantations and their sink or source strength at ecosystem scale is yet unknown. An eddy covariance tower was therefore installed in a 2 year old oil palm plantation in the province of Jambi, Sumatra (1° 50' 7'S, 103° 17' 44'E), with the aim of studying carbon dioxide, water and energy fluxes during the non-productive phase of oil palm cultivation. The canopy was not yet closed and trees were around 2m high. The eddy covariance system consists of a Licor 7500A and an ultrasonic Metek Anemometer, operating at 10 Hz and installed on a 7m tower. In addition to the eddy covariance measurements, the site is equipped with a weather station, measuring short and long wave radiation, PAR, rainfall, profiles of air temperature, air humidity and wind speed, soil temperature and moisture and soil heat fluxes. Measurements started in July 2013 until January 2014, in order to capture possible differences which may happen during the dry (July-October) and wet (November-February) seasons. A large CO2 uptake would have been expected at this young oil palm plantation, as palm trees during this period of their cultivation are growing fast. However, our preliminary results show that during the first 5 months of measurements, the ecosystem was a small carbon source (below 10 g CO2 m-2). Latent heat flux was higher than sensible heat flux during the period of study, indicative of the high evaporation taking place. Our results show that both for CO2 and energy fluxes, large differences were observed between the

  19. Earthquake and tsunami hazard in West Sumatra: integrating science, outreach, and local stakeholder needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaughey, J.; Lubis, A. M.; Huang, Z.; Yao, Y.; Hill, E. M.; Eriksson, S.; Sieh, K.

    2012-04-01

    The Earth Observatory of Singapore (EOS) is building partnerships with local to provincial government agencies, NGOs, and educators in West Sumatra to inform their policymaking, disaster-risk-reduction, and education efforts. Geodetic and paleoseismic studies show that an earthquake as large as M 8.8 is likely sometime in the coming decades on the Mentawai patch of the Sunda megathrust. This earthquake and its tsunami would be devastating for the Mentawai Islands and neighboring areas of the western Sumatra coast. The low-lying coastal Sumatran city of Padang (pop. ~800,000) has been the object of many research and outreach efforts, especially since 2004. Padang experienced deadly earthquakes in 2007 and 2009 that, though tragedies in their own right, served also as wake-up calls for a larger earthquake to come. However, there remain significant barriers to linking science to policy: extant hazard information is sometimes contradictory or confusing for non-scientists, while turnover of agency leadership and staff means that, in the words of one local advocate, "we keep having to start from zero." Both better hazard knowledge and major infrastructure changes are necessary for risk reduction in Padang. In contrast, the small, isolated villages on the outlying Mentawai Islands have received relatively fewer outreach efforts, yet many villages have the potential for timely evacuation with existing infrastructure. Therefore, knowledge alone can go far toward risk reduction. The tragic October 2010 Mentawai tsunami has inspired further disaster-risk reduction work by local stakeholders. In both locations, we are engaging policymakers and local NGOs, providing science to help inform their work. Through outreach contacts, the Mentawai government requested that we produce the first-ever tsunami hazard map for their islands; this aligns well with scientific interests at EOS. We will work with the Mentawai government on the presentation and explanation of the hazard map, as

  20. P-wave velocity structure offshore central Sumatra: implications for compressional and strike-slip faulting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karplus, M.; Henstock, T.; McNeill, L. C.; Vermeesch, P. M. T.; Barton, P. J.

    2014-12-01

    The Sunda subduction zone features significant along-strike structural variability including changes in accretionary prism and forearc morphology. Some of these changes have been linked to changes in megathrust faulting styles, and some have been linked to other thrust and strike-slip fault systems across this obliquely convergent margin (~54-58 mm/yr convergence rate, 40-45 mm/yr subduction rate). We examine these structural changes in detail across central Sumatra, from Siberut to Nias Island, offshore Indonesia. In this area the Investigator Fracture Zone and the Wharton Fossil Ridge, features with significant topography, are being subducted, which may affect sediment thickness variation and margin morphology. We present new seismic refraction P-wave velocity models using marine seismic data collected during Sonne cruise SO198 in 2008. The experiment geometry consisted of 57 ocean bottom seismometers, 23 land seismometers, and over 10,000 air gun shots recorded along ~1750 km of profiles. About 130,000 P-wave first arrival refractions were picked, and the picks were inverted using FAST (First Arrivals Refraction Tomography) 3-D to give a velocity model, best-resolved in the top 25 km. Moho depths, crustal composition, prism geometry, slab dip, and upper and lower plate structures provide insight into the past and present tectonic processes at this plate boundary. We specifically examine the relationships between velocity structure and faulting locations/ styles. These observations have implications for strain-partitioning along the boundary. The Mentawai Fault, located west of the forearc basin in parts of Central Sumatra, has been interpreted variably as a backthrust, strike-slip, and normal fault. We integrate existing data to evaluate these hypotheses. Regional megathrust earthquake ruptures indicate plate boundary segmentation in our study area. The offshore forearc west of Siberut is almost aseismic, reflecting the locked state of the plate interface, which

  1. A study of aerosol optical properties at the global GAW station Bukit Kototabang, Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurhayati, N.; Nakajima, Teruyuki

    2012-01-01

    There have been very few studies carried out in Indonesia on the atmospheric aerosol optical properties and their impact on the earth climate. This study utilized solar radiation and aerosol measurement results of Indonesian GAW station Bukit Kototabang in Sumatra. The radiation data of nine years were used as input to a radiation simulation code for retrieving optically equivalent parameters of aerosols, i.e., aerosol optical thickness (AOT), coarse particle to fine particle ratio ( γ-ratio), and soot fraction. Retrieval of aerosol properties shows that coarse particles dominated at the station due to high relative humidity (RH) reaching more than 80% throughout the year. AOT time series showed a distinct two peak structure with peaks in MJJ and NDJ periods. The second peak corresponds to the period of high RH suggesting it was formed by active particle growth with large RH near 90%. On the other hand the time series of hot spot number, though it is only for the year of 2004, suggests the first peak was strongly contributed by biomass burning aerosols. The γ-ratio took a value near 10 throughout the year except for November and December when it took a larger value. The soot fraction varies in close relation with the γ-ratio, i.e. low values when γ was large, as consistent with our proposal of active particle growth in the high relative periods.

  2. Physics of the environment: possible Sumatra Tsunami warning times for large animals in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Browning, David G.; Scheifele, Peter M.; Vonwinkle, William A.

    2005-04-01

    There has previously been significant anecdotal evidence that animals can anticipate or sense seismic events. It is known that large animals, specifically elephants, sense and utilize low frequency sound. The object of this paper is to estimate the possible warning times that large animals in Sri Lanka could have had of the Sumatra Tsunami, assuming they could sense low frequency wave transmission from the initial earthquake arriving by either atmospheric, ocean, or bottom paths. The atmospheric path appears to be the least efficient due to relatively high attenuation and poor coupling to the source. It would also give the shortest warning time: approximately 30 minutes. The ocean path via the deep sound channel, which has been shown by a previous Bermuda experiment to be an efficient means of coupling seismic energy to an island, would give a warning time of more than 1.5 hours. The bottom path(s), which gave strong received signals at a Sri Lanka seismic station, would give a warning time of about 2 hours. These estimates should provide a context for animal behavior reports.

  3. Postseismic GRACE and GPS observations indicate a rheology contrast above and below the Sumatra slab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broerse, Taco; Riva, Riccardo; Simons, Wim; Govers, Rob; Vermeersen, Bert

    2015-07-01

    More than 7 years of observations of postseismic relaxation after the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake provide an improving view on the deformation in the wide vicinity of the 2004 rupture. We include both Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity field data that show a large postseismic signal over the rupture area and GPS observations in the back arc region. With increasing time GPS and GRACE show contrasting relaxation styles that were not easily discernible on shorter time series. We investigate whether mantle creep can simultaneously explain the far-field surface displacements and the long-wavelength gravity changes. We interpret contrasts in the temporal behavior of the GPS-GRACE observations in terms of lateral variations in rheological properties of the asthenosphere below and above the slab. Based on 1-D viscoelastic models, our results support an (almost) order of magnitude contrast between oceanic lithosphere viscosity and continental viscosity, which likely means that the low viscosities frequently found from postseismic deformation after subduction earthquakes are valid only for the mantle wedge. Next to mantle creep, we also consider afterslip as an alternative mechanism for postseismic deformation. We investigate how the combination of GRACE and GPS data can better discriminate between different mechanisms of postseismic relaxation: distributed deformation (mantle creep) versus localized deformation (afterslip). We conclude that the GRACE-observed gravity changes rule out afterslip as the dominant mechanism explaining long-wavelength deformation even over the first year after the event.

  4. Multiple Moment Tensor Inversions For the December 26, 2004 Sumatra Earthquake Based Upon Adjoint Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, L.; Liu, Q.

    2012-12-01

    We present multiple moment-tensor solution of the December 26, 2004 Sumatra earthquake based upon adjoint methods. An objective function Φ that measures the goodness of waveform fit between data and synthetics is minimized. Synthetics are calculated by spectral-element simulations (SPECFEM3D_GLOBE) in a 3D global earth model S362ANI to reduce the effect of heterogeneous structures. The Fréchet derivatives of Φ in the form δΦ = ∫T ∫VI(ɛ †ij)(x,T-t) δ(m_dot)ij(x,t)d3xdt, where δmij is the perturbation of moment density function and I(ɛ†ij)(x,T-t) denotes the time-integrated adjoint strain tensor, are calculated based upon adjoint methods implemented in SPECFEM3D_GLOBE. Our initial source model is obtained by monitoring the time-integrated adjoint strain tensors in the vicinity of the presumed source region. Source model parameters are iteratively updated by a preconditioned conjugate-gradient method to iteratively utilizing the calculated Φ and δΦ values. Our final inversion results show both similarities to and differences from previous source inversion results based on 1D background models.

  5. Multiple Moment Tensor Inversions For the December 26, 2004 Sumatra Earthquake Based Upon Adjoint Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, L.; Liu, Q.; Hjörleifsdóttir, V.

    2010-12-01

    We present multiple moment-tensor solution of the Dec 26, 2004 Sumatra earthquake based upon the adjoint methods. An objective function Φ(m), where m is the multiple source model, measures the goodness of waveform fit between data and synthetics. The Fréchet derivatives of Φ in the form δΦ = ∫∫I(ɛ†)(x,T-t)δmij_dot(x,t)dVdt, where δmij is the source model perturbation and I(ɛ†)(x,T-t) denotes the time-integrated adjoint strain tensor, are calculated based upon adjoint methods and spectral-element simulations (SPECFEM3D_GLOBE) in a 3D global earth model S362ANI. Our initial source model is obtained independently by monitoring the time-integrated adjoint strain tensors around the presumed source region. We then utilize the Φ and δΦ calculations in a conjugate-gradient method to iteratively invert for the source model. Our final inversion results show both similarities with and differences to previous source inversion results based on 1D earth models.

  6. Particle precipitation prior to large earthquakes of both the Sumatra and Philippine Regions: A statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fidani, Cristiano

    2015-12-01

    A study of statistical correlation between low L-shell electrons precipitating into the atmosphere and strong earthquakes is presented. More than 11 years of the Medium Energy Protons Electrons Detector data from the NOAA-15 Sun-synchronous polar orbiting satellite were analysed. Electron fluxes were analysed using a set of adiabatic coordinates. From this, significant electron counting rate fluctuations were evidenced during geomagnetic quiet periods. Electron counting rates were compared to earthquakes by defining a seismic event L-shell obtained radially projecting the epicentre geographical positions to a given altitude towards the zenith. Counting rates were grouped in every satellite semi-orbit together with strong seismic events and these were chosen with the L-shell coordinates close to each other. NOAA-15 electron data from July 1998 to December 2011 were compared for nearly 1800 earthquakes with magnitudes larger than or equal to 6, occurring worldwide. When considering 30-100 keV precipitating electrons detected by the vertical NOAA-15 telescope and earthquake epicentre projections at altitudes greater that 1300 km, a significant correlation appeared where a 2-3 h electron precipitation was detected prior to large events in the Sumatra and Philippine Regions. This was in physical agreement with different correlation times obtained from past studies that considered particles with greater energies. The Discussion below of satellite orbits and detectors is useful for future satellite missions for earthquake mitigation.

  7. Congenital vestibular disease in captive Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) in Australasia.

    PubMed

    Wheelhouse, Jaimee L; Hulst, Frances; Beatty, Julia A; Hogg, Carolyn J; Child, Georgina; Wade, Claire M; Barrs, Vanessa R

    2015-11-01

    The Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) is a critically endangered species in the wild. To ensure that demographic and genetic integrity are maintained in the longer term, those Sumatran tigers held in captivity are managed as a global population under a World Association of Zoos and Aquariums Global Species Management Plan (GSMP). A retrospective study, including segregation and pedigree analysis, was conducted to investigate potential cases of congenital vestibular disease (CVD) in captive Sumatran tigers in Australasian zoos using medical and husbandry records, as well as video footage obtained from 50 tigers between 1975 and 2013. Data from the GSMP Sumatran tiger studbook were made available for pedigree and segregation analysis. Fourteen cases of CVD in 13 Sumatran tiger cubs and one hybrid cub (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae × Panthera tigris) were identified. Vestibular signs including head tilt, circling, ataxia, strabismus and nystagmus were observed between birth and 2 months of age. These clinical signs persisted for a median of 237 days and had resolved by 2 years of age in all cases. Pedigree analysis revealed that all affected tigers were closely related and shared a single common ancestor in the last four generations. A genetic cause for the disease is suspected and, based on pedigree and segregation analysis, an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance is likely. Further investigations to determine the world-wide prevalence and underlying pathology of this disorder are warranted. PMID:26403953

  8. Evaluating physiological stress in Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) managed in Australian zoos

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, Tempe; Narayan, Edward J.; Magrath, Michael J. L.; Roe, Sheila; Clark, Giles; Nicolson, Vere; Martin-Vegue, Patrick; Mucci, Al; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2014-01-01

    Glucocorticoid quantification using non-invasive methods provides a powerful tool for assessing the health and welfare of wildlife in zoo-based programmes. In this study, we provide baseline data on faecal-based glucocorticoid (cortisol) monitoring of Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris ssp. sumatrae) managed at the Melbourne Zoo in Victoria, Australia. We sampled five tigers daily for 60 days. Faecal cortisol metabolites (FCMs) in tiger faecal extracts were quantified using enzyme immunoassays that were successfully validated using parallelism and accuracy recovery checks. Two female tigers had significantly higher mean FCM levels than the two males and another female, suggesting that females may have higher FCM levels. A significant elevation was noted in the FCM levels for one female 2 days after she was darted and anaesthetized; however, the FCM levels returned to baseline levels within 3 days after the event. Comparative analysis of FCM levels of tigers sampled at Melbourne Zoo with tigers sampled earlier at two other Australian Zoos (Dreamworld Themepark and Australia Zoo) showed that FCM levels varied between zoos. Differences in the enclosure characteristics, timing of sampling, size and composition of groupings and training procedures could all contribute to this variation. Overall, we recommend the use of non-invasive sampling for the assessment of adrenocortical activity of felids managed in zoos in Australia and internationally in order to improve the welfare of these charismatic big cats. PMID:27293659

  9. Seismic and deformation precursory to the small explosions of Marapi Volcano, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hidayat, D.; Patria, C.; Gunawan, H.; Taisne, B.; Nurfiani, D.; Avila, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    Marapi Volcano is one of the active volcanoes of Indonesia located near the city of Bukittinggi, West Sumatra, Indonesia. Its activity is characterized by small vulcanian explosions with occasional VEI 2 producing tephra and pyroclastic flows. Due to its activity, it is being monitored by Centre for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (CVGHM). Four seismic stations consists of 2 broadband and 2 short period instruments have been established since 2009. In collaboration with CVGHM, Earth Observatory of Singapore added 5 seismic stations around the volcano in 2014, initially with short period instruments but later upgraded to broadbands. We added one tilt station at the summit of Marapi. These seismic and tilt stations are telemetered by 5.8GHz radio to Marapi Observatory Post where data are archived and displayed for Marapi observers for their daily volcanic activity monitoring work. We also archive the data in the EOS and CVGHM main offices. Here we are presenting examples of seismic and deformation data from Marapi prior, during, and after the vulcanian explosion. Our study attempt to understand the state of the volcano based on monitoring data and in order to enable us to better estimate the hazards associated with the future eruptions of this or similar volcano.

  10. Efficient post-disaster patient transportation and transfer: experiences and lessons learned in emergency medical rescue in Aceh after the 2004 Asian tsunami.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiang-Hui; Zheng, Jing-Chen

    2014-08-01

    This descriptive study aimed to present experiences and lessons learned in emergency medical rescue after the 2004 Asian tsunami in terms of transportation and transfer of patients and coordination of medical rescue forces. After the tsunami, numerous rescue institutions and international organizations rushed to Aceh province to aid in the rescue work. To coordinate various aspects of medical rescue efforts, an airport-based joint patient transfer center was developed. Within the framework of the joint transport center, rescue teams, militaries, and international institutions worked together to jointly triage, rapidly treat, and transfer patients. As members of the Chinese International Search and Rescue team, we were involved in the rescue efforts in the joint patient transfer center, and treated and transferred a total of 217 injured patients, the majority of whom were triaged as level II, followed by level III, and level I. The top three diseases were trauma/wound infection, respiratory system disease, and digestive system disease. The airport-based joint patient transfer center provided an efficient mechanism for successfully coordinating various aspects of the medical rescue efforts to transfer patients. Large-scale air transport, available health resources, and effective triage criteria also played an essential role in patient transportation and transfer. PMID:25102536

  11. Utilization of formal health services for children aged 1–5 in Aceh after the 2004 tsunami: Which children did not receive the health care they needed? Implications for other natural disaster relief efforts

    PubMed Central

    Rassekh, Bahie Mary; Santosham, Mathuram

    2014-01-01

    Aceh, Indonesia, was the hardest-hit area in the December 26, 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, with more than 500,000 people displaced, 120,000 people dead, and total damages and losses estimated at $4.5 billion. The relief effort following the tsunami was also immense, with billions of dollars of aid pledged to this province alone. Since then, there have been several natural disasters, including Typhoon Haiyan, which have caused great loss of life and displacement and for which these results are applicable. This study aimed to determine and assess utilization patterns of health services for children under the age of five with diarrhea, cough and difficulty breathing, fever, or skin disease and to identify determinants of formal and non-formal healthcare usage. A household survey of 1439 households was administered to caretakers of children aged 1–5 years. A sample of clusters within Banda Aceh and Aceh Besar were selected and those caretakers within the cluster who fit the inclusion criteria were interviewed. In the two weeks prior to the survey, 78.3% of respondents utilized formal health services as the first line of care for their child's illness episode. Factors significantly associated with decreased formal healthcare usage for the sick children were if the children were living in a displaced household, if the children's mother or father were not living, and if the children's caretaker was not the mother. Although utilization of formal health services for children was quite high after the tsunami, there were certain children who received significantly less care, including those who were displaced, those who were being cared for by someone other than their mother, and those for whom one or both parents had died. Among the recommendations are suggestions to target these children to ensure that they receive the health care they need. PMID:25750772

  12. Evidence of self organization in great Sumatra earthquake recurrence times: Implications for coupling of tidal forcing and tectonic stress accumulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, R. K.; Puli, K.

    2012-12-01

    We analyzed inter- event time series of earthquake activities (M≥ 5) of Sumatra region spanning over 1973 to 2009 using techniques of nonlinear dynamics. The earthquake data were taken from the USGS catalogue centered on latitude 3.240N and longitude 95.825E. As a first step, in our analyses we computed the rank order statistics which revealed mixed response of earthquake dynamics indicating distinct breaks in slope of the rank order. This suggests that earthquake dynamics in this region is partly unstable and partly "self-organized" with a random tail. Comparison of return maps of the earthquakes inter- event time series with those representing random, stochastic and chaotic processes shows a quasi-deterministic behavior of earthquake genesis in the region. We further assessed the dimensionality of earthquake-generating mechanisms using a nonlinear predictor technique on two dimensional phase portrait constructed by recurrence time series. The nonlinear forecasting analysis suggests that the earthquake processes in the Sumatra region evolve on a non-random low-dimensional chaotic plane. Further, "K2" Entropy revealed a coherent structure indicating the deterministic dynamical pattern. This analysis is consistent with "self-organized" processes which could be explained invoking earth's internal dynamics, where, impulsively derived interdependencies cascades through the stress generated by tectonic plate movement. Our results, however, do not preclude the role of coupling of the above self-organized system with tidal forcing. Evidence for such a coupling in this region exists as 'triggering force". Keywords: Sumatra Earthquakes, Quasi-deterministic, Stochastic, Chaotic, Self-organized, K2 entropy, Phase portrait.

  13. Information on the Earth's Deep Interior Conveyed by the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake Using Superconducting Gravimeter Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosat, S.; Watada, S.; Sato, T.; Tamura, Y.

    2005-12-01

    The recent Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of magnitude Mw > 9 on 2004 December 26th has strongly excited the low-frequency seismic modes and, in particular, the degree one 2S1 mode is observed for the first time without any stacking. This mode corresponds to the first overtone of the sub-seismic mode 1S1, the so-called Slichter triplet (Slichter, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci., 1961). On the one hand, theoretical computations suggest that the Slichter modes could not have been excited with sufficient amplitude to be detected by superconducting gravimeters (SGs) on the Earth's surface. The maximum surface gravity effect of 1S1 after Sumatra event is 0.3 nGal, that is to say 0.3 10-12 g, where g is the mean absolute gravity value on the Earth's surface, corresponding to a free air displacement of 10-3 mm (1 nm). On the other hand, the core-sensitive mode 3S2 and the fundamental radial mode 0S0 were strongly excited, meaning that the earthquake radiated much energy toward the core. 0S0 is a radial fundamental spheroidal mode called "breathing mode" of the Earth and corresponds to changes in the Earth's circumference. The high stability of SG records has enabled us to follow the time decay of 0S0 amplitude till the second Sumatra event on March 28th 2005 and to estimate 0S0 quality factor at a value of 5513 +- 8 from the weighted mean of 12 SG record estimates. Amplitude measurements of 0S0 at most SG sites in the world reveal a latitude dependency that we try to explain by theory. The amplitude deviation of 0S0 reaches +- 2% while the calibration errors of SGs are usually less than 0.2%.

  14. Population Genetic Structure and Reproductive Strategy of the Introduced Grass Centotheca lappacea in Tropical Land-Use Systems in Sumatra

    PubMed Central

    Hodac̆, Ladislav; Ulum, Fuad Bahrul; Opfermann, Nicole; Breidenbach, Natalie; Hojsgaard, Diego; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri Sudarmiyati; Vornam, Barbara; Finkeldey, Reiner; Hörandl, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Intensive transformation of lowland rainforest into oil palm and rubber monocultures is the most common land-use practice in Sumatra (Indonesia), accompanied by invasion of weeds. In the Jambi province, Centotheca lappacea is one of the most abundant alien grass species in plantations and in jungle rubber (an extensively used agroforest), but largely missing in natural rainforests. Here, we investigated putative genetic differentiation and signatures for adaptation in the introduced area. We studied reproductive mode and ploidy level as putative factors for invasiveness of the species. We sampled 19 populations in oil palm and rubber monocultures and in jungle rubber in two regions (Bukit Duabelas and Harapan). Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) revealed a high diversity of individual genotypes and only a weak differentiation among populations (FST = 0.173) and between the two regions (FST = 0.065). There was no significant genetic differentiation between the three land-use systems. The metapopulation of C. lappacea consists of five genetic partitions with high levels of admixture; all partitions appeared in both regions, but with different proportions. Within the Bukit Duabelas region we observed significant isolation-by-distance. Nine AFLP loci (5.3% of all loci) were under natural diversifying selection. All studied populations of C. lappacea were diploid, outcrossing and self-incompatible, without any hints of apomixis. The estimated residence time of c. 100 years coincides with the onset of rubber and oil palm planting in Sumatra. In the colonization process, the species is already in a phase of establishment, which may be enhanced by efficient selection acting on a highly diverse gene pool. In the land-use systems, seed dispersal might be enhanced by adhesive spikelets. At present, the abundance of established populations in intensively managed land-use systems might provide opportunities for rapid dispersal of C. lappacea across rural landscapes

  15. Population Genetic Structure and Reproductive Strategy of the Introduced Grass Centotheca lappacea in Tropical Land-Use Systems in Sumatra.

    PubMed

    Hodač, Ladislav; Ulum, Fuad Bahrul; Opfermann, Nicole; Breidenbach, Natalie; Hojsgaard, Diego; Tjitrosoedirdjo, Sri Sudarmiyati; Vornam, Barbara; Finkeldey, Reiner; Hörandl, Elvira

    2016-01-01

    Intensive transformation of lowland rainforest into oil palm and rubber monocultures is the most common land-use practice in Sumatra (Indonesia), accompanied by invasion of weeds. In the Jambi province, Centotheca lappacea is one of the most abundant alien grass species in plantations and in jungle rubber (an extensively used agroforest), but largely missing in natural rainforests. Here, we investigated putative genetic differentiation and signatures for adaptation in the introduced area. We studied reproductive mode and ploidy level as putative factors for invasiveness of the species. We sampled 19 populations in oil palm and rubber monocultures and in jungle rubber in two regions (Bukit Duabelas and Harapan). Amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) revealed a high diversity of individual genotypes and only a weak differentiation among populations (FST = 0.173) and between the two regions (FST = 0.065). There was no significant genetic differentiation between the three land-use systems. The metapopulation of C. lappacea consists of five genetic partitions with high levels of admixture; all partitions appeared in both regions, but with different proportions. Within the Bukit Duabelas region we observed significant isolation-by-distance. Nine AFLP loci (5.3% of all loci) were under natural diversifying selection. All studied populations of C. lappacea were diploid, outcrossing and self-incompatible, without any hints of apomixis. The estimated residence time of c. 100 years coincides with the onset of rubber and oil palm planting in Sumatra. In the colonization process, the species is already in a phase of establishment, which may be enhanced by efficient selection acting on a highly diverse gene pool. In the land-use systems, seed dispersal might be enhanced by adhesive spikelets. At present, the abundance of established populations in intensively managed land-use systems might provide opportunities for rapid dispersal of C. lappacea across rural landscapes

  16. From Sumatra 2004 to Tuhoku-Oki 2011: what we learn about Tsunami detection by ionospheric sounding.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Occhipinti, G.; Rolland, L.; Coisson, P.; Watada, S.; Makela, J. J.; Hebert, H.; Lognonne, P. H.

    2014-12-01

    The recent tsunamigenic Tohoku earthquake (2011) strongly affirms, again, after the 26 December 2004, the necessity to open new paradigms in oceanic monitoring. Detection of ionospheric anomalies following the Sumatra earthquake tsunami (e.g., Occhipinti et al. 2006) demonstrated that ionosphere is sensitive to earthquake and tsunami propagation: ground and oceanic vertical displacement induces acoustic-gravity waves propagating within the neutral atmosphere and detectable in the ionosphere. Observations supported by modelling proved that tsunamigenic ionospheric anomalies are deterministic and reproducible by numerical modeling via the ocean/neutral-atmosphere/ionosphere coupling mechanism (Occhipinti et al., 2008). To prove that the tsunami signature in the ionosphere is routinely detected we show here perturbations of total electron content (TEC) measured by GPS and following tsunamigenic eartquakes from 2004 to 2010 (Rolland et al. 2010, Occhipinti et al., 2013, Occhipinti, 2014), nominally, Sumatra (26 December, 2004 and 12 September, 2007), Chile (14 November, 2007), Samoa (29 September, 2009) and the recent Tohoku-Oki (11 Mars, 2011). In addition to GPS/TEC observations close to the epicenter and measured by GEONET network, new exciting measurements in the far-field were performed by Airglow measurement in Hawaii: those measurements show the propagation of the IGWs induced by the Tohoku tsunami in the Pacific Ocean (Occhipinti et al., 2011). Based on the observations close to the epicenter, mainly performed by GPS networks located in Sumatra, Chile and Japan, we highlight the TEC perturbation observed within the first hour after the seismic rupture. This perturbation contains informations about the ground displacement, as well as the consequent sea surface displacement resulting in the tsunami. In this talk we present all this new tsunami observations in the ionosphere and we discuss, under the light of modelling, the potential role of ionospheric sounding

  17. From Sumatra 2004 to Tohoku-Oki 2011: The systematic GPS detection of the ionospheric signature induced by tsunamigenic earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Occhipinti, Giovanni; Rolland, Lucie; Lognonné, Philippe; Watada, Shingo

    2013-06-01

    The recent tsunamigenic earthquake in Tohoku (11 March 2011) strongly affirms, one more time after the Sumatra event (26 December 2004), the necessity to open new paradigms in oceanic monitoring. Detection of ionospheric anomalies following the Sumatra tsunami demonstrated that ionosphere is sensitive to the tsunami propagation. Observations supported by modeling proved that tsunamigenic ionospheric anomalies are deterministic and reproducible by numerical modeling via the ocean/neutral-atmosphere/ionosphere coupling mechanism. In essence, tsunami induces internal gravity waves propagating within the neutral atmosphere and detectable in the ionosphere. Most of the ionospheric anomalies produced by tsunamis were observed in the far field where the tsunami signature in the ionosphere is clearly identifiable. In this work, we highlight the early signature in the ionosphere produced by tsunamigenic earthquakes and observed by GPS, measuring the total electron content, close to the epicenter. We focus on the first hour after the seismic rupture. We demonstrate that acoustic-gravity waves generated at the epicenter by the direct vertical displacement of the source rupture and the gravity wave coupled with the tsunami can be discriminated with theoretical support. We illustrate the systematic nature of those perturbations showing several observations: nominally the ionospheric perturbation following the tsunamigenic earthquakes in Sumatra on 26 December 2004 and 12 September 2007; in Chile on 14 November 2007; in Samoa on 29 September 2009; and the recent catastrophic Tohoku-Oki event on 11 March 2011. Based on the analytical description, we provide tracks for further modeling efforts and clues for the interpretation of complex—and thus often misleading—observations. The routine detection of the early ionospheric anomalies following the rupture highlights the role of ionospheric sounding in the future ocean monitoring and tsunami detection.

  18. Time-series analysis of multi-resolution optical imagery for quantifying forest cover loss in Sumatra and Kalimantan, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broich, Mark; Hansen, Matthew C.; Potapov, Peter; Adusei, Bernard; Lindquist, Erik; Stehman, Stephen V.

    2011-04-01

    Monitoring loss of humid tropical forests via remotely sensed imagery is critical for a number of environmental monitoring objectives, including carbon accounting, biodiversity, and climate modeling science applications. Landsat imagery, provided free of charge by the U.S. Geological Survey Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (USGS/EROS), enables consistent and timely forest cover loss updates from regional to biome scales. The Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Kalimantan are a center of significant forest cover change within the humid tropics with implications for carbon dynamics, biodiversity maintenance and local livelihoods. Sumatra and Kalimantan feature poor observational coverage compared to other centers of humid tropical forest change, such as Mato Grosso, Brazil, due to the lack of ongoing acquisitions from nearby ground stations and the persistence of cloud cover obscuring the land surface. At the same time, forest change in Indonesia is transient and does not always result in deforestation, as cleared forests are rapidly replaced by timber plantations and oil palm estates. Epochal composites, where single best observations are selected over a given time interval and used to quantify change, are one option for monitoring forest change in cloudy regions. However, the frequency of forest cover change in Indonesia confounds the ability of image composite pairs to quantify all change. Transient change occurring between composite periods is often missed and the length of time required for creating a cloud-free composite often obscures change occurring within the composite period itself. In this paper, we analyzed all Landsat 7 imagery with <50% cloud cover and data and products from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to quantify forest cover loss for Sumatra and Kalimantan from 2000 to 2005. We demonstrated that time-series approaches examining all good land observations are more accurate in mapping forest cover change in

  19. Precipitation microstructure in different Madden-Julian Oscillation phases over Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzuki; Hashiguchi, Hiroyuki; Kozu, Toshiaki; Shimomai, Toyoshi; Shibagaki, Yoshiaki; Takahashi, Yukihiro

    2016-02-01

    Intraseasonal variations of precipitation and its microstructure are investigated using measurements of the Equatorial Atmospheric Radar (EAR) facilities at Kototabang, west Sumatra, Indonesia (0.20°S, 100.32°E, 864 m above sea level). Raindrop size distribution (DSD) observations are obtained from a 2D-Video Disdrometer (2DVD) with a near continuous record of operation over eight consecutive years (2003-2010). Precipitation types are classified using 1.3-GHz wind profiler observation, and are partitioned according to active and inactive convective phases of Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO). It is found that precipitation systems during the inactive phase are more continental in nature than those during the active phase. Cloud propagation from brightness temperature data indicates that Sumatra receives the rainfall mainly from maritime clouds during the active phase, while it is mainly from the continental clouds (land-based convection) during the inactive phase. Other remarkable differences between active and inactive phase precipitation systems are also observed from the vertical structure of precipitation. The precipitation during the inactive phase has deeper storms, a higher reflectivity aloft, more lightning activity and less stratiform characteristics, as compared to the active phase. Assessment of cloud effective radius of the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data also shows a slight difference in the cloud droplet between the active and the inactive MJO phases. Different convective storms in different MJO phases lead to different DSD characteristics and Z-R relationships. The DSD during the inactive phase tends to have a higher concentration of medium and large-size drops than the active counterpart, consistent with the previous study during the first campaign of Coupling Processes in the Equatorial Atmosphere project. Although the DSD parameters and coefficient of Z-R relationships fall within the range of tropical maritime

  20. Nutrient leaching losses in lowland forests converted to oil palm and rubber plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniawan, Syahrul; Corre, Marife D.; Rahayu Utami, Sri; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-04-01

    In the last two decades, Sumatra, Indonesia is experiencing rapid expansion of oil palm and rubber plantations by conversion of rainforest. This is evident from the 2.9 thousand km2 decrease in forest area in this region over the last 15 years. Such rapid land-use change necessitates assessment of its environmental impacts. Our study was aimed to assess the impact of forest conversion to oil palm and rubber plantations on nutrient leaching losses. Land-use conversion increases nutrient leaching losses due to changes in vegetation litter input, rooting depth, nutrient cycling and management (e.g. fertilization) practices. Our study area was in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. We selected two soil landscapes in this region: loam and clay Acrisol soils. At each soil landscape, we investigated four land-use systems: lowland secondary rainforest, secondary forest with regenerating rubber (referred here as jungle rubber), rubber (7-17 years old) and oil palm plantations (9-16 years old). Each land use in each soil landscape was represented by four sites as replicates, totaling to 32 sites. We measured leaching losses using suction lysimeters installed at 1.5-m soil depth, which was well below the rooting depth, with bi-weekly to monthly sampling from February to December 2013. In general, the loam Acrisol landscape, particularly the forest and oil palm plantations, had lower soil solution pH and higher leaching fluxes of dissolved organic N, Na, Ca, Mg, total Al, total S and Cl than the clay Acrisol of the same land uses (all P ≤ 0.05). Among land uses in the loam Acrisol landscape, oil palm had lower soil solution pH and higher leaching fluxes of NH4+, NO3-, dissolved organic C, total P, total S and Cl than rubber plantation whereas forest and jungle rubber showed intermediate fluxes (all P ≤ 0.05, except P ≤ 0.09 for total P); oil palm had also higher Na, Ca, Mg and total Al leaching fluxes than all the other land uses (all P ≤ 0.05, except P ≤ 0.09 for Na

  1. Translating Developing Science into Public Awareness and Social Organisation in W. Sumatra.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, R.; McDowell, S.; McCloskey, J.

    2009-04-01

    Social idiosyncrasies confounding cross-cultural scientific interventions on an intra-regional and international scale continue to blight the positive benefits robust science offers to vulnerable communities inhabiting areas prone to natural hazards. The sustained malice inflicted by these phenomena upon socioeconomic systems epitomises the perilous task facing mitigation bodies attempting to communicate scientific forecasts and interweave technical knowledge into social policy internationally. This quandary continues to confront disaster officials and scientists in Sumatra. Palaeoseismological studies, coupled with a developing understanding of stress transference between earthquakes, reveal that the Mentawai segment of the Sumatran forearc is the most plausible candidate for future rupture. Simulations of tsunami propagation and inundation illustrate that the coastal regions of western Sumatran, inhabited by approximately 2 million people, lie in immediate mortal threat. Many Sumatrans' live with stark memories of the 1600 km megathrust rupture in December 2004, which spawned one of the worst global natural atrocities of recent time. The earthquake accelerated collaboration between seismologists, geophysicists and geologists and has produced unrivalled advances in understanding fault locations, geometries and potential rupture characteristics of the Sumatran forearc. Nowhere else on earth are scientists more aware of the impending threat of another magnitude 8+ megathrust earthquake. However with the twenty-first century being tainted by natural disasters which have typified the blatantly ambiguous linkages which exist between science and society, assessing to what extent this notion is exemplified in the Sumatran context is imperative. Here we begin to present the results from a social survey, conducted in the Sumatran cities of Padang and Bengkulu between May and September 2008. The campaign sought to dissect the broader societal complexities and moral values

  2. Spatio-temporal analysis on land transformation in a forested tropical landscape in Jambi Province, Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melati, Dian N.; Nengah Surati Jaya, I.; Pérez-Cruzado, César; Zuhdi, Muhammad; Fehrmann, Lutz; Magdon, Paul; Kleinn, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    Land use/land cover (LULC) in forested tropical landscapes is very dynamically developing. In particular, the pace of forest conversion in the tropics is a global concern as it directly impacts the global carbon cycle and biodiversity conservation. Expansion of agriculture is known to be among the major drivers of forest loss especially in the tropics. This is also the case in Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia where it is the mainly expansion of tree crops that triggers deforestation: oil palm and rubber trees. Another transformation system in Jambi is the one from natural forest into jungle rubber, which is an agroforestry system where a certain density of forest trees accompanies the rubber tree crop, also for production of wood and non-wood forest products. The spatial distribution and the dynamics of these transformation systems and of the remaining forests are essential information for example for further research on ecosystem services and on the drivers of land transformation. In order to study land transformation, maps from the years 1990, 2000, 2011, and 2013 were utilized, derived from visual interpretation of Landsat images. From these maps, we analyze the land use/land cover change (LULCC) in the study region. It is found that secondary dryland forest (on mineral soils) and secondary swamp forest have been transformed largely into (temporary) shrub land, plantation forests, mixed dryland agriculture, bare lands and estate crops where the latter include the oil palm and rubber plantations. In addition, we present some analyses of the spatial pattern of land transformation to better understand the process of LULC fragmentation within the studied periods. Furthermore, the driving forces are analyzed.

  3. Constructivist learning at the science-policy interface: tsunami science informing disaster policy in West Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCaughey, J.; Dewi, P. R.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Sieh, K. E.

    2012-12-01

    Science communication often falls short when it is based on the blank-slate assumption that if we can just get the message right, then the information will be received and understood as intended. In contrast, constructivist learning theory and practice suggest that we all actively construct our knowledge from a variety of information sources and through particular, novel associations with our prior knowledge. This constructed knowledge can be quite different from any of its original sources, such as a particular science communication. Successful communication requires carefully examining how people construct their knowledge of the topic of interest. Examples from our outreach work to connect hazard-science research with disaster-risk reduction practice in West Sumatra illustrate the mismatch between expert and stakeholder/public mental models of the characteristics of tsunamigenic earthquakes. There are incorrect conceptions that seawater always withdraws before a tsunami, and that a tsunami can be produced by an earthquake only if the epicenter is located at the ocean trench. These incorrect conceptions arise from generalizations based on recent, local earthquake experiences, as well as from unintended consequences of science outreach, science education, and, in one case, the way that tsunami modelling is graphically presented in scientific journals. We directly address these incorrect conceptions in our discussions with government officials and others; as a result, the local disaster-management agency has changed its policies to reflect an increased understanding of the hazard. This outreach success would not have been possible without eliciting the prior knowledge of our audiences through dialogue.

  4. Differences in tsunami generation between the December 26, 2004 and March 28, 2005 Sumatra earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, E.L.; Bilek, S.L.; Arcas, D.; Titov, V.V.

    2006-01-01

    Source parameters affecting tsunami generation and propagation for the Mw > 9.0 December 26, 2004 and the Mw = 8.6 March 28, 2005 earthquakes are examined to explain the dramatic difference in tsunami observations. We evaluate both scalar measures (seismic moment, maximum slip, potential energy) and finite-source repre-sentations (distributed slip and far-field beaming from finite source dimensions) of tsunami generation potential. There exists significant variability in local tsunami runup with respect to the most readily available measure, seismic moment. The local tsunami intensity for the December 2004 earthquake is similar to other tsunamigenic earthquakes of comparable magnitude. In contrast, the March 2005 local tsunami was deficient relative to its earthquake magnitude. Tsunami potential energy calculations more accurately reflect the difference in tsunami severity, although these calculations are dependent on knowledge of the slip distribution and therefore difficult to implement in a real-time system. A significant factor affecting tsunami generation unaccounted for in these scalar measures is the location of regions of seafloor displacement relative to the overlying water depth. The deficiency of the March 2005 tsunami seems to be related to concentration of slip in the down-dip part of the rupture zone and the fact that a substantial portion of the vertical displacement field occurred in shallow water or on land. The comparison of the December 2004 and March 2005 Sumatra earthquakes presented in this study is analogous to previous studies comparing the 1952 and 2003 Tokachi-Oki earthquakes and tsunamis, in terms of the effect slip distribution has on local tsunamis. Results from these studies indicate the difficulty in rapidly assessing local tsunami runup from magnitude and epicentral location information alone.

