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Sample records for acer rubrum red

  1. Red maple (Acer rubrum) inhibits feeding by beaver (Castor canadensis).

    PubMed

    Müller-Schwarze, D; Schulte, B A; Sun, L; Müller-Schwarze, A; Müller-Schwarze, C

    1994-08-01

    At many beaver (Castor canadensis) sites at Allegany State Park in New York State, red maple (Acer rubrum) is the only or one of the few tree species left standing at the ponds' edges. The relative palatability of red maple (RM) was studied in three ways. (1) At seven beaver sites, the available and utilized trees were recorded and an electivity index (E) computed. Of 15 tree species, RM ranked second or fourth lowest. (2) In experiment I, RM, sugar maple (A. saccharum, SM), and quaking aspen (Populus tremuloides) logs were presented cafeteria style at 10 colonies. RM was the least preferred. (3) Bark of RM was extracted with solvents. Aspen logs were painted (experiment II) or soaked (experiment III) with this RM extract and presented to beaver cafeteria-style, along with aspen and RM controls. This treatment rendered aspen logs less palatable, indicating that a chemical factor had been transferred.

  2. Identification of protoxins and a microbial basis for red maple (Acer rubrum) toxicosis in equines.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Karan; Ebel, Joseph G; Altier, Craig; Bischoff, Karyn

    2013-01-01

    The leaves of Acer rubrum (red maple), especially when wilted in the fall, cause severe oxidative damage to equine erythrocytes, leading to potentially fatal methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia. Gallic acid and tannins from A. rubrum leaves have been implicated as the toxic compounds responsible for red maple toxicosis, but the mechanism of action and toxic principle(s) have not been elucidated to date. In order to investigate further how red maple toxicosis occurs, aqueous solutions of gallic acid, tannic acid, and ground dried A. rubrum leaves were incubated with contents of equine ileum, jejunum, cecum, colon, and liver, and then analyzed for the metabolite pyrogallol, as pyrogallol is a more potent oxidizing agent. Gallic acid was observed to be metabolized to pyrogallol maximally in equine ileum contents in the first 24 hr. Incubation of tannic acid and A. rubrum leaves, individually with ileum contents, produced gallic acid and, subsequently, pyrogallol. Ileum suspensions, when passed through a filter to exclude microbes but not enzymes, formed no pyrogallol, suggesting a microbial basis to the pathway. Bacteria isolated from ileum capable of pyrogallol formation were identified as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Enterobacter cloacae. Therefore, gallotannins and free gallic acid are present in A. rubrum leaves and can be metabolized by K. pneumoniae and E. cloacae found in the equine ileum to form pyrogallol either directly or through a gallic acid intermediate (gallotannins). Identification of these compounds and their physiological effects is necessary for the development of effective treatments for red maple toxicosis in equines.

  3. Red Maple (Acer rubrum) Aerial Parts as a Source of Bioactive Phenolics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Ma, Hang; Yuan, Tao; Seeram, Navindra P

    2015-08-01

    The bark and stems of red maple (Acer rubrum) are reported to contain bioactive phenolics but its aerial parts, namely, flowers and leaves, remain largely unexplored. This is unfortunate considering that various parts of the red maple were used for traditional medicinal purposes by the indigenous peoples of eastern North America, where this species is found. Herein, we report the identification of twenty-five (1-25) phenolics, including two new galloyl derivatives (1 and 2), from red maple flowers and leaves. Of these, ten compounds (1-10), including the new compounds, were isolated and identified by NMR and HRESIMS data while the remaining fifteen compounds (11-25) were identified by HPLC-DAD analyses (by comparison with chemical standards). The isolates (1-10), along with the clinical drug, acarbose, were evaluated for their alpha-glucosidase enzyme inhibitory activities.

  4. Maplexins, new α-glucosidase inhibitors from red maple (Acer rubrum) stems.

    PubMed

    Wan, Chunpeng; Yuan, Tao; Li, Liya; Kandhi, Vamsikrishna; Cech, Nadja B; Xie, Mingyong; Seeram, Navindra P

    2012-01-01

    Thirteen gallic acid derivatives including five new gallotannins, named maplexins A-E, were isolated from red maple (Acer rubrum) stems. The compounds were identified by spectral analyses. The maplexins varied in number and location of galloyl groups attached to 1,5-anhydro-d-glucitol. The isolates were evaluated for α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Maplexin E, the first compound identified with three galloyl groups linked to three different positions of 1,5-anhydro-d-glucitol, was 20 fold more potent than the α-glucosidase inhibitory drug, Acarbose (IC(50)=8 vs 160 μM). Structure-activity related studies suggested that both number and position of galloyls attached to 1,5-anhydro-d-glucitol were important for α-glucosidase inhibition.

  5. Early Autumn Senescence in Red Maple (Acer rubrum L.) Is Associated with High Leaf Anthocyanin Content

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Rachel; Ryser, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Several theories exist about the role of anthocyanins in senescing leaves. To elucidate factors contributing to variation in autumn leaf anthocyanin contents among individual trees, we analysed anthocyanins and other leaf traits in 27 individuals of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) over two growing seasons in the context of timing of leaf senescence. Red maple usually turns bright red in the autumn, but there is considerable variation among the trees. Leaf autumn anthocyanin contents were consistent between the two years of investigation. Autumn anthocyanin content strongly correlated with degree of chlorophyll degradation mid to late September, early senescing leaves having the highest concentrations of anthocyanins. It also correlated positively with leaf summer chlorophyll content and dry matter content, and negatively with specific leaf area. Time of leaf senescence and anthocyanin contents correlated with soil pH and with canopy openness. We conclude that the importance of anthocyanins in protection of leaf processes during senescence depends on the time of senescence. Rather than prolonging the growing season by enabling a delayed senescence, autumn anthocyanins in red maple in Ontario are important when senescence happens early, possibly due to the higher irradiance and greater danger of oxidative damage early in the season. PMID:27135339

  6. Early Autumn Senescence in Red Maple (Acer rubrum L.) Is Associated with High Leaf Anthocyanin Content.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Rachel; Ryser, Peter

    2015-08-05

    Several theories exist about the role of anthocyanins in senescing leaves. To elucidate factors contributing to variation in autumn leaf anthocyanin contents among individual trees, we analysed anthocyanins and other leaf traits in 27 individuals of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) over two growing seasons in the context of timing of leaf senescence. Red maple usually turns bright red in the autumn, but there is considerable variation among the trees. Leaf autumn anthocyanin contents were consistent between the two years of investigation. Autumn anthocyanin content strongly correlated with degree of chlorophyll degradation mid to late September, early senescing leaves having the highest concentrations of anthocyanins. It also correlated positively with leaf summer chlorophyll content and dry matter content, and negatively with specific leaf area. Time of leaf senescence and anthocyanin contents correlated with soil pH and with canopy openness. We conclude that the importance of anthocyanins in protection of leaf processes during senescence depends on the time of senescence. Rather than prolonging the growing season by enabling a delayed senescence, autumn anthocyanins in red maple in Ontario are important when senescence happens early, possibly due to the higher irradiance and greater danger of oxidative damage early in the season.

  7. Polyphenol contents and radical scavenging capacities of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) extracts.

    PubMed

    Royer, Mariana; Diouf, Papa Niokhor; Stevanovic, Tatjana

    2011-09-01

    The crude ethanol and water extracts of different red maple (Acer rubrum L.) tissues: whole branches (WB), wood of branches (BW), bark of branches (BB), stem bark (SB) and whole twigs (T), were examined in order to determine their phenolic contents as well as their radical scavenging capacities. The total phenols (TP), total extractable tanins (TET) and non-precipitable phenols (NPP), were determined by combination of spectrophotometric and precipitation methods, while total flavonoids, hydroxy cinanmic acids and proanthocyanidins were determined spectrophotometrically. The radical scavenging activities of the extracts were determined against five reactive oxygen species (ROS): superoxide anion (O(2)(·-)), hydroxyl radical (HO(·)), peroxyl radical (ROO(·)), hypochlorite ion (ClO(-)), and hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) and one reactive nitrogen species (RNS): nitric oxide (NO). The extracts of stem bark were significantly more efficient (exhibiting the highest antioxidant efficiencies, AE) than the other studied extracts against all ROS (at p<0.05, Duncan statistical tests), except against NO. The correlation coefficients determined between total phenolic (TP) content and antiradical efficiencies were R(2)=0.12 for O(2)(·-); R(2)=0.29 for HO(·); R(2)=0.40 for H(2)O(2); R(2)=0.86 for ROO(·); R(2)=0.03 for NO(·) and R(2)=0.73 for ClO(-). Our results indicate potential utilisation of extracts as natural antioxidants.

  8. Effects of combined drought and heavy metal stresses on xylem structure and hydraulic conductivity in red maple (Acer rubrum L.).

    PubMed

    de Silva, Nayana Dilini Gardiyehewa; Cholewa, Ewa; Ryser, Peter

    2012-10-01

    The effects of heavy metal stress, drought stress, and their combination on xylem structure in red maple (Acer rubrum) seedlings were investigated in an outdoor pot experiment. As metal-contaminated substrate, a mixture of 1.5% slag with sand was used, with Ni, Cu, Co, and Cr as the main contaminants. Plants grown on contaminated substrate had increased leaf metal concentrations. The two stresses reduced plant growth in an additive manner. The effects of metal and drought stresses on xylem characteristics were similar to each other, with a reduced proportion of xylem tissue, reduced conduit density in stems, and reduced conduit size in the roots. This resulted, in both stems and roots, in reductions in hydraulic conductance, xylem-specific conductivity, and leaf-specific conductivity. The similarity of the responses to the two stresses suggests that the plants' response to metals was actually a drought response, probably due to the reduced water uptake capacity of the metal-exposed roots. The only plant responses specific to metal stress were decreasing trends of stomatal density and chlorophyll content. In conclusion, the exposure to metals aggravates water stress in an additive manner, making the plants more vulnerable to drought.

  9. Cytotoxicity and structure activity relationship studies of maplexins A-I, gallotannins from red maple (Acer rubrum).

    PubMed

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Yuan, Tao; Seeram, Navindra P

    2012-05-01

    Maplexins A-I are a series of structurally related gallotannins recently isolated from the red maple (Acer rubrum) species. They differ in number and location of galloyl derivatives attached to 1,5-anhydro-glucitol. Here, maplexins A-I were evaluated for anticancer effects against human tumorigenic (colon, HCT-116; breast, MCF-7) and non-tumorigenic (colon, CCD-18Co) cell lines. The maplexins which contained two (maplexins C-D) or three (maplexins E-I) galloyl derivatives each, inhibited cancer cell growth while those with only one galloyl group (maplexins A-B) did not. Moreover, maplexins C-D showed greater antiproliferative effects than maplexins E-I (IC(50)=59.8-67.9 and 95.5-108.5 μM vs. 73.7-165.2 and 115.5-182.5 μM against HCT-116 and MCF-7 cells, respectively). Notably, the cancer cells were up to 2.5-fold more sensitive to the maplexins than the normal cells. In further mechanistic studies, maplexins C-D (at 75 μM concentrations) induced apoptosis and arrested cell cycle (in the S-phase) of the cancer cells. These results suggest that the number of galloyl groups attached to the 1,5-anhydro-glucitol moiety in these gallotannins are important for antiproliferative activity. Also, this is the first in vitro anticancer study of maplexins.

  10. Molecular analysis of red maple (Acer rubrum) populations from a reclaimed mining region in Northern Ontario (Canada): soil metal accumulation and translocation in plants.

    PubMed

    Kalubi, K N; Mehes-Smith, M; Narendrula, R; Michael, P; Omri, A

    2015-04-01

    Red maple (Acer rubrum) species is one of the most widespread deciduous (hardwood) trees of eastern North America. It is among the dominant tree species in the Northern Ontario after land reclamation. To date, the effects of heavy metal contamination from the mining activities on terrestrial ecosystems are not well understood. The main objectives of the present study are (1) to determine the level of phytoavailable metal in soil and accumulation in A. rubrum, and (2) to compare the levels of genetic variation among and within A. rubrum populations from areas with different metal contents in a Northern Ontario region. The total heavy metal levels were found to be high but the availability of these metals were much lower. We found that red maple does not accumulate heavy metals in their leaves as other hardwood species. The translocation factors were 0.05, 0.21, 0.38, 0.90, and 2.8 for Cu, Ni, Fe, Zn, and Mg, respectively. The levels of genetic variation in red maple populations from reclaimed lands in Northern Ontario were moderate to high since the percentage of polymorphic loci varied between 51 and 67%. The mean values for observed number of alleles (Na), effective number of alleles (Ne), Nei's gene diversity (h), and Shannon's information index (I) were 1.60, 1.24, 0.15 and 0.24, respectively. The population differentiation (GST) among the fragmented populations was high (0.28) despite a high level of gene flow (Nm = 1.28). Nevertheless, all the populations within the targeted region were genetically closely related. A specific ISSR marker that was identified in all the samples from the reference sites was absent in most samples from metal contaminated. This specific band was cloned and sequenced. Overall, the present study confirms that red maple populations in Northern Ontario are genetically sustainable despite the high level of total metal content in soil.

  11. Determination of DNA methylation associated with Acer rubrum (red maple) adaptation to metals: analysis of global DNA modifications and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nam-Soo; Im, Min-Ji; Nkongolo, Kabwe

    2016-08-01

    Red maple (Acer rubum), a common deciduous tree species in Northern Ontario, has shown resistance to soil metal contamination. Previous reports have indicated that this plant does not accumulate metals in its tissue. However, low level of nickel and copper corresponding to the bioavailable levels in contaminated soils in Northern Ontario causes severe physiological damages. No differentiation between metal-contaminated and uncontaminated populations has been reported based on genetic analyses. The main objective of this study was to assess whether DNA methylation is involved in A. rubrum adaptation to soil metal contamination. Global cytosine and methylation-sensitive amplified polymorphism (MSAP) analyses were carried out in A. rubrum populations from metal-contaminated and uncontaminated sites. The global modified cytosine ratios in genomic DNA revealed a significant decrease in cytosine methylation in genotypes from a metal-contaminated site compared to uncontaminated populations. Other genotypes from a different metal-contaminated site within the same region appear to be recalcitrant to metal-induced DNA alterations even ≥30 years of tree life exposure to nickel and copper. MSAP analysis showed a high level of polymorphisms in both uncontaminated (77%) and metal-contaminated (72%) populations. Overall, 205 CCGG loci were identified in which 127 were methylated in either outer or inner cytosine. No differentiation among populations was established based on several genetic parameters tested. The variations for nonmethylated and methylated loci were compared by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA). For methylated loci, molecular variance among and within populations was 1.5% and 13.2%, respectively. These values were low (0.6% for among populations and 5.8% for within populations) for unmethylated loci. Metal contamination is seen to affect methylation of cytosine residues in CCGG motifs in the A. rubrum populations that were analyzed.

  12. Ethyl m-digallate from red maple, Acer rubrum L., as the major resistance factor to forest tent caterpillar, Malacosoma disstria Hbn.

    PubMed

    Abou-Zaid, M M; Helson, B V; Nozzolillo, C; Arnason, J T

    2001-12-01

    An ethanolic extract of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) leaves (RME) applied to trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) leaves reduced feeding in choice test assays with forest tent caterpillar larvae (Malacosoma disstria Hbn.) (FTC), whereas a trembling aspen foliage extract, similarly applied, stimulated feeding. Compounds isolated from the RME were gallic acid, methyl gallate, ethyl gallate, m-digallate, ethyl m-digallate, 1-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose, 1-O-galloyl-alpha-L-rhamnose, kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-glucoside, kaempferol 3-O-beta-D-galactoside, kaempferol 3-O-beta-L-rhamnoside, kaempferol-3-O-rhamnoglucoside, quercetin 3-O-beta-D-glucoside, quercetin 3-O-beta-L-rhamnoside and quercetin 3-O-rhamnoglucoside, (-)-epicatechin. (+)-catechin and ellagic acid. All of the gallates, (-)-epicatechin, and kaempferol 3-O-beta-L-rhamnoside deterred feeding on trembling aspen leaf disks when applied at 0.28 mg/cm2. The two digallates deterred feeding by 90% and were the most effective. HPLC analysis indicated that ethyl m-digallate is present in amounts 10-100 x higher in RME (approximately 2.5-250 mg/g) than any other compound. Thus, ethyl m-digallate appears to be the major compound protecting red maple from feeding by FTC, with a minor contribution from other gallates.

  13. Metal resistance in populations of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and white birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.) from a metal-contaminated region and neighbouring non-contaminated regions.

    PubMed

    Kirkey, Fallon M; Matthews, Jennifer; Ryser, Peter

    2012-05-01

    Metal resistance in populations of Acer rubrum and Betula papyrifera in the industrially contaminated region of Sudbury, Ontario, was compared with resistance in populations from neighbouring uncontaminated regions. In two one-season experiments, seedlings were grown outdoors on contaminated (mainly Cu, Ni) and uncontaminated substrates. Sudbury populations of both species responded less to contamination than populations from uncontaminated regions. In A. rubrum this difference was small. For both species, Sudbury plants were smaller when grown on uncontaminated substrate. B. papyrifera from Sudbury grew better on contaminated substrate than the other populations. There is indication of variation in metal resistance within the populations from the non-contaminated regions. The data shows that trees may develop adaptive resistance to heavy metals, but the low degree of resistance indicates that the development of such resistances are slower than observed for herbaceous species with shorter generation times.

  14. Altered Acer Rubrum Fecundity Induced By Chemical Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deforest, J. L.; Peters, A.

    2014-12-01

    Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) is becoming the most dominating tree in North American eastern deciduous forests. Concurrently, human activities have altered the chemical climate of terrestrial ecosystems via acidic deposition, which increases the available of nitrogen (N), while decreasing phosphorus (P) availability. Once a minor forest component prior to European settlement, the abundance of red maple may be a symptom of the modern age. The current paradigm explaining red maple's rise to prominence concerns fire suppression that excludes competitors. However, this still does not explain why red maple is unique compared to other functionally similar trees. The objective of this study was to investigate the interactive influence of acid rain mitigation on the fecundity of red maple. Objectives were achieved by measuring flowering, seed production, germination, and growth from red maple on plots that have been experimentally manipulated to increase soil pH, P, or both in three unglaciated eastern deciduous hardwood forests. At least 50% of the red maple population is seed bearing in our control soils, however the median percent of seed-bearing trees declined to zero when mitigating soils from acidic deposition. This can be explained by the curious fact that red maple is polygamodioecious, or has labile sex-expression, in which an individual tree can change its sex-expression in response to the environment. Furthermore, seed-bearing trees in the mitigated plots grew less, produced less seeds, and germinated at lower rates than their counterparts in control soils. Our results provide evidence that chemical climate change could be the primary contributing factor accelerating the dominance of red maple in eastern North American forests. Our observations can provide a boarder conceptual framework for understanding how nutrient limitations can be applied beyond plant productivity towards explaining distribution changes in vegetation.

  15. Simulated herbivory advances autumn phenology in Acer rubrum.

    PubMed

    Forkner, Rebecca E

    2014-05-01

    To determine the degree to which herbivory contributes to phenotypic variation in autumn phenology for deciduous trees, red maple (Acer rubrum) branches were subjected to low and high levels of simulated herbivory and surveyed at the end of the season to assess abscission and degree of autumn coloration. Overall, branches with simulated herbivory abscised ∼7 % more leaves at each autumn survey date than did control branches within trees. While branches subjected to high levels of damage showed advanced phenology, abscission rates did not differ from those of undamaged branches within trees because heavy damage induced earlier leaf loss on adjacent branch nodes in this treatment. Damaged branches had greater proportions of leaf area colored than undamaged branches within trees, having twice the amount of leaf area colored at the onset of autumn and having ~16 % greater leaf area colored in late October when nearly all leaves were colored. When senescence was scored as the percent of all leaves abscised and/or colored, branches in both treatments reached peak senescence earlier than did control branches within trees: dates of 50 % senescence occurred 2.5 days earlier for low herbivory branches and 9.7 days earlier for branches with high levels of simulated damage. These advanced rates are of the same time length as reported delays in autumn senescence and advances in spring onset due to climate warming. Thus, results suggest that should insect damage increase as a consequence of climate change, it may offset a lengthening of leaf life spans in some tree species.

  16. Inhibition and acclimation of C(3) photosynthesis to moderate heat: a perspective from thermally contrasting genotypes of Acer rubrum (red maple).

    PubMed

    Weston, David J; Bauerle, William L

    2007-08-01

    Effects of moderate heat on growth and photosynthesis were investigated in two clonal genotypes of Acer rubrum L., originally collected from the thermally contrasting habitats of Florida and Minnesota, USA, and known in the horticultural trade for sensitivity and insensitivity to heat, respectively. Under both common garden and warm greenhouse conditions (day/night temperature of 33/25 degrees C), the Florida genotype exhibited more growth than the Minnesota genotype. To determine the physiological parameters associated with this response, plants were acclimated to ambient (27/25 degrees C) or moderately elevated (33/25 degrees C) temperatures for 21 days before measurement of net photosynthesis at temperatures ranging from 25 to 48 degrees C. In vivo measurements of gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence of ambient-acclimated plants revealed that, compared with the Minnesota genotype, the Florida genotype maintained a higher photosynthetic rate, higher stomatal conductance, more open PSII reaction centers, a greater PSII quantum yield and a lower quantum requirement for photosystem II (phi(PSII)) per mole of CO(2) fixed (phi(CO(2) )) throughout the measurement temperature range. When both genotypes were acclimated at 33/25 degrees C and measured at 33 degrees C, analysis of the response of net photosynthesis to calculated intercellular CO(2) concentration indicated that the maximal rate of Rubisco carboxylation (V(cmax)) decreased more in the Minnesota genotype than in the Florida genotype in response to elevated temperature. Additionally, phi(PSII)/phi(CO(2) ) at 33 degrees C was markedly higher for Minnesota plants under photorespiratory conditions, but similar to Florida plants under non-photorespiratory conditions. The results indicate that the higher net photosynthetic rate at 33/25 degrees C of the Florida genotype compared with the Minnesota genotype could be a result of several mechanisms, including the maintenance of a higher V(cmax )and a more

  17. Variation in whole DNA methylation in red maple (Acer rubrum) populations from a mining region: association with metal contamination and cation exchange capacity (CEC) in podzolic soils.

    PubMed

    Kalubi, K N; Mehes-Smith, M; Spiers, G; Omri, A

    2017-02-15

    Although a number of publications have provided convincing evidence that abiotic stresses such as drought and high salinity are involved in DNA methylation reports on the effects of metal contamination, pH, and cation exchange on DNA modifications are limited. The main objective of the present study is to determine the relationship between metal contamination and Cation exchange capacity (CEC) on whole DNA modifications. Metal analysis confirms that nickel and copper are the main contaminants in sampled sites within the Greater Sudbury Region (Ontario, Canada) and liming has increased soil pH significantly even after 30 years following dolomitic limestone applications. The estimated CEC values varied significantly among sites, ranging between 1.8 and 10.5 cmol(+) kg(-1), with a strong relationship being observed between CEC and pH (r = 0.96**). Cation exchange capacity, significantly lower in highly metal contaminated sites compared to both reference and less contaminated sites, was higher in the higher organic matter limed compared to unlimed sites. There was a significant variation in the level of cytosine methylation among the metal-contaminated sites. Significant and strong negative correlations between [5mdC]/[dG] and bioavailable nickel (r = -0.71**) or copper (r = -0.72**) contents were observed. The analysis of genomic DNA for adenine methylation in this study showed a very low level of [6N-mdA]/dT] in Acer rubrum plants analyzed ranging from 0 to 0.08%. Significant and very strong positive correlation was observed between [6N-mdA]/dT] and soil bioavailable nickel (r = 0.78**) and copper (r = 0.88**) content. This suggests that the increased bioavailable metal levels associated with contamination by nickel and copper particulates are associated with cytosine and adenine methylation.

  18. Cosmetic applications of glucitol-core containing gallotannins from a proprietary phenolic-enriched red maple (Acer rubrum) leaves extract: inhibition of melanogenesis via down-regulation of tyrosinase and melanogenic gene expression in B16F10 melanoma cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hang; Xu, Jialin; DaSilva, Nicholas A; Wang, Ling; Wei, Zhengxi; Guo, Liangran; Johnson, Shelby L; Lu, Wei; Xu, Jun; Gu, Qiong; Seeram, Navindra P

    2017-03-10

    The red maple (Acer rubrum) is a rich source of phenolic compounds which possess galloyl groups attached to different positions of a 1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol core. While these glucitol-core containing gallotannins (GCGs) have reported anti-oxidant and anti-glycative effects, they have not yet been evaluated for their cosmetic applications. Herein, the anti-tyrosinase and anti-melanogenic effects of a proprietary phenolic-enriched red maple leaves extract [Maplifa(™); contains ca. 45% ginnalin A (GA) along with other GCGs] were investigated using enzyme and cellular assays. The GCGs showed anti-tyrosinase activity with IC50 values ranging from 101.4 to 1047.3 μM and their mechanism of tyrosinase inhibition (using GA as a representative GCG) was evaluated by chelating and computational/modeling studies. GA reduced melanin content in murine melanoma B16F10 cells by 79.1 and 56.7% (at non-toxic concentrations of 25 and 50 μM, respectively), and its mechanisms of anti-melanogenic effects were evaluated by using methods including fluorescent probe (DCF-DA), real-time PCR, and western blot experiments. These data indicated that GA was able to: (1) reduce the levels of reactive oxygen species, (2) down-regulate the expression of MITF, TYR, TRP-1, and TRP-2 gene levels in a time-dependent manner, and (3) significantly reduce protein expression of the TRP-2 gene. Therefore, the anti-melanogenic effects of red maple GCGs warrant further investigation of this proprietary natural product extract for potential cosmetic applications.

  19. Evaluation of a single application of Neonicotnoid and multi-application contact insecticides for flatheaded borer management in field grown Acer rubrum L. cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two trials evaluated insecticides for flatheaded borer (Chrysobothris femorata [Olivier]) control and red maple (Acer rubrum L.) cultivar growth over a 4-year period. Soil-applied systemic insecticides (acephate, imidacloprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, and thiamethoxam) and trunk-applied contact i...

  20. PHYSIOLOGICAL AND FOLIAR INJURY RESPONSES OF PRUNUS SEROTINA, FRAXINUS AMERICANA, AND ACER RUBRUM SEEDLINGS TO VARYING SOIL MOISTURE AND OZONE. (R825244)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sixteen black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.), 10 white ash (Fraxinus americana, L.) and 10 red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) 1-year old seedlings were planted per plot in 1997 on a former nursery bed within 12 open-top chambers and six open plots. Seedlings wer...

  1. Foliar retention of 15N-nitrate and 15N-ammonium by red maple (Acer rubrum) and white oak (Quercus alba) leaves from simulated rain

    SciTech Connect

    Garten Jr, Charles T; Hanson, Paul J

    1990-07-01

    Studies of nitrogen cycling in forests indicate that trees assimilate atmospheric nitrate and ammonium and that differences between atmospheric deposition to the forest canopy and deposition measured in forest throughfall can be attributed to the removal of these ions from rain by tree leaves. Red maple and white oak leaves were exposed to artificial rain solutions (pH 4.1) containing {sup 15}N-labeled nitrate (3.5 {micro}g N/ml) or ammonium (2.2 {micro}g N/ml). At two time intervals after exposure (2 hr and 2 days) an exposed leaf and a control (non-exposed) leaf were removed from replicate seedlings. Based on results from {sup 15}N analysis, most of the nitrate applied to tree leaves was removed by washing with water; the mean per cent removal ({+-} standard error, N = 4) was 87 {+-} 1 and 73 {+-} 4% of the {sup 15}NO-N Applied to red maple and white oak leaves, respectively. Relative retention of {sup 15}NH{sub 4}-N by the leaves was greater than that observed for {sup 15}NO{sub 3}-N. In red maple and white oak leaves, 58 {+-} 9 and 84 {+-} 7% (mean {+-} standard error, N = 4), respectively, of the applied ammonium was not removed by washing treatments. Our results show that the foliar uptake of {sup 15}NH{sub 4}{sup +} from simulated rain by deciduous tree leaves is greater than that for {sup 15}NO{sub 3}{sup -}. Greater retention of NH{sub 4}{sup +} than NO{sub 3}{sup -} ions by red maple and white oak leaves from simulated rainfall is consistent with field observations showing a preferential retention of ammonium from rainfall by forest canopies. As nitrogen chemistry and the relative importance of nitrogen compounds in the atmosphere change in response to proposed emission reductions (and possibly climate change), an improved understanding of the fate of airborne nitrogen compounds in forest biogeochemical cycles will be necessary.

  2. Leaf shape responds to temperature but not CO2 in Acer rubrum.

    PubMed

    Royer, Dana L

    2012-01-01

    The degree of leaf dissection and the presence of leaf teeth, along with tooth size and abundance, inversely correlate with mean annual temperature (MAT) across many plant communities. These relationships form the core of several methods for reconstructing MAT from fossils, yet the direct selection of temperature on tooth morphology has not been demonstrated experimentally. It is also not known if atmospheric CO(2) concentration affects leaf shape, limiting confidence in ancient climate reconstructions because CO(2) has varied widely on geologic timescales. Here I report the results of growing Acer rubrum (red maple) in growth cabinets at contrasting temperature and CO(2) conditions. The CO(2) treatment imparted no significant differences in leaf size and shape, while plants grown at cooler temperatures tended to have more teeth and more highly dissected leaves. These results provide direct evidence for the selection of temperature on leaf shape in one species, and support a key link in many leaf-climate methods. More broadly, these results increase confidence for using leaf shape in fossils to reconstruct paleoclimate.

  3. Productivity responses of Acer rubrum and Taxodium distichum seedlings to elevated CO2 and flooding

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vann, C.D.; Megonigal, J.P.

    2002-01-01

    Elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 are expected to increase photosynthetic rates of C3 tree species, but it is uncertain whether this will result in an increase in wetland seedling productivity. Separate short-term experiments (12 and 17 weeks) were performed on two wetland tree species, Taxodium distichum and Acer rubrum, to determine if elevated CO2 would influence the biomass responses of seedlings to flooding. T. distichum were grown in replicate glasshouses (n = 2) at CO2 concentrations of 350 or 700 ppm, and A. rubrum were grown in growth chambers at CO2 concentrations of 422 or 722 ppm. Both species were grown from seed. The elevated CO2 treatment was crossed with two water table treatments, flooded and non-flooded. Elevated CO2 increased leaf-level photosynthesis, whole-plant photosynthesis, and trunk diameter of T. distichum in both flooding treatments, but did not increase biomass of T. distichum or A. rubrum. Flooding severely reduced biomass, height, and leaf area of both T. distichum and A. rubrum. Our results suggest that the absence of a CO2-induced increase in growth may have been due to an O2 limitation on root production even though there was a relatively deep (??? 10 cm) aerobic soil surface in the non-flooded treatment. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Productivity responses of Acer rubrum and Taxodium distichum seedlings to elevated CO2 and flooding.

    PubMed

    Vann, C D; Megonigal, J P

    2002-01-01

    Elevated levels of atmospheric CO2 are expected to increase photosynthetic rates of C3 tree species, but it is uncertain whether this will result in an increase in wetland seedling productivity. Separate short-term experiments (12 and 17 weeks) were performed on two wetland tree species, Taxodium distichum and Acer rubrum, to determine if elevated CO2 would influence the biomass responses of seedlings to flooding. T. distichum were grown in replicate glasshouses (n = 2) at CO2 concentrations of 350 or 700 ppm. and A. rubrum were grown in growth chambers at CO2 concentrations of 422 or 722 ppm. Both species were grown from seed. The elevated CO2 treatment was crossed with two water table treatments, flooded and non-flooded. Elevated CO2 increased leaf-level photosynthesis, whole-plant photosynthesis, and trunk diameter of T. distichum in both flooding treatments, but did not increase biomass of T. distichum or A. rubrum. Flooding severely reduced biomass, height, and leaf area of both T. distichum and A. rubrum. Our results suggest that the absence of a CO2-induced increase in growth may have been due to an O2 limitation on root production even though there was a relatively deep (approximately 10 cm) aerobic soil surface in the non-flooded treatment.

  5. Phenotypic Plasticity of Leaf Shape along a Temperature Gradient in Acer rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Royer, Dana L.; Meyerson, Laura A.; Robertson, Kevin M.; Adams, Jonathan M.

    2009-01-01

    Both phenotypic plasticity and genetic determination can be important for understanding how plants respond to environmental change. However, little is known about the plastic response of leaf teeth and leaf dissection to temperature. This gap is critical because these leaf traits are commonly used to reconstruct paleoclimate from fossils, and such studies tacitly assume that traits measured from fossils reflect the environment at the time of their deposition, even during periods of rapid climate change. We measured leaf size and shape in Acer rubrum derived from four seed sources with a broad temperature range and grown for two years in two gardens with contrasting climates (Rhode Island and Florida). Leaves in the Rhode Island garden have more teeth and are more highly dissected than leaves in Florida from the same seed source. Plasticity in these variables accounts for at least 6–19 % of the total variance, while genetic differences among ecotypes probably account for at most 69–87 %. This study highlights the role of phenotypic plasticity in leaf-climate relationships. We suggest that variables related to tooth count and leaf dissection in A. rubrum can respond quickly to climate change, which increases confidence in paleoclimate methods that use these variables. PMID:19893620

  6. Physiological and foliar injury responses of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana, and Acer rubrum seedlings to varying soil moisture and ozone.

    PubMed

    Schaub, M; Skelly, J M; Steiner, K C; Davis, D D; Pennypacker, S P; Zhang, J; Ferdinand, J A; Savage, J E; Stevenson, R E

    2003-01-01

    Sixteen black cherry (Prunus serotina, Ehrh.), 10 white ash (Fraxinus americana, L.) and 10 red maple (Acer rubrum, L.) 1-year old seedlings were planted per plot in 1997 on a former nursery bed within 12 open-top chambers and six open plots. Seedlings were exposed to three different ozone scenarios (ambient air: 100% O3; non-filtered air: 98% ambient O3; charcoal-filtered air: 50% ambient O3) within each of two different water regimes (nine plots irrigated, nine plots non-irrigated) during three growing seasons. During the 1998 and 1999 growing season, leaf gas exchange, plant water relations, and foliar injury were measured. Climatic data,ambient- and chamber-ozone-concentrations were monitored. We found that seedlings grown under irrigated conditions had similar (in 1998) but significantly higher gas exchange rates (in 1999) than seedlings grown within non-irrigated plots among similar ozone exposures. Cherry and ash had similar ozone uptake but cherry developed more ozone-induced injury (< 34% affected leaf area, LAA) than ash (<5% LAA), while maple rarely showed foliar injury, indicating the species differed in ozone sensitivity. Significantly more severe injury on seedlings grown under irrigated conditions than seedlings grown under non-irrigated conditions demonstrated that soil moisture altered seedling responses to ambient ozone exposures.

  7. Growth temperature modulates the spatial variability of leaf morphology and chemical elements within crowns of climatically divergent Acer rubrum genotypes.

    PubMed

    Shahba, Mohamed A; Bauerle, William L

    2009-07-01

    Our understanding of leaf acclimation in relation to temperature of fully grown or juvenile tree crowns is mainly based on research involving spatially uncontrolled growth temperature. In this study, we test the hypothesis that leaf morphology and chemical elements are modulated by within-crown growth temperature differences. We ask whether within-species variation can influence acclimation to elevated temperatures. Within-crown temperature dependence of leaf morphology, carbon and nitrogen was examined in two genotypes of Acer rubrum L. (red maple) from different latitudes, where the mean annual temperature varies between 7.2 and 19.4 degrees C. Crown sections were grown in temperature-controlled chambers at three daytime growth temperatures (25, 33 and 38 degrees C). Leaf growth and resource acquisition were measured at regular intervals over long-term (50 days) controlled daytime growth temperatures. We found significant intraspecific variation in temperature dependence of leaf carbon and nitrogen accumulation between genotypes. Additionally, there was evidence that leaf morphology depended on inherited adaptation. Leaf dry matter and nitrogen content decreased as growth temperature was elevated above 25 degrees C in the genotype native to the cooler climate, whereas they remained fairly constant in response to temperature in the genotype native to the warmer climate. Specific leaf area (SLA) was correlated positively to leaf nitrogen content in both genotypes. The SLA and the relative leaf dry matter content (LM), on the other hand, were correlated negatively to leaf thickness. However, intraspecific variation in SLA and LM versus leaf thickness was highly significant. Intraspecific differences in leaf temperature response between climatically divergent genotypes yielded important implications for convergent evolution of leaf adaptation. Comparison of our results with those of previous studies showed that leaf carbon allocation along a vertical temperature

  8. Vibrios associated with red tides caused by Mesodinium rubrum.

    PubMed Central

    Romalde, J L; Barja, J L; Toranzo, A E

    1990-01-01

    Vibrios were isolated from red tides caused by Mesodinium rubrum and also throughout the year in the Ria de Pontevedra, Spain. The isolates were grouped into 14 phena by numerical toxonomy. Strains associated with red tides were restricted to four phena: phena I and II were Vibrio alginolyticus, and phena III and IV were Vibrio tubiashii and Vibrio anguillarum, respectively. V. anguillarum-like strains (phena V through XI) predominated throughout the year outside the red tide areas. Cytotoxicity assays conducted in different poikilothermic and homoiothermic cell lines showed that cytotoxin production was not necessarily associated with the species selected during the red tides. PMID:2268167

  9. Analysis of spatial and temporal dynamics of xylem refilling in Acer rubrum L. using magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Zwieniecki, Maciej A; Melcher, Peter J; Ahrens, Eric T

    2013-01-01

    We report results of an analysis of embolism formation and subsequent refilling observed in stems of Acer rubrum L. using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). MRI is one of the very few techniques that can provide direct non-destructive observations of the water content within opaque biological materials at a micrometer resolution. Thus, it has been used to determine temporal dynamics and water distributions within xylem tissue. In this study, we found good agreement between MRI measures of pixel brightness to assess xylem liquid water content and the percent loss in hydraulic conductivity (PLC) in response to water stress (P50 values of 2.51 and 2.70 for MRI and PLC, respectively). These data provide strong support that pixel brightness is well correlated to PLC and can be used as a proxy of PLC even when single vessels cannot be resolved on the image. Pressure induced embolism in moderately stressed plants resulted in initial drop of pixel brightness. This drop was followed by brightness gain over 100 min following pressure application suggesting that plants can restore water content in stem after induced embolism. This recovery was limited only to current-year wood ring; older wood did not show signs of recovery within the length of experiment (16 h). In vivo MRI observations of the xylem of moderately stressed (~-0.5 MPa) A. rubrum stems revealed evidence of a spontaneous embolism formation followed by rapid refilling (~30 min). Spontaneous (not induced) embolism formation was observed only once, despite over 60 h of continuous MRI observations made on several plants. Thus this observation provide evidence for the presence of naturally occurring embolism-refilling cycle in A. rubrum, but it is impossible to infer any conclusions in relation to its frequency in nature.

  10. Growth response of four species of Eastern hardwood tree seedlings exposed to ozone, acidic precipitation, and sulfur dioxide. [Prunus serotina, Acer rubrum, Quercus rubra, Liriodendron tulipifera

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, D.D. Skelly, J.M. )

    1992-03-01

    In 1987 a study was conducted in controlled environment chambers to determine the foliar sensitivity of tree seedlings of eight species to ozone and acidic precipitation, and to determine the influence of leaf position on symptom severity. Jensen and Dochinger conducted concurrent similar studies in Continuously Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR) chambers with ten species of forest trees. Based on the results of these initial studies, four species representing a range in foliar sensitivity to ozone were chosen: black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera L.). These species were also chosen because of their ecological and/or commercial importance in Pennsylvania. Seedlings were exposed in growth chambers simulated acid rain. In addition acute exposures to sulfur dioxide were conducted in a regime based on unpublished monitoring data collected near coal-fired power plants. The objective of this study was to determine if the pollutant treatments influenced the growth and productivity of seedlings of these four species. This information will help researchers and foresters understand the role of air pollution in productivity of eastern forests.

  11. Physiological and foliar symptom response in the crowns of Prunus serotina, Fraxinus americana and Acer rubrum canopy trees to ambient ozone under forest conditions.

    PubMed

    Schaub, M; Skelly, J M; Zhang, J W; Ferdinand, J A; Savage, J E; Stevenson, R E; Davis, D D; Steiner, K C

    2005-02-01

    The crowns of five canopy dominant black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.), five white ash (Fraxinus americana L.), and six red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees on naturally differing environmental conditions were accessed with scaffold towers within a mixed hardwood forest stand in central Pennsylvania. Ambient ozone concentrations, meteorological parameters, leaf gas exchange and leaf water potential were measured at the sites during the growing seasons of 1998 and 1999. Visible ozone-induced foliar injury was assessed on leaves within the upper and lower crown branches of each tree. Ambient ozone exposures were sufficient to induce typical symptoms on cherry (0-5% total affected leaf area, LAA), whereas foliar injury was not observed on ash or maple. There was a positive correlation between increasing cumulative ozone uptake (U) and increasing percent of LAA for cherry grown under drier site conditions. The lower crown leaves of cherry showed more severe foliar injury than the upper crown leaves. No significant differences in predawn leaf water potential (psi(L)) were detected for all three species indicating no differing soil moisture conditions across the sites. Significant variation in stomatal conductance for water vapor (g(wv)) was found among species, soil moisture, time of day and sample date. When comparing cumulative ozone uptake and decreased photosynthetic activity (P(n)), red maple was the only species to show higher gas exchange under mesic vs. drier soil conditions (P < 0.05). The inconsistent differences in gas exchange response within the same crowns of ash and the uncoupling relationship between g(wv) and P(n) demonstrate the strong influence of heterogeneous environmental conditions within forest canopies.

  12. Fast-growing Acer rubrum differs from slow-growing Quercus alba in leaf, xylem and hydraulic trait coordination responses to simulated acid rain.

    PubMed

    Medeiros, Juliana S; Tomeo, Nicholas J; Hewins, Charlotte R; Rosenthal, David M

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of historic soil chemistry changes associated with acid rain, i.e., reduced soil pH and a shift from nitrogen (N)- to phosphorus (P)-limitation, on the coordination of leaf water demand and xylem hydraulic supply traits in two co-occurring temperate tree species differing in growth rate. Using a full-factorial design (N × P × pH), we measured leaf nutrient content, water relations, leaf-level and canopy-level gas exchange, total biomass and allocation, as well as stem xylem anatomy and hydraulic function for greenhouse-grown saplings of fast-growing Acer rubrum (L.) and slow-growing Quercus alba (L.). We used principle component analysis to characterize trait coordination. We found that N-limitation, but not P-limitation, had a significant impact on plant water relations and hydraulic coordination of both species. Fast-growing A. rubrum made hydraulic adjustments in response to N-limitation, but trait coordination was variable within treatments and did not fully compensate for changing allocation across N-availability. For slow-growing Q. alba, N-limitation engendered more strict coordination of leaf and xylem traits, resulting in similar leaf water content and hydraulic function across all treatments. Finally, low pH reduced the propensity of both species to adjust leaf water relations and xylem anatomical traits in response to nutrient manipulations. Our data suggest that a shift from N- to P-limitation has had a negative impact on the water relations and hydraulic function of A. rubrum to a greater extent than for Q. alba We suggest that current expansion of A. rubrum populations could be tempered by acidic N-deposition, which may restrict it to more mesic microsites. The disruption of hydraulic acclimation and coordination at low pH is emphasized as an interesting area of future study.

  13. Changes in the structural composition and reactivity of Acer rubrum leaf litter tannins exposed to warming and altered precipitation: climatic stress-induced tannins are more reactive.

    PubMed

    Tharayil, Nishanth; Suseela, Vidya; Triebwasser, Daniella J; Preston, Caroline M; Gerard, Patrick D; Dukes, Jeffrey S

    2011-07-01

    • Climate change could increase the frequency with which plants experience abiotic stresses, leading to changes in their metabolic pathways. These stresses may induce the production of compounds that are structurally and biologically different from constitutive compounds. • We studied how warming and altered precipitation affected the composition, structure, and biological reactivity of leaf litter tannins in Acer rubrum at the Boston-Area Climate Experiment, in Massachusetts, USA. • Warmer and drier climatic conditions led to higher concentrations of protective compounds, including flavonoids and cutin. The abundance and structure of leaf tannins also responded consistently to climatic treatments. Drought and warming in combination doubled the concentration of total tannins, which reached 30% of leaf-litter DW. This treatment also produced condensed tannins with lower polymerization and a greater proportion of procyanidin units, which in turn reduced sequestration of tannins by litter fiber. Furthermore, because of the structural flexibility of these tannins, litter from this treatment exhibited five times more enzyme (β-glucosidase) complexation capacity on a per-weight basis. Warmer and wetter conditions decreased the amount of foliar condensed tannins. • Our finding that warming and drought result in the production of highly reactive tannins is novel, and highly relevant to climate change research as these tannins, by immobilizing microbial enzymes, could slow litter decomposition and thus carbon and nutrient cycling in a warmer, drier world.

  14. Detrimental effects of ocean acidification on the economically important Mediterranean red coral (Corallium rubrum).

    PubMed

    Bramanti, L; Movilla, J; Guron, M; Calvo, E; Gori, A; Dominguez-Carrió, C; Grinyó, J; Lopez-Sanz, A; Martinez-Quintana, A; Pelejero, C; Ziveri, P; Rossi, S

    2013-06-01

    The mean predicted decrease of 0.3-0.4 pH units in the global surface ocean by the end of the century has prompted urgent research to assess the potential effects of ocean acidification on the marine environment, with strong emphasis on calcifying organisms. Among them, the Mediterranean red coral (Corallium rubrum) is expected to be particularly susceptible to acidification effects, due to the elevated solubility of its Mg-calcite skeleton. This, together with the large overexploitation of this species, depicts a bleak future for this organism over the next decades. In this study, we evaluated the effects of low pH on the species from aquaria experiments. Several colonies of C. rubrum were long-term maintained for 314 days in aquaria at two different pH levels (8.10 and 7.81, pHT ). Calcification rate, spicule morphology, major biochemical constituents (protein, carbohydrates and lipids) and fatty acids composition were measured periodically. Exposure to lower pH conditions caused a significant decrease in the skeletal growth rate in comparison with the control treatment. Similarly, the spicule morphology clearly differed between both treatments at the end of the experiment, with aberrant shapes being observed only under the acidified conditions. On the other hand, while total organic matter was significantly higher under low pH conditions, no significant differences were detected between treatments regarding total carbohydrate, lipid, protein and fatty acid composition. However, the lower variability found among samples maintained in acidified conditions relative to controls, suggests a possible effect of pH decrease on the metabolism of the colonies. Our results show, for the first time, evidence of detrimental ocean acidification effects on this valuable and endangered coral species.

  15. Evidence for a genetic sex determination in Cnidaria, the Mediterranean red coral (Corallium rubrum)

    PubMed Central

    Haguenauer, A.; Chenesseau, S.; Brener, K. ; Mitta, G.; Toulza, E.; Bonabaud, M.; Rialle, S. ; Aurelle, D.

    2017-01-01

    Sexual reproduction is widespread among eukaryotes, and the sex-determining processes vary greatly among species. While genetic sex determination (GSD) has been intensively described in bilaterian species, no example has yet been recorded among non-bilaterians. However, the quasi-ubiquitous repartition of GSD among multicellular species suggests that similar evolutionary forces can promote this system, and that these forces could occur also in non-bilaterians. Studying sex determination across the range of Metazoan diversity is indeed important to understand better the evolution of this mechanism and its lability. We tested the existence of sex-linked genes in the gonochoric red coral (Corallium rubrum, Cnidaria) using restriction site-associated DNA sequencing. We analysed 27 461 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in 354 individuals from 12 populations including 53 that were morphologically sexed. We found a strong association between the allele frequencies of 472 SNPs and the sex of individuals, suggesting an XX/XY sex-determination system. This result was confirmed by the identification of 435 male-specific loci. An independent test confirmed that the amplification of these loci enabled us to identify males with absolute certainty. This is the first demonstration of a GSD system among non-bilaterian species and a new example of its convergence in multicellular eukaryotes.

  16. Molecular Cloning and Characterization of First Organic Matrix Protein from Sclerites of Red Coral, Corallium rubrum*

    PubMed Central

    Debreuil, Julien; Tambutté, Éric; Zoccola, Didier; Deleury, Emeline; Guigonis, Jean-Marie; Samson, Michel; Allemand, Denis; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2012-01-01

    We report here for the first time the isolation and characterization of a protein from the organic matrix (OM) of the sclerites of the alcyonarian, Corallium rubrum. This protein named scleritin is one of the predominant proteins extracted from the EDTA-soluble fraction of the OM. The entire open reading frame (ORF) was obtained by comparing amino acid sequences from de novo mass spectrometry and Edman degradation with an expressed sequence tag library dataset of C. rubrum. Scleritin is a secreted basic phosphorylated protein which exhibits a short amino acid sequence of 135 amino acids and a signal peptide of 20 amino acids. From specific antibodies raised against peptide sequences of scleritin, we obtained immunolabeling of scleroblasts and OM of the sclerites which provides information on the biomineralization pathway in C. rubrum. PMID:22505718

  17. Evaluation of spectral light management on growth of container-grown willow oak, nuttall oak and summer red maple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant response to blue, red, gray or black shade cloth was evaluated with willow oak (Quercus phellos L.), Nuttall oak (Quercus nuttallii Palmer, Nuttall) and Summer Red maple (Acer rubrum L. ‘Summer Red’) liners. Light transmitted through the colored shade cloth had no influence on germination of ...

  18. The effects of heat treatment on technological properties in Red-bud maple (Acer trautvetteri Medw.) wood.

    PubMed

    Korkut, Süleyman; Kök, M Samil; Korkut, Derya Sevim; Gürleyen, Tuğba

    2008-04-01

    Heat treatment is often used to improve the dimensional stability of wood. In this study, the effects of heat treatment on technological properties of Red-bud maple (Acer trautvetteri Medw.) wood were examined. Samples obtained from Düzce Forest Enterprises, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment at varying temperatures (120 degrees C, 150 degrees C and 180 degrees C) and for varying durations (2h, 6h and 10h). The technological properties of heat-treated wood samples and control samples were tested. Compression strength parallel to grain, bending strength, modulus of elasticity in bending, janka-hardness, impact bending strength, and tension strength perpendicular to grain were determined. The results showed that technological strength values decreased with increasing treatment temperature and treatment times. Red-bud maple wood could be utilized by using proper heat treatment techniques with minimal losses in strength values in areas where working, and stability such as in window frames, are important factors.

  19. Microencapsulation of oleoresin from red ginger (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum) in chitosan and alginate for fresh milk preservatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krisanti, Elsa; Astuty, Rizka Margi; Mulia, Kamarza

    2017-02-01

    The usage of red ginger rhizome (Zingiber officinale var. Rubrum) oleoresin extract as the preservative for fresh milk has not been studied yet. The aim of this research was to compare the inhibition effect of oleoresin extract-loaded chitosan-alginate microparticles, and various ginger-based preservatives added into fresh milk, on the growth of bacteria. The total count plate growth of bacteria after addition of the oleoresin-loaded chitosan-alginate microparticles was the lowest. In addition, the organoleptic test showed that this formulation had no significant effect on the color, taste, and flavor of fresh milk. The experimental results indicated that the oleoresin-loaded chitosan-alginate microparticles may effectively be used as a preservative for fresh milk.

  20. Spirochaetes dominate the microbial community associated with the red coral Corallium rubrum on a broad geographic scale

    PubMed Central

    van de Water, Jeroen A. J. M.; Melkonian, Rémy; Junca, Howard; Voolstra, Christian R.; Reynaud, Stéphanie; Allemand, Denis; Ferrier-Pagès, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Mass mortality events in populations of the iconic red coral Corallium rubrum have been related to seawater temperature anomalies that may have triggered microbial disease development. However, very little is known about the bacterial community associated with the red coral. We therefore aimed to provide insight into this species’ bacterial assemblages using Illumina MiSeq sequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons generated from samples collected at five locations distributed across the western Mediterranean Sea. Twelve bacterial species were found to be consistently associated with the red coral, forming a core microbiome that accounted for 94.6% of the overall bacterial community. This core microbiome was particularly dominated by bacteria of the orders Spirochaetales and Oceanospirillales, in particular the ME2 family. Bacteria belonging to these orders have been implicated in nutrient cycling, including nitrogen, carbon and sulfur. While Oceanospirillales are common symbionts of marine invertebrates, our results identify members of the Spirochaetales as other important dominant symbiotic bacterial associates within Anthozoans. PMID:27263657

  1. Evaluation of Systemic Insecticides for Potato Leafhopper Control in Field-Grown Red Maple

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systemic insecticides and application methods were evaluated in two tests that began in 2005 and 2006 for control of potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae [Harris]) on four red maple (Acer rubrum L.) cultivars and rated yearly through 2007. Treatments evaluated in this study included surface drenches o...

  2. Methyl gallate is a natural constituent of maple (Genus Acer) leaves.

    PubMed

    Abou-Zaid, Mamdouh M; Lombardo, Domenic A; Nozzolillo, Constance

    2009-01-01

    Methyl gallate was found in ethanolic extracts of red maple (Acer rubrum L.), silver maple (A. saccharinum L.) and sugar maple (A. saccharum Marsh) leaves, but more was present in methanolic extracts. The increased amount of methyl gallate in methanolic extracts was accompanied by a disappearance of m-digallate. It is concluded that only some of the methyl gallate detected in methanolic extracts is an artefact as a result of methanolysis of m-digallate. Its presence in ethanolic extracts is evidence that it is also a natural constituent of maple leaves.

  3. Bio-optical characteristics of a red tide induced by Mesodinium rubrum in the Cariaco Basin, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Laurencia; Varela, Ramón; Muller-Karger, Frank; Lorenzoni, Laura

    2016-08-01

    The bio-optical changes of the water induced by red tides depend on the type of organism present, and the spectral characterization of such changes can provide useful information on the organism, abundance and distribution. Here we present results from the bio-optical characterization of a non-toxic red tide induced by the autotrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum. Particle absorption was high [ap(440) = 1.78 m- 1], as compared to measurements done in the same region [ap(440) = 0.09 ± 0.06 m- 1], with detrital components contributing roughly 11% [ad(440) = 0.19 m- 1]. The remainder was attributed to absorption by phytoplankton pigments [aph(440) = 1.60 m- 1]. These aph values were ~ 15 times higher than typical values for these waters. High chlorophyll a concentrations were also measured (52.73 μg L- 1), together with alloxanthin (9.52 μg L- 1) and chlorophyll c (6.25 μg L- 1). This suite of pigment is typical of the algal class Cryptophyceae, from which Mesodinium obtains its chloroplasts. Remote sensing reflectance showed relatively low values [Rrs(440) = 0.0007 sr- 1], as compared to other Rrs values for the region under high bloom conditions [Rrs(440) = 0.0028 sr- 1], with maxima at 388, 484, 520, 596 and 688 nm. Based on the low reflection in the green-yellow, as compared to other red tides, we propose a new band ratio [Rrs(688)/Rrs(564)] to identify blooms of this particular group of organisms.

  4. The effects of heat treatment on physical properties and surface roughness of red-bud maple (Acer trautvetteri Medw.) wood.

    PubMed

    Korkut, Derya Sevim; Guller, Bilgin

    2008-05-01

    Heat treatment is often used to improve the dimensional stability of wood. In this study, the effects of heat treatment on physical properties and surface roughness of red-bud maple (Acer trautvetteri Medw.) wood were examined. Samples obtained from Düzce Forest Enterprises, Turkey, were subjected to heat treatment at varying temperatures and durations. The physical properties of heat-treated samples were compared against controls in order to determine their; oven-dry density, air-dry density, and swelling properties. A stylus method was employed to evaluate the surface characteristics of the samples. Roughness measurements, using the stylus method, were made in the direction perpendicular to the fiber. Three main roughness parameters; mean arithmetic deviation of profile (Ra), mean peak-to-valley height (Rz), and maximum roughness (Rmax) obtained from the surface of wood, were used to evaluate the effect of heat treatment on the surface characteristics of the specimens. Significant differences were determined (p>0.05) between surface roughness parameters (Ra, Rz, Rmax) at three different temperatures and three periods of heat treatment. The results showed that the values of density, swelling and surface roughness decreased with increasing temperature treatment and treatment times. Red-bud maple wood could be utilized successfully by applying proper heat treatment techniques without any losses in investigated parameters. This is vital in areas, such as window frames, where working stability and surface smoothness are important factors.

  5. Fine-scale genetic structure and inferences on population biology in the threatened Mediterranean red coral, Corallium rubrum.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, J-B; Garrabou, J; Bianchimani, O; Drap, P; Féral, J-P; Aurelle, D

    2010-10-01

    Identifying microevolutionary processes acting in populations of marine species with larval dispersal is a challenging but crucial task because of its conservation implications. In this context, recent improvements in the study of spatial genetic structure (SGS) are particularly promising because they allow accurate insights into the demographic and evolutionary processes at stake. Using an exhaustive sampling and a combination of image processing and population genetics, we highlighted significant SGS between colonies of Corallium rubrum over an area of half a square metre, which sheds light on a number of aspects of its population biology. Based on this SGS, we found the mean dispersal range within sites to be between 22.6 and 32.1 cm, suggesting that the surveyed area approximately corresponded to a breeding unit. We then conducted a kinship analysis, which revealed a complex half-sib family structure and allowed us to quantify the level of self-recruitment and to characterize aspects of the mating system of this species. Furthermore, significant temporal variations in allele frequencies were observed, suggesting low genetic drift. These results have important conservation implications for the red coral and further our understanding of the microevolutionary processes acting within populations of sessile marine species with a larval phase.

  6. Influence of overstory density on ecophysiology of red oak (Quercus rubra) and sugar maple (Acer saccharum) seedlings in central Ontario shelterwoods.

    PubMed

    Parker, William C; Dey, Daniel C

    2008-05-01

    A field experiment was established in a second-growth hardwood forest dominated by red oak (Quercus rubra L.) to examine the effects of shelterwood overstory density on leaf gas exchange and seedling water status of planted red oak, naturally regenerated red oak and sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) seedlings during the first growing season following harvest. Canopy cover of uncut control stands and moderate and light shelterwoods averaged 97, 80 and 49%, respectively. Understory light and vapor pressure deficit (VPD) strongly influenced gas exchange responses to overstory reduction. Increased irradiance beneath the shelterwoods significantly increased net photosynthesis (P(n)) and leaf conductance to water vapor (G(wv)) of red oak and maple seedlings; however, P(n) and G(wv) of planted and naturally regenerated red oak seedlings were two to three times higher than those of sugar maple seedlings in both partial harvest treatments, due in large part to decreased stomatal limitation of gas exchange in red oak as a result of increased VPD in the shelterwoods. In both species, seedling water status was higher in the partial harvest treatments, as reflected by the higher predawn leaf water potential and seedling water-use efficiency in seedlings in shelterwoods than in uncut stands. Within a treatment, planted and natural red oak seedlings exhibited similar leaf gas exchange rates and water status, indicating little adverse physiological effect of transplanting. We conclude that the use of shelterwoods favors photosynthetic potential of red oak over sugar maple, and should improve red oak regeneration in Ontario.

  7. Anti-hyperglycaemic effects of the Japanese red maple Acer pycnanthum and its constituents the ginnalins B and C.

    PubMed

    Honma, Atsushi; Koyama, Tomoyuki; Yazawa, Kazunaga

    2011-04-01

    The anti-hyperglycaemic effects of the leaves of Acer pycnanthum K. Koch, and the purification and identification of the active compounds were investigated. Extracts of the leaves showed a potent inhibitory effect on the α-glucosidase in both in vivo and in vitro experiments. The fractionation of the crude extract gave two active compounds, ginnalin B (6-O-galloyl-1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol) and ginnalin C (2-O-galloyl-1,5-anhydro-D-glucitol), by spectroscopic analysis. This is the first report that A. pycnanthum and its constituents may be useful for the prevention or treatment of diabetes mellitus.

  8. Structure and biodiversity of coralligenous assemblages dominated by the precious red coral Corallium rubrum over broad spatial scales.

    PubMed

    Casas-Güell, Edgar; Cebrian, Emma; Garrabou, Joaquim; Ledoux, Jean-Baptiste; Linares, Cristina; Teixidó, Núria

    2016-11-18

    Data on species diversity and structure in coralligenous outcrops dominated by Corallium rubrum are lacking. A hierarchical sampling including 3 localities and 9 sites covering more than 400 km of rocky coasts in NW Mediterranean, was designed to characterize the spatial variability of structure, composition and diversity of perennial species inhabiting coralligenous outcrops. We estimated species/taxa composition and abundance. Eight morpho-functional groups were defined according to their life span and growth to characterize the structural complexity of the outcrops. The species composition and structural complexity differed consistently across all spatial scales considered. The lowest and the highest variability were found among localities (separated by >200 km) and within sites (separated by 1-5 km), respectively supporting differences in diversity indices. The morpho-functional groups displayed a consistent spatial arrangement in terms of the number, size and shape of patches across study sites. These results contribute to filling the gap on the understanding of assemblage composition and structure and to build baselines to assess the response of this of this highly threatened habitat to anthropogenic disturbances.

  9. Structure and biodiversity of coralligenous assemblages dominated by the precious red coral Corallium rubrum over broad spatial scales

    PubMed Central

    Casas-Güell, Edgar; Cebrian, Emma; Garrabou, Joaquim; Ledoux, Jean-Baptiste; Linares, Cristina; Teixidó, Núria

    2016-01-01

    Data on species diversity and structure in coralligenous outcrops dominated by Corallium rubrum are lacking. A hierarchical sampling including 3 localities and 9 sites covering more than 400 km of rocky coasts in NW Mediterranean, was designed to characterize the spatial variability of structure, composition and diversity of perennial species inhabiting coralligenous outcrops. We estimated species/taxa composition and abundance. Eight morpho-functional groups were defined according to their life span and growth to characterize the structural complexity of the outcrops. The species composition and structural complexity differed consistently across all spatial scales considered. The lowest and the highest variability were found among localities (separated by >200 km) and within sites (separated by 1–5 km), respectively supporting differences in diversity indices. The morpho-functional groups displayed a consistent spatial arrangement in terms of the number, size and shape of patches across study sites. These results contribute to filling the gap on the understanding of assemblage composition and structure and to build baselines to assess the response of this of this highly threatened habitat to anthropogenic disturbances. PMID:27857209

  10. Structure and biodiversity of coralligenous assemblages dominated by the precious red coral Corallium rubrum over broad spatial scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas-Güell, Edgar; Cebrian, Emma; Garrabou, Joaquim; Ledoux, Jean-Baptiste; Linares, Cristina; Teixidó, Núria

    2016-11-01

    Data on species diversity and structure in coralligenous outcrops dominated by Corallium rubrum are lacking. A hierarchical sampling including 3 localities and 9 sites covering more than 400 km of rocky coasts in NW Mediterranean, was designed to characterize the spatial variability of structure, composition and diversity of perennial species inhabiting coralligenous outcrops. We estimated species/taxa composition and abundance. Eight morpho-functional groups were defined according to their life span and growth to characterize the structural complexity of the outcrops. The species composition and structural complexity differed consistently across all spatial scales considered. The lowest and the highest variability were found among localities (separated by >200 km) and within sites (separated by 1–5 km), respectively supporting differences in diversity indices. The morpho-functional groups displayed a consistent spatial arrangement in terms of the number, size and shape of patches across study sites. These results contribute to filling the gap on the understanding of assemblage composition and structure and to build baselines to assess the response of this of this highly threatened habitat to anthropogenic disturbances.

  11. Epidemiological aspects of Trichophyton rubrum var. raubitschekii in Japan.

    PubMed

    Hiruma, Midori; Kano, Rui; Sugita, Takashi; Mochizuki, Takashi; Hasegawa, Atsuhiko; Hiruma, Masataro

    2012-12-01

    Trichophyton rubrum var. raubitschekii is a rare anthropophilic dermatophyte isolated around the world from tinea corporis, tinea cruris, tinea pedis and tinea unguium. In this study, the isolation rate of T. rubrum var. raubitschekii was studied in 200 cases of tinea pedis and tinea unguium in Japan. The 200 clinical isolates were shown to be of downy type as their colonies on Sabouraud's dextrose agar were white to cream, suede-like to downy, with a yellow-brown to wine-red reverse, and they produced few macroconidia. The type strain of T. rubrum var. raubitschekii (CBS 100084) and one clinical isolate (KMU 8337; isolated at Kanazawa) of downy type tested positive for urease, but the reference strain of T. rubrum (CBS 392.58) and the remaining 199 clinical isolates tested negative. Further epidemiological investigations are required to study human cases of infection with the granular type of T. rubrum and T. rubrum var. raubitschekii in Japan.

  12. Sapindaceae and Acer

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genus Acer (maples) is treated for The Jepson Manual of the higher plants of California, a detailed floristic manual for the state published by the University of California. Six species are recognized; full morphological descriptions, dichotomous keys, and brief summaries of geographical and ec...

  13. Genetic survey of shallow populations of the Mediterranean red coral [Corallium rubrum (Linnaeus, 1758)]: new insights into evolutionary processes shaping nuclear diversity and implications for conservation.

    PubMed

    Ledoux, J-B; Mokhtar-Jamaï, K; Roby, C; Féral, J-P; Garrabou, J; Aurelle, D

    2010-02-01

    Combined action from over-harvesting and recent mass mortality events potentially linked to ongoing climate changes has led to new concerns for the conservation of shallow populations (5-60 m) of Corallium rubrum, an octocorallian that is mainly found in the Mediterranean Sea. The present study was designed to analyse population structure and relationships at different spatial scales (from 10s of meters to 100s of kilometres) with a focus on dispersal pattern. We also performed the first analysis of the distribution of genetic diversity using a comparative approach between regional-clusters and samples. Forty populations dwelling in four distinct regions between 14 and 60 m in depth were genotyped using 10 microsatellites. Our main results indicate (i) a generalized pair-sample differentiation combined with a weak structure between regional-clusters; (ii) the occurrence of isolation by distance at the global scale, but also within two of the three analysed regional-clusters; (iii) a high level of genetic diversity over the surveyed area with a heterogeneous distribution from regional-cluster to sample levels. The evolutionary consequences of these results are discussed and their management implications are provided.

  14. Ecology of red maple swamps in the glaciated northeast: A community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Golet, F.C.; Calhoun, A.J.K.; DeRagon, W.R.; Lowry, D.J.; Gold, A.J.

    1993-06-01

    The report is part of a series of profiles on the ecology of wetland and deepwater habitats. This particular profile addresses red maple swamps in the glaciated northeastern United States. Red maple (Acer rubrum) swamp is a dominant wetland type in most of the region; it reaches the greatest abundance in southern New England and northern New Jersey; where it comprises 60-80% of all inland wetlands. Red maple swamps occur in a wide variety of hydrogeologic settings, from small, isolated basins in till or glaciofluvial deposits to extensive wetland complexes on glacial lake beds, and from hillside seeps to stream floodplains and lake edges. Individual swamps may be seasonally flooded, temporarily flooded, or seasonally saturated, and soils may be mineral or organic. As many as five distinct vegetation layers may occur in these swamps, including trees, saplings, shrubs, herbs, and ground cover plants such as bryophytes and clubmosses.

  15. Ecology of red maple swamps in the glaciated northeast: A community profile

    SciTech Connect

    Golet, F.C.; Calhoun, A.J.K.; DeRagon, W.R.; Lowry, D.J.; Gold, A.J.

    1993-06-01

    In many areas of the glaciated northeastern United States, forested wetlands dominated by red maple (Acer rubrum) cover more of the landscape than all other nontidal wetland types combined. Yet surprisingly little of their ecology, functions, or social significance has been documented. Bogs, salt marshes, Atlantic white cedar swamps, and other less common types of wetlands have received considerable attention from scientists, but, except for botanical surveys, red maple swamps have been largely ignored. The report conveys what is known about these common wetlands and identifies topics most in need of investigation. Red maple swamps are so abundant and so widely distributed in the Northeast that their physical, chemical, and biological properties range widely as well, and their values to society are diverse. The central focus of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service community profile series is the plant and animal communities of wetlands and deepwater habitats.

  16. ACER 2013-2014 Annual Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, 2015

    2015-01-01

    The Australian Council for Educational Research (ACER) is one of the world's leading educational research centres. ACER's mission is to create and promote research-based knowledge, products and services that can be used to improve learning across the life span. This annual report describes ACER's milestones and accomplishments for the 2013-2014…

  17. Effects of maple (Acer) plant part extracts on proliferation, apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of human tumorigenic and non-tumorigenic colon cells.

    PubMed

    González-Sarrías, Antonio; Li, Liya; Seeram, Navindra P

    2012-07-01

    Phenolic-enriched extracts of maple sap and syrup, obtained from the sugar and red maple species (Acer saccharum Marsh, A. rubrum L., respectively), are reported to show anticancer effects. Despite traditional medicinal uses of various other parts of these plants by Native Americans, they have not been investigated for anticancer activity. Here leaves, stems/twigs, barks and sapwoods of both maple species were evaluated for antiproliferative effects against human colon tumorigenic (HCT-116, HT-29, Caco-2) and non-tumorigenic (CCD-18Co) cells. Extracts were standardized to total phenolic and ginnalin-A (isolated in our laboratory) levels. Overall, the extracts inhibited the growth of the colon cancer more than normal cells (over two-fold), their activities increased with their ginnalin-A levels, with red > sugar maple extracts. The red maple leaf extract, which contained the highest ginnalin-A content, was the most active extract (IC₅₀  = 35 and 16 µg/mL for extract and ginnalin-A, respectively). The extracts were not cytotoxic nor did they induce apoptosis of the colon cancer cells. However, cell cycle analyses revealed that the antiproliferative effects of the extracts were mediated through cell cycle arrest in the S-phase. The results from the current study suggest that these maple plant part extracts may have potential anticolon cancer effects.

  18. ACER Chemistry Test Item Collection (ACER CHEMTIC Year 12 Supplement).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    This publication contains 317 multiple-choice chemistry test items related to topics covered in the Victorian (Australia) Year 12 chemistry course. It allows teachers access to a range of items suitable for diagnostic and achievement purposes, supplementing the ACER Chemistry Test Item Collection--Year 12 (CHEMTIC). The topics covered are: organic…

  19. Variation in mineral content of red maple sap across an atmospheric deposition gradient

    SciTech Connect

    McCormick, L.H.

