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Sample records for acerola cherry extract

  1. Effects of acerola fruit extract on sensory and shelf-life of salted beef patties from grinds differing in fatty acid composition.

    PubMed

    Realini, C E; Guàrdia, M D; Díaz, I; García-Regueiro, J A; Arnau, J

    2015-01-01

    The effects of added acerola fruit extract on sensory and shelf-life of beef patties were evaluated. Ground beef was obtained from young bulls fed one of four diets (CON: control, LIN: linseed, CLA: conjugated linoleic acid, LINCLA: LIN plus CLA). Pre-salted (1.8% w/w) beef patties (7.7% fat) with (0.15% w/w) or without acerola were packed in modified atmosphere (80%O2:20%CO2) and displayed in a retail case for 8days. There were no interactions between diet and antioxidant treatments. LIN and/or CLA had no effect on color and lipid stability during display. However, LIN increased n-3 fatty acids in beef and tended to increase intensity of rancid flavor. Addition of acerola extended shelf-life by at least 3 days by improving color and lipid stability and a decreased trend in intensity of rancid flavor of patties without affecting microbial counts. Thus, the use of acerola as a natural antioxidant can be considered an effective method to retard color and lipid oxidation in beef patties.

  2. Effect of antioxidant extract from cherries on diabetes.

    PubMed

    Lachin, Tahsini

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes is a chronic metabolic disorder in humans constituting a major health concern today whose prevalence has continuously increased worldwide over the past few decades. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and disturbed capacity of antioxidant defense in diabetic subjects have been reported. It has been suggested that enhanced production of free radicals and oxidative stress is the central event for the development of diabetic complications. Antioxidants can play an important role in the improvement of diabetes. There are many reports on the effects of antioxidants in the management of diabetes. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of antioxidant extract and purified sweet and sour Cherries on hyperglycemia, microalbumin and creatinine level in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Thirty six adult Male Wistar rats were divided equally into six groups. Diabetes was induced in the rats by an intraperitoneal injection with 120 mg/kg body weight of alloxan. Oral administration of cherry extract at a concentration of 200 mg/kg body weight for 30 days significantly reduced the levels of blood glucose, and urinary microalbumin. Also an increase in the creatinine secretion level in urine was observed in the diabetic rats treated with the cherry extract as compared to untreated diabetic rats. In this paper, the most recent patent on the identification and treatment of diabetes is used. In conclusion, cherry antioxidant extract proved to have a beneficial effect on the diabetic rats in this study. In light of these advantageous results, it is advisable to broaden the scale of use of sweet and sour cherries extract in a trial to alleviate the adverse effects of diabetes.

  3. Extraction and characterization of montmorency (Prunus cerasus L.) sour cherry pit oil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Montmorency sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) pit oil was extracted and characterized by various methods including: gas chromatography (GC), liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorime...

  4. Polyphenolic extracts of cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) and blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) leaves as natural preservatives in meat products.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Agnieszka; Czyzowska, Agata; Efenberger, Magdalena; Krala, Lucjan

    2016-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using polyphenolic extracts from cherry and blackcurrant leaves as natural antimicrobial agents in meat products. The polyphenolic composition of the extracts was analyzed and their impact on the microbial quality, lipid oxidation, color, and sensory evaluation of pork sausages was studied. Polyphenolic extracts were obtained from leaves collected in September. The total polyphenolic content in sour cherry leaf extract was 1.5 times higher than that found in blackcurrant leaf extract. Analysis of the polyphenol profile of each extract revealed two major groups: phenolic acids and flavonoids, including epigallocatechin and glycosides of quercetin and kaempferol. After chilling the sausages for 14 and 28 days, the extracts caused significantly lower MDA generation, indicating an antioxidant effect. Color changes after 28 days of storage were perceptible in the case of all treatments, with and without polyphenols. The application of sour cherry and black currant leaf extracts increased the shelf life of vacuum-packed sausages. Both extracts enhanced the microbial quality of the pork sausages over 14 days of refrigerated storage. Sour cherry leaf polyphenols were more effective against almost all studied groups of microorganisms.

  5. Toxicity Evaluation of Microemulsion (Nano Size) of Sour Cherry Kernel Extract for the Oral Bioavailability Enhancement

    PubMed Central

    Salimi, Anayatollah; Motaharitabar, Eisa; Goudarzi, Mehdi; Rezaie, Annahita; Kalantari, Heibatullah

    2014-01-01

    Background: In the recent years nanostructured materials have been the focus of researches due to their wide-spread possibilities to provide new shapes and structures for some materials. Microemulsions can provide uniform nano-sized droplets for templating. Microemulsions are isotropic, thermodynamically-stable systems of oil, water and surfactant with a 20-200 nm droplet size. They can be prepared as oil-in-water (o/w), water-in-oil (w/o) or bicontinuous systems, depending on the equilibrium spontaneous curvature of the surfactant layer at the oil-water interface. Objectives: The aim of this study was to introduce a system designed to improve and enhance the bioavailability of bioflavonoids in the Prunus cerasus (sour cherry) seed kernel extract by developing a novel delivery system, i.e. microemulsion (nanosized particles). Materials and Methods: Microemulsion formulations were prepared by mixing appropriate amounts of surfactants (Tween 80 and Span 20), cosurfactant (propylene glycol) (3:1 ratio), and oil phase (olive oil). The prepared microemulsions were evaluated regarding their mean droplet size, transparency, viscosity, and pH. Sour cherry kernel extract microemulsion was orally administered to mice at doses of 2.5%, 5%, and 10% for 10 days. On the last day, their blood as well as their liver and kidney were used for biochemical and histopathological analyses, respectively. Results: Biochemical factors levels and the pathological study indicated that there were not significant differences in microemulsion extracts compared with the control group (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Not only no toxicity evidence of this product was observed in the dose range used in foods or healthcare, but also it improved the cardiac function recovery. PMID:24644434

  6. Dietary anthocyanin-rich tart cherry extract inhibits intestinal tumorigenesis in APC(Min) mice fed suboptimal levels of sulindac.

    PubMed

    Bobe, Gerd; Wang, Bing; Seeram, Navindra P; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Bourquin, Leslie D

    2006-12-13

    A promising approach for cancer chemoprevention might be a combination therapy utilizing dietary phytochemicals and anticarcinogenic pharmaceuticals at a suboptimal dosage to minimize any potential adverse side effects. To test this hypothesis, various dosages of anthocyanin-rich tart cherry extract were fed in combination with suboptimal levels of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug sulindac to APCMin mice for 19 weeks. By the end of the feeding period, fewer mice that were fed the anthocyanin-rich extract in combination with sulindac lost more than 10% of body weight than mice fed sulindac alone. Mice that were fed anthocyanin-rich extract (at any dose) in combination with sulindac had fewer tumors and a smaller total tumor burden (total tumor area per mouse) in the small intestine when compared to mice fed sulindac alone. These results suggest that a dietary combination of tart cherry anthocyanins and sulindac is more protective against colon cancer than sulindac alone.

  7. Characterization of the most aroma-active compounds in cherry tomato by application of the aroma extract dilution analysis.

    PubMed

    Selli, Serkan; Kelebek, Hasim; Ayseli, Mehmet Turan; Tokbas, Habip

    2014-12-15

    Aroma and aroma-active compounds of cherry tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum) was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-olfactometry (GC-MS-O). According to sensory analysis, the aromatic extract obtained by liquid-liquid extraction was representative of tomato odour. A total of 49 aroma compounds were identified and quantified in fresh cherry tomato. Aldehydes were qualitatively and quantitatively the most dominant volatiles in cherry tomato, followed by alcohols. Aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA) was used for the determination of aroma-active compounds of tomato sample. A total of 21 aroma-active compounds were detected in aromatic extract of fresh tomato, of which 18 were identified. On the basis of the flavour dilution (FD) factor, the most powerful aroma-active compounds identified in the extract were (Z)-3-hexenal (FD=1024) and (E)-2-hexenal (FD=256), which were described as the strong green-grassy and green-leafy odour, respectively. The major organic acid and sugar found were citric acid and fructose, respectively.

  8. Sodium sulphite inhibition of potato and cherry polyphenolics in nucleic acid extraction for virus detection by RT-PCR.

    PubMed

    Singh, R P; Nie, X; Singh, M; Coffin, R; Duplessis, P

    2002-01-01

    Phenolic compounds from plant tissues inhibit reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Multiple-step protocols using several additives to inhibit polyphenolic compounds during nucleic acid extraction are common, but time consuming and laborious. The current research highlights that the inclusion of 0.65 to 0.70% of sodium sulphite in the extraction buffer minimizes the pigmentation of nucleic acid extracts and improves the RT-PCR detection of Potato virus Y (PVY) and Potato leafroll virus (PLRV) in potato (Solanum tuberosum) tubers and Prune dwarf virus (PDV) and Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) in leaves and bark in the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) tree. Substituting sodium sulphite in the nucleic acid extraction buffer eliminated the use of proteinase K during extraction. Reagents phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-Tween 20 and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were also no longer required during RT or PCR phase. The resultant nucleic acid extracts were suitable for both duplex and multiplex RT-PCR. This simple and less expensive nucleic acid extraction protocol has proved very effective for potato cv. Russet Norkotah, which contains a high amount of polyphenolics. Comparing commercially available RNA extraction kits (Catrimox and RNeasy), the sodium sulphite based extraction protocol yielded two to three times higher amounts of RNA, while maintaining comparable virus detection by RT-PCR. The sodium sulphite based extraction protocol was equally effective in potato tubers, and in leaves and bark from the cherry tree.

  9. Tart Cherry Extracts Reduce Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Signaling in Microglial Cells.

    PubMed

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Kelly, Megan E; Bielinski, Donna F; Fisher, Derek R

    2016-09-22

    Tart cherries contain an array of polyphenols that can decrease inflammation and oxidative stress (OS), which contribute to cognitive declines seen in aging populations. Previous studies have shown that polyphenols from dark-colored fruits can reduce stress-mediated signaling in BV-2 mouse microglial cells, leading to decreases in nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Thus, the present study sought to determine if tart cherries-which improved cognitive behavior in aged rats-would be efficacious in reducing inflammatory and OS signaling in HAPI rat microglial cells. Cells were pretreated with different concentrations (0-1.0 mg/mL) of Montmorency tart cherry powder for 1-4 h, then treated with 0 or 100 ng/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) overnight. LPS application increased extracellular levels of NO and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and intracellular levels of iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Pretreatment with tart cherry decreased levels of NO, TNF-α, and COX-2 in a dose- and time-dependent manner versus those without pretreatment; the optimal combination was between 0.125 and 0.25 mg/mL tart cherry for 2 h. Higher concentrations of tart cherry powder and longer exposure times negatively affected cell viability. Therefore, tart cherries (like other dark-colored fruits), may be effective in reducing inflammatory and OS-mediated signals.

  10. Tart Cherry Extracts Reduce Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Signaling in Microglial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Kelly, Megan E.; Bielinski, Donna F.; Fisher, Derek R.

    2016-01-01

    Tart cherries contain an array of polyphenols that can decrease inflammation and oxidative stress (OS), which contribute to cognitive declines seen in aging populations. Previous studies have shown that polyphenols from dark-colored fruits can reduce stress-mediated signaling in BV-2 mouse microglial cells, leading to decreases in nitric oxide (NO) production and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Thus, the present study sought to determine if tart cherries—which improved cognitive behavior in aged rats—would be efficacious in reducing inflammatory and OS signaling in HAPI rat microglial cells. Cells were pretreated with different concentrations (0–1.0 mg/mL) of Montmorency tart cherry powder for 1–4 h, then treated with 0 or 100 ng/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) overnight. LPS application increased extracellular levels of NO and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and intracellular levels of iNOS and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Pretreatment with tart cherry decreased levels of NO, TNF-α, and COX-2 in a dose- and time-dependent manner versus those without pretreatment; the optimal combination was between 0.125 and 0.25 mg/mL tart cherry for 2 h. Higher concentrations of tart cherry powder and longer exposure times negatively affected cell viability. Therefore, tart cherries (like other dark-colored fruits), may be effective in reducing inflammatory and OS-mediated signals. PMID:27669317

  11. Tart cherry extracts reduce inflammatory and oxidative stress signaling in microglial cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tart cherries contain an array of polyphenols that can decrease inflammation and oxidative stress (OS), which contribute to cognitive declines seen in aging populations. Previous studies have shown that polyphenols from dark-colored fruits can reduce stress-mediated signaling in BV-2 mouse microglia...

  12. Measurement of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions: I. the immuno-biochemical antioxidant properties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts.

    PubMed

    Hanbali, Lama B; Ghadieh, Rana M; Hasan, Hiba A; K Nakhal, Yasmine; Haddad, John J

    2013-01-01

    Previously, we have meticulously examined the efficacy of the measurable antimicrobial activity of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts on a wide spectrum of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, in addition to the fungus, Candida albicans, a priori. In order to further understand the biochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of a variety of extracts of sweet cherries, antioxidant compounds of immunological significance, including L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), phenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and the total antioxidant (free radical scavenging) activity were simultaneously measured under varying and versatile extraction conditions (mild heating [5, 10 and 20 min.], and brief microwave exposure [1, 2 and 5 min.]) for a variety of extracts: i) whole juice extracts (WJE), ii) methanol-extracted juice (MEJ), iii) ddH2O-extracted pomace (dPOM), and iv) methanol-extracted pomace (mPOM). The antioxidant activity under the versatile extraction conditions adopted in this study was conspicuously reduced, such that the % inhibition against 2,2- diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) followed an inverse, negative correlational trendline. Moreover, ascorbic acid content was not affected with mild to prolonged heating or microwave exposure, except tangibly with dPOM and mPOM. The total phenols content assessed showed no significant variations, as compared with control extracts. In a manner similar to ascorbic acid, total flavonoids were mildly reduced under varying conditions, an effect mimicked to a certain extent with anthocyanins. Assessment of extraction means as compared with WJE revealed sharp decrease in the antioxidant activity for dPOM and mPOM, significant increase in L-ascorbic acid, total phenol, and flavonoid contents for MEJ, dPOM, and mPOM, and mild decrease in anthocyanin contents for dPOM and mPOM. These results confirm the measurable antioxidant activities and contents of P. avium extracts under versatile conditions of mild exposure, an effect

  13. Measurement of antioxidant activity and antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions: II. The immuno-biochemical antioxidant properties of black sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) extracts.

    PubMed

    Haddad, John J; Ghadieh, Rana M; Hasan, Hiba A; Nakhal, Yasmine K; Hanbali, Lama B

    2013-01-01

    Retrospectively, we have measured the antioxidant activity and a variety of antioxidant compounds under versatile extraction conditions of sweet cherry (Prunus avium) extracts. Further in this study, in order to understand the biochemical constituents and antioxidant activities of a variety of extracts of black sour cherries (P. cerasus), a related species, antioxidant compounds, including L-ascorbic acid (vitamin C), phenols, flavonoids, and anthocyanins, and the total antioxidant activity were simultaneously measured under varying extraction conditions (mild heating and brief microwave exposure) for: i) whole juice extracts (WJE), ii) methanol-extracted juice (MEJ), iii) ddH2O-extracted pomace (dPOM), and iv) methanol-extracted pomace (mPOM). The antioxidant activity for WJE was substantially increased with mild and prolonged exposure to either heating or microwave, such that the % inhibition against 2,2-diphenyl-1-bspicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) followed a positive correlation (heating, 5-20 min.; microwave, 1-2 min.), insignificant with MEJ and dPOM, whereas with mPOM there was sharp downregulation. L-Ascorbic acid content was not affected with mild to prolonged heating or microwave exposure (WEJ and mPOM), except a mild increase with MEJ and dPOM. Similarly, total phenols assessed showed no significant variations, as compared with control extracts, except a mild decrease with exposure for mPOM. In a manner similar to L-ascorbic acid, total flavonoid content was increased under varying conditions for WEJ and MEJ, and slightly decreased for dPOM and mPOM. On the other hand, anthocyanins showed differential variations with exposure (up- and downregulation). Assessment of extraction means as compared with WJE revealed sharp increase in the antioxidant activity for MEJ, dPOM and mPOM, significant increase in L-ascorbic acid, total phenol, and flavonoid contents for MEJ, dPOM and mPOM, and mild decrease in anthocyanin contents for MEJ, dPOM, and mPOM. These results

  14. Protective Effect of a (Poly)phenol-Rich Extract Derived from Sweet Cherries Culls against Oxidative Cell Damage.

    PubMed

    Matias, Ana A; Rosado-Ramos, Rita; Nunes, Sara L; Figueira, Inês; Serra, Ana Teresa; Bronze, Maria R; Santos, Claúdia N; Duarte, Catarina M M

    2016-03-24

    Oxidative stress is one of the key phenomena behind the most common types of chronic diseases. Therefore, the modulation of oxidative stress is an interesting target for acting either through prevention or as a therapeutic approach. In this work, a Portuguese variety of cherry (Saco Cherry) was processed in order to obtain a potent in vitro antioxidant phenolic-rich extract (Ch-PRE), which was further explored to evaluate its potential application as nutraceutical agent against cellular oxidative stress damage. Ch-PRE was mainly composed of anthocyanins, particularly cyanidin-3-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-glucoside, peonidin-3-glucoside and neochlorogenic acid, and exhibited a potent chemical antioxidant activity expressed by its oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and hydroxyl radical averting capacity (HORAC) values. Ch-PRE also displayed effective intracellular radical scavenging properties in intestinal epithelial and neuronal cells challenged with oxidative stress but showed a different order of effectiveness regarding the modulation of endogenous antioxidant system. Ch-PRE could be an attractive candidate to formulate an agent for the prevention of oxidative stress-induced disorders such as intestinal inflammation disorders or with an appropriated delivery system for neurodegenerative diseases.

  15. Isolation by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE) and identification using CPC and HPLC/ESI/MS of phenolic compounds from Brazilian cherry seeds (Eugenia uniflora L.).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Alessandra L; Destandau, Emilie; Fougère, Laëtitia; Lafosse, Michel

    2014-02-15

    Brazilian cherry seeds are a waste product from juice and frozen pulp production and, the seeds composition was investigated to valorize this by-product. Compounds separation was performed with ethanol by pressurised fluid extraction (PFE). Here we determine the effect of temperature (T), static time (ST), number of cycles (C), and flush volume (VF) on the yield, composition and total phenolic content (TPC) of the seed extracts. T, ST and their interaction positively influenced yield and TPC. Extracts were fractionated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC). The collected fractions characterizations were made by electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI/MS) and high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) indicated the presence of ellagic acid pentoside and deoxyhexose, quercitrin and kaempferol pentoside. All of these compounds have antioxidant properties and normally are found in plant extracts. These results confirm that Brazilian cherry seed extract is a potentially valuable source of antioxidants.

  16. Antioxidant properties of sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L.): role of colorless phytochemicals from the methanolic extract of ripe fruits.

    PubMed

    Piccolella, Simona; Fiorentino, Antonio; Pacifico, Severina; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Uzzo, Piera; Monaco, Pietro

    2008-03-26

    Many edible plant metabolites are known to be useful as cellular antioxidants. In the search for antioxidative chemicals from native fruits of the Campania region of Italy, Prunus cerasus L., an acidic cherry widely used for culinary purposes, has been studied. Fruit crude extracts (MeOH, EtOAc, and hexane) were submitted to an antioxidative screening using specific assay media characterized from the presence of highly reactive radical species (DPPH*, ABTS*+, O2*-, NO) or lipoperoxidation markers. The reducing power of the samples was also determined. It was observed that the most polar extracts in MeOH and EtOAc were able to exercise a massive and dose-increasing antioxidative capacity. The peculiar efficacy of the same extracts was revealed by investigating their protein and deoxyribose oxidation capacity. A preliminary analysis of total phenol, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents together with biological screening data put the basis on P. cerasus fruit phytochemical investigation of methanolic extract. Twenty secondary metabolites were isolated and characterized by spectroscopic (especially 1D and 2D NMR) and spectrometric techniques. 1-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-1,2-ethanediol-1,2-bis-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methanol-1-O-beta-D-gentiobioside (4), epicatechin-3-malate (14), and epicatechin-3-(1''-methyl)malate (15) were isolated for the first time. All of the compounds were evaluated for their radical scavenging activity on DPPH*, O2*-, and NO. Flavonoids and quinic acid derivatives were found to be the more antioxidative substances.

  17. Protective effects of acerola juice on genotoxicity induced by iron in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Horta, Roberta Nunes; Kahl, Vivian Francilia Silva; Sarmento, Merielen da Silva; Nunes, Marisa Fernanda Silva; Porto, Carem Rejane Maglione; de Andrade, Vanessa Moraes; Ferraz, Alexandre de Barros Falcão; Silva, Juliana Da

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Metal ions such as iron can induce DNA damage by inducing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. Vitamin C is one of the most widely consumed antioxidants worldwide, present in many fruits and vegetables, especially inMalpighia glabra L., popularly known as acerola, native to Brazil. Acerola is considered a functional fruit due to its high antioxidant properties and phenolic contents, and therefore is consumed to prevent diseases or as adjuvant in treatment strategies. Here, the influence of ripe and unripe acerola juices on iron genotoxicity was analyzed in vivo using the comet assay and micronucleus test. The comet assay results showed that acerola juice exerted no genotoxic or antigenotoxic activity. Neither ripe nor unripe acerola juices were mutagenic to animals treated with juices, in micronucleus test. However, when compared to iron group, the pre-treatment with acerola juices exerted antimutagenic activity, decreasing significantly micronucleus mean values in bone marrow. Stage of ripeness did not influence the interaction of acerola compounds with DNA, and both ripe and unripe acerola juices exerted protective effect over DNA damage generated by iron. PMID:27007905

  18. Tart cherry extracts reduce inflammatory stress signaling and enhance calcium buffering in microglial and neuronal cell lines

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dark-colored fruits, like tart cherries, contain an array of polyphenols that can decrease both inflammation (INF) and oxidative stress (OS). Previous research has shown that supplementation with berry fruits can enhance cognitive and motor function in aged animals. It has been postulated that at le...

  19. Bayesian Cherry Picking Revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, Anthony J. M.; Prozesky, Victor M.; Padayachee, J.

    2004-04-01

    Tins are marketed as containing nine cherries. To fill the tins, cherries are fed into a drum containing twelve holes through which air is sucked; either zero, one or two cherries stick in each hole. Dielectric measurements are then made on each hole. Three outcomes are distinguished: empty hole (which is reliable); one cherry (which indicates one cherry with high probability, or two cherries with a complementary low probability known from calibration); or an uncertain number (which also indicates one cherry or two, with known probabilities that are quite similar). A choice can be made from which holes simultaneously to discharge contents into the tin. The sum and product rules of probability are applied in a Bayesian manner to find the distribution for the number of cherries in the tin. Based on this distribution, ways are discussed to optimise the number to nine cherries.

  20. Jerusalem cherry poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002871.htm Jerusalem cherry poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The Jerusalem cherry is a plant that belongs to the ...

  1. Statistical optimization of medium composition for bacterial cellulose production by Gluconacetobacter hansenii UAC09 using coffee cherry husk extract--an agro-industry waste.