  5. Flowers are an important food for small apes in southern Sumatra.

    PubMed

    Lappan, Susan

    2009-08-01

    Flowers are included in the diets of many primates, but are not generally regarded as making an important contribution to primate energy budgets. However, observations of a number of lemur, platyrrhine, and cercopithecine populations suggest that some flower species may function as key primate fallback foods in periods of low abundance of preferred foods (generally ripe fruits), and that flowers may be preferred foods in some cases. I report heavy reliance on flowers during some study months for a siamang (Symphalangus syndactylus) population in southern Sumatra. Siamangs at Way Canguk spent 12% of feeding time eating flowers from October 2000 to August 2002, and in 1 month flower-feeding time exceeded 40% of total feeding time. The overall availabilities of fig and nonfig fruits, flowers, and new leaves in the study area were not significant predictors of the proportion of time that siamangs spent consuming any plant part. However, flower-feeding time was highest in months when nonfig fruit-feeding time was lowest, and a switch from heavy reliance on fruit to substantial flower consumption was associated with a shift in activity patterns toward reduced energy expenditure, which is consistent with the interpretation that flowers may function as a fallback food for Way Canguk siamangs. Hydnocarpus gracilis, a plant from which siamangs only consume flowers, was the third-most-commonly consumed plant at Way Canguk (after Ficus spp. and Dracontomelon dao), and flowers from this plant were available in most months. It is possible that relatively high local availability of these important siamang plant foods is one factor promoting high siamang density in the study area. PMID:19459180

  6. Seismotectonics of a diffuse plate boundary: Observations off the Sumatra-Andaman trench

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aderhold, K.; Abercrombie, R. E.

    2016-05-01

    The actively deforming Indo-Australian intraplate region off the Sumatra-Andaman trench hosted the largest strike-slip earthquake recorded by modern instruments, the 2012 Mw 8.6 Wharton Basin earthquake, closely followed by a Mw 8.2 aftershock. These two large events ruptured either parallel north-south trending faults or a series of north-south and nearly perpendicular east-west fault planes. No active east-west faults had been identified in the region prior to these earthquakes, and the seismic rupture for these two earthquakes extended past the 800°C isotherm for lithosphere of this age, deep into the oceanic mantle and possibly beyond the inferred transition to ductile failure. To investigate the seismic behavior of this region, we calculate moment tensors with teleseismic body waves for 6.0 ≤ Mw ≤ 8.0 intraplate strike-slip earthquakes. The centroid depths are located throughout the seismogenic mantle and could extend through the oceanic crust, but are generally well constrained by the 600°C isotherm and do not appear to rupture beyond the 800°C isotherm. We conclude that while many earthquakes are consistent with a thermal limit to depth, large magnitude earthquakes may be able to rupture typically aseismic zones. We also perform finite-fault modeling for Mw ≥ 7.0 earthquakes and find a slight preference for rupture on east-west oriented faults for the 2012 Mw 7.2 and 2005 Mw 7.2 earthquakes. This lends support for the presence of active east-west faults in this region, consistent with the majority of previously published models of the 2012 M8+ earthquakes.

  7. Temporal changes of surface wave velocity associated with major Sumatra earthquakes from ambient noise correlation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Zhen J.; Song, Xiaodong

    2009-01-01

    Detecting temporal changes of the medium associated with major earthquakes has implications for understanding earthquake genesis. Here we report temporal changes of surface wave velocity over a large area associated with 3 major Sumatra earthquakes in 2004, 2005, and 2007. We use ambient noise correlation to retrieve empirical Green's function (EGF) of surface waves between stations. Because the process is completely repeatable, the technique is powerful in detecting possible temporal change of medium. We find that 1 excellent station pair (PSI in Indonesia and CHTO in Thailand) shows significant time shifts (up to 1.44 s) after the 2004 and 2005 events in the Rayleigh waves at 10–20 s but not in the Love waves, suggesting that the Rayleigh time shifts are not from clock error. The time shifts are frequency dependent with the largest shifts at the period band of 11–16 s. We also observe an unusual excursion ∼1 month before the 2004 event. We obtain a total of 17 pairs for June, 2007 to June, 2008, which allow us to examine the temporal and spatial variation of the time shifts. We observed strong anomalies (up to 0.68 s) near the epicenter after the 2007 event, but not in the region further away from the source or before the event or 3 months after the event. The observations are interpreted as stress changes and subsequent relaxation in upper-mid crust in the immediate vicinity of the rupture and the broad area near the fault zone. PMID:19667205

  8. Geological Investigation and analysis in response to Earthquake Induced Landslide in West Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karnawati, D.; Wilopo, W.; Salahudin, S.; Sudarno, I.; Burton, P.

    2009-12-01

    Substantial socio-economical loss occurred in response to the September 30. 2009 West Sumatra Earthquake with magnitude of 7.6. Damage of houses and engineered structures mostly occurred at the low land of alluvium sediments due to the ground amplification, whilst at the high land of mountain slopes several villages were buried by massive debris of rocks and soils. It was recorded that 1115 people died due to this disasters. Series of geological investigation was carried out by Geological Engineering Department of Gadjah Mada University, with the purpose to support the rehabilitation program. Based on this preliminary investigation it was identified that most of the house and engineered structural damages at the alluvial deposits mainly due to by the poor quality of such houses and engineered structures, which poorly resist the ground amplification, instead of due to the control of geological conditions. On the other hand, the existence and distribution of structural geology (faults and joints) at the mountaineous regions are significant in controlling the distribution of landslides, with the types of rock falls, debris flows and debris falls. Despite the landslide susceptibility mapping conducted by Geological Survey of Indonesia, more detailed investigation is required to be carried out in the region surrounding Maninjau Lake, in order to provide safer places for village relocation. Accordingly Gadjah Mada University in collaboration with the local university (Andalas University) as well as with the local Government of Agam Regency and the Geological Survey of Indonesia, serve the mission for conducting rather more detailed geological and landslide investigation. It is also crucial that the investigation (survey and mapping) on the social perception and expectation of local people living in this landslide susceptible area should also be carried out, to support the mitigation effort of any future potential earthquake induced landslides.

  9. Fault interactions and triggering during the 10 January 2012 Mw 7.2 Sumatra earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Wenyuan; Shearer, Peter M.

    2016-03-01

    The 10 January 2012 Mw 7.2 Sumatra earthquake in the Wharton basin occurred 3 months before the great Mw 8.6 and Mw 8.2 earthquakes in the same region, which had complex ruptures and are the largest strike-slip earthquakes ever recorded. Teleseismic P wave back projection of the Mw 7.2 earthquake images a unilateral rupture lasting ˜40 s without observable frequency dependency (low frequency, 0.05-0.3 Hz, high frequency, 0.3-1 Hz). In addition to radiation bursts during the Mw 7.2 main shock, coherent energy releases from 50 to 75 s and from 100 to 125 s are observed about 143 km northeast of the main shock rupture and landward of the trench. Analysis of globally recorded P waves, in both 0.02-0.05 Hz velocity records and 1-5 Hz stacked envelope functions, confirms the presence of coherent sources during the time windows. The observed energy bursts are likely to be large early aftershocks occurring on or near the subduction interface. Both dynamic and static triggering could have induced these early aftershocks, as they initiated after the surface wave passed by, and the Coulomb stress perturbations from the Mw 7.2 main shock promote earthquakes in the observed locations. The earthquake sequence is a clear example of a seaward-intraplate strike-slip earthquake triggering landward-intraplate earthquakes in the same region, in contrast to previously reported normal-reverse or reverse-normal interactions at subduction zones.

  10. The 2013-2014 Effusive Eruption of Sinabung Volcano, Sumatra, Indonesia: Satellite Thermal Observations and Ground-Based Photogrammetry of a Growing Lava Lobe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, B. B.; Vanderkluysen, L.; Clarke, A. B.

    2014-12-01

    Sinabung is a 2460 m high andesitic volcano located in northern Sumatra, Indonesia. Sinabung had no confirmed historical activity until a small (VEI 2) explosive eruption in August-September 2010. In September 2013, explosions began again and were accompanied by lava dome growth and subsequent dome-collapse generated pyroclastic flows (Bulletin of the Global Volcanism Network 35:07; 39:01). The Center for Volcanology and Geological Hazard Mitigation (Indonesia) estimated dome growth at 3.5 m3/s in late December 2013. From January to March 2014 lava extrusion continued and formed a lobe down Sinabung's south flank. As of this writing, effusion and growth of the lava lobe continues, but at a much slower rate. Pyroclastic flows generated by collapse of the steep sides of the lobe remain a hazard. We use thermal infrared (TIR) images from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiomter (MODIS) to observe volcanic activity at Sinabung during the 2013-2014 eruption and estimate effusion rates following the methods of Harris & Ripepe (2007, Geophys. Res. Let. 34). We also use new analysis of those thermal images to characterize style of activity, distinguishing pyroclastic flow activity from pure lava lobe growth. Preliminary results from satellite images show an average effusion rate of 1.1 m3/s during January-March 2014, with peak effusion rates from individual TIR images of 4-7 m3/s in mid-January. These numbers are in good agreement with the ground-based estimates, and they provide improved temporal resolution of the activity as it evolved. Since March, effusion rates have decreased to below 0.01 m3/s on average. Using the MODIS images, we estimate the maximum possible total erupted volume to be 7 million m3, and have constrained the accuracy of this estimate using Structure-from-Motion (SfM) photogrammetry from ground-based visual images of the lava lobe. Following explosions in 2010 and 2013 and high effusion rates from January to March 2014, the ongoing slow

  11. Effect of 3-D viscoelastic structure on post-seismic relaxation from the 2004 M = 9.2 Sumatra earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.; Banerjee, P.; Grijalva, K.; Nagarajan, B.; Burgmann, R.

    2008-01-01

    The 2004 M=9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake profoundly altered the state of stress in a large volume surrounding the ???1400 km long rupture. Induced mantle flow fields and coupled surface deformation are sensitive to the 3-D rheology structure. To predict the post-seismic motions from this earthquake, relaxation of a 3-D spherical viscoelastic earth model is simulated using the theory of coupled normal modes. The quasi-static deformation basis set and solution on the 3-D model is constructed using: a spherically stratified viscoelastic earth model with a linear stress-strain relation; an aspherical perturbation in viscoelastic structure; a 'static'mode basis set consisting of Earth's spheroidal and toroidal free oscillations; a "viscoelastic" mode basis set; and interaction kernels that describe the coupling among viscoelastic and static modes. Application to the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake illustrates the profound modification of the post-seismic flow field at depth by a slab structure and similarly large effects on the near-field post-seismic deformation field at Earth's surface. Comparison with post-seismic GPS observations illustrates the extent to which viscoelastic relaxation contributes to the regional post-seismic deformation. ?? Journal compilation ?? 2008 RAS.

  12. Seismicity in Andaman - Nicobar - Java - Sumatra Region and its Bearing on the Volcanism in the Region, With Special Reference to the Barren Island.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alam, M.; Chandrasekharam, D.

    2005-12-01

    Barren Island volcano in the Andaman Sea (Indian Ocean) is the lone active volcano in the Indian Subcontinent. The island showed renewed activity (commenced from May 28, 2005) after the great earthquake of Sumatra (December 26, 2004) along with increased mud volcanism in Bartang (south of Barren Island) and first ever reported mud volcanism on Narcondum (north of Barren Island) in the Andaman-Nicobar Archipelago. These islands lie on a volcanic arc that extends from the extinct volcanoes like Mt. Popa, Mt. Wuntho of Myanmar in the north to the active volcanoes of Sumatra and Java in the south. Regional tectonism of this region is largely driven by the subduction of the Indo-Australian plate beneath the Asian (Burmese) plate. Regional seismicity pattern reflects different tectonic regimes, namely, thrust dominated subduction front, strike-slip faulting (west Andaman fault) and the extensional processes in the Andaman spreading center. Earthquakes of magnitude more than 4.5 on Richter Scale are quite frequent in the region and are related to the subduction-related processes. Continuous seismic activities in the Andaman-Nicobar-Java-Sumatra region cannot be dealt with separately as evident from the increased volcanic activities following the great earthquake of Sumatra. More recently increased seismic activity in the vicinity of the dormant volcano of Mt. Toba is very much likely to culminate in a catastrophic eruption of this volcano in near future.

  13. Impact of The N - S Fracture Zone Along The Indo-Australia Plate Analyzed from Local Seismic Data In The Western Offshore of Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haridhi, H. A.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Huang, B. S.; Lee, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    Large subduction earthquake have repeatedly occurred along the Sumatra and Andaman subduction zones where the Indo-Australia plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian plate. We have analyzed earthquake data from local seismic network along the Sumatra region that provided by the Meteorology Climatology Geophysical Agencies of Indonesia (MCGAI), giving a reliable P-wave velocity model by using joint inversion of picked P-wave travel time using VELEST and a re-scanned single channel seismic reflection of Sumatra cruise I and II. As much as 1,503 events are being analyzed, that is from two years and three months of data recording (2009/04 - 2011/07). The VELEST and DD technique are used to relocate all events by forcing the obtained velocity model. It is found that the surface deformation and earthquake cluster are strongly influenced by the impact of an N - S subparalel fracture zone along the Indo-Australia plate. This also explains the seismic gaps along the Sumatra and Andaman subduction zones. So far, the intriguing seismogenic behaviour and forearc structure are not well explained by the existing models. Therefore, the planned IODP Expedition 362 is trying to ground truth the scientific questions. The aftershock earthquake data are huge, but they will provide a gateway to help the understanding of this shallow megathrust slip and reduce its devastated harzards.

  14. Variability of raindrop size distribution over Sumatra and its effect on the Z-R relationship

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzuki, Marzuki; Randeu, W. L.; Kozu, T.; Shimomai, T.; Hashiguchi, H.; Schoenhuber, M.

    2010-05-01

    A systematic and intensive analysis is performed on 2 years (2006-2007) of two-dimensional video distrometer (2DVD) data to re-investigate the variability of raindrop size distributions (DSDs) over Sumatra and their impact on the radar reflectivity (Z) to rainfall rate (R) conversion. Linear regression on log-transformed values both R over Z (LREG1) and Z over R (LREG2), minimizing the root mean square difference (RMSD), and probability matching method (PMM) are used to calculate the coefficient A and exponent b of the Z - R relationship. The sequential intensity filtering technique (SIFT) and sorting and averaging based on two parameters (SATP) are used to minimizes the effect of the spurious variability on 2DVD data. From a whole dataset, the Z - R relationship before (and after) the filtering procedure are Z = 155R1.54 (153R1.55), Z = 166R1.40 (191R1.40), Z = 158R1.47 (171R1.47), Z = 204R1.41 (314R1.31), for LREG1, LREG2, PMM, RMSD respectively. It is found that SATP (SIFT) increase (decrease) the coefficient A, in comparison with the values estimated from non-filtered data. During 2006-2007, we analyzed 385 rain events. Of 385 Z - R relations, the diurnal variation is observed, consistent with previous results. A-coefficients during 00-06, 06-12, 12-18 and 18-24 local time (LT) are in an interval of 98-249 (86 % of the values < 200), 93-220 (99 % of the values < 200), 98-283 (87 % of the values < 200) and 88-301 (89 % of the values < 200), respectively. Other scales (seasonal, intraseasonal, rain type, time average, rainfall rate threshold) of the DSD variability and their effect on rainfall intensity R estimation from radar reflectivity Z are explored in terms of bias and random errors. In addition, we also discussed the effect of binning procedure of 2DVD data on the Z - R relation. Physical processes leading to the formation of DSDs are then classified according to the vertical structure of radar data as measured by a 1.3GHz wind profiler collocated with the

  15. Faecal cortisol metabolites in Bengal (Panthera tigris tigris) and Sumatran tigers (Panthera tigris sumatrae).

    PubMed

    Narayan, Edward J; Parnell, Tempe; Clark, Giles; Martin-Vegue, Patrick; Mucci, Al; Hero, Jean-Marc

    2013-12-01

    The tiger (Panthera tigris) faces a great risk of extinction as its wild numbers have plummeted due to poaching and habitat destruction so ex-situ conservation programs are becoming ever more necessary. Reliable non-invasive biomarkers of the stress hormone (cortisol) are necessary for assessing the health and welfare of tigers in captivity. To our knowledge, non-invasive stress endocrinology methods have not been tested as widely in tigers. The first aim of this study was to describe and validate a faecal cortisol metabolite enzyme-immmunoassay (FCM EIA) for two tiger sub-species, the Bengal tiger (Panthera tigris tigris) and the Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae). Individual tigers (n=22) were studied in two large Zoos in Queensland, Australia (Dreamworld Theme Park and Australia Zoo). Fresh faecal samples (<12 h old) were collected each morning from both Zoos over a study period of 21 days. Biological validation was conducted separately by collecting feces 5 days before and 5 days after blood was taken from four male and five female tigers. Results showed that mean FCM levels increased by 138% and 285% in the male and female tigers within 1 day after bloods were taken, returning to baseline in 5 days. Laboratory validations of the FCM EIA were done using an extraction efficiency test and parallelism. Results showed >89% recovery of the cortisol standard that was added to tiger faecal extract. We also obtained parallel displacement of the serially diluted cortisol standard against serially diluted tiger faecal extract. Our second aim was to determine whether the FCM levels were significantly different between tiger sub-species and sex. Results showed no significant difference in mean FCM levels between the Bengal and Sumatran tiger sub-species. Mean levels of FCMs were significantly higher in females than in male tigers. Those male and female tigers with reported health issues during the study period expressed higher FCM levels than the reportedly healthy

  16. Large scale dynamic rupture scenario of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman megathrust earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulrich, Thomas; Madden, Elizabeth H.; Wollherr, Stephanie; Gabriel, Alice A.

    2016-04-01

    The Great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of 26 December 2004 is one of the strongest and most devastating earthquakes in recent history. Most of the damage and the ~230,000 fatalities were caused by the tsunami generated by the Mw 9.1-9.3 event. Various finite-source models of the earthquake have been proposed, but poor near-field observational coverage has led to distinct differences in source characterization. Even the fault dip angle and depth extent are subject to debate. We present a physically realistic dynamic rupture scenario of the earthquake using state-of-the-art numerical methods and seismotectonic data. Due to the lack of near-field observations, our setup is constrained by the overall characteristics of the rupture, including the magnitude, propagation speed, and extent along strike. In addition, we incorporate the detailed geometry of the subducting fault using Slab1.0 to the south and aftershock locations to the north, combined with high-resolution topography and bathymetry data.The possibility of inhomogeneous background stress, resulting from the curved shape of the slab along strike and the large fault dimensions, is discussed. The possible activation of thrust faults splaying off the megathrust in the vicinity of the hypocenter is also investigated. Dynamic simulation of this 1300 to 1500 km rupture is a computational and geophysical challenge. In addition to capturing the large-scale rupture, the simulation must resolve the process zone at the rupture tip, whose characteristic length is comparable to smaller earthquakes and which shrinks with propagation distance. Thus, the fault must be finely discretised. Moreover, previously published inversions agree on a rupture duration of ~8 to 10 minutes, suggesting an overall slow rupture speed. Hence, both long temporal scales and large spatial dimensions must be captured. We use SeisSol, a software package based on an ADER-DG scheme solving the spontaneous dynamic earthquake rupture problem with high

  17. Coral 13C/12C records of vertical seafloor displacement during megathrust earthquakes west of Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gagan, Michael K.; Sosdian, Sindia M.; Scott-Gagan, Heather; Sieh, Kerry; Hantoro, Wahyoe S.; Natawidjaja, Danny H.; Briggs, Richard W.; Suwargadi, Bambang W.; Rifai, Hamdi

    2015-12-01

    The recent surge of megathrust earthquakes and tsunami disasters has highlighted the need for a comprehensive understanding of earthquake cycles along convergent plate boundaries. Space geodesy has been used to document recent crustal deformation patterns with unprecedented precision, however the production of long paleogeodetic records of vertical seafloor motion is still a major challenge. Here we show that carbon isotope ratios (δ13C) in the skeletons of massive Porites corals from west Sumatra record abrupt changes in light exposure resulting from coseismic seafloor displacements. Validation of the method is based on the coral δ13C response to uplift (and subsidence) produced by the March 2005 Mw 8.6 Nias-Simeulue earthquake, and uplift further south around Sipora Island during a M ∼ 8.4 megathrust earthquake in February 1797. At Nias, the average step-change in coral δ13C was 0.6 ± 0.1 ‰ /m for coseismic displacements of +1.8 m and -0.4 m in 2005. At Sipora, a distinct change in Porites microatoll growth morphology marks coseismic uplift of 0.7 m in 1797. In this shallow water setting, with a steep light attenuation gradient, the step-change in microatoll δ13C is 2.3 ‰ /m, nearly four times greater than for the Nias Porites. Considering the natural variability in coral skeletal δ13C, we show that the lower detection limit of the method is around 0.2 m of vertical seafloor motion. Analysis of vertical displacement for well-documented earthquakes suggests this sensitivity equates to shallow events exceeding Mw ∼ 7.2 in central megathrust and back-arc thrust fault settings. Our findings indicate that the coral 13C /12C paleogeodesy technique could be applied to convergent tectonic margins throughout the tropical western Pacific and eastern Indian oceans, which host prolific coral reefs, and some of the world's greatest earthquake catastrophes. While our focus here is the link between coral δ13C, light exposure and coseismic crustal deformation, the

  18. Reconstruction of the slip distributions in historical earthquakes on the Sunda megathrust, W. Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nic Bhloscaidh, Mairéad; McCloskey, John; Naylor, Mark; Murphy, Shane; Lindsay, Anthony

    2015-08-01

    Spatially heterogeneous inversions for the slip in major earthquakes are typically only available for modern, instrumentally recorded events. Stress reconstructions on active faults, which are potentially vital elements of earthquake hazard assessment, are usually based on one or two instrumental inversions and some semi-quantitative information concerning historical seismic activity. Here we develop a new Bayesian Monte Carlo inversion method for sparse, large uncertainty data, such as is available for many historical earthquakes. We use it to reconstruct the slip in two great historical earthquakes on the Sunda megathrust, from 200 yr of paleogeodetic data recorded in the stratigraphy of coral microatolls on the forearc islands. The technique is based on the stochastic forward modelling of many slip distributions, which are constrained by the observed fractal scaling in the slip field. A set of static elastic Green's functions is used to estimate the vertical displacement at the coral locations resulting from each trial slip distribution. The posterior expected value of the slip and its variance are obtained from the average of the trial slips, weighted by their ability to reproduce the coral displacements. We successfully test the method on a synthetic slip distribution, before applying it to reconstruct the slip in a recent, instrumentally recorded event. We then invert for the great 1797 and 1833 megathrust events under the Mentawai Islands west of Sumatra. When compared with the slip distributions in recent earthquakes, our results unambiguously indicate that the sequence is not consistent with the classic characteristic earthquake model; earthquakes tend to incrementally tessellate the active fault plane rather than repeatedly breaking a segment of it. The results indicate that homogeneous loading of a fault with heterogeneous initial stress is enough to explain the observations on the Mentawai segment of the Sunda megathrust; no time dependence of material

  19. Coral 13C/12C records of vertical seafloor displacement during megathrust earthquakes west of Sumatra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gagan, Michael K.; Sosdian, Sindia M.; Scott-Gagan, Heather; Sieh, Kerry; Hantoro, Wahyoe S.; Natawidjaja, Danny H.; Briggs, Richard W.; Suwargadi, Bambang W.; Rifai, Hamdi

    2015-01-01

    The recent surge of megathrust earthquakes and tsunami disasters has highlighted the need for a comprehensive understanding of earthquake cycles along convergent plate boundaries. Space geodesy has been used to document recent crustal deformation patterns with unprecedented precision, however the production of long paleogeodetic records of vertical seafloor motion is still a major challenge. Here we show that carbon isotope ratios () in the skeletons of massive Porites   corals from west Sumatra record abrupt changes in light exposure resulting from coseismic seafloor displacements. Validation of the method is based on the coral  response to uplift (and subsidence) produced by the March 2005 Mw 8.6 Nias–Simeulue earthquake, and uplift further south around Sipora Island during a M∼8.4 megathrust earthquake in February 1797. At Nias, the average step-change in coral  was 0.6±0.1‰/m for coseismic displacements of +1.8 m and −0.4 m in 2005. At Sipora, a distinct change in Porites  microatoll growth morphology marks coseismic uplift of 0.7 m in 1797. In this shallow water setting, with a steep light attenuation gradient, the step-change in microatoll  is2.3‰/m, nearly four times greater than for the Nias Porites  . Considering the natural variability in coral skeletal , we show that the lower detection limit of the method is around 0.2 m of vertical seafloor motion. Analysis of vertical displacement for well-documented earthquakes suggests this sensitivity equates to shallow events exceedingMw∼7.2 in central megathrust and back-arc thrust fault settings. Our findings indicate that the coral  paleogeodesy technique could be applied to convergent tectonic margins throughout the tropical western Pacific and eastern Indian oceans, which host prolific coral reefs, and some of the world's greatest earthquake catastrophes. While our focus here is the link between coral , light exposure and coseismic crustal deformation, the same principles

  20. Deterioration of soil fertility by land use changes in South Sumatra, Indonesia: from 1970 to 1990

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lumbanraja, Jamalam; Syam, Tamaluddin; Nishide, Hiroyo; Kabul Mahi, Ali; Utomo, Muhajir; Sarno; Kimura, Makoto

    1998-10-01

    We monitored the land use changes in a hilly area of West Lampung, South Sumatra, Indonesia, from 1970 to 1990. The main data sources were the land use maps produced in 1970, 1978, 1984 and 1990 covering the area of 27 km×27 km. Transmigration and the resultant effect of increased population were the major driving forces in land use changes. Fifty-seven per cent of the study area was covered with primary forests in 1970, but only 13% in 1990. Areas under plantations, which were absent in 1970, increased to 60% in 1990. In addition, the change from monoculture plantations (mostly coffee plantation) to mixed plantations was noticeable from 1984 to 1990. Total upland areas including upland areas under shifting cultivation and upland fields with crops and vegetables decreased from 21% in 1970 to 0·1% in 1990. Soil chemical properties (total organic C, total N, available P, total P, exchangeable cations, cation exchangeable capacity (CEC), etc.) were analysed for lands under different land use forms after deforestation in the study area. Soil samples (surface layers, 0-20 cm, and subsurface layers, 20-40 cm) were collected from three different locations, each comprised of four different land use systems: i.e. primary forests, secondary forests, coffee plantations and cultivated lands. The contents of total organic C, total N, available P, total P, exchangeable cations and CEC decreased significantly with land use change from primary forests to the other land use forms. Cultivated lands exhibited the lowest values. Although less remarkable than in the surface layers, the amounts of total organic C, total N, total P, exchangeable cations and CEC were also decreased by forest clearing in the subsurface layers.Based on the land use changes from 1978 in the study area and the deterioration of soil chemical properties by forest clearing, total decreases in the amounts of nutrients in the surface and subsurface layers were estimated. The land use changes were estimated to

  1. Genetics Home Reference: Northern epilepsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Understand Genetics Home Health Conditions Northern epilepsy Northern epilepsy Enable Javascript to view the expand/collapse boxes. Download PDF Open All Close All Description Northern epilepsy is a genetic condition that causes recurrent seizures ( ...

  2. From Sumatra 2004 to Tuhoku-Oki 2011: what we learn about Tsunami detection by ionospheric sounding.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Occhipinti, G.; Rolland, L. M.; Watada, S.; Coisson, P.; Aden-Antoniow, F.; Bablet, A.; Lognonne, P. H.; Makela, J. J.

    2015-12-01

    The recent tsunamigenic Tohoku earthquake (2011) strongly affirms, again, after the 26 December 2004, the necessity to open new paradigms in oceanic monitoring. Detection of ionospheric anomalies following the Sumatra earthquake tsunami (e.g., Occhipinti et al. 2006) demonstrated that ionosphere is sensitive to earthquake and tsunami propagation: ground and oceanic vertical displacement induces acoustic-gravity waves propagating within the neutral atmosphere and detectable in the ionosphere. Observations supported by modelling proved that tsunamigenic ionospheric anomalies are deterministic and reproducible by numerical modeling via the ocean/neutral-atmosphere/ionosphere coupling mechanism (Occhipinti et al., 2008). To prove that the tsunami signature in the ionosphere is routinely detected we show here perturbations of total electron content (TEC) measured by GPS and following tsunamigenic eartquakes from 2004 to 2010 (Rolland et al. 2010, Occhipinti et al., 2013), nominally, Sumatra (26 December, 2004 and 12 September, 2007), Chile (14 November, 2007), Samoa (29 September, 2009) and the recent Tohoku-Oki (11 Mars, 2011). In addition to GPS/TEC observations close to the epicenter and measured by GEONET network, new exciting measurements in the far-field were performed by Airglow measurement in Hawaii: those measurements show the propagation of the IGWs induced by the Tohoku tsunami in the Pacific Ocean (Occhipinti et al., 2011). Based on the observations close to the epicenter, mainly performed by GPS networks located in Sumatra, Chile and Japan, we highlight the TEC perturbation observed within the first hour after the seismic rupture. This perturbation contains informations about the ground displacement, as well as the consequent sea surface displacement resulting in the tsunami. In this talk we present all this new tsunami observations in the ionosphere and we discuss, under the light of modelling, the potential role of ionospheric sounding in the oceanic

  3. The energy radiated by the 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake estimated from 10-minute P-wave windows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Choy, G.L.; Boatwright, J.

    2007-01-01

    The rupture process of the Mw 9.1 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake lasted for approximately 500 sec, nearly twice as long as the teleseismic time windows between the P and PP arrival times generally used to compute radiated energy. In order to measure the P waves radiated by the entire earthquake, we analyze records that extend from the P-wave to the S-wave arrival times from stations at distances ?? >60??. These 8- to 10-min windows contain the PP, PPP, and ScP arrivals, along with other multiply reflected phases. To gauge the effect of including these additional phases, we form the spectral ratio of the source spectrum estimated from extended windows (between TP and TS) to the source spectrum estimated from normal windows (between TP and TPP). The extended windows are analyzed as though they contained only the P-pP-sP wave group. We analyze four smaller earthquakes that occurred in the vicinity of the Mw 9.1 mainshock, with similar depths and focal mechanisms. These smaller events range in magnitude from an Mw 6.0 aftershock of 9 January 2005 to the Mw 8.6 Nias earthquake that occurred to the south of the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake on 28 March 2005. We average the spectral ratios for these four events to obtain a frequency-dependent operator for the extended windows. We then correct the source spectrum estimated from the extended records of the 26 December 2004 mainshock to obtain a complete or corrected source spectrum for the entire rupture process (???600 sec) of the great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. Our estimate of the total seismic energy radiated by this earthquake is 1.4 ?? 1017 J. When we compare the corrected source spectrum for the entire earthquake to the source spectrum from the first ???250 sec of the rupture process (obtained from normal teleseismic windows), we find that the mainshock radiated much more seismic energy in the first half of the rupture process than in the second half, especially over the period range from 3 sec to 40 sec.

  4. Geophysics: The size and duration of the Sumatra-Andaman earthquake from far-field static offsets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Banerjee, P.; Pollitz, F.F.; Burgmann, R.

    2005-01-01

    The 26 December 2004 Sumatra earthquake produced static offsets at continuously operating GPS stations at distances of up to 4500 kilometers from the epicenter. We used these displacements to model the earthquake and include consideration of the Earth's shape and depth-varying rigidity. The results imply that the average slip was >5 meters along the full length of the rupture, including the ???650-kilometer-long Andaman segment. Comparison of the source derived from the far-field static offsets with seismically derived estimates suggests that 25 to 35% of the total moment release occurred at periods greater than 1 hour. Taking into consideration the strong dip dependence of moment estimates, the magnitude of the earthquake did not exceed Mw = 9.2.

  5. The first geophilid centipedes from Malesia: a new genus with two new species from Sumatra (Chilopoda, Geophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Bonato, Lucio; Klarner, Bernhard; Widyastuti, Rahayu; Scheu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract A new genus Sundageophilus is here described for two new species of geophilid centipedes (Chilopoda: Geophilidae) from Sumatra, Indonesia. Both Sundageophilus bidentatus sp. n. and Sundageophilus poriger sp. n. feature a minute body size (less than 1 cm long with 31–35 pairs of legs), a similar structure of the maxillae, elongated forcipules, and few coxal organs. Sundageophilus bidentatus is unique among geophilids because the ultimate article of the forcipule is armed with two conspicuous denticles, one dorsal to the other, instead of a single one or none. The two species of Sundageophilus are the first genuine Geophilidae ever found in Malesia, and among the very few representatives of this family in the entire south-eastern Asia. PMID:27551212

  6. No evidence of unusually large postseismic deformation in Andaman region immediately after 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahalaut, V. K.; Catherine, J. K.; Jade, Sridevi; Gireesh, R.; Gupta, D. C.; Narsaiah, M.; Ambikapathy, A.; Bansal, A.; Chadha, R. K.

    2008-05-01

    Static offsets due to the 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake have been reported from the campaign mode GPS measurements in the Andaman-Nicobar region. However, these measurements contain contributions from postseismic deformation that must have occurred in the 16-25 days period between the earthquake and the measurements. We analyse these and tide gauge measurements of coseismic deformation, a longer time series of postseismic deformation from GPS measurements at Port Blair in the South Andaman and aftershocks, to suggest that postseismic displacement not larger than 7 cm occurred in the 16-25 days following the earthquake in the South Andaman and probably elsewhere in the Andaman Nicobar region. Earlier, this contribution was estimated to be as large as 1 m in the Andaman region, which implied that the magnitude of the earthquake based on these campaign mode measurements should be decreased. We suggest an Mw for this earthquake as 9.23.

  7. Contrasting décollement and prism properties over the Sumatra 2004-2005 earthquake rupture boundary.

    PubMed

    Dean, Simon M; McNeill, Lisa C; Henstock, Timothy J; Bull, Jonathan M; Gulick, Sean P S; Austin, James A; Bangs, Nathan L B; Djajadihardja, Yusuf S; Permana, Haryadi

    2010-07-01

    Styles of subduction zone deformation and earthquake rupture dynamics are strongly linked, jointly influencing hazard potential. Seismic reflection profiles across the trench west of Sumatra, Indonesia, show differences across the boundary between the major 2004 and 2005 plate interface earthquakes, which exhibited contrasting earthquake rupture and tsunami generation. In the southern part of the 2004 rupture, we interpret a negative-polarity sedimentary reflector approximately 500 meters above the subducting oceanic basement as the seaward extension of the plate interface. This predécollement reflector corresponds to unusual prism structure, morphology, and seismogenic behavior that are absent along the 2005 rupture zone. Although margins like the 2004 rupture zone are globally rare, our results suggest that sediment properties influence earthquake rupture, tsunami hazard, and prism development at subducting plate boundaries. PMID:20616276

  8. Syphacia (Syphacia) maxomyos sp. n. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from Maxomys spp. (Rodentia: Muridae) from Sulawesi and Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Dewi, Kartika; Hasegawa, Hideo; Fitriana, Yuli Sulistya; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko

    2015-10-01

    The present report describes Syphacia (Syphacia) maxomyos sp. n. (Nematoda: Oxyuridae) from two species of spiny rats, Maxomys musschenbroekii from Sulawesi and M. whiteheadi from Sumatra. It is characterized by a cephalic plate extending laterally with dorsoventral constriction and stumpy eggs with an operculum rim reaching pole. It is readily distinguishable by the former feature from all of hitherto known representatives of this genus in Indonesia, but it resembles parasites in Murini and Hydromyni rodents in continental Asia and Sahul. This is the first Syphacia species distributed in both the Sunda Shelf and Sulawesi with the exception of Syphacia muris, a cosmopolitan pinworm found in rodents of the of genus Rattus. It is surmised that S. maxomyos is specific to Maxomys and that it was introduced to Sulawesi by dispersal of some Maxomys from the Sunda Shelf. PMID:26062434

  9. Slow postseismic recovery of geoid depression formed by the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake by mantle water diffusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, Ryoko; Heki, Kosuke

    2007-03-01

    Earthquakes are accompanied with mass redistributions and cause changes in gravity field and shape of geoid, an equipotential surface coincident with the mean sea surface. Such coseismic changes were detected by satellite gravimetry after the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake, but little has been known on what happens on geoid after the earthquake. Here we report slow postseismic recovery of coseismic geoid depression from satellite measurements. This cannot be explained with simple afterslip or viscous relaxation of Maxwellian upper mantle. It suggests the relaxation of coseismic dilatation and compression by the diffusion of supercritical H2O abundant in the upper mantle. Such a self-healing system of coseismic geoid undulations, a brand-new role of water in mantle, would significantly reduce the amount of permanent shifts of the Earth's rotation axis by earthquakes.

  10. Postseismic self-healing of geoid undulations by water after the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake observed with GRACE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogawa, R.; Heki, K.

    2007-12-01

    Earthquakes are accompanied with mass redistributions and cause changes in gravity field and shape of geoid, an equipotential surface coincident with the mean sea surface. Such coseismic changes were detected by satellite gravimetry after the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake, but little has been known on what happens on geoid after the earthquake. Here we report slow postseismic recovery of coseismic geoid depression from satellite measurements. This cannot be explained with simple afterslip or viscous relaxation of Maxwellian upper mantle. It suggests the relaxation of coseismic dilatation and compression by the diffusion of supercritical H2O abundant in the upper mantle. Such a self-healing system of coseismic geoid undulations, a brand- new role of water in mantle, would significantly reduce the amount of permanent shifts of the Earth's rotation axis by earthquakes.

  11. The first geophilid centipedes from Malesia: a new genus with two new species from Sumatra (Chilopoda, Geophilidae).

    PubMed

    Bonato, Lucio; Klarner, Bernhard; Widyastuti, Rahayu; Scheu, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    A new genus Sundageophilus is here described for two new species of geophilid centipedes (Chilopoda: Geophilidae) from Sumatra, Indonesia. Both Sundageophilus bidentatus sp. n. and Sundageophilus poriger sp. n. feature a minute body size (less than 1 cm long with 31-35 pairs of legs), a similar structure of the maxillae, elongated forcipules, and few coxal organs. Sundageophilus bidentatus is unique among geophilids because the ultimate article of the forcipule is armed with two conspicuous denticles, one dorsal to the other, instead of a single one or none. The two species of Sundageophilus are the first genuine Geophilidae ever found in Malesia, and among the very few representatives of this family in the entire south-eastern Asia. PMID:27551212

  12. Triggered tectonic tremor in various types of fault systems of Japan following the 2012 Mw8.6 Sumatra earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Kevin; Obara, Kazushige

    2016-01-01

    Tectonic tremor, an extremely stress-sensitive seismic phenomenon occurring in the brittle-ductile transition section of a fault, is associated with the shearing mechanism of slow slip. Observations of triggered tremor can facilitate the evaluation of the existence of background ambient tremor and slow-slip events. This paper presents widespread triggered tremor sources in Japan initiated by the surface waves of the 2012 Mw8.6 Sumatra earthquake on strike-slip and thrust faults, in the deep volcanic low-frequency earthquake active area, in the shallow tectonic tremor and very low frequency earthquake active regions, and in the subduction zone. In most regions, the amplitudes of triggered tremor are generally logarithmically proportional to the dynamic stress caused by various triggering earthquakes. Our observations suggest that triggered tremor in the newly discovered sources is the result of a more rapid rate of background ambient tremor, and evidence has suggested the existence of ambient tremor in some regions.

  13. Decade-scale decrease in b value prior to the M9-class 2011 Tohoku and 2004 Sumatra quakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanjo, K. Z.; Hirata, N.; Obara, K.; Kasahara, K.

    2012-10-01

    The Gutenberg-Richter frequency-magnitude distribution of earthquakes has become well established in seismology. The slope of the relation between frequency and magnitude (b value) is typically 1, but it often shows variations around 1. Based on an analysis of seismicity prior to the 2011 Tohoku and 2004 Sumatra earthquakes (both in magnitude (M) 9 class), we show that the pronounced decade-scale decrease in b value was a common precursor to both mega-quakes around their hypocenters. This is the first report on M9-class quakes to confirm a change in b value, which has been predicted based on the results of laboratory experiments. We propose that the b value is an important indicator of an impending great earthquake, and has great potential in terms of predicting a future large quake off the Pacific coast of Hokkaido, Japan.

  14. Translating Developing Science into Public Awareness and Social Organisation in W. Sumatra.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shannon, R.; McDowell, S.; McCloskey, J.

    2009-04-01

    Social idiosyncrasies confounding cross-cultural scientific interventions on an intra-regional and international scale continue to blight the positive benefits robust science offers to vulnerable communities inhabiting areas prone to natural hazards. The sustained malice inflicted by these phenomena upon socioeconomic systems epitomises the perilous task facing mitigation bodies attempting to communicate scientific forecasts and interweave technical knowledge into social policy internationally. This quandary continues to confront disaster officials and scientists in Sumatra. Palaeoseismological studies, coupled with a developing understanding of stress transference between earthquakes, reveal that the Mentawai segment of the Sumatran forearc is the most plausible candidate for future rupture. Simulations of tsunami propagation and inundation illustrate that the coastal regions of western Sumatran, inhabited by approximately 2 million people, lie in immediate mortal threat. Many Sumatrans' live with stark memories of the 1600 km megathrust rupture in December 2004, which spawned one of the worst global natural atrocities of recent time. The earthquake accelerated collaboration between seismologists, geophysicists and geologists and has produced unrivalled advances in understanding fault locations, geometries and potential rupture characteristics of the Sumatran forearc. Nowhere else on earth are scientists more aware of the impending threat of another magnitude 8+ megathrust earthquake. However with the twenty-first century being tainted by natural disasters which have typified the blatantly ambiguous linkages which exist between science and society, assessing to what extent this notion is exemplified in the Sumatran context is imperative. Here we begin to present the results from a social survey, conducted in the Sumatran cities of Padang and Bengkulu between May and September 2008. The campaign sought to dissect the broader societal complexities and moral values

  15. Sedimentary Signature of the 26 December 2004 Mega Tsunami on the Eastern Coast of Banda Aceh, Indonesia P. Wassmer, F. Lavigne, J. Sartohadi, Ph. Baumert, R. Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wassmer, P. C.; Franck, L.; Sartohadi, J.; Baumert, P.; Paris, R.