    1997-11-01

    Xylem sap was collected from red maple (Acer rubrum L.) trees during the spring of 1988 and 1989 at seven forest sites along an atmospheric deposition gradient in north central Pennsylvania and analyzed for pH and twelve mineral constituents. The objectives of the study were to examine the sources and patterns of variation in red maple sap chemistry across an atmospheric deposition gradient and to assess the feasibility of using sap analysis as an indicator of nutrient bioavailability. For most sap constituents, there was considerable spatial and temporal variation in concentration. Sources of variation included within and between site variation, date, and year of collection. The nature and extent of variation varied for different constituents. Site differences were similar in 1988 and 1989 for most sap constituents and for some constituents corresponded with differences in soil levels.

  20. Proteomic profile of dormant Trichophyton Rubrum conidia

    PubMed Central

    Leng, Wenchuan; Liu, Tao; Li, Rui; Yang, Jian; Wei, Candong; Zhang, Wenliang; Jin, Qi

    2008-01-01

    Background Trichophyton rubrum is the most common dermatophyte causing fungal skin infections in humans. Asexual sporulation is an important means of propagation for T. rubrum, and conidia produced by this way are thought to be the primary cause of human infections. Despite their importance in pathogenesis, the conidia of T. rubrum remain understudied. We intend to intensively investigate the proteome of dormant T. rubrum conidia to characterize its molecular and cellular features and to enhance the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Results The proteome of T. rubrum conidia was analyzed by combining shotgun proteomics with sample prefractionation and multiple enzyme digestion. In total, 1026 proteins were identified. All identified proteins were compared to those in the NCBI non-redundant protein database, the eukaryotic orthologous groups database, and the gene ontology database to obtain functional annotation information. Functional classification revealed that the identified proteins covered nearly all major biological processes. Some proteins were spore specific and related to the survival and dispersal of T. rubrum conidia, and many proteins were important to conidial germination and response to environmental conditions. Conclusion Our results suggest that the proteome of T. rubrum conidia is considerably complex, and that the maintenance of conidial dormancy is an intricate and elaborate process. This data set provides the first global framework for the dormant T. rubrum conidia proteome and is a stepping stone on the way to further study of the molecular mechanisms of T. rubrum conidial germination and the maintenance of conidial dormancy. PMID:18578874

  1. Differentiation between Trichophyton mentagrophytes and T. rubrum by sorbitol assimilation.

    PubMed Central

    Rezusta, A; Rubio, M C; Alejandre, M C

    1991-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum was easily differentiated from T. mentagrophytes by its ability to assimilate sorbitol with an API 20C AUX strip. One hundred percent of 36 T. rubrum strains and none of 147 T. mentagrophytes strains assimilated sorbitol. PMID:1993760

  2. Ecology of red swamps in the glaciated northeast: a community profile

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Golet, Francis C.; Calhoun, Aram J. K.; DeRagon, William R.

    1993-01-01

    This report is part of a series of profiles on the ecology of wetland and deepwater habitats. This particular profile addresses red maple swamps in the glaciated northeastern United States. Red maple (Acer rubrum) swamp is a dominant wetland type in most of the region; it reaches its greatest abundance in southern New England and northern New Jersey, where it comprises 60-800/o of all inland wetlands. Red maple swamps occur in a wide variety of hydrogeologic settings, from small, isolated basins in till or glaciofluvial deposits to extensive wetland complexes on glacial lake beds, and from hillside seeps to stream floodplains and lake edges. Individual swamps may be seasonally flooded, temporarily flooded, or seasonally saturated, and soils may be mineral or organic. As many as five distinct vegetation layers may occur in these swamps, including trees, saplings, shrubs, herbs, and ground cover plants such as bryophytes and clubmosses. On a regional scale, red maple swamps support at least 50 species of trees, more than 90 species of shrubs and vines, and more than 300 species of nonwoody plants. These swamps also provide habitat for a rich faunal community, including several wetland-dependent species. In areas that are becoming urbanized, these wetlands often constitute critical habitat for facultative species as well. Red maple swamps also are important sites for flood storage, water quality improvement, recreation, scenic beauty, and open space.

  3. Carbon monoxide metabolism by the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum

    SciTech Connect

    Ludden, P.W.; Roberts, G.P.

    1991-01-01

    Research continued on carbon monoxide metabolism by Rhodospirillum rubrum. In the past year, progress was made in: (1) the identification and isolation of the physiological electron carrier from monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) to hydrogenase in R. rubrum; (2) the isolation, sequencing and mutagenesis of the genes encoding the components of the CO oxidation system in R. rubrum, (3) the purification and characterization of the CO-induced hydrogenase activity of R. rubrum; (4) the spectroscopic investigation of the cobalt-substituted form of the enzyme.

  4. Changes in Chenopodium rubrum seeds with aging.

    PubMed

    Mitrović, Aleksandra; Ducić, Tanja; Liric-Rajlić, Ivana; Radotić, Ksenija; Zivanović, Branka

    2005-06-01

    We studied antioxidative system, germination, growth, and flowering in vitro in Chenopodium rubrum seeds of different ages. Peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase activity, as well as glutathione status, were determined in 2.5-h imbibed seeds. Germination was tested under controlled conditions. Growth and flowering of plants were tested in vitro. The enzyme activities and glutathione content were higher in younger seeds. Germination declines with seed age. Plants derived from older seeds were smaller, and flowering percentage was lower compared to plants derived from younger seeds. Gibberellic acid reduced the difference in growth and flowering between plants derived from seeds different in age.

  5. Plasmidless, photosynthetically incompetent mutants of Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, S A; Wimer, L T; Yoch, D C

    1984-01-01

    Ethyl methanesulfonate rendered a high percentage of Rhodospirillum rubrum cells plasmidless and photosynthetically incompetent (Kuhl et al., J. Bacteriol. 156:737-742, 1983). By probing restriction endonuclease-digested chromosomal DNA from these plasmidless strains with 32P-labeled R. rubrum plasmid DNA, we showed that no homology exists between the plasmid and the chromosomal DNA of the mutant. Loss of the plasmid in all the nonphotosynthetic isolates was accompanied by the synthesis of spirilloxanthin under aerobic growth conditions, resistance to cycloserine and HgCl2, and loss of ability to grow fermentatively on fructose. Changes in both the protein and lipid composition of the membranes and the impaired uptake of 203HgCl2 in the plasmidless strains (compared with the wild type) suggest either that membrane modification occurs as a result of plasmid loss, accounting for several of the acquired phenotype characteristics of the cured strains, or that both membrane modification and plasmid loss are part of the same pleiotropic mutation. Images PMID:6434514

  6. Silicon Phthalocyanine 4 Phototoxicity in Trichophyton rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Minh; Dimaano, Matthew L.; Oyetakin-White, Patricia; Retuerto, Mauricio A.; Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab K.; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A.; Cooper, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the leading pathogen that causes long-lasting skin and nail dermatophyte infections. Currently, topical treatment consists of terbinafine for the skin and ciclopirox for the nails, whereas systemic agents, such as oral terbinafine and itraconazole, are also prescribed. These systemic drugs have severe side effects, including liver toxicity. Topical therapies, however, are sometimes ineffective. This led us to investigate alternative treatment options, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT). Although PDT is traditionally recognized as a therapeutic option for treating a wide range of medical conditions, including age-related macular degeneration and malignant cancers, its antimicrobial properties have also received considerable attention. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the susceptibility of dermatophytic fungi to PDT is relatively unknown. As a noninvasive treatment, PDT uses a photosensitizing drug and light, which, in the presence of oxygen, results in cellular destruction. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of cytotoxicity of PDT in vitro using the silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4 [SiPc(OSi(CH3)2(CH2)3N(CH3)2)(OH)] in T. rubrum. Confocal microscopy revealed that Pc 4 binds to cytoplasmic organelles, and upon irradiation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated. The impairment of fungal metabolic activities as measured by an XTT (2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxyanilide inner salt) assay indicated that 1.0 μM Pc 4 followed by 670 to 675 nm light at 2.0 J/cm2 reduced the overall cell survival rate, which was substantiated by a dry weight assay. In addition, we found that this therapeutic approach is effective against terbinafine-sensitive (24602) and terbinafine-resistant (MRL666) strains. These data suggest that Pc 4-PDT may have utility as a treatment for dermatophytosis. PMID:24614382

  7. Silicon phthalocyanine 4 phototoxicity in Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Lam, Minh; Dimaano, Matthew L; Oyetakin-White, Patricia; Retuerto, Mauricio A; Chandra, Jyotsna; Mukherjee, Pranab K; Ghannoum, Mahmoud A; Cooper, Kevin D; Baron, Elma D

    2014-06-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the leading pathogen that causes long-lasting skin and nail dermatophyte infections. Currently, topical treatment consists of terbinafine for the skin and ciclopirox for the nails, whereas systemic agents, such as oral terbinafine and itraconazole, are also prescribed. These systemic drugs have severe side effects, including liver toxicity. Topical therapies, however, are sometimes ineffective. This led us to investigate alternative treatment options, such as photodynamic therapy (PDT). Although PDT is traditionally recognized as a therapeutic option for treating a wide range of medical conditions, including age-related macular degeneration and malignant cancers, its antimicrobial properties have also received considerable attention. However, the mechanism(s) underlying the susceptibility of dermatophytic fungi to PDT is relatively unknown. As a noninvasive treatment, PDT uses a photosensitizing drug and light, which, in the presence of oxygen, results in cellular destruction. In this study, we investigated the mechanism of cytotoxicity of PDT in vitro using the silicon phthalocyanine (Pc) 4 [SiPc(OSi(CH3)2(CH2)3N(CH3)2)(OH)] in T. rubrum. Confocal microscopy revealed that Pc 4 binds to cytoplasmic organelles, and upon irradiation, reactive oxygen species (ROS) are generated. The impairment of fungal metabolic activities as measured by an XTT (2,3-bis[2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl]-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxyanilide inner salt) assay indicated that 1.0 μM Pc 4 followed by 670 to 675 nm light at 2.0 J/cm(2) reduced the overall cell survival rate, which was substantiated by a dry weight assay. In addition, we found that this therapeutic approach is effective against terbinafine-sensitive (24602) and terbinafine-resistant (MRL666) strains. These data suggest that Pc 4-PDT may have utility as a treatment for dermatophytosis.

  8. Analysis of part of the Trichophyton rubrum ESTs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lingling; Ma, Li; Leng, Wenchuan; Yang, Jian; Zhu, Junping; Dong, Jie; Xue, Ying; Zhe, Wan; Li, Ruoyu; Jin, Qi

    2004-10-01

    Trichophyton rubrum (T. rubrum) is the most common of the superficial fungi. In an effort to better understand the genetic and biochemical makeup of T. rubrum, we generated cDNA libraries from 3 growth stages and used these to isolate 4002 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Sequence comparisons with the Genbank database allowed 1226 of the ESTs to be assigned putative functions or matched with homologs from other organisms. Of the remaining ESTs, 989 were only weakly similar to known sequences and 1787 had no identifiable functions, suggesting that they represent novel genes. We further analyzed the presence of several important genes involved in the growth, metabolism, signal transduction, pathogenesis and drug resistance in T. rubrum. This information was used to newly elucidate important metabolic pathways in T. rubrum. Taken together, our results should form the molecular basis for continued research on the physiological processes and pathogenic mechanisms of T. rubrum, and may lead to a better understanding of fungal drug resistance and identification of new drug targets.

  9. Widespread tinea corporis caused by Trichophyton rubrum with non-typical cultural characteristics--diagnosis via PCR.

    PubMed

    Seyfarth, Florian; Ziemer, Mirjana; Gräser, Yvonne; Elsner, Peter; Hipler, Uta-Christina

    2007-01-01

    From the epidemiological point of view, Trichophyton rubrum is the most important dermatophyte in the Western world. Mostly, the lesions of fungal infections of the skin are restricted and circumscribed. Immunodeficiency, diabetes or treatment with steroids, however, favour widespread disease involving the entire integument. In the present study, we describe a patient without immunodeficiency or diabetes presenting with widespread tinea corporis caused by T. rubrum. The fungal isolate showed atypical morphological features. Moreover, the typical metabolic features (negative urease test, production of red pigment on potato dextrose agar) were expressed with delay after 6 weeks of cultivation. Thus, sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer of the ribosomal DNA was applied to identify the fungal isolate and led us to the correct diagnosis, before conventional mycological methods were successful.

  10. Photodynamic action of protoporphyrin IX derivatives on Trichophyton rubrum*

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Rogério Rodrigo; Kozusny-Andreani, Dora Inês; Fernandes, Adjaci Uchôa; Baptista, Mauricio da Silva

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Dermatophytes are filamentous keratinophilic fungi. Trichophyton rubrum is a prevalent infectious agent in tineas and other skin diseases. Drug therapy is considered to be limited in the treatment of such infections, mainly due to low accessibility of the drug to the tissue attacked and development of antifungal resistance in these microorganisms. In this context, Photodynamic Therapy is presented as an alternative. OBJECTIVE Evaluate, in vitro, the photodynamic activity of four derivatives of Protoporphyrin IX by irradiation with LED 400 nm in T. rubrum. METHOD Assays were subjected to irradiation by twelve cycles of ten minutes at five minute intervals. RESULT Photodynamic action appeared as effective with total elimination of UFCs from the second irradiation cycle. CONCLUSION Studies show that the photodynamic activity on Trichophyton rubrum relates to a suitable embodiment of the photosensitizer, which can be maximized by functionalization of peripheral groups of the porphyrinic ring. PMID:27192510

  11. Stoichiometry patterns in the androdioecious Acer tegmentosum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinna; Yao, Jie; Fan, Chunyu; Tan, Lingzhao; Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Juan; Zhao, Xiuhai; von Gadow, Klaus

    2016-10-11

    This study evaluates stoichiometry patterns in the androdioecious Acer tegmentosum, a species characterized by a rare reproductive system where males and hermaphrodites coexist. Altogether 31 hermaphrodites and 29 male plants were harvested and samples of leaves, current-year shoots, branches and coarse roots were analyzed to explore gender differences in biomass, C, N and P concentrations of these four components. The nitrogen to phosphorus relationship of each component was examined using SMA estimates. Males had significantly greater amounts of leaf and coarse root dry matter content than hermaphrodites. C, N and P stoichiometry differed significantly between genders, especially in the newly emerging vegetative components (leaves and shoots). Males had higher C/N and C/P ratios in current-year shoots and lower C/P ratios in leaves and branches. Hermaphrodites had higher N/P ratios in the leaves and branches. Males had higher rates of increase in leaf P content than hermaphrodites. This study suggests that stoichiometry patterns may be significantly affected by gender.

  12. Stoichiometry patterns in the androdioecious Acer tegmentosum

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xinna; Yao, Jie; Fan, Chunyu; Tan, Lingzhao; Zhang, Chunyu; Wang, Juan; Zhao, Xiuhai; von Gadow, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluates stoichiometry patterns in the androdioecious Acer tegmentosum, a species characterized by a rare reproductive system where males and hermaphrodites coexist. Altogether 31 hermaphrodites and 29 male plants were harvested and samples of leaves, current-year shoots, branches and coarse roots were analyzed to explore gender differences in biomass, C, N and P concentrations of these four components. The nitrogen to phosphorus relationship of each component was examined using SMA estimates. Males had significantly greater amounts of leaf and coarse root dry matter content than hermaphrodites. C, N and P stoichiometry differed significantly between genders, especially in the newly emerging vegetative components (leaves and shoots). Males had higher C/N and C/P ratios in current-year shoots and lower C/P ratios in leaves and branches. Hermaphrodites had higher N/P ratios in the leaves and branches. Males had higher rates of increase in leaf P content than hermaphrodites. This study suggests that stoichiometry patterns may be significantly affected by gender. PMID:27725739

  13. Monitoring the Health of Sugar Maple, "Acer Saccharum"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Martha

    2013-01-01

    The sugar maple, "Acer saccharum," is projected to decline and die in 88 to 100 percent of its current range in the United States. An iconic symbol of the northeastern temperate forest and a dominant species in this forest, the sugar maple is identified as the most sensitive tree in its ecosystem to rising temperatures and a warming…

  14. Calibrating abundance indices with population size estimators of red back salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) in a New England forest

    PubMed Central

    Ellison, Aaron M.; Jackson, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Herpetologists and conservation biologists frequently use convenient and cost-effective, but less accurate, abundance indices (e.g., number of individuals collected under artificial cover boards or during natural objects surveys) in lieu of more accurate, but costly and destructive, population size estimators to detect and monitor size, state, and trends of amphibian populations. Although there are advantages and disadvantages to each approach, reliable use of abundance indices requires that they be calibrated with accurate population estimators. Such calibrations, however, are rare. The red back salamander, Plethodon cinereus, is an ecologically useful indicator species of forest dynamics, and accurate calibration of indices of salamander abundance could increase the reliability of abundance indices used in monitoring programs. We calibrated abundance indices derived from surveys of P. cinereus under artificial cover boards or natural objects with a more accurate estimator of their population size in a New England forest. Average densities/m2 and capture probabilities of P. cinereus under natural objects or cover boards in independent, replicate sites at the Harvard Forest (Petersham, Massachusetts, USA) were similar in stands dominated by Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock) and deciduous hardwood species (predominantly Quercus rubra [red oak] and Acer rubrum [red maple]). The abundance index based on salamanders surveyed under natural objects was significantly associated with density estimates of P. cinereus derived from depletion (removal) surveys, but underestimated true density by 50%. In contrast, the abundance index based on cover-board surveys overestimated true density by a factor of 8 and the association between the cover-board index and the density estimates was not statistically significant. We conclude that when calibrated and used appropriately, some abundance indices may provide cost-effective and reliable measures of P. cinereus abundance that could

  15. Calibrating abundance indices with population size estimators of red back salamanders (Plethodon cinereus) in a New England forest.

    PubMed

    Siddig, Ahmed A; Ellison, Aaron M; Jackson, Scott

    2015-01-01

    Herpetologists and conservation biologists frequently use convenient and cost-effective, but less accurate, abundance indices (e.g., number of individuals collected under artificial cover boards or during natural objects surveys) in lieu of more accurate, but costly and destructive, population size estimators to detect and monitor size, state, and trends of amphibian populations. Although there are advantages and disadvantages to each approach, reliable use of abundance indices requires that they be calibrated with accurate population estimators. Such calibrations, however, are rare. The red back salamander, Plethodon cinereus, is an ecologically useful indicator species of forest dynamics, and accurate calibration of indices of salamander abundance could increase the reliability of abundance indices used in monitoring programs. We calibrated abundance indices derived from surveys of P. cinereus under artificial cover boards or natural objects with a more accurate estimator of their population size in a New England forest. Average densities/m(2) and capture probabilities of P. cinereus under natural objects or cover boards in independent, replicate sites at the Harvard Forest (Petersham, Massachusetts, USA) were similar in stands dominated by Tsuga canadensis (eastern hemlock) and deciduous hardwood species (predominantly Quercus rubra [red oak] and Acer rubrum [red maple]). The abundance index based on salamanders surveyed under natural objects was significantly associated with density estimates of P. cinereus derived from depletion (removal) surveys, but underestimated true density by 50%. In contrast, the abundance index based on cover-board surveys overestimated true density by a factor of 8 and the association between the cover-board index and the density estimates was not statistically significant. We conclude that when calibrated and used appropriately, some abundance indices may provide cost-effective and reliable measures of P. cinereus abundance that

  16. Tinea corporis on the stump leg with Trichophyton rubrum infection

    PubMed Central

    Ran, Xin; Zhuang, Kaiwen; Ran, Yuping

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of tinea corporis on amputated leg stump caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The patient, a 54-year-old male, experienced a serious traffic accident, resulted his right leg amputated 3 years ago. Since then prosthesis was fitted and protective equipment of silicone stocking was worn for the stump. He consulted with circular, patchy and scaly erythemas with itching on his right below knee amputation stump for 2 months. The diagnoses of tinea corporis on the stump was made based on a positive KOH direct microscopic examination, morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 4, confirmed that the isolate from the scales was T. rubrum. The patient was cured with oral terbinafine and topical naftifine-ketaconazole cream following 2% ketaconazole shampoo wash for 3 weeks. Long times using prosthesis together with protective equipment of silicone stocking, leading to the local environment of airtight and humid within the prosthesis favors T. rubrum infection of the stump could be considered as the precipitating factors. PMID:26288747

  17. Tinea corporis on the stump leg with Trichophyton rubrum infection.

    PubMed

    Ran, Xin; Zhuang, Kaiwen; Ran, Yuping

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of tinea corporis on amputated leg stump caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The patient, a 54-year-old male, experienced a serious traffic accident, resulted his right leg amputated 3 years ago. Since then prosthesis was fitted and protective equipment of silicone stocking was worn for the stump. He consulted with circular, patchy and scaly erythemas with itching on his right below knee amputation stump for 2 months. The diagnoses of tinea corporis on the stump was made based on a positive KOH direct microscopic examination, morphologic characteristics and sequencing of the internal transcribed spacers (ITS) 1 and 4, confirmed that the isolate from the scales was T. rubrum. The patient was cured with oral terbinafine and topical naftifine-ketaconazole cream following 2% ketaconazole shampoo wash for 3 weeks. Long times using prosthesis together with protective equipment of silicone stocking, leading to the local environment of airtight and humid within the prosthesis favors T. rubrum infection of the stump could be considered as the precipitating factors.

  18. Analysis of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum expressed sequence tags

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lingling; Ma, Li; Leng, Wenchuan; Liu, Tao; Yu, Lu; Yang, Jian; Yang, Li; Zhang, Wenliang; Zhang, Qian; Dong, Jie; Xue, Ying; Zhu, Yafang; Xu, Xingye; Wan, Zhe; Ding, Guohui; Yu, Fudong; Tu, Kang; Li, Yixue; Li, Ruoyu; Shen, Yan; Jin, Qi

    2006-01-01

    Background Dermatophytes are the primary causative agent of dermatophytoses, a disease that affects billions of individuals worldwide. Trichophyton rubrum is the most common of the superficial fungi. Although T. rubrum is a recognized pathogen for humans, little is known about how its transcriptional pattern is related to development of the fungus and establishment of disease. It is therefore necessary to identify genes whose expression is relevant to growth, metabolism and virulence of T. rubrum. Results We generated 10 cDNA libraries covering nearly the entire growth phase and used them to isolate 11,085 unique expressed sequence tags (ESTs), including 3,816 contigs and 7,269 singletons. Comparisons with the GenBank non-redundant (NR) protein database revealed putative functions or matched homologs from other organisms for 7,764 (70%) of the ESTs. The remaining 3,321 (30%) of ESTs were only weakly similar or not similar to known sequences, suggesting that these ESTs represent novel genes. Conclusion The present data provide a comprehensive view of fungal physiological processes including metabolism, sexual and asexual growth cycles, signal transduction and pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:17032460

  19. Quantifying spatial genetic structuring in mesophotic populations of the precious coral Corallium rubrum.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Federica; Carlesi, Lorenzo; Abbiati, Marco

    2013-01-01

    While shallow water red coral populations have been overharvested in the past, nowadays, commercial harvesting shifted its pressure on mesophotic organisms. An understanding of red coral population structure, particularly larval dispersal patterns and connectivity among harvested populations is paramount to the viability of the species. In order to determine patterns of genetic spatial structuring of deep water Corallium rubrum populations, for the first time, colonies found between 58-118 m depth within the Tyrrhenian Sea were collected and analyzed. Ten microsatellite loci and two regions of mitochondrial DNA (mtMSH and mtC) were used to quantify patterns of genetic diversity within populations and to define population structuring at spatial scales from tens of metres to hundreds of kilometres. Microsatellites showed heterozygote deficiencies in all populations. Significant levels of genetic differentiation were observed at all investigated spatial scales, suggesting that populations are likely to be isolated. This differentiation may by the results of biological interactions, occurring within a small spatial scale and/or abiotic factors acting at a larger scale. Mitochondrial markers revealed significant genetic structuring at spatial scales greater then 100 km showing the occurrence of a barrier to gene flow between northern and southern Tyrrhenian populations. These findings provide support for the establishment of marine protected areas in the deep sea and off-shore reefs, in order to effectively maintain genetic diversity of mesophotic red coral populations.

  20. Carbonic Anhydrases in Cnidarians: Novel Perspectives from the Octocorallian Corallium rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Le Goff, Carine; Ganot, Philippe; Zoccola, Didier; Caminiti-Segonds, Natacha; Allemand, Denis; Tambutté, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Although the ability to elaborate calcium carbonate biominerals was apparently gained independently during animal evolution, members of the alpha carbonic anhydrases (α-CAs) family, which catalyze the interconversion of CO2 into HCO3-, are involved in the biomineralization process across metazoans. In the Mediterranean red coral Corallium rubrum, inhibition studies suggest an essential role of CAs in the synthesis of two biominerals produced in this octocoral, the axial skeleton and the sclerites. Hitherto no molecular characterization of these enzymes was available. In the present study we determined the complete set of α-CAs in C. rubrum by data mining the genome and transcriptome, and measured their differential gene expression between calcifying and non-calcifying tissues. We identified six isozymes (CruCA1-6), one cytosolic and five secreted/membrane-bound among which one lacked two of the three zinc-binding histidines and was so referred to as a carbonic anhydrase related protein (CARP). One secreted isozyme (CruCA4) showed specific expression both by qPCR and western-blot in the calcifying tissues, suggesting its involvement in biomineralization. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses of α-CAs, identified in six representative cnidarians with complete genome, support an independent recruitment of α-CAs for biomineralization within anthozoans. Finally, characterization of cnidarian CARPs highlighted two families: the monophyletic cytosolic CARPs, and the polyphyletic secreted CARPs harboring a cnidarian specific cysteine disulfide bridge. Alignment of the cytosolic CARPs revealed an evolutionary conserved R-H-Q motif in place of the characteristic zinc-binding H-H-H necessary for the catalytic function of α-CAs. PMID:27513959

  1. Dynamics of Sequestered Cryptophyte Nuclei in Mesodinium rubrum during Starvation and Refeeding

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Miran; Drumm, Kirstine; Daugbjerg, Niels; Hansen, Per J.

    2017-01-01

    The marine mixotrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum is known to acquire chloroplasts, mitochondria, nucleomorphs, and nucleus from its cryptophyte prey, particularly from species in the genera, Geminigera and Teleaulax. The sequestered prey nucleus and chloroplasts are considered to support photosynthesis of M. rubrum. In addition, recent studies have shown enlargement of the retained prey nucleus in starved M. rubrum and have inferred that enlargement results from the fusion of ingested prey nuclei. Thus far, however, little is known about the mechanism underlying the enlargement of the prey nucleus in M. rubrum. Here, we conducted starvation and refeeding studies to monitor the fate of prey nuclei acquired by M. rubrum when feeding on Teleaulax amphioxeia and to explore the influence of the retained prey nucleus on photosynthesis of M. rubrum. Results indicate that enlargement of the prey nucleus does not result from fusion of nuclei. Furthermore, the enlarged prey nucleus does not appear to divide during cell division of M. rubrum. The presence of a prey nucleus significantly affected photosynthetic performance of M. rubrum, while the number of retained chloroplasts had little influence on rate of carbon fixation. We interpret results within the context of a model that considers the dynamics of ingested prey nuclei during division of M. rubrum. PMID:28377747

  2. Dynamics of Sequestered Cryptophyte Nuclei in Mesodinium rubrum during Starvation and Refeeding.

    PubMed

    Kim, Miran; Drumm, Kirstine; Daugbjerg, Niels; Hansen, Per J

    2017-01-01

    The marine mixotrophic ciliate Mesodinium rubrum is known to acquire chloroplasts, mitochondria, nucleomorphs, and nucleus from its cryptophyte prey, particularly from species in the genera, Geminigera and Teleaulax. The sequestered prey nucleus and chloroplasts are considered to support photosynthesis of M. rubrum. In addition, recent studies have shown enlargement of the retained prey nucleus in starved M. rubrum and have inferred that enlargement results from the fusion of ingested prey nuclei. Thus far, however, little is known about the mechanism underlying the enlargement of the prey nucleus in M. rubrum. Here, we conducted starvation and refeeding studies to monitor the fate of prey nuclei acquired by M. rubrum when feeding on Teleaulax amphioxeia and to explore the influence of the retained prey nucleus on photosynthesis of M. rubrum. Results indicate that enlargement of the prey nucleus does not result from fusion of nuclei. Furthermore, the enlarged prey nucleus does not appear to divide during cell division of M. rubrum. The presence of a prey nucleus significantly affected photosynthetic performance of M. rubrum, while the number of retained chloroplasts had little influence on rate of carbon fixation. We interpret results within the context of a model that considers the dynamics of ingested prey nuclei during division of M. rubrum.

  3. Phenolic glycosides from sugar maple (Acer saccharum) bark.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Tao; Wan, Chunpeng; González-Sarrías, Antonio; Kandhi, Vamsikrishna; Cech, Nadja B; Seeram, Navindra P

    2011-11-28

    Four new phenolic glycosides, saccharumosides A-D (1-4), along with eight known phenolic glycosides, were isolated from the bark of sugar maple (Acer saccharum). The structures of 1-4 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. All compounds isolated were evaluated for cytotoxicity effects against human colon tumorigenic (HCT-116 and Caco-2) and nontumorigenic (CCD-18Co) cell lines.

  4. On Immuno-Allergic Reactions of Patients with Mycoses due to Trichophyton rubrum and to Some Zoophilic Fungi,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Allergy and autoimmune processes were found in patients with onychomycosis caused by Tr. rubrum and with mycoses caused by Tr. gypseum and Tr...with experimental mycoses caused by Tr. gypseum and onychomycosis caused by Tr. rubrum.

  5. Chlorpyrifos immersion to eliminate third instars of Japanese beetle (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) in balled and burlapped trees and subsequent treatment effects on red maple.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Jason B; Reding, Michael E; Klein, Michael G; Youssef, Nadeer N; Mannion, Catharine M; Bishop, Bert; James, Shannon S; Callcott, Anne-Marie

    2007-04-01

    This study examined chlorpyrifos immersion of balled and burlapped (B&B) nursery trees for elimination of third instars of Japanese beetle, Popillia japonica Newman (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae), and for phytotoxicity on red maple, Acer rubrum L. Trees were harvested as 45- and 60-cm-diameter B&B and immersed in chlorpyrifos at U.S. Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan rate (0.24 kg active ingredient [AI/100 liters) or lower rates of 0.015, 0.03, 0.06, and 0.12 kg (AI)/100 liters. The 0.03, 0.06, and 0.24 kg (AI) rates provided 100% control of Japanese beetle grubs in both 45- and 60-cm B&B. The 0.015 and 0.12 kg (AI) chlorpyrifos rates were 100% effective in three tests. However, in another test, 0.015 and 0.12 kg (AI) chlorpyrifos treatments had four (93% control) and one (98% control) grubs recovered, respectively. Root ball soils consisted of loam, silt loam, or clay loam texture classifications. Trunk diameter and internode growth of red maple harvested as 45-cm B&B decreased linearly with increasing chlorpyrifos dip rate during the first year, but effects were unapparent in the second year. Chlorpyrifos rates had no measurable impact on growth of red maples harvested as 60-cm B&B. No visual phytotoxicity symptoms were detected for chlorpyrifos rate or root ball size treatments. In conclusion, results support lowering the U.S. Domestic Japanese Beetle Harmonization Plan chlorpyrifos dip rate for category 2 states to at least 0.03 kg (AI) for B&B diameters < or =60 cm. Chlorpyrifos rates < 0.24 kg (AI) will lower cost, reduce worker exposure, and lessen potential environmental contamination.

  6. Revealing the cellular metabolism and microstructural changes in vivo in senescing Acer saccharum leaves using two-photon FLIM and full-field OCM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Sandeep; Anna, Tulsi; Kuo, Wen-Chuan; Chiou, Arthur

    2016-10-01

    Seasonal as well as climate changes have immense effect on bud burst, leaf color and leaf abscission. Autumn phenology of leaves is clearly distinguishable in deciduous plant leaves where the leaf color changes from green to red (leaf senescence). In this work, two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (2P-FLIM) and full-field optical coherence microscopy (FF-OCM) were applied to study mitochondrial activity and microstructural changes, respectively, in the senescence of Acer saccharum (Sugar maple) leaves. Fluorescence lifetime of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate [NAD(P)H] was recorded using 2P-FLIM to quantify the cellular metabolic changes. Compared to the green leaves, the red leaves showed a 19% increase (P < 0.05) in the average fluorescence lifetime of NAD(P)H, and a 52% decrease (p < 0.005) in the free to protein-bound NAD(P)H ratio. This infers a significant change in mitochondrial metabolic regulation in red leaves in contrast to green leaves. Additionally, en-face sectional images at 0.8 μm axial resolutions of the green and the red color Acer saccharum leaves via FF-OCM using white light emitting diode (WLED) showed a well-defined microstructure of epicuticular waxy layer in green leaves as compared to red leaves where disintegrated microstructure was observed. Our approach can potentially be used to correlate mitochondrial activity with epicuticular microstructural changes in senescing leaves and other biological tissues.

  7. In vitro characterization of Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes biofilms.

    PubMed

    Costa-Orlandi, C B; Sardi, J C O; Santos, C T; Fusco-Almeida, A M; Mendes-Giannini, M J S

    2014-01-01

    Dermatophytes are fungi responsible for a disease known as dermatophytosis. Biofilms are sessile microbial communities surrounded by extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) with increased resistance to antimicrobial agents and host defenses. This paper describes, for the first time, the characteristics of Trichophyton rubrum and T. mentagrophytes biofilms. Biofilm formation was analyzed by light microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) as well as by staining with crystal violet and safranin. Metabolic activity was determined using the XTT reduction assay. Both species were able to form mature biofilms in 72 h. T. rubrum biofilm produced more biomass and EPS and was denser than T. mentagrophytes biofilm. The SEM results demonstrated a coordinated network of hyphae in all directions, embedded within EPS in some areas. Research and characterization of biofilms formed by dermatophytes may contribute to the search of new drugs for the treatment of these mycoses and might inform future revisions with respect to the dose and duration of treatment of currently available antifungals.

  8. Whole-genome shotgun optical mapping of Rhodospirillum rubrum

    SciTech Connect

    Reslewic, S.; Zhou, S.; Place, M.; Zhang, Y.; Briska, A.; Goldstein, S.; Churas, C.; Runnheim, R.; Forrest, D.; Lim, A.; Lapidus, A.; Han, C. S.; Roberts, G. P.; Schwartz, D. C.

    2005-09-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum is a phototrophic purple nonsulfur bacterium known for its unique and well-studied nitrogen fixation and carbon monoxide oxidation systems and as a source of hydrogen and biodegradable plastic production. To better understand this organism and to facilitate assembly of its sequence, three whole-genome restriction endonuclease maps (XbaI, NheI, and HindIII) of R. rubrum strain ATCC 11170 were created by optical mapping. Optical mapping is a system for creating whole-genome ordered restriction endonuclease maps from randomly sheared genomic DNA molecules extracted from cells. During the sequence finishing process, all three optical maps confirmed a putative error in sequence assembly, while the HindIII map acted as a scaffold for high-resolution alignment with sequence contigs spanning the whole genome. In addition to highlighting optical mapping's role in the assembly and confirmation of genome sequence, this work underscores the unique niche in resolution occupied by the optical mapping system. With a resolution ranging from 6.5 kb (previously published) to 45 kb (reported here), optical mapping advances a "molecular cytogenetics" approach to solving problems in genomic analysis.

  9. Complete genome sequence of Rhodospirillum rubrum type strain (S1).

    PubMed

    Munk, A Christine; Copeland, Alex; Lucas, Susan; Lapidus, Alla; Del Rio, Tijana Glavina; Barry, Kerrie; Detter, John C; Hammon, Nancy; Israni, Sanjay; Pitluck, Sam; Brettin, Thomas; Bruce, David; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Gilna, Paul; Schmutz, Jeremy; Larimer, Frank; Land, Miriam; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Mavromatis, Konstantinos; Richardson, Paul; Rohde, Manfred; Göker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Zhang, Yaoping; Roberts, Gary P; Reslewic, Susan; Schwartz, David C

    2011-07-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum (Esmarch 1887) Molisch 1907 is the type species of the genus Rhodospirillum, which is the type genus of the family Rhodospirillaceae in the class Alphaproteobacteria. The species is of special interest because it is an anoxygenic phototroph that produces extracellular elemental sulfur (instead of oxygen) while harvesting light. It contains one of the most simple photosynthetic systems currently known, lacking light harvesting complex 2. Strain S1(T) can grow on carbon monoxide as sole energy source. With currently over 1,750 PubMed entries, R. rubrum is one of the most intensively studied microbial species, in particular for physiological and genetic studies. Next to R. centenum strain SW, the genome sequence of strain S1(T) is only the second genome of a member of the genus Rhodospirillum to be published, but the first type strain genome from the genus. The 4,352,825 bp long chromosome and 53,732 bp plasmid with a total of 3,850 protein-coding and 83 RNA genes were sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Program DOEM 2002.

  10. Forest vegetation monitoring and foliar chemistry of red spruce and red maple at Acadia National Park in Maine.

    PubMed

    Wiersma, G Bruce; Elvir, Jose Alexander; Eckhoff, Janet D

    2007-03-01

    The USDA Forest Service Forest Health Monitoring (FHM) program indicators, including forest mensuration, crown condition classification, and damage and mortality indicators were used in the Cadillac Brook and Hadlock Brook watershed forests at Acadia National Park (ANP) along coastal Maine. Cadillac Brook watershed burned in a wildfire in 1947. Hadlock Brook watershed, undisturbed for several centuries, serves as the reference site. These two small watersheds have been gauged and monitored at ANP since 1998 as part of the Park Research and Intensive Monitoring of Ecosystems Network (PRIMENet). Forest vegetation at Hadlock Brook was dominated by late successional species such as Acer saccharum, Fagus grandifolia, Betula alleghaniensis, Acer rubrum and Picea rubens. Forest vegetation at Cadillac Brook, on the other hand, was younger and more diverse and included those species found in Hadlock as well as early successional species such as Betula papyrifera and Populus grandidentata. Differences in forest species composition and stand structure were attributed to the severe wildfire that affected the Cadillac Brook watershed. Overall, the forests at these ANP watersheds were healthy with a low percentage (rubrum and P. rubens trees growing in Hadlock Brook watershed, but differences were significant only for P. rubens. Foliar aluminum (Al) concentrations were also higher in both species growing in Hadlock Brook watershed but differences were significant only for A. rubrum. Foliar calcium (Ca) and manganese (Mn) concentrations, on the other hand, were significantly lower in Hadlock Brook watershed for both species. Foliar potassium (K) was significantly higher for P. rubens growing in Hadlock Brook. No differences in foliar concentrations of magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), boron (B), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) were found between watersheds. The higher foliar N concentrations

  11. Probability of foliar injury for Acer sp. based on foliar fluoride concentrations.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Andrew M; Dixon, Murray J; Terry, Debbie T; Todd, Aaron K; Luciani, Michael A; Williamson, Michele L; Roszak, Danuta S; Farias, Kim A

    2016-12-01

    Fluoride is considered one of the most phytotoxic elements to plants, and indicative fluoride injury has been associated over a wide range of foliar fluoride concentrations. The aim of this study was to determine the probability of indicative foliar fluoride injury based on Acer sp. foliar fluoride concentrations using a logistic regression model. Foliage from Acer nedundo, Acer saccharinum, Acer saccharum and Acer platanoides was collected along a distance gradient from three separate brick manufacturing facilities in southern Ontario as part of a long-term monitoring programme between 1995 and 2014. Hydrogen fluoride is the major emission source associated with the manufacturing facilities resulting with highly elevated foliar fluoride close to the facilities and decreasing with distance. Consistent with other studies, indicative fluoride injury was observed over a wide range of foliar concentrations (9.9-480.0 μg F(-) g(-1)). The logistic regression model was statistically significant for the Acer sp. group, A. negundo and A. saccharinum; consequently, A. negundo being the most sensitive species among the group. In addition, A. saccharum and A. platanoides were not statistically significant within the model. We are unaware of published foliar fluoride values for Acer sp. within Canada, and this research provides policy maker and scientist with probabilities of indicative foliar injury for common urban Acer sp. trees that can help guide decisions about emissions controls. Further research should focus on mechanisms driving indicative fluoride injury over wide ranging foliar fluoride concentrations and help determine foliar fluoride thresholds for damage.

  12. A case of blastomycosis-like pyoderma caused by mixed infection of Staphylococcus epidermidis and Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Ouchi, Takeshi; Tamura, Mai; Nishimoto, Shuhei; Sato, Tomotaka; Ishiko, Akira

    2011-06-01

    Blastomycosis-like pyoderma (BLP) is a type of chronic pyoderma characterized histologically by specific epidermal changes namely: pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia and intraepithelial abscesses. These epidermal changes are also seen in blastomycosis (referred to as deep dermatophytosis in North America). Here, we describe the case of a 53-year-old male with prurigo nodularis, diabetes, and chronic lymphocytic leukemia who presented with multiple yellowish-red colored papules that coalesced to form a vegetating plaque. In addition to the typical features of BLP, spores with budding were seen histopathologically in a biopsy specimen. Cultures of a skin specimen grew Staphylococcus epidermidis and Trichophyton rubrum. Antibiotic therapy was effective but failed to eliminate the lesion until antifungal therapy using terbinafine was administered concurrently. Past reports suggest that BLP is mainly caused by bacterial infection, but our case suggests that fungal infection can also be involved as the causative organism in BLP.

  13. Hydrogen Production by the Photosynthetic Bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Zürrer, Hans; Bachofen, Reinhard

    1979-01-01

    Continuous photosynthetic production of hydrogen by Rhodospirillum rubrum in batch cultures was observed up to 80 days with the hydrogen donor, pure lactate or lactic acid-containing wastes, supplied periodically. Hydrogen was produced at an average rate of 6 ml/h per g (dry weight) of cells with whey as a hydrogen donor. In continuous cultures with glutamate as a growth-limiting nitrogen source and lactate as a hydrogen donor, hydrogen was evolved at a rate of 20 ml/h per g (dry weight). The composition of the gas evolved remained practically constant (70 to 75% H2, 25 to 30% CO2). Photosynthetic bacteria processing specific organic wastes could be an advantage in large-scale production of hydrogen together with food protein of high value, compared to other biological systems. Images PMID:16345375

  14. Effect of gender on sap-flux-scaled transpiration in a dominant riparian tree species: Box elder (Acer negundo)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hultine, K. R.; Bush, S. E.; West, A. G.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2007-09-01

    Acer negundo is a dioecious riparian tree species with a spatial segregation of the sexes along soil moisture gradients. Females are typically more common in wet sites along streams (typically F/M ≈ 1.6), whereas males are more common in drier sites away from streams (typically F/M ≈ 0.6). Spatial segregation between sexes may develop because of the higher reproductive cost in females compared to males. If so, female Acer negundo trees would be under stronger selection to maximize resource uptake, and would therefore likely occur at greater frequencies in high resources sites (i.e., along streamsides), and increase rates of resource acquisition (i.e., water and nutrients). The spatial segregation of the sexes leads to the hypothesis that male and female individuals have varying influence on ecosystem evapotranspiration. To address this, stem sap flux was measured on mature streamside (≤1 m from stream channel) and nonstreamside (>1 m from stream channel) male and female Acer negundo trees occurring in Red Butte Canyon near Salt Lake City, Utah, during the 2004 growing season. Despite having similar predawn and midday water potentials, sap flux density was 76% higher in streamside female trees than in males (P < 0.0001), while sap flux density was 19% greater in nonstreamside female trees compared to males (P < 0.0001). Mean daily sap flux density of all A. negundo populations was highly correlated with mean daily vapor pressure deficit (P < 0.0001), and was moderately correlated with mean daily photosynthetic active radiation (P = 0.0263). At the watershed scale, nonstreamside male and female A. negundo trees contributed 20 and 21% respectively to the estimated 1.7 mm d-1 transpiration flux from dominant riparian vegetation away from streamsides (estimated from scaled sap flux measurements of all dominant riparian tree species in Red Butte Canyon). Male and female A. negundo trees contributed 31 and 46% respectively of the estimated 8.0 mm d-1 transpiration

  15. Potential of Ergosterol Synthesis Inhibitors To Cause Resistance or Cross-Resistance in Trichophyton rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Celandroni, Francesco; Gueye, Sokhna Aissatou; Salvetti, Sara; Senesi, Sonia; Bulgheroni, Anna; Mailland, Federico

    2014-01-01

    Superficial mycoses caused by Trichophyton rubrum are among the most common infections worldwide. T. rubrum infections are difficult to treat and are often associated with recurrences after interruption of the antifungal therapy. Nevertheless, reports on T. rubrum resistance to commonly used antifungal drugs are rare. In this study, we compared the in vitro resistance frequencies and development of resistance to terbinafine, itraconazole, amorolfine, and ciclopirox in T. rubrum. Results demonstrated that naturally occurring mutants were isolated at a frequency of 10−7 for itraconazole and 10−9 for terbinafine and amorolfine. To mimic conditions of body sites in which low drug levels are reached during therapy, T. rubrum was propagated for 10 transfers in media containing subinhibitory drug concentrations. Resistance to itraconazole, terbinafine, and amorolfine emerged at a higher frequency than was seen with spontaneous mutation. Itraconazole-resistant mutants also showed decreased susceptibility to amorolfine as well as to terbinafine, and amorolfine-resistant mutants were also less susceptible to terbinafine. No mutant resistant to ciclopirox was isolated, suggesting no propensity of T. rubrum to develop resistance to this drug. How different drug mechanisms of action can influence the onset of resistance is discussed. PMID:24614379

  16. Understanding the physiological roles of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) in Rhodospirillum rubrum S1 under aerobic chemoheterotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Narancic, Tanja; Scollica, Elisa; Kenny, Shane T; Gibbons, Helena; Carr, Eibhlin; Brennan, Lorraine; Cagney, Gerard; Wynne, Kieran; Murphy, Cormac; Raberg, Matthias; Heinrich, Daniel; Steinbüchel, Alexander; O'Connor, Kevin E

    2016-10-01

    Polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is an important biopolymer accumulated by bacteria and associated with cell survival and stress response. Here, we make two surprising findings in the PHB-accumulating species Rhodospirillum rubrum S1. We first show that the presence of PHB promotes the increased assimilation of acetate preferentially into biomass rather than PHB. When R. rubrum is supplied with (13)C-acetate as a PHB precursor, 83.5 % of the carbon in PHB comes from acetate. However, only 15 % of the acetate ends up in PHB with the remainder assimilated as bacterial biomass. The PHB-negative mutant of R. rubrum assimilates 2-fold less acetate into biomass compared to the wild-type strain. Acetate assimilation proceeds via the ethylmalonyl-CoA pathway with (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate as a common intermediate with the PHB pathway. Secondly, we show that R. rubrum cells accumulating PHB have reduced ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBisCO) activity. RuBisCO activity reduces 5-fold over a 36-h period after the onset of PHB. In contrast, a PHB-negative mutant maintains the same level of RuBisCO activity over the growth period. Since RuBisCO controls the redox potential in R. rubrum, PHB likely replaces RuBisCO in this role. R. rubrum is the first bacterium found to express RuBisCO under aerobic chemoheterotrophic conditions.

  17. Siring Success and Paternal Effects in Heterodichogamous Acer opalus

    PubMed Central

    Gleiser, Gabriela; Segarra-Moragues, José Gabriel; Pannell, John Richard; Verdú, Miguel

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Heterodichogamy (a dimorphic breeding system comprising protandrous and protogynous individuals) is a potential starting point in the evolution of dioecy from hermaphroditism. In the genus Acer, previous work suggests that dioecy evolved from heterodichogamy through an initial spread of unisexual males. Here, the question is asked as to whether the different morphs in Acer opalus, a species in which males co-exist with heterodichogamous hermaphrodites, differ in various components of male in fitness. Methods Several components of male fertility were analysed. Pollination rates in the male phase were recorded across one flowering period. Pollen viability was compared among morphs through hand pollinations both with pollen from a single sexual morph and also simulating a situation of pollen competition; in the latter experiment, paternity was assessed with microsatellite markers. It was also determined whether effects of genetic relatedness between pollen donors and recipients could influence the siring success. Finally, paternal effects occurring beyond the fertilization process were tested for by measuring the height reached by seedlings with different sires over three consecutive growing seasons. Key Results The males and protandrous morphs had higher pollination rates than the protogynous morph, and the seedlings they sired grew taller. No differences in male fertility were found between males and protandrous individuals. Departures from random mating due to effects of genetic relatedness among sires and pollen recipients were also ruled out. Conclusions Males and protandrous individuals are probably better sires than protogynous individuals, as shown by the higher pollination rates and the differential growth of the seedlings sired by these morphs. In contrast, the fertility of males was not higher than the male fertility of the protandrous morph. While the appearance of males in sexually specialized heterodichogamous populations is possible

  18. Age and Availability of Nonstructural Carbohydrates in Red Maple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, M. S.; Keenan, T. F.; Czimczik, C. I.; Murakami, P.; O'Keefe, J.; Schaberg, P.; Xu, X.; Richardson, A. D.

    2012-12-01

    Recent studies show that nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) pools in mature trees can be quite large and on average a decade old. Yet, little is known about how older stored NSC reserves vs. recently-assimilated NSCs are used to support growth and metabolism, or how available these stored NSC reserves are to trees during stress or following disturbance. To better understand these aspects of NSC dynamics, we studied mature red maple (Acer rubrum) trees that ranged in size and age in two New England temperate forests, Harvard Forest (Massachusetts) and Bartlett Experimental Forest (New Hampshire). Applying the radiocarbon (14C) "bomb spike" approach, we estimated the age of carbon in stemwood NSCs, bole respiration, and stump sprouts regenerated following harvesting. These isotopic measurements along with stemwood NSC concentrations allowed us to compare the NSC used for metabolic demands and the NSC available for regrowth following disturbance to the NSC actually present in the stemwood. We found that the mean age of stemwood sugars was 9.8 ± 5.3 y. Trees with slower growth rates had older sugar reserves and lower concentrations of sugar, starch, and total NSC reserves. The age of NSCs used to support dormant season metabolism (bole respiration) was between 1-3.5 y, and thus much younger than the mean age of stemwood sugars, indicating preferential use of more recently-assimilated NSC. There were no relationships observed between tree age or size and 1) the age of sugars present in stemwood cores or 2) the age of NSCs used for bole respiration. Moreover, there was no relationship between the age of sugars in stemwood and the age of NSCs used for bole respiration. The stump sprouts were formed from NSCs 1-17 y old, (mean 5.8 ± 5.4 y), with older trees using older NSCs to produce stump sprouts. The stump sprout data indicate that some of these older NSCs reserves are available to the tree for use following major disturbance. However, the bole respiration data

  19. Age, allocation, and availability of nonstructural carbohydrates in red maple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carbone, Mariah; Keenan, Trevor; Czimczik, Claudia; Murakami, Paula; O'Keefe, John; Pederson, Neil; Schaberg, Paul; Xu, Xiaomei; Richardson, Andrew

    2013-04-01

    Nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC) are the primary products of photosynthesis, composed mostly of sugars and starch. Recent studies show that NSC pools in mature trees can be quite large and on average a decade old. Thus, NSC pools integrate years of carbon assimilation and represent significant ecological memory at the whole plant and ecosystem level. However, we know very little about how older stored NSC versus newly assimilated NSC are used to support growth and metabolism, or how available older NSC are to trees during stress or following disturbance. To better understand these potential lags in NSC allocation, we studied mature red maple (Acer rubrum) trees in New England temperate forests. Applying the radiocarbon (14C) "bomb spike" approach, we estimated the age of carbon in stemwood NSC, ring cellulose, bole respiration, and stump sprouts regenerated following harvesting. These measurements allowed us to compare the NSC used for metabolic demands, annual growth, and the NSC available for regrowth following disturbance to the NSC actually present in the stemwood. Finally, tree ring widths were analyzed to determine the annual autocorrelation in radial wood increment. We found that the mean age of stemwood sugars was 9.8 ± 5 y. The age of NSC used to support metabolism (bole respiration) was much younger than the mean age of stemwood sugars, indicating preferential use of more recently assimilated NSC. In the spring before leaves emerged, bole respiration was between 1-2 y, whereas it was composed of newly assimilated NSC in the late summer. The ring cellulose 14C age was on average 0.8 y older than direct ring counts (within error of 14C measurement) which may or may not indicate a stored NSC contribution. Tree ring width analyses indicate strong autocorrelation between ring growth in one year and in the following year, in agreement with ring cellulose 14C ages. However, autocorrelation weakened over the following 10 years, consistent with the measured mean

  20. Carbon monoxide metabolism by the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum. Progress report, November 15, 1990--November 15, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Ludden, P.W.; Roberts, G.P.

    1991-12-31

    Research continued on carbon monoxide metabolism by Rhodospirillum rubrum. In the past year, progress was made in: (1) the identification and isolation of the physiological electron carrier from monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) to hydrogenase in R. rubrum; (2) the isolation, sequencing and mutagenesis of the genes encoding the components of the CO oxidation system in R. rubrum, (3) the purification and characterization of the CO-induced hydrogenase activity of R. rubrum; (4) the spectroscopic investigation of the cobalt-substituted form of the enzyme.

  1. Polyadenylated mRNA from the photosynthetic procaryote Rhodospirillum rubrum

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, P.K.; McFadden, B.A.

    1984-03-01

    Total cellular RNA extracted from Rhodospirillum rubrum cultured in butyrate-containing medium under strict photosynthetic conditions to the stationary phase of growth has been fractionated on an oligodeoxy-thymidylic acid-cellulose column into polyadenylated (poly(A)/sup +/) RNA and poly(A)/sup -/ RNA fractions. The poly(A)/sup +/ fraction was 9 to 10% of the total bulk RNA isolated. Analysis of the poly(A)/sup +/ RNA on a denaturing urea-polyacrylamide gel revealed four sharp bands of RNA distributed in heterodisperse fashion between 16S and 9S. Similar fractionation of the poly(A)/sup -/ RNA resulted in the separation of 23, 16, and 5S rRNAs and 4S tRNA. Poly(A)/sup +/ fragments isolated after combined digestion with pancreatic A and T/sub 1/ RNases and analysis by denaturing gel electrophoresis demonstrated two major components of 80 and 100 residues. Alkaline hydrolysis of the nuclease-resistant, purified residues showed AMP-rich nucleotides. Through the use of snake venom phosphodiesterase, poly(A) tracts were placed at the 3' end of poly(A)/sup +/ RNA. Stimulation of (/sup 3/H)leucine

  2. Red coral extinction risk enhanced by ocean acidification.

    PubMed

    Cerrano, Carlo; Cardini, Ulisse; Bianchelli, Silvia; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Pusceddu, Antonio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The red coral Corallium rubrum is a habitat-forming species with a prominent and structural role in mesophotic habitats, which sustains biodiversity hotspots. This precious coral is threatened by both over-exploitation and temperature driven mass mortality events. We report here that biocalcification, growth rates and polyps' (feeding) activity of Corallium rubrum are significantly reduced at pCO2 scenarios predicted for the end of this century (0.2 pH decrease). Since C. rubrum is a long-living species (>200 years), our results suggest that ocean acidification predicted for 2100 will significantly increases the risk of extinction of present populations. Given the functional role of these corals in the mesophotic zone, we predict that ocean acidification might have cascading effects on the functioning of these habitats worldwide.

  3. Red coral extinction risk enhanced by ocean acidification

    PubMed Central

    Cerrano, Carlo; Cardini, Ulisse; Bianchelli, Silvia; Corinaldesi, Cinzia; Pusceddu, Antonio; Danovaro, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    The red coral Corallium rubrum is a habitat-forming species with a prominent and structural role in mesophotic habitats, which sustains biodiversity hotspots. This precious coral is threatened by both over-exploitation and temperature driven mass mortality events. We report here that biocalcification, growth rates and polyps' (feeding) activity of Corallium rubrum are significantly reduced at pCO2 scenarios predicted for the end of this century (0.2 pH decrease). Since C. rubrum is a long-living species (>200 years), our results suggest that ocean acidification predicted for 2100 will significantly increases the risk of extinction of present populations. Given the functional role of these corals in the mesophotic zone, we predict that ocean acidification might have cascading effects on the functioning of these habitats worldwide. PMID:23492780

  4. IL-1 signaling inhibits Trichophyton rubrum conidia development and modulates the IL-17 response in vivo.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Fábio Seiti Yamada; Ferreira, Lucas Gonçalves; de Almeida, Sandro Rogério

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytosis are one of the most common fungal infections in the world. They compromise keratinized tissues and the main etiological agent is Trichophyton rubrum. Macrophages are key cells in innate immunity and prominent sources of IL-1β, a potent inflammatory cytokine whose main production pathway is by the activation of inflammasomes and caspase-1. However, the role of inflammasomes and IL-1 signaling against T.rubrum has not been reported. In this work, we observed that bone marrow-derived macrophages produce IL-1β in response to T.rubrum conidia in a NLRP3-, ASC- and caspase-1-dependent fashion. Curiously, lack of IL-1 signaling promoted hyphae development, uncovering a protective role for IL-1β in macrophages. In addition, mice lacking IL-1R showed reduced IL-17 production, a key cytokine in the antifungal defense, in response to T.rubrum. Our findings point to a prominent role of IL-1 signaling in the immune response to T.rubrum, opening the venue for the study of this pathway in other fungal infections.

  5. Investigation on mechanism of antifungal activity of eugenol against Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; Mendes, Juliana Moura; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2013-07-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is a worldwide agent responsible for chronic cases of dermatophytosis which have high rates of resistance to antifungal drugs. Attention has been drawn to the antimicrobial activity of aromatic compounds because of their promising biological properties. Therefore, we investigated the antifungal activity of eugenol against 14 strains of T. rubrum which involved determining its minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and effects on mycelial growth (dry weight), conidial germination and morphogenesis. The effects of eugenol on the cell wall (sorbitol protect effect) and the cell membrane (release of intracellular material, complex with ergosterol, ergosterol synthesis) were investigated. Eugenol inhibited the growth of 50% of T. rubrum strains employed in this study at an MIC = 256 μg/ml, as well as mycelial growth and conidia germination. It also caused abnormalities in the morphology of the dermatophyte in that we found wide, short, twisted hyphae and decreased conidiogenesis. The results of these studies on the mechanisms of action suggested that eugenol exerts antifungal effects on the cell wall and cell membrane of T. rubrum. Eugenol act on cell membrane by a mechanism that seems to involve the inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis. The lower ergosterol content interferes with the integrity and functionality of the cell membrane. Finally, our studies support the potential use of the eugenol as an antifungal agent against T. rubrum.

  6. Genomic adaptations of the halophilic Dead Sea filamentous fungus Eurotium rubrum.

    PubMed

    Kis-Papo, Tamar; Weig, Alfons R; Riley, Robert; Peršoh, Derek; Salamov, Asaf; Sun, Hui; Lipzen, Anna; Wasser, Solomon P; Rambold, Gerhard; Grigoriev, Igor V; Nevo, Eviatar

    2014-05-09

    The Dead Sea is one of the most hypersaline habitats on Earth. The fungus Eurotium rubrum (Eurotiomycetes) is among the few species able to survive there. Here we highlight its adaptive strategies, based on genome analysis and transcriptome profiling. The 26.2 Mb genome of E. rubrum shows, for example, gains in gene families related to stress response and losses with regard to transport processes. Transcriptome analyses under different salt growth conditions revealed, among other things differentially expressed genes encoding ion and metabolite transporters. Our findings suggest that long-term adaptation to salinity requires cellular and metabolic responses that differ from short-term osmotic stress signalling. The transcriptional response indicates that halophilic E. rubrum actively counteracts the salinity stress. Many of its genes encode for proteins with a significantly higher proportion of acidic amino acid residues. This trait is characteristic of the halophilic prokaryotes as well, supporting the theory of convergent evolution under extreme hypersaline stress.

  7. The Biochemistry, Bioenergetics, and Physiology of CO-Dependent Growth of Rhodospirillum rubrum

    SciTech Connect

    Ludden, Paul W

    2005-09-07

    Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) isolated from the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum is an oxygen-labile enzyme that catalyzes the reversible oxidation of CO to CO2. The presence of CODH allows R. rubrum to grow anaerobically in the dark with CO as sole energy source. Spectroscopic and crystallographic studies have shown that the active site for CO oxidation is an unprecedented Ni-Fe-S metallocluster (referred to as the C-cluster). The goals of this research project have been: (1) to study the assembly of the active site C-cluster of CODH, (2) to determine the mechanism of CO oxidation by R. rubrum CODH in the context of the structure of the enzyme and, (3) to study the properties of CODH bound to its physiological electron acceptor protein, CooF. A combined genetic and biochemical approach has been used to address these questions.

  8. Photosynthetic acclimation of Acer saccharum. Eleventh annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Gates, D.M.

    1985-01-01

    The overall goal of our research program has been to understand the effect of variations in the characteristics of whole-leaf CO/sub 2/ exchange on productivity of plants and plant communities. To this end we have measured CO/sub 2/ exchange as a function of major environmental factors, emphasizing irradiance, temperature, and CO/sub 2/ concentration. In addition we have determined the effect of O/sub 2/ on photosynthesis, because of the major impact O/sub 2/ has on net carbon gain during photosynthesis. We have tested various models for their ability to simulate the daily responses of CO/sub 2/ exchange measured in the field. These studies have convinced us that we have adequate modeling capacity for simulation of daily time courses under natural conditions. During the past three years we have made progress on several projects related to gas exchange, particularly CO/sub 2/ exhange, in leaves. The primary emphasis has been on the analysis and modeling of daily CO/sub 2/ exchange in Acer saccharum seedlings. More recently we have been emphasizing the investigation of the photosynthetic response of Populus grandidentata. Data has also been collected on a number of other species in order to test the generality of some of the responses noted in the intensive studies.

  9. Chlorophyll content monitoring in sugar maple (Acer saccharum).

    PubMed

    Cate, Thomas M; Perkins, T D

    2003-10-01

    We conducted two experiments to determine the usefulness of a chlorophyll content meter (CCM) for the measurement of foliar chlorophyll concentration in sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in the fall color period. In Experiment 1, four sugar maple trees were visually assigned to each of four fall foliage color categories in October 1998. On four dates in the fall of 1999, leaves were taken from the trees and analyzed for chlorophyll concentration by absorbance of pigment extracts and by determination of the chlorophyll content index (CCI) with a CCM. The two measures of chlorophyll concentration were strongly correlated (P < 0.001, r2 = 0.72). In Experiment 2, the CCI of leaves from sugar maple trees subjected to one of four fertilization treatments (lime, lime + manure, lime + 10:10:10 N,P,K fertilizer and an untreated control) were determined with a CCM. Treatment effects were distinguishable between all pairwise comparisons (P < 0.001), except for the lime versus lime + NPK fertilizer treatments.

  10. [The biochemistry, bioenergetics, and physiology of the CO-dependent growth of Rhodospirillum rubrum

    SciTech Connect

    Ludden, P.W.; Roberts, G.P.

    1992-01-01

    We have previously purified and characterized the holo and Ni-deficient forms of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) from Rhodospirillum rubrum, developed protocols for insertion of various metals into the Ni site of the enzyme and characterized these metal substituted forms kinetically. In the current grant period a working hypothesis for the structure of the NiFeS center at the active site of CODH has been developed. A 22 kD FeS protein, which serves as the direct electron acceptor from CODH, has been identified and purified. This Fe[sub 4]S[sub 4] protein is required for anchoring CODH to the chromatophore membranes of R. rubrum and it is specifically required for reconstitution of CO-dependent H[sub 2] evolution in vitro. The R. rubrum genes for CODH, the 22 kD (ferredoxin-like) FeS protein, and the CO-induced hydrogenase have been isolated, sequenced, and mutagenized. This region has been designated the coo region with coos encoding CODH, cooF encoding the 22 kD ferredoxin and cooh the CO-induced hydrogenase. An ORF immediately downstream of cooS has been designated cooC. The cooS and cooF genes are cotranscribed, while cooH is on a separate transcript. The CO-dependent growth of R. rubrum has been established in the dark on medium containing only salts plus 0.2% yeast extract under an anaerobic CO gas phase. Under these conditions, R. rubrum grows with a doubling time of 5 hours, using CO as the sole energy source and the primary carbon source. The CO-induced hydrogenase activity from R. rubrum has been solubilized and partially purified. This hydrogenase is immunologically distinct from other hydrogenases. An in vitro system comprised of CODH, the 22 kD ferredoxin, hydrogenase and undefined factors has been reconstituted to give CO-dependent H[sub 2] evolution.

  11. Environmental and Nutritional Factors Affecting the Production of Rubratoxin B by Penicillium rubrum Stoll 1

    PubMed Central

    Hayes, A. Wallace; Wyatt, Elwanda P.; King, Patricia A.

    1970-01-01

    Rubratoxin B can be produced in a semisynthetic medium by Penicillium rubrum under varying environmental and nutritional conditions. Maximum production (552.0 mg/500 ml) was obtained with P. rubrum NRRL A-11785 grown in stationary cultures of Mosseray's simplified Raulin solution supplemented with 2.5% malt extract broth at ambient temperature. Zinc is required at levels of at least 0.4 mg per liter. In the absence of iron sulfate, there was a 50-fold reduction in rubratoxin B production but not in growth. No toxin was produced by this isolate in 5- or 7-liter fermentors. PMID:5485727

  12. Endonyx toenail onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum: treatment with photodynamic therapy based on methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Souza, Linton Wallis Figueiredo; Souza, Simone Vilas Trancoso; Botelho, Ana Cristina de Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    This study shows the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy based on methylene blue dye for the treatment of endonyx toenail onychomycosis. Four patients with endonyx onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum were treated with 2% methylene blue aqueous solution irradiated with light emission diode at 630 nm and an energy density of 36 J/cm2 for 6 months at 2-week intervals. The preliminary study showed the effectiveness of this therapy in the treatment of endonyx onychomycosis, and also indicated that the disease can be caused by T. rubrum.

  13. Reduced activity of glutamine synthetase in Rhodospirillum rubrum mutants lacking the adenylyltransferase GlnE.

    PubMed

    Jonsson, Anders; Nordlund, Stefan; Teixeira, Pedro Filipe

    2009-10-01

    In the nitrogen-fixing bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum, the GlnE adenylyltransferase (encoded by glnE) catalyzes reversible adenylylation of glutamine synthetase, thereby regulating nitrogen assimilation. We have generated glnE mutant strains that are unable to adenylylate glutamine synthetase (GS). Surprisingly, the activity of GS was lower in the mutants than in the wild type, even when grown in nitrogen-fixing conditions. Our results support the proposal that R. rubrum can only cope with the absence of an adenylylation system in the presence of lowered GS expression or activity. In general terms, this report also provides further support for the central role of GS in bacterial metabolism.

  14. Monitoring the health of sugar maple, Acer saccharum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Martha

    The sugar maple, Acer saccharum, is projected to decline and die in 88 to 100 percent of its current range in the United States. An iconic symbol of the northeastern temperate forest and a dominant species in this forest, the sugar maple is identified as the most sensitive tree in its ecosystem to rising temperatures and a warming climate. This study measures the health of sugar maples on 12 privately owned forests and at three schools in New Hampshire. Laboratory quantitative analyses of leaves, buds and sap as well as qualitative measures of leaf and bud indicate that record high beat in 2012 stressed the sugar maple. The study identifies several laboratory and qualitative tests of health which seem most sensitive and capable of identifying stress early when intervention in forest management or public policy change might counter decline of the species. The study presents evidence of an unusual atmospheric pollution event which defoliated sugar maples in 2010. The study examines the work of citizen scientists in Forest Watch, a K-12 school program in which students monitor the impacts of ozone on white pine, Pinus strobus, another keystone species in New Hampshire's forest. Finally, the study examines three simple measurements of bud, leaf and the tree's acclimation to light. The findings of these tests illuminate findings in the first study. And they present examples of what citizen scientists might contribute to long-term monitoring of maples. A partnership between science and citizens is proposed to begin long-term monitoring and to report on the health of sugar maples.

  15. Isomaltulose production from sucrose by Protaminobacter rubrum immobilized in calcium alginate.

    PubMed

    de Oliva-Neto, P; Menão, Paula T P

    2009-09-01

    Different culture conditions for Protaminobacter rubrum and enzymatic reaction parameters were evaluated with the goal of improving isomaltulose production. P. rubrum was grown in a medium with 1% (w/v) cane molasses and 0.5% yeast extract and achieved a maximum cell yield Y(x/s) of 0.295 g of cells/g sucrose and a specific growth rate (mu) of 0.192 h(-1). The immobilization of P. rubrum cells was carried out with calcium alginate, glutaraldehyde and polyethyleneimine. Stabile immobilized cell pellets were obtained and used 24 times in batch processes. Enzymatic conversion was carried out at different sucrose concentrations and in pH 6 medium with 70% (w/v) sucrose at 30 degrees C an isomaltulose yield of 89-94% (w/v) was obtained. The specific activity of the P. rubrum immobilized pellets in calcium alginate at 30 degrees C ranged from 1.6 to 4.0 g isomaltulose g(-1) pellet h(-1), respectively with 70% and 65% sucrose solution, while in lower sucrose concentration had higher specific activities presumably due to substrate inhibition of the isomaltulose synthase in higher sucrose concentrations.

  16. Gene Expression Response of Trichophyton rubrum during Coculture on Keratinocytes Exposed to Antifungal Agents

    PubMed Central

    Komoto, Tatiana Takahasi; Bitencourt, Tamires Aparecida; Silva, Gabriel; Beleboni, Rene Oliveira; Marins, Mozart; Fachin, Ana Lúcia

    2015-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most common causative agent of dermatomycoses worldwide, causing infection in the stratum corneum, nails, and hair. Despite the high prevalence of these infections, little is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in the fungal-host interaction, particularly during antifungal treatment. The aim of this work was to evaluate the gene expression of T. rubrum cocultured with keratinocytes and treated with the flavonoid trans-chalcone and the glycoalkaloid α-solanine. Both substances showed a marked antifungal activity against T. rubrum strain CBS (MIC = 1.15 and 17.8 µg/mL, resp.). Cytotoxicity assay against HaCaT cells produced IC50 values of 44.18 to trans-chalcone and 61.60 µM to α-solanine. The interaction of keratinocytes with T. rubrum conidia upregulated the expression of genes involved in the glyoxylate cycle, ergosterol synthesis, and genes encoding proteases but downregulated the ABC transporter TruMDR2 gene. However, both antifungals downregulated the ERG1 and ERG11, metalloprotease 4, serine proteinase, and TruMDR2 genes. Furthermore, the trans-chalcone downregulated the genes involved in the glyoxylate pathway, isocitrate lyase, and citrate synthase. Considering the urgent need for more efficient and safer antifungals, these results contribute to a better understanding of fungal-host interactions and to the discovery of new antifungal targets. PMID:26257814

  17. The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) and its sub-scores: normative values in an Italian population sample.