    PubMed

    Rani, Mahadevaswamy Usha; Rastogi, Navin K; Appaiah, K A Anu

    2011-07-01

    During the production of grape wine, the formation of thick leathery pellicle/bacterial cellulose (BC) at the airliquid interface was due to the bacterium, which was isolated and identified as Gluconacetobacter hansenii UAC09. Cultural conditions for bacterial cellulose production from G. hansenii UAC09 were optimized by central composite rotatable experimental design. To economize the BC production, coffee cherry husk (CCH) extract and corn steep liquor (CSL) were used as less expensive sources of carbon and nitrogen, respectively. CCH and CSL are byproducts from the coffee processing and starch processing industry, respectively. The interactions between pH (4.5- 8.5), CSL (2-10%), alcohol (0.5-2%), acetic acid (0.5- 2%), and water dilution rate to CCH ratio (1:1 to 1:5) were studied using response surface methodology. The optimum conditions for maximum BC production were pH (6.64), CSL (10%), alcohol (0.5%), acetic acid (1.13%), and water to CCH ratio (1:1). After 2 weeks of fermentation, the amount of BC produced was 6.24 g/l. This yield was comparable to the predicted value of 6.09 g/l. This is the first report on the optimization of the fermentation medium by RSM using CCH extract as the carbon source for BC production by G. hansenii UAC09.

  2. Cherry-Slush-Candling Apparatus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephens, James B.; Weiss, James R.; Hoover, Gordon

    1996-01-01

    Proposed infrared-scanning apparatus for use in bakeries making cherry pies detect cherry pits remaining in cherry slush after pitting process. Pits detected via their relative opacity to infrared radiation.

  3. Cereal bars enriched with antioxidant substances and rich in fiber, prepared with flours of acerola residues.

    PubMed

    Marques, Tamara Rezende; Corrêa, Angelita Duarte; de Carvalho Alves, Ana Paula; Simão, Anderson Assaid; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; de Oliveira Ramos, Vinicius

    2015-08-01

    In the processing for obtaining acerola juice, a large amount of residues, which is usually discharged, is generated (seeds and bagasse). Adding value to these by-products is of great interest, since their use can enrich human food as a good source of nutrients and dietary fiber. In this study, acerola seed flours (ASF) and acerola bagasse flours (ABF) were used to develop cereal bars (CB) in different combinations with brown oats: CB 1: control - with the addition of 25% brown oats, CB 2: with the addition of 12.5% ASF and 12.5% ABF, CB 3: with the addition of 6.25% ASF and 18.75% ABF, CB 4: with the addition of 12.5% ASF and 12.5% brown oats and CB 5: with the addition of 12.5% ABF and 12.5% brown oats. These bars were sensorially evaluated and CB 1, CB 4 and CB 5 received the highest scores. We conclude that CB 4 and CB 5 can be considered as products with enhanced nutritional value, containing iron with a low energetic value and high levels of dietary fibre, besides being enriched with antioxidants.

  4. Anti diabetic effect of cherries in alloxan induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Lachin, Tahsini; Reza, Heydari

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder in the endocrine system resulting from a defect in insulin secretion, insulin action or both of them. Adverse side effects of chemical drugs for treatment of diabetes persuaded the using of medical plants. Cherry as a traditionally used plant for treatment of diabetes, is packed with powerful plant pigments called anthocyanins. They give cherries their dark red color and are one of the richest antioxidant sources which lower the blood sugar and bear other beneficial health effects. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of cherry fruit on alloxan induced diabetic rats. In this study 36 Male Wistar rats, body weight of 150-200gr were divided into 6 groups. Diabetes was induced by intra peritoneal injection of 120 mg/kg Alloxan. The duration of the cherries treatment was 30 days in which single dose of extracts (200mg/kg) were oral administered to diabetic rats. Blood glucose levels were estimated with glucometer before treatment, 2h and 1- 4 weeks after administration of extracts. Treatment with extracts of the cherries resulted in a significant reduction in blood glucose and urinary microalbumin and an increase in the creatinine secretion level in urea. Extract of this plant is useful in controlling the blood glucose level. Cherries appear to aid in diabetes control and diminution of the complications of the disease. Some relevant patents are also outlined in this article.

  5. 7 CFR 930.3 - Cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cherries. 930.3 Section 930.3 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF... Definitions § 930.3 Cherries. Cherries means all tart/sour cherry varieties grown in the production...

  6. 7 CFR 930.3 - Cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cherries. 930.3 Section 930.3 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF... Definitions § 930.3 Cherries. Cherries means all tart/sour cherry varieties grown in the production...

  7. 7 CFR 930.3 - Cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cherries. 930.3 Section 930.3 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF... Definitions § 930.3 Cherries. Cherries means all tart/sour cherry varieties grown in the production...

  8. 7 CFR 930.3 - Cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cherries. 930.3 Section 930.3 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF... Definitions § 930.3 Cherries. Cherries means all tart/sour cherry varieties grown in the production...

  9. 7 CFR 930.3 - Cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cherries. 930.3 Section 930.3 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF... Definitions § 930.3 Cherries. Cherries means all tart/sour cherry varieties grown in the production...

  10. Influence of cultivar and processing on cherry (Prunus avium) allergenicity.

    PubMed

    Primavesi, L; Brenna, O V; Pompei, C; Pravettoni, V; Farioli, L; Pastorello, E A

    2006-12-27

    Oral allergy syndrome is an immediate food allergic event that affects lips, mouth, and pharynx, is often triggered by fruits and vegetables, and may be associated with pollinosis. Here, we report on the allergenic pattern of different varieties of cherry (Prunus avium) and results obtained by applying several technological processes to the selected varieties. Whole cherries were submitted to chemical peeling, thermal treatment, and syruping processes, and the relative protein extracts were analyzed by in vitro (sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting analysis) and in vivo tests (skin prick test). Electrophoretic analyses demonstrated that there was no marked difference among cherry cultivars. Chemical peeling successfully removed Pru av 3, a lipid transfer protein (LTP) responsible for oral allergy syndrome in patients without pollinosis, leading to the industrial production of cherry hypoallergenic derivatives. Furthermore, the syruping process removed almost all allergenic proteins to whom patients with pollinosis are responsive. In vivo tests confirmed electrophoretic results.

  11. Combinatorial treatment of tart cherry extract and essential fatty acids reduces cognitive impairments and inflammation in the mu-p75 saporin-induced mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Matchynski, Jessica J; Lowrance, Steven A; Pappas, Colleen; Rossignol, Julien; Puckett, Nicole; Sandstrom, Michael; Dunbar, Gary L

    2013-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects more than five million Americans and is characterized by a progressive loss of memory, loss of cholinergic neurons in the basal forebrain, formation of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, and an increase in oxidative stress. Recent studies indicate that dietary supplements of antioxidants and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids may reduce the cognitive deficits in AD patients. The current study tested a combinatorial treatment of antioxidants from tart cherry extract and essential fatty acids from Nordic fish and emu oils for reducing cognitive deficits in the mu-p75 saporin (SAP)-induced mouse model of AD. Mice were given daily gavage treatments of Cerise(®) Total-Body-Rhythm™ (TBR; containing tart cherry extract, Nordic fish oil, and refined emu oil) or vehicle (methylcellulose) for 2 weeks before intracerebroventricular injections of the cholinergic toxin, mu-p75 SAP, or phosphate-buffered saline. The TBR treatments continued for an additional 17 days, when the mice were tested on a battery of cognitive and motor tasks. Results indicate that TBR decreased the SAP-induced cognitive deficits assessed by the object-recognition, place-recognition, and Morris-water-maze tasks. Histological examination of the brain tissue indicated that TBR protected against SAP-induced inflammatory response and loss of cholinergic neurons in the area around the medial septum. These findings indicate that TBR has the potential to serve as an adjunctive treatment which may help reduce the severity of cognitive deficits in disorders involving cholinergic deficits, such as AD.

  12. Cherry Angiomas on the Scalp

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Park, Hwa-young; Ahn, Sung Ku

    2009-01-01

    Cherry angiomas are a common cutaneous vascular proliferation which manifests as single or multiple spots and occurs predominantly on the upper trunk and arms. They typically appear as round-to-oval, bright, red, dome-shaped papules and pinpoint macules measuring up to several millimeters in diameter. The histopathologic findings of a cherry angioma are consistent with a true capillary hemangioma, which is formed by numerous, newly developed capillaries with narrow lumens and prominent endothelial cells arranged in a lobular fashion in the papillary dermis. Herein, we report a case of multiple cherry angiomas on the scalp, an uncommon location for cherry angiomas. PMID:20652121

  13. Cherry Angiomas on the Scalp.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Hong; Park, Hwa-Young; Ahn, Sung Ku

    2009-11-11

    Cherry angiomas are a common cutaneous vascular proliferation which manifests as single or multiple spots and occurs predominantly on the upper trunk and arms. They typically appear as round-to-oval, bright, red, dome-shaped papules and pinpoint macules measuring up to several millimeters in diameter. The histopathologic findings of a cherry angioma are consistent with a true capillary hemangioma, which is formed by numerous, newly developed capillaries with narrow lumens and prominent endothelial cells arranged in a lobular fashion in the papillary dermis. Herein, we report a case of multiple cherry angiomas on the scalp, an uncommon location for cherry angiomas.

  14. Gene expression of monodehydroascorbate reductase and dehydroascorbate reductase during fruit ripening and in response to environmental stresses in acerola (Malpighia glabra).

    PubMed

    Eltelib, Hani A; Badejo, Adebanjo A; Fujikawa, Yukichi; Esaka, Muneharu

    2011-04-15

    Acerola (Malpighia glabra) is an exotic fruit cultivated primarily for its abundant ascorbic acid (AsA) content. The molecular mechanisms that regulate the metabolism of AsA in acerola have yet to be defined. Monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR) and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) are key enzymes of the ascorbate-glutathione cycle that maintain reduced pools of ascorbic acid and serve as important antioxidants. cDNAs encoding MDHAR and DHAR were isolated from acerola using RT-PCR and RACE. Phylogenetic trees associated acerola MDHAR and DHAR with other plant cytosolic MDHARs and DHARs. Expressions of the two genes correlated with their enzymatic activities and were differentially regulated during fruit ripening. Interestingly, MDHAR expression was only detected in overripe fruits, whereas the transcript level of DHAR was highest at the intermediate stage of fruit ripening. Under dark conditions, there was a sharp and significant decline in the total and reduced ascorbate contents, accompanied by a decrease in the level of transcripts and enzyme activities of the two genes in acerola leaves. MDHAR and DHAR transcripts and enzyme activities were significantly up-regulated in the leaves of acerola under cold and salt stress conditions, indicating that expression of both genes are transcriptionally regulated under these stresses.

  15. Cherries and health: a review.

    PubMed

    McCune, Letitia M; Kubota, Chieri; Stendell-Hollis, Nicole R; Thomson, Cynthia A

    2011-01-01

    Cherries, and in particular sweet cherries, are a nutritionally dense food rich in anthocyanins, quercetin, hydroxycinnamates, potassium, fiber, vitamin C, carotenoids, and melatonin. UV concentration, degree of ripeness, postharvest storage conditions, and processing, each can significantly alter the amounts of nutrients and bioactive components. These constituent nutrients and bioactive food components support the potential preventive health benefits of cherry intake in relation to cancer, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, and Alzheimer's disease. Mechanistically, cherries exhibit relatively high antioxidant activity, low glycemic response, COX 1 and 2 enzyme inhibition, and other anti-carcinogenic effects in vitro and in animal experiments. Well-designed cherry feeding studies are needed to further substantiate any health benefits in humans.

  16. 7 CFR 923.5 - Cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cherries. 923.5 Section 923.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.5 Cherries. Cherries means all varieties...

  17. 7 CFR 923.5 - Cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cherries. 923.5 Section 923.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.5 Cherries. Cherries means all varieties...

  18. 7 CFR 923.5 - Cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cherries. 923.5 Section 923.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.5 Cherries. Cherries means all varieties...

  19. 7 CFR 923.5 - Cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cherries. 923.5 Section 923.5 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.5 Cherries. Cherries means all varieties...

  20. 7 CFR 923.5 - Cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cherries. 923.5 Section 923.5 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE SWEET CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 923.5 Cherries. Cherries means all varieties...

  1. Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) juice intake protects against alterations to proteins involved in inflammatory and lipolysis pathways in the adipose tissue of obese mice fed a cafeteria diet

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Obesity has been studied as a metabolic and an inflammatory disease and is characterized by increases in the production of pro-inflammatory adipokines in the adipose tissue. To elucidate the effects of natural dietary components on the inflammatory and metabolic consequences of obesity, we examined the effects of unripe, ripe and industrial acerola juice (Malpighia emarginata DC.) on the relevant inflammatory and lipolysis proteins in the adipose tissue of mice with cafeteria diet-induced obesity. Materials/methods Two groups of male Swiss mice were fed on a standard diet (STA) or a cafeteria diet (CAF) for 13 weeks. Afterwards, the CAF-fed animals were divided into five subgroups, each of which received a different supplement for one further month (water, unripe acerola juice, ripe acerola juice, industrial acerola juice, or vitamin C) by gavage. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, Western blotting, a colorimetric method and histology were utilized to assess the observed data. Results The CAF water (control obese) group showed a significant increase in their adiposity indices and triacylglycerol levels, in addition to a reduced IL-10/TNF-α ratio in the adipose tissue, compared with the control lean group. In contrast, acerola juice and Vitamin C intake ameliorated the weight gain, reducing the TAG levels and increasing the IL-10/TNF-α ratio in adipose tissue. In addition, acerola juice intake led to reductions both in the level of phosphorylated JNK and to increases in the phosphorylation of IκBα and HSLser660 in adipose tissue. Conclusions Taken together, these results suggest that acerola juice reduces low-grade inflammation and ameliorates obesity-associated defects in the lipolytic processes. PMID:24495336

  2. Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) Juice Intake Suppresses UVB-Induced Skin Pigmentation in SMP30/GNL Knockout Hairless Mice

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Yasunori; Uchida, Eriko; Aoki, Hitoshi; Hanamura, Takayuki; Nagamine, Kenichi; Kato, Hisanori; Koizumi, Takeshi

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) is a fruit that is known to contain high amounts of ascorbic acid (AA) and various phytochemicals. We have previously reported that AA deficiency leads to ultraviolet B (UVB)-induced skin pigmentation in senescence marker protein 30 (SMP30)/gluconolactonase (GNL) knockout (KO) hairless mice. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effects of acerola juice (AJ) intake on the skin of UVB-irradiated SMP30/GNL KO mice. Research design/Principal findings Five-week old hairless mice were given drinking water containing physiologically sufficient AA (1.5 g/L) [AA (+)], no AA [AA (-)] or 1.67% acerola juice [AJ]. All mice were exposed to UVB irradiation for 6 weeks. UVB irradiation was performed three times per week. The dorsal skin color and stratum corneum water content were measured every weekly, and finally, the AA contents of the skin was determined. The skin AA and stratum corneum water content was similar between the AA (+) and AJ groups. The L* value of the AA (+) group was significantly decreased by UVB irradiation, whereas AJ intake suppressed the decrease in the L* value throughout the experiment. Moreover, in the AJ group, there was a significant decrease in the expression level of dopachrome tautomerase, an enzyme that is involved in melanin biosynthesis. Conclusion These results indicate that AJ intake is effective in suppressing UVB-induced skin pigmentation by inhibiting melanogenesis-related genes. PMID:28114343

  3. Determining self-incompatibility genotypes in Belgian wild cherries.

    PubMed

    De Cuyper, B; Sonneveld, T; Tobutt, K R

    2005-04-01

    ABSTRACT The self-incompatibility (S) genotypes of a collection of 65 Belgian accessions of wild cherry, selected within two populations and planted in a seed orchard, were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods. Initially, DNA extracts were amplified with consensus primers that amplify across the second intron of the S-ribonuclease gene which shows considerable length polymorphism. The provisional genotypes deduced were checked with the appropriate allele-specific primers for the known alleles S(1) to S(16). Putative new alleles were subjected to PCR with consensus primers amplifying across the first intron. Six new alleles, S(17) to S(22), were thus indicated on the basis of the estimated lengths of the first and second intron PCR products. Examples of these alleles were partially sequenced and were indeed mutually distinct and different from the known alleles. The incompatibility genotypes of all 65 accessions were determined and one triploid individual was found. Seventeen alleles were detected in all. Allele frequencies differed between samples and the expected total number of alleles in the underlying populations was estimated. The wild cherry populations differed significantly with respect to allelic frequencies from sweet cherry cultivars; alleles S(4) and S(5), which are moderately frequent in sweet cherry, were absent from the wild cherry accessions. The knowledge of the S genotypes will be useful for studying the gene flow within the seed orchard and these approaches should also be informative in wild populations.

  4. Antioxidant polyphenols from tart cherries (Prunus cerasus).

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Nair, M G; Strasburg, G M; Booren, A M; Gray, J I

    1999-03-01

    Montmorency and Balaton tart cherries were lyophilized and sequentially extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol. Methanolic extracts of dried Balaton and Montmorency tart cherries (Prunus cerasus) inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by Fe(2+) at 25 ppm concentrations. Further partitioning of this methanol extract with EtOAc yielded a fraction that inhibited lipid peroxidation by 76% at 25 ppm. Purification of this EtOAc fraction afforded eight polyphenolic compounds, 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavanone (1), 5,7, 4'-trihydroxyisoflavone (2), chlorogenic acid (3), 5,7,3', 4'-tetrahydroxyflavonol-3-rhamnoside (4), 5,7,4'-trihydroxyflavonol 3-rutinoside (5), 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-3'methoxyflavonol-3-rutinoside (6), 5,7,4'-trihydroxyisoflavone-7-glucoside (7), and 6, 7-dimethoxy-5,8,4'-trihydroxyflavone (8), as characterized by (1)H and (13)C NMR experiments. The antioxidant assays revealed that 7-dimethoxy-5,8,4'-trihydroxyflavone (8) is the most active, followed by quercetin 3-rhamnoside, genistein, chlorogenic acid, naringenin, and genistin, at 10 microM concentrations.

  5. Effects of Supplemental Acerola Juice on the Mineral Concentrations in Liver and Kidney Tissue Samples of Mice Fed with Cafeteria Diet.

    PubMed

    Leffa, Daniela Dimer; dos Santos, Carla Eliete Iochims; Daumann, Francine; Longaretti, Luiza Martins; Amaral, Livio; Dias, Johnny Ferraz; da Silva, Juliana; Andrade, Vanessa Moraes

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the impact of a supplemental acerola juice (unripe, ripe, and industrial) and its main pharmaceutically active components on the concentrations of minerals in the liver and kidney of mice fed with cafeteria diet. Swiss male mice were fed with a cafeteria (CAF) diet for 13 weeks. The CAF consisted of a variety of supermarket products with high energy content. Subsequently, animals received one of the following food supplements for 1 month: water, unripe acerola juice, ripe acerola juice, industrial acerola juice, vitamin C, or rutin. Mineral concentrations of the tissues were determined by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE). Our study suggests that the simultaneous intake of acerola juices, vitamin C, or rutin in association with a hypercaloric and hyperlipidic diet provides change in the mineral composition of organisms in the conditions of this study, which plays an important role in the antioxidant defenses of the body. This may help to reduce the metabolism of the fat tissue or even to reduce the oxidative stress.

  6. Maraschino Cherry: A Laboratory-Lecture Unit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrolstad, Ronald E.

    2009-01-01

    Oregon State Univ. has offered FST 102 "Maraschino Cherry" as a 1-credit orientation course since 1994. The maraschino cherry serves as a vehicle from which faculty give their disciplinary perspective, for example, the chemistry of the maraschino cherry, processing unit operations, microbiology and food safety, food law, sensory…

  7. Cherry angiomas associated with exposure to bromides.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A D; Cagnano, E; Vardy, D A

    2001-01-01

    Cherry angiomas are the most common vascular proliferation; however, little is known about the pathogenesis and etiology of these lesions. We present two laboratory technicians who were exposed to brominated compounds for prolonged periods and who developed multiple cherry angiomas on the trunk and extremities. We suggest that the association between exposure to bromides and cherry angiomas should be investigated by a controlled study.

  8. Anthocyanin content, lipid peroxidation and cyclooxygenase enzyme inhibitory activities of sweet and sour cherries.

    PubMed

    Mulabagal, Vanisree; Lang, Gregory A; DeWitt, David L; Dalavoy, Sanjeev S; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2009-02-25

    Cherries contain bioactive anthocyanins that are reported to possess antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anticancer, antidiabetic and antiobese properties. The present study revealed that red sweet cherries contained cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside as major anthocyanin (>95%). The sweet cherry cultivar "Kordia" (aka "Attika") showed the highest cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside content, 185 mg/100 g fresh weight. The red sweet cherries "Regina" and "Skeena" were similar to "Kordia", yielding cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside at 159 and 134 mg/100 g fresh weight, respectively. The yields of cyanidin-3-O-glucosylrutinoside and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside were 57 and 19 mg/100 g fresh weight in "Balaton" and 21 and 6.2 mg/100 g fresh weight in "Montmorency", respectively, in addition to minor quantities of cyanidin-3-O-glucoside. The water extracts of "Kordia", "Regina", "Glacier" and "Skeena" sweet cherries gave 89, 80, 80 and 70% of lipid peroxidation (LPO) inhibition, whereas extracts of "Balaton" and "Montmorency" were in the range of 38 to 58% at 250 microg/mL. Methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of the yellow sweet cherry "Rainier" containing beta-carotene, ursolic, coumaric, ferulic and cafeic acids inhibited LPO by 78 and 79%, respectively, at 250 microg/mL. In the cyclooxygenase (COX) enzyme inhibitory assay, the red sweet cherry water extracts inhibited the enzymes by 80 to 95% at 250 microg/mL. However, the methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of "Rainier" and "Gold" were the most active against COX-1 and -2 enzymes. Water extracts of "Balaton" and "Montmorency" inhibited COX-1 and -2 enzymes by 84, and 91 and 77, and 87%, respectively, at 250 microg/mL.

  9. Bird Cherry-Oat Aphid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    • The bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi) is an important vector of barley yellow dwarf viruses that affect wheat and other small-grain crops, but the aphid may also cause direct feeding damage to wheat. • Various plant-resistance modalities and natural enemies are not equally applicable in s...

  10. Chopping Down the Cherry Tree.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griswold, Jerry

    1995-01-01

    Attempts once again to put to rest the infamous "I cannot tell a lie" episode involving George Washington and a downed cherry tree. Appends an editor's note that states that William Bennett's "The Children's Book of Virtues" which perpetuates this infamous piece of "fakelore." (RS)

  11. Ireland's Cherry Orchard National School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O Cuiv, Shan

    2007-01-01

    This recently completed primary school illustrates how architecture can contribute to creating a safe and warm environment in a difficult area and can meet the particular needs of the student community. In its first year in operation, Cherry Orchard National School is proving to be a successful project. Presented here are the architectural…

  12. Comparing the analytical performances of Micro-NIR and FT-NIR spectrometers in the evaluation of acerola fruit quality, using PLS and SVM regression algorithms.