    2007-05-01

    The eastern part of Banda Aceh was hit by a series of waves with flow depth measured up to 15 meters. In the Kajuh district, at least seven waves were observed by eyewitnesses. They emplaced sand deposits up to 80cm in thickness. We carried out a sedimentological study of these deposits along a 2km long transect oriented according to the main run up flow direction. The sedimentary signature of the tsunami moving landward shows a succession of sequences of normally graded deposit, except for the ungraded basal layer. Close to the shoreline only one or two sequences can be observed. The number of sequences increases progressively landward to reach a maximum of seven up to 2km from the former shoreline. Further inland, the thickness of the deposits is very limited. The sequences are attributed to sediment pulses related to each new wave reaching our investigation sites. Each pulsation corresponds to the arrival of a wave front. The high turbulence led to the deposit of the coarse basal material of each sequence. At the end of each pulse the decreasing of the energy allowed deposition of the finer material. The basal layer, which is undoubtedly related to the first wave, seems to have been truncated by the second and highest wave. This explains the absence of the fine material at the top of the basal layer. Close to the shoreline, the high energy of each new wave, and probably of the backwash, may explain the small amount of sedimentary sequences.The energy decreasing 2km from the shoreline allows each wave to sign his passage, emplacing a new sequence. This sedimentary record is of high interest for its exceptional number of sequences rarely observed so far. Such recording is to be related to several factors: the succession of several high waves progressing far inland, the presence on the shore of a stock of heterometric sediments easily removable, a flat topography which reduced the turbulence of the incoming flows. However, we put in light the key role played by the

  16. Urban shear-wave reflection seismics: Reconstruction support by combined shallow seismic and engineering geology investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polom, U.; Guenther, A.; Arsyad, I.; Wiyono, P.; Krawczyk, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    After the big 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, the massive reconstruction activities in the Aceh province (Northern Sumatra) were promoted by the Republic of Indonesia and the Federal Ministry of Economic Cooperation and Development. The aims of the project MANGEONAD (Management of Georisk Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam). are to establish geoscientific on the ground support for a sustainable development and management of save building constructions, lifelines, infrastructure and also natural resources. Therefore, shallow shear-wave reflection seismics was applied in close combination to engineering geology investigations in the period between 2005-2009 since depth and internal structure of the Krueng Aceh River delta (mainly young alluvial sediments) were widely unknown. Due to the requirements in the densely populated Banda Aceh region, lacking also traffic infrastructure, a small and lightweight engineering seismic setup of high mobility and high subsurface resolution capability was chosen. The S-wave land streamer system with 48 channels was applied successfully together with the ELVIS vibratory source using S- and P-waves on paved roads within the city of Banda Aceh. The performance of the S-wave system enabled the detailed seismic investigation of the shallow subsurface down to 50-150 m depth generating shaking frequencies between 20 Hz to 200 Hz. This also provides depth information extending the maximum depths of boreholes and Standard Penetrometer Testings (SPT), which could only be applied to max. 20 m depth. To integrate the results gained from all three methods, and further to provide a fast statistical analysis tool for engineering use, the Information System Engineering Geology (ISEG, BGR) was developed. This geospatial information tool includes the seismic data, all borehole information, geotechnical SPT and laboratory results from samples available in the investigation area. Thereby, the geotechnical 3D analysis of the subsurface units is enabled. The

  17. On the taxonomy of the genera Proneca Swinhoe, 1890, Ctenane Swinhoe, 1905 and Selca Walker, 1866 (Lepidoptera, Nolidae, Nolinae), with the description of two new species from Sumatra.

    PubMed

    László, Gyula M; Ronkay, Gábor; Ronkay, László

    2015-01-01

    Present paper contains the characterisation of the genera Proneca Swinhoe, 1890, Ctenane Swinhoe, 1905, and Selca Walker, 1866, and their species, with the description of two new species, Proneca brunneostriata sp. n. and Ctenane         michaeli sp. n., from Sumatra. Two new combinations and a new synonymy are established. With 32 colour photos and 24 genitalia figures. PMID:26624747

  18. Distinction between the Youngest Toba Tuff and Oldest Toba Tuff from northern Sumatra based on the area density of spontaneous fission tracks in their glass shards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westgate, John A.; Pearce, Nicholas J. G.; Gatti, Emma; Achyuthan, Hema

    2014-09-01

    Determination of the area density of spontaneous fission tracks (ρs) in glass shards of Toba tephra is a reliable way to distinguish between the Youngest Toba Tuff (YTT) and the Oldest Toba Tuff (OTT). The ρs values for YTT, uncorrected for partial track fading, range from 70 to 181 tracks/cm2 with a weighted mean of 108 ± 5 tracks/cm2, based on 15 samples. Corrected ρs values for YTT are in the range of 77-140 tracks/cm2 with a weighted mean of 113 ± 8 tracks/cm2, within the range of uncorrected ρs values. No significant difference in ρs exists between YTT samples collected from marine and continental depositional settings. The uncorrected ρs for OTT is 1567 tracks/cm2 so that confusion with YTT is unlikely. The ρs values of the Toba tephra at Bori, Morgaon, and Gandhigram in northwestern India indicate a YTT identity, in agreement with geochemical data on their glass shards, the presence of multiple glass populations, and a glass fission-track age determination. Therefore, the view of others that OTT is present at these sites - and thereby indicates a Lower Pleistocene age for the associated Acheulean artifacts - is incorrect.

  19. Northern Plains 'Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    10 December 2004 The lower left (southwest) corner of this Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the location of a somewhat filled and buried meteor impact crater on the northern plains of Mars. The dark dots are boulders. A portion of a similar feature is seen in the upper right (northeast) corner of the image. This picture, showing landforms (including the odd mound north/northeast of the crater) that are typical of the martian northern lowland plains, was obtained as part of the MGS MOC effort to support the search for a landing site for the Phoenix Mars Scout lander. Phoenix will launch in 2007 and land on the northern plains in 2008. This image is located near 68.0oN, 227.4oW, and covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. The scene is illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  20. The 2004 Sumatra Earthquake Mw 9.3: Seismological and Geophysical Investigations in the Andaman-Nicobar Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, W. D.; Kayal, J.

    2007-05-01

    The December 26, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (MW 9.3) is the fourth largest event (M>9.0) in the world during the last 100 years. It occurred by thrust faulting on the interplate thrust zone of the subducting India plate and overriding Burma platelet. The main shock rupture, ~1300 km long and ~200 km wide, propagated from north of Sumatra to Andaman - Nicobar Islands; the slow rupture generated Tsunami which killed about 300,000 people. The epicenter of the earthquake is located at 3.90N and 94.260E with a focal depth at 28 km (USGS). This mega seismic event triggered giant tsunamis that devastated the coastal regions of Indonesia, Malaysia, Thailand, Sri Lanka, India, Maldives and even the east coast of Africa. The impact of the tsunami was quite severe in India, in the coasts of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The Air-base in the Car- Nicobar island was totally devastated by the tsunami and killed about 200 people. Macroseismic survey was carried out by different teams of GSI in North Andaman, Middle Andaman, South Andaman, Havelock Hut Bay and also in the Nicobar Islands. A maximum intensity VIII was recorded in the Andaman Islands. The mega thrust event was followed by an intense aftershock activity spreading over an area extending between 30-140N along the Andaman - Nicobar - Sumatra Island arc region. The aftershocks are distributed northwards from the epicenter of the main shock suggesting a unilateral rupture propagation. The aftershock (M >4.5) area covers a length of about 1300 km and a width of about 200 km, in a 'banana' shape. The national network (IMD) recorded almost all aftershocks M >5.0; about 350 were recorded till 31.01.2005. The Geological Survey of India (GSI) deployed six temporary seismograph stations in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and also in Havelok and Narkunda (volcanic) islands. About 20,000 aftershocks (M >3.0) were recorded until end of March, 2005. About 1000 aftershocks (M >3.0) located by the GSI network until January 31, 2005

  1. FACING NORTHEAST ACROSS NORTHERN END OF PARK TOWARDS ITS NORTHERN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    FACING NORTHEAST ACROSS NORTHERN END OF PARK TOWARDS ITS NORTHERN CORNER - Candler Park Historic District, Roughly bounded by Moreland, Dekalb, McLendon & Harold Avenues, Matthews Street & Clifton Terrace, Atlanta, Fulton County, GA

  2. Tsunami Source Model of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake inferred from Tide Gauge and Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Y.; Satake, K.

    2005-12-01

    The tsunami generation process of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake were estimated from the tsunami waveforms recorded on tide gauges and sea surface heights captured by satellite altimetry measurements over the Indian Ocean. The earthquake (0:58:53, 26, Dec., 2004, UTC), the largest in the last 40 years, caused devastating tsunami damages to the countries around the Indian Ocean. One of the important questions is the source length; the aftershocks were distributed along the Sunda trench for 1000 to 1200 km, from off northwestern part of Sumatra island through Nicobar islands to Andaman island, while seismic wave analyses indicate much shorter source length (several hundred km). We used instrumental data of this tsunami, tide gauges and sea surface heights. Tide gauge data have been collected by Global Sea Level Observing System (GLOSS). We have also used another tide gauges data for tsunami simulation analysis. Tsunami propagation was captured as sea surface heights of Jason-1 satellite altimetry measurements over the Indian Ocean for the first time (Gower, 2005). We numerically compute tsunami propagation on actually bathymetry. ETOPO2 (Smith and Sandwell, 1997), the gridded data of global ocean depth from bathymetry soundings and satellite gravity data, are less reliable in the shallow ocean. To improve the accuracy, we have digitized the charts near coasts and merged the digitized data with the ETOPO2 data. The long-wave equation and the equation of motion were numerically solved by finite-difference method (Satake, 1995). As the initial condition, a static deformation of seafloor has been calculated using rectangular fault model (Okada, 1985). The source region is divided into 22 subfaults. We fixed the size and geometry of each subfault, and varied the slip amount and rise time (or slip duration) for each subfault, and rupture velocity. Tsunami waveforms or Greens functions for each subfault were calculated for the rise times of 3, 10, 30 and 60 minutes

  3. Soil Nitrogen-Cycling Responses to Conversion of Lowland Forests to Oil Palm and Rubber Plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Allen, Kara; Corre, Marife D; Tjoa, Aiyen; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-01-01

    Rapid deforestation in Sumatra, Indonesia is presently occurring due to the expansion of palm oil and rubber production, fueled by an increasing global demand. Our study aimed to assess changes in soil-N cycling rates with conversion of forest to oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) plantations. In Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia, we selected two soil landscapes - loam and clay Acrisol soils - each with four land-use types: lowland forest and forest with regenerating rubber (hereafter, "jungle rubber") as reference land uses, and rubber and oil palm as converted land uses. Gross soil-N cycling rates were measured using the 15N pool dilution technique with in-situ incubation of soil cores. In the loam Acrisol soil, where fertility was low, microbial biomass, gross N mineralization and NH4+ immobilization were also low and no significant changes were detected with land-use conversion. The clay Acrisol soil which had higher initial fertility based on the reference land uses (i.e. higher pH, organic C, total N, effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) and base saturation) (P≤0.05-0.09) had larger microbial biomass and NH4+ transformation rates (P≤0.05) compared to the loam Acrisol soil. Conversion of forest and jungle rubber to rubber and oil palm in the clay Acrisol soil decreased soil fertility which, in turn, reduced microbial biomass and consequently decreased NH4+ transformation rates (P≤0.05-0.09). This was further attested by the correlation of gross N mineralization and microbial biomass N with ECEC, organic C, total N (R=0.51-0. 76; P≤0.05) and C:N ratio (R=-0.71 - -0.75, P≤0.05). Our findings suggest that the larger the initial soil fertility and N availability, the larger the reductions upon land-use conversion. Because soil N availability was dependent on microbial biomass, management practices in converted oil palm and rubber plantations should focus on enriching microbial biomass. PMID:26222690

  4. Preliminary Numerical Simulations of the September 12, 2007 Southern Sumatra Tsunami: Forward Modeling and Comparison With Publicly Available Tsunami Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonini, R.; Tinti, S.; Armigliato, A.; Pagnoni, G.; Zaniboni, F.

    2007-12-01

    An earthquake of magnitude Mw=8.4 (USGS source) was registered on September 12, 2007 offshore the southern coasts of Sumatra, Indonesia. The epicenter was located about 130 km offshore the city of Bengkulu. The earthquake generated a tsunami which, according to some preliminary surveys posted on the Internet by the Indonesian BMG, produced significant damage especially in a region north of Bengkulu, with maximum run-up of 3.6 m in Muko-Muko. The tsunami was also recorded by a number of "tsunameter" stations (including DART) all over the Indian Ocean, including some stations along the coast of Sumatra itself, like Padang. The aim of the present study is to perform some forward modeling of the tsunami and to try to put some constraints on the position and geometry of the causative fault. We basically follow a trial-and-error procedure by adopting some initial fault models, all sharing the same magnitude (provided by the Harvard Moment Tensor Solution), but being different as regards the position and the geometry, including possibly some slight variations of the focal parameters with respect to the solution provided by the Harvard CMT. For each fault choice, we simulate the ensuing tsunami and compare the obtained results with the available experimental data, and in particular with the available tide-gauge records in the Indian Ocean and the run-up measurements that will possibly be collected in the close future. As for the models adopted, we formulate the simple hypothesis that the tsunami initial condition coincides with the coseismic vertical displacement component of the ocean floor, which in turn is computed by means of the classical elastic half-space approach. The propagation of the tsunami is simulated through the numerical finite- differences code UBO-TSUFD, developed by the Tsunami Research Team at the University of Bologna (Italy), which solves the linear Navier-Stokes equations in the shallow-water approximation and in spherical coordinates, and is

  5. Systematic variation in anisotropy beneath the mantle wedge in the Java-Sumatra subduction system from shear-wave splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammond, J. O. S.; Wookey, J.; Kaneshima, S.; Inoue, H.; Yamashina, T.; Harjadi, P.

    2010-02-01

    The tectonic context of south-east Asia is dominated by subduction. One such major convergent boundary is the Java-Sunda trench, where the Australian-Indian plates are being subducted beneath the Eurasian plate. We measure shear-wave splitting in local and teleseismic data from 12 broadband stations across Sumatra and Java to study the anisotropic characteristics of this subduction system, which can provide important constraints on dynamical processes involved. Splitting in S-waves from local earthquakes between 75 and 300 km deep show roughly trench parallel fast directions, and with time-lags 0.1-1.3 s (92% ≤0.6 s). Splitting from deeper local events and SKS, however, shows larger time-lags (0.8-2.0 s) and significant variation in fast direction. In order to infer patterns of deformation in the slab we apply a hybrid modelling scheme. We raytrace through an isotropic subduction zone velocity model, obtaining event to station raypaths in the upper mantle. We then apply appropriately rotated olivine elastic constants to various parts of the subduction zone, and predict the shear-wave splitting accrued along the raypath. Finally, we perform grid searches for orientation of deformation, and attempt to minimise the misfit between predicted and observed shear-wave splitting. Splitting from the shallow local events is best explained by anisotropy confined to a 40 km over-riding plate with horizontal, trench parallel deformation. However, in order to explain the larger lag times from SKS and deeper events, we must consider an additional region of seismic anisotropy in or around the slab. The slab geometry in the model is constrained by seismicity and regional tomography models, and many SKS raypaths travel large distances within the slab. Models placing anisotropy in the slab produce smaller misfits than those with anisotropy outside for most stations. There is a strong indication that inferred flow directions are different for sub-Sumatran stations than for sub

  6. Hydrothermal minerals and microstructures in the Silangkitang geothermal field along the Great Sumatran fault zone, Sumatra, Indonesia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Diane E.; Hickman, S.; Lockner, D.A.; Dobson, P.F.

    2001-01-01

    Detailed study of core samples of silicic tuff recovered from three geothermal wells along the strike-slip Great Sumatran fault zone near Silangkitang, North Sumatra, supports a model for enhanced hydrothermal circulation adjacent to this major plate-boundary fault. Two wells (A and C) were drilled nearly vertically ??1 km southwest of the eastern (i.e., the principal) fault trace, and the third, directional well (B) was drilled eastward from the site of well A to within ??100 m of the principal fault trace. The examined core samples come from depths of 1650-2120 m at measured well temperatures of 180-320 ??C. The samples collected near the principal fault trace have the highest temperatures, the largest amount of secondary pore space that correlates with high secondary permeability, and the most extensive hydrothermal mineral development. Secondary permeability and the degree of hydrothermal alteration decrease toward the southwestern margin of the fault zone. These features indicate episodic, localized flow of hot, possibly CO2-rich fluids within the fault zone. The microstructure populations identified in the core samples correlate to the subsidiary fault patterns typical of strike-slip faults. The geothermal reservoir appears to be centered on the fault zone, with the principal fault strands and adjoining, highly fractured and hydrothermally altered rock serving as the main conduits for vertical fluid flow and advective heat transport from deeper magmatic sources.

  7. Stress changes along the Sunda trench following the 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman and 28 March 2005 Nias earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.; Banerjee, P.; Burgmann, R.; Hashimoto, M.; Choosakul, N.

    2006-01-01

    The 26 December 2004 Mw = 9.2 and 28 March 2005 Mw = 8.7 earthquakes on the Sumatra megathrust altered the state of stress over a large region surrounding the earthquakes. We evaluate the stress changes associated with coseismic and postseismic deformation following these two large events, focusing on postseismic deformation that is driven by viscoelastic relaxation of a low-viscosity asthenosphere. Under Coulomb failure stress (CFS) theory, the December 2004 event increased CFS on the future hypocentral zone of the March 2005 event by about 0.25 bar, with little or no contribution from viscous relaxation. Coseismic stresses around the rupture zones of the 1797 and 1833 Sunda trench events are negligible, but postseismic stress perturbations since December 2004 are predicted to result in CFS increases of 0.1 to 0.2 bar around these rupture zones between 2 and 8 years after the December 2004 event. These are considerable stress perturbations given that the 1797 and 1833 rupture zones are likely approaching the end of a complete seismic cycle. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. GPS measurements of postseismic deformation in the Andaman-Nicobar region following the giant 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahalaut, V. K.; Jade, S.; Catherine, J. K.; Gireesh, R.; Ananda, M. B.; Kumar, P.; Narsaiah, M.; Jafri, S. S. H.; Ambikapathy, A.; Bansal, A.; Chadha, R. K.; Gupta, D. C.; Nagarajan, B.; Kumar, S.

    2008-08-01

    We report GPS measurements of postseismic deformation from 22 campaign-mode and one continuous GPS sites in the Andaman-Nicobar region following the great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of 26 December 2004. Large horizontal displacements toward west to southwest, varying in magnitude from 10 to 40 cm, and with uplift reaching 16 cm, occurred in the region in the first year after the earthquake. The observed motion decreased logarithmically in the subsequent year. We suggest that in the Andaman region, frictional afterslip occurred farther downdip of the coseismic rupture, while in the Little Andaman and Nicobar regions, the coseismic rupture and afterslip patch partly overlapped. The afterslip was mostly aseismic and did not contribute to the aftershocks. The aftershocks and postseismic displacements appear to follow a similar relationship, although with different decay times. The temporal dependence of the two differs only by a term linear in time. Thus the temporal evolution of the afterslip seems to be consistent with a mechanism governed by frictional afterslip. Available rates of interseismic and postseismic deformation and coseismic static offsets allow us to approximately estimate a return period of about 400 years for great earthquakes in the Andaman region.

  9. Post-seismic relaxation following the great 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake on a compressible self-gravitating Earth

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pollitz, F.F.; Burgmann, R.; Banerjee, P.

    2006-01-01

    he Mw ??? 9.0 2004 December 26 Sumatra-Andaman and Mw =8.7 2005 March 28 Nias earthquakes, which collectively ruptured approximately 1800 km of the Andaman and Sunda subduction zones, are expected to be followed by vigorous viscoelastic relaxation involving both the upper and lower mantle. Because of these large spatial dimensions it is desirable to fully account for gravitational coupling effects in the relaxation process. We present a stable method of computing relaxation of a spherically-stratified, compressible and self-gravitating viscoelastic Earth following an impulsive moment release event. The solution is cast in terms of a spherical harmonic expansion of viscoelastic normal modes. For simple layered viscoelastic models, which include a low-viscosity oceanic asthenosphere, we predict substantial post-seismic effects over a region several 100s of km wide surrounding the eastern Indian Ocean. We compare observed GPS time-series from ten regional sites (mostly in Thailand and Indonesia), beginning in 2004 December, with synthetic time-series that include the coseismic and post-seismic effects of the 2004 December 26 and 2005 March 28 earthquakes. A viscosity structure involving a biviscous (Burgers body) rheology in the asthenosphere explains the pattern and amplitude of post-seismic offsets remarkably well. ?? 2006 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2006 RAS.

  10. Ichnological constraints on the depositional environment of the Sawahlunto Formation, Kandi, northwest Ombilin Basin, west Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zonneveld, J.-P.; Zaim, Y.; Rizal, Y.; Ciochon, R. L.; Bettis, E. A.; Aswan; Gunnell, G. F.

    2012-02-01

    A low diversity trace fossil assemblage is described from the Oligocene Sawahlunto Formation near Kandi, in the northwestern part of the Ombilin Basin in western Sumatra, Indonesia. This trace fossil assemblage includes six ichnogenera attributed to invertebrate infaunal and epifaunal activities ( Arenicolites, Diplocraterion, Planolites, Monocraterion/ Skolithos and Coenobichnus) and two ichnotaxa attributed to vertebrate activity (avian footprints: two species of Aquatilavipes). Arenicolites, Diplocraterion and Monocraterion/ Skolithos record the suspension feeding activities of either arthropods (most likely amphipods) or vermiform organisms. Planolites reflects the presence of an infaunal deposit feeder. Coenobichnus records the walking activities of hermit crabs. Both the Coenobichnus and the avian footprints record the surficial detritus scavenging of epifaunal organisms within a subaerial setting. These traces occur within a fine-grained sandstone succession characterized by planar laminae and low-relief, asymmetrical, commonly mud-draped (locally bidirectional) ripples. The presence of traces attributable to suspension feeders implies deposition in a subaqueous setting. Their occurrence (particularly the presence of Arenicolites and Diplocraterion) in a sandstone bed characterized by mud-draped and bidirectional ripples implies emplacement in a tidally-influenced marine to marginal marine setting. Co-occurrence of these traces with well-preserved avian footprints ( Aquatilavipes) further implies periodic subaerial exposure. Thus, it is most likely that the Sawahlunto Formation near Kandi records deposition within an intertidal flat setting. Definitive evidence of marine influences in the Oligocene interval of the Ombilin Basin implies a more complex tectono-stratigraphic history than has previously been implied.

  11. Structure and Evolution of the Accretionary Margin of Java-Sumatra. Seismic Data and Numerical Modeling Comparisons.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, H.; Hindle, D.

    2007-12-01

    We present a numerical model for the evolution of an accretionary prism along a subduction margin. We find the mechanical partitioning of the growing prism into active region, abutting against a deformable backstop, and a relatively undeformed forearc basin is a function of the double tapered basal geometry, where the dip of the detachment is assumed to be opposite above oceanic or continental lithopshere. Varying properties of both materials and detachment can be used to adjust the surface slope and hence geometry of the system, but mechanical partitioning remains essentially the same with the regions becoming broader or narrower. The model appears to closely reproduce the geometry of the Sumatra-Java prism, where a high accretion margin has produced the same distinct mechanical units. Newly prestack depth-migrated marine seismic data reveal the extent and geometry of the active deformation of the deformable backstop, and give indications of some material passing into a subduction channel below the accretionary complex. The deformable backstop appears to be composed of multiple duplex structures, but present day tectonic activity is mostly in the form of transtensive or transpressive deformation, possibly reactivating older dip-slip, accretionary structures. The numerical approach used in the simulation (distinct elements) shows great promise in modelling large deformation in situations such as accretionary prisms, and has also been adapted to incorporate the role of fluid pressure and migration in tandem with large deformation (shortening of the order of 100's of kilometres).

  12. The trap-jaw ant genus Odontomachus Latreille (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) from Sumatra, with a new species description.

    PubMed

    Satria, Rijal; Kurushima, Hiroaki; Herwina, Henny; Yamane, Seiki; Eguchi, Katsuyuki

    2015-01-01

    The ant genus Odontomachus Latreille is reviewed for Sumatra, the sixth largest island in the world and located in western Indonesia. Previously three species were recorded from the island: O. simillimus F. Smith, O. rixosus F. Smith, and O. latidens Mayr. We add two species to the fauna, O. procerus Emery stat. nov and Odontomachus minangkabau sp. nov. The new species belongs to O. rixosus species group, and it is morphologically most similar to O. rixosus and O. pararixosus Terayama & Ito. However, it can be separated from the latter two by its large body (HL 3.13-3.55 mm, WL 4.15-4.65 mm), the masticatory margin with 11-14 denticles, and dark-colored body. Odontomachus latidens subsp. sumatranus Emery is newly synonymized with O. procerus. The castes and sexes of the known species are also described, including the first descriptions of the male for O. latidens, O. procerus, and O. rixosus. A key to the Sumatran species based on the worker caste is provided, and the bionomics of each species is summarized. PMID:26624734

  13. Population status, demography and habitat preferences of the threatened lipstick palm Cyrtostachys renda Blume in Kerumutan Reserve, Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widyatmoko, Didik; Burgman, Mark A.; Guhardja, Edi; Mogea, Johanis P.; Walujo, Eko B.; Setiadi, Dede

    2005-09-01

    Population status and demography of a population of the threatened lipstick palm Cyrtostachys renda in a peat swamp ecosystem of Kerumutan Reserve, Sumatra (one of the largest remaining populations) was documented at 16 different sites, covering a wide range of forest and habitat types, vegetation associations, and population sizes. Population sizes were dominated by suckers comprising 89% of the total population. Individuals with stem heights between 0 and 4 m (47.5%), stem diameters between 4 and 10 cm (82.0%), and leaf scar numbers between 0 and 60 (69.2%) dominated. Ages of individuals were estimated and used to fit a curvilinear relationship between age and stem height. Wild plants reach reproductive maturity within 25-30 years, or when they have stem heights in excess of 2.0 m, or when they have 15-25 leaf scars. They can survive more than 80 years. Cultivated plants appear to reproduce earlier and produce more seeds than wild plants. Individual growth was plant size-dependent with the adult stage being the most productive. Higher mortality was experienced by suckers, especially in continuously waterlogged conditions and locations with dense canopies. Sucker growth was faster than seedling growth, an adaptation that may allow the species to cope with periodically waterlogged conditions. Population abundances varied with habitat types; well-drained areas were the most suitable habitat. To conserve the most important remaining populations of the lipstick palm, it is crucial to protect well-drained sites in Kerumutan Reserve.

  14. Characteristics of carbonaceous aerosols emitted from peatland fire in Riau, Sumatra, Indonesia (2): Identification of organic compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Yusuke; Kawamoto, Haruo; Tohno, Susumu; Oda, Masafumi; Iriana, Windy; Lestari, Puji

    2015-06-01

    Smoke emitted from Indonesian peatland fires has caused dense haze and serious air pollution in Southeast Asia such as visibility impairment and adverse health impacts. To mitigate the Indonesian peatland fire aerosol impacts, an effective strategy and international framework based on the latest scientific knowledge needs to be established. Although several attempts have been made, limited data exist regarding the chemical characteristics of peatland fire smoke for the source apportionment. In order to identify the key organic compounds of peatland fire aerosols, we conducted intensive field studies based on ground-based and source-dominated sampling of PM2.5 in Riau Province, Sumatra, Indonesia, during the peatland fire seasons in 2012. Levoglucosan was the most abundant compound among the quantified organic compounds at 8.98 ± 2.28% of the PM2.5 mass, followed by palmitic acid at 0.782 ± 0.163% and mannosan at 0.607 ± 0.0861%. Potassium ion was not appropriate for an indicator of Indonesian peatland fires due to extremely low concentrations associated with smoldering fire at low temperatures. The vanillic/syringic acids ratio was 1.06 ± 0.155 in this study and this may be a useful signature profile for peatland fire emissions. Particulate n-alkanes also have potential for markers to identify impact of Indonesian peatland fire source at a receptor site.

  15. 16,000 Years of Tropical Eastern Ocean Climate Variability Recorded in a Speleothem From Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurtzel, J. B.; Abram, N.; Hantoro, W. S.; Rifai, H.; Hellstrom, J. C.; Heslop, D.; Troitzsch, U.; Eggins, S.

    2015-12-01

    Holocene climate variability in the Indo-Pacific has largely been inferred from sediment cores primarily from the central and eastern Warm Pool region. A limited number of speleothem oxygen-isotope records have provided decadally-resolved time-series of past rainfall variability over the central Indo-Pacific Warm Pool region, however no records currently exist for the Indian Ocean sector of the IPWP. Here we present the first continuous, high-resolution (~15year) speleothem record from the eastern tropical Indian Ocean, collected from central western Sumatra, Indonesia. Petrographic and geochemical analysis reveals that the sample is primarily composed of aragonite but is punctuated by intervals of primary calcite growth. In addition to Raman spectroscopy, trace element analysis by laser ablation ICP-MS reveals strongly antiphased behaviour between magnesium and strontium, attributed to the strong preference of those elements for the calcite and aragonite lattices, respectively. This relationship is utilized to develop a quantitative correction for the stable isotope fractionation offset between the two calcium carbonate polymorphs identified in the speleothem. The corrected oxygen isotope record shows a rapid transition from drier conditions during the Younger Dryas (YD) into a wetter Holocene, similar in timing and pattern to that recorded in Dongge Cave, China. This is strikingly different from other IPWP speleothem records, which show no YD or a wetter YD, suggesting that different mechanisms may be controlling rainfall amount in the eastern tropical Indian Ocean. These disparate responses are further explored through proxy-model comparison.

  16. Analyzing groundwater change on a volcanic island caused by the impact of the M9 Sumatra earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheong, Jae-Yeol; Hamm, Se-Yeong; Kim, Sang-Hyun; Lee, Soo-Hyoung; Woo, Nam-Chil; Kim, Gyoo-Bum

    2013-06-01

    Changes in groundwater level have been recognized by the earthquakes at various epicentral distances. The M9 Sumatra earthquake resulted in changes in the groundwater level, electrical conductivity, and temperature in monitoring wells on Jeju Island, South Korea. In regions of different groundwater type (basal, lower parabasal, upper parabasal, and high-level groundwater), the changes in the groundwater levels at 25 monitoring wells ranged between 4.0 and 49.5 cm; changes in the electrical conductivity at six monitoring wells ranged between 1 and 27,975 μS/cm; and the changes in water temperature at three wells ranged between 0.02 and 1.37 °C. The irregular groundwater level changes at different locations on the island due to the earthquake reflect various interactions between hydrological properties and seismological processes. The impact of the earthquake was successfully recognized via transfer function modeling between the time series of groundwater level and the tidal oscillation. On the basis of the theoretical aquifer response to the earthquake, storage coefficient estimates for aquifers, which could not be determined from the single-well pumping tests, were determined to be within the range of 1.22x10^(-4)- 3.51x10^(-6).

  17. Determination of the onset time in polarization power ratio Z/H for precursor of Sumatra earthquake

    SciTech Connect

    Ahadi, S.; Puspito, N. T.; Ibrahim, G.; Saroso, S.

    2014-09-25

    Determination of onset time precursors of strong earthquakes (Mw > 5) and distance (d < 500 km) using geomagnetic data from Geomagnetic station KTB, Sumatra and two station references DAV, Philippine and DAW, Australia. separate techniques are required in its determination. Not the same as that recorded in the kinetic wave seismograms can be determined by direct time domain. Difficulties associated with electromagnetic waves seismogenic activities require analysis of the transformed signal in the frequency domain. Determination of the frequency spectrum will determine the frequency of emissions emitted from the earthquake source. The aim is to analyze the power amplitude of the ULF emissions in the horizontal component (H) and vertical component (Z). Polarization power ratio Z/H is used for determining the sign of earthquake precursors controlled by the standard deviation. The pattern recognition polarization ratio should be obtained which can differentiate emissions from seismogenic effects of geomagnetic activity. ULF emission patterns generated that seismogenic effect has duration > 5 days and the dominance of emission intensity recorded at the Z component and for the dominance of the emission intensity of geomagnetic activity recorded in the component H. The result shows that the onset time is determined when the polarization power ratio Z/H standard deviation over the limit (p ± 2 σ) which has a duration of > 5 days.

  18. Field Survey of Tsunami Effects in Sri Lanka due to the Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of December 26, 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inoue, Shusaku; Wijeyewickrema, Anil C.; Matsumoto, Hiroyuki; Miura, Hiroyuki; Gunaratna, Priyantha; Madurapperuma, Manoj; Sekiguchi, Toru

    2007-03-01

    The December 26, 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake that registered a moment magnitude (M w ) of 9.1 was one of the largest earthquakes in the world since 1900. The devastating tsunami that resulted from this earthquake caused more casualties than any previously reported tsunami. The number of fatalities and missing persons in the most seriously affected countries were Indonesia - 167,736, Sri Lanka - 35,322, India - 18,045 and Thailand - 8,212. This paper describes two field visits to assess tsunami effects in Sri Lanka by a combined team of Japanese and Sri Lankan researchers. The first field visit from December 30, 2004 January 04, 2005 covered the western and southern coasts of Sri Lanka including the cities of Moratuwa, Beruwala, Bentota, Pereliya, Hikkaduwa, Galle, Talpe, Matara, Tangalla and Hambantota. The objectives of the first field visit were to investigate the damage caused by the tsunami and to obtain eyewitness information about wave arrival times. The second field visit from March 10 18, 2005 covered the eastern and southern coasts of Sri Lanka and included Trincomalee, Batticaloa, Arugam Bay, Yala National Park and Kirinda. The objectives of the second visit were mainly to obtain eyewitness information about wave arrival times and inundation data, and to take relevant measurements using GPS instruments.

  19. Co-seismic and post-seismic gravity change due to the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake: EOF study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Chao, B. F.

    2009-12-01

    The magnitude 9.3 earthquake in Sumatra-Andaman on December 26, 2004, was the second largest earthquake in the past century. We examine the before-and-after time-variable gravity (TVG) associated with the earthquake using the monthly data from the GRACE satellite mission (launched in 2002). We calculate the EOF (Empirical Orthogonal Function) to analyze the space-time variation of the co-seismic and post-seismic behavior of the epicentral region. In addition to the conspicuous co-seismic, dipolar jump of TVG in the region, we found: (1) no evidence of pre-seismic TVG behavior; (2) a gradual post-seismic appearance of a third decreasing TVG pattern to the southwest of the co-seismic dipole; (3) that the west side of the Sunda Trench sees a post-seismic TVG growth on top of the co-seismic jump; (4) that the east side of the Sunda Trench sees a post-seismic TVG recovery from the co-seismic jump. One can thus infer the post-seismic mass flow across the fault zone. We also analyzed by EOF the sea level change as a proxy for the regional geoid change using radar altimetry data. We could only find a weak signal that appears to be related to the co-seismic dipolar TVG in the form of geoid change, obscured by the presence of various meteorological and oceanographic signals.

  20. Northern Meridiani Scene

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    19 November 2004 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows eroded remnants of layered sedimentary rock in northern Sinus Meridiani. The layering is best seen in the circular feature at the center/right, which is an old meteor impact crater that was once filled and buried beneath the sedimentary rocks, then later exhumed and eroded to its present state. All of the sedimentary rocks exposed in this portion of northern Sinus Meridiani are probably older than the rocks in central Sinus Meridiani that have been examined this year by the Mars Exploration Rover, Opportunity. Like the rocks visited by the rover, these, too, may contain detailed clues regarding a wetter Mars in the distant past. These landforms are located near 6.0oN, 2.0oW. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) wide. Sunlight illuminates the scene from the left/lower left.

  1. Northern Plains Patterns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-513, 14 October 2003

    Patterns are common on the northern plains of Mars. Like their terrestrial counterparts in places like Siberia, Alaska, and northern Canada, patterned ground on Mars might be an indicator of the presence of ground ice. Whether it is true that the patterns on Mars are related to ground ice and whether the ice is still present beneath the martian surface are unknown. This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) picture shows an example of patterned ground on the martian northern plains near 72.4oN, 252.6oW. The dark dots and lines are low mounds and chains of mounds. The circular feature near the center of the image is the location of a buried meteor impact crater; its presence today is marked only by the dark boulders on its rim and ejecta blanket that have managed to remain uncovered at the martian surface. The area shown is 3 km (1.9 mi) wide and illuminated by sunlight from the lower left.

  2. Multiple Magma Batches Recorded in Tephra Deposits from the Toba Complex, Sumatra.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearce, N. J. G.; Westgate, J.; Gatti, E.

    2015-12-01

    The Toba Caldera Complex is the largest Quaternary caldera on Earth, and has generated three voluminous and compositionally similar rhyolitic tuffs, viz. the Oldest (OTT, 800 ka), Middle (MTT, ~500 ka) and Youngest Toba Tuffs (YTT, 75 ka). These tephra deposits are widespread across Indonesia, Malaysia, South China Sea, Sea of Bengal, India and Indian Ocean and provide useful stratigraphic markers in oceanic, lacustrine and terrestrial environments. Single shard trace element analysis of these deposits reveals the changing availability of different batches of magma through time, with Sr, Ba and Y contents defining 5 discrete magma populations in YTT, 4 populations in MTT and only a single, low Ba population in OTT. Within an individual eruption these populations are clearly distinct, but between eruptions (e.g. MTT and YTT) some of these populations overlap while others do not, indicating both the longevity (and/or continuous supply of fresh material) and evolution of these magma batches in the Toba Complex. Major element compositions of the different groups show equilibration at different pressures (based on Q'-Ab'-Or'), with the equilibration of low Ba populations at ~160 MPa, increasing to depths of ~210 MPa for the highest Ba population. The proportions of different populations of glass in distal YTT shows that relatively little of the high Ba population makes it into the distal record across India, and that this population appears to be over-represented in the proximal free glass and pumice from the caldera walls. This data may shed light on magma availability and tephra dispersal during the YTT eruption. Similarly, the glass composition of individual pumices from proximal deposits record regional, compositional and temporal differences in the erupted products. These show, for example, the apparent mingling of some of the magma batches and also that the high Ba population appears early (i.e. stratigraphically lower) in the northern caldera wall.

  3. Integrated radar and lidar analysis reveals extensive loss of remaining intact forest on Sumatra 2007-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, M. B.; Mitchard, E. T. A.

    2015-06-01

    Forests with high above ground biomass (AGB), including those growing on peat swamps, have historically not been thought suitable for biomass mapping and change detection using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). However, by integrating L-band (λ = 0.23 m) SAR with lidar data from the ALOS and ICESat earth-observing satellites respectively, and 56 forest plots, we were able to create a forest biomass and change map for a 10.7 Mha section of eastern Sumatra that still contains high AGB peat swamp forest. Using a time series of SAR data we estimated changes in both forest area and AGB. We estimate that there were 274 ± 68 Tg AGB remaining in natural forest (≥ 20 m height) in the study area in 2007, with this stock reducing by approximately 11.4% over the subsequent 3 years. A total of 137.4 kha of the study area were deforested between 2007 and 2010; an average rate of 3.8% yr-1. The ability to attribute forest loss to different initial biomass values allows for far more effective monitoring and baseline modelling for avoided deforestation projects than traditional, optical-based remote sensing. Furthermore, given SAR's ability to penetrate the smoke and cloud which normally obscure land cover change in this region, SAR-based forest monitoring can be relied on to provide frequent imagery. This study demonstrates that even at L-band, which typically saturates at medium biomass levels (ca. 150 Mg ha-1), it is possible to make reliable estimates of not just the area but the carbon emissions resulting from land use change.

  4. Coseismic Ground level Changes Associated with the Great Andaman-Sumatra Earthquake: A Tour from Nicobar to North Andaman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajendran, K.; Rajendran, C.; Earnest, A.; Freymueller, J.

    2005-12-01

    The 26 December 2004 in the Andaman-Sumatra subduction zone led to significant ground level changes, uplift as well as subsidence of land, along the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. Falling nearly 400 km north of the epicenter of the main shock, and extending northwards, the second phase of the rupture observed in these islands account for more about two thirds of the total rupture. Ground level changes were observed along both the eastern and western margins of the islands. The western margins were generally characterized by uplift of about 1m, while the eastern margins subsided by nearly 1 m, permanently submerging many parts of these islands. Elevated beaches, uplifted coral colonies and biological markers such as mangroves, lines of barnacles on rock exposures and man-made structures provide spectacular visual effects of ground uplift. Along the western margin of the Interview Island, in the middle Andamans, we observed at least two older terraces, probably formed by the predecessors of the 2004 earthquake. In the Diglipur region, north Andaman, we observed elevation change of about 1 m, and in this part of the arc, both the western and eastern margins are characterized by uplift. Coseismic vertical offset observed from GPS data suggest a change of +0.6m at Diglipur, a region that also marks the termination of rupture in the north. Field observations conform to nearly +1m change in this region. Maximum subsidence of nearly 1.5 m was documented in Campbell Bay, Great Nicobar, and a GPS site there shows a change in elevation of -1.05m. This paper gives a short tour of the sites of ground level changes from Car Nicobar in the south to Diglipur in the North Andaman.

