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Sample records for acellular bovine pericardium

  1. Preparation and characterization of an acellular bovine pericardium intended for manufacture of valve bioprostheses.

    PubMed

    Goissis, Gilberto; Giglioti, Aparecida de Fátima; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2011-05-01

    Major problems with biological heart valves post-implantation are associated with progressive structural deterioration and calcification attributed to glutaraldehyde processing, dead cells, and cell fragments present in the native tissue. In spite of these problems, glutaraldehyde still is the reagent of choice. The results with acellular matrix xenograft usually prepared by detergent treatment in association with enzymes are rather conflicting because while preserving mechanical properties, tissue morphology and collagen structure are process dependent. This work describes a chemical approach for the preparation of an acellular bovine pericardium matrix intended for the manufacture of heart valve bioprostheses. Cell removal was performed by an alkaline extraction in the presence of calcium salts for periods ranging from 6 to 48 h. The results showed that cell removal was achieved after 12 h, with swelling and negative charge increasing with processing time. Nevertheless, collagen fibril structure, ability to form fibrils, and stability to collagenase were progressive after 24-h processing. There was no denaturation of the collagen matrix. A process is described for the preparation of acellular bovine pericardium matrices with preserved fibril structure and morphology for the manufacture of cardiac valve bioprostheses and may be used in other applications for tissue reconstruction. PMID:21595716

  2. In vivo effects of human adipose-derived stem cells reseeding on acellular bovine pericardium in nude mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qingkai; Dai, Miao; Xu, Peirong; Hou, Min; Teng, Yincheng; Feng, Jie

    2016-01-01

    Tissue-engineered biologic products may be a viable option in the reconstruction of pelvic organ prolapse (POP). This study was based on the hypothesis that human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are viable in acellular bovine pericardium (ABP), when reseeded by two different techniques, and thus, aid in the reconstruction. To investigate the reseeding of hASCs on ABP grafts by using non-invasive bioluminescence imaging (BLI), and to identify the effective hASCs-scaffold combinations that enabled regeneration. Thirty female athymic nude mice were randomly divided into three groups: In the VIVO group, ABPs were implanted in the subcutaneous pockets and enhanced green fluorescent protein luciferase (eGFP·Luc)-hASCs (1 × 10(6) cells/50 µL) were injected on the ABP at the same time. In the VITRO group, the mice were implanted with grafts that ABP were co-cultured with eGFP·Luc-hASCs in vitro. The BLANK group mice were implanted with ABP only. The eGFP·Luc-hASCs reseeded on ABP were analyzed by BLI, histology, and immunohistochemistry. The eGFP·Luc-hASCs reseeded on ABP could be visualized at 12 weeks in vivo. Histology revealed that the VIVO group displayed the highest cell ingrowths, small vessels, and percent of collagen content per unit area. Desmin and α-smooth muscle actin were positive at the same site in the VIVO group cells. However, few smooth muscles were observed in the VITRO and BLANK groups. These results suggest that hASCs reseeded on ABP in vivo during surgery may further enhance the properties of ABP and may promote regeneration at the recipient site, resulting in a promising treatment option for POP. PMID:26253192

  3. Combined anticalcification treatment of bovine pericardium with decellularization and hyaluronic acid derivative.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Deyi; Jin, Liqiang; Wang, Xuemei; Xu, Li; Liu, Tianqi

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of decellularization and hyaluronic acid derivative on the improvement of anticalcification of glutaraldehyde fixed bovine pericardium (GFBP) using a rat subcutaneous implantation model A cell extraction process was employed to remove the cells and cellular components from bovine pericardium (BP), leaving a framework of largely insoluble collagen. Then acellular BP was cross-linked by glutaraldehyde solution and treated with hyaluronic acid derivative (HA-ADH) which was obtained by coupling adipic dihydrazide (ADH) on-COOH of hyaluronic acid (HA). The results of in vivo calcification tests showed that the calcium content was decreased dramatically by decellularization alone (from 28.07 ± 18.87 to 2.44 ± 0.55 μg Ca/mg dry tissue after 8 weeks' implantation), and even less concentration was shown by the combination of HA derivative treatment and decellularization (GFaBP-HA group) (0.25 ± 0.08 μg Ca/mg dry tissue after 8 weeks' implantation). In addition, GFaBP-HA group not only presented a lower degree of calcification, but also showed lower ratios of Ca/P molar, which corresponded to amorphous calcium phosphates. The obtained results indicated that GFaBP-HA was a potential candidate for the manufacture of anticalcification bioprostheses. PMID:24211959

  4. Age Dependent Differences in Collagen Alignment of Glutaraldehyde Fixed Bovine Pericardium

    PubMed Central

    Sizeland, Katie H.; Wells, Hannah C.; Higgins, John; Cunanan, Crystal M.; Kirby, Nigel; Hawley, Adrian; Mudie, Stephen T.; Haverkamp, Richard G.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine pericardium is used for heart valve leaflet replacement where the strength and thinness are critical properties. Pericardium from neonatal animals (4–7 days old) is advantageously thinner and is considered as an alternative to that from adult animals. Here, the structures of adult and neonatal bovine pericardium tissues fixed with glutaraldehyde are characterized by synchrotron-based small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and compared with the mechanical properties of these materials. Significant differences are observed between adult and neonatal tissue. The glutaraldehyde fixed neonatal tissue has a higher modulus of elasticity (83.7 MPa) than adult pericardium (33.5 MPa) and a higher normalised ultimate tensile strength (32.9 MPa) than adult pericardium (19.1 MPa). Measured edge on to the tissue, the collagen in neonatal pericardium is significantly more aligned (orientation index (OI) 0.78) than that in adult pericardium (OI 0.62). There is no difference in the fibril diameter between neonatal and adult pericardium. It is shown that high alignment in the plane of the tissue provides the mechanism for the increased strength of the neonatal material. The superior strength of neonatal compared with adult tissue supports the use of neonatal bovine pericardium in heterografts. PMID:25295250

  5. Complete Aortic Valve Cusp Replacement in the Pediatric Population Using Tissue-Engineered Bovine Pericardium.

    PubMed

    Mazzitelli, Domenico; Nöbauer, Christian; Rankin, J Scott; Vogt, Manfred; Lange, Rüdiger; Schreiber, Christian

    2015-11-01

    Three clinical cases of severe pediatric aortic valve defects undergoing complete aortic valve cusp replacement using tissue-engineered bovine pericardium are reported. All patients achieved excellent early results, and are being followed without complications. PMID:26522549

  6. Hyaluronic acid grafting mitigates calcification of glutaraldehyde-fixed bovine pericardium.

    PubMed

    Ohri, Rachit; Hahn, Sei K; Hoffman, Allan S; Stayton, Patrick S; Giachelli, Cecilia M

    2004-08-01

    Pathologic calcification is the leading cause of the clinical failure of glutaraldehyde-fixed bovine pericardium used in bioprosthetic valves. A novel surface modification of glutaraldehyde fixed bovine pericardium was carried out with high molecular weight hyaluronic acid (HA). HA was chemically modified with adipic dihydrazide (ADH) to introduce hydrazide functional groups onto the HA backbone. Glutaraldehyde-fixed bovine pericardium (GFBP) was modified by grafting this HA to the free aldehyde groups on the tissue via the hydrazide groups. Following a 2-week subcutaneous implantation in osteopontin (OPN)-null mice, the calcification of HA-modified bovine pericardium was drastically reduced (by 84.5%) compared to positive controls (tissue without HA-modification) (p = 0.005). The calcification-mitigating effect of HA surface modification was also confirmed by microscopic analysis of explanted tissue stained with Alizarin Red S for calcium. PMID:15227678

  7. Inflammatory reaction following bovine pericardium graft augmentation for posterior vaginal wall defect repair.

    PubMed

    Lazarou, George; Powers, Kenneth; Pena, Carlos; Bruck, Lance; Mikhail, Magdy S

    2005-01-01

    Graft augmentation for repair of recurrent pelvic organ prolapse is commonly used in reconstructive pelvic surgery. The reported complications are mainly late onset. We report a case of early-onset inflammatory reaction following bovine pericardium graft augmentation for posterior vaginal wall defect repair. A 49-year-old presented with a recurrent and symptomatic posterior vaginal wall defect. She underwent an uneventful site-specific repair and bovine graft augmentation. Her early postoperative course was complicated by inflammatory response to the graft presenting as intense pelvic floor spasm and urinary retention. The condition was managed conservatively and resolved subsequently. One year later, the patient continues to be asymptomatic. Transient intense pelvic floor spasm and urinary retention can be the result of inflammatory reaction following graft augmentation with bovine pericardium for posterior vaginal wall defect repair. PMID:15378236

  8. Treatment of an Iatrogenic Left Internal Mammary Artery to Pulmonary Artery Fistula with a Bovine Pericardium Covered Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Heper, Gulumser Barcin, Cem; Iyisoy, Atila; Tore, Hasan F.

    2006-10-15

    We report a case with an acquired fistula between the left internal mammary artery and the pulmonary artery following coronary bypass surgery treated with a bovine pericardium covered stent. We also reviewed similar cases reported previously.

  9. The micromechanical behavior of lyophilized glutaraldehyde-treated bovine pericardium under uniaxial tension.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Arévalo, F M; Farfán, M; Covarrubias, D; Zenit, R; Pulos, G

    2010-11-01

    The micromechanical behavior of lyophilized glutaraldehyde bovine pericardium undergoing uniaxial tension was studied by digital image correlation. The experiments were conducted simultaneously at macromechanical and micromechanical levels, to correlate the mechanical response of this biomaterial at different scales. From the experiments, displacement and force data were acquired; in addition, an image sequence of each sample surface was registered with a high-definition camera. With the images, it was possible to obtain the vector displacement field between pairs of images and then the in-plane strain was calculated. The secant and final moduli of this material were obtained at macromechanical and micromechanical levels. A good agreement between the micro and macro moduli was observed. This analysis is a useful alternative technique for studying this biomaterial when local properties are needed for medical applications. PMID:20826372

  10. Behaviour of the bovine pericardium used in cardiac bioprostheses when subjected to a real fatigue assay.

    PubMed

    Carrera San Martin, A; García Paez, J M; Jorge-Herrero, E; Millán, I; Navidad, R; García Sestafe, J V; Candela, I; Castillo-Olivares, J L

    1993-01-01

    The behaviour of bovine pericardium was studied using a fatigue assay. Twenty-three samples were assayed, maintaining the preset initial stress and measuring the time it took for the onset of load loss due to permanent deformation. The results indicated a mathematical relationship defined by the expression: log y = 1.3 - 0.211 log t, where y is the fatigue stress (MPa) and t the duration of the assay. The correlation coefficient was 0.948 (P < 0.001). The safety coefficient of the material diminished significantly as the period of time during which it was subjected to fatigue increased. The theoretical durability of the tissue was much greater than the real durability of the prostheses, which is determined by unsolved problems such as calcification and those derived from suture-related cutting. PMID:8425027

  11. Association of Titanium Mesh and Bovine Pericardium Membrane in the Treatment of Severe Enophthalmos.

    PubMed

    Silva, Leonardo de Freitas; Magalhães, Tibério Gomes; Santana, Diego Matos; Pimentel, Gabriel Gomes; Faverani, Leonardo Perez; Mello, Manoel de Jesus Rodrigues

    2015-10-01

    The blowout fractures may be classified as pure or impure depending on the associated structures. There are 2 main theories attempting to describe the mechanism of injury, the hydraulic, and blocking mechanism. The complications of this type of fracture may involve diplopia, enophthalmos, and ocular movement restriction. Several materials are available for the reconstruction of orbital floor, including the titanium mesh, which present great properties, such as easy modeling and stabilization, small thickness, and shape maintenance. There, however, are disadvantages such as the possibility of adherence formation. The aim of this report is to describe the case of a patient with an 8-month blowout fracture sequel, presenting extensive enophthalmos and treated by affixing a titanium mesh associated with bovine pericardium membrane in the orbital floor. Therefore, based on a 2-year follow-up, it was possible to observe how effective the association between these 2 materials in solving the case was. PMID:26468837

  12. Replacement of the left common iliac vein with a custom-made bovine pericardium tubular graft.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, C; Fonseca, A

    2001-01-01

    To date, venous reconstruction has not been as successful as arterial reconstruction. Prosthetic materials used as venous substitutes produce much lower patency rates with a higher incidence of early thrombosis than those used as arterial substitutes. We describe the case of a 38-year-old obese woman in whom we encountered an unexpected tear of the common iliac vein intraoperatively, during an anterior approach to the lumbar spine. Because of limited options, we replaced the vein with an interposition tubulargraft that was custom-made from bovine pericardium. Two years later, the patient remained asymptomatic with a patent graft. To our knowledge, there has been no other reported case in the world medical literature of replacement of medium-sized veins by this technique. PMID:11330739

  13. Valved Conduit with Glutaraldehyde-Fixed Bovine Pericardium Treated by Anticalcification Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Hong-Gook; Kim, Gi Beom; Jeong, Saeromi; Kim, Yong Jin

    2014-01-01

    Background A preclinical study was conducted for evaluating a valved conduit manufactured with a glutaraldehyde (GA)-fixed bovine pericardium treated using an anticalcification protocol. Methods Bovine pericardia were decellularized, fixed with GA in an organic solvent, and detoxified. We prepared a valved conduit using these bovine pericardia and a specially designed mold. The valved conduit was placed under in vitro circulation by using a mock circulation model, and the durability under mechanical stress was evaluated for 2 months. The valved conduit was implanted into the right ventricular outflow tract of a goat, and the hemodynamic, radiologic, histopathologic, and biochemical results were obtained for 6 months after the implantation. Results The in vitro mock circulation demonstrated that valve motion was good and that the valved conduit had good gross and microscopic findings. The evaluation of echocardiography and cardiac catheterization demonstrated the good hemodynamic status and function of the pulmonary xenograft valve 6 months after the implantation. According to specimen radiography and a histopathologic examination, the durability of the xenografts was well preserved without calcification at 6 months after the implantation. The calcium and inorganic phosphorus concentrations of the explanted xenografts were low at 6 months after the implantation. Conclusion This study demonstrated that our synergistic employment of multiple anticalcification therapies has promising safety and efficacy in the future clinical study. PMID:25207241

  14. Donkey pericardium as an alternative bioprosthetic heart valve material.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shanliang; Xu, Li; Liu, Yuxi; Li, Quan; Wang, Dong; Wang, Xuemei; Liu, Tianqi

    2013-03-01

    This study comparatively evaluates the characteristics of glutaraldehyde-treated acellular bovine and donkey pericardium using histological and electronic microscopic observation techniques, shrinkage temperature, and mechanical properties, as well as determining calcium and phosphorus content at 4 and 8 weeks after the subcutaneous implantation of donkey and bovine pericardium in Wistar rats. Donkey pericardium was significantly thinner compared with bovine pericardium (1.622 ±  0.161 mm vs. 4.027 ± 0.401 mm, P < 0.0001) and was associated with significantly greater tensile strength (14.21 ±  3.81 MPa vs. 3.78 ± 1.20 MPa, P = 0.001) and elastic modulus (81.67 ± 20.41 MPa vs. 21.67 ± 11.69 MPa, P <  0.0001) over bovine pericardium. Shrinkage temperature of donkey pericardium was similar to that of bovine pericardium (87.43 ± 0.55°C vs. 87.50 ± 0.36°C, P =  0.810). No differences between groups were observed for maximum load (donkey: 21.64 ± 7.02 KN/m vs. bovine: 15.05 ± 4.50 KN/m, P = 0.082) and tear strength (donkey: 11.54 ± 5.33 MPa vs. bovine: 10.69 ±  3.77 MPa, P = 0.757). Calcium content was significantly lower in donkey pericardium compared with bovine pericardium at 4 weeks (690.15 ± 191.27 µg/g vs. 1381.73 ± 62.52 µg/g, P = 0.001) and 8 weeks (205.24 ± 62.40 µg/g vs. 910.48 ± 398.29 µg/g, P = 0.037). This preliminary study has confirmed that glutaraldehyde-tanned donkey pericardium, demonstrating reduced calcification and increased tensile strength, may provide a suitable bioprosthetic valve substitute. PMID:23145868

  15. Effect of the suture on the durability of bovine pericardium used in cardiac bioprostheses.

    PubMed

    García Paez, J M; Carrera San Martín, A; Jorge-Herrero, E; Millán, I; Navidad, R; Candela, I; García Sestafe, J V; Castillo-Olivares, J L

    1994-02-01

    Our study of the different biomaterials used in the construction of biological cardiac prostheses has shown it to be of vital importance that the physical properties of the tissue and of the suture that anchors it to the rigid polymeric support are compatible. By means of dynamic tests, we have determined the fatigue curve in sutured bovine pericardial tissue, expressed by the equation log y = 1.27 +/- 0.18 (0.26 +/- 0.05) log t, where y is the initial fatigue stress (MPa) and t is the time (min) it takes to achieve permanent deformation of the tissue. By applying this correction, we determine a set of values for stress-time which, when compared with those obtained with a non-sutured sample, reveal a significant fall in this ratio and, thus, a decrease in the durability. The use of suture threads of lesser elasticity than the pericardium may play an important role in reducing the durability of the bioprosthesis constructed with these materials. PMID:8199289

  16. Description of the mathematical law that defines the relaxation of bovine pericardium subjected to stress.

    PubMed

    Garcia Sestafe, J V; García Paez, J M; Carrera San Martín, A; Jorge-Herrero, E; Navidad, R; Candela, I; Castillo-Olivares, J L

    1994-06-01

    A material subjected to traction stress increases in length; if we maintain the elongation constant, the stress varies over a period of time. This phenomenon has been referred to as relaxation. The purpose of this study was to define a mathematical law that relates the variation in stress to time when elongation remains constant in bovine pericardium. The mathematical function obtained after assaying 34 samples to the point of relaxation, subjected to initial stresses ranging from 0.17-10.07 MPa, responds to the following equation: y = -0.0252 + 0.953 alpha - (0.0165 + 0.015 alpha)lnt, where y is the stress withstood at an instant in time, t, after initial stress alpha. A normogram, validated by assays of up to 6,340 min duration (4.40 days), is presented for graphic calculation, permitting the computation of the loss of stress due to relaxation of this biomaterial, with initial stresses ranging from 1-10 MPa. PMID:8071387

  17. Preventing staple-line leak in sleeve gastrectomy: reinforcement with bovine pericardium vs. oversewing.

    PubMed

    Al Hajj, Georges Nabih; Haddad, Johnny

    2013-11-01

    One of the most serious, potentially life-threatening complications of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is staple-line leakage. Oversewing the LSG staple line vs buttressing it with bovine pericardial strips (BPS) to reduce perioperative bleeding and postoperative gastric leak was evaluated. From 2006 through 2011, 160 patients underwent LSG with suturing as the only staple-line reinforcement (Group A). From March 2010 through August 2012, 84 LSG patients had BPS incorporated into their last two stapler firings (Group B). Staple lines were evaluated perioperatively for bleeding, and patients were monitored for indications of staple-line leaks (peritonitis, abnormal output from the drain). In preoperative Group A and B, there were 117 (73.1%) vs. 56 (66.7%) females; mean age, 35.2 years (18.0-68.0) vs. 33.8 years (15.0-64.0); mean body mass index (BMI, kilograms per square meter), 42.5 (27.0-76.0) vs. 42.0 (30.0-58.0). Three months after surgery, mean BMI for Group A was 37.3 (-5.9); Group B, 35.2 (-7.3); at 6 months, 32.7 (-10.8) and 31.5 (-11.3; p < 0.001). Although there was no significant difference in perioperative blood loss, oversewn staple lines in Group A often required electrocautery to stanch bleeding; this was not required for Group B. In Group A, 15 patients (9.4%) developed complications; in Group B, five (6.0%; p = 0.46). Gastric fistula, verified by barium swallow, occurred in eight Group A patients (5.0%); in Group B, one (1.2%; p = 0.17). Relative to oversewing, staple-line buttressing with bovine pericardium was readily accomplished, safe, and associated with a lower staple-line leak rate. PMID:23975327

  18. Prevention of calcification of glutaraldehyde pretreated bovine pericardium through controlled release polymeric implants: studies of Fe3+, Al3+, protamine sulphate and levamisole.

    PubMed

    Pathak, Y V; Boyd, J; Levy, R J; Schoen, F J

    1990-11-01

    Calcification is the principal cause of the clinical failure of bioprosthetic heart valves fabricated from glutaraldehyde pretreated porcine aortic valves or bovine pericardium. The present study investigated controlled-release implants for prevention of the calcification of glutaraldehyde pretreated bovine pericardium in a rat subdermal model. Either Al3+ and Fe3+ (inhibitors of the growth and dissolution rate of hydroxyapatite crystals), levamisole (alkaline phosphatase inhibitor) or protamine sulphate (charge modifier) were individually incorporated into various polymeric carriers (either silicone rubber, polyurethane or silicone rubber-polyurethane copolymer). Polymeric implants were evaluated for in vitro release kinetics, which revealed that sustained drug release was obtained from 21 d to more than 90 d from various drug matrices. In vivo efficacy was studied by co-implanting the polymeric delivery systems with glutaraldehyde pretreated bovine pericardium for 21 d using a subdermal rat model; glutaraldehyde pretreated bovine pericardium calcium levels were quantitated by atomic absorption spectroscopy in the explanted tissues. Fe3+ and Al3+ polymeric implants were the most effective for inhibiting deposition of calcium mineral. Al3+ demonstrated 82% inhibition of calcification compared to controls and Fe3+ resulted in 80% inhibition of calcification. Specific histologic staining methods showed that Fe3+ and Al3+ were localized within the devitalized cells of the explanted glutaraldehyde pretreated bovine pericardium. No adverse effects on somatic growth or recipient bone morphology were noted following controlled-release drug administration. Controlled release of protamine sulphate or levamisole did not significantly inhibit glutaraldehyde pretreated bovine pericardium calcification. It is concluded that regional controlled release of Fe3+ or Al3+ inhibits glutaraldehyde pretreated bovine pericardium calcification in the rat subdermal model without adverse

  19. Decellularization and Delipidation Protocols of Bovine Bone and Pericardium for Bone Grafting and Guided Bone Regeneration Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Ferroni, Letizia; Guazzo, Riccardo; Sbricoli, Luca; De Benedictis, Giulia; Finotti, Luca; Isola, Maurizio; Bressan, Eriberto; Zavan, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The combination of bone grafting materials with guided bone regeneration (GBR) membranes seems to provide promising results to restore bone defects in dental clinical practice. In the first part of this work, a novel protocol for decellularization and delipidation of bovine bone, based on multiple steps of thermal shock, washes with detergent and dehydration with alcohol, is described. This protocol is more effective in removal of cellular materials, and shows superior biocompatibility compared to other three methods tested in this study. Furthermore, histological and morphological analyses confirm the maintenance of an intact bone extracellular matrix (ECM). In vitro and in vivo experiments evidence osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties of the produced scaffold, respectively. In the second part of this study, two methods of bovine pericardium decellularization are compared. The osmotic shock-based protocol gives better results in terms of removal of cell components, biocompatibility, maintenance of native ECM structure, and host tissue reaction, in respect to the freeze/thaw method. Overall, the results of this study demonstrate the characterization of a novel protocol for the decellularization of bovine bone to be used as bone graft, and the acquisition of a method to produce a pericardium membrane suitable for GBR applications. PMID:26191793

  20. Triglycidylamine Crosslinking of Porcine Aortic Valve Cusps or Bovine Pericardium Results in Improved Biocompatibility, Biomechanics, and Calcification Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Connolly, Jeanne M.; Alferiev, Ivan; Clark-Gruel, Jocelyn N.; Eidelman, Naomi; Sacks, Michael; Palmatory, Elizabeth; Kronsteiner, Allyson; DeFelice, Suzanne; Xu, Jie; Ohri, Rachit; Narula, Navneet; Vyavahare, Narendra; Levy, Robert J.

    2005-01-01

    We investigated a novel polyepoxide crosslinker that was hypothesized to confer both material stabilization and calcification resistance when used to prepare bioprosthetic heart valves. Triglycidylamine (TGA) was synthesized via reacting epichlorhydrin and NH3. TGA was used to crosslink porcine aortic cusps, bovine pericardium, and type I collagen. Control materials were crosslinked with glutaraldehyde (Glut). TGA-pretreated materials had shrink temperatures comparable to Glut fixation. However, TGA crosslinking conferred significantly greater collagenase resistance than Glut pretreatment, and significantly improved biomechanical compliance. Sheep aortic valve interstitial cells grown on TGA-pretreated collagen did not calcify, whereas sheep aortic valve interstitial cells grown on control substrates calcified extensively. Rat subdermal implants (porcine aortic cusps/bovine pericardium) pretreated with TGA demonstrated significantly less calcification than Glut pretreated implants. Investigations of extracellular matrix proteins associated with calcification, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2 and 9, tenascin-C, and osteopontin, revealed that MMP-9 and tenascin-C demonstrated reduced expression both in vitro and in vivo with TGA crosslinking compared to controls, whereas osteopontin and MMP-2 expression were not affected. TGA pretreatment of heterograft biomaterials results in improved stability compared to Glut, confers biomechanical properties superior to Glut crosslinking, and demonstrates significant calcification resistance. PMID:15631995

  1. Analysis of shearing stress in the limited durability of bovine pericardium used as a biomaterial.

    PubMed

    Carrera San Martin, A; García Paez, J M; García Sestafe, J V; Herrero, E J; Navidad, R; Cordón, A; Castillo-Olivares, J L

    1998-02-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the shearing stress exerted by the suture thread under conditions of normal working stress. Thirty-six samples of calf pericardium, similar to that employed in the manufacture of bioprosthetic cardiac valve leaflets, were subjected to tensile testing. Prior to the trial, a continuous suture was sewn in the central zone of each sample, at a 45 degrees angle to the longest axis of the sample, using commercially-available threads (silk, Gore-Tex, Surgilene and nylon). Application of the Mohr circle for combined wear revealed that the shearing stress ranged between 2.68-fold greater (for samples sewn with silk) and 5.48-fold greater (for samples sewn with nylon) than the working tensile stress in the region of the suture. It is concluded that the shearing stress is responsible for the limited durability of sutured samples of calf pericardium prepared to simulate bioprosthetic cardiac valve leaflets. PMID:15348911

  2. Poisson's ratio of collagen fibrils measured by small angle X-ray scattering of strained bovine pericardium

    SciTech Connect

    Wells, Hannah C.; Sizeland, Katie H.; Kayed, Hanan R.; Haverkamp, Richard G.; Kirby, Nigel; Hawley, Adrian; Mudie, Stephen T.

    2015-01-28

    Type I collagen is the main structural component of skin, tendons, and skin products, such as leather. Understanding the mechanical performance of collagen fibrils is important for understanding the mechanical performance of the tissues that they make up, while the mechanical properties of bulk tissue are well characterized, less is known about the mechanical behavior of individual collagen fibrils. In this study, bovine pericardium is subjected to strain while small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) patterns are recorded using synchrotron radiation. The change in d-spacing, which is a measure of fibril extension, and the change in fibril diameter are determined from SAXS. The tissue is strained 0.25 (25%) with a corresponding strain in the collagen fibrils of 0.045 observed. The ratio of collagen fibril width contraction to length extension, or the Poisson's ratio, is 2.1 ± 0.7 for a tissue strain from 0 to 0.25. This Poisson's ratio indicates that the volume of individual collagen fibrils decreases with increasing strain, which is quite unlike most engineering materials. This high Poisson's ratio of individual fibrils may contribute to high Poisson's ratio observed for tissues, contributing to some of the remarkable properties of collagen-based materials.

  3. Comparison of Lyophilized Glutaraldehyde-Preserved Bovine Pericardium with Different Vascular Prostheses for Use as Vocal Cords Implants: Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    Olmos-Zuñiga, J. Raúl; Jasso-Victoria, Rogelio; Gaxiola-Gaxiola, Miguel; Sotres-Vega, Avelina; Hernández-Jiménez, Claudia; Baltazares-Lipp, Matilde; Arredondo del Bosque, Fernando; Santillan-Doherty, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the use of lyophilized glutaraldehyde-preserved bovine pericardium (LGPBP), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and Teflon felt (TF) as implants for vocal cords (VC) medialization and aimed to assess the endoscopic, macroscopic, and microscopic VC changes after medialization in a canine model. In 18 mongrel dogs, the right VC were medialized with LGPBP and the left were implanted as follows: Group I (n = 6): LGPBP and PTFE; Group II (n = 6): LGPBP and PET; Group III (n = 6): LGPBP and TF. Surgical handling of the implants was compared. Three months after surgery, macroscopic and microscopic changes of VC and implants were evaluated. LGPBP offered the best surgical handling (p = 0.005, Kruskal-Wallis). TF implants showed extrusion (p = 0.005, Kruskal-Wallis) and severe inflammation. All VC formed fibrous capsules around the implants; the ones developed by LGPBP implants were thinner (p = 0.001, ANOVA, Tukey). VC implanted with synthetic materials showed eosinophilic infiltration (p = 0.01, Kruskal-Wallis). We concluded that the LGPBP could be used as an implant for VC medialization because it is biocompatible, easy to handle and remove during surgical procedures, and nonabsorbable or extrudable and produces an inflammatory reaction similar to PTFE and PET. PMID:26075232

  4. Comparison of lyophilized glutaraldehyde-preserved bovine pericardium with different vascular prostheses for use as vocal cords implants: experimental study.

    PubMed

    Olmos-Zuñiga, J Raúl; Jasso-Victoria, Rogelio; Gaxiola-Gaxiola, Miguel; Sotres-Vega, Avelina; Hernández-Jiménez, Claudia; Baltazares-Lipp, Matilde; Arredondo del Bosque, Fernando; Santillan-Doherty, Patricio

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the use of lyophilized glutaraldehyde-preserved bovine pericardium (LGPBP), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and Teflon felt (TF) as implants for vocal cords (VC) medialization and aimed to assess the endoscopic, macroscopic, and microscopic VC changes after medialization in a canine model. In 18 mongrel dogs, the right VC were medialized with LGPBP and the left were implanted as follows: Group I (n = 6): LGPBP and PTFE; Group II (n = 6): LGPBP and PET; Group III (n = 6): LGPBP and TF. Surgical handling of the implants was compared. Three months after surgery, macroscopic and microscopic changes of VC and implants were evaluated. LGPBP offered the best surgical handling (p = 0.005, Kruskal-Wallis). TF implants showed extrusion (p = 0.005, Kruskal-Wallis) and severe inflammation. All VC formed fibrous capsules around the implants; the ones developed by LGPBP implants were thinner (p = 0.001, ANOVA, Tukey). VC implanted with synthetic materials showed eosinophilic infiltration (p = 0.01, Kruskal-Wallis). We concluded that the LGPBP could be used as an implant for VC medialization because it is biocompatible, easy to handle and remove during surgical procedures, and nonabsorbable or extrudable and produces an inflammatory reaction similar to PTFE and PET. PMID:26075232

  5. Poisson's ratio of collagen fibrils measured by small angle X-ray scattering of strained bovine pericardium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wells, Hannah C.; Sizeland, Katie H.; Kayed, Hanan R.; Kirby, Nigel; Hawley, Adrian; Mudie, Stephen T.; Haverkamp, Richard G.

    2015-01-01

    Type I collagen is the main structural component of skin, tendons, and skin products, such as leather. Understanding the mechanical performance of collagen fibrils is important for understanding the mechanical performance of the tissues that they make up, while the mechanical properties of bulk tissue are well characterized, less is known about the mechanical behavior of individual collagen fibrils. In this study, bovine pericardium is subjected to strain while small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) patterns are recorded using synchrotron radiation. The change in d-spacing, which is a measure of fibril extension, and the change in fibril diameter are determined from SAXS. The tissue is strained 0.25 (25%) with a corresponding strain in the collagen fibrils of 0.045 observed. The ratio of collagen fibril width contraction to length extension, or the Poisson's ratio, is 2.1 ± 0.7 for a tissue strain from 0 to 0.25. This Poisson's ratio indicates that the volume of individual collagen fibrils decreases with increasing strain, which is quite unlike most engineering materials. This high Poisson's ratio of individual fibrils may contribute to high Poisson's ratio observed for tissues, contributing to some of the remarkable properties of collagen-based materials.

  6. Calcification resistance for photooxidatively crosslinked acellular bovine jugular vein conduits in right-side heart implantation.

    PubMed

    Lü, Wei-Dong; Wang, An-Ping; Wu, Zhong-Shi; Zhang, Ming; Hu, Tie-Hui; Lei, Guang-Yan; Hu, Ye-Rong

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of decellularization plus photooxidative crosslinking and ethanol pretreatment on bioprosthetic tissue calcification. Photooxidatively crosslinked acellular (PCA) bovine jugular vein conduits (BJVCs) and their photooxidized controls (n = 5 each) were sterilized in a graded concentration of ethanol solutions for 4 h, and used to reconstruct dog right ventricular outflow tracts. At 1-year implantation, echocardiography showed similar hemodynamic performance, but obvious calcification for the photooxidized BJVC walls. Further histological examination showed intense calcium deposition colocalized with slightly degraded elastic fibers in the photooxidized BJVC walls, with sparsely distributed punctate calcification in the valves and other areas of walls. But PCA BJVCs had apparent degradation of elastic fibers in the walls, with only sparsely distributed punctate calcification in the walls and valves. Content assay demonstrated comparable calcium content for the two groups at preimplantation, whereas less calcium for the PCA group in the walls and similar calcium in the valvular leaflets compared with the photooxidized group at 1-year retrieval. Elastin content assay presented the conduit walls of PCA group had less elastin content at preimplantation, but similar content at 1-year retrieval compared with the photooxidized group. Phospholipid analysis showed phospholipid extraction by ethanol for the PCA group was more efficacious than the photooxidized group. These results indicate that PCA BJVCs resist calcification in right-side heart implantation owing to decellularization, further photooxidative crosslinking, and subsequent phospholipid extraction by ethanol at preimplantation. PMID:22615255

  7. An evaluation of Admedus' tissue engineering process-treated (ADAPT) bovine pericardium patch (CardioCel) for the repair of cardiac and vascular defects.

    PubMed

    Strange, Geoff; Brizard, Christian; Karl, Tom R; Neethling, Leon

    2015-03-01

    Tissue engineers have been seeking the 'Holy Grail' solution to calcification and cytotoxicity of implanted tissue for decades. Tissues with all of the desired qualities for surgical repair of congenital heart disease (CHD) are lacking. An anti-calcification tissue engineering process (ADAPT TEP) has been developed and applied to bovine pericardium (BP) tissue (CardioCel, AdmedusRegen Pty Ltd, Perth, WA, Australia) to eliminate cytotoxicity, improve resistance to acute and chronic inflammation, reduce calcification and facilitate controlled tissue remodeling. Clinical data in pediatric patients, and additional pre-market authorized prescriber data demonstrate that CardioCel performs extremely well in the short term and is safe and effective for a range of congenital heart deformations. These data are supported by animal studies which have shown no more than normal physiologic levels of calcification, with good durability, biocompatibility and controlled healing. PMID:25431988

  8. Evaluation of the Anti-migration Effect of Barbed Prostatic Stents: In Vitro Study in Urethra-mimicking Bovine Pericardium Phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Na, Han Kyu Song, Ho-Young Kim, Jin Hyoung; Nam, Deok Ho; Park, Jung-Hoon; Jeong, In Gab Kim, Choung-Soo

    2013-02-15

    This study was designed to compare the migration rates of covered stents with eight, four, and zero barbs in urethra-mimicking bovine pericardium models. Three types of polytetrafluoroethylene-covered retrievable self-expandable prostatic stents, with eight, four, and zero barbs, were tested in bovine pericardium models, consisting of normal saline-filled acrylic containers with tubes at both ends and a replica of the human urethra. The barbs were 2 mm in length and projected 60 Degree-Sign toward the urinary bladder. The anti-migration force (AMF) and resistance force against stent removal (RFSR) were measured by an automatic push-pull gauge system at a fixed rate (2 mm/s). Significant differences in AMF among the three stent types were detected (P < 0.001). Median AMF was far greater for eight-barbed than for four-barbed stents (11.96 vs. 7.55 N, P = 0.003). For stent removal, the difference between 4- and 8-barbed stents were not significant in median static (5.54 vs. 6.08 N, P = 0.15) or sliding (prostatic urethra, 5.32 vs. 5.59 N, P = 0.65; membranous urethra, 7.78 vs. 8.57 N, P = 0.364) RFSR. No perforations or scratched traces were observed during removal of these stents. The inclusion of eight barbs projecting 60 Degree-Sign toward the urinary bladder were not only effective against stent migration in this model but suggests that these stents may be suitable for the treatment of prostatic urethral strictures without severely irritating the tissue. However, whether these results translate into living urethral tissue is unclear, necessitating further studies.

  9. Indentation hardness: A simple test that correlates with the dissipated-energy predictor for fatigue-life in bovine pericardium membranes for bioprosthetic heart valves.

    PubMed

    Tobaruela, Almudena; Rojo, Francisco Javier; García Paez, José María; Bourges, Jean Yves; Herrero, Eduardo Jorge; Millán, Isabel; Alvarez, Lourdes; Cordon, Ángeles; Guinea, Gustavo V

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the variation of hardness with fatigue in calf pericardium, a biomaterial commonly used in bioprosthetic heart valves, and its relationship with the energy dissipated during the first fatigue cycle that has been shown to be a predictor of fatigue-life (García Páez et al., 2006, 2007; Rojo et al., 2010). Fatigue tests were performed in vitro on 24 pericardium specimens cut in a root-to-apex direction. The specimens were subjected to a maximum stress of 1MPa in blocks of 10, 25, 50, 100, 250, 500, 1000 and 1500 cycles. By means of a modified Shore A hardness test procedure, the hardness of the specimen was measured before and after fatigue tests. Results showed a significant correlation of such hardness with fatigue performance and with the energy dissipated in the first cycle of fatigue, a predictor of pericardium durability. The study showed indentation hardness as a simple and reliable indicator of mechanical performance, one which could be easily implemented in improving tissue selection. PMID:26849027

  10. AFM and uni-axial testing of pericardium exposed to radiotherapy doses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daar, Eman; Kaabar, W.; Lei, C.; Keddie, J. L.; Nisbet, A.; Bradley, D. A.

    2011-10-01

    The pericardium, a double-layered sac that encloses the heart, is made up of collagen and elastin fibres embedded in an amorphous matrix (forming the extracellular matrix). Collagen fibres are aligned in multidirectional orientation layers. This free arrangement of fibres gives the pericardium its viscoelastic properties and the ability to deform in all directions. This is an important mechanical property for the heart to perform its physiological functions, acknowledging the fact that the heart is attached to different ligaments and muscles in all directions. The present study aims to investigate the effect of penetrating photon ionising radiation on bovine pericardium tissue. This links to an interest in seeking to understand possible mechanisms underlying cardiac complications following treatment of the left breast in radiotherapy regimes. Pericardium samples were subjected to doses in the range 0-80 Gy. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been applied in characterising changes in the infrastructural and mechanical properties of the tissues. Preliminary data for doses of 80 Gy shows there was no significant change in the D-spacing period of the banded structure collagen type I but a significant increase is observed in the FWHM of the fibril widths (by between 25% and 27%) over that of unirradiated pericardium tissue.

  11. Effect of penetrating ionising radiation on the mechanical properties of pericardium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daar, Eman; Woods, E.; Keddie, J. L.; Nisbet, A.; Bradley, D. A.

    2010-07-01

    The pericardium is an anistropic composite material made up of collagen and elastin fibres embedded in an amorphous matrix mainly composed of proteoglycan and hyaluronan. The collagen fibres are arranged in layers, with different directions of alignment in each layer, giving rise to interesting mechanical properties of pericardium, including the ability to undergo large deformation during performance of regular physiological functions. The present study aims to investigate the effect of penetrating photon ionising radiation on bovine pericardium tissue, being part of a study of the effect of cardiac doses received in breast radiotherapy and the possibility that this can give rise to cardiovascular complications. Irradiation doses in the range 5-80 Gy were used. To characterise the various mechanical properties [elastic modulus, stress relaxation, ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and fracture] a uniaxial tensile test method was applied. The preliminary results reflect the wide inter-sample variations that are expected in dealing with tissues, with only a weak indication of increase in the UTS of the pericardium tissue with increase in radiation dose. Such an effect has also been observed by others, with reduction in UTS at doses of 80 Gy.

  12. Isolated Partial Congenital Absence of the Pericardium: A Familial Presentation.

    PubMed

    Palau, Patricia; Domínguez, Eloy; García-González, Pilar; Gallego, Jorge; Bosch, María José; Sieso, Eduardo

    2016-08-01

    Congenital defects of the pericardium are uncommon heart abnormalities. Most of the patients are asymptomatic and are usually diagnosed incidentally. Complications are more common in partial absence than in complete absence of the pericardium; thus, this congenital defect should be identified because of the associated risk of sudden death. We report the first mention in the literature, to our knowledge, of a 3-generation familial presentation of isolated congenital partial absence of the pericardium with similar physical examination and radiological findings. PMID:26774230

  13. A rare chronic constrictive pericarditis with localized adherent visceral pericardium and normal parietal pericardium: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ni, Qingqiang; Yun, Lin; Xu, Rui; Li, Guohua; Yao, Yucai; Li, Jiamin

    2016-09-01

    Classic constrictive pericarditis (CP) is characterized by fibrous scarring and adhesion of both the visceral pericardium and the parietal pericardium, which leads to restricted cardiac filling. However, diagnosing CP with normal thickness pericardium and without calcification is still a challenge. The predominant cause in the developed world is idiopathic or viral pericarditis followed by post-cardiac surgery and post-radiation. Tuberculosis still remains a common cause of CP in developing countries. In this report, we describe a rare case of idiopathic localized constrictive visceral pericardium with normal thickness of the parietal pericardium in a middle-aged man. The patient presented with unexplained right heart failure and echocardiography showed moderate bi-atrial enlargement which should be identified with the restrictive cardiomyopathy. After 10 months of conservative treatment, the progression of right heart failure was remaining. A pericardiectomy was performed and the patient recovered. This case serves as a reminder to consider CP in patients with unexplained right heart failure, so that timely investigation and treatment can be initiated. PMID:27527362

  14. Acellular dermal matrices in breast reconstructions - a literature review.

    PubMed

    Skovsted Yde, Simon; Brunbjerg, Mette Eline; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg

    2016-08-01

    During the last two decades, acellular dermal matrices (ADM) have been more widely used in reconstructive procedures i.e. breast reconstructions. Several, both synthetic and biologic products derived from human, porcine and bovine tissue, have been introduced. Until this point postoperative complications for the acellular dermal matrices, as a group, have been the main focus. The purpose of this literature review is to summarize the current knowledge on the each biologic product used in breast reconstructions, including product specific complication frequencies. A systematic search of the literature was performed in the PubMed and EMBASE databases, identifying 55 relevant articles, mainly evidence level III. AlloDerm seems to be associated with severe complicating matters in the reconstructive process compared to other products. This could be due to the higher number of investigating studies relative to the others. The surgical area faces certain challenges comparing results, due to surgical variance, the data collection and follow-up. More well-defined guidelines and more high-evidence randomized studies could increase the overall level of evidence in this area. PMID:26881927

  15. [A paradigmatic case of partial agenesis of the pericardium].

    PubMed

    Scapellato, F; Imparato, A; Brunetto, A; Temporelli, P L; Giannuzzi, P

    1996-10-01

    Complete or partial absence of the pericardium is an uncommon congenital abnormality. Since its first description, several cases have been reported. Although the clinical and instrumental features of this defect are well described, at present it is often overlooked. We report a case of a 19-year old boy referred to our Echocardiography laboratory because of a suspected interatrial septal defect. For this reason it has been recommended to undergo cardiac catheterization. The patient, completely asymptomatic, had a negative physical examination. The echocardiogram excluded the presence of an interatrial septal defect, but some abnormalities, regarding overall right-sided heart, were found (paradoxical interventricular septal movement, apparent right-sided heart enlargement, with unusual bulging of the apex of the right ventricle, an excessive basculant heart movement). In the absence of any other heart disease, we thought that these abnormalities reflected a congenital absence of the pericardium. Indeed, the chest X-ray showed some features, considered patognomonic for congenital absence of the pericardium (levoposition of the heart, lung interposition between the diaphragm and the base of the heart and between the aorta and pulmonary artery). Nuclear magnetic resonance study showed the absence of the pericardium in the posterior and posterolateral wall, confirming our suspicion. Furthermore, the posterior wall of the heart leaned to herniate through the pericardial defect. Since the partial absence of the pericardium can lead to severe complications, surgery was recommended. The correct diagnosis of this disease is very important because of its prognostic implications; this case represents a further contribution to the understanding of this defect. PMID:9005163

  16. Evaluation of an established pericardium patch for delivery of mesenchymal stem cells to cardiac tissue.

    PubMed

    Vashi, Aditya V; White, Jacinta F; McLean, Keith M; Neethling, William M L; Rhodes, David I; Ramshaw, John A M; Werkmeister, Jerome A

    2015-06-01

    The present study has evaluated a commercial pericardial material for its capacity to assist as a natural extracellular matrix (ECM) patch for the delivery and retention of mesenchymal stem cells for cardiac repair. The repair of cardiac tissue with cells delivered by an appropriate bioscaffold is expected to offer a superior, long-lasting treatment strategy. The present material, CardioCel®, is based on acellular pericardium that has been stabilized by treatments, including a low concentration of glutaraldehyde, that eliminate calcification after implantation. In the present study, we have assessed this material using human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells at various cell densities under standard, static cell culture conditions. The initial seeding densities were monitored to evaluate the extent of cell attachment and cell viability, with subsequent cell proliferation assessed up to 4 weeks using an MTS assay. Cell morphology, infiltration, and spreading were tracked using scanning electron microscopy and phalloidin staining. The efficacy of long-term cell survival was further assessed by examining the extent and type of new tissue formation on seeded scaffolds at 70 days; both type I and type III collagens were present in fibrillar structures on these scaffolds indicating that the seeded stem cells had the capacity to differentiate into collagen-producing cells necessary to repair damaged ECM. These data show that the CardioCel® scaffold is an appropriate substrate for the stem cells and has the potential to both retain seeded stem cells and to act as a template for cell propagation and new tissue formation. PMID:25266083

  17. Evaluation of an established pericardium patch for delivery of mesenchymal stem cells to cardiac tissue.

    PubMed

    Vashi, Aditya V; White, Jacinta F; McLean, Keith M; Neethling, William M L; Rhodes, David I; Ramshaw, John A M; Werkmeister, Jerome A

    2014-09-25

    The present study has evaluated a commercial pericardial material for its capacity to assist as a natural extracellular matrix patch for the delivery and retention of mesenchymal stem cells for cardiac repair. The repair of cardiac tissue with cells delivered by an appropriate bioscaffold is expected to offer a superior, long-lasting treatment strategy. The present material, CardioCel®, is based on acellular pericardium that has been stabilized by treatments, including a low concentration of glutaraldehyde, that eliminate calcification after implantation. In the present study, we have assessed this material using human bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells at various cell densities under standard, static cell culture conditions. The initial seeding densities were monitored to evaluate the extent of cell attachment and cell viability, with subsequent cell proliferation assessed up to 4 weeks using an MTS assay. Cell morphology, infiltration and spreading were tracked using scanning electron microscopy and phalloidin staining. The efficacy of long-term cell survival was further assessed by examining the extent and type of new tissue formation on seeded scaffolds at 70 days; both type I and type III collagens were present in fibrillar structures on these scaffolds indicating that the seeded stem cells had the capacity to differentiate into collagen-producing cells necessary to repair damaged extracellular matrix. These data show that the CardioCel® scaffold is an appropriate substrate for the stem cells and has the potential to both retain seeded stem cells and to act as a template for cell propagation and new tissue formation. PMID:25256436

  18. Magnetic resonance imaging of the pericardium: normal and pathologic findings

    SciTech Connect

    Stark, D.D.; Higgins, C.B.; Lanzer, P.; Lipton, M.J.; Schiller, N.; Crooks, L.E.; Botvinick, E.B.; Kaufman, L.

    1984-02-01

    Twenty normal subjects and ten patients with pericardial abnormalities underwent ECG-gated magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of the thorax using a 0.35-tesla superconducting system. The patients with pericardial abnormalities were also evaluated with serial chest radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography, and/or angiography. ECG gating was necessary to identify the normal pericardium, which was visualized as a 1- to 2-mm-wide curvilinear structure of low signal intensity. Pericardial thickening in constrictive pericarditis was clearly delineated on gated MR images. Pericardial inflammation caused a marked increase in signal intensity as well as thickening of the pericardium. Pericardial effusions and pericardial adhesions were also demonstrated. A simple pericardial cyst and a complex pericardial mass were identified and differentiated from pericardial fat and diaphragmatic eventration. MR appears to be an important modality for the evaluation of pericardial disease.

  19. The role of the pericardium in the valveless, tubular heart of the tunicate Ciona savignyi.

    PubMed

    Waldrop, Lindsay D; Miller, Laura A

    2015-09-01

    Tunicates, small invertebrates within the phylum Chordata, possess a robust tubular heart which pumps blood through their open circulatory systems without the use of valves. This heart consists of two major components: the tubular myocardium, a flexible layer of myocardial cells that actively contracts to drive fluid down the length of the tube; and the pericardium, a stiff, outer layer of cells that surrounds the myocardium and creates a fluid-filled space between the myocardium and the pericardium. We investigated the role of the pericardium through in vivo manipulations on tunicate hearts and computational simulations of the myocardium and pericardium using the immersed boundary method. Experimental manipulations reveal that damage to the pericardium results in aneurysm-like bulging of the myocardium and major reductions in the net blood flow and percentage closure of the heart's lumen during contraction. In addition, varying the pericardium-to-myocardium (PM) diameter ratio by increasing damage severity was positively correlated with peak dye flow in the heart. Computational simulations mirror the results of varying the PM ratio experimentally. Reducing the stiffness of the myocardium in the simulations reduced mean blood flow only for simulations without a pericardium. These results indicate that the pericardium has the ability to functionally increase the stiffness of the myocardium and limit myocardial aneurysms. The pericardium's function is likely to enhance flow through the highly resistive circulatory system by acting as a support structure in the absence of connective tissue within the myocardium. PMID:26142414

  20. In vitro assessment of biodurability: acellular systems.

    PubMed Central

    de Meringo, A; Morscheidt, C; Thélohan, S; Tiesler, H

    1994-01-01

    The assessment of biodurability of man-made vitreous fibers is essential to the limitation of health hazards associated with human exposure to environments in which respirable fibers are present. In vitro acellular systems provide effective test methods of measuring fiber solubility provided care is taken to select the most suitable solvent and test conditions for the specific fiber type and dimension. PMID:7882955

  1. Cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of acellular nerves

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Wei-ling; Qiu, Long-hai; Lian, Jia-yan; Li, Jia-chun; Hu, Jun; Liu, Xiao-lin

    2016-01-01

    Vascularization of acellular nerves has been shown to contribute to nerve bridging. In this study, we used a 10-mm sciatic nerve defect model in rats to determine whether cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of injured acellular nerves. The rat nerve defects were treated with acellular nerve grafting (control group) alone or acellular nerve grafting combined with intraperitoneal injection of cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (experimental group). As shown through two-dimensional imaging, the vessels began to invade into the acellular nerve graft from both anastomotic ends at day 7 post-operation, and gradually covered the entire graft at day 21. The vascular density, vascular area, and the velocity of revascularization in the experimental group were all higher than those in the control group. These results indicate that cartilage oligomeric matrix protein enhances the vascularization of acellular nerves. PMID:27127495

  2. Reinforced Pericardium as a Hybrid Material for Cardiovascular Applications

    PubMed Central

    Bracaglia, Laura G.; Yu, Li; Hibino, Narutoshi

    2014-01-01

    Pericardium-based cardiovascular devices are currently bound by a 10-year maximum lifetime due to detrimental calcification and degradation. The goal of this work is to develop a novel synthetic material to create a lasting replacement for malfunctioning or diseased tissue in the cardiovascular system. This study couples poly(propylene fumarate) (PPF) and a natural biomaterial together in an unprecedented hybrid composite and evaluates the composite versus the standard glutaraldehyde-treated tissue. The polymer reinforcement is hypothesized to provide initial physical protection from proteolytic enzymes and degradation, but leave the original collagen and elastin matrix unaltered. The calcification rate and durability of the hybrid material are evaluated in vitro and in an in vivo subdermal animal model. Results demonstrate that PPF is an effective support and leads to significantly less calcium deposition, important metrics when evaluating cardiovascular material. By avoiding chemical crosslinking of the tissue and associated side effects, PPF-reinforced pericardium as a biohybrid material offers a promising potential direction for further development in cardiovascular material alternatives. Eliminating the basis for the majority of cardiovascular prosthetic failures could revolutionize expectations for extent of cardiovascular repair. PMID:25236439

  3. Data from acellular human heart matrix.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Pedro L; Fernández-Santos, M Eugenia; Espinosa, M Angeles; González-Nicolas, M Angeles; Acebes, Judith R; Costanza, Salvatore; Moscoso, Isabel; Rodríguez, Hugo; García, Julio; Romero, Jesús; Kren, Stefan M; Bermejo, Javier; Yotti, Raquel; Del Villar, Candelas Pérez; Sanz-Ruiz, Ricardo; Elizaga, Jaime; Taylor, Doris A; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco

    2016-09-01

    Perfusion decellularization of cadaveric hearts removes cells and generates a cell-free extracellular matrix scaffold containing acellular vascular conduits, which are theoretically sufficient to perfuse and support tissue-engineered heart constructs. This article contains additional data of our experience decellularizing and testing structural integrity and composition of a large series of human hearts, "Acellular human heart matrix: a critical step toward whole heat grafts" (Sanchez et al., 2015) [1]. Here we provide the information about the heart decellularization technique, the valve competence evaluation of the decellularized scaffolds, the integrity evaluation of epicardial and myocardial coronary circulation, the pressure volume measurements, the primers used to assess cardiac muscle gene expression and, the characteristics of donors, donor hearts, scaffolds and perfusion decellularization process. PMID:27331090

  4. Tear and decohesion of bovine pericardial tissue.

    PubMed

    Tobaruela, Almudena; Elices, Manuel; Bourges, Jean Yves; Rojo, Francisco Javier; Atienza, José Miguel; Guinea, Gustavo

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitatively the fracture-by tear and delamination-of bovine pericardium tissues which are usually employed for the manufacture of bioprosthetic valves. A large number of samples (77) were tested in root-to-apex and circumferential directions, according to a standardised tear test (ASTM D 1938). Before performing the tear test, some samples were subjected to 1000 cycles of fatigue to a maximum stress of 3MPa. Fracture toughness of tearing and delamination were computed by following a simple fracture model. The study showed significantly lower values of delamination toughness compared with tear delamination. Moreover, tear forces were different in each test direction, revealing a clear orthotropic behaviour. All these results, as well as the testing procedure, could be of value for future research in the physiological function of pericardium tissues and clinical applications. PMID:27337412

  5. Acellular organ scaffolds for tumor tissue engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guller, Anna; Trusova, Inna; Petersen, Elena; Shekhter, Anatoly; Kurkov, Alexander; Qian, Yi; Zvyagin, Andrei

    2015-12-01

    Rationale: Tissue engineering (TE) is an emerging alternative approach to create models of human malignant tumors for experimental oncology, personalized medicine and drug discovery studies. Being the bottom-up strategy, TE provides an opportunity to control and explore the role of every component of the model system, including cellular populations, supportive scaffolds and signalling molecules. Objectives: As an initial step to create a new ex vivo TE model of cancer, we optimized protocols to obtain organ-specific acellular matrices and evaluated their potential as TE scaffolds for culture of normal and tumor cells. Methods and results: Effective decellularization of animals' kidneys, ureter, lungs, heart, and liver has been achieved by detergent-based processing. The obtained scaffolds demonstrated biocompatibility and growthsupporting potential in combination with normal (Vero, MDCK) and tumor cell lines (C26, B16). Acellular scaffolds and TE constructs have been characterized and compared with morphological methods. Conclusions: The proposed methodology allows creation of sustainable 3D tumor TE constructs to explore the role of organ-specific cell-matrix interaction in tumorigenesis.

  6. Comparison of effectiveness and safety of operations on the pericardium

    SciTech Connect

    Palatianos, G.M.; Thurer, R.J.; Kaiser, G.A.

    1985-07-01

    A ten-year experience with operations on the pericardium in 71 consecutive patients was reviewed. The patients ranged in age from nine months to 75 years old. Fifty-three patients were operated upon for pericardial effusion and 14 for pericardial constriction. Sixty-seven patients had pericarditis: 21 of them underwent subxiphoid tube drainage; ten, limited pericardiectomy; and the remaining 36, extensive pericardiectomy. There were two trauma victims who underwent diagnostic pericardiotomy. Two patients underwent excision of pericardial cysts. There was one operative death during extensive pericardiectomy for constrictive tuberculous pericarditis. Thirty-day mortality was three of 21 patients after subxiphoid tube drainage, three of ten after limited pericardiectomy and five of 36 after extensive pericardiectomy. Postoperative complications consisted of pulmonary problems in four patients (two after pericardiectomy and two after extensive pericardiectomy), cardiac arrhythmia in one patient after tube drainage and postpericardiotomy syndrome in one patient after extensive pericardiectomy. Mean follow-up was 3.2 years. Recurrent pericardial effusion occurred in two patients; one had limited pericardiectomy but did not require reoperation and one had diagnostic pericardiotomy without drainage. Six patients with persistent postirradiation pericardial effusion were treated effectively with extensive pericardiotomy. Experience indicates that subxiphoid tube drainage is effective for the treatment of pericardial effusion and safer than limited pericardiectomy, while extensive pericardiectomy is the operation of choice for pericardial constriction and radiation-related pericardial effusion.

  7. Acellular Biomaterials: An Evolving Alternative to Cell-Based Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Burdick, Jason A.; Mauck, Robert L.; Gorman, Joseph H.; Gorman, Robert C.

    2014-01-01

    Acellular biomaterials can stimulate the local environment to repair tissues without the regulatory and scientific challenges of cell-based therapies. A greater understanding of the mechanisms of such endogenous tissue repair is furthering the design and application of these biomaterials. We discuss recent progress in acellular materials for tissue repair, using cartilage and cardiac tissues as examples of applications with substantial intrinsic hurdles, but where human translation is now occurring. PMID:23486777

  8. Seaweed floating in the pericardium: a rare case of primary dedifferentiated liposarcoma.

    PubMed

    Zanini, Gregoriana; Gorga, Elio; Pasini, Federica; Salemme, Marianna; Petrilli, Giulia; Bercich, Luisa; Lorusso, Roberto; Pasini, Gian Franco

    2016-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumors are uncommon and primary liposarcoma of the pericardium is extremely rare. We describe the case of a 55-year-old Caucasian woman without significant medical history, who presented with 3weeks complain of dyspnea, peripheral edema, and gain weight. Echocardiography revealed a huge pericardial mass confirmed by computed tomography and by magnetic resonance. The lesion was primitive of the pericardium but the surgery was not able to cut it off because of the absence of cleavage planes. Histopathologic analysis detected a dedifferentiated liposarcoma. Mediastinum compression syndrome brought the patient to the exitus in a few days. PMID:26525285

  9. Acellular Dermal Matrix in Rotator Cuff Surgery.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Joseph; Mirzayan, Raffy

    2016-01-01

    The success of rotator cuff repair (RCR) surgery can be measured clinically (validated outcome scores, range of motion) as well as structurally (re-tear rates using imaging studies). Regardless of repair type or technique, most studies have shown that patients do well clinically. However, multiple studies have also shown that structurally, the failure rate can be very high. A variety of factors, including poor tendon quality, age over 63 years, smoking, advanced fatty infiltration into the muscle, and the inability of the tendon to heal to bone, have been implicated as the cause of the high re-tear rate in RCRs. The suture-tendon interface is felt to be the weakest link in the RCR construct, and suture pullout through the tendon is believed to be the most common method of failure. This review of the published literature seeks to determine if there is support for augmentation of RCR with acellular dermal matrices to strengthen the suture-tendon interface and reduce the re-tear rate. PMID:27552454

  10. Challenges to acellular biological scaffold mediated skeletal muscle tissue regeneration.

    PubMed

    Corona, Benjamin T; Greising, Sarah M

    2016-10-01

    Volumetric muscle loss (VML) injuries present a complex and heterogeneous clinical problem that results in a chronic loss of muscle tissue and strength. The primary limitation to muscle tissue regeneration after VML injury is the frank loss of all native muscle constituents in the defect, especially satellite cells and the basal lamina. Recent advancements in regenerative medicine have set forth encouraging and emerging translational and therapeutic options for these devastating injuries including the surgical implantation of acellular biological scaffolds. While these biomaterials can modulate the wound environment, the existing data do not support their capacity to promote appreciable muscle fiber regeneration that can contribute to skeletal muscle tissue functional improvements. An apparent restriction of endogenous satellite cell (i.e., pax7(+)) migration to acellular biological scaffolds likely underlies this deficiency. This work critically evaluates the role of an acellular biological scaffold in orchestrating skeletal muscle tissue regeneration, specifically when used as a regenerative medicine approach for VML injury. PMID:27472161

  11. Morphological analysis of the hagfish heart. II. The venous pole and the pericardium.

    PubMed

    Icardo, José M; Colvee, Elvira; Schorno, Sarah; Lauriano, Eugenia R; Fudge, Douglas S; Glover, Chris N; Zaccone, Giacomo

    2016-07-01

    The morphological characteristics of the venous pole and pericardium of the heart were examined in three hagfish species, Myxine glutinosa, Eptatretus stoutii, and Eptatretus cirrhatus. In these species, the atrioventricular (AV) canal is long, funnel-shaped and contains small amounts of myocardium. The AV valve is formed by two pocket-like leaflets that lack a papillary system. The atrial wall is formed by interconnected muscle trabeculae and a well-defined collagenous system. The sinus venosus (SV) shows a collagenous wall and is connected to the left side of the atrium. An abrupt collagen-muscle boundary marks the SV-atrium transition. It is hypothesized that the SV is not homologous to that of other vertebrates which could have important implications for understanding heart evolution. In M. glutinosa and E. stoutii, the pericardium is a closed bag that hangs from the tissues dorsal to the heart and encloses both the heart and the ventral aorta. In contrast, the pericardium is continuous with the loose periaortic tissue in E. cirrhatus. In all three species, the pericardium ends at the level of the SV excluding most of the atrium from the pericardial cavity. In M. glutinosa and E. stoutii, connective bridges extend between the base of the aorta and the ventricular wall. In E. cirrhatus, the connections between the periaortic tissue and the ventricle may carry blood vessels that reach the ventricular base. A further difference specific to E. cirrhatus is that the adipose tissue associated with the pericardium contains thyroid follicles. J. Morphol. 277:853-865, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27027779

  12. The resistance of electron-transport chain Fe-S clusters to oxidative damage during the reaction of peroxynitrite with mitochondrial complex II and rat-heart pericardium.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Linda L; Martinez-Bosch, Sandra; Manzano, Elisenda Lopez; Winnica, Daniel E; Epperly, Michael W; Peterson, Jim

    2009-05-01

    The effects of peroxynitrite and nitric oxide on the iron-sulfur clusters in complex II (succinate dehydrogenase) isolated from bovine heart have been studied primarily by EPR spectroscopy and no measurable damage to the constitutive 2Fe-2S, 3Fe-4S, or 4Fe-4S clusters was observed. The enzyme can be repeatedly oxidized with a slight excess of peroxynitrite and then quantitatively re-reduced with succinate. When added in large excess, peroxynitrite reacted with at least one tyrosine in each subunit of complex II to form 3-nitrotyrosines, but activity was barely compromised. Examination of rat-heart pericardium subjected to conditions leading to peroxynitrite production showed a small inhibition of complex II (16%) and a greater inhibition of aconitase (77%). In addition, experiments performed with excesses of sodium citrate and sodium succinate on rat-heart pericardium indicated that the "g approximately 2.01" EPR signal observed immediately following the beginning of conditions modeling oxidative/nitrosative stress, could be a consequence of both reversible oxidation of the constitutive 3Fe-4S cluster in complex II and degradation of the 4Fe-4S cluster in aconitase. However, the net signal envelope, which becomes apparent in less than 1min following the start of oxidative/nitrosative conditions, is dominated by the component arising from complex II. Taking into account the findings of a previous study concerning complexes I and III (L.L. Pearce, A.J. Kanai, M.W. Epperly, J. Peterson, Nitrosative stress results in irreversible inhibition of purified mitochondrial complexes I and III without modification of cofactors, Nitric Oxide 13 (2005) 254-263) it is now apparent that, with the exception of the cofactor in aconitase, mammalian (mitochondrial) iron-sulfur clusters are surprisingly resistant to degradation stemming from oxidative/nitrosative stress. PMID:19118636

  13. The 2015 WHO Classification of Tumors of the Heart and Pericardium.

    PubMed

    Burke, Allen; Tavora, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    This article reviews the nomenclature of benign and malignant neoplasm of the heart and pericardium in the 4th edition of the World Health Organization's Classification, with emphasis on differences since the 3rd edition of 2004. The tumours are divided into benign, malignant, and intermediate tumors of uncertain behavior, with separate sections on germ cell tumours and tumors of the pericardium. There are important updates in the sarcoma classification, with emphasis on the most common site, the left atrium. The importance of the new genetic finding in cardiac myxomas, namely somatic mutations in the PRKAR1A gene underscores the importance of this alteration in the pathogenesis of these tumors. Challenges on the classification of each entity are discussed. PMID:26725181

  14. Computed Tomography-guided Pericardiocentesis: An alternative approach for accessing the pericardium.

    PubMed

    Melvan, John Nicholas; Madden, David; Vasquez, Julio C; DeLaRosa, Jacob

    2016-07-01

    Pericardial effusions compress the heart, decrease cardiac output, and lead to haemodynamic collapse. Ultrasound (US)-guided pericardiocentesis is the gold standard for treating pericardial effusions. Recently, the incorporation of computed tomography (CT) guidance has increased patient safety while entering the pericardium. Despite the superior performance of CT-guided pericardiocentesis in smaller, complex effusions, this procedure is not routinely performed by cardiologists and surgeons. Unlike those with an intact pericardium, patients with mediastinal trauma, pericardial adhesions, temporary pacing wires, and vascular conduits are high risk for pericardiocentesis. Tamponade physiology also increases patient susceptibility to the hypotensive effects of anaesthesia during surgical drainage. Here we illustrate the technique of CT-guided pericardiocentesis and demonstrate its application in specific clinical scenarios. We conclude that CT-guided pericardiocentesis provides a useful, alternative strategy for treating cardiac tamponade in high risk patients. PMID:26935157

  15. A comparative study of acellular nerve xenografts and allografts in repairing rat facial nerve defects.

    PubMed

    Huang, Haitao; Xiao, Hongxi; Liu, Huawei; Niu, Yu; Yan, Rongzeng; Hu, Min

    2015-10-01

    Acellular nerves are composed of a basal lamina tube, which retains sufficient bioactivity to promote axon regeneration, thereby repairing peripheral nerve gaps. However, the clinical application of acellular allografts has been restricted due to its limited availability. To investigate whether xenografts, a substitute to allograft acellular nerves in abundant supply, could efficiently promote nerve regeneration, rabbit and rat acellular nerve grafts were used to reconstruct 1 cm defects in Wistar rat facial nerves. Autologous peroneal nerve grafts served as a positive control group. A total of 12 weeks following the surgical procedure, the axon number, myelinated axon number, myelin sheath thickness, and nerve conduction velocity of the rabbit and rat‑derived acellular nerve grafts were similar, whereas the fiber diameter of the rabbit‑derived acellular xenografts decreased, as compared with those of rat‑derived acellular allografts. Autografts exerted superior effects on nerve regeneration; however, no significant difference was observed between the axon number in the autograft group, as compared with the two acellular groups. These results suggested that autografts perform better than acellular nerve grafts, and chemically extracted acellular allografts and xenografts have similar effects on the regeneration of short facial nerve defects. PMID:26239906

  16. Total absence of the pericardium incidentally found during surgery for spontaneous pneumothorax.

    PubMed

    Sugiyama, Ato; Izumi, Yotaro; Inoue, Yoshiaki; Aoki, Kohei; Fukuda, Hiroki; Gika, Masatoshi; Nakayama, Mitsuo

    2016-05-01

    Congenital absence of the pericardium is a rare malformation which is often found incidentally. We report a case of pericardial absence which was found during surgery for spontaneous pneumothorax. Image analyses suggested that the pericardial absence was bilateral and total. These findings were overlooked on CT, preoperatively. Although rare, the possibility of asymptomatic pericardial absence should be kept in mind when observing the chest images before performing thoracic interventions. PMID:25281370

  17. Mechanical Compliance and Immunological Compatibility of Fixative-Free Decellularized/Cryopreserved Human Pericardium

    PubMed Central

    Vinci, Maria Cristina; Tessitore, Giulio; Castiglioni, Laura; Prandi, Francesca; Soncini, Monica; Santoro, Rosaria; Consolo, Filippo; Colazzo, Francesca; Micheli, Barbara; Sironi, Luigi; Polvani, Gianluca; Pesce, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    Background The pericardial tissue is commonly used to produce bio-prosthetic cardiac valves and patches in cardiac surgery. The procedures adopted to prepare this tissue consist in treatment with aldehydes, which do not prevent post-graft tissue calcification due to incomplete xeno-antigens removal. The adoption of fixative-free decellularization protocols has been therefore suggested to overcome this limitation. Although promising, the decellularized pericardium has not yet used in clinics, due to the absence of proofs indicating that the decellularization and cryopreservation procedures can effectively preserve the mechanical properties and the immunologic compatibility of the tissue. Principal Findings The aim of the present work was to validate a procedure to prepare decellularized/cryopreserved human pericardium which may be implemented into cardiovascular homograft tissue Banks. The method employed to decellularize the tissue completely removed the cells without affecting ECM structure; furthermore, uniaxial tensile loading tests revealed an equivalent resistance of the decellularized tissue to strain, before and after the cryopreservation, in comparison with the fresh tissue. Finally, immunological compatibility, showed a minimized host immune cells invasion and low levels of systemic inflammation, as assessed by tissue transplantation into immune-competent mice. Conclusions Our results indicate, for the first time, that fixative-free decellularized pericardium from cadaveric tissue donors can be banked according to Tissue Repository-approved procedures without compromising its mechanical properties and immunological tolerance. This tissue can be therefore treated as a safe homograft for cardiac surgery. PMID:23705010

  18. Infection in the Nasal Tip Caused by Acellular Dermal Matrix.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kun Hee

    2015-12-01

    A 19-year-old female patient visited our clinic for rhinoplasty. She complained about her low take-off point, which was apparent in profile view, and wanted slight tip projection. She refused additional cartilage harvesting from ears or ribs but consented to the use of homologous tissue, including acellular dermal matrix, for her dorsum and tip. Septoturbinoplasty was performed, and only a very small amount of septal cartilage could be harvested. It was used as both the columellar strut and the alar rim graft. Nasal dorsum and tip were augmented with acellular dermal matrix. Three months postoperatively, she experienced a few episodes of edema and redness on her nasal tip, followed by pus exudation from the nasal skin. Six months postoperatively, she underwent revision rhinoplasty for removal of inflamed grafts, and onlay tip graft with homologous rib cartilage was performed. Nasal dorsum or tip grafts are an integral part of Asian rhinoplasty. Autogenous tissue is the gold standard for grafting materials. However, the limited availability of autogenous tissue and the preference of patients and surgeons for artificial surgical implants make Asian rhinoplasty challenging. Unavailability of autogenous cartilage and patient refusal of artificial implants led to the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in the nasal dorsum and tip for this case. This is the first report of postoperative complication because of infection rather than absorption after ADM use. PMID:26894006

  19. Cellular Response to a Novel Fetal Acellular Collagen Matrix: Implications for Tissue Regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Rennert, Robert C.; Garg, Ravi K.; Gurtner, Geoffrey C.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. PriMatrix (TEI Biosciences Inc., Boston, MA, USA) is a novel acellular collagen matrix derived from fetal bovine dermis that is designed for use in partial- and full-thickness wounds. This study analyzes the cellular response to PriMatrix in vivo, as well as the ability of this matrix to facilitate normal tissue regeneration. Methods. Five by five mm squares of rehydrated PriMatrix were implanted in a subcutaneous fashion on the dorsum of wild-type mice. Implant site tissue was harvested for histology, immunohistochemistry (IHC), and flow cytometric analyses at multiple time points until day 28. Results. PriMatrix implants were found to go through a biological progression initiated by a transient infiltrate of inflammatory cells, followed by mesenchymal cell recruitment and vascular development. IHC analysis revealed that the majority of the implanted fetal dermal collagen fibers persisted through day 28 but underwent remodeling and cellular repopulation to form tissue with a density and morphology consistent with healthy dermis. Conclusions. PriMatrix implants undergo progressive in vivo remodeling, facilitating the regeneration of histologically normal tissue through a mild inflammatory and progenitor cell response. Regeneration of normal tissue is especially important in a wound environment, and these findings warrant further investigation of PriMatrix in this setting. PMID:23970899

  20. Comparison of toxicities of acellular pertussis vaccine with whole cell pertussis vaccine in experimental animals.

    PubMed

    Sato, Y; Sato, H

    1991-01-01

    There is no suitable animal model for pertussis encephalopathy in humans. In this study, we have compared the toxicity of acellular pertussis vaccine with whole cell pertussis vaccine in mice or guinea pigs. Two lots of acellular and two lots of whole cell vaccine produced in different countries were assayed in the test. 1. There was no statistical difference in mouse protective potency between these acellular or whole cell pertussis vaccines. 2. There were no differences in chemical ingredients between acellular and whole cell pertussis vaccines except for protein nitrogen content. The protein nitrogen content of whole cell vaccine was at least three times higher than that of the acellular product. 3. Anti-PT antibody productivity of the acellular vaccine was higher than that of the whole cell vaccine. 4. Anti-agglutinogen antibody productivity of the whole cell vaccine was higher than that of the acellular vaccine. 5. There was no pyrogenic activity with the acellular vaccine, but high pyrogenicity was seen with whole cell vaccine. 6. There was high body-weight decreasing toxicity in mice and guinea pigs by the whole cell vaccine. 7. The mice died when they received whole cell pertussis vaccine iv, but no deaths occurred in the mice which received acellular pertussis vaccine. PMID:1778317

  1. Porcine acellular lung matrix for wound healing and abdominal wall reconstruction: A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez-Moure, Joseph S; Van Eps, Jeffrey L; Rhudy, Jessica R; Cabrera, Fernando J; Acharya, Ghanashyam S; Tasciotti, Ennio; Sakamoto, Jason; Nichols, Joan E

    2016-01-01

    Surgical wound healing applications require bioprosthetics that promote cellular infiltration and vessel formation, metrics associated with increased mechanical strength and resistance to infection. Porcine acellular lung matrix is a novel tissue scaffold known to promote cell adherence while minimizing inflammatory reactions. In this study, we evaluate the capacity of porcine acellular lung matrix to sustain cellularization and neovascularization in a rat model of subcutaneous implantation and chronic hernia repair. We hypothesize that, compared to human acellular dermal matrix, porcine acellular lung matrix would promote greater cell infiltration and vessel formation. Following pneumonectomy, porcine lungs were processed and characterized histologically and by scanning electron microscopy to demonstrate efficacy of the decellularization. Using a rat model of subcutaneou implantation, porcine acellular lung matrices (n = 8) and human acellular dermal matrices (n = 8) were incubated in vivo for 6 weeks. To evaluate performance under mechanically stressed conditions, porcine acellular lung matrices (n = 7) and human acellular dermal matrices (n = 7) were implanted in a rat model of chronic ventral incisional hernia repair for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, tissues were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson’s trichrome staining to quantify cell infiltration and vessel formation. Porcine acellular lung matrices were shown to be successfully decellularized. Following subcutaneous implantation, macroscopic vessel formation was evident. Porcine acellular lung matrices demonstrated sufficient incorporation and showed no evidence of mechanical failure after ventral hernia repair. Porcine acellular lung matrices demonstrated significantly greater cellular density and vessel formation when compared to human acellular dermal matrix. Vessel sizes were similar across all groups. Cell infiltration and vessel formation are well-characterized metrics of incorporation

  2. Porcine acellular lung matrix for wound healing and abdominal wall reconstruction: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Moure, Joseph S; Van Eps, Jeffrey L; Rhudy, Jessica R; Cabrera, Fernando J; Acharya, Ghanashyam S; Tasciotti, Ennio; Sakamoto, Jason; Nichols, Joan E

    2016-01-01

    Surgical wound healing applications require bioprosthetics that promote cellular infiltration and vessel formation, metrics associated with increased mechanical strength and resistance to infection. Porcine acellular lung matrix is a novel tissue scaffold known to promote cell adherence while minimizing inflammatory reactions. In this study, we evaluate the capacity of porcine acellular lung matrix to sustain cellularization and neovascularization in a rat model of subcutaneous implantation and chronic hernia repair. We hypothesize that, compared to human acellular dermal matrix, porcine acellular lung matrix would promote greater cell infiltration and vessel formation. Following pneumonectomy, porcine lungs were processed and characterized histologically and by scanning electron microscopy to demonstrate efficacy of the decellularization. Using a rat model of subcutaneou implantation, porcine acellular lung matrices (n = 8) and human acellular dermal matrices (n = 8) were incubated in vivo for 6 weeks. To evaluate performance under mechanically stressed conditions, porcine acellular lung matrices (n = 7) and human acellular dermal matrices (n = 7) were implanted in a rat model of chronic ventral incisional hernia repair for 6 weeks. After 6 weeks, tissues were evaluated using hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining to quantify cell infiltration and vessel formation. Porcine acellular lung matrices were shown to be successfully decellularized. Following subcutaneous implantation, macroscopic vessel formation was evident. Porcine acellular lung matrices demonstrated sufficient incorporation and showed no evidence of mechanical failure after ventral hernia repair. Porcine acellular lung matrices demonstrated significantly greater cellular density and vessel formation when compared to human acellular dermal matrix. Vessel sizes were similar across all groups. Cell infiltration and vessel formation are well-characterized metrics of incorporation

  3. [Congenital Defect of the Left Pericardium with Spontaneous Pneumothorax;Report of a Case].