    PubMed

    Malegori, Cristina; Nascimento Marques, Emanuel José; de Freitas, Sergio Tonetto; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Pasquini, Celio; Casiraghi, Ernestina

    2017-04-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the analytical performances of a state-of-the-art device, one of the smallest dispersion NIR spectrometers on the market (MicroNIR 1700), making a critical comparison with a benchtop FT-NIR spectrometer in the evaluation of the prediction accuracy. In particular, the aim of this study was to estimate in a non-destructive manner, titratable acidity and ascorbic acid content in acerola fruit during ripening, in a view of direct applicability in field of this new miniaturised handheld device. Acerola (Malpighia emarginata DC.) is a super-fruit characterised by a considerable amount of ascorbic acid, ranging from 1.0% to 4.5%. However, during ripening, acerola colour changes and the fruit may lose as much as half of its ascorbic acid content. Because the variability of chemical parameters followed a non-strictly linear profile, two different regression algorithms were compared: PLS and SVM. Regression models obtained with Micro-NIR spectra give better results using SVM algorithm, for both ascorbic acid and titratable acidity estimation. FT-NIR data give comparable results using both SVM and PLS algorithms, with lower errors for SVM regression. The prediction ability of the two instruments was statistically compared using the Passing-Bablok regression algorithm; the outcomes are critically discussed together with the regression models, showing the suitability of the portable Micro-NIR for in field monitoring of chemical parameters of interest in acerola fruits.

  13. Synergistic inhibition of interleukin-6 production in adipose stem cells by tart cherry anthocyanins and atorvastatin.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhou; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Claycombe, Kate J

    2012-07-15

    Studies have shown positive correlations between inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) and the development of chronic diseases including cardiovascular disease by activating C-reactive protein (CRP). Both atorvastatin calcium (lipitor) as well as flavonoid rich fruit such as tart cherry demonstrate potent anti-inflammatory effects on IL-6 secretion. In this study, we investigated whether tart cherry extract or specific anthocyanins contained in the tart cherry show synergistic anti-inflammatory effects with lipitor. Results showed that LPS-induced adipose stem cell secretion of IL-6 reduced with the addition of tart cherry extract, a mixture of tart cherry anthocyanins, and pure tart cherry cyanidin-3-O-glucoside (C3G) in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, lipitor and C3G exhibited synergistic effects in reducing LPS-induced IL-6 secretion from adipose stem cells. In conclusion, these results support potential benefits of using dietary phytochemicals in conjunction with pharmacological therapies to decrease adipose inflammation, drug doses, and ultimately, drug-induced adverse effects.

  14. Superimposed segmental manifestation of cherry angiomas.

    PubMed

    Jaeger, Teresa; Andres, Christian; Hein, Rüdiger; Ring, Johannes; Chen, Wenchieh

    2011-01-01

    Cherry angioma is a common, acquired, vascular proliferation, probably of a polygenic mode of inheritance. Segmental manifestation of multiple cherry angiomas associated with the development of non-segmental lesions has not yet been reported. We describe a 62-year-old Caucasian woman with early formation of segmental cherry angiomas after pregnancy, which are superimposed on non-segmental lesions of later onset after menopause. In this pattern, segmental cherry angiomas could be taken as a further example of superimposed segmental manifestation of a polygenic skin disorder. Molecular research would be needed to confirm this hypothesis.

  15. Open cherry picker simulation results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The simulation program associated with a key piece of support equipment to be used to service satellites directly from the Shuttle is assessed. The Open Cherry Picker (OCP) is a manned platform mounted at the end of the remote manipulator system (RMS) and is used to enhance extra vehicular activities (EVA). The results of simulations performed on the Grumman Large Amplitude Space Simulator (LASS) and at the JSC Water Immersion Facility are summarized.

  16. Sweet and sour cherry phenolics and their protective effects on neuronal cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae-Ok; Heo, Ho Jin; Kim, Young Jun; Yang, Hyun Seuk; Lee, Chang Y

    2005-12-28

    The identification of phenolics from various cultivars of fresh sweet and sour cherries and their protective effects on neuronal cells were comparatively evaluated in this study. Phenolics in cherries of four sweet and four sour cultivars were extracted and analyzed for total phenolics, total anthocyanins, and their antineurodegenerative activities. Total phenolics in sweet and sour cherries per 100 g ranged from 92.1 to 146.8 and from 146.1 to 312.4 mg gallic acid equivalents, respectively. Total anthocyanins of sweet and sour cherries ranged from 30.2 to 76.6 and from 49.1 to 109.2 mg cyanidin 3-glucoside equivalents, respectively. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that anthocyanins such as cyanidin and peonidin derivatives were prevalent phenolics. Hydroxycinnamic acids consisted of neochlorogenic acid, chlorogenic acid, and p-coumaric acid derivatives. Glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin were also found. Generally, sour cherries had higher concentrations of total phenolics than sweet cherries, due to a higher concentration of anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids. A positive linear correlation (r2 = 0.985) was revealed between the total anthocyanins measured by summation of individual peaks from HPLC analysis and the total anthocyanins measured by the pH differential method, indicating that there was in a close agreement with two quantifying methods for measuring anthocyanin contents. Cherry phenolics protected neuronal cells (PC 12) from cell-damaging oxidative stress in a dose-dependent manner mainly due to anthocyanins. Overall results showed that cherries are rich in phenolics, especially in anthocyanins, with a strong antineurodegenerative activity and that they can serve as a good source of biofunctional phytochemicals in our diet.

  17. Speed, Acceleration, Chameleons and Cherry Pit Projectiles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planinsic, Gorazd; Likar, Andrej

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the mechanics of cherry pit projectiles and ends with showing the similarity between cherry pit launching and chameleon tongue projecting mechanisms. The whole story is written as an investigation, following steps that resemble those typically taken by scientists and can therefore serve as an illustration of scientific…

  18. Evaluation of non-thermal effects of electricity on ascorbic acid and carotenoid degradation in acerola pulp during ohmic heating.

    PubMed

    Jaeschke, Débora Pez; Marczak, Ligia Damasceno Ferreira; Mercali, Giovana Domeneghini

    2016-05-15

    The effect of electric field on ascorbic acid and carotenoid degradation in acerola pulp during ohmic heating was evaluated. Ascorbic acid kinetic degradation was evaluated at 80, 85, 90 and 95°C during 60 min of thermal treatment by ohmic and conventional heating. Carotenoid degradation was evaluated at 90 and 95°C after 50 min of treatment. The different temperatures evaluated showed the same effect on degradation rates. To investigate the influence of oxygen concentration on the degradation process, ohmic heating was also carried out under rich and poor oxygen modified atmospheres at 90°C. Ascorbic acid and carotenoid degradation was higher under a rich oxygen atmosphere, indicating that oxygen is the limiting reagent of the degradation reaction. Ascorbic acid and carotenoid degradation was similar for both heating technologies, demonstrating that the presence of the oscillating electric field did not influence the mechanisms and rates of reactions associated with the degradation process.

  19. Monitoring Drosophila suzukii Matsumura in Oregon, USA sweet cherry orchards.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drosophila suzukii rapidly became a significant cherry pest in the western United States after it was observed damaging cherries in 2009 in California. It has caused significant damage to ripening cherries in all major USA cherry production districts leading to increased management costs and reduced...

  20. 21 CFR 145.126 - Artificially sweetened canned cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned cherries. 145.126... § 145.126 Artificially sweetened canned cherries. (a) Artificially sweetened canned cherries is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned cherries by §...

  1. 21 CFR 145.126 - Artificially sweetened canned cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned cherries. 145.126... § 145.126 Artificially sweetened canned cherries. (a) Artificially sweetened canned cherries is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned cherries by §...

  2. 21 CFR 145.126 - Artificially sweetened canned cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned cherries. 145.126... § 145.126 Artificially sweetened canned cherries. (a) Artificially sweetened canned cherries is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned cherries by §...

  3. 7 CFR 930.15 - Restricted percentage cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restricted percentage cherries. 930.15 Section 930.15... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES... Handling Definitions § 930.15 Restricted percentage cherries. Restricted percentage cherries means...

  4. 7 CFR 930.15 - Restricted percentage cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restricted percentage cherries. 930.15 Section 930.15... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES... Handling Definitions § 930.15 Restricted percentage cherries. Restricted percentage cherries means...

  5. 21 CFR 145.126 - Artificially sweetened canned cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned cherries. 145.126... § 145.126 Artificially sweetened canned cherries. (a) Artificially sweetened canned cherries is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned cherries by §...

  6. 21 CFR 145.126 - Artificially sweetened canned cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Artificially sweetened canned cherries. 145.126... § 145.126 Artificially sweetened canned cherries. (a) Artificially sweetened canned cherries is the food which conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed for canned cherries by §...

  7. 7 CFR 930.15 - Restricted percentage cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restricted percentage cherries. 930.15 Section 930.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES... Handling Definitions § 930.15 Restricted percentage cherries. Restricted percentage cherries means...

  8. 7 CFR 930.15 - Restricted percentage cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restricted percentage cherries. 930.15 Section 930.15... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES... Handling Definitions § 930.15 Restricted percentage cherries. Restricted percentage cherries means...

  9. 7 CFR 930.15 - Restricted percentage cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restricted percentage cherries. 930.15 Section 930.15... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES... Handling Definitions § 930.15 Restricted percentage cherries. Restricted percentage cherries means...

  10. Susceptibility of strawberries, blackberries, and cherries to Aspergillus mold growth and aflatoxin production.

    PubMed

    Llewellyn, G C; Eadie, T; Dashek, W V

    1982-05-01

    The susceptibility of blackberries, cherries, and strawberries to Aspergillus growth and aflatoxin production has been examined. Three aflatoxigenic isolates of Aspergillus, A. flavus ATCC 15548 and NRRL 3251 as well as A. parasiticus NRRL 2999, were cultured on homogenates of the fruits for 14 days at 28 +/- 2 degrees C. Percent mycelial growth and spore infestation were determined each day with a calibrated grid. At day 14 each culture was frozen at -5 degrees C until aflatoxins were extracted with methylene chloride and water. Aflatoxins were separated by thin layer chromatography (TLC) with benzene-methanol-acetic acid (90 + 5 + 5). This extraction and solvent system provided satisfactory separations of the aflatoxins and was free of background interference on the TLC plates. Although all fruits served as substrates for both Aspergillus growth and aflatoxin production, cherries appeared to be a more favorable substrate than did blackberries, and the latter was more favorable than strawberries. Whereas A. flavus produced both B1 and G1 on all substrates, it yielded B2 and G2 only on cherries. Although A. parasiticus NRRL 2999 synthesized B1, B2, G1, and G2 on both blackberries and cherries, no aflatoxins were detected on strawberries. In contrast, A. flavus NRRL 3251 failed to produce detectable levels of aflatoxin on any substrate. All substrates supported both mycelial growth and subsequent sporulation with cherries greater than blackberries greater than strawberries.

  11. Tart cherry anthocyanins suppress inflammation-induced pain behavior in rat.

    PubMed

    Tall, Jill M; Seeram, Navindra P; Zhao, Chengshui; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Meyer, Richard A; Raja, Srinivasa N

    2004-08-12

    The use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has increased in the United States and more patients are seeking CAM therapies for control of pain. The present investigation tested the efficacy of orally administered anthocyanins extracted from tart cherries on inflammation-induced pain behavior in rats. Paw withdrawal latency to radiant heat and paw withdrawal threshold to von Frey probes were measured. The first set of experiments examined the effects of tart cherry anthocyanins (400 mg/kg) on the nociceptive behaviors and edema associated with inflammation induced by intraplantar injection of 1% carrageenan. These studies also included tests of motor coordination. The second set of experiments determined if tart cherry anthocyanins (15, 85, and 400 mg/kg) dose-dependently affected the inflammation induced by intraplantar injection of 25% complete Freund's adjuvant. We found that tart cherry extracts reduce inflammation-induced thermal hyperalgesia, mechanical hyperalgesia and paw edema. The suppression of thermal hyperalgesia was dose-dependent and the efficacy of highest dose (400 mg/kg) was similar to indomethacin (5 mg/kg). The highest dose anthocyanin (400 mg/kg) had no effects on motor function. These data suggest that tart cherry anthocyanins may have a beneficial role in the treatment of inflammatory pain. The antihyperalgesic effects may be related to the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties of anthocyanins. A better understanding of the modulatory role of dietary constituents and phytonutrients on pain will offer further therapeutic options for treating patients with persistent and chronic pain conditions.

  12. Cloning and expression of GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase gene and ascorbic acid content of acerola (Malpighia glabra L.) fruit at ripening stages.

    PubMed

    Badejo, Adebanjo A; Jeong, Seok T; Goto-Yamamoto, Nami; Esaka, Muneharu

    2007-09-01

    Acerola (Malpighia glabra L.) is one of the richest natural sources of L-ascorbic acid (AsA; vitamin C). GDP-D-mannose pyrophosphorylase (GMP; EC 2.7.7.13) was found to play a major role in the proposed AsA biosynthetic pathway in plants, considering that Arabidopsis vtc1-1 mutant with point mutation in this gene has a highly reduced AsA content. GMP cDNA was isolated from acerola fruits, designated MgGMP, using rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), and its expression was monitored during fruit ripening. The full-length cDNA was found to have an ORF of 1083bp encoding a polypeptide of 361 amino acids. In silico analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence showed a pI of 6.45 and molecular mass of 39.7kD. MgGMP showed over 80% amino acid sequence identity with other plant GMP homologues. The phylogenetic tree shows the close relation of MgGMP to the GMP of other plants as against those from parasite, yeasts and mammals. Southern analysis indicated that M. glabra contains not less than two copies of GMP genes. Northern blot analysis showed the transcript abundance of MgGMP in all the organs of acerola examined, with the fruit having the highest expression. The relative transcript abundance of MgGMP mRNA levels in the fruits changes as the ripening process progresses, with the unripe green fruits having the highest relative mRNA level, and the lowest was found in the fruits at advanced ripening stage. A strong correlation was also observed between the relative MgGMP mRNA levels and the AsA contents of acerola during fruit ripening.

  13. Cherry Irradiation Studies. 1984 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Eakin, D.E.; Hungate, F.P.; Tingey, G.L.; Olsen, K.L.; Fountain, J.B.; Burditt, A.K. Jr.; Moffit, H.R.; Johnson, D.A.; Lunden, J.D.

    1985-04-01

    Fresh cherries, cherry fruit fly larvae, and codling moth larvae were irradiated using the PNL cobalt-60 facility to determine the efficacy of irradiation treatment for insect disinfestation and potential shelf life extension. Irradiation is an effective disinfestation treatment with no significant degradation of fruit at doses well above those required for quarantine treatment. Sufficient codling moth control was achieved at projected doses of less than 25 krad; cherry fruit fly control, at projected doses of less than 15 krad. Dose levels up to 60 krad did not adversely affect cherry quality factors tested. Irradiation above 60 krad reduced the firmness of cherries but had no significant impact on other quality factors tested. Irradiation of cherries below 80 krad did not result in any significant differences in sensory evaluations (appearance, flavor, and firmness) in tests conducted at OSU. Irradiation up to 200 krad at a temperature of about 25/sup 0/C (77/sup 0/F) did not measurably extend shelf life. Irradiation at 500 krad at 25/sup 0/C (77/sup 0/F) increased mold and rotting of cherries tested. There is no apparent advantage of irradiation over low-temperature fumigation.

  14. Construction and expression of prokaryotic expression vectors fused with genes of Magnaporthe oryzae effector proteins and mCherry.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y Q; Wang, H; Liang, M L; Yan, J L; Liu, L; Li, C Y; Yang, J

    2015-09-09

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the prokaryotic expression of the Magnaporthe oryzae effector genes BAS1 and BAS4 fused to the fluorescent protein mCherry. Based on previous polymorphic analysis of BAS1 and BAS4 in rice blast strains using PCR, blast strains containing the PCR products of BAS1 and BAS4 were selected for liquid culture for total RNA extraction. For PCR analysis, cDNA was selected as a template to amplify the coding region of BAS1 and BAS4, the plasmid pXY201 was selected as template to amplify the mCherry sequence, and the three sequences were cloned into pMD®19-T vectors. Positive recombinant plasmids were digested using two restriction enzymes and the cleaved fragments of BAS1 and mCherry and BAS4 and mCherry were ligated to pGEX-4T-1 vectors and expression was induced using IPTG. The PCR results showed that the sequence sizes of BAS1, BAS4, and mCherry were 348, 309, and 711 bp, respectively, and these were cloned into pMD®19-T vectors. After digestion and gel purification, the fragments of BAS1 and mCherry, BAS4 and mCherry were ligated into pGEX-4T-1 vectors and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 competent cells. The expressed proteins were approximately 60 kDa, corresponding to their theoretical size. Prokaryotic expression products of BAS1 and BAS4 fused to mCherry were presented in this study, providing a base for constructing prokaryotic expression vectors of pathogen effector genes fused to mCherry, which will contribute to further study of the subcellular localization, function, and protein interactions of these effectors.

  15. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L) Anthocyanins as Ingredients for Functional Foods.

    PubMed

    Blando, Federica; Gerardi, Carmela; Nicoletti, Isabella

    2004-01-01

    In the recent years many studies on anthocyanins have revealed their strong antioxidant activity and their possible use as chemotherapeutics. The finding that sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L) (also called tart cherries) contain high levels of anthocyanins that possess strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties has attracted much attention to this species. Here we report the preliminary results of the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in sour cherry callus cell cultures. The evaluation and characterization of the in vitro produced pigments are compared to those of the anthocyanins found in vivo in fruits of several sour cherry cultivars. Interestingly, the anthocyanin profiles found in whole fruit extracts were similar in all tested genotypes but were different with respect to the callus extract. The evaluation of antioxidant activity, performed by ORAC and TEAC assays, revealed a relatively high antioxidant capacity for the fruit extracts (from 1145 to 2592 $\\mu $ mol TE/100 g FW) and a lower one for the callus extract (688 $\\mu $ mol TE/100 g FW).

  16. Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L) Anthocyanins as Ingredients for Functional Foods

    PubMed Central

    Blando, Federica

    2004-01-01

    In the recent years many studies on anthocyanins have revealed their strong antioxidant activity and their possible use as chemotherapeutics. The finding that sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L) (also called tart cherries) contain high levels of anthocyanins that possess strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties has attracted much attention to this species. Here we report the preliminary results of the induction of anthocyanin biosynthesis in sour cherry callus cell cultures. The evaluation and characterization of the in vitro produced pigments are compared to those of the anthocyanins found in vivo in fruits of several sour cherry cultivars. Interestingly, the anthocyanin profiles found in whole fruit extracts were similar in all tested genotypes but were different with respect to the callus extract. The evaluation of antioxidant activity, performed by ORAC and TEAC assays, revealed a relatively high antioxidant capacity for the fruit extracts (from 1145 to 2592 μmol TE/100 g FW) and a lower one for the callus extract (688 μmol TE/100 g FW). PMID:15577186

  17. Lynne Cherry's World: A Celebration of Nature.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winarski, Diana L.

    1995-01-01

    Profiles Lynne Cherry, author-illustrator whose books convey her interest in environmentalism and preserving natural resources. Describes her career, process of illustrating several recent books, and founding of the Center for Children's Environmental Literature in 1992. (TM)

  18. Invariant Measures for Cherry Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saghin, Radu; Vargas, Edson

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the invariant probability measures for Cherry flows, i.e. flows on the two-torus which have a saddle, a source, and no other fixed points, closed orbits or homoclinic orbits. In the case when the saddle is dissipative or conservative we show that the only invariant probability measures are the Dirac measures at the two fixed points, and the Dirac measure at the saddle is the physical measure. In the other case we prove that there exists also an invariant probability measure supported on the quasi-minimal set, we discuss some situations when this other invariant measure is the physical measure, and conjecture that this is always the case. The main techniques used are the study of the integrability of the return time with respect to the invariant measure of the return map to a closed transversal to the flow, and the study of the close returns near the saddle.

  19. Tissue reflectance and machine vision for automated sweet cherry sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guyer, Daniel E.; Uthaisombut, Patchrawat; Stockman, George C.

    1996-12-01

    This study describes machine vision procedures which are able to classify defective cherries from non-defective cherries. Defects can be divided into bruises, dry cracks, and wet cracks. Bandpass filters that enhance the intensity contrast between bruised and unbruised cherries are determined. An optimum combination of two wavelengths is identified at 750 nm (near-infrared range) and 500 nm (green range). An optimum single wavelength is identified at 750 nm. The image acquisition using these filters is described. Four detection methods using single view infrared images were studied. One method performed well in classifying cherries with bruises and wet cracks from non-defective cherries. One detection method using single view green images is studied. It performs well in classifying cherries with dry cracks from non-defective cherries. One detection method using infrared images and another using green images are used in combination to perform the detection on the entire surface of cherries. Two images, infrared and green, are taken from each of 6 orthogonal directions from the cherries. The integrated classifier misclassified 13% of non-defective cherries, 16% of bruised cherries, 0% of cherries with wet cracks, and 10% of cherries with dry cracks.

  20. Interploid hybridizations in ornamental cherries using Prunus maackii

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States National Arboretum has an ongoing flowering cherry (Prunus) breeding program aimed at broadening the genetic base of cultivated ornamental cherries by developing new cultivars with disease and pest resistance, tolerance to environmental stresses, and superior ornamental characteris...

  1. 3. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking southeast; parking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking southeast; parking lot in foreground - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  2. 16. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking up ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking up at the trusses of the second floor - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  3. 22. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking at double doors - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  4. 18. View of the second floor of the Cherry Hill ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. View of the second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking at door - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  5. 20. View of second floor to the Cherry Hill lettuce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. View of second floor to the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking at floor area - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  6. 12. Partial view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northwest ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Partial view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northwest showing office - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  7. 2. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking south; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking south; chute building is in background - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  8. 15. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed showing posts ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed showing posts looking towards the chute building - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  9. 21. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking towards window - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  10. 14. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking towards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Interior view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking towards chute building - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  11. 6. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northeast, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Oblique view of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking northeast, with chute building to the right - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  12. 19. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. View of second floor of the Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking at door to stairwell - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  13. 9. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking north, with ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. View of Cherry Hill lettuce shed looking north, with chute building on the left - Richmond Hill Plantation, Cherry Hill Lettuce Shed, East of Richmond Hill on Ford Neck Road, Richmond Hill, Bryan County, GA

  14. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared...

  15. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared...

  16. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared...

  17. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared...

  18. 21 CFR 152.126 - Frozen cherry pie.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Frozen cherry pie. 152.126 Section 152.126 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION FRUIT PIES Requirements for Specific Standardized Fruit Pies § 152.126 Frozen cherry pie. (a) Identity. (1) Frozen cherry pie (excluding baked and then frozen) is the food prepared...

  19. 7 CFR 930.8 - Free market tonnage percentage cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Free market tonnage percentage cherries. 930.8 Section... CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 930.8 Free market tonnage percentage cherries. Free...

  20. 7 CFR 923.322 - Washington cherry handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Washington cherry handling regulation. 923.322 Section... CHERRIES GROWN IN DESIGNATED COUNTIES IN WASHINGTON Order Regulating Handling Grade, Size, Container and Pack Regulation § 923.322 Washington cherry handling regulation. (a) Grade. No handler shall...