  5. Coseismic and post-seismic signatures of the Sumatra 2004 December and 2005 March earthquakes in GRACE satellite gravity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Panet, I.; Mikhailov, V.; Diament, M.; Pollitz, F.; King, G.; de Viron, O.; Holschneider, M.; Biancale, R.; Lemoine, J.-M.

    2007-01-01

    The GRACE satellite mission has been measuring the Earth's gravity field and its temporal variations since 2002 April. Although these variations are mainly due to mass transfer within the geofluid envelops, they also result from mass displacements associated with phenomena including glacial isostatic adjustment and earthquakes. However, these last contributions are difficult to isolate because of the presence of noise and of geofluid signals, and because of GRACE's coarse spatial resolution (>400 km half-wavelength). In this paper, we show that a wavelet analysis on the sphere helps to retrieve earthquake signatures from GRACE geoid products. Using a wavelet analysis of GRACE geoids products, we show that the geoid variations caused by the 2004 December (Mw = 9.2) and 2005 March (Mw = 8.7) Sumatra earthquakes can be detected. At GRACE resolution, the 2004 December earthquake produced a strong coseismic decrease of the gravity field in the Andaman Sea, followed by relaxation in the area affected by both the Andaman 2004 and the Nias 2005 earthquakes. We find two characteristic timescales for the relaxation, with a fast variation occurring in the vicinity of the Central Andaman ridge. We discuss our coseismic observations in terms of density changes of crustal and upper-mantle rocks, and of the vertical displacements in the Andaman Sea. We interpret the post-seismic signal in terms of the viscoelastic response of the Earth's mantle. The transient component of the relaxation may indicate the presence of hot, viscous material beneath the active Central Andaman Basin. ?? 2007 The Authors Journal compilation ?? 2007 RAS.

  6. Integrated radar and lidar analysis reveals extensive loss of remaining intact forest on Sumatra 2007-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, M. B.; Mitchard, E. T. A.

    2015-11-01

    Forests with high above-ground biomass (AGB), including those growing on peat swamps, have historically not been thought suitable for biomass mapping and change detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR). However, by integrating L-band (λ = 0.23 m) SAR from the ALOS and lidar from the ICESat Earth-Observing satellites with 56 field plots, we were able to create a forest biomass and change map for a 10.7 Mha section of eastern Sumatra that still contains high AGB peat swamp forest. Using a time series of SAR data we estimated changes in both forest area and AGB. We estimate that there was 274 ± 68 Tg AGB remaining in natural forest (≥ 20 m height) in the study area in 2007, with this stock reducing by approximately 11.4 % over the subsequent 3 years. A total of 137.4 kha of the study area was deforested between 2007 and 2010, an average rate of 3.8 % yr-1. The ability to attribute forest loss to different initial biomass values allows for far more effective monitoring and baseline modelling for avoided deforestation projects than traditional, optical-based remote sensing. Furthermore, given SAR's ability to penetrate the smoke and cloud which normally obscure land cover change in this region, SAR-based forest monitoring can be relied on to provide frequent imagery. This study demonstrates that, even at L-band, which typically saturates at medium biomass levels (ca. 150 Mg ha-1), in conjunction with lidar data, it is possible to make reliable estimates of not just the area but also the carbon emissions resulting from land use change.

  7. Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane at a Marine Methane Seep in a Forearc Sediment Basin off Sumatra, Indian Ocean

    PubMed Central

    Siegert, Michael; Krüger, Martin; Teichert, Barbara; Wiedicke, Michael; Schippers, Axel

    2011-01-01

    A cold methane seep was discovered in a forearc sediment basin off the island Sumatra, exhibiting a methane-seep adapted microbial community. A defined seep center of activity, like in mud volcanoes, was not discovered. The seep area was rather characterized by a patchy distribution of active spots. The relevance of anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) was reflected by 13C-depleted isotopic signatures of dissolved inorganic carbon. The anaerobic conversion of methane to CO2 was confirmed in a 13C-labeling experiment. Methane fueled a vital microbial community with cell numbers of up to 4 × 109 cells cm−3 sediment. The microbial community was analyzed by total cell counting, catalyzed reporter deposition–fluorescence in situ hybridization (CARD–FISH), quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). CARD–FISH cell counts and qPCR measurements showed the presence of Bacteria and Archaea, but only small numbers of Eukarya. The archaeal community comprised largely members of ANME-1 and ANME-2. Furthermore, members of the Crenarchaeota were frequently detected in the DGGE analysis. Three major bacterial phylogenetic groups (δ-Proteobacteria, candidate division OP9, and Anaerolineaceae) were abundant across the study area. Several of these sequences were closely related to the genus Desulfococcus of the family Desulfobacteraceae, which is in good agreement with previously described AOM sites. In conclusion, the majority of the microbial community at the seep consisted of AOM-related microorganisms, while the relevance of higher hydrocarbons as microbial substrates was negligible. PMID:22207865

  8. Fires in Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Several fires were detected in Northern Australia by MODIS. The fires show up as red dots, superimposed on a surface reflectance product. The image also shows the Clarence Strait, which separates the mainland from Melville Island to the northwest and the smaller Bathurst Island to its west. The Strait connects the more confined, bowl-shaped Van Diemen Gulf to the Beagle Gulf. To the right of the image at the top is the Gulf of Carpentaria, which appears to be full of phytoplankton, as evidenced by the blue-green swirls in the waters

  9. Implications of the 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake on tsunami forecast and assessment models for great subduction-zone earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, Eric L.; Titov, Vasily V.; Arcas, Diego; Pollitz, Fred F.; Bilek, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    Results from different tsunami forecasting and hazard assessment models are compared with observed tsunami wave heights from the 26 December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Forecast models are based on initial earthquake information and are used to estimate tsunami wave heights during propagation. An empirical forecast relationship based only on seismic moment provides a close estimate to the observed mean regional and maximum local tsunami runup heights for the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami but underestimates mean regional tsunami heights at azimuths in line with the tsunami beaming pattern (e.g., Sri Lanka, Thailand). Standard forecast models developed from subfault discretization of earthquake rupture, in which deep- ocean sea level observations are used to constrain slip, are also tested. Forecast models of this type use tsunami time-series measurements at points in the deep ocean. As a proxy for the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami, a transect of deep-ocean tsunami amplitudes recorded by satellite altimetry is used to constrain slip along four subfaults of the M >9 Sumatra–Andaman earthquake. This proxy model performs well in comparison to observed tsunami wave heights, travel times, and inundation patterns at Banda Aceh. Hypothetical tsunami hazard assessments models based on end- member estimates for average slip and rupture length (Mw 9.0–9.3) are compared with tsunami observations. Using average slip (low end member) and rupture length (high end member) (Mw 9.14) consistent with many seismic, geodetic, and tsunami inversions adequately estimates tsunami runup in most regions, except the extreme runup in the western Aceh province. The high slip that occurred in the southern part of the rupture zone linked to runup in this location is a larger fluctuation than expected from standard stochastic slip models. In addition, excess moment release (∼9%) deduced from geodetic studies in comparison to seismic moment estimates may generate additional tsunami energy, if the

  10. Northern plants and ozone.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Sirkku; Huttunen, Satu; Tømmervik, Hans; Hole, Lars R; Solberg, Sverre

    2009-12-01

    Forests in northern Fennoscandia are mainly composed of the O3-sensitive species--Scots pine and downy, mountain, and silver birches. Seminatural vegetation also contributes to biodiversity, carbon cycling, and ecosystem services as a part of forests, mires, meadows, and road verges. Fumigation experiments show that current O3 concentrations of 30-50 ppb reduce plant biomass production and reproduction. Visible foliar injury is attributable to peak O3 concentrations and relates to fast phenological development and high growth rate. Trees can acclimate to O3-induced water stress by producing more xeromorphic leaves or needles. The direct effects of O3 on grassland vegetation also translate to changes in the structure and size of the soil microbial community, and ecosystem N cycling. It is necessary to reduce the emission of O3 precursors and maintain high biodiversity to protect northern ecosystems. Regular, systematic, countrywide monitoring and validation as well as quantification of the effects of O3 on plants in the Nordic countries are also necessary. PMID:20175438

  11. Landward vergent thrust faults in marine accretionary prisms off Cascadia, Sumatra, and Southern Chile: Where do they occur and what may control them?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geersen, J.; Wilson, D. J.; Cook, B.; McNeill, L. C.; Henstock, T.; Polonia, A.; Klaeschen, D.; Gaedicke, C.; Goldfinger, C.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last decades seismic investigations have identified a number of places where landward vergent thrust faults occur in active accretionary prisms. These unusual deformation structures, that differ from the common fold-and-thrust belt model in the dip direction of the thrust sheets, have been found at the Cascadia, Sumatra and Southern Chile margins. Parameters that have been suggested to control their formation include strength, position and dip of the décollement, pore-fluid pressure, heat-flow, formation and dip direction of a backstop, strength of the wedge, and subduction of topographic features. However, the ultimate causes for their development are not adequately understood. To test the impact of the above mentioned parameters and to further shed light on the question of what drives these fault structures we investigate reflection seismic and bathymetric data from Cascadia, Sumatra, and Southern Chile. We map the detailed spatial distribution of landward vergence and investigate along and across-strike variations in fault structure, spacing, and fault initiation and development along the three margins. We further compile a synthesis of input parameters (e.g. pre-subduction deformation of the oceanic plate, convergence rate and direction, subducting plate dip, sediment thickness and composition, position of the décollement, oceanic plate roughness) for all regions that host landward vergent faults. This provides the base to identify key parameters that control the development of such fault structures on a local and potentially global scale.

  12. Crustal thickening and extension induced by the Great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake of 26 December 2004: revealed by the seismic moment tensor element Mrr

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.-Y.; Lo, C.-L.; Wu, W.-N.; Sibuet, J.-C.; Hsu, S.-K.; Wen, Y.-Y.

    2015-09-01

    In a complex geological environment, it is generally difficult to assimilate a complete understanding of the main stress regime without being distracted by various fault configurations. In this study, we examine the changes in radial seismic moment (Mrr) of earthquakes that occurred in the Sumatra area. This approach allows for simplification of the various focal mechanism solutions by compressive and extensional slip vectors. The results show that the epicenter of the 2004 mainshock is located near the area where the accumulated Mrr was highest during the inter-seismic period. Simultaneously, a pattern of negative accumulated Mrr observed at depths between 40 and 100 km suggests a down-dip extension mechanism caused by the slab pull effect, which could be strengthened by the locking procedure in shallow portions of the slab. Moreover, the right-lateral strike-slip Sumatra Fault and the left-lateral oceanic fracture zones exhibited positive and negative accumulated Mrr prior to and immediately after the 2004 mainshock. This transform of Mrr indicates stress release associated with the unlocking of the asperities during the earthquake. Therefore, the distinctly different Mrr patterns for the inter- and post-seismic period suggest that the occurrence of a substantial earthquake could change the intraplate stress state.

  13. Southeast Asian Summer Burning: A Micro Pulse Lidar Network Study of Aerosol Particle Physical Properties near Fires in Borneo and Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lolli, S.; Welton, E. J.; Holben, B. N.; Campbell, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    In August and September 2012, as part of the continuing Seven South East Asian Studies (7-SEAS) project, three autonomous elastic-scattering 355 nm lidars were deployed by the NASA Micro Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET) to Sumatra and Borneo, measuring the vertical profile of aerosol particle scattering during peak burning season. In coordination with the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), a regional characterization of aerosol particle physical properties and distribution was performed. In addition to a permanent regional network site at Singapore, the three temporary sites established for this research include Jambi (Sumatra, Indonesia), Kuching (northwest Borneo, Malaysia) and Palangkaraya (south-central Borneo, Indonesia). In this paper, we discuss the mission and instruments, and introduce data products available to the community through the MPLNET online website. We further describe initial results of the study, including a contrast of mean vertical scattering profiles versus those observed near active fire sources at Jambi and Palangkaraya, and resolve longer-range particle evolution at receptor sites, like Kuching, that are most commonly 1-2 days downwind of larger fire complexes.

  14. The 2012 Mw 8.6 Sumatra earthquake: Evidence of westward sequential seismic ruptures associated to the reactivation of a N-S ocean fabric

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satriano, Claudio; Kiraly, Eszter; Bernard, Pascal; Vilotte, Jean-Pierre

    2012-08-01

    The 11 April 2012 Mw 8.6 earthquake offshore Sumatra is the largest of the rare great intraplate earthquakes of the instrumental era. This major strike-slip event occurred in the diffuse zone of deformation that accommodates differential rotation between Indian and Australian plates. We perform a back projection analysis - calibrated with well-located aftershocks - of short-period teleseismic P-waves recorded by the European array to image the rupture process during the mainshock. In complement, a Love wave analysis is conducted for tracking azimuthal change in the apparent global source duration due to the source spatio-temporal extent. The combined analysis reveals a complex rupture pattern, characterized by three main episodes of energy release, the latest being located 370 km west of the epicenter, on the Ninety East Ridge, with a delay of 120 s. We interpret the 11 April 2012 Mw 8.6 offshore Sumatra earthquake as a complex westward-propagating sequence of dynamically triggered strike-slip fault ruptures, associated to the reactivation of the inherited NNE-striking sea floor fabric. The dynamic triggering mechanism could result from the interaction between transient surface wave stress perturbations and fluids.

  15. Outer-rise stress regime post 2004 mega-thrust rupture: Constraints from source process of selected Sumatra - Andaman outer-rise earthquakes.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Earnest, A.; K, S.

    2014-12-01

    The outer-rise region of a subducting margin will be in a compressional state prior to a megathrust event and in a tensional state afterwards due to the large co-seismic displacements. In coupled subduction zones, tensional earthquakes are occasionally observed post a megathrust rupture, as tensional stress from slab pull is temporarily transmitted to the outer-rise. In this study we analyze some of the significant outer-rise events along the Sumatra-Andaman margin post 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, like those occurred on January 2005 (Mw=6.5), July 2005 (Mw=7.1), August 2009 (Mw=7.5 ), March 2010 (Mw=6.6) and June 2010 (Mw=7.5). We will be discussing the source parameters,kinematic rupture process, directivity and the average stress drop of these events which are derived using seismic body wave inversion. We adopted teleseismic body wave inversion methodology of Kikuchi and Kanamori (1982, 1986 and 1991). We will be discussing the stress drop patterns and a possible asperity model for this margin and compare with other major outer-rise events post Tohoku-Oki (2011) and Maule (2010) events. The stress regimes inferred from the P & T axis orientations and its temporal evolution from inter-seismic to post-seismic phase also will be discussed.

  16. Smoke Blankets Northern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Lightning strikes have sparked more than a thousand fires in northern California. This image was captured by the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir (vertical-viewing) camera on 27 June 2008. Cape Mendocino is at the center of the image and Mt. Shasta is near the upper right. Concentrated smoke is visible in several river valleys and the large smoke cloud extends over the Pacific Ocean for hundreds of kilometers.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  17. Northern Sinus Meridiani Stereo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    MGS MOC Release No. MOC2-341, 25 April 2003

    This is a stereo (3-d anaglyph) composite of Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) wide angle images of northern Sinus Meridiani near 2oN, 0oW. The light-toned materials at the south (bottom) end of the picture are considered to be thick (100-200 meters; 300-600 ft) exposures of sedimentary rock. Several ancient meteor impact craters are being exhumed from within these layered materials. To view in stereo, use '3-d' glasses with red over the left eye, and blue over the right. The picture covers an area approximately 113 km (70 mi) wide; north is up.

  18. Teleradiology in northern Quebec.

    PubMed

    Pagé, G; Grégoire, A; Galand, C; Sylvestre, J; Chahlaoui, J; Fauteux, P; Dussault, R; Séguin, R; Roberge, F A

    1981-08-01

    A two-way television network using the Canadian satellite ANIK-B was utilized to transmit radiographic images from Northern Quebec to Montreal. The accuracy of the radiologist's interpretation and his satisfaction with the TV system were studied using a series of 67 preselected cases and 425 current clinical cases. The four participating radiologists gave correct TV interpretations in 81% of the 39 selected cases presented at the beginning of the experiment. This value reached 94% for the other 28 selected cases presented after three months of regular use of the TV system. With current clinical cases, the agreement between TV and direct interpretations was 93%. Although magnification was available, correct identification of very small lesions proved to be the major source of error. On the whole, the radiologists were satisfied with the TV system. PMID:7255709

  19. Raindrop axis ratios, fall velocities and size distribution over Sumatra from 2D-Video Disdrometer measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marzuki; Randeu, Walter L.; Kozu, Toshiaki; Shimomai, Toyoshi; Hashiguchi, Hiroyuki; Schönhuber, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Raindrop axis ratio, falling velocity and size distribution are important in broad list of applications. However, they are not frequently observed in the equatorial region. This paper elucidated the characteristics of raindrop axis ratio, falling velocity and size distribution based on 2D-Video Disdrometer (2DVD) data that have been collected in the equatorial Indonesia, particularly at Kototabang (hereafter called KT), west Sumatra, Indonesia (0.20°S, 100.32°E, 864 m above sea level). A comprehensive follow-up of the previous study on the natural variability of raindrop size distributions (DSDs) is presented. Precipitation was classified through 1.3-GHz wind profiler observation. The dependence of raindrop falling velocity and axis ratio on rainfall type was not clearly observed. Overall, measured raindrop fall velocities were in good agreement with Gunn-Kinzer's data. Raindrop axis ratio at KT was more spherical than that of artificial rain and equilibrium model, and close to the values reported in the turbulent high shear zone of surface layer which can be partially due to the effect of the instrument errors (e.g., location and container shape). Of some natural variations of DSD investigated, the dependence of DSD on rainfall rate and rainfall type as well as diurnal variation was clearly visible. A striking contrast between the stratiform and convective rains is that the size distributions from the stratiform (convective) rains tend to narrow (broaden) with increasing rainfall rates. For rainfall rate R < 10 mm/h, the size distribution of stratiform was broader than that of convective. On the other hand, at higher rainfall rate more large-sized drops were found in convective rain. During the convective rain, very large-sized drops were found mainly at the very start of rain event while for the stratiform they were found to be associated with a strong bright band. In diurnal basis, the DSDs in the morning hours were narrower than those in the evening which was

  20. HF radar detection of infrasonic waves generated in the ionosphere by the 28 March 2005 Sumatra earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdillon, Alain; Occhipinti, Giovanni; Molinié, Jean-Philippe; Rannou, Véronique

    2014-03-01

    Surface waves generated by earthquakes create atmospheric waves detectable in the ionosphere using radio waves techniques: i.e., HF Doppler sounding, GPS and altimeter TEC measurements, as well as radar measurements. We present observations performed with the over-the-horizon (OTH) radar NOSTRADAMUS after the very strong earthquake (M=8.6) that occurred in Sumatra on March 28, 2005. An original method based on the analysis of the RTD (Range-Time-Doppler) image is suggested to identify the multi-chromatic ionospheric signature of the Rayleigh wave. The proposed method presents the advantage to preserve the information on the range variation and time evolution, and provides comprehensive results, as well as easy identification of the waves. In essence, a Burg algorithm of order 1 is proposed to compute the Doppler shift of the radar signal, resulting in sensitivity as good as obtained with higher orders. The multi-chromatic observation of the ionospheric signature of Rayleigh wave allows to extrapolate information coherent with the dispersion curve of Rayleigh waves, that is, we observe two components of the Rayleigh waves with estimated group velocities of 3.8 km/s and 3.6 km/s associated to 28 mHz (T~36 s) and 6.1 mHz (T~164 s) waves, respectively. Spectral analysis of the RTD image reveals anyway the presence of several oscillations at frequencies between 3 and 8 mHz clearly associated to the transfer of energy from the solid-Earth to the atmosphere, and nominally described by the normal modes theory for a complete planet with atmosphere. Oscillations at frequencies larger than 8 mHz are also observed in the spectrum but with smaller amplitudes. Particular attention is pointed out to normal modes 0S29 and 0S37 which are strongly involved in the coupling process. As the proposed method is frequency free, it could be used not only for detection of ionospheric perturbations induced by earthquakes, but also by other natural phenomena as well as volcanic explosions and

  1. The Ongoing Lava Flow Eruption of Sinabung Volcano (Sumatra, Indonesia): Observations from Structure-from-Motion and Satellite Remote Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carr, B. B.; Clarke, A. B.; Arrowsmith, R.; Vanderkluysen, L.

    2015-12-01

    Sinabung is a 2460 m high andesitic stratovolcano in North Sumatra, Indonesia. Its ongoing eruption has produced a 2.9 km long lava flow with two active summit lobes and frequent pyroclastic flows (≤ 5 km long) with associated plumes over 5 km high. Large viscous lava flows of this type are common at volcanoes around the world, but are rarely observed while active. This eruption therefore provides a special opportunity to observe and study the mechanisms of emplacement and growth of an active lava flow. In September 2014, we conducted a field campaign to collect ground-based photographs to analyze with Structure-from-Motion photogrammetric techniques. We built multiple 3D models from which we estimate the volume of the lava flow and identify areas where the flow was most active. Thermal infrared and visual satellite images provide information on the effusive eruption from its initiation in December 2013 to the present and allow us to estimate the eruption rate, advance rate and rheological characteristics of the flow. According to our DEMs the flow volume as of September 2014 was 100 Mm3, providing an average flow rate of 4.5 m3/s, while comparison of two DEMs from that month suggests that most growth occurred at the SE nose of the flow. Flow advancement was initially controlled by the yield strength of the flow crust while eruption and flow advance rates were at their highest in January-March 2014. A period of slow front advancement and inflation from March - October 2014 suggests that the flow's interior had cooled and that propagation was limited by the interior yield strength. This interpretation is supported by the simultaneous generation of pyroclastic flows due to collapse of the upper portion of the lava flow and consequent lava breakout and creation of new flow lobes originating from the upper reaches in October 2014 and June 2015. Both lobes remain active as of August 2015 and present a significant hazard for collapse and generation of pyroclastic flows

  2. Evapotranspiration components determined by eddy covariance and sap flux measurements in oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijide, Ana; Röll, Alexander; Niu, Furong; June, Tania; Hölscher, Dirk; Knohl, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    The expansion of oil palm cultivation fueled by the increasing global demand for palm oil is leading to massive land transformations in tropical areas, particularly in South-East Asia. Conversions of forest land to oil palm plantations likely affect ecosystem water fluxes. However, there is a lack of information on water fluxes from oil palm plantations as well as on the partitioning of these fluxes into its different components such as transpiration and evaporation. It is expected that water fluxes from oil palm plantations vary temporally, both long-term, i.e. between different age-classes of plantations, and short-term, i.e. from day to day within a certain plantation (e.g. during or after periods of rainfall). A proper evaluation of water fluxes from oil palm plantations thus requires an experimental design encompassing these types of variability. To assess evapotranspiration (ET) rates, an eddy covariance tower was installed in a 2-year-old oil palm plantation in the lowlands of Jambi, Sumatra; it was subsequently moved to a 12-year-old oil palm plantation located in the same region. In parallel to the ET, sap flux density was measured on 16 leaf petioles on four oil palms; stand transpiration rates were derived from these measurements with stand inventory data. The parallel measurements ran for several weeks in both plantations. Preliminary results for our period of study show that the average ET rate of the 2-year-old oil palm plantation was 5.2 mm day-1; values up to 7.0 mm day-1 were observed on dry, sunny days with non-limiting soil moisture. Stand transpiration (T) by the young oil palms was very low, 0.3 mm day-1on average, and only showed a small variation between days. Under optimal environmental conditions, the ratio of T to total ET was up to 0.08 in the young plantation, while in the mature, 12-year-old plantation, it was significantly higher and reached 0.5. Transpiration rates in the mature oil palm plantation were about six- to seven-fold higher

  3. CO2 and CH4 fluxes from oil palm plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia: effects of palm age and environmental conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meijide, A.; Hassler, E.; Corre, M. D.; June, T.; Sabajo, C.; Veldkamp, E.; Knohl, A.

    2015-12-01

    Global increasing demand of palm oil is leading to the expansion of oil palm plantations, particularly in SE Asia, which in Sumatran lowlands has resulted in a 21% forest area loss. Large photosynthesis rates are expected for oil palms, due to their high growth and yield production. However, there is very limited information on their effect on carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes and their sink or source strength at ecosystem scale. For methane (CH4) fluxes, research has mainly focused in oil palm plantations located on peatlands, but no information is available at ecosystem level from plantations on mineral soils. With the aim of studying CO2 fluxes during the non-productive and productive phases of oil palm cultivation, an eddy covariance (EC) tower was installed in a 2 year old oil palm plantation, where it was measuring for 8 months, and was subsequently moved to a 12 year old plantation, both in the province of Jambi, Sumatra. The EC system consisted of a Licor 7500A and an ultrasonic Metek anemometer, operating at 10 Hz, installed on a 7m and 22m tower respectively. In the 12 year old plantation, the tower was also equipped with a Los Gatos FGGA-24EP, to assess CH4 fluxes. Chamber measurements were also carried out to obtain information on respiration and CH4 fluxes from the soil. Radiation was the major driver controlling net carbon uptake, while soil moisture did not play a significant role. Average net ecosystem exchange in the hours of the day with higher radiation for the whole measurement period was 10 μmol m-2 s-1 for the 2 year old plantation and -22 μmol m-2 s-1 in the 12 year old. The analysis of the cumulative fluxes show that the non-productive plantation was a carbon source of around 636 g CO2 m-2 during the 8 months of measurements, while in the productive period, it acted as a strong carbon sink (-794 g CO2 m-2 yr-1). Methane uptake was observed in the soil in both plantations and also for the whole ecosystem in the 12 year old one, but its

  4. Quartenary Gede Salak volcanic complex, Banten area, at the junction between Sumatra arc and Java arc, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurniawan, I.; Hasenaka, T.; Suparka, E.

    2011-12-01

    Pleistocene Gede Salak volcanic complex is located at Banten, northwestern edge of Java island (NWJ), forming a part of Sunda arc. The volcanism is associated with the subduction of the India-Australia plate beneath Eurasian plate at the rate of 7 cm/y. This volcanic complex consists of Gede, Salak, Batur and Wadas volcanoes. To southeast is located Pinang volcano, and to south is volcanic complex of Rawa Dano. These volcanoes are located near Sunda Strait, a transitional zone between Java arc and Sumatera arc where oblique subduction is observed. The distance of all these volcanoes from Java trench varies from 250 km to 300 km. This study is the first geochemical study of volcanic rocks characterizing across-arc variation of Java-Sumatra junction. Gede Salak volcanic complex consists of pyroclastic flow deposits in the western part and lava flows in the eastern part. The later development of dome Wadas formation is probably associated with fault structures trending northwest to southeast. Pinang volcano mainly consists of basaltic lavas. Rawa Dano volcanic complex consists of two caldera, Anyer caldera and Dano caldera, which produced large amount of volcanic tuff called Tufa Banten. Samples from this volcanic complex include basaltic to trachytic rocks, in the range of medium-K to high-K. MgO content is less than 3 %. Elements of Rb, Zr, Ce, and La increase with increasing SiO2. Chondrite-normalized REE patterns are similar to those of island arc basalts. When compared to volcanic samples from western Java volcanoes (WJ), REE pattern is similar to those from back-arc volcanoes. Gede Salak volcano is slightly enriched in the subduction component, as illustrated by the low Nb/Zr and elevated Ba/Zr ratios. B/Nb and B/Zr ratios are in the range of 1.5 - 5.4 and 0.03 - 0.10 respectively, which are higher than those of the back arc volcano in central Java (CJ), but lower than those of the frontal volcanoes there. Across arc variation of NWJ including GSVC, Pinang and

  5. Using Zircon-Hosted Melt Inclusions to Track the Late Volatile Evolution of the 74 ka Youngest Toba Tuff, Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lerner, A. H.; Kent, A. J.

    2014-12-01

    Melt inclusions provide important constraints on the behavior of magmatic volatiles; however, our understanding is hindered by a lack of temporal constraints on volatile evolution. Melt inclusions in zircon crystals have the unique potential to provide a temporal record of pre-eruptive magmatic volatile abundances through radiometric U-Pb or U-Th dating of zircon hosts. We present work on zircon-hosted melt inclusions (ZHMIs) from the ~74 ka Youngest Toba Tuff (hereafter: Toba), Sumatra, Indonesia. Zircon separated from Toba pumice contain abundant melt inclusions of ovoid or irregular-wormy forms, which range in size from 5-50 μm. Cathodoluminescence (CL) imaging of Toba zircon show that many ovoid melt inclusions and all the irregular melt inclusions occur within areas of zircon growth following earlier dissolution events. These zones crosscut oscillatory-zoned zircon and have negligible CL variability, suggesting that remineralizion and entrapment of melt inclusions may have occurred relatively quickly. Some inclusions do occur within regions of oscillatory CL zonation, indicating melt entrapment also occurs during primary crystal growth. Electron microprobe analyses show no significant compositional differences between ovoid and irregular-shaped inclusions. Toba ZHMIs are chemically similar to quartz-hosted melt inclusions (Chesner and Luhr, 2010) and to the most differentiated Toba pumice glass (Chesner, 1998). Zircon saturation calculations (Boehnke et al, 2013) from ZHMI chemistries indicate that zircon saturated at ~750-770°C, consistent with Fe-Ti geothermometry from Toba pumice (700-780°C; Chesner and Luhr, 2010). Chlorine in zircon inclusions range from 0.11-0.17 wt%, which are within the range measured in quartz-hosted inclusions (0.11-0.20 wt%). Non-degassed matrix glass has a similar maximum chlorine content of 0.15 wt%, while out-gassed samples have Cl as low as 0.08 wt% (Chesner and Luhr, 2010). Evidence indicates that zircon saturated late and

  6. Siak River System — East-Sumatra: Characterisation of sources, estuarine processes, and discharge into the Malacca Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siegel, Herbert; Stottmeister, Iris; Reißmann, Jan; Gerth, Monika; Jose, Christin; Samiaji, Joco

    2009-04-01

    Interdisciplinary pollution studies were performed in the Siak River system in the Riau Province of East-Sumatra (Indonesia). Remote sensing investigations combined with in situ measurements in different seasons of the years 2004-2006 were focused on the identification of different sources of water masses in the tributaries and on the discharge into the estuary and Malacca Strait. Ship-borne measurements comprised the determination of the concentration and composition of optically active water constituents and water colour. Satellite data of different spectral and spatial resolution were implemented. Sources of different water masses such as humic substance dominated rivers, erosion areas of high suspended matter concentration and areas of limited bio-productivity are identified. Sources of humic substances are the rivers Tapung Kanan, Mandau, Siak Kecil, and Bukit Batu which are draining peatlands. The absorption coefficients of dissolved organic substances are partly (Siak Kecil, 51.8 m - 1 ) more than double of the currently admitted coefficients. The highest suspended matter concentrations near a channel between Siak and Siak Kecil leading to lowest transparency are caused by the estuarine turbidity maximum developing at the tidal front. The lowest Chlorophyll concentrations were measured between Pekanbaru and the channel, in and downstream of an industrial area. The concentration and distribution of water constituents are characterised by distinct regional patterns independent from the monsoon phases. The high absorption of dissolved organic humic substances originated from draining peatlands shifts the maximum of spectral reflectances to 700 nm leading to the extreme brownish to red-brownish water colour. High scattering of suspended particles increases the reflectance in the entire spectral range. The strong changes in the water colour enables satellite data of the visible spectral range to follow the distribution patterns of the Siak River discharge in the

  7. Nitrogen availability and soil N2O emissions following conversion of forests to coffee in southern Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verchot, Louis V.; Hutabarat, Lusida; Hairiah, Kurniatun; van Noordwijk, Meine

    2006-12-01

    Changes in land use impact on the N cycle with both local and global consequences. We examined how conversion of forest to agriculture in one catchment in southern Sumatra altered N availability and soil N2O emission. Measurements were made along a chronosequence of forest land converted to coffee gardens. A number of different management practices were also examined. Inorganic N stocks and N cycling rates were highest in the forest and lower in the coffee gardens. The forest and young conversion sites appeared to be N limited, whereas the older agricultural sites and the more intensively managed sites were not as strongly N limited. N2O emissions were low in the forest (<2 kgN ha-1yr-1) and increased sharply following deforestation. Emissions on recently cleared land were 4.6 kgN ha-1yr-1 and 8.4 kgN ha-1yr-1 in a 1-year-old coffee garden. Emissions in the older coffee gardens were lower with the lowest flux observed in a 10 year old site (1.8 kgN ha-1yr-1). We explored the effects of different types of management approaches that farmers are using in this landscape. Emissions in an 18-year-old multistrata coffee garden with a significant overstory of N fixing trees were 5 times greater (15.5 kg ha-1yr-1) than emissions from forests. We also found that intensive organic matter management produced high emissions. To understand the spatial and temporal variability of the N2O emissions we used the hole-in-the-pipe conceptual model. N2O fluxes were lowest on N limited sites. Soil water content also played an important role and emissions were highest when water filled pore space (WFPS) was between 85 and 95%. A number of formulations of this model have been applied in different ways over the years to explain spatial and temporal variation in the soil N-oxide flux, and in this study we found the mechanistic explanation useful. Our study suggests that land use change and intensification of agriculture in N limited highland landscapes may significantly increase the

  8. Forearc Basin Structure in the Andaman-Nicobar Segment of the Sumatra-Andaman Subduction Zone: Insight from High-Resolution Seismic Reflection Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeremans, R. E.; Singh, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    The Andaman-Nicobar subduction is the northernmost segment of the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone and marks the western boundary of the Andaman Sea, which is a complex backarc extensional basin. We present the interpretation of a new set of deep seismic reflection data acquired across the Andaman-Nicobar forearc basin, from 8°N to 11°N, to understand the structure and evolution of the forearc basin, focusing on how the obliquity of convergence affects deformation in the forearc, as well as on the Diligent (DF) and Eastern Margin Faults (EMF). Constraining the evolution of this basin, which is strongly related to the collision of India and Eurasia, can help shed light onto present-day deformation processes along this segment of the subduction zone, where convergence is highly oblique and little data is available. We find that he DF is a backthrust and corresponds to the Mentawai (MFZ) and West Andaman Fault (WAF) systems further south, offshore Sumatra. The DF is expressed as a series of mostly landward verging folds and faults, deforming the early to late Miocene sediments. The DF seems to root from the boundary between the accretionary complex and the continental backstop, where it meets the EMF. The EMF marks the western boundary of the forearc basin; it is associated with subsidence and is expressed as a deep piggyback basin, associated with recent Pliocene to Pleistocene subsidence at the western edge of the forearc basin. The eastern edge of the forearc basin is marked by the Invisible Bank (IB), which is thought to be tilted and uplifted continental crustal block. Subsidence along the EMF and uplift and tilting of the IB seem to be related to different opening phases in the Andaman Sea. The sliver Andaman-Nicobar Fault (ANF), which is the active northward extension of the Great Sumatra sliver Fault (GSF), lies to the east of the IB, and marks the boundary between continental crust underlying the forearc basin and crust accreted at the Andaman Sea Spreading

  9. Telemedicine in northern Quebec.

    PubMed Central

    Roberge, F. A.; Pagé, G.; Sylvestre, J.; Chahlaoui, J.

    1982-01-01

    Television transmission of diagnostic and educational information can help to improve specialized medical care in remote and underserviced areas. This paper describes a pilot study in which the Canadian satellite Anik-B was used to link the James Bay area in northern Quebec with two large Montreal teaching hospitals. Broad-band real-time television was well suited for tele-education and teleconsultation activities. A much less costly method, using narrow-band slow-scan television, was also examined, but it requires improvements. The technology of telemedicine is in place, but its future use is impeded by the prohibitive costs of operating an efficient two-way broad-band television system for several remote health care sites. A solution to this problem may be an intermediate-band system combining some of the low-cost features of narrowband slow-scan television with the interactive high-resolution advantages of broad-band real-time television. PMID:7139483

  10. Regional GPS data confirm high strain accumulation prior to the 2000 June 4 Mw = 7.8 earthquake at southeast Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michel, G. W.; Becker, M.; Reigber, Ch.; Tibi, R.; Yu, Y. Q.; Zhu, S. Y.

    2001-09-01

    Site velocities derived from repeated measurements in a regional GPS network in Southeast Asia help to constrain the motion of tectonic blocks as well as slip rates along major faults in the area. Using 3-D forward dislocation modelling, the influence of seismic elastic loading and unloading on the measured site motions are approximated. Results suggest that the northwestern Sunda arc is fully coupled seismogenically, whereas its eastern part along Java shows localized deformation. Higher horizontal velocity gradients than expected from the modelling of a fully coupled plate interface west of Manila in the Philippines suggest that deformation may be localized there. Assuming that geodetically derived convergence represents long-term rates, accumulated geodetic moments are compared to those derived using seismic data from 1977 to 2000 (Harvard CMT catalogue). If areas displaying localized deformation are dominated by creep processes, the largest difference between accumulated and seismically released deformation is located where the 2000 June 4 Mw=7.8 Sumatra earthquake occurred.

  11. Evaluation of the statistical evidence for Characteristic Earthquakes in the frequency-magnitude distributions of Sumatra and other subduction zone regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naylor, M.; Main, I. G.; Greenhough, J.; Bell, A. F.; McCloskey, J.

    2009-04-01

    The Sumatran Boxing Day earthquake and subsequent large events provide an opportunity to re-evaluate the statistical evidence for characteristic earthquake events in frequency-magnitude distributions. Our aims are to (i) improve intuition regarding the properties of samples drawn from power laws, (ii) illustrate using random samples how appropriate Poisson confidence intervals can both aid the eye and provide an appropriate statistical evaluation of data drawn from power-law distributions, and (iii) apply these confidence intervals to test for evidence of characteristic earthquakes in subduction-zone frequency-magnitude distributions. We find no need for a characteristic model to describe frequency magnitude distributions in any of the investigated subduction zones, including Sumatra, due to an emergent skew in residuals of power law count data at high magnitudes combined with a sample bias for examining large earthquakes as candidate characteristic events.

  12. Two new species of Cyrtodactylus (Squamata: Gekkonidae) from the Southern Bukit Barisan Range of Sumatra and an estimation of their phylogeny.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Michael B; O'connell, Kyle A; Barraza, Gabriel; Riyanto, Awal; Kurniawan, Nia; Smith, Eric N

    2015-01-01

    We describe Cyrtodactylus psarops sp. nov. and C. semicinctus sp. nov., two new species of bent-toed geckos from montane forests in the southern Bukit Barisan Range of Sumatra, Indonesia. The new species are closely related to one another and to C. semenanjungensis, a lowland species currently known only from Peninsular Malaysia. Three characters of the new species immediately distinguish them from most congeners in the Sunda Region: they lack transversely enlarged subcaudals, have a precloacal depression, and have a greatly enlarged scale positioned at the apex of a continuous series of femoral and precloacal pore-bearing scales. They differ from one another in cephalic pattern, tuberculation of the brachium, and in numbers of cloacal tubercles, dorsal bands, and ventrals in a transverse row. The greatly enlarged scale at the apex of the precloacal pores appears to be a rare apomorphy of these two species and C. agamensis. PMID:26624112

  13. The effects of three-dimensional heterogeneous Earth model of coseismic displacement changes of the Sumatra earthquake of 26 December 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qu, Wulin; Zhang, Bei; Huang, Luyuan; Cheng, Huihong; Shi, Yaolin

    2016-04-01

    The 26 December 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake with moment magnitude (Mw) of 9.1 to 9.3 is the first great earthquake recorded by digital broadband, high-dynamic-range seismometers and global positioning system (GPS) equipment, which recorded many high-quality geophysical data sets. The spherical curvature is not negligible in far field especially for large event and the real Earth is laterally inhomogeneity and the analytical results still are difficult to explain the geodetic measurements. We use equivalent body force finite elements method Zhang et al. (2015) and mesh the whole earth, to compute global co-seismic displacements using four fault slip models of the 2004 Sumatra earthquake provided by different authors. Comparisons of calculated co-seismic displacements and GPS show that the confidences are well in near field for four models, and the confidences are according to different models. In the whole four models, the Chlieh model (Chlieh et al., 2007) is the best as this slip model not only accord well with near field data but also far field data. And then we use the best slip model, Chlieh model to explore influence of three dimensional lateral earth structure on both layered spherically symmetric (PREM) and real 3-D heterogeneous earth model (Crust 1.0 model and GyPSuM). Results show that the effects of 3-D heterogeneous earth model are not negligible and decrease concomitantly with increasing distance from the epicenter. The relative effects of 3-D crust model are 23% and 40% for horizontal and vertical displacements, respectively. The effects of the 3-D mantle model are much smaller than that of 3-D crust model but with wider impacting area.