    PubMed

    Siciliano, Mattia; Raimo, Simona; Tufano, Dario; Basile, Giuseppe; Grossi, Dario; Santangelo, Franco; Trojano, Luigi; Santangelo, Gabriella

    2016-03-01

    The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) is a rapid screening battery, including five sub-scales to explore different cognitive domains: attention/orientation, memory, fluency, language and visuospatial. ACE-R is considered useful in discriminating cognitively normal subjects from patients with mild dementia. The aim of present study was to provide normative values for ACE-R total score and sub-scale scores in a large sample of Italian healthy subjects. Five hundred twenty-six Italian healthy subjects (282 women and 246 men) of different ages (age range 20-93 years) and educational level (from primary school to university) underwent ACE-R and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that age and education significantly influenced performance on ACE-R total score and sub-scale scores. A significant effect of gender was found only in sub-scale attention/orientation. From the derived linear equation, a correction grid for raw scores was built. Inferential cut-offs score were estimated using a non-parametric technique and equivalent scores (ES) were computed. Correlation analysis showed a good significant correlation between ACE-R adjusted scores with MoCA adjusted scores (r = 0.612, p < 0.001). The present study provided normative data for the ACE-R in an Italian population useful for both clinical and research purposes.

  18. Space station image captures a red tide ciliate bloom at high spectral and spatial resolution

    PubMed Central

    Dierssen, Heidi; McManus, George B.; Chlus, Adam; Qiu, Dajun; Gao, Bo-Cai; Lin, Senjie

    2015-01-01

    Mesodinium rubrum is a globally distributed nontoxic ciliate that is known to produce intense red-colored blooms using enslaved chloroplasts from its algal prey. Although frequent enough to have been observed by Darwin, blooms of M. rubrum are notoriously difficult to quantify because M. rubrum can aggregate into massive clouds of rusty-red water in a very short time due to its high growth rates and rapid swimming behavior and can disaggregate just as quickly by vertical or horizontal dispersion. A September 2012 hyperspectral image from the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean sensor aboard the International Space Station captured a dense red tide of M. rubrum (106 cells per liter) in surface waters of western Long Island Sound. Genetic data confirmed the identity of the chloroplast as a cryptophyte that was actively photosynthesizing. Microscopy indicated extremely high abundance of its yellow fluorescing signature pigment phycoerythrin. Spectral absorption and fluorescence features were related to ancillary photosynthetic pigments unique to this organism that cannot be observed with traditional satellites. Cell abundance was estimated at a resolution of 100 m using an algorithm based on the distinctive yellow fluorescence of phycoerythrin. Future development of hyperspectral satellites will allow for better enumeration of bloom-forming coastal plankton, the associated physical mechanisms, and contributions to marine productivity. PMID:26627232

  19. Space station image captures a red tide ciliate bloom at high spectral and spatial resolution.

    PubMed

    Dierssen, Heidi; McManus, George B; Chlus, Adam; Qiu, Dajun; Gao, Bo-Cai; Lin, Senjie

    2015-12-01

    Mesodinium rubrum is a globally distributed nontoxic ciliate that is known to produce intense red-colored blooms using enslaved chloroplasts from its algal prey. Although frequent enough to have been observed by Darwin, blooms of M. rubrum are notoriously difficult to quantify because M. rubrum can aggregate into massive clouds of rusty-red water in a very short time due to its high growth rates and rapid swimming behavior and can disaggregate just as quickly by vertical or horizontal dispersion. A September 2012 hyperspectral image from the Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean sensor aboard the International Space Station captured a dense red tide of M. rubrum (10(6) cells per liter) in surface waters of western Long Island Sound. Genetic data confirmed the identity of the chloroplast as a cryptophyte that was actively photosynthesizing. Microscopy indicated extremely high abundance of its yellow fluorescing signature pigment phycoerythrin. Spectral absorption and fluorescence features were related to ancillary photosynthetic pigments unique to this organism that cannot be observed with traditional satellites. Cell abundance was estimated at a resolution of 100 m using an algorithm based on the distinctive yellow fluorescence of phycoerythrin. Future development of hyperspectral satellites will allow for better enumeration of bloom-forming coastal plankton, the associated physical mechanisms, and contributions to marine productivity.

  20. Genome sequence of a clinical isolate of dermatophyte, Trichophyton rubrum from India.

    PubMed

    Latka, Chitra; Dey, Sanchita Sanchaya; Mahajan, Siddharth; Prabu, Ramachandira; Jangir, Pramod Kumar; Gupta, Chhavi; Das, Shukla; Ramachandran, Vishnampettai Ganapathysubramanian; Bhattacharya, Sambit Nath; Pandey, Rajesh; Sharma, Rakesh; Ramachandran, Srinivasan; Taneja, Bhupesh

    2015-04-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is one of the major causative agents of dermatophytosis in humans worldwide. We report the draft genome sequence of T. rubrum var. raubitschekii from Delhi, India, isolated from a patient presenting symptoms of onychomycosis. The total estimated genome size of the clinical isolate is 25.2 MB containing 8265 predicted protein-coding sequences, 91 tRNA and 15 rRNA genes. Sequence analysis of the secreted subtilases, one of the major virulence factors in dermatophytes, clusters them into three subfamilies with distinct sequence features. The genome sequence is a step in understanding diversity of dermatophytes worldwide and will aid in identification of virulence factors and dissecting mechanisms of pathogenesis among them.

  1. Comparison of the in vitro activities of newer triazoles and established antifungal agents against Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shuwen; Zhang, Chao; Seyedmousavi, Seyedmojtaba; Zhu, Shuang; Tan, Xin; Wen, Yiyang; Huang, Xin; Lei, Wenzhi; Zhou, Zhaojing; Fang, Wenjie; Shen, Shuaishuai; Deng, Danqi; Pan, Weihua; Liao, Wanqing

    2015-07-01

    One hundred eleven clinical Trichophyton rubrum isolates were tested against 7 antifungal agents. The geometric mean MICs of all isolates were, in increasing order: terbinafine, 0.03 mg/liter; voriconazole, 0.05 mg/liter; posaconazole, 0.11 mg/liter; isavuconazole, 0.13 mg/liter; itraconazole, 0.26 mg/liter; griseofulvin, 1.65 mg/liter; and fluconazole, 2.12 mg/liter.

  2. Experimental design and environmental parameters affect Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H response to space flight.

    PubMed

    Mastroleo, Felice; Van Houdt, Rob; Leroy, Baptiste; Benotmane, M Abderrafi; Janssen, Ann; Mergeay, Max; Vanhavere, Filip; Hendrickx, Larissa; Wattiez, Ruddy; Leys, Natalie

    2009-12-01

    In view of long-haul space exploration missions, the European Space Agency initiated the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project targeting the total recycling of organic waste produced by the astronauts into oxygen, water and food using a loop of bacterial and higher plant bioreactors. In that purpose, the alpha-proteobacterium, Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H, was sent twice to the International Space Station and was analyzed post-flight using a newly developed R. rubrum whole genome oligonucleotide microarray and high throughput gel-free proteomics with Isotope-Coded Protein Label technology. Moreover, in an effort to identify a specific response of R. rubrum S1H to space flight, simulation of microgravity and space-ionizing radiation were performed on Earth under identical culture set-up and growth conditions as encountered during the actual space journeys. Transcriptomic and proteomic data were integrated and permitted to put forward the importance of medium composition and culture set-up on the response of the bacterium to space flight-related environmental conditions. In addition, we showed for the first time that a low dose of ionizing radiation (2 mGy) can induce a significant response at the transcriptomic level, although no change in cell viability and only a few significant differentially expressed proteins were observed. From the MELiSSA perspective, we could argue the effect of microgravity to be minimized, whereas R. rubrum S1H could be more sensitive to ionizing radiation during long-term space exploration mission.

  3. Trichophyton rubrum autoinoculation from infected nails is not such a rare phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Szepietowski, Jacek C; Matusiak, Lukasz

    2008-07-01

    Kerion-like lesions are usually caused by zoophilic dermatophytes. Here, we present a rare case report - an inflammatory tinea barbae due to an anthropophilic fungus (Trichophyton rubrum), which is the main pathogen of onychomycosis and tinea pedis. Probably the infection, in the presented case, spread from diseased fingernails. We do postulate that physicians should consider autoinoculation as a not so rare way of fungal infection transmission.

  4. Toxicogenomic Response of Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H to the Micropollutant Triclosan▿

    PubMed Central

    Pycke, Benny F. G.; Vanermen, Guido; Monsieurs, Pieter; De Wever, Heleen; Mergeay, Max; Verstraete, Willy; Leys, Natalie

    2010-01-01

    In the framework of the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project, a pilot study was performed to identify the effects of triclosan on the MELiSSA carbon-mineralizing microorganism Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H. Triclosan is a biocide that is commonly found in human excrement and is considered an emerging pollutant in wastewater and the environment. Chronic exposure to MELiSSA-relevant concentrations (≥25 μg liter−1) of triclosan resulted in a significant extension of the lag phase of this organism but hardly affected the growth rate. Analytical determinations gave no indication of triclosan biodegradation during the growth experiment, and flow cytometric viability analyses revealed that triclosan is bacteriostatic and only slightly toxic to R. rubrum S1H. Using microarray analyses, the genetic mechanisms supporting the reversibility of triclosan-induced inhibition were scrutinized. An extremely triclosan-responsive cluster of four small adjacent genes was identified, for which there was up to 34-fold induction with 25 μg liter−1 triclosan. These four genes, for which the designation muf (micropollutant-upregulated factor) is proposed, appear to be unique to R. rubrum and are shown here for the first time to be involved in the response to stress. Moreover, numerous other systems that are associated with the proton motive force were shown to be responsive to triclosan, but they were never as highly upregulated as the muf genes. In response to triclosan, R. rubrum S1H induced transcription of the phage shock protein operon (pspABC), numerous efflux systems, cell envelope consolidation mechanisms, the oxidative stress response, beta-oxidation, and carbonic anhydrase, while there was downregulation of bacterial conjugation and carboxysome synthesis genes. The muf genes and three efflux-related genes showed the most potential to be low-dose biomarkers. PMID:20363786

  5. Identification and Characterization of Eurotium rubrum Isolated from Meju in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Yeo Hong; Hyun, Min Woo; Suh, Dong Yeon; Kim, Yong Min

    2009-01-01

    We isolated and identified a strain of Eurotium rubrum from Meju that has not been reported in Korea. This fungus is yellowish brown; reverse dark brown on CYA and PDA while yellow on 2% MEA at 25℃. Cleistothecia are first bright yellow and gradually turned brown. Mycerial growth on CYA attained a diameter of 30 mm at 20℃, 37 mm at 25℃ and 32 mm at 30℃ after 15 days. The isolate grew slower on 2% MEA (< 20 mm 15 days at 25℃) compared to CYA and PDA (< 40 mm 15 days at 25℃). Cleistothecia are superficial, yellow to light brown, globose to subglobose, 40~75 µm in diameter. Asci are 8-spored and globose to subglobose 8~11 µm. Ascospores are disciform, 4.0~5.0 µm in length and 4.2~4.5 µm in width. Conidia are ovate or bacillar, finely roughened to densely spinulose, 4.6~6.0 µm in length and 3.0~4.3 µm in width. Compared to known Eurotium rubrum, the Korean isolate showed 99% sequence similarity in ITS rDNA (554 bp) and calmodulin (750 bp) gene and 100% in β-tubulin (1016 bp) gene. The E. rubrum isolate also had weak β-glucosidase and protease activities. PMID:23983544

  6. Biological conversion of synthesis gas. [Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum, chlorobium phaeobacteroides, and Rhodospirillum rubrum

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-06

    The anaerobic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum has been chosen for catalysis of the biological water gas shift reaction. Two bacteria, Chlorobium thiosulfatophilum and Chlorobium phaeobacteroides, are being evaluated as candidates for H{sub 2}S conversion to elemental sulfur. Since these latter two organisms both grow and convert H{sub 2}S in batch culture using standard basal medium, the choice of a suitable bacterium must be made in consideration of specific growth and uptake rates. Produced elemental sulfur stability against further oxidation to sulfate, and minimal use of H{sub 2} as a producing agent must also be considered. The effects of temperature on the performance of R. rubrum were evaluated. It was found that the cell concentration was highest at temperatures of 25 and 30{degree}C, and that the specific uptake rate was highest at temperatures of 30, 32 and 34{degree}C. No growth was observed at 37{degree}C. Also, temperature did not affect the yield of H{sub 2} from CO. Thus, R. rubrum may be used for biological rates gas shift at any temperature between 30 and 34{degree}C, although growth is maximized at lower temperatures. Preliminary studies with C. thiosulfatophilum showed rapid utilization of H{sub 2}S from the gas and liquid phases with subsequent production of elemental sulfur. Elemental sulfur production interfered with cell concentrations measurements, although a technique has been developed to rectify this problem.

  7. Antifungal activity of nanocapsule suspensions containing tea tree oil on the growth of Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Flores, F C; de Lima, J A; Ribeiro, R F; Alves, S H; Rolim, C M B; Beck, R C R; da Silva, Cristiane Bona

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, for the first time, the antifungal efficacy of nanocapsules and nanoemulsions containing Melaleuca alternifolia essential oil (tea tree oil) in an onychomycosis model. The antifungal activity of nanostructured formulations was evaluated against Trichophyton rubrum in two different in vitro models of dermatophyte nail infection. First, nail powder was infected with T. rubrum in a 96-well plate and then treated with the formulations. After 7 and 14 days, cell viability was verified. The plate counts for the samples were 2.37, 1.45 and 1.0 log CFU mL(-1) (emulsion, nanoemulsion containing tea tree oil and nanocapsules containing tea tree oil, respectively). A second model employed nails fragments which were infected with the microorganism and treated with the formulations. The diameter of fungal colony was measured. The areas obtained were 2.88 ± 2.08 mm(2), 14.59 ± 2.01 mm(2), 40.98 ± 2.76 mm(2) and 38.72 ± 1.22 mm(2) for the nanocapsules containing tea tree oil, nanoemulsion containing tea tree oil, emulsion and untreated nail, respectively. Nail infection models demonstrated the ability of the formulations to reduce T. rubrum growth, with the inclusion of oil in nanocapsules being most efficient.

  8. Halorubrum rubrum sp. nov., an extremely halophilic archaeon from a Chinese salt lake.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xing-Xing; Zhao, Mei-Lin; Han, Dong; Zhang, Wen-Jiao; Cui, Heng-Lin

    2013-11-01

    Two halophilic archaeal strains, YC87(T) and YCA11, were isolated from Yuncheng salt lake in Shanxi, China. Cells of the two strains were observed to be pleomorphic rod-shaped, stained Gram-negative and produced red-pigmented colonies. Strain YC87(T) was able to grow at 20-50 °C (optimum 37 °C), at 1.4-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 2.1 M NaCl), at 0.05-1.0 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.3 M MgCl2) and at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.0) while strain YCA11 was able to grow at 20-50 °C (optimum 37 °C), at 2.1-4.8 M NaCl (optimum 3.1 M NaCl), at 0.01-0.7 M MgCl2 (optimum 0.1 M MgCl2) and at pH 6.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.5). The cells of both isolates were observed to lyse in distilled water. The minimum NaCl concentrations that prevented cell lysis were determined to be 8 % (w/v) for strain YC87(T) and 12 % (w/v) for strain YCA11. The major polar lipids of the two strains were identified as phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester, phosphatidylglycerol sulfate and one major glycolipid chromatographically identical to sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether; another major glycolipid and trace amounts of several unidentified lipids were also detected. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of the two strains were 99.8 % identical, showing 93.2-98.2 % similarity to members of the genus Halorubrum of the family Halobacteriaceae. The rpoB' gene similarity between strains YC87(T) and YCA11 was 99.3 % and showed 87.5-95.2 % similarity to the closest relative members of the genus Halorubrum. The DNA G+C content of strains YC87(T) and YCA11 were determined to be 64.9 and 64.5 mol%, respectively. The DNA-DNA hybridization value between strain YC20(T) and strain YC77 was 87 % and the two strains showed low DNA-DNA relatedness with Halorubrum cibi JCM 15757(T) and Halorubrum aquaticum CGMCC 1.6377(T), the most related members of the genus Halorubrum. The phenotypic, chemotaxonomic and phylogenetic properties suggest that strains YC87(T) and YCA11 represent a novel species of the

  9. Nutrient leaching from container-grown ornamental tree production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Economically producing marketable container-grown ornamental shade trees with minimum amounts of nutrient leachate requires better management of nutrient applications during a growing season. Fertilizer practices with 16 treatments were used to test the nutrient leachate for growing Acer rubrumRed...

  10. Fertilizer applications for container-grown ornamental tree production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of better utilization of nutrients during the growing season is needed to produce marketable container-grown ornamental shade trees economically. Fertilizer practices to grow Acer rubrumRed Sunset’ trees in two separate fields (each containing four plots) irrigated with either city or po...

  11. The Ecology and Environmental Impact of Marshland and Estuaries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-15

    ash (Fraxinum profunda ) and swamp maple (Acer rubrum) which tend to dominate as one moves in a northerly direction. Where the swamp is open, numerous...commercial value from the ocean. Important species falling into this group include white shrimp, brown shrimp, menhaden, red drum, flounder, black drum

  12. Ozone exposure-response curves for tree species in Great Smoky Mountains National Park: A re-evaluation of how potential impacts may have changed over the past 25 years

    EPA Science Inventory

    Seedlings of tree species native to Great Smoky Mountains National Park were exposed to ozone in open-top chambers for one or two growing seasons. Species used were red maple (Acer rubrum), chestnut oak (Quercus prinus), black locust (Robinia pseudoacadia), winged sumac (Rhus co...

  13. New Boston Air Force Station Environmental Assessment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    is the dominant broadleaf tree , but others include sugar maple (Acer saccharm), red maple (A. rubrum), yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis), and...strobus) and eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis). Because of greatly sloping relief, drainage basins are well defined on NBAFS. For this reason

  14. Humectants as Post-plant Soil Amendments: Effects on Growth and Physiological Activity of Drought-stressed, Container-grown Tree Seedlings

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    One-year-o1d, container-grown seedlings of red maple (Acer rubrum L.) and yellow-poplar (Liriodendron tulipirera L.) were treated with Hydretain ES~ (HydES) or Ecosentia1~ (ECOS) applied as a soil drench. A p~ogressive drought cycle was imposed after treatment and, as each seedling wilted, the leave...

  15. Magnesium insertion by magnesium chelatase in the biosynthesis of zinc bacteriochlorophyll a in an aerobic acidophilic bacterium Acidiphilium rubrum.

    PubMed

    Masuda, T; Inoue, K; Masuda, M; Nagayama, M; Tamaki, A; Ohta, H; Shimada, H; Takamiya, K

    1999-11-19

    To elucidate the mechanism for formation of zinc-containing bacteriochlorophyll a in the photosynthetic bacterium Acidiphilium rubrum, we isolated homologs of magnesium chelatase subunits (bchI, -D, and -H). A. rubrum bchI and -H were encoded by single genes located on the clusters bchP-orf168-bchI-bchD-orf320-crtI and bchF-N-B-H-L as in Rhodobacter capsulatus, respectively. The deduced sequences of A. rubrum bchI, -D, and -H had overall identities of 59. 8, 40.5, and 50.7% to those from Rba. capsulatus, respectively. When these genes were introduced into bchI, bchD, and bchH mutants of Rba. capsulatus for functional complementation, all mutants were complemented with concomitant synthesis of bacteriochlorophyll a. Analyses of bacteriochlorophyll intermediates showed that A. rubrum cells accumulate magnesium protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester without detectable accumulation of zinc protoporphyrin IX or its monomethyl ester. These results indicate that a single set of magnesium chelatase homologs in A. rubrum catalyzes the insertion of only Mg(2+) into protoporphyrin IX to yield magnesium protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester. Consequently, it is most likely that zinc-containing bacteriochlorophyll a is formed by a substitution of Zn(2+) for Mg(2+) at a step in the bacteriochlorophyll biosynthesis after formation of magnesium protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester.

  16. Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris oils inhibit virulence in Trichophyton rubrum and Aspergillus spp.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Sajjad Ahmad; Ahmad, Iqbal; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh

    2014-01-01

    Emergence of drug-resistant strains has demanded for alternative means of combating fungal infections. Oils of Carum copticum and Thymus vulgaris have long been used in ethnomedicine for ailments of various fungal infections. Since their activity has not been reported in particular against drug-resistant fungi, this study was aimed to evaluate the effects of oils of C. copticum and T. vulgaris on the growth and virulence of drug-resistant strains of Aspergillus spp. and Trichophyton rubrum. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis revealed thymol constituting 44.71% and 22.82% of T. vulgaris and C. copticum, respectively. Inhibition of mycelial growth by essential oils was recorded in the order of thymol > T. vulgaris > C. copticum against the tested strains. RBC lysis assay showed no tested oils to be toxic even up to concentration two folds higher than their respective MFCs. Thymol exhibited highest synergy in combination with fluconazole against Aspergillus fumigatus MTCC2550 (FICI value 0.187) and T. rubrum IOA9 (0.156) as determined by checkerboard method. Thymol and T. vulgaris essential oil were equally effective against both the macro and arthroconidia growth (MIC 72 μg/mL). A > 80% reduction in elastase activity was recorded for A. fumigatus MTCC2550 by C. copticum, T. vulgaris oils and thymol. The effectiveness of these oils against arthroconidia and synergistic interaction of thymol and T. vulgaris with fluconazole can be exploited to potentiate the antifungal effects of fluconazole against drug-resistant strains of T. rubrum and Aspergillus spp.

  17. Morphological changes of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum after photodynamic treatment: a scanning electron microscopy study.

    PubMed

    Smijs, Threes G M; Mulder, Aat A; Pavel, Stan; Onderwater, Jos J M; Koerten, Henk K; Bouwstra, Joke A

    2008-06-01

    Treatment strategies for superficial mycosis caused by the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum consist of the use of topical or oral antifungal preparations. We have recently discovered that T. rubrum is susceptible to photodynamic treatment (PDT), with 5,10,15-tris(4-methylpyridinium)-20-phenyl-[21H,23H]-porphine trichloride (Sylsens B) as a photosensitizer. The susceptibility appeared to depend on the fungal growth stage, with PDT efficacy higher with microconidia when compared to mycelia. The aim of this study was to investigate, with the use of scanning electron microscopy, the morphological changes caused by a lethal PDT dose to T. rubrum when grown on isolated human stratum corneum. Corresponding dark treatment and light treatment without photosensitizer were used as controls. A sub-lethal PDT dose was also included in this investigation The morphologic changes were followed at various time points after the treatment of different fungal growth stages. Normal fungal growth was characterized by a fiber-like appearance of the surface of the hyphae and microconidia with the exception of the hyphal tips in full mycelia and the microconidia shortly after attachment to the stratum corneum. Here, densely packed globular structures were observed. The light dose (108 J/cm2) in the absence of Sylsens B, or the application of the photosensitizer in the absence of light, caused reversible fungal wall deformations and bulge formation. However, after a lethal PDT, a sequence of severe disruptions and deformations of both microconidia and the mycelium were observed leading to extrusion of cell material and emptied fungal elements. In case of a non-lethal PDT, fungal re-growth started on the remnants of the treated mycelium.

  18. Increased Nitrogenase-Dependent H2 Photoproduction by hup Mutants of Rhodospirillum rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Kern, Monika; Klipp, Werner; Klemme, Jobst-Heinrich

    1994-01-01

    Transposon Tn5 mutagenesis was used to isolate mutants of Rhodospirillum rubrum which lack uptake hydrogenase (Hup) activity. Three Tn5 insertions mapped at different positions within the same 13-kb EcoRI fragment (fragment E1). Hybridization experiments revealed homology to the structural hydrogenase genes hupSLM from Rhodobacter capsulatus and hupSL from Bradyrhizobium japonicum in a 3.8-kb EcoRI-ClaI subfragment of fragment E1. It is suggested that this region contains at least some of the structural genes encoding the nickel-dependent uptake hydrogenase of R. rubrum. At a distance of about 4.5 kb from the fragment homologous to hupSLM, a region with homology to a DNA fragment carrying hypDE and hoxXA from B. japonicum was identified. Stable insertion and deletion mutations were generated in vitro and introduced into R. rubrum by homogenotization. In comparison with the wild type, the resulting hup mutants showed increased nitrogenase-dependent H2 photoproduction. However, a mutation in a structural hup gene did not result in maximum H2 production rates, indicating that the capacity to recycle H2 was not completely lost. Highest H2 production rates were obtained with a mutant carrying an insertion in a nonstructural hup-specific sequence and with a deletion mutant affected in both structural and nonstructural hup genes. Thus, besides the known Hup activity, a second, previously unknown Hup activity seems to be involved in H2 recycling. A single regulatory or accessory gene might be responsible for both enzymes. In contrast to the nickel-dependent uptake hydrogenase, the second Hup activity seems to be resistant to the metal chelator EDTA. Images PMID:16349271

  19. A CASE OF TRYCHOPHYTON RUBRUM DERMATOPHYTOSIS IN A PATAGONIAN SEA LION (OTARIA BYRONIA).

    PubMed

    Quintard, Benoît; Lohmann, Caroline; Lefaux, Brice

    2015-09-01

    A 23-yr old female Patagonian sea lion (Otaria byronia) presented multifocal to coalescing and ulcerative skin lesions on the lumbar region. Skin scrapings were collected and a microscopic examination was conducted followed by a fungal culture that revealed a Trychophyton rubrum infection, an anthropophilic dermatophytosis agent. Oral terbinafine and topical eniconazole were used as a treatment for a period of 75 days and complete recovery was achieved. Epidemiological analysis revealed a dermatophytosis case in one of the carnivore section keepers a few weeks before the lesions were diagnosed in the sea lion.

  20. Ion-mediated enhancement of xylem hydraulic conductivity in four Acer species: relationships with ecological and anatomical features.

    PubMed

    Nardini, Andrea; Dimasi, Federica; Klepsch, Matthias; Jansen, Steven

    2012-12-01

    The 'ionic effect', i.e., changes in xylem hydraulic conductivity (k(xyl)) due to variation of the ionic sap composition in vessels, was studied in four Acer species growing in contrasting environments differing in water availability. Hydraulic measurements of the ionic effect were performed together with measurements on the sap electrical conductivity, leaf water potential and vessel anatomy. The low ionic effect recorded in Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Acer campestre L. (15.8 and 14.7%, respectively), which represented two species from shady and humid habitats, was associated with a low vessel grouping index, high sap electrical conductivity and least negative leaf water potential. Opposite traits were found for Acer monspessulanum L. and Acer platanoides L., which showed an ionic effect of 23.6 and 23.1%, respectively, and represent species adapted to higher irradiance and/or lower water availability. These findings from closely related species provide additional support that the ionic effect could function as a compensation mechanism for embolism-induced loss of k(xyl), either as a result of high evaporative demand or increased risk of hydraulic failure.

  1. Investigating Effects of Nano- to Micro-Ampere Alternating Current Stimulation on Trichophyton rubrum Growth

    PubMed Central

    Kwon, Dong Rak; Kwon, Hyunjung; Lee, Woo Ram

    2016-01-01

    Background Fungi are eukaryotic microorganisms including yeast and molds. Many studies have focused on modifying bacterial growth, but few on fungal growth. Microcurrent electricity may stimulate fungal growth. Objective This study aims to investigate effects of microcurrent electric stimulation on Trichophyton rubrum growth. Methods Standard-sized inoculums of T. rubrum derived from a spore suspension were applied to potato dextrose cornmeal agar (PDACC) plates, gently withdrawn with a sterile pipette, and were applied to twelve PDACC plates with a sterile spreader. Twelve Petri dishes were divided into four groups. The given amperage of electric current was 500 nA, 2 µA, and 4 µA in groups A, B, and C, respectively. No electric current was given in group D. Results In the first 48 hours, colonies only appeared in groups A and B (500 nA and 2 µA exposure). Colonies in group A (500 nA) were denser. Group C (4 µA) plates showed a barely visible film of fungus after 96 hours of incubation. Fungal growth became visible after 144 hours in the control group. Conclusion Lower intensities of electric current caused faster fungal growth within the amperage range used in this study. Based on these results, further studies with a larger sample size, various fungal species, and various intensities of electric stimulation should be conducted. PMID:27746636

  2. Isolation, characterization, and crystallization of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase from autotrophically grown Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    PubMed

    Schloss, J V; Phares, E F; Long, M V; Norton, I L; Stringer, C D; Hartman, F C

    1979-01-01

    Serial culture of Rhodospirillum rubrum with 2% CO2 in H2 as the exclusive carbon source resulted in a rather large fraction of the soluble protein (greater than 40%) being comprised of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase (about sixfold higher than the highest value previously reported). Isolation of the enzyme from these cells revealed that it has physical and kinetic properties similar to those previously described for the enzyme derived from cells grown on butyrate. Notably, the small subunit (which is a constituent of the carboxylase from eucaryotes and most procaryotes) was absent in the enzyme from autotrophically grown R. rubrum. Edman degradation of the purified enzyme revealed that the NH2 terminus is free (in contrast to the catalytic subunit of the carboxylase from eucaryotes) and that the NH2-terminal sequence is Met-Asp-Gln-Ser-Ser-Arg-Tyr-Val-Asn-Leu-Ala-Leu-Lys-Glu-Glu-Asp-Leu-Ile-Ala-Gly-Gly-Glx-His-Val-Leu-. Crystals of the enzyme were readily obtained by dialysis against distilled water.

  3. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction studies of the Protaminobacter rubrum sucrose isomerase SmuA

    SciTech Connect

    Ravaud, Stéphanie; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Haser, Richard; Mattes, Ralf; Aghajari, Nushin

    2006-01-01

    The P. rubrum sucrose isomerase SmuA, a key enzyme in the industrial production of isomaltulose, was crystallized and diffraction data were collected to 1.95 Å resolution. Palatinose (isomaltulose, α-d-glucosylpyranosyl-1,6-d-fructofuranose), a nutritional and acariogenic reducing sugar, is industrially obtained from sucrose by using immobilized cells of Protaminobacter rubrum that produce the sucrose isomerase SmuA. The isomerization of sucrose catalyzed by this enzyme also results in the formation of trehalulose (α-d-glucosylpyranosyl-1,1-d-fructofuranose) in smaller amounts and glucose, fructose and eventually isomaltose as by-products, which lower the yield of the reaction and complicate the recovery of palatinose. The determination of the three-dimensional structure of SmuA will provide a basis for rational protein-engineering studies in order to optimize the industrial production of palatinose. A recombinant form of the 67.3 kDa SmuA enzyme has been crystallized in the native state by the vapour-diffusion method. Crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 61.6, b = 81.4, c = 135.6 Å, and diffract to 1.95 Å resolution on a synchrotron-radiation source.

  4. Syngas obtained by microwave pyrolysis of household wastes as feedstock for polyhydroxyalkanoate production in Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    PubMed

    Revelles, Olga; Beneroso, Daniel; Menéndez, J Angel; Arenillas, Ana; García, J Luis; Prieto, M Auxiliadora

    2016-09-28

    The massive production of urban and agricultural wastes has promoted a clear need for alternative processes of disposal and waste management. The potential use of municipal solid wastes (MSW) as feedstock for the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) by a process known as syngas fermentation is considered herein as an attractive bio-economic strategy to reduce these wastes. In this work, we have evaluated the potential of Rhodospirillum rubrum as microbial cell factory for the synthesis of PHA from syngas produced by microwave pyrolysis of the MSW organic fraction from a European city (Seville). Growth rate, uptake rate, biomass yield and PHA production from syngas in R. rubrum have been analysed. The results revealed the strong robustness of this syngas fermentation where the purity of the syngas is not a critical constraint for PHA production. Microwave-induced pyrolysis is a tangible alternative to standard pyrolysis, because it can reduce cost in terms of energy and time as well as increase syngas production, providing a satisfactory PHA yield.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of Paenibacillus kribbensis POC 115 against the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Cotta, Simone Raposo; da Mota, Fabio Faria; Tupinambá, Gleiser; Ishida, Kelly; Rozental, Sonia; E Silva, Davi Oliveira; da Silva, Antônio Jorge Ribeiro; Bizzo, Humberto Ribeiro; Alviano, Daniela Sales; Alviano, Celuta Sales; Seldin, Lucy

    2012-03-01

    In a search for an antifungal substance with activity against the dermatophyte fungus Trichophyton rubrum, strain POC 115 was chosen among different Paenibacillus strains for its phenotypic and genetic characterization and for preliminary characterization of its antimicrobial substance. Strain POC 115 was identified as belonging to Paenibacillus kribbensis. Physico-chemical characterization of the antimicrobial substance showed that it was not stable during heat and organic solvents treatments, but its activity was preserved at a wide range of pH and after treatment with pronase E, trypsin and DNase I. The crude concentrated supernatant of POC 115 culture was partially purified and the fraction presenting antimicrobial activity was further analyzed by UPLC/Mass Spectrometry. Two peaks were observed at 2.02 (mass 1,207 D) and 2.71 (mass 1,014 D) min in the mass chromatogram. The antimicrobial substance produced by POC 115 was correlated to iturin family compounds based on a set of primers designed for the amplification of PKS operon in the POC 115 genome. As happens with the mode of action of the antibiotics of the iturin group, the AMS produced by POC 115 caused the disruption of cytoplasmic membrane of T. rubrum and the subsequent withdraw of the intracellular material. This is the first report on the production of antimicrobial substances in P. kribbensis, and it may be of great relevance as an alternative or supplementary substance to antifungal drugs currently used against dermatophytes.

  6. Complete genome sequence of Rhodospirillum rubrum type strain (S1T)

    SciTech Connect

    Munk, Christine; Copeland, A; Lucas, Susan; Lapidus, Alla L.; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Barry, Kerrie; Detter, J. Chris; Hammon, Nancy; Israni, Sanjay; Pitluck, Sam; Brettin, Thomas S; Bruce, David; Han, Cliff; Tapia, Roxanne; Gilna, Paul; Schmutz, Jeremy; Larimer, Frank W; Land, Miriam L; Kyrpides, Nikos C; Mavromatis, K; Richardson, P M; Rohde, Manfred; Goker, Markus; Klenk, Hans-Peter; Zhang, Yaoping; Roberts, Gary P.; Reslewic, Susan; Schwartz, David C.

    2011-01-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum (Esmarch 1887) Molisch 1907 is the type species of the genus Rho- dospirillum, which is the type genus of the family Rhodospirillaceae in the class Alphaproteo- bacteria. The species is of special interest because it is an anoxygenic phototroph that pro- duces extracellular elemental sulfur (instead of oxygen) while harvesting light. It contains one of the most simple photosynthetic systems currently known, lacking light harvesting complex 2. Strain S1T can grow on carbon monoxide as sole energy source. With currently over 1,750 PubMed entries, R. rubrum is one of the most intensively studied microbial species, in partic- ular for physiological and genetic studies. Next to R. centenum strain SW, the genome se- quence of strain S1T is only the second genome of a member of the genus Rhodospirillum to be published, but the first type strain genome from the genus. The 4,352,825 bp long chro- mosome and 53,732 bp plasmid with a total of 3,850 protein-coding and 83 RNA genes were sequenced as part of the DOE Joint Genome Institute Program DOEM 2002.

  7. Beneficial effects of Acer okamotoanum sap on L-NAME-induced hypertension-like symptoms in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hyun; Hwang, Inho; Koo, Tae-Hyoung; Ahn, Hyo-Jin; Kim, Sun; Park, Mi-Jin; Choi, Won-Sil; Kang, Ha-Young; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2012-02-01

    The sap of Acer okamotoanum has been termed 'bone-benefit-water' in Korea owing to its mineral and sugar content. In particular, the calcium (Ca) and potassium (K) concentrations of the sap of Acer okamotoanum are 40- and 20-times higher, respectively, than commercial spring water. In the present study, we examined whether Acer okamotoanum sap improves or prevents hypertension-like symptoms in a rat model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (8-weeks-old) were provided commercial spring water supplemented with 25, 50 or 100% Acer okamotoanum sap, 3% potassium ions (K+) or captopril, and treated daily for 2 weeks with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; 100 mg/kg/day) by subcutaneous injection, in order to induce hypertensive symptoms. Rats were euthanized 6 h following the final injection. To assess the effect of the sap on hypertension-like symptoms, we examined the mean blood pressure (BP), protein levels and localization of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) in the descending aorta of the rats. BP levels were significantly lower in hypertensive rats received 25, 50 and 100% sap compared with rats who were administered only commercial spring water. Protein levels of eNOS were repressed in L-NAME-only-treated rats, but were elevated in the descending aorta of rats administered captopril, K+ water and Acer okamotoanum sap (25, 50 and 100%) up to the level of the sham group provided commercial spring water, and then injected with dimethyl sulfoxide for the same period of time. Localized eNOS protein was abundantly expressed in the perivascular descending aorta adipose tissue of the rats. Taken together, these results demonstrated that the sap of Acer okamotoanum ameliorated high BP induced by L-NAME treatment in a rat model.

  8. [The effect of Tween-80 on the differentiation of Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum strains with FT-IR spectroscopy].

    PubMed

    Ergın, Çagri; İlkit, Macit; Gök, Yaşar; Çon, Ahmet Hilmi; Özel, Mustafa Zafer; Kabay, Nilgün; Döğen, Aylin; Baygu, Yasemin

    2014-07-01

    Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum, are two of the frequently identified dermatophyte species in routine microbiology laboratories. Although newer technologies may assist in species-level identification, direct application of these methods usually require improvement in order to obtain reliable identification of these species. Earlier data have shown that dermatophytes may be identified with FT-IR spectroscopy although there are some limitations. In particular, the organic bond ranges in FT-IR spectra showed more irregularity because of the eucaryotic complexity of the molds. In this study, Tween-80 which is an inorganic molecule, was added to the dermatophyte growth medium in order to investigate its effect on FT-IR spectroscopy analysis of dermatophytes. Nine reference dermatophyte strains [5 T.mentagrophytes complex (T.asteroides CBS 424.63, T.erinacei CBS 344.79, CBS 511.73, CBS 677.86, T.mentagrophytes CBS 110.65) and 4 T.rubrum complex strains with different morphotypes (T.fluviomuniense CBS 592.68, T.kuryangei CBS 422.67, T.raubitschekii CBS 102856, T.rubrum CBS 392.58)] were included in the study. All strains were cultured on Sabouraud glucose agar either with or without 1% Tween-80 for three weeks. After the incubation period, superficial scrapings from each dermatophyte colony were analyzed using FT-IR spectroscopy. All measurements were performed in transmission mode between 4400 and 400 cm-1. Numerous spectral window data were analyzed by principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering was performed. The second derivations of spectral ranges revealed clear grouping of T.mentagrophytes complex and T.rubrum complex in association over five separate spectral ranges. The findings also showed that while all of the T.mentagrophytes strains contained lipid compounds in their mold structure after Tween-80 incubation (p< 0.025), T.rubrum strains did not. Based on these results, it was concluded that culture medium containing Tween-80

  9. Synergistic combination of violacein and azoles that leads to enhanced killing of major human pathogenic dermatophytic fungi Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Anju, S; Kumar, Nishanth S; Krishnakumar, B; Kumar, B S Dileep

    2015-01-01

    Superficial mycoses caused by dermatophytic fungi such as Trichophyton rubrum represent the most common type of worldwide human infection affecting various keratinized tissues in our body such as the skin, hair, and nails, etc. The dermatophytic infection is a significant public health threat due to its persistent nature and high recurrence rates, and thus alternative treatments to cure this fungal infection are urgently required. The present study mainly focused on the synergistic activity of violacein with four azole drugs (ketoconazole, fluconazole, clotrimazole, and itraconazole) against T. rubrum. The synergistic antifungal activities of violacein and azoles were measured by checkerboard microdilution and time-kill assays. In our study, combinations of violacein and azoles predominantly recorded synergistic effect (FIC index < 0.5). Significant synergistic value was recorded by the combination of violacein and clotrimazole. Time-kill assay by the combination of MIC concentration of violacein and azoles recorded that the growth of the T. rubrum was significantly arrested after 4-12 h of treatment. The combination of violacein and azoles leads to the enhanced inhibition of mycelial growth and conidial germination. Moreover combination enhanced the rate of release of intracellular materials. Morphological changes by SEM analysis were also prominent with the combination. A normal human cell line [Foreskin (FS) normal fibroblast] was used to check the cytotoxicity of violacein. Interestingly violacein recorded no cytotoxicity up to 100 μg/ml. The in vitro synergistic effect of violacein and azoles against clinically relevant fungi, T. rubrum, is reported here for the first time. Finally, our findings support the potential use of the violacein as an antifungal agent especially against dermatophytic fungi T. rubrum.

  10. Synergistic combination of violacein and azoles that leads to enhanced killing of major human pathogenic dermatophytic fungi Trichophyton rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Anju, S.; Kumar, Nishanth S.; Krishnakumar, B.; Kumar, B. S. Dileep

    2015-01-01

    Superficial mycoses caused by dermatophytic fungi such as Trichophyton rubrum represent the most common type of worldwide human infection affecting various keratinized tissues in our body such as the skin, hair, and nails, etc. The dermatophytic infection is a significant public health threat due to its persistent nature and high recurrence rates, and thus alternative treatments to cure this fungal infection are urgently required. The present study mainly focused on the synergistic activity of violacein with four azole drugs (ketoconazole, fluconazole, clotrimazole, and itraconazole) against T. rubrum. The synergistic antifungal activities of violacein and azoles were measured by checkerboard microdilution and time-kill assays. In our study, combinations of violacein and azoles predominantly recorded synergistic effect (FIC index < 0.5). Significant synergistic value was recorded by the combination of violacein and clotrimazole. Time-kill assay by the combination of MIC concentration of violacein and azoles recorded that the growth of the T. rubrum was significantly arrested after 4–12 h of treatment. The combination of violacein and azoles leads to the enhanced inhibition of mycelial growth and conidial germination. Moreover combination enhanced the rate of release of intracellular materials. Morphological changes by SEM analysis were also prominent with the combination. A normal human cell line [Foreskin (FS) normal fibroblast] was used to check the cytotoxicity of violacein. Interestingly violacein recorded no cytotoxicity up to 100 μg/ml. The in vitro synergistic effect of violacein and azoles against clinically relevant fungi, T. rubrum, is reported here for the first time. Finally, our findings support the potential use of the violacein as an antifungal agent especially against dermatophytic fungi T. rubrum. PMID:26322275

  11. Antioxidant and Anti-quorum Sensing Potential of Acer monspessulanum subsp. monspessulanum Extracts.

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Ozgur; Sahin, Mehtap Donmez; Akdamar, Gultekin

    2016-10-01

    In this study, anti-quorum sensing, and antioxidant activities, and chemical composition of Acer monspessulanum subsp. monspessulanum extracts were evaluated. Determination of the antioxidant activity was revealed by DPPH radical scavenging activity, the total phenolic content assay, and the β-carotene/linoleic acid assay. The detection of phenolic compounds was determined using RP-HPLC. Anti-quorum sensing activity and violacein inhibition activity were determined using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and C. violaceum ATCC 112 472, respectively. The determination of anti-swarming activity was carried out with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01. In DPPH and total phenolic content assays, the water extract exhibited good antioxidant activity. In the β-carotene-linoleic acid assay, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts exhibited good lipid peroxidation inhibition activity, demonstrating 96.95 ± 0.03 % and 95.35 ± 0.00 % at 2.5 mg/mL concentrations, respectively. The predominant phenolic compounds of the extracts were determined as rutin, naringin, catechin hydrate, quercetin, and protocatechuic acid. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts were found to contain a high level of violacein inhibition and anti-quorum sensing activity. The ethanol extract also showed weak anti-swarming activity. In this first study that used Acer monspessulanum subsp. monspessulanum extracts, it was revealed that the water extract has antioxidant activity and the ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts have anti-quorum sensing activity depending on the phenolic compounds that it contained.

  12. Testing hypotheses that link wood anatomy to cavitation resistance and hydraulic conductivity in the genus Acer.

    PubMed

    Lens, Frederic; Sperry, John S; Christman, Mairgareth A; Choat, Brendan; Rabaey, David; Jansen, Steven

    2011-05-01

    • Vulnerability to cavitation and conductive efficiency depend on xylem anatomy. We tested a large range of structure-function hypotheses, some for the first time, within a single genus to minimize phylogenetic 'noise' and maximize detection of functionally relevant variation. • This integrative study combined in-depth anatomical observations using light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy of seven Acer taxa, and compared these observations with empirical measures of xylem hydraulics. • Our results reveal a 2 MPa range in species' mean cavitation pressure (MCP). MCP was strongly correlated with intervessel pit structure (membrane thickness and porosity, chamber depth), weakly correlated with pit number per vessel, and not related to pit area per vessel. At the tissue level, there was a strong correlation between MCP and mechanical strength parameters, and some of the first evidence is provided for the functional significance of vessel grouping and thickenings on inner vessel walls. In addition, a strong trade-off was observed between xylem-specific conductivity and MCP. Vessel length and intervessel wall characteristics were implicated in this safety-efficiency trade-off. • Cavitation resistance and hydraulic conductivity in Acer appear to be controlled by a very complex interaction between tissue, vessel network and pit characteristics.

  13. The chemical identity of intervessel pit membranes in Acer challenges hydrogel control of xylem hydraulic conductivity

    PubMed Central

    Klepsch, Matthias M.; Schmitt, Marco; Paul Knox, J.; Jansen, Steven

    2016-01-01

    Ion-mediated enhancement of the hydraulic conductivity of xylem tissue (i.e. the ionic effect) has been reported for various angiosperm species. One explanation of the ionic effect is that it is caused by the swelling and shrinking of intervessel pit membranes due to the presence of pectins and/or other cell-wall matrix polymers such as heteroxylans or arabinogalactan–proteins (AGPs) that may contain acidic sugars. Here, we examined the ionic effect for six Acer species and their pit membrane chemistry using immunocytochemistry, including antibodies against glycoproteins. Moreover, anatomical features related to the bordered pit morphology and vessel dimensions were investigated using light and electron microscopy. The ionic effect varied from 18 % (± 9) to 32 % (± 13). Epitopes of homogalacturonan (LM18) and xylan (LM11) were not detected in intervessel pit membranes. Negative results were also obtained for glycoproteins (extensin: LM1, JIM20; AGP glycan: LM2), although AGP (JIM13)-related epitopes were detected in parenchyma cells. The mean vessel length was significantly correlated with the magnitude of the ionic effect, unlike other pit or vessel-related characteristics. Our results suggest that intervessel pit membranes of Acer are unlikely to contain pectic or other acidic polysaccharides. Therefore, alternative explanations should be tested to clarify the ionic effect. PMID:27354661

  14. Chronically recurrent and widespread tinea corporis due to Trichophyton rubrum in an immunocompetent patient.

    PubMed

    Kong, Q T; Du, X; Yang, R; Huang, S Y; Sang, H; Liu, W D

    2015-04-01

    A 31-year-old immunocompetent male who presented with a 4-year history of extensive erythematous and scaly plaques involving the abdomen, gluteal and inguen regions with concomitant tinea pedis and onychomycosis is described. Diagnosis was based on positive mycological examination and positive histopathologic examination. Species identification was performed by growth on Sabouraud dextrose agar and by sequencing of the internal transcribed spacer regions of the rDNA region. The pathogen identified was Trichophyton rubrum. The same fungal species was cultured from his abdominal, gluteal, foot and toenail. A combination therapy with systemic terbinafine and topically applied terbinafine cream was successful. A 1-year follow-up did not show any recurrence of infection.

  15. Synthesis Gas (Syngas)-Derived Medium-Chain-Length Polyhydroxyalkanoate Synthesis in Engineered Rhodospirillum rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Heinrich, Daniel; Raberg, Matthias; Fricke, Philipp; Kenny, Shane T.; Morales-Gamez, Laura; Babu, Ramesh P.; O'Connor, Kevin E.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The purple nonsulfur alphaproteobacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum S1 was genetically engineered to synthesize a heteropolymer of mainly 3-hydroxydecanoic acid and 3-hydroxyoctanoic acid [P(3HD-co-3HO)] from CO- and CO2-containing artificial synthesis gas (syngas). For this, genes from Pseudomonas putida KT2440 coding for a 3-hydroxyacyl acyl carrier protein (ACP) thioesterase (phaG), a medium-chain-length (MCL) fatty acid coenzyme A (CoA) ligase (PP_0763), and an MCL polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase (phaC1) were cloned and expressed under the control of the CO-inducible promoter PcooF from R. rubrum S1 in a PHA-negative mutant of R. rubrum. P(3HD-co-3HO) was accumulated to up to 7.1% (wt/wt) of the cell dry weight by a recombinant mutant strain utilizing exclusively the provided gaseous feedstock syngas. In addition to an increased synthesis of these medium-chain-length PHAs (PHAMCL), enhanced gene expression through the PcooF promoter also led to an increased molar fraction of 3HO in the synthesized copolymer compared with the Plac promoter, which regulated expression on the original vector. The recombinant strains were able to partially degrade the polymer, and the deletion of phaZ2, which codes for a PHA depolymerase most likely involved in intracellular PHA degradation, did not reduce mobilization of the accumulated polymer significantly. However, an amino acid exchange in the active site of PhaZ2 led to a slight increase in PHAMCL accumulation. The accumulated polymer was isolated; it exhibited a molecular mass of 124.3 kDa and a melting point of 49.6°C. With the metabolically engineered strains presented in this proof-of-principle study, we demonstrated the synthesis of elastomeric second-generation biopolymers from renewable feedstocks not competing with human nutrition. IMPORTANCE Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are natural biodegradable polymers (biopolymers) showing properties similar to those of commonly produced petroleum-based nondegradable

  16. Metabolic regulation as a consequence of anaerobic 5-methylthioadenosine recycling in Rhodospirillum rubrum

    DOE PAGES

    North, Justin A.; Sriram, Jaya; Chourey, Karuna; ...

    2016-07-12

    Rhodospirillum rubrum possesses a novel oxygen-independent, aerobic methionine salvage pathway (MSP) for recycling methionine from 5-methylthioadenosine (MTA), the MTA-isoprenoid shunt. This organism can also metabolize MTA as a sulfur source under anaerobic conditions, suggesting that the MTA-isoprenoid shunt may also function anaerobically as well. In this study, deep proteomics profiling, directed metabolite analysis, and reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed metabolic changes in response to anaerobic growth on MTA versus sulfate as sole sulfur source. The abundance of protein levels associated with methionine transport, cell motility, and chemotaxis increased in the presence of MTA over that in the presence ofmore » sulfate. Purine salvage from MTA resulted primarily in hypoxanthine accumulation and a decrease in protein levels involved in GMP-to-AMP conversion to balance purine pools. Acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) metabolic protein levels for lipid metabolism were lower in abundance, whereas poly-β-hydroxybutyrate synthesis and storage were increased nearly 10-fold. The known R. rubrum aerobic MSP was also shown to be upregulated, to function anaerobically, and to recycle MTA. This suggested that other organisms with gene homologues for the MTA-isoprenoid shunt may also possess a functioning anaerobic MSP. In support of our previous findings that ribulose-1,5-carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) is required for an apparently purely anaerobic MSP, RubisCO transcript and protein levels both increased in abundance by over 10-fold in cells grown anaerobically on MTA over those in cells grown on sulfate, resulting in increased intracellular RubisCO activity. Lastly, these results reveal for the first time global metabolic responses as a consequence of anaerobic MTA metabolism compared to using sulfate as the sulfur source.« less

  17. High-level production of the industrial product lycopene by the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Shu; Grammel, Hartmut; Abou-Aisha, Khaled; Sägesser, Rudolf; Ghosh, Robin

    2012-10-01

    The biosynthesis of the major carotenoid spirilloxanthin by the purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum is thought to occur via a linear pathway proceeding through phytoene and, later, lycopene as intermediates. This assumption is based solely on early chemical evidence (B. H. Davies, Biochem. J. 116:93-99, 1970). In most purple bacteria, the desaturation of phytoene, catalyzed by the enzyme phytoene desaturase (CrtI), leads to neurosporene, involving only three dehydrogenation steps and not four as in the case of lycopene. We show here that the chromosomal insertion of a kanamycin resistance cassette into the crtC-crtD region of the partial carotenoid gene cluster, whose gene products are responsible for the downstream processing of lycopene, leads to the accumulation of the latter as the major carotenoid. We provide spectroscopic and biochemical evidence that in vivo, lycopene is incorporated into the light-harvesting complex 1 as efficiently as the methoxylated carotenoids spirilloxanthin (in the wild type) and 3,4,3',4'-tetrahydrospirilloxanthin (in a crtD mutant), both under semiaerobic, chemoheterotrophic, and photosynthetic, anaerobic conditions. Quantitative growth experiments conducted in dark, semiaerobic conditions, using a growth medium for high cell density and high intracellular membrane levels, which are suitable for the conventional industrial production in the absence of light, yielded lycopene at up to 2 mg/g (dry weight) of cells or up to 15 mg/liter of culture. These values are comparable to those of many previously described Escherichia coli strains engineered for lycopene production. This study provides the first genetic proof that the R. rubrum CrtI produces lycopene exclusively as an end product.

  18. Calcofluor White Combination Antifungal Treatments for Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans

    PubMed Central

    Kingsbury, Joanne M.; Heitman, Joseph; Pinnell, Sheldon R.

    2012-01-01

    Superficial mycoses caused by dermatophyte fungi are among the most common infections worldwide, yet treatment is restricted by limited effective drugs available, drug toxicity, and emergence of drug resistance. The stilbene fluorescent brightener calcofluor white (CFW) inhibits fungi by binding chitin in the cell wall, disrupting cell wall integrity, and thus entails a different mechanism of inhibition than currently available antifungal drugs. To identify novel therapeutic options for the treatment of skin infections, we compared the sensitivity of representative strains of the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum and Candida albicans to CFW and a panel of fluorescent brighteners and phytoalexin compounds. We identified the structurally related stilbene fluorescent brighteners 71, 85, 113 and 134 as fungicidal to both T. rubrum and C. albicans to a similar degree as CFW, and the stilbene phytoalexins pinosylvan monomethyl ether and pterostilbene inhibited to a lesser degree, allowing us to develop a structure-activity relationship for fungal inhibition. Given the abilities of CFW to absorb UV365 nm and bind specifically to fungal cell walls, we tested whether CFW combined with UV365 nm irradiation would be synergistic to fungi and provide a novel photodynamic treatment option. However, while both treatments individually were cytocidal, UV365 nm irradiation reduced sensitivity to CFW, which we attribute to CFW photoinactivation. We also tested combination treatments of CFW with other fungal inhibitors and identified synergistic interactions between CFW and some ergosterol biosynthesis inhibitors in C. albicans. Therefore, our studies identify novel fungal inhibitors and drug interactions, offering promise for combination topical treatment regimes for superficial mycoses. PMID:22792174

  19. Comparative Genome Analysis of Trichophyton rubrum and Related Dermatophytes Reveals Candidate Genes Involved in Infection

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Diego A.; Oliver, Brian G.; Gräser, Yvonne; Goldberg, Jonathan M.; Li, Wenjun; Martinez-Rossi, Nilce M.; Monod, Michel; Shelest, Ekaterina; Barton, Richard C.; Birch, Elizabeth; Brakhage, Axel A.; Chen, Zehua; Gurr, Sarah J.; Heiman, David; Heitman, Joseph; Kosti, Idit; Rossi, Antonio; Saif, Sakina; Samalova, Marketa; Saunders, Charles W.; Shea, Terrance; Summerbell, Richard C.; Xu, Jun; Young, Sarah; Zeng, Qiandong; Birren, Bruce W.; Cuomo, Christina A.; White, Theodore C.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT The major cause of athlete’s foot is Trichophyton rubrum, a dermatophyte or fungal pathogen of human skin. To facilitate molecular analyses of the dermatophytes, we sequenced T. rubrum and four related species, Trichophyton tonsurans, Trichophyton equinum, Microsporum canis, and Microsporum gypseum. These species differ in host range, mating, and disease progression. The dermatophyte genomes are highly colinear yet contain gene family expansions not found in other human-associated fungi. Dermatophyte genomes are enriched for gene families containing the LysM domain, which binds chitin and potentially related carbohydrates. These LysM domains differ in sequence from those in other species in regions of the peptide that could affect substrate binding. The dermatophytes also encode novel sets of fungus-specific kinases with unknown specificity, including nonfunctional pseudokinases, which may inhibit phosphorylation by competing for kinase sites within substrates, acting as allosteric effectors, or acting as scaffolds for signaling. The dermatophytes are also enriched for a large number of enzymes that synthesize secondary metabolites, including dermatophyte-specific genes that could synthesize novel compounds. Finally, dermatophytes are enriched in several classes of proteases that are necessary for fungal growth and nutrient acquisition on keratinized tissues. Despite differences in mating ability, genes involved in mating and meiosis are conserved across species, suggesting the possibility of cryptic mating in species where it has not been previously detected. These genome analyses identify gene families that are important to our understanding of how dermatophytes cause chronic infections, how they interact with epithelial cells, and how they respond to the host immune response. PMID:22951933

  20. Metabolic Regulation as a Consequence of Anaerobic 5-Methylthioadenosine Recycling in Rhodospirillum rubrum

    PubMed Central

    North, Justin A.; Sriram, Jaya; Chourey, Karuna; Ecker, Christopher D.; Sharma, Ritin; Wildenthal, John A.; Hettich, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Rhodospirillum rubrum possesses a novel oxygen-independent, aerobic methionine salvage pathway (MSP) for recycling methionine from 5-methylthioadenosine (MTA), the MTA-isoprenoid shunt. This organism can also metabolize MTA as a sulfur source under anaerobic conditions, suggesting that the MTA-isoprenoid shunt may also function anaerobically as well. In this study, deep proteomics profiling, directed metabolite analysis, and reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed metabolic changes in response to anaerobic growth on MTA versus sulfate as sole sulfur source. The abundance of protein levels associated with methionine transport, cell motility, and chemotaxis increased in the presence of MTA over that in the presence of sulfate. Purine salvage from MTA resulted primarily in hypoxanthine accumulation and a decrease in protein levels involved in GMP-to-AMP conversion to balance purine pools. Acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) metabolic protein levels for lipid metabolism were lower in abundance, whereas poly-β-hydroxybutyrate synthesis and storage were increased nearly 10-fold. The known R. rubrum aerobic MSP was also shown to be upregulated, to function anaerobically, and to recycle MTA. This suggested that other organisms with gene homologues for the MTA-isoprenoid shunt may also possess a functioning anaerobic MSP. In support of our previous findings that ribulose-1,5-carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) is required for an apparently purely anaerobic MSP, RubisCO transcript and protein levels both increased in abundance by over 10-fold in cells grown anaerobically on MTA over those in cells grown on sulfate, resulting in increased intracellular RubisCO activity. These results reveal for the first time global metabolic responses as a consequence of anaerobic MTA metabolism compared to using sulfate as the sulfur source. PMID:27406564

  1. The Spanish version of the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination - Revised (ACE-R) in subcortical ischemic vascular dementia.

    PubMed

    Raimondi, Catalina; Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Richly, Pablo; Torralva, Teresa; Roca, María; Camino, Julieta; Manes, Facundo

    2012-11-15

    Vascular dementia (VaD) is one of the most prevalent causes of dementia, and it is frequently misdiagnosed and undertreated in clinical practice. Because neuropsychological outcome depends, among other factors, on the size and location of the vascular brain injury, characterizing the cognitive profile of VaD has been especially challenging. Yet, there has been sufficient evidence to show a marked impairment of attention and executive functions, in particular in relation to Alzheimer disease. Being able to detect these deficits at bedside is crucial for everyday clinical practice, and yet, brief cognitive screening toots such as the Mini-Mental Sate Examination (MMSE) may overlook at cognitive deficits typical of patients with VaD. The Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination Revised (ACE-R) is also a brief cognitive screening tool designed to incorporate the items of the MMSE and further extend the test to assess orientation, attention, verbal fluency, memory, language, and visuospatial abilities. In this study, we investigated the ability of the Spanish version of the ACE-R to detect the cognitive impairment showed in patients with subcortical ischemic vascular dementia, and we compared its usefulness to that of the MMSE in this population. Scores on these tests were compared to those of patients with Alzheimer disease and matched healthy controls. The 88-point cut-off proposed for the ACE-R was associated with a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 100% for the detection of cognitive impairment, demonstrating a stronger capacity than the MMSE (sensitivity of 42% with its 23-point cut-off score). We also found that the verbal fluency subtest of the ACE-R may be potentially useful in discriminating patients with subcortical ischemic vascular dementia from patients with AD. We discuss the utility of these findings in the context of everyday clinical practice and we propose that future studies should evaluate the potential usefulness of combining the ACE-R with a

  2. Induction of tolerance to desiccation and cryopreservation in silver maple (Acer saccharinum) embryonic axes.

    PubMed

    Beardmore, T; Whittle, C-A

    2005-08-01

    Twenty percent of of the world's flowering plants produce recalcitrant seeds (i.e., seeds that cannot withstand drying or freezing). We investigated whether the embryonic axis from the normally recalcitrant seeds of silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.) can be made tolerant to desiccation (10% water content) and low temperature (-196 degrees C, cryopreservation) by pretreatment with ABA or the compound tetcyclacis, which enhances endogenous ABA concentrations. Pretreatment of axes with both ABA and tetcyclacis increased germination after desiccation and freezing to 55% from a control value of zero. Pretreatment of axes with ABA and tetcyclacis increased the ABA content of the axes, as measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay, and stimulated the synthesis of storage and dehydrin-like proteins, believed to have a role in the desiccation tolerance of orthodox seeds.

  3. Growth Inhibition and Morphological Alterations of Trichophyton Rubrum Induced by Essential oil from Cymbopogon Winterianus Jowitt Ex Bor

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira Pereira, Fillipe; Alves Wanderley, Paulo; Cavalcanti Viana, Fernando Antônio; Baltazar de Lima, Rita; Barbosa de Sousa, Frederico; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is one of the most common fungi causer of dermatophytosis, mycosis that affect humans and animals around the world. Researches aiming new products with antifungal activity become necessary to overcome difficulties on treatment of these infections. Accordingly, this study aimed to investigate the antifungal activity of essential oil from Cymbopogon winterianus against the dermatophyte T. rubrum. The antifungal screening was performed by solid medium diffusion method with 16 T. rubrum strains, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum fungicide concentration (MFC) were determined using the microdilution method. The effects on mycelial dry weight and morphology were also observed. Screening showed essential oil in natura inhibited all the tested strains, with inhibition zones between 24-28 mm diameter. MIC50 and MIC90 values of the essential oil were 312 μg/mL for nearly all the essayed strains (93.75 %) while the MFC50 and MFC90 values were about eight times higher than MIC for all tested strains. All tested essential oil concentrations managed to inhibit strongly the mycelium development. Main morphological changes on the fungal strains observed under light microscopy, which were provided by the essential oil include loss of conidiation, alterations concerning form and pigmentation of hyphae. In the oil presence, colonies showed folds, cream color and slightly darker than the control, pigment production was absent on the reverse and with evident folds. It is concluded that C. winterianus essential oil showed activity against T. rubrum. Therefore, it could be known as potential antifungal compound especially for protection against dermatophytosis. PMID:24031626

  4. Chronic widespread dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton rubrum: a syndrome associated with a Trichophyton-specific functional defect of phagocytes

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Maria da Glória T.; Santana, Grazielle B.; Criado, Paulo R.; Benard, Gil

    2015-01-01

    Dermatophytes are agents of typically benign superficial infections. However, an increasing number of severe infections in immunocompromised hosts has been reported. We aimed to understand the factors underlying the existence of a cohort of patients presenting with chronic widespread dermatophytosis (CWD) due to Trichophyton rubrum, but with no signs of immunodeficiency. Their disease is usually recurrent and difficult to manage. Fourteen patients meeting the following criteria for CWD were studied: T. rubrum culture-proven skin lesions of ≥10 cm in at least one dimension; the involvement of at least three non-contiguous localizations of >1 year’s duration; and no predisposing conditions. For comparison, we also studied 13 acute Tinea pedis patients. Macrophages and neutrophils were isolated and tested for T. rubrum conidia phagocytic and killing activity. H2O2, NO, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine release were measured. All experiments were run with age- and sex-matched healthy donors’ cells in parallel. CWD patients’ macrophages and neutrophils presented with reduced T. rubrum–phagocytic and killing abilities, and reduced H2O2 and NO release when compared with those of healthy donors. CWD patients’ macrophages secreted lower levels of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, but enhanced levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Neutrophil secretion closely followed this unbalanced pattern. In contrast, responses to the positive controls zymosan, lipopolysaccharide, and phorbol myristate acetate were comparable with those of healthy donors. The same experiments were performed with macrophages and neutrophils from the acute Tinea pedis patients and showed no differences when compared with the matched healthy donors. Patients with CWD have a T. rubrum-related functional deficiency of phagocytes and may represent a distinct clinical entity in the complex spectrum of the Trichophyton

  5. Functional interfacing of Rhodospirillum rubrum chromatophores to a conducting support for capture and conversion of solar energy.

    PubMed

    Harrold, John W; Woronowicz, Kamil; Lamptey, Joana L; Awong, John; Baird, James; Moshar, Amir; Vittadello, Michele; Falkowski, Paul G; Niederman, Robert A

    2013-09-26

    Owing to the considerable current interest in replacing fossil fuels with solar radiation as a clean, renewable, and secure energy source, light-driven electron transport in natural photosynthetic systems offers a valuable blueprint for conversion of sunlight to useful energy forms. In particular, intracytoplasmic membrane vesicles (chromatophores) from the purple bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum provide a fully functional and robust photosynthetic apparatus, ideal for biophysical investigations of energy transduction and incorporation into biohybrid photoelectrochemical devices. These vesicular organelles, which arise by invagination of the cytoplasmic membrane, are the sites of the photochemical reaction centers and the light harvesting 1 (LH1) complex. The LH1 protein is responsible for collecting visible and near-IR radiant energy and funneling these excitations to the reaction center for conversion into a transmembrane charge separation. Here, we have investigated the morphology, fluorescence kinetics and photocurrent generation of chromatophores from Rsp. rubrum deposited directly onto gold surfaces in the absence of chemical surface modifications. Atomic force microscopy showed a significant coverage of the gold electrode surface by Rsp. rubrum chromatophores. By in situ fluorescence induction/relaxation measurements, a high retention of the quantum yield of photochemistry was demonstrated in the photoactive films. Chronoamperometric measurements showed that the assembled bioelectrodes were capable of generating sustained photocurrent under white light illumination at 220 mW/cm(2) with a maximum current of 1.5 μA/cm(2), which slowly declines in about 1 week. This study demonstrates the possibility of photoelectrochemical control of robust chromatophore preparations from Rsp. rubrum that paves the way for future incorporation into functional solar cells.

  6. Modelled microgravity cultivation modulates N-acylhomoserine lactone production in Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H independently of cell density.

    PubMed

    Mastroleo, Felice; Van Houdt, Rob; Atkinson, Steve; Mergeay, Max; Hendrickx, Larissa; Wattiez, Ruddy; Leys, Natalie

    2013-12-01

    The photosynthetic alphaproteobacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H is part of the Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative (MELiSSA) project that is aiming to develop a closed life support system for oxygen, water and food production to support human life in space in forthcoming long-term space exploration missions. In the present study, R. rubrum S1H was cultured in a rotating wall vessel (RWV), simulating partial microgravity conditions on Earth. The bacterium showed a significant response to cultivation in simulated microgravity at the transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolic levels. In simulated microgravity conditions three N-acyl-l-homoserine lactones (C10-HSL, C12-HSL and 3-OH-C14-HSL) were detected in concentrations that were twice those detected under normal gravity, while no differences in cell density was detected. In addition, R. rubrum cultivated in modelled microgravity showed higher pigmentation than the normal gravity control, without change in culture oxygenation. When compared to randomized microgravity cultivation using a random positioning machine, significant overlap for the top differentially expressed genes and proteins was observed. Cultivation in this new artificial environment of simulated microgravity showed new properties of this well-known bacterium, including its first, to our knowledge, complete quorum-sensing-related N-acylhomoserine lactone profile.

  7. Location and Description of Transects for Ecological Studies in Floodplain Forests of the Lower Suwannee River, Florida

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    used in this report follows that by Godfrey (1988) unless otherwise indicated] Code Scientific Name Common name acerub Acer rubrum L. red maple betnig...persimmon foracu Forestiera acuminata (Michx.) Poir. in Lam. swamp-privet fracar Fraxinus caroliniana Mill. pop ash frapro Fraxinus profunda (Bush...ileopa Ilex opaca Ait. var. opaca American holly junsil Juniperus silicicola (Small) Bailey 1 southern red cedar liqsty Liquidambar styraciflua L

  8. Separating foliar physiology from morphology reveals the relative roles of vertically structured transpiration factors within red maple crowns and limitations of larger scale models.

    PubMed

    Bauerle, William L; Bowden, Joseph D

    2011-08-01

    A spatially explicit mechanistic model, MAESTRA, was used to separate key parameters affecting transpiration to provide insights into the most influential parameters for accurate predictions of within-crown and within-canopy transpiration. Once validated among Acer rubrum L. genotypes, model responses to different parameterization scenarios were scaled up to stand transpiration (expressed per unit leaf area) to assess how transpiration might be affected by the spatial distribution of foliage properties. For example, when physiological differences were accounted for, differences in leaf width among A. rubrum L. genotypes resulted in a 25% difference in transpiration. An in silico within-canopy sensitivity analysis was conducted over the range of genotype parameter variation observed and under different climate forcing conditions. The analysis revealed that seven of 16 leaf traits had a ≥5% impact on transpiration predictions. Under sparse foliage conditions, comparisons of the present findings with previous studies were in agreement that parameters such as the maximum Rubisco-limited rate of photosynthesis can explain ∼20% of the variability in predicted transpiration. However, the spatial analysis shows how such parameters can decrease or change in importance below the uppermost canopy layer. Alternatively, model sensitivity to leaf width and minimum stomatal conductance was continuous along a vertical canopy depth profile. Foremost, transpiration sensitivity to an observed range of morphological and physiological parameters is examined and the spatial sensitivity of transpiration model predictions to vertical variations in microclimate and foliage density is identified to reduce the uncertainty of current transpiration predictions.