    PubMed

    Murasawa, Masaki; Yoshizawa, Masatoshi; Ishida, Hisao; Kuwabara, Masayoshi

    2016-08-01

    Congenital cardiac membrane deficiency is a relatively rare condition. Here, we report a case of congenital cardiac membrane deficiency that manifested as left spontaneous pneumothorax. A 72-year-old man was hospitalized for recurrence of the spontaneous pneumothorax. Computed tomography findings led us to suspect pericardial deficits, and the perioperative findings during thoracoscopic surgery for the pneumothorax confirmed complete absence of the left pericardium. We resected a lung cyst but did not treat the pericardial deficit. The patient's postoperative course was uneventful. PMID:27476572

  4. Chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor promotes sciatic nerve repair

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanru; Zhang, Hui; Katiella, Kaka; Huang, Wenhua

    2014-01-01

    A chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft can reduce postoperative immune rejection, similar to an autologous nerve graft, and can guide neural regeneration. However, it remains poorly understood whether a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with neurotrophic factors provides a good local environment for neural regeneration. This study investigated the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve using a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor. An autologous nerve anastomosis group and a chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group were prepared as controls. At 8 weeks after repair, sciatic functional index, evoked potential amplitude of the soleus muscle, triceps wet weight recovery rate, total number of myelinated nerve fibers and myelin sheath thickness were measured. For these indices, values in the three groups showed the autologous nerve anastomosis group > chemically extracted acellular nerve graft + ciliary neurotrophic factor group > chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group. These results suggest that chemically extracted acellular nerve grafts combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor can repair sciatic nerve defects, and that this repair is inferior to autologous nerve anastomosis, but superior to chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve bridging alone. PMID:25221592

  5. Chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor promotes sciatic nerve repair.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanru; Zhang, Hui; Katiella, Kaka; Huang, Wenhua

    2014-07-15

    A chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft can reduce postoperative immune rejection, similar to an autologous nerve graft, and can guide neural regeneration. However, it remains poorly understood whether a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with neurotrophic factors provides a good local environment for neural regeneration. This study investigated the repair of injured rat sciatic nerve using a chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve graft combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor. An autologous nerve anastomosis group and a chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group were prepared as controls. At 8 weeks after repair, sciatic functional index, evoked potential amplitude of the soleus muscle, triceps wet weight recovery rate, total number of myelinated nerve fibers and myelin sheath thickness were measured. For these indices, values in the three groups showed the autologous nerve anastomosis group > chemically extracted acellular nerve graft + ciliary neurotrophic factor group > chemical acellular allogeneic nerve bridging group. These results suggest that chemically extracted acellular nerve grafts combined with ciliary neurotrophic factor can repair sciatic nerve defects, and that this repair is inferior to autologous nerve anastomosis, but superior to chemically extracted acellular allogeneic nerve bridging alone. PMID:25221592

  6. Phase II trial of whole-cell pertussis vaccine vs an acellular vaccine containing agglutinogens.

    PubMed

    Miller, E; Ashworth, L A; Robinson, A; Waight, P A; Irons, L I

    1991-01-12

    An acellular pertussis vaccine containing agglutinogens 2 and 3, pertussis toxin, and filamentous haemagglutinin was developed by the Centre for Applied Microbiology and Research in the UK. 188 infants were entered into a randomised blind trial and received either the acellular or a whole-cell vaccine, combined with diphtheria and tetanus toxoids, in a 3, 5, and 8-10 month schedule. Local reactions were similar in the two groups but significantly fewer infants had systemic symptoms after the acellular vaccine. Mean log-antibody titres to the agglutinogen and toxin components were higher with the acellular than with the whole-cell vaccine. Persistence of antibodies one year after the third dose was also better in the acellular group. PMID:1670725

  7. Use of an Acellular Regenerative Tissue Matrix Over Chronic Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, D. Heath

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Bioengineered skin grafts, including acellular dermal matrices, may be effective in treating lower extremity and trunk wounds that are not responsive to traditional wound management. Acellular dermal wound matrix is derived from human acellular dermal wound matrix (HADWM) tissue and provides a scaffold that supports cellular repopulation and revascularization. The major structural components of the dermis are retained during processing, and a single application has been shown to help achieve wound closure. Methods: This patient case series examined the use of HADWM on lower extremity and trunk wounds in 11 patients (6 male and 5 female) with a mean age of 55 years (range: 31–83 years). Wounds were debrided 1 to 2 times, followed by placement of HADWM (range: 4–330 cm2) on wounds that varied from the dorsal surface of the foot, lower abdomen, and lower extremity to the Achilles flap. A nonadherent layer in conjunction with bacitracin was placed over HADWM. Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) was placed over the HADWM and initiated continuously at −125 mm Hg for 1 to 2 weeks. After the application of NPWT, HADWM was covered with various gauze dressings using mineral oil. Results: All patients completed their treatment successfully, and follow-up ranged from 1 week to 6 months. One patient experienced an infection, which resulted in partial graft loss that required replacement with HADWM and NPWT. No additional complications occurred in the other patients. Conclusions: This patient case series demonstrated successful use of HADWM and NPWT, which further supports published studies documenting HADWM success in chronic wounds. PMID:24324850

  8. Whooping cough, twenty years from acellular vaccines introduction.

    PubMed

    Greco, D; Esposito, S; Tozzi, A; Pandolfi, E; Icardi, G; Giammanco, A

    2015-01-01

    Clinical pertussis resulting from infection with B. pertussis is a significant medical and public health problem, despite the huge success of vaccination that has greatly reduced its incidence. The whole cell vaccine had an undeniable success over the last 50 years, but its acceptance was strongly inhibited by fear, only partially justified, of severe side effects, but also, in the Western world, by the difficulty to enter in combination with other vaccines: today multi-vaccine formulations are essential to maintain a high vaccination coverage. The advent of acellular vaccines was greeted with enthusiasm by the public health world: in the Nineties, several controlled vaccine trials were carried out: they demonstrated a high safety and good efficacy of new vaccines. In fact, in the Western world, the acellular vaccines completely replaced the whole cells ones. In the last years, ample evidence on the variety of protection of these vaccines linked to the presence of different antigens of Bordetella pertussis was collected. It also became clear that the protection provided, on average around 80%, leaves every year a significant cohort of vaccinated susceptible even in countries with a vaccination coverage of 95%, such as Italy. Finally, it was shown that, as for the pertussis disease, protection decreases over time, to leave a proportion of adolescents and adults unprotected. Waiting for improved pertussis vaccines, the disease control today requires a different strategy that includes a booster at 5 years for infants, but also boosters for teenagers and young adults, re-vaccination of health care personnel, and possibly of pregnant women and of those who are in contact with infants (cocooning). Finally, the quest for better vaccines inevitably tends towards pertussis acellular vaccines with at least three components, which have demonstrated superior effectiveness and have been largely in use in Italy for fifteen years. PMID:26051141

  9. Elastic behaviour of sutured calf pericardium: influence of the suture threads.

    PubMed

    García Páez, J M; Carrera San Martin, A; García Sestafe, J V; Jorge Herrero, E; Navidad, R; Cordón, A; Castillo-Olivares, J L

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the elastic behaviour of calf pericardium used in the construction of cardiac bioprosthesis valve leaflets, sutured with different types of commercially available sutures: silk, Gore-Tex, Surgilene and nylon. Thirty-two samples (four series of eight samples each) were subjected to tensile strength testing to breakage. The breaking stress (MPa) ranged between 4.89 MPa for samples sutured with Gore-Tex and 5.22 MPa for those sewn with nylon. Three samples from each series were subjected to a stepwise stress test, involving increasing levels of stress followed by return to zero, to define the elastic limit (the cut-off point beyond which strain is no longer reversible). Analysis of the results provided the mathematical functions that govern the elastic behaviour (stress/strain) within the elastic range for each type of sutured sample. The series sutured with Surgilene presented the highest mean value (1.649 MPa). Finally, a statistical study was carried out to determine which series showed the greatest probability of having the least interaction between the thread and the pericardium. Allowing an interval of +/- 10%, Gore-Tex showed the best probability in this respect. However, real fatigue testing is necessary to definitively determine which is the best suture to use. PMID:8866029

  10. Magnetically guided recellularization of decellularized stented porcine pericardium-derived aortic valve for TAVI.

    PubMed

    Ghodsizad, Ali; Bordel, Viktor; Wiedensohler, Herrman; Elbanayosy, Ali; Koerner, Michael Martin; Gonzalez Berjon, Jose M; Barrios, Roberto; Farag, Mina; Zeriouh, Mohamad; Loebe, Matthias; Noon, George Peter; Koegler, Gesine; Karck, Matthias; Ruhparwar, Arjang

    2014-01-01

    Application of somatic stem cells for growth, proliferation, and differentiation in a three-dimensional pattern is an important aspect in tissue engineering. Here, we report on our bioreactor, which we applied for magnetically guided recellularization of nitinol-stented valve. Human-derived unrestricted somatic stem cells were cultured in medium in our pulsatile dynamic bioreactor for 4-6 days. Stented valves were prepared by decellularization of porcine pericardium and construction of stented tissue-engineered valves (n = 8). A magnetic field was created around the bioreactor to prevent the loss of cells. In the control group, no magnetic device was used (n = 4). Morphological characterization was assessed by immunohistochemical staining of paraffin sections and electron microscopy. The bioreactor enabled the preservation of physiologic culture conditions with aerobic cell metabolism and physiological pH values. Histological analysis showed homogeneous seeding of the pericardium with progenitor cells in the recellularized samples, whereas no cell seeding could be observed in the nonmagnetic group. Our magnetically guided multifunctional bioreactor allows for an efficient three-dimensional culturing of somatic stem cells on decellularized organ-specific matrix. PMID:25000385

  11. Blunt traumatic rupture of the heart and pericardium: a ten-year experience (1979-1989).

    PubMed

    Fulda, G; Brathwaite, C E; Rodriguez, A; Turney, S Z; Dunham, C M; Cowley, R A

    1991-02-01

    Blunt traumatic rupture of the heart and pericardium, rarely diagnosed preoperatively, carries a high mortality rate. From 1979 to 1989, more than 20,000 patients were admitted to a Level I trauma center. A retrospective review identified 59 patients requiring emergency surgery for this condition. Injuries resulted from vehicular accidents (68%), motorcycle crashes (10%), pedestrians being struck by vehicles (7%), falls (5%), crushing (7%), and being struck by a horse (2%) or crane (2%). Seventeen patients (29%) had isolated rupture of the pericardium; 37 (63%) had ruptures of one or more cardiac chambers. All patients had signs of life at the scene or during transportation, but only 29 (49%) had vital signs on admission: 15 with chamber injury, 12 with pericardial rupture, and two with combined injuries. Diagnosis was established by emergency thoracotomy in the 30 patients who arrived in cardiac arrest. In the remaining 29 patients, diagnosis was made by urgent thoracotomy (41%), by subxiphoid pericardial window (34%), during laparotomy (21%), or by chest radiography (3%). The overall mortality rate was 76% (45 patients), but only 52% for those with vital signs on admission. Rapid transportation and expeditious surgical treatment can save many patients with these injuries. PMID:1994075

  12. Human acellular dermal wound matrix: evidence and experience.

    PubMed

    Kirsner, Robert S; Bohn, Greg; Driver, Vickie R; Mills, Joseph L; Nanney, Lillian B; Williams, Marie L; Wu, Stephanie C

    2015-12-01

    A chronic wound fails to complete an orderly and timely reparative process and places patients at increased risk for wound complications that negatively impact quality of life and require greater health care expenditure. The role of extracellular matrix (ECM) is critical in normal and chronic wound repair. Not only is ECM the largest component of the dermal skin layer, but also ECM proteins provide structure and cell signalling that are necessary for successful tissue repair. Chronic wounds are characterised by their inflammatory and proteolytic environment, which degrades the ECM. Human acellular dermal matrices, which provide an ECM scaffold, therefore, are being used to treat chronic wounds. The ideal human acellular dermal wound matrix (HADWM) would support regenerative healing, providing a structure that could be repopulated by the body's cells. Experienced wound care investigators and clinicians discussed the function of ECM, the evidence related to a specific HADWM (Graftjacket(®) regenerative tissue matrix, Wright Medical Technology, Inc., licensed by KCI USA, Inc., San Antonio, TX), and their clinical experience with this scaffold. This article distills these discussions into an evidence-based and practical overview for treating chronic lower extremity wounds with this HADWM. PMID:24283346

  13. A novel equine-derived pericardium membrane for dural repair: A preliminary, short-term investigation

    PubMed Central

    Centonze, Roberto; Agostini, Emiliano; Massaccesi, Samantha; Toninelli, Stefano; Morabito, Letterio

    2016-01-01

    Background: A large variety of biological and artificial materials are employed in dural repair, each of them with major limitations. Autologous grafts have limited availability and require an additional incision and surgical time. Cadaveric preparations and heterologous materials entail the risk of iatrogenic transmission of prions, whereas synthetic substitutes have been reported to cause inflammatory reactions and graft rejection. An equine-derived pericardium membrane has been developed (Heart®, Bioteck, Vicenza, Italy) with mechanical and safety-related features that could make it suitable for neurosurgical application. Aims: This preliminary study aimed to evaluate the short-term safety and efficacy of the Heart® membrane in dural repair procedures following meningioma surgeries. Subjects and Methods: Medical records of patients who were surgically treated for an intracranial meningioma and underwent duraplasty with the Heart® membrane were reviewed retrospectively. The occurrence of any graft-related complications such as cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) leakage, postoperative hematoma, wound infection, meningitis, and neurological symptoms was analyzed. Results: Eight patients were identified as meeting the inclusion criteria. A watertight closure was achieved in all of them. Postoperatively, no patients exhibited CSF leak, cerebral contusion, hemorrhage, or wound infection. The 1-month radiological follow-up revealed no evidence of pseudomeningocele, wound breakdown, or meningitis. Neurologic complications were observed in three patients but not directly imputable to the dural substitute or its application. Conclusions: In all the patients, the pericardium membrane enabled achievement of a watertight dural closure without graft-related adverse events. Further investigations should be performed to assess medium- and long-term clinical outcomes in a larger set of patients. PMID:27366245

  14. Extended Eden model reproduces growth of an acellular slime mold

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, Geri; Halvorsrud, Ragnhild; Meakin, Paul

    1999-11-01

    A stochastic growth model was used to simulate the growth of the acellular slime mold Physarum polycephalum on substrates where the nutrients were confined in separate drops. Growth of Physarum on such substrates was previously studied experimentally and found to produce a range of different growth patterns [Phys. Rev. E 57, 941 (1998)]. The model represented the aging of cluster sites and differed from the original Eden model in that the occupation probability of perimeter sites depended on the time of occupation of adjacent cluster sites. This feature led to a bias in the selection of growth directions. A moderate degree of persistence was found to be crucial to reproduce the biological growth patterns under various conditions. Persistence in growth combined quick propagation in heterogeneous environments with a high probability of locating sources of nutrients.

  15. Application of acellular dermis and autograft on burns and scars.

    PubMed

    Ramos Duron, L E; Martínez Pardo, M E; Olivera Zavaleta, V; Silva Diaz, T; Reyes Frías, M L; Luna Zaragoza, D

    1999-01-01

    The cases of two patients with burns treated with dermis allograft and of one patient for lip reconstructive aesthetic filling treated with less than one mm3 of radiosterilised acellular dermis are presented. This paper emphasizes the treatment with radiosterilised dermal grafts with a permanent character so far. Hospitals, therefore, can satisfy the demand for this kind of tissue in the case of disaster and patients with serious injuries. In the cases cited, histocompatibility analysis was not required, thus having the advantage of long-time storage of the radiosterilised dermis used on these patients. Neither inflammatory reaction nor acute phase re-absorption were observed. Moreover, shrink (contract) healing was diminished. After two years, the results are still satisfactory. PMID:10853787

  16. Protection against pertussis by acellular pertussis vaccines (Takeda, Japan): household contact studies in Kawasaki City, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kato, T; Goshima, T; Nakajima, N; Kaku, H; Arimoto, Y; Hayashi, F

    1989-12-01

    To evaluate the vaccine efficacy of an acellular pertussis vaccine which has been in clinical use in Japan since 1981, a retrospective study was performed by a questionnaire survey of secondary pertussis attacks through family contact in 146 children with pertussis diagnosed in the period from January 1981 through May 1988. In this study, acellular vaccine made by Takeda Pharmaceutical Company, which contains a high level of FHA (filamentous hemagglutinin), a low level of PT (pertussis toxin) and a small amount of agglutinogen, was evaluated. Secondary pertussis attacks through family contact were found in 17 of 29 siblings (58.6%) not immunized with pertussis vaccine. On the other hand, 27 siblings immunized with Takeda's acellular vaccine were exposed to pertussis through family contact and a secondary attack was seen in only one of them (3.7%). The present study revealed an efficacy rate of 93.7% for Takeda's acellular pertussis vaccine. PMID:2516396

  17. [Protection against pertussis by Japanese T type acellular pertussis vaccine: household contact study in Kawasaki City].

    PubMed

    Kato, T; Matsuyoshi, S; Goshima, T; Nakajima, N; Yamamoto, H; Arimoto, Y; Kaku, H; Hayashi, F

    1989-09-01

    To evaluate the vaccine efficacy of acellular pertussis vaccine which has been in clinical use in Japan since 1981, a retrospective study was made by a questionnaire from secondary pertussis attack through family contact in 149 children with pertussis diagnosed in the period from January 1981 through May 1988. In this study, Takeda's acellular vaccine which contains a high level of FHA, low level of PT and a small amount of agglutinogen, was evaluated. Secondary pertussis attacks through family contact were found in 17 of 29 siblings (58.6%) not immunized with pertussis vaccine. On the other hand of the siblings immunized with Takeda's acellular vaccine 27 were exposed to pertussis through family contact and a secondary attack was seen in only one of them (3.4%). The present study revealed an efficacy rate of 94.2% for the Takeda's acellular pertussis vaccine. PMID:2509597

  18. Protection against pertussis by Takeda's acellular pertussis vaccine: household contact studies in Kawasaki City, Japan.

    PubMed

    Kato, T; Kaku, H; Arimoto, Y

    1988-01-01

    To evaluate the vaccine efficacy of an acellular pertussis vaccine which has been in clinical use in Japan since 1981, a retrospective study was performed by a questionnaire survey of secondary pertussis attacks through family contact in 146 children with pertussis diagnosed in the period from January 1981 through May 1988. In this study, Takeda's acellular vaccine which contains a high level of FHA, low level of PT and a small amount of agglutinogen, was evaluated. Secondary pertussis attacks through family contact were found in 17 of 27 siblings (62.9%) not immunized with pertussis vaccine. On the other hand, 26 siblings immunized with Takeda's acellular vaccine were exposed to pertussis through family contact and a secondary attack was seen in only one of them (3.8%). The present study revealed an efficacy rate of 93.9% for Takeda's acellular pertussis vaccine. PMID:3078808

  19. Investigation of the Regenerative Capacity of an Acellular Porcine Medial Meniscus for Tissue Engineering Applications

    PubMed Central

    Ingram, Joanne; Fisher, John; Ingham, Eileen

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we have described the development of an acellular porcine meniscal scaffold. The aims of this study were to determine the immunocompatibility of the scaffold and capacity for cellular attachment and infiltration to gain insight into its potential for meniscal repair and replacement. Porcine menisci were decellularized by exposing the tissue to freeze–thaw cycles, incubation in hypotonic tris buffer, 0.1% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulfate in hypotonic buffer plus protease inhibitors, nucleases, hypertonic buffer followed by disinfection using 0.1% (v/v) peracetic, and final washing in phosphate-buffered saline. In vivo immunocompatibility was assessed after implantation of the acellular meniscal scaffold subcutaneously into galactosyltransferase knockout mice for 3 months in comparison to fresh and acellular tissue treated with α-galactosidase (negative control). The cellular infiltrates in the explants were assessed by histology and characterized using monoclonal antibodies against: CD3, CD4, CD34, F4/80, and C3c. Static culture was used to assess the potential of acellular porcine meniscal scaffold to support the attachment and infiltration of primary human dermal fibroblasts and primary porcine meniscal cells in vitro. The explants were surrounded by capsules that were more pronounced for the fresh meniscal tissue compared to the acellular tissues. Cellular infiltrates compromised mononuclear phagocytes, CD34-positive cells, and nonlabeled fibroblastic cells. T-lymphocytes were sparse in all explanted tissue types and there was no evidence of C3c deposition. The analysis revealed an absence of a specific immune response to all of the implanted tissues. Acellular porcine meniscus was shown to be capable of supporting the attachment and infiltration of primary human fibroblasts and primary porcine meniscal cells. In conclusion, acellular porcine meniscal tissue exhibits excellent immunocompatibility and potential for cellular regeneration in the longer

  20. Aneurysmal dilatation of the Contegra bovine jugular vein conduit after reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract.

    PubMed

    Delmo-Walter, Eva Maria; Alexi-Meskishvili, Vladimir; Abdul-Khaliq, Hashim; Meyer, Rudolf; Hetzer, Roland

    2007-02-01

    An aneurysm of a 14-mm Contegra bovine conduit 5 years after a total repair of tetralogy of Fallot was confirmed by echocardiography, angiography, and magnetic resonance tomography. The conduit was replaced. Histologic examination of the explanted conduit revealed an acellular homogenous material with occasional elastic fibers, fragile, diffuse and complex collagenization throughout the conduit and mild foreign body reaction. Pannus formed over the top of all commissures and on the conduit wall, with extensive mineralization. Close follow-up is seen as mandatory for early detection of the bovine vein conduit aneurysm, particularly in patients in whom small-sized conduits are implanted. PMID:17258016

  1. Comparative biological activities of acellular pertussis vaccines produced by Kitasato.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, M; Izumiya, K; Sato, T; Yoshino, K; Nakagawa, N; Ohoishi, M; Hoshino, M

    1991-04-01

    The quality of 14 lots of acellular pertussis-diphtheria-tetanus (AC-PDT) vaccines manufactured by the Kitasato Institute during the period 1987-1990 were investigated. The geometric means of HSU, LPU, and BWDU were 0.078, 0.257, and 7.33 per ml respectively. The potency was higher than 14 IU per ml. These results indicated the consistency of the Kitasato AC-PDT vaccines. The antibody response to the AC-PDT vaccines was measured in primary and secondary vaccinated mice by ELISA. IgG antibody response to FHA and PT was obtained in all immunized mice (P less than 0.001) after the primary injection. In contrast, IgG antibody response to fimbriae 2 showed a significant titer rise (P less than 0.001) after the booster injection. The results indicated that the Kitasato AC-P vaccines consisted of protein, PT and FHA as the major antigens, and a little agglutinogen as the minor antigen. PMID:1798236

  2. [Experimental, clinical and immunologic assessment of acellular staphylococcal vaccine "Staphylovac"].

    PubMed

    Egorova, N B; Efremova, V N; Kurbatova, E A; Gruber, I M

    2008-01-01

    Results of experimental, clinical and immunological effects of acellular dry staphylococcal vaccine "Staphylovac" developed in Mechnikov Research Institute of Vaccines and Sera are presented. Original mildly virulent strains of Staphylococcus aureus having high immunogenicity, and intra- and interspecies protective activity against different representatives of opportunistic microflora were used for construction of the preparation. Low-toxicity and weak anapylactogenicity of the vaccine were established. In experiments on mice, guinea pigs and rabbits significant protective, antigenic and immunomodulate activity of the preparation was revealed with low sensitization of animals. Clinical trials performed in different centers showed that inclusion of vaccinotherapy in complex treatment of chronic staphylococcal infections (chronic pyodermia, lung abscess etc.) resulted in prolonged pathologic locus, decrease of number and severity of exacerbations, prolongation of remission, and complete recovery in significant number of patients. Activation of innate and adaptive immunity was revealed in the same patients. It was shown on the large group of athletes that administration of the vaccine by aerosol route prevents disruption of immunologic adaptation occurring due to excess physical activity and stress situations during competitions. PMID:19186558

  3. Spherical indentation of free-standing acellular extracellular matrix membranes.

    PubMed

    Cloonan, Aidan J; O'Donnell, Michael R; Lee, William T; Walsh, Michael T; De Barra, Eamonn; McGloughlin, Tim M

    2012-01-01

    Numerous scaffold materials have been developed for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications to replace or repair damaged tissues and organs. Naturally occurring scaffold materials derived from acellular xenogeneic and autologous extracellular matrix (ECM) are currently in clinical use. These biological scaffold materials possess inherent variations in mechanical properties. Spherical indentation or ball burst testing has commonly been used to evaluate ECM and harvested tissue due to its ease of use and simulation of physiological biaxial loading, but has been limited by complex material deformation profiles. An analytical methodology has been developed and applied to experimental load-deflection data of a model hyperelastic material and lyophilized ECM scaffolds. An optimum rehydration protocol was developed based on water absorption, hydration relaxation and dynamic mechanical analysis. The analytical methodology was compared with finite element simulations of the tests and excellent correlation was seen between the computed biaxial stress resultants and geometry deformations. A minimum rehydration period of 5 min at 37°C was sufficient for the evaluated multilaminated ECM materials. The proposed approach may be implemented for convenient comparative analysis of ECM materials and source tissues, process optimization or during lot release testing. PMID:21864728

  4. A survey of malformed aborted bovine fetuses, stillbirths and nonviable neonates for abnormal karyotypes.

    PubMed Central

    Coates, J W; Schmutz, S M; Rousseaux, C G

    1988-01-01

    Postmortem examinations were performed on 30 morphologically abnormal aborted bovine fetuses, stillbirths and nonviable neonates. Fibroblasts from the pericardium were cultured for chromosome analysis. Karyotypes were successfully completed on 18 animals, of which three were trisomic, one was mosaic monosomic and one was chimeric. All aneuploid calves had multisystemic anomalies. Using chromosomal banding techniques, the abnormal karyotypes were determined to be: 61,XY,+27; 61,XX,+21; 61,XY,+?; 59,XY,-?/60,XY; and 60,XX/60,XY. Bacterial contamination or nonviability of tissues prevented the growth of fibroblasts in culture and cytogenetic analysis of the other 12 animals. It was estimated that 2.0% of all late gestation abortuses and stillbirths may have chromosomal abnormalities characterized by aneuploidy. The findings of this study suggest chromosomal abnormalities characterized by aneuploidy are a significant cause of multisystemic anomalies in aborted bovine fetuses and nonviable neonates. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. PMID:3370561

  5. Mediastinoscope-controlled parasternal fenestration of the pericardium: definitive surgical palliation of malignant pericardial effusion

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The tumorous infiltration or carcinosis of the pericardium could cause pericardial effusion in up to one-third of cases of malignancy, thus potentially interfere with the otherwise desirable oncological treatment. The existing surgical methods for the management of pericardial fluid are well-established but are not without limitations in the symptomatic relief of malignant pericardial effusion (MPE). The recurrence rate ranges between 43 and 69% after pericardiocentesis and 9 to 16% after pericardial drainage. The desire to overcome relative limitations of the existing methods led us to explore an alternative approach. Methods The standard armamentarium of the Carlens collar mediastinoscopy procedure was utilized in a Chamberlain parasternal approach of the pericardial sac. The laterality of approach was decided based upon the pleural involvement, as tumor-free pericardiopleural reflection is required. A pericardio-pleural window at least 3 cm in diameter was created. From January 2000 to December 2009, 22 cases were operated on with mediastinoscope-controlled parasternal fenestration (MCPF). Considering the type of the primary tumor, there were 11 lung cancer, 6 breast cancers, 2 haematologic malignancies and in 3 patients the origin of malignancy could not be verified. Results There were no operative deaths. We lost one patient (4.5%) in the postoperative hospital period. All of the surviving patients had a minimum of 2 months of symptom-free survival. We detected transient recurrence of MPE in one patient (4.5%) 14 days after the MCPF, which disappeared spontaneously after 24 hours. Conclusion The MCPF offers a real alternative in certain cases of pericardial effusion. We recommend this method especially for the definitive surgical palliation of MPE. PMID:22713743

  6. [Pertussis vaccines: acellular versus whole cell. Perhaps a return to the past?].

    PubMed

    Cofré, José

    2015-10-01

    The resurgence of pertussis in the world and in our country has questioned the effectiveness of cellular and acellular vaccines. The reason why pertussis has not been controlled or eliminated after 70 years of implementation of the vaccination is probably multifactorial. This article, on the basis of questions and answers, describes the benefits and limitations of both cellular and acellular vaccines and suggests new strategies of vaccination in childhood. It is a fact that the currently applied vaccination does not eliminate the circulation of Bordetella pertussis in the community. Perhaps the introduction of vaccines with live B. pertussis, inhalation, will be able to eliminate the disease around the world. PMID:26633113

  7. Immunogenicity and safety of a monovalent, multicomponent acellular pertussis vaccine in 15 month-6-year-old German children. Monovalent Acellular Pertussis Vaccine Study Group.

    PubMed

    Stehr, K; Heininger, U; Uhlenbusch, R; Angersbach, P; Hackell, J; Eckhardt, T

    1995-03-01

    Immunization against pertussis has been re-recommended for healthy children in Germany in 1991. In addition the former restriction of immunizing only in the first 2 years of life was abolished. In children born before 1991 immunization rates against pertussis were 15% or less. With the new recommendations physicians are now faced with an increasing demand of parents for catch-up vaccinations in these children. Since they were immunized against diphtheria and tetanus previously monovalent pertussis vaccines are needed for this indication. Therefore a monovalent, multicomponent acellular pertussis vaccine was studied in 249 German children 15 months to 6 years of age. Three doses were administered at 6-10 week intervals. Reactogenicity and antibody responses against the vaccine antigens pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), 69-kd antigen (pertactin) and fimbriae-2 (agglutinogen) were investigated. Local and systemic reactions were minimal in frequency and severity. Antibody responses against all vaccine antigens were pronounced with 93%-100% of vaccinees demonstrating at least four fold titre rises above pre-immunization after the third dose. These findings indicate that this monovalent, multicomponent acellular pertussis vaccine with excellent immunogenicity and low reactogenicity is an appropriate candidate for closing immunization gaps in older children in countries with previously low vaccination rates against pertussis. Based on the results of this study the monovalent acellular pertussis vaccine was licensed in Germany in January 1994. PMID:7758519

  8. Design and Synthesis of an Artificial Pulmonary Pleura for High Throughput Studies in Acellular Human Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Darcy E.; Fenn, Spencer L.; Bonenfant, Nicholas R.; Marks, Elliot R.; Borg, Zachary; Saunders, Patrick; Oldinski, Rachael A.; Weiss, Daniel J.

    2015-01-01

    Whole organ decellularization of complex organs, such as lungs, presents a unique opportunity for use of acellular scaffolds for ex vivo tissue engineering or for studying cell-extracellular matrix interactions ex vivo. A growing body of literature investigating decellularizing and recellularizing rodent lungs has provided important proof of concept models and rodent lungs are readily available for high throughput studies. In contrast, comparable progress in large animal and human lungs has been impeded owing to more limited availability and difficulties in handling larger tissue. While the use of smaller segments of acellular large animal or human lungs would maximize usage from a single lung, excision of small acellular segments compromises the integrity of the pleural layer, leaving the terminal ends of blood vessels and airways exposed. We have developed a novel pleural coating using non-toxic ionically crosslinked alginate or photocrosslinked methacrylated alginate which can be applied to excised acellular lung segments, permits inflation of small segments, and significantly enhances retention of cells inoculated through cannulated airways or blood vessels. Further, photocrosslinking methacrylated alginate, using eosin Y and triethanolamine (TEOA) at 530nm wavelength, results in a mechanically stable pleural coating that permits effective cyclic 3-dimensional stretch, i.e. mechanical ventilation, of individual segments. PMID:25750684

  9. Corneal Stroma Regeneration with Acellular Corneal Stroma Sheets and Keratocytes in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Xiao Yun; Zhang, Yun; Zhu, Dan; Lu, Yang; Zhou, Guangdong; Liu, Wei; Cao, Yilin; Zhang, Wen Jie

    2015-01-01

    Acellular corneal stroma matrix has been used for corneal stroma engineering. However, because of its compact tissue structure, regrowth of keratocytes into the scaffold is difficult. Previously, we developed a sandwich model for cartilage engineering using acellular cartilage sheets. In the present study, we tested this model for corneal stroma regeneration using acellular porcine corneal stroma (APCS) sheets and keratocytes. Porcine corneas were decellularized by NaCl treatment, and the APCS was cut into 20-μm-thick sheets. A rabbit corneal stroma defect model was created by lamellar keratoplasty and repaired by transplantation of five pieces of APCS sheets with keratocytes. Six months after transplantation, transparent corneas were present in the experimental group, which were confirmed by anterior segment optical coherence tomography examination and transmittance examination. The biomechanical properties in the experimental group were similar to those of normal cornea. Histological analyses showed an even distribution of keratocytes and well-oriented matrix in the stroma layer in the experimental group. Together, these results demonstrated that the sandwich model using acellular corneal stroma sheets and keratocytes could be potentially useful for corneal stroma regeneration. PMID:26167895

  10. Repair of a Gingival Fenestration Using an Acellular Dermal Matrix Allograft.

    PubMed

    Breault, Lawrence G; Brentson, Raquel C; Fowler, Edward B; Bisch, Frederick C

    2016-01-01

    A case report illustrating the successful treatment of a gingival fenestration with an acellular dermal matrix (ADM) allograft. After 2½ months of healing, the ADM was completely integrated into the soft tissues of the mandibular anterior gingiva with complete resolution of the gingival fenestration, resulting in excellent gingival esthetics. PMID:26874103

  11. Development and characterisation of a decellularised bovine osteochondral biomaterial for cartilage repair.

    PubMed

    Fermor, Hazel L; Russell, Serena L; Williams, Sophie; Fisher, John; Ingham, Eileen

    2015-05-01

    It is proposed that an acellular natural osteochondral scaffold will provide a successful repair material for the early intervention treatment of cartilage lesions, to prevent or slow the progression of cartilage deterioration to osteoarthritis. Here, we investigated the efficacy of methods for the decellularisation of bovine osteochondral plugs. The plugs were subject to four freeze/thaw cycles followed by two cycles of washes in hypotonic solution and low concentration (0.1% w/v) sodium dodecyl sulphate with protease inhibitors. Plugs were treated with nuclease (DNase and RNase) treatment followed by sterilization in peracetic acid. Full tissue decellularisation was achieved as confirmed by histological analysis and DNA quantification, however the resultant acellular matrix had reduced glycosaminoglycan content which led to an increased percent deformation of cartilage. Furthermore, the acellular scaffold was not reproducibly biocompatible. Additional terminal washes were included in the process to improve biocompatibility, however, this led to visible structural damage to the cartilage. This damage was found to be minimised by reducing the cut edge to cartilage area ratio through decellularisation of larger cuts of osteochondral tissue. PMID:25893393

  12. Acellular ostrich corneal stroma used as scaffold for construction of tissue-engineered cornea

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xian-Ning; Zhu, Xiu-Ping; Wu, Jie; Wu, Zheng-Jie; Yin, Yong; Xiao, Xiang-Hua; Su, Xin; Kong, Bin; Pan, Shi-Yin; Yang, Hua; Cheng, Yan; An, Na; Mi, Sheng-Li

    2016-01-01

    AIM To assess acellular ostrich corneal matrix used as a scaffold to reconstruct a damaged cornea. METHODS A hypertonic saline solution combined with a digestion method was used to decellularize the ostrich cornea. The microstructure of the acellular corneal matrix was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining. The mechanical properties were detected by a rheometer and a tension machine. The acellular corneal matrix was also transplanted into a rabbit cornea and cytokeratin 3 was used to check the immune phenotype. RESULTS The microstructure and mechanical properties of the ostrich cornea were well preserved after the decellularization process. In vitro, the methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium results revealed that extracts of the acellular ostrich corneas (AOCs) had no inhibitory effects on the proliferation of the corneal epithelial or endothelial cells or on the keratocytes. The rabbit lamellar keratoplasty showed that the transplanted AOCs were transparent and completely incorporated into the host cornea while corneal turbidity and graft dissolution occurred in the acellular porcine cornea (APC) transplantation. The phenotype of the reconstructed cornea was similar to a normal rabbit cornea with a high expression of cytokeratin 3 in the superficial epithelial cell layer. CONCLUSION We first used AOCs as scaffolds to reconstruct damaged corneas. Compared with porcine corneas, the anatomical structures of ostrich corneas are closer to those of human corneas. In accordance with the principle that structure determines function, a xenograft lamellar keratoplasty also confirmed that the AOC transplantation generated a superior outcome compared to that of the APC graft. PMID:27158598

  13. Effects of the decellularization method on the local stiffness of acellular lungs.

    PubMed

    Melo, Esther; Garreta, Elena; Luque, Tomas; Cortiella, Joaquin; Nichols, Joan; Navajas, Daniel; Farré, Ramon

    2014-05-01

    Lung bioengineering, a novel approach to obtain organs potentially available for transplantation, is based on decellularizing donor lungs and seeding natural scaffolds with stem cells. Various physicochemical protocols have been used to decellularize lungs, and their performance has been evaluated in terms of efficient decellularization and matrix preservation. No data are available, however, on the effect of different decellularization procedures on the local stiffness of the acellular lung. This information is important since stem cells directly sense the rigidity of the local site they are engrafting to during recellularization, and it has been shown that substrate stiffness modulates cell fate into different phenotypes. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of the decellularization procedure on the inhomogeneous local stiffness of the acellular lung on five different sites: alveolar septa, alveolar junctions, pleura, and vessels' tunica intima and tunica adventitia. Local matrix stiffness was measured by computing Young's modulus with atomic force microscopy after decellularizing the lungs of 36 healthy rats (Sprague-Dawley, male, 250-300 g) with four different protocols with/without perfusion through the lung circulatory system and using two different detergents (sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS] and 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate [CHAPS]). The local stiffness of the acellular lung matrix significantly depended on the site within the matrix (p<0.001), ranging from ∼ 15 kPa at the alveolar septum to ∼ 60 kPa at the tunica intima. Acellular lung stiffness (p=0.003) depended significantly, albeit modestly, on the decellularization process. Whereas perfusion did not induce any significant differences in stiffness, the use of CHAPS resulted in a ∼ 35% reduction compared with SDS, the influence of the detergent being more important in the tunica intima. In conclusion, lung matrix stiffness is considerably inhomogeneous, and

  14. Development and Characterization of Acellular Porcine Pulmonary Valve Scaffolds for Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Korossis, Sotirios A.; Wilshaw, Stacy-Paul; Jennings, Louise M; Fisher, John; Ingham, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    Currently available replacement heart valves all have limitations. This study aimed to produce and characterize an acellular, biocompatible porcine pulmonary root conduit for reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract e.g., during Ross procedure. A process for the decellularization of porcine pulmonary roots was developed incorporating trypsin treatment of the adventitial surface of the scraped pulmonary artery and sequential treatment with hypotonic Tris buffer (HTB; 10 mM Tris pH 8.0, 0.1% (w/v) EDTA, and 10 KIU aprotinin), 0.1% (w/v) sodium dodecyl sulfate in HTB, two cycles of DNase and RNase, and sterilization with 0.1% (v/v) peracetic acid. Histology confirmed an absence of cells and retention of the gross histoarchitecture. Immunohistochemistry further confirmed cell removal and partial retention of the extracellular matrix, but a loss of collagen type IV. DNA levels were reduced by more than 96% throughout all regions of the acellular tissue and no functional genes were detected using polymerase chain reaction. Total collagen levels were retained but there was a significant loss of glycosaminoglycans following decellularization. The biomechanical, hydrodynamic, and leaflet kinematics properties were minimally affected by the process. Both immunohistochemical labeling and antibody absorption assay confirmed a lack of α-gal epitopes in the acellular porcine pulmonary roots and in vitro biocompatibility studies indicated that acellular leaflets and pulmonary arteries were not cytotoxic. Overall the acellular porcine pulmonary roots have excellent potential for development of a tissue substitute for right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction e.g., during the Ross procedure. PMID:24786313

  15. Prosthetic Breast Reconstruction With Acellular Dermal Matrices: Achieving Predictability and Reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Nahabedian, Maurice Y

    2016-05-01

    The use of acellular dermal matrices in the setting of prosthetic breast reconstruction has captured the attention of many plastic surgeons. The regenerative capacity of these materials has provided additional tissue support to the mastectomy skin flaps with the ultimate result of improving surgical and aesthetic outcomes. Despite the benefits, there remains a significant diversity with regard to outcomes with some surgeons reporting increased morbidity. The reasons for this are varied but ultimately related to differences in patient selection and surgical techniques. The purpose of this article is to provide strategies for using acellular dermal matrix to achieve success in a manner that is usually associated with outcomes that are predictable and reproducible. PMID:27579223

  16. Pioneering technique using Acellular Dermal Matrix in the rescue of a radiation ulcer

    PubMed Central

    NASEEM, S.; PATEL, A.D.; DEVALIA, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background Radiotherapy as an adjuvant to mastectomy is integral to the treatment of breast cancer, but can result in skin ulceration. Skin ulceration following radiotherapy is traditionally managed by removing the implant and allowing the skin to heal by secondary intention. Case report A 42-year-old woman underwent radiotherapy following a breast reconstruction. She developed a 2 x 3cm radiation ulcer. The ulcer was managed by removing the implant and performing capsulectomy. A Beckers 50 expander was placed and reinforced with acellular dermal matrix inferolaterally. At follow-up the patient had a good cosmetic outcome. Conclusion Post-radiation skin ulcers present a challenge to treat with no current standardised management. The use of acellular dermal matrix may present a new technique to promote healing in these testing cases. PMID:27142826

  17. Prosthetic Breast Reconstruction With Acellular Dermal Matrices: Achieving Predictability and Reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Summary: The use of acellular dermal matrices in the setting of prosthetic breast reconstruction has captured the attention of many plastic surgeons. The regenerative capacity of these materials has provided additional tissue support to the mastectomy skin flaps with the ultimate result of improving surgical and aesthetic outcomes. Despite the benefits, there remains a significant diversity with regard to outcomes with some surgeons reporting increased morbidity. The reasons for this are varied but ultimately related to differences in patient selection and surgical techniques. The purpose of this article is to provide strategies for using acellular dermal matrix to achieve success in a manner that is usually associated with outcomes that are predictable and reproducible. PMID:27579223

  18. DermACELL: Human Acellular Dermal Matrix Allograft A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Cole, Windy E

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes often causes ulcers on the feet of diabetic patients. A 56-year-old, insulin-dependent, diabetic woman presented to the wound care center with a Wagner grade 3 ulcer of the right heel. She reported a 3-week history of ulceration with moderate drainage and odor and had a history of ulceration and osteomyelitis in the contralateral limb. Rigorous wound care, including hospitalization; surgical incision and drainage; intravenous antibiotic drug therapy; vacuum-assisted therapy; and a new room temperature, sterile, human acellular dermal matrix graft were used to heal the wound, save her limb, and restore her activities of daily living. This case presentation involves alternative treatment of a diabetic foot ulcer with this new acellular dermal matrix, DermACELL. PMID:27031550

  19. Outcomes of allogenic acellular matrix therapy in treatment of diabetic foot wounds: an initial experience.

    PubMed

    Martin, Billy R; Sangalang, Melinda; Wu, Stephanie; Armstrong, David G

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate outcomes of persons with UT grade 2A neuropathic diabetic foot wounds treated with an acellular matrix. Data were abstracted for 17 consecutive patients with diabetes--76.5% males, aged 61.5 +/- 8.5 years with a mean glycated haemoglobin of 9.2 +/- 2.2% presenting for care at a large, multidisciplinary wound care centre. All patients received surgical debridement for their diabetic foot wounds and were placed on therapy consisting of a single application of an acellular matrix graft (GraftJacket; Wright Medical Technologies, Arlington, TN, USA) with dressing changes taking place weekly. Outcomes evaluated included time to complete wound closure and proportion of patients achieving wound closure in 20 weeks. Acellular matrix therapy was used as initial therapy and was sutured or stapled in place under a silicone-based non adherent dressing. Therapy was then followed by a moisture-retentive dressing until complete epithelialisation. In total, 82.4% of wounds measuring a mean 4.6 +/- 3.2 cm(2) healed in the 20-week evaluation period. For those that healed in this period, healing took place in a mean 8.9 +/- 2.7 weeks. We conclude that a regimen consisting of moist wound healing using an acellular matrix dressing may be a useful adjunct to appropriate diabetic foot ulcer care for deep, non-infected, non-ischaemic wounds. We await the completion of further trials in this area to confirm or refute this initial assessment. PMID:16722865

  20. Hertwig's epithelial root sheath cell behavior during initial acellular cementogenesis in rat molars.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki; Yamamoto, Tomomaya; Yamada, Tamaki; Hasegawa, Tomoka; Hongo, Hiromi; Oda, Kimimitsu; Amizuka, Norio

    2014-11-01

    This study was designed to examine developing acellular cementum in rat molars by immunohistochemistry, to elucidate (1) how Hertwig's epithelial root sheath disintegrates and (2) whether epithelial sheath cells transform into cementoblasts through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Initial acellular cementogenesis was divided into three developmental stages, which can be seen in three different portions of the root: portion 1, where the epithelial sheath is intact; portion 2, where the epithelial sheath becomes fragmented; and portion 3, where acellular cementogenesis begins. Antibodies against three kinds of matrix proteinases, which degrade epithelial sheath-maintaining factors, including basement membrane and desmosomes, were used to investigate proteolytic activity of the epithelial sheath. Tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNALP) and keratin were used to investigate EMT. Epithelial sheath cells showed immunoreactivity for all three enzymes at fragmentation, which suggests that epithelial sheath disintegration is enzymatically mediated. Dental follicle cells and cementoblasts showed intense immunoreactivity for TNALP, and from portion 1 through to 3, the reaction extended from the alveolar bone-related zone to the root-related zone. Cells possessing keratin/TNALP double immunoreactivity were virtually absent. Keratin-positive epithelial sheath cells showed negligible immunoreactivity for TNALP, and epithelial cells did not appear to migrate to the dental follicle. Together, these findings suggest that a transition phenotype between epithelial cells and cementoblasts does not exist in the developing dental follicle and hence that epithelial sheath cells do not undergo EMT during initial acellular cementogenesis. In brief, this study supports the notion that cementoblasts derive from the dental follicle. PMID:24859538

  1. Biomechanical evaluation of acellular collagen matrix augmented Achilles tendon repair in sheep.

    PubMed

    Song, Lin; Olsen, Raymond E; Spalazzi, Jeffrey P; Davisson, Twana

    2010-01-01

    The rate of rerupture of repaired Achilles tendon in young and athletic populations remains high despite improvement in surgical techniques, suture design, and postsurgical management. Acellular biological matrices can be used to enhance the immediate strength of repaired tendons and to serve as scaffolds for cell in-growth and constructive tissue remodeling. A number of commercially available matrices have been used clinically, albeit with varying degrees of success and failure. The disparity is likely attributable to the different physical and biochemical properties of individual matrices. In this study, we investigated the biomechanical characteristics of 2 different acellular collagen matrices, namely TissueMend and GraftJacket, using a sheep Achilles tendon repair model. Static and cyclic creep, cyclic and linear construct stiffness, maximum load to failure, and displacement at maximum load were determined at time zero. We found that the maximum load to failure, displacement, and ultimate failure mode were similar between tendons augmented with either acellular collagen matrix; however, TissueMend augmentation yielded lower creep and smaller construct elongation than did GraftJacket. The results indicated that the strength of TissueMend-augmented tendons and GraftJacket-augmented tendons was not statistically significantly different, although tendons augmented with TissueMend displayed greater stiffness, which may be clinically advantageous in the restoration of ruptured tendons. PMID:20797586

  2. Immunolocation of proteoglycans and bone-related noncollagenous glycoproteins in developing acellular cementum of rat molars.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Domon, T; Takahashi, S; Arambawatta, A K S; Wakita, M

    2004-09-01

    To elucidate the roles of proteoglycans of (PGs), bone sialoprotein (BSP), and osteopontin (OPN) in cementogenesis, their distribution was investigated in developing and established acellular cementum of rat molars by an immunoperoxidase method. To characterize PGs, antibodies against five species of glycosaminoglycans (GAGS), chondroitin-4-sulfate (C4S), chondroitin-6-sulfate (C6S), unsulfated chondroitin (C0S), dermatan sulfate (DS), and keratan sulfate (KS) were used. Routine histological staining was also applied. With onset of dentin mineralization, the initial cementum appeared on the dentin surface as a hematoxylin-stained fibril-poor layer. Subsequently, primitive principal fibers attached to the initial cementum. As the acellular cementum containing extrinsic fibers covered the initial cementum, the intal cementum formed the cemento-dentinal junction. Following immunohistochemistry at the earliest time of cementogenesis, the initial cementum was intensely immunoreactive for C4S, C6S, C0S, BSP, and OPN. After the initial cementum was embedded, neither the cemento-dentinal junction nor the cementum was immunoreactive for any GAG species. However, the cementum was immunoreactive for any GAG species. However, the cementum and cemento-dentinal were consistently immunoreactive for BSP. Although the cemento-dentinal junction was consistently immunoreactive for OPN, the remaining cementum showed no significant immunoreactivity. Thus, initial acellular cementogenesis requires a dense accumulation of PGs, BSP, and OPN, which may be associated with the mineralization process independently of collagen fibrils and initial principal fiber attachment. PMID:15278434

  3. Evaluating acellular versus cellular perfusate composition during prolonged ex vivo lung perfusion after initial cold ischaemia for 24 hours.

    PubMed

    Becker, Simon; Steinmeyer, Jasmin; Avsar, Murat; Höffler, Klaus; Salman, Jawad; Haverich, Axel; Warnecke, Gregor; Ochs, Matthias; Schnapper, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Normothermic ex vivo lung perfusion (EVLP) has developed as a powerful technique to evaluate particularly marginal donor lungs prior to transplantation. In this study, acellular and cellular perfusate compositions were compared in an identical experimental setting as no consensus has been reached on a preferred technique yet. Porcine lungs underwent EVLP for 12 h on the basis of an acellular or a cellular perfusate composition after 24 h of cold ischaemia as defined organ stress. During perfusion, haemodynamic and respiratory parameters were monitored. After EVLP, the lung condition was assessed by light and transmission electron microscopy. Aerodynamic parameters did not show significant differences between groups and remained within the in vivo range during EVLP. Mean oxygenation indices were 491 ± 39 in the acellular group and 513 ± 53 in the cellular group. Groups only differed significantly in terms of higher pulmonary artery pressure and vascular resistance in the cellular group. Lung histology and ultrastructure were largely well preserved after prolonged EVLP and showed only minor structural alterations which were similarly present in both groups. Prolonged acellular and cellular EVLP for 12 h are both feasible with lungs prechallenged by ischaemic organ stress. Physiological and ultrastructural analysis showed no superiority of either acellular or cellular perfusate composition. PMID:26264867

  4. 77 FR 20319 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Correction In proposed rule...

  5. 78 FR 73993 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Parts 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, and 98 RIN 0579-AC68 Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products Corrections In rule document 2013-28228 appearing...

  6. Florid pustular dermatitis of breast: A case report on a unusual complication from acellular dermal matrix use

    PubMed Central

    James, Justin; Jackson, Lee; Saunders, Christobel

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Idiopathic erythematous reaction of the breast (Red breast syndrome) is a known complication following breast reconstruction with acellular dermal matrix. However pustular dermatitis like presentation is not previously known. Presentation of case We present a 42-year-old lady who developed bilateral pustular dermatitis like appearance following breast reconstruction with acellular dermal matrix slings. Though surgical washout was done, both expanders and flex HD could be preserved. Discussion Acellular dermal matrix use is the only possible explanation for such a presentation and this can be considered a variant of red breast syndrome. Conclusion Pustular dermatitis like presentation can be associated with acelluar dermal matrix use and should be considered in similar clinical presentations, since this can avoid unnecessary surgical procedures. PMID:27058152

  7. Unlocking the bovine genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The draft genome sequence of cattle (Bos taurus) has now been analyzed by the Bovine Genome Sequencing and Analysis Consortium and the Bovine HapMap Consortium, which together represent an extensive collaboration involving more than 300 scientists from 25 different countries. ...

  8. Bovine viral diarrhea viruses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infections with bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) result in significant economic losses for beef and dairy producers worldwide. BVDV is actually an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. While denoted as a bovine pathogen...

  9. Constructing Human Skin Equivalents on Porcine Acellular Peritoneum Extracellular Matrix for In Vitro Irritation Testing.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei-Chin; Zhang, Zheng; Florek, Charles; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B

    2016-01-01

    The irritancy of topical products has to be investigated to ensure the safety and compliance. Although several reconstructed human epidermal models have been adopted by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to replace in vivo animal irritation testing, these models are based on a single cell type and lack dermal components, which may be insufficient to reflect all of the components of irritation. In our study, we investigated the use of acellular porcine peritoneum extracellular matrix as a substrate to construct full-thickness human skin equivalents (HSEs) for use as irritation screening tool. The acellular peritoneum matrix (APM) exhibited excellent skin cell attachment (>80%) and proliferation for human dermal fibroblasts (HDF) and immortalized human keratinocytes (HaCaT). APM-HSEs based on coculture of HDF and HaCaT were prepared. Increased HDF seeding density up to 5 × 10(4)/cm(2) resulted in APM-HSEs with a thicker and more organized epidermis. The epidermis of APM-HSEs expressed keratin 15, a keratinocyte proliferation marker, and involucrin, a differentiation marker, respectively. To assess the use of APM-HSEs for irritation testing, six proficiency chemicals, including three nonirritants (phosphate-buffered saline, polyethylene glycol 400, and isopropanol) and three irritants (1-bromohexane, heptanol, and sodium dodecyl sulfate) were applied. The APM-HSEs were able to discriminate nonirritants from irritants based on the viability. Levels of cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1α, IL-1ra, IL-6, IL-8, and granulocyte macrophage colony-stimulating factor [GM-CSF]) in these treatment groups further assisted the irritancy ranking. In conclusion, we have developed partially differentiated full-thickness APM-HSEs based on acellular porcine peritoneum matrix, and these APM-HSEs demonstrated utility as an in vitro irritation screening tool. PMID:26415037

  10. The Human Umbilical Vein with Wharton's Jelly as an Allogeneic, Acellular Construct for Vocal Fold Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Maritza L.; McFetridge, Peter S.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the potential of the decellularized human umbilical vein (HUV) as an allogeneic, acellular extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffold for engineering the vocal fold lamina propria in vitro. HUV specimens with Wharton's jelly on the abluminal surface were uniformly dissected from native umbilical cords using an automated procedure and subjected to a novel saline-based decellularization treatment for removal of potentially antigenic epitopes. Human vocal fold fibroblasts from primary culture were seeded onto the resulting acellular constructs and cultured for 21 days. The structures of decellularized and fibroblast-repopulated HUV constructs and the attachment, proliferation, and infiltration of fibroblasts were examined with light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Changes in the relative densities of collagen in the constructs associated with decellularization and recellularization were quantified using digital image analysis. In addition, fibroblasts infiltrating the scaffolds were released by cell recovery and quantified by counting. Viscoelastic properties of the scaffolds were measured using a linear, simple-shear rheometer at phonatory frequencies. Results showed that an acellular ECM construct with an intact three-dimensional structure of Wharton's jelly was fabricated. Vocal fold fibroblasts readily attached on the abluminal surface of the construct with high viability, with significant cellular infiltration up to approximately 600 μm deep into the construct. A significant increase in collagen expression was observed with recellularization. The elastic modulus and dynamic viscosity of the fibroblast-repopulated scaffolds were comparable to those of the human vocal fold lamina propria. These findings supported the potential of the construct as a possible surgical allograft for vocal fold restoration and reconstruction. PMID:19456236

  11. Cardiac tamponade via a fistula to the pericardium from a hydatid cyst: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Demircan, Ahmet; Keles, Ayfer; Kahveci, F Ozan; Tulmac, Murat; Ozsarac, Murat

    2010-06-01

    Although echinococcus is endemic in many sheep-raising areas of the world, cardiac involvement is rare. Cysts usually reach the heart by means of the coronary circulation, but other routes have been proposed. Pericardial tamponade due to a hydatid cyst has not yet been described in the literature. We present the case of a 46-year-old woman who presented to the Emergency Department with complaints of chest pain and mild dyspnea. Her medical history was positive for a liver hydatid cyst operation 26 years earlier. She was tachypneic, tachycardic, and hypotensive. Pleural and pericardial effusions were detected on transthoracic echocardiography. When she worsened clinically, pericardiocentesis was performed and she promptly improved. A fistula was detected between the liver and pericardium on computed tomography (CT) scan of the torso. Serologic test (agglutination) for Echinococcus granulosus was positive in a 1/32 dilution. A final diagnosis of mediastinal hydatic cyst was made, and a 4-week course of albendazol was given. Then the cyst was surgically excised, and the patient recovered without complications. PMID:18065186

  12. Current opinions on indications and algorithms for acellular dermal matrix use in primary prosthetic breast reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Vu, Michael M; Kim, John Y S

    2015-06-01

    Acellular dermal matrix (ADM) is widely used in primary prosthetic breast reconstruction. Many indications and contraindications to use ADM have been reported in the literature, and their use varies by institution and surgeon. Developing rational, tested algorithms to determine when ADM is appropriate can significantly improve surgical outcomes and reduce costs associated with ADM use. We review the important indications and contraindications, and discuss the algorithms that have been put forth so far. Further research into algorithmic decision-making for ADM use will allow optimized balancing of cost with risk and benefit. PMID:26161304

  13. Mechanisms by which acellular biologic scaffolds promote functional skeletal muscle restoration.

    PubMed

    Badylak, Stephen F; Dziki, Jenna L; Sicari, Brian M; Ambrosio, Fabrisia; Boninger, Michael L

    2016-10-01

    Acellular biologic scaffolds derived from extracellular matrix have been investigated in preclinical and clinical studies as a regenerative medicine approach for volumetric muscle loss treatment. The present manuscript provides a review of previous studies supporting the use of extracellular matrix derived biologic scaffolds for the promotion of functional skeletal muscle tissue formation that is contractile and innervated. The manuscript also identifies key mechanisms that have been associated with ECM-mediated skeletal muscle repair, and provides hypotheses as to why there have been variable outcomes, ranging from successful to unsatisfactory, associated with ECM bioscaffold implantation in the skeletal muscle injury microenvironment. PMID:27376561

  14. The use of acellular dermal matrix as a scaffold for periosteum replacement.

    PubMed

    Beniker, Dan; McQuillan, David; Livesey, Stephen; Urban, Robert M; Turner, Thomas M; Blum, Barbara; Hughes, Kim; Haggard, Warren O

    2003-05-01

    Three preclinical models were used to evaluate GraftJacket Acellular Periosteum Replacement Scaffold (Wright Medical Technology, Inc, Arlington, Tenn). The studies assessed the ability of the acellular dermal matrix to repopulate with cells, revascularize, provide a protected environment for bone defect restoration, and minimize fibrous tissue infiltration. An athymic nude rat muscle implantation study demonstrated a steady increase in cellular repopulation through days 2-21. The formation of blood vessels occurred between days 7-14 in this study. Results from a porcine femoral drill hole study indicated that the scaffold material was intact and adherent to surrounding bone and allowed cellular repopulation and vascular infiltration at a 5-week time period. A preliminary porcine segmental bone defect model at a 6-week time period demonstrated the ability of the scaffold material to protect the bone defect site as revealed by new bone formation within the margins of the defect and adjacent to the scaffold. The segmental model also indicated minimal to no soft tissue invasion into the defect site. The combined studies provided preliminary evidence that the dermal membrane material may be used as a scaffold for periosteum regeneration by allowing for cellular repopulation, revascularization, and bone defect restoration. PMID:12755232

  15. A preliminary study on the effects of acellular tissue graft augmentation in acute Achilles tendon ruptures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daniel K

    2008-01-01

    Acute Achilles tendon rupture injuries present surgical challenges because of the mechanical forces placed on this tendon. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an acellular human dermal tissue matrix, GraftJacket Matrix (Wright Medical Technology, Inc., Arlington, TN), as an augmentation material in acute Achilles tendon repair. Eleven consecutive patients with acute tendon ruptures were evaluated and followed up (20-31 months). Primary repair was followed by augmentation with the graft sutured circumferentially around the tendon. Patients were placed in an early functional rehabilitation program with postoperative evaluation at 3, 6, and 12 months. Outcome scores were calculated based on the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot scoring system. At 20-month postoperative follow-up, there have been no cases of rerupture or recurrent pain. The average return-to-activity time was 11.8 +/- 0.75 weeks. These retrospective clinical results suggest that with an acellular human dermal tissue matrix to augment acute Achilles tendon, primary repair offers a desirable return-to-activity time without any rerupture or complications. ACFAS Level of Clinical Evidence: 2c. PMID:18156058

  16. Achilles tendon repair with acellular tissue graft augmentation in neglected ruptures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Daniel K

    2007-01-01

    Neglected Achilles tendon rupture injuries present surgical challenges because of the quality and quantity of tendon tissue during repair combined with the magnitude of mechanical forces placed on this tendon. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of an acellular human dermal tissue matrix, GRAFTJACKET, as an augmentation material in neglected Achilles tendon repair. Nine patients with neglected Achilles tendon ruptures were evaluated and followed up for a minimum of 20 months. Primary repair was followed by augmentation with the graft and suturing circumferentially around the tendon. Patients were placed in an early, functional rehabilitation program with postoperative evaluation at 3, 6, and 12 months. Outcome scores were calculated based on the American Orthopaedic Foot and Ankle Society ankle-hindfoot scoring system. At 20 to 30 months postoperative follow-up range, there has been no incidence of re-rupture or recurrent pain. The average return-to-activity time was 15.2 +/- 1.7 weeks. The results from this retrospective clinical series suggest that using an acellular human dermal tissue matrix to augment neglected Achilles tendon rupture primary repair offers desirable return-to-activity time points and viable surgical alternative over previously reported surgical options. PMID:17980842

  17. Aseptic versus Sterile Acellular Dermal Matrices in Breast Reconstruction: An Updated Review

    PubMed Central

    Mendenhall, Shaun D.; Neumeister, Michael W.; Cederna, Paul S.; Momoh, Adeyiza O.

    2016-01-01

    Background: As the use of acellular dermal matrices in breast reconstruction has become more commonplace and efforts are made to improve on postoperative outcomes, the method of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) processing (aseptic versus sterile) has become a subject of interest. This article provides an updated overview of the critical aspects of ADM processing in addition to application of ADMs in single- and two-stage breast reconstruction, a review of the morbidity associated with ADM use, and alternatives. Methods: A literature review was performed in PubMed identifying recent systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and head-to-head comparisons on aseptically processed ADM and sterile-processed ADM in implant-based breast reconstruction. Results: Recent meta-analyses have shown a 2- to 3-fold increase in infections and tissue expander/implant explantation rates and a 3- to 4-fold increase in seroma formation compared with non-ADM reconstruction techniques. Comparisons of aseptic and sterile ADMs in multiple studies have shown no significant difference in infection rates and equivocal findings for other specific complications such as seroma formation. Conclusions: Current evidence on the impact of processing techniques that improve ADM sterility on postoperative morbidity in implant breast reconstruction is unclear. Deficiencies of the available data highlight the need for well-designed, multicenter, randomized controlled studies that will aid in optimizing outcomes in implant-based breast reconstruction. PMID:27536502

  18. Screening for Oxidative Stress Elicited by Engineered Nanomaterials: Evaluation of Acellular DCFH Assay

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Anoop K.; Bello, Dhimiter; Budhlall, Bridgette; Rogers, Eugene; Milton, Donald K.