  14. Glacial to Holocene dynamics of Indonesian precipitation - New insights from plant-wax dD off Northwest Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niedermeyer, E. M.; Mohtadi, M.; Sessions, A. L.; Feakins, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    We used the stable hydrogen and stable carbon isotopic composition (dD and d13C, respectively) of terrestrial plant leaf waxes as a proxy for past rainfall variations over northwestern Indonesia. Our study site lies within the western boundary of the Indo-Pacific Warm Pool (IPWP), a key evaporative site for the global hydrologic cycle. At present, rainfall intensity in tropical Indonesia is influenced by the Pacific Ocean El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) (see Kirono et al., 1999), the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD) mode (Saji et al., 1999), and to some extend by the position of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) (e.g. Koutavas and Lynch-Stieglitz, 2005). Paleoclimate studies show that these systems have varied in the past, however, the impact of these changes on regional paelo-hydrology of Indonesia is yet unknown. We worked on marine sediment core SO189-144KL (1°09,300 N; 98°03,960 E) retrieved at 480 m water depth off Northwest Sumatra from the eastern Indian Ocean. Sediments consist of material from marine and terrestrial sources, and radiocarbon dating indicates an age of ~300 years at the core top and of ~24,000 years at the base. We used d13C and dD values of the n-C30 alkanoic acid as proxies for changes in vegetation composition (C3 vs. C4 plants) and rainfall variability on land, respectively. Values of d13C show only little variation and suggest persistent dominance of tropical trees throughout the past 24,000 years. Values of dD display distinct variability throughout the record, however, mean rainfall intensities during the late Last Glacial compare to those during the Holocene. This is in agreement with rather consistent vegetation at the study site but in sharp contrast with reconstructions of contemporaneous rainfall patterns at the nearby islands Borneo (Partin et al., 2007) and Flores (Griffiths et al., 2009), indicating multiple controls on regional hydrology of Indonesia. In combination with previous studies of late Pleistocene to Holocene

  15. MISR Views Northern Australia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    MISR images of tropical northern Australia acquired on June 1, 2000 (Terra orbit 2413) during the long dry season. Left: color composite of vertical (nadir) camera blue, green, and red band data. Right: multi-angle composite of red band data only from the cameras viewing 60 degrees aft, 60 degrees forward, and nadir. Color and contrast have been enhanced to accentuate subtle details. In the left image, color variations indicate how different parts of the scene reflect light differently at blue, green, and red wavelengths; in the right image color variations show how these same scene elements reflect light differently at different angles of view. Water appears in blue shades in the right image, for example, because glitter makes the water look brighter at the aft camera's view angle. The prominent inland water body is Lake Argyle, the largest human-made lake in Australia, which supplies water for the Ord River Irrigation Area and the town of Kununurra (pop. 6500) just to the north. At the top is the southern edge of Joseph Bonaparte Gulf; the major inlet at the left is Cambridge Gulf, the location of the town of Wyndham (pop. 850), the port for this region. This area is sparsely populated, and is known for its remote, spectacular mountains and gorges. Visible along much of the coastline are intertidal mudflats of mangroves and low shrubs; to the south the terrain is covered by open woodland merging into open grassland in the lower half of the pictures.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra satellite is managed by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD. JPL is a division of the California Institute of Technology.

  16. Isolated Northern Dunes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image was taken at 81 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. In this region, the dunes are isolated from each other. The dunes are just starting to emerge from the winter frost covering appearing dark with bright crests. These dunes are located on top of ice.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.1, Longitude 191.3 East (168.7 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  17. Tornadoes Strike Northern Wisconsin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    A series of tornadoes ripped through the Upper Midwest region of the United States in the evening of June 7, 2007. At least five different tornadoes touched down in Wisconsin, according to the Associated Press, one of which tore through the Bear Paw Resort in northern Wisconsin. Despite dropping as much as fifteen centimeters (six inches) of rain in some places and baseball-size hail in others, authorities were reporting no deaths attributable to the storm system, and only a smattering of injuries, but considerable property damage in some areas. When the MODIS instrument on NASA's Terra satellite observed the area on June 9, 2007, the track torn through the woods by one of the tornadoes stands out quite clearly. This photo-like image uses data collected by MODIS in the normal human vision range to give a familiar natural-looking appearance. The landscape is largely a checkerboard of farms, towns, roads, and cities. The pale land is predominantly farmland where crops have not fully grown in yet. Dark blue shows the winding path of rivers and lakes dotting the landscape. The large blue lake on the east (right) side of the image is Lake Michigan. Towns and cities, including the city of Green Bay, are gray. To the north side, farmland gives way to dark green as land use shifts from agriculture to the Menominee Indian Reservation and Nicolet National Forest. The diagonal slash through the dark green forested land shows the tornado track. Bare land was revealed where the tornado tore down trees or stripped vegetation off the branches. The high-resolution image provided above is at MODIS' full spatial resolution (level of detail) of 250 meters per pixel. The MODIS Rapid Response System provides this image at additional resolutions.

  18. Northern Sand Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Our topic for the weeks of April 4 and April 11 is dunes on Mars. We will look at the north polar sand sea and at isolated dune fields at lower latitudes. Sand seas on Earth are often called 'ergs,' an Arabic name for dune field. A sand sea differs from a dune field in two ways: 1) a sand sea has a large regional extent, and 2) the individual dunes are large in size and complex in form.

    This VIS image was taken at 82 degrees North latitude during Northern spring. The image is completely dominated by dunes. In sand seas, it is very common for a single type of dune to occur, and for a single predominate wind to control the alignment of the dunes.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 82.2, Longitude 152.5 East (207.5 West). 19 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) was developed by Arizona State University, Tempe, in collaboration with Raytheon Santa Barbara Remote Sensing. The THEMIS investigation is led by Dr. Philip Christensen at Arizona State University. Lockheed Martin Astronautics, Denver, is the prime contractor for the Odyssey project, and developed and built the orbiter. Mission operations are conducted jointly from Lockheed Martin and from JPL, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena.

  19. Northern Arizona Volcanoes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    Northern Arizona is best known for the Grand Canyon. Less widely known are the hundreds of geologically young volcanoes, at least one of which buried the homes of local residents. San Francisco Mtn., a truncated stratovolcano at 3887 meters, was once a much taller structure (about 4900 meters) before it exploded some 400,000 years ago a la Mt. St. Helens. The young cinder cone field to its east includes Sunset Crater, that erupted in 1064 and buried Native American homes. This ASTER perspective was created by draping ASTER image data over topographic data from the U.S. Geological Survey National Elevation Data.

    With its 14 spectral bands from the visible to the thermal infrared wavelength region, and its high spatial resolution of 15 to 90 meters (about 50 to 300 feet), ASTER images Earth to map and monitor the changing surface of our planet.

    ASTER is one of five Earth-observing instruments launched December 18, 1999, on NASA's Terra satellite. The instrument was built by Japan's Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry. A joint U.S./Japan science team is responsible for validation and calibration of the instrument and the data products.

    The broad spectral coverage and high spectral resolution of ASTER provides scientists in numerous disciplines with critical information for surface mapping, and monitoring of dynamic conditions and temporal change. Example applications are: monitoring glacial advances and retreats; monitoring potentially active volcanoes; identifying crop stress; determining cloud morphology and physical properties; wetlands evaluation; thermal pollution monitoring; coral reef degradation; surface temperature mapping of soils and geology; and measuring surface heat balance.

    The U.S. science team is located at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The Terra mission is part of NASA's Science Mission Directorate.

    Size: 20.4 by 24.6 kilometers (12.6 by 15.2 miles) Location: 35.3 degrees North latitude, 111

  20. Northern Polar Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site]

    Released 13 May 2004 This nighttime visible color image was collected on November 26, 2002 during the Northern Summer season near the North Polar Cap Edge.

    The THEMIS VIS camera is capable of capturing color images of the martian surface using its five different color filters. In this mode of operation, the spatial resolution and coverage of the image must be reduced to accommodate the additional data volume produced from the use of multiple filters. To make a color image, three of the five filter images (each in grayscale) are selected. Each is contrast enhanced and then converted to a red, green, or blue intensity image. These three images are then combined to produce a full color, single image. Because the THEMIS color filters don't span the full range of colors seen by the human eye, a color THEMIS image does not represent true color. Also, because each single-filter image is contrast enhanced before inclusion in the three-color image, the apparent color variation of the scene is exaggerated. Nevertheless, the color variation that does appear is representative of some change in color, however subtle, in the actual scene. Note that the long edges of THEMIS color images typically contain color artifacts that do not represent surface variation.

    Image information: VIS instrument. Latitude 80, Longitude 43.2 East (316.8 West). 38 meter/pixel resolution.

    Note: this THEMIS visual image has not been radiometrically nor geometrically calibrated for this preliminary release. An empirical correction has been performed to remove instrumental effects. A linear shift has been applied in the cross-track and down-track direction to approximate spacecraft and planetary motion. Fully calibrated and geometrically projected images will be released through the Planetary Data System in accordance with Project policies at a later time.

    NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory manages the 2001 Mars Odyssey mission for

  1. Carbon Cycling in Northern Peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2010-11-01

    Northern peatlands span only 3 million square kilometers, about 3% of the terrestrial area of the globe, yet they represent a significant terrestrial sink for carbon dioxide. They are also important emitters of methane, an even more potent greenhouse gas. Despite their substantial role in the global carbon cycle, peatlands are not typically incorporated into global climate models. The AGU Monograph Carbon Cycling in Northern Peatlands, edited by Andrew J. Baird, Lisa R. Belyea, Xavier Comas, A. S. Reeve, and Lee D. Slater, looks at the disproportionate role peatlands play in the global carbon budget. In this interview, Eos talks with Andy Baird, University of Leeds, Leeds, United Kingdom.

  2. Soil carbon dioxide and methane fluxes from lowland forests converted to oil palm and rubber plantations in Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preuss, Evelyn; Corre, Marife D.; Damris, Muhammad; Tjoa, Aiyen; Rahayu Utami, Sri; Veldkamp, Edzo

    2015-04-01

    Demand for palm oil has increased strongly in recent decades. Global palm oil production quadrupled between 1990 and 2009, and although almost half of the global supply is already produced in Indonesia, a doubling of current production is planned for the next ten years. This agricultural expansion is achieved by conversion of rainforest. Land-use conversion affects soil carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) fluxes through changes in nutrient availability and soil properties which, in turn, influence plant productivity, microbial activity and gas diffusivity. Our study was aimed to assess changes in soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes with forest conversion to oil palm and rubber plantations. Our study area was Jambi Province, Sumatra, Indonesia. We selected two soil landscapes in this region: loam and clay Acrisol soils. At each landscape, we investigated four land-use systems: lowland secondary rainforest, secondary forest with regenerating rubber (referred here as jungle rubber), rubber (7-17 years old) and oil palm plantations (9-16 years old). Each land use in each soil landscape was represented by four sites as replicates, totaling to 32 sites. We measured soil-atmosphere CH4 and CO2 fluxes using vented static chamber method with monthly sampling from November 2012 to December 2013. There were no differences in soil CO2 and CH4 fluxes (all P > 0.05) between soil landscapes for each land-use type. For soil CO2 fluxes, in both clay and loam Acrisol soil landscapes oil palm were lower compared to the other land uses (P < 0.007). In the clay Acrisol, soil CO2 fluxes were 107.2 ± 7.2 mg C m-2 h-1 for oil palm, and 195.9 ± 13.5 mg C m-2 h-1for forest, 185.3 ± 9.4 mg C m-2 h-1for jungle rubber and 182.8 ± 16.2 mg C m2 h-1for rubber. In the loam Acrisol, soil CO2 fluxes were 115.7 ± 11.0 mg CO2-C m2 h-1 for oil palm, and 186.6 ± 13.7, 178.7 ± 11.2, 182.9 ± 14.5 mg CO2-C m-2 h-1 for forest, jungle rubber and rubber, respectively. The seasonal patterns of soil CO2 fluxes

  3. Titan's Stratospheric Condensibles at High Northern Latitudes During Northern Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Carrie; Samuelson, R.; Achterberg, R.

    2012-01-01

    The Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer (IRIS) instrument on board Voyager 1 caught the first glimpse of an unidentified particulate feature in Titan's stratosphere that spectrally peaks at 221 per centimeter. Until recently, this feature that we have termed 'the haystack,' has been seen persistently at high northern latitudes with the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) instrument onboard Cassini, The strength of the haystack emission feature diminishes rapidly with season, becoming drastically reduced at high northern latitudes, as Titan transitions from northern winter into spring, In contrast to IRIS whose shortest wavenumber was 200 per centimeter, CIRS extends down to 10 per centimeter, thus revealing an entirely unexplored spectral region in which nitrile ices have numerous broad lattice vibration features, Unlike the haystack, which is only found at high northern latitudes during northern winter/early northern spring, this geometrically thin nitrile cloud pervades Titan's lower stratosphere, spectrally peaking at 160 per centimeter, and is almost global in extent spanning latitudes 85 N to 600 S, The inference of nitrile ices are consistent with the highly restricted altitude ranges over which these features are observed, and appear to be dominated by a mixture of HCN and HC3N, The narrow range in altitude over which the nitrile ices extend is unlike the haystack, whose vertical distribution is significantly broader, spanning roughly 70 kilometers in altitude in Titan's lower stratosphere, The nitrile clouds that CIRS observes are located in a dynamically stable region of Titan's atmosphere, whereas CH4 clouds, which ordinarily form in the troposphere, form in a more dynamically unstable region, where convective cloud systems tend to occur. In the unusual situation where Titan's tropopause cools significantly from the HASI 70.5K temperature minimum, CH4 should condense in Titan's lower stratosphere, just like the aforementioned nitrile clouds, although

  4. NORTHERN PUGET SOUND MARINE MAMMALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A baseline study of the marine mammals of northern Puget Sound and the Strait of Juan de Fuca was undertaken from November 1977 to September 1979 emphasizing certain aspects of the biology of the harbor seal, which is the most abundant marine mammal in this area. The local abunda...

  5. "Subtractive" Bilingualism in Northern Belize.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinstein, Robert A.

    "Subtractive" bilingualism in Northern Belize is analyzed based on an extension of a model by Wallace Lambert. The impact of English language instruction on Spanish speaking children in Corozal Town, the northernmost urban center in the British colony of Belize, Central America, is described. This description extends an earlier account of…

  6. NUMA: A Northern Paiute History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inter-Tribal Council of Nevada, Reno.

    One in a series of four histories of native Nevadans, this volume presents the story of the Northern Paiute people, or Numa, who lived, hunted, and travelled in the Great Basin area which occupies one-third of present day Nevada and parts of Oregon, Idaho, and California. Based on interviews with tribal elders and research conducted at numerous…

  7. Poroelastic stress-triggering of the 2005 M8.7 Nias earthquake by the 2004 M9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hughes, K.L.H.; Masterlark, Timothy; Mooney, W.D.

    2010-01-01

    The M9.2 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake (SAE) occurred three months prior to the M8.7 Nias earthquake (NE). We propose that the NE was mechanically triggered by the SAE, and that poroelastic effects were a major component of this triggering. This study uses 3D finite element models (FEMs) of the Sumatra-Andaman subduction zone (SASZ) to predict the deformation, stress, and pore pressure fields of the SAE. The coseismic slip distribution for the SAE is calibrated to near-field GPS data using FEM-generated Green's Functions and linear inverse methods. The calibrated FEM is then used to predict the postseismic poroelastic contribution to stress-triggering along the rupture surface of the NE, which is adjacent to the southern margin of the SAE. The coseismic deformation of the SAE, combined with the rheologic configuration of the SASZ produces two transient fluid flow regimes having separate time constants. SAE coseismic pore pressures in the relatively shallow forearc and volcanic arc regions (within a few km depth) dissipate within one month after the SAE. However, pore pressures in the oceanic crust of the down-going slab persist several months after the SAE. Predictions suggest that the SAE initially induced MPa-scale negative pore pressure near the hypocenter of the NE. This pore pressure slowly recovered (increased) during the three-month interval separating the SAE and NE due to lateral migration of pore fluids, driven by coseismic pressure gradients, within the subducting oceanic crust. Because pore pressure is a fundamental component of Coulomb stress, the MPa-scale increase in pore pressure significantly decreased stability of the NE fault during the three-month interval after the SAE and prior to rupture of the NE. A complete analysis of stress-triggering due to the SAE must include a poroelastic component. Failure to include poroelastic mechanics will lead to an incomplete model that cannot account for the time interval between the SAE and NE. Our transient

  8. Estimating Aboveground Forest Carbon Stock of Major Tropical Forest Land Uses Using Airborne Lidar and Field Measurement Data in Central Sumatra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapa, R. B.; Watanabe, M.; Motohka, T.; Shiraishi, T.; shimada, M.

    2013-12-01

    Tropical forests are providing environmental goods and services including carbon sequestration, energy regulation, water fluxes, wildlife habitats, fuel, and building materials. Despite the policy attention, the tropical forest reserve in Southeast Asian region is releasing vast amount of carbon to the atmosphere due to deforestation. Establishing quality forest statistics and documenting aboveground forest carbon stocks (AFCS) are emerging in the region. Airborne and satellite based large area monitoring methods are developed to compliment conventional plot based field measurement methods as they are costly, time consuming, and difficult to implement for large regions. But these methods still require adequate ground measurements for calibrating accurate AFCS model. Furthermore, tropical region comprised of varieties of natural and plantation forests capping higher variability of forest structures and biomass volumes. To address this issue and the needs for ground data, we propose the systematic collection of ground data integrated with airborne light detection and ranging (LiDAR) data. Airborne LiDAR enables accurate measures of vertical forest structure, including canopy height and volume demanding less ground measurement plots. Using an appropriate forest type based LiDAR sampling framework, structural properties of forest can be quantified and treated similar to ground measurement plots, producing locally relevant information to use independently with satellite data sources including synthetic aperture radar (SAR). In this study, we examined LiDAR derived forest parameters with field measured data and developed general and specific AFCS models for tropical forests in central Sumatra. The general model is fitted for all types of natural and plantation forests while the specific model is fitted to the specific forest type. The study region consists of natural forests including peat swamp and dry moist forests, regrowth, and mangrove and plantation forests

  9. A Field Assessment of the Effects of the M7.6 Earthquake, 30 September 2009, beneath Padang, Western Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mooney, W. D.; McGarr, A.; Sumarso, S.; Fauzi, F.; Amarizal, I.; Rudianto, S.; Deierlein, G.

    2009-12-01

    We report field observations of the effects of the M7.6 Padang earthquake of 30 September 2009, in Western Sumatra, Indonesia. In Padang City and its environs, we observed localized regions where heavy damage affected a large fraction of the structures separated by regions of only light damage. Construction type (e.g., unreinforced masonry) and the extent to which contractors adhered to building codes almost certainly played roles in the observed damage. Our observations of localized damage suggest, however, that site effects were also important. Factors influencing site response include near-surface geology, height of the water table, and depth to bedrock. We observed major landslides to the north of Padang City, where it appears that recent heavy rainfall saturated the weathered volcanic formations setting up the conditions for liquefaction and massive debris flows. These debris flows, which buried three villages at the site we visited, were triggered by the strong ground motion from the earthquake, as confirmed by eyewitnesses. Partly because of the great Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of 26 December 2004, earthquake hazards in the city of Padang were considered to be primarily due to an anticipated mega-thrust earthquake in the offshore region and an associated tsunami. On the contrary, the M7.6 earthquake of 30 September was neither a mega-thrust event nor did it generate a tsunami of any consequence. Instead, the compact rupture zone of this earthquake was located within the subducting oceanic slab at a depth of about 80 km. The September 30 earthquake is similar in terms of its intra-slab setting and damaging high-frequency ground motion to intermediate depth earthquakes elsewhere that have caused damage to cities above subduction zones, including those of South and Central America. The focal mechanism of this earthquake, however, was unusual in that it entailed thrust faulting on planes striking at high angles to the trend of the local subduction zone

  10. Low-sensitivity acceleration seismic records obtained on sea floor in the source region of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, M.; Yamada, T.; Kanazawa, T.

    2005-12-01

    To understand characteristics of large earthquakes occurred in a subduction zone, it is necessary to study an asperity where large earthquakes occur repeatedly. Because observation near an asperity is needed for studies of asperities, ocean bottom seismometer (OBS) is essential to observe seismic waves from earthquakes in subduction area. Since a conventional OBS is designed for high-sensitivity observation, OBS records of large earthquake occurred near OBS are often saturated. To record large amplitude seismic waves, a servo-type accelerometer is suitable. However it was difficult for OBS to use an accelerometer due to large electric power consumption. Recently a servo-type accelerometer with a large dynamic range and low-power consumption is being developed. In addition, a pressure vessel of OBS can contain much more batteries by using a large size titanium sphere. For the long-term sea floor observation of aftershock of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake, we installed a small three-component accelerometer in a conventional long-term OBS and obtained both high-sensitivity seismogram and low-sensitivity (strong motion) accelerograms on the sea floor. We used a compact three-component servo-type accelerometer whose weight is 85 grams as a seismic sensor. Measurement range and resolution of the sensor are 3 G and 10-5 G. The sensor was directly attached to the inside of the pressure vessel. Signals from the accelerometer were digitally recorded to Compact Flash memory with 16 bit resolution and a sampling frequency of 100 Hz. The OBS with the accelerometer was deployed on February 24, 2005 in a southern part of the source region of the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake by R/V Natsushima belonging to JAMSTEC, and recovered on August 3 by R/V Baruna Jaya I belonging to BPPT, Indonesia. The accelerograms were obtained from the deployment to April 13 when the CF memory became full. Although there are some small troubles for the recording, we could obtain low

  11. Estimating Carbon STOCK Changes of Mangrove Forests Using Satellite Imagery and Airborne LiDAR Data in the South Sumatra State, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maeda, Y.; Fukushima, A.; Imai, Y.; Tanahashi, Y.; Nakama, E.; Ohta, S.; Kawazoe, K.; Akune, N.

    2016-06-01

    The purposes of this study were 1) to estimate the biomass in the mangrove forests using satellite imagery and airborne LiDAR data, and 2) to estimate the amount of carbon stock changes using biomass estimated. The study area is located in the coastal area of the South Sumatra state, Indonesia. This area is approximately 66,500 ha with mostly flat land features. In this study, the following procedures were carried out: (1) Classification of types of tree species using Satellite imagery in the study area, (2) Development of correlation equations between spatial volume based on LiDAR data and biomass stock based on field survey for each types of tree species, and estimation of total biomass stock and carbon stock using the equation, and (3) Estimation of carbon stock change using Chronological Satellite Imageries. The result showed the biomass and the amount of carbon stock changes can be estimated with high accuracy, by combining the spatial volume based on airborne LiDAR data with the tree species classification based on satellite imagery. Quantitative biomass monitoring is in demand for projects related to REDD+ in developing countries, and this study showed that combining airborne LiDAR data with satellite imagery is one of the effective methods of monitoring for REDD+ projects.

  12. Seismic evidence of bending and unbending of subducting oceanic crust and the presence of mantle megathrust in the 2004 Great Sumatra earthquake rupture zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Satish C.; Chauhan, Ajay P. S.; Calvert, Andrew J.; Hananto, Nugroho D.; Ghosal, Dibakar; Rai, Abhishek; Carton, Helene

    2012-03-01

    In subduction zones the plate interface (megathrust) is typically poorly imaged at depths > 12 km, however its precise geometry and nature as well as the positions of updip and downdip limits of the seismogenic zone are important elements to understand the generation of megathrust earthquakes. Using deep marine seismic reflection and refraction data, we observed discontinuous reflections off the top of the subducting oceanic crust down to 60 km depth in the 2004 great Sumatra-Andaman earthquake rupture zone. We find that the top of the downgoing plate does not dip gently into the subduction zone but instead displays a staircase geometry with three successive, 5-15 km vertical steps, spaced ~ 50 km apart. Micro-earthquake data indicate that most of the seismicity lies below this interface, suggesting that the oceanic plate is deforming actively. Along part of the profile, we also image a second reflector located 8-10 km below the top of the oceanic crust. The forward modelling of the gravity data along the profile supports the presence of a high-density material above this reflector. The presence of a staircase shape for the top of the oceanic crust, together with constraints from gravity data and earthquake data, require that the megathrust goes through this second reflector. This leads us to conclude that the megathrust is at least partly located in the oceanic mantle and that underplating of oceanic crust beneath the wedge and underplating of upper mantle beneath the forearc basin are taking place in this region.

  13. Stress imparted by the great 2004 Sumatra earthquake shut down transforms and activated rifts up to 400 km away in the Andaman Sea.

    PubMed

    Sevilgen, Volkan; Stein, Ross S; Pollitz, Fred F

    2012-09-18

    The origin and prevalence of triggered seismicity and remote aftershocks are under debate. As a result, they have been excluded from probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and aftershock hazard notices. The 2004 M = 9.2 Sumatra earthquake altered seismicity in the Andaman backarc rift-transform system. Here we show that over a 300-km-long largely transform section of the backarc, M≥4.5 earthquakes stopped for five years, and over a 750-km-long backarc section, the rate of transform events dropped by two-thirds, while the rate of rift events increased eightfold. We compute the propagating dynamic stress wavefield and find the peak dynamic Coulomb stress is similar on the rifts and transforms. Long-period dynamic stress amplitudes, which are thought to promote dynamic failure, are higher on the transforms than on the rifts, opposite to the observations. In contrast to the dynamic stress, we calculate that the mainshock brought the transform segments approximately 0.2 bar (0.02 MPa) farther from static Coulomb failure and the rift segments approximately 0.2 bar closer to static failure, consistent with the seismic observations. This accord means that changes in seismicity rate are sufficiently predictable to be included in post-mainshock hazard evaluations. PMID:22949694

  14. Stress imparted by the great 2004 Sumatra earthquake shut down transforms and activated rifts up to 400 km away in the Andaman Sea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sevilgen, Volkan; Stein, Ross S.; Pollitz, Fred F.

    2012-01-01

    The origin and prevalence of triggered seismicity and remote aftershocks are under debate. As a result, they have been excluded from probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and aftershock hazard notices. The 2004 M = 9.2 Sumatra earthquake altered seismicity in the Andaman backarc rift-transform system. Here we show that over a 300-km-long largely transform section of the backarc, M ≥ 4.5 earthquakes stopped for five years, and over a 750-km-long backarc section, the rate of transform events dropped by two-thirds, while the rate of rift events increased eightfold. We compute the propagating dynamic stress wavefield and find the peak dynamic Coulomb stress is similar on the rifts and transforms. Long-period dynamic stress amplitudes, which are thought to promote dynamic failure, are higher on the transforms than on the rifts, opposite to the observations. In contrast to the dynamic stress, we calculate that the mainshock brought the transform segments approximately 0.2 bar (0.02 MPa) farther from static Coulomb failure and the rift segments approximately 0.2 bar closer to static failure, consistent with the seismic observations. This accord means that changes in seismicity rate are sufficiently predictable to be included in post-mainshock hazard evaluations.

  15. Stress imparted by the great 2004 Sumatra earthquake shut down transforms and activated rifts up to 400 km away in the Andaman Sea

    PubMed Central

    Sevilgen, Volkan; Stein, Ross S.; Pollitz, Fred F.

    2012-01-01

    The origin and prevalence of triggered seismicity and remote aftershocks are under debate. As a result, they have been excluded from probabilistic seismic hazard assessment and aftershock hazard notices. The 2004 M = 9.2 Sumatra earthquake altered seismicity in the Andaman backarc rift-transform system. Here we show that over a 300-km-long largely transform section of the backarc, M≥4.5 earthquakes stopped for five years, and over a 750-km-long backarc section, the rate of transform events dropped by two-thirds, while the rate of rift events increased eightfold. We compute the propagating dynamic stress wavefield and find the peak dynamic Coulomb stress is similar on the rifts and transforms. Long-period dynamic stress amplitudes, which are thought to promote dynamic failure, are higher on the transforms than on the rifts, opposite to the observations. In contrast to the dynamic stress, we calculate that the mainshock brought the transform segments approximately 0.2 bar (0.02 MPa) farther from static Coulomb failure and the rift segments approximately 0.2 bar closer to static failure, consistent with the seismic observations. This accord means that changes in seismicity rate are sufficiently predictable to be included in post-mainshock hazard evaluations. PMID:22949694

  16. Livelihood change and livelihood sustainability in the uplands of Lembang subwatershed, West Sumatra, Indonesia, in a changing natural resource management context.

    PubMed

    Mahdi; Shivakoti, Ganesh P; Schmidt-Vogt, Dietrich

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes livelihood change and livelihood sustainability of households in the upland part of the Lembang subwatershed, West Sumatra, in response to changes in the natural resource management context during the last decade. Using the sustainable livelihood framework (SLF), we measured livelihood changes at two separate points in time, 1996 and 2006, and assessed their environmental, economic, social, and institutional sustainability. We found that people with a low income had less access to capital assets than people from middle- and high-income groups. Our analysis revealed, however, that access to capital assets increased over time, and that poor households experienced economic improvement, indicating an overall increase in economic sustainability. Environmental sustainability, however, is threatened by intensive agricultural practices such as high agrochemical input and intensive soil tillage on steep slopes, leading to pollution and soil erosion. Social sustainability is also a matter of concern: while social exclusion has been reduced, income inequity has increased. Institutional sustainability is likely to remain uncertain, as local institutions for natural resource management are still weak, despite the fact that decentralization has been implemented during the last 8 years. External facilitation is needed to improve the livelihood of upland people while, at the same time, enhancing the sustainability of watershed management. Strengthening local institutions, conserving natural resources, and promoting environmentally sound agricultural practices are the three most important policies to be promoted within the watershed. PMID:18506516

  17. Monitoring deforestation trend and future outlooks of the aboveground forest carbon stocks in Central Sumatra using ALOS-PALSAR mosaic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thapa, Rajesh B.; Watanabe, Manabu; Motohka, Takeshi; Shimada, Masanobu

    2014-10-01

    In this research, we present methods for monitoring deforestation and examining implication of the forest policies in forest carbon stocks in the future utilizing ALOS-PALSAR data. Riau Province of central Sumatra is selected for the study as it has received worldwide attention due to high forest-related carbon emissions. An aboveground forest carbon stocks (AFCS) model was calibrated with field measurement data and L-band backscatters from high-resolution slope corrected PALSAR mosaic data of 2009 and 2010. A total of 87 plots of field measured AFCS data ranging 1 - 340 t/ha was used. This AFCS model provides the AFCS map with RMSE of +/-45 t/ha. The AFCS modeling results was extrapolated across the province using the mosaic data. The model estimated 315 million tons of AFCS in the province in 2010. A spatial model was used to spatialize three forest policy scenarios. These scenario maps were overlaid with AFCS map for deriving future perspective on AFCS. The future spatial patterns of the AFCS between the policy scenarios are apparent. If the historical trend continues, the forest cover will be consistently disappeared leaving very few small forest patches and releasing 77% of the current AFCS in to the atmosphere by 2030. However, one of the governance scenarios in the province indicates that almost half of the carbon emission can be reduced in the same period.

  18. Land use of northern megalopolis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simpson, R. B.; Lindgren, D. T.

    1973-01-01

    The major objective is to map and digitize the land use of northern megalopolis, the states of Massachusetts, Connecticut, and Rhode Island, and to evaluate ERTS as a planning tool for megalopolitan areas. The southern New England region provides a good test ERTS's capabilities because of its complex landscape. Not only are there great differences in the degree of urban development, but in relief and vegetative cover as well.

  19. The northern Egyptian continental margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badawy, Ahmed; Mohamed, Gad; Omar, Khaled; Farid, Walid

    2015-01-01

    Africa displays a variety of continental margin structures, tectonics and sedimentary records. The northern Egyptian continental margin represents the NE portion of the North African passive continental margin. Economically, this region is of great importance as a very rich and productive hydrocarbon zone in Egypt. Moreover, it is characterized by remarkable tectonic setting accompanied by active tectonic processes from the old Tethys to recent Mediterranean. In this article, seismicity of the northern Egyptian continental margin has been re-evaluated for more than 100-years and the source parameters of three recent earthquakes (October 2012, January 2013 and July 2013) have been estimated. Moment tensor inversions of 19th October 2012 and 17th January 2013 earthquakes reveal normal faulting mechanism with strike-slip component having seismic moment of 3.5E16 N m and 4.3E15 N m respectively. The operation of the Egyptian National Seismic Network (ENSN) since the end of 1997 has significantly enhanced the old picture of earthquake activity across northern Egyptian continental margin whereas; the record-ability (annual rate) has changed from 2-events/year to 54-event/year before and after ENSN respectively. The spatial distribution of earthquakes foci indicated that the activity tends to cluster at three zones: Mediterranean Ridge (MR), Nile Cone (NC) and Eratosthenes Seamount (ERS). However, two seismic gaps are reported along Levant Basin (LEV) and Herodotus Basin (HER).

  20. Detailed fault structure of the Tarutung Pull-Apart Basin in Sumatra, Indonesia, derived from local earthquake data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muksin, Umar; Haberland, Christian; Nukman, Mochamad; Bauer, Klaus; Weber, Michael

    2014-12-01

    The Tarutung Basin is located at a right step-over in the northern central segment of the dextral strike-slip Sumatran Fault System (SFS). Details of the fault structure along the Tarutung Basin are derived from the relocations of seismicity as well as from focal mechanism and structural geology. The seismicity distribution derived by a 3D inversion for hypocenter relocation is clustered according to a fault-like seismicity distribution. The seismicity is relocated with a double-difference technique (HYPODD) involving the waveform cross-correlations. We used 46,904 and 3191 arrival differences obtained from catalogue data and cross-correlation analysis, respectively. Focal mechanisms of events were analyzed by applying a grid search method (HASH code). Although there is no significant shift of the hypocenters (10.8 m in average) and centroids (167 m in average), the application of the double difference relocation sharpens the earthquake distribution. The earthquake lineation reflects the fault system, the extensional duplex fault system, and the negative flower structure within the Tarutung Basin. The focal mechanisms of events at the edge of the basin are dominantly of strike-slip type representing the dextral strike-slip Sumatran Fault System. The almost north-south striking normal fault events along extensional zones beneath the basin correlate with the maximum principal stress direction which is the direction of the Indo-Australian plate motion. The extensional zones form an en-echelon pattern indicated by the presence of strike-slip faults striking NE-SW to NW-SE events. The detailed characteristics of the fault system derived from the seismological study are also corroborated by structural geology at the surface.

  1. Geothermal systems of northern Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hose, Richard Kenneth; Taylor, Bruce Edward

    1974-01-01

    Hot springs are numerous and nearly uniformly distributed in northern Nevada. Most occur on the flanks of basins, along Basin and Range (late Miocene to Holocene) faults, while some occur in the inner parts of the basins. Surface temperatures of the springs range from slightly above ambient to, boiling; some springs are superheated. Maximum subsurface water temperatures calculated on the basis of quartz solubility range as high as 252?C, although most are below 190?C. Flows range from a trickle to several hundred liters per minute. The Nevada geothermal systems differ markedly from the power-producing system at The Geysers, Calif., and from those areas with a high potential, for power production (e.g., Yellowstone Park, Wyo.; Jemez Mountains, N. Mex.). These other systems are associated with Quaternary felsic volcanic rocks and probably derive their heat from cooling magma rather high in the crust. In northern Nevada, however, felsic volcanic rocks are virtually all older than 10 million years, and. analogous magmatic heat sources are, therefore, probably lacking. Nevada is part of an area of much higher average heat flow than the rest of the United States. In north-central Nevada, geothermal gradients are as great as 64?C per kilometer in bedrock and even higher in basin fill. The high gradients probably result from a combination of thin crust and high temperature upper mantle. We suggest that the geothermal systems of northern Nevada result from circulation of meteoric waters along Basin and Range faults and that their temperature chiefly depends upon (1) depth of circulation and (2) the geothermal gradient near the faults.

  2. Crustal structure of northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godfrey, Nicola Jane

    This thesis presents work from two regions in northern California, using seismic data collected during the Mendocino Triple Junction Experiment (1993 and 1994), and USGS data collected in 1977. Much of California geology records subduction processes active during much of the Mesozoic. About 29 Ma ago, the East Pacific Rise began interacting with the California subduction margin, and two triple junctions formed. One moved north and one moved south, with the San Andreas transform system between them. The northern triple junction, the Mendocino triple junction, is currently situated close to Cape Mendocino, northern California. Northern California geology now has the added complication of processes associated with the northward moving triple junction and lengthening San Andreas fault system. Chapters 1 and 2 focus on the Great Valley, a forearc basin associated with Mesozoic subduction. The three major parts of the subduction system are the magmatic arc (Sierra Nevada batholith), forearc basin (Great Valley basin) and accretionary prism (Franciscan complex). Chapter 1 presents evidence from seismic data, for a complete ophiolitic sequence, including an unserpentinized mantle section (velocities of 8.1 km.ssp{-1} at 5-18 km depth) beneath the northernmost Great Valley. A combination velocity/density model shows the ophiolite is underlain by low-density material associated with the Sierra Nevada. Chapter 2 presents geophysical models, (seismic reflection, refraction, gravity and magnetic models) published by different authors over the last 14 years from the entire Great Valley, to explore the nature of the Great Valley ophiolite along the length of the forearc basin. Chapter 3 focuses offshore, west of the San Andreas fault, on an anomalous piece of crust, the Vizcaino block, situated immediately southwest of the Mendocino triple junction. This chapter discusses the crustal thickness of the Vizcaino block, the nature of its accretionary prism basement, and deformation

  3. Geothermal development plan: northern Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    Much of the northern counties (Apache, Coconino, Gila, Mohave, Navajo and Yavapai) is located in the Colorado Plateau province, a region of low geothermal potential. Two areas that do show some potential are the Flagstaff - San Francisco Peaks area and the Springerville area. Flagstaff is rapidly becoming the manufacturing center of Arizona and will have many opportunities to use geothermal energy to satisfy part of its increasing need for energy. Using a computer simulation model, projections of geothermal energy on line as a function of time are made for both private and city-owned utility development of a resource.

  4. General Practice in Northern Norway

    PubMed Central

    Black, D. P.

    1975-01-01

    A study was made of general practice in northern Norway where conditions are similar to parts of rural Canada. The Norwegian general practitioner has developed expertise in the preventive and psychosocial aspects of practice and the team concept is highly developed. Since the general practitioner is separated from the hospital, his facilities for procedures and diagnostic workups are primitive. Involvement of general practitioners in medical education is not yet well developed although all new graduates spend a compulsory period in rural practice. PMID:20469187

  5. Characteristics of Borneo and Sumatra fire plume heights and smoke clouds and their impact on regional El Niño-induced drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosca, Michael; Randerson, James; Zender, Cs; Flanner, Mg; Nelson, Dl; Diner, Dj; Rasch, Pj; Logan, Ja

    2010-05-01

    During the dry season, anthropogenic fires in tropical forests and peatlands in equatorial Asia produce regionally expansive smoke clouds. We estimated the altitude of smoke clouds from these fires, characterized the sensitivity of these clouds to regional drought and El Niño variability, and investigated their effect on climate. We used the MISR satellite product and MISR INteractive eXplorer (MINX) software to estimate the heights of 382 smoke plumes (smoke with a visible surface source and transport direction) on Borneo and 143 plumes on Sumatra for 2001—2009. In addition, we estimated the altitudes of 10 smoke clouds (opaque regions of smoke with no detectable surface source or transport direction) on Borneo during 2006. Most smoke plumes (84%) were observed during El Niño events (2002, 2004, 2006, and 2009); this is consistent with higher numbers of active fire detections and larger aerosol optical depths observed during El Niño years. Annually averaged plume heights on Borneo were positively correlated to the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI), an indicator of El Niño (r2 = 0.53), and the mean plume height for all El Niño years was 772.5 ± 15.9m, compared to 711.4 ± 28.7m for non-El Niño years. The median altitude of the 10 smoke clouds observed on Borneo during 2006 was 1313m, considerably higher than the median of nearby smoke plumes (787m). The difference in height between individual plumes and regional smoke clouds may be related to deeper planetary boundary layers and injection heights later in the afternoon (after the 10:30am MISR overpass) or other atmospheric mixing processes that occur on synoptic timescales. We investigated the climate response to these expansive smoke clouds using the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). Climate responses to smoke from two 30 year simulations were compared: one simulation was forced with fire emissions typical of a dry (El Niño) burning year, while the other was forced with emissions typical of a low (La Ni

  6. Characteristics of Borneo and Sumatra fire plume heights and smoke clouds and their impact on regional El Niño-induced drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosca, Michael; Randerson, James; Zender, Charles; Flanner, Mark; Nelson, David; Diner, David; Rasch, Phil; Logan, Jennifer

    2010-05-01

    During the dry season, anthropogenic fires burn the tropical forests and peatlands of equatorial Asia and produce regionally expansive smoke clouds. We estimated the altitude of smoke from these fires, characterized the sensitivity of this smoke to regional drought and El Niño variability, and investigated its effect on climate. We used the MISR satellite product and MISR INteractive eXplorer (MINX) software to estimate the heights of 382 smoke plumes (smoke with a visible surface source and transport direction) on Borneo and 121 plumes on Sumatra for 2001-2009. In addition, we estimated the altitudes of 10 smoke clouds (opaque regions of smoke with no detectable surface source or transport direction) on Borneo for 2006. Most smoke plumes (80%) were observed during El Niño events (2002, 2004, 2006, 2009); this is consistent with higher aerosol optical depths observed during El Niño-induced drought. Annually averaged plume heights on Borneo were positively correlated to the Oceanic Niño Index (ONI), an indicator of El Niño (r2 = 0.53). The mean plume height for all El Niño years was 765.8 ± 19.7m, compared to 711.4 ± 28.7 for non-El Niño years. The median altitude of all 10 smoke clouds observed on Borneo during 2006 was 1313m, compared to a median 787m for smoke plume grid cells. The area covered by all smoke plumes from 2006 corresponded to approximately three individual smoke clouds. We investigated the climate response to these expansive smoke clouds using the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM). Climate variables from two 30 year simulations were compared: one simulation was forced with fire emissions typical of a dry (El Niño) burning year, while the other was forced with emissions typical of a low (La Niña) burning year. Fire aerosols reduced net shortwave radiation at the surface during August-October by an average of 10% in the region encompassing most of Sumatra and Borneo (90°E-120°E, 5°S-5°N). The reductions in net radiation cooled both ocean

  7. Modeling temporal variations in interseismic subsidence rates recorded by corals in the Simeulue-Nias region, Sumatra: How can we explain them?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsang, L. L.; Meltzner, A. J.; Hill, E. M.; Freymueller, J. T.; Natawidjaja, D. H.; Suwargadi, B. W.; Sieh, K.