  9. Role of dissolved nitrate and phosphate in isolates of Mesodinium rubrum and toxin-producing Dinophysis acuminata

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Juliette L.; Kulis, David M.; Anderson, Donald M.

    2016-01-01

    Dinophysis acuminata, a producer of toxins associated with diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) and/or pectenotoxins (PTXs), is a mixotrophic species that requires both ciliate prey and light for growth. Linkages have been described in the literature between natural abundances of the predator Dinophysis and its prey, Mesodinium rubrum, and culture experiments have demonstrated that prey, in addition to light, is required for toxin production by Dinophysis acuminata; together these suggest Mesodinium is a critical component for Dinophysis growth and toxicity. However, little is known about the role of dissolved inorganic nutrients on Mesodinium growth or that of toxin-producing Dinophysis. Accordingly, a series of experiments were conducted to investigate the possible uptake of dissolved nitrate and phosphate by 1) Dinophysis starved of prey, 2) Dinophysis feeding on Mesodinium rubrum, and 3) M. rubrum grown in nutritionally-modified media. All single-clone or mixed cultures were monitored for dissolved and particulate nutrient levels over the growth cycle, as well as growth rate, biomass, and toxin production when appropriate. D. acuminata did not utilize dissolved nitrate or phosphate in the medium under any nutrient regime tested, i.e., nutrient-enriched and nutrient-reduced, in the absence or presence of prey, or during any growth phase monitored, i.e., exponential and plateau phases. Changes in particulate phosphorus and nitrogen in D. acuminata, were instead, strongly influenced by the consumption of M. rubrum prey, and these levels quickly stabilized once prey were no longer available. M. rubrum, on the other hand, rapidly assimilated dissolved nitrate and phosphate into its particulate nutrient fraction, with maximum uptake rates of 1.38 pmol N/cell/day and 1.63 pmol P/cell/day. While D. acuminata did not benefit directly from the dissolved nitrate and phosphate, its growth (0.37±0.01 day−1) and toxin production rates for okadaic acid (OA

  10. Overexpression, purification, crystallization and preliminary diffraction studies of the Protaminobacter rubrum sucrose isomerase SmuA.

    PubMed

    Ravaud, Stéphanie; Watzlawick, Hildegard; Haser, Richard; Mattes, Ralf; Aghajari, Nushin

    2006-01-01

    Palatinose (isomaltulose, alpha-D-glucosylpyranosyl-1,6-D-fructofuranose), a nutritional and acariogenic reducing sugar, is industrially obtained from sucrose by using immobilized cells of Protaminobacter rubrum that produce the sucrose isomerase SmuA. The isomerization of sucrose catalyzed by this enzyme also results in the formation of trehalulose (alpha-D-glucosylpyranosyl-1,1-D-fructofuranose) in smaller amounts and glucose, fructose and eventually isomaltose as by-products, which lower the yield of the reaction and complicate the recovery of palatinose. The determination of the three-dimensional structure of SmuA will provide a basis for rational protein-engineering studies in order to optimize the industrial production of palatinose. A recombinant form of the 67.3 kDa SmuA enzyme has been crystallized in the native state by the vapour-diffusion method. Crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2(1)2(1)2(1), with unit-cell parameters a = 61.6, b = 81.4, c = 135.6 A, and diffract to 1.95 A resolution on a synchrotron-radiation source.

  11. Effects of phylogeny, leaf traits, and the altitudinal distribution of host plants on herbivore assemblages on congeneric Acer species.

    PubMed

    Nakadai, Ryosuke; Murakami, Masashi; Hirao, Toshihide

    2014-08-01

    Historical, niche-based, and stochastic processes have been proposed as the mechanisms that drive community assembly. In plant-herbivore systems, these processes can correspond to phylogeny, leaf traits, and the distribution of host plants, respectively. Although patterns of herbivore assemblages among plant species have been repeatedly examined, the effects of these factors among co-occurring congeneric host plant species have rarely been studied. Our aim was to reveal the process of community assembly for herbivores by investigating the effects of phylogeny, leaf traits, and the altitudinal distribution of closely related host plants of the genus Acer. We sampled leaf functional traits for 30 Acer species in Japan. Using a newly constructed phylogeny, we determined that three of the six measured leaf traits (leaf thickness, C/N ratio, and condensed tannin content) showed a phylogenetic signal. In a field study, we sampled herbivore communities on 14 Acer species within an elevation gradient and examined relationships between herbivore assemblages and host plants. We found that herbivore assemblages were significantly correlated with phylogeny, leaf traits, phylogenetic signals, and the altitudinal distribution of host plants. Our results indicate that the interaction between historical and current ecological processes shapes herbivore community assemblages.

  12. The Evolution of the FT/TFL1 Genes in Amaranthaceae and Their Expression Patterns in the Course of Vegetative Growth and Flowering in Chenopodium rubrum

    PubMed Central

    Drabešová, Jana; Černá, Lucie; Mašterová, Helena; Koloušková, Pavla; Potocký, Martin; Štorchová, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The FT/TFL1 gene family controls important aspects of plant development: MFT-like genes affect germination, TFL1-like genes act as floral inhibitors, and FT-like genes are floral activators. Gene duplications produced paralogs with modified functions required by the specific lifestyles of various angiosperm species. We constructed the transcriptome of the weedy annual plant Chenopodium rubrum and used it for the comprehensive search for the FT/TFL1 genes. We analyzed their phylogenetic relationships across Amaranthaceae and all angiosperms. We discovered a very ancient phylogenetic clade of FT genes represented by the CrFTL3 gene of C. rubrum. Another paralog CrFTL2 showed an unusual structural rearrangement which might have contributed to the functional shift. We examined the transcription patterns of the FT/TFL1 genes during the vegetative growth and floral transition in C. rubrum to get clues about their possible functions. All the genes except for the constitutively expressed CrFTL2 gene, and the CrFTL3 gene, which was transcribed only in seeds, exhibited organ-specific expression influenced by the specific light regime. The CrFTL1 gene was confirmed as a single floral activator from the FT/TFL1 family in C. rubrum. Its floral promoting activity may be counteracted by CrTFL1. C. rubrum emerges as an easily manipulated model for the study of floral induction in weedy fast-cycling plants lacking a juvenile phase. PMID:27473314

  13. [Suppression of telomerase activity leukemic cells by mutant forms of Rhodospirillum rubrum L-asparaginase].

    PubMed

    Pokrovskaya, M V; Zhdanov, D D; Eldarov, M A; Aleksandrova, S S; Veselovskiy, A V; Pokrovskiy, V S; Grishin, D V; Gladilina, Ju A; Sokolov, N N

    2017-01-01

    The active and stable mutant forms of short chain cytoplasmic L-asparaginase type I of Rhodospirillum rubrum (RrA): RrA+N17, D60K, F61L, RrA+N17, A64V, E67K, RrA+N17, E149R, V150P, RrAE149R, V150P and RrAE149R, V150P, F151T were obtained by the method of site-directed mutagenesis. It is established that variants RrA-N17, E149R, V150P, F151T and RrАE149R, V150P are capable to reduce an expression hTERT subunit of telomerase and, hence, activity of telomeres in Jurkat cells, but not in cellular lysates. During too time, L-asparaginases of Escherichia coli, Erwinia carotovora and Wolinella succinogenes, mutant forms RrА+N17, D60K, F61L and RrА+N17, A64V, E67K do not suppress of telomerase activity. The assumption of existence in structure RrA of areas (amino acids residues in the position 146-164, 1-17, 60-67) which are responsible for suppression of telomerase activity is made. The received results show that antineoplastic activity of some variants RrA is connected both with reduction of concentration of free L-asparagine, and with expression suppression of hTERT telomerase subunit, that opens new prospects for antineoplastic therapy.

  14. Effect of vacuum and thermal shock on laser treatment of Trichophyton rubrum (toenail fungus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilar, Guillermo; Sun, Feng; Carlier, Pierre; Young, Erica; Hennings, David; González, F. Javier

    2010-02-01

    The eradication of Trichophyton rubrum has been attempted via laser irradiation because it could result advantageous relative to current clinical therapies. Anticipating that the necessary thermal effects could unintentionally damage the underlying toe dermal layer, we have explored two auxiliary approaches: (a) laser irradiation under vacuum pressure, with and without water dousing and, (b) cooling followed by laser heating (thermal shock). The rationale is that at low pressures, the temperature necessary to achieve water evaporation/boiling is significantly reduced, thus requiring lower fluences. Similarly, a thermal shock induced by cooling followed by laser irradiation may require lower fluences to achieve fungus necrosis. For all experiments presented we use a Cooltouch, model CT3 plus, 1320 nm laser to irradiate fungi colonies. The vacuum pressure experiments exposed fungi colonies to a subatmospheric pressure of 84.7 kPa (25 inHg) with and without water dousing for 5 min, followed by irradiation with 4.0 J/cm2 fluence and 40-90 J total energies. The thermal shock experiments consisted of three sections at 4.8 J/cm2: cooling the fungus to 0 °C at 0.39 °C/min and then irradiating to 45-60 °C cooling to -20 °C at 1.075 °C/min and irradiating to 45 °C and cooling to -20 °C at 21.5 °C/min and irradiating to 45 °C. Fungus growth rate over a 1-week period assessed the feasibility of these procedures. Results indicated both approaches hamper the growth rate of fungi colonies relative to untreated control samples, especially water dousing under vacuum conditions and slow cooling rate preceding irradiation for thermal shock effect.

  15. Cloning and characterization of monofunctional catalase from photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum S1.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Heon; Oh, Duck-Chul; Oh, You-Sung; Malinverni, Juliana C; Kukor, Jerome J; Kahng, Hyung-Yeel

    2007-09-01

    In this study, an approx. 2.5-kb gene fragment including the catalase gene from Rhodospirillum rubrum S1 was cloned and characterized. The determination of the complete nucleotide sequence revealed that the cloned DNA fragment was organized into three open reading frames, designated as ORF1, catalase, and ORF3 in that order. The catalase gene consisted of 1,455 nucleotides and 484 amino acids, including the initiation and stop codons, and was located 326 bp upstream in the opposite direction of ORF1. The catalase was overproduced in Escherichia coli UM255, a catalase-deficient mutant, and then purified for the biochemical characterization of the enzyme. The purified catalase had an estimated molecular mass of 189 kDa, consisting of four identical subunits of 61 kDa. The enzyme exhibited activity over a broad pH range from pH 5.0 to pH 11.0 and temperature range from 20 degrees C to 60 degrees C. The catalase activity was inhibited by 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole, cyanide, azide, and hydroxylamine. The enzyme's K(m) value and V(max) of the catalase for H2O2 were 21.8 mM and 39,960 U/mg, respectively. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed that the ratio of A406 to A280 for the catalase was 0.97, indicating the presence of a ferric component. The absorption spectrum of catalase-4 exhibited a Soret band at 406 nm, which is typical of a heme-containing catalase. Treatment of the enzyme with dithionite did not alter the spectral shape and revealed no peroxidase activity. The combined results of the gene sequence and biochemical characterization proved that the catalase cloned from strain S1in this study was a typical monofunctional catalase, which differed from the other types of catalases found in strain S1.

  16. Identification of functional regions in the Rhodospirillum rubrum L-asparaginase by site-directed mutagenesis.

    PubMed

    Pokrovskaya, M V; Aleksandrova, S S; Pokrovsky, V S; Veselovsky, A V; Grishin, D V; Abakumova, O Yu; Podobed, O V; Mishin, A A; Zhdanov, D D; Sokolov, N N

    2015-03-01

    Site-directed mutagenesis of Rhodospirillum rubrum L-asparaginase (RrA) was performed in order to identify sites of the protein molecule important for its therapeutic and physico-chemical properties. Ten multipoint mutant genes were obtained, and five recombinant RrA variants were expressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) cells and isolated as functionally active highly purified proteins. Protein purification was performed using Q-Sepharose and DEAE-Toyopearl chromatography. Overall yield of the active enzymes was 70-80 %, their specific activity at pH 7.4 and 37 °C varied of 140-210 U/mg. L-Glutaminase activity did not exceed 0.01 % of L-asparaginase activity. All RrA mutants showed maximum enzyme activity at pH 9.3-9.5 and 53-58 °C. Km and Vmax values for L-asparagine were evaluated for all mutants. Mutations G86P, D88H, M90K (RrAH), G121L, D123A (RrАI) caused the loss of enzyme activity and confirmed the importance of these sites in the implementation of catalytic functions. Removal of four residues from C-terminal area of the enzyme (RrAK) resulted in the enzyme instability. Mutations D60K, F61L(RrАD), and R118H, G120R(RrАJ) led to the improvement of kinetic parameters and enzyme stabilization. Substitutions E149R, V150P (RrАB) improved antineoplastic and cytotoxic activity of the RrA. A64V, E67K substitutions, especially in combination with E149R, V150P (RrАE), considerably destabilized recombinant enzyme.

  17. Antioxidative and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Galloyl Derivatives and Antidiabetic Activities of Acer ginnala

    PubMed Central

    Park, Kwan Hee; Yoon, Kyu Hyeong; Yin, Jun; Le, Thi Tam; Ahn, Hye Sin; Yoon, Seong Hye

    2017-01-01

    Chromatographic isolation of the 80% MeOH extract of Acer ginnala (AG) yielded seven galloyl derivatives: gallic acid (1), ginnalin B (2), acertannin (3), maplexin D (4), maplexin E (5), quercetin-3-O-(2′′-galloyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (6), and kaempferol-3-O-(2′′-galloyl)-α-L-rhamnopyranoside (7). This is the first study to report the isolation of compounds 4 and 5 from AG. Galloyl derivatives 3–7 exhibited potent radical scavenging activities, with 5 and 7 showing particularly strong inhibitory activities against nitric oxide production in lipopolysaccharides- (LPS-) stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In addition, oral administration of AG extract (500 mg/kg b.w.) improved symptoms of hyperglycemia and blunted the increases in serum GOT/GPT levels in a rat model of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. These results suggest that galloyl derivatives (1–7) are antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents and that AG extract has potential as a functional material or novel herbal medicine for treating diabetes mellitus. PMID:28348624

  18. Effects of CO₂ on Acer negundo pollen fertility, protein content, allergenic properties, and carbohydrates.

    PubMed

    Silva, M; Ribeiro, H; Abreu, I; Cruz, A; Esteves da Silva, J C G

    2015-05-01

    Atmospheric gaseous pollutants can induce qualitative and quantitative changes in airborne pollen characteristics. In this work, it was investigated the effects of carbon dioxide (CO2) on Acer negundo pollen fertility, protein content, allergenic properties, and carbohydrates. Pollen was collected directly from the anthers and in vitro exposed to three CO2 levels (500, 1000, and 3000 ppm) for 6 and 24 h in an environmental chamber. Pollen fertility was determined using viability and germination assays, total soluble protein was determined with Coomassie Protein Assay Reagent, and the antigenic and allergenic properties were investigated by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunological techniques using patients' sera. Also, pollen fructose, sucrose, and glucose values were determined. Carbon dioxide exposure affected negatively pollen fertility, total soluble protein content, and fructose content. The patient sera revealed increased IgE reactivity to proteins of A. negundo pollen exposed to increasing levels of the pollutant. No changes were detected in the SDS-PAGE protein profiles and in sucrose and glucose levels. Our results indicate that increase in atmospheric CO2 concentrations can have a negative influence of some features of A. negundo airborne pollen that can influence the reproductive processes as well as respiratory pollen allergies in the future.

  19. The protective role of selenium in recalcitrant Acer saccharium L. seeds subjected to desiccation.

    PubMed

    Pukacka, Stanisława; Ratajczak, Ewelina; Kalemba, Ewa

    2011-02-15

    Freshly harvested silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.) seeds were soaked in either sodium selenite (10mg/L) or water for 6h. After washing and air drying, seeds were desiccated at 22°C at a RH of 45-50% to comparable water levels from 50 to 12%. Germination capacity was significantly higher in seeds treated with selenium and desiccated [from 50 to 40, 35 and 30% of water content (WC)] than in water-soaked seeds. At 20% WC, the seeds from both treatments had low viability (approximately 20%). The electrolyte leakage and the MDA content were significantly lower in the embryonic axes of seeds soaked in selenite than in seeds soaked in water. We also found that the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GPX) of embryonic axes from selenium-treated seeds that were not desiccated, or from seeds that were desiccated to 40 and 35% WC, was significantly higher than that of non-treated axes. No difference in GPX activity was detected in cotyledons. This was confirmed by activity staining of GPX after native PAGE of proteins extracted from embryonic axes and cotyledons. An increase in glutathione reductase (GR) activity was also observed in embryonic axes of seeds treated with selenium and dried to 35 and 30% WC compared to non-treated samples. Selenium appeared to have no such effect on cotyledons.

  20. Changes in photosynthetic performance and antioxidative strategies during maturation of Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) leaves.

    PubMed

    Lepeduš, Hrvoje; Gaća, Vlatka; Viljevac, Marija; Kovač, Spomenka; Fulgosi, Hrvoje; Simić, Domagoj; Jurković, Vlatka; Cesar, Vera

    2011-04-01

    Different structural and functional changes take place during leaf development. Since some of them are highly connected to oxidative metabolism, regulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) abundance is required. Most of the reactive oxygen species ROS in plant cells are produced in chloroplasts as a result of highly energetic reactions of photosynthesis. The aim of our study was to examine the changes in concentration of oxidative stress parameters (TBARS - thiobarbituric acid-reacting substances and protein carbonyls) as well as antioxidative strategies during development of maple (Acer platanoides L.) leaves in the light of their enhanced photosynthetic performance. We reveal that biogenesis of the photosynthetic apparatus during maple leaf maturation corresponded with oxidative damage of lipids, but not proteins. In addition, antioxidative responses in young leaves differed from that in older leaves. Young leaves had high values of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) and catalase (CAT, EC 1.11.1.6) activity which declined during the maturation process. Developing leaves were characterized by an increase in TBARS level, the content of non-enzymatic antioxidants as well as ascorbate peroxidase activity (APX, EC 1.11.1.11), while the content of protein carbonyls decreased with leaf maturation. Fully developed leaves had the highest lipid peroxidation level accompanied by a maximum in ascorbic acid content and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD, EC1.15.1.1). These observations imply completely different antioxidative strategies during leaf maturation enabling them to perform their basic function.

  1. Genetic consequences of selection cutting on sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall).

    PubMed

    Graignic, Noémie; Tremblay, Francine; Bergeron, Yves

    2016-07-01

    Selection cutting is a treatment that emulates tree-by-tree replacement for forests with uneven-age structures. It creates small openings in large areas and often generates a more homogenous forest structure (fewer large leaving trees and defective trees) that differs from old-growth forest. In this study, we evaluated whether this type of harvesting has an impact on genetic diversity of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall). Genetic diversity among seedlings, saplings, and mature trees was compared between selection cut and old-growth forest stands in Québec, Canada. We found higher observed heterozygosity and a lower inbreeding coefficient in mature trees than in younger regeneration cohorts of both forest types. We detected a recent bottleneck in all stands undergoing selection cutting. Other genetic indices of diversity (allelic richness, observed and expected heterozygosity, and rare alleles) were similar between forest types. We concluded that the effect of selection cutting on the genetic diversity of sugar maple was recent and no evidence of genetic erosion was detectable in Québec stands after one harvest. However, the cumulative effect of recurring applications of selection cutting in bottlenecked stands could lead to fixation of deleterious alleles, and this highlights the need for adopting better forest management practices.

  2. New Gallotannin and other Phytochemicals from Sycamore Maple (Acer pseudoplatanus) Leaves.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lu; Tu, Zong-cai; Yuan, Tao; Ma, Hang; Niesen, Daniel B; Wang, Hui; Seeram, Navindra P

    2015-11-01

    The maple (Acer) genus is a reported source of bioactive (poly)phenols, including gallotannins, but several of its members, such as the sycamore maple (A. pseudoplatanus), remain uninvestigated. Herein, thirty-nine compounds, including a new gallotannin, 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-6-O-(p-hydroxybenzoyl)-β-D- glucopyranoside (1), and thirty-eight (2-39) known compounds, consisting of four gallotannins, one ellagitannin, thirteen flavonoids, eight hydroxycinnamic acids, ten benzoic acid derivatives, and two sesquiterpenoids, were isolated from sycamore maple leaves. Their structures were determined based on NMR and mass spectral analyses. The isolates were evaluated for α-glucosidase inhibitory and antioxidant activities. Among the isolates, the gallotannins were the most potent α-glucosidase inhibitors with thirteen-fold more potent activity compared with the clinical drug, acarbose (IC50 = 16-31 vs. 218 µM). Similarly, the gallotannins showed the highest antioxidant activities, followed by the other phenolic sub-classes, while the sesquiterpenoids were inactive.

  3. Proteomic analysis of embryogenesis and the acquisition of seed dormancy in Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.).

    PubMed

    Staszak, Aleksandra Maria; Pawłowski, Tomasz Andrzej

    2014-06-17

    The proteome of zygotic embryos of Acer platanoides L. was analyzed via high-resolution 2D-SDS-PAGE and MS/MS in order to: (1) identify significant physiological processes associated with embryo development; and (2) identify changes in the proteome of the embryo associated with the acquisition of seed dormancy. Seventeen spots were identified as associated with morphogenesis at 10 to 13 weeks after flowering (WAF). Thirty-three spots were associated with maturation of the embryo at 14 to 22 WAF. The greatest changes in protein abundance occurred at 22 WAF, when seeds become fully mature. Overall, the stage of morphogenesis was characterized by changes in the abundance of proteins (tubulins and actin) associated with the growth and development of the embryo. Enzymes related to energy supply were especially elevated, most likely due to the energy demand associated with rapid growth and cell division. The stage of maturation is crucial to the establishment of seed dormancy and is associated with a higher abundance of proteins involved in genetic information processing, energy and carbon metabolism and cellular and antioxidant processes. Results indicated that a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein and proteasome proteins may be directly involved in dormancy acquisition control, and future studies are warranted to verify this association.

  4. Phylogenetic test of speciation by host shift in leaf cone moths (Caloptilia) feeding on maples (Acer).

    PubMed

    Nakadai, Ryosuke; Kawakita, Atsushi

    2016-07-01

    The traditional explanation for the exceptional diversity of herbivorous insects emphasizes host shift as the major driver of speciation. However, phylogenetic studies have often demonstrated widespread host plant conservatism by insect herbivores, calling into question the prevalence of speciation by host shift to distantly related plants. A limitation of previous phylogenetic studies is that host plants were defined at the family or genus level; thus, it was unclear whether host shifts predominate at a finer taxonomic scale. The lack of a statistical approach to test the hypothesis of host-shift-driven speciation also hindered studies at the species level. Here, we analyze the radiation of leaf cone moths (Caloptilia) associated with maples (Acer) using a newly developed, phylogeny-based method that tests the role of host shift in speciation. This method has the advantage of not requiring complete taxon sampling from an entire radiation. Based on 254 host plant records for 14 Caloptilia species collected at 73 sites in Japan, we show that major dietary changes are more concentrated toward the root of the phylogeny, with host shift playing a minor role in recent speciation. We suggest that there may be other roles for host shift in promoting herbivorous insect diversification rather than facilitating speciation per se.

  5. Regional growth decline of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and its potential causes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bishop, Daniel A.; Beier, Colin M.; Pederson, Neil; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Stella, John C; Sullivan, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) has experienced poor vigor, regeneration failure, and elevated mortality across much of its range, but there has been relatively little attention to its growth rates. Based on a well-replicated dendrochronological network of range-centered populations in the Adirondack Mountains (USA), which encompassed a wide gradient of soil fertility, we observed that the majority of sugar maple trees exhibited negative growth trends in the last several decades, regardless of age, diameter, or soil fertility. Such growth patterns were unexpected, given recent warming and increased moisture availability, as well as reduced acidic deposition, which should have favored growth. Mean basal area increment was greater on base-rich soils, but these stands also experienced sharp reductions in growth. Growth sensitivity of sugar maple to temperature and precipitation was non-stationary during the last century, with overall weaker relationships than expected. Given the favorable competitive status and age structure of the Adirondack sugar maple populations sampled, evidence of widespread growth reductions raises concern over this ecologically and economically important tree. Further study will be needed to establish whether growth declines of sugar maple are occurring more widely across its range.

  6. The sap of Acer okamotoanum decreases serum alcohol levels after acute ethanol ingestion in rats.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Yeong-Min; Jung, Eui-Man; Kang, Ha-Young; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Kyung-Chul; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2011-10-01

    In the present study, we examined whether Acer okamotoanum (A. okamotoanum) sap decreased the serum alcohol and acetaldehyde levels after acute ethanol treatment in a rat model. Male rats were orally administered 25, 50 or 100% A. okamotoanum sap 30 min prior to oral challenge with 3 ml of ethanol (15 ml/kg of a 20% ethanol solution in water), and the blood concentrations of alcohol and acetaldehyde were analyzed up to 7 h after the treatment. Pre-treatment with the sap significantly decreased the blood ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations after 5 h when compared with ethanol treatment alone (a negative control). The expression levels of liver alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) mRNA were increased significantly in animals pre-treated with A. okamotoanum sap when compared with negative and positive controls. The data suggest that sap pre-treatment enhanced the alcohol metabolism rate in the rat liver. To investigate the involvement of mitochondrial regulation in the ethanol-induced hepatocyte apoptosis, we carried out an immunohistochemical analysis of Bax and Bcl-2. Pre-treatment with sap significantly decreased Bax expression and increased Bcl-2 expression 7 h after ethanol administration when compared with the negative control. The data suggest that A. okamotoanum sap pre-treatment may reduce the alcohol-induced oxidative stress in the rat liver.

  7. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE SECONDARY WALL OF THE XYLEM IN ACER PSEUDOPLATANUS

    PubMed Central

    Wooding, F. B. P.; Northcote, D. H.

    1964-01-01

    The development of the spirally thickened xylem element from a cambium initial of sycamore Acer pseudoplatanus has been traced by means of electron microscopy. The narrow elongated cambial initial undergoes considerable expansion in all dimensions. The cytoplasm at this stage is distributed in a thin skin between the cell wall and a large vacuole. No correlation has been observed between the distribution of any organelle and the pattern of the eventual thickenings. After the sites of thickening deposition have become apparent, the most conspicuous feature of the cell is the proliferation of Golgi bodies and vesicles. It is suggested that the material of the developing thickenings stems from direct apposition of the material in the Golgi vesicles. After glutaraldehyde fixation, microtubules (200 to 220 A in diameter) are seen to be sited in specific relation to the thickenings, the orientation of the tubules mirroring that of the fibrils seen in the thickenings. Possible reasons for absence of an observable pattern in the expanded but relatively undifferentiated cell are given, and the possible roles of the Golgi apparatus and microtubules in the thickening production are discussed PMID:14222817

  8. A Test for Pre-Adapted Phenotypic Plasticity in the Invasive Tree Acer negundo L.

    PubMed Central

    Lamarque, Laurent J.; Porté, Annabel J.; Eymeric, Camille; Lasnier, Jean-Baptiste; Lortie, Christopher J.; Delzon, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    Phenotypic plasticity is a key mechanism associated with the spread of exotic plants and previous studies have found that invasive species are generally more plastic than co-occurring species. Comparatively, the evolution of phenotypic plasticity in plant invasion has received less attention, and in particular, the genetic basis of plasticity is largely unexamined. Native from North America, Acer negundo L. is aggressively impacting the riparian forests of southern and eastern Europe thanks to higher plasticity relative to co-occurring native species. We therefore tested here whether invasive populations have evolved increased plasticity since introduction. The performance of 1152 seedlings from 8 native and 8 invasive populations was compared in response to nutrient availability. Irrespective of nutrients, invasive populations had higher growth and greater allocation to above-ground biomass relative to their native conspecifics. More importantly, invasive genotypes did not show increased plasticity in any of the 20 traits examined. This result suggests that the high magnitude of plasticity to nutrient variation of invasive seedlings might be pre-adapted in the native range. Invasiveness of A. negundo could be explained by higher mean values of traits due to genetic differentiation rather than by evolution of increased plasticity. PMID:24040212

  9. Influence of nitrogen and phosphorous on the growth and root morphology of Acer mono

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Shen, Hai-long; Salahuddin

    2017-01-01

    Nitrogen and phosphorous are critical determinants of plant growth and productivity, and both plant growth and root morphology are important parameters for evaluating the effects of supplied nutrients. Previous work has shown that the growth of Acer mono seedlings is retarded under nursery conditions; we applied different levels of N (0, 5, 10, and 15 g plant-1) and P (0, 4, 6 and 8 g plant-1) fertilizer to investigate the effects of fertilization on the growth and root morphology of four-year-old seedlings in the field. Our results indicated that both N and P application significantly affected plant height, root collar diameter, chlorophyll content, and root morphology. Among the nutrient levels, 10 g N and 8 g P were found to yield maximum growth, and the maximum values of plant height, root collar diameter, chlorophyll content, and root morphology were obtained when 10 g N and 8 g P were used together. Therefore, the present study demonstrates that optimum levels of N and P can be used to improve seedling health and growth during the nursery period. PMID:28234921

  10. The influence of surface carbohydrates during in vitro infection of mammalian cells by the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Esquenazi, Daniele; Alviano, Celuta S; de Souza, Wanderley; Rozental, Sonia

    2004-04-01

    In order to better understand the role played by surface glycoconjugates during host cell adhesion and endocytosis of Trichophyton rubrum, we looked for the presence of carbohydrate-binding adhesins on the microconidia surface and their role on cellular interaction with epithelial and macrophages cells. The interaction of T. rubrum with chinese hamster ovary epithelial cells and their glycosylation-deficient mutants demonstrated a higher adhesion index in Lec1 and Lec2 mutants, that express mannose and galactose, respectively. Endocytosed fungi were shown preferentially in Lec2 cells. Addition of the carbohydrates to the interaction medium, pretreatment with lectins and with sodium periodate decreased the adhesion and endocytic index for all mutants. The ability of the fungus to penetrate into mammalian cells was confirmed in experiments using macrophages treated with cytochalasin D. Flow cytometric analysis showed that this fungus recognizes mannose and galactose. The binding was inhibited by the addition of methyl alpha-D-mannopyranoside and methyl alpha-D-galactopyranoside, and showed higher fluorescence intensity at 37 than at 28 degrees C. Trypsin treatment and heating of the cells reduced the binding, suggesting a (glyco) protein nature for the microconidia adhesins. The presence of lectin-like molecules in fungus cell could be observed by scanning electron microscopy of the fungus incubated with colloidal-gold labeled neoglycoproteins. Our results suggest that T. rubrum has the ability to invade mammalian cells and expresses carbohydrate-specific adhesins on microconidia surface that recognize mannose and galactose. These adhesins may play an important role on the adhesion and invasion of the fungus during the infectious process of dermatophytosis.

  11. Gender-related traits in the dioecious shrub Empetrum rubrum in two plant communities in the Magellanic steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz-Barradas, Mari Cruz; Zunzunegui, María; Collantes, Marta; Álvarez-Cansino, Leonor; García Novo, Francisco

    2014-10-01

    Following the theory on costs of reproduction, sexually dimorphic plants may exhibit several trade-offs in energy and resources that can determine gender dimorphism in morphological or physiological traits, especially during the reproductive period. In this study we assess whether the sexes of the dioecious species Empetrum rubrum differ in morphological and ecophysiological traits related to water economy and photochemical efficiency and whether these differences change in nearby populations with contrasting plant communities. We conducted physiological, morphological, sex ratio, and cover measurements in E. rubrum plants in the Magellanic steppe, North-Eastern part of Tierra del Fuego (Argentina), from two types of heathlands with differing community composition. We found differences between sites in soil pH and wind speed at the canopy level. E. rubrum plants exhibited lower photosynthetic height and higher LAI (leaf area index), lower RWC (relative water content) and higher water-use efficiency (lower Δ13C) in the heathland with harsher environmental conditions. Gender dimorphism in the physiological response was patent for photochemical efficiency and water use (RWC and Δ13C discrimination), with males showing a more conservative strategy in relation to females. Accordingly, male-biased sex ratio in the stress-prone community suggested a better performance of male plants under stressful environmental conditions. The integrated analysis of all variables (photochemical efficiency, RWC, leaf dry matter content (LDMC), pigments, and Δ13C) indicated an interaction between gender and heathland community effects in the physiological response. We suggest that female plants may exhibit compensatory mechanisms to face their higher reproductive costs.

  12. Photometabolic production of hydrogen from organic substrates by free and immobilized mixed cultures of rhodospirillum rubrum and klebsiella pneumoniae

    SciTech Connect

    Weetall, H.H.; Sharma, B.P.; Detar, C.C.

    1981-03-01

    A culture of R. rubrum cells apparently contaminated with K. pneumoniae were immobilized by entrapment in agar. This system was used as a model for hydrogen production by photometabolic means. Observed results indicated that the contaminant exerted a major influence on the observed results. This preparation, when immobilized and used in a specifically designed reactor with glucose substrate, showed operational half-lives of approximately 1000 hr. The feasibility of using this ''mixed'' culture for producing hydrogen from acid hydrolyzed cellulose and wood sawdust was also examined. 5 refs.

  13. Eye redness

    MedlinePlus

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral injection; Conjunctival injection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies. Others are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Many are nothing to worry about. Eye ...

  14. [The biochemistry, bioenergetics, and physiology of the CO-dependent growth of Rhodospirillum rubrum]. Progress report, March 15, 1990--[1992

    SciTech Connect

    Ludden, P.W.; Roberts, G.P.

    1992-12-31

    We have previously purified and characterized the holo and Ni-deficient forms of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH) from Rhodospirillum rubrum, developed protocols for insertion of various metals into the Ni site of the enzyme and characterized these metal substituted forms kinetically. In the current grant period a working hypothesis for the structure of the NiFeS center at the active site of CODH has been developed. A 22 kD FeS protein, which serves as the direct electron acceptor from CODH, has been identified and purified. This Fe{sub 4}S{sub 4} protein is required for anchoring CODH to the chromatophore membranes of R. rubrum and it is specifically required for reconstitution of CO-dependent H{sub 2} evolution in vitro. The R. rubrum genes for CODH, the 22 kD (ferredoxin-like) FeS protein, and the CO-induced hydrogenase have been isolated, sequenced, and mutagenized. This region has been designated the coo region with coos encoding CODH, cooF encoding the 22 kD ferredoxin and cooh the CO-induced hydrogenase. An ORF immediately downstream of cooS has been designated cooC. The cooS and cooF genes are cotranscribed, while cooH is on a separate transcript. The CO-dependent growth of R. rubrum has been established in the dark on medium containing only salts plus 0.2% yeast extract under an anaerobic CO gas phase. Under these conditions, R. rubrum grows with a doubling time of 5 hours, using CO as the sole energy source and the primary carbon source. The CO-induced hydrogenase activity from R. rubrum has been solubilized and partially purified. This hydrogenase is immunologically distinct from other hydrogenases. An in vitro system comprised of CODH, the 22 kD ferredoxin, hydrogenase and undefined factors has been reconstituted to give CO-dependent H{sub 2} evolution.

  15. Red Sea

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2013-04-16

    article title:  The Red Sea     View Larger Image ... 2000. Located between the East African coast and the Saudi Arabian peninsula, the Red Sea got its name because the blooms of a type of ... 2000 - The Red Sea between the East Africa coast and Saudi Arabian peninsula. project:  MISR category:  ...

  16. Into the depth of population genetics: pattern of structuring in mesophotic red coral populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Costantini, Federica; Abbiati, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Deep-sea reef-building corals are among the most conspicuous invertebrates inhabiting the hard-bottom habitats worldwide and are particularly susceptible to human threats. The precious red coral ( Corallium rubrum, L. 1758) has a wide bathymetric distribution, from shallow up to 800 m depth, and represents a key species in the Mediterranean mesophotic reefs. Several studies have investigated genetic variability in shallow-water red coral populations, while geographic patterns in mesophotic habitats are largely unknown. This study investigated genetic variability of C. rubrum populations dwelling between 55 and 120 m depth, from the Ligurian to the Ionian Sea along about 1500 km of coastline. A total of 18 deep rocky banks were sampled. Colonies were analyzed by means of a set of microsatellite loci and the putative control region of the mitochondrial DNA. Collected data were compared with previous studies. Both types of molecular markers showed high genetic similarity between populations within the northern (Ligurian Sea and Tuscan Archipelago) and the southern (Tyrrhenian and Ionian seas) study areas. Variability in habitat features between the sampling sites did not affect the genetic variability of the populations. Conversely, the patchy distribution of suitable habitats affected populations' connectivity within and among deep coral banks. Based on these results and due to the emphasis on red coral protection in the Mediterranean Sea by international institutions, red coral could be promoted as a `focal species' to develop management plans for the conservation of deep coralligenous reefs, a reservoir of marine biodiversity.

  17. Magnesium ions improving the growth and organics reduction of Rhodospirillum rubrum cultivated in sewage through regulating energy metabolism pathways.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chang-Ru; Wu, Pan; Lang, Lang; Liu, Ri-Jia; Li, Jian-Zheng; Ji, Yu-Bin

    2015-01-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum has the potential for biomass resource recycling combined with sewage purification. However, low biomass production and yield restricts the potential for sewage purification. This research investigated the improvement of biomass production, yield and organics reduction by Mg²⁺ in R. rubrum wastewater treatment. Results showed that with optimal dosage (120 mg/L), biomass production reached 4,000 mg/L, which was 1.5 times of that of the control group. Biomass yield was improved by 43.3%. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal reached over 90%. Hydraulic retention time was shortened by 25%. Mechanism analysis indicated that Mg²⁺ enhanced the isocitrate dehydrogenase and Ca²⁺/Mg²⁺-ATPase activities, bacteriochlorophyll content on respiration and photophosphorylation. These effects then enhanced ATP production, which led to more biomass accumulation and COD removal. With 120 mg/L Mg²⁺ dosage, the isocitrate dehydrogenase and Ca²⁺/Mg²⁺-ATPase activities, bacteriochlorophyll content, ATP production were improved, respectively, by 33.3%, 50%, 67%, 41.3% compared to those of the control group.

  18. Rapid detection of contaminating bacteria in the Rhodospirillum rubrum bioreactor of the life support system MELiSSA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrickx, L.; Janssen, P.; Baatout, S.; Wattiez, R.; van Havermaet, A.; Bossi, V.; Mergeay, M.

    For a lunar base or a mission to Mars a reliable life support system is essential to replenish the food and water supplies and manage the production of gases and wastes MELiSSA Micro Ecological Life Support System is a model of regenerative life support system targeting complete recycling of gas liquids and solid wastes by using the combined activity of different living organisms i e microbial communities in 4 succesive microbial bioreactors CI CII CIII CIVa a plant compartment and a human crew http www estec esa nl ecls In order for the MELiSSA system to function properly the organisms inhabiting the MELiSSA loop need to perform their tasks as optimally as possible One important aspect is to control the axenicity of the MELISSA compartments CII CIII CIVa because contaminants constitute a major concern in the proper functioning and maintenance of a closed artificial ecosystem The first compartment of the MELiSSA loop wherein the organic waste is liquefied by a bacterial consortium originating from the waste itself is a likely source of pathogens Hence the second compartment in which R rubrum converts the in CI produced volatile fatty acids into minerals and biomass is probably an axenically vulnerable compartment within the MELiSSA loop due to its direct link with the first compartment Methods to check any loss of axenicity in the compartment of R rubrum are presented and evaluated in the present communication Flow cytometry in combination with specific fluorescent probes matrix assisted laser

  19. Synthesis of poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) from unrelated carbon sources in engineered Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, Daniel; Raberg, Matthias; Steinbüchel, Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Different genes encoding pyridine nucleotide transhydrogenases (pntAB, udhA) and acetoacetyl-CoA reductases (phaB) were heterologously overexpressed in Rhodospirillum rubrum S1. A recombinant strain, which harbored the gene encoding the membrane-bound transhydrogenase PntAB from Escherichia coli MG1655 and the phaB1 gene coding for an NADPH-dependent acetoacetyl-CoA reductase from Ralstonia eutropha H16, accumulated poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [Poly(3HB-co-3HV)] with a 3HV fraction of up to 13 mol% from fructose. This was a 13-fold increase of the 3HV content when compared to the wild-type strain. Higher contents of 3HV are known to reduce the brittleness of this polymer, which is advantageous for most applications. The engineered R. rubrum strain was also able to synthesize this industrially relevant copolymer from CO2 and CO from artificial synthesis gas (syngas) with a 3HV content of 56 mol%. The increased incorporation of 3HV was attributed to an excess of propionyl-CoA, which was generated from threonine and related amino acids to compensate for the intracellular redox imbalance resulting from the transhydrogenase reaction. Thereby, our study presents a novel, molecular approach to alter the composition of bacterial PHAs independently from external precursor supply. Moreover, this study also provides a promising production strain for syngas-derived second-generation biopolymers.

  20. Effects of elevated atmospheric CO(2) and temperature on leaf optical properties in Acer saccharum.

    PubMed

    Carter; Bahadur; Norby

    2000-06-01

    Elevated partial pressures of atmospheric carbon dioxide, similar to numerous causes of plant stress, may alter leaf pigmentation and structure and thus would be expected to alter leaf optical properties. Hypotheses that elevated CO(2) pressure and air temperature would alter leaf optical properties were tested for sugar maple (Acer saccharum) in the middle of its fourth growing season under treatment. The saplings had been growing since 1994 in open-top chambers and partial shade at Oak Ridge, Tennessee under the following treatments: (1) ambient CO(2) pressure and air temperature (control); (2) CO(2) pressure approximately 30 Pa above ambient; (3) air temperatures 3 degrees C above ambient; and (4) elevated CO(2) and air temperature. Under elevated CO(2) or temperature, spectral reflectance, transmittance and absorptance in the visible spectrum (400-720 nm) tended to change in patterns that generally are associated with chlorosis, with maximum differences from the control near 700 nm. However, these changes were not significant at P=0.05. Although reflectance, transmittance and absorptance at 700 nm correlated strongly with leaf chlorophyll concentration, variability in chlorophyll concentration was greater within than among treatments. The lack of treatment effects on pigmentation explained the non-significant change in optical properties in the visible spectrum. Optical properties in the near-infrared (721-850 nm) were similarly unresponsive to treatment with the exception of an increased absorptance throughout the 739-850 nm range in leaves that developed under elevated air temperature alone. This response might have resulted from effects of air temperature on leaf internal structure.

  1. Light drives vertical gradients of leaf morphology in a sugar maple (Acer saccharum) forest.

    PubMed

    Coble, Adam P; Cavaleri, Molly A

    2014-02-01

    Leaf mass per area (LMA, g m(-2)) is an essential trait for modeling canopy function due to its strong association with photosynthesis, respiration and leaf nitrogen. Leaf mass per area, which is influenced by both leaf thickness and density (LMA = thickness × density), generally increases from the bottom to the top of tree canopies, yet the mechanisms behind this universal pattern are not yet resolved. For decades, the light environment was assumed to be the most influential driver of within-canopy variation in LMA, yet recent evidence has shown hydrostatic gradients to be more important in upper canopy positions, especially in tall evergreen trees in temperate and tropical forests. The aim of this study was to disentangle the importance of various environmental drivers on vertical LMA gradients in a mature sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marshall) forest. We compared LMA, leaf density and leaf thickness relationships with height, light and predawn leaf water potential (ΨPre) within a closed and an exposed canopy to assess leaf morphological traits at similar heights but different light conditions. Contrary to our expectations and recent findings in the literature, we found strong evidence that light was the primary driver of vertical gradients in leaf morphology. At similar heights (13-23 m), LMA was greater within the exposed canopy than the closed canopy, and light had a stronger influence over LMA compared with ΨPre. Light also had a stronger influence over both leaf thickness and density compared with ΨPre; however, the increase in LMA within both canopy types was primarily due to increasing leaf thickness with increasing light availability. This study provides strong evidence that canopy structure and crown exposure, in addition to height, should be considered as a parameter for determining vertical patterns in LMA and modeling canopy function.

  2. [Effects of benthic macro-invertebrate on decomposition of Acer buergerianum leaf litter in streams].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Li-Hong; Wang, Bei-Xin; Chen, Ai-Qing; Lan, Ce-Jie

    2009-05-01

    By using composite mesh bag method, the effects of benthic macro-invertebrate in an undisturbed stream and an ecologically restored stream on the decomposition process of Acer buergerianum leaf litter from the Purple Mountain of Nanjing in winter were studied. After 112 days of decomposition, the remaining rate of A. buergerianum leaf litter based on ash-free dry mass was 31-62%, and the decomposition rate followed a declined exponential equation (P < 0.05). In the flowing water of the undisturbed and ecologically restored streams, the decomposition rate of leaf litter was 0.0064 d(-1) and 0.0030 d(-1); while in the still water of the streams, it was 0.0016 d(-1) and 0. 0018 d(-1), respectively. The abundance and biomass of benthic macro-invertebrate were significantly higher in the flowing water of undisturbed stream than in that of ecologically restored stream (P < 0.05), but had no significant differences in the still water of the two streams. Shredders (mainly Asellus sp.) had the highest abundance (70.4%) in the flowing water of undisturbed stream, while filterers (mainly Tanytarsus sp.) were dominant (37.8%) in the flowing water of ecologically restored stream. The decomposition rate of the leaf litter was significantly correlated with the richness and abundance of shredder species in flowing water (P < 0.01), but had less correlation with the biomass of the shredders, suggesting that the decomposition of A. buergerianum leaf litter in streams in winter was more dependent on the richness and abundance of shredders.

  3. Evolutionary history of a widespread tree species Acer mono in East Asia

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xi-Di; Wang, Hong-Fang; Bao, Lei; Wang, Tian-Ming; Bai, Wei-Ning; Ye, Jun-Wei; Ge, Jian-Ping

    2014-01-01

    East Asia has the most diverse temperate flora in the world primarily due to the lack of Pleistocene glaciation and the geographic heterogeneity. Although increasing phylogeography studies in this region provided more proofs in this issue, discrepancies and uncertainty still exist, especially in northern temperate deciduous broad-leaved and coniferous mixed forest region (II). And a widespread plant species could reduce the complexity to infer the relationship between diversity and physiographical pattern. Hence, we studied the evolution history of a widespread temperate tree, Acer mono, populations in region II and the influence of physiographic patterns on intraspecific genetic diversity. Analyses of chloroplast sequences and nuclear microsatellites indicated high levels of genetic diversity. The diversity distribution was spatially heterogeneous and a latitudinal cline existed in both markers. The spatial distribution pattern between genetic diversity within A. mono and the diversity at species level was generally consistent. Western subtropical evergreen broad-leaved forest subregion (IVb) had a unique ancient chloroplast clade (CP3) and a nuclear gene pool (GP5) with dominance indicating the critical role of this area in species diversification. Genetic data and ecological niche model results both suggested that populations in region II disappeared during the last glacial maximum (LGM) and recovered from south of Changbai Mt. and the Korean Peninsula. Two distribution centers were likely during the LGM, one in the north edge of warm temperate deciduous broad-leaved forest region (III) and another in the south edge of region III. This was reflected by the genetic pattern with two spatially independent genetic groups. This study highlights the key role of region III in sustaining genetic diversity in the northern range and connecting diversity between southern and northern range. We elucidated the diversity relationship between vegetation regions which could

  4. Xyloglucan biosynthesis by Golgi membranes from suspension-cultured sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells

    SciTech Connect

    White, A.R.; Xin, Yi )

    1990-05-01

    Xyloglucan is a major hemicellulose polysaccharide in plant cell walls. Biosynthesis of such cell wall polysaccharides is closely linked to the process of plant cell growth and development. Xyloglucan polysaccharides consist of a {beta}-1,4 glucan backbone synthesized by xyloglucan synthase and sidechains of xylose, galactose, and fucose added by other transferase enzymes. Most plant Golgi and plasma membranes also contain glucan synthases I II, which make {beta}-1,4 and {beta}-1,3 glucans, respectively. All of these enzymes have very similar activities. Cell walls on suspension-cultured cells from Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple) were enzymatically softened prior to cell disruption by passing through a 30 {mu}m nylon screen. Cell membranes from homogenates were separated by ultracentrifugation on top-loaded or flotation sucrose density gradients. Samples were collected by gradient fractionation and assayed for membrane markers and xyloglucan and glucan synthase activities. Standard marker assays (cyt. c reductase for eR, IDPase UDPase for Golgi, and eosin 5{prime}-malelmide binding for plasma membrane) showed partial separation of these three membrane types. Golgi and plasma membrane markers overlapped in most gradients. Incorporation of {sup 14}C-labeled sugars from UDP-glucose and UDP-xylose was used to detect xyloglucan synthase, glucan synthases I II, and xylosyl transferase in Golgi membrane fractions. These activities overlapped, although distinct peaks of xyloglucan synthase and xylosyl transferase were found. Ca{sup ++} had a stimulatory effect on glucan synthases I II, while Mn{sup ++} had an inhibitory effect on glucan synthase I in the presence of Ca{sup ++}. The similarity of these various synthase activities demonstrates the need for careful structural characterization of newly synthesized polysaccharides.

  5. Environmental Assessment: Military Housing Privatization Initiative at Scott Air Force Base, Illinois

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    Scientific Name White Pine Pinus strobus Ornamental Crabapple Malus (Pyrus) spp. Green Ash Fraxinus pennsylvanica Red Maple Acer rubrum Eastern...level produces ratings of “barely acceptable” for intelligibility of spoken material. Increasing the level of noise to 80 dB reduces the...Protection and Enhancement, are to: • Evaluate and minimize environmental impacts from noise produced by military activities; • Comply with federal

  6. The changes in leaf reflectance of sugar maple seedlings (Acer saccharum Marsh) in response to heavy metal stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwaller, M. R.; Schnetzler, C. C.; Marshall, P. E.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of heavy metal stress on leaf reflectance of sugar maple seedlings (Acer saccharum Marsh) are examined. It is found that sugar maple seedlings treated with anomalous amounts of heavy metals in the rooting medium exhibited an increased leaf reflectance over the entire range of investigated wavelengths, from 475 to 1650 nm. These results conform to those of a previous investigation in the wavelengths from 475 to 660nm, but tend to contradict the previous study in the near infrared wavelengths from 1000 to 1650nm. The differences may possible be due to different water regimes in the two investigations.

  7. The changes in leaf reflectance of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh) seedlings in response to heavy metal stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwaller, M. R.; Schnetzler, C. C.; Marshall, P. E.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of heavy metal stress on leaf reflectance of sugar maple seedlings (Acer saccharum Marsh) are examined. It is found that sugar maple seedlings treated with anomalous amounts of heavy metals in the rooting medium exhibited an increased leaf reflectance over the entire range of investigated wavelengths, from 475 to 1650 nm. These results conform to those of a previous investigation in the wavelengths from 475 to 660 nm, but tend to contradict the previous study in the near infrared wavelengths from 1000 to 1650 nm. The differences may possibly be due to different water regimes in the two investigations. Previously announced in STAR as N81-29729

  8. MoCA, ACE-R and MMSE versus the NINDS-CSN VCI Harmonisation Standards Neuropsychological Battery after TIA and stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pendlebury, Sarah T; Mariz, Jose; Bull, Linda; Mehta, Ziyah; Rothwell, Peter M

    2017-01-01

    Background The Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA) and Addenbrooke’s cognitive examination-revised (ACE-R) are proposed as short cognitive tests for use after stroke but there are few published validations against neuropsychological battery. We studied MoCA, ACE-R and mini-mental-state-examination(MMSE) in patients with cerebrovascular disease and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) Methods 100 consecutive patients had the MMSE, MoCA, ACE-R and NINDS-CSN VCI Harmonisation Standards Neuropsychological Battery ≥1 year after TIA or stroke in a population-based study. MCI was diagnosed using modified Petersen criteria in which subjective cognitive complaint is not required (equivalent to cognitive- impairment-no-dementia (CIND)) and sub-typed by number and type of cognitive domains affected. Results Among 91 non-demented subjects completing neuropsychological testing (mean/sd age 73.4/11.6 years, 44% female, 56% stroke), 39 (42%) had MCI (amnestic multiple domain=10, non-amnestic multiple domain=9, non-amnestic single domain=19, amnestic single domain=1). Sensitivity and specificity for MCI were optimal with MoCA<25 (sensitivity=77%, specificity=83%) and ACE-R<94 (sensitivity=83%, specificity=73%). Both tests detected amnestic MCI better than non-amnestic single domain impairment. MMSE only achieved sensitivity>70% at a cut-off of<29, mainly due to relative insensitivity to single domain impairment. Conclusion The MoCA and ACE-R had good sensitivity and specificity for MCI defined using the NINDS-CSN VCI Battery ≥1 year after TIA and stroke whereas the MMSE showed a ceiling effect. However, optimal cut-offs will depend on use for screening (high sensitivity) or diagnosis (high specificity). Lack of timed measures of processing speed may explain the relative insensitivity of the MoCA and ACE-R to single non-memory domain impairment. PMID:22156700

  9. The identification and characteristics of Echinoparyphium rubrum (Cort. 1914) new comb. (Trematoda, Echinostomatidae) based on experimental evidence of the life cycle

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kanev, I.; Sorensen, R.; Sterner, M.; Cole, R.; Fried, B.

    1998-01-01

    The life cycle of Echinoparyphium rubrum (Cort, 1914) comb. n. has been completed experimentally. All of the developmental stages egg, miracidium, sporocyst, mother and daughter rediae, cercaria, metacercaria, and adult were examined and described. The miracidia infected freshwater snails of the genus Physa , P. gyrina and P. occidentalis. Attempts to infect snails of the genera Lymnaea, L. auricularis, L. peregra, L. truncatula and Bulinus, B. truncatus failed. Cercariae infected various pulmonate and prosobranch freshwater snails, mussels, frogs, water turtles and planarians. The adults developed in the small intestine of birds and mammals. The identity and major characteristics of Echinoparyphium rubrum are discussed. Synonyms of E. rubrum are Cercaria rubra Cort, 1914; Cercaria biflexa Faust, 1917; Cercaria chisolenata Faust, 1918; Echinostoma callawayensis Barker et Noll, 1915; Echinostoma revolutum of Johnson (1920); Echinoparyphium elegans of Cannon (1938), of Bain and Trelfall (1977), of Mahoney and Trelfall (1977); and Echinoparyphium recurvatum of Jilek (1977), Harley (1972), Sankurathri and Holmes (1976). Comparisons are made between E. rubrum and its 43-collar-spined allies: E. flexum from North America, E. cinctum from Europe, E. dunni from Asia and E. elegans from Africa.

  10. [Dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton rubrum. Ten-year period (1996-2006) data collection in a Dermatology Department in Mexico City].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Salazar, Amparo; Carbajal-Pruneda, Patricia; Fernández Martínez, Ramón; Arenas, Roberto

    2007-06-01

    Dermatophytosis is the most common mycosis in the world up to 80% caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The aim of the present study was to describe the clinical characteristics of the dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum in a dermatological outpatient clinic during a ten years period, from 1996 to 2005. We collected the data from patients with a dermatophytosis from which we have isolated T. rubrum. A total of 776 patients with dermatophytosis caused by T. rubrum were found. A slight predominance of female patients (56.2%) was observed. The most commonly affected age group was those in the third to the fifth decade of life, and house working women (33.5%) were predominant. Onychomycosis was found in 63% of the cases, tinea pedis in 22.7%, tinea corporis in 5.2% and tinea cruris in 2.8%. In onychomycosis, the first toe nail was the most commonly affected (58.9%) and the dystrophic type was seen in 50.7% of them.

  11. Effects of Acer okamotoanum sap on the function of polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    An, Beum-Soo; Kang, Ji-Houn; Yang, Hyun; Yang, Mhan-Pyo; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2013-02-01

    Sap is a plant fluid that primarily consists of water and small amounts of mineral elements, sugars, hormones and other nutrients. Acer mono (A. mono) is an endemic Korean mono maple which was recently suggested to have health benefits due to its abundant calcium and magnesium ion content. In the present study, we examined the effects of sap from Acer okamotoanum (A. okamotoanum) on the phagocytic response of mouse neutrophils in vivo and rat and canine neutrophils in vitro. We tested the regulation of phagocytic activity, oxidative burst activity (OBA) and the levels of filamentous polymeric actin (F-actin) in the absence and presence of dexamethasone (DEX) in vitro and in vivo. Our results showed that DEX primarily reduced OBA in the mouse neutrophils, and that this was reversed in the presence of the sap. By contrast, the phagocytic activity of the mouse cells was not regulated by either DEX or the sap. Rat and canine polymorphonuclear neutrophilic leukocytes (PMNs) responded in vitro to the sap in a similar manner by increasing OBA. However, regulation of phagocytic activity by the sap was different between the species. In canine PMNs, phagocytic activity was enhanced by the sap at a high dose, while it did not significantly modulate this activity in rat PMNs. These findings suggest that the sap of A. okamotoanum stimulates neutrophil activity in the mouse, rat and canine by increasing OBA in vivo and in vitro, and thus may have a potential antimicrobial effect in the PMNs of patients with infections.

  12. Antioxidative response of ascorbate-glutathione pathway enzymes and metabolites to desiccation of recalcitrant Acer saccharinum seeds.

    PubMed

    Pukacka, Stanisława; Ratajczak, Ewelina

    2006-12-01

    Ascorbate-glutathione systems were studied during desiccation of recalcitrant seeds of the silver maple (Acer saccharinum L.). The desiccated seeds gradually lost their germination capacity and this was strongly correlated with an increase in electrolyte leakage from seeds. Simultaneously the increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) (superoxide radical - O(2)(-*) and hydrogen peroxide - H(2)O(2)) production was observed. The results indicate that remarkable changes in the concentrations and redox status of ascorbate and glutathione occur in embryo axes and cotyledons. After shedding, concentrations of ascorbic acid (ASA) and the reduced form of glutathione (GSH) are higher in embryo axes than in cotyledons and their redox status is high in both embryo parts. Cotyledons in freshly shed seeds are devoid of GSH. At the first stages of desiccation, up to a level of 43% of moisture content, ASA content in embryo axes and GSH content in cotyledons increased. Below this level of moisture content, the antioxidant contents as well as their redox status rapidly decreased. The enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione pathway: ascorbate peroxidase (APX) (EC 1.11.1.11), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MR) (EC 1.6.5.4), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) (EC 1.8.5.1) and glutathione reductase (GR) (EC 1.6.4.2) increased their activity during desiccation, but mainly in embryonic axes. The changes are probably required for counteracting the production of ROS during desiccation. The relationship between ascorbate and glutathione metabolism and their relevance during desiccation of recalcitrant Acer saccharinum seeds is discussed.

  13. Characterizing water use strategies of Acer saccharum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus spp. during a severe drought

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, K.; Novick, K. A.; Dragoni, D.; Moore, W.; Roman, D. T.

    2014-12-01

    In many areas, drought is expected to occur more frequently and intensely in the future due to climate change; however, drought effects on ecosystem-scale fluxes in diverse forests will reflect the diversity of water use strategies among the dominant tree species. For three years (2011-2013) that included a severe drought event (in 2012), we measured the sap flow densities along the sapwood profiles (four radial depths: 1, 2, 3, 4 cm) in Acer saccharum, Liriodendron tulipifera, and Quercus spp. using the compensation heat pulse technique at the Morgan-Monroe State Forest (Indiana, USA). Sap flow velocity varies along the radial profile of the stem, and thus characterizing its pattern is important for estimating whole tree sap flow, and for characterizing the extent to which water stress alters the radial pattern of flow. We also focused on the nocturnal sap flow, which may be used to replenish stored water depleted during the daytime, in order to assess the extent to which the three species rely on hydraulic capacitance to cope with water stress. Sap flow densities along the sapwood profile of all three species tended to increase toward the cambium under moderate climate, while the tendency was reversed under severe drought. This shift may indicate greater reliance on stored water in the inner sapwood or cavitation of outer sapwood during the drought. It was also noticeable that Quercus spp. showed lower maximum sap flow density and narrower range (1.5 - 4.6 cm h-1) than other species (A. saccharum: 1.0 - 20.8 cm h-1, L. tulipifera: < 0.1 - 45.2 cm h-1) during 3 years of measurements. In addition, nocturnal/diurnal ratios of volumetric sap flows were significantly higher in the drought year for A. saccharum (0.140.01 in 2011 and 0.200.01 in 2013 vs. 0.290.01 in 2012) and L. tulipifera (0.140.00 in 2011 and 0.090.01 in 2013 vs. 0.300.01 in 2012), while Quercus spp. didn't show a significant difference between moderate and drought years. This may be due to the

  14. New Hampshire Sugar Makers Participate in Climate Change Study of Acer Saccharum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rock, B. N.; Carlson, M.

    2012-12-01

    A dozen maple sugar producers in New Hampshire have participated for the past three years in a study of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and its response to climate-related and other stress agents. A dominant tree in the northeastern temperate forest, the sugar maple is projected to lose 52% of its range in the United States due to climate change stresses in this century. The species is already severely stressed by acid deposition as well as a wide array of environmental predators and pathogens. Engaging the public in studies of climate change is of pressing importance. Climate change is ubiquitous and is expressed in a wide variety of phenomena—changing patterns of seasonal temperature and precipitation, more severe storms, changing atmospheric chemistry, phenologic chemistry change, ecotone shifts and new invasive competitors and predators. Scientists need citizen partners who are trained observers and who are familiar with protocols for monitoring, reporting and questioning what they observe. There is also a growing need for a public that is informed about climate change and variability so citizens can understand and support policy changes as needed to address climate change. In New Hampshire, sugar makers have collected maple sap samples at four times early in the sap season each year since 2010. The samples are collected and stored according to strict chemical protocols. The sugar makers have provided UNH and U.S. Forest Service chemists with significant numbers of sap samples for analysis of their phenolic chemistry. Correlating the sap chemistry with high spectral resolution reflectance measures of maple foliage, we are exploring whether changes in sap phenolics may signal distress or of long-term health of the trees. In addition, the sugar makers have provided access to their sugar orchards for monthly sampling of leaves and buds, beginning in May and continuing through the Fall. The three years of data are building long-term evidence of changes in maple

  15. Changes in epiphyte communities as the shrub, Acer circinatum, develops and ages

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ruchty, A.M.; Rosso, A.L.

    2001-01-01

    The Pacific Northwest tall shrub Acer circinatum (vine maple) can host diverse and abundant epiphyte communities. A chronosequence approach revealed that these communities gradually shift in composition as the shrub progresses through its life cycle. Different epiphytic life forms occupy different spatial and temporal niches on shrub stems. These life forms generally shift upwards along the shrub stem as the stem ages and develops, in accordance with the similar gradient hypothesis. We postulate the following sequence of events. An initial wave of colonization occurs as new substrate is laid down. Over time, superior competitors gradually engulf and overgrow competitively inferior primary colonizers. Concurrently, shrub stem microclimate changes as shrub stems grow, age, and layer, causing the processes of competition and colonization to shift in favor of different epiphytic life forms during different life stages of the shrub stem. We define four separate shrub stem life stages: life classes 1a??4 describe, respectively, young upright a??whipsa??; vigorous, upright, mature stems; declining stems beginning to bend towards the forest floor; and horizontal, decadent stems. As space on the shrub stem is filled through growth and colonization, interspecific competition intensifies. Successful competitors persist and spread, while poor competitors are increasingly restricted to the stem tips, where interspecific competition is less intense. In these forests, Usnea, green-algal foliose lichens, and moss tufts excel as the primary colonizers and become common on the outer portions of shrub stems over time, as long as the overstory is not too dense. Moss mats are also good primary colonizers, but excel as secondary colonizers, often coming to dominate decadent shrub stems. Although all life forms can be primary colonizers, the remaining forms (cyanolichens, liverworts, and Antitrichia curtipendula) are effective secondary colonizers. Liverworts are also effective

  16. Comparative analysis of the soluble organic matrix of axial skeleton and sclerites of Corallium rubrum: insights for biomineralization.

    PubMed

    Debreuil, J; Tambutté, S; Zoccola, D; Segonds, N; Techer, N; Allemand, D; Tambutté, E

    2011-05-01

    We analysed the soluble organic matrix (SOM) of two biominerals formed by the same organism but differing by their morphological characteristics: the axial skeleton and the sclerites of Corallium rubrum. The results of 1D SDS-PAGE electrophoresis show for the two biominerals that SOM proteins bands have similar apparent molecular weight but differ in quantity. Further analysis by 2D electrophoresis reveals each protein band as a line of spots with different isoelectric points. Our results suggest that each SOM protein band consists of a mix of proteins and/or one unique protein with post-translational modifications. By immunohistochemistry, we show that antibodies raised against the SOM of axial skeleton and sclerites label the SOM of the two biominerals but also label the insoluble organic matrix suggesting the presence of common epitopes between the two biominerals and the two organic fractions.

  17. Low Earth orbit journey and ground simulations studies point out metabolic changes in the ESA life support organism Rhodospirillum rubrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastroleo, Felice; Leys, Natalie; Benotmane, Rafi; Vanhavere, Filip; Janssen, Ann; Hendrickx, Larissa; Wattiez, Ruddy; Mergeay, Max

    MELiSSA (Micro-Ecological Life Support System Alternative) is a project of closed regenerative life support system for future space flights developed by the European Space Agency. It consists of interconnected processes (i.e. bioreactors, higher plant compartments, filtration units,..) targeting the total recycling of organic waste into oxygen, water and food. Within the MELiSSA loop, the purple non-sulfur alpha-proteobacterium R. rubrum ATCC25903 is used to convert fatty acids released from the upstream raw waste digesting reactor to CO2 and biomass, and to complete the mineralization of aminoacids into NH4+ that will be forwarded to the nitrifying compartment. Among the numerous challenges of the project, the functional stability of the bioreactors in long term and under space flight conditions is of paramount importance for the efficiency of the life support system and consequently the crew safety. Therefore, the physiological and metabolic changes induced by space flight were investigated for R. rubrum. The bacterium grown on solid medium during 2 different 10-day space flights to the ISS (MES- SAGE2, BASE-A experiments) were compared to cells grown on Earth 1 g gravity or modeled microgravity and normal Earth radiation or simulated space flight radiation conditions in order to relate each single stress to its respective cellular response. For simulating the radiation environment, pure gamma and neutron sources were combined, while simulation of changes in gravity where performed using the Random Positioning Machine technology. Transcriptome analysis using R. rubrum total genome DNA-chip showed up-regulation of genes involved in oxidative stress response after a 10-day mission inside the ISS, without loss of viability. As an example, alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, thioredoxin reductase and bacterioferritin genes are least 2 fold induced although the radiation dose experienced by the bacterium (4 mSv) is very low compared to its radiotolerance (D10 = 100 Sv

  18. Distal and lateral toenail onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum: treatment with photodynamic therapy based on methylene blue dye.

    PubMed

    Souza, Linton Wallis Figueiredo; Souza, Simone Vilas Trancoso; Botelho, Ana Cristina de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    The study showed the effectiveness of photodynamic therapy based on methylene blue to treat severe distal and lateral subungual toenail onychomycosis. 22 patients were divided into two groups: group A consisting of 11 patients with severe toenail onychomycosis and group B consisting of 11 patients with mild-to-moderate toenail onychomycosis. All patients had onychomycosis caused by Trichophyton rubrum. The patients were treated with sessions of 2% methylene blue aqueous solution irradiated with light emission diode device with 630 nm and 36 J/cm2 biweekly for six months. The clinical response was significantly better in patients with mild-to-moderate (100%) onychomycosis compared with patients with severe onychomycosis (63.6%).

  19. Regulation of carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and hydrogenase in Rhodospirillum rubrum: effects of CO and oxygen on synthesis and activity.

    PubMed Central

    Bonam, D; Lehman, L; Roberts, G P; Ludden, P W

    1989-01-01

    Exposure of the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum to carbon monoxide led to increased carbon monoxide dehydrogenase and hydrogenase activities due to de novo protein synthesis of both enzymes. Two-dimensional gels of [35S]methionine-pulse-labeled cells showed that induction of CO dehydrogenase synthesis was rapidly initiated (less than 5 min upon exposure to CO) and was inhibited by oxygen. Both CO dehydrogenase and the CO-induced hydrogenase were inactivated by oxygen in vivo and in vitro. In contrast to CO dehydrogenase, the CO-induced hydrogenase was 95% inactivated by heating at 70 degrees C for 5 min. Unlike other hydrogenases, this CO-induced hydrogenase was inhibited only 60% by a 100% CO gas phase. Images PMID:2498285

  20. Spectral characteristics analysis of red tide water in mesocosm experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Tingwei; Zhang, Jie; Zhang, Hongliang; Ma, Yi; Gao, Xuemin

    2003-05-01

    Mesocosm ecosystem experiment with seawater enclosed of the red tide was carried out from July to September 2001. We got four species of biology whose quantities of bion are dominant in the red tide. During the whole process from the beginning to their dying out for every specie, in situ spectral measurements were carried out. After data processing, characteristic spectra of red tide of different dominant species are got. Via comparison and analysis of characteristics of different spectra, we find that in the band region between 685 and 735 nanometers, spectral characteristics of red tide is apparently different from that of normal water. Compared to spectra of normal water, spectra of red tide have a strong reflectance peak in the above band region. As to spectra of red tide dominated by different species, the situations of reflectance peaks are also different: the second peak of Mesodinium rubrum spectrum lies between 726~732 nm, which is more than 21nm away from the other dominant species spectra"s Leptocylindrus danicus"s second spectral peak covers 686~694nm; that of Skeletonema costatum lies between 691~693 nm. Chattonella marina"s second spectral peak lies about 703~705 nm. Thus we can try to determine whether red tide has occurred according to its spectral data. In order to monitor the event of red tide and identify the dominant species by the application of the technology of hyperspectral remote sensing, acquiring spectral data of different dominant species of red tide as much as possible becomes a basic work to be achieved for spectral matching, information extraction and so on based on hyperspectral data.