  1. 7 CFR 930.8 - Free market tonnage percentage cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Free market tonnage percentage cherries. 930.8 Section... CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON, AND WISCONSIN Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 930.8 Free market tonnage percentage cherries. Free...

  2. Interspecific hybridizations in ornamental flowering cherries (Prunus species)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering cherries belong to the genus Prunus L., consisting primarily of species native to Asia. Despite the popularity of ornamental cherry trees in the landscape, most ornamental Prunus planted in the U.S. are derived from a limited genetic base of Japanese flowering cherry taxa. Controlled cross...

  3. Novel antioxidant compounds from tart cherries (Prunus cerasus).

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Nair, M G; Strasburg, G M; Booren, A M; Gray, J I

    1999-01-01

    As indicated by an Fe(II)-induced liposome peroxidation bioassay, the EtOAc extract of tart cherries (Prunus cerasus) was found to have strong antioxidant activity. Purification of this extract afforded chlorogenic acid methyl ester (1) and three novel compounds, 2-hydroxy-3-(o-hydroxyphenyl) propanoic acid (2); 1-(3', 4'-dihydroxycinnamoyl)-cyclopenta-2,5-diol (3), and 1-(3', 4'-dihydroxycinnamoyl)-cyclopenta-2,3-diol (4), as determined by their spectral data. At a 20-microM concentration, the antioxidant activities of compounds 3 and 4 were comparable to the antioxidant activities of caffeic acid, whereas compound 1 showed activity similar to chlorogenic acid. Also, these compounds showed antioxidant activities similar to the commercial antioxidants tert-butylhydroquinone and butylated hydroxytoluene. However, compound 2 was not active when tested at a 100-microM concentration.

  4. Complete nucleotide sequence of little cherry virus 1 (LChV-1) infecting sweet cherry in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Little cherry virus 1 (LChV-1), associated with little cherry disease (LCD), has a significant impact on fruit quality of infected sweet cherry trees. We report the full genome sequence of an isolate of LChV-1 from China, detected by small RNA deep sequencing and amplified by overlapping RT-PCR. The...

  5. Fungi Associated with Softening of Bisulfite-Brined Cherries.

    PubMed

    Lewis, J C; Pierson, C F; Powers, M J

    1963-03-01

    Softening of sound, calcium bisulfite-brined cherries was induced fairly quickly by brining them with cherries rotted by Aspergillus niger, Cytospora leucostoma, and Penicillium expansum, but not with cherries rotted by a variety of other microorganisms, including Alternaria sp., Aspergillus oryzae, Aureobasidium pullulans, Botrytis cinerea, Cladosporium sp., Mucor racemosus, Rhizopus stolonifer, and Sclerotinia fructicola. Rapid softening was correlated with the presence of a bisulfite-stable polygalacturonase, as demonstrated by a cup-plate test. A survey of naturally rotted cherries suggests the involvement of a bark-canker fungus, C. leucostoma, in softening of commercially brined cherries in the Pacific Northwest.

  6. 'Helen Taft' and 'Abigail Adams' flowering cherries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. National Arboretum has an ongoing breeding program aimed at broadening the genetic base of ornamental cherry trees (Prunus species) by developing new cultivars with disease and pest resistance, tolerance to environmental stresses, and superior ornamental characteristics. This report documen...

  7. Detection of pits in fresh cherries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There are a number of x-ray imaging techniques that could be implemented for the detection of pits in cherries, including linescan and real-time imaging using an image intensifier and CCD camera. However, x-ray imaging equipment is both expensive and bulky, and implementation on the processing line ...

  8. Altered hyperlipidemia, hepatic steatosis, and hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors in rats with intake of tart cherry.

    PubMed

    Seymour, E Mitchell; Singer, Andrew A M; Kirakosyan, Ara; Urcuyo-Llanes, Daniel E; Kaufman, Peter B; Bolling, Steven F

    2008-06-01

    Elevated plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, and fatty liver are among components of metabolic syndrome, a phenotypic pattern that typically precedes the development of Type 2 diabetes. Animal studies show that intake of anthocyanins reduces hyperlipidemia, obesity, and atherosclerosis and that anthocyanin-rich extracts may exert these effects in association with altered activity of tissue peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). However, studies are lacking to test this correlation using physiologically relevant, whole food sources of anthocyanins. Tart cherries are a rich source of anthocyanins, and whole cherry fruit intake may also affect hyperlipidemia and/or affect tissue PPARs. This hypothesis was tested in the Dahl Salt-Sensitive rat having insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia. For 90 days, Dahl rats were pair-fed AIN-76a-based diets supplemented with either 1% (wt:wt) freeze-dried whole tart cherry or with 0.85% additional carbohydrate to match macronutrient and calorie provision. After 90 days, the cherry-enriched diet was associated with reduced fasting blood glucose, hyperlipidemia, hyperinsulinemia, and reduced fatty liver. The cherry diet was also associated with significantly enhanced hepatic PPAR-alpha mRNA, enhanced hepatic PPAR-alpha target acyl-coenzyme A oxidase mRNA and activity, and increased plasma antioxidant capacity. In conclusion, physiologically relevant tart cherry consumption reduced several phenotypic risk factors that are associated with risk for metabolic syndrome and Type 2 diabetes. Tart cherries may represent a whole food research model of the health effects of anthocyanin-rich foods and may possess nutraceutical value against risk factors for metabolic syndrome and its clinical sequelae.

  9. High throughput sequencing reveals a novel fabavirus infecting sweet cherry.

    PubMed

    Villamor, D E V; Pillai, S S; Eastwell, K C

    2017-03-01

    The genus Fabavirus currently consists of five species represented by viruses that infect a wide range of hosts but none reported from temperate climate fruit trees. A virus with genomic features resembling fabaviruses (tentatively named Prunus virus F, PrVF) was revealed by high throughput sequencing of extracts from a sweet cherry tree (Prunus avium). PrVF was subsequently shown to be graft transmissible and further identified in three other non-symptomatic Prunus spp. from different geographical locations. Two genetic variants of RNA1 and RNA2 coexisted in the same samples. RNA1 consisted of 6,165 and 6,163 nucleotides, and RNA2 consisted of 3,622 and 3,468 nucleotides.

  10. Rapid and sensitive detection of Little cherry virus 2 using isothermal reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification.

    PubMed

    Mekuria, Tefera A; Zhang, Shulu; Eastwell, Kenneth C

    2014-09-01

    Little cherry virus 2 (LChV2) (genus Ampelovirus) is the primary causal agent of little cherry disease (LCD) in sweet cherry (Prunus avium) in North America and other parts of the world. This mealybug-transmitted virus does not induce significant foliar symptoms in most sweet cherry cultivars, but does cause virus-infected trees to yield unevenly ripened small fruits with poor flavor. Most fruits from infected trees are unmarketable. In the present study, an isothermal reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) technique was developed using LChV2 coat protein specific primers and probe. Detection of terminally labeled amplicons was achieved with a high affinity lateral flow strip. The RT-RPA is confirmed to be simple, fast, and specific. In comparison, although it retains the sensitivity of RT-PCR, it is a more cost-effective procedure. RT-RPA will be a very useful tool for detecting LChV2 from crude extracts in any growth stage of sweet cherry from field samples.

  11. Complete nucleotide sequence of a virus associated with rusty mottle disease of sweet cherry (Prunus avium).

    PubMed

    Villamor, D V; Druffel, K L; Eastwell, K C

    2013-08-01

    Cherry rusty mottle is a disease of sweet cherries first described in 1940 in western North America. Because of the graft-transmissible nature of the disease, a viral nature of the disease was assumed. Here, the complete genomic nucleotide sequences of virus isolates from two trees expressing cherry rusty mottle disease symptoms are characterized; the virus is designated cherry rusty mottle associated virus (CRMaV). The biological and molecular characteristics of this virus in comparison to those of cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV) and cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) are described. CRMaV was subsequently detected in additional sweet cherry trees expressing symptoms of cherry rusty mottle disease.

  12. 7 CFR 930.8 - Free market tonnage percentage cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Free market tonnage percentage cherries. 930.8 Section 930.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 930.8 Free market tonnage percentage cherries. Free...

  13. 7 CFR 930.8 - Free market tonnage percentage cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Free market tonnage percentage cherries. 930.8 Section 930.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 930.8 Free market tonnage percentage cherries. Free...

  14. Consumption of cherries lowers plasma urate in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Jacob, Robert A; Spinozzi, Giovanna M; Simon, Vicky A; Kelley, Darshan S; Prior, Ronald L; Hess-Pierce, Betty; Kader, Adel A

    2003-06-01

    To assess the physiologic effects of cherry consumption, we measured plasma urate, antioxidant and inflammatory markers in 10 healthy women who consumed Bing sweet cherries. The women, age 22-40 y, consumed two servings (280 g) of cherries after an overnight fast. Blood and urine samples were taken before the cherry dose, and at 1.5, 3 and 5 h postdose. Plasma urate decreased 5 h postdose, mean +/- SEM = 183 +/- 15 micro mol/L compared with predose baseline of 214 +/- 13 micro mol/L (P < 0.05). Urinary urate increased postdose, with peak excretion of 350 +/- 33 micro mol/mmol creatinine 3 h postdose compared with 202 +/- 13 at baseline (P < 0.01). Plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and nitric oxide (NO) concentrations had decreased marginally 3 h postdose (P < 0.1), whereas plasma albumin and tumor necrosis factor-alpha were unchanged. The vitamin C content of the cherries was solely as dehydroascorbic acid, but postdose increases in plasma ascorbic acid indicated that dehydroascorbic acid in fruits is bioavailable as vitamin C. The decrease in plasma urate after cherry consumption supports the reputed anti-gout efficacy of cherries. The trend toward decreased inflammatory indices (CRP and NO) adds to the in vitro evidence that compounds in cherries may inhibit inflammatory pathways.

  15. Bird cherry-oat aphid resistance in barley

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid, Rhopalosiphum padi L., is a serious pest of barley, Hordeum vulgare L., world-wide. It is the most efficient vector of barley yellow dwarf virus, the most important viral disease of small grains in the world. Not all bird cherry-oat aphids acquire the virus while feeding on ...

  16. Detecting pits in tart cherries by hyperspectral transmission imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Jianwei; Lu, Renfu

    2004-11-01

    The presence of pits in processed cherry products causes safety concerns for consumers and imposes potential liability for the food industry. The objective of this research was to investigate a hyperspectral transmission imaging technique for detecting the pit in tart cherries. A hyperspectral imaging system was used to acquire transmission images from individual cherry fruit for four orientations before and after pits were removed over the spectral region between 450 nm and 1,000 nm. Cherries of three size groups (small, intermediate, and large), each with two color classes (light red and dark red) were used for determining the effect of fruit orientation, size, and color on the pit detection accuracy. Additional cherries were studied for the effect of defect (i.e., bruises) on the pit detection. Computer algorithms were developed using the neural network (NN) method to classify the cherries with and without the pit. Two types of data inputs, i.e., single spectra and selected regions of interest (ROIs), were compared. The spectral region between 690 nm and 850 nm was most appropriate for cherry pit detection. The NN with inputs of ROIs achieved higher pit detection rates ranging from 90.6% to 100%, with the average correct rate of 98.4%. Fruit orientation and color had a small effect (less than 1%) on pit detection. Fruit size and defect affected pit detection and their effect could be minimized by training the NN with properly selected cherry samples.

  17. 7 CFR 923.322 - Washington cherry handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... solids as determined from a composite sample by refractometer prior to packing, at time of packing, or at... percent, by count, of such cherries in any lot must exhibit a pink-to-red surface blush and, for any given sample, not more than 20 percent of the cherries shall be absent a pink-to-red surface blush. (2)...

  18. 7 CFR 923.322 - Washington cherry handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... solids as determined from a composite sample by refractometer prior to packing, at time of packing, or at... percent, by count, of such cherries in any lot must exhibit a pink-to-red surface blush and, for any given sample, not more than 20 percent of the cherries shall be absent a pink-to-red surface blush. (2)...

  19. 7 CFR 923.322 - Washington cherry handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... solids as determined from a composite sample by refractometer prior to packing, at time of packing, or at... percent, by count, of such cherries in any lot must exhibit a pink-to-red surface blush and, for any given sample, not more than 20 percent of the cherries shall be absent a pink-to-red surface blush. (2)...

  20. 7 CFR 923.322 - Washington cherry handling regulation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... solids as determined from a composite sample by refractometer prior to packing, at time of packing, or at... percent, by count, of such cherries in any lot must exhibit a pink-to-red surface blush and, for any given sample, not more than 20 percent of the cherries shall be absent a pink-to-red surface blush. (2)...

  1. 7 CFR 930.8 - Free market tonnage percentage cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Free market tonnage percentage cherries. 930.8 Section 930.8 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 930.8 Free market tonnage percentage cherries. Free...

  2. First Report of Cherry virus A in Sweet Cherry Trees in China

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plants in the genus Prunus of the family Rosaceae are important ornamental and fruit trees in China (1). In June 2007, sweet cherry (Prunus avium) trees with mottling and mosaic symptoms were observed in a private garden near Kunming, Yunnan Province. Twenty-four samples were then collected from swe...

  3. The role of cherries in exercise and health.

    PubMed

    Bell, P G; McHugh, M P; Stevenson, E; Howatson, G

    2014-06-01

    Recently, cherries and cherry products have received growing attention within the literature with regard to their application in both exercise and clinical paradigms. Reported to be high in anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative capacity, cherries and their constituents are proposed to provide a similar but natural alternative akin to over-the-counter non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) or analgesics. Within exercise paradigms, concern has been raised with regard to the use of products, which inhibit such inflammatory or oxidative actions, because of the possibility of the blunting of physiological training adaptations. Despite this, numerous scenarios exist both within exercise and clinical populations where a goal of optimal recovery time is more important than physiological adaptation. This review critically evaluates and discusses the use of cherries as a supplementation strategy to enhance recovery of muscle function, inhibit exercise-induced inflammation, oxidative stress, and pain primarily; furthermore, the potential application of cherries to clinical populations is discussed.

  4. Leaf-Canopy inversion model though a Neural Network algorithm: Application to coffee cherry estimation using UAV images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganapol, B. D.; Furfaro, R.; Johnson, L. F.; Herwitz, S. R.

    2003-12-01

    Over the past two years, NASA has had great interest in exploring the economic potential of deploying UAVs (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) as long-duration platforms equipped with high resolution imaging systems for commercial agricultural applications. In October 2002, a team in the Ecosystem Science and Technology Branch at NASA/Ames Research Center prepared and successfully flew a UAV, equipped with off-the-shelf camera systems, over coffee plantations at Kauai (Hawaii). The idea is to help growers to find the best possible harvesting strategy. The most important information that needs to be conveyed to the growers is the percentage of ripe, unripe and overripe cherries in the field. It is of vital importance to devise a robust and reliable "intelligent "algorithm capable of predicting the amount of ripe cherries present in any digital image coming from the onboard cameras. During the campaign, the two UAV camera systems produced digital images that contain information about the down-looking plantation field. These images need to be processed to extract information concerning the percentage of ripe (yellow) cherries. To date, no robust automated algorithm has been developed to perform this task. Currently, every image is viewed by human eyes on a case by case basis. We propose a neural network algorithm that can automate the process in an intelligent way. Biologically inspired Neural Networks are made of elements called "neurons" that can simulate the brain activity during a learning process. The idea is to design an appropriate neural network that learns the relation between the reflectance coming from an image and the percentage of cherries present in a coffee field. We envision a situation in which reflectance from digital images at different wavebands is processed by a trained neural network and the percentage of the different cherries estimated. The key factor is training the network to recognize the reflectance/cherry percentage relation. Over the past few

  5. Oviposition in Sweet Cherry by Reproductively Mature Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Tephritidae:Diptera) Fed Spinosad and Neonicotinoid Insecticide Baits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. Spinosad bait is applied weekly to kill flies before they develop eggs, but its effects on oviposition by flies that are reproductively mature are unknown. ...

  6. Development and evaluation of a genome-wide 6K SNP array for diploid sweet cherry and tetraploid sour cherry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High-throughput genome scans are important tools for genetic studies and breeding applications. Here, a 6K SNP array for use with the Illumina Infinium® system was developed for diploid sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and allotetraploid sour cherry (P. cerasus). This effort was led by RosBREED, a commun...

  7. 7 CFR 930.54 - Prohibition on the use or disposition of inventory reserve cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... reserve cherries. 930.54 Section 930.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH... disposition of inventory reserve cherries. Cherries that are placed in inventory reserve pursuant to...

  8. 7 CFR 930.54 - Prohibition on the use or disposition of inventory reserve cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... reserve cherries. 930.54 Section 930.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH... disposition of inventory reserve cherries. Cherries that are placed in inventory reserve pursuant to...

  9. 7 CFR 930.54 - Prohibition on the use or disposition of inventory reserve cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... reserve cherries. 930.54 Section 930.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH... disposition of inventory reserve cherries. Cherries that are placed in inventory reserve pursuant to...

  10. 7 CFR 930.54 - Prohibition on the use or disposition of inventory reserve cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... reserve cherries. 930.54 Section 930.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH... disposition of inventory reserve cherries. Cherries that are placed in inventory reserve pursuant to...

  11. 7 CFR 930.54 - Prohibition on the use or disposition of inventory reserve cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... reserve cherries. 930.54 Section 930.54 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH... disposition of inventory reserve cherries. Cherries that are placed in inventory reserve pursuant to...

  12. 78 FR 21520 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-11

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 923 Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington..., an interim rule that decreased the assessment rate established for the Washington Cherry Marketing... cherries handled. The Committee locally administers the marketing order for sweet cherries grown...

  13. Phenolic compounds in cherry ( Prunus avium ) heartwood with a view to their use in cooperage.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Miriam; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel Ma; Fernández De Simón, Brígida; Hernández, Teresa; Estrella, Isabel

    2010-04-28

    The phenolic and tannic composition of heartwood extracts from Prunus avium , commonly known as cherry tree, before and after toasting in cooperage were studied using HPLC-DAD and HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS. Nonflavonoid (16 compounds) and flavonoid (27 compounds) polyphenols were identified, 12 of them in only a tentative way. The nonflavonoids found were lignin constituents, and their pattern is different compared to oak, since they include compounds such as protocatechuic acid and aldehyde, p-coumaric acid, methyl vanillate, methyl syringate, and benzoic acid, but not ellagic acid, and only a small quantity of gallic acid. In seasoned wood we found a great variety of flavonoid compounds which have not been found in oak wood for cooperage, mainly, in addition to the flavan-3-ols (+)-catechin, a B-type procyanidin dimer, and a B-type procyanidin trimer, the flavanones naringenin, isosakuranetin, and eriodictyol and the flavanonols aromadendrin and taxifolin. Seasoned and toasted cherry wood showed different ratios of flavonoid to nonflavonoid compounds, since toasting results in the degradation of flavonoids, and the formation of nonflavonoids from lignin degradation. On the other hand, the absence of hydrolyzable tannins in cherry wood, which are very important in oak wood, is another particular characteristic of this wood that should be taken into account when considering its use in cooperage.

  14. High concentrations of anthocyanins in genuine cherry-juice of old local Austrian Prunus avium varieties.

    PubMed

    Schüller, Elisabeth; Halbwirth, Heidi; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja; Slatnar, Ana; Veberic, Robert; Forneck, Astrid; Stich, Karl; Spornberger, Andreas

    2015-04-15

    Antioxidant activity and polyphenols were quantified in vapour-extracted juice of nine Austrian, partially endemic varieties of sweet cherry (Prunus avium): cv. 'Spätbraune von Purbach', cv. 'Early Rivers', cv. 'Joiser Einsiedekirsche', cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' and four unidentified local varieties. Additionally the effect of storage was evaluated for six of the varieties. A variety showing the highest antioxidant capacity (9.64 μmol Trolox equivalents per mL), total polyphenols (2747 mg/L) and total cyanidins (1085 mg/L) was suitable for mechanical harvest and its juice did not show any losses of antioxidant capacity and total anthocyanin concentration during storage. The juice of cv. 'Große Schwarze Knorpelkirsche' had also high concentrations of total anthocyanins (873 mg/L), but showed substantial losses through storage. The local Austrian sweet cherry varieties from the Pannonian climate zone are particularly suitable for the production of processed products like cherry juice with high content of anthocyanins and polyphenols.

  15. Differences in body size and egg loads of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from introduced and native cherries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, infests introduced, domesticated sweet [Prunus avium (L.) L.] and tart cherries (Prunus cerasus L.) as well as native bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas) Eaton. Bitter cherries are smaller than sweet and tart cherries and this coul...

  16. Calibration and quality control of cherries by artificial vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poupeau, F.; Rosenberger, Christophe; Laurent, H.; Emile, B.; Fachaux, J.

    2003-04-01

    This article describes an artificial vision system for the quality control of cherries. It allows to obtain three types of information describing the fruit: the color as indicator of ripeness, the presence of defects such as cracking and lastly the size. The sorting of cherries conditioned by all these criteria is carried out at a high cadence (twenty cherries per second). Optimized algorithms of image processing are then necessary. We present in this paper the architecture of the developed system and we show the efficiency through experimental results.

  17. Effects of cherry leaf spot on photosynthesis in tart cherry 'Montmorency' foliage.

    PubMed

    Gruber, B R; Kruger, E L; McManus, P S

    2012-07-01

    Results described here span a total of three field seasons and quantitatively depict the effects of an economically important fungal pathogen (Blumeriella jaapii) on tart cherry (Prunus cerasus 'Montmorency') leaf physiology. For the first time, leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance (g(s)), maximum ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation rate (V(cmax)), and maximum electron transport (J(max)) were measured as functions of visible cherry leaf spot disease (CLS) severity. Defined as the proportion of chlorotic and necrotic tissue per leaf, CLS severity was estimated from leaves of mature 'Montmorency' trees in 2007, 2008, and 2009. Briefly, as visible disease severity increased, all of the leaf-level physiological parameters decreased significantly (P < 0.01) and disproportionately. Thus, the effects of visible symptoms on leaf photosynthetic metabolic function encroached upon asymptomatic tissue as well. Impairment of photosynthetic metabolism in 'Montmorency' tart cherry leaves due to CLS appears to be mediated through disproportionately large perturbations in g(s), V(cmax), and J(max). These findings offer a new perspective on the amount of damage that this serious disease can inflict.

  18. Molecular simultaneous detection of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus and Cherry green ring mottle virus by real-time RT-PCR and high resolution melting analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, real-time RT-PCR assays were combined with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the simultaneous detection of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV) and Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) infection in sweet cherry trees. Detection of CNRMV and CGRMV was performed using a...