    2012-01-01

    The DCFH assay is commonly used for measuring free radicals generated by engineered nanomaterials (ENM), a well-established mechanism of ENM toxicity. Concerns exist over susceptibility of the DCFH assay to: assay conditions, adsorption of DCFH onto ENM, fluorescence quenching and light scattering. These effects vary in magnitude depending on ENM physiochemical properties and concentration. A rigorous evaluation of this method is still lacking. The objective was to evaluate performance of the DCFH assay for measuring ENM-induced free radicals. A series of diverse and well-characterized ENM were tested in the acellular DCFH assay. We investigated the effect of sonication conditions, dispersion media, ENM concentration, and the use of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) on the DCFH results. The acellular DCFH assay suffers from high background signals resulting from dye auto-oxidation and lacks sensitivity and robustness. DCFH oxidation is further enhanced by HRP. The number of positive ENM in the assay and their relative ranking changed as a function of experimental conditions. An inverse dose relationship was observed for several Carbon-based ENM. Overall, these findings indicate the importance of having standardized assays for evaluating ENM toxicity and highlights limitations of the DCFH assay for measuring ENM-induced free radicals. PMID:22942866

  19. Deficiency in acellular cementum and periodontal attachment in bsp null mice.

    PubMed

    Foster, B L; Soenjaya, Y; Nociti, F H; Holm, E; Zerfas, P M; Wimer, H F; Holdsworth, D W; Aubin, J E; Hunter, G K; Goldberg, H A; Somerman, M J

    2013-02-01

    Bone sialoprotein (BSP) is an extracellular matrix protein found in mineralized tissues of the skeleton and dentition. BSP is multifunctional, affecting cell attachment and signaling through an RGD integrin-binding region, and acting as a positive regulator for mineral precipitation by nucleating hydroxyapatite crystals. BSP is present in cementum, the hard tissue covering the tooth root that anchors periodontal ligament (PDL) attachment. To test our hypothesis that BSP plays an important role in cementogenesis, we analyzed tooth development in a Bsp null ((-/-)) mouse model. Developmental analysis by histology, histochemistry, and SEM revealed a significant reduction in acellular cementum formation on Bsp (-/-) mouse molar and incisor roots, and the cementum deposited appeared hypomineralized. Structural defects in cementum-PDL interfaces in Bsp (-/-) mice caused PDL detachment, likely contributing to the high incidence of incisor malocclusion. Loss of BSP caused progressively disorganized PDL and significantly increased epithelial down-growth with aging. Bsp (-/-) mice displayed extensive root and alveolar bone resorption, mediated by increased RANKL and the presence of osteoclasts. Results collected here suggest that BSP plays a non-redundant role in acellular cementum formation, likely involved in initiating mineralization on the root surface. Through its importance to cementum integrity, BSP is essential for periodontal function. PMID:23183644

  20. Sterile acellular dermal collagen as a treatment for rippling deformity of breast.

    PubMed

    Busse, Brittany; Orbay, Hakan; Sahar, David E

    2014-01-01

    Prosthetic implants are frequently used for breast augmentation and breast reconstruction following mastectomy. Unfortunately, long-term aesthetic results of prosthetic breast restoration may be hindered by complications such as rippling, capsular contracture, and implant malposition. The advent of use of acellular dermal matrices has greatly improved the outcomes of prosthetic breast reconstruction. We describe a case of rippling deformity of breast that was treated using an acellular dermal matrix product, AlloMax. The patient presented with visible rippling of bilateral prosthetic breast implants as well as significant asymmetry of the breasts after multiple excisional biopsies for right breast ductal carcinoma in situ. A 6 × 10 cm piece of AlloMax was placed on the medial aspect of each breast between the implant and the skin flap. Follow-up was performed at 1 week, 3 months, and 1 year following the procedure. The patient recovered well from the surgery and there were no complications. At her first postoperative follow-up the patient was extremely satisfied with the result. At her 3-month and 1-year follow-up she had no recurrence of her previous deformity and no new deformity. PMID:25610697

  1. Repair of lacerated anterior tibial tendon with acellular tissue graft augmentation.

    PubMed

    DiDomenico, Lawrence A; Blasko, Gregory A; Cane, Laurence; Cross, Davina J

    2012-01-01

    In the present case report, we describe the surgical repair of a complete laceration of the anterior tibial tendon using acellular human dermal tissue matrix. A 17-year-old, elite league hockey player was injured in the locker room when a teammate still clad in ice skates stepped on his bare left foot. After evaluation at a local emergency department, the patient presented to our office the next day for additional evaluation. It was determined that surgery would be performed using acellular tissue graft augmentation, followed by physical therapy. Within 7 weeks of the injury, the athlete returned to his original level of activity. At 3 years of follow-up, he was playing Division 1 hockey at the university level. We believe that augmentation of the tendon repair with the grafting material enhanced the tendon tensile strength and promoted ingrowth through vascular channels. This, combined with the patient's dedication to physical therapy, led to excellent recovery in less time than anticipated. PMID:22762944

  2. Creation and implantation of acellular rat renal ECM-based scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Peloso, Andrea; Ferrario, Jacopo; Maiga, Benedetta; Benzoni, Ilaria; Bianco, Carolina; Citro, Antonio; Currao, Manuela; Malara, Alessandro; Gaspari, Annalisa; Balduini, Alessandra; Abelli, Massimo; Piemonti, Lorenzo; Dionigi, Paolo; Orlando, Giuseppe; Maestri, Marcello

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Kidney transplantation is the only potentially curative treatment for patient facing end-stage renal disease, and it is now routinely used. Its use is mainly limited by the supply of transplantable donor organs, which far exceeds the demand. Regenerative medicine and tissue engineering offer promising means for overcoming this shortage. In the present study, we developed and validated a protocol for producing acellular rat renal scaffolds. Left kidneys were removed from 26 male Lewis rats (weights: 250–350 g) and decellularized by means of aortic anterograde perfusion with ionic and anionic detergents (Triton X-100 1% and SDS 1%, respectively). 19 scaffolds thus obtained (and contralateral native kidneys as controls) were deeply characterized in order to evaluate the decellularization quality, the preservation of extracellular matrix components and resultant micro-angioarchitecture structure. The other 7 were transplanted into 7 recipient rats that had undergone unilateral nephrectomy. Recipients were sacrificed on post-transplantation day 7 and the scaffolds subjected to histologic studies. The dual-detergent protocol showed, with only 5 h of perfusion per organ, to obtain thoroughly decellularized renal scaffolds consisting almost exclusively of extracellular matrix. Finally the macro- and the microarchitecture of the renal parenchyma were well preserved, and the grafts were implanted with ease. Seven days after transplant, the scaffolds were morphologically intact although all vascular structures were obstructed with thrombi. Production and implantation of acellular rat renal scaffolds is a suitable platform for further studies on regenerative medicine and tissue engineering. PMID:26186418

  3. Alternatives to HIST for acellular pertussis vaccines: progress and challenges in replacement

    PubMed Central

    Arciniega, J.; Wagner, L.; Prymula, R.; Sebo, P.; Isbrucker, R.; Descampe, B.; Chapsal, J.M.; Costanzo, A.; Hendriksen, C.; Hoonaker, M.; Nelson, S.; Lidster, K.; Casey, W.; Allen, D.

    2016-01-01

    The ‘International Workshop on Alternatives to the Murine Histamine Sensitization Test for Acellular Pertussis Vaccines: Progress and Challenges in the Replacement of HIST’ was held on 24 August 2014, in Prague, Czech Republic, as a satellite meeting to the 9 th World Congress on Alternatives and Animal Use in the Life Sciences. Participants discussed the progress and challenges associated with the development, validation, and implementation of in vitro assays as replacements for the histamine sensitisation test (HIST) for acellular pertussis vaccines. Discussions focused on the consistency approach, the necessary framework for regulatory acceptance of a harmonised method, and recent international efforts towards the development of in vitro assays to replace the HIST. Workshop participants agreed that acceptable alternatives to the HIST should be based on ADP ribosylation-mediated cell intoxication and therefore that the CHO cell clustering assay, which measures cell intoxication, should be further pursued and developed as a possible replacement for the HIST. Participants also agreed to continue ongoing multinational discussions involving national and international standardisation authorities to reach consensus and to organise collaborative studies in this context for assay characterisation and calibration of reference materials. PMID:27506225

  4. Multiplex immunoassay for in vitro characterization of acellular pertussis antigens in combination vaccines.

    PubMed

    Agnolon, Valentina; Bruno, Cristina; Galletti, Bruno; Mori, Elena; Ugozzoli, Mildred; Pergola, Carlo; O'Hagan, Derek T; Baudner, Barbara C

    2016-02-17

    Vaccines characterization is required to ensure physical, chemical, and biological integrity of antigens and adjuvants. Current analytical methods mostly require complete antigen desorption from aluminum-based adjuvants and are not always suitable to distinguish individual antigens in multivalent formulations. Here, Luminex technology is proposed to improve the analytics of vaccine characterization. As proof of concept, TdaP (tetanus, diphtheria and acellular pertussis) combination, adjuvanted with aluminum hydroxide, was chosen as model formulation to quantify and determine the level of adsorption of acellular pertussis (aP) antigens onto adjuvant surface at the same time. The assay used specific antibodies bound to magnetic microspheres presenting unique digital signatures for each pertussis antigen, allowing the simultaneous recognition of respective antigens in the whole vaccine, avoiding laborious procedures for adjuvant separation. Accurate and reproducible quantification of aP antigens in TdaP vaccine has been achieved in the range 0.78-50 ng/mL, providing simultaneously information on antigen identity, quantity, and degree of adsorption to aluminum hydroxide. The current study could further be considered as a model to set up in vitro potency assays thus supporting the replacement of animal tests accordingly to the 3Rs concept. PMID:26784684

  5. Interposition Porcine Acellular Dermal Matrix Xenograft Successful Alternative in Treatment for Massive Rotator Cuff

    PubMed Central

    Neumann, Julie; Zgonis, Miltiadis H.; Reay, Kathleen Dolores; Mayer, Stephanie W.; Boggess, Blake; Toth, Alison P.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Despite advances in the surgical techniques of rotator cuff repair (RCR), the management of massive rotator cuff tears in shoulders without glenohumeral arthritis poses a difficult problem for surgeons. Failure of massive rotator cuff repairs range from 20-90% at one to two years postoperatively using arthrography, ultrasound, or magnetic resonance imaging. Additionally, there are inconsistent outcomes reported with debridement alone of massive rotator cuff tears as well as limitations seen with other current methods of operative intervention including arthroplasty and tendon transfers. The purpose of this prospective, comparative study was to determine if the repair of massive rotator cuff tears using an interposition porcine acellular dermal matrix xenograft improves subjective function, pain, range of motion, and strength at greater than two years follow-up. To our knowledge, this is the largest prospective series reporting outcomes of using porcine acellular dermal matrix xenograft as an interposition graft. Methods: Thirty-seven patients (37 shoulders) with an average age of 66 years (range 51-80 years) were prospectively followed for 33 months (range 23-48) following massive RCR using porcine acellular dermal matrix interposition xenograft. Subjective outcomes were measured using the Visual Analog Scale (VAS) pain score (0-10, 0 = no pain), Modified American Shoulder and Elbow Score (M-ASES), and Short-Form12 (SF-12) scores. Preoperative and postoperative objective outcome measures included active range of motion and supraspinatus and infraspinatus manual muscle strength. Postoperative outcome measures included quantitative muscle strength using a dynamometer and static and dynamic ultrasonography to assess the integrity of the repair. Results: Average VAS pain score decreased from 4.5 to 1.1 (P<0.001). Average postoperative M-ASES was 89.23. Average postoperative SF-12 was 52.6. Mean forward flexion, external and internal rotation significantly

  6. Prevention of postoperative pericardial adhesions by closure of the pericardium with absorbable polymer patches. An experimental study.

    PubMed

    Malm, T; Bowald, S; Bylock, A; Busch, C

    1992-09-01

    Pericardial adhesions after cardiac operations are a widely known phenomenon. They may severely complicate reoperations, making reentry hazardous, increasing bleeding, and prolonging the operation time. The anatomic orientation and visibility of both bypass grafts and coronary arteries are also impaired. With the aim of minimizing pericardial adhesions after cardiac operations, we studied the course of tissue regeneration after implantation of a new absorbable patch made from poly-hydroxy-butyrate. A total of 23 sheep were studied. Of these, 18 formed the test group and five served as control animals. The animals were killed at intervals of 2 to 30 months after the operation. In 14 of the 18 test animals no adhesions developed. In three animals loose adhesions were found, and in one with signs of postoperative infection there were moderate, generalized adhesions. All control sheep showed moderate adhesions; no infection was noted in this group. Light microscopy in the test group revealed a layer of mesothelium-like cells facing the epicardial side; this was already present in the early specimens. Poly-hydroxy-butyrate appeared to be slowly phagocytosed by polynucleated macrophages, which were still found occasionally in the late samples. Lymphocytes and platelets were rare. Scanning electron microscopy showed, on the epicardial side of the regenerated tissue, a mesothelium-like lining that completely covered the underlying collagen layer. The surface cell morphology grossly resembled that of native pericardium. It was concluded that in this animal model poly-hydroxy-butyrate pericardial patches decreased adhesions and preserved coronary anatomy. The findings in the control group demonstrated that pericardial surgery in the sheep was associated with adhesion formation. PMID:1513149

  7. Effective management of major lower extremity wounds using an acellular regenerative tissue matrix: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Brigido, Stephen A; Boc, Steven F; Lopez, Ramon C

    2004-01-01

    Wound healing is a significant problem in orthopedics. Graftjacket tissue matrix (Wright Medical Technology, Inc, Arlington, Tenn), a novel acellular regenerative tissue matrix, has been designed to aid wound closure. A prospective, randomized study was initiated to determine the efficacy of this tissue product in wound repair compared with conventional treatment. Lower extremity wounds are refractile to healing in patients with diabetes mellitus. Therefore, researchers used diabetic foot ulcers to evaluate the efficacy of GraftJacket tissue matrix in wound repair. Only a single administration of the tissue matrix was required. After 1 month of treatment, preliminary results demonstrate that this novel tissue matrix promotes faster healing at a statistically significant rate over conventional treatment. Because wounds in this series of patients are deep and circulation around the wound is poor, the preliminary results suggest that this tissue matrix will be applicable to other types of orthopedic wounds. PMID:14763548

  8. Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy Evaluation of an Acellular Dermis Tissue Transplant (Epiflex®)

    PubMed Central

    Hohenberger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    The structure of a biological scaffold is a major determinant of its biological characteristics and its interaction with cells. An acellular dermis tissue transplant must undergo a series of processing steps, to remove cells and genetic material and provide the sterility required for surgical use. During manufacturing and sterilization the structure and composition of tissue transplants may change. The composition of the human cell-free dermis transplant Epiflex® was investigated with specific attention paid to its structure, matrix composition, cellular content and biomechanics. We demonstrated that after processing, the structure of Epiflex remains almost unchanged with an intact collagen network and extracellular matrix (ECM) protein composition providing natural cell interactions. Although the ready to use transplant does contain some cellular and DNA debris, the processing procedure results in a total destruction of cells and active DNA which is a requirement for an immunologically inert and biologically safe substrate. Its biomechanical parameters do not change significantly during the processing. PMID:23056225

  9. Tissue-engineered acellular small diameter long-bypass grafts with neointima-inducing activity.

    PubMed

    Mahara, Atsushi; Somekawa, Shota; Kobayashi, Naoki; Hirano, Yoshiaki; Kimura, Yoshiharu; Fujisato, Toshiya; Yamaoka, Tetsuji

    2015-07-01

    Researchers have attempted to develop efficient antithrombogenic surfaces, and yet small-caliber artificial vascular grafts are still unavailable. Here, we demonstrate the excellent patency of tissue-engineered small-caliber long-bypass grafts measuring 20-30 cm in length and having a 2-mm inner diameter. The inner surface of an acellular ostrich carotid artery was modified with a novel heterobifunctional peptide composed of a collagen-binding region and the integrin α4β1 ligand, REDV. Six grafts were transplanted in the femoral-femoral artery crossover bypass method. Animals were observed for 20 days and received no anticoagulant medication. No thrombogenesis was observed on the luminal surface and five cases were patent. In contrast, all unmodified grafts became occluded, and severe thrombosis was observed. The vascular grafts reported here are the first successful demonstrations of short-term patency at clinically applicable sizes. PMID:25941782

  10. Gravity related behavior of the acellular slime mold Physarum polycephalum (7-IML-1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Block, I.

    1992-01-01

    The objective of the experiment is to investigate the effect of near weightlessness on a single cell. The test object is the acellular slime mold Physarum polycephalum. This cell is composed of a network of protoplastic strands which perform rhythmic contractions in the minute range. These contractions of the strands' ectoplastic walls generate the force to drive the vigorous shuttle streaming of fluid protoplasm inside the strands (hydrostatic pressure flow). A net transport of protoplasm in one direction determines the direction of the cell's locomotion itself. In this way, gravity modifies the contraction rhythm of the strands, the streaming velocity of protoplasm in the strands, and the direction of locomotion of the whole slime mold (geotaxis). The other parts of this experiment will address the major question of how this cell, which does not possess any specialized gravireceptors, gets the information about the direction of the gravity vector. Details of the experimental setup are given.

  11. Ligament reconstruction with tendon interposition using an acellular dermal allograft for thumb carpometacarpal arthritis.

    PubMed

    Kokkalis, Zinon T; Zanaros, George; Sotereanos, Dean G

    2009-03-01

    Ligament reconstruction tendon interposition arthroplasty is currently the preferred technique for carpometacarpal joint arthritis of the thumb by most surgeons. Despite its efficacy, morbidity has been associated with the harvest of the flexor carpi radialis tendon. Using an allograft as material for arthroplasty, donor site morbidity is avoided. In this report, we present our surgical technique to perform ligament reconstruction tendon interposition arthroplasty using an acellular dermal matrix allograft (GraftJacket) in patients with Eaton stages II, III, and IV symptomatic first carpometacarpal arthritis.One hundred thumbs with trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis underwent surgical treatment using GraftJacket allograft instead of the flexor carpi radialis tendon autograft. Each patient was followed for a minimum of 12 months. The surgical procedure included trapezial excision and identification of the flexor carpi radialis. The allograft was cut to create a 15-cm strip. The ligament reconstruction was performed by passing the strip around the flexor carpi radialis tendon and suturing it to the base of the thumb metacarpal base through an intramedullary drill hole. The remaining portion of the allograft was fashioned as an interposition mass (anchovy) and interposed between the scaphoid and the base of the first metacarpal.All but 1 patient experienced significant improvement in his or her pain scale rating and grip and pinch strengths. Outcomes from this study compare very favorably with those of other series. No patients experienced a foreign body reaction or infection in this series. We believe that the use of an acellular dermal allograft for both ligament reconstruction and tendon interposition provides a safe and an effective alternative technique for the treatment of advanced first carpometacarpal arthritis. PMID:19276927

  12. Physiological distal drift in rat molars contributes to acellular cementum formation.

    PubMed

    Tsuchiya, Shinobu; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Nishioka, Takashi; Suzuki, Osamu; Sasano, Yasuyuki; Igarashi, Kaoru

    2013-08-01

    Occlusal forces may induce the physiological teeth migration in humans, but there is little direct evidence. Rat molars are known to migrate distally during aging, possibly caused by occlusal forces. The purpose of this study was to determine if a reduction in occlusion would decrease teeth migration and affect associated periodontal structures such as cementum. To reduce occlusal forces, the right upper first molar (M1) in juvenile rats was extracted. The transition of the position of upper second molar (M2) and formation of M2 cementum was followed during aging. From the cephalometric analyses, upper M2 was located more anterior compared with the original position with aging after M1 extraction. Associated with this "slowing-down" of the physiological drift, cementum thickness on distal surface, but not on mesial surface, of M2 root was significantly increased. The accumulation of alizarin red as vital stain indicative of calcification, was observed in the distal cementum of M2 root only on the side of M1 extraction. Extraction of M1 that results in less functional loading, distinctly attenuates the physiological drift only in the upper dentition. The decreased physiological drift appears to activate acellular cementum formation only on distal surface of M2 root, perhaps due to reduced mechanical stress associated with the attenuated distal drift. In conclusion, the physiological distal drift in rat molars appears to be largely driven by the occlusal force and also affects the formation of acellular cementum. These findings provide additional direct evidence for an important role of occlusal forces in tooth migration. PMID:23775928

  13. Is Sterile Better Than Aseptic? Comparing the Microbiology of Acellular Dermal Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Gabriel M.; Nasser, Ahmed E.; Phillips, Brett T.; Gersch, Robert P.; Fourman, Mitchell S.; Lilo, Sarit E.; Fritz, Jason R.; Khan, Sami U.; Dagum, Alexander B.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Postoperative infections are a major complication associated with tissue-expander-based breast reconstruction. The use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in this surgery has been identified as a potential reservoir of infection, prompting the development of sterile ADM. Although aseptic and sterile ADMs have been investigated, no study has focused on the occurrence and clinical outcome of bacterial colonization before implantation. Methods: Samples of aseptic AlloDerm, sterile Ready-To-Use AlloDerm, and AlloMax were taken before implantation. These samples were incubated in Tryptic soy broth overnight before being streaked on Trypticase soy agar, MacConkey agar, and 5% blood agar plates for culture and incubated for 48 hours. Culture results were cross-referenced with patient outcomes for 1 year postoperatively. Results: A total of 92 samples of ADM were collected from 63 patients. There were 15 cases of postoperative surgical site infection (16.3%). Only 1 sample of ADM (AlloMax) showed growth of Escherichia coli, which was likely a result of contamination. That patient did not develop any infectious sequelae. Patient outcomes showed no difference in the incidence of seroma or infection between sterile and aseptic ADMs. Conclusions: This study evaluates the microbiology of acellular dermal matrices before use in breast reconstruction. No difference was found in the preoperative bacterial load of either aseptic or sterile ADM. No significant difference was noted in infection or seroma formation. Given these results, we believe aseptic processing used on ADMs is equivalent to sterile processing in our patient cohort in terms of clinical infection and seroma occurrence postoperatively. PMID:27482500

  14. Fresh Autologous Pericardium to Reconstruct the Pulmonary Valve at the Annulus When Tetralogy of Fallot Requires a Transannular Patch at Midterm

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Jugal K.; Siddartha, C.R.; Bansal, Anubhav; Agarwal, Surendra K.; Tewari, Prabhat; Kapoor, Aditya

    2016-01-01

    Tetralogy of Fallot often requires reconstruction of the right ventricular outflow tract with a transannular patch (TAP), but this renders the pulmonary valve incompetent and eventually leads to right ventricular dysfunction. We retrospectively evaluated the efficacy of a reconstructed pulmonary valve and annulus in 70 patients who underwent, from December 2006 through December 2010, complete correction of tetralogy of Fallot. We divided the 70 patients into 2 groups in accordance with whether they required (n=50) or did not require (n=20) a TAP. We used autologous untreated pericardium to fashion the TAP and to create both an annulus of the correct size and a competent pulmonary valve with native leaflets. We evaluated the efficiency of this procedure both functionally and anatomically. The median age of the patients was 11 years (range, 2–38 yr). There were 56 males, with no significant difference in sexual distribution between groups. The clinical follow-up was 88% for 57.5 months, and the echocardiographic follow-up was 80% for 36 months. There was no significant difference in outflow gradient or in the occurrence of pulmonary insufficiency between the TAP group (none, 31; mild, 12; moderate, 6; and severe, 1) and the No-TAP group (none, 16; moderate, 2; and severe, 2) (P=0.59). Nor was there any thickening or calcification in the constructed valves. We conclude that pulmonary valves constructed of untreated autologous pericardium performed as well as native valves after total tetralogy of Fallot correction at midterm. PMID:27303235

  15. Acellularization-Induced Changes in Tensile Properties Are Organ Specific - An In-Vitro Mechanical and Structural Analysis of Porcine Soft Tissues

    PubMed Central

    Aust, Gabriela; Boldt, Andreas; Fritsch, Sebastian; Keil, Isabel; Koch, Holger; Möbius, Robert; Scheidt, Holger A.; Wagner, Martin F. X.; Hammer, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Though xenogeneic acellular scaffolds are frequently used for surgical reconstruction, knowledge of their mechanical properties is lacking. This study compared the mechanical, histological and ultrastructural properties of various native and acellular specimens. Materials and Methods Porcine esophagi, ureters and skin were tested mechanically in a native or acellular condition, focusing on the elastic modulus, ultimate tensile stress and maximum strain. The testing protocol for soft tissues was standardized, including the adaption of the tissue’s water content and partial plastination to minimize material slippage as well as templates for normed sample dimensions and precise cross-section measurements. The native and acellular tissues were compared at the microscopic and ultrastructural level with a focus on type I collagens. Results Increased elastic modulus and ultimate tensile stress values were quantified in acellular esophagi and ureters compared to the native condition. In contrast, these values were strongly decreased in the skin after acellularization. Acellularization-related decreases in maximum strain were found in all tissues. Type I collagens were well-preserved in these samples; however, clotting and a loss of cross-linking type I collagens was observed ultrastructurally. Elastins and fibronectins were preserved in the esophagi and ureters. A loss of the epidermal layer and decreased fibronectin content was present in the skin. Discussion Acellularization induces changes in the tensile properties of soft tissues. Some of these changes appear to be organ specific. Loss of cross-linking type I collagen may indicate increased mechanical strength due to decreasing transverse forces acting upon the scaffolds, whereas fibronectin loss may be related to decreased load-bearing capacity. Potentially, the alterations in tissue mechanics are linked to organ function and to the interplay of cells and the extracellular matrix, which is different in

  16. The solvent action of sodium hypochlorite on bovine tendon collagen, bovine pulp, and bovine gingiva.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, H; Asai, K; Fujita, H; Nakazato, H; Nishimura, Y; Furuse, Y; Sahashi, E

    1985-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the optimum temperature and concentration of sodium hypochlorite solution required to dissolve bovine tendon collagen, pulp, and gingiva. The 10% concentration of sodium hypochlorite solution at 37 degrees C was found to be most effective in dissolving bovine tendon collagen, pulp, and gingiva. Sodium hypochlorite solution was more effective in dissolving bovine pulp or tendon collagen than in dissolving bovine gingiva. PMID:3862046

  17. Three-dimensional scaffolds of acellular human and porcine lungs for high throughput studies of lung disease and regeneration

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Darcy E.; Bonenfant, Nicholas R.; Sokocevic, Dino; DeSarno, Michael; Borg, Zachary; Parsons, Charles; Brooks, Elice M.; Platz, Joseph; Khalpey, Zain; Hoganson, David M.; Deng, Bin; Lam, Ying Wai; Oldinski, Rachael A.; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Weiss, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Acellular scaffolds from complex whole organs such as lung are being increasingly studied for ex vivo organ generation and for in vitro studies of cell-extracellular matrix interactions. We have established effective methods for efficient de- and recellularization of large animal and human lungs including techniques which allow multiple small segments (∼1–3cm3) to be excised that retain 3-dimensional lung structure. Coupled with the use of a synthetic pleural coating, cells can be selectively physiologically inoculated via preserved vascular and airway conduits. Inoculated segments can be further sliced for high throughput studies. Further, we demonstrate thermography as a powerful noninvasive technique for monitoring perfusion decellularization and for evaluating preservation of vascular and airway networks following human and porcine lung decellularization. Collectively, these techniques are a significant step forward as they allow high throughput in vitro studies from a single lung or lobe in a more biologically relevant, three-dimensional acellular scaffold. PMID:24411675

  18. Human acellular dermal matrix for repair of abdominal wall defects: review of clinical experience and experimental data.

    PubMed

    Holton, Luther H; Kim, Daniel; Silverman, Ronald P; Rodriguez, Eduardo D; Singh, Navin; Goldberg, Nelson H

    2005-01-01

    The use of prosthetic mesh for the tension-free repair of incisional hernias has been shown to be more effective than primary suture repair. Unfortunately, prosthetic materials can be a suboptimal choice in a variety of clinical scenarios. In general, prosthetic materials should not be implanted into sites with known contamination or infection because they lack an endogenous vascular network and are thus incapable of clearing bacteria. This is of particular relevance to the repair of recurrent hernias, which are often refractory to repair because of indolent bacterial colonization that weakens the site and retards appropriate healing. Although fascia lata grafts and muscle flaps can be employed for tension-free hernia repairs, they carry the potential for significant donor site morbidity. Recently, a growing number of clinicians have used human acellular dermal matrix as a graft material for the tension-free repair of ventral hernias. This material has been shown to become revascularized in both animal and human subjects. Once repopulated with a vascular network, this graft material is theoretically capable of clearing bacteria, a property not found in prosthetic graft materials. Unlike autologous materials such as fascial grafts and muscle flaps, acellular dermal matrix can be used without subjecting the patient to additional morbidity in the form of donor site complications. This article presents a thorough review of the current literature, describing the properties of human acellular dermal matrix and discussing both animal and human studies of its clinical performance. In addition to the review of previously published clinical experiences, we discuss our own preliminary results with the use of acellular dermal matrix for ventral hernia repair in 46 patients. PMID:16218902

  19. Possible role of dentin matrix in region-specific deposition of cellular and acellular extrinsic fibre cementum.

    PubMed

    Takano, Yoshiro; Sakai, Hideo; Watanabe, Eiko; Ideguchi-Ohma, Noriko; Jayawardena, Chantha K; Arai, Kazumi; Asawa, Yukiyo; Nakano, Yukiko; Shuda, Yoko; Sakamoto, Yujiro; Terashima, Tatsuo

    2003-01-01

    The mechanism whereby a region-specific deposition of the two types of cementum (cellular cementum and acellular extrinsic fibre cementum) is regulated on the growing root surface was tested using bisphosphonate-affected teeth of young rats and guinea pigs. The animals were injected subcutaneously with 8 or 10 mg P x kg body weight(-1) x day(-1) of 1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate (HEBP) for 1 or 2 weeks. In rat molars, HEBP prevented mineralization of newly formed root dentin matrix and totally inhibited de novo deposition of acellular extrinsic fibre cementum. Instead, thick cellular cementum was induced on the non-mineralized root dentin surface, irrespective of the position of the root. In both animals, cellular cementum was also induced on the non-mineralized surface of root analogue dentin in HEBP-affected incisors, where only acellular extrinsic fibre cementum is deposited under normal conditions. In normal rat molars, dentin sialoprotein (DSP) was concentrated along the dentin-cellular cementum border, but not that of dentin and acellular extrinsic fibre cementum. In HEBP-affected rat incisors, DSP was shown to penetrate through the non-mineralized dentin into the surrounding tissues, but not through the mineralized portions. These data suggest that, at the site of cellular cementum formation, putative inducing factors for cellular cementum might diffuse into the periodontal space through the newly deposited mantle dentin matrix before it is mineralized. At earlier stages of root formation, mantle dentin might mineralize more promptly not to allow such diffusion. The timing of mineralization of mantle dentin matrix might be the key determinant of the types of the cementum deposited on the growing root surface. PMID:14756246

  20. Protein Crystal Bovine Insulin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The comparison of protein crystal, Bovine Insulin space-grown (left) and earth-grown (right). Facilitates the incorporation of glucose into cells. In diabetics, there is either a decrease in or complete lack of insulin, thereby leading to several harmful complications. Principal Investigator is Larry DeLucas.

  1. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also referred to as “mad cow disease” is a chronic, non-febrile, neuro-degenerative disease affecting the central nervous system. The transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) of domestic animals, of which BSE is a member includes scrapie of sheep...

  2. [Bovine spongiform encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Suárez Fernández, G

    2001-01-01

    An histórical and conceptual review is made about Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy or mad cows disease and an epidemiological analysis as a present and future health problem. This analysis of BSE should not be negative, considering the truths that we know today. PMID:11783042

  3. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  4. Bovine milk exosome proteome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Exosomes are 40-100 nm membrane vesicles of endocytic origin and are found in blood, urine, amniotic fluid, bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid, as well as human and bovine milk. Exosomes are extracellular organelles important in intracellular communication/signaling, immune function, and biomarkers ...

  5. Genotyping bovine coronaviruses.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) are enveloped, single-stranded, positive-sense RNA viruses of the Coronaviridae family. Infection is associated with enteritis and pneumonia in calves and Winter Dysentery in adult cattle. Strains, isolated more than 50 years ago, are used in vaccines and as laboratory ...

  6. Deep Anterior Lamellar Keratoplasty Using Irradiated Acellular Cornea with Amniotic Membrane Transplantation for Intractable Ocular Surface Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wee, Sung Wook; Choi, Sang Uk

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To report the clinical outcomes of deep anterior lamellar keratoplasty (DALK) when sterile gamma-irradiated acellular corneal tissues (VisionGraft) are used in combination with amniotic membrane transplantation (AMT) for intractable ocular surface diseases. Methods The medical records of fifteen patients who had DALK with AMT were retrospectively reviewed. Indications for surgery included ocular burn, bacterial keratitis, herpes simplex virus keratitis, corneal opacity with Stevens-Johnson syndrome, Mooren's ulcer, idiopathic myxoid degeneration of corneal stroma, and recurrent band keratopathy. DALK was performed using partial-thickness acellular corneal tissue and a temporary amniotic membrane patch was added at the end of the operation. Results All cases that underwent DALK with AMT became epithelialized within 2 postoperative weeks. Twelve patients showed favorable outcomes without graft rejection, corneal opacification, or neovascularization. The other three grafts developed corneal opacification and neovascularization, and required additional penetrating keratoplasty (PK). Unlike the results of previous PKs, there were no graft rejections and the graft clarity was well-maintained in these three cases for at least 8 months after PK. Conclusions DALK using sterile acellular corneal tissues in combination with AMT may be a good therapeutic strategy for treating intractable ocular surface diseases because of lowered immune rejection, fibroblast activation, and facilitation of epithelialization. Furthermore, DALK can help stabilize the ocular surface, prolong graft survival, and may allow better outcomes when combined with subsequent PK. PMID:25829823

  7. Management of failed and infected first metatarsophalangeal joint implant arthroplasty by reconstruction with an acellular dermal matrix: a case report.

    PubMed

    Khoury, Wissam E; Fahim, Ramy; Sciulli, Jessica M; Ehredt, Duane J

    2012-01-01

    Management of failed first metatarsophalangeal joint implant arthroplasty, especially in the face of infection, is an area of debate without a clear consensus. The purpose of the present report was to explore a new option of reconstructing the joint with an acellular dermal matrix substance in a single case study during a 12-month follow-up period. A staged approach that began with removal of the failed 2-component great toe implant, Koenig(®), excisional debridement of the wound with resection of the necrotic bone (proximal phalanx and distal portion of the first metatarsal bones), and culture-specific antibiosis therapy. The final stage included incorporating the acellular dermal matrix, Graftjacket(®) into the joint in an accordion-type fashion, and reconstruction of the joint capsule. Postoperative radiographs revealed a more rectus joint with some improvement in length. At 6 months postoperatively, magnetic resonance imaging revealed incorporation of the graft material into the joint. Finally, at the 1-year mark, the patient was pain free with satisfactory function at the first metatarsophalangeal joint during gait. This is the first reported case of salvaging failed and infected first metatarsophalangeal joint implant arthroplasty with incorporation of the acellular dermal matrix and provides a new option to consider in the future. PMID:22704789

  8. Development and Characterization of Acellular Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds from Porcine Menisci for Use in Cartilage Tissue Engineering

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ying-Chen; Chen, Ray-Neng; Jhan, Hua-Jing; Liu, Der-Zen; Ho, Hsiu-O; Mao, Yong; Kohn, Joachim

    2015-01-01

    Given the growing number of arthritis patients and the limitations of current treatments, there is great urgency to explore cartilage substitutes by tissue engineering. In this study, we developed a novel decellularization method for menisci to prepare acellular extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds with minimal adverse effects on the ECM. Among all the acid treatments, formic acid treatment removed most of the cellular contents and preserved the highest ECM contents in the decellularized porcine menisci. Compared with fresh porcine menisci, the content of DNA decreased to 4.10%±0.03%, and there was no significant damage to glycosaminoglycan (GAG) or collagen. Histological staining also confirmed the presence of ECM and the absence of cellularity. In addition, a highly hydrophilic scaffold with three-dimensional interconnected porous structure was fabricated from decellularized menisci tissue. Human chondrocytes showed enhanced cell proliferation and synthesis of chondrocyte ECM including type II collagen and GAG when cultured in this acellular scaffold. Moreover, the scaffold effectively supported chondrogenesis of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Finally, in vivo implantation was conducted in rats to assess the biocompatibility of the scaffolds. No significant inflammatory response was observed. The acellular ECM scaffold provided a native environment for cells with diverse physiological functions to promote cell proliferation and new tissue formation. This study reported a novel way to prepare decellularized meniscus tissue and demonstrated the potential as scaffolds to support cartilage repair. PMID:25919905

  9. Evaluation of respiratory model employing conventional NIH mice to access the immunity induced by cellular and acellular pertussis vaccines.

    PubMed

    Dias, Alexandre Alves de Souza de Oliveira; Boller, Maria Aparecida Affonso; Werneck, Lúcia Maria Correa; Hirata Junior, Raphael; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luíza

    2006-11-01

    The increasing number of pertussis cases reported on the last twenty years and the existence of new acellular vaccines reinforce the need of research for experimental models to assure the quality of available pertussis vaccines. In this study, allotments of whole-cell and acellular pertussis vaccines were tested through the Intranasal Challenge Model (INM) using conventional NIH mice. The results have been compared to those achieved by the "Gold standard" Intracerebral Challenge Model (ICM). In contrast to ICM, INM results did not show intralaboratorial variations. Statistical analysis by Anova and Ancova tests revealed that the INM presented reproducibility and allowed identification and separation of different products, including three-component and four-component accellular pertussis vaccines. INM revealed differences between pertussis vaccines. INM provides lower distress to the mice allowing the reduction of mice number including the possibility of using conventional mice (less expensive) under non-aseptic environment. Thus, INM may be used as an alternative method of verifying the consistence of allotment production, including acellular pertussis vaccines. PMID:17160282

  10. Development and Characterization of Acellular Extracellular Matrix Scaffolds from Porcine Menisci for Use in Cartilage Tissue Engineering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ying-Chen; Chen, Ray-Neng; Jhan, Hua-Jing; Liu, Der-Zen; Ho, Hsiu-O; Mao, Yong; Kohn, Joachim; Sheu, Ming-Thau

    2015-09-01

    Given the growing number of arthritis patients and the limitations of current treatments, there is great urgency to explore cartilage substitutes by tissue engineering. In this study, we developed a novel decellularization method for menisci to prepare acellular extracellular matrix (ECM) scaffolds with minimal adverse effects on the ECM. Among all the acid treatments, formic acid treatment removed most of the cellular contents and preserved the highest ECM contents in the decellularized porcine menisci. Compared with fresh porcine menisci, the content of DNA decreased to 4.10%±0.03%, and there was no significant damage to glycosaminoglycan (GAG) or collagen. Histological staining also confirmed the presence of ECM and the absence of cellularity. In addition, a highly hydrophilic scaffold with three-dimensional interconnected porous structure was fabricated from decellularized menisci tissue. Human chondrocytes showed enhanced cell proliferation and synthesis of chondrocyte ECM including type II collagen and GAG when cultured in this acellular scaffold. Moreover, the scaffold effectively supported chondrogenesis of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells. Finally, in vivo implantation was conducted in rats to assess the biocompatibility of the scaffolds. No significant inflammatory response was observed. The acellular ECM scaffold provided a native environment for cells with diverse physiological functions to promote cell proliferation and new tissue formation. This study reported a novel way to prepare decellularized meniscus tissue and demonstrated the potential as scaffolds to support cartilage repair. PMID:25919905

  11. Healing rates for challenging rotator cuff tears utilizing an acellular human dermal reinforcement graft

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Vivek

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study presents a retrospective case series of the clinical and structural outcomes (1.5 T MRI) of arthroscopic rotator cuff repair with acellular human dermal graft reinforcement performed by a single surgeon in patients with large, massive, and previously repaired rotator cuff tears. Materials and Methods: Fourteen patients with mean anterior to posterior tear size 3.87 ± 0.99 cm (median 4 cm, range 2.5–6 cm) were enrolled in the study and were evaluated for structural integrity using a high-field (1.5 T) MRI at an average of 16.8 months after surgery. The Constant-Murley scores, the Flexilevel Scale of Shoulder Function (Flex SF), scapular plane abduction, and strength were analyzed. Results: MRI results showed that the rotator cuff repair was intact in 85.7% (12/14) of the patients studied. Two patients had a Sugaya Type IV recurrent tear (2 of 14; 14.3%), which were both less than 1 cm. The Constant score increased from a preoperative mean of 49.72 (range 13–74) to a postoperative mean of 81.07 (range 45–92) (P value = 0.009). Flexilevel Scale of Shoulder Function (Flex SF) Score normalized to a 100-point scale improved from a preoperative mean of 53.69 to a postoperative mean of 79.71 (P value = 0.003). The Pain Score improved from a preoperative mean of 7.73 to a postoperative mean of 13.57 (P value = 0.008). Scapular plane abduction improved from a preoperative mean of 113.64° to a postoperative mean of 166.43° (P value = 0.010). The strength subset score improved from a preoperative mean of 1.73 kg to a postoperative mean of 7.52 kg (P value = 0.006). Conclusions: This study presents a safe and effective technique that may help improve the healing rates of large, massive, and revision rotator cuff tears with the use of an acellular human dermal allograft. This technique demonstrated favorable structural healing rates and statistically improved functional outcomes in the near term. Level of Evidence: 4. Retrospective case series. PMID

  12. Midterm results of left coronary artery reimplantation through the transverse sinus of the pericardium in adult Bland-White-Garland syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kataoka, Go; Nakano, Kiyoharu; Asano, Ryota; Sato, Atsuhiko; Kodera, Kojiro; Tatsuishi, Wataru; Sudo, Shinji

    2015-12-01

    The anomalous origin of the left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery - known as Bland-White-Garland syndrome - is a rare congenital malformation that affects 1 in 300,000 live births. Most patients die in infancy without any surgical treatment. Some patients who survive past childhood often have varying symptoms such as myocardial ischemia, impaired left ventricular function, mitral regurgitation, and progressive heart failure, depending on the development collateral circulation. In the present report, we describe a procedure wherein the left coronary artery ostium was translocated through the transverse sinus of the pericardium in a 43-year-old mother with Bland-White-Garland syndrome and concomitant mitral regurgitation and report on the associated midterm results. PMID:26943392

  13. Overview of currently available Japanese acellular pertussis vaccines and future problems.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, H; Nii, R

    1988-01-01

    Acellular pertussis diphtheria, tetanus vaccine (APDT) was licensed in 1981 in Japan. This vaccine contains pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) and agglutinogen (AGG) as the main protective antigens. The new APDT vaccine produced by each company differs slightly in composition. There are two representative types of vaccine. One vaccine (B type) contains PT and FHA in a ratio of 1 to 1 and the other one (T type) contains PT and FHA in a ratio of 4 to 1 or 9 to 1 and also contains different amounts of AGG. We have been comparing the effectiveness of these two types of vaccine. The adverse reactions of APDT were local reactions such as redness and swelling, with a few febrile cases. No central nervous system adverse reactions were observed. The antibody protective level of this vaccine is also being investigated. After we changed from conventional vaccine to APDT, the frequency of serious adverse reactions was reduced and the number of pertussis infections also gradually decreased. This vaccine should be used for the children world-wide. PMID:3273618

  14. Human keratinocyte growth and differentiation on acellular porcine dermal matrix in relation to wound healing potential.

    PubMed

    Zajicek, Robert; Mandys, Vaclav; Mestak, Ondrej; Sevcik, Jan; Königova, Radana; Matouskova, Eva

    2012-01-01

    A number of implantable biomaterials derived from animal tissues are now used in modern surgery. Xe-Derma is a dry, sterile, acellular porcine dermis. It has a remarkable healing effect on burns and other wounds. Our hypothesis was that the natural biological structure of Xe-Derma plays an important role in keratinocyte proliferation and formation of epidermal architecture in vitro as well as in vivo. The bioactivity of Xe-Derma was studied by a cell culture assay. We analyzed growth and differentiation of human keratinocytes cultured in vitro on Xe-Derma, and we compared the results with formation of neoepidermis in the deep dermal wounds treated with Xe-Derma. Keratinocytes cultured on Xe-Derma submerged in the culture medium achieved confluence in 7-10 days. After lifting the cultures to the air-liquid interface, the keratinocytes were stratified and differentiated within one week, forming an epidermis with basal, spinous, granular, and stratum corneum layers. Immunohistochemical detection of high-molecular weight cytokeratins (HMW CKs), CD29, p63, and involucrin confirmed the similarity of organization and differentiation of the cultured epidermal cells to the normal epidermis. The results suggest that the firm natural structure of Xe-Derma stimulates proliferation and differentiation of human primary keratinocytes and by this way improves wound healing. PMID:22629190

  15. Treatment of severe burn with DermACELL®, an acellular dermal matrix

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shyi-Gen; Tzeng, Yuan-Sheng; Wang, Chih-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    For treatment of skin burn injuries, there exist several methods of treatment related to tissue regeneration, including the use of autograft skin and cryopreserved skin. However, each method has drawbacks. An alternative method for tissue regeneration is allograft acellular dermal matrix, with potential as a biocompatible scaffold for new tissue growth. One recently produced material of this type is DermACELL®, which was used in this case presentation for treating a scar resulting from second- and third-degree burns in a 33-year-old female patient. The patient presented with significant hypertrophic scarring from the elbow to the hand and with limited wrist and elbow motion. The scarring was removed, and the patient was treated with a 1:3 mesh of DermACELL. The wound was resurfaced with a split thickness skin graft, and postoperative care included application of pressure garment and silicone sheet, as well as range of motion exercise and massage. At 30 days after DermACELL application, the wound appeared well-healed with little scar formation. At 180 days post-application, the wound continued to appear healed well without significant scar formation. Additionally, the wound was supple, and the patient experienced significant improvement in range of motion. In the case presented, DermACELL appears to have been a successful method of treatment for scarring due to severe burns by preventing further scar formation and improving range of motion. PMID:23071908

  16. Effect of dynamic seeding methods on the distribution of fibroblasts within human acellular dermis.

    PubMed

    Vitacolonna, Mario; Belharazem, Djeda; Hohenberger, Peter; Roessner, Eric D

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to compare different dynamic cell seeding methods regarding their seeding efficiency, homogeneity, infiltration depth and proliferation within a human acellular dermis. In addition, the growth behaviour was observed during a 12-day static in vitro culture. The dynamic methods included orbital-shaker seeding and the use of a plate centrifuge with different rotational speeds, combinations of low-pressure for matrix degassing and centrifugal seeding. Scaffolds were incubated for up to 12 days statically. Cell distribution and infiltration depth were analysed histologically at days 0, 4, 8 and 12. Seeding efficiency and cell proliferation were quantified with the MTT-assay at the same time points. Centrifugal seeding with 300g for 5 × 1 min combined with matrix degassing significantly increased the seeding efficiency and homogeneity compared to the other methods. However, following static culture, no cells were detectable after 4 days in the inner matrix zones. Furthermore, none of the degassing+centrifugation groups reached a significantly higher proliferation at day 8 compared to the reference. The use of a single dynamic method resulted in an inefficient cell seeding. We archived the highest seeding efficiency, homogeneity and infiltration depth using a combination of degassing+centrifugation at 300g for 5 × 1 min. PMID:25795264

  17. Brainless but Multi-Headed: Decision Making by the Acellular Slime Mould Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed

    Beekman, Madeleine; Latty, Tanya

    2015-11-20

    Because of its peculiar biology and the ease with which it can be cultured, the acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum has long been a model organism in a range of disciplines. Due to its macroscopic, syncytial nature, it is no surprise that it has been a favourite amongst cell biologists. Its inclusion in the experimental tool kit of behavioural ecologists is much more recent. These recent studies have certainly paid off. They have shown that, for an organism that lacks a brain or central nervous system, P. polycephalum shows rather complex behaviour. For example, it is capable of finding the shortest path through a maze, it can construct networks as efficient as those designed by humans, it can solve computationally difficult puzzles, it makes multi-objective foraging decisions, it balances its nutrient intake and it even behaves irrationally. Are the slime mould's achievements simply "cute", worthy of mentioning in passing but nothing to take too seriously? Or do they hint at the fundamental processes underlying all decision making? We will address this question after reviewing the decision-making abilities of the slime mould. PMID:26189159

  18. Glycerolized Reticular Dermis as a New Human Acellular Dermal Matrix: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Ferrando, Pietro Maria; Balmativola, Davide; Cambieri, Irene; Scalzo, Maria Stella; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Annaratone, Laura; Casarin, Stefania; Fumagalli, Mara; Stella, Maurizio; Sapino, Anna; Castagnoli, Carlotta

    2016-01-01

    Human Acellular Dermal Matrices (HADM) are employed in various reconstructive surgery procedures as scaffolds for autologous tissue regeneration. The aim of this project was to develop a new type of HADM for clinical use, composed of glycerolized reticular dermis decellularized through incubation and tilting in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium (DMEM). This manufacturing method was compared with a decellularization procedure already described in the literature, based on the use of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), on samples from 28 donors. Cell viability was assessed using an MTT assay and microbiological monitoring was performed on all samples processed after each step. Two surgeons evaluated the biomechanical characteristics of grafts of increasing thickness. The effects of the different decellularization protocols were assessed by means of histological examination and immunohistochemistry, and residual DNA after decellularization was quantified using a real-time TaqMan MGB probe. Finally, we compared the results of DMEM based decellularization protocol on reticular dermis derived samples with the results of the same protocol applied on papillary dermis derived grafts. Our experimental results indicated that the use of glycerolized reticular dermis after 5 weeks of treatment with DMEM results in an HADM with good handling and biocompatibility properties. PMID:26918526

  19. Glycerolized Reticular Dermis as a New Human Acellular Dermal Matrix: An Exploratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Ferrando, Pietro Maria; Balmativola, Davide; Cambieri, Irene; Scalzo, Maria Stella; Bergallo, Massimiliano; Annaratone, Laura; Casarin, Stefania; Fumagalli, Mara; Stella, Maurizio; Sapino, Anna; Castagnoli, Carlotta

    2016-01-01

    Human Acellular Dermal Matrices (HADM) are employed in various reconstructive surgery procedures as scaffolds for autologous tissue regeneration. The aim of this project was to develop a new type of HADM for clinical use, composed of glycerolized reticular dermis decellularized through incubation and tilting in Dulbecco’s Modified Eagle’s Medium (DMEM). This manufacturing method was compared with a decellularization procedure already described in the literature, based on the use of sodium hydroxide (NaOH), on samples from 28 donors. Cell viability was assessed using an MTT assay and microbiological monitoring was performed on all samples processed after each step. Two surgeons evaluated the biomechanical characteristics of grafts of increasing thickness. The effects of the different decellularization protocols were assessed by means of histological examination and immunohistochemistry, and residual DNA after decellularization was quantified using a real-time TaqMan MGB probe. Finally, we compared the results of DMEM based decellularization protocol on reticular dermis derived samples with the results of the same protocol applied on papillary dermis derived grafts. Our experimental results indicated that the use of glycerolized reticular dermis after 5 weeks of treatment with DMEM results in an HADM with good handling and biocompatibility properties. PMID:26918526

  20. Does Acellular Dermal Matrix Thickness Affect Complication Rate in Tissue Expander Based Breast Reconstruction?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background. While the benefits of using acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) in breast reconstruction are well described, their use has been associated with additional complications. The purpose of this study was to determine if ADM thickness affects complications in breast reconstruction. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed including all tissue expander based breast reconstructions with AlloDerm (LifeCell, Branchburg, NJ) over 4 years. We evaluated preoperative characteristics and assessed postoperative complications including seroma, hematoma, infection, skin necrosis, and need for reintervention. We reviewed ADM thickness and time to Jackson-Pratt (JP) drain removal. Results. Fifty-five patients underwent 77 ADM-associated tissue expander based breast reconstructions, with average age of 48.1 years and average BMI of 25.9. Average ADM thickness was 1.21 mm. We found higher complication rates in the thick ADM group. Significant associations were found between smokers and skin necrosis (p < 0.0001) and seroma and prolonged JP drainage (p = 0.0004); radiated reconstructed breasts were more likely to suffer infections (p = 0.0085), and elevated BMI is a significant predictor for increased infection rate (p = 0.0037). Conclusion. We found a trend toward increased complication rates with thicker ADMs. In the future, larger prospective studies evaluating thickness may provide more information.

  1. Does Acellular Dermal Matrix Thickness Affect Complication Rate in Tissue Expander Based Breast Reconstruction?

    PubMed

    Rose, Jessica F; Zafar, Sarosh N; Ellsworth Iv, Warren A

    2016-01-01

    Background. While the benefits of using acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) in breast reconstruction are well described, their use has been associated with additional complications. The purpose of this study was to determine if ADM thickness affects complications in breast reconstruction. Methods. A retrospective chart review was performed including all tissue expander based breast reconstructions with AlloDerm (LifeCell, Branchburg, NJ) over 4 years. We evaluated preoperative characteristics and assessed postoperative complications including seroma, hematoma, infection, skin necrosis, and need for reintervention. We reviewed ADM thickness and time to Jackson-Pratt (JP) drain removal. Results. Fifty-five patients underwent 77 ADM-associated tissue expander based breast reconstructions, with average age of 48.1 years and average BMI of 25.9. Average ADM thickness was 1.21 mm. We found higher complication rates in the thick ADM group. Significant associations were found between smokers and skin necrosis (p < 0.0001) and seroma and prolonged JP drainage (p = 0.0004); radiated reconstructed breasts were more likely to suffer infections (p = 0.0085), and elevated BMI is a significant predictor for increased infection rate (p = 0.0037). Conclusion. We found a trend toward increased complication rates with thicker ADMs. In the future, larger prospective studies evaluating thickness may provide more information. PMID:27190645

  2. Acellular Dermal Matrix in Reconstructive Breast Surgery: Survey of Current Practice among Plastic Surgeons

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Ahmed M. S.; Koolen, Pieter G. L.; Ashraf, Azra A.; Kim, Kuylhee; Mureau, Marc A. M.; Lee, Bernard T.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) in plastic surgery have become increasingly popular particularly for breast reconstruction. Despite their advantages, questions exist regarding their association with a possible increased incidence of complications. We describe a collective experience of plastic surgeons’ use of ADMs in reconstructive breast surgery using an internet-based survey. Methods: Members of the American Society of Plastic Surgeons were recruited through voluntary, anonymous participation in an online survey. The web-based survey garnered information about participant demographics and their experience with ADM use in breast reconstruction procedures. After responses were collected, all data were anonymously processed. Results: Data were ascertained through 365 physician responses of which 99% (n = 361) completed the survey. The majority of participants were men (84.5%) between 51 and 60 years (37.4%); 84.2% used ADM in breast reconstruction, including radiated patients (79.7%). ADM use was not favored for nipple reconstruction (81.5%); 94.6% of participants used drains, and 87.8% administered antibiotics postoperatively. The most common complications were seroma (70.9%) and infection (16%), although 57.4% claimed anecdotally that overall complication rate was unchanged after incorporating ADM into their practice. High cost was a deterrent for ADM use (37.5%). Conclusions: Plastic surgeons currently use ADM in breast reconstruction for both immediate and staged procedures. Of those responding, a majority of plastic surgeons will incorporate drains and use postoperative antibiotics for more than 48 hours. PMID:25973359

  3. Three-dimensional Reconstruction of the Microstructure of Human Acellular Nerve Allograft.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Shuang; Zhu, Qingtang; Liu, Xiaolin; Yang, Weihong; Jian, Yutao; Zhou, Xiang; He, Bo; Gu, Liqiang; Yan, Liwei; Lin, Tao; Xiang, Jianping; Qi, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The exact inner 3D microstructure of the human peripheral nerve has been a mystery for decades. Therefore, it has been difficult to solve several problems regarding peripheral nerve injury and repair. We used high-resolution X-ray computed microtomography (microCT) to scan a freeze-dried human acellular nerve allograft (hANA). The microCT images were then used to reconstruct a 3D digital model, which was used to print a 3D resin model of the nerve graft. The 3D digital model of the hANA allowed visualization of all planes. The magnified 3D resin model clearly showed the nerve bundles and basement membrane tubes of the hANA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyse the microstructure of the hANA. Compared to the SEM images, the microCT image clearly demonstrated the microstructure of the hANA cross section at a resolution of up to 1.2 μm. The 3D digital model of the hANA facilitates a clear and easy understanding of peripheral nerve microstructure. Furthermore, the enlarged 3D resin model duplicates the unique inner structure of each individual hANA. This is a crucial step towards achieving 3D printing of a hANA or nerve that can be used as a nerve graft. PMID:27476584

  4. Three-dimensional Reconstruction of the Microstructure of Human Acellular Nerve Allograft

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Shuang; Zhu, Qingtang; Liu, Xiaolin; Yang, Weihong; Jian, Yutao; Zhou, Xiang; He, Bo; Gu, Liqiang; Yan, Liwei; Lin, Tao; Xiang, Jianping; Qi, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The exact inner 3D microstructure of the human peripheral nerve has been a mystery for decades. Therefore, it has been difficult to solve several problems regarding peripheral nerve injury and repair. We used high-resolution X-ray computed microtomography (microCT) to scan a freeze-dried human acellular nerve allograft (hANA). The microCT images were then used to reconstruct a 3D digital model, which was used to print a 3D resin model of the nerve graft. The 3D digital model of the hANA allowed visualization of all planes. The magnified 3D resin model clearly showed the nerve bundles and basement membrane tubes of the hANA. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyse the microstructure of the hANA. Compared to the SEM images, the microCT image clearly demonstrated the microstructure of the hANA cross section at a resolution of up to 1.2 μm. The 3D digital model of the hANA facilitates a clear and easy understanding of peripheral nerve microstructure. Furthermore, the enlarged 3D resin model duplicates the unique inner structure of each individual hANA. This is a crucial step towards achieving 3D printing of a hANA or nerve that can be used as a nerve graft. PMID:27476584

  5. Preparation and characterization of an advanced collagen aggregate from porcine acellular dermal matrix.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xinhua; Dan, Nianhua; Dan, Weihua

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to extract and characterize an advanced collagen aggregate (Ag-col) from porcine acellular dermal matrix (pADM). Based on histological examination, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM), Ag-col was composed of the D-periodic cross-striated collagen fibrils and thick collagen fiber bundles with uneven diameters and non-orientated arrangement. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra of pADM, Ag-col and Col were similar and revealed the presence of the triple helix. Circular dichroism (CD) analysis exhibited a slightly higher content of α-helix but inappreciably less amount of random coil structure in Ag-col compared to Col. Moreover, imino acid contents of pADM, Ag-col and Col were 222.43, 218.30 and 190.01 residues/1000 residues, respectively. From zeta potential analysis, a net charge of zero was found at pH 6.45 and 6.11 for Ag-col and Col, respectively. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) study suggested that the Td of Ag-col was 20°C higher than that of Col as expected, and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) indicated that Ag-col possessed a higher storage modulus but similar loss factor compared to Col. Therefore, the collagen aggregate from pADM could serve as a better alternative source of collagens for further applications in food and biological industries. PMID:27039117

  6. Purification design and practice for pertactin, the third component of acellular pertussis vaccine, from Bordetella pertussis.

    PubMed

    Li, Zenglan; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Qi; Li, Zhengjun; Liu, Yongdong; Zhang, Songping; Zhang, Guifeng; Ma, Guanghui; Luo, Jian; Su, Zhiguo

    2016-07-25

    Development of acellular pertussis vaccine (aPV) requires purification of several components from Bordetella pertussis. While the components pertussis toxin (PT) and filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA) have been successfully purified, the third component, pertactin, proves to be a difficult target due to its very low concentration. In order to solve its purification problem, we performed the surface potential analysis with GRASP2 program. The results demonstrated that there are two major charge patches, one negative and one positive, which are located separately on this linear protein. For this special feature, we designed a dual ion exchange chromatography strategy including an anionic exchange and a cationic exchange process for separation of pertactin from the heat extract of B. pertussis. The initial anionic exchange chromatography concentrated the product from 1.7% to 14.6%, with recovery of 80%. The second cationic exchange chromatography increased the purity to 33%, with recovery of 83%. The final purification was accomplished by hydrophobic interaction chromatography, yielding a purity of 96%. The total recovery of the three columns was 61%. Characterization of the purified antigen was performed with CD, intrinsic fluorescence, HP-SEC and western-blot, showing that the purified protein kept its natural conformation and immune-reactivity. The rationally designed process proved to be feasible, and it is suitable for large-scale preparation of the third aPV component pertactin. PMID:27302339

  7. Complex ventral hernia repair with a human acellular dermal matrix and component separation: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Alvaro; Baldoni, Anthony

    2015-01-01

    We present a case series of 19 patients requiring complex abdominal hernia repairs. Patients presented with challenging clinical histories with 95% having multiple significant comorbidities including overweight or obesity (84%), hypertension (53%), diabetes (42%), cancer (26%), and pulmonary disease (16%). The majority of patients (68%) had prior abdominal infections and 53% had at least one failed prior hernia repair. Upon examination, fascial defects averaged 282 cm2. Anterior and posterior component separation was performed with placement of a human acellular dermal mesh. Midline abdominal closure under minimal tension was achieved primarily in all cases. Post-operative complications included 2 adverse events (11%) – one pulmonary embolism and one post-operative hemorrhage requiring transfusion; 6 wound-related complications (32%), 1 seroma (5%) and 1 patient with post-operative ileus (5%). Operative intervention was not required in any of the cases and most patients made an uneventful recovery. Increased patient age and longer OR time were independently predictive of early post-operative complications. At a median 2-year follow-up, three patients had a documented hernia recurrence (16%) and one patient was deceased due to unrelated causes. Conclusion Patients at high risk for post-operative events due to comorbidities, prior abdominal infection and failed mesh repairs do well following component separation reinforced with a human bioprosthetic mesh. Anticipated post-operative complications were managed conservatively and at a median 2-year follow-up, a low rate of hernia recurrence was observed with this approach. PMID:26288732

  8. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccination among women of childbearing age-United States, 2013.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Alissa C; Lu, Peng-Jun; Williams, Walter W; Ding, Helen; Meyer, Sarah A

    2016-07-01

    The incidence of pertussis in the United States has increased since the 1990s. Tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of pregnant women provides passive protection to infants. Tdap vaccination is currently recommended for pregnant women during each pregnancy, but coverage among pregnant women and women of childbearing age has been suboptimal. Data from the 2013 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) and 2013 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to determine national and state-specific Tdap vaccination coverage among women of childbearing age by self-reported pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Although this study could not assess coverage of Tdap vaccination received during pregnancy because questions on whether Tdap vaccination was received during pregnancy were not asked in BRFSS and NHIS, demographic and access-to-care factors associated with Tdap vaccination coverage in this population were assessed. Tdap vaccination coverage among all women 18-44 years old was 38.4% based on the BRFSS and 23.3% based on the NHIS. Overall, coverage did not differ by pregnancy status at the time of the survey. Coverage among all women 18-44 years old varied widely by state. Age, race and ethnicity, education, number of children in the household, and access-to-care characteristics were independently associated with Tdap vaccination in both surveys. We identified associations of demographic and access-to-care characteristics with Tdap vaccination that can guide strategies to improve vaccination rates in women during pregnancy. PMID:27372388

  9. Distinctive expression of extracellular matrix molecules at mRNA and protein levels during formation of cellular and acellular cementum in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Y; Maruya, Y; Sato, H; Zhu, J X; Takahashi, I; Mizoguchi, I; Kagayama, M

    2001-02-01

    Little is known about differential expression of extracellular matrices secreted by cementoblasts between cellular and acellular cementum. We hypothesize that cementoblasts lining acellular cementum express extracellular matrix genes differently from those lining cellular cementum, thereby forming two distinct types of extracellular matrices. To test this hypothesis, we investigated spatial and temporal gene expression of selected extracellular matrix molecules, that is type I collagen, bone sialoprotein, osteocalcin and osteopontin, during formation of both cellular and acellular cementum using in situ hybridization. In addition, their extracellularly deposited and accumulated proteins were examined immunohistochemically. The mRNA transcripts of pro-alpha1 (I) collagen were primarily localized in cementoblasts of cellular cementum and cementocytes, while those of bone sialoprotein were predominantly seen in cementoblasts lining acellular cementum. In contrast, osteocalcin was expressed by both types of cementoblasts and cementocytes and so was osteopontin but only transiently. Our immunohistochemical examination revealed that translated proteins were localized extracellularly where the genes had been expressed intracellularly. The present study demonstrated the distinctive expression of genes and proteins of the extracellular matrix molecules between cellular and acellular cementum. PMID:11432645

  10. Suppression of α Smooth Muscle Actin Accumulation by Bovine Fetal Dermal Collagen Matrix in Full Thickness Skin Wounds

    PubMed Central

    Lineaweaver, William; Bush, Katie; James, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The suppression of elements associated with wound contracture and unfavorable scarring is a potentially important strategy in clinical wound management. In this study, the presence of α smooth muscle actin (αSMA), a protein involved in wound contraction, was analyzed in a series of wounds in which bovine fetal collagen (BFC) acellular dermal matrix (PriMatrix) was used in staged split thickness skin graft procedures. The results obtained through histological and quantitative image analyses of incidental biopsies from these wounds demonstrated a suppression of αSMA in the wound regions occupied by assimilated BFC relative to increased levels of αSMA found in other areas of the wound. The αSMA levels found in assimilated BFC were similar to αSMA levels in uninjured human dermis. These findings suggest a mechanism by which application of BFC could decrease contraction of full thickness skin wounds. PMID:25695450

  11. Direct Hospital Cost of Outcome Pathways in Implant-Based Reconstruction with Acellular Dermal Matrices

    PubMed Central

    Qureshi, Ali A.; Broderick, Kristen; Funk, Susan; Reaven, Nancy; Tenenbaum, Marissa M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Current cost data on tissue expansion followed by exchange for permanent implant (TE/I) reconstruction lack a necessary assessment of the experience of a heterogenous breast cancer patient population and their multiple outcome pathways. We extend our previous analysis to that of direct hospital cost as bundling of payments is likely to follow the changing centralization of cancer care at the hospital level. Methods: We performed a retrospective analysis (2003–2009) of TE/I reconstructions with or without an acellular dermal matrix (ADM), namely Alloderm RTM. Postreconstructive events were analyzed and organized into outcome pathways as previously described. Aggregated and normalized inpatient and outpatient hospital direct costs and physician reimbursement were generated for each outcome pathway with or without ADM. Results: Three hundred sixty-seven patients were analyzed. The average 2-year hospital direct cost per TE/I breast reconstruction patient was $11,862 in the +ADM and $12,319 in the −ADM groups (P > 0.05). Initial reconstructions were costlier in the +ADM ($6,868) than in the −ADM ($5,615) group, but the average cost of subsequent postreconstructive events within 2 years was significantly lower in +ADM ($5,176) than −ADM ($6,704) patients (P < 0.05). When a complication occurred, but reconstruction was still completed within 2 years, greater costs were incurred in the −ADM than in the +ADM group for most scenarios, leading to a net equalization of cost between study groups. Conclusion: Although direct hospital cost is an important factor for resource and fund allocation, it should not remain the sole factor when deciding to use ADM in TE/I reconstruction.