    2014-12-01

    How large can temporal variations in interseismic deformation rates be? Meltzner et al. (2014, in review) reported that fossil coral microatolls on Simeulue and the Banyak Islands of Sumatra, Indonesia, show contemporaneous temporal variations in interseismic subsidence rates. For example, a fossil coral microatoll located at Bangkaru, in the Banyak Islands, reveals interseismic subsidence for a 10-year period between 1956 and 1966, followed by a reversal to interseismic uplift for ~ 15 years from 1966 to 1981, before reverting back to interseismic subsidence after 1981. These temporal variations can neither be accounted for by regional or local sea level changes, nor by postseismic deformation following major historic megathrust earthquakes. These coral observations span a period of ~ 260 years. Such an extensive temporal record of interseismic deformation at subduction zones is rare, and it offers us a unique opportunity to better understand what physical processes likely control the behavior of this portion of the megathrust. In this study, we use elastic dislocation models to explore the extent to which the observed spatio-temporal variations can be consistently explained by tectonic processes. Possible processes include temporal changes in either the width of the locked fault zone or the interseismic coupling coefficient, and/or slow-slip event occurrence. Our models incorporate a realistic fault dip geometry and subduction rate. Our results suggest that a change in the width of the locked zone with time can explain temporal variations in interseismic subsidence rates on Simeulue Island. In addition, the reversal of the sense of vertical displacement at Bangkaru can be explained by the occurrence of a large, long, slow-slip event on the underlying megathrust.

  8. Spectral-finite element approach to post-seismic relaxation in a spherical compressible Earth: application to gravity changes due to the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Y.; Hasegawa, T.; Tsuruoka, H.; Klemann, V.; Martinec, Z.

    2015-01-01

    Global navigation satellite systems (GNSSs) have revealed that a mega-thrust earthquake that occurs in an island-arc trench system causes post-seismic crustal deformation. Such crustal deformation data have been interpreted by combining three mechanisms: afterslip, poroelastic rebound and viscoelastic relaxation. It is seismologically important to determine the contribution of each mechanism because it provides frictional properties between the plate boundaries and viscosity estimates in the asthenosphere which are necessary to evaluate the stress behaviour during earthquake cycles. However, the observation sites of GNSS are mostly deployed over land and can detect only a small part of the large-scale deformation, which precludes a clear separation of the mechanisms. To extend the spatial coverage of the deformation area, recent studies started to use satellite gravity data that can detect long-wavelength deformations over the ocean. To date, compared with theoretical models for calculating the post-seismic crustal deformation, a few models have been proposed to interpret the corresponding gravity variations. Previous approaches have adopted approximations for the effects of compressibility, sphericity and self-gravitation when computing gravity changes. In this study, a new spectral-finite element approach is presented to consider the effects of material compressibility for Burgers viscoelastic earth model with a laterally heterogeneous viscosity distribution. After the basic principles are explained, it is applied to the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquake. For this event, post-seismic deformation mechanisms are still a controversial topic. Using the developed approach, it is shown that the spatial patterns of gravity change generated by the above three mechanisms clearly differ from one another. A comparison of the theoretical simulation results with the satellite gravity data obtained from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment reveals that both afterslip and

  9. The Influence of Agroforestry and Other Land-Use Types on the Persistence of a Sumatran Tiger ( Panthera tigris sumatrae) Population: An Individual-Based Model Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imron, Muhammad Ali; Herzog, Sven; Berger, Uta

    2011-08-01

    The importance of preserving both protected areas and their surrounding landscapes as one of the major conservation strategies for tigers has received attention over recent decades. However, the mechanism of how land-use surrounding protected areas affects the dynamics of tiger populations is poorly understood. We developed Panthera Population Persistence (PPP)—an individual-based model—to investigate the potential mechanism of the Sumatran tiger population dynamics in a protected area and under different land-use scenarios surrounding the reserve. We tested three main landscape compositions (single, combined and real land-uses of Tesso-Nilo National Park and its surrounding area) on the probability of and time to extinction of the Sumatran tiger over 20 years in Central Sumatra. The model successfully explains the mechanisms behind the population response of tigers under different habitat landscape compositions. Feeding and mating behaviours of tigers are key factors, which determined population persistence in a heterogeneous landscape. All single land-use scenarios resulted in tiger extinction but had a different probability of extinction within 20 years. If tropical forest was combined with other land-use types, the probability of extinction was smaller. The presence of agroforesty and logging concessions adjacent to protected areas encouraged the survival of tiger populations. However, with the real land-use scenario of Tesso-Nilo National Park, tigers could not survive for more than 10 years. Promoting the practice of agroforestry systems surrounding the park is probably the most reasonable way to steer land-use surrounding the Tesso-Nilo National Park to support tiger conservation.

  10. Geochemistry, strontium isotope data, and potassium-argon ages of the andesite-rhyolite association in the Padang area, West Sumatra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Leo, G.W.; Hedge, C.E.; Marvin, R.F.

    1980-01-01

    Quaternary volcanoes in the Padang area on the west coast of Sumatra have produced two-pyroxene, calc-alkaline andesite and volumetrically subordinate rhyolitic and andesitic ash-flow tuffs. A sequence of andesite (pre-caldera), rhyolitic tuff and andesitic tuff, in decreasing order of age, is related to Maninjau caldera. Andesite compositions range from 55.0 to 61.2% SiO2 and from 1.13 to 2.05% K2O. Six K-Ar whole-rock age determinations on andesites show a range of 0.27 ?? 0.12 to 0.83 ?? 0.42 m.y.; a single determination on the rhyolitic ashflow tuff gave 0.28 ?? 0.12 m.y. Eight 57Sr/26Sr ratios on andesites and rhyolite tuff west of the Semangko fault zone are in the range 0.7056 - 0.7066. These ratios are higher than those elsewhere in the Sunda arc but are comparable to the Taupo volcanic zone of New Zealand and calc-alkaline volcanics of continental margins. An 87Sr/86Sr ratio of 0.7048 on G. Sirabungan east of the Semangko fault is similar to an earlier determination on nearby G. Marapi (0.7047), and agrees with 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the rest of the Sunda arc. The reason for this distribution of 87Sr/86Sr ratios is unknown. The high 87Sr/86Sr ratios are tentatively regarded to reflect a crustal source for the andesites, while moderately fractionated REE patterns with pronounced negative Eu anomalies suggest a residue enriched in plagioclase with hornblende and/or pyroxenes. Generation of associated andesite and rhyolite could have been caused by hydrous fractional melting of andesite or volcanogenic sediments under adiabatic decompression. ?? 1980.

  11. The influence of agroforestry and other land-use types on the persistence of a Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae) population: an individual-based model approach.

    PubMed

    Imron, Muhammad Ali; Herzog, Sven; Berger, Uta

    2011-08-01

    The importance of preserving both protected areas and their surrounding landscapes as one of the major conservation strategies for tigers has received attention over recent decades. However, the mechanism of how land-use surrounding protected areas affects the dynamics of tiger populations is poorly understood. We developed Panthera Population Persistence (PPP)--an individual-based model--to investigate the potential mechanism of the Sumatran tiger population dynamics in a protected area and under different land-use scenarios surrounding the reserve. We tested three main landscape compositions (single, combined and real land-uses of Tesso-Nilo National Park and its surrounding area) on the probability of and time to extinction of the Sumatran tiger over 20 years in Central Sumatra. The model successfully explains the mechanisms behind the population response of tigers under different habitat landscape compositions. Feeding and mating behaviours of tigers are key factors, which determined population persistence in a heterogeneous landscape. All single land-use scenarios resulted in tiger extinction but had a different probability of extinction within 20 years. If tropical forest was combined with other land-use types, the probability of extinction was smaller. The presence of agroforesty and logging concessions adjacent to protected areas encouraged the survival of tiger populations. However, with the real land-use scenario of Tesso-Nilo National Park, tigers could not survive for more than 10 years. Promoting the practice of agroforestry systems surrounding the park is probably the most reasonable way to steer land-use surrounding the Tesso-Nilo National Park to support tiger conservation. PMID:20967444

  12. Variations in Organic Matter Burial and Composition in Sediments from the Indian Ocean Continental Margin Off SW Indonesia (Sumatra - Java - Flores) Since the Last Glacial Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jennerjahn, T. C.; Gesierich, K.; Schefuß, E.; Mohtadi, M.

    2014-12-01

    Global climate change is a mosaic of regional changes to a large extent determined by region-specific feedbacks between climate and ecosystems. At present the ocean is forming a major sink in the global carbon cycle. Organic matter (OM) storage in sediments displays large regional variations and varied over time during the Quaternary. Upwelling regions are sites of high primary productivity and major depocenters of organic carbon (OC), the least understood of which is the Indian Ocean upwelling off Indonesia. In order to reconstruct the burial and composition of OM during the Late Quaternary, we analyzed five sediment cores from the Indian Ocean continental margin off the Indonesian islands Sumatra to Flores spanning the last 20,000 years (20 kyr). Sediments were analyzed for bulk composition, stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes of OM, amino acids and hexosamines and terrestrial plant wax n-alkanes and their stable carbon isotope composition. Sedimentation rates hardly varied over time in the western part of the transect. They were slightly lower in the East during the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) and deglaciation, but increased strongly during the Holocene. The amount and composition of OM was similar along the transect with maximum values during the deglaciation and the late Holocene. High biogenic opal covarying with OM content indicates upwelling-induced primary productivity dominated by diatoms to be a major control of OM burial in sediments in the East during the past 20 kyr. The content of labile OM was low throughout the transect during the LGM and increased during the late Holocene. The increase was stronger and the OM less degraded in the East than in the West indicating that continental margin sediments off Java and Flores were the major depocenter of OC burial along the Indian Ocean margin off SW Indonesia. Temporal variations probably resulted from changes in upwelling intensity and terrestrial inputs driven by variations in monsoon strength.

  13. Illuminating Northern California's Active Faults

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prentice, Carol S.; Crosby, Christopher J.; Whitehill, Caroline S.; Arrowsmith, J. Ramón; Furlong, Kevin P.; Phillips, David A.

    2009-02-01

    Newly acquired light detection and ranging (lidar) topographic data provide a powerful community resource for the study of landforms associated with the plate boundary faults of northern California (Figure 1). In the spring of 2007, GeoEarthScope, a component of the EarthScope Facility construction project funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, acquired approximately 2000 square kilometers of airborne lidar topographic data along major active fault zones of northern California. These data are now freely available in point cloud (x, y, z coordinate data for every laser return), digital elevation model (DEM), and KMZ (zipped Keyhole Markup Language, for use in Google Earth™ and other similar software) formats through the GEON OpenTopography Portal (http://www.OpenTopography.org/data). Importantly, vegetation can be digitally removed from lidar data, producing high-resolution images (0.5- or 1.0-meter DEMs) of the ground surface beneath forested regions that reveal landforms typically obscured by vegetation canopy (Figure 2).

  14. Groundwater management in northern Iraq

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevanovic, Zoran; Iurkiewicz, Adrian

    2009-03-01

    Groundwater is vital and the sole resource in most of the studied region of northern Iraq. It has a significant role in agriculture, water supply and health, and the elimination of poverty in rural areas. Although Iraq is currently dramatically disturbed by complex political and socio-economic problems, in its northern part, i.e. the Kurdish-inhabited region, fast urbanization and economic expansion are visible everywhere. Monitoring and water management schemes are necessary to prevent aquifer over-exploitation in the region. Artificial recharge with temporary runoff water, construction of subsurface dams and several other aquifer management and regulation measures have been designed, and some implemented, in order to improve the water situation. Recommendations, presented to the local professionals and decision-makers in water management, include creation of Water Master Plans and Water User Associations, synchronization of drilling programmes, rehabilitation of the existing well fields, opening of new well fields, and the incorporation of new spring intakes in some areas with large groundwater reserves, as well as construction of numerous small-scale schemes for initial in situ water treatment where saline groundwater is present.

  15. Twin predecessor of the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami: Implications for rebuilt coastal communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieh, K.; Daly, P.; McKinnon, E.; Chiang, H.; Pilarczyk, J.; Daryono, M. R.; Horton, B.; Shen, C.; Rubin, C. M.; Ismail, N.; Kelsey, H. M.

    2013-12-01

    We present stratigraphic, historical and archeological evidence for two closely timed predecessors of the giant 2004 tsunami on the northern coast of Aceh, northern Sumatra. Beachcliff exposures reveal two beds of tsunamigenic coral rubble within a small alluvial fan. Stratigraphical consistent radiocarbon and Uranium-Thorium disequilibrium dates indicate the the two beds were emplaced in the mid- to late 14th century, correlative with paleoseismic evidence of sudden uplifts of coral reefs on nearby Simeulue island in AD 1394 and, again in AD 1450. A nearby seacliff exposure contains evidence of nearly continuous settlement from ~AD 1240 to 1367, followed by tsunami destruction. Evidence of continuous settlement included South Asian ceramic and stoneware fragments, as well as a single Chinese coin dating to AD 1111-1118. Our data may solve the mysterious 15th century discontinuity in cultures along the northern Sumatran coast of the maritime silk route. This history of a doublet tsunami has implications for communities around the Indian Ocean that were rebuilt after the devastation of 2004, since reconstruction occurred with the tacit belief that such an event would not happen in the foreseeable future. History, geology and archeology hint that such a view may prove tragically incorrect.

  16. The Alcoholism Situation in a Northern City

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martynov, M. Iu.; Martynova, D. Iu.

    2012-01-01

    Alcohol abuse in Russia has been increasing in recent years, especially in northern regions, as has the incidence of alcohol-related disease rates. A survey was conducted in Surgut (the Khanty-Mansi autonomous okrug) that determined the factors lending to the prevalence of alcohol abuse among the population of the northern city and assessed the…

  17. Northern Desegregation: A Tale of Two Cities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danns, Dionne

    2011-01-01

    Studies on northern desegregation have focused on political strategies, the role of the courts, the responsibility of the federal government (HEW), and barriers to northern desegregation. Some have conducted individual case studies and comparative studies, and others have examined a number of cities. This article examines the way school…

  18. Northern Parkway PTA Makes Health a Habit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferdinand, Marilyn

    2011-01-01

    Health and fitness have been on the agenda of Northern Parkway Elementary School for quite some time, thanks to the concerted efforts of its involved and active PTA officers and members. For the past five years, the Northern Parkway PTA has held a popular and well-attended Family Fun and Fitness Night and has complemented the activities and…

  19. Political Strategies in Northern School Desegregation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirby, David J.; And Others

    This is a study of school desegregation as it was fought in 91 Northern and Western Cities between 1963 and 1969. In the summer of 1963, the de facto school segregation issue exploded in dozens of Northern cities; in the next 6 years school integration was front page news in most cities. What this book attempts to do in effect is to record a…

  20. Environmental overview of geothermal development: northern Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Slemmons, D.B.; Stroh, J.M.; Whitney, R.A.

    1980-08-01

    Regional environmental problems and issues associated with geothermal development in northern Nevada are studied to facilitate environmental assessment of potential geothermal resources. The various issues discussed are: environmental geology, seismicity of northern Nevada, hydrology and water quality, air quality, Nevada ecosystems, noise effects, socio-economic impacts, and cultural resources and archeological values. (MHR)

  1. Meeting Northern Arizona's Supported Employment Training Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, William E., Jr.; And Others

    In 1989 Northern Arizona University established a Supported Employment Training Center (SETC) to increase the number of trained job coaches in northern Arizona and provide knowledge and skills in supported employment to personnel from cooperating schools and agencies. First-year SETC activities focused on assessment of the training needs of…

  2. Ultraviolet resources over Northern Eurasia.

    PubMed

    Chubarova, Natalia; Zhdanova, Yekaterina

    2013-10-01

    We propose a new climatology of UV resources over Northern Eurasia, which includes the assessments of both detrimental (erythema) and positive (vitamin D synthesis) effects of ultraviolet radiation on human health. The UV resources are defined by using several classes and subclasses - UV deficiency, UV optimum, and UV excess - for 6 different skin types. To better quantifying the vitamin D irradiance threshold we accounted for an open body fraction S as a function of effective air temperature. The spatial and temporal distribution of UV resources was estimated by radiative transfer (RT) modeling (8 stream DISORT RT code) with 1×1° grid and monthly resolution. For this purpose special datasets of main input geophysical parameters (total ozone content, aerosol characteristics, surface UV albedo, UV cloud modification factor) have been created over the territory of Northern Eurasia. The new approaches were used to retrieve aerosol parameters and cloud modification factor in the UV spectral region. As a result, the UV resources were obtained for clear-sky and mean cloudy conditions for different skin types. We show that the distribution of UV deficiency, UV optimum and UV excess is regulated by various geophysical parameters (mainly, total ozone, cloudiness and open body fraction) and can significantly deviate from latitudinal dependence. We also show that the UV optimum conditions can be simultaneously observed for people with different skin types (for example, for 4-5 skin types at the same time in spring over Western Europe). These UV optimum conditions for different skin types occupy a much larger territory over Europe than that over Asia. PMID:23933245

  3. Middle Cretaceous dinosaur assemblages from northern Brazil and northern Africa and their implications for northern Gondwanan composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Candeiro, Carlos Roberto A.

    2015-08-01

    Dinosaurs are one of the most dominant groups in Cretaceous reptilian faunas. A summary of their record in northern Brazil and northern Africa during the middle of the Cretaceous Period (Aptian-Cenomanian) is presented here. Dinosaurs are represented by 32 species (three ornithischians, six sauropods and 23 theropods) from Brazil, Egypt, Lybia, Morocco, Niger, Sudan and Tunisia. These dinosaur assemblages provide fundamental data about distribution and composition of sauropods and theropods in northern Gondwana during the middle of the Cretaceous Period and confirm these assemblages to be among the most important dinosaur faunas in the north Gondwana areas.

  4. Fishing farmers or farming fishers? Fishing typology of inland small-scale fishing households and fisheries management in singkarak lake, west sumatra, indonesia.

    PubMed

    Yuerlita; Perret, Sylvain Roger; Shivakoti, Ganesh P

    2013-07-01

    Technical and socio-economic characteristics are known to determine different types of fishers and their livelihood strategies. Faced with declining fish and water resources, small-scale fisheries engage into transformations in livelihood and fishing practices. The paper is an attempt to understand these changes and their socio-economic patterns, in the case of Singkarak Lake in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Based upon the hypothesis that riparian communities have diverse, complex yet structured and dynamic livelihood systems, the paper's main objective is to study, document and model the actual diversity in livelihood, practices and performance of inland small-scale fisheries along the Singkarak Lake, to picture how households are adapted to the situation, and propose an updated, workable model (typology) of those for policy. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to develop a typology of fishing households. The results show that small-scale fishers can be classified into different types characterized by distinct livelihood strategies. Three household types are identified, namely "farming fishers" households (type I, 30 %), "fishing farmers" households (type II, 30 %), and "mainly fishers" households (type III, 40 %). There are significant differences among these groups in the number of boats owned, annual fishing income, agriculture income and farming experience. Type I consists of farming fishers, well equipped, with high fishing costs and income, yet with the lowest return on fishing assets. They are also landowners with farming income, showing the lowest return on land capital. Type II includes poor fishing farmers, landowners with higher farming income; they show the highest return on land asset. They have less fishing equipment, costs and income. Type III (mainly fishers) consists of poorer, younger fishers, with highest return on fishing assets and on fishing costs. They have little land, low farming income, and diversified livelihood

  5. Fishing Farmers or Farming Fishers? Fishing Typology of Inland Small-Scale Fishing Households and Fisheries Management in Singkarak Lake, West Sumatra, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuerlita; Perret, Sylvain Roger; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.

    2013-07-01

    Technical and socio-economic characteristics are known to determine different types of fishers and their livelihood strategies. Faced with declining fish and water resources, small-scale fisheries engage into transformations in livelihood and fishing practices. The paper is an attempt to understand these changes and their socio-economic patterns, in the case of Singkarak Lake in West Sumatra, Indonesia. Based upon the hypothesis that riparian communities have diverse, complex yet structured and dynamic livelihood systems, the paper's main objective is to study, document and model the actual diversity in livelihood, practices and performance of inland small-scale fisheries along the Singkarak Lake, to picture how households are adapted to the situation, and propose an updated, workable model (typology) of those for policy. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were used to develop a typology of fishing households. The results show that small-scale fishers can be classified into different types characterized by distinct livelihood strategies. Three household types are identified, namely "farming fishers" households (type I, 30 %), "fishing farmers" households (type II, 30 %), and "mainly fishers" households (type III, 40 %). There are significant differences among these groups in the number of boats owned, annual fishing income, agriculture income and farming experience. Type I consists of farming fishers, well equipped, with high fishing costs and income, yet with the lowest return on fishing assets. They are also landowners with farming income, showing the lowest return on land capital. Type II includes poor fishing farmers, landowners with higher farming income; they show the highest return on land asset. They have less fishing equipment, costs and income. Type III (mainly fishers) consists of poorer, younger fishers, with highest return on fishing assets and on fishing costs. They have little land, low farming income, and diversified livelihood

  6. Northern Terra Meridiani's 'Monument Valley'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Northern Terra Meridiani, near the intersection of the martian equator and prime meridian, is a region of vast exposures of layered rock. A thermal image from the Phobos 2 orbiter in 1989 showed these materials to be anomalously cool during the daytime, an observation very suggestive of dense, hardened materials like rock. Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) images of this region show layered material exposed in cliffs, buttes, and mesas that in some ways resemble the rock outcrops of northern Arizona and southeastern Utah in North America (e.g., Monument Valley, Canyonlands, Zion National Park, Four Corners). MGS MOC Extended Mission operations have included several hundred opportunities for the spacecraft to be rolled off-nadir (i.e., at an angle other than 'straight down') to take pictures that repeat earlier MOC coverage. These repeat images, because they are taken from a different angle, can be combined with the original picture to produce a stereoscopic ('3-D') view. The image shown here is a composite of two pictures, the first taken October 23, 2000, the second acquired by pointing the spacecraft off-nadir on May 15, 2001. This view shows four buttes and a pinnacle (near left-center) composed of eroded, layered rock. The four buttes are each capped by the remains of a single layer of rock that is harder than the materials beneath it. It is the presence of this cap rock that has permitted these buttes to remain standing after surrounding materials were eroded away. Like the buttes of Monument Valley in the Navajo Nation on the Arizona/Utah border, these are believed to consist of sedimentary rocks, perhaps deposited in water or by wind, though some scientists have speculated that they could be made of thick accumulations of volcanic ash. The image covers an area approximately 3 km (1.9 mi) across and is illuminated by sunlight from the left. To see the image in 3-D, red (left-eye) and blue (right-eye) '3-D' glasses are required.

  7. Bioactive compounds from northern plants.

    PubMed

    Hohtola, Anja

    2010-01-01

    Northern conditions are characterised by long days with much light and low temperatures during the growing season. It has been chimed that herbs and berries grown in the north are stronger tasting compared to those of southern origin. The compounds imparting aroma and color to berries and herbs are secondary metabolites which in plants mostly act as chemical means of defense. Recently, the production of secondary metabolites using plant cells has been the subject of expanding research. Light intensity, photoperiod and temperature have been reported to influence the biosynthesis of many secondary metabolites. Native wild aromatic and medicinal plant species of different families are being studied to meet the needs of raw material for the expanding industry of e.g., health-promoting food products known as nutraceutics. There are already a large number of known secondary compounds produced by plants, but the recent advances in modern extraction and analysis should enable many more as yet unknown compounds to be found, characterised and utilised. Rose root (Rhodiola rosea) is a perennial herbaceous plant which inhabits mountain regions throughout Europe, Asia and east coastal regions of North America. The extract made from the rhizomes acts as a stimulant like the Ginseng root. Roseroot has been categorized as an adaptogen and is reported to have many pharmacological properties. The biologically active components of the extract are salitroside tyrosol and cinnamic acid glycosides (rosavin, rosarin, rosin). Round-leaved sundew (Drosera rotundifolia L.) has circumboreal distribution. It inhabits nutrient-poor, moist and sunny areas such as peat bogs and wetlands. Sundew leaves are collected from the wild-type for various medicinal preparations and can be utilized in treating e.g., as an important "cough-medicine" for different respiratory diseases. The antimicrobial activity of extracts of aerial parts against various bacteria has been investigated. Drosera produces

  8. Decomposition in northern Minnesota peatlands

    SciTech Connect

    Farrish, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    Decomposition in peatlands was investigated in northern Minnesota. Four sites, an ombrotrophic raised bog, an ombrotrophic perched bog and two groundwater minerotrophic fens, were studied. Decomposition rates of peat and paper were estimated using mass-loss techniques. Environmental and substrate factors that were most likely to be responsible for limiting decomposition were monitored. Laboratory incubation experiments complemented the field work. Mass-loss over one year in one of the bogs, ranged from 11 percent in the upper 10 cm of hummocks to 1 percent at 60 to 100 cm depth in hollows. Regression analysis of the data for that bog predicted no mass-loss below 87 cm. Decomposition estimates on an area basis were 2720 and 6460 km/ha yr for the two bogs; 17,000 and 5900 kg/ha yr for the two fens. Environmental factors found to limit decomposition in these peatlands were reducing/anaerobic conditions below the water table and cool peat temperatures. Substrate factors found to limit decomposition were low pH, high content of resistant organics such as lignin, and shortages of available N and K. Greater groundwater influence was found to favor decomposition through raising the pH and perhaps by introducing limited amounts of dissolved oxygen.

  9. Northern California near San Francisco

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    A part of northern California centered near San Francisco Bay (38.0N, 122.0W) photographed at 3 p.m. January 1, 1974, from the Skylab space station in Earth orbit. This near vertical view encompasses the coastline from Monteray Bay (right) to about 50 miles north of Point Reyes (left) and includes, from bottom to top, San Francisco Bay (center), Sacramento Valley (left center), San Joaquin Valley (right center), and the snow-covered Sierra Nevada. Afternoon shadows sharply delineate a valley which parallels San Francisco Bay, crosses Point Reyes, and lies between the Bay and the Pacific coastline. This valley marks the location of the San Andreas Fault. Forces acting on the crust are causing the land west (bottom) of the fault line to move north relative to land on the east side. Agricultural areas in the Sacramento and San Joaquin Valleys are indicated by the tan areas which are easily discerned in contrast to the green-gray background.

  10. LEECHES (ANNELIDA: EUHIRUDINEA) OF NORTHERN ARKANSAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Twenty-one lotic and lentic environments throughout central and northern Arkansas were surveyed for the presence of leeches during June 2004, and April, July - October, 2005. Fourteen species of leeches (Desserobdella cryptobranchii, Desserobdella phalera, Desserobdella picta, H...

  11. Huge Filament Rises From Sun's Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Video Gallery

    On August 1, 2010 following a C3-class solar flare from sunspot 1092, an enormous magnetic filament stretching across the sun's northern hemisphere erupted. This 304 angstrom video shows that filam...

  12. USGS NEIC Earthquake Monitoring, Response and Research in the Northern Pacific Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, G. P.

    2012-12-01

    A major component of USGS National Earthquake Information Center (NEIC) operations are those related to the monitoring of and response to global earthquakes. In this presentation I will discuss the monitoring capabilities of the NEIC in the Alaska-Aleutians and Kuril-Kamchatka arc regions, and how these might affect our response to major subduction zone earthquakes. I will focus in particular on our capabilities for the rapid characterization of earthquake magnitude and mechanism, issues vital for subsequent real-time shaking and tsunami risk assessments. Such rapid assessments are made possible by the availability of nearby long-period data, from the Global Seismic Network and other regional networks available in real time at the NEIC. In Alaska, available data facilitates accurate magnitude assessments for even the largest earthquakes in as little as 5-10 minutes. In Kamchatka, however, such response times are delayed a further 10-15 minutes by the limited availability of regional data. These issues impact the generation and accuracy of downstream response products produced in real time after a major global event. In the second part of this presentation, I will highlight the timeline over which these products, such as ShakeMap and PAGER, become available, and when and how they were produced in real time following the 2011 M9.0 Tohoku earthquake in Japan. The NEIC was aware of great size of this earthquake in less than 20 minutes; with more regional data from the region, this time could be reduced to less than 10 minutes for future earthquakes. Our response to this event was a demonstration of the major advances made since a similar sized earthquake in Sumatra in 2004, while at the same time highlighting where further improvements are necessary in the future, in response to the growing needs of our society for immediate, accurate and actionable information. Many of the advances and improvements made to rapid earthquake characterization and response stem from

  13. Northern Taurids in the IAU MDC Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaňuchová, Z.; Svoreň, J.

    2012-11-01

    The method of indices was used to study the northern branch of the autumn (night) part of the Taurid complex. The procedure based only on mathematical statistics was applied to select the Northern Taurid meteor records from the IAU Meteor Data Center Database. Because we wanted to study especially the structure of the inner part of the Northern Taurids, we were focused on the interval of the higher activity of the stream — from the end of the Perseids activity to the beginning of the Geminids activity. We did not take into account outlying parts of the complex, which is active, according to some authors, until January. 84 orbits of the Northern Taurids were selected. 63 of 84 Northern Taurids orbits (75%) were sorted into 11 associations found in the stream. One of the associations consisting of three orbits was identified as a previously unknown northern branch of τ Arietids shower. We also found an association with orbital characteristics equal to the characteristics of showers δ Psc N and χ Ori N. Meteors in these associations were observed up to three weeks earlier compared to currently cataloged data of the showers. The orientation of the mean orbit of a 5-member association of δ Psc N, different from the general trend, indicates that this stream may not be genetically related to other members of the Taurid complex.

  14. 40 CFR 81.354 - Northern Mariana Islands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Northern Mariana Islands. 81.354... § 81.354 Northern Mariana Islands. Northern Mariana Islands—TSP Designated area Does not meet primary... 1 X 1 EPA designation only. Northern Mariana Islands—1971 Sulfur Dioxide NAAQS (Primary...

  15. 75 FR 41842 - Northern Border Pipeline Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Border Pipeline Company; Notice of Application July 12, 2010. Take notice that on July 2, 2010, Northern Border Pipeline Company (Northern Border), 717 Texas Street... Northern Border's mainline system in Bureau County, Illinois, to a point of interconnection with...

  16. Prevalence of Cryptosporidium spp., Enterocytozoon bieneusi, Encephalitozoon spp. and Giardia intestinalis in Wild, Semi-Wild and Captive Orangutans (Pongo abelii and Pongo pygmaeus) on Sumatra and Borneo, Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Mynářová, Anna; Foitová, Ivona; Kváč, Martin; Květoňová, Dana; Rost, Michael; Morrogh-Bernard, Helen; Nurcahyo, Wisnu; Nguyen, Cathleen; Supriyadi, Supriyadi; Sak, Bohumil

    2016-01-01

    Background Orangutans are critically endangered primarily due to loss and fragmentation of their natural habitat. This could bring them into closer contact with humans and increase the risk of zoonotic pathogen transmission. Aims To describe the prevalence and diversity of Cryptosporidium spp., microsporidia and Giardia intestinalis in orangutans at seven sites on Sumatra and Kalimantan, and to evaluate the impact of orangutans’ habituation and location on the occurrence of these zoonotic protists. Result The overall prevalence of parasites in 298 examined animals was 11.1%. The most prevalent microsporidia was Encephalitozoon cuniculi genotype II, found in 21 animals (7.0%). Enterocytozoon bieneusi genotype D (n = 5) and novel genotype Pongo 2 were detected only in six individuals (2.0%). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of these parasites in orangutans. Eight animals were positive for Cryptosporidium spp. (2.7%), including C. parvum (n = 2) and C. muris (n = 6). Giardia intestinalis assemblage B, subtype MB6, was identified in a single individual. While no significant differences between the different human contact level groups (p = 0.479–0.670) or between the different islands (p = 0.992) were reported in case of E. bieneusi or E. cuniculi, Cryptosporidium spp. was significantly less frequently detected in wild individuals (p < 2×10−16) and was significantly more prevalent in orangutans on Kalimantan than on Sumatra (p < 2×10−16). Conclusion Our results revealed that wild orangutans are significantly less frequently infected by Cryptosporidium spp. than captive and semi-wild animals. In addition, this parasite was more frequently detected at localities on Kalimantan. In contrast, we did not detect any significant difference in the prevalence of microsporidia between the studied groups of animals. The sources and transmission modes of infections were not determined, as this would require repeated sampling of individuals

  17. Climatic variability, plant phenology, and northern ungulates

    SciTech Connect

    Post, E.; Stenseth, N.C.

    1999-06-01

    Models of climate change predict that global temperatures and precipitation will increase within the next century, with the most pronounced changes occurring in northern latitudes and during winter. A large-scale atmospheric phenomenon, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO), is a strong determinant of both interannual variation and decadal trends in temperatures and precipitation during winter in northern latitudes, and its recent persistence in one extreme phase may be a substantial component of increases in global temperatures. Hence, the authors investigated the influences of large-scale climatic variability on plant phenology and ungulate population ecology by incorporating the NAO in statistical analyses of previously published data on: (1) the timing of flowering by plants in Norway, and (2) phenotypic and demographic variation in populations of northern ungulates. The authors analyzed 137 time series on plant phenology for 13 species of plants in Norway spanning up to 50 yr and 39 time series on phenotypic and demographic traits of 7 species of northern ungulates from 16 populations in North America and northern Europe spanning up to 30 yr.

  18. Stratigraphy of the Martian northern plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tanaka, K. L.

    1993-01-01

    The northern plains of Mars are roughly defined as the large continuous region of lowlands that lies below Martian datum, plus higher areas within the region that were built up by volcanism, sedimentation, tectonism, and impacts. These northern lowlands span about 50 x 10(exp 6) km(sup 2) or 35 percent of the planet's surface. The age and origin of the lowlands continue to be debated by proponents of impact and tectonic explanations. Geologic mapping and topical studies indicate that volcanic, fluvial, and eolian deposition have played major roles in the infilling of this vast depression. Periglacial, glacial, fluvial, eolian, tectonic, and impact processes have locally modified the surface. Because of the northern plains' complex history of sedimentation and modification, much of their stratigraphy was obscured. Thus the stratigraphy developed is necessarily vague and provisional: it is based on various clues from within the lowlands as well as from highland areas within and bordering the plains. The results are summarized.

  19. BlotBase: a northern blot database.

    PubMed

    Schlamp, K; Weinmann, A; Krupp, M; Maass, T; Galle, Pr; Teufel, A

    2008-12-31

    With the availability of high-throughput gene expression analysis, multiple public expression databases emerged, mostly based on microarray expression data. Although these databases are of significant biomedical value, they do hold significant drawbacks, especially concerning the reliability of single gene expression profiles obtained by microarray data. Simultaneously, reliable data on an individual gene's expression are often published as single northern blots in individual publications. These data were not yet available for high-throughput screening. To reduce the gap between high-throughput expression data and individual highly reliable expression data, we designed a novel database "BlotBase", a freely and easily accessible database, currently containing approximately 700 published northern blots of human or mouse origin (http://www.medicalgenomics.org/Databases/BlotBase). As the database is open for public data submission, we expect this database to quickly become a large expression profiling resource, eventually providing higher reliability in high-throughput gene expression analysis. Realizing BlotBase, Pubmed was searched manually and by computer based text mining methods to obtain publications containing northern blot results. Subsequently, northern blots were extracted and expression values of different tissues calculated utilizing Image J. All data were made available through a user friendly web front end. The data may be searched by either full text search or list of available northern blots of a specific tissue. Northern blot expression profiles were displayed by three expression states as well as a bar chart, allowing for automated evaluation. Furthermore, we integrated additional features, e.g. instant access to the corresponding RNA sequence or primer design tools making further expression analysis more convenient. Finally, through a semiautomatic submission system this database was opened to the bioinformatics community. PMID:18838116

  20. Climate impacts on northern Canada: regional background.

    PubMed

    Prowse, Terry D; Furgal, Chris; Bonsal, Barrie R; Peters, Daniel L

    2009-07-01

    Understanding the implications of climate change on northern Canada requires a background about the size and diversity of its human and biogeophysical systems. Occupying an area of almost 40% of Canada, with one-third of this contained in Arctic islands, Canada's northern territories consist of a diversity of physical environments unrivaled around the circumpolar north. Major ecozones composed of a range of landforms, climate, vegetation, and wildlife include: Arctic, boreal and taiga cordillera; boreal and taiga plains; taiga shield; and northern and southern Arctic. Although generally characterized by a cold climate, there is an enormous range in air temperature with mean annual values being as high as -5 degrees C in the south to as low as -20 degrees C in the high Arctic islands. A similar contrast characterizes precipitation, which can be > 700 mm y(-1) in some southern alpine regions to as low as 50 mm y(-1) over islands of the high Arctic. Major freshwater resources are found within most northern ecozones, varying from large glaciers or ice caps and lakes to extensive wetlands and peat lands. Most of the North's renewable water, however, is found within its major river networks and originates in more southerly headwaters. Ice covers characterize the freshwater systems for multiple months of the year while permafrost prevails in various forms, dominating the terrestrial landscape. The marine environment, which envelops the Canadian Arctic Archipelago, is dominated by seasonal to multiyear sea ice often several meters thick that plays a key role in the regional climate. Almost two-thirds of northern Canadian communities are located along coastlines with the entire population being just over 100 000. Most recent population growth has been dominated by an expansion of nonaboriginals, primarily the result of resource development and the growth of public administration. The economies of northern communities, however, remain quite mixed with traditional land

  1. Earth System Studies in Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Gulev, Sergey; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2014-04-01

    During recent decades, northern Eurasia (north of 40°N and east of 15°E) was affected by unprecedented climate and environmental changes. Several droughts, including a heat wave in 2010 (that in European Russia may have been the cause of up to an additional 60,000 deaths in July-August of that year, compared to the previous year; see http://ifaran.ru/science/seminars/Summer2010.html); alternated with hazardous extreme precipitation and flood events. Permafrost thaw, retreating Arctic sea ice, increasing areas of forest fire, and dramatic regional warming buffeted this region, tossing northern Eurasia from one extreme condition to the next.

  2. Rural telemedicine project in northern New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Zink, S.; Hahn, H.; Rudnick, J.; Snell, J.; Forslund, D.; Martinez, P.

    1998-12-31

    A virtual electronic medical record system is being deployed over the Internet with security in northern New Mexico using TeleMed, a multimedia medical records management system that uses CORBA-based client-server technology and distributed database architecture. The goal of the NNM Rural Telemedicine Project is to implement TeleMed into fifteen rural clinics and two hospitals within a 25,000 square mile area of northern New Mexico. Evaluation of the project consists of three components: job task analysis, audit of immunized children, and time motion studies. Preliminary results of the evaluation components are presented.

  3. Coastal geomorphology of the Martian northern plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Timothy J.; Gorsline, Donn S.; Saunders, Stephen R.; Pieri, David C.; Schneeberger, Dale M.

    1993-01-01

    The paper considers the question of the formation of the outflow channels and valley networks discovered on the Martian northern plains during the Mariner 9 mission. Parker and Saunders (1987) and Parker et al. (1987, 1989) data are used to describe key features common both in the lower reaches of the outflow channels and within and along the margins of the entire northern plains. It is suggested, that of the geological processes capable of producing similar morphologies on earth, lacustrine or marine deposition and subsequent periglacial modification offer the simplest and most consistent explanation for the suit of features found on Mars.

  4. Northern Native Languages Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnaby, Barbara; And Others

    The Northern Native Language Project was constituted in June 1979 to produce a report which would present information on the present situation regarding language education schools in the project area of Ontario (James Bay, Nakina, and Sioux Lookout) and to make recommendations concerning appropriate action for the future. The introduction of the…

  5. A Grammar of Northern and Southern Gumuz

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahland, Colleen Anne

    2012-01-01

    Gumuz is a Nilo-Saharan dialect cluster spoken in the river valleys of northwestern Ethiopia and the southeastern part of the Republic of the Sudan. There are approximately 200,000 speakers, the majority of which reside in Ethiopia. This study is a phonological and grammatical analysis of two main dialects/languages: Northern Gumuz and Southern…

  6. From Poetry to Music: "Northern Lullaby"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardany, Audrey Berger

    2011-01-01

    Nancy White Carlstrom's children's book, "Northern Lullaby," conjures through poetry the beauty of the Alaskan landscape in the evening. The book provides an opportunity for music teachers to help their students transform text and visual images to music. The author describes connections for reading comprehension in the general music classroom and…

  7. VHF radar measurements over Andoya (Northern Norway)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czechowsky, P.; Reid, I. M.; Ruester, R.; Schmidt, G.

    1989-01-01

    The Mobile SOUSY Radar was operated during the MAP/WINE, the MAC/SINE, and MAC/Epsilon campaigns at Andoya in Northern Norway. A comparison between summer and winter results is presented, in particular the generation and development of the scattering regions, the different power spectral densities and the aspect sensitivities which were derived from six different beam directions.

  8. Winter in Northern Europe (WINE) Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vonzahn, U.

    1982-01-01

    The scientific aims, work plan, and organization of the Middle Atmosphere Program winter in northern Europe (MAP/WINE) are described. Proposed contributions to the MAP/WINE program from various countries are enumerated. Specific atmospheric parameters to be examined are listed along with the corresponding measurement technique.