  1. Metabolic regulation as a consequence of anaerobic 5-methylthioadenosine recycling in Rhodospirillum rubrum

    SciTech Connect

    North, Justin A.; Sriram, Jaya; Chourey, Karuna; Ecker, Christopher D.; Sharma, Ritin; Wildenthal, John A.; Hettich, Robert L.; Tabita, F. Robert

    2016-07-12

    Rhodospirillum rubrum possesses a novel oxygen-independent, aerobic methionine salvage pathway (MSP) for recycling methionine from 5-methylthioadenosine (MTA), the MTA-isoprenoid shunt. This organism can also metabolize MTA as a sulfur source under anaerobic conditions, suggesting that the MTA-isoprenoid shunt may also function anaerobically as well. In this study, deep proteomics profiling, directed metabolite analysis, and reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) revealed metabolic changes in response to anaerobic growth on MTA versus sulfate as sole sulfur source. The abundance of protein levels associated with methionine transport, cell motility, and chemotaxis increased in the presence of MTA over that in the presence of sulfate. Purine salvage from MTA resulted primarily in hypoxanthine accumulation and a decrease in protein levels involved in GMP-to-AMP conversion to balance purine pools. Acyl coenzyme A (acyl-CoA) metabolic protein levels for lipid metabolism were lower in abundance, whereas poly-β-hydroxybutyrate synthesis and storage were increased nearly 10-fold. The known R. rubrum aerobic MSP was also shown to be upregulated, to function anaerobically, and to recycle MTA. This suggested that other organisms with gene homologues for the MTA-isoprenoid shunt may also possess a functioning anaerobic MSP. In support of our previous findings that ribulose-1,5-carboxylase/oxygenase (RubisCO) is required for an apparently purely anaerobic MSP, RubisCO transcript and protein levels both increased in abundance by over 10-fold in cells grown anaerobically on MTA over those in cells grown on sulfate, resulting in increased intracellular RubisCO activity. Lastly, these results reveal for the first time global metabolic responses as a consequence of anaerobic MTA metabolism compared to using sulfate as the sulfur source.

  2. Why is intracellular ice lethal? A microscopical study showing evidence of programmed cell death in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Intracellular ice formed in rapidly cooled embryonic axes of Acer saccharinum and was not necessarily lethal when ice crystals were small. This study seeks to understand the nature and extent of damage from intracellular ice, and the course of recovery and regrowth in surviving tissues. Embryonic a...

  3. Red Sky with Red Mesa

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2016-07-12

    The Red Sky/Red Mesa supercomputing platform dramatically reduces the time required to simulate complex fuel models, from 4-6 months to just 4 weeks, allowing researchers to accelerate the pace at which they can address these complex problems. Its speed also reduces the need for laboratory and field testing, allowing for energy reduction far beyond data center walls.

  4. Red Hill

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Information about the Red Hill Bulk Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii Administrative Order on Consent (AOC), an enforceable agreement of the Hawaii Department of Health, the Environmental Protection Agency, and the U.S. Navy -- Defense Logistics Agency.

  5. The role of habitat factors in successful invasion of alien plant Acer negundo in riparian zones.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorski, Piotr; Sikorska, Daria

    2016-04-01

    Ash-leaved maple (Acer negundo) is one of the most invasive species occurring in riparian zones. The invasion is especially effective in disturbed areas, as the plant favours anthropogenic sites. The plant was also observed to be able to penetrate into sandy bars, also those separated from the land, inaccessible to people. It's removal is time-consuming and laborious, often involves damage done to sensitive vegetation and the results are doubtful, as the plant quickly regenerates. The invasion patterns and establishment of ash-leaved maple in natural ecosystems are poorly investigated. The aim of this study was to test how habitat factors such as: light availability, soil characteristics and competition contribute to ash-leaved maple effective colonization of natural sand bars free from anthropogenic pressure. In 2014 sand bars located in Vistula River Valley in Warsaw were inventoried and classified basing on their development stage as 1 - initial, 2 - unstable, 3 - stable. Apart from the occurrence of the invasive ash-leaved maple the plants competing with it were recognized and the percentage of the shoots of shrubs and herbaceous plants was estimated. PAR was measured at ground level and 1 meter above ground, the thickness of organic layer formed on the top of the sand was also measured as the indicator of sand bar development stage. The maple's survival in extremely difficult conditions resembles the strategy of willows and poplars naturally occurring in the riparian zones, which are well adapted to this environment. The success of invasion strongly depends on the plants establishment during sand bars initial stage of development. The seedlings growth correlates with the age of the sand bar (r1=0,41, r2=0,42 i r3=0,57). The colonization lasts for 4-6 years and the individuals start to cluster in bigger parches. After that period the maple turns into the phase of competition for space. Habitat factors such as shading (r2=0,41 i r3=0,51) and organic layer

  6. Experimental comparison of performances of Mega Acer Kit, Ranger and ThermoSens according to flow rates and distances.

    PubMed

    Seo, Hong Ju; Kim, Sang Hun; An, Tae Hun; Kim, Dong Joon

    2017-02-07

    We experimentally investigated the fluid warming performances of three warmers with different technology, according to flow rates and distances. We used the following intravenous fluid warmers: Mega Acer Kit (Group M, n = 8), Ranger (group R, n = 8), and ThermoSens (group T, n = 8). Fluids that had been stored in the operating room over the previous 24 h were delivered at sequent flow rates of from 440 mL/h up to 2500 mL/h through preheated warming devices. The fluid temperatures were recorded at the inlet point, 76-cm proximal (Pout1) and 166-cm distal outlet points (Pout2) every 1 min for 10 min. We repeated each test eight times. The delivered fluid temperature [mean (95% confidence interval)] was significantly higher in group M than group R and T at flow rates up to 650 mL/h with the highest value at 440 mL/h [34.30 (33.35-35.24)°C] (P < 0.001), and was higher in group T and R at flow rates over 1140 mL/h at Pout1 [36.67 (36.62-36.73)°C and 37.85 (37.52-38.17)°C at 2500 mL/h, respectively] (P < 0.001). It was significantly higher at the Pout1 than the Pout2 at all flow rates for each device (P < 0.001). Mega Acer Kit can warm fluid more effectively compared with ThermoSens and Ranger at the low flow rate whereas the ThermoSens and the Ranger are suitable at higher flow rates. Furthermore, the device performance is more effective with shorter extension lines.

  7. Inactivation of ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum and spinach with the new affinity label 2-bromo-1,5-dihydroxy-3-pentanone 1,5-bisphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Donnelly, M.I.; Hartman, F.C.

    1981-11-16

    In an attempt to identify the active-site base believed to initiate catalysis by ribulosebisphosphate carboxylase, we have synthesized 2-bromo-1, 5-dihydroxy-3-pentanone 1,5-bisphosphate, a reactive analogue of a postulated intermediate of carboxylation. Although highly unstable, this compound can be shown to inactivate the carboxylases from both Rhodospirillum rubrum and spinach rapidly and irreversibly. Inactivation follows pseudo first-order kinetics, shows rate saturation and is greatly reduced by saturating amounts of the competitive inhibitor, 2-carboxyribitol 1,5-bisphosphate. The incorporation of reagent, quantified by reducing the modified carboxylases with (/sup 3/H)NaBH/sub 4/, shows that inactivation results from the modification of approximately one residue per catalytic subunit of the Rhodospirillum rubrum enzyme and less than one residue per protomeric unit of the spinach enzyme.

  8. Construction and phenotypic characterization of M68, an RruI quorum sensing knockout mutant of the photosynthetic alphaproteobacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    PubMed

    Condori, Sandra; Atkinson, Steve; Leys, Natalie; Wattiez, Ruddy; Mastroleo, Felice

    2016-06-01

    Many bacterial species communicate using a complex system known as quorum sensing (QS) in which gene expression is controlled in response to cell density. In this study an N-acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) synthase (Rru_A3396) knockout mutant (M68) of Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H (WT) was constructed and characterized phenotypically under light anaerobic conditions. Results showed that R. rubrum WT produces unsubstituted, 3-OH and 3-oxo-substituted AHLs with acyl chains ranging from 4 to 14 carbons, with 3-OH-C8 being the most abundant. Growth, pigment content and swimming motility were found to be under the control of this LuxI-type QS system. In addition, cultivation in a low shear environment put forward the aggregative phenotype of M68 and linked biofilm formation to QS in R. rubrum S1H. Interestingly, QS-mutant M68 continued to produce decreased levels of 3-OH-C8-HSL, probably due to the presence of an extra HdtS-type AHL synthase.

  9. The use of global transcriptional analysis to reveal the biological and cellular events involved in distinct development phases of Trichophyton rubrum conidial germination

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tao; Zhang, Qian; Wang, Lingling; Yu, Lu; Leng, Wenchuan; Yang, Jian; Chen, Lihong; Peng, Junping; Ma, Li; Dong, Jie; Xu, Xingye; Xue, Ying; Zhu, Yafang; Zhang, Wenliang; Yang, Li; Li, Weijun; Sun, Lilian; Wan, Zhe; Ding, Guohui; Yu, Fudong; Tu, Kang; Qian, Ziliang; Li, Ruoyu; Shen, Yan; Li, Yixue; Jin, Qi

    2007-01-01

    Background Conidia are considered to be the primary cause of infections by Trichophyton rubrum. Results We have developed a cDNA microarray containing 10250 ESTs to monitor the transcriptional strategy of conidial germination. A total of 1561 genes that had their expression levels specially altered in the process were obtained and hierarchically clustered with respect to their expression profiles. By functional analysis, we provided a global view of an important biological system related to conidial germination, including characterization of the pattern of gene expression at sequential developmental phases, and changes of gene expression profiles corresponding to morphological transitions. We matched the EST sequences to GO terms in the Saccharomyces Genome Database (SGD). A number of homologues of Saccharomyces cerevisiae genes related to signalling pathways and some important cellular processes were found to be involved in T. rubrum germination. These genes and signalling pathways may play roles in distinct steps, such as activating conidial germination, maintenance of isotropic growth, establishment of cell polarity and morphological transitions. Conclusion Our results may provide insights into molecular mechanisms of conidial germination at the cell level, and may enhance our understanding of regulation of gene expression related to the morphological construction of T. rubrum. PMID:17428342

  10. The agony of choice in dermatophyte diagnostics-performance of different molecular tests and culture in the detection of Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale.

    PubMed

    Kupsch, C; Ohst, T; Pankewitz, F; Nenoff, P; Uhrlaß, S; Winter, I; Gräser, Y

    2016-08-01

    Dermatophytosis caused by dermatophytes of the genera Trichophyton and Microsporum belong to the most frequent mycoses worldwide. Molecular detection methods proved to be highly sensitive and enable rapid and accurate detection of dermatophyte species from clinical specimens. For the first time, we compare the performance of different molecular methods with each other and with conventional diagnostics in the detection of dermatophytoses caused by Trichophyton rubrum and Trichophyton interdigitale in clinical specimens (nail, skin and hair). The compared molecular methods comprise two already published PCR-ELISAs, a published quantitative RT-PCR as well as a newly developed PCR-ELISA targeting the internal transcribed spacer region. We investigated the sensitivity of the assays by analysing 375 clinical samples. In 148 specimens (39.5%) a positive result was gained in at least one of the four molecular tests or by culture, but the number of detected agents differed significantly between some of the assays. The most sensitive assay, a PCR-ELISA targeting a microsatellite region, detected 81 T. rubrum infections followed by an internal transcribed spacer PCR-ELISA (60), quantitative RT-PCR (52) and a topoisomerase II PCR-ELISA (51), whereas cultivation resulted in T. rubrum identification in 37 samples. The pros and cons of all four tests in routine diagnostics are discussed.

  11. Infected nail plate model made of human hair keratin for evaluating the efficacy of different topical antifungal formulations against Trichophyton rubrum in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lusiana; Reichl, Stephan; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2013-08-01

    A novel model of infected nail plate for testing the efficacy of topical antifungal formulations has been developed. This model utilized keratin film made of human hair keratin as a nail plate model. Subsequent to infection by Trichophyton rubrum, the common causative agent of onychomycosis, keratin films as infected nail plate models were treated with selected topical formulations, that is cream, gel, and nail lacquer. Bovine hoof was compared to keratin film. In contrast to the common antifungal susceptibility test, the antifungal drugs tested were applied as ready-to-use formulations because the vehicle may modify and control the drug action both in vitro and in vivo. Extrapolating the potency of an antifungal drug from an in vitro susceptibility test only would not be representative of the in vivo situation since these drugs are applied as ready-to-use formulations, for example as a nail lacquer. Although terbinafine has been acknowledged to be the most effective antifungal agent against T. rubrum, its antifungal efficacy was improved by its incorporation into an optimal formulation. Different gels proved superior to cream. Therefore, this study is able to discriminate between efficacies of different topical antifungal formulations based on their activities against T. rubrum.

  12. Habitat constraints and self-thinning shape Mediterranean red coral deep population structure: implications for conservation practice

    PubMed Central

    Cau, Alessandro; Bramanti, Lorenzo; Cannas, Rita; Follesa, Maria Cristina; Angiolillo, Michela; Canese, Simonepietro; Bo, Marzia; Cuccu, Danila; Guizien, Katell

    2016-01-01

    The Mediterranean red coral, Corallium rubrum, is one of the most precious corals worldwide. Below 50 m depth, C. rubrum populations are generally characterised by large and sparse colonies, whereas shallow populations (above 50 m depth) show high densities of small colonies. We show here instead that populations dwelling between 80 and 170 m depth exhibited a continuous range of population density (from 2 to 75 colonies per 0.25 m2), with less than 1% of variance explained by water depth. An inverse relationship between maximum population density and mean colony height was found, suggesting that self-thinning processes may shape population structure. Moreover, demographically young populations composed of small and dense colonies dominated along rocky vertical walls, whereas mature populations characterised by large and sparsely distributed colonies were found only in horizontal beds not covered by sediment. We hypothesise that, in the long term, shallow protected populations should resemble to present deep populations, with sparsely distributed large colonies. Since the density of red coral colonies can decay as a result of self-thinning mechanisms, we advise that future protection strategies should be based also on a measure of red coral spatial coverage instead of population density. PMID:26988757

  13. Habitat constraints and self-thinning shape Mediterranean red coral deep population structure: implications for conservation practice.

    PubMed

    Cau, Alessandro; Bramanti, Lorenzo; Cannas, Rita; Follesa, Maria Cristina; Angiolillo, Michela; Canese, Simonepietro; Bo, Marzia; Cuccu, Danila; Guizien, Katell

    2016-03-18

    The Mediterranean red coral, Corallium rubrum, is one of the most precious corals worldwide. Below 50 m depth, C. rubrum populations are generally characterised by large and sparse colonies, whereas shallow populations (above 50 m depth) show high densities of small colonies. We show here instead that populations dwelling between 80 and 170 m depth exhibited a continuous range of population density (from 2 to 75 colonies per 0.25 m(2)), with less than 1% of variance explained by water depth. An inverse relationship between maximum population density and mean colony height was found, suggesting that self-thinning processes may shape population structure. Moreover, demographically young populations composed of small and dense colonies dominated along rocky vertical walls, whereas mature populations characterised by large and sparsely distributed colonies were found only in horizontal beds not covered by sediment. We hypothesise that, in the long term, shallow protected populations should resemble to present deep populations, with sparsely distributed large colonies. Since the density of red coral colonies can decay as a result of self-thinning mechanisms, we advise that future protection strategies should be based also on a measure of red coral spatial coverage instead of population density.

  14. Habitat constraints and self-thinning shape Mediterranean red coral deep population structure: implications for conservation practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cau, Alessandro; Bramanti, Lorenzo; Cannas, Rita; Follesa, Maria Cristina; Angiolillo, Michela; Canese, Simonepietro; Bo, Marzia; Cuccu, Danila; Guizien, Katell

    2016-03-01

    The Mediterranean red coral, Corallium rubrum, is one of the most precious corals worldwide. Below 50 m depth, C. rubrum populations are generally characterised by large and sparse colonies, whereas shallow populations (above 50 m depth) show high densities of small colonies. We show here instead that populations dwelling between 80 and 170 m depth exhibited a continuous range of population density (from 2 to 75 colonies per 0.25 m2), with less than 1% of variance explained by water depth. An inverse relationship between maximum population density and mean colony height was found, suggesting that self-thinning processes may shape population structure. Moreover, demographically young populations composed of small and dense colonies dominated along rocky vertical walls, whereas mature populations characterised by large and sparsely distributed colonies were found only in horizontal beds not covered by sediment. We hypothesise that, in the long term, shallow protected populations should resemble to present deep populations, with sparsely distributed large colonies. Since the density of red coral colonies can decay as a result of self-thinning mechanisms, we advise that future protection strategies should be based also on a measure of red coral spatial coverage instead of population density.

  15. Diethylstilbestrol is a potent inhibitor of the H (+) (-)PPase but not of the H (+) (-)ATPase of Rhodospirillum rubrum chromatophores.

    PubMed

    Strid, A; Nore, B F; Nyren, P; Baltscheffsky, M

    1987-06-29

    In RhodospiriUum rubrum chromatophores, diethylsrilbestrol inhibits the photoinduced synthesis of ATP and PPi by the membrane-bound H +-ATPase and H +-PPase, respectively. 50% inhibition of ATP synthesis is obtained at 8 μM diethylsrilbestroi in the presence of 0.13 μM BChi, while Is0 for the PPi formation is 20 μM diethylstilhestrol at the same chromatophore concentration. Diethylstilbestroi also inhibits the hydrolyricactivity of the H +-PPase, both in the membrane-bound and in the solubilized and purified state.Inhibition to 50% is already attained at 3 μM diethyistilbestrol in chromatopbores when 1 μM FCCP ispresent and the BChl-concentrarion is 0.62 μM. The hydrolysis by the solubilized enzyme has an /50 of 5 μM when 5 μg protein/ml is used. In contrast to the PPi-hydrolysis, the ATPase activity of thechromatophores shows a small activation at low diethylstiihestroi concentration and becomes inhibited at higher concentrations. Also, solubilized FoFI-ATPase is activated to a small extent by diethyisrilbestrol at the concentrations tested. At low concentrations of BChl, the inhibitory action of diethyistilhestrol on ATP and PPI synthesis can be reversed by addition of bovine serum albumin. The time dependence and inhibition dependence on the energy state of the membrane and on the BChl concentration are examined for the ATP synthesis. The mechanism of inhibition by diethylsrilbestrol is discussed.

  16. ATP-dependent acidification and tonoplast hyperpolarization in isolated vacuoles from green suspension cells of Chenopodium rubrum L

    PubMed Central

    Bentrup, F.-W.; Gogarten-Boekels, M.; Hoffmann, B.; Gogarten, J. P.; Baumann, C.

    1986-01-01

    The tonoplast of isolated vacuoles from photoautotrophic suspension cells of Chenopodium rubrum L. was studied by means of the patch-clamp technique. In a symmetrical K+ concentration of 46 mM, similar to in vivo conditions, the tonoplast displayed a membrane potential near zero and a linear current-voltage relationship with a mean slope of 1.0 S/m2. ATP at 2 mM hyperpolarized the tonoplast (vacuole positive) by 15-20 mV and, in a parallel experiment, acidified the vacuole (outside pH 7.0) to pH 5.0, as monitored by accumulation of acridine orange. Analysis of the voltage-clamp current indicates a 2-fold, ATP-dependent increase of the membrane capacitance, from 4 to 8 mF/m2, and an ATP-independent, unidentified ion channel having a mean opening time of about 5 msec and a conductivity of 0.5-1.0 pS. PMID:16593685

  17. Equine acquired multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) in 14 horses associated with ingestion of Maple leaves (Acer pseudoplatanus) covered with European tar spot (Rhytisma acerinum).

    PubMed

    van der Kolk, J H; Wijnberg, I D; Westermann, C M; Dorland, L; de Sain-van der Velden, M G M; Kranenburg, L C; Duran, M; Dijkstra, J A; van der Lugt, J J; Wanders, R J A; Gruys, E

    2010-01-01

    This case-series describes fourteen horses suspected of equine acquired multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency (MADD) also known as atypical myopathy of which seven cases were confirmed biochemically with all horses having had access to leaves of the Maple tree (Acer pseudoplatanus) covered with European tar spot (Rhytisma acerinum). Assessment of organic acids, glycine conjugates, and acylcarnitines in urine was regarded as gold standard in the biochemical diagnosis of equine acquired multiple acyl-CoA dehydrogenase deficiency.

  18. Spatial and temporal changes in leaf coloring date of Acer palmatum and Ginkgo biloba in response to temperature increases in South Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chang-Kyun; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Jeong, Su-Jong; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Jinwon

    2017-01-01

    Understanding shifts in autumn phenology associated with climate changes is critical for preserving forest ecosystems. This study examines the changes in the leaf coloring date (LCD) of two temperate deciduous tree species, Acer palmatum (Acer) and Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo), in response to surface air temperature (Ts) changes at 54 stations of South Korea for the period 1989–2007. The variations of Acer and Ginkgo in South Korea are very similar: they show the same mean LCD of 295th day of the year and delays of about 0.45 days year-1 during the observation period. The delaying trend is closely correlated (correlation coefficient > 0.77) with increases in Ts in mid-autumn by 2.8 days °C-1. It is noted that the LCD delaying and temperature sensitivity (days °C-1) for both tree species show negligible dependences on latitudes and elevations. Given the significant LCD-Ts relation, we project LCD changes for 2016–35 and 2046–65 using a process-based model forced by temperature from climate model simulation. The projections indicate that the mean LCD would be further delayed by 3.2 (3.7) days in 2016–35 (2046–65) due to mid-autumn Ts increases. This study suggests that the mid-autumn warming is largely responsible for the observed LCD changes in South Korea and will intensify the delaying trends in the future. PMID:28346534

  19. Spatial and temporal changes in leaf coloring date of Acer palmatum and Ginkgo biloba in response to temperature increases in South Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Chang-Kyun; Ho, Chang-Hoi; Jeong, Su-Jong; Lee, Eun Ju; Kim, Jinwon

    2017-01-01

    Understanding shifts in autumn phenology associated with climate changes is critical for preserving forest ecosystems. This study examines the changes in the leaf coloring date (LCD) of two temperate deciduous tree species, Acer palmatum (Acer) and Ginkgo biloba (Ginkgo), in response to surface air temperature (Ts) changes at 54 stations of South Korea for the period 1989-2007. The variations of Acer and Ginkgo in South Korea are very similar: they show the same mean LCD of 295th day of the year and delays of about 0.45 days year-1 during the observation period. The delaying trend is closely correlated (correlation coefficient > 0.77) with increases in Ts in mid-autumn by 2.8 days °C-1. It is noted that the LCD delaying and temperature sensitivity (days °C-1) for both tree species show negligible dependences on latitudes and elevations. Given the significant LCD-Ts relation, we project LCD changes for 2016-35 and 2046-65 using a process-based model forced by temperature from climate model simulation. The projections indicate that the mean LCD would be further delayed by 3.2 (3.7) days in 2016-35 (2046-65) due to mid-autumn Ts increases. This study suggests that the mid-autumn warming is largely responsible for the observed LCD changes in South Korea and will intensify the delaying trends in the future.

  20. Diet and nutrient balance of red panda in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Panthi, Saroj; Coogan, Sean C P; Aryal, Achyut; Raubenheimer, David

    2015-10-01

    We identified the winter plant species consumed by red panda in the Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve of eastern Nepal and compared this to the early-summer diet which was determined previously by Panthi et al. (2012). In addition, we estimated the proximate nutritional content of the leaves identified in red panda diet for both seasons, and we used nutritional geometry to explore macronutrient balance of leaves from the two different sampling periods. We identified six different plants in winter scats, which were the same as found in the previously determined early-summer diet. Arundinaria spp. bamboos were the main species found (82.1 % relative frequency), followed by Acer spp. (6.3 %), Betula utilis (4.6 %), Quercus semicarpifolia (3.7 %), Berberis spp. (1.3 %), and lichens (1.0 %), leaving 2.0 % unidentified. Geometric analysis suggested that the macronutrient balance of seasonal diets were similar in nutrient balance to the most frequently consumed Arundinaria spp. Differences in macronutrient balance may indicate seasonal nutrient preferences, such as increased carbohydrate intake in winter for thermogenesis, and increased protein and lipid intake in early summer to support reproduction and lactation; however, these differences may also indicate differences in resource availability. Habitat conserved for red panda in the region should include sufficient Arundinaria spp. as well as lesser consumed plants which may serve as complimentary foods.

  1. Diet and nutrient balance of red panda in Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panthi, Saroj; Coogan, Sean C. P.; Aryal, Achyut; Raubenheimer, David

    2015-10-01

    We identified the winter plant species consumed by red panda in the Dhorpatan Hunting Reserve of eastern Nepal and compared this to the early-summer diet which was determined previously by Panthi et al. (2012). In addition, we estimated the proximate nutritional content of the leaves identified in red panda diet for both seasons, and we used nutritional geometry to explore macronutrient balance of leaves from the two different sampling periods. We identified six different plants in winter scats, which were the same as found in the previously determined early-summer diet. Arundinaria spp. bamboos were the main species found (82.1 % relative frequency), followed by Acer spp. (6.3 %), Betula utilis (4.6 %), Quercus semicarpifolia (3.7 %), Berberis spp. (1.3 %), and lichens (1.0 %), leaving 2.0 % unidentified. Geometric analysis suggested that the macronutrient balance of seasonal diets were similar in nutrient balance to the most frequently consumed Arundinaria spp. Differences in macronutrient balance may indicate seasonal nutrient preferences, such as increased carbohydrate intake in winter for thermogenesis, and increased protein and lipid intake in early summer to support reproduction and lactation; however, these differences may also indicate differences in resource availability. Habitat conserved for red panda in the region should include sufficient Arundinaria spp. as well as lesser consumed plants which may serve as complimentary foods.

  2. American Red Cross

    MedlinePlus

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  3. Vine maple (Acer circinatum) clone growth and reproduction in managed and unmanaged coastal Oregon douglas-fir forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Dea, Mary E.; Zasada, John C.; Tappeiner, John C.

    1995-01-01

    Vine maple (Acer circinatum Pursh.) clone development, expansion, and regeneration by seedling establishment were studied in 5-240 yr old managed and unmanaged Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco) stands in coastal Oregon. Stem length, number of stems, and crown area were all significantly (P @10 m long and basal sprouts 1-2 m long; some stems had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen trees or branches and had layered. In stands >120 yr in age, clones were often quite complex, composed of several decumbent stems each of which connected the ramets of 1-10 new aerial stems. Vine maple clone expansion occurs by the layering of long aerial stems. Over 95% of the layered stems we observed had been pinned to the forest floor by fallen debris. Unsevered stems that we artificially pinned to the forest floor initiated roots within 1 yr. Thinning may favor clonal expansion because fallen slash from thinning often causes entire clones to layer, not just individual stems. Clonal vine maple seed production and seedling establishment occurred in all stages of stand development except dense, young stands following crown closure. There were more seedlings in thinned stands than in unthinned stands and in unburned clearcuts than in burned clearcuts.

  4. Suppression of Ennomos subsignaria (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) on Acer pseudoplatanus (Aceraceae) in an urban forest with bole-implanted acephate.

    PubMed

    Fry, Heidi R C; Ryall, Krista L; Dixon, Peggy L; Quiring, Dan T

    2008-06-01

    Trees in an urban forest are highly valued because they have esthetic appeal, provide shade, and improve air quality. During the past 5 yr (2002-2006) in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada, the elm spanworm, Ennomos subsignaria (Hübner) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae), has reached outbreak densities. Each year, hundreds of trees have been completely defoliated, and many more trees have been partially defoliated. Adding to this problem, the larvae, their silk strands, and their frass are a considerable nuisance to property owners in areas of high larval densities. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of three doses of bole-implanted acephate (AceCap 97) for reducing densities and associated defoliation of E. subsignaria on sycamore maple, Acer pseudoplatanus L. (Aceraceae). During the treatment year (2005), all three doses significantly reduced E. subsignaria larval and pupal density; full or two-thirds doses significantly reduced defoliation compared with control trees. During the posttreatment year (2006), bole-implanted acephate did not affect E. subsignaria egg mass density, survival (= adult emergence), or defoliation. Bole-implanted acephate is an effective and practical way of suppressing E. subsignaria densities and herbivory in an urban forest where the protection of high-value trees and the reduction of environmental contamination are of utmost importance.

  5. Responses of secondary chemicals in sugar maple (Acer saccharum) seedlings to UV-B, springtime warming and nitrogen additions.

    PubMed

    Sager, E P S; Hutchinson, T C

    2006-10-01

    Anticipated effects of climate change involve complex interactions in the field. To assess the effects of springtime warming, ambient ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) and nitrogen fertilization on the foliar chemistry and herbivore activity of native sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) seedlings, we carried out a field experiment for 2 years at two sugar maple forests growing on soils of contrasting acidity. At the Oliver site, soils are derived from a strongly calcareous till, whereas the naturally acidic soils and base-poor soils of the Haliburton site are derived from the largely granitic Precambrian Shield. At both sites, removal of ambient UV-B led to increases in chlorogenic acid and some flavonoids and reduced herbivore activity. At Haliburton, ammonium nitrate fertilization led to further increases in foliar manganese (Mn), whereas at Oliver there were no such changes. Nitrogen additions led to decreases in the concentrations of some flavonoids at both sites, but seedlings at Oliver had significantly higher concentrations of flavonoids and chlorogenic acid than seedlings at Haliburton. We suggest that this could be associated with increased mobilization of Mn due to increased soil acidity, which interferes with the role of calcium (Ca) in the phenolic biosynthetic pathway. It appears that the composition of the forest soil governs the response of seedlings when they are exposed to abiotic stressors.

  6. Interacting effects of warming and drought on regeneration and early growth of Acer pseudoplatanus and A. platanoides.

    PubMed

    Carón, M M; De Frenne, P; Brunet, J; Chabrerie, O; Cousins, S A O; De Backer, L; Decocq, G; Diekmann, M; Heinken, T; Kolb, A; Naaf, T; Plue, J; Selvi, F; Strimbeck, G R; Wulf, M; Verheyen, K

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is acting on several aspects of plant life cycles, including the sexual reproductive stage, which is considered amongst the most sensitive life-cycle phases. In temperate forests, it is expected that climate change will lead to a compositional change in community structure due to changes in the dominance of currently more abundant forest tree species. Increasing our understanding of the effects of climate change on currently secondary tree species recruitment is therefore important to better understand and forecast population and community dynamics in forests. Here, we analyse the interactive effects of rising temperatures and soil moisture reduction on germination, seedling survival and early growth of two important secondary European tree species, Acer pseudoplatanus and A. platanoides. Additionally, we analyse the effect of the temperature experienced by the mother tree during seed production by collecting seeds of both species along a 2200-km long latitudinal gradient. For most of the responses, A. platanoides showed higher sensitivity to the treatments applied, and especially to its joint manipulation, which for some variables resulted in additive effects while for others only partial compensation. In both species, germination and survival decreased with rising temperatures and/or soil moisture reduction while early growth decreased with declining soil moisture content. We conclude that although A. platanoides germination and survival were more affected after the applied treatments, its initial higher germination and larger seedlings might allow this species to be relatively more successful than A. pseudoplatanus in the face of climate change.

  7. Seasonal variation in biomass and carbohydrate partitioning of understory sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Gaucher, Catherine; Gougeon, Sébastien; Mauffette, Yves; Messier, Christian

    2005-01-01

    We investigated seasonal patterns of biomass and carbohydrate partitioning in relation to shoot growth phenology in two age classes of sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis Britt.) seedlings growing in the understory of a partially harvested forest. The high root:shoot biomass ratio and carbohydrate concentration of sugar maple are characteristic of species with truncated growth patterns (i.e., cessation of aboveground shoot growth early in the growing season), a conservative growth strategy and high shade tolerance. The low root:shoot biomass ratio and carbohydrate concentration of yellow birch are characteristic of species with continuous growth patterns, an opportunistic growth strategy and low shade tolerance. In both species, starch represented up to 95% of total nonstructural carbohydrates and was mainly found in the roots. Contrary to our hypothesis, interspecific differences in shoot growth phenology (i.e., continuous versus truncated) did not result in differences in seasonal patterns of carbohydrate partitioning. Our results help explain the niche differentiation between sugar maple and yellow birch in temperate, deciduous understory forests.

  8. The major veins of mesomorphic leaves revisited: tests for conductive overload in Acer saccharum (Aceraceae) and Quercus rubra (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Sack, Lawren; Cowan, Peter D; Holbrook, N Michele

    2003-01-01

    Many leaves survive the severing of their major veins in apparently excellent health. According to the classical explanation, the leaf minor veins provide "conductive overload," an excess of parallel conductive paths, rendering the major veins hydraulically dispensable. Whether such an excess of conductive paths exists has important implications for vascular design and for leaf response to vascular damage. We subjected leaves of Acer saccharum and Quercus rubra to cutting treatments that disrupted the major vein system and determined leaf survival, stomatal conductance (g), quantum yield of photosystem II (Φ(PSII)), and leaf hydraulic conductance (K(leaf)). For A. saccharum, the cuts led to the death of distal lamina. For Q. rubra, however, the treated leaves typically remained apparently healthy. Despite their appearance, the treated Q. rubra leaves had a strongly reduced K(leaf), relative to control leaves, and g and Φ(PSII) were reduced distal to the cuts, respectively, by 75-97% and 48-76%. Gas exchange proximal to the cuts was unaffected, indicating the independence of lamina regions and their local stomata. Analogous results were obtained with excised Q. rubra leaves. These studies demonstrate an indispensable, vital role of the major veins in conducting water throughout the lamina.

  9. Responses of Acer saccharum canopy trees and saplings to P, K and lime additions under high N deposition.

    PubMed

    Gradowski, Tomasz; Thomas, Sean C

    2008-02-01

    Heavy atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition has been associated with altered nutrient cycling, and even N saturation, in forest ecosystems previously thought to be N-limited. This observation has prompted application to such forests of non-N mineral nutrients as a mitigation measure. We examined leaf gas-exchange, leaf chemistry and leaf and shoot morphological responses of Acer saccharum Marsh. saplings and mature trees to experimental additions of non-nitrogenous mineral nutrients (dolomitic lime, phosphorus + potassium (P + K) and lime plus P + K) over 2 years in the Haliburton region of central Ontario, which receives some of the largest annual N inputs in North America. Nutrients were adsorbed in the mineral soil and taken up by A. saccharum trees within 1 year of fertilizer application; however, contrary to expectation, liming had no effect on soil P availability. Saplings and canopy trees showed significant responses to both P + K fertilization and liming, including increased foliar nutrient concentration, leaf size and shoot extension growth; however, no treatment effects on leaf gas-exchange parameters were detected. Increases in shoot extension preceded increases in diameter growth in saplings and canopy trees. Vector analysis of shoot extension growth and nutrient content was consistent with sufficiency of N but marked limitation of P, with co-limitation by calcium (Ca) in saplings and by Ca, Mg and K in canopy trees.

  10. Efficacy of imidacloprid, trunk-injected into Acer platanoides, for control of adult Asian longhorned beetles (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae).

    PubMed

    Ugine, Todd A; Gardescu, Sana; Lewis, Phillip A; Hajek, Ann E

    2012-12-01

    Feeding experiments with Asian longhorned beetles (Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky)) in a quarantine laboratory were used to assess the effectiveness of imidacloprid in reducing adult fecundity and survival. The beetles were fed twigs and leaves cut between June-September 2010 from Norway maples (Acer platanoides L.) in the beetle-infested area of Worcester, MA. Treated trees had been trunk-injected once with imidacloprid in spring 2010 under the U.S. Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service operational eradication program. The 21 d LC50 value for adult beetles feeding on twig bark from imidacloprid-injected trees was 1.3 ppm. Adult reproductive output and survival were significantly reduced when beetles fed on twig bark or leaves from treated trees. However, results varied widely, with many twig samples having no detectable imidacloprid and little effect on the beetles. When twigs with > 1 ppm imidacloprid in the bark were fed to mated beetles, the number of larvae produced was reduced by 94% and median adult survival was reduced to 14 d. For twigs with < 1 ppm imidacloprid, 68% of reproductively mature mated beetles survived 21 d and 56% of unmated recently eclosed beetles survived 42 d. For twigs with < 1 ppm, beetles ingested an average of 30 nanograms of imidacloprid per day. Bark consumption was reduced at higher imidacloprid levels (> 1 ppm). When given a choice of control twigs and twigs from injected trees, beetles did not show a strong preference.

  11. Factors affecting hydrogen production from cassava wastewater by a co-culture of anaerobic sludge and Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    PubMed

    Reungsang, Alissara; Sangyoka, Suksaman; Chaiprasert, Pawinee; Imai, Tsuyoshi

    2007-10-15

    Series of batch experiments were used to investigate the effects of environmental factors, i.e., total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations, initial pH, illumination pattern and stirring conditions on hydrogen production from cassava wastewater by a co-culture of anaerobic sludge and Rhodospirillum rubrum. The maximum of the hydrogen yield of 150.46 and 340.19 mL g-COD(-1) was obtained at the total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations of 0.2 and 0.04 M, respectively. An effect of initial pH was investigated at COD:N:P ratio of 100:10:1. Results indicated that an optimum initial pH for hydrogen production was pH 7 with a high hydrogen yield of 158.78 mL g-COD(-1) was obtained. No significantly different (p < 0.05) in the effect of illumination pattern (24 h of light and 12 h dark/light cycle) on hydrogen production were observed under continuous-illumination and periodic-illumination with hydrogen yield of 131.84 and 126.92 mL g-COD(-1), respectively. Therefore, a periodic-illumination was applicable in hydrogen fermentation due to its cost-effective. Hydrogen fermentation with a stirring at 100 rpm provided more effective hydrogen production (164.83 mL g-COD(-1)) than static-fermentation (93.93 mL g-COD(-1)). The major soluble products from hydrogen fermentation were acetic and butyric acids, in the ranges of 28.33-48.30 and 35.23-66.07%, respectively, confirming an ability of a co-culture to produce hydrogen from cassava wastewater.

  12. Insight into the radiotolerance of the life support bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum S1H by means of phenotypic and transcriptomic methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mastroleo, Felice; Monsieurs, Pieter; Leys, Natalie

    The MELiSSA life support system from the European Space Agency is targeting the produc-tion of oxygen, water and food by recycling organic waste. Among different types of pro-cesses, MELiSSA uses several interconnected bioreactors inhabited by microorganisms and higher plants (Hendrickx et al., 2006; Mergeay et al., 1988). Because this loop is foreseen to be functional in space where it will be exposed to higher doses and different spectra of ionizing radiation, it was decided to screen the radiotolerance of the organisms used. In this study, the radiotolerance (i.e. tolerance to ionizing radiation) of the photosynthetic bacterium Rho-dospirillum rubrum S1H was investigated. In this test, first the effect of low energy Cobalt-60 gamma rays, were tested. To assess the radiotolerance of bacterium S1H, the survival rate after increasing exposure was determined. R. rubrum S1H appeared relatively radiosensitive, as the radiation dose at which 90% of the population was killed (D10 value) was 4 times lower than the model bacterium Escherichia coli. It was demonstrate that the culture medium has an impact on radiation tolerance. This survival curve also permitted to select a number of sub-lethal ionizing radiation doses (¡ D10 ), that were used to analyze the gene expression response of R. rubrum S1H after gamma irradiation. The microarray transcriptome analysis results ob-tained from different doses and different culture medium showed a significant response of the bacterium to sublethal doses. Potential marker genes for ionizing radiation stress in R. rubrum S1H were identified. By quantitative PCR, it was shown that the expression of these marker genes increased with the recovery time after exposure to ionizing radiation. In other words, the radiation tolerance and the response of R. rubrum S1H to low energy Cobalt-60 gamma ionizing radiation was characterized. Therefore to ensure MELiSSA process robustness during extended space exploration mission, it is advised that

  13. Enzymic systems proposed to be involved in the dissimilatory reduction of selenite in the purple non-sulfur bacteria Rhodospirillum rubrum and Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed

    Kessi, Janine

    2006-03-01

    Various enzymic systems, such as nitrite reductase, sulfite reductase and glutathione reductase, have been proposed for, or suspected to be involved in, the reduction of selenite in bacteria. As alphaproteobacteria have been shown to be highly tolerant to transition metal oxyanions, it seemed interesting to investigate the hypothetical involvement of these different enzymes in the reduction of selenite in the purple non-sulfur bacteria Rhodospirillum rubrum and Rhodobacter capsulatus. The hypothetical involvement of nitrite reductase and sulfite reductase in the reduction of selenite in these bacteria was investigated by analysing the effects of nitrite and sulfite amendments on the growth and kinetics of selenite reduction. The reduction of selenite was not concomitant with that of either sulfite or nitrite in Rs. rubrum, suggesting that the reduction pathways operate independently. In Rb. capsulatus, strong interactions were observed between the nitrite reduction and selenite reduction pathways. However, in both organisms, selenite reduction took place during both the growth phase and the stationary phase, indicating that selenite metabolism is constitutively expressed. In contrast, neither nitrite nor sulfite was transformed during stationary phase, suggesting that the metabolism of both ions is induced, which implies that identical reduction pathways for selenite and nitrite or selenite and sulfite are excluded. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, S-n-butyl homocysteine sulfoximine), a specific inhibitor of glutathione synthesis, was used to depress the intracellular glutathione level. In stationary-phase cultures of both Rs. rubrum and Rb. capsulatus amended with BSO, the rate of reduction of selenite was slowed, indicating that glutathione may be involved in the dissimilatory reduction of selenite in these organisms. The analysis of the headspace gases of the cultures indicated that the synthesis of methylated selenium compounds was prevented in the presence of 3

  14. Effect of Culture Supernatant Derived from Trichophyton Rubrum Grown in the Nail Medium on the Innate Immunity-related Molecules of HaCaT

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Xin-Zhu; Liang, Pan-Pan; Ma, Han; Yi, Jin-Ling; Yin, Song-Chao; Chen, Zhi-Rui; Li, Mei-Rong; Lai, Wei; Chen, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Background: Trichophyton rubrum is superficial fungi characteristically confined to dead keratinized tissues. These observations suggest that the soluble components released by the fungus could influence the host immune response in a cell in contact-free manner. Therefore, this research aimed to analyze whether the culture supernatant derived from T. rubrum grown in the nail medium could elicit the immune response of keratinocyte effectively. Methods: The culture supernatants of two strains (T1a, TXHB) were compared for the β-glucan concentrations and their capacity to impact the innate immunity of keratinocytes. The β-glucan concentrations in the supernatants were determined with the fungal G-test kit and protein concentrations with bicinchoninic acid protein quantitative method, then HaCaT was stimulated with different concentrations of culture supernatants by adopting morphological method to select a suitable dosage. Expressions of host defense genes were assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction after the HaCaT was stimulated with the culture supernatants. Data were analyzed with one-way analysis of variance, followed by the least significant difference test. Results: The T. rubrum strains (T1a and TXHB) released β-glucan of 87.530 ± 37.581 pg/ml and 15.747 ± 6.453 pg/ml, respectively into the media. The messenger RNA (mRNA) expressions of toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2), TLR4, and CARD9 were moderately up-regulated in HaCaT within 6-h applications of both supernatants. HaCaT cells were more responsive to T1a than TXHB. The slight increase of dendritic cells-specific intercellular adhesion molecule 3-grabbing nonintegrin expression was faster and stronger, induced by T1a supernatant than TXHB. The moderate decreases of RNase 7, the slight up-regulations of Dectin-1 and interleukin-8 at the mRNA level were detected only in response to T1a rather than TXHB. After a long-time contact, all the elevated defense genes decreased after 24 h. Conclusion: The

  15. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide.

    The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine.

    The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years.

    MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington

  16. Red Tide Strands South African Rock Lobsters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Although some red tides form a healthy part of phytoplankton production, recurrent harmful or toxic blooms also occur, with results depending upon the type of plankton and on atmospheric and oceanic conditions. At Elands Bay in South Africa's Western Cape province, about 1000 tons of rock lobsters beached themselves during February 2002, when the decay of dense blooms of phytoplankton caused a rapid reduction in the oxygen concentration of nearshore waters. The lobsters (or crayfish, as they are known locally) moved toward the breaking surf in search of oxygen, but were stranded by the retreating tide. The Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer's nadir camera acquired these red, green, blue composites on February 2 and 18, 2002, during Terra orbits 11315 and 11548. The colors have been accentuated to highlight the bloom, and land and water have been enhanced separately. The two views show the shoreward migration of the algal bloom. Each image represents an area of about 205 kilometers x 330 kilometers. Elands Bay is situated near the mouth of the Doring River, about 75 kilometers northeast of the jutting Cape Columbine. The term 'red tide' is used to refer to a number of different types of phytoplankton blooms of various hues. The wine color of certain parts of this bloom are consistent with the ciliate species Mesodinium rubrum, which has been associated with recurring harmful algal blooms along the Western Cape coast. Under these conditions, the lobsters are not poisoned. During the recent event, government and military staff transported as many of the living lobsters as possible to areas that were less affected by the red tide. At the same time, people came from across South Africa to gather the undersized creatures for food. The effects of the losses on the maritime economy are expected to be felt over the next few years. MISR was built and is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, for NASA's Office of Earth Science, Washington, DC. The Terra

  17. The within-season and between-tree distribution of imidacloprid trunk-injected into Acer platanoides (Sapindales: Sapindaceae).

    PubMed

    Ugine, Todd A; Gardescu, Sana; Hajek, Ann E

    2013-04-01

    Norway maple trees, Acer platanoides L. (Sapindales: Sapindaceae), that were trunk-injected with imidacloprid as part of an Asian longhorned beetle eradication program, were used to study the temporal and between-tree distribution of imidacloprid in twigs from June through September. The effect of injection time during spring on imidacloprid residues across the summer season and the distribution of imidacloprid in twig bark versus twig xylem were also investigated. Overall, we observed a significant decline in imidacloprid concentrations within each plant part sampled across the study period, although the 19 trees used in the study varied greatly in the pattern of imidacloprid residues over time. The concentration of imidacloprid in twig bark per dry mass was approximately two times higher than that of the twig xylem (means +/- SD of 1.21 +/- 2.16 ppm vs. 0.63 +/- 1.08 ppm imidacloprid, respectively). The majority (> 50%) of whole twig, twig bark and twig xylem samples from injected trees contained < 1 ppm imidacloprid and 37% of twig samples contained 0 ppm. Maximum values were 9 ppm for whole twigs from trunk-injected trees, 12 ppm imidacloprid for twig bark, and 5 ppm for twig xylem. Leaves, sampled only in September, had much higher imidacloprid residues than twigs collected at the same time; the majority (53%) of leaf samples contained > 5 ppm imidacloprid, with a maximum of 49 ppm. The concentrations ofimidacloprid in whole twigs, twig bark, and twig xylem were highly correlated, and levels in leaves were correlated with imidacloprid levels in whole twigs.

  18. Genetic structure and hierarchical population divergence history of Acer mono var. mono in South and Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chunping; Tsuda, Yoshiaki; Shen, Hailong; Hu, Lijiang; Saito, Yoko; Ide, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the genetic structure and evolutionary history of tree species across their ranges is essential for the development of effective conservation and forest management strategies. Acer mono var. mono, an economically and ecologically important maple species, is extensively distributed in Northeast China (NE), whereas it has a scattered and patchy distribution in South China (SC). In this study, the genetic structure and demographic history of 56 natural populations of A. mono var. mono were evaluated using seven nuclear microsatellite markers. Neighbor-joining tree and STRUCTURE analysis clearly separated populations into NE and SC groups with two admixed-like populations. Allelic richness significantly decreased with increasing latitude within the NE group while both allelic richness and expected heterozygosity showed significant positive correlation with latitude within the SC group. Especially in the NE region, previous studies in Quercus mongolica and Fraxinus mandshurica have also detected reductions in genetic diversity with increases in latitude, suggesting this pattern may be common for tree species in this region, probably due to expansion from single refugium following the last glacial maximum (LGM). Approximate Bayesian Computation-based analysis revealed two major features of hierarchical population divergence in the species' evolutionary history. Recent divergence between the NE group and the admixed-like group corresponded to the LGM period and ancient divergence of SC groups took place during mid-late Pleistocene period. The level of genetic differentiation was moderate (FST  = 0.073; G'ST  = 0.278) among all populations, but significantly higher in the SC group than the NE group, mirroring the species' more scattered distribution in SC. Conservation measures for this species are proposed, taking into account the genetic structure and past demographic history identified in this study.

  19. Effect of Elevated Atmospheric CO2 and Temperature on Leaf Optical Properties and Chlorophyll Content in Acer saccharum (Marsh.)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carter, Gregory A.; Bahadur, Raj; Norby, Richard J.

    1999-01-01

    Elevated atmospheric CO2 pressure and numerous causes of plant stress often result in decreased leaf chlorophyll contents and thus would be expected to alter leaf optical properties. Hypotheses that elevated carbon dioxide pressure and air temperature would alter leaf optical properties were tested for sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) in the middle of its fourth growing season under treatment. The saplings had been growing since 1994 in open-top chambers at Oak Ridge, Tennessee under the following treatments: 1) Ambient CO2 pressure and air temperature (control); 2) CO2 pressure approximately 30 Pa above ambient; 3) Air temperatures 3 C above ambient; 4) Elevated CO2 and air temperature. Spectral reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance in the visible spectrum (400-720 nm) did not change significantly (rho = 0.05) in response to any treatment compared with control values. Although reflectance, transmittance, and absorptance at 700 nm correlated strongly with leaf chlorophyll content, chlorophyll content was not altered significantly by the treatments. The lack of treatment effects on pigmentation explained the non-significant change in optical properties in the visible spectrum. Optical properties in the near-infrared (721-850 nm) were similarly unresponsive to treatment with the exception of an increased absorptance in leaves that developed under elevated air temperature alone. This response could not be explained by the data, but might have resulted from effects of air temperature on leaf internal structure. Results indicated no significant potential for detecting leaf optical responses to elevated CO2 or temperature by the remote sensing of reflected radiation in the 400-850 nm spectrum.

  20. Invasive Acer negundo outperforms native species in non-limiting resource environments due to its higher phenotypic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To identify the determinants of invasiveness, comparisons of traits of invasive and native species are commonly performed. Invasiveness is generally linked to higher values of reproductive, physiological and growth-related traits of the invasives relative to the natives in the introduced range. Phenotypic plasticity of these traits has also been cited to increase the success of invasive species but has been little studied in invasive tree species. In a greenhouse experiment, we compared ecophysiological traits between an invasive species to Europe, Acer negundo, and early- and late-successional co-occurring native species, under different light, nutrient availability and disturbance regimes. We also compared species of the same species groups in situ, in riparian forests. Results Under non-limiting resources, A. negundo seedlings showed higher growth rates than the native species. However, A. negundo displayed equivalent or lower photosynthetic capacities and nitrogen content per unit leaf area compared to the native species; these findings were observed both on the seedlings in the greenhouse experiment and on adult trees in situ. These physiological traits were mostly conservative along the different light, nutrient and disturbance environments. Overall, under non-limiting light and nutrient conditions, specific leaf area and total leaf area of A. negundo were substantially larger. The invasive species presented a higher plasticity in allocation to foliage and therefore in growth with increasing nutrient and light availability relative to the native species. Conclusions The higher level of plasticity of the invasive species in foliage allocation in response to light and nutrient availability induced a better growth in non-limiting resource environments. These results give us more elements on the invasiveness of A. negundo and suggest that such behaviour could explain the ability of A. negundo to outperform native tree species, contributes to its spread

  1. Effects of moist cold stratification on germination, plant growth regulators, metabolites and embryo ultrastructure in seeds of Acer morrisonense (Sapindaceae).

    PubMed

    Chen, Shun-Ying; Chou, Shih-Han; Tsai, Ching-Chu; Hsu, Wen-Yu; Baskin, Carol C; Baskin, Jerry M; Chien, Ching-Te; Kuo-Huang, Ling-Long

    2015-09-01

    Breaking of seed dormancy by moist cold stratification involves complex interactions in cells. To assess the effect of moist cold stratification on dormancy break in seeds of Acer morrisonense, we monitored percentages and rates of germination and changes in plant growth regulators, sugars, amino acids and embryo ultrastructure after various periods of cold stratification. Fresh seeds incubated at 25/15 °C for 24 weeks germinated to 61%, while those cold stratified at 5 °C for 12 weeks germinated to 87% in 1 week. Neither exogenous GA3 nor GA4 pretreatment significantly increased final seed germination percentage. Total ABA content of seeds cold stratified for 12 weeks was reduced about 3.3-fold, to a concentration similar to that in germinated seeds (radicle emergence). Endogenous GA3 and GA7 were detected in 8-week and 12-week cold stratified seeds but not in fresh seeds. Numerous protein and lipid bodies were present in the plumule, first true leaves and cotyledons of fresh seeds. Protein and lipid bodies decreased greatly during cold stratification, and concentrations of total soluble sugars and amino acids increased. The major non-polar sugars in fresh seeds were sucrose and fructose, but sucrose increased and fructose decreased significantly during cold stratification. The major free amino acids were proline and tryptophan in fresh seeds, and proline increased and tryptophan decreased during cold stratification. Thus, as dormancy break occurs during cold stratification seeds of A. morrisonense undergo changes in plant growth regulators, proteins, lipids, sugars, amino acids and cell ultrastructure.

  2. Analysis of the embryo proteome of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.) seeds reveals a distinct class of proteins regulating dormancy release.

    PubMed

    Pawłowski, Tomasz Andrzej; Staszak, Aleksandra Maria

    2016-05-20

    Acer pseudoplatanus seeds are characterized by a deep physiological embryo dormancy that requires a few weeks of cold stratification in order to promote germination. Understanding the function of proteins and their related metabolic pathways, in conjunction with the plant hormones implicated in the breaking of seed dormancy, would expand our knowledge pertaining to this process. In this study, a proteomic approach was used to analyze the changes occurring in seeds in response to cold stratification, which leads to dormancy release. In addition, the involvement of abscisic (ABA) and gibberellic acids (GA) was also examined. Fifty-three proteins showing significant changes were identified by mass spectrometry. An effect of ABA on protein variation was observed at the beginning of stratification, while the influence of GA on protein abundance was observed during the middle phase of stratification. The majority of proteins associated with dormancy breaking in the presence of only water, and also ABA or GA, were classified as being involved in metabolism and genetic information processing. For metabolic-related proteins, the effect of ABA on protein abundance was stimulatory for half of the proteins and inhibitory for half of the proteins. On the other hand, the effect on genetic information processing related proteins was stimulatory. GA was found to upregulate both metabolic-related and genetic information processing-related proteins. While seed dormancy breaking depends on proteins involved in a variety of processes, proteins associated with methionine metabolism (adenosine kinase, methionine synthase) and glycine-rich RNA binding proteins appear to be of particular importance.

  3. Effect of desiccation on the dynamics of genome-wide DNA methylation in orthodox seeds of Acer platanoides L.

    PubMed

    Plitta, Beata P; Michalak, Marcin; Bujarska-Borkowska, Barbara; Barciszewska, Mirosława Z; Barciszewski, Jan; Chmielarz, Paweł

    2014-12-01

    5-methylcytosine, an abundant epigenetic mark, plays an important role in the regulation of plant growth and development, but there is little information about stress-induced changes in DNA methylation in seeds. In the present study, changes in a global level of m5C were measured in orthodox seeds of Acer platanoides L. during seed desiccation from a WC of 1.04 to 0.05-0.06 g H2O g g(-1) dry mass (g g(-1)). Changes in the level of DNA methylation were measured using 2D TLC e based method. Quality of desiccated seeds was examined by germination and seedling emergence tests. Global m5C content (R2)increase was observed in embryonic axes isolated from seeds collected at a high WC of 1.04 g g(-1) after their desiccation to significantly lower WC of 0.17 and 0.19 g g(-1). Further desiccation of these seeds to a WC of 0.06 g g(-1), however, resulted in a significant DNA demethylation to R2 ¼ 11.52-12.22%. Similar m5C decrease was observed in seeds which undergo maturation drying on the tree and had four times lower initial WC of 0.27 g g(-1) at the time of harvest, as they were dried to a WC of 0.05 g g(-1). These data confirm that desiccation induces changes in seed m5C levels. Results were validated by seed lots derived from tree different A. platanoides provenances. It is plausible that sine wave-like alterations in m5C amount may represent a specific response of orthodox seeds to drying and play a relevant role in desiccation tolerance in seeds.

  4. Characterization of endophytic fungi from Acer ginnala Maxim. in an artificial plantation: media effect and tissue-dependent variation.

    PubMed

    Qi, Fenghui; Jing, Tianzhong; Zhan, Yaguang

    2012-01-01

    The community of endophytic fungi associated with Acer ginnala, a common tree in northeastern China, was investigated. Four media, PDA, Czapek's, WA and Sabouraud's, were used to inoculate explants from seeds, annual twigs and perennial twigs (xylem and bark). Media strongly affected the isolated species number, but not colonization frequency (CF) or isolation frequency (IF). To investigate media effect further, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was done. As a result, two components accounted for 86.502% of the total variance were extracted. These two components were named as PDA-determined factor (accounted for 45.139% of the total variance) and Czapek's-determined factor (accounted for 41.363% of the total variance), respectively. This result suggested that only two media, PDA and Czapek's, could be used instead of all four media in this study without affecting the isolation results significantly. In total, ten taxa were isolated in this study. Alternaria sp., Phomopsis sp., Neurospora sp. and Phoma sp. were dominant endophytes while Pleosporales Incertae Sedis sp., Cladosporium sp., Trichoderma sp. and Epicoccum sp. were rare taxa. Different tissues/organs had different endophyte assemblages. All tissue/organ pairs had low Bray-Curtis indices (<0.3) except for bark and annual twigs (0.63). Compared to perennial twigs, annual twigs had a lower taxon number, lower isolate number, lower endophyte dominance and diversity indices. Seeds had distinct assemblage, lower similarity and similar low diversity indices to annual twigs. These results suggested that tissue type determines the endophyte assemblage while age determines the diversity.

  5. Genetic Structure and Hierarchical Population Divergence History of Acer mono var. mono in South and Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Hailong; Hu, Lijiang; Saito, Yoko; Ide, Yuji

    2014-01-01

    Knowledge of the genetic structure and evolutionary history of tree species across their ranges is essential for the development of effective conservation and forest management strategies. Acer mono var. mono, an economically and ecologically important maple species, is extensively distributed in Northeast China (NE), whereas it has a scattered and patchy distribution in South China (SC). In this study, the genetic structure and demographic history of 56 natural populations of A. mono var. mono were evaluated using seven nuclear microsatellite markers. Neighbor-joining tree and STRUCTURE analysis clearly separated populations into NE and SC groups with two admixed-like populations. Allelic richness significantly decreased with increasing latitude within the NE group while both allelic richness and expected heterozygosity showed significant positive correlation with latitude within the SC group. Especially in the NE region, previous studies in Quercus mongolica and Fraxinus mandshurica have also detected reductions in genetic diversity with increases in latitude, suggesting this pattern may be common for tree species in this region, probably due to expansion from single refugium following the last glacial maximum (LGM). Approximate Bayesian Computation-based analysis revealed two major features of hierarchical population divergence in the species’ evolutionary history. Recent divergence between the NE group and the admixed-like group corresponded to the LGM period and ancient divergence of SC groups took place during mid-late Pleistocene period. The level of genetic differentiation was moderate (FST = 0.073; G′ST = 0.278) among all populations, but significantly higher in the SC group than the NE group, mirroring the species’ more scattered distribution in SC. Conservation measures for this species are proposed, taking into account the genetic structure and past demographic history identified in this study. PMID:24498039

  6. Acerogenin A, a natural compound isolated from Acer nikoense Maxim, stimulates osteoblast differentiation through bone morphogenetic protein action

    SciTech Connect

    Kihara, Tasuku; Ichikawa, Saki; Yonezawa, Takayuki; Lee, Ji-Won; Akihisa, Toshihiro; Woo, Je Tae; Michi, Yasuyuki; Amagasa, Teruo; Yamaguchi, Akira

    2011-03-11

    Research highlights: {yields} Acerogenin A stimulated osteoblast differentiation in osteogenic cells. {yields} Acerogenin A-induced osteoblast differentiation was inhibited by noggin. {yields} Acerogenin A increased Bmp-2, Bmp-4 and Bmp-7 mRNA expression in MC3T3-E1 cells. {yields} Acerogenin A is a candidate agent for stimulating bone formation. -- Abstract: We investigated the effects of acerogenin A, a natural compound isolated from Acer nikoense Maxim, on osteoblast differentiation by using osteoblastic cells. Acerogenin A stimulated the cell proliferation of MC3T3-E1 osteoblastic cells and RD-C6 osteoblastic cells (Runx2-deficient cell line). It also increased alkaline phosphatase activity in MC3T3-E1 and RD-C6 cells and calvarial osteoblastic cells isolated from the calvariae of newborn mice. Acerogenin A also increased the expression of mRNAs related to osteoblast differentiation, including Osteocalcin, Osterix and Runx2 in MC3T3-E1 cells and primary osteoblasts: it also stimulated Osteocalcin and Osterix mRNA expression in RD-C6 cells. The acerogenin A treatment for 3 days increased Bmp-2, Bmp-4, and Bmp-7 mRNA expression levels in MC3T3-E1 cells. Adding noggin, a BMP specific-antagonist, inhibited the acerogenin A-induced increase in the Osteocalcin, Osterix and Runx2 mRNA expression levels. These results indicated that acerogenin A stimulates osteoblast differentiation through BMP action, which is mediated by Runx2-dependent and Runx2-independent pathways.

  7. Characterization of Endophytic Fungi from Acer ginnala Maxim. in an Artificial Plantation: Media Effect and Tissue-Dependent Variation

    PubMed Central

    Zhan, Yaguang

    2012-01-01

    The community of endophytic fungi associated with Acer ginnala, a common tree in northeastern China, was investigated. Four media, PDA, Czapek’s, WA and Sabouraud’s, were used to inoculate explants from seeds, annual twigs and perennial twigs (xylem and bark). Media strongly affected the isolated species number, but not colonization frequency (CF) or isolation frequency (IF). To investigate media effect further, a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was done. As a result, two components accounted for 86.502% of the total variance were extracted. These two components were named as PDA-determined factor (accounted for 45.139% of the total variance) and Czapek’s-determined factor (accounted for 41.363% of the total variance), respectively. This result suggested that only two media, PDA and Czapek’s, could be used instead of all four media in this study without affecting the isolation results significantly. In total, ten taxa were isolated in this study. Alternaria sp., Phomopsis sp., Neurospora sp. and Phoma sp. were dominant endophytes while Pleosporales Incertae Sedis sp., Cladosporium sp., Trichoderma sp. and Epicoccum sp. were rare taxa. Different tissues/organs had different endophyte assemblages. All tissue/organ pairs had low Bray-Curtis indices (<0.3) except for bark and annual twigs (0.63). Compared to perennial twigs, annual twigs had a lower taxon number, lower isolate number, lower endophyte dominance and diversity indices. Seeds had distinct assemblage, lower similarity and similar low diversity indices to annual twigs. These results suggested that tissue type determines the endophyte assemblage while age determines the diversity. PMID:23056451

  8. Tinea corporis due to Trichophyton rubrum in a woman and Tinea capitis in her 15-day-old baby: molecular evidence of vertical transmission.

    PubMed

    Mapelli, E T M; Borghi, E; Cerri, A; Sciota, R; Morace, G; Menni, S

    2012-03-01

    We report a case of a 40-year-old Caucasian woman who came under our observation with a 7-year history of a chronic erythematous scaly dermatitis, diagnosed as psoriasis, involving gluteal area and thighs, and treated with topical steroids without benefit. During pregnancy, a progressive worsening of her condition and an extension of cutaneous lesions were observed. Her newborn, a 15-day-old girl, presented a similar scaly and squamous lesion on her scalp. Mycological examination was positive for Trichophyton rubrum in both cases, and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis confirmed the isogenicity of the two isolates. We performed a diagnosis of T. rubrum tinea corporis and tinea capitis. The case we describe illustrates an unusual clinical presentation of tinea corporis with remarkable extension of cutaneous lesions due to the diagnostic delay and the continuous use of local steroids, together with a rare tinea capitis in the newborn. Our experience highlights the possibility of mother-child transmission and the importance of an early diagnosis.

  9. Energy and electron transfer in the photosynthetic reaction center complex of Acidiphilium rubrum containing Zn-bacteriochlorophyll a studied by femtosecond up-conversion spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tomi, Tetsuo; Shibata, Yutaka; Ikeda, Yuki; Taniguchi, Seiji; Haik, Chosrowjan; Mataga, Noboru; Shimada, Keizo; Itoh, Shigeru

    2007-01-01

    A photosynthetic reaction center (RC) complex was isolated from a purple bacterium, Acidiphilium rubrum. The RC contains bacteriochlorophyll a containing Zn as a central metal (Zn-BChl a) and bacteriopheophytin a (BPhe a) but no Mg-BChl a. The absorption peaks of the Zn-BChl a dimer (P(Zn)), the accessory Zn-BChl a (B(Zn)), and BPhe a (H) at 4 K in the RC showed peaks at 875, 792, and 753 nm, respectively. These peaks were shorter than the corresponding peaks in Rhodobacter sphaeroides RC that has Mg-BChl a. The kinetics of fluorescence from P(Zn)(*), measured by fluorescence up-conversion, showed the rise and the major decay with time constants of 0.16 and 3.3 ps, respectively. The former represents the energy transfer from B(Zn)(*) to P(Zn), and the latter, the electron transfer from P(Zn) to H. The angle between the transition dipoles of B(Zn) and P(Zn) was estimated to be 36 degrees based on the fluorescence anisotropy. The time constants and the angle are almost equal to those in the Rb. sphaeroides RC. The high efficiency of A. rubrum RC seems to be enabled by the chemical property of Zn-BChl a and by the L168HE modification of the RC protein that modifies P(Zn).

  10. Comparison of the antifungal efficacy of terbinafine hydrochloride and ciclopirox olamine containing formulations against the dermatophyte Trichophyton rubrum in an infected nail plate model.

    PubMed

    Täuber, Anja; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2014-07-07

    Onychomycosis is a fungal infection mostly induced by dermatophytes such as Trichophyton rubrum. Due to slow nail growth, the treatment takes 3-9 months depending on the nail size and infected area. Hence, high efficacy of the active ingredient without systemic side effects is of major interest. To test the efficacy of an antifungal formulation, an appropriate in vitro model reflecting the in vivo situation as close as possible is required. In this study, a variety of antifungal formulations, i.e., commercial ones (Ciclopoli and Lamisil cream), those used in compounding pharmacies (Pentravan) as well as poloxamer 407-based systems, have been evaluated in an infected nail plate model. The active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) were ciclopirox olamine and terbinafine hydrochloride. The poloxamer 407-based formulations consisted of poloxamer 407, double distilled water, propylene glycol, isopropyl alcohol, medium chain triglycerides and either 1% ciclopirox olamine or 1% terbinafine hydrochloride as API, respectively. Former studies have shown high permeation rates of terbinafine hydrochloride from similar poloxamer 407-based formulations with dimethyl isosorbide instead of propylene glycol. The present contribution shows superior inhibition of T. rubrum growth from poloxamer 407-based formulations in comparison to the commercial Lamisil cream. Moreover, poloxamer 407-based formulations were equally effective as the nail lacquer Ciclopoli even though the poloxamer formulations contained only 1% of the drug instead of 8% in the marketed lacquer. Poloxamer 407-based systems containing ciclopirox olamine proved to be about as effective as similar terbinafine hydrochloride systems.

  11. Excitation energy pathways in the photosynthetic units of reaction center LM- and H-subunit deletion mutants of Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    PubMed

    Amarie, Sergiu; Lupo, Domenico; Lenz, Martin O; Saegesser, Rudolf; Ghosh, Robin; Wachtveitl, Josef

    2010-03-01

    Light-induced reaction dynamics of isolated photosynthetic membranes obtained from wild-type (WT) and reaction center (RC)-subunit deletion strains SPUHK1 (an H-subunit deletion mutant) and SK Delta LM (an (L+M) deletion mutant) of the purple non-sulphur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum have been investigated by femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy. Upon excitation of the spirilloxanthin (Spx) S(2) state at 546 nm, of the bacteriochlorophyll Soret band at 388 nm and probing spectral regions, which are characteristic for carotenoids, similar dynamics in the SPUHK1, SK Delta LM and WT strains could be observed. The excitation of Spx S(2) is followed by the simultaneous population of the lower singlet excited states S(1) and S* which decay with lifetimes of 1.4 and 5 ps, respectively for the mutants, and 1.4 and 4 ps, respectively, for the wild-type. The excitation of the BChl Soret band is followed by relaxation into BChl lower excited states which compete with excitation energy transfer BChl-to-Spx. The deexcitation pathway BChl(Soret) --> Spx(S(2)) --> Spx(S(1)) occurs with the same transition rate for all investigated samples (WT, SPUHK1 and SK Delta LM). The kinetic traces measured for the Spx S(1) --> S(N) transition display similar behaviour for all samples showing a positive signal which increases within the first 400 fs (i.e. the time needed for the excitation energy to reach the Spx S(1) excited state) and decays with a lifetime of about 1.5 ps. This suggests that the Spx excited state dynamics in the investigated complexes do not differ significantly. Moreover, a longer excited state lifetime of BChl for SPUHK1 in comparison to WT was observed, consistent with a photochemical quenching channel present in the presence of RC. For long delay times, photobleaching of the RC special pair and an electrochromic blue shift of the monomeric BChl a can be observed only for the WT but not for the mutants. The close similarity of the excited state decay

  12. Seeing Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    This New Horizons image of Jupiter's volcanic moon Io was taken at 13:05 Universal Time during the spacecraft's Jupiter flyby on February 28, 2007. It shows the reddish color of the deposits from the giant volcanic eruption at the volcano Tvashtar, near the top of the sunlit crescent, as well as the bluish plume itself and the orange glow of the hot lava at its source. The relatively unprocessed image on the left provides the best view of the volcanic glow and the plume deposits, while the version on the right has been brightened to show the much fainter plume, and the Jupiter-lit night side of Io.