  12. On fragmenting, densely mineralised acellular protrusions into articular cartilage and their possible role in osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Boyde, A; Davis, G R; Mills, D; Zikmund, T; Cox, T M; Adams, V L; Niker, A; Wilson, P J; Dillon, J P; Ranganath, L R; Jeffery, N; Jarvis, J C; Gallagher, J A

    2014-10-01

    High density mineralised protrusions (HDMP) from the tidemark mineralising front into hyaline articular cartilage (HAC) were first described in Thoroughbred racehorse fetlock joints and later in Icelandic horse hock joints. We now report them in human material. Whole femoral heads removed at operation for joint replacement or from dissection room cadavers were imaged using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) dual echo steady state at 0.23 mm resolution, then 26-μm resolution high contrast X-ray microtomography, sectioned and embedded in polymethylmethacrylate, blocks cut and polished and re-imaged with 6-μm resolution X-ray microtomography. Tissue mineralisation density was imaged using backscattered electron SEM (BSE SEM) at 20 kV with uncoated samples. HAC histology was studied by BSE SEM after staining block faces with ammonium triiodide solution. HDMP arise via the extrusion of an unknown mineralisable matrix into clefts in HAC, a process of acellular dystrophic calcification. Their formation may be an extension of a crack self-healing mechanism found in bone and articular calcified cartilage. Mineral concentration exceeds that of articular calcified cartilage and is not uniform. It is probable that they have not been reported previously because they are removed by decalcification with standard protocols. Mineral phase morphology frequently shows the agglomeration of many fine particles into larger concretions. HDMP are surrounded by HAC, are brittle, and show fault lines within them. Dense fragments found within damaged HAC could make a significant contribution to joint destruction. At least larger HDMP can be detected with the best MRI imaging ex vivo. PMID:25132002

  13. Schwann-like cells seeded in acellular nerve grafts improve nerve regeneration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study evaluated whether Schwann-like cells (SLCs) induced from bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) transplanted into acellular nerve grafts (ANGs) could repair nerve defects compared with nerve isografts and ANGs with BM-MSCs. Methods BM-MSCs extracted, separated and purified from the bone marrow of rats, and some of the BM-MSCs were cultured with mixed induction agents that could induce BM-MSCs into SLCs. Either SLCs or BM-MSCs were seeded onto 10-mm ANGs, and the isografts were chosen as the control. The walking-track test, tibialis anterior muscle weight measurement, electrophysiological examination, toluidine blue staining, transmission electron micrographs and immunostaining of S-100 and VEGF in these three groups were evaluated in a 10-mm rat sciatic injury-repair model. Results The walking-track test, tibialis anterior muscle weight measurement and electrophysiological examination of the sciatic nerve suggested the groups of ANGs with SLCs and isografts obtained better results than the BM-MSC group (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, the results of the SLCs and isograft groups were similar (P > 0.05). All the histomorphometric analyses (toluidine blue staining, transmission electron micrographs and immunostaining of S-100 and VEGF) showed that there were more regenerating nerve fibers in the group of ANGs with SLCs than the BM-MSCs (P < 0.05), but there was no significant difference between the SLC and isograft groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions SLCs seeded in ANGs and isografts show better functional regeneration compared with BM-MSCs seeded in ANGs. Additionally, SLCs combined with ANGs present almost the same outcome as the isografts. Therefore, SLCs with ANGs can be a good choice in nerve defect repairs. PMID:24885337

  14. A Complication Analysis of 2 Acellular Dermal Matrices in Prosthetic-based Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Page, Eugenia K.; Hart, Alexandra; Rudderman, Randall; Carlson, Grant W.; Losken, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acellular dermal matrices (ADM) are now routine in postmastectomy prosthetic-based breast reconstruction. The goal of the current study was to compare the complications of 2 ADM products—AlloDerm and Cortiva. Methods: A retrospective analysis of prosthetic-based breast reconstruction in Atlanta, Ga., over 5 years. Inclusion criteria were the use of the ADM types (AlloDerm or Cortiva) and use of a tissue expander or implant. Statistical analysis compared group demographics, risk factors, and early complications. Results: Of the 298 breast reconstructions, 174 (58.4%) used AlloDerm and 124 (41.6%) used Cortiva. There was no difference in overall complication frequency (16 AlloDerm and 18 Cortiva; P = 0.195). Within specific categories, there was a difference in mastectomy skin flap necrosis, but, based on further regression analysis, this was attributable to differences in body mass index (P = 0.036). Furthermore, there were no differences in the rates of infection (6 AlloDerm and 5 Cortiva; P = 1.0), seroma/hematoma (9 AlloDerm and 7 Cortiva; P = 1.0), or drain duration (13.2 day AlloDerm and 14.2 day Cortiva, P = 0.2). By using a general estimating equation for binomial logistical regression, it was found that only current tobacco use (P = 0.033) was a significant predictor for a complication. Trending predictors were body mass index (P = 0.074) and age (P = 0.093). The type of matrix was not a significant predictor for any of the recorded complication (P = 0.160). Conclusions: Although AlloDerm is well established, we have shown that Cortiva has an equivalent complication frequency. Future work will focus on long-term outcome measures and histological evaluation of vascularization and integration. PMID:27536479

  15. Incidence of Seromas and Infections Using Fenestrated versus Nonfenestrated Acellular Dermal Matrix in Breast Reconstructions

    PubMed Central

    Palaia, David A.; Arthur, Karen S.; Cahan, Anthony C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) provide clinical benefits in breast reconstruction but have been associated with increased postoperative complications, most frequently seromas. Fenestration of the ADM before insertion into the reconstructed breast may reduce the incidence of postoperative complications. In this retrospective analysis, postoperative complications were assessed after breast reconstruction with or without fenestrated ADMs. Methods: Patients who underwent immediate 2-staged implant breast reconstructions using ADM at a single center were assessed. The number of reconstructed breasts was stratified by ADM fenestration status and ADM type. The incidence of seroma, infection, extrusion, and explantation, and cosmetic score, was compared within the 2 stratified groups. A multivariable regression was performed to identify independent risk factors associated with these complications and aesthetic outcome. Results: In total, data from 450 patients who had 603 breast reconstructions using either AlloDerm or FlexHD demonstrated a significantly higher incidence of seroma with nonfenestrated ADMs (20%) versus fenestrated ADMs (11%; P = 0.0098). Rates of infection and explantation, and cosmetic score, were not influenced by fenestration status. In the multivariable analysis, ADM fenestration remained a significant protective factor for seroma formation. FlexHD also yielded a lower incidence of extrusion (P = 0.0031) and a higher cosmetic score (P = 0.0466) compared with AlloDerm after adjusting for other risk factors. Conclusions: The results of this study support ADM fenestration for reduction of seroma incidence in breast reconstruction, without affecting cosmetic results. Additionally, the choice of ADM may reduce extrusion incidence and improve aesthetic outcomes. PMID:26893994

  16. Plastic Surgery and Acellular Dermal Matrix: Highlighting Trends from 1999 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    Daar, David A; Gandy, Jessica R; Clark, Emily G; Mowlds, Donald S; Paydar, Keyianoosh Z; Wirth, Garrett A

    2016-01-01

    The last decade has ushered in a rapidly expanding global discussion regarding acellular dermal matrix (ADM) applications, economic analyses, technical considerations, benefits, and risks, with recent emphasis on ADM use in breast surgery. This study aims to evaluate global trends in ADM research using bibliometric analysis. The top nine Plastic Surgery journals were determined by impact factor (IF). Each issue of the nine journals between 1999 and 2013 was accessed to compile a database of articles discussing ADM. Publications were further classified by IF, authors’ geographic location, study design, and level of evidence (LOE, I-V). Productivity index and productivity share were calculated for each region. In total, 256 ADM articles were accessed. The annual global publication volume increased significantly by 4.2 (0.87) articles per year (p<0.001), with a mean productivity index of 36.3 (59.0). The mean impact factor of the nine journals increased significantly from 0.61 (0.11) to 2.47 (0.99) from 1993 to 2013 (p<0.001). Despite this increase in the global ADM literature, the majority of research was of weaker LOE (level I: 2.29% and level II: 9.17%). USA contributed the most research (87%), followed by Asia (4.76%) and Western Europe (4.71%). USA contributed the greatest volume of research. Regarding clinical application of ADM, the majority of publications focused on ADM use in breast surgery, specifically breast reconstruction (154 articles, 60.2%). The majority of research was of lower LOE; thus, efforts should be made to strengthen the body of literature, particularly with regard to cost analysis. PMID:27579264

  17. Histologic, Molecular, and Clinical Evaluation of Explanted Breast Prostheses, Capsules, and Acellular Dermal Matrices for Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Poppler, Louis; Cohen, Justin; Dolen, Utku Can; Schriefer, Andrew E.; Tenenbaum, Marissa M.; Deeken, Corey; Chole, Richard A.; Myckatyn, Terence M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Subclinical infections, manifest as biofilms, are considered an important cause of capsular contracture. Acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) are frequently used in revision surgery to prevent recurrent capsular contractures. Objective We sought to identify an association between capsular contracture and biofilm formation on breast prostheses, capsules, and ADMs in a tissue expander/implant (TE/I) exchange clinical paradigm. Methods Biopsies of the prosthesis, capsule, and ADM from patients (N = 26) undergoing TE/I exchange for permanent breast implant were evaluated for subclinical infection. Capsular contracture was quantified with Baker Grade and intramammary pressure. Biofilm formation was evaluated with specialized cultures, rtPCR, bacterial taxonomy, live:dead staining, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Collagen distribution, capsular histology, and ADM remodeling were quantified following fluorescent and light microscopy. Results Prosthetic devices were implanted from 91 to 1115 days. Intramammary pressure increased with Baker Grade. Of 26 patients evaluated, one patient had a positive culture and one patient demonstrated convincing evidence of biofilm morphology on SEM. Following PCR amplification 5 samples randomly selected for 16S rRNA gene sequencing demonstrated an abundance of suborder Micrococcineae, consistent with contamination. Conclusions Our data suggest that bacterial biofilms likely contribute to a proportion, but not all diagnosed capsular contractures. Biofilm formation does not appear to differ significantly between ADMs or capsules. While capsular contracture remains an incompletely understood but common problem in breast implant surgery, advances in imaging, diagnostic, and molecular techniques can now provide more sophisticated insights into the pathophysiology of capsular contracture. Level of Evidence PMID:26229126

  18. Chondrogenesis of Human Infrapatellar Fat Pad Stem Cells on Acellular Dermal Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Ken; Traianedes, Kathy; Choong, Peter F. M.; Myers, Damian E.

    2016-01-01

    Acellular dermal matrix (ADM) has been in clinical use for decades in numerous surgical applications. The ability for ADM to promote cellular repopulation, revascularisation and tissue regeneration is well documented. Adipose stem cells have the ability to differentiate into mesenchymal tissue types, including bone and cartilage. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential interaction between ADM and adipose stem cells in vitro using TGFβ3 and BMP6. Human infrapatellar fat pad-derived adipose stem cells (IPFP-ASC) were cultured with ADM derived from rat dermis in chondrogenic (TGFβ3 and BMP6) medium in vitro for 2 and 4 weeks. Histology, qPCR, and immunohistochemistry were performed to assess for markers of chondrogenesis (collagen Type II, SOX9 and proteoglycans). At 4 weeks, cell-scaffold constructs displayed cellular changes consistent with chondrogenesis, with evidence of stratification of cell layers and development of a hyaline-like cartilage layer superficially, which stained positively for collagen Type II and proteoglycans. Significant cell–matrix interaction was seen between the cartilage layer and the ADM itself with seamless integration between each layer. Real time qPCR showed significantly increased COL2A1, SOX9, and ACAN gene expression over 4 weeks when compared to control. COL1A2 gene expression remained unchanged over 4 weeks. We believe that the principles that make ADM versatile and successful for tissue regeneration are applicable to cartilage regeneration. This study demonstrates in vitro the ability for IPFP-ASCs to undergo chondrogenesis, infiltrate, and interact with ADM. These outcomes serve as a platform for in vivo modelling of ADM for cartilage repair. PMID:26858950

  19. A New Approach to Minimize Acellular Dermal Matrix Use in Prosthesis-based Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Hadad, Ivan; Liu, Allen S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) are often used to improve lower-pole contour, as well as allow for single-stage reconstruction, but numerous studies have shown an increased complication rate using ADM. As such, our group has developed a minimal-ADM-use technique to lower complications while effectively recreating lower-pole contour. Methods: A total of 380 postmastectomy prosthesis-based breast reconstructions were performed in 265 patients by a single surgeon. One hundred eight reconstructions were performed using the traditional ADM technique, with a large piece of ADM along the entire inferior and lateral borders. Two hundred twenty-five reconstructions were performed with the minimal-use technique, patching only the lateral area of the reconstruction. Thirty-five reconstructions were performed without the use of any ADM for high-risk reconstructions, most often in morbidly obese patients. Results: Comparing the traditional technique with the minimal-use technique, the seroma rate dropped from 3% to 0%. The rate of infection and reconstruction loss fell from 9% to 1%. Upon greatly reducing or eliminating the use of ADM use in obese patients, the seroma rate decreased from 15.4% to 5.7%, and the reconstruction loss rate decreased from 38% to 9%. Conclusions: This article describes a new surgical approach to minimize the amount of ADM necessary to create an aesthetically pleasing breast reconstruction. We believe that this approach helps avoid the complications of seroma, infection, and loss of the reconstruction. In certain obese patients, total avoidance of ADM may be the better choice. PMID:26301161

  20. Potential sites for the perception of gravity in the acellular slime mold Physarum polycephalum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Block, I.; Briegleb, W.

    Recently a gravisensitivity of the acellular slime mold Physarum polycephalum, which possesses no specialized gravireceptor, could be established by conducting experiments under simulated and under real near weightlessness. In these experiments macroplasmodia showed a modulation of their contraction rhythm followed by regulation phenomena. Until now the perception mechanism for the gravistimulus is unknown, but several findings indicate the involvement of mitochondria: A) During the impediment of respiration the Og-reaction is inhibited and the regulation is reduced. B) The response to a light stimulus and the following regulation phenomena strongly resemble the behavior during exposure to Og, the only difference is that the two reactions are directed into opposite directions. In the blue-light reaction a flavin of the mitochondrial matrix seems to be involved in the light perception. C) The contraction rhythm as well as its modulations are coupled to rhythmic changes in the levels of ATP and calcium ions, involving the mitochondria as sites of energy production and of Ca++-storage. - So the mitochondria could be the site of the regulation and they possibly are the receptor sites for the light and gravity stimuli. - Also the observation of a morphologic polarity of the slime mold's plasmodial strands has to be considered: Cross-sections reveal that the ectoplasmic wall surrounding the streaming endoplasm is much thinner on the physically lower side than on the upper side of the strand - this applies to strands lying on or hanging on a horizontal surface. So, in addition to the mitochondria, also the morphologic polarity may be involved in the perception mechanism of the observed gravisensitivity and of the recently established geotaxis. - The potential role of the nuclei and of the contractile elements in the perception of gravity is also discussed.

  1. Neoinnervation and neovascularization of acellular pericardial-derived scaffolds in myocardial infarcts.

    PubMed

    Gálvez-Montón, Carolina; Fernandez-Figueras, M Teresa; Martí, Mercè; Soler-Botija, Carolina; Roura, Santiago; Perea-Gil, Isaac; Prat-Vidal, Cristina; Llucià-Valldeperas, Aida; Raya, Ángel; Bayes-Genis, Antoni

    2015-01-01

    Engineered bioimplants for cardiac repair require functional vascularization and innervation for proper integration with the surrounding myocardium. The aim of this work was to study nerve sprouting and neovascularization in an acellular pericardial-derived scaffold used as a myocardial bioimplant. To this end, 17 swine were submitted to a myocardial infarction followed by implantation of a decellularized human pericardial-derived scaffold. After 30 days, animals were sacrificed and hearts were analyzed with hematoxylin/eosin and Masson's and Gallego's modified trichrome staining. Immunohistochemistry was carried out to detect nerve fibers within the cardiac bioimplant by using βIII tubulin and S100 labeling. Isolectin B4, smooth muscle actin, CD31, von Willebrand factor, cardiac troponin I, and elastin antibodies were used to study scaffold vascularization. Transmission electron microscopy was performed to confirm the presence of vascular and nervous ultrastructures. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), cardiac output (CO), stroke volume, end-diastolic volume, end-systolic volume, end-diastolic wall mass, and infarct size were assessed by using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Newly formed nerve fibers composed of several amyelinated axons as the afferent nerve endings of the heart were identified by immunohistochemistry. Additionally, neovessel formation occurred spontaneously as small and large isolectin B4-positive blood vessels within the scaffold. In summary, this study demonstrates for the first time the neoformation of vessels and nerves in cell-free cardiac scaffolds applied over infarcted tissue. Moreover, MRI analysis showed a significant improvement in LVEF (P = 0.03) and CO (P = 0.01) and a 43 % decrease in infarct size (P = 0.007). PMID:26205795

  2. Light-Activated Sealing of Acellular Nerve Allografts following Nerve Gap Injury.

    PubMed

    Fairbairn, Neil G; Ng-Glazier, Joanna; Meppelink, Amanda M; Randolph, Mark A; Valerio, Ian L; Fleming, Mark E; Kochevar, Irene E; Winograd, Jonathan M; Redmond, Robert W

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Photochemical tissue bonding (PTB) uses visible light to create sutureless, watertight bonds between two apposed tissue surfaces stained with photoactive dye. In phase 1 of this two-phase study, nerve gaps repaired with bonded isografts were superior to sutured isografts. When autograft demand exceeds supply, acellular nerve allograft (ANA) is an alternative although outcomes are typically inferior. This study assesses the efficacy of PTB when used with ANA. Methods Overall 20 male Lewis rats had 15-mm left sciatic nerve gaps repaired using ANA. ANAs were secured using epineurial suture (group 1) or PTB (group 2). Outcomes were assessed using sciatic function index (SFI), gastrocnemius muscle mass retention, and nerve histomorphometry. Historical controls from phase 1 were used to compare the performance of ANA with isograft. Statistical analysis was performed using analysis of variance and Bonferroni all-pairs comparison. Results All ANAs had signs of successful regeneration. Mean values for SFI, muscle mass retention, nerve fiber diameter, axon diameter, and myelin thickness were not significantly different between ANA + suture and ANA + PTB. On comparative analysis, ANA + suture performed significantly worse than isograft + suture from phase 1. However, ANA + PTB was statistically comparable to isograft + suture, the current standard of care. Conclusion Previously reported advantages of PTB versus suture appear to be reduced when applied to ANA. The lack of Schwann cells and neurotrophic factors may be responsible. PTB may improve ANA performance to an extent, where they are equivalent to autograft. This may have important clinical implications when injuries preclude the use of autograft. PMID:26878685

  3. Improved Peripheral Nerve Regeneration Using Acellular Nerve Allografts Loaded with Platelet-Rich Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Canbin; Huang, Xijun; He, Caifeng; Jiang, Li; Quan, Daping

    2014-01-01

    Acellular nerve allografts (ANAs) behave in a similar manner to autografts in supporting axonal regeneration in the repair of short peripheral nerve defects but fail in larger defects. The objective of this article is to evaluate the effect of ANA supplemented with platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to improve nerve regeneration after surgical repair and to discuss the mechanisms that underlie this approach. Autologous PRP was obtained from rats by double-step centrifugation and was characterized by determining platelet numbers and the release of growth factors. Forty-eight Sprague–Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (12/group), identified as autograft, ANA, ANA loaded with PRP (ANA+PRP), and ANA loaded with platelet-poor plasma (PPP, ANA+PPP). All grafts were implanted to bridge long-gap (15 mm) sciatic nerve defects. We found that PRP with a high platelet concentration exhibited a sustained release of growth factors. Twelve weeks after surgery, the autograft group displayed the highest level of reinnervation, followed by the ANA+PRP group. The ANA+PRP group showed a better electrophysiology response for amplitude and conduction velocity than the ANA and ANA+PPP groups. Based on histological evaluation, the ANA+PRP and autograft groups had higher numbers of regenerating nerve fibers. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) demonstrated that PRP boosted expression of neurotrophins in the regenerated nerves. Moreover, the ANA+PRP and autograft groups showed excellent physiological outcomes in terms of the prevention of muscle atrophy. In conclusion, ANAs loaded with PRP as tissue-engineered scaffolds can enhance nerve regeneration and functional recovery after the repair of large nerve gaps nearly as well as autografts. PMID:24901030

  4. Plastic Surgery and Acellular Dermal Matrix: Highlighting Trends from 1999 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Daar, David A; Gandy, Jessica R; Clark, Emily G; Mowlds, Donald S; Paydar, Keyianoosh Z; Wirth, Garrett A

    2016-05-01

    The last decade has ushered in a rapidly expanding global discussion regarding acellular dermal matrix (ADM) applications, economic analyses, technical considerations, benefits, and risks, with recent emphasis on ADM use in breast surgery. This study aims to evaluate global trends in ADM research using bibliometric analysis. The top nine Plastic Surgery journals were determined by impact factor (IF). Each issue of the nine journals between 1999 and 2013 was accessed to compile a database of articles discussing ADM. Publications were further classified by IF, authors' geographic location, study design, and level of evidence (LOE, I-V). Productivity index and productivity share were calculated for each region. In total, 256 ADM articles were accessed. The annual global publication volume increased significantly by 4.2 (0.87) articles per year (p<0.001), with a mean productivity index of 36.3 (59.0). The mean impact factor of the nine journals increased significantly from 0.61 (0.11) to 2.47 (0.99) from 1993 to 2013 (p<0.001). Despite this increase in the global ADM literature, the majority of research was of weaker LOE (level I: 2.29% and level II: 9.17%). USA contributed the most research (87%), followed by Asia (4.76%) and Western Europe (4.71%). USA contributed the greatest volume of research. Regarding clinical application of ADM, the majority of publications focused on ADM use in breast surgery, specifically breast reconstruction (154 articles, 60.2%). The majority of research was of lower LOE; thus, efforts should be made to strengthen the body of literature, particularly with regard to cost analysis. PMID:27579264

  5. Histologic Characterization of Acellular Dermal Matrices in a Porcine Model of Tissue Expander Breast Reconstruction

    PubMed Central

    Carruthers, Christopher A.; Dearth, Christopher L.; Reing, Janet E.; Kramer, Caroline R.; Gagne, Darcy H.; Crapo, Peter M.; Garcia, Onelio; Badhwar, Amit; Scott, Jeffrey R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) have been commonly used in expander-based breast reconstruction to provide inferolateral prosthesis coverage. Although the clinical performance of these biologic scaffold materials varies depending on a number of factors, an in-depth systematic characterization of the host response is yet to be performed. The present study evaluates the biochemical composition and structure of two ADMs, AlloDerm® Regenerative Tissue Matrix and AlloMax™ Surgical Graft, and provides a comprehensive spatiotemporal characterization in a porcine model of tissue expander breast reconstruction. Methods: Each ADM was characterized with regard to thickness, permeability, donor nucleic acid content, (residual double-stranded DNA [dsDNA]), and growth factors (basic fibroblast growth factor [bFGF], vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF], and transforming growth factor-beta 1 [TGF-β1]). Cytocompatibility was evaluated by in vitro cell culture on the ADMs. The host response was evaluated at 4 and 12 weeks at various locations within the ADMs using established metrics of the inflammatory and tissue remodeling response: cell infiltration, multinucleate giant cell formation, extent of ADM remodeling, and neovascularization. Results: AlloMax incorporated more readily with surrounding host tissue as measured by earlier and greater cell infiltration, fewer foreign body giant cells, and faster remodeling of ADM. These findings correlated with the in vitro composition and cytocompatibility analysis, which showed AlloMax to more readily support in vitro cell growth. Conclusions: AlloMax and AlloDerm demonstrated distinct remodeling characteristics in a porcine model of tissue expander breast reconstruction. PMID:24941900

  6. Chondrogenesis of Human Infrapatellar Fat Pad Stem Cells on Acellular Dermal Matrix.

    PubMed

    Ye, Ken; Traianedes, Kathy; Choong, Peter F M; Myers, Damian E

    2016-01-01

    Acellular dermal matrix (ADM) has been in clinical use for decades in numerous surgical applications. The ability for ADM to promote cellular repopulation, revascularisation and tissue regeneration is well documented. Adipose stem cells have the ability to differentiate into mesenchymal tissue types, including bone and cartilage. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential interaction between ADM and adipose stem cells in vitro using TGFβ3 and BMP6. Human infrapatellar fat pad-derived adipose stem cells (IPFP-ASC) were cultured with ADM derived from rat dermis in chondrogenic (TGFβ3 and BMP6) medium in vitro for 2 and 4 weeks. Histology, qPCR, and immunohistochemistry were performed to assess for markers of chondrogenesis (collagen Type II, SOX9 and proteoglycans). At 4 weeks, cell-scaffold constructs displayed cellular changes consistent with chondrogenesis, with evidence of stratification of cell layers and development of a hyaline-like cartilage layer superficially, which stained positively for collagen Type II and proteoglycans. Significant cell-matrix interaction was seen between the cartilage layer and the ADM itself with seamless integration between each layer. Real time qPCR showed significantly increased COL2A1, SOX9, and ACAN gene expression over 4 weeks when compared to control. COL1A2 gene expression remained unchanged over 4 weeks. We believe that the principles that make ADM versatile and successful for tissue regeneration are applicable to cartilage regeneration. This study demonstrates in vitro the ability for IPFP-ASCs to undergo chondrogenesis, infiltrate, and interact with ADM. These outcomes serve as a platform for in vivo modelling of ADM for cartilage repair. PMID:26858950

  7. The use of an acellular collagen matrix in penile augmentation: A pilot study in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Tealab, Alaa A.; Maarouf, Aref M.; Habous, Mohamed; Ralph, David J.; Abohashem, Safwat

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To assess the use of an acellular collagen matrix (Pelvicol, Bard Medical, Covington, GA, USA), a successful agent for reconstructive surgery, for enhancing penile girth. Patients and methods Between June and December 2011, 18 patients (mean age 24 years, range 19–38) had their penis augmented with Pelvicol; the mean (range) penile circumference was 9.2 (7–13) cm before treatment. They were divided into two groups; the first (10 patients) had a Pelvicol sheet of 8 × 12 cm inserted through a V–Y suprapubic incision and wrapped around the shaft in a bilayer under the dartos fascia, but not covering the urethra, with division of the suspensory ligament. The second group of eight patients had the Pelvicol inserted through a subcoronal degloving incision and placed in one layer. The penile circumference was measured at 6 and 12 months after surgery. Patient satisfaction at 1 year after surgery was assessed as ‘poor’, ‘unsatisfied’, ‘moderately satisfied’, ‘highly satisfied’, or ‘excellent’. Results The mean (range) increase in girth (circumference) was 2.8 (2–3.2) cm in group 1 and 1.7 (1.2–2) cm in group 2. In group 1, two patients were highly satisfied, four moderately satisfied and four unsatisfied; in group 2, three were moderately satisfied and five unsatisfied. Complications were common in both groups, with five patients in group 1 and three in group 2 developing severe penile oedema and ischaemic shaft ulcers. Removal of the graft was required in two patients in each group. Conclusion This pilot study shows that Pelvicol is not an ideal option for enhancing penile girth, and the method of placement did not apparently influence the result. PMID:26558077

  8. Ex vivo evaluation of acellular and cellular collagen-glycosaminoglycan flowable matrices.

    PubMed

    Hodgkinson, Tom; Bayat, Ardeshir

    2015-08-01

    Collagen-glycosaminoglycan flowable matrices (CGFM) are increasingly finding utility in a diversifying number of cutaneous surgical procedures. Cellular in-growth and vascularisation of CGFM remain rate-limiting steps, increasing cost and decreasing efficacy. Through in vitro and ex vivo culture methods, this study investigated the improvement of injectable CGFM by the incorporation of hyaluronan (HA) and viable human cells (primary human dermal fibroblasts (PHDFs) and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs)). Ex vivo investigations included the development and evaluation of a human cutaneous wound healing model for the comparison of dermal substitutes. Cells mixed into the Integra Flowable Wound Matrix (IFWM), a commercially available CGFM, were confirmed to be viable and proliferative through MTT assays (p  <  0.05). PHDFs proliferated with greater rapidity than BM-MSCs up to 1 week in culture (p  <  0.05), with PHDF proliferation further enhanced by HA supplementation (p  <  0.05). After scaffold mixing, gene expression was not significantly altered (qRT-PCR). PHDF and BM-MSC incorporation into ex vivo wound models significantly increased re-epithelialisation rate, with maximal effects observed for BM-MSC supplemented IFWM. HA supplementation to PHDF populated IFWM increased re-epithelialisation but had no significant effect on BM-MSC populated IFWM. In conclusion, when combined with PHDF, HA increased re-epithelialisation in IFWM. BM-MSC incorporation significantly improved re-epithelialisation in ex vivo models over acellular and PHDF populated scaffolds. Viable cell incorporation into IFWM has potential to significantly benefit wound healing in chronic and acute cutaneous injuries by allowing a point-of-care matrix to be formed from autologous or allogenic cells and bioactive molecules. PMID:26181360

  9. Bovine myocardial epithelial inclusions.

    PubMed

    Baker, D C; Schmidt, S P; Langheinrich, K A; Cannon, L; Smart, R A

    1993-01-01

    Light microscopic, histochemical, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural methods were used to examine myocardial epithelial masses in the hearts of ten cattle. The tissues consisted of paraffin-embedded or formalin-fixed samples from eight hearts that were being inspected in slaughter houses and from two hearts from calves that died of septicemia. The ages of the cattle ranged from 4 days to 12 years; the breeds were unspecified for all but one Hereford female and the two Holstein calves; and there were three males, four females, and three steers. The masses in these cases were compared with similar appearing lesions found in other animal species. The lesions in the bovine hearts were single to multiple, well circumscribed, found in the left ventricle wall, and composed of squamous to cuboidal epithelial cells that formed tubular, ductular, and acinar structures with lumens that were void or filled with amorphous protein globules. Electron microscopic examination revealed epithelial cells that had sparse apical microvilli, tight apical intercellular junctions, perinuclear bundles of filaments, and rare cilia. Almost half of the bovine epithelial masses (4/9) had occasional diastase-resistant periodic acid-Schiff-positive granules in their cytoplasm, and few had hyaluronidase-resistant alcian blue-positive granules (2/9) or colloidal iron-positive granules (1/9). All myocardial masses had abundant collagen surrounding the tubular and acinar structures, and 2/9 had elastin fibers as well. None of the myocardial masses had Churukian-Schenk or Fontana Masson's silver staining granules in epithelial cells. Immunohistochemically, all bovine myocardial tumors stained positively for cytokeratin (8/8), and occasional masses stained positively for vimentin (3/8) or carcinoembryonic antigen (3/8). None of the masses stained positively for desmin. The myocardial epithelial tumors most likely represent endodermal rests of tissue misplaced during organogenesis. PMID:7680178

  10. Root Coverage in Smokers with Acellular Dermal Matrix Graft and Enamel Matrix Derivative: A 12-Month Randomized Clinical Trial.

    PubMed

    Costa, Priscila Paganini; Alves, Luciana Bastos; Souza, Sérgio Luís; Grisi, Márcio Fernando; Palioto, Daniela Bazan; Taba, Mario; Novaes, Arthur Belém

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated whether enamel matrix derivative (EMD) contributes to root coverage of gingival recessions performed with acellular dermal matrix graft (ADMG) in smokers during a 12-month follow-up. A sample of 19 smokers presenting bilateral Miller Class I or II gingival recessions were included. Selected sites randomly received both ADMG and EMD (test) or ADMG alone (control). Probing depth, clinical attachment level, gingival recession height, keratinized tissue, and root coverage were evaluated. Mean gain in recession height (P < .05), sites with complete root coverage (P < .05), and percentage of root coverage (59.7% and 52.8%, respectively) favored the test group compared with the control group. PMID:27333010

  11. Synthesis and physicochemical characterization of a series of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers: objective comparison between cellular and acellular types.

    PubMed

    Sakai, H; Yuasa, M; Onuma, H; Takeoka, S; Tsuchida, E

    2000-01-01

    A series of hemoglobin (Hb)-based O(2) carriers, acellular and cellular types, were synthesized and their physicochemical characteristics were compared. The acellular type includes intramolecularly cross-linked Hb (XLHb), polyoxyethylene (POE)-conjugated pyridoxalated Hb (POE-PLP-Hb), hydroxyethylstarch-conjugated Hb (HES-XLHb), and glutaraldehyde-polymerized XLHb (Poly-XLHb). The cellular type is Hb-vesicles (HbV) of which the surface is modified with POE (POE-HbV). Their particle diameters are 7 +/- 2, 22 +/- 2, 47 +/- 17, 68 +/- 24, and 224 +/- 76 nm, respectively, thus all the materials penetrate across membrane filters with 0.4 microm pore size, though only the POE-HbV cannot penetrate across the filter with 0.2 microm pore size. These characteristics of permeability are important to consider an optimal particle size in microcirculation in vivo. POE-PLP-Hb ([Hb] = 5 g/dL) showed viscosity of 6.1 cP at 332 s(-1) and colloid osmotic pressure (COP) of 70.2 Torr, which are beyond the physiological conditions (human blood, viscosity = 3-4 cP, COP = ca. 25 Torr). XLHb and Poly-XLHb showed viscosities of 1.0 and 1.5 cp, respectively, which are significantly lower than that of blood. COP of POE-HbV is regulated to 20 Torr in 5% human serum albumin (HSA). HES-XLHb and POE-HbV/HSA showed comparable viscosity with human blood. Microscopic observation of human red blood cells (RBC) after mixing blood with POE-PLP-Hb or HES-XLHb disclosed aggregates of RBC, a kind of sludge, indicating a strong interaction with RBC, which is anticipated to modify peripheral blood flow in vivo. On the other hand, XLHb and POE-HbV showed no rouleaux or aggregates of RBC. The acellular Hbs (P(50) = 14-32 Torr) have their specific O(2) affinities determined by their structures, while that of the cellular POE-HbV is regulated by coencapsulating an appropriate amount of an allosteric effector (e.g., P(50) = 18, 32 Torr). These differences in physicochemical characteristics between the acellular

  12. Enzootic Bovine Leukosis

    PubMed Central

    Reed, V. Ivan

    1981-01-01

    The author emphasizes the significance of enzootic bovine leukosis in Canada. He describes in detail diagnostic methods, various types of the disease and methods of transmission. Various aspects of the disease in Canada are compared with those in other countries. Prevention and control are discussed in a Canadian context and include the current policies of the Government of Canada in relationship to this disease. The possibility of developing a certification program for herds free of the disease is also discussed. The paper includes incidence in various parts of Canada. PMID:6265053

  13. In vitro properties and performance of glutaraldehyde-crosslinked bovine pericardial bioprostheses treated with glutamic acid.

    PubMed

    Braile, Maria Christiane Valéria Braga; Carnevalli, Nelly Cristina; Goissis, Gilberto; Ramirez, Vladimir Aparecido; Braile, Domingo Marcolino

    2011-05-01

    Calcification is one of the major causes of failure of heart valve bioprostheses (HVBs) derived from glutaraldehyde (GA)-processed bovine pericardium (BP) or porcine aortic valves. New crosslinking reagent procedures are still far from giving satisfactory results, and this is the main reason why GA is still the reagent of choice for the fixation of native tissue intended for HVB manufacture. Nevertheless, two new findings with respect to GA processing may significantly improve HVB performance postimplantation: the finding that increasing concentrations of GA result in a decrease in calcification; the blocking of free aldehyde usually by nucleophyles or the treatment of processed material at low pH. This work investigates the in vitro properties of BP fixed with GA followed by the treatment with glutamic acid under alkaline conditions in order to prepare BP materials with lower calcification potential postimplantation. In comparison to conventional processing, except for the tensile strength that was slightly lower, elongation and toughness were higher than the accepted values. No significant differences were observed in the performance indexes (mean pressure gradient, mean effective area, regurgitant fraction, performance and efficiency indexes) with wear resistance over 150 × 10⁶ cycles. These results indicate that the processing of BP described in this work may be of potential use in the manufacture of HVBs. PMID:21595718

  14. [Bovine immunodeficiency virus: short review].

    PubMed

    Bouillant, A M; Archambault, D

    1990-01-01

    A bovine visna-like virus was isolated by Van Der Maaten et al (1972) but it did not draw attention since, at that time, most efforts were directed towards research on bovine leukemia virus. However, new interest was shown on the bovine visna-like virus after the isolation of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), because of the urgent need for developing animal models for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The purpose of this paper is to describe the different stages of the identification of the bovine virus and to up-date knowledge about it. The bovine visna-like virus has recently been named the bovine immuno-deficiency-like virus (BIV) and is the sole bovine lentivirus known to-date. BIV shares morphologic, antigenic and genomic characteristics with other lentiviruses. It grows and induces large syncytia in vitro and generates virus-productive and latent infections in cell culture. It causes persistent infection and slow progressive disease in cattle and probably in sheep. As target cells of the virus are leukocytes, the type of which is unknown, perturbations of the immune system are expected. Consequently, BIV may potentiate the occurrence of secondary infections and play a role in retroviral, multiple infections. It is not oncogenic. Transmission appears to occur in cattle by contact, but evidence of transmission in human beings has not been shown. Finally, BIV may be a potential model in vitro and in vivo for HIV and AIDS. PMID:1963056

  15. Sustained release of VEGF from PLGA nanoparticles embedded thermo-sensitive hydrogel in full-thickness porcine bladder acellular matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Hongquan; Song, Hua; Qi, Jun; Cui, Daxiang

    2011-12-01

    We fabricated a novel vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-loaded poly(lactic- co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-nanoparticles (NPs)-embedded thermo-sensitive hydrogel in porcine bladder acellular matrix allograft (BAMA) system, which is designed for achieving a sustained release of VEGF protein, and embedding the protein carrier into the BAMA. We identified and optimized various formulations and process parameters to get the preferred particle size, entrapment, and polydispersibility of the VEGF-NPs, and incorporated the VEGF-NPs into the (poly(ethylene oxide)-poly(propylene oxide)-poly(ethylene oxide) (Pluronic®) F127 to achieve the preferred VEGF-NPs thermo-sensitive gel system. Then the thermal behavior of the system was proven by in vitro and in vivo study, and the kinetic-sustained release profile of the system embedded in porcine bladder acellular matrix was investigated. Results indicated that the bioactivity of the encapsulated VEGF released from the NPs was reserved, and the VEGF-NPs thermo-sensitive gel system can achieve sol-gel transmission successfully at appropriate temperature. Furthermore, the system can create a satisfactory tissue-compatible environment and an effective VEGF-sustained release approach. In conclusion, a novel VEGF-loaded PLGA NPs-embedded thermo-sensitive hydrogel in porcine BAMA system is successfully prepared, to provide a promising way for deficient bladder reconstruction therapy.

  16. The initial attachment of cemental fibrils to the root dentin surface in acellular and cellular cementogenesis in rat molars.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Domon, T; Takahashi, S; Islam, M N; Suzuki, R

    2001-03-01

    To elucidate the initial attachment mechanism of cemental fibrils to the root dentin surface in acellular and cellular cementogenesis, developing rat molars were observed by light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy combined with NaOH maceration. The NaOH maceration was used to observe details of the positional association of cemental and dentinal fibrils during cementogenesis. An initial hematoxylin stained, cementum layer began to form on the root dentin surface with the first dentin mineralization in both acellular and cellular cementogenesis. The initial attachment of cemental fibrils to the dentin surface also began at this point. At the initial attachment the intermingling of cemental and dentinal fibrils occurred only in places. With advanced cementogenesis the initial cementum layer became the fibril-poor cemento-dentinal junction. This suggests that cemental fibrils attach on the initial cementum layer, and not directly on dentinal fibrils, so that the layer results in the fibril-poor cemento-dentinal junction. The present study suggests that an intervening adhesive is necessary for the cemento-dentinal attachment at any stage of cementogenesis in rat molars. PMID:11325058

  17. Pancreatic acellular matrix supports islet survival and function in a synthetic tubular device: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    De Carlo, E; Baiguera, S; Conconi, M T; Vigolo, S; Grandi, C; Lora, S; Martini, C; Maffei, P; Tamagno, G; Vettor, R; Sicolo, N; Parnigotto, P P

    2010-02-01

    Increasing pancreatic islet survival and function is a starting point for obtaining a valuable bioartificial pancreas for the treatment of type 1 diabetes. In this context, decellularized matrices, obtained after the removal of tissue cellular part, are known to support in vitro adhesion, growth, and function of several cell types. We demonstrate that a homologous acellular pancreatic matrix is a suitable scaffold for rat islet cultures maintaining their long-term viability and function. Islets adhered to the pancreatic matrix showed a constant glucose-induced insulin release during long-term in vitro incubation, while islets cultured without a matrix or on the liver matrix showed a progressive reduction. In order to obtain implantable devices, acellular matrix/islet cultures were entrapped into poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/ poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) tubes obtained by the freezing/thawing procedure. Under this condition, an in vitro constant insulin release was detected. The devices were then implanted into diabetic rats where reduced insulin requirement was noted suggesting insulin secretory activity of islets contained in the device. Indeed, immunofluorescence confirmed the presence of insulin- and glucagon-producing cells into the explanted devices. These data show that PVA/PEG semi-permeable membrane can obtain devices that restore, at least in part, insulin secretion. PMID:20043127

  18. Surgical Outcomes of Deep Superior Sulcus Augmentation Using Acellular Human Dermal Matrix in Anophthalmic or Phthisis Socket.

    PubMed

    Cho, Won-Kyung; Jung, Su-Kyung; Paik, Ji-Sun; Yang, Suk-Woo

    2016-07-01

    Patients with anophthalmic or phthisis socket suffer from cosmetic problems. To resolve those problems, the authors present the surgical outcomes of deep superior sulcus (DSS) augmentation using acellular dermal matrix in patients with anophthalmic or phthisis socket. The authors retrospectively reviewed anophthalmic or phthisis patients who underwent surgery for DSS augmentation using acellular dermal matrix. To evaluate surgical outcomes, the authors focused on 3 aspects: the possibility of wearing contact prosthesis, the degree of correction of the DSS, and any surgical complications. The degree of correction of DSS was classified as excellent: restoration of superior sulcus enough to remove sunken sulcus shadow; fair: gain of correction effect but sunken shadow remained; or fail: no effect of correction at all. Ten eyes of 10 patients were included. There was a mean 21.3 ± 37.1-month period from evisceration or enucleation to the operation for DSS augmentation. All patients could wear contact prosthesis after the operation (100%). The degree of correction was excellent in 8 patients (80%) and fair in 2. Three of 10 (30%) showed complications: eyelid entropion, upper eyelid multiple creases, and spontaneous wound dehiscence followed by inflammation after stitch removal. Uneven skin surface and paresthesia in the forehead area of the affected eye may be observed after surgery. The overall surgical outcomes were favorable, showing an excellent degree of correction of DSS and low surgical complication rates. This procedure is effective for patients who have DSS in the absence or atrophy of the eyeball. PMID:27258711

  19. In Vivo Confocal Microscopic Observation of Lamellar Corneal Transplantation in the Rabbit Using Xenogenic Acellular Corneal Scaffolds as a Substitute

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yun; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Background: The limiting factor to corneal transplantation is the availability of donors. Research has suggested that xenogenic acellular corneal scaffolds (XACS) may be a possible alternative to transplantation. This study aimed to investigate the viability of performing lamellar corneal transplantation (LCT) in rabbits using canine XACS. Methods: Fresh dog corneas were decellularized by serial digestion, and LCT was performed on rabbit eyes using xenogeneic decellularized corneal matrix. Cellular and morphological changes were observed by slit-lamp, light, and scanning electron microscopy at 7, 30 and 90 days postoperatively. Immunocytochemical staining for specific markers such as keratin 3, vimentin and MUC5AC, was used to identify cells in the graft. Results: Decellularized xenogenic corneal matrix remained transparent for about 1-month after LCT. The recipient cells were able to survive and proliferate into the grafts. Three months after transplantation, grafts had merged with host tissue, and graft epithelialization and vascularization had occurred. Corneal nerve fibers were able to grow into the graft in rabbits transplanted with XACS. Conclusions: Xenogenic acellular corneal scaffolds can maintain the transparency of corneal grafts about 1-month and permit growth of cells and nerve fibers, and is, therefore, a potential substitute or carrier for a replacement cornea. PMID:25836615

  20. Use of acellular dermal replacement in reconstruction of nonhealing lower extremity wounds.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Steven Alexander; Beers, Ryan J; Lentz, Christopher W

    2011-01-01

    Dermal templates are well established in the treatment of burn wounds and acute nonburn wounds. However, the literature regarding their use for reconstruction of chronic, nonhealing wounds is limited. This study describes a series of patients with chronic wounds reconstructed with a commercially available bilayer, acellular dermal replacement (ADR) containing a collagen-glycosaminoglycan dermal template and a silicone outer layer. A retrospective review was performed of 10 patients treated for chronic wounds with ADR and negative pressure dressing followed by split-thickness skin graft between July 2006 and January 2009. Data collected included age, gender, comorbidities, medications, wound type or location, wound size, the number of applications of ADR, the amount of ADR applied (in square centimeter), the amount of time between ADR placement and grafting, complications, need for reoperation, and percentage of graft take after 5 and 14 days. The mean age of study subjects was 44 years. All patients in the study had comorbidities that interfere with wound healing and were treated for lower extremity wounds (four to legs, five to ankles, and one to foot). The wounds had a variety of causative factors including venostasis ulcers (6, 60%), trauma in diabetic patients (2, 20%), brown recluse bite (1, 10%), and a wound caused from purpura fulminans (1, 10%). The average wound size and amount of ADR applied was 162±182 cm². Each patient required only one application of ADR. The average time between ADR placement and skin grafting was 36.5 days. The mean percentage of graft take at 5 days was 89.55%, 14 days was 90%, and 21 days was 87.3%. Only two patients required regrafting, and one of these grafts was lost because of patient noncompliance. ADR can be used successfully in the treatment of chronic wounds. ADR provides direct wound coverage and can conform to a variety of anatomical sites. This study demonstrates that the use of ADR in treating chronic wounds results

  1. Clinical Outcomes for Breast Cancer Patients Undergoing Mastectomy and Reconstruction with Use of DermACELL, a Sterile, Room Temperature Acellular Dermal Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Vashi, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Background. Decellularized human skin has been used in a variety of medical applications, primarily involving soft tissue reconstruction, wound healing, and tendon augmentation. Theoretically, decellularization removes potentially immunogenic material and provides a clean scaffold for cellular and vascular in growth. The use of acellular dermal matrix in two-stage postmastectomy breast reconstruction is described. Methods. Ten consecutive breast cancer patients were treated with mastectomies and immediate reconstruction from August to November 2011. There were 8 bilateral and 1 unilateral mastectomies for a total of 17 breasts, with one exclusion for chronic tobacco use. Reconstruction included the use of a new 6 × 16 cm sterile, room temperature acellular dermal matrix patch (DermACELL) soaked in a cefazolin bath. Results. Of the 17 breasts, 15 reconstructions were completed; 14 of them with expander to implant sequence and acellular dermal matrix. Histological analysis of biopsies obtained during trimming of the matrix at the second stage appeared nonremarkable with evidence of normal healing, cellularity, and vascular infiltration. Conclusion. Postoperative observations showed that this cellular dermal matrix appears to be an appropriate adjunct to reconstruction with expanders. This acellular dermal matrix appeared to work well with all patients, even those receiving postoperative chemotherapy, postoperative radiation, prednisone, or warfarin sodium. PMID:24738030

  2. The cell mediated and humoral immune response to vaccination with acellular and whole cell pertussis vaccine in adult humans.

    PubMed

    Petersen, J W; Ibsen, P H; Bentzon, M W; Capiau, C; Heron, I

    1991-10-01

    The cell mediated immune response (CMI) against pertussis antigens following vaccination with the traditional Danish whole cell pertussis vaccine (WC-P) and the Japanese acellular pertussis vaccine (A-PV) JNIH-3 was studied in four adult human volunteers. Vaccination with the A-PV induced an in vitro proliferative response of peripheral blood lymphocytes to pertussis toxin (PT) subunits S2-S4, S3-S4 and S5 and the filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), and a better serological response to native PT, detoxified PT (dPT) and FHA than the WC-PV. The induced CMI and serological response were followed over a period of 17 weeks, and were not seen to decline during this period. Further, an in vitro proliferative response to Bordetella pertussis agglutinogen 2 and 3 were demonstrated using lymphocytes from recently and not-so-recently pertussis-vaccinated adults. PMID:1797049

  3. Coverage of gingival recession defects using acellular dermal matrix allograft with or without beta-tricalcium phosphate.

    PubMed

    Okubo, Nobuki; Fujita, Takahisa; Ishii, Yoshihito; Ota, Mikio; Shibukawa, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Satoru

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) particles in combination with acellular dermal matrix (ADM) allograft in gingival recession. Experimental gingival recession defects were created in beagle dogs and randomly assigned to one of the following groups: ADM, ADM + β-TCP, or coronally positioned flap (CPF; control). Tissues were histologically examined at 4, 8, or 16 weeks following treatment. A greater thickness of gingiva was observed at the sites treated in both the ADM + β-TCP and ADM groups than in the CPF group. The ADM + β-TCP group showed a statistically significant increase in both new bone and cementum formations compared to the ADM group. The results suggest that the combination of β-TCP and ADM is more effective in promoting new bone and cementum formations than ADM graft alone. PMID:21862508

  4. Use of Double Layer of Acellular Dermal Matrix and Modified Tunnel Technique to Treat Multiple Adjacent Gingival Recession Defects.

    PubMed

    Mahn, Douglas H

    2016-09-01

    The goal of connective tissue grafting is to cover exposed root surfaces with gingival tissues that are stable and have a natural appearance. The use of an acellular dermal matrix (ADM) has been shown to be a successful alternative to the palatal connective tissue graft. Use of a double layer of an ADM has been shown to have stable results for 1 year. Tunnel grafting techniques can yield root coverage with a natural appearing soft-tissue architecture. The purpose of this case report is to demonstrate the use of a modified tunnel technique and a double layer of ADM in the treatment of multiple adjacent gingival recession defects. Treated teeth were found to have root coverage and natural soft-tissue contours that were stable at 20 months. PMID:27606567

  5. Acellular porcine corneal matrix as a carrier scaffold for cultivating human corneal epithelial cells and fibroblasts in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ju; Zhang, Can-Wei; Du, Li-Qun; Wu, Xin-Yi

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the feasibility of corneal anterior lamellar reconstruction with human corneal epithelial cells and fibroblasts, and an acellular porcine cornea matrix (APCM) in vitro. METHODS The scaffold was prepared from fresh porcine corneas which were treated with 0.5% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) solution and the complete removal of corneal cells was confirmed by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and 4′, 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining. Human corneal fibroblasts and epithelial cells were cultured with leaching liquid extracted from APCM, and then cell proliferative ability was evaluated by MTT assay. To construct a human corneal anterior lamellar replacement, corneal fibroblasts were injected into the APCM and cultured for 3d, followed by culturing corneal epithelial cells on the stroma construction surface for another 10d. The corneal replacement was analyzed by HE staining, and immunofluorescence staining. RESULTS Histological examination indicated that there were no cells in the APCM by HE staining, and DAPI staining did not detect any residual DNA. The leaching liquid from APCM had little influence on the proliferation ability of human corneal fibroblasts and epithelial cells. At 10d, a continuous 3 to 5 layers of human corneal epithelial cells covering the surface of the APCM was observed, and the injected corneal fibroblasts distributed within the scaffold. The phenotype of the construction was similar to normal human corneas, with high expression of cytokeratin 12 in the epithelial cell layer and high expression of vimentin in the stroma. CONCLUSION Corneal anterior lamellar replacement can be reconstructed in vitro by cultivating human corneal epithelial cells and fibroblasts with an acellular porcine cornea matrix. This laid the foundation for the further transplantation in vivo. PMID:26949602

  6. Bi-linear mechanical property determination of acellular human patellar tendon grafts for use in anterior cruciate ligament replacement.

    PubMed

    Herbert, Anthony; Brown, Christopher; Rooney, Paul; Kearney, John; Ingham, Eileen; Fisher, John

    2016-06-14

    Anterior cruciate ligament rupture is rising in its prevalence amongst the young and those with physically active lifestyles. Acellular human patellar tendon (PT) grafts offer a promising restoration solution, returning knee joint stability and overcoming some of the current disadvantages of autologous or allogeneic grafts. However, it is necessary to ensure that the decellularisation bio-processes involved do not cause structural changes in the microstructure of the tendon tissue that may adversely affect the mechanical properties, particularly with respect to the physiological range of loading. Sixteen cadaveric human PT grafts were sourced and processed from eight donors, with full ethical approval and consent for use in research. Eight specimens were allocated for decellularisation, while the remaining eight contralateral specimens were used as native controls. Testing consisted of 12 preconditioning cycles followed by uniaxial extension until failure occurred. Stress-strain data was then fitted to a bi-linear model using least squares regression by a custom-written Matlab script. The elastic moduli for the toe region and linear region of each specimen were determined, in addition to the transition point co-ordinates and strain energy density for increasing strain. No significant differences were found between groups for all of the parameters investigated. Hence, the shape and magnitude of the stress-strain profile was found to be the same for both groups throughout loading. The results of this study indicated that decellularisation appeared to have no effect on the material properties of human PT grafts under quasistatic conditions. Therefore, acellular human PT grafts can offer a viable additional solution for ACL replacement compared to current autologous and allogeneic treatment options. PMID:27063250

  7. Transcutaneous Electrical Stimulation Increased Nitric Oxide-Cyclic GMP Release Biocaptured Over Skin Surface of Pericardium Meridian and Acupuncture Points in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Sheng-Xing; Mayer, Emeran; Lee, Paul; Li, Xi-yan; Gao, Ellen Z.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to consecutively capture and quantify nitric oxide (NO) and cGMP, the second messenger of NO, over the skin surface of acupuncture points (acupoints), meridian line without acupoint, and non-meridian control regions of the Pericardium meridian (PC) in humans, and investigate their response to transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS). Design, setting, and main outcome measures Adhesive biocapture tubes were attached to the skin surface along PC regions and injected with 2-Phenyl-4,4,5,5-tetramethylimidazoline-3-oxide-1-oxyl solution, an NO-scavenging compound, contacting the skin surface for 20 minutes each during 4 consecutive biocapture intervals. TENS (1.0 mA, 6 Hz, 1.0 msec duration) was applied over acupoints PC 8 and PC 3 during the 2nd biocapture for 20 min. Total nitrite and nitrate (NOx-), the stable metabolic products of NO, and cGMP in biocaptured samples were quantified using chemiluminescence and ELISA. Results NOx- levels in the 1st biocapture over PC regions are almost two fold higher compared to subsequent biocaptures and are higher over PC acupoints versus non-meridian control region. Following TENS, NOx- concentrations over PC regions were significantly increased, and cGMP is predominantly released from the skin surface of PC acupoints. Conclusions TENS induces elevations of NO-cGMP concentrations over local skin region with a high level at acupoints. The enhanced signal molecules improve local circulation, which contributes to beneficial effects of the therapy. PMID:26369251

  8. Bovine respiratory disease model based on dual infections with infection with bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine corona virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is the leading cause of economic loss in the U.S. cattle industry. BRDC likely results from simultaneous or sequential infections with multiple pathogens including both viruses and bacteria. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) and bovine corona virus (BoCV...

  9. Material Properties of Inorganic Bovine Cancellous Bovine: Nukbone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piña, Cristina; Palma, Benito; Munguía, Nadia

    2006-09-01

    In this work, inorganic cancellous bovine bone implants prepared in the Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales — UNAM were characterized. Elementary chemical analysis was made, toxic elements concentration were measured and the content of organic matter also. These implants fulfill all the requirements of the ASTM standards, and therefore it is possible their use in medical applications.

  10. Own Experience From The Use Of A Substitute Of An Allogeneic Acellular Dermal Matrix Revitalized With In Vitro Cultured Skin Cells In Clinical Practice.

    PubMed

    Łabuś, Wojciech; Kawecki, Marek; Glik, Justyna; Maj, Mariusz; Kitala, Diana; Misiuga, Marcelina; Klama-Baryła, Agnieszka; Kraut, Małgorzata; Nowak, Mariusz

    2015-10-01

    As a result of the removal of cells from human allogeneic dermis, a collagen scaffold is obtained, which can be populated de novo with autologous/allogeneic skin cells and transplanted onto the area of skin loss. The optimal method for production of acellular dermal matrices (ADM) has been selected. Three female patients (a mean age of 54 years) were subjected to the transplantation of either autologous or allogeneic keratinocytes and fibroblasts into the holes of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) mesh graft. The method for burn wound treatment based on the use of a viable dermal-epidermal skin substitute (based on ADM and in vitro cultured fibroblasts and keratinocytes) may be the optimal method of burn treatment. PMID:26812752

  11. Development of a guinea-pig model for potency/immunogenicity evaluation of diphtheria, tetanus acellular pertussis (DTaP) and Haemophilus influenzae type b polysaccharide conjugate vaccines.

    PubMed

    Gupta, R K; Anderson, R; Cecchini, D; Rost, B; Griffin, P; Benscoter, K; Xu, J; Montanez-Ortiz, L; Siber, G R

    1996-01-01

    We have evaluated a guinea pig model for assessing the immunogenicity of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) polysaccharide-protein conjugate vaccines, acellular pertussis vaccine and combination vaccines-consisting of tetanus toxoid (TT), diphtheria toxoid (DT), acellular pertussis vaccine and Hib-TT (Hib-T) conjugate vaccine. The model was based on the United States (US) potency test for TT and DT which requires injection of guinea pigs with a single dose of undiluted vaccine. Guinea pigs showed dose-dependent antibody responses to pertussis toxoid (PTxd) and filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), two important components of acellular pertussis vaccine. Antibody response of guinea pigs to commercially available Hib conjugate vaccines qualitatively resembled those of human infants. Unconjugated polyribosylribitolphosphate (PRP) was not immunogenic; PRP-D conjugate produced a low antibody response, HbOC, PRP-T (Merieux) and Hib-T (MPHBL) produced a low response to the first dose and a strong anamnestic response to the booster dose. PRP-OMP uniquely produced a strong response after the first dose which was boosted by the second dose. In preliminary experiments, injection of guinea pigs with the combined vaccine formulations consisting of TT, DT, whole cell or acellular pertussis vaccine (Ptxd and FHA) and Hib-T conjugate showed that these vaccines were immunogenic when combined, with some effects on the antibody responses of certain components. This model for testing potency/immunogenicity of combined vaccines substantially reduces the number of animals needed to test each lot of vaccine. To reduce the use of animals in testing vaccines further, we propose the use of a Vero cell assay for titrating diphtheria antitoxin and ELISA for measuring IgG antibody to tetanus toxin. The guinea pig model may also be useful for evaluating combination vaccines. PMID:8785957

  12. Repair of peripheral nerve defects with chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts loaded with neurotrophic factors-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan-Ru; Ka, Ka; Zhang, Ge-Chen; Zhang, Hui; Shang, Yan; Zhao, Guo-Qiang; Huang, Wen-Hua

    2015-09-01

    Chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts loaded with brain-derived neurotrophic factor-transfected or ciliary neurotrophic factor-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to repair sciatic nerve injury better than chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts alone, or chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts loaded with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. We hypothesized that these allografts compounded with both brain-derived neurotrophic factor- and ciliary neurotrophic factor-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells may demonstrate even better effects in the repair of peripheral nerve injury. We cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells expressing brain-derived neurotrophic factor and/or ciliary neurotrophic factor and used them to treat sciatic nerve injury in rats. We observed an increase in sciatic functional index, triceps wet weight recovery rate, myelin thickness, number of myelinated nerve fibers, amplitude of motor-evoked potentials and nerve conduction velocity, and a shortened latency of motor-evoked potentials when allografts loaded with both neurotrophic factors were used, compared with allografts loaded with just one factor. Thus, the combination of both brain-derived neurotrophic factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can greatly improve nerve injury. PMID:26604913

  13. Sensitivity of Allium and Nicotiana in cellular and acellular comet assays to assess differential genotoxicity of direct and indirect acting mutagens.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Atrayee; Mukherjee, Anita

    2011-05-01

    We have evaluated the extent of DNA damage induced by direct and indirect mutagens by cellular and acellular comet assays in two plant systems, Nicotiana tabacum (wild type tobacco) and Allium cepa (common onion). The objectives of this study were: (1) to generate dose-response curves for DNA migration values from root and shoot nuclei of A. cepa and N. tabacum treated with the direct acting mutagens, ethyl methanesulphonate (EMS), hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and the indirect acting mutagen, cadmium chloride (CdCl(2)), (2) to assess the differential response between isolated nuclei and nuclei of root and shoot and of both plants and (3) to examine the differences of sensitivity between direct and indirect acting mutagens by cellular and acellular comet assays. Similar sensitivities were evident in both plant systems to direct and indirect acting mutagens. The combination of cellular and acellular comet assays provided valuable insight to the mode of action of the genotoxicants used. The data obtained demonstrated the estimable capacity of the two plant systems to evaluate genotoxicity under different stress conditions and suggests Allium is a more desirable test system for rapid monitoring of genotoxicity. PMID:21237510

  14. Repair of peripheral nerve defects with chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts loaded with neurotrophic factors-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yan-ru; Ka, Ka; Zhang, Ge-chen; Zhang, Hui; Shang, Yan; Zhao, Guo-qiang; Huang, Wen-hua

    2015-01-01

    Chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts loaded with brain-derived neurotrophic factor-transfected or ciliary neurotrophic factor-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells have been shown to repair sciatic nerve injury better than chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts alone, or chemically extracted acellular nerve allografts loaded with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. We hypothesized that these allografts compounded with both brain-derived neurotrophic factor- and ciliary neurotrophic factor-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells may demonstrate even better effects in the repair of peripheral nerve injury. We cultured bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells expressing brain-derived neurotrophic factor and/or ciliary neurotrophic factor and used them to treat sciatic nerve injury in rats. We observed an increase in sciatic functional index, triceps wet weight recovery rate, myelin thickness, number of myelinated nerve fibers, amplitude of motor-evoked potentials and nerve conduction velocity, and a shortened latency of motor-evoked potentials when allografts loaded with both neurotrophic factors were used, compared with allografts loaded with just one factor. Thus, the combination of both brain-derived neurotrophic factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor-transfected bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells can greatly improve nerve injury. PMID:26604913

  15. Multicenter prospective randomized study comparing the technique of using a bovine pericardium biological prosthesis reinforcement in parietal herniorrhaphy (Tutomesh TUTOGEN) with simple parietal herniorrhaphy, in a potentially contaminated setting.

    PubMed

    Nedelcu, Marius; Verhaeghe, Pierre; Skalli, Mehdi; Champault, Gerard; Barrat, Christophe; Sebbag, Hugues; Reche, Fabian; Passebois, Laurent; Beyrne, Daniel; Gugenheim, Jean; Berdah, Stephane; Bouayed, Amine; Michel Fabre, Jean; Nocca, David

    2016-03-01

    The use of parietal synthetic prosthetic reinforcement material in potentially contaminated settings is not recommended, as there is a risk that the prosthesis may become infected. Thus, simple parietal herniorrhaphy, is the conventional treatment, even though there is a significant risk that the hernia may recur. Using new biomaterials of animal origin presently appears to offer a new therapeutic solution, but their effectiveness has yet to be demonstrated. The purpose of this multicenter prospective randomized single-blind study was to compare the surgical treatment of inguinal hernia or abdominal incisional hernia by simple parietal herniorrhaphy without prosthetic reinforcement (Group A), with Tutomesh TUTOGEN biological prosthesis reinforcement parietal herniorrhaphy (Group B), in a potentially contaminated setting. We examined early postoperative complications in the first month after the operation, performed an assessment after one year of survival without recurrence and analyzed the quality of life and pain of the patients (using SF-12 health status questionnaire and Visual Analog Pain Scale) at 1, 6, and 12 months, together with an economic impact study. Hundred and thirty four patients were enrolled between January 2009 and October 2010 in 20 French hospitals. The groups were comparable with respect to their enrollment characteristics, their history, types of operative indications and procedures carried out. At one month post-op, the rate of infectious complications (n(A) = 11(18.33%) vs. n(B) = 12(19.05%), p = 0.919) was not significantly different between the two groups. The assessment after one year of survival without recurrence revealed that survival was significantly greater in Group B (Group A recurrence: 10, Group B: 3; p = 0.0475). No difference in the patients' quality of life was demonstrated at 1, 6, or 12 months. However, at the 1 month follow-up, the "perceived health" rating seemed better in the group with Tutomesh (p = 0.022). No significant difference between the two parietal repair groups was observed during the follow-ups with respect to the criterion of pain (using a visual analog scale). There was a significant difference between the two parietal repair groups with regard to the number of days spent in intensive care unit, in favor of the Tutomesh technique (p = 0.010). The use of a Tutomesh bioprosthesis for hernia repair or postincisional hernia in a potentially contaminated workplace reduces the risk of short-term recurrence without increasing overall comorbidity. PMID:26609642

  16. 78 FR 72979 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Importation of Bovines and Bovine Products

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-04

    ..., 2012, we published in the Federal Register (77 FR 15848-15913, Docket No. APHIS-2008-0010) a proposal... January 4, 2005 (70 FR 460-553, Docket No. 03-080-3). The delay of applicability was removed in a final... Products Derived from Bovines,'' published in the Federal Register on September 18, 2007 (72 FR...

  17. Use of an acellular flowable dermal replacement scaffold on lower extremity sinus tract wounds: a retrospective series.

    PubMed

    Brigido, Stephen A; Schwartz, Edward; McCarroll, Raymond; Hardin-Young, Janet

    2009-04-01

    A novel injectable human dermal matrix has been developed for the treatment of complex diabetic sinus tract wounds. Bioengineered grafts are commercially available that have been somewhat effective in treating chronic wounds such as diabetic foot ulcers; however, these bioengineered grafts are only available in sheet form. These therapies are less effective in treating complex or irregularly shaped wounds that demonstrate tunnels or extensions into deep soft tissue. One acellular graft (GRAFTJACKET, Matrix, Wright Medical Technology, Arlington, Tennessee) that has been shown to effectively treat open wounds is also available in a micronized form (GRAFTJACKET Xpress Scaffold, Wright Medical Technology). This human dermal graft forms a flowable soft tissue scaffold that can be delivered via syringe into tunneling wounds. In this retrospective series, 12 patients with deep tunneling wounds were treated with GRAFTJACKET Xpress Scaffold and followed for 12 weeks. Complete wound healing was achieved in 10 of 12 patients within the 12-week evaluation. The average time to complete healing was 8.5 weeks, whereas the average time to depth healing was 7.8 weeks. The data from the study suggest that this injectable human dermal matrix has unique properties that allow it to facilitate healing of complex tunneling diabetic foot ulcers. The material is easy to prepare and inject into the wound, thereby preventing the necessity of extensive surgical exposure. The matrix supports neo-subcutaneous tissue formation and allows the body to rapidly repair these wounds. PMID:19825754

  18. Evaluating the Effectiveness of Cryopreserved Acellular Dermal Matrix in Immediate Expander-Based Breast Reconstruction: A Comparison Study

    PubMed Central

    Kim, So-Young; Lim, So Young; Mun, Goo-Hyun; Bang, Sa-Ik; Oh, Kap Sung

    2015-01-01

    Background CGCryoDerm was first introduced in 2010 and offers a different matrix preservation processes for freezing without drying preparation. From a theoretical perspective, CGCryoDerm has a more preserved dermal structure and more abundant growth factors for angiogenesis and recellularization. In the current study, the authors performed a retrospective study to evaluate freezing- and freeze-drying-processed acellular dermal matrix (ADM) to determine whether any differences were present in an early complication profile. Methods Patients who underwent ADM-assisted tissue expander placement for two stage breast reconstruction between January of 2013 and March of 2014 were retrospectively reviewed and divided into two groups based on the types of ADM-assisted expander reconstruction (CGDerm vs. CGCryoDerm). Complications were divided into four main categories and recorded as follows: seroma, hematoma, infection, and mastectomy skin flap necrosis. Results In a total of 82 consecutive patients, the CGCryoDerm group had lower rates of seroma when compared to the CGDerm group without statistical significance (3.0% vs. 10.2%, P=0.221), respectively. Other complications were similar in both groups. Reconstructions with CGCryoDerm were found to have a significantly longer period of drainage when compared to reconstructions with CGDerm (11.91 days vs. 10.41 days, P=0.043). Conclusions Preliminary findings indicate no significant differences in early complications between implant/expander-based reconstructions using CGCryoderm and those using CGDerm. PMID:26015887

  19. Characterization of bionanocomposite scaffolds comprised of amine-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes crosslinked to an acellular porcine tendon.

    PubMed

    Deeken, Corey R; Cozad, Matthew J; Bachman, Sharon L; Ramshaw, Bruce J; Grant, Sheila A

    2011-03-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) possess many unique electrical and mechanical properties that make them useful for a variety of industrial and biomedical applications. They are especially attractive materials for biomedical applications since their dimensions are similar to components of the extracellular matrix. In this study, amine-functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes were crosslinked to an acellular porcine diaphragm tendon. The resulting bionanocomposite scaffolds were subjected to a number of materials characterization techniques including a collagenase assay, uniaxial tensile testing, modulated differential scanning calorimetry, and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy to determine whether the properties of the original extracellular matrix were altered by the treatment processes. A variety of SWCNT concentrations were investigated. While none of the conditions investigated resulted in bionanocomposites with significantly improved physicochemical properties, no detrimental effects were observed due to any of the processing steps. Future studies should be performed to determine if carbon nanotubes can influence cellular adhesion and function in order to promote rapid integration and remodeling. PMID:21254390

  20. Mineralization process during acellular cementogenesis in rat molars: a histochemical and immunohistochemical study using fresh-frozen sections.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Tsuneyuki; Domon, Takanori; Takahashi, Shigeru; Anjuman, Khan Ara Yasmin; Fukushima, Chifumi; Wakita, Minoru

    2007-03-01

    This study was designed to detect tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) by Azo-dye staining, calcium by glyoxal bis (2-hydroxyanil) (GBHA) staining, bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteopontin (OPN) by immunoperoxidase staining in developing rat molars, and also to discuss the mineralization process during acellular cementogenesis. To restrain a reduction in histochemical and immunohistochemical reactions, fresh-frozen undemineralized sections were prepared. Where the epithelial sheath was intact, TNSALP reaction was observed in the dental follicle, but not in the epithelial sheath. With the onset of dentin mineralization, the BSP- and OPN-immunoreactive, initial cementum layer appeared. At this point, cementoblasts had shown intense TNSALP reaction and GBHA reactive particles (=calcium-GBHA complex) appeared on the root surface. With further development, the reaction of TNSALP and GBHA became weak on the root surface. Previous studies have shown that the initial cementum is fibril-poor and that matrix vesicles and calciferous spherules appear on the root surface only during the initial cementogenesis. The findings mentioned above suggest that: during the initial cementogenesis, cementoblasts release matrix vesicles which result in calciferous spherules, corresponding to the GBHA reactive particles. The calciferous spherules trigger the mineralization of the initial cementum. After principal fiber attachment, mineralization advances along collagen fibrils without matrix vesicles. PMID:17043865

  1. Acellular human glans extracellular matrix as a scaffold for tissue engineering: in vitro cell support and biocompatibility

    PubMed Central

    Egydio, Fernanda M.; Freitas, Luiz G.; Sayeg, Kleber; Laks, Marcus; Oliveira, Andréia S.; Almeida, Fernando G.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: Diseases of the genitourinary tract can lead to significant damage. Current reconstructive techniques are limited by tissue availability and compatibility. This study aims to assess if the decellularized human glans can be used as a biomaterial for penile reconstruction. Materials and Methods: Samples of the glans matrices were descellularized. We evaluate the presence of collagen type I and III, and elastic fibers. Biocompatibility assays were performed to assess the cytotoxic and non-cytotoxic interactions between the acellular matrix and 3T3 cells. The matrices were seeded with mesenchymal stem cells and were assessed for viability and integration of these cells. Biomechanical tests in native tissue, descellularized matrix and seeded matrix were performed to characterize their biomechanical properties. Results: The tissue architecture of the decellularized matrix of human glans was preserved as well as the maintenance of the biomechanical and biological properties. The analyzes of glans seeded with mesenchymal stem cells revealed the integration of these cells to the matrices, and its viability during two weeks “in vitro”. Conclusion: The decellularization process did not alter the biological and biomechanical characteristics of the human glans. When these matrices were seeded they were able to maintain the cells integrity and vitality. PMID:26689526

  2. Tissue performance of bladder following stretched electrospun silk fibroin matrix and bladder acellular matrix implantation in a rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian-Wen; Xu, Yue-Min; Li, Zhao-Bo; Murphy, Sean V; Zhao, Weixin; Liu, Qiang-Qiang; Zhu, Wei-Dong; Fu, Qiang; Zhang, Yao-Peng; Song, Lu-Jie

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the tissue performance of bladder following stretched electrospun silk fibroin matrix (SESFM) implantation compared with bladder acellular matrix (BAM). We compared SESFM with BAM based on porosity and pore size. Scaffolds were separately transplanted into opposite walls of the bladder of 30 rabbits after stripping the bladder mucosa and smooth muscle (1.5 × 2.0 cm(2)). Gross anatomical observation, histological analysis and muscle contractility studies were performed at 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-op. SESFM has higher porosity and larger pore size compared with BAM (p < 0.05). At 2 weeks, the presence of vesical calculus was evident in 7/10 rabbits. Histological analysis showed that SESFM and BAM promoted similar degree of urothelium regeneration (p > 0.05). However, SESFM promoted a higher degree of smooth muscle and vessel regeneration compared to BAM (p < 0.05). In addition, muscle strips supported by SESFM displayed higher contractile responses to carbachol, KCl, and phenylephrine compared with BAM. At 8 weeks, both matrices elicited similar mild acute and chronic inflammatory reactions. Our results demonstrated that SESFM has greater ability to promote bladder tissue regeneration with structural and functional properties compared to BAM, and with similar biocompatibility. PMID:26148477

  3. High contrast microstructural visualization of natural acellular matrices by means of phase-based x-ray tomography

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Charlotte K.; Maghsoudlou, Panagiotis; Totonelli, Giorgia; Diemoz, Paul C.; Endrizzi, Marco; Rigon, Luigi; Menk, Ralf-Hendrik; Arfelli, Fulvia; Dreossi, Diego; Brun, Emmanuel; Coan, Paola; Bravin, Alberto; De Coppi, Paolo; Olivo, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    Acellular scaffolds obtained via decellularization are a key instrument in regenerative medicine both per se and to drive the development of future-generation synthetic scaffolds that could become available off-the-shelf. In this framework, imaging is key to the understanding of the scaffolds’ internal structure as well as their interaction with cells and other organs, including ideally post-implantation. Scaffolds of a wide range of intricate organs (esophagus, lung, liver and small intestine) were imaged with x-ray phase contrast computed tomography (PC-CT). Image quality was sufficiently high to visualize scaffold microarchitecture and to detect major anatomical features, such as the esophageal mucosal-submucosal separation, pulmonary alveoli and intestinal villi. These results are a long-sought step for the field of regenerative medicine; until now, histology and scanning electron microscopy have been the gold standard to study the scaffold structure. However, they are both destructive: hence, they are not suitable for imaging scaffolds prior to transplantation, and have no prospect for post-transplantation use. PC-CT, on the other hand, is non-destructive, 3D and fully quantitative. Importantly, not only do we demonstrate achievement of high image quality at two different synchrotron facilities, but also with commercial x-ray equipment, which makes the method available to any research laboratory. PMID:26657471

  4. Decreased Laminin Expression by Human Lung Epithelial Cells and Fibroblasts Cultured in Acellular Lung Scaffolds from Aged Mice

    PubMed Central

    Godin, Lindsay M.; Sandri, Brian J.; Wagner, Darcy E.; Meyer, Carolyn M.; Price, Andrew P.; Akinnola, Ifeolu; Weiss, Daniel J.; Panoskaltsis-Mortari, Angela

    2016-01-01

    The lung changes functionally and structurally with aging. However, age-related effects on the extracellular matrix (ECM) and corresponding effects on lung cell behavior are not well understood. We hypothesized that ECM from aged animals would induce aging-related phenotypic changes in healthy inoculated cells. Decellularized whole organ scaffolds provide a powerful model for examining how ECM cues affect cell phenotype. The effects of age on ECM composition in both native and decellularized mouse lungs were assessed as was the effect of young vs old acellular ECM on human bronchial epithelial cells (hBECs) and lung fibroblasts (hLFs). Native aged (1 year) lungs demonstrated decreased expression of laminins α3 and α4, elastin and fibronectin, and elevated collagen, compared to young (3 week) lungs. Proteomic analyses of decellularized ECM demonstrated similar findings, and decellularized aged lung ECM contained less diversity in structural proteins compared to young ECM. When seeded in old ECM, hBECs and hLFs demonstrated lower gene expression of laminins α3 and α4, respectively, as compared to young ECM, paralleling the laminin deficiency of aged ECM. ECM changes appear to be important factors in potentiating aging-related phenotypes and may provide clues to mechanisms that allow for aging-related lung diseases. PMID:26954258

  5. Persistence of T-cell immune response induced by two acellular pertussis vaccines in children five years after primary vaccination.