  19. 12. Irving & Cherry Streets Bridge. Rahway, Union Co., NJ. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Irving & Cherry Streets Bridge. Rahway, Union Co., NJ. Sec. 1401, MP 19.31. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Pennsylvania/New Jersey & New Jersey/New York State Lines, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  20. Cherry picker at end of Train Shed with arm fully ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cherry picker at end of Train Shed with arm fully extended and photographer in bucket - Central of Georgia Railway, Passenger Station & Train Shed, Corner of Louisville (Railroad) Road & West Broad Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  1. 11. Irving & Cherry Streets Bridge. Rahway, Union Co., NJ. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Irving & Cherry Streets Bridge. Rahway, Union Co., NJ. Sec. 1401, MP 19.31. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between Pennsylvania/New Jersey & New Jersey/New York State Lines, Newark, Essex County, NJ

  2. A study of ethylene in apple, red raspberry, and cherry.

    PubMed

    Blanpied, G D

    1972-04-01

    High ethylene levels were associated with flower abscission in apple (Malus sylvestris) and cherry (Prunus avium and Prunus cerasus), "June drop" of immature cherries, and harvest drop of apple and red raspberry (Rubus idaeus). However, an increase in ethylene content was not associated with June drop of apples and harvest drop of cherries. During the period of fruit ripening on the plant, the largest increases in ethylene occurred in apple flesh and red raspberry receptacular tissue. Ethylene remained low throughout the period of sweet and tart cherry ripening. The data obtained indicated marked ethylene gradients between adjacent tissues. Increases of ethylene in some tissues may have resulted from ethylene diffusion from adjacent tissues containing high levels of ethylene.

  3. Paleoflood investigations for Cherry Creek Basin, Eastern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jarrett, R.D.

    2004-01-01

    In 1950 when Cherry Creek dam, which is located in Denver. Colorado, was completed, the design flood was 5,126 m3/s. Two recent probable maximum flood (PMF) estimates for the dam range from 14,840 to 18,750 m 3/s demonstrate the uncertainty in estimating extreme flooding in eastern Colorado. PMF difference is due in part to a lack of extreme rainfall and flood data in eastern Colorado. A paleoflood study was conducted to assist dam-safety officials in assessing the risk of large floods in Cherry Creek basin. An envelope curve encompassing maximum contemporary floods (19 sites) and paleofloods (99 sites) was developed for Cherry Creek basin streams; paleoflood data reflect maximum flooding during the last few hundred to many thousands of years. Maximum paleofloods in Cherry Creek range from about 1,050 m 3/s near Franktown (in about 5,000 to at least 10,000 years), about 2,100 m3/s near Melvin (in about 1,500 to 5,000 years), and about 2,270 m3/s at Cherry Creek Reservoir (also in about 1,500 to 5,000 years). Flood-frequency relations for Cherry Creek, which incorporate paleoflood data, indicate the 10,000-year flood (10-4 annual exceedence probability) ranges from about 1,200 m3/s (near Franktown) to about 2,200 m3/s (near Melvin). PMF estimates are about six to eight times larger than paleofloods in Cherry Creek basin. Additional research in flood hydrometeorology is needed to help dam safety officials evaluate potential safety problems related to large floods in Cherry Creek basin. Copyright ASCE 2004.

  4. Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) among host and nonhost fruit trees.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal distributions of the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), in sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) (major host), black hawthorn (occasional developmental host) (Crataegus douglasii Lindley), and other trees were determined in a ponderosa pine ecosystem in Washington state, USA. The hypothesis that most fly dispersal from cherry trees occurs after fruit senesce or drop was tested, with emphasis on movement to black hawthorn trees. Sweet cherry fruit developed earlier than black hawthorn, bitter cherry (common host), choke cherry, and apple fruit. Flies were usually captured first in sweet cherry trees but were caught in bitter cherry and other trees throughout the season. Peak fly capture periods in sweet cherry began around the same time or slightly earlier than in other trees. However, peak fly capture periods in black hawthorn and other nonsweet cherry trees continued after peak periods in sweet cherry ended, or relative fly numbers within sweet cherry declined more quickly than those within other trees. Larvae were reared from sweet and bitter cherry but not black hawthorn fruit. Results provide partial support for the hypothesis in that although R. indifferens commonly disperses from sweet cherry trees with fruit, it could disperse more, or more flies are retained in nonsweet cherry trees after than before sweet cherries drop. This could allow opportunities for the flies to use other fruit for larval development. Although R. indifferens infestation in black hawthorn was not detected, early season fly dispersal to this and other trees and fly presence in bitter cherry could make fly management in sweet cherry difficult.

  5. Regular tart cherry intake alters abdominal adiposity, adipose gene transcription, and inflammation in obesity-prone rats fed a high fat diet.

    PubMed

    Seymour, E M; Lewis, Sarah K; Urcuyo-Llanes, Daniel E; Tanone, Ignasia I; Kirakosyan, Ara; Kaufman, Peter B; Bolling, Steven F

    2009-10-01

    Obesity, systemic inflammation, and hyperlipidemia are among the components of metabolic syndrome, a spectrum of phenotypes that can precede the development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Animal studies show that intake of anthocyanin-rich extracts can affect these phenotypes. Anthocyanins can alter the activity of tissue peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), which affect energy substrate metabolism and inflammation. However, it is unknown if physiologically relevant, anthocyanin-containing whole foods confer similar effects to concentrated, anthocyanin extracts. The effect of anthocyanin-rich tart cherries was tested in the Zucker fatty rat model of obesity and metabolic syndrome. For 90 days, rats were pair-fed a higher fat diet supplemented with either 1% (wt/wt) freeze-dried, whole tart cherry powder or with a calorie- and macronutrient-matched control diet. Tart cherry intake was associated with reduced hyperlipidemia, percentage fat mass, abdominal fat (retroperitoneal) weight, retroperitoneal interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) expression, and plasma IL-6 and TNF-alpha. Tart cherry diet also increased retroperitoneal fat PPAR-alpha and PPAR-gamma mRNA (P = .12), decreased IL-6 and TNF-alpha mRNA, and decreased nuclear factor kappaB activity. In conclusion, in at-risk obese rats fed a high fat diet, physiologically relevant tart cherry consumption reduced several phenotypes of metabolic syndrome and reduced both systemic and local inflammation. Tart cherries may reduce the degree or trajectory of metabolic syndrome, thereby reducing risk for the development of type 2 diabetes and heart disease.

  6. Combined heat and controlled atmosphere quarantine treatments for control of western cherry fruit fly in sweet cherries.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G; Rehfield-Ray, Linda

    2006-06-01

    Nonchemical quarantine treatments, using a combination of short duration high temperatures under low oxygen, elevated carbon dioxide atmospheric environment were developed to control western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, in sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.). The two treatments developed use a chamber temperature of 45 degrees C for 45 min and a chamber temperature of 47 degreesd C for 25 min, both under a 1% oxygen, 15% carbon dioxide, -2 degrees C dew point environment. Both these treatments have been shown to provide control of all life stages of western cherry fruit fly while preserving commodity market quality. There was no definitive egg or larval stage, which was demonstrated to be the most tolerant to either controlled atmosphere temperature treatment system treatment. Efficacy tests for both treatments resulted in 100% mortality of >5000 western cherry fruit flies in each treatment. These treatments may provide, with further study, quarantine security in exported sweet cherries where western cherry fruit fly is a quarantine concern and fumigation with methyl bromide is not desired.

  7. Cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant cyanidin glycosides in cherries and berries.

    PubMed

    Seeram, N P; Momin, R A; Nair, M G; Bourquin, L D

    2001-09-01

    Anthocyanins from tart cherries, Prunus cerasus L. (Rosaceae) cv. Balaton and Montmorency; sweet cherries, Prunus avium L. (Rosaceae); bilberries, Vaccinum myrtillus L. (Ericaceae); blackberries, Rubus sp. (Rosaceae); blueberries var. Jersey, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericaceae); cranberries var. Early Black, Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait. (Ericaceae); elderberries, Sambucus canadensis (Caprifoliaceae); raspberries, Rubus idaeus (Rosaceae); and strawberries var. Honeoye, Fragaria x ananassa Duch. (Rosaceae), were investigated for cyclooxygenase inhibitory and antioxidant activities. The presence and levels of cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside 1 and cyanidin-3-rutinoside 2 were determined in the fruits using HPLC. The antioxidant activity of anthocyanins from cherries was comparable to the commercial antioxidants, tert-butylhydroquinone, butylated hydroxytoluene and butylated hydroxyanisole, and superior to vitamin E, at a test concentration of 125 microg/ml. Anthocyanins from raspberries and sweet cherries demonstrated 45% and 47% cyclooxygenase-I and cyclooxygenase-II inhibitory activities, respectively, when assayed at 125 microg/ml. The cyclooxygenase inhibitory activities of anthocyanins from these fruits were comparable to those of ibuprofen and naproxen at 10 microM concentrations. Anthocyanins 1 and 2 are present in both cherries and raspberry. The yields of pure anthocyanins 1 and 2 in 100 g Balaton and Montmorency tart cherries, sweet cherries and raspberries were 21, 16.5; 11, 5; 4.95, 21; and 4.65, 13.5 mg, respectively. Fresh blackberries and strawberries contained only anthocyanin 2 in yields of 24 and 22.5 mg/100 g, respectively. Anthocyanins 1 and 2 were not found in bilberries, blueberries, cranberries or elderberries.

  8. Differences in body size and egg loads of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from introduced and native cherries.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2011-12-01

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, infests introduced, domesticated sweet [Prunus avium (L.) L.], and tart cherries (Prunus cerasus L.) as well as native bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas) Eaton. Bitter cherries are smaller than sweet and tart cherries and this could affect various life history traits of flies. The objectives of the current study were to determine 1) if body size and egg loads of flies infesting sweet, tart, and bitter cherries differ from one another; and 2) if any observed body size differences are genetically based or caused by the host fruit environment. Pupae and adults of both sexes reared from larval-infested sweet and tart cherries collected in Washington and Montana were larger than those reared from bitter cherries. In addition, flies of both sexes caught on traps in sweet and tart cherry trees were larger than those caught in bitter cherry trees and females trapped from sweet and tart cherry trees had 54.0-98.8% more eggs. The progeny of flies from naturally-infested sweet and bitter cherries reared for one generation in the laboratory on sweet cherry did not differ in size. The same also was true for progeny of sweet and bitter cherry flies reared in the field on bitter cherry. The results suggest that the larger body sizes of flies from sweet and tart cherries than bitter cherries in the field are caused by host fruit and not genetic factors.

  9. Sweet cherries from farm to table: A review.

    PubMed

    Habib, Muzammil; Bhat, Mudassir; Dar, B N; Wani, Ali Abas

    2017-05-24

    In order to enable long-distance transportation and ensure that the fruit presents the requisite quality on arrival at markets, the cherry industry for direct consumption needs to prolong post-harvest shelf life. Sweet cherries are highly perishable, non-climacteric fruits with shelf life of 7-14 days in cold storage. Their shelf life is shortened by loss of firmness, color and flavor, stem discoloration, desiccation and mould growth. Various factors such as harvest time, proper handling and cooling practices and above all packaging, greatly influence the shelf life of cherries. One of the areas of research that has shown promise, and had success, is modified atmosphere packaging (MAP). It is one of the fastest growing packaging technologies and has many advantages for different food products. Properly designed modified atmosphere packs can be exploited to lower respiration rates and thus ripening of fruits which results in least changes in physiochemical parameters of sweet cherries during postharvest storage. This paper intended to review a broad spectrum of studies dealt with the use of MAP for preservation of sweet cherries cultivars with an interest for future research work.

  10. Evaluation of flowering cherry (Prunus L.) species, hybrids, and cultivars using SSR markers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Flowering cherries belong to the genus Prunus L., consisting primarily of species native to Asia. Despite the popularity of ornamental cherry trees in the landscape, most ornamental Prunus planted in the U.S. are derived from a limited genetic base of Japanese flowering cherry taxa. A diverse collec...

  11. 7 CFR 52.802 - Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52.802... of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.802 Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. (a) “U.S. Grade A” (or “U.S. Fancy”) is the quality of frozen red tart pitted...

  12. 7 CFR 930.29 - Eligibility for membership on Cherry Industry Administrative Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Eligibility for membership on Cherry Industry... AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON... Cherry Industry Administrative Board. (a) Each grower member and each grower alternate member of...

  13. 7 CFR 52.784 - Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. 52... for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Score Sheet § 52.784 Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind of container Container mark or identification Label Net weight...

  14. 7 CFR 52.802 - Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52.802... of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.802 Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. (a) “U.S. Grade A” (or “U.S. Fancy”) is the quality of frozen red tart pitted...

  15. 7 CFR 52.802 - Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52.802... OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.802 Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. (a) “U.S. Grade A”...

  16. 7 CFR 52.784 - Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. 52... for Grades of Canned Red Tart Pitted Cherries 1 Score Sheet § 52.784 Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind of container Container mark or identification Label Net weight...

  17. 7 CFR 52.812 - Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52... for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Score Sheet § 52.812 Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind of container Container mark or identification Label (style of pack,...

  18. 7 CFR 52.802 - Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52.802... OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Product Description and Grades § 52.802 Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries. (a) “U.S. Grade A”...

  19. 7 CFR 52.812 - Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52.812 Section 52.812 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Pitted Cherries Score Sheet § 52.812 Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind...

  20. 7 CFR 930.29 - Eligibility for membership on Cherry Industry Administrative Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Eligibility for membership on Cherry Industry... AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON... Cherry Industry Administrative Board. (a) Each grower member and each grower alternate member of...

  1. 7 CFR 52.812 - Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52.812 Section 52.812 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Pitted Cherries Score Sheet § 52.812 Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind...

  2. 7 CFR 930.29 - Eligibility for membership on Cherry Industry Administrative Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligibility for membership on Cherry Industry... AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON... Cherry Industry Administrative Board. (a) Each grower member and each grower alternate member of...

  3. 7 CFR 52.812 - Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. 52... for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries Score Sheet § 52.812 Score sheet for frozen red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind of container Container mark or identification Label (style of pack,...

  4. 7 CFR 52.784 - Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. 52.784 Section 52.784 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Pitted Cherries 1 Score Sheet § 52.784 Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind...

  5. 7 CFR 930.29 - Eligibility for membership on Cherry Industry Administrative Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Eligibility for membership on Cherry Industry... AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON... Cherry Industry Administrative Board. (a) Each grower member and each grower alternate member of...

  6. 7 CFR 52.784 - Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. 52.784 Section 52.784 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... Pitted Cherries 1 Score Sheet § 52.784 Score sheet for canned red tart pitted cherries. Size and kind...

  7. 7 CFR 930.29 - Eligibility for membership on Cherry Industry Administrative Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligibility for membership on Cherry Industry... AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES OF MICHIGAN, NEW YORK, PENNSYLVANIA, OREGON, UTAH, WASHINGTON... Cherry Industry Administrative Board. (a) Each grower member and each grower alternate member of...

  8. Distributions of cherries for two models of trees.

    PubMed

    McKenzie, A; Steel, M

    2000-03-01

    Null models for generating binary phylogenetic trees are useful for testing evolutionary hypotheses and reconstructing phylogenies. We consider two such null models - the Yule and uniform models - and in particular the induced distribution they generate on the number C(n) of cherries in the tree, where a cherry is a pair of leaves each of which is adjacent to a common ancestor. By realizing the process of cherry formation in these two models by extended Polya urn models we show that C(n) is asymptotically normal. We also give exact formulas for the mean and standard deviation of the C(n) in these two models. This allows simple statistical tests for the Yule and uniform null hypotheses.

  9. Production of ochratoxin A by Aspergillus carbonarius on coffee cherries.

    PubMed

    Joosten, H M; Goetz, J; Pittet, A; Schellenberg, M; Bucheli, P

    2001-04-11

    Robusta coffee cherries collected before and during sun drying from two coffee farms in Thailand were examined for moulds producing ochratoxin A (OA). Aspergillus ochraceus was only detected in one sample, whereas Aspergillus carbonarius was isolated from 7 out of 14 samples. On gamma-irradiated coffee cherries, each of the six tested A. carbonarius strains produced OA. More than 4800 microg kg(-1) of toxin were detected under optimal conditions (25 degrees C, a(w) 0.99). OA production was strongly reduced (230 microg kg(-1)) at an a(w) of 0.94.

  10. Comparative Freezing Patterns in Stems of Cherry and Azalea 1

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Frank G.; Lumis, Glen P.; Olien, C. Robert

    1972-01-01

    Ice formation in stems, as determined by means of an electrophoretic mobility technique, occurs much more rapidly in azalea than in sour cherry. The difference is more marked in the bark than in the wood. Disrupting the structure of the tissues completely eliminates differences in freezing patterns, although gross anatomical differences do not appear to account for differences in species response. Microscopic examination of frozen stems indicated that little redistribution of water occurred during freezing in azalea, and the tissues were disrupted as these crystals developed. In cherry, on the other hand, water diffused to nucleating centers where crystal growth was not opposed, giving rise to “glaciers.” PMID:16658210

  11. Bioactive components of Prunus avium L. black gold (red cherry) and Prunus avium L. stark gold (white cherry) juices, wines and vinegars.

    PubMed

    Budak, Nilgün H

    2017-01-01

    Cherries are one of the most popular fruits, characterized by attractive colour, firmness, appearance and delicious tastes. Cherries are consumed fresh as well as in jams, wine, dried, candy and other processed products. Cherries vary in antioxidant properties and phenolic substances. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of ethanol and acetic acid fermentation on total antioxidant activities and phenolic substances of cherry juice. Total investigation of solids, pH, soluble solids, phenolic substances, ORAC and TEAC of Prunus avium L. cherry juices, macerated cherries wine, and vinegars were analyzed. All samples had 300.1-854.79 mg GAE/L of total phenolic contents, and 6.62-17.97 µmol/mL of ORAC values, and 1.5-5.5 mmol/mL of TEAC. Chlorogenic acid was present in the highest amount P. avium L. black gold vinegar.

  12. Bioactives of coffee cherry pulp and its utilisation for production of Cascara beverage.

    PubMed

    Heeger, Andrea; Kosińska-Cagnazzo, Agnieszka; Cantergiani, Ennio; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2017-04-15

    Coffee cherry pulp is a by-product obtained during coffee production. Coffee cherry pulp contains considerable amounts of phenolic compounds and caffeine. An attempt to produce Cascara, a refreshing beverage, has been made. Six dried coffee pulp samples and a beverage called Cascara produced in Switzerland out of one of those samples were investigated. Aqueous extraction of coffee pulps revealed a content of total polyphenols between 4.9 and 9.2mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/gDM. The antioxidant capacity was between 51 and 92μmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/gDM as measured by the assay with ABTS radical. Bourbon variety from Congo and maragogype variety showed highest caffeine contents with 6.5 and 6.8mg/gDM. In all samples chlorogenic acid, protocatechuic acid, gallic acid and rutin were present. The beverage Cascara contained 226mg/L of caffeine and 283mgGAE/L of total polyphenols whereas antioxidant capacity amounted to 8.9mmol TE/L.

  13. Eruptive cherry angiomas associated with vitiligo: provoked by topical nitrogen mustard?

    PubMed

    Ma, Hui-Jun; Zhao, Guang; Shi, Fei; Wang, Yi-Xia

    2006-12-01

    We report a 27-year-old man who had suffered with vitiligo for 7 years and with eruptive cherry angiomas within or around the repigmented vitiliginous skin for 2 years. After continual therapy for vitiligo with topical nitrogen mustard in a concentration of 0.001% for 5 years, multiple cherry angiomas erupted within or around the repigmented vitiliginous plaques. The discontinue therapy with nitrogen mustard stopped the appearance of new cherry angiomas. The presence of eruptive cherry angiomas was evident and was confirmed by histopathology. We suggest that the chronic chemical stimuli caused by topical nitrogen mustard might result in the formation of eruptive cherry angiomas.

  14. Electroanalytical tools for antioxidant evaluation of red fruits dry extracts.

    PubMed

    de Macêdo, Isaac Yves Lopes; Garcia, Luane Ferreira; Oliveira Neto, Jerônimo Raimundo; de Siqueira Leite, Karla Carneiro; Ferreira, Valdir Souza; Ghedini, Paulo César; de Souza Gil, Eric

    2017-02-15

    Red fruits are rich sources of antioxidant compounds with recognized health benefits. Since they are perishable, dried extracts emerge as more durable products and their quality control must include antioxidant capacity assays. In this study, the redox behavior of commercial dried products obtained from camu-camu, açai, acerola and cranberry red fruits was evaluated by electroanalytical approaches. The antioxidant potential was determined by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical assay and the electrochemical index concept. The total phenol content was estimated by using a laccase based biosensor. A significant correlation was found between all methods and literature data. The voltammetric profile (cyclic, differential and square wave) obtained for each type of dried extract showed distinguishable features that were correlated with their main major markers, being also useful for identification purposes. The electrochemical methods were cheaper and more practical for evaluation of antioxidant properties and total phenol content in dried powders obtained from different red fruits.

  15. Reproductive maturity of cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in managed and natural habitats.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luís A F; Gut, Larry J; Isaacs, Rufus; Alston, Diane G

    2009-08-01

    We studied the timing of reproductive maturity of cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew), a key pest of sweet and tart cherries in the eastern United States. To determine when cherry fruit fly females become reproductively mature in managed and natural habitats, we deployed traps in sweet and tart cherry orchards and nearby stands of the ancestral host tree, black cherry. Flies were removed from the traps and females were dissected to determine the presence of fully developed eggs. We found that capture of reproductively mature female flies occurred earlier in orchards that are not sprayed with insecticides than in sprayed orchards or in black cherry tree sites. In addition, the gap between the flights of immature and mature females in unmanaged sweet or tart cherry orchards was shorter than in managed orchards or black cherry tree sites. We also determined fruit color, size, and skin hardness to characterize the progression of fruit maturity. We found that fruit became mature earlier in sweet and tart cherry orchards than in black cherry tree sites. This study indicates that the timing of female reproductive maturity is plastic and varies among cherry fruit fly populations present in distinct habitats. Variation in the timing of reproductive maturity is related to the fruit maturity period of distinct host plant species and to orchard management.

  16. Headspace solid-phase microextraction in combination with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for the rapid screening of organophosphorus insecticide residues in strawberries and cherries.

    PubMed

    Lambropoulou, Dimitra A; Albanis, Triantafyllos A

    2003-04-18

    A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) method in combination with GC-MS was used for the extraction and quantification of diazinon, fenitrothion, fenthion, parathion ethyl, bromophos methyl, bromophos ethyl and ethion. The method was developed using a 100-microm poly(dimethylsiloxane) fiber. The obtained results showed higher responses of the insecticides after addition of aliquots of water and solvent to the fruit samples. Calibration curves that were constructed for the analytes spiked into strawberry and cherry samples followed linear relationships with good correlation coefficients (R2 > 0.986). Linearity range was between 50 and 500 microg/kg and the precision was found to be lower than 15% when applying the optimized HS-SPME procedure to fruit samples. Limits of detection in both strawberry and cherry samples using GC-MS (selected ion monitoring mode) were below 13 microg/kg. Moreover, the HS-SPME method was applied to the analysis of fruit samples and compared with liquid-liquid extraction. Results obtained in this study were in good agreement with those obtained using liquid-liquid extraction demonstrating that the recommended procedure was a fast, accurate and stable sample pretreatment method obtaining good efficiency for the extraction of organophosporus insecticides from strawberries and cherries.