  9. Regional health library service in northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Crawford, D S

    1990-10-01

    The regional medical library service provided to physicians, hospitals, nurses, social workers, and health care administrators throughout Northern Ireland by the Queen's University of Belfast is described. A brief outline of the National Health Service in the United Kingdom is given, and the library service is described in terms of collections, cataloging, interlibrary loan, and reference. PMID:2224299

  10. Construction Services at Northern Arizona University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Dyke, Gary

    Construction Services is an innovative response to a chronic construction-remodeling problem at Northern Arizona State University. It is an in-house facilities maintenance department designed to address a variety of needs: prevention of construction or remodeling done by individual staff or faculty members without regard for applicable codes;…

  11. Nutritional condition of Northern Yellowstone Elk

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cook, R.C.; Cook, J.G.; Mech, L.D.

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasonography and body condition scoring was used to estimate nutritional condition of northern Yellowstone elk in late winter. Probability of pregnancy was related to body fat, and lactating cows had 50% less fat than non-lactating cows. For mild to normal winters, most of the elk were in good condition.

  12. Variation and Change in Northern Bavarian Quantity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drake, Derek

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation presents new research on the "Bavarian Quantity Law" (the BQL) in the northern Bavarian dialect of Hahnbach. Building upon earlier investigation of the BQL (cf. Bannert 1976a,b for Central Bavarian) this study examines the historical, phonological, and phonetic motivations for this feature as well the variability in its…

  13. 27 CFR 9.70 - Northern Sonoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... County-Lake County line. (24) The boundary follows the Sonoma County-Lake County line northwesterly to... the Northern Sonoma viticultural area are titled: (1) Sonoma County, California, scale 1:100 000, 1970..., California—Sonoma County; scale 1:24 000, 1955, photorevised 1975; (4) Camp Meeker Quadrangle,...

  14. 27 CFR 9.70 - Northern Sonoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... County-Lake County line. (24) The boundary follows the Sonoma County-Lake County line northwesterly to... the Northern Sonoma viticultural area are titled: (1) Sonoma County, California, scale 1:100 000, 1970..., California—Sonoma County; scale 1:24 000, 1955, photorevised 1975; (4) Camp Meeker Quadrangle,...

  15. 27 CFR 9.70 - Northern Sonoma.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... County-Lake County line. (24) The boundary follows the Sonoma County-Lake County line northwesterly to... the Northern Sonoma viticultural area are titled: (1) Sonoma County, California, scale 1:100 000, 1970..., California—Sonoma County; scale 1:24 000, 1955, photorevised 1975; (4) Camp Meeker Quadrangle,...

  16. Calibrating northern Texas High Plains groundwater model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Northern High Plains of Texas, irrigated crop production accounts for a major portion of groundwater withdrawals from the Ogallala aquifer. The concern is that diminishing groundwater supplies will severely reduce regional crop and animal production, which in turn would impact the regional ec...

  17. Regional health library service in northern Ireland.

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, D S

    1990-01-01

    The regional medical library service provided to physicians, hospitals, nurses, social workers, and health care administrators throughout Northern Ireland by the Queen's University of Belfast is described. A brief outline of the National Health Service in the United Kingdom is given, and the library service is described in terms of collections, cataloging, interlibrary loan, and reference. PMID:2224299

  18. Governance and Aboriginal Claims in Northern Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cozzetto, Don

    1990-01-01

    Focuses on problems of organization and governance that may follow settlement of Canadian aboriginal land claims. Compares financial problems, cultural issues such as subsistence lifestyles, and intergovernmental relations following the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement, and Western Arctic (Inuvialuit)…

  19. Applied Indigenous Studies at Northern Arizona University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trosper, Ronald L.

    2001-01-01

    The Applied Indigenous Studies program at Northern Arizona University aims to prepare American Indian students to assume tribal leadership roles. Its location in the College of Ecosystem Science and Management emphasizes its land-oriented and applied focus. The program's development, core courses, and academic requirements for bachelors degrees…

  20. Orality in Northern Cree Indigenous Worlds.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber-Pillwax, Cora

    2001-01-01

    Examines the importance and centrality of orality, rather than literacy, in the shared lives of the Cree of northern Alberta. Discusses orality consciousness related to the practice of shared memories and personal and communal healing during the "dance of the ancestors" or "ghost dance." Includes a short history of the Cree people and their…

  1. Diapause in northern corn rootworm (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diabroticite corn rootworms are prominent pests of maize and have adapted to both cultural and chemical management methods. In response to a widely used corn-soybean crop rotation in the U.S. Corn Belt over several years, northern corn rootworm (NCR) populations adapted by increasing the proportion ...

  2. High Moisture Corn Evaluated for Northern Maine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Profitable rotation crops that can grow in cool, northern Maine climates are needed to sustain the diversity of potato systems. A field experiment was conducted to determine whether three high moisture corn hybrids were suitable for harvest as a short season rotation crop. Yield and grain moisture...

  3. NORTHERN GUAM SOLE SOURCE AQUIFER- DESIGNATED AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Northern Guam Sole Source Aquifer Designated Area: In the Territory of Guam, entirely contained within the island of Guam. Specifically, that area within the coastal boundary defined by the line of Mean High water and north of the Adelup-Pago fault, plus some area south of the f...

  4. PERFORMANCE OF AERATED LAGOONS IN NORTHERN CLIMATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies of cold climate aerated lagoons conducted by the Arctic Environmental Research Station, Fairbanks, Alaska are reported. Conclusions are based on these studies, observations of full scale aerated lagoons operating in Alaska and reports on lagoons in the northern tier of th...

  5. Aerial view of reroofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aerial view of re-roofing of northern LTA ship hangar, circa 1957. - Marine Corps Air Station Tustin, Northern Lighter Than Air Ship Hangar, Meffett Avenue & Maxfield Street, Tustin, Orange County, CA

  6. LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD NORTHERN AVE. SWING BRIDGE. BOSTON TEA PARTY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    LOOKING NORTHEAST TOWARD NORTHERN AVE. SWING BRIDGE. BOSTON TEA PARTY SHIP AT ANCHOR IN FOREGROUND. - Northern Avenue Swing Bridge, Spanning Fort Point Channel at boundary between Boston & South Boston, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. 65. Photocopy of drawing from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    65. Photocopy of drawing from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office) CENTER TOWER AND PORTALS - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  8. 47. Photocopy of photograph (from polaroid snapshot in Burlington Northern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of photograph (from polaroid snapshot in Burlington Northern Railroad correspondence files, October, 1957) SHEAR FENCE DAMAGE FROM M/V KORSHOLMA - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  9. 49. Photocopy of photograph (from polaroid snapshot in Burlington Northern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Photocopy of photograph (from polaroid snapshot in Burlington Northern Railroad correspondence files, 1957) PIER III DAMAGE FROM M/V KORSHOLMA COLLISION - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  10. 66. Photocopy of drawing (from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. Photocopy of drawing (from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office) TURNTABLE BEARINGS AND LOADING BEAMS - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  11. 68. Photocopy of drawing (from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    68. Photocopy of drawing (from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office) STRESS DIAGRAM - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  12. 64. Photocopy of drawing (from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    64. Photocopy of drawing (from print, Burlington Northern Engineering Office, Seattle) STRESS SHEET - Burlington Northern Railroad Bridge, Spanning Willamette River at River Mile 6.9, Portland, Multnomah County, OR

  13. Caribbean basin framework, 2: Northern Central America

    SciTech Connect

    Tyburski, S.A.; Gordon, M.B.; Mann, P. )

    1991-03-01

    There are four Jurassic to Recent basin-forming periods in northern Central America (honduras, Honduran Borderlands, Belize, Guatemala, northern Nicaragua): (1) Middle Jurassic-Early Cretaceous rifting and subsidence along normal faults in Honduras and Guatemala; rifts are suggested but are not well defined in Honduras by the distribution of clastic sediments and associated volcanic rocks. Rifting is attributed to the separation of Central America from the southern margin of the North American plate; (2) Cretaceous subsidence recorded by the development of a Cretaceous carbonate platform in Honduras, Guatemala, and Belize; subsidence is attributed to thermal subsidence of the rifted margins of the various blocks; (3) Late Cretaceous-Recent development of a volcanic arc along the western margin of Middle America and the northern margin of Honduras; (4) Late Cretaceous large-scale folding in Honduras, ophiolite obduction, and formation of a foredeep basin in Guatemala (Sepur trough); deformation is attributed to the collision between a north-facing arc in northern Honduras and the Nicaraguan Rise and the passive margin of Guatemala and Belize; and (5) Eocene to Recent strike-slip faulting along the present-day North American-Caribbean plate boundary in Guatemala, northern Honduras, and Belize. Strike-slip faults and basins form a California-type borderlands characterized by elongate basins that appear as half-grabens in profile. Counterclockwise rotation of the central honduras plateau, a thicker and topographically higher-than-average block within the plate boundary zone, is accommodated by rifting or strike-slip faults at its edges.

  14. Annotated bibliography of the Black Warrior basin area, northern Alabama - northern Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Ward-McLemore, E.

    1983-01-01

    This bibliography contains 1964 records related to the geology of the Black Warrior basin of northern Alabama and northern Mississippi. Specific topics include, but are not limited to: coal, petroleum, and natural gas deposits; mineralogy; lithology; paleontology; petrology; stratigraphy; tectonics; bauxite; iron ores; geologic correlations; earthquakes; fossils; gold deposits; geological surveys; hydrology; and water resources. The subject index provides listings of records related to each county and the geologic ages covered by this area. Some of the items (54) are themselves bibliographies.

  15. AmeriFlux CA-Man Manitoba - Northern Old Black Spruce (former BOREAS Northern Study Area)

    SciTech Connect

    Amiro, Brian

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-Man Manitoba - Northern Old Black Spruce (former BOREAS Northern Study Area). Site Description - 55.880° N, 98.481° W, elevation of 259 m, Boreal coniferous: Black spruce; occasional larch present in poorly-drained areas. Groundcover is moss (feathermosses and Sphagnum), Labrador Tea, Vaccinium, and willows are a main component of the understory. It was established in 1993 as a BOREAS site.

  16. 76 FR 44625 - Northern Lights Variable Trust, et al.;

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-26

    ... COMMISSION Northern Lights Variable Trust, et al.; Notice of Application July 19, 2011. AGENCY: Securities.... APPLICANTS: Northern Lights Variable Trust (the ``Fund'') and Gemini Fund Services, LLC (``Gemini.... Northern Lights Variable Trust, c/o Emile Molineaux, Esquire, Gemini Fund Services, LLC, 450...

  17. 27 CFR 9.109 - Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Viticultural Areas § 9.109 Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace...

  18. 27 CFR 9.109 - Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Viticultural Areas § 9.109 Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace...

  19. 27 CFR 9.109 - Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Viticultural Areas § 9.109 Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace...

  20. 27 CFR 9.109 - Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Viticultural Areas § 9.109 Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace...

  1. 27 CFR 9.109 - Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Viticultural Areas § 9.109 Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace. (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate maps for determining the boundaries of the Northern Neck George Washington Birthplace...

  2. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards...

  3. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards...

  4. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards...

  5. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards...

  6. 8 CFR 235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 235... INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 235.9 Northern Marianas identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards...

  7. 78 FR 51716 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on August 1, 2013, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124, filed an application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act and part 157 of the...

  8. 78 FR 8501 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on January 18, 2013, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124, filed in Docket No. CP13-53-000, an application pursuant to section 7(c) of the Natural Gas Act...

  9. 77 FR 35958 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on May 30, 2012, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124... regulations and section 7(b) of the Natural Gas Act, to abandon by sale to DKM Enterprises, LLC (DKM)...

  10. 76 FR 12721 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-08

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application Take notice that on February 18, 2011, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103 Street, Omaha, Nebraska 68124-1000, filed in Docket No. CP11-98-000, an application pursuant to section 7(b) of the Natural Gas...

  11. 75 FR 35779 - Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Natural Gas Company; Notice of Application June 16, 2010. Take notice that on June 2, 2010, Northern Natural Gas Company (Northern), 1111 South 103rd Street, Omaha... Natural Gas Act, for a certificate of public convenience and necessity authorizing the increase...

  12. 75 FR 62807 - Northern Border Pipeline Company; Notice of Availability of the Environmental Assessment for the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-13

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Northern Border Pipeline Company; Notice of Availability of the... Princeton Lateral Project proposed by Northern Border Pipeline Company (Northern Border) in the above referenced docket. Northern Border requests authorization to construct pipeline facilities to...

  13. Hubble Spots Northern Hemispheric Clouds on Uranus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Using visible light, astronomers for the first time this century have detected clouds in the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, taken July 31 and Aug. 1, 1997 with NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, show banded structure and multiple clouds. Using these images, Dr. Heidi Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and colleagues Wes Lockwood (Lowell Observatory) and Kathy Rages (NASA Ames Research Center) plan to measure the wind speeds in the northern hemisphere for the first time.

    Uranus is sometimes called the 'sideways' planet, because its rotation axis tipped more than 90 degrees from the planet's orbit around the Sun. The 'year' on Uranus lasts 84 Earth years, which creates extremely long seasons - winter in the northern hemisphere has lasted for nearly 20 years. Uranus has also been called bland and boring, because no clouds have been detectable in ground-based images of the planet. Even to the cameras of the Voyager spacecraft in 1986, Uranus presented a nearly uniform blank disk, and discrete clouds were detectable only in the southern hemisphere. Voyager flew over the planet's cloud tops near the dead of northern winter (when the northern hemisphere was completely shrouded in darkness).

    Spring has finally come to the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, both the visible-wavelength ones described here and those taken a few days earlier with the Near Infrared and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) by Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), show a planet with banded structure and detectable clouds.

    Two images are shown here. The 'aqua' image (on the left) is taken at 5,470 Angstroms, which is near the human eye's peak response to wavelength. Color has been added to the image to show what a person on a spacecraft near Uranus might see. Little structure is evident at this wavelength, though with image-processing techniques, a small cloud can be seen near the planet's northern limb

  14. HUBBLE SPOTS NORTHERN HEMISPHERIC CLOUDS ON URANUS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Using visible light, astronomers for the first time this century have detected clouds in the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, taken July 31 and Aug. 1, 1997 with NASA Hubble Space Telescope's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, show banded structure and multiple clouds. Using these images, Dr. Heidi Hammel (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) and colleagues Wes Lockwood (Lowell Observatory) and Kathy Rages (NASA Ames Research Center) plan to measure the wind speeds in the northern hemisphere for the first time. Uranus is sometimes called the 'sideways' planet, because its rotation axis is tipped more than 90 degrees from the planet's orbit around the Sun. The 'year' on Uranus lasts 84 Earth years, which creates extremely long seasons - winter in the northern hemisphere has lasted for nearly 20 years. Uranus has also been called bland and boring, because no clouds have been detectable in ground-based images of the planet. Even to the cameras of the Voyager spacecraft in 1986, Uranus presented a nearly uniform blank disk, and discrete clouds were detectable only in the southern hemisphere. Voyager flew over the planet's cloud tops near the dead of northern winter (when the northern hemisphere was completely shrouded in darkness). Spring has finally come to the northern hemisphere of Uranus. The newest images, both the visible-wavelength ones described here and those taken a few days earlier with the Near Infrared and Multi-Object Spectrometer (NICMOS) by Erich Karkoschka (University of Arizona), show a planet with banded structure and detectable clouds. Two images are shown here. The 'aqua' image (on the left) is taken at 5,470 Angstroms, which is near the human eye's peak response to wavelength. Color has been added to the image to show what a person on a spacecraft near Uranus might see. Little structure is evident at this wavelength, though with image-processing techniques, a small cloud can be seen near the planet's northern limb (rightmost

  15. The very-broad-band long-base tiltmeters of Grotta Gigante (Trieste, Italy): Secular term tilting and the great Sumatra-Andaman islands earthquake of December 26, 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braitenberg, Carla; Romeo, Giovanni; Taccetti, Quintilio; Nagy, Ildikò

    2006-01-01

    The horizontal pendulums of the Grotta Gigante (Giant Cave) in the Trieste Karst, are long-base tiltmeters with Zöllner type suspension. The instruments have been continuously recording tilt and shear in the Grotta Gigante since the date of their installation by Prof. Antonio Marussi in 1966. Their setup has been completely overhauled several times since installation, restricting the interruptions of the measurements though to a minimum. The continuous recordings, apart from some interruptions, cover thus almost 40 years of measurements, producing a very noticeable long-term tiltmeter record of crustal deformation. The original recording system, still in function, was photographic with a mechanical timing and paper-advancing system, which has never given any problems at all, as it is very stable and not vulnerable by external factors as high humidity, problems in power supply, lightning or similar. In December 2003 a new recording system was installed, based on a solid-state acquisition system intercepting a laser light reflected from a mirror mounted on the horizontal pendulum beam. The sampling rate is 30 Hz, which turns the long-base instrument to a very-broad-band tiltmeter, apt to record the tilt signal on a broad-band of frequencies, ranging from secular deformation rate through the earth tides to seismic waves. Here we describe the acquisition system and present two endline members of the instrumental observation, the up to date long-term recording, and the observation of the great Sumatra-Andaman Islands earthquake of December 26, 2004, seismic moment magnitude Mw = 9.1-9.3 [Lay, T., Kanamori, H., Ammon, C.J., Nettles, M., Ward, S.N., Aster, R.C., Beck, S.L., Bilek, S.L., Brudzinski, M.L., Butler, R., DeShon, H.R., Ekström, G., Satake, K., Sipkin, S., 2005. The Great Sumatra-Andaman Earthquake of 26 December 2004. Science. 308, 1127-1133.]. The secular-term observations indicate an average tilting over the last four decades towards NW of 23.4 nrad

  16. Quaternary Tipping Points in Tropical Northern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, Patrick; Dunbar, Gavin; Croke, Jacky; Katunar, Rosie

    2016-04-01

    Tropical northern Queensland, particularly the volcanic Atherton Tableland, contains some of the most detailed and longest terrestrial palaeoenvironmental archives in Australia and when combined with adjacent marine sediment records provides key insight into potential environmental 'tipping points' for the entire Quaternary period and beyond. This presentation will provide an overview of some of the key tipping points (i.e. significant landscape transformation) that have occurred within the tropical northern Australian region over the Quaternary, as well as discussing potential causes and subsequent impacts of these transformation episodes. These events include the development of the Great Barrier Reef, transition from obliquity to eccentricity dominated glacial-interglacial cycles, the Mid-Brunhes event, the Oxygen Isotope Stage 6 episode, the arrival of people into the region, Last Glacial-Interglacial Transition and European settlement.

  17. Hydropower engineering of the Northern Caucasus

    SciTech Connect

    Fel'dman, B.N.

    1985-03-01

    The results of an examination of the prospects of hydropower construction in the Northern Caucasus showed that the development of the unused part of the economic hydropotential will make it possible to save about 4 million tons of reference fuel. The authors add that to solve problems of the further development of hydropotential in the area it is necessary to examine from current standpoints the problem of siting regulating storages in the basin of the Terek River, for which schemes for the multipupose use of all main Terek tributaries should be developed. They conclude that when planning various watermanagement installations in the Northern Caucasus it is necessary to examine the economic expediency of using the drops of the water levels created on the hydraulic structures for including small hydrostations as part of these structures.

  18. Amphibians of the northern Great Plains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Larson, Diane L.; Euliss, Ned H.; Lannoo, Michael J.; Mushet, David M.

    1998-01-01

    No cry of alarm has been sounded over the fate of amphibian populations in the northern grasslands of North America, yet huge percentages of prairie wetland habitat have been lost, and the destruction continues. Scarcely 30% of the original mixedgrass prairie remains in Nebraska, South Dakota, and North Dakota (See Table 1 in this chapter). If amphibian populations haven’t declined, why haven’t they? Or, have we simply failed to notice? Amphibians in the northern grasslands evolved in a boom-or-bust environment: species that were unable to survive droughts lasting for years died out long before humans were around to count them. Species we find today are expert at seizing the rare, wet moment to rebuild their populations in preparation for the next dry season. When numbers can change so rapidly, who can say if a species is rare or common? A lot depends on when you look.

  19. Cardiac surgical experience in northern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Nwiloh, J; Edaigbini, S; Danbauchi, S; Babaniyi, I; Aminu, M; Adamu, Y; Oyati, A

    2012-09-01

    A pilot study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of establishing a heart surgery programme in northern Nigeria. During three medical missions by a visiting US team, in partnership with local physicians, 18 patients with heart diseases underwent surgery at two referral hospitals in the region. Sixteen (88.9%) patients underwent the planned operative procedure with an observed 30-day mortality of 12.5% (2/16) and 0% morbidity. Late complications were anticoagulant related in mechanical heart valve patients and included a first-trimester abortion one year postoperatively, and a death at two years from haemorrhage during pregnancy. This has prompted us to now consider bioprosthetics as the valve of choice in women of childbearing age in this patient population. This preliminary result has further stimulated the interest of all stakeholders on the urgency to establish open-heart surgery as part of the armamentarium to combat the ravages of heart diseases in northern Nigeria. PMID:22453514

  20. Metastability of Northern Hemisphere Teleconnection modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risbey, James; O'Kane, Terence; Monselesan, Didier; Franzke, Christian; Horenko, Ilia

    2014-05-01

    This work applies the FEM-BV-VARX method to study of the large scale modes of variability in the Northern Hemisphere as manifest in 500hPa geopotential height fields. The FEM-BV-VARX method identifies metastable states of the system. The results for regional domains confirm that the teleconnection modes referred to as the NAO in the Atlantic domain, PNA in the Pacific domain, and Scandanavian blocking in the Eurasian domain, all exhibit metastability. For the full Northern Hemisphere domain the metastable state combines the AO and a midlatitude circumglobal wavetrain pattern. These results are shown in a set of reanalysis products from NCEP; the 20th century reanalysis, NNR1, and the CFSR coupled reanalysis. The reanalysis products are all able to simulate the structure and temporal switching of regime states. Decadal and multidecadal regimes are clearly apparent in the model affiliation sequence of metastable states and correspond to known transition points for the teleconnection modes.

  1. Biomass utilization at Northern States Power Company

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, R.P.

    1994-12-31

    Northern States Power Company ({open_quotes}NSP{close_quotes}) generates, transmits and distributes electricity and distributes natural gas to customers in Minnesota, Wisconsin, North Dakota, South Dakota and Michigan. An important and growing component of the fuel needed to generate steam for electrical production is biomass. This paper describes NSP`s historical use of biomass, current biomass resources and an overview of how NSP plans to expand its use of biomass in the future.

  2. Quaternary glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere

    SciTech Connect

    Sibrava, V.; Bowen, D.Q.; Richmond, G.M.

    1987-01-01

    This volume presents the final report of Project 24 of the International Geological Correlation Programme. The publication is drawn from the contributions of leading individual scientist as well as from scientific research teams. It reflects the present state of knowledge of the Quaternary Glaciations in the Northern Hemisphere and their correlation in space and time, as well as providing a unique summary of climatic change.

  3. Northern hemisphere dust storms on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, P. B.

    1993-01-01

    Dust storms in the northern hemisphere of Mars appear to be less common than the more familiar southern hemisphere storms, and essentially, no activity north of about 30 latittude has been documented. The data are, however, subject to an observational bias because Mars is near aphelion during oppositions, which occur during the most likely seasons for dust activity in the north. The amount of dust activity in the northern hemisphere is clearly very relevant to the role of atmospheric transport in the dust cycle. The classic global storms that occur during spring in the southern hemisphere are observed to transport dust from sources in the southern hemisphere to sinks or temporary depositories in the north. The question of whether atmospheric transport can close the dust cycle, i.e., return the dust to the southern hemisphere sources on some timescale, is clearly relevant to the solution of the puzzle of how the dust storm cycle is modulated, i.e., why storms occur in some years but not in others. There are data that suggest that the spring/early summer season in the northern hemisphere of Mars during the year following the major 1977 storms observed by Viking was very dusty. A number of observations of the vicinity of the receding north polar cap showed clear evidence of substantial dust activity in the sub-Arctic region.

  4. Climate impacts on northern Canada: introduction.

    PubMed

    Furgal, Chris; Prowse, Terry

    2009-07-01

    There is significant evidence that northern Canada's climate has already undergone substantial change. These changes have meant significant impacts for physical, natural and human systems in Canada's North. Climate models suggest that such trends will continue into the future, and therefore shifts in Arctic systems are expected for some time to come. This introductory paper is the first in a series published in two issues of Ambio presenting work conducted for northern chapters of two recent Canadian national climate science assessment initiatives, From Impacts to Adaptation: Canada in a Changing Climate 2007 and Human Health in a Changing Climate: A Canadian Assessment of Vulnerabilities and Adaptive Capacity. Collectively, these assessments involved the work of 24 scientists with expertise in a variety of disciplines and regions in the Canadian North. These assessment processes adopted aspects of a vulnerability approach to climate assessment, primarily through a review of existing and projected exposures and elements of adaptive capacity based on existing literature. In so doing, they have contributed towards a more comprehensive understanding of climate impacts and adaptations across the northern regions of the country. This paper provides an overview and introduction to the series of papers contained in the two issues of Ambio. PMID:19714956

  5. Stratigraphic evolution of paleozoic erathem, northern Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Coleman, J.L. Jr.

    1985-02-01

    Unmetamorphosed Paleozoic sedimentary and volcanic rocks have been drilled in numerous wells throughout northern Florida and southern Georgia, in what is today a gently folded and block-faulted relict continental fragment of northwest Africa and northeast South America. Stratigraphic and lithologic equivalents of these North American Paleozoic units are prolific hydrocarbon producers in North Africa. The northern Florida Paleozoic sediments were deposited on Pan-African and Cadoman basement. Widespread continental glaciation from late Precambrian to Early Cambrian introduced a thick sequence of fine-grained marine sandstones (glacial flour), which overlie medium to coarse-grained glaciofluvial sandstones. Basinward of the sand shelf, the accretion of a volcanic island arc complex began during the Ordovician. A fluctuating transgression, accompanying a major glacial minimum, brought open-marine, graptolitic, black shales onto the sand shelf, producing an interbedded shoreface-shelf sand and black shale section during the Middle and Late Ordovician. At the Ordovician-Silurian boundary, renewed continental glaciation lowered sea level, producing a widespread unconformity. A Late Silurian major marine transgression returned black, graptolitic, highly organic shales onto the sand shelf. Devonian deltaic sands from Avalonia(.) to the north and the craton to the south closed the Paleozoic sedimentary record of northern Florida.

  6. Partitioning Belowground Respiration in a Northern Peatland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, H. E.; Roulet, N. T.; Moore, T.

    2004-05-01

    Although they cover only 3% of the land surface, northern peatlands store up to one-third of the global soil carbon pool, deeming them a significant carbon sink. However, changes in peatland soil respiration could lead to peatlands becoming carbon sources with consequent feedbacks to climate change. In order to understand the global carbon balance we need to understand respiration processes, but compared to photosynthesis we know very little about respiration, especially belowground. Within soils there are three compartments among which carbon is transferred and respired: roots, rhizosphere and root-free soil. In order to further the understanding of respiration processes of northern peatlands, the relative importance of each type of belowground respiration was determined at two locations at Mer Bleue, a northern peatland located near Ottawa, Ontario. Weekly CO2 flux measurements, using dark chambers and a portable IRGA, were made throughout the growing season of 2003. At both areas there are reference plots to determine total respiration where the vegetation remained in tact. Treatment plots were also installed at both areas where foliage was removed in order to determine SOM (shrub-free) respiration. The shrub foliage was replaced with nylon `foliage' in an attempt to maintain soil temperature and moisture conditions. Root respiration was determined by incubating root segments on-site, taking air samples over a one hour period. Rhizosphere respiration was estimated by subtracting SOM, root and aboveground respiration from total respiration, and aboveground respiration was removed from the equation using a calculation from a peatland carbon model.

  7. Wildfires in Northern Siberian Larch Dominated Communities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khaurk, Viacheslav I.; Ranson, Kenneth J.; Dvinskaya, Maria L.; Im, Sergey T.

    2011-01-01

    The fire history of the northern larch forests within the permafrost zone in a portion of northern Siberia (approx 66 deg N, 100 deg E) was studied. Since there is little to no human activities in this area fires within the study area were mostly caused by lightning. Fire return intervals (FRI) were estimated based on burn marks on tree stems and dates of tree natality. FRI values varied from 130 yr to 350 yr with 200 +/- 50 yr mean. In southerly larch dominated communities FRI was found to be shorter (77 +/- 20 yr at approx 61 deg. N, and 82 +/- 7 at 64 deg N), and longer at the northern boundary (approx 71 deg) of larch stands (320 +/- 50 yr). During the Little Ice Age period in the 16th to 18th centuries FRI was approximately twice as long as recorded in this study. Fire caused changes in the soil including increases in soil drainage and permafrost thawing depth and a radial growth increase of about 2 times (with more than 6 times observed). This effect may simulate the predicted warming impact on the larch growth in the permafrost zone.

  8. Geothermal development plan: northern Arizona counties

    SciTech Connect

    White, D.H.; Goldstone, L.A.

    1982-08-01

    The Northern Counties Area Development Plan evaluated the regional market potential for utilizing geothermal energy. This study identified five potential geothermal resource areas, four of which have low temperature (<90{sup 0}C, 194{sup 0}F) potential and one possible igneous system. The average population growth rate in the Northern Counties is expected to be five percent per year over the next 40 years, with Mohave and Yavapai Counties growing the fastest. Rapid growth is anticipated in all major employment sectors, including trade, service, manufacturing, mining and utilities. A regional energy use analysis is included, containing information on current energy use patterns for all user classes. Water supplies are expected to be adequate for expected growth generally, though Yavapai and Gila Counties will experience water deficiencies. A preliminary district heating analysis is included for the towns of Alpine and Springerville. Both communities are believed located on geothermal resource sites. The study also contains a section identifying potential geothermal resource users in northern Arizona.

  9. Phenylketonuria and the peoples of Northern Ireland.

    PubMed

    Zschocke, J; Mallory, J P; Eiken, H G; Nevin, N C

    1997-08-01

    The comparison of regional patterns of recessive disease mutations is a new source of information for studies of population genetics. The analysis of phenylketonuria (PKU) mutations in Northern Ireland shows that most major episodes of immigration have left a record in the modern genepool. The mutation 165T can be traced to the Palaeolithic people of western Europe who, in the Mesolithic period, first colonised Ireland. R408W (on haplotype 1) in contrast, the most common Irish PKU mutation, may have been prevalent in the Neolithic farmers who settled in Ireland after 4500 BC. No mutation was identified that could represent European Celtic populations, supporting the view that the adoption of Celtic culture and language in Ireland did not involve major migration from the continent. Several less common mutations can be traced to the Norwegian Atlantic coast and were probably introduced into Ireland by Vikings. This indicates that PKU has not been brought to Norway from the British Isles, as was previously argued. The rarity in Northern Ireland of IVS12nt1, the most common mutation in Denmark and England, indicates that the English colonialization of Ireland did not alter the local genepool in a direction that could be described as Anglo-Saxon. Our results show that the culture and language of a population can be independent of its genetic heritage, and give some insight into the history of the peoples of Northern Ireland. PMID:9254847

  10. Quantitative paleogeography and accretionary history, northern Appalachians

    SciTech Connect

    Pluijm, B.A. van der; Voo, R. van der . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1992-01-01

    Ongoing paleomagnetic work on Early and Middle Paleozoic units provides quantitative data on paleogeography, latitudinal separation and latitudinal drift rates of tectonic elements that characterize the history of the northern segment of the Appalachian orogen. Following rifting and opening of Iapetus, the southern margin of Laurentia moved from ca 15S in the Ordovician to ca. 30S in the late Silurian: the northern margin of Avalon drifted northward (separate from Gondwana) from > 50--30S during the same time interval. Paleolatitudes from volcanic units of the intervening Central Mobile Belt that yield primary magnetizations are: Newfoundland: Ordovician arc-back arc basin: 11[degree]S; Ordovician ocean island/arc: 31[degree]S; Silurian continental cover: Botwood Gp: 24[degree]S, Springdale Gp: 17[degree]S New Brunswick: Ordovician rift-subduction complex: 53[degree]S. Maine: Munsungun Volcanic Terrane 18[degree]S; Winterville Volcanic Terrane 15--20[degree]S; upper part Lunksoos Composite Terrane: 20[degree]S. The Ordovician results indicate several near-Laurentian volcanic terranes and back-arc basins, landward-dipping subduction complexes on opposite margins of Iapetus, and intra-Iapetus ocean islands/arcs. Silurian paleogeographic and tectonostratigraphic data show that closure of Iapetus and progressive outboard accretion in the northern portion of the Appalachian orogen was complete by the late Silurian. This closure is accompanied by considerable Ordovician to Early Silurian left-lateral strike slip and subsequent right-lateral displacement based on the relative positions of Laurentia, Avalon and Gondwana in Early and Middle Paleozoic times.

  11. First archaeomagnetic data from northern Iberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz-Martínez, V. C.; Pavón-Carrasco, F. J.; Catanzariti, G.

    An archaeomagnetic study has been conducted on eight archaeological structures (two kilns, four fireplaces and two saunas) from two different areas in Asturias (northern Spain). The results provide the first archaeomagnetic directions from the northern Iberian Peninsula. The main goal of this paper is to improve on the non-uniform site distribution used to construct the first archaeomagnetic Secular Variation Curve for Iberia (“SVC-I”) by studying new sites from northern Spain, an area currently not represented. The lithologies of some of the studied archaeological structures from this zone (slates, quartzites) differ from those of the rest of the peninsula. Laboratory analysis includes both thermal and alternating field stepwise demagnetization and rock-magnetic studies. A low coercivity, moderate unblocking temperature ( Tub) phase, such as magnetite/maghemite, seems to be the carrier of the archaeomagnetic signal. This sometimes overlaps partially with a (geological) high coercivity/high Tub phase. Site-mean characteristic directions have been calculated following a hierarchical approach and applying Fisherian distribution tests. Archaeomagnetic results have been compared, applying Fisherian distribution tests, among themselves and with Roman age entries of the Spanish archaeomagnetic database. They have also been compared with the reference “SVC-I” using Bayesian methods. These analyses have served to validate the archaeological dating of the structures. There is a good agreement between the results of archaeomagnetic dating and radiocarbon dating, both of which are consistent with archaeological constraints. The uncertainties in the archaeomagnetic ages are relatively large mainly because the reference curve hardly varies in declination during Roman times. This highlights the need of more high quality archaeomagnetic data (from very well-dated structures) in order to reduce the errors associated with the reference “SVC-I” and the archaeomagnetic

  12. Evaporite karst of northern lower Michigan

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Black, T.J.

    1997-01-01

    Michigan has three main zones of evaporite karst: collapse breccia in Late Silurian deposits of the Mackinac Straits region; breccia, collapse sinks, and mega-block collapse in Middle Devonian deposits of Northern Lower Michigan, which overlaps the preceding area; and areas of soil swallows in sinks of Mississippian deposits between Turner and Alabaster in Arenac and Iosco counties, and near Grand Rapids in Kent County. The author has focused his study on evaporite karst of the Middle Devonian deposits. The Middle Devonian depos its are the Detroit River Group: a series consisting of limestone, dolomite, shale, salt, gypsum, and anhydrite. The group occurs from subcrop, near the surface, to nearly 1400 feet deep from the northern tip of the Southern Peninsula to the south edge of the "solution front" Glacial drift is from zero to 350 feet thick. Oil and gas exploration has encountered some significant lost-circulation zones throughout the area. Drilling without fluid returns, casing-seal failures, and lost holes are strong risks in some parts of the region. Lost fluid returns near the top of the group in nearby areas indicate some karst development shortly after deposition. Large and irregular lost-circulation zones, linear and patch trends of large sink holes, and 0.25 mile wide blocks of down-dropped land in the northern Lower Peninsula of Michigan were caused by surface- and ground-water movement along faults into the Detroit River Group. Glaciation has removed some evidence of the karst area at the surface. Sinkhole development, collapse valleys, and swallows developed since retreat of the glacier reveal an active solution front in the Detroit River Group.

  13. Recent earthquakes in northern New York

    SciTech Connect

    Revetta, F.A.; Bockus, C.; O'Brian, B. . Dept. of Geology)

    1993-03-01

    The Massena, New York area located along the St. Lawrence River in northern New York has been the site of significant earthquake activity including the largest earthquake in New York (m = 6.0) on September 5, 1944. Historic earthquake data indicates the Cornwall-Massena area is a region of relatively high seismic activity, and the earthquake activity has been persistent for over a 400 year period. During the past year eleven small earthquakes have been recorded by the Potsdam Seismic Network in northern New York. Four of these earthquakes had epicenters located in the Massena-Cornwall area. One epicenter was located along the Carthage-Colton Mylonite Zone and one epicenter was located n the epicentral region of the October 7, 1984 Goodnow earthquake. Five earthquakes had epicenters located in Ontario and Quebec. These earthquake epicenters lie in a belt of seismicity that extends north-westerly from the northern Adirondacks into the Canadian Shield of western Quebec. Several explanations that have been presented to explain these earthquakes are (1) mafic intrusions (2) unmapped northwest trending faults (3) extension of the New England seamount chain and (4) crustal fractures due to the area passing over a hotspot. Four earthquakes in the Massena area lie very near extensions of the Gloucester and Winchester Spring faults into New York and may be related to the faults. Focal mechanism solutions of two earthquakes indicate thrusting along NW striking fault planes. Another possibility is the earthquakes are related to the Carthage-Colton Mylonite Zone. One earthquake is within four kms of the CCMZ and if the zone is extended northward beneath the lower Paleozoics, it passes through the epicenters on the Cornwall-Massena area.

  14. Northern Eurasian Heat Waves and Droughts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Wang, Hailan; Koster, Randal; Suarez, Max; Groisman, Pavel

    2013-01-01

    This article reviews our understanding of the characteristics and causes of northern Eurasian summertime heat waves and droughts. Additional insights into the nature of temperature and precipitation variability in Eurasia on monthly to decadal time scales and into the causes and predictability of the most extreme events are gained from the latest generation of reanalyses and from supplemental simulations with the NASA GEOS-5 AGCM. Key new results are: 1) the identification of the important role of summertime stationary Rossby waves in the development of the leading patterns of monthly Eurasian surface temperature and precipitation variability (including the development of extreme events such as the 2010 Russian heat wave), 2) an assessment of the mean temperature and precipitation changes that have occurred over northern Eurasia in the last three decades and their connections to decadal variability and global trends in SST, and 3) the quantification (via a case study) of the predictability of the most extreme simulated heat wave/drought events, with some focus on the role of soil moisture in the development and maintenance of such events. A literature survey indicates a general consensus that the future holds an enhanced probability of heat waves across northern Eurasia, while there is less agreement regarding future drought, reflecting a greater uncertainty in soil moisture and precipitation projections. Substantial uncertainties remain in our understanding of heat waves and drought, including the nature of the interactions between the short-term atmospheric variability associated with such extremes and the longer-term variability and trends associated with soil moisture feedbacks, SST anomalies, and an overall warming world.

  15. Neotectonics in the northern equatorial Brazilian margin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossetti, Dilce F.; Souza, Lena S. B.; Prado, Renato; Elis, Vagner R.

    2012-08-01

    An increasing volume of publications has addressed the role of tectonics in inland areas of northern Brazil during the Neogene and Quaternary, despite its location in a passive margin. Hence, northern South America plate in this time interval might have not been as passive as usually regarded. This proposal needs further support, particularly including field data. In this work, we applied an integrated approach to reveal tectonic structures in Miocene and late Quaternary strata in a coastal area of the Amazonas lowland. The investigation, undertaken in Marajó Island, mouth of the Amazonas River, consisted of shallow sub-surface geophysical data including vertical electric sounding and ground penetrating radar. These methods were combined with morphostructural analysis and sedimentological/stratigraphic data from shallow cores and a few outcrops. The results revealed two stratigraphic units, a lower one with Miocene age, and an upper one of Late Pleistocene-Holocene age. An abundance of faults and folds were recorded in the Miocene deposits and, to a minor extent, in overlying Late Pleistocene-Holocene strata. In addition to characterize these structures, we discuss their origin, considering three potential mechanisms: Andean tectonics, gravity tectonics related to sediment loading in the Amazon Fan, and rifting at the continental margin. Amongst these hypotheses, the most likely is that the faults and folds recorded in Marajó Island reflect tectonics associated with the history of continental rifting that gave rise to the South Atlantic Ocean. This study supports sediment deposition influenced by transpression and transtension associated with strike-slip divergence along the northern Equatorial Brazilian margin in the Miocene and Late Pleistocene-Holocene. This work records tectonic evidence only for the uppermost few ten of meters of this sedimentary succession. However, available geological data indicate a thickness of up to 6 km, which is remarkably thick for

  16. Trace element content of northern Ontario peat

    SciTech Connect

    Glooschenko, W.A.; Capoblanco, J.A.

    1982-03-01

    Peat samples were collected at 0-20- and 20-40-cm depths from several peatland ecosystems located in northern Ontario, Canada. Analysis was made for the trace metals Zn, Pb, Cu, Cr, Cd, and Hg. Concentration values in general were in the low ppm range and did not significantly differ in terms of peatland type or depth except for Pb. This element was signficantly higher in surface peats in bogs and fens. Concentration of metals in peats found in the study were equivalent to those in US coals, suggesting caution during combustion in terms of potential atmospheric input of metals.

  17. Forest Fires in Russia and Northern China

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Smoke plumes from forest fires scattered along the border between the Russian Far East and northern China are clearly visible in this true-color image from the Sea-viewing Wide-Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on June 16, 2000. Fires in Siberia occur every summer, and severe outbreaks occur every ten years or so, with the most recent in 1998. The fires are ignited by lightning, and are so remote that it is impossible to fight them effectively. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  18. Nonlinear features of Northern Annular Mode variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Zuntao; Shi, Liu; Xie, Fenghua; Piao, Lin

    2016-05-01

    Nonlinear features of daily Northern Annular Mode (NAM) variability at 17 pressure levels are quantified by two different measures. One is nonlinear correlation, and the other is time-irreversible symmetry. Both measures show that there are no significant nonlinear features in NAM variability at the higher pressure levels, however as the pressure level decreases, the strength of nonlinear features in NAM variability becomes predominant. This indicates that in order to reach better prediction of NAM variability in the lower pressure levels, nonlinear features must be taken into consideration to build suitable models.