    PubMed

    Palazzo, Raffaella; Carollo, Maria; Bianco, Manuela; Fedele, Giorgio; Schiavoni, Ilaria; Pandolfi, Elisabetta; Villani, Alberto; Tozzi, Alberto E; Mascart, Françoise; Ausiello, Clara M

    2016-01-01

    The resurgence of pertussis suggests the need for greater efforts to understand the long-lasting protective responses induced by vaccination. In this paper we dissect the persistence of T memory responses induced by primary vaccination with two different acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines, hexavalent Hexavac® vaccine (Hexavac) (Sanofi Pasteur MSD) and Infanrix hexa® (Infanrix) (Glaxo-SmithKline Biologicals). We evaluated magnitude and duration of T-cell responses to pertussis toxin (PT) by measuring T-cell proliferation, cytokines (IL-2 and IFNγ) production and memory subsets in two groups of children 5 years after primary vaccination. Some of the enrolled children received only primary vaccination, while others had the pre-school boost dose. Positive T-cell responses to PT were detected in 36% of children. Percentage of responsive children, T-cell proliferation and CD4IL-2+ cells were significantly higher in the children primed with Hexavac than in those who received Infanrix vaccine. No major effects of the boost on PT-specific proliferation were observed. Overall, our data documented a persistence of T-cell memory against PT in a minor fraction of children 5 years after primary vaccination. The different responses induced by Hexavac and Infanrix vaccine could rely on differences in PT inactivation process or excipients/adjuvants formulations. PMID:26922984

  6. Second-harmonic generation microscopy for assessment of mesenchymal stem cell-seeded acellular dermal matrix in wound-healing.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiannan; Jin, Ying; Deng, Xiaoyuan; Liu, Hanping; Pang, Hongwen; Shi, Panpan; Zhan, Zhigang

    2015-01-01

    Direct intra-skin injection of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and the use of biomaterial scaffolds for grafts are both promising approaches of skin wound repair, however they still cannot generate skin that completely resembles the natural skin structures. In this study, we combined these two approaches by using acellular dermal matrix (ADM) recellularized with MSCs to repair cutaneous wounds in a murine model and two-photon fluorescence (TPF) microscopy and second-harmonic generation (SHG) microscopy to assess the effects of this therapy on wound healing. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) were tagged with GFP and seeded into ADM (ADM-MSC) via MSC and ADM co-culture. ADM-MSC, ADM or saline was applied to murine excisional skin wounds and wound-healing was evaluated by histological examination on days 7, 14, 21 and TFP microscopy on days 1, 3, 5 and 21 post-treatment. ADM-MSC promoted healing significantly more than treatment with ADM or saline alone, as it led to substantial neovascularization and complete skin appendage regeneration. Furthermore, the SHG microscopic imaging technique proved to be a useful tool for monitoring changes in the collagen network at the wound site during the healing process and assessing the effects of different therapies. PMID:25890761

  7. High contrast microstructural visualization of natural acellular matrices by means of phase-based x-ray tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagen, Charlotte K.; Maghsoudlou, Panagiotis; Totonelli, Giorgia; Diemoz, Paul C.; Endrizzi, Marco; Rigon, Luigi; Menk, Ralf-Hendrik; Arfelli, Fulvia; Dreossi, Diego; Brun, Emmanuel; Coan, Paola; Bravin, Alberto; de Coppi, Paolo; Olivo, Alessandro

    2015-12-01

    Acellular scaffolds obtained via decellularization are a key instrument in regenerative medicine both per se and to drive the development of future-generation synthetic scaffolds that could become available off-the-shelf. In this framework, imaging is key to the understanding of the scaffolds’ internal structure as well as their interaction with cells and other organs, including ideally post-implantation. Scaffolds of a wide range of intricate organs (esophagus, lung, liver and small intestine) were imaged with x-ray phase contrast computed tomography (PC-CT). Image quality was sufficiently high to visualize scaffold microarchitecture and to detect major anatomical features, such as the esophageal mucosal-submucosal separation, pulmonary alveoli and intestinal villi. These results are a long-sought step for the field of regenerative medicine; until now, histology and scanning electron microscopy have been the gold standard to study the scaffold structure. However, they are both destructive: hence, they are not suitable for imaging scaffolds prior to transplantation, and have no prospect for post-transplantation use. PC-CT, on the other hand, is non-destructive, 3D and fully quantitative. Importantly, not only do we demonstrate achievement of high image quality at two different synchrotron facilities, but also with commercial x-ray equipment, which makes the method available to any research laboratory.

  8. Bovine ephemeral fever: a review.

    PubMed

    Nandi, S; Negi, B S

    1999-04-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever is a viral disease of cattle and buffaloes besides subclinical involvement of a variety of ruminant species. The subtropical and temperate regions of Africa, Asia and Australia have experienced the major epidemic of the bovine ephemeral fever but the occurrence in the tropics can not be overlooked. Although the substantial role played by the vectors viz., mosquitoes and culicoides in bovine ephemeral fever perpetuation and dissemination, other vector involvement if any should be extensively studied. The clinical severity of the disease is not apparent and the mortality is low. However, high morbidity, enormous economic losses in terms of significant reduction in production, disruption of national and international trade and finally a variety of complications resulting from the disease have drawn appreciable attention from the researchers around the world to resolve the unsolved questions in this area. In this review, detailed informations of all the aspects of the disease has been provided in a simple, lucid and easily understandable manner. PMID:10051179

  9. Root coverage using a coronally advanced flap with or without acellular dermal matrix: a meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Gingival recession is a major esthetic concern and may lead to root sensitivity during periodontal treatment. Coronally advanced flaps (CAFs) with and without acellular dermal matrix (ADM) are widely used in root coverage procedures. The aim of this study was to analyze the efficacy of CAF in combination with ADM in the treatment of gingival recession. Methods PubMed, The Cochrane Library, and Embase were used to identify relevant articles. The articles were screened, data were extracted, and the quality of the studies was assessed by three reviewers with expertise in clinical practice, trials, statistics, and biomedical editing. The clinical endpoints of interest included changes in recession, probing depth (PD), clinical attachment level (CAL), and keratinized tissue (KT). Results Ten randomized controlled trials were identified, including six studies that compared CAFs with ADM and CAFs using connective tissue grafting (CTG) and four studies that compared CAFs with or without ADM. No statistically significant differences were found between the use of ADM and CTG, whereas statistically significant differences were found between groups in which ADM and CAF were combined and groups that underwent CAF alone with regard to recession coverage, CAL, and KT. The combination of CAF with an ADM allograft achieved more favorable recession coverage and recovery of CAL and KT than CAF alone. Conclusions The results from the ADM and CTG groups suggest that both procedures may be equally effective in clinical practice. Given the limitations of this study, further investigation is needed to clarify the effectiveness of ADM and CAF in clinical practice. PMID:26937291

  10. Epithelial-differentiated adipose-derived stem cells seeded bladder acellular matrix grafts for urethral reconstruction: an animal model.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongbin; Xu, Yuemin; Xie, Hong; Li, Chao; Song, Lujie; Feng, Chao; Zhang, Qin; Xie, Minkai; Wang, Ying; Lv, Xiangguo

    2014-02-01

    The limited amount of available epithelial tissue is considered a main cause of the high rate of urethral reconstruction failures. The aim of this study was to investigate whether epithelial-differentiated rabbit adipose-derived stem cells (Epith-rASCs) could play a role of epithelium in vivo functionally and be a potential substitute of urothelium. Substitution urethroplasty was performed to repair an anterior urethral defect in male New Zealand rabbits using Epith-rASCs seeded bladder acellular matrix grafts (BAMGs) after 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeling, based on the in vitro epithelial induction system we previously described. Urethroplasty with cell-free BAMGs and with undifferentiated rASCs (Und-rASCs) seeded BAMGs were performed as controls. After surgery, a notable amelioration of graft contracture and recovery of urethral continuity were observed in the Epith-rASCs/BAMG group by retrograde urethrograms and macroscopic inspection. Immunofluorescence revealed that the BrdU-labeled Epith-rASCs/Und-rASCs colocalized with cytokeratin 13 or myosin. Consistent with the results of western blotting, at early postimplantation stage, the continuous epithelial layer with local multilayered structure was observed in the Epith-rASCs/BAMG group, whereas no significant growth and local monolayer growth profile of epithelial cells were observed in the BAMG and Und-rASCs/BAMG group, respectively. The results showed that Epith-rASCs could serve as a potential substitute of urothelium for urethral tissue engineering and be available to prevent lumen contracture and subsequent complications including recurrent stricture. PMID:24329501

  11. Universal tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of adults: What Canadian health care providers know and need to know

    PubMed Central

    MacDougall, D; Halperin, BA; MacKinnon-Cameron, D; Li, L; McNeil, SA; Langley, JM; Halperin, SA

    2015-01-01

    The tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) is recommended for all adults in both Canada and the United States. There are few data on the proportion of Canadian adults vaccinated with Tdap; however, anecdotal reports indicate that uptake is low. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of Canadian health care providers (HCPs) in an attempt to identify potential barriers and facilitators to Tdap uptake. HCPs were surveyed and a geographic and practice representative sample was obtained (N =1,167). In addition, 8 focus groups and 4 interviews were conducted nationwide. Results from the survey indicate that less than half (47.5%) of all respondents reported being immunized with Tdap themselves, while 58.5% routinely offer Tdap to their adult patients. Knowledge scores were relatively low (63.2% correct answers). The best predictor of following the adult Tdap immunization guidelines was awareness of and agreement with those recommendations. Respondents who were aware of the recommendations were more likely to think that Tdap is safe and effective, that their patients are at significant risk of getting pertussis, and to feel that they have sufficient information (p < 0.0001 for each statement). Focus group data supported the survey results and indicated that there are substantial gaps in knowledge of pertussis and Tdap among Canadian HCPs. Lack of public knowledge about adult immunization, lack of immunization registries, a costing differential between Td and Tdap, workload required to deliver the vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy were identified as barriers to compliance with the national recommendations for universal adult immunization, and suggestions were provided to better translate recommendations to front-line practitioners. PMID:26090861

  12. THE IMPACT OF CHEMOTHERAPY AND RADIATION ON THE REMODELING OF ACELLULAR DERMAL MATRICES IN STAGED, PROSTHETIC BREAST RECONSTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Myckatyn, Terence M.; Cavallo, Jaime A.; Sharma, Ketan; Gangopadhyay, Noopur; Dudas, Jason R.; Roma, Andres A.; Baalman, Sara; Tenenbaum, Marissa M.; Matthews, Brent D.; Deeken, Corey R.

    2015-01-01

    Background An acellular dermal matrix (ADM) used in prosthetic breast reconstruction will typically incorporate, in time, with the overlying mastectomy skin flap. This remodeling process may be adversely impacted in patients that require chemotherapy and radiation therapies that influence neovascularization and cellular proliferation. Methods Multiple biopsies of the submuscular capsule and ADM were procured from 86 women (N=94 breasts) undergoing exchange of a tissue expander for a breast implant. These were divided by biopsy location : submuscular capsule (control) as well as superiorly, centrally and inferiorly along the ADM. Specimens were assessed grossly for incorporation and semi-quantitatively for cellular infiltration, cell type, fibrous encapsulation, scaffold degradation, extracellular matrix deposition, neovascularization, mean composite remodeling score, as well as Type I and III collagen area and ratio. Five oncologic treatment groups were compared : no adjuvant therapy (untreated), neoadjuvant chemotherapy ± radiation ; and chemotherapy ± radiation. Results ADM and submuscular capsule biopsies were procured 45 to 1805 days after ADM insertion and demonstrated a significant reduction in Type I collagen over time. Chemotherapy adversely impacted fibrous encapsulation relative to the untreated group (p=0.03). Chemotherapy with or without radiation adversely impacted Type I collagen area (p=0.02), cellular infiltration (p<0.01), extracellular matrix deposition (p<0.04), and neovascularization (p<0.01). Radiation exacerbated the adverse impact of chemotherapy for gross incorporation as well as several remodeling parameters. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy also caused a reduction in Type I (p=0.01) and III collagen (p=0.05), extracellular matrix deposition (p=0.03), and scaffold degradation (p=0.02). Conclusions Chemotherapy and radiation therapy limit ADM remodeling. PMID:25539350

  13. Clinical application of cultured epithelial autografts on acellular dermal matrices in the treatment of extended burn injuries.

    PubMed

    Fang, Taolin; Lineaweaver, William C; Sailes, Frederick C; Kisner, Carson; Zhang, Feng

    2014-11-01

    Achieving permanent replacement of skin in extensive full-thickness and deep partial-thickness burn injuries and chronic wounds remains one of the fundamental surgical problems. Presently, split-thickness skin grafts are still considered the best material for surgical repair of an excised burn wound. However, in burns that affect greater than 50% of total body surface area, the patient has insufficient areas of unaffected skin from which split-thickness skin grafts can be harvested. The use of cultured epithelial (or epidermal) autografts (CEAs) has achieved satisfactory results. But the take rate of CEAs is poor in full-thickness bed or in chronically infected area. Providing temporary cover with allograft skin, or a more permanent allodermis, may increase clinical take. This review aims to (1) describe the use of CEAs in the regeneration of the epidermis, (2) introduce the application of the acellular dermal matrices (ADMs) in the clinics, and (3) enhance understanding of the CEAs applied with ADM as an appropriate strategy to treat the extended burn injuries. The current evidence regarding the cultured epithelial cell or keratinocyte autograft and dermal grafts applied in the treatment of burn injuries was investigated with an extensive electronic and manual search (MEDLINE and EMBASE). The included literature (N=136 publications) was critically evaluated focusing on the efficacy and safety of this technique in improving the healing of the deep dermal and full-thickness burn injuries. This review concluded that the use of ADM with CEAs is becoming increasingly routine, particularly as a life-saving tool after acute thermal trauma. PMID:24322642

  14. Cellular versus acellular matrix devices in treatment of diabetic foot ulcers: study protocol for a comparative efficacy randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) represent a significant source of morbidity and an enormous financial burden. Standard care for DFUs involves systemic glucose control, ensuring adequate perfusion, debridement of nonviable tissue, off-loading, control of infection, local wound care and patient education, all administered by a multidisciplinary team. Unfortunately, even with the best standard of care (SOC) available, only 24% or 30% of DFUs will heal at weeks 12 or 20, respectively. The extracellular matrix (ECM) in DFUs is abnormal and its impairment has been proposed as a key target for new therapeutic devices. These devices intend to replace the aberrant ECM by implanting a matrix, either devoid of cells or enhanced with fibroblasts, keratinocytes or both as well as various growth factors. These new bioengineered skin substitutes are proposed to encourage angiogenesis and in-growth of new tissue, and to utilize living cells to generate cytokines needed for wound repair. To date, the efficacy of bioengineered ECM containing live cellular elements for improving healing above that of a SOC control group has not been compared with the efficacy of an ECM devoid of cells relative to the same SOC. Our hypothesis is that there is no difference in the improved healing effected by either of these two product types relative to SOC. Methods/Design To test this hypothesis we propose a randomized, single-blind, clinical trial with three arms: SOC, SOC plus Dermagraft® (bioengineered ECM containing living fibroblasts) and SOC plus Oasis® (ECM devoid of living cells) in patients with nonhealing DFUs. The primary outcome is the percentage of subjects that achieved complete wound closure by week 12. Discussion If our hypothesis is correct, then immense cost savings could be realized by using the orders-of-magnitude less expensive acellular ECM device without compromising patient health outcomes. The article describes the protocol proposed to test our hypothesis. Trial

  15. Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) promotes peripheral nerve regeneration and neovascularization after acellular nerve allografts in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhaowei; Zhou, Xiang; He, Bo; Dai, Ting; Zheng, Canbin; Yang, Chuang; Zhu, Shuang; Zhu, Jiakai; Zhu, Qingtang; Liu, Xiaolin

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether or not ginkgo biloba extract (EGb 761) enhances peripheral nerve regeneration and vascularization after repair using acellular nerve allografts (ANA). Seventy-two Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three experimental groups: a unilateral 15-mm sciatic nerve defect was created and repaired with an autologous graft (autograft group); the same defect was repaired with an 18 mm ANA with an i.p. injection of normal saline for 10 days (saline group); and in the final group, the same defect was repaired with an 18 mm ANA with an i.p. injection of EGb 761 for 10 days (EGb 761 group). Axon outgrowth and vascularization were evaluated by immunocytochemistry 14 days post-implantation. The expression of genes associated with angiogenesis was analyzed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) seven days post-implantation. Compared with the saline group, rats in the EGb 761 group significantly increased the number of myelinated fibers and the average diameter of the nerves within the graft. There is no significant difference between the EGb 761 group and the autograft group. The expression of CD34 and NF200 was significantly higher in the EGb 761 group than in the saline group. Additionally, EGb 761 treatment increased the expression of several angiogenesis-related genes, including Vegf, SOX18, Prom 1, and IL-6. In conclusion, ANA repair with EGb 761 treatment demonstrates effects on peripheral nerve regeneration and vascularization that are equal to those of autologous graft repair, and that are superior to ANA repair alone. PMID:25319407

  16. Universal tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap) vaccination of adults: What Canadian health care providers know and need to know.

    PubMed

    MacDougall, D; Halperin, B A; MacKinnon-Cameron, D; Li, L; McNeil, S A; Langley, J M; Halperin, S A

    2015-01-01

    The tetanus, diphtheria, and acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap) is recommended for all adults in both Canada and the United States. There are few data on the proportion of Canadian adults vaccinated with Tdap; however, anecdotal reports indicate that uptake is low. This study aimed to explore the knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of Canadian health care providers (HCPs) in an attempt to identify potential barriers and facilitators to Tdap uptake. HCPs were surveyed and a geographic and practice representative sample was obtained (N =1,167). In addition, 8 focus groups and 4 interviews were conducted nationwide. Results from the survey indicate that less than half (47.5%) of all respondents reported being immunized with Tdap themselves, while 58.5% routinely offer Tdap to their adult patients. Knowledge scores were relatively low (63.2% correct answers). The best predictor of following the adult Tdap immunization guidelines was awareness of and agreement with those recommendations. Respondents who were aware of the recommendations were more likely to think that Tdap is safe and effective, that their patients are at significant risk of getting pertussis, and to feel that they have sufficient information (p < 0.0001 for each statement). Focus group data supported the survey results and indicated that there are substantial gaps in knowledge of pertussis and Tdap among Canadian HCPs. Lack of public knowledge about adult immunization, lack of immunization registries, a costing differential between Td and Tdap, workload required to deliver the vaccine, and vaccine hesitancy were identified as barriers to compliance with the national recommendations for universal adult immunization, and suggestions were provided to better translate recommendations to front-line practitioners. PMID:26090861

  17. Ectopic bone formation in rapidly fabricated acellular injectable dense collagen-Bioglass hybrid scaffolds via gel aspiration-ejection.

    PubMed

    Miri, Amir K; Muja, Naser; Kamranpour, Neysan O; Lepry, William C; Boccaccini, Aldo R; Clarke, Susan A; Nazhat, Showan N

    2016-04-01

    Gel aspiration-ejection (GAE) has recently been introduced as an effective technique for the rapid production of injectable dense collagen (IDC) gel scaffolds with tunable collagen fibrillar densities (CFDs) and microstructures. Herein, a GAE system was applied for the advanced production and delivery of IDC and IDC-Bioglass(®) (IDC-BG) hybrid gel scaffolds for potential bone tissue engineering applications. The efficacy of GAE in generating mineralizable IDC-BG gels (from an initial 75-25 collagen-BG ratio) produced through needle gauge numbers 8G (3.4 mm diameter and 6 wt% CFD) and 14G (1.6 mm diameter and 14 wt% CFD) was investigated. Second harmonic generation (SHG) imaging of as-made gels revealed an increase in collagen fibril alignment with needle gauge number. In vitro mineralization of IDC-BG gels was confirmed where carbonated hydroxyapatite was detected as early as day 1 in simulated body fluid, which progressively increased up to day 14. In vivo mineralization of, and host response to, acellular IDC and IDC-BG gel scaffolds were further investigated following subcutaneous injection in adult rats. Mineralization, neovascularization and cell infiltration into the scaffolds was enhanced by the addition of BG and at day 21 post injection, there was evidence of remodelling of granulation tissue into woven bone-like tissue in IDC-BG. SHG imaging of explanted scaffolds indicated collagen fibril remodelling through cell infiltration and mineralization over time. In sum, the results suggest that IDC-BG hybrid gels have osteoinductive properties and potentially offer a novel therapeutic approach for procedures requiring the injectable delivery of a malleable and dynamic bone graft that mineralizes under physiological conditions. PMID:26871889

  18. Transferability study of CHO cell clustering assays for monitoring of pertussis toxin activity in acellular pertussis vaccines.

    PubMed

    Isbrucker, R; Daas, A; Wagner, L; Costanzo, A

    2016-01-01

    Current regulations for acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines require that they are tested for the presence of residual or reversion-derived pertussis toxin (PTx) activity using the mouse histamine sensitisation test (HIST). Although a CHO cell clustering assay can be used by manufacturers to verify if sufficient inactivation of the substance has occurred in-process, this assay cannot be used at present for the final product due to the presence of aluminium adjuvants which interfere with mammalian cell cultures. Recently, 2 modified CHO cell clustering assays which accommodate for the adjuvant effects have been proposed as alternatives to the HIST. These modified assays eliminate the adjuvant-induced cytotoxicity either through dilution of the vaccine (called the Direct Method) or by introducing a porous barrier between the adjuvant and the cells (the Indirect Method). Transferability and suitability of these methods for testing of products present on the European market were investigated during a collaborative study organised by the European Directorate for the Quality of Medicines & HealthCare (EDQM). Thirteen laboratories participated in this study which included 4 aP-containing vaccines spiked by addition of PTx. This study also assessed the transferability of a standardised CHO cell clustering assay protocol for use with non-adjuvanted PTx preparations. Results showed that the majority of laboratories were able to detect the PTx spike in all 4 vaccines at concentrations of 4 IU/mL or lower using the Indirect Method. This sensitivity is in the range of the theoretical sensitivity of the HIST. The Direct Method however did not show the expected results and would need additional development work. PMID:27506252

  19. Unexpected soft tissue changes in response to root coverage using an acellular dermal matrix allograft: 12–year follow up.

    PubMed

    Batista, Eraldo L; Goergen, Josiane E; Machado, Larissa L; Santayana de Lima, Eduardo M

    2014-01-01

    A woman undergoing orthodontic treatment presented with recession and reduced keratinized gingiva on teeth 31 and 41. The patient declined creation of a donor site for conventional autogenous connective soft tissue grafting and opted for an acellular dermal matrix soft tissue substitute for root coverage. Orthodontic treatment followed, and the patient returned for orthognatic surgery after 12 years. Long-term follow up revealed that root coverage remained stable over time and creeping attachment on both teeth was observed. Unexpectedly, an increase in the width of keratinized gingiva was observed. No adverse effects of orthodontic treatment carried out after grafting were observed. PMID:25437945

  20. Management of a Giant Omphalocele with Non–Cross-Linked Intact Porcine-Derived Acellular Dermal Matrix (Strattice) Combined with Vacuum Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Travassos, Daisy Vieira; van Eerde, Albertien M.; Kramer, William L.M.

    2015-01-01

    The management of giant omphaloceles at our department is primarily conservative. However, management can be challenging if the omphalocele is ruptured or the sac has to be removed. We report a case in which a giant omphalocele in a newborn female patient was managed by covering the abdominal defect with non–cross-linked intact porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix (Strattice reconstructive tissue matrix, LifeCell Corp., Branchburg, New Jersey, United States) sutured to the fascia combined with vacuum therapy. PMID:26788448

  1. Anthracyclic products from Streptomyces erythromogenes nov. sp. Biotransformation of daunomycin (Dn) by an acellular preparation and synergism between Dn and some known antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, N M; Devys, M; Barbier, M

    1982-01-01

    The filtrate broth as well as mycelium of the new strain Streptomyces erythrochromogenes nov. sp. isolated from Saudi Arabian soil, produce the antitumor antibiotic daunomycin 1 and two anthracyclic derivatives: 7-deoxy 13-dihydrodaunomycinone 2 and 7-deoxy daunomycinone 4. The biotransformation of 1 to 2 and 4 by an acellular enzyme preparation from the strain was found to be NADPH and/or NADH dependent. Mixtures of daunomycin 1 with chloramphenicol or penicillin showed superior antimicrobial activities against Bacillus subtilis ICC strain, than the individual antibiotics. PMID:7113265

  2. Management of a Giant Omphalocele with Non-Cross-Linked Intact Porcine-Derived Acellular Dermal Matrix (Strattice) Combined with Vacuum Therapy.

    PubMed

    Travassos, Daisy Vieira; van Eerde, Albertien M; Kramer, William L M

    2015-12-01

    The management of giant omphaloceles at our department is primarily conservative. However, management can be challenging if the omphalocele is ruptured or the sac has to be removed. We report a case in which a giant omphalocele in a newborn female patient was managed by covering the abdominal defect with non-cross-linked intact porcine-derived acellular dermal matrix (Strattice reconstructive tissue matrix, LifeCell Corp., Branchburg, New Jersey, United States) sutured to the fascia combined with vacuum therapy. PMID:26788448

  3. Human Acellular Dermal Matrix Paired With Silver-zinc Coupled Electroceutical Dressing Results in Rapid Healing of Complicated Diabetic Wounds of Mixed Etiology: A Novel Case Series.

    PubMed

    Cole, Windy

    2016-07-01

    Patients with diabetes are well known for having difficult-to-close wounds. When additional factors are added, such as gouty tophi or tumors, the difficulty is compounded and conventional care often fails to heal the wound. In this case series, an innovative wound modality that combined a human acellular dermal matrix with a silver-zinc coupled electroceutical wound dressing was used in 3 particularly difficult and complex cases. In all 3 cases, this alternative treatment provided full healing within 6 weeks in wounds that conventional care had been unable to close in up to 2 years. PMID:27428719

  4. Serum susceptibility of bovine pasteurellas.

    PubMed Central

    Blau, K A; Ward, A C; Prieur, D J; Corbeil, L B

    1987-01-01

    In this study, the serum sensitivity of 23 P. haemolytica isolates and 18 P. multocida isolates was determined by incubating dilutions of bacteria with equal volumes of fresh or heat-inactivated bovine serum for one, two, or three hours. Clinical isolates of both Pasteurella species were resistant to serum, whereas isolates from asymptomatic cattle varied in serum susceptibility. The classical pathway of complement appeared to be the principal means of complement mediated killing as detected by incubation in the presence or absence of EGTA-MgCl2. Lyzozyme and iron saturation of serum did not greatly affect serum susceptibility with either of the Pasteurella species. PMID:3300919

  5. [Toxinology of bovine paraplegic syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sevcik, C; Brito, J C; D'Suze, G; Mijares, A J; Domínguez, M G

    1993-01-01

    A clinical entity named "Bovine Paraplegic Syndrome" ("Síndrome Parapléjico de los Bovinos") has spread alarmingly, in the cattle growing areas of the central and eastern plains of Venezuela. Approximately four million cattle are bread in the area were the disease occurs. The mortality index due to the disease ranges 5 to 25% of the animals at risk, mostly cows, pregnant or lactating. The principal characteristic of the bovine paraplegic syndrome is decubitus, ventral or sternal, in animals that make vane efforts to stand when stimulated. The diagnosis is established ruling out, clinically and with laboratory findings, that the animals are suffering known diseases with similar symptoms such as paralytic rabies, botulism and blood parasites such Trypanosoma sp., Babesia sp., and Anaplasma sp.. Death occurs always, usually after few days, and to this date there is no known treatment able to save the sick cows. In this work, we describe results that suggest the presence of a toxin in the cattle suffering and prone to suffer the syndrome; it is a natural toxin produced by ruminal bacteria. In squid giant axons under voltage clamp conditions, this toxin is very specific to block sodium current during nerve electrical activity. PMID:8085407

  6. Adipogenesis of bovine perimuscular preadipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Taniguchi, Masaaki; Le Luo Guan; Zhang Bing; Dodson, Michael V.; Okine, Erasmus; Moore, Stephen S.

    2008-02-01

    In this study, non-transformed progeny adipofibroblasts, derived from mature adipocyte dedifferentiation, was used as a novel in vitro model to study adipogenic gene expression in cattle. Adipofibroblasts from dedifferentiated mature perimuscular fat (PMF) tissue were cultured with differentiation stimulants until the cells exhibited morphological differentiation. Treated cells were harvested from day 2 to 16 for RNA extraction, whereas control cells were cultured without addition of stimulants. Results from time course gene expression assays by quantitative real-time PCR revealed that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-{gamma}), sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 (SREBP-1) and their six down-stream genes were co-expressed at day 2 post-differentiation induction. When compared to other adipogenesis culture systems, the adipogenic gene expression of bovine PMF adipofibroblasts culture was different, especially to the rodent model. Collectively, these results demonstrated PPAR-{gamma} and SREBP-1 cooperatively play a key role to regulate the re-differentiation of bovine adipofibroblasts, during early conversion stages in vitro.

  7. Bovine somatic cell nuclear transfer.

    PubMed

    Ross, Pablo J; Cibelli, Jose B

    2010-01-01

    Somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) is a technique by which the nucleus of a differentiated cell is introduced into an oocyte from which its genetic material has been removed by a process called enucleation. In mammals, the reconstructed embryo is artificially induced to initiate embryonic development (activation). The oocyte turns the somatic cell nucleus into an embryonic nucleus. This process is called nuclear reprogramming and involves an important change of cell fate, by which the somatic cell nucleus becomes capable of generating all the cell types required for the formation of a new individual, including extraembryonic tissues. Therefore, after transfer of a cloned embryo to a surrogate mother, an offspring genetically identical to the animal from which the somatic cells where isolated, is born. Cloning by nuclear transfer has potential applications in agriculture and biomedicine, but is limited by low efficiency. Cattle were the second mammalian species to be cloned after Dolly the sheep, and it is probably the most widely used species for SCNT experiments. This is, in part due to the high availability of bovine oocytes and the relatively higher efficiency levels usually obtained in cattle. Given the wide utilization of this species for cloning, several alternatives to this basic protocol can be found in the literature. Here we describe a basic protocol for bovine SCNT currently being used in our laboratory, which is amenable for the use of the nuclear transplantation technique for research or commercial purposes. PMID:20336522

  8. Formation of acellular cementum-like layers, with and without extrinsic fiber insertion, along inert bone surfaces of aging c-Src gene knockout mice.

    PubMed

    Baba, Otto; Miyata, Atsushi; Abe, Tatsuhiko; Shibata, Shunichi; Nakano, Yukiko; Terashima, Tatsuo; Oda, Tsuyoshi; Kudo, Akira; Takano, Yoshiro

    2006-12-01

    To investigate the long-term effects of c-src deficiency on skeletal and dental tissues, we examined the lower jaws and long bones of c-src gene knockout (c-src KO) mice by histological and histochemical methods. Numerous multinucleated osteoclasts were distributed throughout the mandible in 5-wk-old c-src KO mice, but by 14 wk they had almost completely disappeared from the alveolar bone, leaving tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive layers along the bone surface. Deposition of osteopontin-positive mineralized tissue, reminiscent of acellular afibrillar cementum (AAC), was confirmed along the TRAP-positive bone surface at 14 wk. The layer progressively thickened up to 21 months. A comparable mineralized layer was noted along the trabeculae of long bones as thickened cement lines. In the periostin-rich areas of jaw bones, but not in the long bones, portions of AAC-like mineralized layers were often replaced with and/or covered by acellular extrinsic fiber cementum (AEFC)-like tissue. These data suggest that the deposition of AAC-like mineralized tissue is a general phenomenon that may occur along inert or slowly remodeling bone surfaces under conditions characterized by reduced bone-resorbing activity, whereas the induction of AEFC-like tissue seems to be associated with the expression of certain molecules that are particularly abundant in the microenvironment of the periodontal ligament. PMID:17184236

  9. Socket Preservation Therapy with Acellular Dermal Matrix and Mineralized Bone Allograft After Tooth Extraction in Humans: A Clinical and Histomorphometric Study.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Patricia Garani; Muglia, Valdir Antonio; Reino, Danilo Maeda; Maia, Luciana Prado; de Moraes Grisi, Marcio Fernando; de Souza, Sergio Luís; Taba, Mario; Palioto, Daniela Bazan; de Almeida, Adriana G; Novaes, Arthur Belém

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze through clinical and histomorphometric parameters the use of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) with or without mineralized bone allograft (AB) on bone formation in human alveoli after a 6- to 8-month healing period. A total of 19 patients in need of extraction of the maxillary anterior teeth were selected and randomly assigned to the test group (ADM plus AB) or to the control group (ADM only). Clinical and histomorphometric measurements and histologic analysis were recorded 6 to 8 months after ridge preservation procedures. Clinical parameters and amount of mineralized and nonmineralized tissue were measured and analyzed. In the clinical measurements, the test group showed reduced bone loss in the buccopalatal dimension after 6 to 8 months (intragroup analysis P < .01). Histologic findings showed higher percentages of mineralized tissue and lower percentages of nonmineralized tissue in the test group when compared with the control group (P < .05). In this randomized controlled clinical and histomorphometric study in humans, acellular dermal matrix in association with mineralized bone allograft reduced alveolar bone loss in the anterior maxillae both in height and width after a follow-up period of 6 to 8 months. PMID:26901306

  10. Time-dependent bladder tissue regeneration using bilayer bladder acellular matrix graft-silk fibroin scaffolds in a rat bladder augmentation model.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; He, Yi; Zhou, Zhe; Guo, Jian-hua; Wu, Jia-sheng; Zhang, Ming; Li, Wei; Zhou, Juan; Xiao, Dong-dong; Wang, Zhong; Sun, Kang; Zhu, Ying-jian; Lu, Mu-jun

    2015-09-01

    With advances in tissue engineering, various synthetic and natural biomaterials have been widely used in tissue regeneration of the urinary bladder in rat models. However, reconstructive procedures remain insufficient due to the lack of appropriate scaffolding, which should provide a waterproof barrier function and support the needs of various cell types. To address these problems, we have developed a bilayer scaffold comprising a porous network (silk fibroin [SF]) and an underlying natural acellular matrix (bladder acellular matrix graft [BAMG]) and evaluated its feasibility and potential for bladder regeneration in a rat bladder augmentation model. Histological (hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining) and immunohistochemical analyses demonstrated that the bilayer BAMG-SF scaffold promoted smooth muscle, blood vessel, and nerve regeneration in a time-dependent manner. At 12weeks after implantation, bladders reconstructed with the BAMG-SF matrix displayed superior structural and functional properties without significant local tissue responses or systemic toxicity. These results demonstrated that the bilayer BAMG-SF scaffold may be a promising scaffold with good biocompatibility for bladder regeneration in the rat bladder augmentation model. PMID:26049152

  11. Cell-Mediated Immune Responses in Four-Year-Old Children after Primary Immunization with Acellular Pertussis Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Ausiello, Clara M.; Lande, Roberto; Urbani, Francesca; la Sala, Andrea; Stefanelli, Paola; Salmaso, Stefania; Mastrantonio, Paola; Cassone, Antonio

    1999-01-01

    Cell-mediated immune (CMI) responses to Bordetella pertussis antigens (pertussis toxin [PT], pertactin [PRN], and filamentous hemagglutinin [FHA]) were assessed in 48-month-old recipients of acellular pertussis [aP] vaccines (either from Chiron-Biocine [aP-CB] or from SmithKline Beecham [aP-SB]) and compared to CMI responses to the same antigens at 7 months of age, i.e., 1 month after completion of the primary immunization cycle. None of the children enrolled in this study received any booster of pertussis vaccines or was affected by pertussis during the whole follow-up period. Overall, around 75% of 4-year-old children showed a CMI-positive response to at least one B. pertussis antigen, independently of the type of aP vaccine received, and the proportion of CMI responders were at least equal at 48 and 7 months of age. However, longitudinal examination of individual responses showed that from 20 (against PT) to 37% (against FHA) of CMI responders after primary immunization became negative at 48 months of age. This loss was more than compensated for by conversion to positive CMI responses, ranging from 36% against FHA to 69% against PRN, in other children who were CMI negative at 7 months of age. In 60 to 80% of these CMI converters, a lack of decline or even marked elevation of antibody (Ab) titers against B. pertussis antigens also occurred between 20 and 48 months of age. In particular, the frequency of seropositivity to PRN and FHA (but not to PT) was roughly three times higher in CMI converters than in nonconverters. The acquisition of CMI response to B. pertussis antigens in 48-month-old children was not associated with a greater frequency of coughing episodes lasting ≥7 days and was characterized by a prevalent type 1 cytokine profile, with high gamma interferon and low or no production of interleukin-5, reminiscent of cytokine patterns following immunization with whole-cell pertussis vaccine or natural infection. Our data imply that vaccination

  12. Acellular Bi-Layer Silk Fibroin Scaffolds Support Tissue Regeneration in a Rabbit Model of Onlay Urethroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Franck, Debra; Gil, Eun Seok; Algarrahi, Khalid; Adam, Rosalyn M.; Kaplan, David L.; Estrada Jr., Carlos R.; Mauney, Joshua R.

    2014-01-01

    Acellular scaffolds derived from Bombyx mori silk fibroin were investigated for their ability to support functional tissue regeneration in a rabbit model of urethra repair. A bi-layer silk fibroin matrix was fabricated by a solvent-casting/salt leaching process in combination with silk fibroin film casting to generate porous foams buttressed by homogeneous silk fibroin films. Ventral onlay urethroplasty was performed with silk fibroin grafts (Group 1, N = 4) (Width×Length, 1×2 cm2) in adult male rabbits for 3 m of implantation. Parallel control groups consisted of animals receiving small intestinal submucosa (SIS) implants (Group 2, N = 4) or urethrotomy alone (Group 3, N = 3). Animals in all groups exhibited 100% survival prior to scheduled euthanasia and achieved voluntary voiding following 7 d of initial catheterization. Retrograde urethrography of each implant group at 3 m post-op revealed wide urethral calibers and preservation of organ continuity similar to pre-operative and urethrotomy controls with no evidence of contrast extravasation, strictures, fistulas, or stone formation. Histological (hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome), immunohistochemical, and histomorphometric analyses demonstrated that both silk fibroin and SIS scaffolds promoted similar extents of smooth muscle and epithelial tissue regeneration throughout the original defect sites with prominent contractile protein (α-smooth muscle actin and SM22α) and cytokeratin expression, respectively. De novo innervation and vascularization were also evident in all regenerated tissues indicated by synaptophysin-positive neuronal cells and vessels lined with CD31 expressing endothelial cells. Following 3 m post-op, minimal acute inflammatory reactions were elicited by silk fibroin scaffolds characterized by the presence of eosinophil granulocytes while SIS matrices promoted chronic inflammatory responses indicated by mobilization of mononuclear cell infiltrates. The results of this

  13. Bladder Tissue Regeneration Using Acellular Bi-Layer Silk Scaffolds in a Large Animal Model of Augmentation Cystoplasty

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Duong D.; Chung, Yeun Goo; Gil, Eun Seok; Seth, Abhishek; Franck, Debra; Cristofaro, Vivian; Sullivan, Maryrose P.; Di Vizio, Dolores; Gomez, Pablo; Adam, Rosalyn M.; Kaplan, David L.; Estrada, Carlos R.; Mauney, Joshua R.

    2013-01-01

    studies demonstrated that regenerated tissues supported by both silk matrices displayed contractile responses to carbachol, α,β-methylene-ATP, KCl, and electrical field stimulation similar to controls. Our data detail the ability of acellular silk scaffolds to support regeneration of innervated, vascularized smooth muscle and urothelial tissues within 3 m with structural, mechanical, and functional properties comparable to native tissue in a porcine model of bladder repair. PMID:23953839

  14. Muscarine binding sites in bovine adrenal medulla.

    PubMed

    Barron, B A; Murrin, L C; Hexum, T D

    1986-03-18

    The presence of muscarinic binding sites in the bovine adrenal medulla was investigated using [3H]QNB and the bovine adrenal medulla. Scatchard analysis combined with computer analysis yielded data consistent with a two binding site configuration. KDs of 0.15 and 14 nM and Bmax s of 29 and 210 fmol/mg protein, respectively, were observed. Displacement of [3H]QNB by various cholinergic agents is, in order of decreasing potency: QNB, dexetimide, atropine, scopolamine, imipramine, desipramine, oxotremorine, pilocarpine, acetylcholine, methacholine and carbachol. These results demonstrate the presence of more than one muscarine binding site in the bovine adrenal gland. PMID:3709656

  15. Growth and metabolism of murine and bovine embryos in bovine uterine flushing-supplemented culture media.

    PubMed Central

    Rondeau, M; Guay, P; Goff, A K; Cooke, G M

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the development and metabolic activity of cultured murine and bovine embryos in 2 standard media (HAM F-10 and RPMI) in the presence or absence of bovine uterine flushings. Murine morulae (n = 653) and day 7 bovine embryos (n = 273) were cultured for 18 h or 36 h in either HAM F-10 or RPMI in the presence or absence of bovine uterine flushings. After culture, the development, quality, and metabolic activity (glucose utilization or methionine uptake and incorporation) of embryos was assessed. It was found that HAM F-10 (without uterine flushings) was a more suitable medium than RPMI for optimal development and metabolism of murine and bovine embryos. Poor quality and development, as well as decreased metabolism, were evident after culture of murine embryos in RPMI; in contrast, this medium had no adverse effects on bovine embryos in culture. Supplementation of HAM F-10 with bovine uterine flushings improved the growth of murine embryos and the protein synthesis (as measured by an increased methionine incorporation) for both murine and bovine embryos. However, supplementation with bovine uterine flushings could not overcome deficiencies of an inappropriate medium (RPMI) for murine embryos. Supplementation of a well-defined culture medium with uterine flushings increased metabolism of embryos in culture, and thus might help to increase pregnancy rates after transfer of such embryos to recipient cows. PMID:8825988

  16. Elastomechanical properties of bovine veins.

    PubMed

    Rossmann, Jenn Stroud

    2010-02-01

    Veins have historically been discussed in qualitative, relative terms: "more compliant" than arteries, subject to "lower pressures". The structural and compositional differences between arteries and veins are directly related to the different functions of these vessels. Veins are often used as grafts to reroute flow from atherosclerotic arteries, and venous elasticity plays a role in the development of conditions such as varicose veins and valvular insufficiency. It is therefore of clinical interest to determine the elastomechanical properties of veins. In the current study, both tensile and vibration testing are used to obtain elastic moduli of bovine veins. Representative stress-strain data are shown, and the mechanical and failure properties reported. Nonlinear and viscoelastic behavior is observed, though most properties show little strain rate dependence. These data suggest parameters for constitutive modeling of veins and may inform the design and testing of prosthetic venous valves as well as vein grafts. PMID:20129420

  17. Bovine Mastitis: Frontiers in Immunogenetics

    PubMed Central

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A.

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow’s natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity+™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID

  18. Bovine mastitis: frontiers in immunogenetics.

    PubMed

    Thompson-Crispi, Kathleen; Atalla, Heba; Miglior, Filippo; Mallard, Bonnie A

    2014-01-01

    Mastitis is one of the most prevalent and costly diseases in the dairy industry with losses attributable to reduced milk production, discarded milk, early culling, veterinary services, and labor costs. Typically, mastitis is an inflammation of the mammary gland most often, but not limited to, bacterial infection, and is characterized by the movement of leukocytes and serum proteins from the blood to the site of infection. It contributes to compromised milk quality and the potential spread of antimicrobial resistance if antibiotic treatment is not astutely applied. Despite the implementation of management practises and genetic selection approaches, bovine mastitis control continues to be inadequate. However, some novel genetic strategies have recently been demonstrated to reduce mastitis incidence by taking advantage of a cow's natural ability to make appropriate immune responses against invading pathogens. Specifically, dairy cattle with enhanced and balanced immune responses have a lower occurrence of disease, including mastitis, and they can be identified and selected for using the high immune response (HIR) technology. Enhanced immune responsiveness is also associated with improved response to vaccination, increased milk, and colostrum quality. Since immunity is an important fitness trait, beneficial associations with longevity and reproduction are also often noted. This review highlights the genetic regulation of the bovine immune system and its vital contributions to disease resistance. Genetic selection approaches currently used in the dairy industry to reduce the incidence of disease are reviewed, including the HIR technology, genomics to improve disease resistance or immune response, as well as the Immunity(+)™ sire line. Improving the overall immune responsiveness of cattle is expected to provide superior disease resistance, increasing animal welfare and food quality while maintaining favorable production levels to feed a growing population. PMID

  19. Aerosol stability of bovine adenovirus type 3.

    PubMed Central

    Elazhary, M A; Derbyshire, J B

    1979-01-01

    The WBR-1 strain of bovine adenovirus type 3 was suspended in Eagle's medium or bovine nasal secretion and atomized into a rotating drum at temperatures of 6 degrees C or 32 degrees C and relative humidities of 30% or 90%. Impinger samples of the aerosols were collected seven minutes, one, two and three hours postgeneration, and titrated for infectivity in embryonic bovine kidney cell cultures. Under certain conditions of temperature and relative humidity, the virus was more stable in aerosols of Eagle's medium than in nasal secretion. The bovine adenovirus was usually inactivated more rapidly at 30% relative humidity than at 90% relative humidity and during aging of the aerosols the virus was inactivated more rapidly at 32 degrees C than at 6 degrees C. PMID:226247

  20. [Effect of changes in airway pressure and the inspiratory volume on the fluid filtration rate and pulmonary artery pressure in isolated rabbit lungs perfused with blood and acellular solution].

    PubMed

    Crespo, Astrid; Novoa, Eva; Urich, Daniela; Trejo, Humberto; Pezzulo, Alejandro; Sznajder, Jacob I; Livia, Fernández; Sánchez-de León, Roberto

    2006-12-01

    It has been reported that ventilation with large tidal volumes causes pulmonary edema in rats by the stimulation and release of proinflammatory mediators. Our objective was to determine the level at which volutrauma induced by changes in Airway Pressure (PAW) and Inspiratory Volume (VI) produce significant changes on the Fluid Filtration Rate (FFR) and Pulmonary Artery Pressure (PAP) in lungs perfused with blood (cellular groups) or with a buffer-albumin solution (acellular groups), with a Positive End Expiratory Pressure (PEEP) 0 or 2 cmH2O and to study the effect of a vasodilator with antiinflammatory properties (fenoterol) in blood-perfused groups. Three experimental groups were used: the cellular groups studied the effect of increased PAW and IV in isolated lungs perfused with blood and PEEP 0 and 2; the acellular groups studied the increased PAW and IV in isolated lungs perfused with a buffer-albumin solution and PEEP 0 and 2; The fenoterol group studied the effect of increased PAW and IV in isolated lungs perfused with blood + fenoterol and PEEP 2. The results show that an increase of FFR is produced earlier in acellular groups than in cellular ones and that the damage in cellular groups is microscopically and macroscopically inferior when compared to acellular groups. Fenoterol did not inhibit edema formation, and that PEEP 2, both in the cellular and the acellular groups, has a protective effect. We propose the possible existence of mediators with protective effects against the formation of pulmonary edema in the blood. These data suggest that volutrauma induced pulmonary edema has a predominantly traumatic origin when the lungs are perfused with blood. PMID:17176901

  1. Bovine TLR2 and TLR4 mediate Cryptosporidium parvum recognition in bovine intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Yang, Zhengtao; Fu, Yunhe; Gong, Pengtao; Zheng, Jingtong; Liu, Li; Yu, Yuqiang; Li, Jianhua; Li, He; Yang, Ju; Zhang, Xichen

    2015-08-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum (C. parvum) is an intestinal parasite that causes diarrhea in neonatal calves. It results in significant morbidity of neonatal calves and economic losses for producers worldwide. Innate resistance against C. parvum is thought to depend on engagement of pattern recognition receptors. However, the role of innate responses to C. parvum has not been elucidated in bovine. The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of TLRs in host-cell responses during C. parvum infection of cultured bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The expressions of TLRs in bovine intestinal epithelial cells were detected by qRT-PCR. To determine which, if any, TLRs may play a role in the response of bovine intestinal epithelial cells to C. parvum, the cells were stimulated with C. parvum and the expression of TLRs were tested by qRT-PCR. The expression of NF-κB was detected by western blotting. Further analyses were carried out in bovine TLRs transfected HEK293 cells and by TLRs-DN transfected bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The results showed that bovine intestinal epithelial cells expressed all known TLRs. The expression of TLR2 and TLR4 were up-regulated when bovine intestinal epithelial cells were treated with C. parvum. Meanwhile, C. parvum induced IL-8 production in TLR2 or TLR4/MD-2 transfected HEK293 cells. Moreover, C. parvum induced NF-κB activation and cytokine expression in bovine intestinal epithelial cells. The induction of NF-κB activation and cytokine expression by C. parvum were reduced in TLR2-DN and TLR4-DN transfected cells. The results showed that bovine intestinal epithelial cells expressed all known TLRs, and bovine intestinal epithelial cells recognized and responded to C. parvum via TLR2 and TLR4. PMID:26048276

  2. Activation of bovine neutrophils by Brucella spp.

    PubMed

    Keleher, Lauren L; Skyberg, Jerod A

    2016-09-01

    Brucellosis is a globally important zoonotic infectious disease caused by gram negative bacteria of the genus Brucella. While many species of Brucella exist, Brucella melitensis, Brucella abortus, and Brucella suis are the most common pathogens of humans and livestock. The virulence of Brucella is largely influenced by its ability to evade host factors, including phagocytic killing mechanisms, which are critical for the host response to infection. The aim of this study was to characterize the bovine neutrophil response to virulent Brucella spp. Here, we found that virulent strains of smooth B. abortus, B. melitensis, B. suis, and virulent, rough, strains of Brucella canis possess similar abilities to resist killing by resting, or IFN-γ-activated, bovine neutrophils. Bovine neutrophils responded to infection with a time-dependent oxidative burst that varied little between Brucella spp. Inhibition of TAK1, or SYK kinase blunted the oxidative burst of neutrophils in response to Brucella infection. Interestingly, Brucella spp. did not induce robust death of bovine neutrophils. These results indicate that bovine neutrophils respond similarly to virulent Brucella spp. In addition, virulent Brucella spp., including naturally rough strains of B. canis, have a conserved ability to resist killing by bovine neutrophils. PMID:27436438

  3. Nerve Wrapping of the Sciatic Nerve With Acellular Dermal Matrix in Chronic Complete Proximal Hamstring Ruptures and Ischial Apophyseal Avulsion Fractures

    PubMed Central

    Haus, Brian M.; Arora, Danny; Upton, Joseph; Micheli, Lyle J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Patients with chronic injuries of the proximal hamstring can develop significant impairment because of weakness of the hamstring muscles, sciatic nerve compression from scar formation, or myositis ossificans. Purpose: To describe the surgical outcomes of patients with chronic injury of the proximal hamstrings who were treated with hamstring repair and sciatic neurolysis supplemented with nerve wrapping with acellular dermal matrix. Study Design: Retrospective case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Fifteen consecutive patients with a diagnosis of chronic complete proximal hamstring rupture or chronic ischial tuberosity apophyseal avulsion fracture (mean age, 39.67 years; range, 14-69 years) were treated with proximal hamstring repair and sciatic neurolysis supplemented with nerve wrapping with acellular dermal matrix. Nine patients had preoperative sciatica, and 6 did not. Retrospective chart review recorded clinical outcomes measured by the degree of pain relief, the rate of return to activities, and associated postoperative complications. Results: All 15 patients were followed in the postoperative period for an average of 16.6 months. Postoperatively, there were 4 cases of transient sciatic nerve neurapraxia. Four patients (26%) required postoperative betamethasone sodium phosphate (Celestone Soluspan) injectable suspension USP 6 mg/mL. Among the 9 patients with preoperative sciatica, 6 (66%) had a good or excellent outcome and were able to return to their respective activities/sports; 3 (33%) had persistent chronic pain. One of these had persistent sciatic neuropathy that required 2 surgical reexplorations and scar excision after development of recurrent extraneural scar formation. Among the 6 without preoperative sciatica, 100% had a good or excellent outcomes and 83% returned to their respective activities/sports. Better outcomes were observed in younger patients, as the 3 cases of persistent chronic sciatic pain were in patients older than 45

  4. Immunogenicity of a low-dose diphtheria, tetanus and acellular pertussis combination vaccine with either inactivated or oral polio vaccine compared to standard-dose diphtheria, tetanus, acellular pertussis when used as a pre-school booster in UK children: A 5-year follow-up of a randomised controlled study.

    PubMed

    John, T; Voysey, M; Yu, L M; McCarthy, N; Baudin, M; Richard, P; Fiquet, A; Kitchin, N; Pollard, A J

    2015-08-26

    This serological follow up study assessed the kinetics of antibody response in children who previously participated in a single centre, open-label, randomised controlled trial of low-dose compared to standard-dose diphtheria booster preschool vaccinations in the United Kingdom (UK). Children had previously been randomised to receive one of three combination vaccines: either a combined adsorbed tetanus, low-dose diphtheria, 5-component acellular pertussis and inactivated polio vaccine (IPV) (Tdap-IPV, Repevax(®); Sanofi Pasteur MSD); a combined adsorbed tetanus, low-dose diphtheria and 5-component acellular pertussis vaccine (Tdap, Covaxis(®); Sanofi Pasteur MSD) given concomitantly with oral polio vaccine (OPV); or a combined adsorbed standard-dose diphtheria, tetanus, 2-component acellular pertussis and IPV (DTap-IPV, Tetravac(®); Sanofi Pasteur MSD). Blood samples for the follow-up study were taken at 1, 3 and 5 years after participation in the original trial (median, 5.07 years of age at year 1), and antibody persistence to each vaccine antigen measured against defined serological thresholds of protection. All participants had evidence of immunity to diphtheria with antitoxin concentrations greater than 0.01IU/mL five years after booster vaccination and 75%, 67% and 79% of children who received Tdap-IPV, Tdap+OPV and DTap-IPV, respectively, had protective antitoxin levels greater than 0.1IU/mL. Long lasting protective immune responses to tetanus and polio antigens were also observed in all groups, though polio responses were lower in the sera of those who received OPV. Low-dose diphtheria vaccines provided comparable protection to the standard-dose vaccine and are suitable for use for pre-school booster vaccination. PMID:26165918

  5. Prevalence of bovine virus diarrhoea and infectious bovine rhinotracheitis antibodies in Nigerian sheep and goats.

    PubMed

    Taylor, W P; Okeke, A N; Shidali, N N

    1977-08-01

    Neutralising antibodies to bovine virus diarrhoea virus were commoner in Nigerian sheep than goats while precipitating antibodies offered an alternative but less reliable indicator of previous infection. In contrast, neutralising antibodies to infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus were more common in goats than sheep. These findings are discussed in relation to infectivity rates in cattle and general husbandry practices. PMID:410130

  6. Complete genome sequence of a bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 from commercial fetal bovine serum.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hua; Li, Yan; Gao, Mingchun; Wen, Kai; Jia, Ying; Liu, Xiaomei; Zhang, Wenlong; Ma, Bo; Wang, Junwei

    2012-09-01

    We isolated a bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) from commercial fetal bovine serum and designated it HLJ-10. The complete genome is 12,284 nucleotides (nt); the open reading frame is 11,694 nt, coding 3,898 amino acids. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that this strain belongs to BVDV group 2. PMID:22923795

  7. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: involvement in bovine respiratory disease and diagnostic challenges

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews the contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of Bovine Respiratory Disease (BRD). Veterinarians and producers generally consider BRD as one of the most significant diseases affecting production in the cattle industry. BRD can affect the performance (...

  8. The Contribution of Infections with Bovine Viral Diarrhea Viruses to Bovine Respiratory Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The contribution of bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) to the development of bovine respiratory disease is the sum of a number of different factors. These factors include the contribution of acute uncomplicated BVDV infections, the high incidence of respiratory disease in animals persistently inf...

  9. Combined periodontal and restorative approach to the treatment of gingival recessions with noncarious cervical lesions: a case treated with acellular dermal matrix allograft and compomer restorations.

    PubMed

    Efeoğlu, Ahmet; Hanzade, Mete; Sari, Esra; Alpay, Hande; Karakaş, Ozan; Koray, Fatma

    2012-08-01

    Treatment of gingival recessions has become one of the most challenging procedures in periodontal plastic surgery. Various surgical options with predictable outcomes are available, but in cases with cervical lesions or restorations, optimal functional and esthetic results may require the combination of periodontal and restorative procedures. In this case report, one patient treated with acellular dermal matrix allograft and a coronally positioned flap in combination with compomer cervical restorations is presented. Clinical parameters were recorded immediately prior to surgery and after 12 months. Postoperatively, significant root coverage, reductions in probing depths, and gains in clinical attachment were observed. The final clinical results, esthetics, color match, and tissue contours were acceptable to both the patient and clinicians. PMID:22577650

  10. Acellular Dermal Matrix Combined with Autologous Skin Grafts for Closure of Chronic Wounds after Reconstruction of Skull Defects with Titanium Mesh.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xu; Lin, Cai; Wang, Xinling; Lin, Xiangwei; He, Sunyue; Liu, Yunfeng; Zhang, Yong; Yang, Ruijin; Zhu, Xinguo

    2016-07-01

    Objective The closure of chronic wounds after skull defect reconstruction with titanium mesh is one of the most challenging problems for plastic and reconstructive surgeons. Current approaches are disappointing. Methods In 10 patients, we explored the role of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) in combination with autologous skin grafts (ASGs) for closure of chronic wounds after skull reconstruction with titanium. Results ADM and ASG survived in all patients. Grade A healing (healing well without defect) was achieved. The average operating time was 30 to 45 minutes, and the average blood loss 30 to 50 mL. After 3 months, the wound was still closed in all patients. Conclusion The combination of ADM plus ASG obtained a high wound closure rate. ADM plus ASG allows avoiding other procedures such as rotational flaps and free flaps that require more operating time, special equipment, and adequate training. PMID:27088591

  11. Human acellular dermal matrix allograft: A randomized, controlled human trial for the long-term evaluation of patients with extensive burns.

    PubMed

    Li, Xueyong; Meng, Xianghai; Wang, Xiaolin; Li, Yuejun; Li, Wangzhou; Lv, Xiaoxing; Xu, Xiaoli; Lei, Zhanjun; Li, Jinqing

    2015-06-01

    The potential of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) to improve cosmetic and functional outcomes has been demonstrated; however, there have been few clinical comparative studies assessing the long-term morphological, histological and functional changes after ADM placement. This study was designed to retrospectively evaluate the long-term outcomes of the cograft acellular dermal matrix with autologous thin split-thickness skin for the coverage of wounds in extensively burned patients. Thirty burn patients treated with a composite graft of ADM with autologous split-thickness skin from January 2007 to December 2009 were enrolled in this study. Another group of thirty patients who received only an autogenous split-thickness skin implant served as the control. Our study revealed that the collagen in the dermis treated with ADM were ordered, and the proportion of collagen III/I was much higher in the control group than in the ADM group. The basement membrane was prominent and continuous. Meanwhile, the VBSS (Vancouver Burn Skin Score) was used to evaluate skin quality, which shows a significant differences between the two group (P<0.001). Then the functional level was evaluated by the BI (Barthel Index), and the ADM group was much better than the control group (P=0.005). Based on these results, we concluded that the composite graft of ADM with autologous thin split-thickness skin was suitable for repairing the defects in functional areas after a burn. This technique might facilitate wound management with acceptable esthetic outcomes, good functional recovery and less scar hyperplasia at the donor site. PMID:25687834

  12. Preservation of micro-architecture and angiogenic potential in a pulmonary acellular matrix obtained using intermittent intra-tracheal flow of detergent enzymatic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Maghsoudlou, Panagiotis; Georgiades, Fanourios; Tyraskis, Athanasios; Totonelli, Giorgia; Loukogeorgakis, Stavros P.; Orlando, Giuseppe; Shangaris, Panicos; Lange, Peggy; Delalande, Jean-Marie; Burns, Alan J.; Cenedese, Angelo; Sebire, Neil J.; Turmaine, Mark; Guest, Brogan N.; Alcorn, John F.; Atala, Anthony; Birchall, Martin A.; Elliott, Martin J.; Eaton, Simon; Pierro, Agostino; Gilbert, Thomas W.; De Coppi, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Tissue engineering of autologous lung tissue aims to become a therapeutic alternative to transplantation. Efforts published so far in creating scaffolds have used harsh decellularization techniques that damage the extracellular matrix (ECM), deplete its components and take up to 5 weeks to perform. The aim of this study was to create a lung natural acellular scaffold using a method that will reduce the time of production and better preserve scaffold architecture and ECM components. Decellularization of rat lungs via the intratracheal route removed most of the nuclear material when compared to the other entry points. An intermittent inflation approach that mimics lung respiration yielded an acellular scaffold in a shorter time with an improved preservation of pulmonary micro-architecture. Electron microscopy demonstrated the maintenance of an intact alveolar network, with no evidence of collapse or tearing. Pulsatile dye injection via the vasculature indicated an intact capillary network in the scaffold. Morphometry analysis demonstrated a significant increase in alveolar fractional volume, with alveolar size analysis confirming that alveolar dimensions were maintained. Biomechanical testing of the scaffolds indicated an increase in resistance and elastance when compared to fresh lungs. Staining and quantification for ECM components showed a presence of collagen, elastin, GAG and laminin. The intratracheal intermittent decellularization methodology could be translated to sheep lungs, demonstrating a preservation of ECM components, alveolar and vascular architecture. Decellularization treatment and methodology preserves lung architecture and ECM whilst reducing the production time to 3 h. Cell seeding and in vivo experiments are necessary to proceed towards clinical translation. PMID:23727263

  13. Study of synergistic role of allogenic skin-derived precursor differentiated Schwann cells and heregulin-1β in nerve regeneration with an acellular nerve allograft.

    PubMed

    Wang, Houlei; Wu, Jingping; Zhang, Xinchao; Ding, Lei; Zeng, Qingmin

    2016-07-01

    Development of tissue structure and three-dimensional microenvironment is crucial for regeneration of axons in the peripheral nerve repair. In this study we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of nerve regeneration by using an acellular nerve allograft (ANA) injected with allogenic skin-derived precursor differentiated Schwann cells (SKP-SCs) and heregulin-1β. Skin-derived precursor cells (SKPs) were generated from dermis of newborn (postnatal day 2) Wistar rats. In a rat model, nerve regeneration was determined across a 15 mm lesion in the sciatic nerve by using an ANA injected with allogenic SKP-SCs and heregulin-1β. The electrophysiological analysis, histological examination and electron microscopy were involved in this study. Cultured SKPs expressed nestin and fibronectin, and differentiated into cells with phenotype of SCs that presented characteristic markers of p75NGFR and S100-β. Implantation of SKP-SCs into the rat models by using ANA and allogenic skin-derived precursor differentiated Schwann cells (SKP-SCs) increases sciatic nerve functional index (SFI), peak amplitudes, nerve conduction velocities, number of myelinated fibers within the graft, while reduces incubation period, sciatic nerve injury-induced weight and contractions loss. Using ANA injected with SKP-SCs combined with heregulin-1β greatly promote peripheral nerve repair in a rat model. Our results suggest that SKP-SCs transplantation with heregulin-1β represents a powerful therapeutic approach, and facilitates the efficacy of acellular nerve allograft in peripheral nerve injury, though the detailed mechanism remains to be elucidated. PMID:27063890

  14. Ultrastructure of bovine sperm chromatin.

    PubMed

    Filho, Romualdo Morandi; Beletti, Marcelo Emilio; de Oliveira, Fabio

    2015-12-01

    Mammalian semen chromatin comprises DNA, protamine, and, at lower levels, other proteins. This constitution confers intense compaction to the chromatin, helping to protect the DNA and causing the head of the sperm to be very small, facilitating the safe transport of its genetic contents. It is known that changes in the sperm chromatin compaction lead to fertility problems in bulls, justifying studies of this structure. Although there are theoretical models of sperm chromatin because of its high compaction, there is no morphological evidence of such models. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the ultrastructure of bovine sperm chromatin in an attempt to corroborate the theoretical chromatin models existing today. The isolated bull sperm heads had their chromatin partially unpacked by chemical treatment using sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dithiothreitol (DTT) and were then embedded in Epon resin. Using an ultramicrotome, ultrathin sections were obtained, which were contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead citrate, and then viewed under transmission electron microscopy. The methodology used allowed the visualization of toroidal structures interconnected by a filamentous nuclear matrix, which is entirely consistent with the most current theoretical models. PMID:26515508

  15. Bovine colostrum: an emerging nutraceutical.

    PubMed

    Bagwe, Siddhi; Tharappel, Leo J P; Kaur, Ginpreet; Buttar, Harpal S

    2015-09-01

    Nutraceutical, a term combining the words "nutrition" and "pharmaceuticals", is a food or food product that provides health benefits as an adjuvant or alternative therapy, including the treatment and prevention of infectious diseases in children and adults. There is emerging evidence that bovine colostrum (BC) may be one of the promising nutraceuticals which can prevent or mitigate various diseases in newborns and adults. Immunity-related disorders are one of the leading causes of mortality in the world. BC is rich in immunity, growth and antimicrobial factors, which promote tissue growth and the maturation of digestive tract and immune function in neonatal animals and humans. The immunoglobulins and lactoferrin present in colostrum are known to build natural immunity in newborns which helps to reduce the mortality rate in this population. Also, the side-effect profile of colostrum proteins and possible lactose intolerance is relatively less in comparison with milk. In general, BC is considered safe and well tolerated. Since colostrum has several important nutritional constituents, well-designed, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies with colostrum products should be conducted to widen its therapeutic use. The objectives of this review are to create awareness about the nutraceutical properties of colostrum and to discuss the various ongoing alternative treatments of colostrum and its active ingredients as well as to address colostrum's future nutraceutical and therapeutic implications in humans. PMID:25781716

  16. Genetics of bovine abomasal displacement.

    PubMed

    Zerbin, Ina; Lehner, Stefanie; Distl, Ottmar

    2015-04-01

    Displacement of the abomasum (DA) is a common inherited condition in Holstein cows. This article reviews the genetics of DA including risk factors, genetic parameters and molecular genetic results. Breeds other than Holsteins affected by DA include Guernseys, Jerseys, Brown Swiss, Ayrshires and Simmental-Red Holsteins. In most DA cases, left displacements of the abomasum (LDA) are seen. Lactation incidence rates are higher for DA in first lactation Holsteins compared to later lactations. For Holstein cows, heritability estimates for DA are between 0.03 and 0.53. Genetic correlation estimates among DA and milk production traits range from positive to negative. Genome-wide significant genomic regions associated with LDA are located on bovine chromosomes (BTA) 1, 3, 11, 20 and 23. Motilin-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms on BTA23 exhibit a functional relationship with LDA. Pathways for deposition of calcium, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus and synaptic transmission are significantly related to LDA in Holsteins. Deciphering the DA-associated genomic regions and genes may be an important step in the quest to understand the underlying disease-causing mechanisms and in unravelling mutations with a causal relationship to DA. PMID:25840863

  17. Ruminant alphaherpesviruses related to bovine herpesvirus 1.

    PubMed

    Thiry, Julien; Keuser, Véronique; Muylkens, Benoît; Meurens, François; Gogev, Sacha; Vanderplasschen, Alain; Thiry, Etienne

    2006-01-01

    Herpesviruses have mainly co-evolved with their hosts for millions of years. Consequently, different related host species may have been infected by various genetically related herpesviruses. Illustrating this concept, several ruminant alphaherpesviruses have been shown to form a cluster of viruses closely related to bovine herpesvirus 1 (BoHV-1): namely bovine herpesvirus 5, bubaline herpesvirus 1, caprine herpesvirus 1, cervid herpesviruses 1 and 2 and elk herpesvirus 1. These viruses share common antigenic properties and the serological relationships between them can be considered as a threat to BoHV-1 eradication programmes. BoHV-1 is a herpesvirus responsible for infectious bovine rhinotracheitis, which is a disease of major economic concern. In this article, the genetic properties of these ruminant alphaherpesviruses are reviewed on a comparative basis and the issue of interspecific recombination is assessed. The pathogenesis of these infections is described with emphasis on the host range and crossing of the host species barrier. Indeed, the non bovine ruminant species susceptible to these ruminant alphaherpesviruses may be potential BoHV-1 reservoirs. The differential diagnosis of these related infections is also discussed. In addition, available epidemiological data are used to assess the potential of cross-infection in ruminant populations. A better knowledge of these ruminant alphaherpesvirus infections is essential to successfully control infectious bovine rhinotracheitis. PMID:16472518

  18. Bovine Fetal Inoculations with Calf Rotavirus

    PubMed Central

    Schlafer, D. H.; Schultz, R. D.; Scott, F. W.; Duncan, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The serological and histopathological responses of bovine fetuses to in utero inoculation with virulent and attenuated strains of the calf rotavirus (reovirus-like agent of neonatal calf diarrhea) are described. Thirteen bovine fetuses, 63 to 190 days of gestation, were inoculated in utero with attenuated (three fetuses) or field strain virus (nine fetuses) or both (one fetus). Serum-neutralizing antibody titers ranging from 1:16 to > 1:256 were detected in six of eight fetuses tested, demonstrating the ability of the bovine fetus to respond immunologically to this agent. The youngest fetus in the series was inoculated at 63 days of gestation and developed a titer of 128 in 64 days. This represents the earliest stage of gestation at which a bovine fetus has been inoculated with a bovine virus and found to produce antibody to it. Serum neutralizing titers in six of the eight dams tested increased significantly following the inoculations of their fetuses in utero. Histological changes associated with viral replication and antigenic stimulation of the lymphoreticular system were observed. Pneumonic lesions consisting of both local and diffuse lymphoreticular proliferation were present in five of the nine fetuses that were alive at slaughter. Gliosis and perivascular cuffing were noted in the brains of two of these fetuses and meningitis was seen in one. No evidence of teratogenic change was found. ImagesFig. 2.Fig. 3.Fig. 4.Fig. 5.Fig. 6.Fig. 7. PMID:232853

  19. Recent Progress in Cryopreservation of Bovine Oocytes

    PubMed Central

    Hochi, Shinichi

    2014-01-01

    Principle of oocyte cryoinjury is first overviewed and then research history of cryopreservation using bovine oocytes is summarized for the last two decades with a few special references to recent progresses. Various types of cryodevices have been developed to accelerate the cooling rate and applied to the oocytes from large domestic species enriched with cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Two recent approaches include the qualitative improvement of IVM oocytes prior to the vitrification and the short-term recovery culture of vitrified-warmed oocytes prior to the subsequent IVF. Supplementation of L-carnitine to IVM medium of bovine oocytes has been reported to reduce the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets and improve the cryotolerance of the oocytes, but it is still controversial whether the positive effect of L-carnitine is reproducible. Incidence of multiple aster formation, a possible cause for low developmental potential of vitrified-warmed bovine oocytes, was inhibited by a short-term culture of the postwarm oocytes in the presence of Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase (ROCK) inhibitor. Use of an antioxidant α-tocopherol, instead of the ROCK inhibitor, also supported the revivability of the postwarm bovine oocytes. Further improvements of the vitrification procedure, combined with pre- and postvitrification chemical treatment, would overcome the high sensitivity of bovine oocytes to cryopreservation. PMID:24738063

  20. Evaluation of experimental vaccines for bovine viral diarrhea in bovines, ovines and guinea pigs.

    PubMed

    Fernández, F; Costantini, V; Barrandeguy, M; Parreño, V; Schiappacassi, G; Maliandi, F; Leunda, M; Odeón, A

    2009-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) infection control should be based on elimination of persistently infected animals and on immunization through vaccination, to prevent fetal infection. However, the efficacy of inactivated BVDV vaccines is variable due to its low immunogenicity. This study evaluated the humoral immune response against homologous and heterologous strains of 7 inactivated BVDV vaccines, in bovines and two experimental models (ovine and guinea pig) which might be used to test candidate vaccines. Vaccines formulated with BVDV Singer, Oregon, NADL, and multivalent, induced seroconversion in the three animal models studied, reaching antibody titres higher than 2. Vaccine containing 125C -genotype 2- only induced a low antibody response in ovine, while VS-115 NCP vaccine was not immunogenic. Furthermore, bovine sera at 60 dpv presented homologous as well as heterologous antibody response, indicating a high degree of cross-reactivity among the strains studied. However, when bovine sera were tested against the Argentine field strain 00-693, they showed the lowest levels of cross-reactivity, suggesting the need of continued surveillance to identify and characterize emerging field BVDV strains. Finally, optimal correlations between bovine-ovine and bovine-guinea pig models were observed, indicating that two alternative species could replace bovines when testing the immunogenicity of BVDV candidate vaccines. PMID:19623897

  1. Parthenogenetic activation of bovine oocytes using bovine and murine phospholipase C zeta

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Pablo J; Beyhan, Zeki; Iager, Amy E; Yoon, Sook-Young; Malcuit, Christopher; Schellander, Karl; Fissore, Rafael A; Cibelli, Jose B

    2008-01-01

    Background During natural fertilization, sperm fusion with the oocyte induces long lasting intracellular calcium oscillations which in turn are responsible for oocyte activation. PLCZ1 has been identified as the factor that the sperm delivers into the egg to induce such a response. We tested the hypothesis that PLCZ1 cRNA injection can be used to activate bovine oocytes. Results Mouse and bovine PLCZ1 cRNAs were injected into matured bovine oocytes at different concentrations. Within the concentrations tested, mouse PLCZ1 injection activated bovine oocytes at a maximum rate when the pipette concentration of cRNA ranged from 0.25 to 1 μg/μL, while bovine PLCZ1 was optimal at 0.1 μg/μL. At their most effective concentrations, PLCZ1 induced parthenogenetic development at rates similar to those observed using other activation stimuli such as Ionomycin/CHX and Ionomycin/DMAP. Injection of mouse and bovine PLCZ1 cRNA induced dose-dependent sperm-like calcium oscillations whose frequency increased over time. Injection of bovine and mouse PLCZ1 cRNA also induced IP3R-1 degradation, although bovine PLCZ1 cRNA evoked greater receptor degradation than its mouse counterpart. Conclusion Injection of PLCZ1 cRNA efficiently activated bovine oocytes by inducing a sperm-like calcium oscillatory pattern. Importantly, the high rate of aneuploidy encountered in parthenogenetic embryos activated by certain chemical means was not observed in PLCZ1 activated embryos. PMID:18284699

  2. Understanding and evaluating bovine testes.

    PubMed

    Kastelic, John P

    2014-01-01

    The objective is to briefly review bovine testes and how they are assessed, with an emphasis on articles from Theriogenology. Scrotal circumference (SC) is the most common method to assess testicular size; it varies among individual bulls and breeds and is highly heritable. In general, a large SC is associated with early puberty, more sperm, a higher percentage of morphologically normal sperm, and better reproductive performance in closely related females. Consequently, there are minimum requirements for SC for breeding soundness. In prepubertal bull calves, there is an early rise (10-20 weeks of age) in LH, which is critically related to onset of puberty and testicular development. Feeding bulls approximately 130% of maintenance requirements of energy and protein from approximately 8 to 30 weeks of age increased LH release during the early rise, hastened puberty (approximately 1 month), and increased mature testis size and sperm production (approximately 20%-30%). However, high-energy diets after weaning (>200 days) often reduced sperm production and semen quality. A bull's testes and scrotum have opposing (complementary) temperature gradients, which keep the testicular temperature 2 °C to 6 °C cooler than core body temperature for production of fertile sperm (increased testicular temperature reduces semen quality). Infrared thermography, a quick and noninvasive method of assessing scrotal surface temperature, may be beneficial for evaluations of breeding soundness. The primary clinical use of ultrasonography in assessment of reproductive function in the bull is characterization of grossly detectable lesions in the testes and scrotum. In conclusion, testis size and function are critical for bull fertility, affected by nutrition, and readily assessed clinically. PMID:24274406

  3. New antibacterial peptide derived from bovine hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Daoud, Rachid; Dubois, Veronique; Bors-Dodita, Loredana; Nedjar-Arroume, Naima; Krier, Francois; Chihib, Nour-Eddine; Mary, Patrice; Kouach, Mostafa; Briand, Gilbert; Guillochon, Didier

    2005-05-01

    Peptic digestion of bovine hemoglobin at low degree of hydrolysis yields an intermediate peptide fraction exhibiting antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus A270, Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli and Salmonella enteritidis after separation by reversed-phase HPLC. From this fraction a pure peptide was isolated and analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS). This peptide correspond to the 107-136 fragment of the alpha chain of bovine hemoglobin. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) towards the four strains and its hemolytic activity towards bovine erythrocytes were determined. A MIC of 38 microM was reported against L. innocua and 76 microM for other various bacterial species. This peptide had no hemolytic activity up to 380 microM concentration. PMID:15808900

  4. Arachidonate metabolism in bovine gallbladder muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, M.; Hidaka, T.; Ueta, T.; Ogura, R.