  17. Optimization of frozen sour cherries vacuum drying process.

    PubMed

    Sumić, Zdravko; Tepić, Aleksandra; Vidović, Senka; Jokić, Stela; Malbaša, Radomir

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this research was to optimize the vacuum-drying of frozen sour cherries in order to preserve health-beneficial phytochemicals, as well as textural characteristics. Investigated range of temperature was 46-74°C and, of pressure, 17-583mbar, in a new design of vacuum-dryer equipment. The total solids, a(w) value, total phenolics, vitamin C, antioxidant activity, anthocyanin content, total colour change and firmness were used as quality indicators of dried sour cherry. Within the experimental range of studied variables, the optimum conditions of 54.03°C and 148.16mbar were established for vacuum drying of sour cherry. Separate validation experiments were conducted, under optimum conditions, to verify predictions and adequacy of the second-order polynomial models. Under these optimal conditions, the predicted amount of total phenolics was 744mg CAE/100 dw, vitamin C 1.44mg/100g per dry weight (g dw), anthocyanin content 125mg/100g dw, IC(50) 3.23mg/ml, total solids 70.72%, a(w) value 0.646, total colour change 52.61 and firmness 3395.4g. The investigated parameters had a significant effect on the quality of the dried sour cherries.

  18. Cherry Fruitworm, an emerging pest of Mississippi blueberries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cherry fruitworm (CFW) is a univoltine moth, native to the U.S., and whose larvae preferentially infest rosaceous and ericaceous fruits. CFW larvae have been confirmed infesting rabbiteye blueberries in Mississippi, and this typically northern pest’s appearance may represent a new State record. ...

  19. Cherry Creek Schools Student Achievement Testing, 1986-87.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.; And Others

    In order to assess the locally developed curricula, the Cherry Creek School District of Colorado developed several objective-referenced tests focused on objectives that instructional staff have identified as important for all district students. The local assessments are designed to work in conjunction with the Iowa Tests of Basic Skills (ITBSs) to…

  20. First Complete Genome Sequence of Cherry virus A

    PubMed Central

    Koinuma, Hiroaki; Nijo, Takamichi; Iwabuchi, Nozomu; Yoshida, Tetsuya; Keima, Takuya; Okano, Yukari; Maejima, Kensaku; Yamaji, Yasuyuki

    2016-01-01

    The 5′-terminal genomic sequence of Cherry virus A (CVA) has long been unknown. We determined the first complete genome sequence of an apricot isolate of CVA (7,434 nucleotides [nt]). The 5′-untranslated region was 107 nt in length, which was 53 nt longer than those of known CVA sequences. PMID:27284130

  1. Bird cherry-oat aphid: do we have resistance?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), is a highly efficient, non-propagative, persistent vector of the phloem limited leutovirus BYD-PAV. BYD is the most important viral disease of cereal grains in the world and PAV is the most prevalent strain of BYD in North America. Not all BCO...

  2. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Cordia dichotoma (Indian cherry): A review

    PubMed Central

    Jamkhande, Prasad G.; Barde, Sonal R.; Patwekar, Shailesh L.; Tidke, Priti S.

    2013-01-01

    More than half of the world's population relies on the traditional medicine and major role of the traditional medicine including the use of plant extract and their active constituents. Among them, Cordia dichotoma Forst., a small to moderate size plant of family Boragenaceae, commonly called bhokar, lasura, gonda, Indian cherry and shlesmataka. Plant parts such as leaves, fruit, bark and seed have been reported for possessing antidiabetic, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, immune-modulator and analgesic activity. Screening of fruit, leaves and seed shows the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes and sterols. Present review focuses on details of geographical distribution, physicochemical parameters, phytoconstituents and pharmacological properties of Cordia dichotoma reported so far. PMID:24093795

  3. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Cordia dichotoma (Indian cherry): a review.

    PubMed

    Jamkhande, Prasad G; Barde, Sonal R; Patwekar, Shailesh L; Tidke, Priti S

    2013-12-01

    More than half of the world's population relies on the traditional medicine and major role of the traditional medicine including the use of plant extract and their active constituents. Among them, Cordia dichotoma Forst., a small to moderate size plant of family Boragenaceae, commonly called bhokar, lasura, gonda, Indian cherry and shlesmataka. Plant parts such as leaves, fruit, bark and seed have been reported for possessing antidiabetic, antiulcer, anti-inflammatory, immune-modulator and analgesic activity. Screening of fruit, leaves and seed shows the presence of pyrrolizidine alkaloids, coumarins, flavonoids, saponins, terpenes and sterols. Present review focuses on details of geographical distribution, physicochemical parameters, phytoconstituents and pharmacological properties of Cordia dichotoma reported so far.

  4. Bioassay-based isolation and identification of phenolics from sweet cherry that promote active glucose consumption by HepG2 cells.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jinping; Li, Xin; Liu, Yunxi; Leng, Feng; Li, Xian; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-02-01

    A variety of phenolics had been found to be functional in promoting cellular glucose consumption that is important for blood glucose regulation. Sweet cherry (Prunus avium) is rich in such kinds of phenolics, including hydrocinnamic acids, anthocyanins, flavonols, and flavan-3-ols. Furthermore, a sweet cherry phenolics-rich extract (PRE) was found to be effective in promoting HepG2 glucose consumption. Seventeen components were preliminarily identified by HPLC-ESI-MS, including 9 hydrocinnamic acids, 4 anthocyanins, 3 flavonols, and 1 flavan-3-ol. To investigate the cellular glucose consumption-promotion activity of different phneolics subclasses, the phenolics were further fractionated into an anthocyanin-rich fraction (ARF), hydrocinnamic acid-rich fraction (HRF), and flavonol-rich fraction (FRF) through liquid-liquid extraction and mix-mode cation-exchange solid-phase extraction. The 3 fractions promoted HepG2 glucose consumption to different levels, with the promotion effects of HRF and FRF stronger than that of the ARF. The results provide guidance on the use of sweet cherry as a functional fruit.

  5. STUDIES OF REVERSIBLE COMPRESSION OF FREEZE DRIED RTP CHERRIES AND BLUEBERRIES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Compressed discs, of freeze-dried blueberries and red tart pitted cherries have been produced. Technological evaluations of pies prepared from... cherries and blueberries compressed at 100 to 1500 pounds per square inch, indicate no significant difference in flavor, texture and appearance from those...prepared from the uncompressed counterpart. Compression ratios obtained for freeze-dried blueberries and cherries , respectively, were 1:7 and 1:8

  6. Epidemiological studies are like cherries, one draws another.

    PubMed

    Lunet, Nuno

    2009-01-01

    The proverb "Words are like cherries", meaning that when you start talking subjects pop up and you end up with long conversations, just like cherries coming out of the plate in chains when you pick one, may also be applied to epidemiological research. A sequence of epidemiological studies, each being drawn from the previous, is presented as an example of how each investigation may raise new questions to be addressed in following studies. This description stresses the need for appropriate planning and the usefulness of pilot testing to depict inadequacies that can hardly be anticipated without field work. I intend to illustrate how epidemiological research can provide a deep approach to research questions, as long as findings are properly interpreted and suboptimal methodological options are taken into account in future investigations.

  7. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase in cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit during development.

    PubMed

    Walker, Robert P; Battistelli, Alberto; Moscatello, Stefano; Chen, Zhi-Hui; Leegood, Richard C; Famiani, Franco

    2011-11-01

    In this study the abundance and location of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) was determined in the flesh and skin of the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivar Durone Nero II during development. PEPCK was not present in young fruit but appeared in both tissues as the fruit increased in size. In these there was no net dissimilation of malic acid, which accounts for the bulk of their organic acid contents when PEPCK was present. To assist in understanding the function of PEPCK, the abundance of a number of other enzymes was determined. These enzymes were aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT), glutamine synthetase (GS), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), pyruvate, orthophosphate dikinase (PPDK), and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (rubisco). A potential role for PEPCK in the regulation of pH and the utilization of malate in gluconeogenesis in the flesh and skin of cherries is presented.

  8. Spring frost vulnerability of sweet cherries under controlled conditions.

    PubMed

    Matzneller, Philipp; Götz, Klaus-P; Chmielewski, Frank-M

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost is a significant production hazard in nearly all temperate fruit-growing regions. Sweet cherries are among the first fruit varieties starting their development in spring and therefore highly susceptible to late frost. Temperatures at which injuries are likely to occur are widely published, but their origin and determination methods are not well documented. In this study, a standardized method was used to investigate critical frost temperatures for the sweet cherry cultivar 'Summit' under controlled conditions. Twigs were sampled at four development stages ("side green," "green tip," "open cluster," "full bloom") and subjected to three frost temperatures (-2.5, -5.0, -10.0 °C). The main advantage of this method, compared to other approaches, was that the exposition period and the time interval required to reach the target temperature were always constant (2 h). Furthermore, then, the twigs were placed in a climate chamber until full bloom, before the examination of the flowers and not further developed buds started. For the first two sampling stages (side green, green tip), the number of buds found in open cluster, "first white," and full bloom at the evaluation date decreased with the strength of the frost treatment. The flower organs showed different levels of cold hardiness and became more vulnerable in more advanced development stages. In this paper, we developed four empirical functions which allow calculating possible frost damages on sweet cherry buds or flowers at the investigated development stages. These equations can help farmers to estimate possible frost damages on cherry buds due to frost events. However, it is necessary to validate the critical temperatures obtained in laboratory with some field observations.

  9. Spring frost vulnerability of sweet cherries under controlled conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzneller, Philipp; Götz, Klaus-P.; Chmielewski, Frank-M.

    2016-01-01

    Spring frost is a significant production hazard in nearly all temperate fruit-growing regions. Sweet cherries are among the first fruit varieties starting their development in spring and therefore highly susceptible to late frost. Temperatures at which injuries are likely to occur are widely published, but their origin and determination methods are not well documented. In this study, a standardized method was used to investigate critical frost temperatures for the sweet cherry cultivar `Summit' under controlled conditions. Twigs were sampled at four development stages ("side green," "green tip," "open cluster," "full bloom") and subjected to three frost temperatures (-2.5, -5.0, -10.0 °C). The main advantage of this method, compared to other approaches, was that the exposition period and the time interval required to reach the target temperature were always constant (2 h). Furthermore, then, the twigs were placed in a climate chamber until full bloom, before the examination of the flowers and not further developed buds started. For the first two sampling stages (side green, green tip), the number of buds found in open cluster, "first white," and full bloom at the evaluation date decreased with the strength of the frost treatment. The flower organs showed different levels of cold hardiness and became more vulnerable in more advanced development stages. In this paper, we developed four empirical functions which allow calculating possible frost damages on sweet cherry buds or flowers at the investigated development stages. These equations can help farmers to estimate possible frost damages on cherry buds due to frost events. However, it is necessary to validate the critical temperatures obtained in laboratory with some field observations.

  10. Plant-parasitic Nematodes Associated with Cherry Rootstocks in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Melakeberhan, H; Bird, G W; Perry, R

    1994-12-01

    In two field trials, 10-year-old sweet and tart cherry rooted on 'Mazzard', 'Mahaleb', 'MXM 2', 'MXM 14', 'MXM 39', 'MXM 60', 'MXM 97', and 'Colt' showed 10-203 Pratylenchus penetrans per g fresh root from all tart rootstocks, and up to 46 Pratylenchus, Criconemella, and Xiphinema spp. per 100 cm(3) soil. Infestation of soil containing 1-year-old Mazzard, Mahaleb, MXM 60, 'GI148-1', and 'G1148-8' with 625/100 cm(3) soil of either P. penetrans or C. xenoplax resulting in final nematode population densities of 123-486 and 451-2,496/g fresh root plus 100 cm(3) soil, respectively, and had little effect on plant height or dry weight after 157 days in a greenhouse. Population densities of neither nematode differed among the five rootstocks. In a second greenhouse experiment, soil containing the same rootstocks was infested with P. penetrans (1,250/100 cm(3) soil), maintained for 8 months in a greenhouse, 4 months in a cold room (2-4 C), and 3 additional months in a greenhouse. The number of P. penetrans recovered at the end of 475 days was approximately 10% of those recovered in the first experiment, probably due to the cold treatment. The ability of P. penetrans and C. xenoplax to infect the cherry rootstocks may be of concern in cherry management programs.

  11. Anthocyanin composition, antioxidant efficiency, and α-amylase inhibitor activity of different Hungarian sour cherry varieties (Prunus cerasus L.).

    PubMed

    Homoki, Judit R; Nemes, Andrea; Fazekas, Erika; Gyémánt, Gyöngyi; Balogh, Péter; Gál, Ferenc; Al-Asri, Jamil; Mortier, Jérémie; Wolber, Gerhard; Babinszky, László; Remenyik, Judit

    2016-03-01

    Five Hungarian sour cherry cultivars were studied to determine their anthocyanin contents and their possible inhibitory properties. The water and methanol soluble antioxidant capacities were separately assessed by photoluminescence showing values ranged from 3.4μgmg(-1) to 15.4μgmg(-1), respectively. The "VN1" variety (selected from "Csengődi csokros") showed the highest antioxidant capacity. The anthocyanin content, measured by pH differential method or isolated by solid phase extraction, was the highest also in "VN1". Correlation was found between the anthocyanin content and the high antioxidant capacity. The main anthocyanin components were cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside. The presence of malvidin-3,5-O-diglycoside was verified by MALDI-TOF MS. Sour cherry extracts and selected anthocyanins inhibited the human salivary alpha-amylase catalyzed hydrolysis competitively. The lowest IC50 value, 55μgmL(-1) or 80μM, was measured for malvidin-3,5-O-diglycoside, for which possible binding modes within the alpha-amylase active site could be investigated in silico using molecular docking and molecular dynamics.

  12. Investigating the transport dynamics of anthocyanins from unprocessed fruit and processed fruit juice from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) across intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Toydemir, Gamze; Boyacioglu, Dilek; Capanoglu, Esra; van der Meer, Ingrid M; Tomassen, Monic M M; Hall, Robert D; Mes, Jurriaan J; Beekwilder, Jules

    2013-11-27

    Anthocyanins can contribute to human health through preventing a variety of diseases. The uptake of these compounds from food and the parameters determining uptake efficiency within the human body are still poorly understood. Here we have employed a Caco-2 cell based system to investigate the transport of key antioxidant food components from sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) across the intestinal epithelial barrier. Anthocyanins and (-)-epicatechin were supplied in three contrasting matrices: fruit, processed fruit cherry juice, and polyphenolic fractions obtained by solid-phase extraction. Results show that both compound types behave differently. Fruit or juice matrices display comparable transport across the epithelial cell layer. The juice supplements sucrose and citric acid, which are regularly added to processed foods, have a positive effect on stability and transport. Polyphenolic fractions display a lower transport efficiency, relative to that of the fruit or juice, indicating the importance of food matrix components for intestinal absorption of polyphenols.

  13. Influence of temperature and preserving agents on the stability of cornelian cherries anthocyanins.

    PubMed

    Moldovan, Bianca; David, Luminiţa

    2014-06-17

    Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) fruits are known for their significant amounts of anthocyanins which can be used as natural food colorants. The storage stability of anthocyanins from these fruit extracts, at different temperatures (2 °C, 25 °C and 75 °C), pH 3.02, in the presence of two of the most widely employed food preserving agents (sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate) was investigated. The highest stability was exhibited by the anthocyanin extract stored at 2 °C without any added preservative, with half-life and constant rate values of 1443.8 h and 0.48 × 10(-3) h(-1), respectively. The highest value of the degradation rate constant (82.76 × 10(-3)/h) was obtained in the case of anthocyanin extract stored at 75 °C without any added preservative. Experimental results indicate that the storage degradation of anthocyanins followed first-order reaction kinetics under each of the investigated conditions. In aqueous solution, the food preservatives used were found to have a slight influence on the anthocyanins' stability.

  14. Determination of some B Vitamins in Sour Cherry Juice Using Dispersive Liquid-liquid Microextraction Followed by High-performance Liquid Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Parsaei, Parvin; Bahmaei, Manouchehr; Ghannadi, AliReza

    2014-01-01

    Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method (DLLME) combined with high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was used to determine thiamine (B1), nicotinamide (B3) and pyridoxine (B6) in sour cherry juice. This method was rapid, simple and sensitive. Separation was accomplished using a C18 column. The optimum chromatographic conditions were found to be: mobile phase consisted of 8% methanol and 92% aqueous phase (1% (V/V) acetic acid water solution); flow rate, 0.7 mL/min; detection wavelength, 260 nm and pH, 3.3. The extraction efficiency of thiamine, nicotinamide and pyridoxine was influenced by factors such as: additional salt effect, the kind and volume of disperser and extraction solvents. In this research, the limit of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.9 and 3 ng/mL for thiamine, 1.5 and 5 ng/mL for nicotinamide, 0.9 and 3 ng/mL for pyridoxine. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) were less than 2.87% (n=3). An appropriate linear behavior over the observed concentration range was obtained with the value of R²>0.996 for the target vitamins. This method was successfully applied to the sour cherry juice samples. Sour cherry var. Gise (Prunus cerasus var. Gise), which was used in this research, was a local variety of the sour cherry with large stone, double flowers, double fruits, dark red skin and dark red juice. This variety was identified in high altitude areas of Isfahan province after five years of study, since 2005, by Agricultural and Natural Resources Research Center of Isfahan. PMID:25587335

  15. Molecular analysis of East Anatolian traditional plum and cherry accessions using SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Öz, M H; Vurgun, H; Bakir, M; Büyük, İ; Yüksel, C; Ünlü, H M; Çukadar, K; Karadoğan, B; Köse, Ö; Ergül, A

    2013-11-07

    We conducted SSR analyses of 59 accessions, including 29 traditional plum (Prunus domestica), 24 sweet cherry (Prunus avium), and 1 sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) selected from East Anatolian gene sources and 3 plum and 2 cherry reference accessions for molecular characterization and investigation of genetic relationships. Eight SSR loci [1 developed from the apricot (UDAp-404), 4 from the peach (UDP96-010, UDP96-001, UDP96-019, Pchgms1) and 3 from the cherry (UCD-CH13, UCD-CH17, UCD-CH31) genome] for plum accessions and 9 SSR loci [5 developed from the cherry (PS12A02, UCD-CH13, UCD-CH17, UCD-CH31, UCD-CH21), 3 from the peach (Pchgms1, UDP96-001, UDP96-005) and 1 from the plum (CPSCT010) genome] for cherry accessions were used for genetic identification. A total of 66 and 65 alleles were obtained in the genetic analyses of 31 plum and 28 cherry accessions, respectively. The number of alleles revealed by SSR analysis ranged from 4 to 14 alleles per locus, with a mean value of 8.25 in plum accessions, and from 5 to 10 alleles per locus with a mean value of 7.2 in cherry accessions. Only one case of synonym was identified among the cherry accessions, while no case of synonym was observed among the plum accessions. Genomic SSR markers used in discrimination of plum and cherry accessions showed high cross-species transferability in the Prunus genus. Because of their appreciable polymorphism and cross species transferability, the SSR markers that we evaluated in this study will be useful for studies involving fingerprinting of cherry and plum cultivars.

  16. Consumption of Bing sweet cherries lowers circulating concentrations of inflammation markers in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Darshan S; Rasooly, Reuven; Jacob, Robert A; Kader, Adel A; Mackey, Bruce E

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of consuming sweet cherries on plasma lipids and markers of inflammation in healthy humans. Healthy men and women (n = 18) supplemented their diets with Bing sweet cherries (280 g/d) for 28 d. After a 12-h fast, blood samples were taken before the start of cherry consumption (study d 0 and 7), 14 and 28 d after the start of cherry supplementation (study d 21 and 35), and 28 d after the discontinuation (study d 64) of cherry consumption. After cherries were consumed for 28 d, circulating concentrations of C-reactive protein (CRP), regulated upon activation, normal T-cell expressed, and secreted (RANTES), and NO decreased by 25 (P < 0.05), 21 (P < 0.05), and 18% (P = 0.07) respectively. After the discontinuation of cherry consumption for 28 d (d 64), concentrations of RANTES continued to decrease (P = 0.001), whereas those of CRP and NO did not differ from either d 7 (pre-cherries) or d 35 (post-cherries). Plasma concentrations of IL-6 and its soluble receptor, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases-2 did not change during the study. Cherry consumption did not affect the plasma concentrations of total-, HDL-, LDL-, and VLDL- cholesterol, triglycerides, subfractions of HDL, LDL, VLDL, and their particle sizes and numbers. It also did not affect fasting blood glucose or insulin concentrations or a number of other chemical and hematological variables. Results of the present study suggest a selective modulatory effect of sweet cherries on CRP, NO, and RANTES. Such anti-inflammatory effects may be beneficial for the management and prevention of inflammatory diseases.

  17. Volatile compounds in acacia, chestnut, cherry, ash, and oak woods, with a view to their use in cooperage.

    PubMed

    de Simón, Brígida Fernández; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel M; Cadahía, Estrella; Sanz, Miriam

    2009-04-22

    Extracts of wood from acacia, European ash, American ash, chestnut, cherry, and three oak species (Quercus pyrenaica, Quercus alba and Quercus petraea) before and after toasting in cooperage were studied by GC-MS. 110 compounds were detected, and 97 of them were identified. In general, all studied woods showed more lignin derivatives than lipid and carbohydrate derivatives, with a higher variety of compounds detected and abundance of them. The toasting led to an increase in the concentrations of most of these compounds, and this increase is especially important in acacia, chestnut and ash woods. The cis and trans isomers of beta-methyl-gamma-octalactone and isobutyrovanillone were only detected in oak wood, 3,4-dimethoxyphenol and 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde only in acacia wood, and p-anisaldehyde and benzylsalicylate only in cherry wood, before and after toasting, and these compounds could be considered chemical markers for each one of these woods. Moreover, each wood has a characteristic volatile composition, from a quantitative point of view, and therefore we can expect a characteristic sensorial profile. The oak wood turned out to be the most balanced, since although it provides a lot of volatile compounds to the aroma and flavor of aged wine, it can do so without masking their primary and secondary aroma. On the whole, toasted acacia and chestnut woods showed a very high richness of studied compounds, as lignin as lipid and carbohydrate derivatives, while cherry and ash were much richer than toasted oak wood in lignin derivatives, but much poorer in lipid and carbohydrate derivatives.

  18. Nontargeted GC-MS approach for volatile profile of toasting in cherry, chestnut, false acacia, and ash wood.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Simón, Brígida; Sanz, Miriam; Cadahía, Estrella; Esteruelas, Enrique; Muñoz, Angel María

    2014-05-01

    By using a nontargeted GC-MS approach, 153 individual volatile compounds were found in extracts from untoasted, light toasted and medium-toasted cherry, chestnut, false acacia, as well as European and American ash wood, used in cooperage for aging wines, spirits and other beverages. In all wood types, the toasting provoked a progressive increase in carbohydrate derivatives, lactones and lignin constituents, along with a variety of other components, thus increasing the quantitative differences among species with the toasting intensity. The qualitative differences in the volatile profiles allow for identifying woods from cherry (being p-anisylalcohol, p-anisylaldehyde, p-anisylacetone, methyl benzoate and benzyl salicylate detected only in this wood), chestnut (cis and trans whisky lactone) and false acacia (resorcinol, 3,4-dimethoxyphenol, 2,4-dihydroxy benzaldehyde, 2,4-dihydroxyacetophenone, 2,4-dihydroxypropiophenone and 2,4-dihydroxy-3-methoxyacetophenone), but not those from ash, because of the fact that all compounds present in this wood are detected in at least one other. However, the quantitative differences can be clearly used to identify toasted ash wood, with tyrosol being most prominent, but 2-furanmethanol, 3- and 4-ethylcyclotene, α-methylcrotonolactone, solerone, catechol, 3-methylcatechol and 3-hydroxybenzaldehyde as well. Regarding oak wood, its qualitative volatile profile could be enough to distinguish it from cherry and acacia woods, and the quantitative differences from chestnut (vanillyl ethyl ether, isoacetovanillone, butirovanillone, 1-(5-methyl-2-furyl)-2-propanone and 4-hydroxy-5,6-dihydro-(2H)-pyran-2-one) and ash toasted woods.