  19. PREFACE: Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Soja, Amber J.

    2009-12-01

    The Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) was launched five years ago with the release of its Science Plan (http://neespi.org). Gradually, the Initiative was joined by numerous international projects and launched in the European Union, Russia, United States, Canada, Japan, and China. Currently, serving as an umbrella for more than 130 individual research projects (always with international participation) and with a 15M annual budget, this highly diverse initiative is in full swing. Since the first NEESPI focus issue (Pavel Groisman et al 2007 Environ. Res. Lett. 2 045008 (1pp)) in December 2007, several NEESPI Workshops and Sessions at International Meetings have been held that strengthen the NEESPI grasp on biogeochemical cycle and cryosphere studies, climatic and hydrological modeling, and regional NEESPI components in the Arctic, non- boreal Eastern Europe, Central Asia, northern Siberia, and mountainous regions of the NEESPI domain. In May 2009, an overview NEESPI paper was published in the Bulletin of the American Meteorological Society (BAMS) (Pavel Groisman et al 2009 Bull. Am. Met. Soc. 90 671). This paper also formulated a requirement to the next generation of NEESPI studies to work towards attaining a higher level of integration of observation programs, process studies, and modeling, across disciplines. Three books devoted to studies in different regions of Northern Eurasia prepared by the members of the NEESPI team have appeared and/or are scheduled to appear in 2009. This (second) ERL focus issue dedicated to climatic and environmental studies in Northern Eurasia is composed mostly from the papers that were presented at two NEESPI Open Science Sessions at the Annual Fall Meeting of the American Geophysical Union (December 2008, San Francisco, CA) and at the General Assembly of the European Geosciences Union (April 2009, Vienna, Austria), as well as at the specialty NEESPI Workshops convened in Jena, Helsinki, Odessa, Urumqi

  20. Ticks infesting humans in Northern Misiones, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Lamattina, Daniela; Nava, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    This work presents records of ticks infesting humans in northern Misiones Province, Argentina. Also, notes on potential transmission of tick-borne pathogens are included. A total of 282 ticks attached to researchers were collected and identified by their morphological characters. Eight tick species were found: Amblyomma brasiliense, Amblyomma coelebs, Amblyomma dubitatum, Amblyomma incisum, Amblyomma ovale, Haemaphysalis juxtakochi, Rhipicephalus sanguineus and Rhipicephalus microplus. Some of these species as A. dubitatum, A. ovale and R. sanguineus have been found infected with spotted fever group rickettsiae pathogenic to humans in Brazil and Argentina. The potential role as vectors of humans pathogens of the ticks found attached to humans in this study is discussed. PMID:27135846

  1. The 2011 Northern Hemisphere Solar Maximum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altrock, Richard C.

    2013-01-01

    Altrock (1997, Solar Phys. 170, 411) discusses a process in which Fe XIV 530.3 nm emission features appear at high latitudes and gradually migrate towards the equator, merging with the sunspot "butterfly diagram". In cycles 21 - 23 solar maximum occurred when the number of Fe XIV emission regions per day > 0.19 (averaged over 365 days and both hemispheres) first reached latitudes 18°, 21° and 21°, for an average of 20° ± 1.7°. Another high-latitude process is the "Rush to the Poles" of polar crown prominences and their associated coronal emission, including Fe XIV. The Rush is a harbinger of solar maximum (cf. Altrock, 2003, Solar Phys. 216, 343). Solar maximum in cycles 21 - 23 occurred when the center line of the Rush reached a critical latitude. These latitudes were 76°, 74° and 78°, respectively, for an average of 76° ± 2°. Cycle 24 displays an intermittent Rush that is only well-defined in the northern hemisphere. In 2009 an initial slope of 4.6°/yr was found in the north, compared to an average of 9.4 ± 1.7 °/yr in the previous three cycles. However, in 2010 the slope increased to 7.5°/yr. Extending that rate to 76° ± 2° indicates that the solar maximum smoothed sunspot number in the northern hemisphere already occurred at 2011.6 ± 0.3. In the southern hemisphere the Rush is very poorly defined. A linear fit to several maxima would reach 76° in the south at 2014.2. In 1999, persistent Fe XIV coronal emission connected with the ESC appeared near 70° in the north and began migrating towards the equator at a rate 40% slower than the previous two solar cycles. A fit to the early ESC would not reach 20° until 2019.8. However, in 2009 and 2010 an acceleration occurred. Currently the greatest number of emission regions is at 21° in the north and 24°in the south. This indicates that solar maximum is occurring now in the north but not yet in the south. The latest global smoothed sunspot numbers show an inflection point in late 2011, which

  2. Northern Conference Film and Video Guide on Native and Northern Justice Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby (British Columbia).

    Intended for teachers and practitioners, this film and video guide contains 235 entries pertaining to the administration of justice, culture and lifestyle, and education and services in northern Canada. It is divided into eight sections: Native lifestyle (97 items); economic development (28), rights and self-government (20); education and training…

  3. Saturn's northern auroras as observed using the Hubble Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nichols, J. D.; Badman, S. V.; Bunce, E. J.; Clarke, J. T.; Cowley, S. W. H.; Hunt, G. J.; Provan, G.

    2016-01-01

    We discuss the features of Saturn's northern FUV auroras as observed during a program of Hubble Space Telescope observations which executed over 2011-2013 and culminated, along with Cassini observations, in a comprehensive multi-spectral observing campaign. Our 2011-2013 observations of the northern aurora are also compared with those from our 2007-2008 observation of the southern aurora. We show that the variety of morphologies of the northern auroras is broadly consistent with the southern, and determine the statistical equatorward and poleward boundary locations. We find that our boundaries are overall consistent with previous observations, although a modest poleward displacement of the poleward boundaries is due to the increased prevalence of poleward auroral patches in the noon and afternoon sectors during this program, likely due to the solar wind interaction. We also show that the northern auroral oval oscillates with the northern planetary period oscillation (PPO) phase in an elongated ellipse with semi-major axis ∼1.6° oriented along the post-dawn/post-dusk direction. We further show that the northern auroras exhibit dawn-side brightenings at zero northern magnetic PPO phase, although there is mixed evidence of auroral emissions fixed in the rotating frame of the northern PPO current system, such that overall the dependence of the auroras on northern magnetic phase is somewhat weak.

  4. Attenuation of free spheroidal oscillations of the Earth after the M = 9 Earthquake in Sumatra and the super-deep Earthquake in the Sea of Okhotsk: I. the Admissible Q-factor range for the fundamental mode and overtones of the free spheroidal oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molodenskii, S. M.; Molodenskaya, M. S.

    2015-11-01

    The problem of reconstructing the depth distribution of density and the depth and frequency dependences of the mechanical Q-factor in the Earth's mantle from the entire set of the present-day seismic and astrometric data on the travel times and periods of seismic waves and the amplitudes and phases of forced nutations is considered. The solution of the problem is refined by including the new data about the attenuation of the free oscillations of the Earth excited by the Sumatra earthquake ( M = 9) and super-deep earthquake in the Sea of Okhotsk. The actual accuracy of the Q-factor is studied in the first part of the paper. To this end, we analyze (1) the convergence of the Q-factor estimated from the time series of different length shifted along the time axis and (2) the convergence of the results based on the different data. Since the accuracy of identifying all the periods and attenuation factors for the free oscillations from the Sumatra earthquake is significantly higher than for the earthquake with M = 9 in Japan, the data are only compared for the Sumatra and Okhotsk events. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) is analyzed based on the records from different Global Seismographic Network (GSN) stations including the station in Obninsk, the Kurchatov station in Kazakhstan, and the main ERM and MAJO stations in Japan. It is found that the highest SNR was observed in Obninsk. The inverse problem of reconstructing the density and Q-factor is solved for the frequency dependent real parts of the shear moduli with allowance for the most accurate data about the attenuation factors for the fundamental spheroidal modes of the free oscillations of the Earth.

  5. From the Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI) towards the Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (NEFI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, Pavel; Gutman, Garik; Gulev, Sergey; Maksyutov, Shamil

    2015-04-01

    Northern Eurasia Earth Science Partnership Initiative (NEESPI, http://neespi.org) was launched in 2004. With its multidisciplinary focus, the internationally funded NEESPI (more than 170 individual international projects during the past decade) has challenged participants to research climate-ecosystem interactions, societal impacts from extreme events in Northern Eurasia, and the feedbacks of these interactions and impacts to the global Earth system. NEESPI was endorsed by major ESSP Programs and Projects and the cornerstone support for the NEESPI studies was provided by the NASA Land Cover and Land Use Change Program and the Russian Academy of Sciences. Now it is the time to synthesis the main achievements of the NEESPI researchers and to re-assess its Science Questions and Objectives of the regional research within the new Future Earth Program paradigm with the focus on interdisciplinary solution-oriented approach that will allow effective policy-making in environment management and control. At the sequence of Workshops (the last of them will be in Prague one week prior to this Assembly) we formulated a major Science Question of the new Northern Eurasia Future Initiative (NEFI): "What will the changes in the regional ecosystems dynamics and interactions mean for the societal well-being, activities, health, and strategic planning in Northern Eurasia?" The major NEFI challenge will be the services aimed on providing in Northern Eurasia a sustainable societal development in changing climate, ecosystems, and societies. At this presentation we shall brief the audience about the main results of the NEESPI researchers, and lay down the plans for the future NEFI studies. At the side event of the Meeting, we shall initiate preparation of the book which will synthesize major NEESPI achievements.

  6. Early Holocene chicken domestication in northern China

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Hai; Gao, Jianqiang; Yu, Baoquan; Zhou, Hui; Cai, Dawei; Zhang, Youwen; Chen, Xiaoyong; Wang, Xi; Hofreiter, Michael; Zhao, Xingbo

    2014-01-01

    Chickens represent by far the most important poultry species, yet the number, locations, and timings of their domestication have remained controversial for more than a century. Here we report ancient mitochondrial DNA sequences from the earliest archaeological chicken bones from China, dating back to ∼10,000 B.P. The results clearly show that all investigated bones, including the oldest from the Nanzhuangtou site, are derived from the genus Gallus, rather than any other related genus, such as Phasianus. Our analyses also suggest that northern China represents one region of the earliest chicken domestication, possibly dating as early as 10,000 y B.P. Similar to the evidence from pig domestication, our results suggest that these early domesticated chickens contributed to the gene pool of modern chicken populations. Moreover, our results support the idea that multiple members of the genus Gallus, specifically Gallus gallus and Gallus sonneratii contributed to the gene pool of the modern domestic chicken. Our results provide further support for the growing evidence of an early mixed agricultural complex in northern China. PMID:25422439

  7. Northern New Mexico regional airport market feasibility

    SciTech Connect

    Drake, R.H.; Williams, D.S.

    1998-06-01

    This report is about the market for airline travel in northern New Mexico. Interest in developing a northern New Mexico regional airport has periodically surfaced for a number of years. The New Mexico State Legislature passed a memorial during the 1998 Second Session calling for the conduct of a study to determine the feasibility of building a new regional airport in NNM. This report is a study of the passenger market feasibility of such an airport. In addition to commercial passenger market feasibility, there are other feasibility issues dealing with siting, environmental impact, noise, economic impact, intermodal transportation integration, region-wide transportation services, airport engineering requirements, and others. These other feasibility issues are not analyzed in any depth in this report although none were discovered to be show-stoppers as a by-product of the authors doing research on the passenger market itself. Preceding the need for a detailed study of these other issues is the determination of the basic market need for an airport with regular commercial airline service in the first place. This report is restricted to an in-depth look at the market for commercial passenger air service in NNM. 20 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. Fences and grazing management in northern Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prudat, Brice; Bloemertz, Lena; Kuhn, Nikolaus J.

    2016-04-01

    Since Namibian independence, many fences have been erected in the communal land of the Ohangwena region in northern Namibia. Most fencing issues discussed so far in the region concern large-scale fencing of communal land by the new Namibian elite. Rarely discussed are the fences erected around small-scale farmers' parcels. This paper will discuss the impact of such increased small-scale fencing activities in northern Namibia. Fencing of land has different functions, including protection of fields against livestock and securing property rights. However, not all community members can afford the monetary and labor costs involved. In the annual agricultural cycle of the study area, livestock is left un-herded after the harvest of most crops. They can then feed on available crop remains and grass on the fields. The livestock then freely utilizes unfenced and unprotected land. This system has the advantage to accelerate crop degradation and fertilize the soils. However, by erecting efficient fences, the new middle-class community members concentrate fertility in their own field, thereby degrading agricultural soils of poorer farmers. Potentially, such small-scale fencing of land has therefore an impact on sol quality and thus fosters degradation of unfenced cropland. By using fences as features to determine the limits of the new land rights, the ongoing Communal Land Reform may not only promote the erection of fences, but may also have a negative impact on soil quality and potentially food security of small-scale farmers without cattle.

  9. Opsin gene repertoires in northern archaic hominids.

    PubMed

    Taylor, John S; Reimchen, Thomas E

    2016-08-01

    The Neanderthals' northern distribution, hunting techniques, and orbit breadths suggest that they were more active in dim light than modern humans. We surveyed visual opsin genes from four Neanderthals and two other archaic hominids to see if they provided additional support for this hypothesis. This analysis was motivated by the observation that alleles responsible for anomalous trichromacy in humans are more common in northern latitudes, by data suggesting that these variants might enhance vision in mesopic conditions, and by the observation that dim light active species often have fewer opsin genes than diurnal relatives. We also looked for evidence of convergent amino acid substitutions in Neanderthal opsins and orthologs from crepuscular or nocturnal species. The Altai Neanderthal, the Denisovan, and the Ust'-Ishim early modern human had opsin genes that encoded proteins identical to orthologs in the human reference genome. Opsins from the Vindija Cave Neanderthals (three females) had many nonsynonymous substitutions, including several predicted to influence colour vision (e.g., stop codons). However, the functional implications of these observations were difficult to assess, given that "control" loci, where no substitutions were expected, differed from humans to the same extent. This left unresolved the test for colour vision deficiencies in Vindija Cave Neanderthals. PMID:27463216

  10. Rainfall variability and seasonality in northern Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bari, Sheikh Hefzul; Hussain, Md. Manjurul; Husna, Noor-E.-Ashmaul

    2016-05-01

    This paper aimed at the analysis of rainfall seasonality and variability for the northern part of South-Asian country, Bangladesh. The coefficient of variability was used to determine the variability of rainfall. While rainfall seasonality index (SI ) and mean individual seasonality index ( overline{SI_i} ) were used to identify seasonal contrast. We also applied Mann-Kendall trend test and sequential Mann-Kendall test to determine the trend in seasonality. The lowest variability was found for monsoon among the four seasons whereas winter has the highest variability. Observed variability has a decreasing tendency from the northwest region towards the northeast region. The mean individual seasonality index (0.815378 to 0.977228) indicates that rainfall in Bangladesh is "markedly seasonal with a long dry season." It was found that the length of the dry period is lower at the northeastern part of northern Bangladesh. Trend analysis results show no significant change in the seasonality of rainfall in this region. Regression analysis of overline{SI_i} and SI, and longitude and mean individual seasonality index show a significant linear correlation for this area.

  11. Proposed artificial recharge studies in northern Qatar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kimrey, J.O.

    1985-01-01

    The aquifer system in northern Qatar comprises a water-table aquifer in the Rus Formation which is separated by an aquitard from a partially confined aquifer in the top of the overlying Umm er Radhuma Formation. These two aquifers are composed of limestone and dolomite of Eocene and Paleocene age and contain a fragile lens of freshwater which is heavily exploited as a source of water for agricultural irrigation. Net withdrawals are greatly in excess of total recharge, and quality of ground water is declining. Use of desalinated seawater for artificial recharge has been proposed for the area. Artificial recharge, on a large scale, could stabilize the decline in ground-water quality while allowing increased withdrawals for irrigation. The proposal appears technically feasible. Recharge should be by injection to the Umm er Radhuma aquifer whose average transmissivity is about 2,000 meters squared per day (as compared to an average of about 200 meters squared per day for the Rus aquifer). Implementation of artificial recharge should be preceded by a hydrogeologic appraisal. These studies should include test drilling, conventional aquifer tests, and recharge-recovery tests at four sites in northern Qatar. (USGS)

  12. Foraminifera from the Northern Olympic Peninsula, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rau, Weldon W.

    1964-01-01

    Foraminifera from a Tertiary sequence that crops out on the northern part of the Olympic Peninsula, Wash., show stratigraphic and ecologic significance. Forty-two species that are important both to correlations and to ecologic interpretations are illustrated and systematically discussed. The Foraminifera indicate that some of the rocks may be as old as early Eocene. The oldest rocks are tentatively referred to the Penutian stage of Mallory. Other parts of the sequence are referred to the Ulatisian and Narizian stages of Mallory, the Refugian stage of Schenck and Kieinpell, and the Zemorrian and Saucesian stages of Kleinpell. Several short periods of shallow, sheltered sea conditions are suggested by the Foraminifera from several parts of the stratigraphic sequence, but Foraminifera from most of the rocks suggest relatively deep, open-sea conditions. With the exception of shallow, warm-water conditions in rocks of probable middle Eocene age, the Foraminifera suggest that cool-to-cold water temperatures, regardless of depth, prevailed during the deposition of most of the rocks of Tertiary age in the northern Olympic Peninsula.

  13. Illuminating Northern California’s Active Faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Prentice, Carol S.; Crosby, Christopher J.; Whitehill, Caroline S.; Arrowsmith, J. Ramon; Furlong, Kevin P.; Philips, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Newly acquired light detection and ranging (lidar) topographic data provide a powerful community resource for the study of landforms associated with the plate boundary faults of northern California (Figure 1). In the spring of 2007, GeoEarthScope, a component of the EarthScope Facility construction project funded by the U.S. National Science Foundation, acquired approximately 2000 square kilometers of airborne lidar topographic data along major active fault zones of northern California. These data are now freely available in point cloud (x, y, z coordinate data for every laser return), digital elevation model (DEM), and KMZ (zipped Keyhole Markup Language, for use in Google EarthTM and other similar software) formats through the GEON OpenTopography Portal (http://www.OpenTopography.org/data). Importantly, vegetation can be digitally removed from lidar data, producing high-resolution images (0.5- or 1.0-meter DEMs) of the ground surface beneath forested regions that reveal landforms typically obscured by vegetation canopy (Figure 2)

  14. Arctic marine phytobenthos of northern Baffin Island.

    PubMed

    Küpper, Frithjof C; Peters, Akira F; Shewring, Dawn M; Sayer, Martin D J; Mystikou, Alexandra; Brown, Hugh; Azzopardi, Elaine; Dargent, Olivier; Strittmatter, Martina; Brennan, Debra; Asensi, Aldo O; van West, Pieter; Wilce, Robert T

    2016-08-01

    Global climate change is expected to alter the polar bioregions faster than any other marine environment. This study assesses the biodiversity of seaweeds and associated eukaryotic pathogens of an established study site in northern Baffin Island (72° N), providing a baseline inventory for future work assessing impacts of the currently ongoing changes in the Arctic marine environment. A total of 33 Phaeophyceae, 24 Rhodophyceae, 2 Chlorophyceae, 12 Ulvophyceae, 1 Trebouxiophyceae, and 1 Dinophyceae are reported, based on collections of an expedition to the area in 2009, complemented by unpublished records of Robert T. Wilce and the first-ever photographic documentation of the phytobenthos of the American Arctic. Molecular barcoding of isolates raised from incubated substratum samples revealed the presence of 20 species of brown seaweeds, including gametophytes of kelp and of a previously unsequenced Desmarestia closely related to D. viridis, two species of Pylaiella, the kelp endophyte Laminariocolax aecidioides and 11 previously unsequenced species of the Ectocarpales, highlighting the necessity to include molecular techniques for fully unraveling cryptic algal diversity. This study also includes the first records of Eurychasma dicksonii, a eukaryotic pathogen affecting seaweeds, from the American Arctic. Overall, this study provides both the most accurate inventory of seaweed diversity of the northern Baffin Island region to date and can be used as an important basis to understand diversity changes with climate change. PMID:27037790

  15. Searching for Young Stars in Northern Orion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urban, Laurie; Kraus, A.

    2011-01-01

    The Orion Molecular Cloud contains many known star-forming regions mostly located in the southern parts of the constellation. However, northern Orion is largely unsurveyed outside of a few well-established clusters meaning there could be more sites of ongoing star formation. We have conducted a search for young stars in northern Orion to find new star-forming regions. Using the MG1 Variable Star Survey we identified 2118 variable stars spanning a region of 30 deg2 from R.A.=4h 00m to 6h 30m and Dec=2.9 to 3.7 degrees. These stars’ variability could result from accretion or spots, which are common characteristics of young stars. We use several methods to detect candidate young stars from these data: selection cuts with color-magnitude diagrams (CMDs), measurement of proper motions and visual inspection of the source images. We make cuts to only include stars that have CMD positions consistent with the Orion sequence, have proper motions within 3 sigma of known Orion members, and are not contaminated by other nearby sources. These cuts identify an area between 5h 20m and 5h 52m in R.A. with a significant overdensity of 74 young star candidates. We will discuss in detail our selection cuts and the implication of these discoveries. This work was conducted by a Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) position at the University of Hawai'i's Institute for Astronomy and funded by the NSF.

  16. Perspectives on Smoking Cessation in Northern Appalachia.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Elisa M; Twarozek, Annamaria Masucci; Erwin, Deborah O; Widman, Christy; Saad-Harfouche, Frances G; Fox, Chester H; Underwood, Willie; Mahoney, Martin C

    2016-04-01

    This study applies qualitative research methods to explore perspectives on cessation among smokers/former smokers recruited from an area of Northern Appalachia. Six focus groups, stratified by age group (18-39 years old and 40 years and older), were conducted among participants (n = 54) recruited from community settings. Participants described varied interest in and challenges with quitting smoking. Smokers 40 years and older more readily endorsed the health risks of smoking and had greater interest in quitting assistance. Participants expressed frustration with the US government for allowing a harmful product (e.g., cigarettes) to be promoted with minimal regulation. Use of social media was robust among both age groups; participants expressed limited interest in various social media/technology platforms for promoting smoking cessation. Findings from this understudied area of northern Appalachia reflect the heterogeneity of this region and contribute novel information about the beliefs, attitudes, and experiences of current and formers smokers with regard to cessation. PMID:26318743

  17. Northern Plains Textures Visible Near the Terminator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Each day, Mars Global Surveyor makes 12 orbits around the red planet. On each orbit at the present time (April 1999), the spacecraft passes from daylight into night somewhere over the northern plains of Mars, and re-emerges into daylight over the southern cratered highlands. The illumination conditions near the martian terminator--the line between night and day--are perfect for observing surface texture and topography. This picture shows a common, rough and bumpy texture that MOC has revealed on the northern plains of Mars. Note the eroded impact crater at the bottom right--small black dots along its rim are interpreted to be boulders. This image covers an area 3 kilometers (1.9 miles) wide by 8 kilometers (5 miles) long and is illuminated by the sun shining low from the northeastern horizon (from the upper right).

    Malin Space Science Systems and the California Institute of Technology built the MOC using spare hardware from the Mars Observer mission. MSSS operates the camera from its facilities in San Diego, CA. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Mars Surveyor Operations Project operates the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft with its industrial partner, Lockheed Martin Astronautics, from facilities in Pasadena, CA and Denver, CO.

  18. Floods in Canada and Northern Minnesota

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    During the first half of June, heavy rains inundated northern Minnesota and southern Canada, giving rise to floods that drove hundreds of people from their homes and drenched more than 300,000 acres of prime farmland. This false-color image of the flood (right) was acquired on June 15, 2002, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The worst of the flooding occurred on the border of Canada and Minnesota along the Roseau River, which now resembles a lake in the center of the image. The town of Roseau, Minnesota, which sits in the eastern end of the newly formed lake, was hit the hardest. Nearly all the buildings in the town took heavy water damage and many residents were forced to leave. Widespread flooding across an eight county region in Minnesota has drenched nearly 300,000 to 500,000 acres of farmland altogether. Many of the farmers hit lost 100 percent of their crops and will be unable to plant again for the season. Last week, President Bush declared northern Minnesota a disaster area. Normally, the Roseau River cannot even be seen on a MODIS image (left, acquired May 21, 2002), and the surrounding area is dry. In the false-color images, sage green, rusty orange, and blue is land, and water is black. Clouds are white and pink. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  19. Provenance of Norphlet sandstone, northern Gulf Coast

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, W.P.; Ward, W.C.; Kuglar, R.L.

    1987-09-01

    The Upper Jurassic Norphlet sandstone of the northern Gulf Coast is predominantly subarkose, with some arkose in the eastern area and sublitharenite and quartzarenite in the western area. Despite great depths of burial and despite feldspar and rock-fragment constituents, diagenesis has not appreciably altered the composition of Norphlet sandstone. Therefore, reconstruction of original composition of Norphlet sandstone presented little difficulty. Variation in detrital modes of the Norphlet suggests compositionally distinct source terranes. Samples from Florida, Alabama, and Mississippi reflect the influence of metamorphic and plutonic rocks of the Appalachian Piedmont Province and of Triassic-Jurassic volcanic rocks. Sandstones in east Texas, northern Louisiana, and southern Arkansas were derived from sedimentary and metasedimentary rocks of the Ouachita system. The Arbuckle Mountains and Llano uplift may have supplied trace amounts of quartzo-feldspathic and volcanic-rock fragments to the extreme western part of the study area. Norphlet sandstones represent a mixture of collision-orogen-derived sediment from the Appalachian and/or Ouachita system and continental-block-derived sediment from paleohighs and uplifts within the Gulf basin. However, Norphlet sandstones plot in the craton-interior and transitional-continental fields on Q-F-L and QM-F-Lt tectonic-provenance diagrams, because of mineralogically mature source rocks, elimination of unstable grains by abrasion and sorting during deposition, and/or sediment mixing from different source terranes.

  20. Absolute spectrophotometry of northern compact planetary nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, S. A.; Corradi, R. L. M.; Perinotto, M.

    2005-06-01

    We present medium-dispersion spectra and narrowband images of six northern compact planetary nebulae (PNe): BoBn 1, DdDm 1, IC 5117, M 1-5, M 1-71, and NGC 6833. From broad-slit spectra, total absolute fluxes and equivalent widths were measured for all observable emission lines. High signal-to-noise emission line fluxes of Hα, Hβ, [Oiii], [Nii], and HeI may serve as emission line flux standards for northern hemisphere observers. From narrow-slit spectra, we derive systemic radial velocities. For four PNe, available emission line fluxes were measured with sufficient signal-to-noise to probe the physical properties of their electron densities, temperatures, and chemical abundances. BoBn 1 and DdDm 1, both type IV PNe, have an Hβ flux over three sigma away from previous measurements. We report the first abundance measurements of M 1-71. NGC 6833 measured radial velocity and galactic coordinates suggest that it is associated with the outer arm or possibly the galactic halo, and its low abundance ([O/H]=1.3× 10-4) may be indicative of low metallicity within that region.

  1. PERSPECTIVE: REDD pilot project scenarios: are costs and benefits altered by spatial scale?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Kimberly M.; Curran, Lisa M.

    2009-09-01

    Kimberly M Carlson Payments for reducing carbon emissions due to deforestation and degradation (REDD) have garnered considerable global interest and investments. These financial incentives aim to alter the drivers of land use change by reducing opportunity costs of retaining forest cover, and are often promoted as multipartite solutions that not only generate profits and reduce carbon emissions but provide benefits for human development and biodiversity. Currently, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) is debating a post-Kyoto protocol with national or sub-national emission reduction targets. Anticipating the inclusion of REDD in this agreement, >80% of pilot REDD projects are being established in tropical regions (table 1). While the capacity of REDD projects to meet their stated objectives must be assessed post- implementation, land use change models are powerful tools for generating potential outcomes from these pilot initiatives. Table 1. Extent and emissions reductions for all REDD projects as reported by Ecosystem Marketplace, which maintains a comprehensive and up-to-date inventory of REDD projects that are selling credits and/or are verified by a third-party verifier. Adapted from Forest Carbon Portal (2009). Geographical zoneContinentProjects (#) Area (km2) Emissions reductions (Mt C) Tropical and Subtropical Africa2775019.50 Asia28100109.60 South America 9183 880278.24 TemperateAustralia1140.18 North America115N/A Totals15199 759407.52 In this issue of ERL, Gaveau et al (2009) use a spatially-explicit model to explore the potential of a REDD pilot project in northern Sumatra, Indonesia, to reduce deforestation and conserve orangutan biodiversity. This project is conceived by the Provincial Government of Aceh, financed by Merrill Lynch, and co-managed by carbon trading firm Carbon Conservation and NGO Flora and Fauna International. Project managers estimate CO2 emissions reductions at 3.4 Mt y-1 over 30 years across a 7500 km2

  2. Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Dale, Virginia H

    2010-01-01

    Since 1985, scientists have been documenting a hypoxic zone in the Gulf of Mexico each year. The hypoxic zone, an area of low dissolved oxygen that cannot support marine life, generally manifests itself in the spring. Since marine species either die or flee the hypoxic zone, the spread of hypoxia reduces the available habitat for marine species, which are important for the ecosystem as well as commercial and recreational fishing in the Gulf. Since 2001, the hypoxic zone has averaged 16,500 km{sup 2} during its peak summer months, an area slightly larger than the state of Connecticut, and ranged from a low of 8,500 km{sup 2} to a high of 22,000 km{sup 2}. To address the hypoxia problem, the Mississippi River/Gulf of Mexico Watershed Nutrient Task Force (or Task Force) was formed to bring together representatives from federal agencies, states, and tribes to consider options for responding to hypoxia. The Task Force asked the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy to conduct a scientific assessment of the causes and consequences of Gulf hypoxia through its Committee on Environment and Natural Resources (CENR). In 2000 the CENR completed An Integrated Assessment: Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (or Integrated Assessment), which formed the scientific basis for the Task Force's Action Plan for Reducing, Mitigating, and Controlling Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico (Action Plan, 2001). In its Action Plan, the Task Force pledged to implement ten management actions and to assess progress every 5 years. This reassessment would address the nutrient load reductions achieved, the responses of the hypoxic zone and associated water quality and habitat conditions, and economic and social effects. The Task Force began its reassessment in 2005. In 2006 as part of the reassessment, USEPA's Office of Water, on behalf of the Task Force, requested that the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Science Advisory Board (SAB) convene an independent panel to

  3. Ongoing Climatic Changes in Northern Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groisman, P. Ya.; Bulygina, O. N.; Razuvaev, V. N.; Meshcherskaya, A. V.; Ivanov, S. V.; Akhmadiyeva, Zh. K.; Speranskaya, N. A.; Zhai, P.; Shein, K.

    2009-04-01

    Northern Eurasia is the region where the contemporary warming and associated climatic and environmental changes are among the most pronounced globally, with winter temperature increased by more than 2K and summer temperature by 1.35K during the period of instrumental observations since 1881. The summer warming is a new phenomenon observed during the past several decades. Summer temperature controls most of vegetation in the polar region, where surface radiation balance (SRB) is positive only for a short period of the year. But, in the middle of this period, it exceeds the SRB values in Sahara or southern California. North of the Eurasian coast, the Arctic Ocean is moving to perennial ice-free conditions and has already lost nearly half of its end-of-summer extent since the late 1970s. This changes the regional albedo and dramatically affects the cold season heat fluxes from the ocean to the atmosphere. Thus, Northern Eurasia and, particularly, its Arctic part is being affected by global and regional factors that are contributing to these observed changes and the positive feedbacks to this forcing may further exaggerate the situation. Climatic changes over Northern Eurasia during the 20th century have been reflected in many atmospheric and terrestrial variables. These include various snow cover, agricultural and phenological characteristics, temperature and precipitation changes, as well as changes in derived variables of economic, social and ecological interest. Among these variables are the frequency of extremes in precipitation and temperature; frequency and duration of no-rain periods; agricultural and hydrological droughts; frequency of thaws and days with severe fire danger; heating degree days; growing season duration; sum of temperatures above/below a given threshold; days without frost; day-to-day temperature variability; precipitation frequency; and precipitation type fraction. We shall systematically present these changes observed during the past 50 to

  4. Cenozoic stratigraphy of the Sahara, Northern Africa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swezey, Christopher S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the Cenozoic stratigraphic record in the Sahara, and shows that the strata display some remarkably similar characteristics across much of the region. In fact, some lithologies of certain ages are exceptionally widespread and persistent, and many of the changes from one lithology to another appear to have been relatively synchronous across the Sahara. The general stratigraphic succession is that of a transition from early Cenozoic carbonate strata to late Cenozoic siliciclastic strata. This transition in lithology coincides with a long-term eustatic fall in sea level since the middle Cretaceous and with a global climate transition from a Late Cretaceous–Early Eocene “warm mode” to a Late Eocene–Quaternary “cool mode”. Much of the shorter-term stratigraphic variability in the Sahara (and even the regional unconformities) also can be correlated with specific changes in sea level, climate, and tectonic activity during the Cenozoic. Specifically, Paleocene and Eocene carbonate strata and phosphate are suggestive of a warm and humid climate, whereas latest Eocene evaporitic strata (and an end-Eocene regional unconformity) are correlated with a eustatic fall in sea level, the build-up of ice in Antarctica, and the appearance of relatively arid climates in the Sahara. The absence of Oligocene strata throughout much of the Sahara is attributed to the effects of generally low eustatic sea level during the Oligocene and tectonic uplift in certain areas during the Late Eocene and Oligocene. Miocene sandstone and conglomerate are attributed to the effects of continued tectonic uplift around the Sahara, generally low eustatic sea level, and enough rainfall to support the development of extensive fluvial systems. Middle–Upper Miocene carbonate strata accumulated in northern Libya in response to a eustatic rise in sea level, whereas Upper Miocene mudstone accumulated along the south side of the Atlas Mountains because uplift of the

  5. Detailed Cloud Patterns in Martian Northern Hemisphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Cold and cloudy mornings; cool, hazy afternoons. High winds aloft and weather fronts moving slowly to the east. It is winter in the Martian northern hemisphere. One of the many reasons to study Mars is that, at times, its weather is very 'Earth-like.' At this time of the Martian year, clouds are abundant, especially in the morning and especially in the high northern latitudes. Clouds and fogs are also observed in low-lying areas farther to the south, in some lowlands they are as far south as the equator.

    The above color composite images, obtained by Mars Global Surveyor's camera on June 4, 1998, illustrate this Martian 'weather report.' Most of the thick, white clouds seen here occur north of latitude 35oN (roughly equivalent to Albuquerque NM, Memphis TN, and Charlotte, NC). Fog (seen as bright orange because it is lighter than the ground but some of the ground is still visible) occupies the lowest portions of the Kasei Valles outflow channel around 30oN and at 25oN.

    Several different types of cloud features are seen. The repetitious, wash-board pattern of parallel lines are 'gravity wave clouds'. These commonly form, in the lee--downwind side-- of topographic features such as mountain ranges (on Earth) or crater rims (on Mars), under very specific atmospheric conditions (low temperatures, high humidity, and high wind speeds). In this area, the wave clouds are lower in the atmosphere than some of the other clouds. These other clouds show attributes reflecting more the regional weather pattern, occasionally showing the characteristic 'slash' shape (southwest to northeast) of a weather front. These clouds probably contain mostly crystals of water ice but, depending on the temperature at high altitude (and more likely closer to the pole), some could also contain frozen carbon dioxide ('dry ice').

    MOC images 34501 (the red wide angle image) and 34502 (the blue wide angle image) were obtained on Mars Global Surveyor's 345th orbit about the planet

  6. Megafans of the Northern Kalahari Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, M. J.; Miller, R. McG.; Eckardt, F.; Kreslavsky, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    We identify eleven megafans (partial cones of fluvial sediment, >80 km radius) in the northern Kalahari Basin, using several criteria based on VIS and IR remotely sensed data and SRTM-based surface morphology reconstructions. Two other features meet fewer criteria of the form which we class as possible megafans. The northern Kalahari megafans are located in a 1700 km arc around the southern and eastern flanks of the Angola's Bié Plateau, from northern Namibia through northwest Botswana to western Zambia. Three lie in the Owambo subbasin centered on the Etosha Pan, three in the relatively small Okavango rift depression, and five in the Upper Zambezi basin. The population includes the well-known Okavango megafan (150 km), Namibia's Cubango megafan, the largest megafan in the region (350 km long), and the largest nested group (the five major contiguous megafans on the west slopes of the upper Zambezi Valley). We use new, SRTM-based topographic roughness data to discriminate various depositional surfaces within the flat N. Kalahari landscapes. We introduce the concepts of divide megafans, derived megafans, and fan-margin rivers. Conclusions. (i) Eleven megafan cones total an area of 190,000 sq km. (ii) Different controls on megafan size operate in the three component basins: in the Okavango rift structural controls become the prime constraint on megafan length by controlling basin dimensions. Megafans in the other les constricted basins appear to conform to classic relationships fan area, slope, and feeder-basin area. (iii) Active fans occupy the Okavango rift depression with one in the Owambo basin. The rest of the population are relict but recently active fans (surfaces are relict with respect to activity by the feeder river). (iv) Avulsive behavior of the formative river-axiomatic for the evolution of megafans-has resulted in repeated rearrangements of regional drainage, with likely effects in the study area well back into the Neogene. Divide megafans comprise the

  7. Biological Correlates of Northern-Southern Italy Differences in IQ

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templer, Donald I.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was intended to provide perspective, albeit less than unequivocal, on the research of Lynn (2010) who reported higher IQs in the northern than southern Italian regions. He attributes this to northern Italians having a greater genetic similarity to middle Europeans and southern Italians to Mediterranean people. Higher regional IQ…

  8. Suicide and Young People: The Case of Northern Ireland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomlinson, Mike

    2007-01-01

    Suicides in Northern Ireland are examined in the context of what is known about global and regional trends with respect to gender and age, and change over time. For Northern Ireland, suicide numbers and rates are plotted for 10-24 year olds from 1967 to 2005. Questions are raised about the validity of officially registered suicides in the light of…

  9. 8 CFR 1235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 1235.9 Section 1235.9 Aliens and Nationality EXECUTIVE OFFICE FOR IMMIGRATION REVIEW, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE IMMIGRATION REGULATIONS INSPECTION OF PERSONS APPLYING FOR ADMISSION § 1235.9 Northern...

  10. Primary Languages in Northern Ireland: Too Little, Too Late?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purdy, Noel; Siberry, Laurence; Beale, George

    2010-01-01

    There has been much debate in recent years about the future of primary language teaching in England, Scotland and Wales but relatively little discussion about the situation in Northern Ireland. This paper seeks to set the policy context in Northern Ireland where the provision for primary languages lags behind other regions of the United Kingdom…

  11. 7 CFR 457.142 - Northern potato crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 CFR part 400, subpart T, and pay an additional premium, you may increase your prevented planting... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance provisions. 457.142... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.142 Northern...

  12. 7 CFR 457.142 - Northern potato crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 CFR part 400, subpart T, and pay an additional premium, you may increase your prevented planting... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance provisions. 457.142... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.142 Northern...

  13. 7 CFR 457.142 - Northern potato crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 CFR part 400, subpart T, and pay an additional premium, you may increase your prevented planting... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance provisions. 457.142... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.142 Northern...

  14. 7 CFR 457.142 - Northern potato crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 CFR part 400, subpart T, and pay an additional premium, you may increase your prevented planting... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance provisions. 457.142... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.142 Northern...

  15. 7 CFR 457.142 - Northern potato crop insurance provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 CFR part 400, subpart T, and pay an additional premium, you may increase your prevented planting... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Northern potato crop insurance provisions. 457.142... INSURANCE CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMON CROP INSURANCE REGULATIONS § 457.142 Northern...

  16. 7. OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST BRIDGE ELEVATION, SHOWING NORTHERN ABUTMENT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. OBLIQUE VIEW OF WEST BRIDGE ELEVATION, SHOWING NORTHERN ABUTMENT (LEFT), CANTILEVERED NORTHERN TRUSS SECTION (CENTER), AND PIER (RIGHT), FROM SOUTHWEST SIDE OF BRIDGE. FACING NORTHEAST. - Coverts Crossing Bridge, Spanning Mahoning River along Township Route 372 (Covert Road), New Castle, Lawrence County, PA

  17. Drinking and Smoking Habits of Students at Northern Territory University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kathryn L.; Jackson, Adrian S.

    Persons in the Northern Territory who drink have the highest per capita daily consumption of alcohol and the highest rate of tobacco smoking in Australia. This study identifies the drinking patterns and demographic and personal variables that might predict risk levels for Northern Territory University (NTU) students and therefore give direction to…

  18. NORTHERN IDAHO FLOODING, FEBRUARY 1996. USGS FACT SHEETS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    USGS published 2 Fact Sheets describing the February 1996 floods in northern Idaho (17010304). Fact Sheet FS-222-96, Magnitude of Floods in Northern Idaho, February 1996, by Michael A. Beckwith, Charles Berenbrock, and R.L. Backsen, describes the magnitude of the floods at 8 str...

  19. 8 CFR 1235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 1235... identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards to aliens who acquired United States citizenship when the Covenant to Establish...

  20. 8 CFR 1235.9 - Northern Marianas identification card.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Northern Marianas identification card. 1235... identification card. During the two-year period that ended July 1, 1990, the Service issued Northern Marianas Identification Cards to aliens who acquired United States citizenship when the Covenant to Establish...