    1983-04-01

    Incubation of (1-/sup 14/C)arachidonic acid (AA) with homogenates of bovine gallbladder muscle generated a large amount of radioactive material having the chromatographic mobility of 6-keto-PGF1 alpha (stable product of PGI2) and smaller amounts of products that comigrated with PGF2 alpha PGE2. Formation of these products was inhibited by the cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin. The major radioactive product identified by thin-layer chromatographic mobility and by gas chromatography - mass spectrometric analysis was found to be 6-keto-PGF1 alpha. The quantitative metabolic pattern of (1-/sup 14/C)PGH2 was virtually identical to that of (1-/sup 14/C)AA. Incubation of arachidonic acid with slices of bovine gallbladder muscle released labile anti-aggregatory material in the medium, which was inhibited by aspirin or 15-hydroperoxy-AA. These results indicate that bovine gallbladder muscle has a considerable enzymatic capacity to produce PGI2 from arachidonic acid.

  5. Comparison of human and bovine protoporphyria.

    PubMed

    Brenner, D A; Bloomer, J R

    1979-01-01

    Protoporphyria (PP) is an inherited disorder of porphyrin metabolism in man in which there is excessive accumulation and excretion of protoporphyrin. Recently, a similar disorder has been described in cattle. In this report, the clinical, biochemical, and genetic features of bovine and human PP are compared. Human and bovine PP are characterized by photosensitivity and elevation of erythrocyte and fecal protoporphyrin levels. In both disorders, a deficiency of heme synthase activity is present in all tissues which have been examined. The diseases differ clinically in that hepatobiliary disease has been found thus far only in human PP. They also have different inheritance patterns. Human PP is an autosomal dominant disease, while initial studies strongly suggest that there is an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance in bovine PP. PMID:392959

  6. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's...

  7. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's...

  8. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's...

  9. 21 CFR 522.1125 - Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). 522.1125 Section... § 522.1125 Hemoglobin glutamer-200 (bovine). (a) Specifications. Each 125 milliliter bag contains 13 grams per deciliter of polymerized hemoglobin of bovine origin in modified Lactated Ringer's...

  10. 76 FR 26239 - Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis; Public Meetings

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Bovine Tuberculosis and Brucellosis... framework being developed for the bovine tuberculosis and brucellosis programs in the United States. The... tuberculosis (TB) and bovine brucellosis in the United States. In keeping with its commitment to...

  11. Characterization of the bovine C alpha gene.

    PubMed Central

    Brown, W R; Rabbani, H; Butler, J E; Hammarström, L

    1997-01-01

    The complete genomic sequence of a bovine C alpha gene is reported here. The genomic sequence was obtained from a C alpha phage clone that had been cloned from a genomic EMBL4 phage vector library. The C alpha sequence had previously been expressed as a chimeric antibody and identified as IgA using IgA-specific antibodies. Intron/exon boundaries were determined by comparison of the genomic sequence with an expressed bovine C alpha sequence obtained from spleen by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Analysis of 50 Swedish bovine genomic DNA samples using genomic blots and five different restriction enzymes failed to detect evidence of polymorphism. However, PstI digests of Brown Swiss DNA showed a restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP), suggesting that at least two allelic variants of bovine IgA exist. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence of bovine IgA with sequences available for other species indicated that the highest homology was with that of swine, another artiodactyl. This was the highest homology observed for all mammalian IgA compared except for that between IgA1 and IgA2 in humans. Bovine IgA shares with rabbit IgA3 and IgA4, an additional N-linked glycosylation site at position 282. However, the collective data indicate that cattle are like swine and rodents and unlike rabbits in having a single locus of the gene encoding IgA of this species. Images Figure 4 PMID:9203958

  12. [Investigation on bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jin-Zhu; Cui, Yu-Dong; Zhu, Zhan-Bo; Cao, Hong-Wei; Piao, Fan-Ze

    2006-10-01

    Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) is autosomal recessive disease. The pathogeny of BLAD is genic mutation of CD18-integrins on the leukocyte. In order to know the carrier and occurrence of bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) among cows age from one to six years old in China, 1,000 cows were investigated by means of amplifying a CD18 gene fragment via reverse transcriptase-PCR followed by restriction digestion with Taq I. Results showed that 19 cows were BLAD carriers, indicating that the BLAD carrier rate was 1.9 percent. In addition, one cow was found to have BLAD. PMID:17035180

  13. Economics of bovine leukemia virus infection.

    PubMed

    Pelzer, K D

    1997-03-01

    A herd infected with bovine leukemia virus suffers a direct economic loss due to clinical lymphosarcoma. A major indirect cost associated with infection is restriction of the sale of animals and germplasma to foreign markets. Reports on the economic effects of infection on production have been variable and are reviewed in this article. In order to develop cost-effective bovine leukemia virus control programs, costs associated with the disease, the cost of prevention, and expected economic returns from a program need to be considered. PMID:9071750

  14. The interaction between bovine herpesvirus type 1 and activated bovine T lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Griebel, P J; Ohmann, H B; Lawman, M J; Babiuk, L A

    1990-02-01

    The interaction between activated bovine T lymphocytes (BTLs) and bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) was investigated. BHV-1 infection of BTLs reduced the amplitude of recombinant bovine interleukin 2-induced proliferative responses. This decreased proliferation was caused by a virus-induced lymphocytolysis which was dependent on viable virus and was not inhibited by recombinant bovine interferon-alpha I1. Furthermore, lymphocytolysis was not associated with virus replication or with the synthesis of detectable levels of viral proteins. Electron microscopic examination of virus-infected cells revealed that lymphocytolysis was characterized by early nuclear disintegration resembling apoptosis. These observations suggest that activated T cells, localized at the site of BHV-1 infection, may be susceptible to virus-induced cytolysis. PMID:2155290

  15. Molecular differentiation of bovine sarcocysts.

    PubMed

    Akhlaghi, Majedeh; Razavi, Mostafa; Hosseini, Arsalan

    2016-07-01

    Cattle are common intermediate hosts of Sarcocystis, and the prevalence in adult bovine muscle is close to 100 % in most regions of the world. Three Sarcocystis spp. are known to infect cattle as intermediate hosts, namely, S. cruzi, S. hirsuta, and S. hominis. The aim of the present study was the molecular identification and differentiation of these three species, Neospora caninum and Besnoitia by PCR and RFLP methods. Tissue samples were obtained from diaphragmatic muscle of 101 cattle slaughtered in Shiraz, Fars Province, Iran, for both smear preparation and DNA extraction. The samples were digested by Pepsin, washed three times with PBS solution before taking smears, fixed in absolute methanol and stained with 10 % Giemsa. The slides were examined microscopically for Sarcocystis bradyzoites and DNA was extracted from 100 mg of Sarcocystis-infected meat samples. Since the primers also bind to 18S rRNA gene of some tissue cyst-forming coccidian protozoa, DNA was also extracted from 100 μl of tachyzoite-containing suspension of N. caninum and Besnoitia isolated from goat to compare RFLP pattern. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was performed on DNA of samples which were microscopically positive for Sarcocystis. Five restriction enzymes Dra1, EcoRV, RsaI, AvaI, and SspI were used for RFLP and DNA of one sample from protozoa was sequenced. Based on the RFLP results, 87 (98.9 %) DNA samples were cut with DraI, indicating infection by S. cruzi. One sample (1.1 %) of PCR products of infected samples was cut only with EcoRV which showed S. hominis infection. Forty-eight samples (53.3 %) of PCR products were cut with both DraI, EcoRV, or with DraI, EcoRV, and RsaI while none of them was cut with SspI, which shows the mixed infection of both S. cruzi and S. hominis and no infection with S. hirsuta. It seems by utilizing these restriction enzymes, RLFP could be a suitable method not only for identification of Sarcocystis species but also for differentiating them

  16. Concurrent Bovine Virus Diarrhea and Bovine Papular Stomatitis Infection in a Calf

    PubMed Central

    Bohac, J. G.; Yates, W. D. G.

    1980-01-01

    A case of concurrent infection with the viruses of bovine virus diarrhea and papular stomatitis in a calf is reported. The difficulties posed by such situations are described and the criteria used for diagnosis outlined. The two diseases are reviewed briefly and the possible mechanisms whereby bovine virus diarrhea virus is suspected of facilitating infection by other agents are discussed. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3.Figure 4. PMID:7459795

  17. Recombinant Bovine Growth Hormone Criticism Grows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaard, Greta

    1995-01-01

    Discusses concerns related to the use of recombinant bovine growth hormone in the United States and other countries. Analyses the issue from the perspectives of animal rights, human health, world hunger, concerns of small and organic farmers, costs to the taxpayer, and environmental questions. A sidebar discusses Canadian review of the hormone.…

  18. Unraveling bovin phylogeny: accomplishments and challenges.

    PubMed

    Bibi, Faysal; Vrba, Elisabeth S

    2010-01-01

    The phylogenetic systematics of bovin species forms a common basis for studies at multiple scales, from the level of domestication in populations to major cladogenesis. The main big-picture accomplishments of this productive field, including two recent works, one in BMC Genomics, are reviewed with an eye for some of the limitations and challenges impeding progress. PMID:20525112

  19. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus: Global Status

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Despite the success of regional bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) eradication programs, infections with this diverse group of viruses remain a source of economic loss for producers worldwide. There is a wide range of variation among BVDV results in differences in genotype (BVDV1 and BVDV2), biot...

  20. Epidemiology and control of bovine ephemeral fever.

    PubMed

    Walker, Peter J; Klement, Eyal

    2015-01-01

    Bovine ephemeral fever (or 3-day sickness) is an acute febrile illness of cattle and water buffaloes. Caused by an arthropod-borne rhabdovirus, bovine ephemeral fever virus (BEFV), the disease occurs seasonally over a vast expanse of the globe encompassing much of Africa, the Middle East, Asia and Australia. Although mortality rates are typically low, infection prevalence and morbidity rates during outbreaks are often very high, causing serious economic impacts through loss of milk production, poor cattle condition at sale and loss of traction power at harvest. There are also significant impacts on trade to regions in which the disease does not occur, including the Americas and most of Europe. In recent years, unusually severe outbreaks of bovine ephemeral fever have been reported from several regions in Asia and the Middle East, with mortality rates through disease or culling in excess of 10-20%. There are also concerns that, like other vector-borne diseases of livestock, the geographic distribution of bovine ephemeral fever could expand into regions that have historically been free of the disease. Here, we review current knowledge of the virus, including its molecular and antigenic structure, and the epidemiology of the disease across its entire geographic range. We also discuss the effectiveness of vaccination and other strategies to prevent or control infection. PMID:26511615

  1. Bovine respiratory disease research (1983-2009).

    PubMed

    Fulton, Robert W

    2009-12-01

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) research has provided significant understanding of the disease over the past 26 years. Modern research tools that have been used include monoclonal antibodies, genomics, polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry (IHC), DNA vaccines and viral vectors coding for immunogens. Emerging/reemerging viruses and new antigenic strains of viruses and bacteria have been identified. Methods of detection and the role for cattle persistently infected bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) were identified; viral subunits, cellular components and bacterial products have been characterized. Product advances have included vaccines for bovine respiratory syncytial virus, Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida; the addition of BVDV2 to the existing vaccines and new antibiotics. The role of Mycoplasma spp., particularly Mycoplasma bovis in BRD, has been more extensively studied. Bovine immunology research has provided more specific information on immune responses, T cell subsets and cytokines. The molecular and genetic basis for viral-bacterial synergy in BRD has been described. Attempts have been made to document how prevention of BRD by proper vaccination and management prior to exposure to infectious agents can minimize disease and serve as economic incentives for certified health programs. PMID:20003649

  2. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: biosecurity and control

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper discusses the recommended procedures involved in setting up biosecurity and control programs designed to limit bovine viral diarrhea virus infections in beef cattle operations. For the purpose of these discussions, a working definition of a biosecurity plan was considered to be an organiz...

  3. Molecular biology of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are arguably the most important viral pathogen of ruminants worldwide and can cause severe economic loss. Clinical symptoms of the disease caused by BVDV range from subclinical to severe acute hemorrhagic syndrome, with the severity of disease being strain depend...

  4. A physical map of the bovine genome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background Cattle are important agriculturally and relevant as a model organism. Previously described genetic and radiation hybrid (RH) maps of the bovine genome have been used to identify genomic regions and genes affecting specific traits. Application of these maps to identify influential geneti...

  5. NUTRIENTS AND EPIGENETICS IN BOVINE CELLS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is a chapter for a book titled “Livestock Epigenetics” edited by Dr. Hasan Khatib and published by Wiley-Blackwell. This chapter is focused on the research development in our laboratory in the area of interaction of nutrients and genomic phonotype in bovine cells. Briefly, the Research on nutri...

  6. Linkage mapping bovine EST-based SNP

    PubMed Central

    Snelling, Warren M; Casas, Eduardo; Stone, Roger T; Keele, John W; Harhay, Gregory P; Bennett, Gary L; Smith, Timothy PL

    2005-01-01

    Background Existing linkage maps of the bovine genome primarily contain anonymous microsatellite markers. These maps have proved valuable for mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) to broad regions of the genome, but more closely spaced markers are needed to fine-map QTL, and markers associated with genes and annotated sequence are needed to identify genes and sequence variation that may explain QTL. Results Bovine expressed sequence tag (EST) and bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)sequence data were used to develop 918 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers to map genes on the bovine linkage map. DNA of sires from the MARC reference population was used to detect SNPs, and progeny and mates of heterozygous sires were genotyped. Chromosome assignments for 861 SNPs were determined by twopoint analysis, and positions for 735 SNPs were established by multipoint analyses. Linkage maps of bovine autosomes with these SNPs represent 4585 markers in 2475 positions spanning 3058 cM . Markers include 3612 microsatellites, 913 SNPs and 60 other markers. Mean separation between marker positions is 1.2 cM. New SNP markers appear in 511 positions, with mean separation of 4.7 cM. Multi-allelic markers, mostly microsatellites, had a mean (maximum) of 216 (366) informative meioses, and a mean 3-lod confidence interval of 3.6 cM Bi-allelic markers, including SNP and other marker types, had a mean (maximum) of 55 (191) informative meioses, and were placed within a mean 8.5 cM 3-lod confidence interval. Homologous human sequences were identified for 1159 markers, including 582 newly developed and mapped SNP. Conclusion Addition of these EST- and BAC-based SNPs to the bovine linkage map not only increases marker density, but provides connections to gene-rich physical maps, including annotated human sequence. The map provides a resource for fine-mapping quantitative trait loci and identification of positional candidate genes, and can be integrated with other data to guide and

  7. Molecular definition of bovine argininosuccinate synthetase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, J A; Healy, P J; Beaudet, A L; O'Brien, W E

    1989-01-01

    Citrullinemia is an inborn error of metabolism due to deficiency of the urea cycle enzyme, argininosuccinate synthetase [L-citrulline:L-aspartate ligase (AMP-forming), EC 6.3.4.5]. The disease was first described in humans but was recently reported in dairy cattle in Australia. Here we report the nucleotide sequence of the normal bovine cDNA for argininosuccinate synthetase and the mutation present in animals with citrullinemia. Analysis of DNA from affected animals by Southern blotting did not readily identify the mutation in the bovine gene. RNA (Northern) blotting revealed a major reduction in the steady-state amount of mRNA in the liver of affected animals to less than 5% of controls. The bovine cDNA was cloned and sequenced and revealed 96% identity with the deduced human sequence at the amino acid level. Starting with mutant bovine liver, the mRNA was reverse-transcribed; the cDNA product was amplified with the polymerase chain reaction, cloned, and sequenced. The sequence revealed a C----T transition converting arginine-86 (CGA) to a nonsense codon (TGA). A second C----T transition represented a polymorphism in proline-175 (CCC----CCT). The mutation and the polymorphism were confirmed by amplification of genomic DNA and demonstration with restriction endonuclease enzymes of both the loss of an Ava II site in DNA from mutant animals at codon 86 and the presence or absence of a Dde I site at codon 175. The loss of the Ava II site can be used for rapid, economical, nonradioactive detection of heterozygotes for bovine citrullinemia. Images PMID:2813370

  8. A physical map of the bovine genome

    PubMed Central

    Snelling, Warren M; Chiu, Readman; Schein, Jacqueline E; Hobbs, Matthew; Abbey, Colette A; Adelson, David L; Aerts, Jan; Bennett, Gary L; Bosdet, Ian E; Boussaha, Mekki; Brauning, Rudiger; Caetano, Alexandre R; Costa, Marcos M; Crawford, Allan M; Dalrymple, Brian P; Eggen, André; Everts-van der Wind, Annelie; Floriot, Sandrine; Gautier, Mathieu; Gill, Clare A; Green, Ronnie D; Holt, Robert; Jann, Oliver; Jones, Steven JM; Kappes, Steven M; Keele, John W; de Jong, Pieter J; Larkin, Denis M; Lewin, Harris A; McEwan, John C; McKay, Stephanie; Marra, Marco A; Mathewson, Carrie A; Matukumalli, Lakshmi K; Moore, Stephen S; Murdoch, Brenda; Nicholas, Frank W; Osoegawa, Kazutoyo; Roy, Alice; Salih, Hanni; Schibler, Laurent; Schnabel, Robert D; Silveri, Licia; Skow, Loren C; Smith, Timothy PL; Sonstegard, Tad S; Taylor, Jeremy F; Tellam, Ross; Van Tassell, Curtis P; Williams, John L; Womack, James E; Wye, Natasja H; Yang, George; Zhao, Shaying

    2007-01-01

    Background Cattle are important agriculturally and relevant as a model organism. Previously described genetic and radiation hybrid (RH) maps of the bovine genome have been used to identify genomic regions and genes affecting specific traits. Application of these maps to identify influential genetic polymorphisms will be enhanced by integration with each other and with bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) libraries. The BAC libraries and clone maps are essential for the hybrid clone-by-clone/whole-genome shotgun sequencing approach taken by the bovine genome sequencing project. Results A bovine BAC map was constructed with HindIII restriction digest fragments of 290,797 BAC clones from animals of three different breeds. Comparative mapping of 422,522 BAC end sequences assisted with BAC map ordering and assembly. Genotypes and pedigree from two genetic maps and marker scores from three whole-genome RH panels were consolidated on a 17,254-marker composite map. Sequence similarity allowed integrating the BAC and composite maps with the bovine draft assembly (Btau3.1), establishing a comprehensive resource describing the bovine genome. Agreement between the marker and BAC maps and the draft assembly is high, although discrepancies exist. The composite and BAC maps are more similar than either is to the draft assembly. Conclusion Further refinement of the maps and greater integration into the genome assembly process may contribute to a high quality assembly. The maps provide resources to associate phenotypic variation with underlying genomic variation, and are crucial resources for understanding the biology underpinning this important ruminant species so closely associated with humans. PMID:17697342

  9. Collaborative study for the establishment of a European Phamacopoeia Biological reference preparation for Bordetella pertussis mouse antiserum for serological potency testing of acellular pertussis vaccines.

    PubMed

    Poirier, Bertrand; Bornstein, Nicole; Andre, Murielle; Marmonier, Denis; Pares, Monique; Vanhooren, Gerard; Rautmann, Guy; Behr-Gross, Marie-Emmanuelle; Dobbelaer, Roland; Fuchs, Florence

    2003-03-01

    A collaborative study was organised by the European Directorate For the Quality of Medicines (EDQM) to assess the suitability of a candidate mouse antiserum as a European Pharmacopoeia Biological reference preparation (BRP) for acellular pertussis vaccine potency testing. The candidate antiserum was obtained by immunising mice with a five-component acellular pertussis vaccine: pertussis toxin (PT), filamentous haemagglutinin (FHA), pertactin (PRN) and Fimbrial 2/Fimbrial 3 (Fim 2&3). The study has been divided into two separate phases. Phase I was a pre-qualification study including three laboratories. This phase was aimed at pre-qualifying the candidate BRP (cBRP) and at documenting the impact of differences in the antibody detection methodology enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) procedures on results of pertussis antisera calibration versus the currently used standard US standard pertussis antiserum (mouse) Lot 1 (SPAM-1) (United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) reference serum) and the cBRP. As no significant difference between the antibody titres determined by using the different ELISA methodologies was found, a large-scale study enrolling 13 laboratories (Phase II) was carried out, each participant performing its in-house methodology. Its aim was to calibrate the cBRP (in terms of the SPAM-1 reference) and to demonstrate its equivalence or superiority to internal references. The study showed that there was no difference in positive sera titres expressed relative to their corresponding internal reference (homologous situation) or the proposed standard (heterologous situation) reference. The cBRP can, therefore, reliably act as replacement for the in-house reference preparations. Further analysis of the outcome of this study enabled to assign to the cBRP a potency of 39, 138, 34 and 56 ELISA unit per millilitre, respectively, to its anti-PT, anti-FHA, anti-PRN and anti-Fim 2&3 antibody contents. The cBRP has been adopted by the European

  10. Bovine Rhinitis Viruses Are Common in U.S. Cattle with Bovine Respiratory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hause, Ben M.; Collin, Emily A.; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A.; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5’-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations. PMID:25789939

  11. Bovine rhinitis viruses are common in U.S. cattle with bovine respiratory disease.

    PubMed

    Hause, Ben M; Collin, Emily A; Anderson, Joe; Hesse, Richard A; Anderson, Gary

    2015-01-01

    Bovine rhinitis viruses (BRV) are established etiological agents of bovine respiratory disease complex however little research into their epidemiology and ecology has been published for several decades. In the U.S., only bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) has been identified while bovine rhinitis A virus 2 (BRAV2) and bovine rhinitis B virus (BRBV) were previously only identified in England and Japan, respectively. Metagenomic sequencing of a nasal swab from a bovine respiratory disease (BRD) diagnostic submission from Kansas identified contigs with approximately 90% nucleotide similarity to BRAV2 and BRBV. A combination of de novo and templated assemblies using reference genomes yielded near complete BRAV2 and BRBV genomes. The near complete genome of bovine rhinitis A virus 1 (BRAV1) was also determined from a historical isolate to enable further molecular epidemiological studies. A 5'-nuclease reverse transcription PCR assay targeting the 3D polymerase gene was designed and used to screen 204 archived BRD clinical specimens. Thirteen (6.4%) were positive. Metagenomic sequencing of six positive samples identified mixed BRAV1/BRAV2, BRAV1/BRBV and BRAV2/BRBV infections for five samples. One sample showed infection only with BRAV1. Seroprevalence studies using a cell culture adapted BRBV found immunofluorescence assay-reactive antibodies were common in the herds analyzed. Altogether, these results demonstrate that BRV infections are common in cattle with respiratory disease and that BRAV1, BRAV2 and BRBV co-circulate in U.S. cattle and have high similarity to viruses isolated more than 30 years ago from diverse locations. PMID:25789939

  12. Ontogeny of the Bovine Immune Response 1

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, R. D.; Dunne, H. W.; Heist, C. E.

    1973-01-01

    The ontogenesis of the bovine immune response was studied in three embryos (<40 days) and 106 fetuses of various ages. In the absence of overt antigenic stimulation, fetuses had lymphoid development of the thymus at 42 days of gestation, the spleen was structurally present at 55 days, and certain peripheral lymph nodes were present at 60 days. Mesenteric lymph nodes were structurally present by 100 days of gestation, and lymphoid tissue of the gastrointestinal tract, particularly the lower ileum, was observed in histologic sections of a 175-day fetus with a bacterial infection. Pyroninophilic cells, plasma cells, and germinal centers were present in lymph node sections of antigenically stimulated fetuses. Lymphoid tissue developed more rapidly in fetuses with bacteria, viral antigens, or apparent maternal red-blood-cell antigens than in the normal fetus. Thymic and splenic indices reached maximal values in the 205- to 220-day fetal age group. Immunoglobulin M (IgM)-containing cells were first observed, by immunofluorescence, in a single fetus at 59 days of gestation. Immunoglobulin G (IgG)-containing cells were observed at 145 days of gestation in one fetus with a bacterial and viral infection. IgM-containing cells were observed in 36 fetuses and IgM and IgG cells were present in seven fetuses. Spleen, lymph nodes, thymus, bone marrow, and liver of one fetus from a dam with lymphosarcoma had immunoglobulin-containing cells. Hemal lymph nodes, blood (buffy coat), Peyer patches, and heart and lung sections from fetuses with immunoglobulin-containing cells in spleen or lymph node did not have immunoglobulin-containing cells. Antigens of the virus of bovine virus diarrhea-mucosal disease (BVD) were detected in one fetus, and antigens of infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus were detected in three fetuses; however, viruses were not isolated in primary bovine embryonic kidney cells. Two of the three fetuses with IBR virus antigens had neutralizing serum antibody

  13. T-Cell Immune Response Assessment as a Complement to Serology and Intranasal Protection Assays in Determining the Protective Immunity Induced by Acellular Pertussis Vaccines in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ausiello, C. M.; Lande, R.; Stefanelli, P.; Fazio, C.; Fedele, G.; Palazzo, R.; Urbani, F.; Mastrantonio, P.

    2003-01-01

    The relative value of antibodies and/or T-cell immune responses to Bordetella pertussis antigens in the immunity induced by acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines is still an open issue, probably due to the incomplete knowledge on the mechanisms of protective immunity to pertussis. The relevance of T-cell immune responses in protection from pertussis has been demonstrated in murine and human models of infection; thus, in this study, the ability of different vaccine preparations of three component (pertussis toxin, filamentous hemagglutinin, and pertactin) aP vaccines to induce T-cell responses was investigated in mice. All vaccine preparations examined passed the immunogenicity control test, based on antibody titer assessment, according to European Pharmacopoeia standards, and protected mice from B. pertussis intranasal challenge, but not all preparations were able to prime T cells to pertussis toxin, the specific B. pertussis antigen. In particular, one vaccine preparation was unable to induce proliferation and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) production while the other two gave borderline results. The evaluation of T-cell responses to pertussis toxin antigen may provide information on the protective immunity induced by aP vaccines in animal models. Considering the critical role of the axis interleukin-12-IFN-γ for protection from pertussis, our results suggest that testing the induction of a key protective cytokine such as IFN-γ could be an additional tool for the evaluation of the immune response induced by aP vaccines. PMID:12853397

  14. Preserving the Posttrapeziectomy Space with a Human Acellular Dermal Matrix Spacer: A Pilot Case Series of Patients with Thumb Carpometacarpal Joint Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Caroline A.; Ellis, Chandra V.; Cohen, Myles J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Advanced thumb carpometacarpal arthritis is widely treated with trapeziectomy and tendon interposition despite donor-site morbidities. Trapeziectomy alone leaves a postresection space, leading to proximal metacarpal migration and scaphoid/trapezoid impingement. Prosthetic implants have been unsuccessful due to particulate debris, silicone synovitis, osteolysis, and migration. Recent studies have shown successful use of allograft for interposition material in the posttrapeziectomy space both in animal and human models. To obviate the need for autologous tissue, maintain thumb length, and reduce the risk of scaphoid impingement, the senior author developed an interposition arthroplasty technique using a spacer constructed from human acellular dermal matrix (HADM). Methods: Sixteen patients with Eaton stage III–IV thumb carpometacarpal osteoarthritis received the above procedure from the 2 senior authors. HADM was imbricated to fill the posttrapeziectomy space and secured to the volar capsule and metacarpal base. Pre- and postoperative trapezial space on radiograph, pain scores, and grip strength were recorded. Results: Six months postoperatively, radiographs showed an average joint space loss of 11%. Heights postoperatively were not significantly different from immediate postoperative heights (P ≥ 0.01). At 6 months, patients had improved pain and grip strength (P ≤ 0.01). No infections, foreign body reactions, or other complications occurred. Conclusions: HADM has been used extensively in other forms of reconstruction and has been shown to incorporate into surrounding tissues through neovascularization. Our early results illustrate that HADM can safely fill the dead space left by trapeziectomy. PMID:25289260

  15. The use of an acellular dermal regenerative tissue matrix in the treatment of lower extremity wounds: a prospective 16-week pilot study.

    PubMed

    Brigido, Stephen A

    2006-09-01

    A prospective, single-centre, randomized controlled study was performed to evaluate the effectiveness of Graftjacket, a human acellular regenerative tissue matrix as a treatment option for chronic non healing lower extremity wounds. Twenty-eight diabetic patients with full-thickness wounds that had been present for at least 6 weeks were treated with sharp debridement and randomized to a single application of Graftjacket tissue matrix plus mineral oil-soaked fluff compression dressing or to a control treatment of wound gel with gauze dressings. All patients were seen weekly. By week 16, 12 of 14 patients treated with Graftjacket tissue matrix demonstrated complete wound closure compared with 4 of 14 patients in the control group. Patients treated with Graftjacket tissue matrix showed a statistically significant higher percentage of wound healing with respect to wound area, and clinically significant differences in wound depth and wound volume. This comparison is not performed to demonstrate that the application of the Grafjacket is more effective than sharp debridement. This study is done to help assign a role to the use of Graftjacket matrix in lower extremity wound care. PMID:16984575

  16. Evaluation of a new syringe presentation of reduced-antigen content diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine in healthy adolescents - A single blind randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Pavia-Ruz, Noris; Abarca, Katia; Lepetic, Alejandro; Cervantes-Apolinar, Maria Yolanda; Hardt, Karin; Jayadeva, Girish; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Han, Htay Htay; de la O, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) vaccine, Boostrix™, is indicated for booster vaccination of children, adolescents and adults. The original prefilled disposable dTpa syringe presentation was recently replaced by another prefilled-syringe presentation with latex-free tip-caps and plunger-stoppers. 671 healthy adolescents aged 10–15 years who had previously received 5 or 6 previous DT(P)/dT(pa) vaccine doses, were randomized (1:1) to receive dTpa booster, injected using the new (dTpa-new) or previous syringe (dTpa-previous) presentations. Immunogenicity was assessed before and 1-month post-booster vaccination; safety/reactogenicity were assessed during 31-days post-vaccination. Non-inferiority of dTpa-new versus dTpa-previous was demonstrated for all antigens (ULs 95% CIs for GMC ratios ranged between 1.03-1.13). 1-month post-booster, immune responses were in similar ranges for all antigens with both syringe presentations. dTpa delivered using either syringe presentation was well-tolerated. These clinical results complement the technical data and support the use of the new syringe presentation to deliver the dTpa vaccine. PMID:26075317

  17. Hair Follicle Morphogenesis in the Treatment of Mouse Full-Thickness Skin Defects Using Composite Human Acellular Amniotic Membrane and Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Minjuan, Wu; Jun, Xiong; Shiyun, Shao; Sha, Xu; Haitao, Ni

    2016-01-01

    Early repair of skin injury and maximal restoration of the function and appearance have become important targets of clinical treatment. In the present study, we observed the healing process of skin defects in nude mice and structural characteristics of the new skin after transplantation of isolated and cultured adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) onto the human acellular amniotic membrane (AAM). The result showed that ADMSCs were closely attached to the surface of AAM and grew well 24 h after seeding. Comparison of the wound healing rate at days 7, 14, and 28 after transplantation showed that ADMSCs seeded on AAM facilitated the healing of full-thickness skin wounds more effectively as compared with either hAM or AAM alone, indicating that ADMSCs participated in skin regeneration. More importantly, we noticed a phenomenon of hair follicle development during the process of skin repair. Composite ADMSCs and AAM not only promoted the healing of the mouse full-thickness defects but also facilitated generation of the appendages of the affected skin, thus promoting restoration of the skin function. Our results provide a new possible therapy idea for the treatment of skin wounds with respect to both anatomical regeneration and functional restoration. PMID:27597871

  18. On the origin of intrinsic matrix of acellular extrinsic fiber cementum: studies on growing cementum pearls of normal and bisphosphonate-affected guinea pig molars.

    PubMed

    Jayawardena, Chantha K; Takahashi, Nobuyuki; Watanabae, Eiko; Takano, Yoshiro

    2002-06-01

    Cementum pearls (CPs) belong to a type of acellular extrinsic fiber cementum (AEFC) that form on the maturing enamel of guinea pig molars. This study aimed to elucidate the forming process of intrinsic matrix of AEFC using the CPs of normal and bisphosphonate-affected guinea pig molars as experimental models. A group of guinea pigs were subjected to continuous administration of 1-hydroxyethylidene-1,1-bisphosphonate (HEBP) for 2 wk to inhibit mineralization of growing CPs. Fenestration of the enamel organ and migration of periodontal cells on to the exposed surface of maturing enamel appeared to be unaffected by HEBP, whereas de novo formation as well as growth of pre-existing CPs did not proceed under the same conditions. Immunoreactions for osteopontin were located exclusively on the mineralized matrix of preformed CPs, implying the absence of additional deposition or accumulation of putative intrinsic cementum matrix on the affected CPs, where the propagation of mineral phase had been arrested. In both normal and HEBP-treated groups, distinct enzymatic reactions for alkaline phosphatase appeared on the cells of the periodontal ligament associated closely with the sites of CP formation, and along the mineralization front of CPs. These observations suggest that the mineralization process per se plays a central role in the deposition of AEFC matrix and that alkaline phosphatase of periodontal cells penetrating through the enamel organ to the maturing enamel surface plays a key role in the mineralization process of CPs. PMID:12120713

  19. A novel TLR2 agonist from Bordetella pertussis is a potent adjuvant that promotes protective immunity with an acellular pertussis vaccine.

    PubMed

    Dunne, A; Mielke, L A; Allen, A C; Sutton, C E; Higgs, R; Cunningham, C C; Higgins, S C; Mills, K H G

    2015-05-01

    Bordetella pertussis causes whooping cough, a severe and often lethal respiratory infection in infants. A recent resurgence of pertussis has been linked with waning or suboptimal immunity induced with acellular pertussis vaccines (Pa) that were introduced to most developed countries in the 1990s because of safety concerns around the use of whole-cell pertussis vaccines (Pw). Pa are composed of individual B. pertussis antigens absorbed to alum and promote strong antibody, T helper type 2 (Th2) and Th17 responses, but are less effective at inducing cellular immunity mediated by Th1 cells. In contrast, Pw, which include endogenous Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists, induce Th1 as well as Th17 responses. Here we report the identification and characterization of novel TLR2-activating lipoproteins from B. pertussis. These proteins contain a characteristic N-terminal signal peptide that is unique to Gram-negative bacteria and we demonstrate that one of these lipoproteins, BP1569, activates murine dendritic cells and macrophages and human mononuclear cells via TLR2. Furthermore, we demonstrated that a corresponding synthetic lipopeptide LP1569 has potent immunostimulatory and adjuvant properties, capable of enhancing Th1, Th17, and IgG2a antibody responses induced in mice with an experimental Pa that conferred superior protection against B. pertussis infection than an equivalent vaccine formulated with alum. PMID:25315966

  20. Hair Follicle Morphogenesis in the Treatment of Mouse Full-Thickness Skin Defects Using Composite Human Acellular Amniotic Membrane and Adipose Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Minjuan, Wu; Jun, Xiong; Shiyun, Shao; Sha, Xu; Haitao, Ni; Yue, Wang; Kaihong, Ji

    2016-01-01

    Early repair of skin injury and maximal restoration of the function and appearance have become important targets of clinical treatment. In the present study, we observed the healing process of skin defects in nude mice and structural characteristics of the new skin after transplantation of isolated and cultured adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) onto the human acellular amniotic membrane (AAM). The result showed that ADMSCs were closely attached to the surface of AAM and grew well 24 h after seeding. Comparison of the wound healing rate at days 7, 14, and 28 after transplantation showed that ADMSCs seeded on AAM facilitated the healing of full-thickness skin wounds more effectively as compared with either hAM or AAM alone, indicating that ADMSCs participated in skin regeneration. More importantly, we noticed a phenomenon of hair follicle development during the process of skin repair. Composite ADMSCs and AAM not only promoted the healing of the mouse full-thickness defects but also facilitated generation of the appendages of the affected skin, thus promoting restoration of the skin function. Our results provide a new possible therapy idea for the treatment of skin wounds with respect to both anatomical regeneration and functional restoration. PMID:27597871

  1. The safety and reactogenicity of a reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) booster vaccine in healthy Vietnamese children.

    PubMed

    Anh, Dang Duc; Jayadeva, Girish; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Han, Htay Htay

    2016-08-17

    Despite effective infant immunization against pertussis, the disease continues to circulate due to waning immunity. Booster vaccinations against pertussis beyond infancy are widely recommended. In Vietnam, however, no recommendations for pertussis boosters beyond the second year of life exist. This open-label, single-centre study was designed to assess the safety of a single booster dose of reduced-antigen-content-diphtheria-tetanus-acellular-pertussis vaccine (dTpa) in 300 healthy Vietnamese children (mean age 7.9years), who had completed primary vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis. Solicited symptoms were recorded for 4days and unsolicited and serious adverse events (SAEs) for 31days post-vaccination. Pain and fatigue were the most common solicited local and general symptoms in 35.0% and 14.0% of children, respectively. Grade 3 swelling occurred in 3 children; no large injection site reactions or SAEs were reported. The dTpa booster vaccine was well tolerated and this study supports its administration in school age Vietnamese children. PMID:27435387

  2. Evaluation of a new syringe presentation of reduced-antigen content diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis vaccine in healthy adolescents--A single blind randomized trial.

    PubMed

    Pavia-Ruz, Noris; Abarca, Katia; Lepetic, Alejandro; Cervantes-Apolinar, Maria Yolanda; Hardt, Karin; Jayadeva, Girish; Kuriyakose, Sherine; Han, Htay Htay; de la O, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Reduced-antigen-content diphtheria-tetanus-acellular pertussis (dTpa) vaccine, Boostrix™, is indicated for booster vaccination of children, adolescents and adults. The original prefilled disposable dTpa syringe presentation was recently replaced by another prefilled-syringe presentation with latex-free tip-caps and plunger-stoppers. 671 healthy adolescents aged 10-15 years who had previously received 5 or 6 previous DT(P)/dT(pa) vaccine doses, were randomized (1:1) to receive dTpa booster, injected using the new (dTpa-new) or previous syringe (dTpa-previous) presentations. Immunogenicity was assessed before and 1-month post-booster vaccination; safety/reactogenicity were assessed during 31-days post-vaccination. Non-inferiority of dTpa-new versus dTpa-previous was demonstrated for all antigens (ULs 95% CIs for GMC ratios ranged between 1.03-1.13). 1-month post-booster, immune responses were in similar ranges for all antigens with both syringe presentations. dTpa delivered using either syringe presentation was well-tolerated. These clinical results complement the technical data and support the use of the new syringe presentation to deliver the dTpa vaccine. PMID:26075317

  3. Report on the international workshop on alternatives to the murine histamine sensitization test (HIST) for acellular pertussis vaccines: state of the science and the path forward.

    PubMed

    Isbrucker, Richard; Arciniega, Juan; McFarland, Richard; Chapsal, Jean-Michel; Xing, Dorothy; Bache, Christina; Nelson, Sue; Costanzo, Angele; Hoonakker, Marieke; Castiaux, Amélie; Halder, Marlies; Casey, Warren; Johnson, Nelson; Jones, Brett; Doelling, Vivian; Sprankle, Cathy; Rinckel, Lori; Stokes, William

    2014-03-01

    Regulatory authorities require safety and potency testing prior to the release of each production lot of acellular pertussis (aP)-containing vaccines. Currently, the murine histamine sensitization test (HIST) is used to evaluate the presence of residual pertussis toxin in aP containing vaccines. However, the testing requires the use of a significant number of mice and results in unrelieved pain and distress. NICEATM, ICCVAM, their partners in the International Cooperation on Alternative Test Methods, and the International Working Group for Alternatives to HIST organized a workshop to discuss recent developments in alternative assays to the HIST, review data from an international collaborative study on non-animal alternative tests that might replace the HIST, and address the path toward global acceptance of this type of method. Currently, there are three potential alternative methods to HIST. Participants agreed that no single in vitro method was sufficiently developed for harmonized validation studies at this time. It is unlikely that any single in vitro method would be applicable to all aP vaccines without modification, due to differences between vaccines. Workshop participants recommended further optimization of cell-based assays under development. Participants agreed that the next international collaborative studies should commence in 2013 based on discussions during this workshop. PMID:24394373

  4. Th1 versus Th2 T cell polarization by whole-cell and acellular childhood pertussis vaccines persists upon re-immunization in adolescence and adulthood.

    PubMed

    Bancroft, Tara; Dillon, Myles B C; da Silva Antunes, Ricardo; Paul, Sinu; Peters, Bjoern; Crotty, Shane; Lindestam Arlehamn, Cecilia S; Sette, Alessandro

    2016-01-01

    The recent increase in cases of whooping cough among teenagers in the US suggests that the acellular Bordetella pertussis vaccine (aP) that became standard in the mid 1990s might be relatively less effective than the whole-bacteria formulation (wP) previously used since the 1950s. To understand this effect, we compared antibody and T cell responses to a booster immunization in subjects who received either the wP or aP vaccine as their initial priming dose in childhood. Antibody responses in wP- and aP-primed donors were similar. Magnitude of T cell responses was higher in aP-primed individuals. Epitope mapping revealed the T cell immunodominance patterns were similar for both vaccines. Further comparison of the ratios of IFNγ and IL-5 revealed that IFNγ strongly dominates the T cell response in wP-primed donors, while IL-5 is dominant in aP primed individuals. Surprisingly, this differential pattern is maintained after booster vaccination, at times from eighteen years to several decades after the original aP/wP priming. These findings suggest that childhood aP versus wP vaccination induces functionally different T cell responses to pertussis that become fixed and are unchanged even upon boosting. PMID:27212461

  5. Galectin-1-induced skeletal muscle cell differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells seeded on an acellular dermal matrix improves injured anal sphincter.

    PubMed

    Ding, Zhao; Liu, Xiangui; Ren, Xianghai; Zhang, Qiulei; Zhang, Tingtao; Qian, Qun; Liu, Weicheng; Jiang, Congqing

    2016-05-01

    According to recent studies, mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) transplanted via local or tail vein injection can improve healing after anal sphincter injury (ASI) in animal models. However, the transplanted MSCs do not generate skeletal muscle that completely resembles the natural anal sphincter structure. In the present study, we investigated whether bone marrow (BM)-derived MSCs could be induced by Galectin-1 (Gal-1) to differentiate into skeletal muscle and whether the recellularization of an acellular dermal matrix (ADM) with skeletal muscle-differentiated MSCs represents a promising approach to restore ASI in a rat model. BM-MSCs subjected to adenovirus-mediated transfection with Gal-1-GFP (Ad-GFP-Gal-1) displayed increased Gal-1 and desmin expression and differentiated into skeletal muscle cells. MSCs transfected with Ad-GFP-Gal-1 (MSC-Gal-1) were seeded onto an ADM (ADM-MSC-Gal-1) via co-culture, and fusion was observed using a confocal laser scanning microscope. ADM-MSC-Gal-1, ADM-MSC, ADM-MSC-Ad, ADM, or a saline control was applied to a rat ASI model, and injury healing was evaluated via histological examination 6 weeks following treatment. ADM-MSC-Gal-1 treatment promoted significant healing after ASI and improved external anal sphincter contraction curves compared with the other treatments and also led to substantial skeletal muscle regeneration and neovascularization. Our results indicate that repair using ADMs and differentiated MSCs may improve muscle regeneration and restore ASI. PMID:27355329

  6. Transplantation of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells on a bladder acellular matrix for bladder regeneration in a canine model.

    PubMed

    Hou, Xianglin; Shi, Chunying; Chen, Wei; Chen, Bing; Jia, Weisheng; Guo, Yu; Ma, Chao; Ye, Gang; Kang, Jiuhong; Dai, Jianwu

    2016-01-01

    Tissue engineering brings new hope for the reconstruction of injured bladders. The aim of the present study was to evaluate human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hADSCs) combined with a bladder acellular matrix (BAM) for bladder regeneration. A BAM or BAM loaded with hADSCs (BAM/hADSCs) was used to repair partial cystectomy of the bladder in a canine model. 6 months after implantation, calculi and urine leakage were not found in either the BAM or BAM/hADSCs group by cystography. And compared to the BAM group, a significant increase of maximum bladder volume and bladder compliance was observed in the BAM/hADSCs group by urodynamics evaluation. Moreover, histological analysis showed that the BAM/hADSCs group could more effectively promote the regeneration of bladder smooth muscle and vascularization than the BAM group. These results demonstrated that a BAM/hADSCs could be an effective approach to promote bladder reconstruction with potential clinical applications. PMID:27173009

  7. Enhanced Ex Vivo Expansion of Human Hematopoietic Progenitors on Native and Spin Coated Acellular Matrices Prepared from Bone Marrow Stromal Cells

    PubMed Central

    Wasnik, Samiksha; Kantipudi, Suma; Kirkland, Mark A.; Pande, Gopal

    2016-01-01

    The extracellular microenvironment in bone marrow (BM) is known to regulate the growth and differentiation of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPC). We have developed cell-free matrices from a BM stromal cell line (HS-5), which can be used as substrates either in native form or as tissue engineered coatings, for the enhanced ex vivo expansion of umbilical cord blood (UCB) derived HSPC. The physicochemical properties (surface roughness, thickness, and uniformity) of native and spin coated acellular matrices (ACM) were studied using scanning and atomic force microscopy (SEM and AFM). Lineage-specific expansion of HSPC, grown on these substrates, was evaluated by immunophenotypic (flow cytometry) and functional (colony forming) assays. Our results show that the most efficient expansion of lineage-specific HSPC occurred on spin coated ACM. Our method provides an improved protocol for ex vivo HSPC expansion and it offers a system to study the in vivo roles of specific molecules in the hematopoietic niche that influence HSPC expansion. PMID:26981135

  8. Cloning, sequence, and expression of bovine interleukin 2.

    PubMed Central

    Cerretti, D P; McKereghan, K; Larsen, A; Cantrell, M A; Anderson, D; Gillis, S; Cosman, D; Baker, P E

    1986-01-01

    Interleukin 2 (IL-2) cDNA clones have been isolated from both human and murine sources. We report here the isolation of a cDNA clone encoding bovine IL-2. This was accomplished by screening a cDNA library constructed from lectin-stimulated bovine lymph node cells, using a human IL-2 probe. Bovine IL-2 is composed of 155 amino acids and has a predicted molecular weight of 19,555. Alignment of the amino acid sequence with human IL-2 indicates that mature bovine IL-2 is composed of 135 amino acids and has a predicted molecular weight of 15,452. It has an amino acid homology of 65% with human IL-2 and 50% with murine IL-2. Bovine IL-2 is unique among IL-2 homologs in that it has a single N-linked glycosylation site. Biologically active bovine IL-2 was synthesized in an Escherichia coli expression system. Images PMID:3517854

  9. Killing of Brucella abortus by bovine serum.

    PubMed Central

    Corbeil, L B; Blau, K; Inzana, T J; Nielsen, K H; Jacobson, R H; Corbeil, R R; Winter, A J

    1988-01-01

    Studies of the serum bactericidal system in bovine brucellosis were undertaken to investigate the role of the humoral immune response in protection of cattle against the facultative intracellular parasite Brucella abortus. Fresh sera from normal control cattle, infected cattle, and cattle immunized with B. abortus cell envelopes were collected before treatment and during the course of immunization or infection. Normal fresh bovine serum or fresh agammaglobulinemic serum from colostrum-deprived calves was effective in killing smooth virulent B. abortus 2308, but rough strains RB51 (a rough mutant of strain 2308) and 45/20 were much more sensitive to serum. The difference in susceptibility to serum was shown to be correlated with differences in lipopolysaccharide chemotype, with the more resistant strain 2308 having O polysaccharide and the more susceptible strains 45/20 and RB51 lacking O side chains. By treatment of fresh serum with MgCl2 and EGTA [ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid] killing was shown to occur via the classical pathway of complement activation. When antibody to B. abortus was present, killing of strain RB51 increased but killing of smooth strain 2308 decreased. The earliest antibody response in serum from infected animals did not interfere with killing. When affinity-purified bovine immunoglobulins specific for B. abortus smooth lipopolysaccharide were added to fresh normal bovine serum, immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1) and IgG2 isotypes blocked killing but IgM and IgA isotypes did not. Thus, it appears that serum from previously unexposed animals or animals early during infection can kill smooth B. abortus, an appropriate defense mechanism before the organism becomes intracellular. At later stages of infection, blocking antibodies predominate. Images PMID:3141287

  10. Random laser action in bovine semen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smuk, Andrei; Lazaro, Edgar; Olson, Leif P.; Lawandy, N. M.

    2011-03-01

    Experiments using bovine semen reveal that the addition of a high-gain water soluble dye results in random laser action when excited by a Q-switched, frequency doubled, Nd:Yag laser. The data shows that the linewidth collapse of the emission is correlated to the sperm count of the individual samples, potentially making this a rapid, low sample volume approach to count determination.

  11. Unraveling bovin phylogeny: accomplishments and challenges

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The phylogenetic systematics of bovin species forms a common basis for studies at multiple scales, from the level of domestication in populations to major cladogenesis. The main big-picture accomplishments of this productive field, including two recent works, one in BMC Genomics, are reviewed with an eye for some of the limitations and challenges impeding progress. See Research article http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/10/177 PMID:20525112

  12. PHYSICOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF LYOPHILIZED BOVINE BONE GRAFTS

    PubMed Central

    Galia, Carlos Roberto; Lourenço, André Luis; Rosito, Ricardo; Souza Macedo, Carlos Alberto; Camargo, Lourdes Maria Araujo Quaresma

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the physicochemical characteristics of lyophilized bovine grafts manufactured on a semi-industrial scale (Orthogen; Baumer S/A*) in accordance with a protocol previously developed by the authors. Methods: The lyophilized bovine bone grafts were characterized by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffractometry (XRD), thermogravimetric (TG) analysis, differential exploratory scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Results: Ca was the main component (60%) found in the samples, followed by P (28%) and O (5%). The mean (sd) pore size was 316 μm (146.7), ranging from 91.2 to 497.8 μm, and 333.5 μm (304.8), ranging from 87.2 to 963.9 μm, at 50x and 150x magnification, respectively. The hydroxyapatite peaks were at 26°C and 32°C, and mass losses were observed between 250°C and 640°C, corresponding to organic material and water. Two temperature transitions (45.67°C and 91.89°C) showed denaturation of type 1 collagen and dehydration of hydroxyapatite. Conclusion: The physicochemical assessment of lyophilized bovine bone grafts in accordance with the protocol developed at semi-industrial scale confirmed that this product presents excellent biocompatibility, with characteristics similar to natural bone. PMID:27027036

  13. Oxytocin binding sites in bovine mammary tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xin.

    1989-01-01

    Oxytocin binding sites were identified and characterized in bovine mammary tissue. ({sup 3}H)-oxytocin binding reached equilibrium by 50 min at 20{degree}C and by 8 hr at 4{degree}C. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. Thyrotropin releasing hormone, adrenocorticotropin, angiotensin I, angiotensin II, pentagastrin, bradykinin, xenopsin and L-valyl-histidyl-L-leucyl-L-threonyl-L-prolyl-L-valyl-L-glutamyl-L-lysine were not competitive. In the presence of 10 nM LiCl, addition of oxytocin to dispersed bovine mammary cells, in which phosphatidylinositol was pre-labelled, caused a time and dose-dependent increase in radioactive inositiol monophosphate incorporation. The possibility that there are distinct vasopressin receptors in bovine mammary tissue was investigated. ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding reached equilibrium by 40 min at 20{degree}. The half-time of displacement at 20{degree}C was approximately 1 hr. The ability of the peptides to inhibit ({sup 3}H)-vasopressin binding was: (Thr{sup 4},Gly{sup 7})-oxytocin > Arg{sup 8}-vasopressin > (lys{sup 8})-vasopressin > (Deamino{sup 1},D-arg{sup 8})-vasopressin > oxytocin > d (CH{sub 2}){sub 5}Tyr(Me)AVP.

  14. Bovine Postparturient Hemoglobinuria: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Macwilliams, P. S.; Searcy, G. P.; Bellamy, J. E. C.

    1982-01-01

    Predisposing causes of bovine post-parturient hemoglobinuria are summarized along with suspected pathogeneses, clinical signs, laboratory findings, clinical management and early experimentation. PMID:17422195

  15. Approaches to biosecurity in bovine embryo transfer programs.

    PubMed

    Givens, M D; Marley, S D

    2008-01-01

    Although transfer of bovine embryos is much less likely to result in transmission of pathogens than transport of postnatal cattle, the epidemiologic risk associated with bovine embryo transfer merits examination. Much research has validated the efficacy of internationally approved processing protocols to render bovine in vivo-derived embryos free of specified pathogens. The purpose of this review is to summarize current sanitary recommendations for bovine embryo transfer, while emphasizing recent research to develop and validate novel approaches to biosecurity. Continued research will enable the development and validation of novel embryo treatments and culture reagents to minimize requirements for testing of embryo or oocyte donors, and testing of embryo recipients. PMID:18028999

  16. The bovine patella as a model of early osteoarthritis

    PubMed Central

    Hargrave-Thomas, E J; Thambyah, A; McGlashan, S R; Broom, N D

    2013-01-01

    The bovine patella model has been used extensively for studying important structure–function aspects of articular cartilage, including its degeneration. However, the degeneration seen in this model has, to our knowledge, never been adequately compared with human osteoarthritis (OA). In this study, bovine patellae displaying normal to severely degenerate states were compared with human tissue displaying intact cartilage to severe OA. Comparisons of normal and OA features were made with histological scoring, morphometric measurements, and qualitative observations. Differential interference contrast microscopy was used to image early OA changes in the articular cartilage matrix and to investigate whether this method provided comparable quality of visualisation of key structural features with standard histology. The intact bovine cartilage was found to be similar to healthy human cartilage and the degenerate bovine cartilage resembled the human OA tissues with regard to structural disruption, cellularity changes, and staining loss. The extent of degeneration in the bovine tissues matched the mild to moderate range of human OA tissues; however, no bovine samples exhibited late-stage OA. Additionally, in both bovine and human tissues, cartilage degeneration was accompanied by calcified cartilage thickening, tidemark duplication, and the advancement of the cement line by protrusions of bony spicules into the calcified cartilage. This comparison of degeneration in the bovine and human tissues suggests a common pathway for the progression of OA and thus the bovine patella is proposed to be an appropriate model for investigating the structural changes associated with early OA. PMID:24111904

  17. Bovine besnoitiosis emerging in Central-Eastern Europe, Hungary

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Besnoitia besnoiti, the cause of bovine besnoitiosis, is a cyst-forming coccidian parasite that has recently been shown to be spreading in several Western and Southern European countries. Findings Clinical cases of bovine besnoitiosis were confirmed for the first time in Hungary, by histological, serological and PCR analyses. Conclusions This is the first report of autochthonous bovine besnoitiosis in Central-Eastern Europe. The emergence of bovine besnoitiosis in this region represents a further example, when human activity (i.e. cattle trading) is the main factor involved in the geographical spread of an infectious disease. PMID:24410743

  18. Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolated from Bovine Mammary Microbiota: Potential Allies against Bovine Mastitis

    PubMed Central

    Saraoui, Taous; Rault, Lucie; Germon, Pierre; Gonzalez-Moreno, Candelaria; Nader-Macias, Fatima M. E.; Baud, Damien; François, Patrice; Chuat, Victoria; Chain, Florian; Langella, Philippe; Nicoli, Jacques; Le Loir, Yves; Even, Sergine

    2015-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is a costly disease in dairy cattle worldwide. As of yet, the control of bovine mastitis is mostly based on prevention by thorough hygienic procedures during milking. Additional strategies include vaccination and utilization of antibiotics. Despite these measures, mastitis is not fully under control, thus prompting the need for alternative strategies. The goal of this study was to isolate autochthonous lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from bovine mammary microbiota that exhibit beneficial properties that could be used for mastitis prevention and/or treatment. Sampling of the teat canal led to the isolation of 165 isolates, among which a selection of ten non-redundant LAB strains belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Lactococcus were further characterized with regard to several properties: surface properties (hydrophobicity, autoaggregation); inhibition potential of three main mastitis pathogens, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Streptococcus uberis; colonization capacities of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC); and immunomodulation properties. Three strains, Lactobacillus brevis 1595 and 1597 and Lactobacillus plantarum 1610, showed high colonization capacities and a medium surface hydrophobicity. These strains are good candidates to compete with pathogens for mammary gland colonization. Moreover, nine strains exhibited anti-inflammatory properties, as illustrated by the lower IL-8 secretion by E. coli-stimulated bMEC in the presence of these LAB. Full genome sequencing of five candidate strains allowed to check for undesirable genetic elements such as antibiotic resistance genes and to identify potential bacterial determinants involved in the beneficial properties. This large screening of beneficial properties while checking for undesirable genetic markers allowed the selection of promising candidate LAB strains from bovine mammary microbiota for the prevention and/or treatment of bovine mastitis. PMID:26713450

  19. Diagnosis and Control of Viral Diseases of Reproductive Importance: Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis and Bovine Viral Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Newcomer, Benjamin W; Givens, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Both bovine viral diarrhea virus and bovine herpesvirus 1 can have significant negative reproductive impacts on cattle health. Vaccination is the primary control method for the viral pathogens in US cattle herds. Polyvalent, modified-live vaccines are recommended to provide optimal protection against various viral field strains. Of particular importance to bovine viral diarrhea control is the limitation of contact of pregnant cattle with potential viral reservoirs during the critical first 125 days of gestation. PMID:27140298

  20. Healing Rates in a Multicenter Assessment of a Sterile, Room Temperature, Acellular Dermal Matrix Versus Conventional Care Wound Management and an Active Comparator in the Treatment of Full-Thickness Diabetic Foot Ulcers

    PubMed Central

    Cazzell, Shawn; Pham, Hau; Vayser, Dean; Reyzelman, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this 16-week, multicenter, randomized, controlled trial was to assess the healed ulcer rate of a human acellular dermal matrix, DermACELL, compared with conventional care and a second acellular dermal matrix, Graftjacket, in the treatment of full-thickness diabetic foot ulcers. Methods: One hundred sixty-eight patients were randomized into DermACELL, conventional care, and Graftjacket treatment arms in a 2:2:1 ratio. Patients in the acellular dermal matrix groups received either 1 or 2 applications of the graft at the discretion of the investigator. Weekly follow-up visits were conducted until the ulcer healed or the endpoint was reached. Results: At 16 weeks, the DermACELL arm had a significantly higher proportion of completely healed ulcers than the conventional care arm (67.9% vs 48.1%; P = .0385) and a nonsignificantly higher proportion than the Graftjacket arm (67.9% vs 47.8%; P = .1149). The DermACELL arm also exhibited a greater average percent reduction in wound area than the conventional care arm (91.4% vs 80.3%; P = .0791) and the Graftjacket arm (91.4% vs 73.5%; P = .0762). The proportion of severe adverse events and the proportion of overall early withdrawals were similar among the 3 groups based on relative population size (P ≥ .05). Conclusions: The results presented here indicate that DermACELL is an appropriate clinical option in the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers, with significant increases in healing rates and rate of percentage wound closure as compared with conventional care options. PMID:26933467

  1. A Nanomedicine Approach to Effectively Inhibit Contracture During Bladder Acellular Matrix Allograft-Induced Bladder Regeneration by Sustained Delivery of Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Qianwei; Lin, Houwei; Hua, Xiaolin; Liu, Li; Sun, Ping; Zhao, Zhen; Shen, Xiaowei; Cui, Daxiang; Xu, Maosheng

    2015-01-01

    Macroscopic evidence of contracture has been identified as a major issue during the regeneration process. We hypothesize that lack of angiogenesis is the primary cause of contracture and explore a nanomedicine approach to achieve sustained release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to stimulate angiogenesis. We evaluate the efficacy of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) for long-term (3 months) sustained release of VEGF in bladder acellular matrix allografts (BAMA) in a swine model. We anticipate that the sustained release of VEGF could stimulate angiogenesis along the regeneration process and thereby inhibit contracture. Bladder was replaced with BAMA (5×5 cm), modified with PLGA NPs encapsulated with VEGF in a pig model. The time points chosen for sampling were 1, 2, 4, and 12 weeks. The regenerated areas were then measured to obtain the contracture rate, and the extent of revascularization was calculated using histological and morphological features. In the control group of animals, the bladder was replaced with only BAMA. The in vivo release of VEGF was evident for ∼3 months, achieving the goal of long-acting sustained release, and successfully promoted the regeneration of blood vessels and smooth muscle fibers. In addition, less collagen deposition was observed in the experimental group compared with control. Most importantly, the inhibition of contracture was highly significant, and the ultimate contracture rate decreased by ∼57% in the experimental group compared with control. In isolated strips analysis, there were no significant differences between BAMA-regenerated (either VEGF added or not) and autogenous bladder. BAMA modified with VEGF-loaded PLGA-NPs can sustainably release VEGF in vivo (>3 months) to stimulate angiogenesis leading to the inhibition of contracture. This is the first study to report a viable nanomedicine-based strategy to overcome contracture during bladder regeneration induced by BAMA. Furthermore

  2. A nanomedicine approach to effectively inhibit contracture during bladder acellular matrix allograft-induced bladder regeneration by sustained delivery of vascular endothelial growth factor.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Qianwei; Lin, Houwei; Hua, Xiaolin; Liu, Li; Sun, Ping; Zhao, Zhen; Shen, Xiaowei; Cui, Daxiang; Xu, Maosheng; Chen, Fang; Geng, Hongquan

    2015-01-01

    Macroscopic evidence of contracture has been identified as a major issue during the regeneration process. We hypothesize that lack of angiogenesis is the primary cause of contracture and explore a nanomedicine approach to achieve sustained release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) to stimulate angiogenesis. We evaluate the efficacy of poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) for long-term (3 months) sustained release of VEGF in bladder acellular matrix allografts (BAMA) in a swine model. We anticipate that the sustained release of VEGF could stimulate angiogenesis along the regeneration process and thereby inhibit contracture. Bladder was replaced with BAMA (5×5 cm), modified with PLGA NPs encapsulated with VEGF in a pig model. The time points chosen for sampling were 1, 2, 4, and 12 weeks. The regenerated areas were then measured to obtain the contracture rate, and the extent of revascularization was calculated using histological and morphological features. In the control group of animals, the bladder was replaced with only BAMA. The in vivo release of VEGF was evident for ∼3 months, achieving the goal of long-acting sustained release, and successfully promoted the regeneration of blood vessels and smooth muscle fibers. In addition, less collagen deposition was observed in the experimental group compared with control. Most importantly, the inhibition of contracture was highly significant, and the ultimate contracture rate decreased by ∼57% in the experimental group compared with control. In isolated strips analysis, there were no significant differences between BAMA-regenerated (either VEGF added or not) and autogenous bladder. BAMA modified with VEGF-loaded PLGA-NPs can sustainably release VEGF in vivo (>3 months) to stimulate angiogenesis leading to the inhibition of contracture. This is the first study to report a viable nanomedicine-based strategy to overcome contracture during bladder regeneration induced by BAMA. Furthermore

  3. Comparison with ancestral diets suggests dense acellular carbohydrates promote an inflammatory microbiota, and may be the primary dietary cause of leptin resistance and obesity.