    New Horizons' color imaging of Io's sunlit side was generally overexposed because the spacecraft's color camera, the super-sensitive Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC), was designed for the much dimmer illumination at Pluto. However, two of MVIC's four color filters, the blue and 'methane' filter (a special filter designed to map methane frost on the surface of Pluto at an infrared wavelength of 0.89 microns), are less sensitive than the others, and thus obtained some well-exposed views of the surface when illumination conditions were favorable. Because only two color filters are used, rather than the usual three, and because one filter uses infrared light, the color is only a rough approximation to what the human eye would see.

    The red color of the Tvashtar plume fallout is typical of Io's largest volcanic plumes, including the previous eruption of Tvashtar seen by the Galileo and Cassini spacecraft in 2000, and the long-lived Pele plume on the opposite side of Io. The color likely results from the creation of reddish three-atom and four-atom sulfur molecules (S3 and S4) from plume gases rich in two-atom sulfur molecules (S2 After a few months or years, the S3 and S4 molecules recombine into the more stable and familiar yellowish form of sulfur consisting of eight-atom molecules (S8), so these red deposits are only seen around recently-active Io

  13. Gene Expressing and sRNA Sequencing Show That Gene Differentiation Associates with a Yellow Acer palmatum Mutant Leaf in Different Light Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Shu-Shun; Li, Qian-Zhong; Rong, Li-Ping; Tang, Ling; Zhang, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Acer palmatum Thunb., like other maples, is a widely ornamental-use small woody tree for leaf shapes and colors. Interestingly, we found a yellow-leaves mutant “Jingling Huangfeng” turned to green when grown in shade or low-density light condition. In order to study the potential mechanism, we performed high-throughput sequencing and obtained 1,082 DEGs in leaves grown in different light conditions that result in A. palmatum significant morphological and physiological changes. A total of 989 DEGs were annotated and clustered, of which many DEGs were found associating with the photosynthesis activity and pigment synthesis. The expression of CHS and FDR gene was higher while the expression of FLS gene was lower in full-sunlight condition; this may cause more colorful substance like chalcone and anthocyanin that were produced in full-light condition, thus turning the foliage to yellow. Moreover, this is the first available miRNA collection which contains 67 miRNAs of A. palmatum, including 46 conserved miRNAs and 21 novel miRNAs. To get better understanding of which pathways these miRNAs involved, 102 Unigenes were found to be potential targets of them. These results will provide valuable genetic resources for further study on the molecular mechanisms of Acer palmatum leaf coloration. PMID:26788511

  14. Potential of two submontane broadleaved species (Acer opalus, Quercus pubescens) to reveal spatiotemporal patterns of rockfall activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favillier, Adrien; Lopez-Saez, Jérôme; Corona, Christophe; Trappmann, Daniel; Toe, David; Stoffel, Markus; Rovéra, Georges; Berger, Frédéric

    2015-10-01

    Long-term records of rockfalls have proven to be scarce and typically incomplete, especially in increasingly urbanized areas where inventories are largely absent and the risk associated with rockfall events rises proportionally with urbanization. On forested slopes, tree-ring analyses may help to fill this gap, as they have been demonstrated to provide annually-resolved data on past rockfall activity over long periods. Yet, the reconstruction of rockfall chronologies has been hampered in the past by the paucity of studies that include broadleaved tree species, which are, in fact, quite common in various rockfall-prone environments. In this study, we test the sensitivity of two common, yet unstudied, broadleaved species - Quercus pubescens Willd. (Qp) and Acer opalus Mill. (Ao) - to record rockfall impacts. The approach is based on a systematic mapping of trees and the counting of visible scars on the stem surface of both species. Data are presented from a site in the Vercors massif (French Alps) where rocks are frequently detached from Valanginian limestone and marl cliffs. We compare recurrence interval maps obtained from both species and from two different sets of tree structures (i.e., single trees vs. coppice stands) based on Cohen's k coefficient and the mean absolute error. A total of 1230 scars were observed on the stem surface of 847 A. opalus and Q. pubescens trees. Both methods yield comparable results on the spatial distribution of relative rockfall activity with similar downslope decreasing recurrence intervals. Yet recurrence intervals vary significantly according to tree species and tree structure. The recurrence interval observed on the stem surface of Q. pubescens exceeds that of A. opalus by > 20 years in the lower part of the studied plot. Similarly, the recurrence interval map derived from A. opalus coppice stands, dominant at the stand scale, does not exhibit a clear spatial pattern. Differences between species may be explained by the bark

  15. Climate Change in the School Yard: Monitoring the Health of Acer Saccharum with A Maple Report Card

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, M.; Diller, A.; Rock, B. N.

    2012-12-01

    K-12 Teachers and students engage in authentic science and a research partnership with scientists in Maple Watch, a University of New Hampshire outreach program. Maple Watch is a hands-on, inquiry-based program in which students learn about climate change and air quality as well as many other environmental stress factors which may affect the health of sugar maple. The iconic New England tree is slated to lose 52% of its range in this century. Maple Watch builds on the 20-year record of Forest Watch, a K-12 program in which students and teachers have contributed annual research specimens and data to a UNH study of tropospheric ozone and its impact on white pine (Pinus strobus). Maple Watch students monitor sugar maples (Acer saccharum) year-round for signals of strain and disease. Students report the first run in sap season, bud burst and leaf development, and leaf senescence and fall. Across New England the timing of these phenologic events is changing with climate warming. Students assess maple health with simple measures of leaf development in May, leaf senescence in early fall and bud quality in late fall. Simple student arithmetic rankings of leaf and bud health correlate with chlorophyll content and spectral reflectance measures that students can analyze and compare with researchers at UNH. Grading their trees for each test on a one-two-three scale, students develop a Maple Report Card for each type of measurement, which presents an annual portrait of tree health. Year-by-year, schools across the sugar maple's 31 million acre range could monitor changes in tree health. The change over time in maple health can be graphed in parallel with the Goddard Space Institute's Common Sense Climate Index. Four teachers, listed as co-authors here, began a pilot study with Maple Watch in 2010, contributing sap samples and sharing curricular activities with UNH. Pilot Maple Watch schools already manage stands of sugar maples and make maple syrup and are assisting in training

  16. Seasonal variability of mercury concentration in soils, buds and leaves of Acer platanoides and Tilia platyphyllos in central Poland.

    PubMed

    Kowalski, Artur; Frankowski, Marcin

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we present the results of mercury concentration in soils, buds and leaves of maple (Acer platanoides-Ap) and linden (Tilia platyphyllos-Tp) collected in four periods of the growing season of trees, i.e. in April (IV), June (VI), August (VIII) and November (IX) in 2013, from the area of Poznań city (Poland). The highest average concentration of mercury for 88 samples was determined in soils and it equaled 65.8 ± 41.7 ng g(-1) (range 14.5-238.9 ng g(-1)); lower average concentration was found in Ap samples (n = 66): 55.4 ± 18.1 ng g(-1) (range 26.5-106.9 ng g(-1)); in Tp samples 50.4 ± 15.8 ng g(-1) (range 23.1-88.7 ng g(-1)) and in 22 samples of Tp buds 40.8 ± 22.7 ng g(-1) (range 12.4-98.7 ng g(-1)) and Ap buds 28.2 ± 13.6 ng g(-1) (range 8.0-59.5 ng g(-1)). Based on the obtained results, it was observed that the highest concentration of mercury in soils occurred in the centre of Poznań city (95.5 ± 39.1 ng g(-1)), and it was two times higher than the concentration of mercury in other parts of the city. Similar dependencies were not observed for the leaf samples of Ap and Tp. It was found that mercury concentrations in the soil and leaves of maple and linden were different depending on the period of the growing season (April to November). Mercury content in the examined samples was higher in the first two research periods (April IV, June VI), and then, in the following periods, the accumulation of mercury decreased both in soil and leaf samples of the two tree species. There was no correlation found between mercury concentration in leaves and mercury concentration in soils during the four research periods (April-November). When considering the transfer coefficient, it was observed that the main source of mercury in leaves is the mercury coming from the atmosphere.

  17. Re-shifting the ecological baseline for the overexploited Mediterranean red coral

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrabou, J.; Sala, E.; Linares, C.; Ledoux, J. B.; Montero-Serra, I.; Dominici, J. M.; Kipson, S.; Teixidó, N.; Cebrian, E.; Kersting, D. K.; Harmelin, J. G.

    2017-02-01

    Overexploitation leads to the ecological extinction of many oceanic species. The depletion of historical abundances of large animals, such as whales and sea turtles, is well known. However, the magnitude of the historical overfishing of exploited invertebrates is unclear. The lack of rigorous baseline data limits the implementation of efficient management and conservation plans in the marine realm. The precious Mediterranean red coral Corallium rubrum has been intensively exploited since antiquity for its use in jewellery. It shows dramatic signs of overexploitation, with no untouched populations known in shallow waters. Here, we report the discovery of an exceptional red coral population from a previously unexplored shallow underwater cave in Corsica (France) harbouring the largest biomass (by more than 100-fold) reported to date in the Mediterranean. Our findings challenge current assumptions on the pristine state of this emblematic species. Our results suggest that, before intense exploitation, red coral lived in relatively high-density populations with a large proportion of centuries-old colonies, even at very shallow depths. We call for the re-evaluation of the baseline for red coral and question the sustainability of the exploitation of a species that is still common but ecologically (functionally) extinct and in a trajectory of further decline.

  18. Re-shifting the ecological baseline for the overexploited Mediterranean red coral

    PubMed Central

    Garrabou, J.; Sala, E.; Linares, C.; Ledoux, J. B.; Montero-Serra, I.; Dominici, J. M.; Kipson, S.; Teixidó, N.; Cebrian, E.; Kersting, D. K.; Harmelin, J. G.

    2017-01-01

    Overexploitation leads to the ecological extinction of many oceanic species. The depletion of historical abundances of large animals, such as whales and sea turtles, is well known. However, the magnitude of the historical overfishing of exploited invertebrates is unclear. The lack of rigorous baseline data limits the implementation of efficient management and conservation plans in the marine realm. The precious Mediterranean red coral Corallium rubrum has been intensively exploited since antiquity for its use in jewellery. It shows dramatic signs of overexploitation, with no untouched populations known in shallow waters. Here, we report the discovery of an exceptional red coral population from a previously unexplored shallow underwater cave in Corsica (France) harbouring the largest biomass (by more than 100-fold) reported to date in the Mediterranean. Our findings challenge current assumptions on the pristine state of this emblematic species. Our results suggest that, before intense exploitation, red coral lived in relatively high-density populations with a large proportion of centuries-old colonies, even at very shallow depths. We call for the re-evaluation of the baseline for red coral and question the sustainability of the exploitation of a species that is still common but ecologically (functionally) extinct and in a trajectory of further decline. PMID:28198382

  19. Re-shifting the ecological baseline for the overexploited Mediterranean red coral.

    PubMed

    Garrabou, J; Sala, E; Linares, C; Ledoux, J B; Montero-Serra, I; Dominici, J M; Kipson, S; Teixidó, N; Cebrian, E; Kersting, D K; Harmelin, J G

    2017-02-15

    Overexploitation leads to the ecological extinction of many oceanic species. The depletion of historical abundances of large animals, such as whales and sea turtles, is well known. However, the magnitude of the historical overfishing of exploited invertebrates is unclear. The lack of rigorous baseline data limits the implementation of efficient management and conservation plans in the marine realm. The precious Mediterranean red coral Corallium rubrum has been intensively exploited since antiquity for its use in jewellery. It shows dramatic signs of overexploitation, with no untouched populations known in shallow waters. Here, we report the discovery of an exceptional red coral population from a previously unexplored shallow underwater cave in Corsica (France) harbouring the largest biomass (by more than 100-fold) reported to date in the Mediterranean. Our findings challenge current assumptions on the pristine state of this emblematic species. Our results suggest that, before intense exploitation, red coral lived in relatively high-density populations with a large proportion of centuries-old colonies, even at very shallow depths. We call for the re-evaluation of the baseline for red coral and question the sustainability of the exploitation of a species that is still common but ecologically (functionally) extinct and in a trajectory of further decline.

  20. A Well-Kept Treasure at Depth: Precious Red Coral Rediscovered in Atlantic Deep Coral Gardens (SW Portugal) after 300 Years

    PubMed Central

    Boavida, Joana; Paulo, Diogo; Aurelle, Didier; Arnaud-Haond, Sophie; Marschal, Christian; Reed, John

    2016-01-01

    Background The highly valuable red coral Corallium rubrum is listed in several Mediterranean Conventions for species protection and management since the 1980s. Yet, the lack of data about its Atlantic distribution has hindered its protection there. This culminated in the recent discovery of poaching activities harvesting tens of kg of coral per day from deep rocky reefs off SW Portugal. Red coral was irregularly exploited in Portugal between the 1200s and 1700s, until the fishery collapsed. Its occurrence has not been reported for the last 300 years. Results Here we provide the first description of an Atlantic red coral assemblage, recently rediscovered dwelling at 60–100 m depth in southern Portugal. We report a very slow growth rate (0.23 mm year-1), comparable to Mediterranean specimens. In comparison with most of the Mediterranean reports, the population reaches much larger sizes, estimated to be over one century old, and has a more complex coral branch architecture that promotes a rich assemblage of associated species, with boreal and Mediterranean affinities. Atlantic red coral is genetically distinct, yet mitochondrial analyses suggest that red corals from the Atlantic may have introgressed the Mediterranean ones after migration via the Algeria current. Our underwater surveys, using advanced mixed-gas diving, retrieved lost fishing gear in all coral sites. Besides illegal harvesting, the use and loss of fishing gears, particularly nets, by local fisheries are likely sources of direct impacts on these benthic assemblages. Conclusions We extended the knowledge on the distribution of C. rubrum in the Atlantic, discovered its genetic distinctiveness, and reveal a rich deep-dwelling fauna associated to these coral assemblages. These findings support a barrier role of the Atlantic-Mediterranean transition zone, but reveal also hints of connectivity along its southern margin. The results highlight the genetic and demographic uniqueness of red coral populations

  1. Thermodynamics of the beta(2) association in light-harvesting complex I of Rhodospirillum rubrum. Implication of peptide identity in dimer stability.

    PubMed

    Seguin, Jérôme; Mayer, Claudine; Robert, Bruno; Arluison, Véronique

    2008-03-01

    The core light-harvesting LH1 protein from Rhodospirillum rubrum can dissociate reversibly in the presence of n-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside into smaller subunit forms, exhibiting a dramatic blue-shift in absorption. During this process, two main species are observed: a dimer that absorbs at 820 nm (B820) and a monomer absorbing at 777 nm (B777). In the presence of n-octyl-beta-D-glucopyranoside, we have previously shown that the B820 form is not only constituted by the alphabeta heterodimer alone, but that it exists in an equilibrium between the alphabeta heterodimer and beta(2) homodimer states. We investigated the dissociation equilibrium for both oligomeric B820 forms. Using a theoretical model for alphabeta and beta(2), we conclude that the B820 homodimer is stabilized by both hydrophobic effects (entropy) and non-covalent bonds (enthalpy). We discuss a possible interpretation of the energy changes.

  2. Dependence of singlet-energy transfer on the conjugation length of carotenoids reconstituted into the LH1 complex from Rhodospirillum rubrum G9

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akahane, Junji; Rondonuwu, Ferdy S.; Fiedor, Leszek; Watanabe, Yasutaka; Koyama, Yasushi

    2004-07-01

    A set of carotenoids, i.e., neurosporene, spheroidene, lycopene, anhydrorhodovibrin and spirilloxanthin, having the number of conjugated double bonds n=9, 10, 11, 12 and 13, were incorporated into the LH1 antenna complex from Rhodospirillum rubrum G9, and the carotenoid-bacteriochlorophyll (Cars-BChl) singlet energy-transfer efficiencies were determined by subpicosecond time-resolved absorption spectroscopy to be 78%, 75%, 46%, 40% and 36%, respectively. In carotenoids with n=9 and 10, all the 1B u+, 1B u- and 2A g- channels were open, whereas in carotenoids with n=11-13 the 1B u- and 2A g- channels were closed, causing a sudden drop in the efficiency on going from n=10 to 11.

  3. [DNA extraction and identification of Trichophyton rubrum by real-time polymerase chain reaction from direct nail scraping specimens of patients with onycomycosis].

    PubMed

    Berk, Elife; Kuştimur, Semra; Kalkancı, Ayşe; Oztaş, O Murat

    2011-01-01

    Trichophyton rubrum is the most frequently encountered dermatophyte species causing onichomycosis. The routine diagnosis of dermatophytes depends on the direct microscopic examination (DME) and culture methods, however due to the phenotypic identification problems related to those agents, the molecular methods come into question. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for the identification of T.rubrum by comparing to DME and culture methods, from nail samples of patients with the complaints of onychomycosis. A total of 90 patients of whom 58 were male who were admitted to the dermatology outpatients clinics of our hospital with the complaints of color/shape changes in the nails and thickening of the nail, were included in the study, together with the 20 healthy volunteer subjects as controls. The nail scraping samples obtained from the patients and controls were examined with direct microscopy using 15% potassium hydroxide, dimethyl sulphoxide and chlorazole black mixture and cultivated onto Sabouraud dextrose agar with and without cycloheximide. For DNA isolation, after the disruption of nail samples with a steel tool, phenol-chloroform-isoamyl alcohol purification method were used. The amplification and demonstration of the T.rubrum DNA have been performed by using specific primers and probes following TaqMan protocol of RT-PCR (LightCycler-Roche, USA) method. Seventy-two of the patients yielded positive and 18 yielded negative results with DME. Growth of molds was detected in the cultures of 20 (27.8%) of the 72 DME positive patients and all of the isolates were identified as T.rubrum. No fungal growth was seen in the samples of 18 patients who were DME negative. In DME positive group, 67 (93%) patients were found to be positive in RT-PCR, while 8 (44.4%) patients were RT-PCR positive in DME negative group. All of the culture positive samples (n= 20) were also found positive in RT

  4. Discovery of a sexual stage in Trichophyton onychocola, a presumed geophilic dermatophyte isolated from toenails of patients with a history of T. rubrum onychomycosis.

    PubMed

    Hubka, Vit; Nissen, Christoffer V; Jensen, Rasmus Hare; Arendrup, Maiken C; Cmokova, Adela; Kubatova, Alena; Skorepova, Magdalena; Kolarik, Miroslav

    2015-11-01

    Trichophyton onychocola is a recently described geophilic dermatophyte that has been isolated from a toenail of Czech patient with a history of onychomycosis due to T. rubrum and clinical suspicion of relapse. In this study, we report a similar case from Denmark in an otherwise healthy 56-year-old man. The patient had a history of great toenail infection caused by T. rubrum in 2004 and presented with suspected relapse in 2011 and 2013. Trichophyton onychocola was the only microbial agent isolated at the second visit in 2013 and the identification was confirmed by DNA sequencing. Direct microscopic nail examination was positive for hyphae, however the etiological significance of T. onychocola was not supported by repeated isolation of the fungus. This new species may be an overlooked geophilic species due to the resemblance to some common species, for example, zoophilic T. interdigitale or some species of geophilic dermatophytes. We included differential diagnosis with phenotypically similar species; however, it is recommended that molecular methods are used for correct identification. The MAT locus of Danish strain was of opposite mating type than in the previously isolated Czech strain and the two isolates were successfully mated. The mating experiments with related heterothallic species T. thuringiense and Arthroderma melis were negative. The sexual state showed all typical signs of arthroderma-morph and is described by using optical as well as scanning electron microscopy. The sexual state was induced on a set of agar media, however low cultivation temperature and the presence of keratin source were crucial for the success rather than formulation of medium.

  5. [Screening and identification of a photosynthetic bacterium reducing selenite to red elemental selenium].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong-liang; Xiao, Min; Qian, Wei; Han, Bo

    2007-02-01

    Selenium is essential element for humans and animals but is very toxic at higher concentrations. In four inorganic states of selenate [SeO4 2- ( VI)], selenite [SeO3 2- (IV)], elemental selenium [Se (0)] and selenide [Se2- (- II )], selenite is well known to be more soluble and higher toxic than other three forms. Many microorganisms have the capacity to reduce selenite to red elemental selenium, which provide the potential to cope with the detoxification of pollution and to use the biological availability of red elemental selenium. Strain S3 that was more resistant to sodium selenite was selected from 20 photosynthetic bacteria preserved in laboratory. The red granule produced by S3 was identified as elemental selenium ( Se) by transmission electron microscopy and Electron-Dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis. The granule diameter of the red elemental selenium was 5nm - 200nm, similar as the Nano-Se that has bioavailability. Morphology, physiology and photosynthetic pigments analysis results showed that strain S3 was essentially consistent with Rhodobacter azotoformans . The 16S rDNA sequence analysis (GenBank accession number DQ402051) suggested that strain S3 was clustered together with R. azotoformans in phylogenetic tree, with the sequence identity of 99% . Based on all the results of taxonomy, strain S3 was identified as R. azotoformans S3. The effects of selenite on growth kinetics and the ability to resistant selenite of strain S3 were investigated. In contrast to Rhodospirillum rubrum which was reported not to reduce selenite until the end of exponential growth, strain S3 transformed selenite (1.25mmol/L) at the beginning of the growth, suggesting that strain S3 and Rs. rubrum may employ different strategies to reduce selenite. Strain S3 can grow in the presence of up to 125mmol/L sodium selenite, which is much higher than those which could be resisted to by other bacteria such as Escherichia coli ( < 20mmol/L) and Ralstonia metallidurans CH34 ( < 6mmol/L) . It

  6. Measuring and modeling the variation in species-specific transpiration in temperate deciduous hardwoods.

    PubMed

    Bowden, Joseph D; Bauerle, William L

    2008-11-01

    We investigated which parameters required by the MAESTRA model were most important in predicting leaf-area-based transpiration in 5-year-old trees of five deciduous hardwood species-yoshino cherry (Prunus x yedoensis Matsum.), red maple (Acer rubrum L. 'Autumn Flame'), trident maple (Acer buergeranum Miq.), Japanese flowering cherry (Prunus serrulata Lindl. 'Kwanzan') and London plane-tree (Platanus x acerifolia (Ait.) Willd.). Transpiration estimated from sap flow measured by the heat balance method in branches and trunks was compared with estimates predicted by the three-dimensional transpiration, photosynthesis and absorbed radiation model, MAESTRA. MAESTRA predicted species-specific transpiration from the interactions of leaf-level physiology and spatially explicit micro-scale weather patterns in a mixed deciduous hardwood plantation on a 15-min time step. The monthly differences between modeled mean daily transpiration estimates and measured mean daily sap flow ranged from a 35% underestimation for Acer buergeranum in June to a 25% overestimation for A. rubrum in July. The sensitivity of the modeled transpiration estimates was examined across a 30% error range for seven physiological input parameters. The minimum value of stomatal conductance as incident solar radiation tends to zero was determined to be eight times more influential than all other physiological model input parameters. This work quantified the major factors that influence modeled species-specific transpiration and confirmed the ability to scale leaf-level physiological attributes to whole-crown transpiration on a species-specific basis.

  7. Red blood cell production

    MedlinePlus

    ... hemocytoblasts give rise to all of the formed elements in blood. If a hemocytoblast commits to becoming a cell called a proerythroblast, it will develop into a new red blood cell. The formation of a red ...

  8. RED-LETTER DAYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The word "red-letter" is an adjective meaning "of special significance." It's origin is from the practice of marking Christian holy days in red letters on calendars. The "red-letter days" to which I refer occurred while I was a graduate student of ...

  9. Phospholipases and galactolipases trigger oxylipin-mediated wound-activated defence in the red alga Gracilaria chilensis against epiphytes.

    PubMed

    Lion, Ulrich; Wiesemeier, Theresa; Weinberger, Florian; Beltrán, Jessica; Flores, Verónica; Faugeron, Sylvain; Correa, Juan; Pohnert, Georg

    2006-03-01

    We investigated the wound response of the commercially important red alga, Gracilaria chilensis, in order to obtain insight into its interaction with epiphytic pests. After wounding, the host releases free fatty acids as well as the hydroxylated eicosanoids, 8R-hydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid (8-HETE) and 7S,8R-dihydroxy eicosatetraenoic acid (7,8-di-HETE). While the release of free arachidonic acid and subsequent formation of 8-HETE is controlled by phospholipase A, 7,8-di-HETE production is independent of this lipase. This dihydroxylated fatty acid might be directly released from galactolipids. Physiologically relevant concentrations of oxylipins reduced spore settlement of Acrochaetium sp. (Rhodophyta, Acrochaetiaceae) and suppressed the development of hapteria in Ceramium rubrum (Rhodophyta, Ceramiaceae) when these model epiphytes were exposed to artificial surfaces that contained 8-HETE or 7,8-di-HETE. Thus, the immediate release of oxylipins can be seen as G. chilensis defence against epiphytes.

  10. Chiral N-benzyl-N-methyl-1-(naphthalen-1-yl)ethanamines and their in vitro antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans, Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum.

    PubMed

    Thvedt, Thor H Krane; Kaasa, Kristin; Sundby, Eirik; Charnock, Colin; Hoff, Bård Helge

    2013-10-01

    In the search for new antifungal compounds and to explore structure activity relationships, a series of 24 chiral benzyl amine type antifungals was synthesised and characterised. In vitro testing against the human pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans revealed that several derivatives had MIC50 values similar to that of the commercial drug Butenafine. All of these contained a bulky group in the para position of the benzyl fragment. Eighteen compounds were also tested for activity against the dermatophytes Trichophyton mentagrophytes and Trichophyton rubrum. Of these (R)-N-(4-tert-butylbenzyl)-N-methyl-1-(naphthalen-1-yl)ethanamine (MIC50: 0.06 μg/mL) and a para-benzyloxy substituted derivative (MIC50: 0.125 μg/mL) possessed high activity. Testing of derivatives with a stereocentre at the benzylic carbon, revealed that (S)-stereochemistry was required for potency: a MIC50 value of 1 μg/mL was obtained for (S)-1-(4-tert-butylphenyl)-N-methyl-N-(naphthalen-1-ylmethyl)ethanamine. Preparation of the corresponding fluoromethyl compound was achieved employing lipase B from Candida antarctica as catalyst in the key step. A low antifungal activity was observed for the fluorinated derivative indicating the importance of the amine basicity for the antifungal potency of these compounds.

  11. Mutations in the draT and draG genes of Rhodospirillum rubrum result in loss of regulation of nitrogenase by reversible ADP-ribosylation.

    PubMed Central

    Liang, J H; Nielsen, G M; Lies, D P; Burris, R H; Roberts, G P; Ludden, P W

    1991-01-01

    Reversible ADP-ribosylation of dinitrogenase reductase forms the basis of posttranslational regulation of nitrogenase activity in Rhodospirillum rubrum. This report describes the physiological effects of mutations in the genes encoding the enzymes that add and remove the ADP-ribosyl moiety. Mutants lacking a functional draT gene had no dinitrogenase reductase ADP-ribosyltransferase (DRAT, the draT gene product) activity in vitro and were incapable of modifying dinitrogenase reductase with ADP-ribose in vivo. Mutants lacking a functional draG gene had no dinitrogenase reductase-activating glycohydrolase (DRAG, the draG gene product) activity in vitro and were unable to remove ADP-ribose from the modified dinitrogenase reductase in vivo. Strains containing polar mutations in draT had no detectable DRAG activity in vitro, suggesting likely cotranscription of draT and draG. In strains containing draT and lacking a functional draG, dinitrogenase reductase accumulated in the active form under derepressing conditions but was rapidly ADP-ribosylated in response to conditions that cause inactivation. Detection of DRAT in these cells in vitro demonstrated that DRAT is itself subject to posttranslational regulation in vivo. Mutants affected in an open reading frame immediately downstream of draTG showed regulation of dinitrogenase reductase by ADP-ribosylation, although differences in the rates of ADP-ribosylation were apparent. Images FIG. 5 FIG. 6 PMID:1938894

  12. Polarization angle dependence of stark absorption spectra of spirilloxanthin bound to the reconstituted LH1 complexes using LH1-subunits isolated from the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum.

    PubMed

    Horibe, Tomoko; Nakagawa, Katsunori; Kusumoto, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Ritsuko; Cogdell, Richard J; Nango, Mamoru; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2012-01-01

    Reconstituted LH1 complexes were prepared using the LH1 subunit-type complexes, isolated from the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum (Rs.) rubrum, and purified all-trans spirilloxanthin. Stark absorption spectra of spirilloxanthin bound to both the native and reconstituted LH1 complexes were compared in different polarization angles (χ) against the external electric field. From the polarization angle dependence of the Stark absorption spectra, two angles were determined in reference to the direction of transition dipole moment (m) of spirilloxanthin: one is the change in polarizability upon photoexcitation (Δα), θ(Δα) and the other is the change in static dipole moment upon photoexcitation (Δμ), θ(Δμ). Despite the symmetric molecular structure of all-trans spirilloxanthin, its Stark absorption spectra show pronounced values of Δμ. This large Δμ values essentially caused by the effect of induced dipole moment through Δα both in the cases for native and reconstituted LH1 complexes. However, slightly different values of θ(Δα) and θ(Δμ) observed for the native LH1 complex suggest that spirilloxanthin is asymmetrically distorted when bound to the native LH1 complex and gives rise to intrinsic Δμ value.

  13. Biochemical characterization of a new type of intracellular PHB depolymerase from Rhodospirillum rubrum with high hydrolytic activity on native PHB granules.

    PubMed

    Sznajder, Anna; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2011-03-01

    A Rhodospirillum rubrum gene that is predicted to code for an extracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) depolymerase by the recently published polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) depolymerase engineering database was cloned. The gene product (PhaZ3( Rru )) was expressed in recombinant E. coli, purified and biochemically characterized. PhaZ3( Rru ) turned out, however, to share characteristics of intracellular PHB depolymerases and revealed a combination of properties that have not yet been described for other PHB depolymerases. A fusion of PhaZ3( Rru )with the enhanced cyan fluorescent protein was able to bind to PHB granules in vivo and supported the function as an intracellular PHB depolymerase. Purified PhaZ3( Rru ) was specific for short-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA(SCL)) and hydrolysed both untreated native PHB granules as well as trypsin-activated native PHB granules to a mixture of mono- and dimeric 3-hydroxybutyrate. Crystalline (denatured) PHB granules were not hydrolysed by PhayZ3( Rru ). Low concentrations of calcium or magnesium ions (1-5 mM) reversibly (EDTA) inhibited the enzyme. Our data suggest that PhaZ3( Rru ) is the representative of a new type of the growing number of intracellular PHB depolymerases.

  14. Cobb's Red Cabbage Indicator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Vicki

    1998-01-01

    Describes the use of an indicator made from the pigment in red cabbage. Cabbage is grated then soaked in water. When the water is a strong red, the cabbage is strained out. The cabbage-juice indicator is then used to test for acids and bases. Includes a list of good foods to test for acidity and alkalinity. (PVD)

  15. Optimization of ultrasonic circulating extraction of samara oil from Acer saccharum using combination of Plackett-Burman design and Box-Behnken design.

    PubMed

    Chen, Fengli; Zhang, Qiang; Fei, Shimin; Gu, Huiyan; Yang, Lei

    2017-03-01

    In this study, ultrasonic circulating extraction (UCE) technique was firstly and successfully applied for extraction of samara oil from Acer saccharum. The extraction kinetics were fitted and described, and the extraction mechanism was discussed. Through comparison, n-hexane was selected as the extraction solvent, the influence of solvent type on the responses was detailedly interpreted based on the influence of their properties on the occurrence and intensity of cavitation. Seven parameters potentially influencing the extraction yield of samara oil and content of nervonic acid, including ultrasound irradiation time, ultrasound irradiation power, ultrasound temperature, liquid-solid ratio, soaking time, particle size and stirring rate, were screened through Plackett-Burman design to determine the significant variables. Then, three parameters performed statistically significant, including liquid-solid ratio, ultrasound irradiation time and ultrasound irradiation power, were further optimized using Box-Behnken design to predict optimum extraction conditions. Satisfactory yield of samara oil (11.72±0.38%) and content of nervonic acid (5.28±0.18%) were achieved using the optimal conditions. 1% proportion of ethanol in extraction solvent, 120°C of drying temperature and 6.4% moisture were selected and applied for effective extraction. There were no distinct differences in the physicochemical properties of samara oil obtained by UCE and Soxhlet extraction, and the samara oil obtained by UCE exhibited better antioxidant activities. Therefore, UCE method has enormous potential for efficient extraction of edible oil with high quality from plant materials.

  16. Ecotoxicological effects evoked in hydrophytes by leachates of invasive Acer negundo and autochthonous Alnus glutinosa fallen off leaves during their microbial decomposition.

    PubMed

    Krevš, Alina; Darginavičienė, Jūratė; Gylytė, Brigita; Grigutytė, Reda; Jurkonienė, Sigita; Karitonas, Rolandas; Kučinskienė, Alė; Pakalnis, Romas; Sadauskas, Kazys; Vitkus, Rimantas; Manusadžianas, Levonas

    2013-02-01

    Throughout 90-day biodegradation under microaerobic conditions, invasive to Lithuania species boxelder maple (Acer negundo) leaves lost 1.5-fold more biomass than that of autochthonous black alder (Alnus glutinosa), releasing higher contents of N(tot), ammonium and generating higher BOD(7). Boxelder maple leaf leachates were characterized by higher total bacterial numbers and colony numbers of heterotrophic and cellulose-decomposing bacteria than those of black alder. The higher toxicity of A. negundo aqueous extracts and leachates to charophyte cell (Nitellopsis obtusa), the inhabitant of clean lakes, were manifested at mortality and membrane depolarization levels, while the effect on H(+)-ATPase activity in membrane preparations from the same algae was stronger in case of A. glutinosa. Duckweed (Lemna minor), a bioindicator of eutrophic waters, was more sensitive to leaf leachates of A. glutinosa. Fallen leaves and leaf litter leachates from invasive and native species of trees, which enter water body, affect differently microbial biodestruction and aquatic vegetation in freshwater systems.

  17. NatB Domain-Containing CRA-1 Antagonizes Hydrolase ACER-1 Linking Acetyl-CoA Metabolism to the Initiation of Recombination during C. elegans Meiosis

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Jinmin; Kim, Hyun-Min; Elia, Andrew E.; Elledge, Stephen J.; Colaiácovo, Monica P.

    2015-01-01

    The formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) must take place during meiosis to ensure the formation of crossovers, which are required for accurate chromosome segregation, therefore avoiding aneuploidy. However, DSB formation must be tightly regulated to maintain genomic integrity. How this regulation operates in the context of different chromatin architectures and accessibility, and how it is linked to metabolic pathways, is not understood. We show here that global histone acetylation levels undergo changes throughout meiotic progression. Moreover, perturbations to global histone acetylation levels are accompanied by changes in the frequency of DSB formation in C. elegans. We provide evidence that the regulation of histone acetylation requires CRA-1, a NatB domain-containing protein homologous to human NAA25, which controls the levels of acetyl-Coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) by antagonizing ACER-1, a previously unknown and conserved acetyl-CoA hydrolase. CRA-1 is in turn negatively regulated by XND-1, an AT-hook containing protein. We propose that this newly defined protein network links acetyl-CoA metabolism to meiotic DSB formation via modulation of global histone acetylation. PMID:25768301

  18. Food-chain transfer of zinc from contaminated Urtica dioica and Acer pseudoplatanus L. to the aphids Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis Schrank.

    PubMed

    Sinnett, Danielle; Hutchings, Tony R; Hodson, Mark E

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the food-chain transfer of Zn from two plant species, Urtica dioica (stinging nettle) and Acer pseudoplatanus (sycamore maple), into their corresponding aphid species, Microlophium carnosum and Drepanosiphum platanoidis. The plants were grown in a hydroponic system using solutions with increasing concentrations of Zn from 0.02 to 41.9 mg Zn/l. Above-ground tissue concentrations in U. dioica and M. carnosum increased with increasing Zn exposure (p < 0.001). Zn concentrations in A. pseudoplatanus also increased with solution concentration from the control to the 9.8 mg Zn/l solution, above which concentrations remained constant. Zn concentrations in both D. platanoidis and the phloem tissue of A. pseudoplatanus were not affected by the Zn concentration in the watering solution. It appears that A. pseudoplatanus was able to limit Zn transport in the phloem, resulting in constant Zn exposure to the aphids. Zn concentrations in D. platanoidis were around three times those in M. carnosum.

  19. Ecotoxicity effects triggered in aquatic organisms by invasive Acer negundo and native Alnus glutinosa leaf leachates obtained in the process of aerobic decomposition.

    PubMed

    Manusadžianas, Levonas; Darginavičienė, Jūratė; Gylytė, Brigita; Jurkonienė, Sigita; Krevš, Alina; Kučinskienė, Alė; Mačkinaitė, Rimutė; Pakalnis, Romas; Sadauskas, Kazys; Sendžikaitė, Jūratė; Vitkus, Rimantas

    2014-10-15

    The replacement of autochthonous tree species by invasive ones in coastal zones of freshwater bodies induces additional alteration of hydrochemical and microbiological characteristics due to decomposition of fallen leaves of non-indigenous species, which can lead to ecotoxic response of the littoral biota. Leaves of invasive to Lithuania boxelder maple (Acer negundo) and autochthonous black alder (Alnus glutinosa) lost more than half of biomass and released stable amount of DOC (60-70 mg/L) throughout 90-day mesocosm experiment under aerobic conditions. This, along with the relatively small BOD7 values detected after some variation within the first month confirms effective biodegradation by fungi and bacteria. The ambient water was more enriched with different forms of N and P by decomposing boxelder maple than by alder leaves. During the first month, both leachates were more toxic to charophyte (Nitellopsis obtusa) at mortality and membrane depolarization levels, while later to two crustacean species. Biomarker response, H(+)-ATPase activity in membrane preparations from N. obtusa, was stronger for A. negundo. Generally, boxelder maple leaf leachates were more toxic to tested hydrobionts and this coincides with previous study on leaves of the same pair of tree species conducted under microaerobic conditions (Krevš et al., 2013).

  20. Facilitated transport of Mn2+ in sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells and excised maize root tips. A comparative 31P n.m.r. study in vivo.

    PubMed Central

    Roby, C; Bligny, R; Douce, R; Tu, S I; Pfeffer, P E

    1988-01-01

    Movement of paramagnetic Mn2+ into sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus) cells has been indirectly examined by observing the line broadening exhibited in its 31P n.m.r. spectra. Mn2+ was observed to pass into the vacuole, while exhibiting a very minor accumulation in the cytoplasm. With time, gradual leakage of phosphate from the vacuole to the cytoplasm was observed along with an increase in glucose-6-phosphate. Anoxia did not appear to affect the relative distribution of Mn2+ in the cytoplasm and vacuole. Under hypoxic conditions restriction of almost all movement of Mn2+ across the plasmalemma as well as the tonoplast was observed. In contrast, maize root tips showed entry and complete complexation of nucleotide triphosphate by Mn2+ during hypoxia. The rate of passage of Mn2+ across the tonoplast in both sycamore and maize root cells is approximately the same. However, the rates of facilitated movement across the respective plasma membranes appear to differ. More rapid movement of Mn2+ across the plasmalemma in maize root tip cells allows a gradual build-up of metal ion in the cytoplasm prior to its diffusion across the tonoplast. Sycamore cells undergo a slower uptake of Mn2+ into their cytoplasms (comparable with the rate of diffusion through the tonoplast), so little or no observable accumulation of Mn2+ is observed in this compartment. PMID:3415663

  1. High Red Blood Cell Count

    MedlinePlus

    Symptoms High red blood cell count By Mayo Clinic Staff A high red blood cell count is an increase in oxygen-carrying cells in your bloodstream. Red blood cells transport oxygen from your lungs to tissues throughout ...

  2. Variation of the Phytochemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activities of Zingiber officinale var. rubrum Theilade Associated with Different Drying Methods and Polyphenol Oxidase Activity.

    PubMed

    Ghasemzadeh, Ali; Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Rahmat, Asmah

    2016-06-17

    The effects of different drying methods (freeze drying, vacuum oven drying, and shade drying) on the phytochemical constituents associated with the antioxidant activities of Z. officinale var. rubrum Theilade were evaluated to determine the optimal drying process for these rhizomes. Total flavonoid content (TFC), total phenolic content (TPC), and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity were measured using the spectrophotometric method. Individual phenolic acids and flavonoids, 6- and 8-gingerol and shogaol were identified by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography method. Ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) assays were used for the evaluation of antioxidant activities. The highest reduction in moisture content was observed after freeze drying (82.97%), followed by vacuum oven drying (80.43%) and shade drying (72.65%). The highest TPC, TFC, and 6- and 8-shogaol contents were observed in samples dried by the vacuum oven drying method compared to other drying methods. The highest content of 6- and 8-gingerol was observed after freeze drying, followed by vacuum oven drying and shade drying methods. Fresh samples had the highest PPO activity and lowest content of flavonoid and phenolic acid compounds compared to dried samples. Rhizomes dried by the vacuum oven drying method represent the highest DPPH (52.9%) and FRAP activities (566.5 μM of Fe (II)/g DM), followed by freeze drying (48.3% and 527.1 μM of Fe (II)/g DM, respectively) and shade drying methods (37.64% and 471.8 μM of Fe (II)/g DM, respectively) with IC50 values of 27.2, 29.1, and 34.8 μg/mL, respectively. Negative and significant correlations were observed between PPO and antioxidant activity of rhizomes. Vacuum oven dried rhizomes can be utilized as an ingredient for the development of value-added food products as they contain high contents of phytochemicals with valuable antioxidant potential.

  3. Growth and synthesis of rubratoxin by Penicillium rubrum in a chemically defined medium fortified with organic acids and intermediates of the tricarboxylic acid cycle.

    PubMed

    Emeh, C O; Marth, E H

    1976-10-22

    A sterile glucose-mineral salts broth was fortified with equimolar concentrations (10--3 M) of various organic acids and intermediates in the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Appropriate media were neutralized with 2 N NaOH, inoculated with spore suspensions or mycelial pellets of Penicillium rubrum and incubated quiescently for 14 days or with shaking for 5 days. Rubratoxins were recovered from culture filtrates by ether extraction and resolved by thin-layer chromatography. Toxin formation in quiescent cultures was enhanced by malonate but was not markedly affected by ethyl malonate, shikimate, and acetate or by isocitrate or oxaloacetate added in the presence of malonate. Citrate, cis-aconitate, alpha-ketoglutarate, succinate, fumarate, and malonate when present in the medium alone or in conjunction with malonate caused a 15 to 50% reduction in rubratoxin formation. Acetyl-CoA (10--5 M/flask) caused an 80% increase in toxin yield. Rubratoxin formation in shake cultures was not affected by succinate and malonate. All other combinations of intermediates and malonate caused a 10 to 50% reduction in toxin formation. At 10--3 M, citrate enhanced rubratoxin B formation and stimulated rubratoxin A production by as much as 100%. Above 10--3 M, citrate inhibited toxin production. Incorporation of [2-14C]acetate into rubratoxin was enhanced by malonate, fumarate, and malonate. A combination of pyruvate and malonate produced a 40% increase in [2-14C]acetate incorporation into rubratoxin. The highest reduction of labeled acetate incorporation (36%) was caused by succinate or alpha-ketoglutarate combined with malonate.

  4. A comparative study of physiological and morphological seedling traits associated with shade tolerance in introduced red oak (Quercus rubra) and native hardwood tree species in southwestern Germany.

    PubMed

    Kuehne, Christian; Nosko, Peter; Horwath, Tobias; Bauhus, Jürgen

    2014-02-01

    Northern red oak (Quercus rubra L.), a moderately shade-tolerant tree species, is failing to regenerate throughout its native North American range, while successful recruitment in Central Europe has been observed since its introduction. To examine whether comparative photosynthetic performance could explain the regeneration success of this non-native species in Central Europe, we compared the physiological and morphological seedling traits of red oak with three co-occurring tree species under three canopy types in southwestern Germany. Native species included a moderately shade-tolerant native oak (Quercus robur L.) and two shade-tolerant species (Acer pseudoplatanus L. and Carpinus betulus L.). The photosynthetic traits of non-native red oak seedlings were similar to those reported for this species in the native range, where shade-tolerant competitors readily outperform red oak under low light conditions. However, compared with native shade-tolerant species in Europe, red oak seedlings photosynthesized efficiently, especially under closed canopies and in small canopy gaps, exhibiting high photosynthetic capacity, low leaf dark respiration and leaf-level light compensation points that were similar to the more shade-tolerant species. The superior net carbon gain of red oak seedlings at low and moderate light levels was likely facilitated by high leaf areas and reflected by seedling dry masses that were greater than the observed native European species. A competitive advantage for red oak was not evident because relative height growth was inferior to seedlings of co-occurring species. In North America, the inability of seedlings to compete with shade-tolerant tree species in deeply shaded understories is central to the problem of poor oak recruitment. Our study suggests that the ability of non-native red oak to perform equally well to native shade-tolerant species under a variety of light conditions could contribute to the consistent success of red oak regeneration

  5. The "intracellular" poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) depolymerase of Rhodospirillum rubrum is a periplasm-located protein with specificity for native PHB and with structural similarity to extracellular PHB depolymerases.

    PubMed

    Handrick, René; Reinhardt, Simone; Kimmig, Philipp; Jendrossek, Dieter

    2004-11-01

    Rhodospirillum rubrum possesses a putative intracellular poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) depolymerase system consisting of a soluble PHB depolymerase, a heat-stable activator, and a 3-hydroxybutyrate dimer hydrolase (J. M. Merrick and M. Doudoroff, J. Bacteriol. 88:60-71, 1964). In this study we reinvestigated the soluble R. rubrum PHB depolymerase (PhaZ1). It turned out that PhaZ1 is a novel type of PHB depolymerase with unique properties. Purified PhaZ1 was specific for amorphous short-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA) such as native PHB, artificial PHB, and oligomer esters of (R)-3-hydroxybutyrate with 3 or more 3-hydroxybutyrate units. Atactic PHB, (S)-3-hydroxybutyrate oligomers, medium-chain-length PHA, and lipase substrates (triolein, tributyrin) were not hydrolyzed. The PHB depolymerase structural gene (phaZ1) was cloned. Its deduced amino acid sequence (37,704 Da) had no significant similarity to those of intracellular PHB depolymerases of Wautersia eutropha or of other PHB-accumulating bacteria. PhaZ1 was found to have strong amino acid homology with type-II catalytic domains of extracellular PHB depolymerases, and Ser(42), Asp(138), and His(178) were identified as catalytic-triad amino acids, with Ser(42) as the putative active site. Surprisingly, the first 23 amino acids of the PHB depolymerase previously assumed to be intracellular revealed features of classical signal peptides, and Edman sequencing of purified PhaZ1 confirmed the functionality of the predicted cleavage site. Extracellular PHB depolymerase activity was absent, and analysis of cell fractions unequivocally showed that PhaZ1 is a periplasm-located enzyme. The previously assumed intracellular activator/depolymerase system is unlikely to have a physiological function in PHB mobilization in vivo. A second gene, encoding the putative true intracellular PHB depolymerase (PhaZ2), was identified in the genome sequence of R. rubrum.

  6. Red Bull Stratos Presentation

    NASA Video Gallery

    Red Bull Stratos High Performance Director Andy Walshe & Technical Project Director Art Thompson share the Stratos story with JSC. Supported by a team of experts, Felix Baumgartner reached 128,100 ...

  7. Red Hill Updates

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This and other periodic updates are intended to keep the public informed on major progress being made to protect public health and the environment at the Red Hill Underground Fuel Storage Facility in Hawaii.

  8. Aurora Australis, Red Crown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    This view of the Aurora Australis or Southern Lights (location unknown) shows a spiked band of red airglow called a 'Red Crown' above the Earth Limb. Calculated to be in the 80 - 120 km altitude region, auroral activity is due to exitation of atomic oxygen in the upper atmosphere by radiation from the van Allen Radiation Belts and is most common above the 65 degree north and south latitude range during the spring and fall of the year.

  9. Whence the red panda?

    PubMed

    Flynn, J J; Nedbal, M A; Dragoo, J W; Honeycutt, R L

    2000-11-01

    The evolutionary history of the red panda (Ailurus fulgens) plays a pivotal role in the higher-level phylogeny of the "bear-like" arctoid carnivoran mammals. Characters from morphology and molecules have provided inconsistent evidence for placement of the red panda. Whereas it certainly is an arctoid, there has been major controversy about whether it should be placed with the bears (ursids), ursids plus pinnipeds (seals, sea lions, walrus), raccoons (procyonids), musteloids (raccoons plus weasels, skunks, otters, and badgers [mustelids]), or as a monotypic lineage of uncertain phylogenetic affinities. Nucleotide sequence data from three mitochondrial genes and one nuclear intron were analyzed, with more complete taxonomic sampling of relevant taxa (arctoids) than previously available in analyses of primary molecular data, to clarify the phylogenetic relationships of the red panda to other arctoid carnivorans. This study provides detailed phylogenetic analyses (both parsimony and maximum-likelihood) of primary character data for arctoid carnivorans, including bootstrap and decay indices for all arctoid nodes, and three statistical tests of alternative phylogenetic hypotheses for the placement of the red panda. Combined phylogenetic analyses reject the hypotheses that the red panda is most closely related to the bears (ursids) or to the raccoons (procyonids). Rather, evidence from nucleotide sequences strongly support placement of the red panda within a broad Musteloidea (sensu lato) clade, including three major lineages (the red panda, the skunks [mephitids], and a clearly monophyletic clade of procyonids plus mustelids [sensu stricto, excluding skunks]). Within the Musteloidea, interrelationships of the three major lineages are unclear and probably are best considered an unresolved trichotomy. These data provide compelling evidence for the relationships of the red panda and demonstrate that small taxonomic sample sizes can result in misleading or possibly erroneous

  10. Egypt and Red Sea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    A panaramic view of eastern Egypt, The Red Sea and Saudi Arabia beyond (24.0N, 33.0E). In this desert country, where water is life, the high Aswan Dam and the impounded waters of the Nile River in the foreground assure water availability into the next century. The Red Sea beyond, part of the Suez Canal seaway, serves as a commercial link to the world and separates Egypt from Saudi Arabia.

  11. De novo transcriptome sequencing of Acer palmatum and comprehensive analysis of differentially expressed genes under salt stress in two contrasting genotypes.

    PubMed

    Rong, Liping; Li, Qianzhong; Li, Shushun; Tang, Ling; Wen, Jing

    2016-04-01

    Maple (Acer palmatum) is an important species for landscape planting worldwide. Salt stress affects the normal growth of the Maple leaf directly, leading to loss of esthetic value. However, the limited availability of Maple genomic information has hindered research on the mechanisms underlying this tolerance. In this study, we performed comprehensive analyses of the salt tolerance in two genotypes of Maple using RNA-seq. Approximately 146.4 million paired-end reads, representing 181,769 unigenes, were obtained. The N50 length of the unigenes was 738 bp, and their total length over 102.66 Mb. 14,090 simple sequence repeats and over 500,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified, which represent useful resources for marker development. Importantly, 181,769 genes were detected in at least one library, and 303 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified between salt-sensitive and salt-tolerant genotypes. Among these DEGs, 125 were upregulated and 178 were downregulated genes. Two MYB-related proteins and one LEA protein were detected among the first 10 most downregulated genes. Moreover, a methyltransferase-related gene was detected among the first 10 most upregulated genes. The three most significantly enriched pathways were plant hormone signal transduction, arginine and proline metabolism, and photosynthesis. The transcriptome analysis provided a rich genetic resource for gene discovery related to salt tolerance in Maple, and in closely related species. The data will serve as an important public information platform to further our understanding of the molecular mechanisms involved in salt tolerance in Maple.

  12. Simulated root dynamics of a 160-year-old sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) tree with and without ozone exposure using the TREGRO model.

    PubMed

    Retzlaff, W. A.; Weinstein, D. A.; Laurence, J. A.; Gollands, B.

    1996-01-01

    Because of difficulties in directly assessing root responses of mature forest trees exposed to atmospheric pollutants, we have used the model TREGRO to analyze the effects of a 3- and a 10-year exposure to ozone (O(3)) on root dynamics of a simulated 160-year-old sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) tree. We used existing phenological, allometric, and growth data to parameterize TREGRO to produce a simulated 160-year-old tree. Simulations were based on literature values for sugar maple fine root production and senescence and the photosynthetic responses of sugar maple seedlings exposed to O(3) in open-top chambers. In the simulated 3-year exposure to O(3), 2 x ambient atmospheric O(3) concentrations reduced net carbon (C) gain of the 160-year-old tree. This reduction occurred in the C storage pools (total nonstructural carbohydrate, TNC), with most of the reduction occurring in coarse (woody) roots. Total fine root production and senescence were unaffected by the simulated 3-year exposure to O(3). However, extending the simulated O(3) exposure period to 10 years depleted the TNC pools of the coarse roots and reduced total fine root production. Similar reductions in TNC pools have been observed in forest-grown sugar maple trees exhibiting symptoms of stress. We conclude that modeling can aid in evaluating the belowground response of mature forest trees to atmospheric pollution stress and could indicate the potential for gradual deterioration of tree health under conditions of long-term stress, a situation similar to that underlying the decline of sugar maple trees.

  13. Analytical approaches to the determination of simple biophenols in forest trees such as Acer (maple), Betula (birch), Coniferus, Eucalyptus, Juniperus (cedar), Picea (spruce) and Quercus (oak).

    PubMed

    Bedgood, Danny R; Bishop, Andrea G; Prenzler, Paul D; Robards, Kevin

    2005-06-01

    Analytical methods are reviewed for the determination of simple biophenols in forest trees such as Acer (maple), Betula (birch), Coniferus, Eucalyptus, Juniperus (cedar), Picea (spruce) and Quercus (oak). Data are limited but nevertheless clearly establish the critical importance of sample preparation and pre-treatment in the analysis. For example, drying methods invariably reduce the recovery of biophenols and this is illustrated by data for birch leaves where flavonoid glycosides were determined as 12.3 +/- 0.44 mg g(-1) in fresh leaves but 9.7 +/- 0.35 mg g(-1) in air-dried samples (data expressed as dry weight). Diverse sample handling procedures have been employed for recovery of biophenols. The range of biophenols and diversity of sample types precludes general procedural recommendations. Caution is necessary in selecting appropriate procedures as the high reactivity of these compounds complicates their analysis. Moreover, our experience suggests that their reactivity is very dependent on the matrix. The actual measurement is less contentious and high performance separation methods particularly liquid chromatography dominate analyses whilst coupled techniques involving electrospray ionization are becoming routine particularly for qualitative applications. Quantitative data are still the exception and are summarized for representative species that dominate the forest canopy of various habitats. Reported concentrations for simple phenols range from trace level (<0.1 microg g(-1)) to in excess of 500 microg g(-1) depending on a range of factors. Plant tissue is one of these variables but various biotic and abiotic processes such as stress are also important considerations.

  14. Effects of elevated [CO2] and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of Mountain Maple (Acer spicatum L.) seedlings to light.

    PubMed

    Danyagri, Gabriel; Dang, Qing-Lai

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is expected to affect how plants respond to their physical and biological environments. In this study, we examined the effects of elevated CO2 ([CO2]) and low soil moisture on the physiological responses of mountain maple (Acer spicatum L.) seedlings to light availability. The seedlings were grown at ambient (392 µmol mol(-1)) and elevated (784 µmol mol(-1)) [CO2], low and high soil moisture (M) regimes, at high light (100%) and low light (30%) in the greenhouse for one growing season. We measured net photosynthesis (A), stomatal conductance (g s), instantaneous water use efficiency (IWUE), maximum rate of carboxylation (V cmax), rate of photosynthetic electron transport (J), triose phosphate utilization (TPU)), leaf respiration (R d), light compensation point (LCP) and mid-day shoot water potential (Ψx). A and g s did not show significant responses to light treatment in seedlings grown at low soil moisture treatment, but the high light significantly decreased the C i/C a in those seedlings. IWUE was significantly higher in the elevated compared with the ambient [CO2], and the effect was greater at high than the low light treatment. LCP did not respond to the soil moisture treatments when seedlings were grown in high light under both [CO2]. The low soil moisture significantly reduced Ψx but had no significant effect on the responses of other physiological traits to light or [CO2]. These results suggest that as the atmospheric [CO2] rises, the physiological performance of mountain maple seedlings in high light environments may be enhanced, particularly when soil moisture conditions are favourable.

  15. Levels of selected trace elements in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), silver birch (Betula pendula L.), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) in an urbanized environment.

    PubMed

    Kosiorek, Milena; Modrzewska, Beata; Wyszkowski, Mirosław

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the concentrations of selected trace elements in needles and bark of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.), leaves and bark of silver birch (Betula pendula L.), and Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.), as well as in the soil in which the trees grew, depending on their localization and hence the distribution of local pollution sources. The content of trace elements in needles of Scots pine, leaves of silver birch, and Norway maple and in bark of these trees depended on the location, tree species, and analyzed organ. The content of Fe, Mn, and Zn in needles, leaves, and bark of the examined tree species was significantly higher than that of the other elements. The highest average content of Fe and Mn was detected in leaves of Norway maple whereas the highest average content of Zn was found in silver birch leaves. The impact of such locations as the center of Olsztyn or roadside along Road 51 on the content of individual elements tended to be more pronounced than the influence of the other locations. The influence of the sampling sites on the content of trace elements in tree bark was less regular than the analogous effect in needles and leaves. Moreover, the relevant dependences were slightly different for Scots pine than for the other two tree species. The concentrations of heavy metals determined in the soil samples did not exceed the threshold values set in the Regulation of the Minister for the Environment, although the soil along Road 51 and in the center of Olsztyn typically had the highest content of these elements. There were also significant correlations between the content of some trace elements in soil and their accumulation in needles, leaves, and bark of trees.

  16. Red-based cumulus.

    PubMed

    Gedzelman, Stanley David

    2015-02-01

    Observations and model simulations of cumulus clouds whose bases are tinted red when the Sun is well above the horizon are presented. Conditions for seeing red bases include (1) a red underlying surface (which may consist of dust clouds, as from haboobs) with high albedo, (2) small fractional cloud cover when the Sun is far enough below the zenith for direct sunlight to illuminate much of the surface directly below and around cloud base, (3) optically thick clouds so that the bases are dark, and (4) clouds with bases that are near enough to the observer to appear high in the sky so that the admixture of scattered light from the intervening atmosphere is minimized.

  17. Canadian Red Cross.

    PubMed

    Lavender, Colleen

    2008-01-01

    The Canadian Red Cross is guided by its Fundamental Principles--humanity, impartiality, neutrality, independence, voluntary service, unity, and universality--and organized in a traditional geographic hierarchical structure. Among the characteristics that have contributed to its success are a budgeting process that starts at the local level, measurement of program outcomes, and coordinated fundraising activities at the regional level.

  18. Red Emitting VCSEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jetter, Michael; Roßbach, Robert; Michler, Peter

    This chapter describes the progress in development of vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL) emitting in the red spectral region around 650 nm for data transmission over polymer optical fibers (POF). First, growth issues of red VCSEL using two different material systems, namely AlGaAs and AlGaInP, are introduced. In particular, the optical and electrical state-of-the-art characteristics as low threshold currents ({≤} 1 mA) and high output powers (several mW) are presented with a special focus on emission wavelength. Also the thermal budget and heat removal in the devices are pointed out with regard to the geometry of the VCSEL. Small-signal modulation response in terms of maximum resonance frequency in dependance on temperature behavior are discussed. Applications of these devices in optical interconnects are described and digital data transmission at data rates up to 2.1 Gbit/s over step-index POF is reported. These properties make red emitting VCSEL perfectly suited for high-speed low power consuming light sources for optical data communication via POF. By introducing InP quantum dots as gain material in red emitting VCSEL nearly temperature independent record low threshold current densities of around 10 A/cm2 could be observed.

  19. 'Vintage' Red Raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    'Vintage' is a new primocane-fruiting red raspberry (Rubus idaeus L.) from the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture–Agricultural Research Service (USDA–ARS) breeding program in Corvallis, OR released in cooperation with the Oregon State Agricultural Experiment Station and the Washington State University Agricu...

  20. Red sea drillings.

    PubMed

    Ross, D A; Whitmarsh, R B; Ali, S A; Boudreaux, J E; Coleman, R; Fleisher, R L; Girdler, R; Manheim, F; Matter, A; Nigrini, C; Stoffers, P; Supko, P R

    1973-01-26

    Recent drilling in the Red Sea has shown that much of the basin is underlain by evaporites of a similar age to that of evaporites found in the Mediterranean Sea. These evaporites and their structural positions indicate that other brine areas are present-and, indeed, several others have been discovered.

  1. Red Cross Swimming Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlasich, Cynthia

    1989-01-01

    Six new aquatic courses, developed by the Red Cross, are described. They are: Infant and Preschool Aquatics, Longfellow's Whale Tales (classroom water safety lessons for K-Six), Basic Water Safety, Emergency Water Safety, Lifeguard Training, and Safety Training for Swim Coaches. (IAH)

  2. RED2TEX: A TRIX RED to LATEX converter

    SciTech Connect

    Chase, L.; Langdon, A.B.

    1987-05-20

    A summary of RED2TEX is presented. RED2TEX converts standard TRIX RED format commands to TEX or LATEX commands for subsequent LATEX formatting. LATEX is a special version of the TEX document preparation system. LATEX adds to TEX a collection of commands that simplifies formatting. LATEX runs on the J-Vax and the LLL-LCC Pyramid machines. RED2TEX resides in Unix directory CHASE/TEX.

  3. Environmental dynamics of red Noctiluca scintillans bloom in tropical coastal waters.

    PubMed

    Baliarsingh, S K; Lotliker, Aneesh A; Trainer, Vera L; Wells, Mark L; Parida, Chandanlal; Sahu, Biraja K; Srichandan, Suchismita; Sahoo, Subhashree; Sahu, K C; Kumar, T Sinivasa

    2016-10-15

    An intense bloom of red Noctiluca scintillans (NS) occurred off the Rushikulya estuarine region along the east coast of India, an important site for mass nesting events of the vulnerable Olive Ridley sea turtle. At its peak, densities of NS were 3.3×10(5) cells-l(-1), with low relative abundance of other phytoplankton. The peak bloom coincided with high abundance of gelatinous planktivores which may have facilitated bloom development by their grazing on other zooplankton, particularly copepods. Ammonium concentrations increased by approximately 4-fold in the later stages of bloom, coincident with stable NS abundance and chlorophyll concentrations in the nano- and microplankton. This increase likely was attributable to release of intracellular ammonium accumulated through NS grazing. Dissolved oxygen concentrations decreased in sub-surface waters to near hypoxia. Micro-phytoplankton increasingly dominated chlorophyll-a biomass as the bloom declined, with diminishing picoplankton abundance likely the result of high predation by the ciliate Mesodinium rubrum. Together, these data illustrate factors that can disrupt ecosystem balance in this critically important Indian coastal region.

  4. Why is intracellular ice lethal? A microscopical study showing evidence of programmed cell death in cryo-exposed embryonic axes of recalcitrant seeds of Acer saccharinum

    PubMed Central

    Wesley-Smith, James; Walters, Christina; Pammenter, N. W.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Conservation of the genetic diversity afforded by recalcitrant seeds is achieved by cryopreservation, in which excised embryonic axes (or, where possible, embryos) are treated and stored at temperatures lower than −180 °C using liquid nitrogen. It has previously been shown that intracellular ice forms in rapidly cooled embryonic axes of Acer saccharinum (silver maple) but this is not necessarily lethal when ice crystals are small. This study seeks to understand the nature and extent of damage from intracellular ice, and the course of recovery and regrowth in surviving tissues. Methods Embryonic axes of A. saccharinum, not subjected to dehydration or cryoprotection treatments (water content was 1·9 g H2O g−1 dry mass), were cooled to liquid nitrogen temperatures using two methods: plunging into nitrogen slush to achieve a cooling rate of 97 °C s−1 or programmed cooling at 3·3 °C s−1. Samples were thawed rapidly (177 °C s−1) and cell structure was examined microscopically immediately, and at intervals up to 72 h in vitro. Survival was assessed after 4 weeks in vitro. Axes were processed conventionally for optical microscopy and ultrastructural examination. Key Results Immediately following thaw after cryogenic exposure, cells from axes did not show signs of damage at an ultrastructural level. Signs that cells had been damaged were apparent after several hours of in vitro culture and appeared as autophagic decomposition. In surviving tissues, dead cells were sloughed off and pockets of living cells were the origin of regrowth. In roots, regrowth occurred from the ground meristem and procambium, not the distal meristem, which became lethally damaged. Regrowth of shoots occurred from isolated pockets of surviving cells of peripheral and pith meristems. The size of these pockets may determine the possibility for, the extent of and the vigour of regrowth. Conclusions Autophagic degradation and ultimately autolysis of cells following

  5. The influence of soil-site factors on sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) growth response to climatic change in central Ontario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schutten, K.; Gedalof, Z.

    2010-12-01

    Over the past several decades, concerns about climatic change and its potential impacts on Canada’s various geographical regions and associated ecological processes have grown steadily, especially among land and resource managers. As these risks transition into tangible outcomes in the field, it will be important for resource managers to understand historical climatic variability and natural ecological trends in order to effectively respond to a changing climate. Sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.) is considered a stable endpoint for mature forests in the northern hardwood community of central Ontario, and it tends to be the dominant species, in a beech-ironwood-yellow birch matrix. In North America, this species is used for both hardwood lumber and for maple sugar (syrup) products; where it dominates, large recreational opportunities also exist. There are many biotic and abiotic factors that play a large role in the growth and productivity of sugar maple stands, such as soil pH, moisture regime, and site slope and aspect. This research undertaking aims to add to the body of literature addressing the following question: how do site factors influence the sensitivity of sugar maple growth to climatic change? The overall objective of the research is to evaluate how biotic and abiotic factors influence the sensitivity of sugar maple annual radial growth to climatic variability. This research will focus on sugar maple growth and productivity in Algonquin Provincial Park, and the impact that climatic variability has had in the past on these stands based on site-specific characteristics. In order to complete this goal, 20 sites were identified in Algonquin Provincial Park based on variability of known soil and site properties. These sites were visited in order to collect biotic and abiotic site data, and to measure annual radial growth increment of trees. Using regional climate records and standard dendrochronological methods, the collected increment growth data will be

  6. The great red flashlight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halbach, Edward A.

    After fifty years of fighting with flashlights which persisted in rolling to the ground, being mislaid, or stashed in a pocket, the author designed a unit which was always on hand and needed no search for the switch. A normally closed switch, internal to the bottom of the flashlight case, is opened by the weight of the unit suspended on a cord about the neck. Lifting the unit with two fingers turns on the red light, while releasing the unit automatically turns it off. A felt covering around the flashlight provides comfort on cold nights. Because this red light would be a welcome tool for other variable star observers, more units were assembled and brought to the AAVSO meeting in Houston for distribution to observers who agreed to give each unit a workout and report on its performance. The author is waiting to hear from these observers.

  7. ACER Chemistry Test Item Collection. ACER Chemtic Year 12.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Council for Educational Research, Hawthorn.

    The chemistry test item banks contains 225 multiple-choice questions suitable for diagnostic and achievement testing; a three-page teacher's guide; answer key with item facilities; an answer sheet; and a 45-item sample achievement test. Although written for the new grade 12 chemistry course in Victoria, Australia, the items are widely applicable.…

  8. Underwater Photogrammetry, Coded Target and Plenoptic Technology: a Set of Tools for Monitoring Red Coral in Mediterranean Sea in the Framework of the "perfect" Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drap, P.; Royer, J. P.; Nawaf, M. M.; Saccone, M.; Merad, D.; López-Sanz, À.; Ledoux, J. B.; Garrabou, J.

    2017-02-01

    PErfECT "Photogrammetry, gEnetic, Ecology for red coral ConservaTion" is a project leaded by the Laboratoire des Sciences de lInformation et des Systmes (LSIS - UMR 7296 CNRS) from the Aix-Marseille University (France) in collaboration with the Spanish National Agency for Scientific Research (CSIC, Spain). The main objective of the project is to develop innovative Tools for the conservation of the Mediterranean red coral, Corallium rubrum. PErfECT was funded by the Total Fundation. The adaptation of digital photogrammetric techniques for use in submarine is rapidly increasing in recent years. In fact, these techniques are particularly well suited for use in underwater environments. PErfECT developed different photogrammetry tools to enhance the red coral population surveys based in: (i) automatic orientation on coded quadrats, (ii) use of NPR (Non Photo realistic Rendering) techniques, (iii) the calculation of distances between colonies within local populations and finally (iv) the use of plenoptic approaches in underwater conditions.

  9. AmeriFlux US-Ha2 Harvard Forest Hemlock Site

    DOE Data Explorer

    Munger, William [Harvard University

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-Ha2 Harvard Forest Hemlock Site. Site Description - The forest surrounding the Hemlock site has remained pristine with two exceptions. In the early to mid-1700s, European settlers cleared the majority of the forest for agricultural purposes. Selective harvesting of hemlock and chestnut trees occurred up until the early 1900s, when the chestnut blight killed all of the chestnut trees. In the current forest, about 83% of the total basal area of trees is hemlock. The remainder is equally divided between eastern white pine (Pinus strobus L.) and deciduous species, including red maple (Acer rubrum), red oak (Quercus rubra) and black birch (Betula lenta). A very thick organic layer (10-20 cm or more) covers the soil surface, and highly decayed coarse woody debris is abundant.

  10. Chamber and field evaluations of air pollution tolerances of urban trees

    SciTech Connect

    Karnosky, D.F.

    1981-04-01

    Results are presented for a study of the relative air pollution tolerances of 32 urban-tree cultivars as determined by both chamber fumigations and field exposures. Tolerances to ozone and sulfur dioxide, alone and in combination, were determined using short-term, acute doses administered while the plants were inside a plastic fumigation chamber located inside the Cary Arboretum greenhouses. In a follow-up study still underway, representatives of the same cultivars were outplanted at four locations in the greater New York City area. To date, only oxidant-type injury has been observed on trees in the field plots. Cultivars tolerant to all chamber and field exposures were Acer platanoides Cleveland, Crimson King, Emerald Queen, Jade Glen, and Summershade; Acer rubrum Autumn Flame and Red Sunset; Acer saccharum Green Mountain and Temple's Upright; Fagus sylvatica Rotundifolia; Fraxinus pennsylvanica Summit; and Ginkgo biloba Fastigate and Sentry. Cultivars sensitive to ozone as determined by the chamber and field tests and that may serve as bioindicators of the presence of ozone were Gleditsia triacanthos inermis imperial and Platanus acerifolia Bloodgood.