  19. Impact of prolonged absence of low temperature on adult eclosion patterns of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Curran) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest of cherries (Prunus spp.) in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S.A. Previous research suggests that R. indifferens is unlikely to establish in commercial cherry production areas in California and in ...

  20. Processed tart cherry products--comparative phytochemical content, in vitro antioxidant capacity and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity.

    PubMed

    Ou, Boxin; Bosak, Kristen N; Brickner, Paula R; Iezzoni, Dominic G; Seymour, E Mitchell

    2012-05-01

    Processing of fruits and vegetables affects their phytochemical and nutrient content. Tart cherries are commercially promoted to possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. However, processing affects their phytochemical content and may affect their related health benefits. The current study compares the in vitro antioxidant capacity and anti-inflammatory cyclooxygenase activity of processed tart cherry (Prunus cerasus) products-cherry juice concentrate, individually quick-frozen cherries, canned cherries, and dried cherries. Cherry products were analyzed for total anthocyanin and proanthocyanidin content and profile. On a per serving basis, total anthocyanins were highest in frozen cherries and total proanthocyanidins were highest in juice concentrate. Total phenolics were highest in juice concentrate. Juice concentrate had the highest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) and peroxynitrite radical averting capacity (NORAC). Dried cherries had the highest hydroxyl radical averting capacity (HORAC) and superoxide radical averting capacity (SORAC). Processed tart cherry products compared very favorably to the U.S. Dept. of Agriculture-reported ORAC of other fresh and processed fruits. Inhibition of in vitro inflammatory COX-1 activity was greatest in juice concentrate. In summary, all processed tart cherry products possessed antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, but processing differentially affected phytochemical content and in vitro bioactivity. On a per serving basis, juice concentrate was superior to other tart cherry products.

  1. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. (a) The restricted area... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point...

  2. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. (a) The restricted area... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point...

  3. 75 FR 33736 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York... regulates the handling of tart cherries grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington... amend Marketing Agreement and Order No. 930 (order) regulating the handling of tart cherries grown...

  4. 75 FR 57161 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Increased Assessment Rate for the 2010...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... marketing order. In addition, the Board's meeting was widely publicized throughout the tart cherry industry... Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Increased Assessment Rate for the 2010-2011 Crop Year for Tart Cherries AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA....

  5. NIR detection of pits and pit fragments in fresh cherries (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The feasibility of using near infrared (NIR) diffuse reflectance spectroscopy for the detection of pits and pit fragments in cherries was demonstrated. For detection of whole pits, 300 cherries were obtained locally and pits were removed from half. NIR reflectance spectra were obtained in triplicate...

  6. Sensing the Moisture Content of Dry Cherries - A Rapid and Nondestructive Method

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impedance (Z), and phase angle (') of a parallel-plate capacitor with a single cherry fruit between the plates was measured using a CI meter (Chari’s Impedance meter), at 1 and 9 MHz . Capacitance C, was derived from Z and ', and using the C, ', and Z values of a set of cherries whose moisture cont...

  7. One dimensional Linescan x-ray detection of pits in fresh cherries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of pits in processed cherries is a concern for both processors and consumers, in many cases causing injury and potential lawsuits. While machines used for pitting cherries are extremely efficient, if one or more plungers in a pitting head become misaligned, a large number of pits may p...

  8. Real-time methods for non-destructive detection of pits in fresh cherries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of pits in processed cherries is a concern for both processors and consumers, in many cases causing injury and potential lawsuits. While machines used for pitting cherries are extremely efficient, if one or more plungers in a pitting head become misaligned, a large number of pits may p...

  9. Sweet bing cherries lower circulating concentrations of markers for chronic inflammatory diseases in healthy humans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A limited number of studies have demonstrated that some modulators of inflammation can be altered by the consumption of sweet cherries. We have taken a proteomics approach to determine the effect of dietary cherries on targeted gene expression. The purpose was then to determine changes in the concen...

  10. Reduction of optimal thermal range in aging western cherry fruit flies(Rhagoletis indifferens Curran)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western cherry fruit fly is an economically important pest of sweet cherries in the western United States. The potential of this pest to establish and spread in areas in which it is not currently present has been the focus of recent research. Most published information on the thermal tolerance a...

  11. 78 FR 76031 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ... Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 923 Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased... rule that decreased the assessment rate established for the Washington Cherry Marketing Committee (Committee) for the 2013-2014 and subsequent fiscal periods from $0.18 to $0.15 per ton of sweet...

  12. Assessing the potential for establishment of western cherry fruit fly using ecological niche modeling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., grown in the western United States are exported to many countries around the world. Some of these countries have enforced strict quarantine rules and trade restrictions due to concerns about the potential establishment and subsequent spread of western cherry fru...

  13. Astronauts Joseph Allen rides cherry picker over stowage area/work station

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1984-01-01

    Astronaut Joseph P. Allen rides a cherry picker over to a stowage area/work station to wrap up extravehicular activity (EVA) duties above Earth. The cherry picker is a union of the mobile foot restraint and the remote manipulator system (RMS), controlled from inside Discovery's cabin. The Westar VI/PAM-D satellite is pictured secured in Discovery's cargo bay.

  14. 76 FR 42072 - Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon...: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This proposed rule invites comments on changes to the grower diversion regulations prescribed under the marketing order for tart cherries...

  15. [Mold growth on strawberries and cherries during storage at 25 degrees C].

    PubMed

    Aikawa, Katsuhiro; Asai, Yoshio; Takahashi, Takanori

    2008-04-01

    Mold species that grew on the surface of retailed strawberries (10 packs, 211 strawberries) and cherries (18 packs, 441 cherries) during storage at 25 degrees C were isolated and identified to evaluate the state of mold growth. Mold growth was observed on 208 (98.6%) of the 211 strawberries and 193 (43.8%) of the 441 cherries. The mold species most frequently isolated from strawberries was Botrytis cinerea, being observed in 81.0% of the strawberries examined, followed by Cladosporium and Alternaria alternata. The mold most frequently isolated from cherries was Alternaria (28.7%), followed by Penicillium, Botrytis, and Cladosporium. The frequency of cherries on which mold growth was observed varied among packs. Mold tended to grow more often in the areas of the fruits in contact with adjacent fruits.

  16. Application of half-embryo test to irradiated apples and cherries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawamura, Yoko; Miura, Aya; Sugita, Takiko; Yamada, Takashi; Saito, Yukio

    1995-09-01

    The half-embryo test was applied to irradiated apples and cherries. The optimum incubation temperature for apples and cherries was 30°C and 25°C, respectively. Benzyladenine stimulated the shooting of cherry half-embryos, therefore, they were incubated with 10 μM benzyladenine. The irradiation of apples and cherries caused obvious changes in the growth of the half-embryos. A dose of 0.15 kGy or more almost totally retarded shoot elongation. If shooting is less than 50%, the apples and cherries are identified as "irradiated". An assessment could be made after I to 4 days and the detection limit of the irradiation dose is 0.15 kGy.

  17. Segmental cherry angiomas associated with extragenital lichen sclerosus: a report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Ingram, J R; Belgi, G; Cook, L J; Hughes, B R; Karim, A; Finlay, A Y

    2013-06-01

    Cherry angiomas (Campbell de Morgan spots) are common acquired red skin papules composed of dilated capillary loops, usually of unknown aetiology. Extragenital lichen sclerosus (LS) presents as porcelain-white scaly atrophic lesions with or without genital involvement. We report two cases of segmental multiple cherry angiomas in association with extragenital LS. Two unrelated women, aged 46 and 66 years, presented with extragenital LS affecting their axillae and lower abdomen. During the examination, both patients were noted to have several hundred red skin papules in a segmental distribution, affecting the left thigh and flank of one woman, and the right abdomen and back of the other. Clinically and histologically, the papules were consistent with cherry angiomas. The striking segmental distribution of multiple cherry angiomas may be due to genetic mosaicism; however, segmental Fabry disease was excluded by sequence analysis of the α-galactosidase A gene. Any causal link between cherry angiomas and LS remains uncertain.

  18. Production of bacterial cellulose by Gluconacetobacter hansenii UAC09 using coffee cherry husk.

    PubMed

    Rani, M Usha; Appaiah, K A Anu

    2013-08-01

    The work is aimed to investigate the suitability of underutilized coffee cherry husk (CCH) for the production and optimization of bacterial cellulose (BC) by Gluconacetobacter hansenii UAC09 and to study the physico-mechanical properties of BC films. CCH extract was used as a carbon source in various concentrations along with other nutritional components such as nitrogen (corn steep liquor, urea) and additives (ethyl alcohol, acetic acid). Concentration of CCH extract at 1:1 (w/v) along with 8% (v/v) corn steep liquor, 0.2% (w/v) urea, combination of 1.5% ethyl alcohol and 1.0% (v/v) acetic acid resulted in the production of 5.6-8.2 g/L of BC. BC had tensile strength varying between 28.5 and 42.4 MPa. BC produced with CCH and Hestrin and Schramm (HS) media did not differ in structure as analyzed by FT-IR. Scanning electron microscopic studies indicated BC to contain reticulated network of fine fibers. Under optimized condition, based on the other additives, CCH produced more than three folds yield of BC (5.6-8.2 g/L) than control medium (1.5 g/L). This is the first report on the use of CCH for the production of BC and paved way for the utilization of organic wastes with pectin and high polyphenol content.

  19. Tart Cherry Juice as a Treatment for Peripheral Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Carson, Cindy Alberts

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Tart cherries have a long history as a treatment for gout and joint pain. While the exact mechanism of action is unknown, it is believed that acanthocyanin pigments and related bioflavonoids found in tart cherries and other red fruits scavenge free radicals, modulate cytokines, reduce DNA degradation, decrease capillary permeability, inhibit cyclooxygenase, and strengthen biological membranes. Many of these biochemical reactions would be expected to reduce inflammation, pain, and edema. Significance of Study Peripheral polyneuropathies are common and are believed to affect up to 9% of the US population older than 50 y. These neuropathies may develop from direct compression of peripheral nerves, toxic or metabolic injury to nerve tissue, autoimmune attack, or nutritional deficiency. No cause is identified in approximately 30% of patients. The pathophysiology of polyneuropathies is complex and not fully understood, but 3 common patterns of damage occur: (1) distal axonopathy, where the cell bodies remain intact, but axons degenerate from distal to proximal, usually as the result of toxic or metabolic injury; (2) demyelination neuropathy, where damage to the myelin sheath from autoimmune, infectious, or other causes disrupts electrical signaling; and (3) ganglionopathies, where damage occurs at the cell body or neuron, a relatively rare occurrence. While weakness and loss of sensation are common in many peripheral polyneuropathies, “gain of function” symptoms, such as paresthesias and allodynia, are the most distressing and are very difficult to treat. It is believed that these symptoms are caused by alterations in ion channels, alterations in neurotransmitters and their receptors, and altered gene expression. Common conventional treatments include antiepileptics, antidepressants, NSAIDs, and narcotics. These medications alter ion channels and neurotransmitters, decrease the sensitivity of nociceptive receptors, and desensitize C fibers. Most patients

  20. South wing roof from the northeast, taken from a cherry ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    South wing roof from the northeast, taken from a cherry picker. This view is particularly good in capturing the monitor and the dormers that provided light and ventilation for the third-floor rooms. At center are two of the original stone chimneys and at right center is the elevator's mechanical penthouse. The severity of the 2003 fire damage is evident at the bottom of the photograph. capturing the central pavilion. - U. S. Naval Asylum, Biddle Hall, Gray's Ferry Avenue, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  1. Models for the beginning of sour cherry blossom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzneller, Philipp; Blümel, Klaus; Chmielewski, Frank-M.

    2014-07-01

    Seven different model approaches to calculate the onset of sour cherry blossom for the main growing regions in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) were compared. Three of the approaches were pure forcing models (M1, M2, M2DL) and the remaining four models were combined sequential chilling-forcing (CF) models. Model M1 was the commonly used growing degree day (GDD) model in which the starting date of temperature accumulation ( t 1), the base temperature ( T BF) and the forcing requirement F* were optimized on the basis of observed data. Because of a relatively late optimal starting date ( t 1 = 1 March), the model can be applied only to calculate the onset of cherry blossom for present climate conditions. In order to develop forcing models that could possibly be used to estimate possible shifts in the timing of cherry blossom due to climate change, the starting date t 1 of the models was intentionally set to 1 January (M2, M2DL). Unfortunately, model M2 failed in both the optimization and validation period. The introduction of a daylength term (DL) in model M2DL improved model performance. In order to project possible shifts in the timing of plant phenological events, combined CF-models are preferred over pure GDD-models. For this reason four CF-models were developed with (M3DL, M4DL) and without (M3, M4) consideration of daylength in the GDD-approach. The chilling requirement was calculated using chilling hours (M3, M3DL) and chill portions (M4, M4DL). Both models without daylength estimated implausible model parameters and failed model validation. However, models M3DL and M4DL showed meaningful model parameter estimations and the error between modelled and observed data was markedly reduced. Moreover, the models optimized and validated (internal validation) for one sour cherry growing region in Germany, were applied successfully to calculate the beginning of the blossom period in other regions in Europe and even at one station in North America (external validation).

  2. Models for the beginning of sour cherry blossom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matzneller, Philipp; Blümel, Klaus; Chmielewski, Frank-M.

    2013-03-01

    Seven different model approaches to calculate the onset of sour cherry blossom for the main growing regions in Rhineland-Palatinate (Germany) were compared. Three of the approaches were pure forcing models (M1, M2, M2DL) and the remaining four models were combined sequential chilling-forcing (CF) models. Model M1 was the commonly used growing degree day (GDD) model in which the starting date of temperature accumulation (t 1), the base temperature (T BF) and the forcing requirement F* were optimized on the basis of observed data. Because of a relatively late optimal starting date (t 1 = 1 March), the model can be applied only to calculate the onset of cherry blossom for present climate conditions. In order to develop forcing models that could possibly be used to estimate possible shifts in the timing of cherry blossom due to climate change, the starting date t 1 of the models was intentionally set to 1 January (M2, M2DL). Unfortunately, model M2 failed in both the optimization and validation period. The introduction of a daylength term (DL) in model M2DL improved model performance. In order to project possible shifts in the timing of plant phenological events, combined CF-models are preferred over pure GDD-models. For this reason four CF-models were developed with (M3DL, M4DL) and without (M3, M4) consideration of daylength in the GDD-approach. The chilling requirement was calculated using chilling hours (M3, M3DL) and chill portions (M4, M4DL). Both models without daylength estimated implausible model parameters and failed model validation. However, models M3DL and M4DL showed meaningful model parameter estimations and the error between modelled and observed data was markedly reduced. Moreover, the models optimized and validated (internal validation) for one sour cherry growing region in Germany, were applied successfully to calculate the beginning of the blossom period in other regions in Europe and even at one station in North America (external validation).

  3. A Phase Transition for Circle Maps and Cherry Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmisano, Liviana

    2013-07-01

    We study C 2 weakly order preserving circle maps with a flat interval. The main result of the paper is about a sharp transition from degenerate geometry to bounded geometry depending on the degree of the singularities at the boundary of the flat interval. We prove that the non-wandering set has zero Hausdorff dimension in the case of degenerate geometry and it has Hausdorff dimension strictly greater than zero in the case of bounded geometry. Our results about circle maps allow to establish a sharp phase transition in the dynamics of Cherry flows.

  4. Established Dermascan Treatment Parameters Using Cherry Angiomas As A Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itzkan, I.; Bourgelais, D. B. C.

    1987-03-01

    Cherry angiomas, small red spots found on normal skin, usually 1-3 mm in diameter, were used as a model to evaluate the Ofect on cutaneous vascular lesions of a cw laser treatment applied through a Dermascan delivery system. This device permits effective laser exposure times of 1 millisecond, thus limiting thermal diffusion damage in tissues adjacent to the optically absorbing vasculature. Treatment requires no anesthesia and produces no burn/blister response. Clearing of the lesion is complete about five weeks after treatment.

  5. Mortality and oviposition of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) exposed to different insecticide baits for varying periods in the presence and absence of food.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L

    2011-02-01

    Spinosad bait is used to control western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), by killing flies before they oviposit. However, effects of different insecticide baits on management of reproductively mature flies are largely unknown. Objectives here were to determine mortality and oviposition of reproductively mature R. indifferens exposed to different insecticide baits for varying periods in the presence and absence of dried yeast extract and sucrose food. Spinosad bait (spinosad in a mix of protein, sugar, and other ingredients) was compared with acetamiprid, thiamethoxam, and imidacloprid in sucrose or Nu-Lure + sucrose bait. When flies were exposed to treatments and then offered cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., for oviposition or when they were exposed to treatments and cherries simultaneously, both thiamethoxam bait and imidacloprid bait resulted in higher mortality and lower oviposition than spinosad bait and acetamiprid bait. Exposures to thiamethoxam bait and imidacloprid bait for six and 24 h were similarly effective, but 6-h exposures to spinosad bait and acetamiprid bait were less effective than 24-h exposures. There was little difference between sucrose and Nu-Lure + sucrose baits. When food was present, thiamethoxam bait and imidacloprid bait caused greater mortality and lower oviposition than spinosad bait and acetamiprid bait, but when food was absent, patterns were less consistent. Because of its ability to kill flies sooner after it is exposed to flies when food is present or absent, thiamethoxam or imidacloprid in sucrose or Nu-Lure bait may reduce infestations in cherries more than spinosad bait when mature R. indifferens are present in orchards.

  6. Generation and characterization of Osterix-Cherry reporter mice.

    PubMed

    Strecker, Sara; Fu, Yu; Liu, Yaling; Maye, Peter

    2013-04-01

    Osterix is a zinc finger containing transcription factor, which functions as a key regulator of osteoblast differentiation. To better understand the temporal and spatial expression of Osterix during embryonic development and in the adult skeleton, we generated Osterix-Cherry reporter mice. Bacterial recombination techniques were employed to engineer a transgenic construct, which consisted of a ∼39 kb DNA fragment encompassing the Osterix/Sp7 gene, but excluding adjacent gene sequences. Osterix reporter expression was characterized at embryonic, neonatal, and adult ages both by itself and in the context of a cross with Bone Sialoprotein (BSP)-Topaz reporter mice. Relative to Osterix, BSP is a more mature marker of osteoblast differentiation. In agreement with osteoblast lineage maturation, Osterix reporter expression preceded BSP reporter expression during embryonic development and spatially appeared in a much broader cell population. Strong Osterix reporter expression was observed in mature osteoblasts and osteocytes. However, weaker Osterix-Cherry positive cells were also observed in the bone marrow, possibly identifying an early osteoprogenitor cell population. Evaluation of Osterix reporter expression in male femur tissue sections from 10 days to 12 weeks of age revealed persistent expression in cells of the osteoblast lineage and a surprising increase in maturing chondrocytes of the growth plate. Also, Osterix reporter expression was transiently detected in the kidney after birth.

  7. Influence of Heat Treatments on Carotenoid Content of Cherry Tomatoes

    PubMed Central

    D’Evoli, Laura; Lombardi-Boccia, Ginevra; Lucarini, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Tomatoes and tomato products are rich sources of carotenoids—principally lycopene, followed by β-carotene and lutein. The aim of this work was to study the effect of heat treatment on carotenoid content in cherry tomatoes. Raw and canned products were sampled and analysed; furthermore whole, skin and pulp fractions of cherry tomatoes were analysed when raw and home-processed, in order to better understand heat treatment effects. Lycopene content in canned tomatoes was two-fold higher than in raw tomatoes (11.60 mg/100 g versus 5.12 mg/100 g). Lutein and β-carotene were respectively 0.15 mg/100 g and 0.75 mg/100 g in canned tomatoes versus 0.11 mg/100 g and 1.00 mg/100 g in raw tomatoes. For home-processed tomatoes, β-carotene and lutein showed a content decrease in all thermally treated products. This decrease was more evident for β-carotene in the skin fraction (−17%), while for lutein it was greater in the pulp fraction (−25%). Lycopene presented a different pattern: after heat treatment its concentration increased both in the whole and in pulp fractions, while in the skin fraction it decreased dramatically (−36%). The analysis of the isomers formed during the thermal treatment suggests that lycopene is rather stable inside the tomato matrix.

  8. Ascorbic acid metabolism during sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruit development

    PubMed Central

    Ni, Zhiyou; Lin, Lijin; Tang, Yi; Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Xun; Wang, Jin; Lv, Xiulan; Xia, Hui

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate metabolism of ascorbic acid (AsA) in sweet cherry fruit (Prunus avium ‘Hongdeng’), we quantified AsA concentration, cloned sequences involved in AsA metabolism and investigated their mRNA expression levels, and determined the activity levels of selected enzymes during fruit development and maturation. We found that AsA concentration was highest at the petal-fall period (0 days after anthesis) and decreased progressively during ripening, but with a slight increase at maturity. AsA did nevertheless continue to accumulate over time because of the increase in fruit fresh weight. Full-length cDNAs of 10 genes involved in the L-galactose pathway of AsA biosynthesis and 10 involved in recycling were obtained. Gene expression patterns of GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP2), L-galactono-1, 4-lactone dehydrogenase (GalLDH), ascorbate peroxidase (APX3), ascorbate oxidase (AO2), glutathione reductase (GR1), and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR1) were in accordance with the AsA concentration pattern during fruit development, indicating that genes involved in ascorbic acid biosynthesis, degradation, and recycling worked in concert to regulate ascorbic acid accumulation in sweet cherry fruit. PMID:28245268

  9. Detection of human herpesvirus 8 sequences in cutaneous cherry angiomas.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Alessandro; Benedetti, Sabrina; Corazza, Monica; Gentili, Valentina; Ruina, Giulia; Di Luca, Dario; Virgili, Anna; Caselli, Elisabetta

    2013-09-01

    Cherry angiomas (CAs) are common vascular benign skin tumors, characterized by abnormal angiogenesis, whose etiology is still unclear and poorly studied. We investigated the presence of HHV8 in CAs due to virus ability of inducing neoangiogenesis in endothelial cells. A total of 29 patients were enrolled in a randomized, controlled, blinded analysis of skin specimens including various vascular lesions. All clinical samples were anonymized and analyzed by three different biomolecular assays to minimize the risk of false positive/negative results. Results showed that 53 % of eruptive CAs harbor HHV8 sequences, with the highest viral loads in samples derived from immunosuppressed patients. By contrast, no paucilesional CAs were positive for HHV8. Considering HHV8 prevalence in the Mediterranean population (10-15 %), results obtained in eruptive CAs are significant and suggest for the first time a possible involvement of HHV8 in eruptive cherry angiomas development, particularly in the context of immunosuppression, similar to that recognized for major HHV8-induced pathologies.