    PubMed

    Spreadbury, Ian

    2012-01-01

    A novel hypothesis of obesity is suggested by consideration of diet-related inflammation and evolutionary medicine. The obese homeostatically guard their elevated weight. In rodent models of high-fat diet-induced obesity, leptin resistance is seen initially at vagal afferents, blunting the actions of satiety mediators, then centrally, with gastrointestinal bacterial-triggered SOCS3 signaling implicated. In humans, dietary fat and fructose elevate systemic lipopolysaccharide, while dietary glucose also strongly activates SOCS3 signaling. Crucially however, in humans, low-carbohydrate diets spontaneously decrease weight in a way that low-fat diets do not. Furthermore, nutrition transition patterns and the health of those still eating diverse ancestral diets with abundant food suggest that neither glycemic index, altered fat, nor carbohydrate intake can be intrinsic causes of obesity, and that human energy homeostasis functions well without Westernized foods containing flours, sugar, and refined fats. Due to being made up of cells, virtually all "ancestral foods" have markedly lower carbohydrate densities than flour- and sugar-containing foods, a property quite independent of glycemic index. Thus the "forgotten organ" of the gastrointestinal microbiota is a prime candidate to be influenced by evolutionarily unprecedented postprandial luminal carbohydrate concentrations. The present hypothesis suggests that in parallel with the bacterial effects of sugars on dental and periodontal health, acellular flours, sugars, and processed foods produce an inflammatory microbiota via the upper gastrointestinal tract, with fat able to effect a "double hit" by increasing systemic absorption of lipopolysaccharide. This model is consistent with a broad spectrum of reported dietary phenomena. A diet of grain-free whole foods with carbohydrate from cellular tubers, leaves, and fruits may produce a gastrointestinal microbiota consistent with our evolutionary condition, potentially

  4. A Prospective Study Assessing Complication Rates and Patient-Reported Outcomes in Breast Reconstructions Using a Novel, Deep Dermal Human Acellular Dermal Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Michael M.; De Oliveira, Gildasio S.; Mayer, Kristen E.; Blough, Jordan T.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: The value proposition of an acellular dermal matrix (ADM) taken from the deep dermis is that the allograft may be more porous, allowing for enhanced integration and revascularization. In turn, this characteristic may attenuate complications related to foreign body reactions, seromas, and infection. However, this is juxtaposed against the potential loss of allograft structural integrity, with subsequent risk of malposition and extrusion. Despite the active use of novel, deep dermal ADMs, the clinical outcomes of this new technology has not been well studied. Methods: This is a prospective study to evaluate surgical and patient-reported outcomes using a deep dermal ADM, FlexHD Pliable. Surgical outcomes and BREAST-Q patient-reported outcomes were evaluated postoperatively at 2- and 6-month time points. Results: Seventy-two breasts (41 patients) underwent reconstruction. Complication rate was 12.5%, including 2 hematomas and 7 flap necroses. One case of flap necrosis led to reconstructive failure. Notably, there were no cases of infection, seroma, or implant extrusion or malposition. Average BREAST-Q scores were satisfaction with outcome (70.13 ± 23.87), satisfaction with breasts (58.53 ± 20.00), psychosocial well being (67.97 ± 20.93), sexual well being (54.11 ± 27.72), and physical well being (70.45 ± 15.44). Two-month postoperative BREAST-Q scores decreased compared with baseline and returned to baseline by 6 months. Postoperative radiation therapy had a negative effect on satisfaction with breasts (P = 0.004) and sexual well being (P = 0.006). Conclusions: Deep dermal ADM is a novel modification of traditional allograft technology. Use of the deep dermal ADM yielded acceptably low complication rates and satisfactory patient-reported outcomes. PMID:26894010

  5. Maxillary sinus augmentation using recombinant bone morphogenetic protein-2/acellular collagen sponge in combination with a mineralized bone replacement graft: a report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Tarnow, Dennis P; Wallace, Stephen S; Testori, Tiziano; Froum, Stuart J; Motroni, Alessandro; Prasad, Hari S

    2010-04-01

    The objective of the following case reports was to assess whether mineralized bone replacement grafts (eg, xenografts and allografts) could be added to recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein-2/acellular collagen sponge (rhBMP-2/ACS) in an effective manner that would: (1) reduce the graft shrinkage observed when using rhBMP-2/ACS alone, (2) reduce the volume and dose of rhBMP-2 required, and (3) preserve the osteoinductivity that rhBMP-2/ACS has shown when used alone. The primary outcome measures were histomorphometric analysis of vital bone production and analysis of serial computed tomographic scans to determine changes in bone graft density and stability. Over the 6-month course of this investigation, bone graft densities tended to increase (moreso with the xenograft than the allograft). The increased density in allograft cases was likely the result of both compression of the mineralized bone replacement graft and vital bone formation, seen histologically. Loss of volume was greater with the four-sponge dose than the two-sponge dose because of compression and resorption of the sponges. Vital bone formation in the allograft cases ranged from 36% to 53% but, because of the small sample size, it was not possible to determine any significant difference between the 5.6 mL (four-sponge) dose and the 2.8 mL (two-sponge) dose. Histology revealed robust new woven bone formation with only minimal traces of residual allograft, which appeared to have undergone accelerated remodeling or rhBMP-2-mediated resorption. PMID:20228973

  6. Acellular dermal matrix seeded with autologous fibroblasts improves wound breaking strength in a rodent soft tissue damage model in neoadjuvant settings.

    PubMed

    Roessner, Eric Dominic; Thier, Steffen; Hohenberger, Peter; Schwarz, Markus; Pott, Peter; Dinter, Dietmar; Smith, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Soft tissue defects following resectional surgery or trauma often result in deadspaces and require free or pedicled flaps. A programmed formation of filling tissue with enhanced biomechanical properties could be helpful. This study examined the effects on wound healing of acellular dermal matrix (ADM) seeded with autologous fibroblasts in a standardized rodent model. As pre- or postoperative radiotherapy is standard in many treatments of malignancies, we also investigated the effects of additional radiotherapy. Fischer rats were randomised and received a standardized unilateral soft tissue defect at the buttock. The defect was filled with ADM+fibroblasts or ADM alone. Controls received no filling. Either no radiation, adjuvant (postoperative) or neoadjuvant (preoperative) radiation was applied to the defect site. Six weeks later the defect volume was measured by MR-tomography. Wound breaking strength was examined by tensiometry according to German Industrial Standards. Filling of the defect side was significantly larger in ADM and ADM+fibroblast treated groups compared to the control group in all settings. Wound breaking strength in the unimodal setting was significantly improved in the ADM+fibroblasts group compared to the ADM group. In the neoadjuvant setting there was no significant difference between control and ADM group. However, the ADM+fibroblasts groups showed a significantly increased wound breaking strength compared to the control and the ADM-alone group. Seeded or unseeded ADM is able to fill deadspace in this rodent model in all settings. Implanting non-irradiated, vital, proliferating autologous fibroblasts on ADM results in significantly increased wound breaking strength. PMID:20042428

  7. T Lymphocyte Subsets and Cytokines in Rats Transplanted with Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Acellular Nerve for Repairing the Nerve Defects

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ou; Chu, Ting-gang; Ding, Jian; Yu, Qing

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to explore the immunity in rats transplanted with adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) and acellular nerve (ACN) for repairing sciatic nerve defects. Methods ADSCs were isolated from the adipose tissues of Wistar rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were used to establish a sciatic nerve defect model and then divided into four groups, according to the following methods : Group A, allogenic nerve graft; Group B, allograft with ACN; Group C, allograft ADSCs+ACN, and Group D, nerve autograft. Results At the day before transplantation and 3, 7, 14, and 28 days after transplantation, orbital venous blood of the Sprague-Dawley rats in each group was collected to detect the proportion of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ subsets using flow cytometry and to determine the serum concentration of interleukin-2 (IL-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). At each postoperative time point, the proportion of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ subsets and the serum concentration of IL-2, TNF-α, and IFN-γ in group C were all near to those in group B and group D, in which no statistically significant difference was observed. As compared with group A, the proportion of CD3+, CD4+, and CD8+ subsets and the serum concentration of IL-2, TNF-α, and IFN-γ were significantly reduced in group C (p<0.05). Conclusion The artificial nerve established with ADSCs and ACN has no obvious allograft rejection for repairing rat nerve defects. PMID:26361524

  8. Transcriptome signature for dampened Th2 dominance in acellular pertussis vaccine-induced CD4+ T cell responses through TLR4 ligation

    PubMed Central

    Brummelman, Jolanda; Raeven, René H. M.; Helm, Kina; Pennings, Jeroen L. A.; Metz, Bernard; van Eden, Willem; van Els, Cécile A. C. M.; Han, Wanda G. H.

    2016-01-01

    Current acellular pertussis (aP) vaccines promote a T helper 2 (Th2)-dominated response, while Th1/Th17 cells are protective. As our previous study showed, after adding a non-toxic TLR4 ligand, LpxL1, to the aP vaccine in mice, the Bordetella pertussis-specific Th2 response is decreased and Th1/Th17 responses are increased as measured at the cytokine protein level. However, how this shift in Th response by LpxL1 addition is regulated at the gene expression level remains unclear. Transcriptomics analysis was performed on purified CD4+ T cells of control and vaccinated mice after in vitro restimulation with aP vaccine antigens. Multiple key factors in Th differentiation, including transcription factors, cytokines, and receptors, were identified within the differentially expressed genes. Upregulation of Th2- and downregulation of follicular helper T cell-associated genes were found in the CD4+ T cells of both aP- and aP+LpxL1-vaccinated mice. Genes exclusively upregulated in CD4+ T cells of aP+LpxL1-vaccinated mice included Th1 and Th17 signature cytokine genes Ifng and Il17a respectively. Overall, our study indicates that after addition of LpxL1 to the aP vaccine the Th2 component is not downregulated at the gene expression level. Rather an increase in expression of Th1- and Th17-associated genes caused the shift in Th subset outcome. PMID:27118638

  9. A Comparison of Acellular Dermal Matrix Allograft and Periosteal Pedicle Graft Covered by Coronally Advanced Flap in the Treatment of Gingival Recession: 1-Year Follow-Up Study.

    PubMed

    Godavarthi, Lalasa; Murthy, K Raja; Pavankumar, Sandhya

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare the clinical efficacy of periosteal pedicle graft (PPG) and acellular dermal matrix allograft (ADMA) in conjunction with coronally advanced flap (CAF) in the treatment of gingival recession during a 1-year follow-up. A sample of 14 patients, each with two similar Miller Class I or II gingival recession (28 recession sites), was selected. Each recession site was randomly assigned to the experimental site (PPG + CAF) or the control site (ADMG + CAF). The clinical parameters recorded at baseline and 12 months postoperatively were probing pocket depth, width of keratinized gingiva, and clinical attachment level, whereas full-mouth and site-specific plaque and gingival index and vertical recession depth and width were recorded at baseline and at 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months. Analysis was performed to determine if treatment differences were present. The mean recession depth in experimental sites decreased from 2.89 ± 0.40 mm at baseline to 0.25 ± 0.50 mm at 12 months, corresponding to a mean root coverage of 92.79% ± 14.25%. In control sites, recession shrank from 2.93 ± 0.55 mm at baseline to 0.32 ± 0.46 mm at 12 months follow-up, demonstrating a mean root coverage of 89.79% ± 14.73%. Compared to the use of ADMA, the PPG technique uses similar incision design and flap management at the graft site, is equivalent in technique sensitivity, and has a perceived improvement in esthetic outcome. PMID:27333020

  10. Muscle acellular scaffold as a biomaterial: effects on C2C12 cell differentiation and interaction with the murine host environment

    PubMed Central

    Perniconi, Barbara; Coletti, Dario; Aulino, Paola; Costa, Alessandra; Aprile, Paola; Santacroce, Luigi; Chiaravalloti, Ernesto; Coquelin, Laura; Chevallier, Nathalie; Teodori, Laura; Adamo, Sergio; Marrelli, Massimo; Tatullo, Marco

    2014-01-01

    The extracellular matrix (ECM) of decellularized organs possesses the characteristics of the ideal tissue-engineering scaffold (i.e., histocompatibility, porosity, degradability, non-toxicity). We previously observed that the muscle acellular scaffold (MAS) is a pro-myogenic environment in vivo. In order to determine whether MAS, which is basically muscle ECM, behaves as a myogenic environment, regardless of its location, we analyzed MAS interaction with both muscle and non-muscle cells and tissues, to assess the effects of MAS on cell differentiation. Bone morphogenetic protein treatment of C2C12 cells cultured within MAS induced osteogenic differentiation in vitro, thus suggesting that MAS does not irreversibly commit cells to myogenesis. In vivo MAS supported formation of nascent muscle fibers when replacing a muscle (orthotopic position). However, heterotopically grafted MAS did not give rise to muscle fibers when transplanted within the renal capsule. Also, no muscle formation was observed when MAS was transplanted under the xiphoid process, in spite of the abundant presence of cells migrating along the laminin-based MAS structure. Taken together, our results suggest that MAS itself is not sufficient to induce myogenic differentiation. It is likely that the pro-myogenic environment of MAS is not strictly related to the intrinsic properties of the muscle scaffold (e.g., specific muscle ECM proteins). Indeed, it is more likely that myogenic stem cells colonizing MAS recognize a muscle environment that ultimately allows terminal myogenic differentiation. In conclusion, MAS may represent a suitable environment for muscle and non-muscle 3D constructs characterized by a highly organized structure whose relative stability promotes integration with the surrounding tissues. Our work highlights the plasticity of MAS, suggesting that it may be possible to consider MAS for a wider range of tissue engineering applications than the mere replacement of volumetric muscle loss

  11. Comparison with ancestral diets suggests dense acellular carbohydrates promote an inflammatory microbiota, and may be the primary dietary cause of leptin resistance and obesity

    PubMed Central

    Spreadbury, Ian

    2012-01-01

    A novel hypothesis of obesity is suggested by consideration of diet-related inflammation and evolutionary medicine. The obese homeostatically guard their elevated weight. In rodent models of high-fat diet-induced obesity, leptin resistance is seen initially at vagal afferents, blunting the actions of satiety mediators, then centrally, with gastrointestinal bacterial-triggered SOCS3 signaling implicated. In humans, dietary fat and fructose elevate systemic lipopolysaccharide, while dietary glucose also strongly activates SOCS3 signaling. Crucially however, in humans, low-carbohydrate diets spontaneously decrease weight in a way that low-fat diets do not. Furthermore, nutrition transition patterns and the health of those still eating diverse ancestral diets with abundant food suggest that neither glycemic index, altered fat, nor carbohydrate intake can be intrinsic causes of obesity, and that human energy homeostasis functions well without Westernized foods containing flours, sugar, and refined fats. Due to being made up of cells, virtually all “ancestral foods” have markedly lower carbohydrate densities than flour- and sugar-containing foods, a property quite independent of glycemic index. Thus the “forgotten organ” of the gastrointestinal microbiota is a prime candidate to be influenced by evolutionarily unprecedented postprandial luminal carbohydrate concentrations. The present hypothesis suggests that in parallel with the bacterial effects of sugars on dental and periodontal health, acellular flours, sugars, and processed foods produce an inflammatory microbiota via the upper gastrointestinal tract, with fat able to effect a “double hit” by increasing systemic absorption of lipopolysaccharide. This model is consistent with a broad spectrum of reported dietary phenomena. A diet of grain-free whole foods with carbohydrate from cellular tubers, leaves, and fruits may produce a gastrointestinal microbiota consistent with our evolutionary condition

  12. Editorial Commentary: Reflections From a Mature Arthroscopic Shoulder Surgeon on the History and Current Benefits of Augmentation for the Revision of a Massive Rotator Cuff Tear Using Acellular Human Dermal Matrix Allograft.

    PubMed

    Snyder, Stephen J

    2016-09-01

    Acellular human dermal matrix allografts are now being used to augment and sometimes replace severely damaged rotator cuff tissue. I have been interested in this important aspect of orthopaedics for 15 years and am pleased to have the opportunity to share my personal reflections of some of the highlights in science and the literature that helped get to the point now where we can expect greater than 80% healing even in these difficult cases of revision after massive failed cuff repair. The field of tissue engineering will certainly be a critical part of our rotator cuff surgical future. PMID:27594327

  13. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection alters global transcription profiles in bovine endothelial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) are significant pathogens of cattle worldwide. These viruses exist in both non-cytopathic and cytopathic biotypes. Non-cytopathic BVDV can establish persistent lifelong infections in cattle and are a frequent contaminant of biological reagents such as cell cultur...

  14. Bovine central memory T cells are highly proliferative in response to bovine tuberculosis infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term (i.e., 14 days) cultured IFN-gamma ELISPOT assays measure central memory T cell (Tcm) responses in both humans and cattle. With bovine tuberculosis, vaccine-elicited long-term IFN-gamma ELISPOT responses correlate with protection. In other species, Tcm’s pose low activation threshold and a...

  15. Description and analysis of the Bovine Gene Atlas - An extensive compendium of bovine transcript profiles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Bovine Gene Atlas (BGA) is a compendium of over 7.2 million unique 20-base transcript tags profiled from 81 tissues acquired from the cow “L1 Dominette 01449” (L1D), her male fetus, her 255-day-old heifer calf, and her father. The BGA tags were generated on a next-generation massively parallel ...

  16. Bovine central memory T cells are highly proliferative in response to bovine tuberculosis infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Long-term (i.e., 14 days) cultured IFN-gamma responses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells are used as a correlate of T cell central memory (Tcm) responses in both humans and cattle. With bovine tuberculosis, vaccine-elicited long-term IFN-gamma ELISPOT assays are a correlate of protection. Recent...

  17. Right ventricular hydatid cyst ruptured to pericardium

    PubMed Central

    Sabzi, Feridoun; Vaziri, Siavoosh; Faraji, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Cardiac hydatidosis is rare presentation of body hydatidosis. Incidence of cardiac involvements range from 5% to 5% of patients with hydatid disease. Most common site of hydatid cyst in heart is interventricular septum and left ventricular free wall. Right ventricular free wall involvement by cyst that ruptured to pericardial cavity is very rare presentation of hydatid cyst. Cardiac involvement may have serious consequences such as rupture to blood steam or pericardial cavity. Both the disease and its surgical treatment carry a high complication rate, including rupture leading to cardiac tamponade, anaphylaxis and also death. In the present report, a 43-year-old man with constrictive pericarditis secondary to a pericardial hydatid cyst is described. PMID:26139761

  18. Myocardial echinococcosis with perforation into the pericardium.

    PubMed

    Urbanyi, B; Rieckmann, C; Hellberg, K; Krakau, M; Liebau, G; Mayer, A; Waechter, E

    1991-01-01

    Though rare, cardiac echinococcosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of cardiac tumors, particularly in patients originating from endemic areas or with manifestation of hydatid disease in other organs. Diagnosis and localisation of the cysts is best accomplished with non-invasive methods such as 2-D transthoracic and transesophageal echocardiography, computed tomography and NMR. Excision of the cardiac cyst from the interventricular septum in a 21 year old patient with polyvisceral echinococcosis was performed with cardiopulmonary bypass. Adjunctive medical therapy with mebendazol is being continued for 24 months postoperatively. Twelve months after surgery the patient is asymptomatic without echocardiographic signs of recurrence. PMID:1864885

  19. Bovine Genetic Diversity Revealed By mtDNA Sequence Variation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mitochondrial DNA single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) data were used to determine genetic distance, nucleotide diversity, construction of haplotypes, estimation of information contents, and phylogenic relationships in bovine HapMap breeds. The Bovine International HapMap panel consists of 720 anima...

  20. Prevalence, transmission and impact of bovine leukosis in Michigan dairies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine leukosis, caused by infection with the retrovirus bovine leukemia virus (BLV), has been characterized as a contagious, but practically benign disease of the immune system. National Animal Health Monitoring Surveys in 1996 and 2007 indicate complacency has resulted in high prevalence of infect...

  1. Identification of highly active flocculant proteins in bovine blood

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine blood is an excellent flocculating agent, faster acting and as effective on a mass basis as polyacrylamide, the most widely utilized polymeric flocculant. To determine the molecular basis of flocculation activity, whole bovine blood (BB) and BB plasma were fractionated by size exclusion chro...

  2. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.68 Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  3. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.68 Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  4. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.68 Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  5. 9 CFR 113.68 - Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine... REQUIREMENTS Live Bacterial Vaccines § 113.68 Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine. Pasteurella Haemolytica Vaccine, Bovine, shall be prepared as a desiccated live culture bacterial vaccine of an avirulent...

  6. Bovine viral diarrhea virus modulations of monocyte derived macrophages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is a single stranded, positive sense RNA virus and is the causative agent of bovine viral diarrhea (BVD). Disease can range from persistently infected (PI) animals displaying no clinical symptoms of disease to an acute, severe disease. Presently, limited studies ha...

  7. Bovine tuberculosis: Immune response and vaccine efficacy studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB) is a re-emerging disease of cattle within the United States, primarily due to importation of infected cattle from Mexico and the emergence of a wildlife reservoir (white-tailed deer) in Michigan. While the mainstay of bovine TB control has been abattoir inspection plus targe...

  8. Diagnosis of enzootic bovine leucosis in single and pooled samples.

    PubMed

    Hoff-Jørgensen, R

    1990-12-01

    Diagnosis of enzootic bovine leucosis is based on detection of antibodies against bovine leukemia virus, BLV. Some ELISA modifications have proved sensitive enough for use in the examination of pooled blood samples from slaughterhouses, milk and pooled milk samples. Suggestions for the standardisation of different ELISA modifications using a common reference serum are presented. PMID:1966753

  9. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus Modulation of Monocyte Derived Macrophage

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (BVDV) is a single stranded, positive sense virus of the Flaviviridae family and is the causative agent of the disease known as Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD). Disease can range from persistently infected (PI) animals displaying no clinical symptoms of disease to an acute, s...

  10. Polymorphisms and haplotype structure of bovine PRND (doppel) and PRNT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a fatal neurological disorder characterized by abnormal deposits of a protease-resistant isoform of the prion protein. In previous studies, we have characterized linkage disequilibrium (LD) and haplotype networks within the bovine prion gene (PRNP). Other ...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Catalase (bovine liver). 184.1034 Section 184.1034... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1034 Catalase (bovine liver). (a) Catalase...

  12. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... serum dilution in a varying serum-constant virus neutralization test with less than 500 TCID50 of bovine...-neutralization tests from each of the vaccinates. The test virus shall be less than 500 TCID50 of bovine virus... as prescribed in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, show neutralization in all tubes of the...

  13. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... serum dilution in a varying serum-constant virus neutralization test with less than 500 TCID50 of bovine...-neutralization tests from each of the vaccinates. The test virus shall be less than 500 TCID50 of bovine virus... as prescribed in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, show neutralization in all tubes of the...

  14. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... serum dilution in a varying serum-constant virus neutralization test with less than 500 TCID50 of bovine...-neutralization tests from each of the vaccinates. The test virus shall be less than 500 TCID50 of bovine virus... as prescribed in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, show neutralization in all tubes of the...

  15. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... serum dilution in a varying serum-constant virus neutralization test with less than 500 TCID50 of bovine...-neutralization tests from each of the vaccinates. The test virus shall be less than 500 TCID50 of bovine virus... as prescribed in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, show neutralization in all tubes of the...

  16. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... serum dilution in a varying serum-constant virus neutralization test with less than 500 TCID50 of bovine...-neutralization tests from each of the vaccinates. The test virus shall be less than 500 TCID50 of bovine virus... as prescribed in paragraph (c)(3) of this section, show neutralization in all tubes of the...

  17. Bovine Papillomavirus Type 13 DNA in Equine Sarcoids

    PubMed Central

    Lunardi, Michele; de Alcântara, Brígida Kussumoto; Otonel, Rodrigo Alejandro Arellano; Rodrigues, Wagner Borges; Alfieri, Alice Fernandes

    2013-01-01

    Equine sarcoids are locally aggressive fibroblastic neoplasms considered to be the most common skin tumors of horses worldwide. Bovine papillomavirus types 1 and 2 have typically been associated with sarcoids in equids. Investigations aiming to identify papillomavirus strains, aside from bovine papillomaviruses 1 and 2, which might be associated with sarcoid lesions, have been lacking. The aim of this article is to report the identification of a third bovine papillomavirus type, bovine papillomavirus 13, associated with equine sarcoids. Six sarcoid lesions were collected from diverse anatomical sites on two horses from southern Brazil. To detect a broad spectrum of papillomavirus strains, eight degenerate primer pairs designed to detect conserved regions on the L1 and E1 genes were tested on the DNA samples. Direct sequencing was then performed on the obtained amplicons, and sequence identities were compared with sequences from all bovine papillomavirus types. The FAP59/FAP64, MY09/MY11, and AR-E1F2/AR-E1R4 sequences generated from the sarcoids were shown to present 99 to 100% identity with bovine papillomavirus 13, a new bovine papillomavirus type previously described in cattle. The results from this study suggest that there is a need to identify bovine papillomavirus type 13 and other papillomavirus strains that might be associated with sarcoids in diverse geographical areas; such investigations might establish the frequency of occurrence of this viral type in these common tumors of equids. PMID:23637294

  18. Comparative molecular analysis of ovine and bovine Streptococcus uberis isolates.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, T L; Smith, D G E; Fitzpatrick, J L; Zadoks, R N; Fontaine, M C

    2013-02-01

    Streptococcus uberis causes clinical and subclinical mastitis in cattle and sheep, but it is unknown whether the composition of Strep. uberis populations differs between host species. To address this, we characterized a collection of bovine and ovine Strep. uberis isolates with shared geographical and temporal origins by means of an expanded multilocus sequence typing scheme. Among 14 ovine and 35 bovine isolates, 35 allelic profiles were detected. Each allelic profile was associated with a single host species and all but one were new to the multilocus sequence typing database. The median number of new alleles per isolate was higher for ovine isolates than for bovine isolates. None of the ovine isolates belonged to the global clonal complexes 5 or 143, which are commonly associated with bovine mastitis and which have a wide geographical distribution. Ovine isolates also differed from bovine isolates in carriage of plasminogen activator genes, with significantly higher prevalence of pauB in ovine isolates. Isolates that were negative for yqiL, one of the targets of multilocus sequence typing, were found among ovine and bovine isolates and were not associated with a specific sequence type or global clonal complex. One bovine isolate carried a gapC allele that was probably acquired through lateral gene transfer, most likely from Streptococcus salivarius. We conclude that ovine isolates are distinct from bovine isolates of Strep. uberis, and that recombination between isolates from different host species or bacterial species could contribute to changes in virulence gene profiles with relevance for vaccine development. PMID:23200465

  19. Discovery of a Bovine Enterovirus in Alpaca

    PubMed Central

    McClenahan, Shasta D.; Scherba, Gail; Borst, Luke; Fredrickson, Richard L.; Krause, Philip R.; Uhlenhaut, Christine

    2013-01-01

    A cytopathic virus was isolated using Madin-Darby bovine kidney (MDBK) cells from lung tissue of alpaca that died of a severe respiratory infection. To identify the virus, the infected cell culture supernatant was enriched for virus particles and a generic, PCR-based method was used to amplify potential viral sequences. Genomic sequence data of the alpaca isolate was obtained and compared with sequences of known viruses. The new alpaca virus sequence was most similar to recently designated Enterovirus species F, previously bovine enterovirus (BEVs), viruses that are globally prevalent in cattle, although they appear not to cause significant disease. Because bovine enteroviruses have not been previously reported in U.S. alpaca, we suspect that this type of infection is fairly rare, and in this case appeared not to spread beyond the original outbreak. The capsid sequence of the detected virus had greatest homology to Enterovirus F type 1 (indicating that the virus should be considered a member of serotype 1), but the virus had greater homology in 2A protease sequence to type 3, suggesting that it may have been a recombinant. Identifying pathogens that infect a new host species for the first time can be challenging. As the disease in a new host species may be quite different from that in the original or natural host, the pathogen may not be suspected based on the clinical presentation, delaying diagnosis. Although this virus replicated in MDBK cells, existing standard culture and molecular methods could not identify it. In this case, a highly sensitive generic PCR-based pathogen-detection method was used to identify this pathogen. PMID:23950875

  20. Bovine and equine peritubular and intertubular dentin.

    PubMed

    Stock, S R; Deymier-Black, A C; Veis, A; Telser, A; Lux, E; Cai, Z

    2014-09-01

    Dentin contains 1-2μm diameter tubules extending from the pulp cavity to near the junction with enamel. Peritubular dentin (PTD) borders the tubule lumens and is surrounded by intertubular dentin (ITD). Differences in PTD and ITD composition and microstructure remain poorly understood. Here, a (∼200nm)(2), 10.1keV synchrotron X-ray beam maps X-ray fluorescence and X-ray diffraction simultaneously around tubules in 15-30μm thick bovine and equine specimens. Increased Ca fluorescence surrounding tubule lumens confirms that PTD is present, and the relative intensities in PTD and ITD correspond to carbonated apatite (cAp) volume fraction of ∼0.8 in PTD vs. 0.65 assumed for ITD. In the PTD near the lumen edges, Zn intensity is strongly peaked, corresponding to a Zn content of ∼0.9mgg(-1) for an assumed concentration of ∼0.4mgg(-1) for ITD. In the equine specimen, the Zn K-edge position indicates that Zn(2+) is present, similar to bovine dentin (Deymier-Black et al., 2013), and the above edge structure is consistent with spectra from macromolecules related to biomineralization. Transmission X-ray diffraction shows only cAp, and the 00.2 diffraction peak (Miller-Bravais indices) width is constant from ITD to the lumen edge. The cAp 00.2 average preferred orientation is axisymmetric (about the tubule axis) in both bovine and equine dentin, and the axisymmetric preferred orientation continues from ITD through the PTD to the tubule lumen. These data indicate that cAp structure does not vary from PTD to ITD. PMID:24911530

  1. Rosette nanotubes inhibit bovine neutrophil chemotaxis

    PubMed Central

    Le, Minh Hong Anh; Suri, Sarabjeet Singh; Rakotondradany, Felaniaina; Fenniri, Hicham; Singh, Baljit

    2010-01-01

    Migration of activated neutrophils that have prolonged lifespan into inflamed organs is an important component of host defense but also contributes to tissue damage and mortality. In this report, we used biologically-inspired RGD-tagged rosette nanotubes (RNT) to inhibit neutrophil chemotaxis. We hypothesize that RGD-RNT will block neutrophil migration through inhibition of MAPK. In this report, RNT conjugated to lysine (K–RNT) and arginine-glycine-aspartic acid-serine-lysine (RGDSK-RNT) were co-assembled in a molar ratio of 95/5. The effect of the resulting composite RNT (RGDSK/K–RNT) on neutrophil chemotaxis, cell signaling and apoptosis was then investigated. Exposure to RGDSK/K–RNT reduced bovine neutrophil migration when compared to the non-treated group (p < 0.001). Similar effect was seen following treatment with ERK1/2 or p38 MAPK inhibitors. Phosphorylation of the ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK was inhibited at 5 min by RGDSK/K–RNT (p < 0.05). The RGDSD/K-RNT did not affect the migration of neutrophils pre-treated with αvβ3 integrin antibody suggesting that both bind to the same receptor. RGDSK/K–RNT did not induce apoptosis in bovine neutrophils, which was suppressed by pre-exposing them to LPS (p < 0.001). We conclude that RGDSK/K–RNT inhibit phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and p38 MAPK and inhibit chemotaxis of bovine neutrophils. PMID:20663476

  2. Bovine neonatal pancytopenia in calves in Poland.

    PubMed

    Jaśkowski, J M; Polak, M P; Marszałek, A; Nowak, K; Frackowiak, H; Olechnowicz, J

    2012-01-01

    Bovine neonatal pancytopenia (BNP), a newly emerged syndrome of discussed etiology in calves, has been diagnosed since 2006. Here we describe first cases of BNP in Poland. Between September 2008 and April 2011, 62 cases of BNP were diagnosed in dairy calves. Bleeding skin lesions were mostly pronounced in summer and early autumn. Severe thrombocytopenia was observed in all sick animals. All calves came from herds vaccinated against BVDV infection with PregSure BVD vaccine (Pfizer). Substitution of colostrum from dams of BNP positive calves with colostrum from dams from herds free of BNP was the only effective measure to avoid new cases in affected herds. PMID:23214380

  3. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: global status.

    PubMed

    Ridpath, Julia F

    2010-03-01

    Despite the success of regional bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) eradication programs, infections remain a source of economic loss for producers. The wide variation among BVDV results in differences in genotype, biotype, virulence, and types of infections. BVDV infect a range of domestic and wild ruminants. Clinical presentation varies depending on strain of virus, species of host, immune status of host, reproductive status of host, age of host, and concurrent infections. Recent advances in BVDV research and diagnostics have led to the development of regional eradication/control programs, the most efficacious of which focus on biosecurity, surveillance, and control. PMID:20117546

  4. Transcriptional organization of bovine papillomavirus type 1.

    PubMed

    Engel, L W; Heilman, C A; Howley, P M

    1983-09-01

    Multiple bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1)-specific polyadenylated RNA species in a BPV-1-infected bovine fibropapilloma were identified and mapped. All of the RNA species were transcribed from the same DNA strand of the BPV-1 genome. Five RNA species previously identified in BPV-1-transformed mouse cells were also present in the bovine fibropapilloma. These five species measured 1,050, 1,150, 1,700, 3,800, and 4,050 bases, mapped within the 69% transforming segment of the BPV-1 genome, and shared a 3' coterminus at 0.53 map units (m.u.). The 5' ends of the bodies of these distinct transcripts were located at ca. 0.03, 0.09, 0.34, 0.39, and 0.41 m.u. Additional polyadenylated RNA species not present in BPV-1-transformed mouse cells were specific for the BPV-1-infected bovine fibropapilloma and measured 1,700, 3,700, 3,800, 6,700, and 8,000 bases. These wart-specific species shared a 3' coterminus at 0.90 m.u. The 5' termini of the bodies of the 1,700- and 3,800-base species mapped at 0.71 and 0.42 m.u., respectively. Exonuclease VII analysis failed to reveal any internal splicing in these two species; however, the presence of small remote 5' leader sequences could not be ruled out. The 3,700-base species hybridized to DNA fragments from the 69% transforming segment as well as from the 31% nontransforming segment of the BPV-1 genome; however, this species was not precisely mapped. The 5' termini of the two largest RNA species (6,700 and 8,000 bases in size) were located at ca. 0.01 and 0.90 m.u., respectively. Since the 5' ends of these mapped adjacent to a TATAAA sequence which could possibly serve as an element of a transcriptional promoter, it is possible that one or both of these species represent nonspliced precursor RNA molecules. PMID:6137574

  5. Markers on Bovine Chromosome 20 Associated with Carcass Quality and Composition Traits and Incidence of Contracting Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on bovine chromosome 20 to fine map a previously identified QTL associated with the incidence of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). Crossbred steers (GPE7; n = 539) derived from sires of 7 Bos taurus breeds...

  6. Markers on bovine chromosome 20 associated with carcass quality and composition traits and incidence of contracting infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to use single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on bovine chromosome 20 to fine map a previously identified QTL associated with the incidence of infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK). Crossbred steers (GPE7; n = 539) derived from sires of 7 Bos Taurus breeds and h...

  7. Toxicology of a bovine paraplegic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sevcik, C; Brito, J C; D'Suze, G; Domínguez-Bello, M G; Lovera, M; Mijares, A J; Bónoli, S

    1993-12-01

    A clinical entity named 'bovine paraplegic syndrome' ('síndrome parapléjico de los bovinos') has spread alarmingly in the cattle-growing areas of the central and eastern plains of Venezuela. It is estimated that four million cattle are bred in the area where the disease occurs. The mortality ranges from 5 to 25% of the animals at risk, mostly pregnant or lactating cows. The principal characteristic of the bovine paraplegic syndrome is ventral or sternal decubitus, in animals that make vain efforts to stand when stimulated. The diagnosis is established when all other possible causes (e.g. paralytic rabies, botulism and blood parasites such as Anaplasma marginal, Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, and Trypanosoma vivax) have been ruled out clinically and by laboratory tests. Death always occurs, usually after a few days, and there is no known treatment. In this work, we describe results that show the presence of a toxin in the cattle suffering from, or liable to suffer from the syndrome. The toxin is produced by ruminal bacteria. In squid giant axons under voltage clamp conditions, the toxin blocks the sodium current. We detected the toxin analytically by absorbance measurements at 340 nm after reacting with picrylsulfonic acid. We obtained a good separation of the toxin with isocratic high pressure liquid chromatography, using 40% methanol in water on phenylborasil columns. PMID:8146871

  8. [Serological study of bovine leptospirosis in Mexico].

    PubMed

    Moles Cervantes, Luis Pedro; Cisneros Puebla, Miguel Angel; Rosas, Dolores Gavaldón; Serranía, Nora Rojas; Torres Barranca, Jorge Isaac

    2002-01-01

    The results of 4 043 bovine sera samples from various Mexican regions, which were sent to a diagnosis lab, were analyzed. The method was the agglutination technique, taking the dilution rate 1:1000 or higher as positive. The analysis revealed 31,1% of seroprevalence and the most frequent serovarietes were hardjo (strain H 89 isolated in Mexico), wolffi and tarassovi. There is coincidence with early data obtained in Mexico on a 34% of prevalence found in a similar study performed in 1994, and with the scientific literature from other countries. The former study also indicated that tarassovi and wolffi were the most common leptospira, so there is coincidence with the figures in the reviewed literature. It was concluded that there was no significant variation in the prevalence rate between the 1994 study and the present one; therefore, it is recommended that this study be promoted so as to increase the bovine vaccination and achieve a reduction in leptospirosis in Mexico. PMID:15846936

  9. Tensile strength of bovine trabecular bone.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, S J; Hayes, W C; Stone, J L; Beaupré, G S

    1985-01-01

    Data on the tensile and compressive properties of trabecular bone are needed to define input parameters and failure criteria for modeling total joint replacements. To help resolve differences in reports comparing tensile and compressive properties of trabecular bone, we have developed new methods, based on porous foam technology, for tensile testing of fresh/frozen trabecular bone specimens. Using bovine trabecular bone from an isotropic region from the proximal humerus as a model material, we measured ultimate strengths in tension and compression for two groups of 24 specimens each. The average ultimate strength in tension was 7.6 +/- 2.2 (95% C.I.) MPa and in compression was 12.4 +/- 3.2 MPa. This difference was statistically significant (p = 0.013) and was not related to density differences between the test groups (p = 0.28). Strength was related by a power-law function of the local apparent density, but, even accounting for density influences, isotropic bovine trabecular bone exhibits significantly lower strengths in tension than in compression. PMID:4077868

  10. Affinity purification of aprotinin from bovine lung.

    PubMed

    Xin, Yu; Liu, Lanhua; Chen, Beizhan; Zhang, Ling; Tong, Yanjun

    2015-05-01

    An affinity protocol for the purification of aprotinin from bovine lung was developed. To simulate the structure of sucrose octasulfate, a natural specific probe for aprotinin, the affinity ligand was composed of an acidic head and a hydrophobic stick, and was then linked with Sepharose. The sorbent was then subjected to adsorption analysis with pure aprotinin. The purification process consisted of one step of affinity chromatography and another step of ultrafiltration. Then purified aprotinin was subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, trypsin inhibitor activity, gel-filtration, and thin-layer chromatography analysis. As calculated, the theoretical maximum adsorption (Qmax ) of the affinity sorbent was 25,476.0 ± 184.8 kallikrein inactivator unit/g wet gel; the dissociation constant of the complex "immobilized ligand-aprotinin" (Kd ) was 4.6 ± 0.1 kallikrein inactivator unit/mL. After the affinity separation of bovine lung aprotinin, reducing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis analysis and gel-filtration chromatography revealed that the protein was a single polypeptide, and the purities were ∼ 97 and 100%, respectively; the purified peptide was also confirmed with aprotinin standard by gel-filtration chromatography and thin-layer chromatography. After the whole purification process, protein, and bioactivity recoveries were 2.2 and 92.6%, respectively; and the specific activity was up to 15,907.1 ± 10.2 kallikrein inactivator unit/mg. PMID:25677462

  11. Epidemiological Modeling of Bovine Brucellosis in India

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Gloria J.; Gunaseelan, L.; Abbas, Kaja M.

    2015-01-01

    The study objective is to develop an epidemiological model of brucellosis transmission dynamics among cattle in India and to estimate the impact of different prevention and control strategies. The prevention and control strategies are test-and-slaughter, transmission rate reduction, and mass vaccination. We developed a mathematical model based on the susceptible-infectious-recovered epidemic model to simulate brucellosis transmission dynamics, calibrated to the endemically stable levels of bovine brucellosis prevalence of cattle in India. We analyzed the epidemiological benefit of different rates of reduced transmission and vaccination. Test-and-slaughter is an effective strategy for elimination and eradication of brucellosis, but socio-cultural constraints forbid culling of cattle in India. Reducing transmission rates lowered the endemically stable levels of brucellosis prevalence correspondingly. One-time vaccination lowered prevalence initially but increased with influx of new susceptible births. While this epidemiological model is a basic representation of brucellosis transmission dynamics in India and constrained by limitations in surveillance data, this study illustrates the comparative epidemiological impact of different bovine brucellosis prevention and control strategies. PMID:26280026

  12. Tensile strength and durability of bovine dentin.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Toshiko; Miyazaki, Takashi; Nishimura, Fumio

    2007-05-01

    This study investigated the effects of thermal cycling on the tensile strength of dentin. Bovine dentin were divided into 10 groups, which were then subjected to various conditions: intact after preparation, thereby serving as a control; heating in boiling water for 45 minutes; 10,000 thermal cycles in water; 10,000 thermal cycles in PBS; storage in water at 5, 23, or 55 degrees C for two weeks; and storage in PBS at 5, 23, or 55 degrees C for two weeks. Subsequently, bovine dentin were trimmed into dumbbell-shaped specimens and the tensile test performed in distilled water at 37 degrees C. Mean tensile strengths were compared statistically by one-way ANOVA and Fisher's PLTD test (p<0.05). Fracture surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscopy, and reliability of the results was analyzed with Weibull distribution. Tensile strength did not significantly change after thermal cycling or storage in water and PBS at all temperatures tested (71.2-77.0 MPa) but decreased after treatment with boiling water (65.5 MPa). PMID:17694743

  13. PCR detection of bovine herpesviruses from nonbovine ruminants in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Kálmán, Dóra; Egyed, László

    2005-07-01

    Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was used to test six different nonbovine ruminant species for five bovine herpesviruses including infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus (BoHV-1), bovine herpes mammillitis virus (BoHV-2), Movar-type herpesvirus (BoHV-4), bovine herpesvirus type 5 (BoHV-5), and alcelaphine herpesvirus 1 (AlHV-1). Species tested included 56 roe deer (Capreolus capreolus), 66 red deer (Cervus elaphus), 20 fallow deer (Dama dama), 16 mouflon (Ovis musimon), 34 domestic sheep, and 44 domestic goats, which were sampled in Hungary in 2003. Tracheal and popliteal lymph nodes collected from these animals were tested for the presence of the five bovine herpesviruses using three nested (two of which were duplex) PCR assays. Three bovine herpesviruses (BoHV-1, -2, and -4) were detected, whereas no evidence of AlHV-1 or BoHV-5 was observed. Prevalence of BoHV-1 ranged from 12% to 47%, and PCR-positive results were observed in all species tested. BoHV-2 was detected from roe deer, red deer, fallow deer, mouflon, and domestic sheep, and the prevalence in these species ranged from 3% to 50%. BoHV-4 was detected in all species, with prevalence ranging from 12% to 69%. Sequenced PCR products were 99-100% identical to bovine herpesviral sequences deposited in the GenBank. PMID:16244057

  14. Characterization of the Nanog 5'-flanking Region in Bovine.

    PubMed

    Choi, Don-Ho; Kim, Duk-Jung; Song, Ki-Duk; Park, Hwan-Hee; Ko, Tae Hyun; Pyao, Yuliya; Chung, Ku-Min; Cha, Seok Ho; Sin, Young-Su; Kim, Nam-Hyung; Lee, Woon-Kyu

    2016-10-01

    Bovine embryonic stem cells have potential for use in research, such as transgenic cattle generation and the study of developmental gene regulation. The Nanog may play a critical role in maintenance of the undifferentiated state of embryonic stem cells in the bovine, as in murine and human. Nevertheless, efforts to study the bovine Nanog for pluripotency-maintaining factors have been insufficient. In this study, in order to understand the mechanisms of transcriptional regulation of the bovine Nanog, the 5'-flanking region of the Nanog was isolated from ear cells of Hanwoo. Results of transient transfection using a luciferase reporter gene under the control of serially deleted 5'-flanking sequences revealed that the -134 to -19 region contained the positive regulatory sequences for the transcription of the bovine Nanog. Results from mutagenesis studies demonstrated that the Sp1-binding site that is located in the proximal promoter region plays an important role in transcriptional activity of the bovine Nanog promoter. The electrophoretic mobility shift assay with the Sp1 specific antibody confirmed the specific binding of Sp1 transcription factor to this site. In addition, significant inhibition of Nanog promoter activity by the Sp1 mutant was observed in murine embryonic stem cells. Furthermore, chromatin-immunoprecipitation assay with the Sp1 specific antibody confirmed the specific binding of Sp1 transcription factor to this site. These results suggest that Sp1 is an essential regulatory factor for bovine Nanog transcriptional activity. PMID:27165025

  15. Relative Contribution of Th1 and Th17 Cells in Adaptive Immunity to Bordetella pertussis: Towards the Rational Design of an Improved Acellular Pertussis Vaccine

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Pádraig J.; Allen, Aideen C.; Walsh, Kevin; Misiak, Alicja; Lavelle, Ed C.; McLoughlin, Rachel M.; Mills, Kingston H. G.

    2013-01-01

    Whooping cough caused by Bordetella pertussis is a re-emerging infectious disease despite the introduction of safer acellular pertussis vaccines (Pa). One explanation for this is that Pa are less protective than the more reactogenic whole cell pertussis vaccines (Pw) that they replaced. Although Pa induce potent antibody responses, and protection has been found to be associated with high concentrations of circulating IgG against vaccine antigens, it has not been firmly established that host protection induced with this vaccine is mediated solely by humoral immunity. The aim of this study was to examine the relative contribution of Th1 and Th17 cells in host immunity to infection with B. pertussis and in immunity induced by immunization with Pw and Pa and to use this information to help rationally design a more effective Pa. Our findings demonstrate that Th1 and Th17 both function in protective immunity induced by infection with B. pertussis or immunization with Pw. In contrast, a current licensed Pa, administered with alum as the adjuvant, induced Th2 and Th17 cells, but weak Th1 responses. We found that IL-1 signalling played a central role in protective immunity induced with alum-adsorbed Pa and this was associated with the induction of Th17 cells. Pa generated strong antibody and Th2 responses, but was fully protective in IL-4-defective mice, suggesting that Th2 cells were dispensable. In contrast, Pa failed to confer protective immunity in IL-17A-defective mice. Bacterial clearance mediated by Pa-induced Th17 cells was associated with cell recruitment to the lungs after challenge. Finally, protective immunity induced by an experimental Pa could be enhanced by substituting alum with a TLR agonist that induces Th1 cells. Our findings demonstrate that alum promotes protective immunity through IL-1β-induced IL-17A production, but also reveal that optimum protection against B. pertussis requires induction of Th1, but not Th2 cells. PMID:23592988

  16. Effects of Acellular Amniotic Membrane Matrix and Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Improving Random Skin Flap Survival in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chehelcheraghi, Farzaneh; Eimani, Hossein; Homayoonsadraie, Seyed; Torkaman, Giti; Amini, Abdollah; Alavi Majd, Hamid; Shemshadi, Hashem

    2016-01-01

    Background The necrotic skin flap represents a great challenge in plastic and reconstructive surgery. In this study, we evaluated the effect of bioscaffolds, acellular amniotic membranes (AAMs), and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) on random skin flap (RSF) survival in rats by applying a cell-free extracellular matrix scaffold as a supportive component for the growth and proliferation of BM-MSCs on RSFs. AAM matrix scaffolds were created by incubating AMs in ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid 0.05% at 37°C, and cell scrapers were used. Objectives The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of AAM as a scaffold in TE, and combined with transplanted BM-MSCs, on the survival of RSFs and on the biomechanical parameters of the incision-wound flap margins 7 days after flap elevation. Materials and Methods BM-MSCs and AAMs were transplanted into subcutaneous tissue in the flap area. On the 7th postoperative day, the surviving flap areas were measured using digital imaging software, and the flap tissue was collected for evaluation. Forty rats were randomly divided into four groups of 10 each: group 1 received an AAM injection; group 2 underwent BM-MSC transplantation; group 3 received both AAM injection + BM-MSC transplantation; and group 4 was the control group, receiving only saline. Results The survival area in the AAM/BM-MSC group was significantly higher than in the control group (18.49 ± 1.58 versus 7.51 ± 2.42, P < 0.05). The biomechanical assessment showed no significant differences between the experimental groups and the control group (P > 0.05), and there was no correlation with flap survival. Conclusions Our findings showed that the treatment of flaps with BM-MSC and AAM transplantations significantly promoted flap survival compared to a control group. The viability of the flap was improved by combining BM-MSCs with AAM matrix scaffolds. PMID:27621924

  17. Adipose-Derived Stem-Cell-Seeded Non-Cross-Linked Porcine Acellular Dermal Matrix Increases Cellular Infiltration, Vascular Infiltration, and Mechanical Strength of Ventral Hernia Repairs

    PubMed Central

    Iyyanki, Tejaswi S.; Dunne, Lina W.; Zhang, Qixu; Hubenak, Justin; Turza, Kristin C.

    2015-01-01

    Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) facilitate wound healing by improving cellular and vascular recruitment to the wound site. Therefore, we investigated whether ASCs would augment a clinically relevant bioprosthetic mesh—non-cross-linked porcine acellular dermal matrix (ncl-PADM)—used for ventral hernia repairs in a syngeneic animal model. ASCs were isolated from the subcutaneous adipose tissue of Brown Norway rats, expanded, and labeled with green fluorescent protein. ASCs were seeded (2.5×104 cells/cm2) onto ncl-PADM for 24 h before surgery. In vitro ASC adhesion to ncl-PADM was assessed at 0.5, 1, and 2 h after seeding, and cell morphology on ncl-PADM was visualized by scanning electron microscopy. Ventral hernia defects (2×4 cm) were created and repaired with ASC-seeded (n=31) and control (n=32) ncl-PADM. Explants were harvested at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after surgery. Explant remodeling outcomes were evaluated using gross evaluation (bowel adhesions, surface area, and grade), histological analysis (hematoxylin and eosin and Masson's trichrome staining), immunohistochemical analysis (von Willebrand factor VIII), fluorescent microscopy, and mechanical strength measurement at the tissue-bioprosthetic mesh interface. Stem cell markers CD29, CD90, CD44, and P4HB were highly expressed in cultured ASCs, whereas endothelial and hematopoietic cell markers, such as CD31, CD90, and CD45 had low expression. Approximately 85% of seeded ASCs adhered to ncl-PADM within 2 h after seeding, which was further confirmed by scanning electron microcopy examination. Gross evaluation of the hernia repairs revealed weak omental adhesion in all groups. Ultimate tensile strength was not significantly different in control and treatment groups. Conversely, elastic modulus was significantly greater at 4 weeks postsurgery in the ASC-seeded group (p<0.001). Cellular infiltration was significantly higher in the ASC-seeded group at all time points (p<0.05). Vascular infiltration was

  18. Epidemiology, pathology, immunology and diagnosis of bovine farcy: a review.

    PubMed

    Hamid, Mohamed E

    2012-06-01

    Bovine farcy (which is caused by Mycobacterium farcinogenes and Mycobacterium senegalense) is a chronic suppurative granulomatous inflammation of the skin and lymphatics of cattle and is seen mostly in sub-Saharan Africa. It is not yet certain whether Nocardia farcinica causes cutaneous nocardiosis (farcy) in animals that mimics bovine farcy. Epidemiological data have steadily reported finding bovine farcy in adult cattle of the transhumance pastoralist tribes of the Sahel and the Sudanian savannah zones. M. farcinogenes and or M. senegalense do not affect other domestic or non-domestic animals; it is not known whether these bacteria are zoonotic. The disease--once widespread in many regions--has disappeared from some countries historically known to have it. Reports of bovine farcy prevalence seem to be linked to the existence of survey initiatives by governments and diagnostic capabilities in each country. Farcy causes economic loss due to damaged hides and also is a public-health burden (because the lymphadenitis due to farcy resembles the lesions of bovine tuberculosis in carcasses and the meat is considered inappropriate for human consumption). The current literature is deficient in establishing definitely the prevalence, transmission patterns, and risk factors of bovine farcy. Ixodid ticks transmit other skin diseases (such as dermatophilosis) and might play a role in bovine farcy (given the similarity in the bio-physiology and geographic distribution of the disease). In addition, the tick-resistance of cattle breeds such as the N'Dama, Fulani or the Nilotic might explain their resistance to bovine farcy. Apart from the judicious use of conventional smear-and-culture methods, few diagnostic tests have been developed; the molecular and serological tests have not been evaluated for reproducibility and accuracy. This review points out aspects of bovine farcy that need further research and updates available data on the prevalence, distribution, risk factors

  19. Mannheimia haemolytica leukotoxin binds cyclophilin D on bovine neutrophil mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Aulik, Nicole A; Hellenbrand, Katrina M; Kisiela, Dagmara; Czuprynski, Charles J

    2011-01-01

    Mannheimia haemolytica is an important member of the bovine respiratory disease (BRD) complex that causes fibrinous and necrotizing pleuropneumonia in cattle. BRD is characterized by abundant neutrophil infiltration into the alveoli and fibrin deposition. The most important virulence factor of M. haemolytica is its leukotoxin. Previous research in our laboratory has shown that the leukotoxin is able to enter into and traffic to the mitochondria of a bovine lymphoblastoid cell line (BL-3). In this study, we evaluated the ability of LKT to be internalized and travel to mitochondria in bovine neutrophils. We demonstrate that LKT binds bovine neutrophil mitochondria and co-immunoprecipitates with TOM22 and TOM40, which are members of the translocase of the outer mitochondrial (TOM) membrane family. Upon entry into mitochondria, LKT co-immunoprecipitates with cyclophilin D, a member of the mitochondria permeability transition pore. Unlike BL-3 cells, bovine neutrophil mitochondria are not protected against LKT by the membrane-stabilizing agent cyclosporin A, nor were bovine neutrophil mitochondria protected by the permeability transition pore antagonist bongkrekic acid. In addition, we found that bovine neutrophil cyclophilin D is significantly smaller than that found in BL-3 cells. Bovine neutrophils were protected against LKT by protein transfection of an anti-cyclophilin D antibody directed at the C-terminal amino acids, but not an antibody against the first 50 N-terminal amino acids. In contrast, BL-3 cells were protected by antibodies against either the C-terminus or N-terminus of cyclophilin. These data confirm that LKT binds to bovine neutrophil mitochondria, but indicate there are distinctions between neutrophil and BL-3 mitochondria that might reflect differences in cyclophilin D. PMID:21220005

  20. Genome analysis of an atypical bovine pestivirus from fetal bovine serum.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shandian; Du, Junzheng; Tian, Zhancheng; Xing, Shanshan; Chang, Huiyun; Liu, Guangyuan; Luo, Jianxun; Yin, Hong

    2016-08-01

    We report the complete genome sequence of a bovine pestivirus LVRI/cont-1 originated from a commercial batch of fetal bovine serum. Its complete genome consists of 12,282 nucleotides (nt), which contain an open reading frame (ORF) of 11,700 bp flanked by 5' and 3' untranslated regions (383 and 199 bp). The size of the 5'UTR and the individual protein coding region of LVRI/cont-1 are identical to those of the reference virus Th/04_KhonKaen, but it has a deletion of the first 56 nt in the 3'UTR. Alignment of the complete nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis indicate that this viral isolate belongs to atypical pestiviruses. PMID:27052733

  1. Survey on vertical infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus from fetal bovine sera in the field

    PubMed Central

    NAGAYAMA, Kumiko; OGUMA, Keisuke; SENTSUI, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) isolation and antibody survey were performed using 2,758 fetal bovine sera (FBS) collected from slaughterhouses in New Zealand, Australia and the Dominican Republic, and then sent to Japan to manufacture commercial serum for cell culture use. FBS in the Dominican Republic were pooled for each several individuals, and those collected in other countries were separated according to each individual and subjected to the tests. BVDV was isolated from 25 (0.91%) FBS, and the BVDV antibody was detected in 44 (1.60%) FBS. The survey on 139 sets of paired sera of a dam and her fetus revealed that neither the BVDV antibody nor BVDV was detected in all FBS from BVDV antibody-positive dams. PMID:26074250

  2. Immunological release of histamine from bovine leucocytes. Unusual adrenergic modulation.

    PubMed Central

    Holroyde, M C; Eyre, P

    1976-01-01

    Sensitized bovine granulocytes release histamine when exposed to specific antigen. In comparison with in vitro systems in several other species, the modulation of this release by adrenergic agents is unique. Beta-Adrenoceptor stimulation potentiates (rather than inhibits), whereas alpha-adrenoceptor stimulation inhibits (rather than potentiates) histamine release. Adrenaline, which is generally considered to be a physiological antagonist of the anaphylactic reaction, potentiated histamine release in this study. Dopamine, which is present in high concentration in bovine mast cells, was without effect. The results are discussed in terms of the possible role of granulocytes in bovine hypersensitivity. PMID:60282

  3. Seroprevalence of bovine immunodeficiency virus and bovine leukemia virus in draught animals in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Meas, S; Ohashi, K; Tum, S; Chhin, M; Te, K; Miura, K; Sugimoto, C; Onuma, M

    2000-07-01

    Since bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV), known as bovine lentivirus, has been detected in dairy and beef cattle in various countries around the world, a prevalence study of antibodies to BIV and bovine leukemia virus (BLV) was conducted in draught animals in five provinces in Cambodia, where protozoan parasite infections were suspected in some animals. To clarify the status of draught animals including Haryana, Brahman, mixed-breed, local breed cattle and muscle water buffaloes, a total of 544 cattle and 42 buffaloes were tested, and 26.3 and 16.7%, respectively, were found positive for anti-BIV p26 antibodies determined by Western blotting. There were 5.3% positive for anti-BLV antibodies detected by immunodiffusion test among the cattle, but no reactors among buffaloes and no dual infection for both BIV and BLV was determined in this study. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells from BIV-seropositive cattle were found to have BIV-provirus DNA, as detected by polymerase chain reaction and subsequent Southern blot hybridization. This is the first evidence for the presence of BIV and BLV infections in draught animals in tropical countries such as Cambodia. This wide distribution of BIV suggests its association with problems in animal health as reported worldwide, and that a primary BIV infection can predispose death of affected animals by other aggressive pathogens or stresses. PMID:10945301

  4. Bovine achondrogenesis: evidence for defective chondrocyte differentiation.

    PubMed

    Horton, W A; Jayo, M J; Leipold, H W; Machado, M A; Campbell, D; Ahmed, S

    1987-01-01

    A survey study of growth cartilage abnormalities in bovine bone dysplasias revealed that a disorder in Holstein cattle called bulldog calf closely resembles human achondrogenesis Type II. Substantial amounts of Type I collagen and other non Type II collagens were detected in the bulldog cartilage which was comprised primarily of extensive vascular canals and cells having the characteristics of hypertrophic and degenerative chondrocytes normally found in the growth plate. It is proposed that chondrocytes throughout the bulldog growth cartilage prematurely differentiate into hypertrophic cells that degenerate and predispose the cartilage to vascular invasion and the formation of cartilage canals. The presence of these canals probably accounts for most of the observed collagen abnormalities. PMID:3606909

  5. Diagnosis and Control of Bovine Neosporosis.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Milton M

    2016-07-01

    Neosporosis is one of the most common and widespread causes of bovine abortion. The causative parasite is transmitted in at least two ways, horizontally from canids, and by endogenous transmission within maternal lines of infected cattle. The prevalence of neosporosis is higher in the dairy industry than in the beef industry because of risk factors associated with intensive feeding. There are no vaccines, but logical management options are discussed that can lower the risk of abortion outbreaks and gradually reduce the prevalence of infection within herds. Steps should be taken to prevent total mixed rations from becoming contaminated by canine feces. If a herd has a high rate of infection that is associated with abortions in heifers, then the rate of reduction of infection prevalence can be speeded by only selecting seronegative replacement heifers to enter the breeding herd. Elimination of all infected cattle is not a recommended goal. PMID:27161392

  6. Properties of intracellular bovine papillomavirus chromatin.

    PubMed Central

    Rösl, F; Waldeck, W; Zentgraf, H; Sauer, G

    1986-01-01

    Episomal nucleoprotein complexes of bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) in transformed cells were exposed to DNase I treatment to localize hypersensitive regions. Such regions, which are indicative for gene expression, were found within the noncoding part of the genome, coinciding with the origin of replication and the 5' ends of most of the early mRNAs. However, there were also regions of hypersensitivity within the structural genes. These intragenic perturbations of the chromatin structure coincide with regulatory sequences at the DNA level. One of these regions maps in close proximity to a Z-DNA antibody-binding site which is located near the putative BPV-1 enhancer sequence. Images PMID:3009863

  7. Somatic Cell Counts in Bovine Milk

    PubMed Central

    Dohoo, I. R.; Meek, A. H.

    1982-01-01

    Factors which influence somatic cell counts in bovine milk are reviewed and guidelines for their interpretation are presented. It is suggested that the thresholds of 300 000 and 250 000 cells/mL be used to identify infected quarters and cows respectively. However, it is stressed that somatic cell counts are general indicators of udder health which are subject to the influence of many factors. Therefore the evaluation of several successive counts is preferable to the interpretation of an individual count. Relationships between somatic cell counts and both milk production and milk composition are discussed. Subclinical mastitis reduces milk quality and decreases yield although the relationship between production loss and somatic cell count requires clarification. Finally the availability of somatic cell counting programs in Canada is presented. PMID:17422127

  8. Diminishing returns in bovine tuberculosis control.

    PubMed

    Hone, J

    2013-07-01

    Mycobacterium bovis causes bovine tuberculosis (bTB) in many mammals including cattle, deer and brushtail possum. The aim of this study was to estimate the strength of association, using model selection (AICc) regression analyses, between the proportion of cattle and farmed deer herds with bTB in New Zealand and annual costs of TB control, namely disease control in livestock, in wildlife or in a combination of the two. There was more support for curved (concave up) than linear models which related the proportion of cattle and farmed deer herds with bTB to the annual control costs. The curved, concave-up, best-fitting relationships showed diminishing returns with no positive asymptote and implied TB eradication is feasible in New Zealand. PMID:23632097

  9. Lipidome signatures in early bovine embryo development.

    PubMed

    Sudano, Mateus J; Rascado, Tatiana D S; Tata, Alessandra; Belaz, Katia R A; Santos, Vanessa G; Valente, Roniele S; Mesquita, Fernando S; Ferreira, Christina R; Araújo, João P; Eberlin, Marcos N; Landim-Alvarenga, Fernanda D C

    2016-07-15

    Mammalian preimplantation embryonic development is a complex, conserved, and well-orchestrated process involving dynamic molecular and structural changes. Understanding membrane lipid profile fluctuation during this crucial period is fundamental to address mechanisms governing embryogenesis. Therefore, the aim of the present work was to perform a comprehensive assessment of stage-specific lipid profiles during early bovine embryonic development and associate with the mRNA abundance of lipid metabolism-related genes (ACSL3, ELOVL5, and ELOVL6) and with the amount of cytoplasmic lipid droplets. Immature oocytes were recovered from slaughterhouse-derived ovaries, two-cell embryos, and eight- to 16-cell embryos, morula, and blastocysts that were in vitro produced under different environmental conditions. Lipid droplets content and mRNA transcript levels for ACSL3, ELOVL5, and ELOVL6, monitored by lipid staining and quantitative polymerase chain reaction, respectively, increased at morula followed by a decrease at blastocyst stage. Relative mRNA abundance changes of ACSL3 were closely related to cytoplasmic lipid droplet accumulation. Characteristic dynamic changes of phospholipid profiles were observed during early embryo development and related to unsaturation level, acyl chain length, and class composition. ELOVL5 and ELOVL6 mRNA levels were suggestive of overexpression of membrane phospholipids containing elongated fatty acids with 16, 18, and 20 carbons. In addition, putative biomarkers of key events of embryogenesis, embryo lipid accumulation, and elongation were identified. This study provides a comprehensive description of stage-specific lipidome signatures and proposes a mechanism to explain its potential relationship with the fluctuation of both cytoplasmic lipid droplets content and mRNA levels of lipid metabolism-related genes during early bovine embryo development. PMID:27107972

  10. Nonenzymatic glycosylation of bovine myelin basic protein

    SciTech Connect

    Hitz, J.B.

    1987-01-01

    In the CNS myelin sheath the nonenzymatic glycosylation reaction (at the early stage of the Amadori product) occurs only with the myelin basic protein and not with the other myelin proteins. This was observed in isolated bovine myelin by in vitro incubation with (/sup 14/C)-galactose and (/sup 14/C)-glucose. The respective in-vitro incorporation rates for purified bovine myelin basic protein with D-galactose, D-glucose and D-mannose were 7.2, 2.4 and 2.4 mmoles/mole myelin basic protein per day at 37/sup 0/C. A more rapid, HPLC method was devised and characterized to specifically analyze for the Amadori product. The HPLC method was correlated to the (/sup 14/C)-sugar incorporation method for myelin basic protein under a set of standard reaction conditions using (/sup 14/C)-glucose and (/sup 14/C)-mannose with HPLC values at 1/6 and 1/5 of the (/sup 14/C)-sugar incorporation method. A novel myelin basic protein purification step has been developed that yields a relativity proteolytic free preparation that is easy to work with, being totally soluble at a neutral pH. Nine new spots appear for a trypsinized glycosylated MBP in the paper peptide map of which eight correspond to positions of the (/sup 3/H)-labeled Amadori product in affinity isolated peptides. These studies provide a general characterization of and a structural basis for investigations on nonenzymatically glycosylated MBP as well as identifying MBP as the only nonenzymatically glycosylated protein in the CNS myelin sheath which may accumulate during aging, diabetes, and demyelinating diseases in general.

  11. Tylosin susceptibility of Staphylococci from bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Entorf, Monika; Feßler, Andrea T; Kadlec, Kristina; Kaspar, Heike; Mankertz, Joachim; Peters, Thomas; Schwarz, Stefan

    2014-07-16

    Although the 16-membered macrolide tylosin is commonly used for the treatment of bovine mastitis, little information is currently available about the susceptibility of mastitis pathogens to tylosin. In the present study, 112 Staphylococcus aureus and 110 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) spp. isolates from cases of bovine mastitis were tested by broth microdilution and agar disk diffusion with 30 μg tylosin disks. Susceptibility to erythromycin was tested by broth microdilution and disk diffusion using 15 μg disks. Both test populations showed bimodal distributions of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and zone diameters with eleven S. aureus and eight CoNS isolates showing tylosin MICs of ≥ 256 μg/ml and no zones of growth inhibition around the tylosin 30 μg disks. All 19 isolates with tylosin MICs of ≥ 256 μg/ml were also resistant to erythromycin. For six additional erythromycin-resistant isolates, tylosin MICs of 1-8 μg/ml were observed. One S. aureus and two CoNS isolates showed inducible macrolide resistance. PCR analysis of the 25 erythromycin-resistant staphylococcal isolates identified the resistance genes erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(T), mph(C) and msr(A) alone or in different combinations. An excellent correlation between the results of the different tylosin susceptibility tests (broth microdilution versus disk diffusion) was seen for S. aureus and CoNS isolates. Since tylosin does not induce the expression of the aforementioned erm genes, isolates with an inducible resistance phenotype may - if only tylosin is tested - be falsely classified as tylosin-susceptible. Thus, erythromycin should be tested in parallel and tylosin should only be used for the treatment of infections caused by erythromycin-susceptible staphylococci. PMID:24461550

  12. Detection and characterization of viruses as field and vaccine strains in feedlot cattle with bovine respiratory disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study investigated viruses in bovine respiratory disease (BRD) cases in feedlots, including bovine herpesvirus-1 (BoHV-1), bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV), bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV), bovine coronaviruses (BoCV) and parainfluenza-3 virus (PI3V). Nasal swabs were collected fro...

  13. MRSA endocarditis of bovine Contegra valved conduit: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Different techniques are used for the right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction, including homo- or porcine xenografts, which have several limitations. Contegra, a bovine jugular vein graft, is an interesting alternative to overcome these limitations. It consists of a bovine jugular vein with a naturally integrated valve in it. Isolated pulmonary valve endocarditis is extremely rare. Case presentation We report the case of a 20 years old male patient with acute endocarditis of bovine Contegra valved conduit, four years after right ventricular outflow tract reconstruction and atrial septal defect correction, associated with acute glomerulonephritis, renal failure and severe anemia, secondary to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection (MRSA). Conclusion We present a complex patient with acute endocarditis of bovine Contegra valved conduit. We believe that the presentation of this case should encourage the researchers for the discussing of the implantation of this conduit and the prevention of endocarditis in these patients. PMID:19146664

  14. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)—Patient Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of bovine and shark cartilage as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  15. Cartilage (Bovine and Shark) (PDQ®)—Health Professional Version

    Cancer.gov

    Expert-reviewed information summary about the use of bovine and shark cartilage as a treatment for people with cancer. Note: The information in this summary is no longer being updated and is provided for reference purposes only.

  16. Association of a bovine prion gene haplotype with atypical BSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Atypical bovine spongiform encephalopathies (BSEs) are recently recognized prion diseases of cattle. Atypical BSEs are rare; approximately 30 cases have been identified worldwide. We tested prion gene (PRNP) haplotypes for an association with atypical BSE. Methodology/Principal Findin...

  17. Immune suppression in calves with bovine immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, S; Wood, C; Xue, W; Krukenberg, S M; Chen, Q; Minocha, H C

    1997-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) infection on immune functions and possible interactions between BIV and other bovine viruses in calves. Ten calves were inoculated intravenously with BIV, and five served as controls. An increased lymphocyte proliferation to BIV gag protein was demonstrated 2 to 6 weeks after BIV inoculation (P < 0.05). Lymphocyte subset differentiation revealed a decreased CD4/CD8 ratio (P < 0.05) during weeks 2 to 7, suggesting a possible immune dysfunction in BIV-infected calves. When the calves were inoculated with bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1), the antibody response to BHV-1 in BIV-infected calves was delayed and the antibody titers were significantly lower (P < 0.05). Injection of bovine viral diarrhea virus vaccine also elicited a lower neutralizing antibody response in BIV-infected calves. The results indicated that immune suppression occurred in BIV-infected calves. PMID:9067663

  18. Molecular and biological aspects of the bovine immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Corredor, Andrea G; St-Louis, Marie-Claude; Archambault, Denis

    2010-01-01

    The bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) was isolated in 1969 from a cow, R-29, with a wasting syndrome suggesting bovine leucosis. The virus, first designated bovine visna-like virus, remained unstudied until HIV was discovered in 1983. Then, it was demonstrated in 1987 that the bovine R-29 isolate was a lentivirus with striking similarity to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Moreover, BIV has the most complex genomic structure among all identified lentiviruses shown by several regulatory/accessory genes encoding proteins, some of which are involved in the regulation of virus gene expression. This manuscript aims to review biological and molecular aspects of BIV, with emphasis on regulatory/accessory viral genes/proteins which are involved in virus expression. PMID:20210777

  19. 9 CFR 113.310 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...-neutralization tests from each of the vaccinates. The test virus shall be 100 to 500 TCID50 bovine...-injection serum samples tested as prescribed in paragraph (c)(3) of this section show neutralization in...

  20. 9 CFR 113.310 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...-neutralization tests from each of the vaccinates. The test virus shall be 100 to 500 TCID50 bovine...-injection serum samples tested as prescribed in paragraph (c)(3) of this section show neutralization in...