  11. The coordination of sulfur in synthetic and biogenic Mg calcites: The red coral case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, J.; Rivard, C.; Vielzeuf, D.; Laporte, D.; Fonquernie, C.; Ricolleau, A.; Cotte, M.; Floquet, N.

    2017-01-01

    Sulfur has been recognized in biogenic calcites for a long time. However, its structural position is matter of debate. For some authors, sulfur is a marker of the organic matrix while it is part of the calcite structure itself for others. To better understand the place of sulfur in calcite, sulfated magnesian calcites (S-MgCalcite) have been synthetized at high pressure and temperature and studied by μ-XANES spectroscopy. S-MgCalcite XANES spectra show two different types of sulfur: sulfate (SO42-) as a predominant species and a small contribution of sulfite (SO32-), both substituting for carbonate ions in the calcite structure. To address the question of the position of sulfur in biogenic calcites, the oxidation states of sulfur in the skeleton and organic tissues of Corallium rubrum have been investigated by micro X-ray fluorescence (μ-XRF) and sulfur K-edge micro X-ray absorption near edge structure (μ-XANES) spectroscopy at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF, Grenoble, France) on beamline ID21. In the skeleton, sulfur is mainly present as oxidized sulfur SO42- (+VI), plus a weak sulfite contribution. XANES spectra indicate that sulfur is inorganically incorporated as sulfur structurally substituted to carbonate ions (SSS). Although an organic matrix is present in the red coral skeleton, reduced organic sulfur could not be detected by μ-XANES spectroscopy in the skeleton probably due to low organic/inorganic sulfur ratio. In the organic tissues surrounding the skeleton, several sulfur oxidation states have been detected including disulfide (S-S), thioether (R-S-CH3), sulfoxide (SO2), sulfonate (SO2O-) and sulfate (SO42-). The unexpected occurrence of inorganic sulfate within the organic tissues suggests the presence of pre-organized organic/inorganic complexes in the circulatory system of the red coral, precursors to biomineralization ahead of the growth front.

  12. Hydraulic Analysis of Water Flow through Leaves of Sugar Maple and Red Oak1

    PubMed Central

    Sack, Lawren; Streeter, Christopher M.; Holbrook, N. Michele

    2004-01-01

    Leaves constitute a substantial fraction of the total resistance to water flow through plants. A key question is how hydraulic resistance within the leaf is distributed among petiole, major veins, minor veins, and the pathways downstream of the veins. We partitioned the leaf hydraulic resistance (Rleaf) for sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and red oak (Quercus rubra) by measuring the resistance to water flow through leaves before and after cutting specific vein orders. Simulations using an electronic circuit analog with resistors arranged in a hierarchical reticulate network justified the partitioning of total Rleaf into component additive resistances. On average 64% and 74% of the Rleaf was situated within the leaf xylem for sugar maple and red oak, respectively. Substantial resistance—32% and 49%— was in the minor venation, 18% and 21% in the major venation, and 14% and 4% in the petiole. The large number of parallel paths (i.e. a large transfer surface) for water leaving the minor veins through the bundle sheath and out of the leaf resulted in the pathways outside the venation comprising only 36% and 26% of Rleaf. Changing leaf temperature during measurement of Rleaf for intact leaves resulted in a temperature response beyond that expected from changes in viscosity. The extra response was not found for leaves with veins cut, indicating that water crosses cell membranes after it leaves the xylem. The large proportion of resistance in the venation can explain why stomata respond to leaf xylem damage and cavitation. The hydraulic importance of the leaf vein system suggests that the diversity of vein system architectures observed in angiosperms may reflect variation in whole-leaf hydraulic capacity. PMID:15064368

  13. Does predation contribute to tree diversity?

    PubMed

    Beckage, Brian; Clark, James S

    2005-04-01

    Seed and seedling predation may differentially affect competitively superior tree species to increase the relative recruitment success of poor competitors and contribute to the coexistence of tree species. We examined the effect of seed and seedling predation on the seedling recruitment of three tree species, Acer rubrum (red maple), Liriodendron tulipifera (yellow poplar), and Quercus rubra (northern red oak), over three years by manipulating seed and seedling exposure to predators under contrasting microsite conditions of shrub cover, leaf litter, and overstory canopy. Species rankings of seedling emergence were constant across microsites, regardless of exposure to seed predators, but varied across years. A. rubrum had the highest emergence probabilities across microsites in 1997, but Q. rubra had the highest emergence probabilities in 1999. Predators decreased seedling survival uniformly across species, but did not affect relative growth rates (RGRs). Q. rubra had the highest seedling survivorship across microsites, while L. tulipifera had the highest RGRs. Our results suggest that annual variability in recruitment success contributes more to seedling diversity than differential predation across microsites. We synthesized our results from separate seedling emergence and survival experiments to project seedling bank composition. With equal fecundity assumed across species, Q. rubra dominated the seedling bank, capturing 90% of the regeneration sites on average, followed by A. rubrum (8% of sites) and L. tulipifera (2% of sites). When seed abundance was weighted by species-specific fecundity, seedling bank composition was more diverse; L. tulipifera captured 62% of the regeneration sites, followed by A. rubrum (21% of sites) and Q. rubra (17% of sites). Tradeoffs between seedling performance and fecundity may promote the diversity of seedling regeneration by increasing the probability of inferior competitors capturing regeneration sites.

  14. Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This brief movie shows counterclockwise atmospheric motion around Jupiter's Great Red Spot. The clip was made from blue-filter images taken with the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft during seven separate rotations of Jupiter between Oct. 1 and Oct. 5, 2000.

    The clip also shows the eastward and westward motion of the zonal jets, seen as the horizontal stripes flowing in opposite directions. The zonal jets circle the planet. As far as can be determined from both Earth-based and spacecraft measurements, the positions and speeds of the jets have not changed for 100 years. Since Jupiter is a fluid planet without a solid boundary, the jet speeds are measured relative to Jupiter's magnetic field, which rotates, wobbling like a top because of its tilt, every 9 hours 55.5 minutes. The movie shows motions in the magnetic reference frame, so winds to the west correspond to features that are rotating a little slower than the magnetic field, and eastward winds correspond to features rotating a little faster.

    Because the Red Spot is in the southern hemisphere, the direction of motion indicates it is a high-pressure center. Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Scientists suspect these small white features are lightning storms. The storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for the large-scale features.

    The smallest features in the movie are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across. The spacing of the movie frames in time is not uniform; some consecutive images are separated by two Jupiter rotations, and some by one. The images have been re-projected using a simple cylindrical map projection. They show an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east-west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet

  15. Chronic drought stress reduced but not protected Shantung maple (Acer truncatum Bunge) from adverse effects of ozone (O3) on growth and physiology in the suburb of Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Manning, William J; Tong, Lei; Wang, Xiaoke

    2015-06-01

    A two-year experiment exposing Acer truncatum Bunge seedlings to elevated ozone (O3) concentrations above ambient air (AO) and drought stress (DS) was carried out using open-top chambers (OTCs) in a suburb of Beijing in north China in 2012-2013. The results suggested that AO and DS had both significantly reduced leaf mass area (LMA), stomatal conductance (Gs), light saturated photosynthetic rate (Asat) as well as above and below ground biomass at the end of the experiment. It appeared that while drought stress mitigated the expression of foliar injury, LMA, leaf photosynthetic pigments, height growth and basal diameter, due to limited carbon fixation, the O3 - induced reductions in Asat, Gs and total biomass were enhanced 23.7%. 15.5% and 8.1% respectively. These data suggest that when the whole plant was considered that drought under the conditions of this experiment did not protect the Shantung maple seedlings from the effects of O3.

  16. The red ear syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Red Ear Syndrome (RES) is a very rare disorder, with approximately 100 published cases in the medical literature. Red ear (RE) episodes are characterised by unilateral or bilateral attacks of paroxysmal burning sensations and reddening of the external ear. The duration of these episodes ranges from a few seconds to several hours. The attacks occur with a frequency ranging from several a day to a few per year. Episodes can occur spontaneously or be triggered, most frequently by rubbing or touching the ear, heat or cold, chewing, brushing of the hair, neck movements or exertion. Early-onset idiopathic RES seems to be associated with migraine, whereas late-onset idiopathic forms have been reported in association with trigeminal autonomic cephalalgias (TACs). Secondary forms of RES occur with upper cervical spine disorders or temporo-mandibular joint dysfunction. RES is regarded refractory to medical treatments, although some migraine preventative treatments have shown moderate benefit mainly in patients with migraine-related attacks. The pathophysiology of RES is still unclear but several hypotheses involving peripheral or central nervous system mechanisms have been proposed. PMID:24093332

  17. Demography of deep-dwelling red coral populations: Age and reproductive structure of a highly valued marine species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Priori, Cristina; Mastascusa, Vincenza; Erra, Fabrizio; Angiolillo, Michela; Canese, Simonpietro; Santangelo, Giovanni

    2013-02-01

    The valuable Mediterranean red coral Corallium rubrum (Octocorallia Gorgonacea) has been harvested for more than 2 thousand years. Although our knowledge on the demographic features of red coral populations living between 10 and 50 m depth has increased considerably in recent years, the main life-history traits of deeper populations (the main target of current harvesting) are still largely unknown. To increase the demographic knowledge of the latter populations, sampling was carried out during early Summer 2010 in the North-Western Mediterranean (Tyrrhenian Sea - Italy), between 50 and 130 m depth. This paper quantifies the main demographic descriptors of this coral population in terms of size/age and sexual structure. Colony age was estimated by counting annual growth rings on thin sections of 69 colonies. A 2-way ANOVA showed no significant difference between the age estimated by three independent observers. The average annual colony growth rate (basal diameter), showing some decrease with colony age increase, was 0.26 mm/yr. The relationship between age and basal diameter derived from a subsample of colonies was then applied to assess the age of a larger sample of the population and showed 38% of the sampled colonies reached the commercial size (≥7 mm of basal diameter), corresponding to about 30 years in this population and a maximum life span of 93 years; about half of them (51.1%) were in the 21-25 and 26-30 age classes. The analysis of the sexual features revealed a balanced sex ratio, a colony fertility of 90.3% and an average fecundity of 0.83 oocytes or planulae per polyp. The knowledge of these life-history descriptors is needed for our understanding of deep dwelling red coral population dynamics and for matching of harvesting to population growth rate.

  18. International red meat trade.

    PubMed

    Brester, Gary W; Marsh, John M; Plain, Ronald L

    2003-07-01

    The maturation of the US beef and pork markets and increasing consumer demands for convenience, safety, and nutrition suggests that the beef and pork industries must focus on product development and promotion. New marketing arrangements are developing that help coordinate production with consumer demands. The relative high levels of incomes in the United States are likely to increase the demands for branded products rather than increase total per capita consumption. Foreign markets represent the greatest opportunity for increased demand for commodity beef and pork products. Increasing incomes in developing countries will likely allow consumers to increase consumption of animal-source proteins. Real prices of beef and pork have declined substantially because of sagging domestic demand and increasing farm-level production technologies. Increasing US beef and pork exports have obviated some of the price declines. Pork attained a net export position from a quantity perspective in 1995. The United States continues to be a net importer of beef on a quantity basis but is close to becoming a net exporter in terms of value. By-products continue to play a critical role in determining the red meat trade balance and producer prices. The United States, however, must continue to become cost, price, and quality competitive with other suppliers and must secure additional market access if it is to sustain recent trade trends. Several trade tensions remain in the red meat industry. For example, mandated COOL will undoubtedly have domestic and international effects on the beef and pork sectors. Domestically, uncertainty regarding consumer demand responses or quality perceptions regarding product origin, as well as added processor-retailer costs will be nontrivial. How these factors balance out in terms of benefits versus costs to the industry is uncertain. From an international perspective, some beef and pork export suppliers to the United States could view required labeling as a

  19. Fade to Red

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Infrared Andromeda Galaxy (M31) Poster [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stars Dust

    This animation shows the Andromeda galaxy, first as seen in visible light by the National Optical Astronomy Observatory, then as seen in infrared by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

    The visible-light image highlights the galaxy's population of about one trillion stars. The stars are so crammed into its core that this region blazes with bright starlight.

    In contrast, the false-colored Spitzer view reveals red waves of dust against a more tranquil sea of blue stars. The dust lanes can be seen twirling all the way into the galaxy's center. This dust is warmed by young stars and shines at infrared wavelengths , which are represented in red. The blue color signifies shorter-wavelength infrared light primarily from older stars.

    The Andromeda galaxy, also known affectionately by astronomers as Messier 31, is located 2.5 million light-years away in the constellation Andromeda. It is the closest major galaxy to the Milky Way, making it the ideal specimen for carefully examining the nature of galaxies. On a clear, dark night, the galaxy can be spotted with the naked eye as a fuzzy blob.

    Andromeda's entire disk spans about 260,000 light-years, which means that a light beam would take 260,000 years to travel from one end of the galaxy to the other. By comparison, the Milky Way is about 100,000 light-years across. When viewed from Earth, Andromeda occupies a portion of the sky equivalent to seven full moons.

    Because this galaxy is so large, the infrared images had to be stitched together out of about 3,000 separate Spitzer exposures. The light detected by Spitzer's infrared array camera at 3.6 and 4.5 microns is sensitive mostly to starlight and is shown in blue and green, respectively. The 8-micron light shows warm dust and is shown in red. The

  20. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization on Potato Leafhopper (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) and Maple Spider Mite (Acari: Tetranychidae) on Nursery-Grown Maples.

    PubMed

    Prado, Julia; Quesada, Carlos; Gosney, Michael; Mickelbart, Michael V; Sadof, Clifford

    2015-06-01

    Although leaf nitrogen (N) has been shown to increase the suitability of hosts to herbivorous arthropods, the responses of these pests to N fertilization on susceptible and resistant host plants are not well characterized. This study determined how different rates of N fertilization affected injury caused by the potato leafhopper (Empoasca fabae Harris) and the abundance of maple spider mite (Oligonychus aceris (Shimer)) on 'Red Sunset' red maple (Acer rubrum) and 'Autumn Blaze' Freeman maple (Acer×freemanii) during two years in Indiana. N fertilization increased leaf N concentration in both maple cultivars, albeit to a lesser extent during the second year of the study. Overall, Red Sunset maples were more susceptible to E. fabae injury than Autumn Blaze, whereas Autumn Blaze maples supported higher populations of O. aceris. Differences in populations of O. aceris were attributed to differences between communities of stigmaeid and phytoseiid mites on each cultivar. Injury caused by E. fabae increased with N fertilization in a dose-dependent manner in both cultivars. Although N fertilization increased the abundance of O. aceris on both maple cultivars, there was no difference between the 20 and 40 g rates. We suggest the capacity of N fertilization to increase O. aceris on maples could be limited at higher trophic levels by the community of predatory mites.

  1. Oxygen delivery from red cells.

    PubMed Central

    Clark, A; Federspiel, W J; Clark, P A; Cokelet, G R

    1985-01-01

    This paper deals with the theoretical analysis of the unloading of oxygen from a red cell. A scale analysis of the governing transport equations shows that the solutions have a boundary layer structure near the red-cell membrane. The boundary layer is a region of chemical nonequilibrium, and it owes its existence to the fact that the kinetic time scales are shorter than the diffusion time scales in the red cell. The presence of the boundary layer allows an analytical solution to be obtained by the method of matched asymptotic expansions. A very useful result from the analysis is a simple, lumped-parameter description of the oxygen delivery from a red cell. The accuracy of the lumped-parameter description has been verified by comparing its predictions with results obtained by numerical integration of the full equations for a one-dimensional slab. As an application, we calculate minimum oxygen unloading times for red cells. PMID:3978198

  2. Polysaccharides of the red algae.

    PubMed

    Usov, Anatolii I

    2011-01-01

    Red algae (Rhodophyta) are known as the source of unique sulfated galactans, such as agar, agarose, and carrageenans. The wide practical uses of these polysaccharides are based on their ability to form strong gels in aqueous solutions. Gelling polysaccharides usually have molecules built up of repeating disaccharide units with a regular distribution of sulfate groups, but most of the red algal species contain more complex galactans devoid of gelling ability because of various deviations from the regular structure. Moreover, several red algae may contain sulfated mannans or neutral xylans instead of sulfated galactans as the main structural polysaccharides. This chapter is devoted to a description of the structural diversity of polysaccharides found in the red algae, with special emphasis on the methods of structural analysis of sulfated galactans. In addition to the structural information, some data on the possible use of red algal polysaccharides as biologically active polymers or as taxonomic markers are briefly discussed.

  3. Probing the effect of the binding site on the electrostatic behavior of a series of carotenoids reconstituted into the light-harvesting 1 complex from purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum detected by stark spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Katsunori; Suzuki, Satoru; Fujii, Ritsuko; Gardiner, Alastair T; Cogdell, Richard J; Nango, Mamoru; Hashimoto, Hideki

    2008-08-07

    Reconstitutions of the LH1 complexes from the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum S1 were performed with a range of carotenoid molecules having different numbers of C=C conjugated double bonds. Since, as we showed previously, some of the added carotenoids tended to aggregate and then to remain with the reconstituted LH1 complexes (Nakagawa, K.; Suzuki, S.; Fujii, R.; Gardiner, A.T.; Cogdell, R.J.; Nango, M.; Hashimoto, H. Photosynth. Res. 2008, 95, 339-344), a further purification step using a sucrose density gradient centrifugation was introduced to improve purity of the final reconstituted sample. The measured absorption, fluorescence-excitation, and Stark spectra of the LH1 complex reconstituted with spirilloxanthin were identical with those obtained with the native, spirilloxanthin-containing, LH1 complex of Rs. rubrum S1. This shows that the electrostatic environments surrounding the carotenoid and bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) molecules in both of these LH1 complexes were essentially the same. In the LH1 complexes reconstituted with either rhodopin or spheroidene, however, the wavelength maximum at the BChl a Qy absorption band was slightly different to that of the native LH1 complexes. These differences in the transition energy of the BChl a Qy absorption band can be explained using the values of the nonlinear optical parameters of this absorption band, i.e., the polarizability change Tr(Deltaalpha) and the static dipole-moment change |Deltamu| upon photoexcitation, as determined using Stark spectroscopy. The local electric field around the BChl a in the native LH1 complex (ES) was determined to be approximately 3.0x10(6) V/cm. Furthermore, on the basis of the values of the nonlinear optical parameters of the carotenoids in the reconstituted LH1 complexes, it is possible to suggest that the conformations of carotenoids, anhydrorhodovibrin and spheroidene, in the LH1 complex were similar to that of rhodopin glucoside in crystal structure of

  4. Red Marks the Spot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This hematite abundance index map helps geologists choose hematite-rich locations to visit around Opportunity's landing site. Blue dots equal areas low in hematite and red dots equal areas high in hematite.

    Why Hematite Geologists are eager to reach the hematite-rich area in the upper left to closely examine the soil, which may reveal secrets about how the hematite got to this location. Knowing how the hematite on Mars was formed may help scientists characterize the past environment and determine whether that environment provided favorable conditions for life.

    The Plan Over the next few sols, engineers and scientists plan to drive Opportunity to the hematite-rich area then attempt a 'pre-trench' sequence, taking measurements with the Moessbauer spectrometer, alpha particle X-ray spectrometer and microscopic imager. Next, the plan is to trench the hematite rich area by spinning one wheel in place to 'dig' a shallow hole. Finally, scientists will aim the instrument arm back at the same area where it pre-trenched to get post-trench data with the same instruments to compare and contrast the levels of hematite and revel how deep the hematite lays in the dirt.

    Index Map Details The hematite abundance index map was created using data from the miniature thermal emission instrument. The first layer is a mosaic of panoramic camera images taken prior to egress, when Opportunity was still on the lander. The colored dots represent data collected by the miniature thermal emission spectrometer on sol 11, after Opportunity had rolled off of the lander and the rover was located at the center of the blue semi-circle.

    The spectrometer is located on the panoramic camera mast. On sol 11, it took a low-angle 180-degree panorama of the area in front of the rover, indicated by the blue shaded dots. The instrument then raised the angle of its field of view a few degrees higher to sweep around behind the rover, indicated by the red and yellow dots offset at the far sides of the

  5. Red blood cells, multiple sickle cells (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited disorder in which abnormal hemoglobin (the red pigment inside red blood cells) is produced. The abnormal hemoglobin causes red blood cells to assume a sickle shape, like the ones seen in this photomicrograph.

  6. Red Yeast Rice

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thu; Karl, Mitchell; Santini, Antonello

    2017-01-01

    Red yeast rice (RYR), produced by the fermentation of the Monascus purpureus mold, has been used for a long time in Asian cuisine and traditional medicine. It consists of multiple bioactive substances, including monacolins, which potentially can be used as a nutraceutical. Monacolin K, which is chemically identical to lovastatin, has been recognized as responsible for the cholesterol-reducing effect of this compound. While the European Food Safety Authority maintains that the use of monacolin K from RYR preparations of at least 10 mg can produce a normal blood cholesterol level, the United States Food and Drug Administration considers monacolin K, due to its similarity with lovastatin, an unapproved drug, and therefore marketing of products that label the monacolin content is prohibited. This mini-review summarizes the benefit of RYR in hyperlipidemia, maintains RYR use as a food, and addresses the importance of regulation regarding RYR and the need for clinical data and clear label information for consumers with reference to a toxin-free, non-augmented, standardized amount of monacolins. PMID:28257063

  7. Pediatric red cell disorders and pure red cell aplasia.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Sherrie L

    2004-12-01

    Anemia in children may arise from a wide variety of pathogenetic mechanisms that include congenital and acquired disorders. Often the diagnostic considerations include disorders that are not seen commonly in adults and lifelong disorders that arise in children and persist throughout life. Consideration of diverse causes of anemia such as red cell membrane disorders, red cell enzymopathies, congenital dyserythropoietic anemias, congenital sideroblastic anemias, and hereditary pure red cell aplasia (Diamond-Blackfan anemia), as well as infectious causes such as parvovirus B19 infection, often is required when diagnosing anemia in an infant or young child. Knowledge of these entities that are important causes of anemia in the pediatric population, including clinical manifestations and laboratory workup, will aid in recognition of the specific disease entities and effective workup of pediatric red cell disorders.

  8. Romantic red: red enhances men's attraction to women.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Andrew J; Niesta, Daniela

    2008-11-01

    In many nonhuman primates, the color red enhances males' attraction to females. In 5 experiments, the authors demonstrate a parallel effect in humans: Red, relative to other achromatic and chromatic colors, leads men to view women as more attractive and more sexually desirable. Men seem unaware of this red effect, and red does not influence women's perceptions of the attractiveness of other women, nor men's perceptions of women's overall likeability, kindness, or intelligence. The findings have clear practical implications for men and women in the mating game and, perhaps, for fashion consultants, product designers, and marketers. Furthermore, the findings document the value of extending research on signal coloration to humans and of considering color as something of a common language, both within and across species.

  9. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer.

    PubMed

    Aykan, Nuri Faruk

    2015-02-10

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented.

  10. Red Meat and Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cancer in men and the second in women worldwide. More than half of cases occur in more developed countries. The consumption of red meat (beef, pork, lamb, veal, mutton) is high in developed countries and accumulated evidence until today demonstrated a convincing association between the intake of red meat and especially processed meat and CRC risk. In this review, meta-analyses of prospective epidemiological studies addressed to this association, observed link of some subtypes of red meat with CRC risk, potential carcinogenic compounds, their mechanisms and actual recommendations of international guidelines are presented. PMID:26779313

  11. Red River of the North Reconnaissance Report: Red Lake River.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    The two lakes are remnants of glacial Lake Agassiz and together comprise the largest lake area wholly contained in Minnesota. Biology The principal...Red River Valley Laku Plain, Glacial Lake Agassiz Beachlines, Aspen Parklands, Glacial Lake Agassiz Lowlands, Border-Prairie Transition, and North...Areas of particular aesthetic appeal include Agassiz National Wildlife Refuge, seven state forests, Upper and Lower Red Lakes, and the natural wooded

  12. In Vivo Studies in Rhodospirillum rubrum Indicate That Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase (Rubisco) Catalyzes Two Obligatorily Required and Physiologically Significant Reactions for Distinct Carbon and Sulfur Metabolic Pathways.

    PubMed

    Dey, Swati; North, Justin A; Sriram, Jaya; Evans, Bradley S; Tabita, F Robert

    2015-12-25

    All organisms possess fundamental metabolic pathways to ensure that needed carbon and sulfur compounds are provided to the cell in the proper chemical form and oxidation state. For most organisms capable of using CO2 as sole source of carbon, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) catalyzes primary carbon dioxide assimilation. In addition, sulfur salvage pathways are necessary to ensure that key sulfur-containing compounds are both available and, where necessary, detoxified in the cell. Using knock-out mutations and metabolomics in the bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum, we show here that Rubisco concurrently catalyzes key and essential reactions for seemingly unrelated but physiologically essential central carbon and sulfur salvage metabolic pathways of the cell. In this study, complementation and mutagenesis studies indicated that representatives of all known extant functional Rubisco forms found in nature are capable of simultaneously catalyzing reactions required for both CO2-dependent growth as well as growth using 5-methylthioadenosine as sole sulfur source under anaerobic photosynthetic conditions. Moreover, specific inactivation of the CO2 fixation reaction did not affect the ability of Rubisco to support anaerobic 5-methylthioadenosine metabolism, suggesting that the active site of Rubisco has evolved to ensure that this enzyme maintains both key functions. Thus, despite the coevolution of both functions, the active site of this protein may be differentially modified to affect only one of its key functions.

  13. Detection of synergistic combinations of Baccharis extracts with terbinafine against Trichophyton rubrum with high throughput screening synergy assay (HTSS) followed by 3D graphs. Behavior of some of their components.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, María Victoria; Sortino, Maximiliano A; Ivancovich, Juan J; Pellegrino, José M; Favier, Laura S; Raimondi, Marcela P; Gattuso, Martha A; Zacchino, Susana A

    2013-10-15

    Forty four extracts from nine Baccharis spp. from the Caulopterae section were tested in combination with terbinafine against Trichophyton rubrum with the HTSS assay at six different ratios with the aim of detecting those mixtures that produced a ≥50% statistically significant enhancement of growth inhibition. Since an enhanced effect of a combination respective of its components, does not necessarily indicate synergism, three-dimensional (3D) dose-response surfaces were constructed for each selected pair of extract/antifungal drug with the aid of CombiTool software. Ten extracts showed synergistic or additive combinations which constitutes a 22% hit rate of the extracts submitted to evaluation. Four flavonoids and three ent-clerodanes were detected in the active Baccharis extracts with HPLC/UV/ESI-MS methodology, all of which were tested in combination with terbinafine. Results showed that ent-clerodanes but not flavonoids showed synergistic or additive effects. Among them, bacchotricuneatin A followed by bacrispine showed synergistic effects while hawtriwaic acid showed additive effects.

  14. In Vivo Studies in Rhodospirillum rubrum Indicate That Ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase (Rubisco) Catalyzes Two Obligatorily Required and Physiologically Significant Reactions for Distinct Carbon and Sulfur Metabolic Pathways*♦

    PubMed Central

    Dey, Swati; North, Justin A.; Sriram, Jaya; Evans, Bradley S.; Tabita, F. Robert

    2015-01-01

    All organisms possess fundamental metabolic pathways to ensure that needed carbon and sulfur compounds are provided to the cell in the proper chemical form and oxidation state. For most organisms capable of using CO2 as sole source of carbon, ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) catalyzes primary carbon dioxide assimilation. In addition, sulfur salvage pathways are necessary to ensure that key sulfur-containing compounds are both available and, where necessary, detoxified in the cell. Using knock-out mutations and metabolomics in the bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum, we show here that Rubisco concurrently catalyzes key and essential reactions for seemingly unrelated but physiologically essential central carbon and sulfur salvage metabolic pathways of the cell. In this study, complementation and mutagenesis studies indicated that representatives of all known extant functional Rubisco forms found in nature are capable of simultaneously catalyzing reactions required for both CO2-dependent growth as well as growth using 5-methylthioadenosine as sole sulfur source under anaerobic photosynthetic conditions. Moreover, specific inactivation of the CO2 fixation reaction did not affect the ability of Rubisco to support anaerobic 5-methylthioadenosine metabolism, suggesting that the active site of Rubisco has evolved to ensure that this enzyme maintains both key functions. Thus, despite the coevolution of both functions, the active site of this protein may be differentially modified to affect only one of its key functions. PMID:26511314

  15. A spring window for geobotanical anomaly detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, R.; Labovitz, M. L.; Masuoka, E. J.

    1985-01-01

    The observation of senescence of deciduous vegetation to detect soil heavy metal mineralization is discussed. A gridded sampling of two sites of Quercus alba L. in south-central Virginia in 1982 is studied. The data reveal that smaller leaf blade lengths are observed in the soil site with copper, lead, and zinc concentrations. A random study in 1983 of red and white Q. rubra L., Q. prinus L., and Acer rubrum L., to confirm previous results is described. The observations of blade length and bud breaks show a 7-10 day lag in growth in the mineral site for the oak trees; however, the maple trees are not influenced by the minerals.

  16. Isotope studies to determine dry deposition of sulfate to deciduous and coniferous trees: Final draft

    SciTech Connect

    Garten, C.T. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted at two locations near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, with radioactive /sup 35/S (87 day half-life) to examine the cycling behavior of sulfur in yellow poplar (Liriodendron tulipifera), red maple (Acer rubrum), and loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) trees. Some findings pertain to methods development for estimating dry deposition of sulfur to forest canopies and the magnitude of sulfur emissions from natural sources (Task II). We will determine through field studies, the internal cycling, storage, and biogenic emission of sulfur, as traced by /sup 35/SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, in environments impacted by atmospheric sulfate deposition; and will determine through isotope dilution studies, the contribution of foliar leaching and dry deposition to net throughfall (NTF) sulfate concentrations beneath deciduous and coniferous trees in such environments. 3 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Red blood cells, spherocytosis (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Spherocytosis is a hereditary disorder of the red blood cells (RBCs), which may be associated with a mild anemia. Typically, the affected RBCs are small, spherically shaped, and lack the light centers seen ...

  18. Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification

    MedlinePlus

    ... name: Red Blood Cell Antibody Identification Related tests: Direct Antiglobulin Test ; RBC Antibody Screen ; Blood Typing ; Type ... a positive RBC antibody screen or a positive direct antiglobulin test (DAT) . It is used to identify ...

  19. Transient Photochemistry of Neutral Red.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    ascorbic acid system to 50 successive flashes, indicating that no ground state neutral red is permanently converted to leuco dye . Since leuco neutral...complete regeneration of ground state neutral red in this pH range in the present study suggests that formation of leuco dye is not significant. The second...radical disproportionation step is followed by a slower step which converts leuco dye to semireduced radical. Because coupling the two steps

  20. Red Tide off Texas Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Red tides (algae) bloomed late this summer along a 300-mile stretch of Texas' Gulf Coast, killing millions of fish and shellfish as well as making some people sick. State officials are calling this the worst red tide bloom in 14 years. The algae produces a poison that paralyzes fish and prevents them from breathing. There is concern that the deadly algae could impact or even wipe out this year's oyster harvest in Texas, which usually peaks during the Thanksgiving and Christmas holidays. The red tides were first observed off the Texas coast in mid-August and have been growing steadily in size ever since. Red tides tend to bloom and subside rapidly, depending upon changes in wind speed and direction, water temperature, salinity, and rainfall patterns (as the algae doesn't do as well in fresher water). This true-color image of the Texas Gulf Coast was acquired on September 29, 2000, by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) flying aboard NASA's Terra spacecraft. The red tide can be seen as the dark reddish discoloration in the ocean running southwest to northeast along the coast. In this scene, the bloom appears to be concentrated north and east of Corpus Christi, just off Matagorda Island. The image was made at 500-meter resolution using a combination of MODIS' visible bands 1 (red), 4 (green), and 3 (blue). The city of Houston can be seen clearly as the large, greyish cluster of pixels to the north and west of Galveston Bay, which is about mid-way up the coastline in this image. Also visible in this image are plumes of smoke, perhaps wildfires, both to the north and northeast of Houston. For more information about red tides, refer to the Texas Red Tide Web site. Image courtesy Andrey Savtchenko, MODIS Data Support Team, and the MODIS Ocean Team, NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

  1. The Monte Carlo event generator AcerMC versions 2.0 to 3.8 with interfaces to PYTHIA 6.4, HERWIG 6.5 and ARIADNE 4.1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersevan, Borut Paul; Richter-Waş, Elzbieta

    2013-03-01

    The AcerMC Monte Carlo generator is dedicated to the generation of Standard Model background processes which were recognised as critical for the searches at LHC, and generation of which was either unavailable or not straightforward so far. The program itself provides a library of the massive matrix elements (coded by MADGRAPH) and native phase space modules for generation of a set of selected processes. The hard process event can be completed by the initial and the final state radiation, hadronisation and decays through the existing interface with either PYTHIA, HERWIG or ARIADNE event generators and (optionally) TAUOLA and PHOTOS. Interfaces to all these packages are provided in the distribution version. The phase-space generation is based on the multi-channel self-optimising approach using the modified Kajantie-Byckling formalism for phase space construction and further smoothing of the phase space was obtained by using a modified ac-VEGAS algorithm. An additional improvement in the recent versions is the inclusion of the consistent prescription for matching the matrix element calculations with parton showering for a select list of processes. Catalogue identifier: ADQQ_v2_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/ADQQ_v2_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 3853309 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 68045728 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: FORTRAN 77 with popular extensions (g77, gfortran). Computer: All running Linux. Operating system: Linux. Classification: 11.2, 11.6. External routines: CERNLIB (http://cernlib.web.cern.ch/cernlib/), LHAPDF (http://lhapdf.hepforge.org/) Catalogue identifier of previous version: ADQQ_v1_0 Journal reference of previous version: Comput. Phys. Comm. 149(2003)142 Does

  2. The antibacterial efficacy of an aceraceous plant [Shantung maple (Acer truncatum Bunge)] may be related to inhibition of bacterial beta-oxoacyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabG).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Luo, Shi-Yun; Ye, Yan-Bin; Zhao, Wen-Hua; Sun, Xu-Guang; Wang, Zhi-Qun; Li, Ran; Sun, Ying-Hui; Tian, Wei-Xi; Zhang, Ying-Xia

    2008-10-01

    Polyphenols, including flavonoids, are the major components of the extracts from aceraceous plants. They possess remarkable antibacterial and antitumour activity. Our study focused on whether the inhibition of the bacterial type II fatty acid synthesis system is the mechanism for the antibacterial effect of the related plant polyphenols. Extracts obtained from the fallen leaves of the Shantung maple (Acer truncatum Bunge) using different solvents, and the related pure compound PGG (1,2,3,4,6-penta-O-galloyl-beta-D-glucose), potently inhibited the FabG (beta-oxoacyl-ACP reductase) steps in the fatty-acid-elongation cycle with the IC(50) values between 0.9 and 7.2 microg/ml. An ethyl acetate extract appeared to inhibit FabG reductase in a mixed manner with NADPH, as did PGG with NADPH, demonstrating that they interfered with the binding of the cofactor to the enzyme. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and some fungi were used to evaluate the antibacterial abilities of different extract samples. The experiments showed that a higher polyphenol content of the extracts led to a more potent inhibitory capacity against FabG, thus enhancing the antibacterial efficacy.

  3. Acerogenin A from Acer nikoense Maxim Prevents Oxidative Stress-Induced Neuronal Cell Death through Nrf2-Mediated Heme Oxygenase-1 Expression in Mouse Hippocampal HT22 Cell Line.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Sung; Cha, Byung-Yoon; Woo, Je-Tae; Kim, Youn-Chul; Jang, Jun-Hyeog

    2015-07-09

    Oxidative cell damage contributes to neuronal degeneration in many central nervous system (CNS) diseases such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and ischemia. Inducible heme oxygenase (HO)-1 acts against oxidants that are thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of neuronal diseases. The stem bark of Acer nikoense Maxim (Aceraceae) is indigenous to Japan; it has been used in folk medicine as a treatment of hepatic disorders and eye diseases. Acerogenin A, a natural compound isolated from Japanese folk medicine A. nikoense, showed neuroprotective effects and reactive oxygen species (ROS) reduction on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity by inducing the expression of HO-1 in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. Furthermore, acerogenin A caused the nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and the activation of the PI3K/AKT signaling pathways. In this study, we demonstrated that acerogenin A effectively prevents glutamate-induced oxidative damage, and HO-1 induction via PI3K/Akt and Nrf2 pathways appears to play a key role in the protection of HT22 cells. Therefore, this study implies that the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway represents a biological target and that acerogenin A might be a candidate for the prevention of neurodegeneration.

  4. Red cell metabolism studies on Skylab

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mengel, C. E.

    1977-01-01

    Blood samples from Spacelab crewmembers were studied for possible environment effects on red cell components. Analysis involved peroxidation of red cell lipids, enzymes of red cell metabolism, and levels of 2,3-diphosphoglyceric acid and adenosine triphosphate. Results show that there is no evidence of lipid peroxidation, that biochemical effect known to be associated with irreversible red cell damage. Changes observed in glycolytic intermediates and enzymes cannot be directly implicated as indicating evidence of red cell damage.

  5. Characterizing warfare in red teaming.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ang; Abbass, Hussein A; Sarker, Ruhul

    2006-04-01

    Red teaming is the process of studying a problem by anticipating adversary behaviors. When done in simulations, the behavior space is divided into two groups; one controlled by the red team which represents the set of adversary behaviors or bad guys, while the other is controlled by the blue team which represents the set of defenders or good guys. Through red teaming, analysts can learn about the future by forward prediction of scenarios. More recently, defense has been looking at evolutionary computation methods in red teaming. The fitness function in these systems is highly stochastic, where a single configuration can result in multiple different outcomes. Operational, tactical and strategic decisions can be made based on the findings of the evolutionary method in use. Therefore, there is an urgent need for understanding the nature of these problems and the role of the stochastic fitness to gain insight into the possible performance of different methods. This paper presents a first attempt at characterizing the search space difficulties in red teaming to shed light on the expected performance of the evolutionary method in stochastic environments.

  6. Growth declines in red spruce

    SciTech Connect

    McLaughlin, S.B. ); Adams, H.S. )

    1987-10-01

    In this letter, the authors take issue with Zedaker, Hyink, and Smith who have indicated that observed red spruce growth declines can be expected based on growth trends for even-aged stands of red spruce as documented in Meyer (1929). Recently, an examination was made of stand stocking levels at 750 sites where red spruce were cored and neither the rate of growth decline nor the extent of mortality were found to be related to stand stocking levels or previous disturbance history. The authors conclude that the Meyer data do not represent an appropriate model for stand dynamics of old-growth, high-elevation stands and no not adequately explain the growth declines observed at many of those sites.

  7. Red facts: Ethylene. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-09-01

    EPA is directed by the Federal Insecticide, Fungicide, and Rodenticide Act as amended in 1988 (FIFRA '88) to review all pesticide products containing active ingredients initially registered before November 1, 1984, and to reregister those products that have a substantially complete data base and do not pose unreasonable adverse effects to people or the environment. The pesticide reregistration program is to be completed by the late 1990's. The RED FACTS fact sheet summarizes EPA's conclusion, as set forth in the Reregistration Eligibility Document (or RED), that products containing a pesticide do not pose unreasonable risks when used as directed by Agency-approved labeling, and are eligible for reregistration.

  8. Red Plague Control Plan (RPCP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooke, Robert W.

    2010-01-01

    SCOPE: Prescribes the minimum requirements for the control of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) of silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. PURPOSE: Targeted for applications where exposure to assembly processes, environmental conditions, and contamination may promote the development of cuprous / cupric oxide corrosion (a.k.a. Red Plague) in silver-coated copper wire, cable, and harness assemblies. Does not exclude any alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes that meet or exceed the baseline of requirements established by this document. Use of alternate or contractor-proprietary documents or processes shall require review and prior approval of the procuring NASA activity.

  9. Clusters rich in red supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, Ignacio

    In the past few years, several clusters containing large numbers of red supergiants have been discovered. These clusters are amongst the most massive young clusters known in the Milky Way, with stellar masses reaching a few 104 M ⊙. They have provided us, for the first time, with large homogeneous samples of red supergiants of a given age. These large populations make them, despite heavy extinction along their sightlines, powerful laboratories to understand the evolutionary status of red supergiants. While some of the clusters, such as the eponymous RSGC1, are so obscured that their members are only observable in the near-IR, some of them are easily accessible, allowing for an excellent characterisation of cluster and stellar properties. The information gleaned so far from these clusters gives strong support to the idea that late-M type supergiants represent a separate class, characterised by very heavy mass loss. It also shows that the spectral-type distribution of red supergiants in the Milky Way is very strongly peaked towards M1, while suggesting a correlation between spectral type and evolutionary stage.

  10. Infra-red soft universality

    SciTech Connect

    Jack, I.

    1997-06-15

    In a special class of supersymmetric grand unified theories, the commonly assumed universal form of the soft supersymmetry-breaking terms is approached in the infra-red limit. The resulting universal scalar mass and trilinear coupling are predicted in terms of the gaugino mass.

  11. Growth declines in red spruce

    SciTech Connect

    Zedaker, S.M.; Hyink, D.M.; Smith, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Over the past two decades second-growth red spruce stands in the Northeast have demonstrated declines in radial increment. Some observers are implicating air pollution as a primary cause of the declines, based on recently acquired increment cores from dominant trees. Various forms of air pollution (O/sub 3/, NO/sub x/, SO/sub 2/, and trace metals) are known to reduce growth and development of tree species, but few studies have provided concrete evidence of regional pollution-caused declines in forest ecosystems. Recently published evidence of a synchronous, consistent, and unprecedented regional decline in red spruce should be weighed against the realization that radial increment in red spruce declines naturally as stands age. Separating anthropogenic stress-caused growth patterns from natural stand dynamics requires an in-depth knowledge of forest growth and yield, tree silvics, and forest ecosystem processes. Detailed analyses of growth by stand characteristics - site index, density, elevation, stand history - will be necessary to implicate air pollution as a primary cause of red spruce decline.

  12. Chemical Contamination of Red Meat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemical residues have been present in red meat products since meat eating began. Only in the last few decades, however has man been able to identify and quantify these residues in meat products and to ascribe to them specific risks to human health. For some residues, uncertainties with respect to q...

  13. Pesa Large Red Dry Bean

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Released in 2006, Pesa was derived from the single cross Rojo x Kablanketi made in Dec-Jan 1992-93. The parent ‘Rojo’ is a large red-seeded cultivar released by SUA in 1997. It has I bc-12 resistance to BCMV and BCMNV, resistance to the prevalent races of ALS, and moderate resistance to CBB, and H...

  14. PARTITIONING THE RELATIVE INFLUENCE OF SOIL N, MYCORRHIZAE, AND FOLIAR N UPTAKE ON FOLIAR δ15N PATTERNS: CAN WE DETECT FOLIAR UPTAKE OF REACTIVE N?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallano, D.; Sparks, J. P.

    2009-12-01

    Vegetation is an important sink for atmospheric reactive N in N-limited systems and may be capable of incorporating reactive N compounds directly into leaves through the foliar uptake pathway. A proxy for atmospheric reactive N entering vegetation would be useful to estimate the impact of direct foliar N uptake on plant metabolism. Natural abundance foliar N isotopic composition (δ15N) is a practical tool for this purpose because plant-available N sources often have different isotopic compositions. Current understanding of foliar δ15N suggests these values primarily represent the integration of soil δ15N, direct foliar N uptake, mycorrhizal fractionation, and within-plant fractionations. Using a potted plant mesocosm system, we estimated the influence of mycorrhizae on foliar δ15N patterns in red maple (Acer rubrum) seedlings along an N deposition gradient in New York State. We found that mycorrhizal associations altered foliar δ15N in red maple seedlings from 0.03 - 1.01‰ across sites. Along the same temporal and spatial scales, we examined the influence of soil δ15N, foliar N uptake, and mycorrhizae on foliar δ15N in adult stands of American beech (Fagus grandifolia), black birch (Betula lenta), red maple (A. rubrum), and red oak (Quercus rubra). Using multiple regression models, atmospheric NO2 concentration explained 0%, 69%, 23%, and 45% of the residual variation in foliar δ15N remaining in American beech, red maple, red oak, and black birch, respectively, after accounting for soil δ15N. Our results suggest that foliar δ15N may be used to estimate pollution-derived atmospheric reactive N entering vegetation via the foliar N uptake pathway.

  15. Still red light for red light cameras? An update.

    PubMed

    Høye, Alena

    2013-06-01

    The present study has replicated the results from a previous meta-analysis by Erke (2009) [Erke, A., 2009. Red light for red-light cameras? A meta-analysis of the effects of red-light cameras on crashes. Accident Analysis & Prevention 41 (5), 897-905.] based on a larger sample of RLC-studies, and provides answers to the criticisms that were raised by Lund et al. (2009) [Lund, A.K., Kyrychenko, S.Y., Retting, R.A., 2009. Caution: a comment on Alena Erke's red light for red-light cameras? A meta-analysis of the effects of red-light cameras on crashes. Accident Analysis and Prevention 41, 895-896.] against the previous meta-analysis. The addition of recent studies to the meta-analysis and a more thorough investigation of potential moderator variables lead to a slight improvement of the estimated effects of RLC in the previous meta-analysis. The present study found a non-significant increase of all crashes by 6% and a non-significant decrease of all injury crashes by 13%. Right-angle collisions were found to decrease by 13% and rear-end collisions were found to increase by 39%. For right-angle injury collisions a decrease by 33% was found and for rear-end injury collisions a smaller increase was found (+19%). The effects of RLC are likely to be more favorable when RLC-warning signs are set up at main entrances to areas with RLC enforcement than when each RLC-intersection is signposted. The effects of RLC may become more favorable over time, this could however not be investigated empirically. Several results indicate that spillover effects may occur for right-angle collisions, but most likely not for rear-end and other crashes. If spillover effects do not occur for rear-end crashes, which increase at RLC intersection, this would be a positive result for RLC. However, the results seem to be affected to some degree by publication bias and the effects may therefore be somewhat less favorable than indicated by the results from meta-analysis.

  16. Genetic Basis for Red Coloration in Birds.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Ricardo J; Johnson, James D; Toomey, Matthew B; Ferreira, Mafalda S; Araujo, Pedro M; Melo-Ferreira, José; Andersson, Leif; Hill, Geoffrey E; Corbo, Joseph C; Carneiro, Miguel

    2016-06-06

    The yellow and red feather pigmentation of many bird species [1] plays pivotal roles in social signaling and mate choice [2, 3]. To produce red pigments, birds ingest yellow carotenoids and endogenously convert them into red ketocarotenoids via an oxidation reaction catalyzed by a previously unknown ketolase [4-6]. We investigated the genetic basis for red coloration in birds using whole-genome sequencing of red siskins (Spinus cucullata), common canaries (Serinus canaria), and "red factor" canaries, which are the hybrid product of crossing red siskins with common canaries [7]. We identified two genomic regions introgressed from red siskins into red factor canaries that are required for red coloration. One of these regions contains a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme, CYP2J19. Transcriptome analysis demonstrates that CYP2J19 is significantly upregulated in the skin and liver of red factor canaries, strongly implicating CYP2J19 as the ketolase that mediates red coloration in birds. Interestingly, a second introgressed region required for red feathers resides within the epidermal differentiation complex, a cluster of genes involved in development of the integument. Lastly, we present evidence that CYP2J19 is involved in ketocarotenoid formation in the retina. The discovery of the carotenoid ketolase has important implications for understanding sensory function and signaling mediated by carotenoid pigmentation.

  17. Forest regeneration composition and development in upland, mixed-oak forests.

    PubMed

    Fei, Songlin; Gould, Peter J; Steiner, Kim C; Finley, James C; McDill, Marc E

    2005-12-01

    Advance regeneration in 52 mature mixed-oak stands was analyzed and described. Red maple (Acer rubrum L.) was the most abundant species in the study area. Among oak (Quercus) species, northern red oak (Q. rubra L.) was the most abundant within the Allegheny Plateau physiographic province, whereas chestnut oak (Q. montana L.) was the most abundant within the Ridge and Valley physiographic province. Sixteen stands, for which data are available through the fourth growing season following harvest, were used to describe stand development. Cumulative height, a composite measure of size and density, was used to describe early stand development. Black gum (Nyssa sylvatica Marsh.) and black birch (Betula lenta L.) had dramatic increases in stand density and cumulative height after overstory removal. Cumulative height of northern red oak and chestnut oak showed a faster positive response to overstory removal than red maple. Oak retained its dominance in cumulative height for at least 4 years after harvest. Red maple nevertheless remained the most abundant tree species after overstory removal. Our results suggest that the principal advantage of red maple regeneration is its ability to accumulate in large numbers prior to harvest.

  18. Red blood cells, sickle cell (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Sickle cell anemia is an inherited blood disease in which the red blood cells produce abnormal pigment (hemoglobin). ... abnormal hemoglobin causes deformity of the red blood cells into crescent or sickle-shapes, as seen in this photomicrograph.

  19. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species Gloiopeltis furcata, Porphyra...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1121 - Red algae.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Red algae. 184.1121 Section 184.1121 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1121 Red algae. (a) Red algae are seaweeds of the species...

  5. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  6. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  7. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  8. 27 CFR 9.167 - Red Mountain

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red Mountain 9.167 Section... Mountain (a) Name. The name of the viticultural area described in this section is “Red Mountain.” (b) Approved maps. The appropriate map for determining the boundaries of the Red Mountain viticultural area...

  9. Neutral red staining for plant vacuoles.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Birgit; Hülskamp, Martin

    2010-06-01

    For almost 100 years, neutral red has been used to stain living cells and fixed tissue. It can be used as a general-purpose stain, a pH indicator (turning from red to yellow, as the medium becomes alkaline), or a nuclear stain. In this protocol, neutral red is used to stain plant vacuoles.

  10. Red-Cockaded Woodpecker Classroom Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Texas State Dept. of Parks and Wildlife, Austin.

    This packet provides information on the balance between the endangered red-cockaded woodpecker and modern forestry in Texas. A set of classroom activities about the Red-cockaded Woodpecker and its habitat for grades 3-6, and a booklet, a pamphlet, and a poster are featured. Sections of the booklet include: (1) "The Red-cockaded…

  11. “AmaRosa,” a red skinned, red fleshed fingerling with high phytonutrient value

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    AmaRosa is a mid season specialty potato with red skin and red flesh. This selection is unique among commercially available potato varieties in that plants set a large number of smooth, small, fingerling-shaped tubers with red skin and red flesh. AmaRosa tubers have higher total anthocyanin and hyd...

  12. Oxidant-induced damage to equine erythrocytes from exposure to Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia terebinthus, and Pistacia chinensis.

    PubMed

    Walter, Kyla M; Moore, Caroline E; Bozorgmanesh, Rana; Magdesian, K Gary; Woods, Leslie W; Puschner, Birgit

    2014-11-01

    Two horses were referred for methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia following 5 acute deaths in their herd from an unidentified toxin source. Horses have a greater risk than other mammalian species of developing methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia following ingestion of oxidizing toxins, due to deficiencies in the mechanisms that protect against oxidative damage in erythrocytes. Their susceptibility to oxidative erythrocyte damage is evident in the numerous cases of red maple (Acer rubrum) toxicosis. The suspected toxins causing A. rubrum toxicosis are tannic acid, gallic acid, and a metabolite of gallic acid, pyrogallol. These compounds can be found in a variety of plants, posing a risk to equine health. In order to quickly identify toxin sources, 2 rapid in vitro assays were developed to screen plant extracts for the ability to induce methemoglobin formation or cause hemolysis in healthy equine donor erythrocytes. The plant extract screening focused on 3 species of the genus Pistacia: P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, and P. chinensis, which were located in the horse pasture. Extracts of the seeds and leaves of each species induced methemoglobin formation and resulted in hemolysis, with seed extracts having greater potency. The in vitro assays used in the current study provide a useful diagnostic method for the rapid identification of oxidizing agents from unidentified sources. There is no effective treatment for oxidative erythrocyte damage in horses, making rapid identification and removal of the source essential for the prevention of poisoning.

  13. Oxidant-induced damage to equine erythrocytes from exposure to Pistacia atlantica, Pistacia terebinthus, and Pistacia chinensis

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Kyla M.; Moore, Caroline E.; Bozorgmanesh, Rana; Magdesian, K. Gary; Woods, Leslie W.; Puschner, Birgit

    2017-01-01

    Two horses were referred for methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia following 5 acute deaths in their herd from an unidentified toxin source. Horses have a greater risk than other mammalian species of developing methemoglobinemia and hemolytic anemia following ingestion of oxidizing toxins, due to deficiencies in the mechanisms that protect against oxidative damage in erythrocytes. Their susceptibility to oxidative erythrocyte damage is evident in the numerous cases of red maple (Acer rubrum) toxicosis. The suspected toxins causing A. rubrum toxicosis are tannic acid, gallic acid, and a metabolite of gallic acid, pyrogallol. These compounds can be found in a variety of plants, posing a risk to equine health. In order to quickly identify toxin sources, 2 rapid in vitro assays were developed to screen plant extracts for the ability to induce methemoglobin formation or cause hemolysis in healthy equine donor erythrocytes. The plant extract screening focused on 3 species of the genus Pistacia: P. atlantica, P. terebinthus, and P. chinensis, which were located in the horse pasture. Extracts of the seeds and leaves of each species induced methemoglobin formation and resulted in hemolysis, with seed extracts having greater potency. The in vitro assays used in the current study provide a useful diagnostic method for the rapid identification of oxidizing agents from unidentified sources. There is no effective treatment for oxidative erythrocyte damage in horses, making rapid identification and removal of the source essential for the prevention of poisoning. PMID:25227420

  14. Extremely red quasars in BOSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamann, Fred; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Ross, Nicholas; Paris, Isabelle; Alexandroff, Rachael M.; Villforth, Carolin; Richards, Gordon T.; Herbst, Hanna; Brandt, W. Niel; Cook, Ben; Denney, Kelly D.; Greene, Jenny E.; Schneider, Donald P.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Red quasars are candidate young objects in an early transition stage of massive galaxy evolution. Our team recently discovered a population of extremely red quasars (ERQs) in the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS) that has a suite of peculiar emission-line properties including large rest equivalent widths (REWs), unusual `wingless' line profiles, large N V/Lyα, N V/C IV, Si IV/C IV and other flux ratios, and very broad and blueshifted [O III] λ5007. Here we present a new catalogue of C IV and N V emission-line data for 216 188 BOSS quasars to characterize the ERQ line properties further. We show that they depend sharply on UV-to-mid-IR colour, secondarily on REW(C IV), and not at all on luminosity or the Baldwin Effect. We identify a `core' sample of 97 ERQs with nearly uniform peculiar properties selected via i-W3 ≥ 4.6 (AB) and REW(C IV) ≥ 100 Å at redshifts 2.0-3.4. A broader search finds 235 more red quasars with similar unusual characteristics. The core ERQs have median luminosity ˜ 47.1, sky density 0.010 deg-2, surprisingly flat/blue UV spectra given their red UV-to-mid-IR colours, and common outflow signatures including BALs or BAL-like features and large C IV emission-line blueshifts. Their SEDs and line properties are inconsistent with normal quasars behind a dust reddening screen. We argue that the core ERQs are a unique obscured quasar population with extreme physical conditions related to powerful outflows across the line-forming regions. Patchy obscuration by small dusty clouds could produce the observed UV extinctions without substantial UV reddening.

  15. 2-(4-Bromoacetamido)anilino-2-deoxypentitol 1,5-bisphosphate, a new affinity label for ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum. Determination of reaction parameters and characterization of an active site peptide.

    PubMed

    Herndon, C S; Hartman, F C

    1984-03-10

    A new affinity label for ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase from Rhodospirillum rubrum, 2-(4-bromoacetamido)anilino-2-deoxypentitol 1,5-bisphosphate, has been prepared, Reductive amination of ribulose-P2 with p-phenylenediamine in the presence of sodium cyanoborohydride yielded an epimeric mixture which was resolved by chromatography on quaternary aminoethyl-Sephadex. Subsequent bromoacetylation of the isolated amino bisphosphates gave reagents A and B (ribo and arabino epimers of 2-(4-bromoacetamido) anilino-2-deoxypentitol 1,5-bisphosphate) which were competitive inhibitors of the carboxylase with Ki values of 705 and 104 microM, respectively. Reagent A exhibited no time-dependent effects on the carboxylase in either the deactivated or activated state. Incubation of the enzyme with reagent B in the presence of the essential activators CO2 and Mg2+, however, resulted in an irreversible, time-dependent loss of activity, with a Kinact of 125 microM and a minimal half-time of 7.3 min. Covalent incorporation of [14C]reagent B was directly proportional to the loss of activity, with total inactivation correlating with an incorporation of 1.1 mol of reagent/mol of subunit. Inclusion of the competitive inhibitor 2-carboxyribitol 1,5-bisphosphate protected against inactivation with a concomitant reduction in incorporation. Neither reagent affected the activity of spinach carboxylase. Fractionation of [14C]reagent B-modified enzyme on DEAE-cellulose, subsequent to carboxymethylation and tryptic digestion, revealed two major radioactive peaks of approximately equal area. Digestion of each peak with alkaline phosphatase and rechromatography on DEAE-cellulose resulted in pure peptides I and II. The peptides were identical except in the site of labeling: peptide I contained a modified cysteinyl residue while peptide II contained a modified histidyl residue. Automated Edman degradation established the sequence as (sequence in text) which is located near the NH2 terminus

  16. Red cell DAMPs and inflammation.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, Rafaela; Silveira, Angélica A A; Conran, Nicola

    2016-09-01

    Intravascular hemolysis, or the destruction of red blood cells in the circulation, can occur in numerous diseases, including the acquired hemolytic anemias, sickle cell disease and β-thalassemia, as well as during some transfusion reactions, preeclampsia and infections, such as those caused by malaria or Clostridium perfringens. Hemolysis results in the release of large quantities of red cell damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) into the circulation, which, if not neutralized by innate protective mechanisms, have the potential to activate multiple inflammatory pathways. One of the major red cell DAMPs, heme, is able to activate converging inflammatory pathways, such as toll-like receptor signaling, neutrophil extracellular trap formation and inflammasome formation, suggesting that this DAMP both activates and amplifies inflammation. Other potent DAMPs that may be released by the erythrocytes upon their rupture include heat shock proteins (Hsp), such as Hsp70, interleukin-33 and Adenosine 5' triphosphate. As such, hemolysis represents a major inflammatory mechanism that potentially contributes to the clinical manifestations that have been associated with the hemolytic diseases, such as pulmonary hypertension and leg ulcers, and likely plays a role in specific complications of sickle cell disease such as endothelial activation, vaso-occlusive processes and tissue injury.

  17. Foliar δ15N is affected by foliar nitrogen uptake, soil nitrogen, and mycorrhizae along a nitrogen deposition gradient.

    PubMed

    Vallano, Dena M; Sparks, Jed P

    2013-05-01

    Foliar nitrogen isotope (δ(15)N) composition patterns have been linked to soil N, mycorrhizal fractionation, and within-plant fractionations. However, few studies have examined the potential importance of the direct foliar uptake of gaseous reactive N on foliar δ(15)N. Using an experimental set-up in which the rate of mycorrhizal infection was reduced using a fungicide, we examined the influence of mycorrhizae on foliar δ(15)N in potted red maple (Acer rubrum) seedlings along a regional N deposition gradient in New York State. Mycorrhizal associations altered foliar δ(15)N values in red maple seedlings from 0.06 to 0.74 ‰ across sites. At the same sites, we explored the predictive roles of direct foliar N uptake, soil δ(15)N, and mycorrhizae on foliar δ(15)N in adult stands of A. rubrum, American beech (Fagus grandifolia), black birch (Betula lenta), and red oak (Quercus rubra). Multiple regression analysis indicated that ambient atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentration explained 0, 69, 23, and 45 % of the variation in foliar δ(15)N in American beech, red maple, red oak, and black birch, respectively, after accounting for the influence of soil δ(15)N. There was no correlation between foliar δ(13)C and foliar %N with increasing atmospheric NO2 concentration in most species. Our findings suggest that total canopy uptake, and likely direct foliar N uptake, of pollution-derived atmospheric N deposition may significantly impact foliar δ(15)N in several dominant species occurring in temperate forest ecosystems.

  18. Red giants: then and now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, John

    Fred Hoyle's work on the structure and evolution of red giants, particularly his pathbreaking contribution with Martin Schwarzschild (Hoyle and Schwarzschild 1955), is both lauded and critically assessed. In his later lectures and work with students in the early 1960s, Hoyle presented more physical ways of understanding some of the approximations used, and results obtained, in that seminal paper. Although later ideas by other investigators will be touched upon, Hoyle's viewpoint - that low-mass red giants are essentially white dwarfs with a serious mass-storage problem - is still extremely fruitful. Over the years, I have further developed his method of attack. Relatively recently, I have been able to deepen and broaden the approach, finally extending the theory to provide a unifying treatment of the structure of low-mass stars from the main sequence though both the red-giant and horizontal-branch phases of evolution. Many aspects of these stars that had remained puzzling, even mysterious, for decades have now fallen into place, and some questions have been answered that were not even posed before. With low-mass red giants as the simplest example, this recent work emphasizes that stars, in general, may have at least two distinct but very important centres: (I) a geometrical centre, and (II) a separate nuclear centre, residing in a shell outside a zero-luminosity dense core for example. This two-centre perspective leads to an explicit, analytical, asymptotic theory of low-mass red-giant structure. It enables one to appreciate that the problem of understanding why such stars become red giants is one of anticipating a remarkable yet natural structural bifurcation that occurs in them. This bifurcation occurs because of a combination of known and understandable facts just summarized namely that, following central hydrogen exhaustion, a thin nuclear-burning shell does develop outside a more-or-less dense core. In the resulting theory, both ρsh/ρolinec and

  19. Nitric oxide scavenging by red cell microparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen; Zhao, Weixin; Christ, George J; Gladwin, Mark T; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B

    2013-12-01

    Red cell microparticles form during the storage of red blood cells and in diseases associated with red cell breakdown and asplenia, including hemolytic anemias such as sickle cell disease. These small phospholipid vesicles that are derived from red blood cells have been implicated in the pathogenesis of transfusion of aged stored blood and hemolytic diseases, via activation of the hemostatic system and effects on nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability. Red cell microparticles react with the important signaling molecule NO almost as fast as cell-free hemoglobin, about 1000 times faster than red-cell-encapsulated hemoglobin. The degree to which this fast reaction with NO by red cell microparticles influences NO bioavailability depends on several factors that are explored here. In the context of stored blood preserved in ADSOL, we find that both cell-free hemoglobin and red cell microparticles increase as a function of duration of storage, and the proportion of extra erythrocytic hemoglobin in the red cell microparticle fraction is about 20% throughout storage. Normalized by hemoglobin concentration, the NO-scavenging ability of cell-free hemoglobin is slightly higher than that of red cell microparticles as determined by a chemiluminescence NO-scavenging assay. Computational simulations show that the degree to which red cell microparticles scavenge NO will depend substantially on whether they enter the cell-free zone next to the endothelial cells. Single-microvessel myography experiments performed under laminar flow conditions demonstrate that microparticles significantly enter the cell-free zone and inhibit acetylcholine, endothelial-dependent, and NO-dependent vasodilation. Taken together, these data suggest that as little as 5 μM hemoglobin in red cell microparticles, an amount formed after the infusion of one unit of aged stored packed red blood cells, has the potential to reduce NO bioavailability and impair endothelial-dependent vasodilation.

  20. Inoculum density effects on infection of selected Eastern US forest species by Phytophthora ramorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Inoculum threshold information can be used to better understand the epidemiology of P. ramorum should it become established in the Eastern US. Detached leaves from Quercus prinus, Q. rubra, Acer rubrum, Kalmia latifolia ‘Hoffman’s K’, and Rhododendron ‘Cunningham’s White’ were exposed to sporangia ...

  1. Red is romantic, but only for feminine females: sexual dimorphism moderates red effect on sexual attraction.

    PubMed

    Wen, Fangfang; Zuo, Bin; Wu, Yang; Sun, Shan; Liu, Ke

    2014-08-08

    Previous researchers have documented that the color red enhances one's sexual attraction to the opposite sex. The current study further examined the moderating role of sexual dimorphism in red effects. The results indicated that red enhanced men's sexual attraction to women with more feminine facial characteristics but had no effect on ratings of perceived general attractiveness. Red clothing also had a marginally significant effect on men's sexual attractiveness. In addition, regardless of sexual dimorphism cues, male participants rated women with red as warmer and more competent. The underlying mechanisms of the red effect, the limitations of the current study, and suggestions for future directions are discussed.

  2. Indirect effects of pandemic deer overabundance inferred from caterpillar-host relations.

    PubMed

    Wheatall, Laura; Nuttle, Tim; Yerger, Ellen

    2013-10-01

    Externally feeding phytophagous insect larvae (i.e., caterpillars, here, larval Lepidoptera and sawflies, Hymenoptera: Symphyta) are important canopy herbivores and prey resources in temperate deciduous forests. However, composition of forest trees has changed dramatically in the eastern United States since 1900. In particular, browsing by high densities of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) has resulted in forests dominated by browse-tolerant species, such as black cherry (Prunus serotina), and greatly reduced relative abundance of other tree species, notably pin cherry (Prunus pensylvanica) and birches (Betula spp.). To quantify effects of these changes on caterpillars, we sampled caterpillars from 960 branch tips of the 8 tree species that comprise 95% of trees in Allegheny hardwood forests: red maple (Acer rubrum), striped maple (Acer pensylvanicum), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), sweet birch (Betula lenta), yellow birch (Betula allegheniensis), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), black cherry, and pin cherry. We collected 547 caterpillar specimens that belonged to 66 Lepidoptera and 10 Hymenoptera species. Caterpillar density, species richness, and community composition differed significantly among tree species sampled. Pin cherry, nearly eliminated at high deer density, had the highest density and diversity of caterpillars. Pin cherry shared a common caterpillar community with black cherry, which was distinct from those of other tree hosts. As high deer density continues to replace diverse forests of cherries, maples, birches, and beech with monodominant stands of black cherry, up to 66% of caterpillar species may be eliminated. Hence, deer-induced changes in forest vegetation are likely to ricochet back up forest food webs and therefore negatively affect species that depend on caterpillars and moths for food and pollination.

  3. Still from Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This image is one of seven from the narrow-angle camera on NASA's Cassini spacecraft assembled as a brief movie of cloud movements on Jupiter. It was taken with a blue filter. The smallest features visible are about 500 kilometers (about 300 miles) across.

    Small bright clouds appear suddenly to the west of the Great Red Spot. Based on data from NASA's Galileo spacecraft, scientists suspect that these small white features are lightning storms, where falling raindrops create an electrical charge. The lightning storms eventually merge with the Red Spot and surrounding jets, and may be the main energy source for these large-scale features. Imaging observations of the darkside of the planet in the weeks following Cassini's closest approach to Jupiter on Dec. 30, 2000 will search for lightning storms like these.

    This image was re-projected by cylindrical-map projection of an image taken in the first week of October 2000. It shows an area from 50 degrees north of Jupiter's equator to 50 degrees south, extending 100 degrees east west, about one quarter of Jupiter's circumference.

    Cassini is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Cassini mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C.

  4. Schubert edits JGR-Red

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    ‘As editor, my major concern will be to maintain and strengthen the Journal of Geophysical Research's position as the preeminent journal in solid earth and solid planet geophysics,’ asserted Gerald Schubert, the new editor of the red section of JGR. ‘I will endeavor to ensure that all major subject areas covered by JGR-Red are adequately represented among the published papers.’ Schubert, professor of geophysics and planetary physics at the University of California, Los Angeles, officially begins his 4-year term as editor on December 1, although he has been receiving manuscripts since October 1.The new editor brings to JGR enthusiasm and dedication. ‘I will try to make it the type of journal that the readers want it to be in terms of both rapid publication time and publication of the best papers.’ He expects to continue the traditions that his predecessor, Thomas J . Ahrens, has established. In particular, Schubert wants to continue publishing special issues that focus on specific research topics. He welcomes suggestions for such issues from the research community.

  5. Element accumulation patterns of deciduous and evergreen tree seedlings on acid soils: implications for sensitivity to manganese toxicity.

    PubMed

    St Clair, Samuel B; Lynch, Jonathan P

    2005-01-01

    Foliar nutrient imbalances, including the hyperaccumulation of manganese (Mn), are correlated with symptoms of declining health in sensitive tree species growing on acidic forest soils. The objectives of this study were to: (1) compare foliar nutrient accumulation patterns of six deciduous (sugar maple (Acer saccharum Marsh.), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), red oak (Quercus rubra L.), white oak (Quercus alba L.), black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) and white ash (Fraxinus americana L.)) and three evergreen (eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis L.), white pine (Pinus strobus L.) and white spruce (Picea glauca (Moench) Voss.)) tree species growing on acidic forest soils; and (2) examine how leaf phenology and other traits that distinguish evergreen and deciduous tree species influence foliar Mn accumulation rates and sensitivity to excess Mn. For the first objective, leaf samples of seedlings from five acidic, non-glaciated field sites on Pennsylvania's Allegheny Plateau were collected and analyzed for leaf element concentrations. In a second study, we examined growth and photosynthetic responses of seedlings exposed to excess Mn in sand culture. In field samples, Mn in deciduous foliage hyperaccumulated to concentrations more than twice as high as those found in evergreen needles. Among species, sugar maple was the most sensitive to excess Mn based on growth and photosynthetic measurements. Photosynthesis in red maple and red oak was also sensitive to excess Mn, whereas white oak, black cherry, white ash and the three evergreen species were tolerant of excess Mn. Among the nine species, relative rates of photosynthesis were negatively correlated with foliar Mn concentrations, suggesting that photosynthetic sensitivity to Mn is a function of its rate of accumulation in seedling foliage.

  6. Is PZ MON a Red Dwarf or a Red Giant?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bondar', N. I.; Sergeev, S. G.