  1. 9 CFR 113.310 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...-neutralization tests from each of the vaccinates. The test virus shall be 100 to 500 TCID50 bovine...-injection serum samples tested as prescribed in paragraph (c)(3) of this section show neutralization in...

  2. 9 CFR 113.310 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...-neutralization tests from each of the vaccinates. The test virus shall be 100 to 500 TCID50 bovine...-injection serum samples tested as prescribed in paragraph (c)(3) of this section show neutralization in...

  3. 9 CFR 113.310 - Bovine Rhinotracheitis Vaccine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...-neutralization tests from each of the vaccinates. The test virus shall be 100 to 500 TCID50 bovine...-injection serum samples tested as prescribed in paragraph (c)(3) of this section show neutralization in...

  4. BTA2 and BTA26 are linked with bovine respiratory disease and associated with persistent infection of bovine viral diarrhea virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus is a pathogen associated with bovine respiratory disease (BRD). BRD causes 28% of all cattle deaths and an annual U.S. loss over $692 million. The objective of this study was to refine the linkage of BRD and association of bovine viral diarrhea-persistent infection (BVD-P...

  5. Fine mapping of loci on BTA2 and BTA26 associated with bovine viral diarrhea persistent infection and linked with bovine respiratory disease in cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is considered to be the most costly infectious disease in the cattle industry. Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is one of the pathogens involved with the BRD complex of disease. Bovine viral diarrhea virus infection also negatively impacts cow reproduction and calf...

  6. Isolation and Transfection of Primary Culture Bovine Retinal Pericytes.

    PubMed

    Primo, Vincent A; Arboleda-Velasquez, Joseph F

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes an enzymatic approach for isolating homogeneous cultures of pericytes from retinas of bovine source. In summary, retinas are dissected, washed, digested, filtered, cultured in specific media to select for pericytes, and finally expanded for a low passage culture of about 14 million bovine retinal pericytes (BRP) within 4-6 weeks. This protocol also describes a liposomal-based technique for transfection of BRPs. PMID:27172949

  7. On-Farm Use of Ultrasonography for Bovine Respiratory Disease.

    PubMed

    Ollivett, Theresa L; Buczinski, Sébastien

    2016-03-01

    Thoracic ultrasonography (TUS) in young cattle has recently gained momentum as an accurate and practical tool for identifying the lung lesions associated with bovine respiratory disease. As cattle producers increasingly seek input from their veterinarians on respiratory health issues, bovine practitioners should consider adding TUS to their practice models. This article discusses the relevant literature regarding TUS in young cattle, current acceptable techniques, and practical on-farm applications. PMID:26922110

  8. Bovine coronavirus antibody titers at weaning negatively correlate with incidence of bovine respiratory disease in the feed yard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is a multifactorial disease caused by complex interactions among viral and bacterial pathogens, stressful management practices and host genetic variability. Although vaccines and antibiotic treatments are readily available to prevent and treat infection caus...

  9. Stability of Bovine viral diarrhea virus 1 nucleic acid in fetal bovine samples stored under different conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Infection of pregnant cattle with bovine viral diarrhea viruses can result in reproductive disease that includes fetal reabsorption, mummification, abortion, still births, congenital defects affecting structural, neural, reproductive and immune systems and the birth of calves persistently infected w...

  10. Increased bovine Tim-3 and its ligand expressions during bovine leukemia virus infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The immunoinhibitory receptor T cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain-3 (Tim-3) and its ligand, galectin-9 (Gal-9), are involved in the immune evasion mechanisms for several pathogens causing chronic infections. However, there is no report concerning the role of Tim-3 in diseases of domestic animals. In this study, cDNA encoding for bovine Tim-3 and Gal-9 were cloned and sequenced, and their expression and role in immune reactivation were analyzed in bovine leukemia virus (BLV)-infected cattle. Predicted amino acid sequences of Tim-3 and Gal-9 shared high homologies with human and mouse homologues. Functional domains, including tyrosine kinase phosphorylation motif in the intracellular domain of Tim-3 were highly conserved among cattle and other species. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis showed that bovine Tim-3 mRNA is mainly expressed in T cells such as CD4+ and CD8+ cells, while Gal-9 mRNA is mainly expressed in monocyte and T cells. Tim-3 mRNA expression in CD4+ and CD8+ cells was upregulated during disease progression of BLV infection. Interestingly, expression levels for Tim-3 and Gal-9 correlated positively with viral load in infected cattle. Furthermore, Tim-3 expression level closely correlated with up-regulation of IL-10 in infected cattle. The expression of IFN-γ and IL-2 mRNA was upregulated when PBMC from BLV-infected cattle were cultured with Cos-7 cells expressing Tim-3 to inhibit the Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway. Moreover, combined blockade of the Tim-3/Gal-9 and PD-1/PD-L1 pathways significantly promoted IFN-γ mRNA expression compared with blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway alone. These results suggest that Tim-3 is involved in the suppression of T cell function during BLV infection. PMID:22621175

  11. Immunogenicity of a combination vaccine containing diphtheria toxoid, tetanus toxoid, three-component acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, inactivated polio virus, and Haemophilus influenzae type b when given concomitantly with 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine.

    PubMed

    Gimenez-Sanchez, Francisco; Kieninger, Dorothee M; Kueper, Kathrin; Martinon-Torres, Federico; Bernaola, Enrique; Diez-Domingo, Javier; Steul, Kathrin; Juergens, Christine; Gurtman, Alejandra; Giardina, Peter; Liang, John Z; Gruber, William C; Emini, Emilio A; Scott, Daniel A

    2011-08-11

    Two randomized trials of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) relative to PCV7 evaluated the immune responses of coadministered antigens comprising Infanrix(®) hexa/Infanrix(®)-IPV+Hib (diphtheria, tetanus, 3-component acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, inactivated poliovirus, and Haemophilus influenzae type b). After the 3-dose infant series, immunogenic noninferiority was demonstrated for all concomitantly administered antigens between the PCV13 and PCV7 groups. All antigens elicited good booster responses after the toddler dose except pertussis toxoid; however, 99.6% subjects achieved pertussis toxoid protective antibody level ≥5EU/mL in both groups. These results support the concomitant administration of PCV13 and Infanrix hexa/Infanrix-IPV+Hib as part of routine immunization schedules. PMID:21704105

  12. Evaluation of components of X-ray irradiated 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent and X-ray and gamma-ray irradiated acellular pertussis component of DTaP vaccine products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    May, J. C.; Rey, L.; Lee, Chi-Jen; Arciniega, Juan

    2004-09-01

    Samples of pneumococcal vaccine polyvalent, 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, and two different diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccines adsorbed were irradiated with X-rays and/or gamma-rays (Co-60). Mouse IgG and IgM antibody responses (ELISA) for types 9V, 14, 18C, and 19F pneumococcal polysaccharides and conjugates indicated that the polysaccharides were more tolerant of the radiation than the conjugates. The mouse antibody response for the detoxified pertussis toxin (PT) antigen, filamentous hemagglutinin antigen (FHA), pertactin (PRN), and fimbriae types 2 and 3 (FIM) antigens for the appropriate vaccine type indicated that the antibody response was not significantly changed in the 25 kGy X-ray irradiated vaccines frozen in liquid nitrogen compared to the control vaccine.

  13. Malignant transformation of hamster cells following infection with bovine herpesvirus (infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus.

    PubMed

    Michalski, F; Hsiung, G D

    1975-03-01

    Hamster embryo cells, following infection with IBR virus, showed malignant transformation. Hamsters of all ages, inbred or random bred, inoculated with two of the transformed cell lines developed solid tumors. Preliminary characterization of the tumors induced by one of the cell lines has indicated undifferentiated sarcomas. Viral specific antigen was detected in about 5% of the transformed cells and 10% of primary tumor cells in culture. Viral specific antibody was detected in the serum of tumor-bearing hamsters by the indirect immunofluorescent method, but no neutralizing antibodies were found. Infectious virus has not been recovered from either the transformed or tumor cells by cocultivation with bovine embryonic kidney cells. PMID:165538

  14. Cerebral Candidal Abscess and Bovine Viral Diarrhoea Virus Infection in an Aborted Bovine Fetus.

    PubMed

    Vilander, A C; Niles, G A; Frank, C B

    2016-01-01

    Candida species are opportunistic fungi associated with immunosuppression and are the most commonly isolated fungal pathogens from the human central nervous system. Invasive candidiasis is reported uncommonly in animals and there have only been two reports of candidal infection of the brain. This report presents a case of a cerebral candidal abscess in an aborted late-term calf co-infected with bovine viral diarrhoea virus. Candida etchellsii, a species not previously identified as pathogenic, was identified as the causative agent by polymerase chain reaction. PMID:26895887

  15. Mutants of Escherichia coli Heat-Labile Toxin Act as Effective Mucosal Adjuvants for Nasal Delivery of an Acellular Pertussis Vaccine: Differential Effects of the Nontoxic AB Complex and Enzyme Activity on Th1 and Th2 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Elizabeth J.; McNeela, Edel; Murphy, Geraldine A.; Stewart, Helen; O'hagan, Derek; Pizza, Mariagrazia; Rappuoli, Rino; Mills, Kingston H. G.

    1999-01-01

    Mucosal delivery of vaccines is dependent on the identification of safe and effective adjuvants that can enhance the immunogenicity of protein antigens administered by nasal or oral routes. In this study we demonstrate that two mutants of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT), LTK63, which lacks ADP-ribosylating activity, and LTR72, which has partial enzyme activity, act as potent mucosal adjuvants for the nasal delivery of an acellular pertussis (Pa) vaccine. Both LTK63 and LTR72 enhanced antigen-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), secretory IgA, and local and systemic T-cell responses. Furthermore, using the murine respiratory challenge model for infection with Bordetella pertussis, we demonstrated that a nasally delivered diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (DTPa) combination vaccine formulated with LTK63 as an adjuvant conferred a high level of protection, equivalent to that generated with a parenterally delivered DTPa vaccine formulated with alum. This study also provides significant new information on the roles of the binding and enzyme components of LT in the modulation of Th1 and Th2 responses. LTK63, which lacks enzyme activity, promoted T-cell responses with a mixed Th1–Th2 profile, but LTR72, which retains partial enzyme activity, and the wild-type toxin, especially at low dose, induced a more polarized Th2-type response and very high IgA and IgG antibody titers. Our findings suggest that the nontoxic AB complex has broad adjuvant activity for T-cell responses and that the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of the A subunit also appears to modulate cytokine production, but its effect on T-cell subtypes, as well as enhancing, may be selectively suppressive. PMID:10569737

  16. Mutants of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin act as effective mucosal adjuvants for nasal delivery of an acellular pertussis vaccine: differential effects of the nontoxic AB complex and enzyme activity on Th1 and Th2 cells.

    PubMed

    Ryan, E J; McNeela, E; Murphy, G A; Stewart, H; O'hagan, D; Pizza, M; Rappuoli, R; Mills, K H

    1999-12-01

    Mucosal delivery of vaccines is dependent on the identification of safe and effective adjuvants that can enhance the immunogenicity of protein antigens administered by nasal or oral routes. In this study we demonstrate that two mutants of Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin (LT), LTK63, which lacks ADP-ribosylating activity, and LTR72, which has partial enzyme activity, act as potent mucosal adjuvants for the nasal delivery of an acellular pertussis (Pa) vaccine. Both LTK63 and LTR72 enhanced antigen-specific serum immunoglobulin G (IgG), secretory IgA, and local and systemic T-cell responses. Furthermore, using the murine respiratory challenge model for infection with Bordetella pertussis, we demonstrated that a nasally delivered diphtheria, tetanus, and acellular pertussis (DTPa) combination vaccine formulated with LTK63 as an adjuvant conferred a high level of protection, equivalent to that generated with a parenterally delivered DTPa vaccine formulated with alum. This study also provides significant new information on the roles of the binding and enzyme components of LT in the modulation of Th1 and Th2 responses. LTK63, which lacks enzyme activity, promoted T-cell responses with a mixed Th1-Th2 profile, but LTR72, which retains partial enzyme activity, and the wild-type toxin, especially at low dose, induced a more polarized Th2-type response and very high IgA and IgG antibody titers. Our findings suggest that the nontoxic AB complex has broad adjuvant activity for T-cell responses and that the ADP-ribosyltransferase activity of the A subunit also appears to modulate cytokine production, but its effect on T-cell subtypes, as well as enhancing, may be selectively suppressive. PMID:10569737

  17. Sequence and structural implications of a bovine corneal keratan sulfate proteoglycan core protein. Protein 37B represents bovine lumican and proteins 37A and 25 are unique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Funderburgh, J. L.; Funderburgh, M. L.; Brown, S. J.; Vergnes, J. P.; Hassell, J. R.; Mann, M. M.; Conrad, G. W.; Spooner, B. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1993-01-01

    Amino acid sequence from tryptic peptides of three different bovine corneal keratan sulfate proteoglycan (KSPG) core proteins (designated 37A, 37B, and 25) showed similarities to the sequence of a chicken KSPG core protein lumican. Bovine lumican cDNA was isolated from a bovine corneal expression library by screening with chicken lumican cDNA. The bovine cDNA codes for a 342-amino acid protein, M(r) 38,712, containing amino acid sequences identified in the 37B KSPG core protein. The bovine lumican is 68% identical to chicken lumican, with an 83% identity excluding the N-terminal 40 amino acids. Location of 6 cysteine and 4 consensus N-glycosylation sites in the bovine sequence were identical to those in chicken lumican. Bovine lumican had about 50% identity to bovine fibromodulin and 20% identity to bovine decorin and biglycan. About two-thirds of the lumican protein consists of a series of 10 amino acid leucine-rich repeats that occur in regions of calculated high beta-hydrophobic moment, suggesting that the leucine-rich repeats contribute to beta-sheet formation in these proteins. Sequences obtained from 37A and 25 core proteins were absent in bovine lumican, thus predicting a unique primary structure and separate mRNA for each of the three bovine KSPG core proteins.

  18. Preparation of Monoclonal Antibodies Against Bovine Haptoglobin

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Caihong; Gu, Cheng; Guo, Donghua; Gao, Jing; Li, Chunqiu; Liu, Na; Geng, Yufei; Su, Mingjun; Wang, Xinyu

    2014-01-01

    Female, 8-week-old BALB/c mice were immunized with purified recombinant proteins of the predicted immunodominant region of bovine haptoglobin (pirBoHp). Two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), named 1B3 and 6D6, were prepared by conventional B lymphocyte hybridoma technique. Titers of ascitic fluid and cell culture supernatant of MAb 1B3 were 1:9.6×108 and 1:8.2×104, respectively, and that of MAb 6D6 were 1:4.4×105 and 1:1.0×104, respectively. The subtype of MAbs 1B3 and 6D6 was IgG1κ. In Western blot analysis, MAbs 1B3 and 6D6 could recognize the α-chain of native BoHp from plasma of dairy cows. These data indicated that MAbs 1B3 and 6D6 have a potential use for developing diagnostic reagents of BoHp. PMID:25358005

  19. Femtosecond laser ablation of bovine cortical bone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cangueiro, Liliana T.; Vilar, Rui; Botelho do Rego, Ana M.; Muralha, Vania S. F.

    2012-12-01

    We study the surface topographical, structural, and compositional modifications induced in bovine cortical bone by femtosecond laser ablation. The tests are performed in air, with a Yb:KYW chirped-pulse-regenerative amplification laser system (500 fs, 1030 nm) at fluences ranging from 0.55 to 2.24 J/cm2. The ablation process is monitored by acoustic emission measurements. The topography of the laser-treated surfaces is studied by scanning electron microscopy, and their constitution is characterized by glancing incidence x-ray diffraction, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The results show that femtosecond laser ablation allows removing bone without melting, carbonization, or cracking. The structure and composition of the remaining tissue are essentially preserved, the only constitutional changes observed being a reduction of the organic material content and a partial recrystallization of hydroxyapatite in the most superficial region of samples. The results suggest that, within this fluence range, ablation occurs by a combination of thermal and electrostatic mechanisms, with the first type of mechanism predominating at lower fluences. The associated thermal effects explain the constitutional changes observed. We show that femtosecond lasers are a promising tool for delicate orthopaedic surgeries, where small amounts of bone must be cut with negligible damage, thus minimizing surgical trauma.

  20. The release of bradykinin in bovine mastitis.

    PubMed

    Eshraghi, H R; Zeitlin, I J; Fitzpatrick, J L; Ternent, H; Logue, D

    1999-01-01

    The kinin peptides are released during inflammation and are amongst the most potent known mediators of vasodilatation, pain and oedema. Despite early reports of the presence of kinins in milk, no previous study has investigated the role of the kinin system in bovine mastitis. The present study indicated that mastitis was accompanied by raised levels of bradykinin (BK) in milk and the increased levels of BK correlated with the severity of mastitis. Raised BK levels in mastitic milk were not dependent on the presence of inflammatory cells, nor were they secondary to changes in blood levels of BK. In milk from sub-clinically inflamed quarters, BK was raised in those milks where Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) was isolated but not in those milks where no pathogen was isolated. Increasing S. aureus artificially, also caused an increase in the milk BK. Increases in milk BK were not restricted only to the mastitic quarters of the udder. In udders in which mastitis was detected in one or more quarters, BK increases were also detected in the apparently uninvolved quarters. PMID:10328527

  1. Insights into the bovine rumen plasmidome

    PubMed Central

    Kav, Aya Brown; Sasson, Goor; Jami, Elie; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Benhar, Itai; Mizrahi, Itzhak

    2012-01-01

    Plasmids are self-replicating genetic elements capable of mobilization between different hosts. Plasmids often serve as mediators of lateral gene transfer, a process considered to be a strong and sculpting evolutionary force in microbial environments. Our aim was to characterize the overall plasmid population in the environment of the bovine rumen, which houses a complex and dense microbiota that holds enormous significance for humans. We developed a procedure for the isolation of total rumen plasmid DNA, termed rumen plasmidome, and subjected it to deep sequencing using the Illumina paired-end protocol and analysis using public and custom-made bioinformatics tools. A large number of plasmidome contigs aligned with plasmids of rumen bacteria isolated from different locations and at various time points, suggesting that not only the bacterial taxa, but also their plasmids, are defined by the ecological niche. The bacterial phylum distribution of the plasmidome was different from that of the rumen bacterial taxa. Nevertheless, both shared a dominance of the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria. Evidently, the rumen plasmidome is of a highly mosaic nature that can cross phyla. Interestingly, when we compared the functional profile of the rumen plasmidome to two plasmid databases and two recently published rumen metagenomes, it became apparent that the rumen plasmidome codes for functions, which are enriched in the rumen ecological niche and could confer advantages to their hosts, suggesting that the functional profiles of mobile genetic elements are associated with their environment, as has been previously implied for viruses. PMID:22431592

  2. Recombinant viral vaccines for enzootic bovine leucosis.

    PubMed

    Daniel, R C; Gatei, M H; Good, M F; Boyle, D B; Lavin, M F

    1993-10-01

    Recently published studies on the development and use of recombinant vaccinia virus (VV) vaccines incorporating either the complete envelope (env) gene or only a fragment of the env gene consisting of the coding sequence for the env glycoprotein 51 (gp51) and part of gp30 of the bovine leukaemia virus (BLV) are described. It has been reported that vaccination of sheep with recombinant VV vaccines containing the complete env gene appears to protect sheep against challenge infection with BLV. The evidence for this protection is based on the lack of persistence of high titres of anti-gp51 antibodies compared with unvaccinated BLV infected controls, on the enhanced CD4 proliferative responses to specific BLV gp51 synthetic peptides in the vaccinated sheep, and on the inability to detect BLV pro-virus by polymerase chain reaction in the vaccinated sheep after 4 months following challenge infection compared with continual detection in unvaccinated sheep over a 16 month trial period. It has been suggested that cell-mediated immune responses may be an important aspect of protective immunity against BLV infection and it has been reported that large tracts of amino acid sequences within the env and pol genes are highly conserved in different isolates from different countries which is of importance in designing peptide derived vaccines. PMID:8270269

  3. [Enzootic bovine leukosis--a retrovirus disease].

    PubMed

    Straub, O C

    1988-01-01

    After a short historical introduction and a description of some of the properties of the bovine leucosis (leukemia) virus (BLV) the natural pathways of transmission, for which most likely intact infected cells are a prerequisite, are described and the role of possible vectors mentioned. The iatrogenic transmission by needles, dehorning and perhaps even rectal examinations is discussed. Semen, embryo transfer, saliva, urine, faeces and breath do obviously not play any role in contrast to nasal secretions containing viable cells. It is pointed out that it is not inevitable to eliminate all seropositive cattle from the premises during an eradication programme provided some additional tests are carried out: determination of the white blood picture, the p 24 status and perhaps even proof of antigen production in short-term buffy coat cultures. Offspring of seropositive cattle requires some special attention and careful testing at certain intervals. The report according to which BVD/MD virus-infected cattle are superinfected with BLV leading to rather difficult situations is cited. PMID:2851883

  4. Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD): a review.

    PubMed

    Nagahata, Hajime

    2004-12-01

    Bovine leukocyte adhesion deficiency (BLAD) in Holstein cattle is an autosomal recessive congenital disease characterized by recurrent bacterial infections, delayed wound healing and stunted growth, and is also associated with persistent marked neutrophilia. The molecular basis of BLAD is a single point mutation (adenine to guanine) at position 383 of the CD18 gene, which caused an aspartic acid to glycine substitution at amino acid 128 (D128G) in the adhesion molecule CD18. Neutrophils from BLAD cattle have impaired expression of the beta2 integrin (CD11a,b,c/CD18) of the leukocyte adhesion molecule. Abnormalities in a wide spectrum of adherence dependent functions of leukocytes have been fully characterized. Cattle affected with BLAD have severe ulcers on oral mucous membranes, severe periodontitis, loss of teeth, chronic pneumonia and recurrent or chronic diarrhea. Affected cattle die at an early age due to the infectious complications. Holstein bulls, including carrier sires that had a mutant BLAD gene in heterozygote were controlled from dairy cattle for a decade. The control of BLAD in Holstein cattle by publishing the genotypes and avoiding the mating between BLAD carriers was found to be successful. This paper provides an overview of the genetic disease BLAD with reference to the disease in Holstein cattle. PMID:15644595

  5. Bioelectrical impedance analysis of bovine milk fat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiga, E. A.; Bertemes-Filho, P.

    2012-12-01

    Three samples of 250ml at home temperature of 20°C were obtained from whole, low fat and fat free bovine UHT milk. They were analysed by measuring both impedance spectra and dc conductivity in order to establish the relationship between samples related to fat content. An impedance measuring system was developed, which is based on digital oscilloscope, a current source and a FPGA. Data was measured by the oscilloscope in the frequency 1 kHz to 100 kHz. It was showed that there is approximately 7.9% difference in the conductivity between whole and low fat milk whereas 15.9% between low fat and free fat one. The change of fatness in the milk can be significantly sensed by both impedance spectra measurements and dc conductivity. This result might be useful for detecting fat content of milk in a very simple way and also may help the development of sensors for measuring milk quality, as for example the detection of mastitis.

  6. Membrane associated phospholipase C from bovine brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.; Ryu, S.H.; Suh, P.; Choi, W.C.; Rhee, S.G.

    1987-05-01

    Cytosolic fractions of bovine brain contain 2 immunologically distinct phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase (PLC), PLC-I and PLC-II, whose MW are 150,000 and 145,000 respectively, under a denaturing condition. Monoclonal antibodies were derived against each form and specific radioimmunoassays were developed. Distribution of PLC-I and PLC-II in cytosolic and particulate fractions was measured using the radioimmunoassay. More than 90% of PLC-II was found in the cytosolic fraction, while the anti-PLC-I antibody cross-reacting protein was distributed nearly equally between the soluble fraction and the 2 M KCl extract of particulate fraction. The PLC enzyme in the particulate fraction was purified to homogeneity, yielding 2 proteins of 140 KDa and 150 KDa when analyzed on SDS-PAGE. Neither of the 2 enzymes cross-reacted with anti-PLC-II antibodies, but both could be immunoblotted by all 4 different anti-PLC-I antibodies. This suggests that the 140 KDa PLC was derived from the 150 KDa form. The 150 Kda form from particulate fraction was indistinguishable from the cytosolic PLC-I when their mixture was analyzed on SDS-PAGE. In addition, the elution profile of tryptic peptides derived from the 150 KDa particulate form was identical to that of cytosolic PLC-I. This result indicates that PLC-I is reversibly associated to membranes.

  7. Complexes of dendrimers with bovine serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Mandeville, J S; Tajmir-Riahi, H A

    2010-02-01

    We report the complexation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) with several dendrimers of different compositions mPEG-PAMAM (G3), mPEG-PAMAM (G4), and PAMAM (G4) at physiological conditions using constant protein concentration and various dendrimer contents. FTIR, CD, and fluorescence spectroscopic methods were used to analyze polymer binding mode, the binding constant, and the effects of dendrimer complexation on BSA stability and conformation. Structural analysis showed that dendrimers bind BSA via hydrophilic and hydrophobic interactions with a number of bound polymers (n): 1.30 for mPEG-PAMAM-G3, 1.30 for mPEG-PAMAM-G4, and 1.0 for PAMAM-G4. The polymer-BSA binding constants were K(mPEG-G3) = 5.0 (+/-0.8) x 10(3) M(-1), K(mPEG-G4) = 1.0 (+/-0.3) x 10(4) M(-1), and K(PAMAM-G4) = 1.1 (+/-0.4) x 10(4) M(-1). Dendrimer binding altered BSA conformation with a major reduction of alpha-helix and an increase in random coil and turn structures, indicating a partial protein unfolding. PMID:20085247

  8. Spatial and temporal epidemiology of bovine trichomoniasis and bovine genital campylobacteriosis in La Pampa province (Argentina).

    PubMed

    Molina, L; Perea, J; Meglia, G; Angón, E; García, A

    2013-07-01

    The venereal diseases bovine trichomoniasis (BT) and bovine genital campylobacteriosis (BCG) cause economic losses in endemic areas like La Pampa province in Argentina, where beef cattle are usually managed extensively. This study used data compiled under a Provincial Programme for the Control and Eradication of BT and BGC (PCE) to determine the spatio-temporal distribution of these diseases and identify spatial clusters. The study population comprised 29,178 non-virgin bulls drawn from 3766 herds, tested for BT and BGC in 2010. Preputial smegma samples were cultured for BT detection, while BGC was diagnosed by direct immunofluorescence testing of these samples. Campylobacter fetus infection was detected in 1.5% of bulls and 2.3% of herds, and Tritrichomonas foetus infection was found in 1.1% of bulls and 5.1% of herds. The proportion of positive tests was highest in February for BT, while in April it was highest for BCG, and was inversely related to the number of tests, which was greatest during the breeding season (spring). An elliptical spatial cluster of high risk for BGC and a circular cluster for BT were both identified in the south of La Pampa province, which could not be explained by cattle herd density. The spatial and temporal patterns identified in this study provide baseline data for monitoring the success of BT and BGC control activities in La Pampa. PMID:23518247

  9. Bovine leucosis virus contamination of a vaccine produced in vivo against bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Rogers, R J; Dimmock, C K; de Vos, A J; Rodwell, B J

    1988-09-01

    Contamination of a batch of tick fever (babesiosis and anaplasmosis) vaccine with bovine leucosis virus (BLV) was detected when a herd, in the final stages of an enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) accreditation program, developed a large number of seropositive cattle following use of tick fever vaccine. Investigations incriminated a single calf used to produce Anaplasma centrale vaccine from which 13,959 doses were distributed. The failure of this calf to give a positive agar gel immunodiffusion (AGID) test before use was not fully explained. A total of 22,627 cattle from 111 herds receiving contaminated vaccine was tested to validate claims for compensation. Results showed infection rates of 62% and 51.8% in vaccinated dairy and beef cattle, respectively, compared with 6.1% and 1.5% in non-vaccinated cattle in the same herds. The results also indicated that infection did not spread from vaccinated to non-vaccinated in-contact cattle. Heavy reliance is now placed on purchase of calves for vaccine production from EBL accredited-free herds and on transmission tests from the calves to sheep to prevent a recurrence of contamination. The need for a BLV antigen detection test, with the sensitivity of the sheep transmission test but simpler and faster to perform, is evident. PMID:2847702

  10. Fraction of bovine leukemia virus-infected dairy cattle developing enzootic bovine leukosis.

    PubMed

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kobayashi, Sota; Hayama, Yoko; Yamamoto, Takehisa

    2016-02-01

    Enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL) is a transmissible disease caused by the bovine leukemia virus that is prevalent in cattle herds in many countries. Only a small fraction of infected animals develops clinical symptoms, such as malignant lymphosarcoma, after a long incubation period. In the present study, we aimed to determine the fraction of EBL-infected dairy cattle that develop lymphosarcoma and the length of the incubation period before clinical symptoms emerge. These parameters were determined by a mathematical modeling approach based on the maximum-likelihood estimation method, using the results of a nationwide serological survey of prevalence in cattle and passive surveillance records. The best-fit distribution to estimate the disease incubation period was determined to be the Weibull distribution, with a median and average incubation period of 7.0 years. The fraction of infected animals developing clinical disease was estimated to be 1.4% with a 95% confidence interval of 1.2-1.6%. The parameters estimated here contribute to an examination of efficient control strategies making quantitative evaluation available. PMID:26754928

  11. Cellular Requirements for Bovine Immunodeficiency Virus Vif-Mediated Inactivation of Bovine APOBEC3 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wenyan; Wang, Hong; Li, Zhaolong; Liu, Xin; Liu, Guanchen; Harris, Reuben S.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) viral infectivity factor (Vif) form a CRL5 E3 ubiquitin ligase complex to suppress virus restriction by host APOBEC3 (A3) proteins. The primate lentiviral Vif complex is composed of the unique cofactor core binding factor β (CBF-β) and canonical ligase components Cullin 5 (CUL5), Elongin B/C (ELOB/C), and RBX2. However, the mechanism by which the Vif protein of the related lentivirus bovine immunodeficiency virus (BIV) overcomes its host A3 proteins is less clear. In this study, we show that BIV Vif interacts with Cullin 2 (CUL2), ELOB/C, and RBX1, but not with CBF-β or CUL5, to form a CRL2 E3 ubiquitin ligase and degrade the restrictive bovine A3 proteins (A3Z2Z3 and A3Z3). RNA interference-mediated knockdown of ELOB or CUL2 inhibited BIV Vif-mediated degradation of these A3 proteins, whereas knockdown of CUL5 or CBF-β did not. BIV Vif with mutations in the BC box (Vif SLQ-AAA) or putative VHL box (Vif YI-AA), which cannot interact with ELOB/C or CUL2, respectively, lost the ability to counteract bovine A3 proteins. Moreover, CUL2 and UBE2M dominant negative mutants competitively inhibited the BIV Vif-mediated degradation mechanism. Thus, although the general strategy for inhibiting A3 proteins is conserved between HIV-1/SIV and BIV, the precise mechanisms can differ substantially, with only the HIV-1/SIV Vif proteins requiring CBF-β as a cofactor, HIV-1/SIV Vif using CUL5-RBX2, and BIV Vif using CUL2-RBX1. IMPORTANCE Primate lentivirus HIV-1 and SIV Vif proteins form a ubiquitin ligase complex to target host antiviral APOBEC3 proteins for degradation. However, the mechanism by which the nonprimate lentivirus BIV Vif inhibits bovine APOBEC3 proteins is unclear. In the present study, we determined the mechanism for BIV Vif-mediated degradation of bovine APOBEC3 proteins and found that it differs from the mechanism of HIV-1/SIV Vif by being CBF-β independent and

  12. Food Safety: Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (Mad Cow Disease).

    PubMed

    Acheson, David W. K.

    2002-01-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy is just one of a group of diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. Only recently has it become recognized that transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are likely due to proteins known as prions. Although it has been recognized that transmissible spongiform encephalopathies may readily spread within species, the recent observations that bovine spongiform encephalopathy in cattle may have originated from another transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in sheep, known as scrapie, is cause for concern. Further, bovine spongiform encephalopathy has now been strongly linked with a universally fatal human neurologic disease known as new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Currently the only approach to preventing bovine spongiform encephalopathy, and subsequent new variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans, from ingestion of bovine spongiform encephalopathy-infected material is to avoid consumption of contaminated food. Little can be done to treat food that will destroy prions and leave a palatable product. At this stage we are continuing to learn about transmissible spongiform encephalopathies and their implications on human health. This is an ever-changing situation and has an unpredictable element in terms of the extent of the current outbreaks in England and other parts of Europe. PMID:11984426

  13. Epidemiology of Bovine Mastitis in Cows of Dharwad District

    PubMed Central

    Kurjogi, Mahantesh M.; Kaliwal, Basappa B.

    2014-01-01

    Bovine mastitis is very common in cows of both developed and developing countries. The prevalence of clinical and subclinical mastitis (SCM) varies from region to region. Hence, the present study was carried out to determine the prevalence of mastitis using three diagnostic tests by considering different risk factors like age, lactation, breed, season, quarters, and herd. The results showed that surf field mastitis test (SFMT) is the most sensitive test for diagnosis of bovine mastitis, the older age and cows with later part of lactation period were more prone to bovine mastitis, and exotic breeds like Holstein freshen (HF) were more susceptible to bovine mastitis. The highest incidence of mastitis was recorded in monsoon season. The prevalence of subclinical and clinical mastitis was more in single and two quarters, respectively, and the rate of bovine mastitis was more in unorganized herds. The study concluded that SCM is directly associated with age, lactation period, and environmental factors of the cow and clinical mastitis is more associated with breed of the cow and environmental conditions. PMID:27382623

  14. Structure of an Enteric Pathogen, Bovine Parvovirus

    PubMed Central

    Kailasan, Shweta; Halder, Sujata; Gurda, Brittney; Bladek, Heather; Chipman, Paul R.; McKenna, Robert; Brown, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bovine parvovirus (BPV), the causative agent of respiratory and gastrointestinal disease in cows, is the type member of the Bocaparvovirus genus of the Parvoviridae family. Toward efforts to obtain a template for the development of vaccines and small-molecule inhibitors for this pathogen, the structure of the BPV capsid, assembled from the major capsid viral protein 2 (VP2), was determined using X-ray crystallography as well as cryo-electron microscopy and three-dimensional image reconstruction (cryo-reconstruction) to 3.2- and 8.8-Å resolutions, respectively. The VP2 region ordered in the crystal structure, from residues 39 to 536, conserves the parvoviral eight-stranded jellyroll motif and an αA helix. The BPV capsid displays common parvovirus features: a channel at and depressions surrounding the 5-fold axes and protrusions surrounding the 3-fold axes. However, rather than a depression centered at the 2-fold axes, a raised surface loop divides this feature in BPV. Additional observed density in the capsid interior in the cryo-reconstructed map, compared to the crystal structure, is interpreted as 10 additional N-terminal residues, residues 29 to 38, that radially extend the channel under the 5-fold axis, as observed for human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1). Surface loops of various lengths and conformations extend from the core jellyroll motif of VP2. These loops confer the unique surface topology of the BPV capsid, making it strikingly different from HBoV1 as well as the type members of other Parvovirinae genera for which structures have been determined. For the type members, regions structurally analogous to those decorating the BPV capsid surface serve as determinants of receptor recognition, tissue and host tropism, pathogenicity, and antigenicity. IMPORTANCE Bovine parvovirus (BPV), identified in the 1960s in diarrheic calves, is the type member of the Bocaparvovirus genus of the nonenveloped, single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) Parvoviridae family. The recent

  15. A Major Gene for Bovine Ovulation Rate

    PubMed Central

    Kirkpatrick, Brian W.; Morris, Chris A.

    2015-01-01

    Half-sib daughters sired by a bull believed to be a carrier of a major gene for high ovulation rate were evaluated for ovulation rate and genotyped in an effort to both test the hypothesis of segregation of a major gene and to map the gene’s location. A total of 131 daughters were produced over four consecutive years at a University of Wisconsin-Madison research farm. All were evaluated for ovulation rate over an average of four estrous cycles using transrectal ultrasonography. The sire and all daughters were genotyped using a 3K SNP chip and the genotype and phenotype data were used in a linkage analysis. Subsequently, daughters recombinant within the QTL region and the sire were genotyped successively with 50K and 777K SNP chips to refine the location of the causative polymorphism. Positional candidate genes within the fine-mapped region were examined for polymorphism by Sanger sequencing of PCR amplicons encompassing coding and 5’ and 3’ flanking regions of the genes. Sire DNA was used as template in the PCR reactions. Strong evidence of a major gene for ovulation rate was observed (p<1x10-28) with the gene localized to bovine chromosome 10. Fine-mapping subsequently reduced the location to a 1.2 Mb region between 13.6 and 14.8 Mb on chromosome 10. The location identified does not correspond to that for any previously identified major gene for ovulation rate. This region contains three candidate genes, SMAD3, SMAD6 and IQCH. While candidate gene screening failed to identify the causative polymorphism, three polymorphisms were identified that can be used as a haplotype to track inheritance of the high ovulation rate allele in descendants of the carrier sire. PMID:26046917

  16. Quantitative Risk Assessment of Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsui, Toshiyuki; Kasuga, Fumiko

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a progressive neurological disease of cattle affecting the central nervous system and was first diagnosed in the United Kingdom (UK) in 1986 (Wells et al., 1987). This disease is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) which includes Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and scrapie in sheep. The causative agent of TSE is considered to be an abnormal form of prion protein. However, the details of its pathogenic mechanism have not been fully identified. Scrapie, which causes neurological symptoms in sheep and goats, has existed in the UK for 200 years (Hoinville, 1996) and spread across the rest of the world in the 1900s (Detwiler & Baylis, 2003). There has been no report so far that scrapie can be transmitted to humans. Initially, BSE was also considered as a disease affecting only animals. However, a variant type of Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) was first reported in the UK, and exposure to a BSE agent was suspected (Collinge, Sidle, Meads, Ironside, & Hill, 1996). vCJD is clinically and pathologically different from the sporadic type of CJD, and age at clinical onset of vCJD is younger than sporadic type (Will et al., 1996). Since the UK government announced the possible association between BSE and vCJD in 1996, BSE has become a huge public health concern all over the world. Of particular concern about vCJD, the fatal disease in younger age, distorted consumer confidence in beef safety, and as a result reduced beef consumption has been seen in many BSE-affected countries.

  17. Morphological classification of bovine ovarian follicles.

    PubMed

    Rodgers, R J; Irving-Rodgers, H F

    2010-02-01

    Follicle classification is an important aid to the understanding of follicular development and atresia. Some bovine primordial follicles have the classical primordial shape, but ellipsoidal shaped follicles with some cuboidal granulosa cells at the poles are far more common. Preantral follicles have one of two basal lamina phenotypes, either a single aligned layer or one with additional layers. In antral follicles <5 mm diameter, half of the healthy follicles have columnar shaped basal granulosa cells and additional layers of basal lamina, which appear as loops in cross section ('loopy'). The remainder have aligned single-layered follicular basal laminas with rounded basal cells, and contain better quality oocytes than the loopy/columnar follicles. In sizes >5 mm, only aligned/rounded phenotypes are present. Dominant and subordinate follicles can be identified by ultrasound and/or histological examination of pairs of ovaries. Atretic follicles <5 mm are either basal atretic or antral atretic, named on the basis of the location in the membrana granulosa where cells die first. Basal atretic follicles have considerable biological differences to antral atretic follicles. In follicles >5 mm, only antral atresia is observed. The concentrations of follicular fluid steroid hormones can be used to classify atresia and distinguish some of the different types of atresia; however, this method is unlikely to identify follicles early in atresia, and hence misclassify them as healthy. Other biochemical and histological methods can be used, but since cell death is a part of normal homoeostatis, deciding when a follicle has entered atresia remains somewhat subjective. PMID:19786400

  18. Dynamics of perinatal bovine leukemia virus infection

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is highly endemic in many countries, including Argentina. As prevention of the spread from infected animals is of primary importance in breaking the cycle of BLV transmission, it is important to know the pathophysiology of BLV infection in young animals, as they are the main source of animal movement. In this work, we determined the proviral load and antibody titers of infected newborn calves from birth to first parturition (36 months). Results All calves under study were born to infected dams with high proviral load (PVL) in blood and high antibody titers and detectable provirus in the colostrum. The PVL for five out of seven calves was low at birth. All animals reached PVLs of more than 1% infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), three at 3 months, one at 6 months, and one at 12 months. High PVLs persisted until the end of the study, and, in two animals, exceeded one BLV copy per cell. Two other calves maintained a high PVL from birth until the end of the study. Antibody titers were 32 or higher in the first sample from six out of seven calves. These decayed at 3–6 months to 16 or lower, and then increased again after this point. Conclusions Calves infected during the first week of life could play an active role in early propagation of BLV to susceptible animals, since their PVL raised up during the first 12 months and persist as high for years. Early elimination could help to prevent transmission to young susceptible animals and to their own offspring. To our knowledge, this is the first study of the kinetics of BLV proviral load and antibody titers in newborn infected calves. PMID:24708791

  19. Prion biology relevant to bovine spongiform encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Novakofski, J; Brewer, M S; Mateus-Pinilla, N; Killefer, J; McCusker, R H

    2005-06-01

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) and chronic wasting disease (CWD) of deer and elk are a threat to agriculture and natural resources, as well as a human health concern. Both diseases are transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), or prion diseases, caused by autocatalytic conversion of endogenously encoded prion protein (PrP) to an abnormal, neurotoxic conformation designated PrPsc. Most mammalian species are susceptible to TSE, which, despite a range of species-linked names, is caused by a single highly conserved protein, with no apparent normal function. In the simplest sense, TSE transmission can occur because PrPsc is resistant to both endogenous and environmental proteinases, although many details remain unclear. Questions about the transmission of TSE are central to practical issues such as livestock testing, access to international livestock markets, and wildlife management strategies, as well as intangible issues such as consumer confidence in the safety of the meat supply. The majority of BSE cases seem to have been transmitted by feed containing meat and bone meal from infected animals. In the United Kingdom, there was a dramatic decrease in BSE cases after neural tissue and, later, all ruminant tissues were banned from ruminant feed. However, probably because of heightened awareness and widespread testing, there is growing evidence that new variants of BSE are arising "spontaneously," suggesting ongoing surveillance will continue to find infected animals. Interspecies transmission is inefficient and depends on exposure, sequence homology, TSE donor strain, genetic polymorphism of the host, and architecture of the visceral nerves if exposure is by an oral route. Considering the low probability of interspecies transmission, the low efficiency of oral transmission, and the low prion levels in nonnervous tissues, consumption of conventional animal products represents minimal risk. However, detection of rare events is challenging, and TSE

  20. Development of a rapid and sensitive polymerase chain reaction assay for detection of bovine herpesvirus type 1 in bovine semen.

    PubMed Central

    van Engelenburg, F A; Maes, R K; van Oirschot, J T; Rijsewijk, F A

    1993-01-01

    We developed a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay to detect bovine herpesvirus type 1 (BHV-1) in bovine semen. Since bovine semen contains components that inhibit PCR amplification, a protocol was developed to purify BHV-1 DNA from bovine semen. To identify failures of PCR amplification, we used an internal control template that was coamplified by the same PCR primers. When separated fractions of BHV-1-contaminated semen were analyzed by the PCR, we found that more than 90% of the BHV-1 DNA was present in a pooled fraction consisting of seminal fluid, nonsperm cells, and virus adsorbed to spermatozoa. By using this fraction, three to five molecules of BHV-1 DNA in 50 microliters of bovine semen could be detected. A pilot study to compare this PCR assay with the routinely used virus isolation method showed that this PCR assay is 2- to 100-fold more sensitive. In addition, the results of the PCR assay are available in 1 day, whereas the virus isolation method takes 7 days. Therefore, the PCR assay may be a good alternative to the virus isolation method. Images PMID:8308103

  1. Dynamic compressive properties of bovine knee layered tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Masahiro; Hino, Yuki; Todo, Mitsugu

    2015-09-01

    In Japan, the most common articular disease is knee osteoarthritis. Among many treatment methodologies, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have recently received a lot of attention. In this field, cells and scaffolds are important, both ex vivo and in vivo. From the viewpoint of effective treatment, in addition to histological features, the compatibility of mechanical properties is also important. In this study, the dynamic and static compressive properties of bovine articular cartilage-cancellous bone layered tissue were measured using a universal testing machine and a split Hopkinson pressure bar method. The compressive behaviors of bovine articular cartilage-cancellous bone layered tissue were examined. The effects of strain rate on the maximum stress and the slope of stress-strain curves of the bovine articular cartilage-cancellous bone layered tissue were discussed.

  2. Immunogenicity of a modified-live virus vaccine against bovine viral diarrhea virus types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine parainfluenza-3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus when administered intranasally in young calves.

    PubMed

    Xue, Wenzhi; Ellis, John; Mattick, Debra; Smith, Linda; Brady, Ryan; Trigo, Emilio

    2010-05-14

    The immunogenicity of an intranasally-administered modified-live virus (MLV) vaccine in 3-8 day old calves was evaluated against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) types 1 and 2, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis (IBR) virus, parainfluenza-3 (PI-3) virus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV). Calves were intranasally vaccinated with a single dose of a multivalent MLV vaccine and were challenged with one of the respective viruses three to four weeks post-vaccination in five separate studies. There was significant sparing of diseases in calves intranasally vaccinated with the MLV vaccine, as indicated by significantly fewer clinical signs, lower rectal temperatures, reduced viral shedding, greater white blood cell and platelet counts, and less severe pulmonary lesions than control animals. This was the first MLV combination vaccine to demonstrate efficacy against BVDV types 1 and 2, IBR, PI-3 and BRSV in calves 3-8 days of age. PMID:20381643

  3. Molecular cloning and expression vector construction of bovine TRIM28.

    PubMed

    Ma, X; Zhai, Z C; Zhang, M L; Song, B H; Zhu, Y R; Yang, S B; Dong, X Q; Su, L Y; Wang, C F; Ma, H X; Luan, W M

    2016-01-01

    The bovine TRIM28 gene was amplified from ovary tissue by using RT-PCR. The TRIM28 gene was inserted into the eukaryotic expression vector pIRES2-EGFP and transfected into bovine fetal fibroblasts by using Lipofectamine 3000. TRIM28 mRNA and protein were detected by fluorescence microscope and western blotting. The results showed that the full length of TRIM28 was cloned and pIRES2-EGFP-TRIM28 was constructed successfully. EGFP expression was observed, and the pIRES2-EGFP-TRIM28 transfected group expressed more TRIM28 protein than that by the pIRES2-EGFP group. The TIMR28 gene has been successfully transferred into bovine fetal fibroblasts. PMID:27420979

  4. Isolation and characterization of four antibacterial peptides from bovine hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Nedjar-Arroume, Naima; Dubois-Delval, Véronique; Miloudi, Khalil; Daoud, Rachid; Krier, François; Kouach, Mostafa; Briand, Gilbert; Guillochon, Didier

    2006-09-01

    Peptic digestion of bovine hemoglobin at low degree of hydrolysis yields several intermediate peptide fractions after separation by reversed phase HPLC exhibiting antibacterial activity against Micrococcus luteus A270, Listeria innocua, Escherichia coli, and Salmonella enteritidis. From these fractions, four new antibacterial peptides were isolated and analyzed by ESI-MS/MS. Three of these peptides correspond to fragments of the alpha-chain of bovine hemoglobin: alpha107-141, alpha137-141, and alpha133-141, and one peptide to the beta-chain: beta126-145. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of these peptides towards the four strains and their hemolytic activity towards bovine erythrocytes were determined. PMID:16730859

  5. Bundling of bovine and brine shrimp (Artemia) microtubules in vitro.

    PubMed

    MacRae, T H

    1984-06-01

    Cell-free extracts from embryos of the brine shrimp (Artemia) induced bundling of bovine microtubules assembled in the presence of glycerol and Mg++. Sedimentation of microtubules through sucrose cushions and subsequent electrophoresis revealed that bundling occurred independently of accessory proteins tightly bound to the microtubules. Bovine microtubules containing microtubule-associated proteins (MAPS) or assembled with taxol did not bundle. The unusual polymerization properties of homogeneous Artemia tubulin, bundling in the absence of added factors and the small number of microtubules assembled in crude embryo extracts upon addition of taxol precluded a complete comparative study of Artemia and bovine microtubule bundling. Interesting properties of the in vitro assembly of Artemia microtubules were, however, elaborated and putative Artemia MAPs were observed as a consequence of the work with brine shrimp embryos. PMID:6744423

  6. Control of Bovine Mastitis: Old and Recent Therapeutic Approaches.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Fernanda; Henriques, Mariana

    2016-04-01

    Mastitis is defined as the inflammatory response resulting of the infection of the udder tissue and it is reported in numerous species, namely in domestic dairy animals. This pathology is the most frequent disease of dairy cattle and can be potentially fatal. Mastitis is an economically important pathology associated with reduced milk production, changes in milk composition and quality, being considered one of the most costly to dairy industry. Therefore, the majority of research in the field has focused on control of bovine mastitis and many efforts are being made for the development of new and effective anti-mastitis drugs. Antibiotic treatment is an established component of mastitis control programs; however, the continuous search for new therapeutic alternatives, effective in the control and treatment of bovine mastitis, is urgent. This review will provide an overview of some conventional and emerging approaches in the management of bovine mastitis' infections. PMID:26687332

  7. Current ante-mortem techniques for diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bezos, Javier; Casal, Carmen; Romero, Beatriz; Schroeder, Bjoern; Hardegger, Roland; Raeber, Alex J; López, Lissette; Rueda, Paloma; Domínguez, Lucas

    2014-10-01

    Bovine tuberculosis (TB), mainly caused by Mycobacterium bovis, is a zoonotic disease with implications for Public Health and having an economic impact due to decreased production and limitations to the trade. Bovine TB is subjected to official eradication campaigns mainly based on a test and slaughter policy using diagnostic assays based on the cell-mediated immune response as the intradermal tuberculin test and the gamma-interferon (IFN-γ) assay. Moreover, several diagnostic assays based on the detection of specific antibodies (Abs) have been developed in the last few years with the aim of complementing the current diagnostic techniques in the near future. This review provides an overview of the current ante-mortem diagnostic tools for diagnosis of bovine TB regarding historical background, methodologies and sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) obtained in previous studies under different epidemiological situations. PMID:24768355

  8. Expression of β-Defensin Genes in Bovine Alveolar Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Lisa K.; Rhodes, Janice; Bhat, Meenakshi; Diamond, Gill

    1998-01-01

    Bovine alveolar macrophages (BAM) were examined for the expression of β-defensins and to determine whether their expression could be upregulated by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), as observed with β-defensins expressed in bovine tracheal epithelial cells. Four β-defensins were expressed constitutively in BAM, with bovine neutrophil β-defensin (BNBD)-4 and BNBD-5 being the most predominant. This is the first evidence of β-defensin gene expression in a mature myeloid cell. LPS had no effect on β-defensin expression in BAM, even though tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production was induced. Nonbacterial inflammatory particles had little effect on β-defensin gene expression or TNF-α production in BAM. We hypothesize that constitutively expressed β-defensins of alveolar macrophages may have a role in lung host defense. PMID:9453661

  9. Sequence analysis of a bovine rhinovirus type 1 strain RS3x

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine rhinoviruses, known to cause clinical and subclinical upper respiratory infections in bovines worldwide, include three serotypes. Bovine rhinovirus (BRV) 1, 2 and 3 were originally classified as tentative members of the genus Rhinovirus (family Picornaviridae), however, in 2008 this genus was...

  10. Identification of genetic variation and putative regulatory regions in bovine CARD15

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Mutations in caspase recruitment domain 15 (CARD15) are associated with susceptibility to Crohn's disease and Blau Syndrome. We performed comparative analyses of the bovine, murine, and human CARD15 transcripts to elucidate functionality of bovine CARD15 and examine its potential role in bovine dise...

  11. 70 FR 18251 - Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Minimal-Risk Regions and Importation of Commodities; Finding of...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2005-04-08

    ... Agriculture Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 93, et al. Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy... Implementing Procedures (7 CFR part 372). Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy; Minimal-Risk Regions and... pointed to the four confirmed cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cows of Canadian...

  12. Construction and validation of a Bovine Innate Immune Microarray

    PubMed Central

    Donaldson, Laurelea; Vuocolo, Tony; Gray, Christian; Strandberg, Ylva; Reverter, Antonio; McWilliam, Sean; Wang, YongHong; Byrne, Keren; Tellam, Ross

    2005-01-01

    Background Microarray transcript profiling has the potential to illuminate the molecular processes that are involved in the responses of cattle to disease challenges. This knowledge may allow the development of strategies that exploit these genes to enhance resistance to disease in an individual or animal population. Results The Bovine Innate Immune Microarray developed in this study consists of 1480 characterised genes identified by literature searches, 31 positive and negative control elements and 5376 cDNAs derived from subtracted and normalised libraries. The cDNA libraries were produced from 'challenged' bovine epithelial and leukocyte cells. The microarray was found to have a limit of detection of 1 pg/μg of total RNA and a mean slide-to-slide correlation co-efficient of 0.88. The profiles of differentially expressed genes from Concanavalin A (ConA) stimulated bovine peripheral blood lymphocytes were determined. Three distinct profiles highlighted 19 genes that were rapidly up-regulated within 30 minutes and returned to basal levels by 24 h; 76 genes that were up-regulated between 2–8 hours and sustained high levels of expression until 24 h and 10 genes that were down-regulated. Quantitative real-time RT-PCR on selected genes was used to confirm the results from the microarray analysis. The results indicate that there is a dynamic process involving gene activation and regulatory mechanisms re-establishing homeostasis in the ConA activated lymphocytes. The Bovine Innate Immune Microarray was also used to determine the cross-species hybridisation capabilities of an ovine PBL sample. Conclusion The Bovine Innate Immune Microarray has been developed which contains a set of well-characterised genes and anonymous cDNAs from a number of different bovine cell types. The microarray can be used to determine the gene expression profiles underlying innate immune responses in cattle and sheep. PMID:16176586

  13. Predictive qualitative risk model of bovine rabies occurrence in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Braga, Guilherme Basseto; Grisi-Filho, José Henrique Hildebrand; Leite, Bruno Meireles; de Sena, Elaine Fátima; Dias, Ricardo Augusto

    2014-03-01

    Bovine rabies remains endemic in Brazil and despite control efforts, the disease still spreads insidiously. The main vector is the hematophagous bat, Desmodus rotundus. The present work aimed to create a predictive qualitative model of the occurrence of bovine rabies in each municipality in 25 of the 27 Brazilian States. The risk of rabies transmission from bats to bovine was estimated using decision-tree models of receptivity and vulnerability. Questionnaires, which covered a number of questions related to the surveillance of possible risk factors, such as bovine rabies outbreaks in the previous year, the presence of bat roosts, bat rabies positivity and environmental changes, were sent to the local veterinary units of each State. The bovine density and geomorphologic features were obtained from national databases and geographic information systems. Of the 433 municipalities presenting bovine rabies outbreaks in 2010, 178 (41.1%) were classified by the model as high risk, 212 (49.0%) were classified as moderate risk, 25 (5.8%) were classified as low risk, whereas the risk was undetermined in 18 municipalities (4.1%). An ROC curve was built to determine if the risk evaluated by the model could adequately discriminate between municipalities with and without rabies occurrence in future years. The risk estimator for the year 2011 was classified as moderately accurate. In the future, these models could allow the targeting of rabies control efforts, with the adoption of control measures directed to the higher risk locations and the optimization of the field veterinary staff deployment throughout the country. Additionally, efforts must be made to encourage continuous surveillance of risk factors. PMID:24433635

  14. The use of fetal bovine serum: ethical or scientific problem?

    PubMed

    Jochems, Carlo E A; van der Valk, Jan B F; Stafleu, Frans R; Baumans, Vera

    2002-01-01

    Fetal bovine serum (FBS) is a common component of animal cell culture media. It is harvested from bovine fetuses taken from pregnant cows during slaughter. FBS is commonly harvested by means of a cardiac puncture without any form of anaesthesia. Fetuses are probably exposed to pain and/or discomfort, so the current practice of fetal blood harvesting is inhumane. Apart from moral concerns, several scientific and technical problems exist with regard to the use of FBS in cell culture. Efforts should be made to reduce the use of FBS or, preferably, to replace it with synthetic alternatives. PMID:11971757

  15. [Culture and control of cells producing bovine leukemia virus].

    PubMed

    Granátová, M

    1987-10-01

    In the field surveys of the occurrence of enzootic bovine leucosis caused by the bovine leucosis virus (BLV), the identification of positive animals is based on the detection of specific antiviral antibodies by serological methods. The reliability of these tests (particularly their sensitivity and specificity) depends on the quality of the virus antigen. The preparation of the antigen is based on the cultivation of BLV virus in cultures of the FLS cell line. A modified procedure of preparing the BLV antigen in the FLS cell culture is described, along with the control of its production by the immunoperoxidase test. PMID:2827363

  16. Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus-Associated Disease in Feedlot Cattle.

    PubMed

    Larson, Robert L

    2015-11-01

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDv) is associated with bovine respiratory disease complex and other diseases of feedlot cattle. Although occasionally a primary pathogen, BVDv's impact on cattle health is through the immunosuppressive effects of the virus and its synergism with other pathogens. The simple presence or absence of BVDv does not result in consistent health outcomes because BVDv is only one of many risk factors that contribute to disease syndromes. Current interventions have limitations and the optimum strategy for their uses to limit the health, production, and economic costs associated with BVDv have to be carefully considered for optimum cost-effectiveness. PMID:26210765

  17. Design and Construction of Chimeric VP8-S2 Antigen for Bovine Rotavirus and Bovine Coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    Nasiri, Khadijeh; Nassiri, Mohammadreza; Tahmoorespur, Mojtaba; Haghparast, Alireza; Zibaee, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Bovine Rotavirus and Bovine Coronavirus are the most important causes of diarrhea in newborn calves and in some other species such as pigs and sheep. Rotavirus VP8 subunit is the major determinant of the viral infectivity and neutralization. Spike glycoprotein of coronavirus is responsible for induction of neutralizing antibody response. Methods: In the present study, several prediction programs were used to predict B and T-cells epitopes, secondary and tertiary structures, antigenicity ability and enzymatic degradation sites. Finally, a chimeric antigen was designed using computational techniques. The chimeric VP8-S2 antigen was constructed. It was cloned and sub-cloned into pGH and pET32a(+) expression vector. The recombinant pET32a(+)-VP8-S2 vector was transferred into E.oli BL21CodonPlus (DE3) as expression host. The recombinant VP8-S2 protein was purified by Ni-NTA chromatography column. Results: The results of colony PCR, enzyme digestion and sequencing showed that the VP8-S2 chimeric antigen has been successfully cloned and sub-cloned into pGH and pET32a(+).The results showed that E.coli was able to express VP8-S2 protein appropriately. This protein was expressed by induction of IPTG at concentration of 1mM and it was confirmed by Ni–NTA column, dot-blotting analysis and SDS-PAGE electrophoresis. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that E.coli can be used as an appropriate host to produce the recombinant VP8-S2 protein. This recombinant protein may be suitable to investigate to produce immunoglobulin, recombinant vaccine and diagnostic kit in future studies after it passes biological activity tests in vivo in animal model and or other suitable procedure. PMID:27123423

  18. Microarray chip based identification of a mixed infection of bovine herpesvirus 1 and bovine viral diarrhea 2 from Indian cattle.

    PubMed

    Ratta, Barkha; Yadav, Brijesh Singh; Pokhriyal, Mayank; Saxena, Meeta; Sharma, Bhaskar

    2014-01-01

    Bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV1) and bovine viral diarrhea virus 2 (BVD2) are endemic in India although no mixed infection with these viruses has been reported from India. We report first mixed infection of these viruses in cattle during routine screening with a microarray chip. 62 of the 69 probes of BHV1 and 42 of the 57 BVD2 probes in the chip gave positive signals for the virus. The virus infections were subsequently confirmed by RT-PCR. We also discuss the implications of these findings. PMID:24026447

  19. Delayed-onset enzootic bovine leukosis possibly caused by superinfection with bovine leukemia virus mutated in the pol gene.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Tadaaki; Inoue, Emi; Mori, Hiroshi; Osawa, Yoshiaki; Okazaki, Katsunori

    2015-08-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) is the causative agent of enzootic bovine leucosis (EBL), to which animals are most susceptible at 4-8 years of age. In this study, we examined tumor cells associated with EBL in an 18-year-old cow to reveal that the cells carried at least two different copies of the virus, one of which was predicted to encode a reverse transcriptase (RT) lacking ribonuclease H activity and no integrase. Such a deficient enzyme may exhibit a dominant negative effect on the wild-type RT and cause insufficient viral replication, resulting in delayed tumor development in this cow. PMID:26025155

  20. Bovine spongiform encephalopathy in Sweden: an H-type variant

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) had never been detected in Sweden until 2006, when the active surveillance identified a case in a 12-year-old cow. The case was an unusual form since several molecular features of the protease-resistant prion protein (PrP**res) were different from classical BSE...

  1. Activation of bovine oocytes penetrated after germinal vesicle breakdown.

    PubMed

    Abeydeera, L R; Okuda, K; Niwa, K

    1994-11-01

    The present study was designed to examine the ability of bovine oocytes, after germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD), to be activated by sperm penetration and the sequence of sperm nuclear transformation. Bovine oocytes cultured for 8 h in maturation medium (tissue culture medium TCM-199 containing 10% fetal calf serum) were inseminated in Brackett and Oliphant's medium supplemented with bovine serum albumin (10 mg/ml), caffeine (5 mM) and heparin (10 micrograms/ml). When oocytes were transferred to the maturation medium 8 h after insemination and additionally cultured for 5-40 h at 39 degrees C in 5% CO2 in air, 71-76% of oocytes were penetrated and polyspermy (67-75%) was common. The proportions of penetrated oocytes that were activated significantly increased with the lapse of the additional culture time, reaching 88% and 87% by 25 and 40 h after additional culture, respectively. When compared with unpenetrated oocytes, significantly higher proportions of penetrated oocytes reached metaphase II or beyond 15 and 25 h after additional culture. After penetration, sperm nuclei were transformed into metaphase chromosomes and then to telophase chromosomes before the formation of male pronuclei. These results provide evidence that bovine oocytes acquire the ability to respond to sperm-mediated activation soon after GVBD. PMID:8665157

  2. Bovine colostrum against gut inflammatory lesions in preterm pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine colostrum is rich in bioactive factors and may prevent necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) in pre-term neonates. We hypothesized that both native and sterilized, heat-treated colostrum protect neonates against NEC following preterm birth and formula feeding. Further, we aimed to investigate if pr...

  3. Association of a bovine prion gene haplotype with atypical BSE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), also known as prion diseases, are a class of fatal neurodegenerative disorders that occur in humans, ruminants, cats, and mink. Three distinct TSEs afflict cattle: classical bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), atypical H-type BSE, and atypical ...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101... liver) (CAS Reg. No. 81457-95-6) is an enzyme preparation obtained from extracts of bovine liver. It is a partially purified liquid or powder. Its characterizing enzyme activity is catalase (EC...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101... liver) (CAS Reg. No. 81457-95-6) is an enzyme preparation obtained from extracts of bovine liver. It is a partially purified liquid or powder. Its characterizing enzyme activity is catalase (EC...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101... liver) (CAS Reg. No. 81457-95-6) is an enzyme preparation obtained from extracts of bovine liver. It is a partially purified liquid or powder. Its characterizing enzyme activity is catalase (EC...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1034 - Catalase (bovine liver).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    .... 110, which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies... enzyme preparation obtained from extracts of bovine liver. It is a partially purified liquid or powder. Its characterizing enzyme activity is catalase (EC 1.11.1.6). (b) The ingredient meets the...

  8. Bovine plasma proteins increase virulence of Haemophilus somnus in mice.

    PubMed

    Geertsema, Roger S; Kimball, Richard A; Corbeil, Lynette B

    2007-01-01

    The role of bovine serum or plasma proteins in Haemophilus somnus virulence was investigated in a mouse model of septicemia. An increase in virulence was detected when the organism was pre-incubated for 5 min and inoculated with fetal calf serum. When purified bovine serum or plasma proteins were pre-incubated with H. somnus before inoculating into mice, transferrin was found to increase virulence. Bovine lactoferrin was also noted to increase virulence, but to a lesser extent and had a delayed time course when compared with transferrin. Using an ELISA assay, an increased amount of H. somnus whole cells and culture supernatant bound to bovine transferrin when the organism was grown in iron-restricted media. Lactoferrin also bound to H. somnus, but binding was not affected by growth in iron-restricted media and it was eliminated with 2M NaCl, which reversed charge mediated binding. Transferrin, but not lactoferrin, supported growth of H. somnus on iron-depleted agar based media using a disk assay. Therefore, lactoferrin increased virulence by an undetermined mechanism whereas transferrin increased virulence of H. somnus by binding to iron-regulated outer-membrane proteins (IROMPs) and providing iron to the pathogen. PMID:17125964

  9. Genomics of bovine respiratory disease complex at USMARC

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selection for genetic resistance/resilience bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) would significantly increase the efficiency of beef production in the U.S. through decreased treatment costs, productivity, and death loss. Unfortunately, selection for resistance to BRDC is challenging to implemen...

  10. Production of Bioactive Recombinant Bovine Chymosin in Tobacco Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Zheng-Yi; Zhang, Yu-Ying; Wang, Yun-Peng; Fan, Ming-Xia; Zhong, Xiao-Fang; Xu, Nuo; Lin, Feng; Xing, Shao-Chen

    2016-01-01

    Chymosin (also known as rennin) plays an essential role in the coagulation of milk in the cheese industry. Chymosin is traditionally extracted from the rumen of calves and is of high cost. Here, we present an alternative method to producing bovine chymosin from transgenic tobacco plants. The CYM gene, which encodes a preprochymosin from bovine, was introduced into the tobacco nuclear genome under control of the viral 35S cauliflower mosaic promoter. The integration and transcription of the foreign gene were confirmed with Southern blotting and reverse transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analyses, respectively. Immunoblotting analyses were performed to demonstrate expression of chymosin, and the expression level was quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The results indicated recombinant bovine chymosin was successfully expressed at an average level of 83.5 ng/g fresh weight, which is 0.52% of the total soluble protein. The tobacco-derived chymosin exhibited similar native milk coagulation bioactivity as the commercial product extracted from bovine rumen. PMID:27136529

  11. Bovine viral diarrhea virus: characteristics of the virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews the history of research on bovine viral diarrhea viruses (BVDV) from their discovery in the 1940's to the design of current BVDV eradication programs. The physiochemical characteristics of BVDV are discussed and well as classification of BVDV into biotypes and genotypes. The trans...

  12. Pathogen reduction in minimally managed composting of bovine manure

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Persistence of pathogenic bacteria such as E. coli O157:H7, Salmonella spp., and Listeria monocytogenes in bovine feces and contaminated soils is an important risk factor in perpetuating the initial infection as well as re-infection of cattle and dissemination of pathogens throughout agricultural la...

  13. Genetic relationships of the Portuguese Lidia bovine populations

    PubMed Central

    Correia, P; Baron, E; da Silva, J. M; Cortés, O

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the genetic relationships among the Lidia breed lineages and two main Portuguese Lidia bovine populations, Casta Portuguesa and Brava dos Açores, 24 autosomal microsatellites were analyzed in 120 samples. Brava dos Açores showed the highest observed and expected heterozygosity (0.73 and 0.70, respectively) while Casta Portuguesa showed the lowest observed and expected heterozygosity (0.51 and 0.50, respectively). The results of this study were compared with the previous microsatellites data from the main Lidia bovine lineages. Casta Portuguesa was the most genetically isolated Lidia bovine population as revealed by the average FST genetic distance value with respect to the other lineages (32%). All the populations of Portuguese Lidia had negative FIS values. The Neighbour-joining dendrogram grouped Casta Portuguesa in the same branch with Miura, which was supported by the STRUCTURE software. The results evidenced low levels of genetic diversity and high levels of genetic differentiation in Casta Portuguesa and high levels of genetic diversity in Brava dos Açores populations, probably due to the crossbreeding of different bovine lineages at origin, and genetic flow among herds. PMID:27175132

  14. Bovine colostrum immunoglobulin concentrate for cryptosporidiosis in AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Shield, J; Melville, C; Novelli, V; Anderson, G; Scheimberg, I; Gibb, D; Milla, P

    1993-01-01

    Lactobin-R is a commercial hyperimmune bovine colostrum with potent anticryptosporidial activity. It was administered to a 4 year old child with AIDS and severe diarrhoea associated with cryptosporidiosis. There was significant clinical improvement in the diarrhoea and permanent elimination of the parasite from the gut as assessed through serial jejunal biopsy and stool specimens. Images PMID:8259880

  15. Control of declared origin of bovine serum, a pilot study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horacek, M.; Papesch, W.

    2009-04-01

    Bovine serum is the essential culture medium for cell cultures. Therefore it is highly demanded and the quality of the serum, e.g.: absence of bacteria, viruses certain antibodies, etc.., are important criteria. as some cattle diseases are endemic in certain regions, the origin of bovine serum is an important quality measure for its value. Thus the need to control the declared origins is present. Bovine serum was measured for d2H, d13C, d15N and d34S of proteine (dry residue) and d2H and d18O of the serum water. The hydrogen and oxygen are mainly depending by the isotopic composition of the water ingested by the cattle, and thus usually influenced by the isotopic signal of the precipitation. The carbon isotope signal is reflecting the diet of the cattle, whether it mainly feed on C3- or C4-plants. The nitrogen and sulphur isotope ratio is transferred from the ground/soil into the plant material and into the animal tissue, with some offset for nitrogen and without any significant offset for sulphur. Bovine serum samples from Canada, USA, Mexico, Brazil, Australia and New Zealand have been analysed. Due to the variations in the environmental conditions in different countries and regions which influence the isotope signatures of the serum samples it is possible to discriminate samples of different origin. Main discriminating parameters are d2H and d18O, d13C and d34S.

  16. Is there a genetic solution to bovine respiratory disease complex?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC) is a complex multi-factor disease, which increases costs and reduces revenue from feedlot cattle. Multiple stressors and pathogens (viral and bacterial) have been implicated in the etiology of BRDC, therefore multiple approaches will be needed to evaluate a...

  17. Typical and atypical cases of bovine spongiform encephalopathy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cattle, first detected in 1986 in the United Kingdom and subsequently in other countries. It is the most likely cause of variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans, but the origin of BSE has not been eluci...

  18. Control of Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus in Ruminants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This document is a consensus statement, produced at the request of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine that reflects the opinion of an expert panel regarding the prevalence and host range, clinical manifestations, and the potential for ultimate eradication of bovine viral diarrhea v...

  19. Effect of Ergot Alkaloids on Bovine Foregut Vasculature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids induce vasoconstriction of bovine foregut vasculature. Ergovaline induced the greatest response in ruminal artery while ergovaline and ergotamine induced the greatest response in ruminal vein. Lysergic acid did not stimulate a contractile response in either the ruminal artery or vein...

  20. Effects of Ergot Alkaloids on Bovine Sperm Motility In Vitro

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ergot alkaloids are synthesized by endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum (Schreb.) S.J. Darbyshire). Our objective was to determine direct effects of ergot alkaloids (ergotamine, dihydroergotamine and ergonovine) on the motility of bovine spermatozoa in vit...