    Hipparcos data (ESA 1997) give for PZ Mon a parallax π = 0.71 +- 1.17 mas that is not in agreement with earlier estimations of distance to the star of 15-30 ps and with its status of K- dwarf. There are presented spectra of PZ Mon in the region 3750-6150 Α with resolution of 7 ≍ Α, which were carried out in the Nasmith focus of 2.6 m reflector in the Crimean Astrophysical observatory. Intensities of molecular absorptions in this spectral range are determined relative a nearby continuum and their relations between absolute magnitudes are considered. The calculated Mν =6.74 and r=29 ps correspond to an earlier classiffication of PZ Mon as a red dwarf.

  7. Malignant Melanoma Arising in Red Tattoo Ink

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Gerald; McKenna, Dermot; Regan, Padraic James

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 33-year-old male who presented with a malignant melanoma on his anterior chest wall. The lesion was only found in the red ink pigment of the tattoo, as were several in-transit dermal metastases. Possible explanations include a pre-existing lesion which was seeded with red ink or the possibility of the red ink causing an inflammatory reaction leading to malignant transformation. This is the first reported case of a melanoma developing in the red ink pigment of a multi-colored tattoo. PMID:26217569

  8. Red cell transfusion "trigger": a review.

    PubMed

    Petrides, Marian

    2003-07-01

    Despite the publication of several consensus guidelines that set forth recommendations for the transfusion of red cells, actual clinical practice continues to vary widely. Animal data and studies in human volunteers and patients support a red cell transfusion threshold of 7 to 8 g/dl in most patients. However, conflicting data, particularly in cardiac patients and in the elderly, suggest that it may be impossible to define a single red cell "trigger" for all patients. A well-designed, randomized, controlled trial is still needed to establish a safe threshold for red cell transfusion in adults with coronary artery disease.

  9. The effect of a red leaf pigment on the relationship between red edge and chlorophyll concentration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curran, Paul J.; Dungan, Jennifer L.; Macler, Bruce A.; Plummer, Stephen E.

    1991-01-01

    The effect of a leaf pigment - red amaranthin - on red edge and chlorophyll concentration is investigated in amaranth leaves by means of treatments with nitrate and salts. A near-linear relationship between red edge and chlorophyll concentration is observed for leaves with low amaranthin concentration, and no relationship is noted at high concentrations. The study demonstrates the limitation inherent in estimating chlorophyll concentration by using remotely sensed red edge.

  10. Voyager 1 Red Spot Movie

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    This movie shows the portion of Jupiter around the Great Red Spot as it swirls through more than 60 Jupiter days. Notice the difference in speed and direction of the various zones of the atmosphere. The interaction of the atmospheric clouds and storm shows how dynamic the Jovian atmosphere is.

    As Voyager 1 approached Jupiter in 1979, it took images of the planet at regular intervals. This sequence is made from 66 images taken once every Jupiter rotation period (about 10 hours). This time-lapse movie uses images taken every time Jupiter longitude 68W passed under the spacecraft. These images were acquired in the Blue filter from Jan. 6 to Feb. 3 1979. The spacecraft flew from 58 million kilometers to 31 million kilometers from Jupiter during that time.

    This time-lapse movie was produced at JPL by the Image Processing Laboratory in 1979.

  11. Demonstration project cuts red tape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katzoff, Judith A.

    Results from a demonstration project aimed at cutting red tape in federal grants for basic research at universities are "very encouraging" so far, according to Don I. Phillips, executive director of the Government-University-Industry Research Roundtable. The roundtable is coordinating the experimental effort, with the participation of five major federal agencies as well as the Florida state university system and the University of Miami (a private institution in Coral Gables, Fla.).Under the project, special conditions apply to grants from the participating agencies to individual researchers at the participating universities: Investigators do not have to ask the agency's permission for changes in budget allocations, purchases of permanent equipment, or foreign travel. Grant money can be spent up to a year after the grant ends without a special request. Under this plan, researchers, with agency approval, can also ask to have their entire research program covered as a single administrative entity, rather than as several individual projects.

  12. A red metallic oxide photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiaoxiang; Randorn, Chamnan; Efstathiou, Paraskevi; Irvine, John T. S.

    2012-07-01

    Light absorption across the bandgap in semiconductors is exploited in many important applications such as photovoltaics, light emitting diodes and photocatalytic conversion. Metals differ from semiconductors in that there is no energy gap separating occupied and unoccupied levels; however, it is still possible to excite electrons between bands. This is evidenced by materials with metallic properties that are also strongly coloured. An important question is whether such coloured metals could be used in light harvesting or similar applications. The high conductivity of a metal would preclude sufficient electric field being available to separate photocarriers; however, the high carrier mobility in a metal might also facilitate kinetic charge separation. Here we clearly demonstrate for the first time the use of a red metallic oxide, Sr1-xNbO3 as an effective photocatalyst. The material has been used under visible light to photocatalyse the oxidation of methylene blue and both the oxidation and reduction of water assisted by appropriate sacrificial elements.

  13. Chemical toxicity of red cells.

    PubMed Central

    Piomelli, S

    1981-01-01

    Exposure to toxic chemicals may result in alterations of red cell function. In certain cases, the toxic effect requires a genetic predisposition and thus affects only a restricted number of individuals; in other instances, the toxic effect is exerted on the hematopoietic system of every person. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency is probably the most widespread genetic disorder. It is observed at highest frequency in populations from subtropical countries as a result of its selective advantage vis à vis falciparum malaria. The gene controlling this enzyme is located on the X-chromosome; thus, the defect is sex-linked. Individuals with a genetic defect of this enzyme are extremely susceptible to hemolysis, when exposed to oxidant drugs (such as certain antimalarials and sulfonamides) because of the inability of their red cells to regenerate NADPH. Lead poisoning result in profound effects on the process of heme synthesis. Among the steps most sensitive to lead toxicity are the enzyme delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and the intramitochondrial step that leads to the incorporation of iron into protoporphyrin. By these mechanisms, in severe lead intoxication there is an accumulation of large amounts of delta-aminolevulinic acid (a compound with inherent neurotoxicity), and there are abnormalities of mitochondrial function in all cells of the body. Individuals living in an industrialized society are unavoidably exposed to some environmental lead. Recent evidence indicates that, even at levels of exposure which do not increase the blood lead level above values presently considered normal, abnormalities of heme synthesis are clearly detectable. PMID:7016524

  14. Red Dirt Thinking on Aspiration and Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborne, Sam; Guenther, John

    2013-01-01

    This article sets the scene for the series of five articles on "red dirt thinking". It first introduces the idea behind red dirt thinking as opposed to "blue sky thinking". Both accept that there are any number of creative and expansive solutions and possibilities to identified challenges--in this case, the challenge of…

  15. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  16. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges...

  17. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges...

  18. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges...

  19. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  20. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges...

  1. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  2. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  3. 33 CFR 117.135 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red River. 117.135 Section 117.135 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Arkansas § 117.135 Red River. The draws of the bridges...

  4. 33 CFR 117.491 - Red River.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Red River. 117.491 Section 117.491 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.491 Red River. (a) The draw of the Union...

  5. Public perceptions of Florida red tide risks.

    PubMed

    Kuhar, Sara E; Nierenberg, Kate; Kirkpatrick, Barbara; Tobin, Graham A

    2009-07-01

    This research integrates theoretical frameworks of risk perception, social amplification of risk, and the role of place-specific contexts in order to explore the various perceptions surrounding Florida red tides. Florida red tides are naturally occurring events that are increasing in frequency, duration, and severity. This has implications for public health, the local economy, and ecosystem health. While many of the negative impacts of Florida red tides are not easily controlled, some of the secondary impacts may be mitigated through individuals' responses. However, public perception and consequent reactions to Florida red tides have not been investigated. This research uses questionnaire surveys, and semi-structured interviews, to explore the various perceptions of the risk surrounding red tides. Surveys and interviews were conducted along two Florida west coast beaches. The results indicate that the underlying foundations of the social amplification of the risk framework are applicable to understanding how individuals form perceptions of risk relative to red tide events. There are key differences between the spatial locations of individuals and corresponding perceptions, indicating that place-specific contexts are essential to understanding how individuals receive and interpret risk information. The results also suggest that individuals may be lacking efficient and up-to-date information about Florida red tides and their impacts because of inconsistent public outreach. Overall, social and spatial factors appear to be influential as to whether individuals amplify or attenuate the risks associated with Florida red tides.

  6. Preparation of special cements from red mud

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, M.; Upadhayay, S.N.; Prasad, P.M.

    1996-12-31

    Red mud from HINDALCO (Hindustan Aluminium Corporation) Industries Limited, Renukoot, India, contains significant quantities of alumina, iron oxide and silica. Presence of the said constituents makes it a suitable ingredient for the preparation of special cements. Preparation of three varieties of cements was investigated, namely: (a) aluminoferrite (C{sub 4}AF)-belite ({beta}-C{sub 2}S) using lime + red mud + fly ash; (b) aluminoferrite-ferrite (C{sub 2}F)-aluminates (C{sub 3}A and C{sub 12}A{sub 7}) utilizing lime + red mud + bauxite; and (c) sulfoaluminate (C{sub 4}A{sub 3}{bar S})-aluminoferrite-ferrite using lime + red mud + bauxite + gypsum. The effects of composition (proportions of lime, red mud, fly ash, bauxite and gypsum), firing temperature and duration on the properties of cements produced were studied in detail. Cements made from lime + red mud + bauxite or lime + red mud + bauxite + gypsum exhibit strengths comparable or superior to ordinary Portland cement (OPC). On the other hand, those prepared using lime + red mud + fly ash did not have sufficient strength. Moreover, it was not possible to replace bauxite by fly ash (as a source of alumina) in any significant quantity.

  7. Parapoxvirus infections of red deer, Italy.

    PubMed

    Scagliarini, Alessandra; Vaccari, Francesca; Turrini, Filippo; Bianchi, Alessandro; Cordioli, Paolo; Lavazza, Antonio

    2011-04-01

    To characterize parapoxviruses causing severe disease in wild ruminants in Stelvio Park, Italy, we sequenced and compared the DNA of several isolates. Results demonstrated that the red deer isolates are closely related to the parapox of red deer in New Zealand virus.

  8. Parapoxvirus Infections of Red Deer, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Vaccari, Francesca; Turrini, Filippo; Bianchi, Alessandro; Cordioli, Paolo; Lavazza, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    To characterize parapoxviruses causing severe disease in wild ruminants in Stelvio Park, Italy, we sequenced and compared the DNA of several isolates. Results demonstrated that the red deer isolates are closely related to the parapox of red deer in New Zealand virus. PMID:21470460

  9. Grape (Vitis spp.)- Grapevine red blotch disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This disease is caused by Grapevine red blotch-associated virus (GRBaV), which was first reported in 2012 from New York and subsequently in California, Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and elsewhere in the United States The discovery occurred when grapevines with red leaf symptoms that tested negative for...

  10. Regulation of anthocyanin biosynthesis in red cabbages

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The color of red cabbage is due to the accumulation of large quantity of anthocyanins. To investigate the general regulatory control of anthocyanin production in red cabbages, the expression of anthocyanin biosynthetic genes and regulators from eight commercial cultivars was examined. While the four...

  11. Unripe red fruits may be aposematic

    PubMed Central

    Ne'eman, Gidi; Izhaki, Ido

    2009-01-01

    The unripe fruits of certain species are red. Some of these species disperse their seeds by wind (Nerium oleander, Anabasis articulata), others by adhering to animals with their spines (Emex spinosa) or prickles (Hedysarum spinosissimum). Certainly neither type uses red coloration as advertisement to attract the seed dispersing agents. Fleshy-fruited species (Rhamnus alaternus, Rubus sanguineus and Pistacia sp.), which disperse their seeds via frugivores, change fruit color from green to red while still unripe and then to black or dark blue upon ripening. The red color does not seem to function primarily in dispersal (unless red fruits form advertisement flags when there are already black ripe fruits on the plant) because the red unripe fruits of these species are poisonous, spiny, or unpalatable. The unripe red fruits of Nerium oleander are very poisonous, those of Rhamnus alaternus and Anabasis articulata are moderately poisonous, those of Rubus sanguineus are very sour, those of Pistacia sp. contain unpalatable resin and those of Emex spinosa and Hedysarum spinosissimum are prickly. We propose that these unripe red fruits are aposematic, protecting them from herbivory before seed maturation. PMID:19847110

  12. Improving Mineral Nutrition of Micropropagated Red Raspberry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In vitro propagation is important for fast multiplication of a wide range of nursery crops, including red raspberry. The variation in genetic background of the many red raspberry cultivars makes it difficult to successfully use one growth medium for all. Although most cultivars will grow on Murashig...

  13. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  14. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  15. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  16. Red, Rank, and Romance in Women Viewing Men

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elliot, Andrew J.; Niesta Kayser, Daniela; Greitemeyer, Tobias; Lichtenfeld, Stephanie; Gramzow, Richard H.; Maier, Markus A.; Liu, Huijun

    2010-01-01

    In many nonhuman species of vertebrates, females are attracted to red on male conspecifics. Red is also a signal of male status in many nonhuman vertebrate species, and females show a mating preference for high-status males. These red-attraction and red-status links have been found even when red is displayed on males artificially. In the present…

  17. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  18. 21 CFR 640.10 - Red Blood Cells.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Red Blood Cells. 640.10 Section 640.10 Food and... ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Red Blood Cells § 640.10 Red Blood Cells. The proper name of this product shall be Red Blood Cells. The product is defined as red blood cells...

  19. Red blood cell decreases of microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, P. C.

    1985-01-01

    Postflight decreases in red blood cell mass (RBCM) have regularly been recorded after exposure to microgravity. These 5-25 percent decreases do not relate to the mission duration, workload, caloric intake or to the type of spacecraft used. The decrease is accompanied by normal red cell survivals, increased ferritin levels, normal radioactive iron studies, and increases in mean red blood cell volume. Comparable decreases in red blood cell mass are not found after bed rest, a commonly used simulation of the microgravity state. Inhibited bone marrow erythropoiesis has not been proven to date, although reticulocyte numbers in the peripheral circulation are decreased about 50 percent. To date, the cause of the microgravity induced decreases in RBCM is unknown. Increased splenic trapping of circulating red blood cells seem the most logical way to explain the results obtained.

  20. Inflight Assay of Red Blood Cell Deformability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingram, M.; Paglia, D. E.; Eckstein, E. C.; Frazer, R. E.

    1985-01-01

    Studies on Soviet and American astronauts have demonstrated that red blood cell production is altered in response to low gravity (g) environment. This is associated with changes in individual red cells including increased mean cell volume and altered membrane deformability. During long orbital missions, there is a tendency for the red cell mass deficit to be at least partly corrected although the cell shape anomalies are not. Data currently available suggest that the observed decrease in red cell mass is the result of sudden suppression of erythropoieses and that the recovery trend observed during long missions reflects re-establishment of erythropoietic homeostasis at a "set point" for the red cell mass that is slightly below the normal level at 1 g.

  1. The Art of Red Tide Science.

    PubMed

    Hall, Emily R; Nierenberg, Kate; Boyes, Anamari J; Heil, Cynthia A; Flewelling, Leanne J; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2012-05-01

    Over the years, numerous outreach strategies by the science community, such as FAQ cards and website information, have been used to explain blooms of the toxic dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis that occur annually off the west coast of Florida to the impacted communities. Many state and federal agencies have turned to funded research groups for assistance in the development and testing of environmental outreach products. In the case of Florida red tide, the Fish and Wildlife Research Institute/Mote Marine Laboratory (MML) Cooperative Red Tide Agreement allowed MML to initiate a project aimed at developing innovative outreach products about Florida red tide. This project, which we coined "The Art of Red Tide Science," consisted of a team effort between scientists from MML and students from Ringling College of Art and Design. This successful outreach project focused on Florida red tide can be used as a model to develop similar outreach projects for equally complex ecological issues.

  2. Host Plants of Xylosandrus mutilatus in Mississippi

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, W.D.; Nebeker, T.E.; Gerard, P.D.

    2007-03-15

    Host range of Xylosandrus mutilatus (Blandford) in North America is reported here for the first time. Descriptive data such as number of attacks per host, size of stems at point of attacks, and height of attacks above ground are presented. Hosts observed in Mississippi were Acer rubrum L., Acer saccharum Marsh., Acer palmatum Thunb., Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch., Cornus florida L., Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., Liquidamber styraciflua L., Carya spp., Liriodendron tulipifera L., Melia azedarach L., Pinus taeda L., Prunus serotina Ehrh., Prunus americana Marsh., Ulmus alata Michaux, and Vitus rotundifolia Michaux. Liquidamber styraciflua had significantly more successful attacks, significantly higher probability of attacks, and significantly higher number of adult beetles per host tree than did Carya spp., A. rubrum, and L. tulipifera. This information is relevant in determining the impact this exotic beetle may have in nurseries, urban areas, and other forestry systems where this beetle becomes established. (author) [Spanish] El rango de hospederos de Xylosandrus mutilatus (Blandford) en America del Norte esta reportado aqui por la primera vez. Se presentan datos descriptivos como el numero de ataques por hospederos, el tamano de los tallos en el punto de ataque y la altura por encima del nivel de tierra de los ataques. Los hospederos observados en el estado de Mississippi fueron Acer rubrum L., Acer saccharum Marsh., Acer palmatum Thunb., Ostrya virginiana (Mill.) K. Koch., Cornus florida L., Fagus grandifolia Ehrh., Liquidamber styraciflua L., Carya spp., Liriodendron tulipifera L., Melia azedarach L., Pinus taeda L., Prunus serotina Ehrh., Prunus americana Marsh., Ulmus alata Michaux y Vitus rotundifolia Michaux. Liquidamber styraciflua tuvo ataques significativamente mas exitosos, una probabilidad significativamente mas alta de ataques y un numero significativamente mayor de adultos de escarabajos por arbol hospedero que Carya spp., A. rubrum y L. tulipifera

  3. Is red the colour of danger? Testing an implicit red-danger association.

    PubMed

    Pravossoudovitch, Karyn; Cury, Francois; Young, Steve G; Elliot, Andrew J

    2014-01-01

    Research using participant's self-reports has documented a link between red and danger. In this research, we used two different variants of a Stroop word evaluation task to test for the possibility of an implicit red-danger association using carefully controlled colour stimuli (equated on lightness and chroma). Experiment 1, using words as stimuli, yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger, and weaker evidence of a green-safety association. Experiment 2, using symbols as stimuli, again yielded strong evidence of a link between red and danger; no green effects were observed. The findings were discussed in terms of the power and promise of red in signal communication.

  4. Red and Green Fluorescence from Oral Biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Hoogenkamp, Michel A.; Krom, Bastiaan P.; Janus, Marleen M.; ten Cate, Jacob M.; de Soet, Johannes J.; Crielaard, Wim; van der Veen, Monique H.

    2016-01-01

    Red and green autofluorescence have been observed from dental plaque after excitation by blue light. It has been suggested that this red fluorescence is related to caries and the cariogenic potential of dental plaque. Recently, it was suggested that red fluorescence may be related to gingivitis. Little is known about green fluorescence from biofilms. Therefore, we assessed the dynamics of red and green fluorescence in real-time during biofilm formation. In addition, the fluorescence patterns of biofilm formed from saliva of eight different donors are described under simulated gingivitis and caries conditions. Biofilm formation was analysed for 12 hours under flow conditions in a microfluidic BioFlux flow system with high performance microscopy using a camera to allow live cell imaging. For fluorescence images dedicated excitation and emission filters were used. Both green and red fluorescence were linearly related with the total biomass of the biofilms. All biofilms displayed to some extent green and red fluorescence, with higher red and green fluorescence intensities from biofilms grown in the presence of serum (gingivitis simulation) as compared to the sucrose grown biofilms (cariogenic simulation). Remarkably, cocci with long chain lengths, presumably streptococci, were observed in the biofilms. Green and red fluorescence were not found homogeneously distributed within the biofilms: highly fluorescent spots (both green and red) were visible throughout the biomass. An increase in red fluorescence from the in vitro biofilms appeared to be related to the clinical inflammatory response of the respective saliva donors, which was previously assessed during an in vivo period of performing no-oral hygiene. The BioFlux model proved to be a reliable model to assess biofilm fluorescence. With this model, a prediction can be made whether a patient will be prone to the development of gingivitis or caries. PMID:27997567

  5. Modeling and simulation of Red Teaming. Part 1, Why Red Team M&S?

    SciTech Connect

    Skroch, Michael J.

    2009-11-01

    Red teams that address complex systems have rarely taken advantage of Modeling and Simulation (M&S) in a way that reproduces most or all of a red-blue team exchange within a computer. Chess programs, starting with IBM's Deep Blue, outperform humans in that red-blue interaction, so why shouldn't we think computers can outperform traditional red teams now or in the future? This and future position papers will explore possible ways to use M&S to augment or replace traditional red teams in some situations, the features Red Team M&S should possess, how one might connect live and simulated red teams, and existing tools in this domain.

  6. Foliar Uptake of Atmospheric Reactive Nitrogen Pollution Along an Urban-Rural Gradient in New York State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vallano, D.; Sparks, J. P.

    2008-12-01

    Vegetation is an important sink for atmospheric reactive nitrogen (N) pollution in terrestrial ecosystems, and when soil N is limiting, foliar N uptake can be a source of plant-available N. A proxy for pollution derived N, and in particular foliar assimilated N, would be useful to quantify the impact of the foliar uptake pathway on plant metabolism. Nitrogen stable isotope ratios (15N/14N) are practical for this purpose because forms of plant-available N often have varying isotopic compositions. However, the mechanisms driving differences in foliar N isotopic composition (δ15N) are still unresolved. Current understanding of foliar δ 15N suggests these values primarily represent the integration of the soil water solution δ15N, direct foliar uptake of atmospheric reactive N, within-plant fractionations, and fractionation due to the fungus to root transfer in mycorrhizae. In this study, we investigated the influence of direct foliar uptake, soil solution δ 15N, and mycorrhizae on foliar δ15N in seedlings of two dominant Northeastern tree species, red maple (Acer rubrum) and red oak (Quercus rubra), along an N deposition gradient in New York State. Using a potted plant mesocosm system, we compared foliar δ15N values directly to soil solution δ15N values while controlling for mycorrhizal associations. Both species showed higher foliar δ15N when exposed to fractionation by mycorrhizal associations. Overall, A. rubrum showed higher foliar δ15N than Q. rubra across all sites. In both species, patterns of foliar δ15N values were coupled with soil solution δ15N values across the N deposition gradient. Additionally, increasing atmospheric N deposition was correlated with higher foliar δ15N values in Q. rubra, but not in A. rubrum. Using a mixing model, we estimated that Q. rubra seedlings incorporated up to 7% of their assimilated N via direct foliar uptake of atmospheric N pollution. However, foliar uptake was not detectable in A. rubrum seedlings. Results

  7. Recycling red mud from the production of aluminium as a red cement-based mortar.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaojie; Zhao, Jianfeng; Li, Haoxin; Zhao, Piqi; Chen, Qin

    2017-01-01

    Current management for red mud is insufficient and a new method is needed. A series of experiments have been carried out to develop a new approach for effective management of red mud. Mortars without or with 3%, 6% and 9% red mud were prepared and their fresh and hardened properties were measured to access the possibility of recycling the red mud in the production of red cement-based mortar. The mechanisms corresponding to their mechanical performance variations were explored by X-ray powder diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the fresh mortars with red mud present an increase of viscosity as compared with the control. However, little difference is found when the content of red mud is altered. It also can be seen that red mud increases flow time and reduces the slump flow of the mortar. Meanwhile, it is found that mortar with red mud is provided with higher air content. Red mud is eligible to adjust the decorative mortar colour. Compressive strength of mortar is improved when less than 6% red mud is added. However, overall it has a slightly negative effect on tensile bond strength. It decreases the Ca(OH)2 content and densifies the microstructure of hardened paste. The heavy metal concentrations in leachates of mortars with red mud are much lower than the values required in the standard, and it will not do harm to people's health and the environment. These results are important to recycle and effectively manage red mud via the production of red cement-based mortar.

  8. Incorporating interspecific competition into species-distribution mapping by upward scaling of small-scale model projections to the landscape

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    There are a number of overarching questions and debate in the scientific community concerning the importance of biotic interactions in species distribution models at large spatial scales. In this paper, we present a framework for revising the potential distribution of tree species native to the Western Ecoregion of Nova Scotia, Canada, by integrating the long-term effects of interspecific competition into an existing abiotic-factor-based definition of potential species distribution (PSD). The PSD model is developed by combining spatially explicit data of individualistic species’ response to normalized incident photosynthetically active radiation, soil water content, and growing degree days. A revised PSD model adds biomass output simulated over a 100-year timeframe with a robust forest gap model and scaled up to the landscape using a forestland classification technique. To demonstrate the method, we applied the calculation to the natural range of 16 target tree species as found in 1,240 provincial forest-inventory plots. The revised PSD model, with the long-term effects of interspecific competition accounted for, predicted that eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), white birch (Betula papyrifera), red oak (Quercus rubra), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) would experience a significant decline in their original distribution compared with balsam fir (Abies balsamea), black spruce (Picea mariana), red spruce (Picea rubens), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis). True model accuracy improved from 64.2% with original PSD evaluations to 81.7% with revised PSD. Kappa statistics slightly increased from 0.26 (fair) to 0.41 (moderate) for original and revised PSDs, respectively. PMID:28207782

  9. Incorporating interspecific competition into species-distribution mapping by upward scaling of small-scale model projections to the landscape.

    PubMed

    Baah-Acheamfour, Mark; Bourque, Charles P-A; Meng, Fan-Rui; Swift, D Edwin

    2017-01-01

    There are a number of overarching questions and debate in the scientific community concerning the importance of biotic interactions in species distribution models at large spatial scales. In this paper, we present a framework for revising the potential distribution of tree species native to the Western Ecoregion of Nova Scotia, Canada, by integrating the long-term effects of interspecific competition into an existing abiotic-factor-based definition of potential species distribution (PSD). The PSD model is developed by combining spatially explicit data of individualistic species' response to normalized incident photosynthetically active radiation, soil water content, and growing degree days. A revised PSD model adds biomass output simulated over a 100-year timeframe with a robust forest gap model and scaled up to the landscape using a forestland classification technique. To demonstrate the method, we applied the calculation to the natural range of 16 target tree species as found in 1,240 provincial forest-inventory plots. The revised PSD model, with the long-term effects of interspecific competition accounted for, predicted that eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), white birch (Betula papyrifera), red oak (Quercus rubra), sugar maple (Acer saccharum), and trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) would experience a significant decline in their original distribution compared with balsam fir (Abies balsamea), black spruce (Picea mariana), red spruce (Picea rubens), red maple (Acer rubrum L.), and yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis). True model accuracy improved from 64.2% with original PSD evaluations to 81.7% with revised PSD. Kappa statistics slightly increased from 0.26 (fair) to 0.41 (moderate) for original and revised PSDs, respectively.

  10. Interactions of Carbon Gain and Nitrogen Addition in a Temperate Forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzaz, F. A.

    2001-12-01

    In plants, carbon and nitrogen are intimately related. The plant gains carbon using nitrogen because it is a major constituent of both the light reaction (chlorophyll) and dark reaction (Rubisco and PEP carboxylase). The plant also gains more nitrogen by using carbon to grow roots that can forage for nitrogen, especially the less mobile (NH4+). Rising CO2 and increased nitrogen deposition are important elements of global change, both of which may affect ecosystem structure and function. They may cause a particularly large shift in species composition in systems where contrasting groups of species co-occur, e.g. evergreen coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved tree species. We studied the impact of nitrogen deposition in a mixed forest in central Massachusetts (Harvard Forest). We found that the early-successional broad-leaved species, yellow birch (Betula alleghaniensis) and red maple (Acer rubrum), both showed large increases in biomass, while the late successional species sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and all the coniferous species, hemlock (Tsuga canadensis), red spruce (Picea rubens) and white pine (Pinus strobus), only showed slight increases. As a result, when these species wre grown together, there was a decrease in species diversity. There was a significant correlation between species growth rate and the growth enhancement following nitrogen addition. We used SORTIE, a spatially explicit forest model to speculate about the future of this community. In both hemlock and red oak stands, nitrogen deposition led to shift in forest composition towards further dominance of young forests by yellow birch. We conclude that seedling physiological and demographic responses to increased nitrogen availability will scale up to exaggerate successional dynamics in mixed temperate forests in the future

  11. Red Wine and Resveratrol: Good for Your Heart?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Red wine and something in red wine called resveratrol might be heart healthy. Find out the facts, ... antioxidants, such as flavonoids or a substance called resveratrol, have heart-healthy benefits. Red wine seems to ...

  12. Reaching for the red planet

    PubMed

    David, L

    1996-05-01

    The distant shores of Mars were reached by numerous U.S. and Russian spacecraft throughout the 1960s to mid 1970s. Nearly 20 years have passed since those successful missions which orbited and landed on the Martian surface. Two Soviet probes headed for the planet in July, 1988, but later failed. In August 1993, the U.S. Mars Observer suddenly went silent just three days before it was to enter orbit around the planet and was never heard from again. In late 1996, there will be renewed activity on the launch pads with three probes departing for the red planet: 1) The U.S. Mars Global Surveyor will be launched in November on a Delta II rocket and will orbit the planet for global mapping purposes; 2) Russia's Mars '96 mission, scheduled to fly in November on a Proton launcher, consists of an orbiter, two small stations which will land on the Martian surface, and two penetrators that will plow into the terrain; and finally, 3) a U.S. Discovery-class spacecraft, the Mars Pathfinder, has a December launch date atop a Delta II booster. The mission features a lander and a microrover that will travel short distances over Martian territory. These missions usher in a new phase of Mars exploration, setting the stage for an unprecedented volley of spacecraft that will orbit around, land on, drive across, and perhaps fly at low altitudes over the planet.

  13. Synthetic biology as red herring.

    PubMed

    Preston, Beth

    2013-12-01

    It has become commonplace to say that with the advent of technologies like synthetic biology the line between artifacts and living organisms, policed by metaphysicians since antiquity, is beginning to blur. But that line began to blur 10,000 years ago when plants and animals were first domesticated; and has been thoroughly blurred at least since agriculture became the dominant human subsistence pattern many millennia ago. Synthetic biology is ultimately only a late and unexceptional offshoot of this prehistoric development. From this perspective, then, synthetic biology is a red herring, distracting us from more thorough philosophical consideration of the most truly revolutionary human practice-agriculture. In the first section of this paper I will make this case with regard to ontology, arguing that synthetic biology crosses no ontological lines that were not crossed already in the Neolithic. In the second section I will construct a parallel case with regard to cognition, arguing that synthetic biology as biological engineering represents no cognitive advance over what was required for domestication and the new agricultural subsistence pattern it grounds. In the final section I will make the case with regard to human existence, arguing that synthetic biology, even if wildly successful, is not in a position to cause significant existential change in what it is to be human over and above the massive existential change caused by the transition to agriculture. I conclude that a longer historical perspective casts new light on some important issues in philosophy of technology and environmental philosophy.

  14. Red Giant Plunging Through Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version

    This image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope (left panel) shows the 'bow shock' of a dying star named R Hydrae, or R Hya, in the constellation Hydra.

    Bow shocks are formed where the stellar wind from a star are pushed into a bow shape (illustration, right panel) as the star plunges through the gas and dust between stars. Our own Sun has a bow shock, but prior to this image one had never been observed around this particular class of red giant star.

    R Hya moves through space at approximately 50 kilometers per second. As it does so, it discharges dust and gas into space. Because the star is relatively cool, that ejecta quickly assumes a solid state and collides with the interstellar medium. The resulting dusty nebula is invisible to the naked eye but can be detected using an infrared telescope. This bow shock is 16,295 astronomical units from the star to the apex and 6,188 astronomical units thick (an astronomical unit is the distance between the sun and Earth). The mass of the bow shock is about 400 times the mass of the Earth.

    The false-color Spitzer image shows infrared emissions at 70 microns. Brighter colors represent greater intensities of infrared light at that wavelength. The location of the star itself is drawn onto the picture in the black 'unobserved' region in the center.

  15. Redox alters yellow dragonflies into red.

    PubMed

    Futahashi, Ryo; Kurita, Ryoji; Mano, Hiroaki; Fukatsu, Takema

    2012-07-31

    Body color change associated with sexual maturation--so-called nuptial coloration--is commonly found in diverse vertebrates and invertebrates, and plays important roles for their reproductive success. In some dragonflies, whereas females and young males are yellowish in color, aged males turn vivid red upon sexual maturation. The male-specific coloration plays pivotal roles in, for example, mating and territoriality, but molecular basis of the sex-related transition in body coloration of the dragonflies has been poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that yellow/red color changes in the dragonflies are regulated by redox states of epidermal ommochrome pigments. Ratios of reduced-form pigments to oxidized-form pigments were significantly higher in red mature males than yellow females and immature males. The ommochrome pigments extracted from the dragonflies changed color according to redox conditions in vitro: from red to yellow in the presence of oxidant and from yellow to red in the presence of reductant. By injecting the reductant solution into live insects, the yellow-to-red color change was experimentally reproduced in vivo in immature males and mature females. Discontinuous yellow/red mosaicism was observed in body coloration of gynandromorphic dragonflies, suggesting a cell-autonomous regulation over the redox states of the ommochrome pigments. Our finding extends the mechanical repertoire of pigment-based body color change in animals, and highlights an impressively simple molecular mechanism that regulates an ecologically important color trait.

  16. Redox alters yellow dragonflies into red

    PubMed Central

    Futahashi, Ryo; Kurita, Ryoji; Mano, Hiroaki; Fukatsu, Takema

    2012-01-01

    Body color change associated with sexual maturation—so-called nuptial coloration—is commonly found in diverse vertebrates and invertebrates, and plays important roles for their reproductive success. In some dragonflies, whereas females and young males are yellowish in color, aged males turn vivid red upon sexual maturation. The male-specific coloration plays pivotal roles in, for example, mating and territoriality, but molecular basis of the sex-related transition in body coloration of the dragonflies has been poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that yellow/red color changes in the dragonflies are regulated by redox states of epidermal ommochrome pigments. Ratios of reduced-form pigments to oxidized-form pigments were significantly higher in red mature males than yellow females and immature males. The ommochrome pigments extracted from the dragonflies changed color according to redox conditions in vitro: from red to yellow in the presence of oxidant and from yellow to red in the presence of reductant. By injecting the reductant solution into live insects, the yellow-to-red color change was experimentally reproduced in vivo in immature males and mature females. Discontinuous yellow/red mosaicism was observed in body coloration of gynandromorphic dragonflies, suggesting a cell-autonomous regulation over the redox states of the ommochrome pigments. Our finding extends the mechanical repertoire of pigment-based body color change in animals, and highlights an impressively simple molecular mechanism that regulates an ecologically important color trait. PMID:22778425

  17. Uptake of carnitine by red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Campa, M.; Borum, P.

    1986-05-01

    A significant amount of blood carnitine (70% of cord blood and 40% of blood from healthy adults) is partitioned into the red blood cell compartment of whole blood. Data indicate that the plasma compartment and the red blood cell compartment of whole blood represent different metabolic pools of carnitine. There are no data to indicate that red blood cells synthesize carnitine, but our understanding of the uptake of carnitine by red blood cells is negligible. Red blood cells were obtained from healthy adults, washed twice with normal saline, and used for uptake experiments. When the cells were incubated at 37/sup 0/C in the presence of /sup 14/C-carnitine, radioactivity was found both in the soluble cytosolic and membrane fractions of the cells following lysis. The uptake was dependent upon the time of incubation, temperature of incubation, and carnitine concentration in the incubation medium. Washed red blood cell membranes incubated with /sup 14/C-carnitine showed specific binding of radioactivity. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that red blood cells have an uptake mechanism for L-carnitine.

  18. Red supergiants as type II supernova progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, Ignacio; Dorda, Ricardo; González-Fernández, Carlos; Marco, Amparo

    2015-08-01

    Recent searches for supernova IIp progenitors in external galaxies have led to the identification of red objects with magnitudes and colours indicative of red supergiants, in most cases implying quite low luminosities and hence masses well below 10Msol. Stellar models, on the other hand, do not predict explosions from objects below 9 Msol. What does our knowledge of local red supergiants tells us about the expected properties of such objects?We have carried out a comprehensive spectroscopic and photometric study of a sample of hundreds of red supergiants in the Milky Way and both Magellanic Clouds. We have explored correlations between different parameters and the position of stars in the HR diagrams of open clusters. At solar metallicty, there is strong evidence for a phase of very heavy mass loss at the end of the red supergiant phase, but the existence of such a phase is still not confirmed at SMC metallicities. Objects of ~ 7Msol, on the other hand, become very dusty in the SMC, and appear as very luminous Miras.Among Milky Way clusters, we find a surprising lack of objects readily identifiable as the expected 7 to 10 Msol red supergiants or AGB stars. We are carrying out an open cluster survey aimed at filling this region of the HR diagram with reliable data. Finally, we will discuss the implications of all this findings for the expected properties of supernova progenitors, as it looks unlikely that typical red supergiants may explode without undergoing further evolution.

  19. Anti-aromatase chemicals in red wine.

    PubMed

    Eng, E T; Williams, D; Mandava, U; Kirma, N; Tekmal, R R; Chen, S

    2002-06-01

    Estrogen synthesized in situ plays a more important role in breast cancer cell proliferation than does circulating estrogen. Aromatase is the enzyme that converts androgen to estrogen and is expressed at a higher level in breast cancer tissue than in surrounding noncancer tissue. A promising route of chemoprevention against breast cancer may be through the suppression of in situ estrogen formation using aromatase inhibitors. A diet high in fruits and vegetables may reduce the incidence of breast cancer, because they contain phytochemicals that can act as aromatase inhibitors. In our previous studies, we found that grapes and wine contain potent phytochemicals that can inhibit aromatase. We show that red wine was more effective than white wine in suppressing aromatase activity. Interestingly, our results from white wine studies suggest a weak inductive effect of alcohol on aromatase activity. On the other hand, the potent effect of anti-aromatase chemicals in red wine overcomes the weak inductive effect of alcohol in wine. Several purification procedures were performed on whole red wine to separate active aromatase inhibitors from non-active compounds. These techniques included liquid-liquid extraction, silica gel chromatography, various solid phase extraction (SPE) columns, and high performance liquid chromatography. An active Pinot Noir red wine SPE C18 column fraction (20% acetonitrile:water) was more effective than complete Pinot Noir wine in suppressing aromatase assay. This red wine extract was further analyzed in a transgenic mouse model in which aromatase was over-expressed in mammary tissue. Our gavaged red wine extract completely abrogated aromatase-induced hyperplasia and other neoplastic changes in mammary tissue. These results suggest that red wine or red wine extract may be a chemopreventive diet supplement for postmenopausal women who have a high risk of breast cancer. Further research is underway to purify and characterize the active compounds in red

  20. Florida Red Tide Perception: Residents versus Tourists

    PubMed Central

    Nierenberg, Kate; Byrne, Margaret; Fleming, Lora E.; Stephan, Wendy; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C.; Tanga, Elvira; Dalpra, Dana R.; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    The west coast of Florida has annual blooms of the toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis with Sarasota, FL considered the epicenter for these blooms. Numerous outreach materials, including Frequently Asked Question (FAQ) cards, exhibits for local museums and aquaria, public beach signs, and numerous websites have been developed to disseminate information to the public about this natural hazard. In addition, during intense onshore blooms, a great deal of media attention, primarily via newspaper (print and web) and television, is focused on red tide. However to date, the only measure of effectiveness of these outreach methods has been counts of the number of people exposed to the information, e.g., visits to a website or number of FAQ cards distributed. No formal assessment has been conducted to determine if these materials meet their goal of informing the public about Florida red tide. Also, although local residents have the opinion that they are very knowledgeable about Florida red tide, this has not been verified empirically. This study addressed these issues by creating and administering an evaluation tool for the assessment of public knowledge about Florida red tide. A focus group of Florida red tide outreach developers assisted in the creation of the evaluation tool. The location of the evaluation was the west coast of Florida, in Sarasota County. The objective was to assess the knowledge of the general public about Florida red tide. This assessment identified gaps in public knowledge regarding Florida red tides and also identified what information sources people want to use to obtain information on Florida red tide. The results from this study can be used to develop more effective outreach materials on Florida red tide. PMID:20824108

  1. Florida Red Tide Perception: Residents versus Tourists.

    PubMed

    Nierenberg, Kate; Byrne, Margaret; Fleming, Lora E; Stephan, Wendy; Reich, Andrew; Backer, Lorraine C; Tanga, Elvira; Dalpra, Dana R; Kirkpatrick, Barbara

    2010-09-01

    The west coast of Florida has annual blooms of the toxin-producing dinoflagellate, Karenia brevis with Sarasota, FL considered the epicenter for these blooms. Numerous outreach materials, including Frequently Asked Question (FAQ) cards, exhibits for local museums and aquaria, public beach signs, and numerous websites have been developed to disseminate information to the public about this natural hazard. In addition, during intense onshore blooms, a great deal of media attention, primarily via newspaper (print and web) and television, is focused on red tide. However to date, the only measure of effectiveness of these outreach methods has been counts of the number of people exposed to the information, e.g., visits to a website or number of FAQ cards distributed. No formal assessment has been conducted to determine if these materials meet their goal of informing the public about Florida red tide. Also, although local residents have the opinion that they are very knowledgeable about Florida red tide, this has not been verified empirically. This study addressed these issues by creating and administering an evaluation tool for the assessment of public knowledge about Florida red tide. A focus group of Florida red tide outreach developers assisted in the creation of the evaluation tool. The location of the evaluation was the west coast of Florida, in Sarasota County. The objective was to assess the knowledge of the general public about Florida red tide. This assessment identified gaps in public knowledge regarding Florida red tides and also identified what information sources people want to use to obtain information on Florida red tide. The results from this study can be used to develop more effective outreach materials on Florida red tide.

  2. The second-order gravitational red shift

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, J.

    1973-01-01

    The direct measurement of the nonlinear term of the gravitational field equations by using very stable clocks is discussed along with measuring the perhelion advance of a planet or satellite. These are considered measurements of the second-order gravitational red shift. The exact expression for the frequency shift of light in a gravitational field is derived. Other topics discussed include: The Doppler-cancelling technique; the second-order red shift in a spherically symmetric gravitational field; finite signal transit time; and the reality and interpretation of coordinates in the second-order red shift experiment.

  3. Phytochromes are the sole photoreceptors for perceiving red/far-red light in rice

    PubMed Central

    Takano, Makoto; Inagaki, Noritoshi; Xie, Xianzhi; Kiyota, Seiichiro; Baba-Kasai, Akiko; Tanabata, Takanari; Shinomura, Tomoko

    2009-01-01

    Phytochromes are believed to be solely responsible for red and far-red light perception, but this has never been definitively tested. To directly address this hypothesis, a phytochrome triple mutant (phyAphyBphyC) was generated in rice (Oryza sativa L. cv. Nipponbare) and its responses to red and far-red light were monitored. Since rice only has three phytochrome genes (PHYA, PHYB and PHYC), this mutant is completely lacking any phytochrome. Rice seedlings grown in the dark develop long coleoptiles while undergoing regular circumnutation. The phytochrome triple mutants also show this characteristic skotomorphogenesis, even under continuous red or far-red light. The morphology of the triple mutant seedlings grown under red or far-red light appears completely the same as etiolated seedlings, and they show no expression of the light-induced genes. This is direct evidence demonstrating that phytochromes are the sole photoreceptors for perceiving red and far-red light, at least during rice seedling establishment. Furthermore, the shape of the triple mutant plants was dramatically altered. Most remarkably, triple mutants extend their internodes even during the vegetative growth stage, which is a time during which wild-type rice plants never elongate their internodes. The triple mutants also flowered very early under long day conditions and set very few seeds due to incomplete male sterility. These data indicate that phytochromes play an important role in maximizing photosynthetic abilities during the vegetative growth stage in rice. PMID:19706555

  4. Red Lake and Clearwater Rivers, Red Lake County, Minnesota. Reconnaissance Report for Red Lake and Clearwater Rivers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-08-01

    the -stbbasin. These are the result of efforts by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (e.g., Agassiz Lake Project and Goose Lake Project), U.S. Soil...by glacial Lake Agassiz . Upper and Lower Red Lakes are remnants of this glacial lake. The topography of the subbasin ranges from 800 feet above mean...glacial Lake Agassiz and together comprise thelargest lake area wholly contained in Minnesota. The watershed drained by the Red Lake River lies within

  5. Predicting a Luminous Red Nova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Noord, Daniel; Molnar, Larry; Kinemuchi, Karen; Steenwyk, Steven; Alexander, Cara; Spedden, Chris; Kobulnicky, Henry

    2016-05-01

    Luminous Red Novae (LRN) are rare transient events believed to be caused by the merger of a main sequence contact binary. Since the discovery of the prototype, V838 Mon, only a handful of LRN events have been observed. Tylenda et al. (2011) analyzed the OGLE data preceding the 2008 Novae of V1309 Sco and found that it exhibited a similar light curve to that of a contact binary with one interesting exception, the orbital period of V1309 Sco showed exponential period change going to zero. Unfortunately the system was discovered to be a binary after the merger, preventing any targeted observations to narrow down how the system entered this unusual state. However the extreme period change observed in V1309 Sco gives us a signature to look for in other contact binaries, allowing the discovery of merger candidates for follow up. We will present an analysis of light curves and spectra of KIC 9832227 (NSVS 5597755) that show it is a contact binary system with a negative period derivative that is becoming more extreme with time. These data span more than 15 years and are taken from the NSVS, ASAS, WASP, and Kepler surveys, with ongoing measurements from the Calvin College Observatory and the Apache Point Observatory. The ongoing period change observed in the system is consistent with the exponential model fit from V1309 Sco and the rate of period change has surpassed that of all other measured contact binaries with the exception of V1309 Sco. If the exponential period decay continues the system will likely merge between 2019 and 2022 resulting in a naked eye nova. If this event occurs, this star will present the unprecedented opportunity to study a LRN progenitor and to follow the evolution of the merger.

  6. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... such as those caused by floods, tornados, hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, explosions, etc., and not to... and community planning for disasters. (5) When appropriate, the Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  7. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... such as those caused by floods, tornados, hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, explosions, etc., and not to... and community planning for disasters. (5) When appropriate, the Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  8. 39 CFR 259.2 - Red Cross.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... such as those caused by floods, tornados, hurricanes, earthquakes, fires, explosions, etc., and not to... and community planning for disasters. (5) When appropriate, the Postal Service and the Red Cross...

  9. Variable Red Giants--The MACHO View

    SciTech Connect

    Keller, S C; Cook, K H

    2003-01-03

    The authors present a study of the MACHO red variable population in the Large Magellanic Cloud. This study reveals six period-luminosity relations among the red variable population. Only two of these were known prior to MACHO. The results are consistent with Mira pulsation in the fundamental mode. A sequence comprising 26% of the red variable population can not be explained by pulsation. They propose a dust {kappa}-mechanism in the circumstellar environment is responsible for the long period variation of these objects. The luminosity function of the variables shows a sharp edge at the tip of the red giant branch (TRGB). This is the first clear indication of a population of variable stars within the immediate vicinity of the TRGB. The results indicate this population amounts to 8% of the RGB population near the TRGB.

  10. Doppler interpretation of quasar red shifts.

    PubMed

    Zapolsky, H S

    1966-08-05

    The hypothesis that the quasistellar sources (quasars) are local objects moving with velocities close to the speed of light is examined. Provided there is no observational cutoff on apparent bolometric magnitude for the quasars, the transverse Doppler effect leads to the expectation of fewer blue shifts than red shifts for an isotropic distribution of velocities. Such a distribution also yields a function N(z), the number of objects with red shift less than z which is not inconsistent with the present data. On the basis of two extreme assumptions concerning the origin of such rapidly moving sources, we computed curves of red shift plotted against magnitude. In particular, the curve obtained on the assumption that the quasars originated from an explosion in or nearby our own galaxy is in as good agreement with the observations as the curve of cosmological red shift plotted against magnitude.

  11. Red wine polyphenols for cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    He, Shan; Sun, Cuirong; Pan, Yuanjiang

    2008-05-01

    Conventional cancer therapies, the second leading cause of death worldwide, result in serious side effects and, at best, merely extend the patient's lifespan by a few years. Searching for effective prevention is of high priority in both basic and clinical sciences. In recent decades natural products have been considered to be an important source of cancer chemopreventive agents. Red wine polyphenols, which consisted of various powerful antioxidants such as flavonoids and stilbenes, have been implicated in cancer prevention and that promote human health without recognizable side effects. Since resveratrol, a major component of red wine polyphenols, has been studied and reviewed extensively for its chemopreventive activity to interfere with the multi-stage carcinogenesis, this review focuses on recent progress in studies on cancer chemopreventive activities of red wine polyphenol extracts and fractions as well as other red wine polyphenols, like procyanidin B5 analogues and myricetin.

  12. Human spleen and red blood cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pivkin, Igor; Peng, Zhangli; Karniadakis, George; Buffet, Pierre; Dao, Ming

    2016-11-01

    Spleen plays multiple roles in the human body. Among them is removal of old and altered red blood cells (RBCs), which is done by filtering cells through the endothelial slits, small micron-sized openings. There is currently no experimental technique available that allows us to observe RBC passage through the slits. It was previously noticed that people without a spleen have less deformable red blood cells, indicating that the spleen may play a role in defining the size and shape of red blood cells. We used detailed RBC model implemented within the Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) simulation framework to study the filter function of the spleen. Our results demonstrate that spleen indeed plays major role in defining the size and shape of the healthy human red blood cells.

  13. Red Shifts with Obliquely Approaching Light Sources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Head, C. E.; Moore-Head, M. E.

    1988-01-01

    Refutes the Doppler effect as the explanation of large red shifts in the spectra of distant galaxies and explains the relativistic effects in which the light sources approach the observer obliquely. Provides several diagrams and graphs. (YP)

  14. The Red School House: An Alternative Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Indian Journal, 1976

    1976-01-01

    Founded in 1971 in St. Paul, Minnesota, the Red School House offers a model curriculum which blends academics and American Indian culture assembled by the students, staff, parents, and the director, Eddie Benton Banai. (JC)

  15. California Red-legged Frog - Stipulated Injunction

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA will make effects determinations and initiate consultation with the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, regarding the potential effects of 66 pesticide active ingredient registrations on the California red-legged frog.

  16. Host compounds for red phosphorescent OLEDs

    DOEpatents

    Xia, Chuanjun; Cheon, Kwang -Ohk

    2015-08-25

    Novel compounds containing a triphenylene moiety linked to an .alpha..beta. connected binaphthyl ring system are provided. These compounds have surprisingly good solubility in organic solvents and are useful as host compounds in red phosphorescent OLEDs.

  17. [Red yeast rice: An unsafe food supplement?

    PubMed

    Steffen, Christian

    2017-03-01

    Red yeast rice is the fermentation product of the mould Monascus ruber and is traditionally used in East Asia to dye and conserve food. Its main pharmacologically active compound, monakolin K, was isolated from red yeast rice and is used as an inhibitor of cholesterol synthesis under the INN lovastatin. Lovastatin and several other statins are marketed as drugs whereas red yeast rice is offered as a food supplement. As statins can cause severe side effects, such as muscle damage and kidney failure, the dosing and information about interactions with drugs and food is essential for the use of these products. Furthermore, red yeast rice can contain the mycotoxin citrinin and several other substances that are not yet toxicologically evaluated.

  18. Day Pass Down the Red Sea

    NASA Video Gallery

    This video over the southeastern Mediterranean Sea and down the coastline of the Red Sea was taken by the crew of Expedition 29 aboard the International Space Station. This sequence of shots was ta...

  19. Movie Trailer: 'Road to the Red Planet'

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA and the European Space Agency have announced three new joint science missions to Mars, including one that will return to Earth with a sample taken from the Martian surface. "Road to the Red Pl...

  20. Territoriality in the Red-winged Blackbird

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newhouse, Chris

    1977-01-01

    Reports findings on research in Red-winged Blackbird territoriality and describes the educational potential of use of similar studies in the classroom. Territorial mapping and observational techniques are explained. (CS)

  1. Li'l Red Schoolhouse workshops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Education specialists at Stennis conduct staff development workshops for elementary and secondary teachers of math, science and technology and other subjects as well as specialized workshops conducted in the NASA Li'l Red Schoolhouse.

  2. Evaluation of the in vivo genotoxicity of Allura Red AC (Food Red No. 40).

    PubMed

    Honma, Masamitsu

    2015-10-01

    Allura Red AC (Food Red No. 40) is a red azo dye that is used for food coloring in beverage and confectionary products. However, its genotoxic properties remain controversial. To clarify the in vivo genotoxicity, we treated mice with Allura Red AC and investigated the induction of DNA damage (liver, glandular stomach), clastogenicity/anuegenicity (bone marrow), and mutagenicity (liver, glandular stomach) using Comet assays, micronucleus tests, and transgenic gene mutation assays, respectively. All studies were conducted in accordance with the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) guideline. Although Allura Red AC was administered up to the maximum doses recommended by the OECD guideline, no genotoxic effect was observed in any of the genotoxic endpoints. These data clearly show no evidence of in vivo genotoxic potential of Allura Red AC administered up to the maximum doses in mice.

  3. Metagenomic studies of the Red Sea.

    PubMed

    Behzad, Hayedeh; Ibarra, Martin Augusto; Mineta, Katsuhiko; Gojobori, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Metagenomics has significantly advanced the field of marine microbial ecology, revealing the vast diversity of previously unknown microbial life forms in different marine niches. The tremendous amount of data generated has enabled identification of a large number of microbial genes (metagenomes), their community interactions, adaptation mechanisms, and their potential applications in pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based industries. Comparative metagenomics reveals that microbial diversity is a function of the local environment, meaning that unique or unusual environments typically harbor novel microbial species with unique genes and metabolic pathways. The Red Sea has an abundance of unique characteristics; however, its microbiota is one of the least studied among marine environments. The Red Sea harbors approximately 25 hot anoxic brine pools, plus a vibrant coral reef ecosystem. Physiochemical studies describe the Red Sea as an oligotrophic environment that contains one of the warmest and saltiest waters in the world with year-round high UV radiations. These characteristics are believed to have shaped the evolution of microbial communities in the Red Sea. Over-representation of genes involved in DNA repair, high-intensity light responses, and osmoregulation were found in the Red Sea metagenomic databases suggesting acquisition of specific environmental adaptation by the Red Sea microbiota. The Red Sea brine pools harbor a diverse range of halophilic and thermophilic bacterial and archaeal communities, which are potential sources of enzymes for pharmaceutical and biotechnology-based application. Understanding the mechanisms of these adaptations and their function within the larger ecosystem could also prove useful in light of predicted global warming scenarios where global ocean temperatures are expected to rise by 1-3°C in the next few decades. In this review, we provide an overview of the published metagenomic studies that were conducted in the Red Sea, and

  4. Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome with Red Cell Aplasia.

    PubMed

    Meena, K R; Bisht, Supriya; Tamaria, K C

    2015-12-01

    Autoimmune Lymphoproliferative Syndrome (ALPS) is a rare inherited disorder of abnormal lymphocyte apoptosis, leading to chronic lymphoproliferation. It presents as lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly and autoimmune phenomena. Pure red cell aplasia is characterized by normochromic normocytic anemia, reticulocytopenia, and absence of erythroblasts from a normal bone marrow. Only few lymphoproliferative disorders have been associated with erythroid aplasia. The authors are reporting a case of ALPS associated with red cell aplasia in a 7-y-old girl.

  5. Diphenylhydantoin-induced pure red cell aplasia.

    PubMed

    Rusia, Usha; Malhotra, Purnima; Joshi, Panul

    2006-01-01

    Pure red cell aplasia is an uncommon complication of diphenylhydantoin therapy. It has not been reported in Indian literature. Awareness of the entity helps in establishing the cause of anaemia in these patients and alerts the physicians to the need of comprehensive haematological monitoring in these patients. A case of 58-year-old male who developed pure red cell aplasia following three months of diphenylhydantoin therapy is reported here.

  6. Missions and Mobility Configurations for RED HORSE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    use in other research reports or educational pursuits contingent upon the following stipulations: - Reproduction rights do not extend to any copyrighted...MOBILITY CONFIGURATIONS FOR RED HORSE AUTHOR(S) MAJOR JAMES T. RYBURN, USAF FACULTY ADVISOR LT COL ROBERT L. PETERS, ACSC/3823 STUS SPONSOR COL ROBERT J...Classification) MISSIONS AND MOBILITY CONFIGURATIONS FOR RED HORSE 12. PERSONAL AUTHOR(S) Ryburn, James T., Maj or, USAF 13a. TYPE OF REPORT J13b. TIME

  7. Dust Storm, Red Sea and Saudi Arabia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Outlined against the dark blue water of the Red Sea, a prominent dust storm is making its way across the Red Sea into Saudi Arabia (22.0N, 39.0E) between the Islamic holy cities of Medinah and Mecca. Funneled through a gap in the coastal ranges of southern Sudan near the Ethiopian border, dust storms frequently will blow counter to the prevailing tropical easterly winds of the region.

  8. Red Teaming of Advanced Information Assurance Concepts

    SciTech Connect

    DUGGAN,RUTH A.; WOOD,BRADLEY

    1999-10-07

    Red Teaming is an advanced form of assessment that can be used to identify weaknesses in a variety of cyber systems. it is especially beneficial when the target system is still in development when designers can readily affect improvements. This paper discusses the red team analysis process and the author's experiences applying this process to five selected Information Technology Office (ITO) projects. Some detail of the overall methodology, summary results from the five projects, and lessons learned are contained within this paper.

  9. AmeriFlux CA-TPD Ontario - Turkey Point Mature Deciduous

    SciTech Connect

    Arain, M. Altaf

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site CA-TPD Ontario - Turkey Point Mature Deciduous. Site Description - The forest is approximately 90 years old. Naturally regenerated on sandy terrain and abandoned agricultural land. Predominantly hardwood species with a few scattered conifers. Site has been managed (thinned) in the past. It has a high biodiversity with 573 tree and plant species, 102 bird species, 23 mamal species and 22 reptile and amphibian species (SWALSREP Report, 1999). The dominant tree species is white oak (Quercus alba), with other scattered broadleaf Carolinian species including sugar and red maple (Acer saccharum, A. rubrum), American beech (Fagus grandifolia), black and red oak (Q. velutina, Q. rubra) and white ash (Fraxinus americana) . There are also scattered conifers, mostly white and red pine (Pinus strobes, P. resinosa), comprising about 5% of the trees. Average tree height is 25.7 m with a stand density of 504 ± 18 trees per hectare. Average tree diameter at breast height is 22.3 cm and basal area is 0.06 m2 or approximately 29 square meters per hectare.

  10. Open clusters rich in red supergiants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, Ignacio

    2015-08-01

    In the past few years, several clusters containing large numbers of red supergiants have been discovered. These clusters are amongst the most massive young clusters known in the Milky Way, with stellar masses reaching a few tens of thousands of solar masses. They have provided us, for the first time, with large homogeneous samples of red supergiants of a given age. These large populations make them, despite heavy extinction along their sightlines, powerful laboratories to understand the evolutionary status of red supergiants. While some of the clusters, such as the eponymous RSGC1, are so obscured that their members are only observable in the near-IR, at least van der Bergh-Hagen 222 is observable even in the U band, allowing for an excellent characterisation of cluster and stellar properties. The information gleaned so far from these clusters gives strong support to the idea that late-M type supergiants represent a separate class, characterised by very heavy mass loss. It also shows that the spectral-type distribution of red supergiants in the Milky Way is very strongly peaked towards M1, while providing strong hints about the possible evolutionary sequence of red supergiants. In addition, the clusters of red supergiants represent ideal tools to study metallicity in the inner regions of the Milky Way.

  11. Red cell membrane: past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    Gallagher, Patrick G.

    2008-01-01

    As a result of natural selection driven by severe forms of malaria, 1 in 6 humans in the world, more than 1 billion people, are affected by red cell abnormalities, making them the most common of the inherited disorders. The non-nucleated red cell is unique among human cell type in that the plasma membrane, its only structural component, accounts for all of its diverse antigenic, transport, and mechanical characteristics. Our current concept of the red cell membrane envisions it as a composite structure in which a membrane envelope composed of cholesterol and phospholipids is secured to an elastic network of skeletal proteins via transmembrane proteins. Structural and functional characterization of the many constituents of the red cell membrane, in conjunction with biophysical and physiologic studies, has led to detailed description of the way in which the remarkable mechanical properties and other important characteristics of the red cells arise, and of the manner in which they fail in disease states. Current studies in this very active and exciting field are continuing to produce new and unexpected revelations on the function of the red cell membrane and thus of the cell in health and disease, and shed new light on membrane function in other diverse cell types. PMID:18988878

  12. The Junior Red Cross goes to Healthland.

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, J F

    1997-01-01

    An amusing reminder of earnest attempts to teach the principles of public health, Junior Red Cross Time brought plays and games about "Healthland" to schoolchildren in the 1920s. Explaining why health education became part of the mission of the Junior Red Cross raises larger issues, such as the ideology and practice of the American Red Cross in war and peace, the place of health in the moral education of children, and the transition from the activism of the Progressive Era to the markedly different social climate of the 1920s. The Junior Red Cross promoted Healthland largely because it was an innocuous concept that had been stripped of potentially controversial features to adapt it to the conservative mood of postwar America. This process of dilution mirrored the fate of the adult Red Cross, which briefly and unsuccessfully sought to reinvent itself as a national (and international) agency for the promotion of public health. The unreality of Healthland is no mere coincidence; its separation from the real world was a crucial part of its appeal to the Red Cross in the 1920s. PMID:9366639

  13. Malaria and human red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Mohandas, Narla; An, Xiuli

    2012-11-01

    Invasion by the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, brings about extensive changes in the host red cells. These include loss of the normal discoid shape, increased rigidity of the membrane, elevated permeability to a wide variety of ionic and other species and increased adhesiveness, most notably to endothelial surfaces. These effects facilitate survival of the parasite within the host cell and tend to increase the virulence of disease that includes cerebral malaria and anemia. Numerous proteins secreted by the internalized parasite and interacting with red cell membrane proteins are responsible for the changes occurring to the host cell. Anemia, a serious clinical manifestation of malaria, is due to increased destruction of both infected and uninfected red cells due to membrane alterations, as well as ineffective erythropoiesis. There is very good evidence that various red cell disorders including hemoglobinopathies and hereditary ovalocytosis decrease the virulence of disease following parasite infection. A number of mechanism(s) are likely responsible for the protective effect of various red cell abnormalities including decreased invasion, impaired intraerythrocytic development of the parasites and altered interaction between exported parasite proteins and the red cell membrane skeleton.

  14. Red cell membrane: past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Mohandas, Narla; Gallagher, Patrick G

    2008-11-15

    As a result of natural selection driven by severe forms of malaria, 1 in 6 humans in the world, more than 1 billion people, are affected by red cell abnormalities, making them the most common of the inherited disorders. The non-nucleated red cell is unique among human cell type in that the plasma membrane, its only structural component, accounts for all of its diverse antigenic, transport, and mechanical characteristics. Our current concept of the red cell membrane envisions it as a composite structure in which a membrane envelope composed of cholesterol and phospholipids is secured to an elastic network of skeletal proteins via transmembrane proteins. Structural and functional characterization of the many constituents of the red cell membrane, in conjunction with biophysical and physiologic studies, has led to detailed description of the way in which the remarkable mechanical properties and other important characteristics of the red cells arise, and of the manner in which they fail in disease states. Current studies in this very active and exciting field are continuing to produce new and unexpected revelations on the function of the red cell membrane and thus of the cell in health and disease, and shed new light on membrane function in other diverse cell types.

  15. The Red Book through the ages.

    PubMed

    Pickering, Larry K; Peter, Georges; Shulman, Stanford T

    2013-11-01

    The first edition of the Red Book was published in 1938. Since then, there have been numerous advances in the fields of infectious diseases and public health that have decreased morbidity and mortality of infants, children, and adolescents. Over the years, emerging pathogens and disease complexes have been described, sophisticated diagnostic techniques developed, advances in antimicrobial therapy have occurred, and immunizations have been implemented to prevent previously deadly diseases. Of the 18 diseases or organisms in the 1938 edition, 13 are now vaccine-preventable. Since inception of the Red Book, the aims of the editors have been to keep pace with these innovations and to continue to inform the medical community. These goals have made the Red Book a fundamental resource for pediatricians and other health care professionals in terms of guiding diagnosis, therapy, and prevention of infectious diseases. The list of 18 diseases or organisms originally described in the 1938 Red Book has expanded to include over 160 diseases or organisms in the 2012 edition. The pace of biomedical discovery, as well as the amount of information available and the number of methods for its delivery, will continue to accelerate in the future. Integration of information into future editions of the Red Book will ensure that practitioners continue to rely on the Red Book in its various electronic formats for clinical guidance and support.

  16. Characterization of biomass burning: Fourier transform infrared analysis of wood and vegetation combustion products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padilla, Diomaris

    The Fourier transform infrared examination of the combustion products of a selection of forest materials has been undertaken in order to guide future detection of biomass burning using satellite remote sensing. Combustion of conifer Pinus strobus (white pine) and deciduous Prunus serotina (cherry), Acer rubrum (red maple), Friglans nigra (walnut), Fraxinus americana (ash), Betula papyrifera (birch), Querus alba (white oak) and Querus rubra (red oak) lumber, in a Meeker burner flame at temperatures of 400 to 900 degrees Fahrenheit produces a broad and relatively flat signal with a few distinct peaks throughout the wavelength spectra (400 to 4000 cm-1). The distinct bands located near wavelengths of 400-700, 1500-1700, 2200-2400 and 3300-3600 cm-1 vary in intensity with an average difference between the highest and lowest absorbing species of 47 percent. Spectral band differences of 10 percent are within the range of modern satellite spectrometers, and support the argument that band differences can be used to discriminate between various types of vegetation. A similar examination of soot and smoke derived from the leaves and branches of the conifer Pinus strobus and deciduous Querus alba (white oak), Querus rubra (red oak), Liquidambar styraciflua (sweetgum), Acer rubrum (maple) and Tilea americana (American basswood) at combustion temperatures of 400 to 900 degrees Fahrenheit produce a similar broad spectrum with a shift in peak location occurring in peaks below the 1700 cm-1 wavelength. The new peaks occur near wavelengths of 1438-1444, 875 and 713 cm-1. This noted shift in wavelength location may be indicative of a fingerprint region for green woods distinguishable from lumber through characteristic biomass suites. Temperature variations during burning show that the spectra of low temperature smoldered aerosols, occurring near 400 to 450 degrees Fahrenheit, may be distinguished from higher temperature soot aerosols that occur above 600 degrees Fahrenheit. A

  17. The red meat allergy syndrome in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Apostolovic, Danijela; Tran, Thi Anh Thu; Starkhammar, Maria; Sánchez-Vidaurre, Sara; Hamsten, Carl; Van Hage, Marianne

    In the last decade, a novel type of food allergy presenting with severe allergic reactions several hours after consumption of red meat has been recognized. The allergic responses are due to IgE antibodies directed against the carbohydrate epitope galactose-α-1,3-galactose (α-Gal) found in mammalian meat. This review presents the red meat allergy syndrome in Sweden, discusses the features of the immune response to carbohydrates, and highlights the presence of heat stable α-Gal-containing proteins in meat. The number of diagnosed red meat allergy cases in Sweden has increased significantly over the past few years. All patients have been tick bitten. Our recent work has shown that α-Gal is present in the European tick Ixodes ricinus (I. ricinus), thus potentially explaining the strong association between anti-α-Gal IgE and tick bites, with development of red meat allergy as a secondary phenomenon. Further studies using immunoproteomics have identified novel α-Gal-containing meat proteins that bound IgE from red meat allergic patients. Four of these proteins were stable to thermal processing pointing to the fact that the allergenicity of red meat proteins is preserved in cooked meat. In keeping with the fact that the α-Gal epitope is structurally related to the blood group B antigen, a positive association with the B-negative blood groups among our red meat allergic patients was noted. A selective IgE reactivity to the pure carbohydrate moiety was observed when investigating the specificity of the α-Gal immune response. IgE from red meat allergic patients does not recognize the other major mammalian carbohydrate, N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc), also present in high amounts in red meat. Furthermore, neither common cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCDs) from plants nor venoms are targets of the IgE response in these patients. Taken together, the α-Gal carbohydrate has shown to be a potentially clinically relevant allergen that should be taken into

  18. Potential health hazards of eating red meat.

    PubMed

    Wolk, A

    2017-02-01

    Red meat (beef, veal, pork, lamb and mutton) consumption contributes several important nutrients to the diet, for example essential amino acids, vitamins (including B12) and minerals (including iron and zinc). Processed red meat (ham, sausages, bacon, frankfurters, salami, etc.) undergoes treatment (curing, smoking, salting or the use of chemical preservatives and additives) to improve its shelf life and/or taste. During recent decades, consumption of red meat has been increasing globally, especially in developing countries. At the same time, there has been growing evidence that high consumption of red meat, especially of processed meat, may be associated with an increased risk of several major chronic diseases. Here, a comprehensive summary is provided of the accumulated evidence based on prospective cohort studies regarding the potential adverse health effects of red meat consumption on major chronic diseases, such as diabetes, coronary heart disease, heart failure, stroke and cancer at several sites, and mortality. Risk estimates from pooled analyses and meta-analyses are presented together with recently published findings. Based on at least six cohorts, summary results for the consumption of unprocessed red meat of 100 g day(-1) varied from nonsignificant to statistically significantly increased risk (11% for stroke and for breast cancer, 15% for cardiovascular mortality, 17% for colorectal and 19% for advanced prostate cancer); for the consumption of 50 g day(-1) processed meat, the risks were statistically significantly increased for most of the studied diseases (4% for total prostate cancer, 8% for cancer mortality, 9% for breast, 18% for colorectal and 19% for pancreatic cancer, 13% for stroke, 22% for total and 24% for cardiovascular mortality and 32% for diabetes). Potential biological mechanisms underlying the observed risks and the environmental impact of red meat production are also discussed. The evidence-based integrated message is that it is

  19. 21 CFR 864.5300 - Red cell indices device.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Red cell indices device. 864.5300 Section 864.5300....5300 Red cell indices device. (a) Identification. A red cell indices device, usually part of a larger... corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH), and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC). The red cell...

  20. 21 CFR 864.8540 - Red cell lysing reagent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Red cell lysing reagent. 864.8540 Section 864.8540...) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8540 Red cell lysing reagent. (a) Identification. A red cell lysing reagent is a device used to lyse (destroy) red blood cells...