  10. Cherry juice targets antioxidant potential and pain relief.

    PubMed

    Kuehl, Kerry S

    2012-01-01

    Strenuous physical activity increases the risk of musculoskeletal injury and can induce muscle damage resulting in acute inflammation and decreased performance. The human body's natural response to injury results in inflammation-induced pain, swelling, and erythema. Among sports medicine physicians and athletic trainers, the mainstays of urgent treatment of soft tissue injury are rest, ice, compression, and elevation (RICE). In order to reduce pain and inflammation, anti-inflammatory agents such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) act on the multiple inflammatory pathways, which, although often very effective, can have undesirable side effects such as gastric ulceration and, infrequently, myocardial infarction and stroke. For centuries, natural anti-inflammatory compounds have been used to mediate the inflammatory process and often with fewer side effects. Tart cherries appear to possess similar effectiveness in treating the inflammatory reaction seen in both acute and chronic pain syndromes encountered among athletes and non-athletes with chronic inflammatory disease. This article reviews the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of tart cherries on prevention, treatment, and recovery of soft tissue injury and pain.

  11. Ascorbic acid metabolism during sweet cherry (Prunus avium) fruit development.

    PubMed

    Liang, Dong; Zhu, Tingting; Ni, Zhiyou; Lin, Lijin; Tang, Yi; Wang, Zhihui; Wang, Xun; Wang, Jin; Lv, Xiulan; Xia, Hui

    2017-01-01

    To elucidate metabolism of ascorbic acid (AsA) in sweet cherry fruit (Prunus avium 'Hongdeng'), we quantified AsA concentration, cloned sequences involved in AsA metabolism and investigated their mRNA expression levels, and determined the activity levels of selected enzymes during fruit development and maturation. We found that AsA concentration was highest at the petal-fall period (0 days after anthesis) and decreased progressively during ripening, but with a slight increase at maturity. AsA did nevertheless continue to accumulate over time because of the increase in fruit fresh weight. Full-length cDNAs of 10 genes involved in the L-galactose pathway of AsA biosynthesis and 10 involved in recycling were obtained. Gene expression patterns of GDP-L-galactose phosphorylase (GGP2), L-galactono-1, 4-lactone dehydrogenase (GalLDH), ascorbate peroxidase (APX3), ascorbate oxidase (AO2), glutathione reductase (GR1), and dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR1) were in accordance with the AsA concentration pattern during fruit development, indicating that genes involved in ascorbic acid biosynthesis, degradation, and recycling worked in concert to regulate ascorbic acid accumulation in sweet cherry fruit.

  12. Melatonin and its potential biological functions in the fruits of sweet cherry.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Tan, Dun-Xian; Lei, Qiong; Chen, Hao; Wang, Lin; Li, Qing-tian; Gao, Yinan; Kong, Jin

    2013-08-01

    Melatonin is a well-known molecule which possesses many beneficial effects on human health. Many agriculture products provide natural melatonin in the diet. Cherry is one such fruit as they are rich in melatonin. In order to understand the biological roles of melatonin in cherry fruit, melatonin synthesis and its changes over 24 hr period were systematically monitored both during their development and in the ripe cherries in two cultivars, 'Hongdeng' (Prunus avium L. cv. Hongdeng) and 'Rainier' (Prunus avium L. cv. Rainier). It was found that both darkness and oxidative stress induced melatonin synthesis, which led to dual melatonin synthetic peaks during a 24 hr period. The high levels of malondialdehyde induced by high temperature and high intensity light exposure were directly related to up-regulated melatonin production. A primary function of melatonin in cherry fruits is speculated to be as an antioxidant to protect the cherry from the oxidative stress. Importantly, plant tryptophan decaboxylase gene (PaTDC) was identified in cherry fruits. Our data shows that PaTDC expression is positively related to the melatonin production in the cherry. This provides additional information to suggest that tryptophan decaboxylase is a rate-limiting enzyme of melatonin synthesis in plants.

  13. Antihyperlipidemic Effects of Sour Cherries Characterized by Different In Vitro Antioxidant Power and Polyphenolic Composition.

    PubMed

    Papp, Nóra; Blázovics, Anna; Fébel, Hedvig; Salido, Sofía; Altarejos, Joaquín; Fehér, Erzsébet; Kocsis, Ibolya; Szentmihályi, Klára; Abrankó, László; Hegedűs, Attila; Stefanovits-Bányai, Éva

    2015-12-01

    The aims of the present study were to clarify in vivo effects of three sour cherry cultivars characterized by different polyphenolic composition in hyperlipidemic animals in a short term experiment. The three different sour cherry cultivars were chosen based on their total in vitro antioxidant capacity, total polyphenolic, monomeric anthocyanin and flavonoid content. Male Wistar rats were divided randomly into eight groups: rats kept on normal diet (control) and normal diet supplied with sour cherry powder of one of the three cultivars; others were kept on fat-rich diet and fat-rich diet supplied with sour cherry powder prepared from one of the three cultivars. The treatment lasted 10 days. Lyophilized sour cherry administered in the diet decreased both total cholesterol and LDL cholesterol levels, and increased the HDL cholesterol concentration in sera of hyperlipidemic animals. Significant differences were found in the efficacy of different sour cherry cultivars in case of hyperlipidemia. Sour cherries characterized by higher polyphenol content seem to have a more pronounced effect on serum cholesterol levels. Our results suggest that besides anthocyanins, colourless polyphenols also have lipid lowering effect.

  14. Hydrologic data for the drainage basins of Chatfield and Cherry Creek Lakes, Denver metropolitan area, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gibbs, J.W.; Arnold, L.M.; Reed, R.L.

    1983-01-01

    Chatfield and Cherry Creek Lakes are flood control lakes constructed by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and leased to the Colorado Division of Parks and Recreation. Both lakes are in the Denver metropolitan area and provide a variety of recreational activities, including boating, camping, fishing, picnicking, and swimming. The projected increase of urban development in the drainage basins of Chatfield and Cherry Creek lakes could increase the constituent loads delivered to the lakes. Due to the eutrophic condition of Cherry Creek Lake and the potential eutrophic condition of Chatfield Lake, increased constituent loads could affect the suitability of the lakes for recreation. A monitoring program was started to determine the constituent loads of the drainage basins to both lakes. A network of monitoring stations was established to collect ambient water quality samples, storm runoff water quality samples, precipitation, and stream discharge. In the Cherry Creek basin 12 observation wells were established in the alluvium upgradient from Cherry Creek lake. Water levels and water quality data were collected to determine the quantity and quality of groundwater entering Cherry Creek lake. Data were collected from January through December 1982. The data may be used to evaluate the present and projected impact of urbanization in the drainage basins and the effect of increased constituent loads delivered to Chatfield and Cherry Creek lakes. (Author 's abstract)

  15. Influence of tart cherry juice on indices of recovery following marathon running.

    PubMed

    Howatson, G; McHugh, M P; Hill, J A; Brouner, J; Jewell, A P; van Someren, K A; Shave, R E; Howatson, S A

    2010-12-01

    This investigation determined the efficacy of a tart cherry juice in aiding recovery and reducing muscle damage, inflammation and oxidative stress. Twenty recreational Marathon runners assigned to either consumed cherry juice or placebo for 5 days before, the day of and for 48 h following a Marathon run. Markers of muscle damage (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, muscle soreness and isometric strength), inflammation [interleukin-6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP) and uric acid], total antioxidant status (TAS) and oxidative stress [thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) and protein carbonyls] were examined before and following the race. Isometric strength recovered significantly faster (P=0.024) in the cherry juice group. No other damage indices were significantly different. Inflammation was reduced in the cherry juice group (IL-6, P<0.001; CRP, P<0.01; uric acid, P<0.05). TAS was ~10% greater in the cherry juice than the placebo group for all post-supplementation measures (P<0.05). Protein carbonyls was not different; however, TBARS was lower in the cherry juice than the placebo at 48 h (P<0.05). The cherry juice appears to provide a viable means to aid recovery following strenuous exercise by increasing total antioxidative capacity, reducing inflammation, lipid peroxidation and so aiding in the recovery of muscle function.

  16. Sweet bing cherries lower circulating concentrations of markers for chronic inflammatory diseases in healthy humans.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Darshan S; Adkins, Yuriko; Reddy, Aurosis; Woodhouse, Leslie R; Mackey, Bruce E; Erickson, Kent L

    2013-03-01

    A limited number of studies have demonstrated that some modulators of inflammation can be altered by the consumption of sweet cherries. We have taken a proteomics approach to determine the effects of dietary cherries on targeted gene expression. The purpose was then to determine changes caused by cherry consumption in the plasma concentrations of multiple biomarkers for several chronic inflammatory diseases in healthy humans with modestly elevated C-reactive protein (CRP; range, 1-14 mg/L; mean, 3.5 mg/L; normal, <1.0 mg/L). Eighteen men and women (45-61 y) supplemented their diets with Bing sweet cherries (280 g/d) for 28 d. Fasting blood samples were taken before the start of consuming the cherries (study d 7), 28 d after the initiation of cherry supplementation (d 35), and 28 d after the discontinuation (d 63). Of the 89 biomarkers assessed, cherry consumption for 28 d altered concentrations of 9, did not change those of 67, and the other 13 were below the detection limits. Cherry consumption decreased (P < 0.05) plasma concentrations of extracellular newly identified ligand for the receptor for advanced glycation end products (29.0%), CRP (20.1%), ferritin (20.3%), plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (19.9%), endothelin-1 (13.7%), epidermal growth factor (13.2%), and IL-18 (8.1%) and increased that of IL-1 receptor antagonist (27.9%) compared with corresponding values on study d 7. The ferritin concentration continued to decrease between d 35 and 63 and it was significantly lower on d 63 than on d 7. Because the participants in this study were healthy, no clinical pathology end points were measured. However, results from the present study demonstrate that cherry consumption selectively reduced several biomarkers associated with inflammatory diseases.

  17. Tracking Cholesterol/Sphingomyelin-Rich Membrane Domains with the Ostreolysin A-mCherry Protein

    PubMed Central

    Skočaj, Matej; Resnik, Nataša; Grundner, Maja; Ota, Katja; Rojko, Nejc; Hodnik, Vesna; Anderluh, Gregor; Sobota, Andrzej; Maček, Peter; Veranič, Peter; Sepčić, Kristina

    2014-01-01

    Ostreolysin A (OlyA) is an ∼15-kDa protein that has been shown to bind selectively to membranes rich in cholesterol and sphingomyelin. In this study, we investigated whether OlyA fluorescently tagged at the C-terminal with mCherry (OlyA-mCherry) labels cholesterol/sphingomyelin domains in artificial membrane systems and in membranes of Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells. OlyA-mCherry showed similar lipid binding characteristics to non-tagged OlyA. OlyA-mCherry also stained cholesterol/sphingomyelin domains in the plasma membranes of both fixed and living MDCK cells, and in the living cells, this staining was abolished by pretreatment with either methyl-β-cyclodextrin or sphingomyelinase. Double labelling of MDCK cells with OlyA-mCherry and the sphingomyelin-specific markers equinatoxin II–Alexa488 and GST-lysenin, the cholera toxin B subunit as a probe that binds to the ganglioside GM1, or the cholesterol-specific D4 domain of perfringolysin O fused with EGFP, showed different patterns of binding and distribution of OlyA-mCherry in comparison with these other proteins. Furthermore, we show that OlyA-mCherry is internalised in living MDCK cells, and within 90 min it reaches the juxtanuclear region via caveolin-1–positive structures. No binding to membranes could be seen when OlyA-mCherry was expressed in MDCK cells. Altogether, these data clearly indicate that OlyA-mCherry is a promising tool for labelling a distinct pool of cholesterol/sphingomyelin membrane domains in living and fixed cells, and for following these domains when they are apparently internalised by the cell. PMID:24664106

  18. Dispersal of Rhagoletis cerasi in Commercial Cherry Orchards: Efficacy of Soil Covering Nets for Cherry Fruit Fly Control

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Claudia; Baker, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Demand for organic cherries offers producers a premium price to improve their commercial viability. Organic standards require that producers find alternatives to pesticides. Soil treatments to control the European cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephrididae) appear to be an attractive option. However, soil treatments can only be effective if the migration of flies is low, because mature flies may migrate from near-by trees for oviposition. To examine the general potential of soil treatments and to understand the dispersal and flight behaviour of R. cerasi within orchards, experiments using netting to cover the soil were conducted in two orchards with different pest pressure during two years. The netting reduced flight activity by 77% and fruit infestation by 91%. The data showed that the flies have a dispersal of less than 5 m within orchards, which is very low. The low thresholds for tolerance for infested fruit in the fresh market creates a strong economic incentive for control, therefore, soil covering is a promising strategy for controlling R. cerasi in commercial orchards. PMID:26466801

  19. Antioxidant activity of co-products from guava, mango and barbados cherry produced in the Brazilian northeast.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Kassandra L G V; Magnani, Marciane; Nascimento, Jaqueline A; Souza, Alline L; Epaminondas, Poliana S; Souza, Antônia L; Queiroz, Neide; Souza, Antonio G

    2014-03-11

    Co-products from the juice processing of guava (CG), mango (CM) and barbados cherry (CB) were investigated with a view to their exploitation as a potential source of natural antioxidants. The ethanolic extracts were analyzed for total extractable phenolic content (TEP), DPPH radical scavenging activity (RSA-DPPH), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and antioxidant activity in relation to the β-carotene/ linoleic acid system. The TEP levels in the CG, CM and CB extracts were (24.15 ± 1.59), (44.18 ± 1.73) and (49.21 ± 3.70) mg GAE/g extract, respectively. The CM extract showed higher DPPH, FRAP and antioxidant activity in the β-carotene/linoleic acid system. The data revealed a positive linear correlation between TEP, RSA-DPPH and FRAP (r² = 0.85-0.98); however, the β-carotene/linoleic acid system (r² = 0.01-0.26) shows low correlation with the TEP levels and other assessment systems. The results suggest that co-products generated from the juice processing of the studied fruit have promising use as a natural source of antioxidants.

  20. Seasonal amounts of nutrients in Western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their relation to nutrient availability on cherry plant surfaces.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L; Chapman, Peter S

    2008-10-01

    Relatively little is known about the nutritional ecology of fruit flies in the genus Rhagoletis. In this study, nutrient amounts in male and female western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, and availability of nitrogen and sugar on surfaces of leaves, fruit, and extrafloral nectaries (EFNs) of sweet cherry trees, were determined from late May to late June 2005 and of sugar from EFNs from mid-May to late June 2007 in Washington state. Protein amounts in male and female flies did not differ over the season. Nitrogen was present on leaves, fruit, and EFNs during the sampling period, but amounts on leaves and fruit were lower in late May than the rest of the season. Sugar amounts in flies did not differ over the season. Sugar was present on leaf, fruit, and EFN surfaces all season, but amounts on all three were lower in late May than later in the season. Fructose and glucose were the predominant sugars on all plant surfaces, but sucrose was also present in nectar from EFNs. In outdoor and field cage experiments in 2004 and 2006, more flies survived when cherry branches with leaves and fruit were present than absent. Results suggest that R. indifferens maintains stable protein and sugar levels throughout the season because sufficient amounts of nutrients are found in cherry trees during this time and that increases in nutrient availability caused by ripening and damaged cherries later in the season do not result in increased amounts of nutrients in flies.

  1. 75 FR 10442 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Change in the Handling Regulation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-08

    ... all Washington sweet cherries, but do not ] share the minimum grade requirements with dark colored... received will be considered before a final determination is made on this matter. List of Subjects in 7...

  2. Quality and antioxidant properties on sweet cherries as affected by preharvest salicylic and acetylsalicylic acids treatments.

    PubMed

    Giménez, María José; Valverde, Juan Miguel; Valero, Daniel; Guillén, Fabián; Martínez-Romero, Domingo; Serrano, María; Castillo, Salvador

    2014-10-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) treatments during on-tree cherry growth and ripening on fruit quality attributes, especially those related with the content on bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity were analysed in this research. For this purpose, two sweet cherry cultivars, 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', were used and SA or ASA treatments, at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0mM concentrations, were applied at three key points of fruit development (pit hardening, initial colour changes and onset of ripening). These treatments increased fruit weight and ameliorated quality attributes at commercial harvest, and led to cherries with higher concentration in total phenolics and in total anthocyanins, as well as higher antioxidant activity, in both hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions. Thus, preharvest treatments with SA or ASA could be promising tools to improve sweet cherry quality and health beneficial effects for consumers.

  3. 76 FR 46651 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Continuance Referendum

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office #0; #0;Proposed Rules #0...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 923 Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Continuance Referendum AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA....

  4. 7 CFR 52.802 - Grades of frozen red tart pitted cherries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... OTHER PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Frozen Red Tart Pitted Cherries... the scoring system outlined in this subpart. (b) “U.S. Grade B” (or “U.S. Choice”) is the quality...

  5. Interaction between Japanese flowering cherry trees and some wild animals observed during physiological experiment in fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nakamura, Teruko

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the weeping habit of Japanese flowering cherry tree in the field of Tama Forest Science Garden, Forestry and Forest Products Research Institute at the foot of Mt. Takao. Since cherry trees at various age were the materials for our plant physiology experiments, our studies were conducted in the fields where we experienced certain difficulties. Even under such difficult environment that was rather unexpected and uncontrollable, we could obtain fruitful results on the growth of cherry tree, and found them scientifically significant, especially in terms of biological effects of gravity on earth. Moreover, a lot of interesting interactions of cherry trees with various kinds of animals were observed in parallel to the plant physiology.

  6. Genetic diversity in wild sweet cherries (Prunus avium) in Turkey revealed by SSR markers.

    PubMed

    Ercisli, S; Agar, G; Yildirim, N; Duralija, B; Vokurka, A; Karlidag, H

    2011-06-21

    Wild sweet cherry (Prunus avium) trees are abundant in the northern part of Turkey, including the Coruh Valley. We analyzed 18 wild sweet cherry genotypes collected from diverse environments in the upper Coruh Valley in Turkey to determine genetic variation, using 10 SSR primers. These SSR primers generated 46 alleles; the number of alleles per primer ranged from 3 to 7, with a mean of 4.6. The primer PS12A02 gave the highest number of polymorphic bands (N = 7), while CPSCT010, UDAp-401 and UDAp-404 gave the lowest number (N = 3). Seven groups were separated in the dendrogram, although most of the genotypes did not cluster according to phenological and morphological traits. This level of genetic diversity in these wild sweet cherry genotypes is very high and therefore these trees would be useful as breeders for crosses between cultivated sweet cherry and wild genotypes.

  7. Pseudohyperglycaemia in a comatose patient after picking cherries.

    PubMed

    Derkenne, Clément; Lamblin, Antoine; Jost, Daniel; Tourtier, Jean-Pierre

    2016-10-28

    We report a case of pseudohyperglycaemia on a capillary blood glucose measurement taken from fingers stained with sugar (fructose). A 76-year-old patient with type 1 diabetes received emergency attention at home because of a coma. The first capillary blood glucose measurement collected from a finger revealed a concentration higher than the reference limits, misleading the clinician. After starting symptomatic treatment, a second blood glucose measurement was taken. This measurement, taken at the earlobe, revealed profound hypoglycaemia (0.89 mmol/L), which prompted the administration of appropriate treatment. The elevated initial capillary blood glucose measurement was linked to the presence of fructose on the fingers of the patient from picking cherries just before the patient fainted. After intravenous administration of glucose, the patient regained normal consciousness and had no sequelae despite the severity of the hypoglycaemia and delayed diagnosis. Pseudohyperglycaemia is rare, and delayed diagnosis frequently results in severe sequelae or death.

  8. Micropropagation of Prunus species relevant to cherry fruit production.

    PubMed

    Druart, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Cherry tree micropropagation is limited to the production of healthy cultivars of Prunus avium and Prunus cerasus, and their rootstocks; mainly the dwarfing ones. By using meristem-tip (0.1 mm long) or healthy shoot tips/nodes, four successive steps are needed to obtain whole plants capable of growing in the nursery: multiplication by axillary branching, shoot elongation, rooting, and plantlet acclimation. Along this process, several parameters have to be adjusted for each phase of the culture, including media composition, environmental culture conditions and plant handling. These parameters vary depending on genotypic response and specific vulnerability to physiological disorders such as hyperhydricity, apex necrosis, unstable propagation, and rooting rates. Based on a 40 year-long experience of study and application of culture conditions to large-scale plant production, this document summarizes the main problems (variability of the propagation rate, hyperhydricity, apex necrosis, plant re-growth) and solutions encountered to solve them, with means validated on many mericlones.

  9. Tay-Sach disease with "cherry-red spot"--first reported case in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chan, L Y; Balasubramaniam, S; Sunder, R; Jamalia, R; Karunakar, T V N; Alagaratnam, J

    2011-12-01

    We present a rare case of Tay-Sachs disease with retinal 'cherry-red spots' in a 19-month-old Malay child. Molecular genetic studies confirmed the diagnosis. The case highlights that 'cherry-red spot' is a useful clinical clue in Tay-Sachs disease and several other lysosomal storage disorders. It serves as an ideal illustration of the eye as a window to inborn error of metabolism.

  10. GENETIC VARIATION AND IDENTIFICATION OF PROMISING SOUR CHERRIES INFERRED FROM MICROSATELLITE MARKERS.

    PubMed

    Najafzadeh, R; Arzani, K; Bouzari, N; Saei, A

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the group of highly polymorphic microsatellite markers for identification of promising sour cherries. From among 30 tested microsatellite (SSR) markers, 19 were selected to profile genetic variation in sour cherries due to high polymorphisms. Results indicated a high level of polymorphism of the accessions based on these markers. Totally 148 alleles were generated at 19 SSR loci which 122 alleles were polymorphic. The number of total alleles per locus ranged from 2 to 15 with an average of 7.78 and polymorphism percentage varied from 50 to 100% with an average of 78.76%. Also, PIC varied from 0.47 to 0.89 with an average of 0.79 and heterozygosity ranged from 0.35 to 0.55 with a mean of 0.45. According to these results, these markers specially PMS3, PS12A02, PceGA34, BPPCT021, EMPA004, EMPA018, and Pchgms3 produced good and various levels of amplifications and showed high heterozygosity levels. By the way, the genetic similarity showed a high diversity among the sour cherries. Cluster analysis separated improved cultivars from promising sour cherries, and the PCoA supported the cluster analysis results. Since the studied sour cherries were superior to the improved cultivars and were separated from them in most groups, these sour cherries can be considered as distinct genotypes for further evaluations in the framework of breeding programs and new cultivar identification in cherries. Results also confirmed that the set of microsatellite markers employed in this study demonstrated usefulness of microsatellite markers for the identification of sour cherry genotypes.

  11. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Cherry Hill, New Jersey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The solar heating and hot water system installed in existing buildings at the Cherry Hill Inn in Cherry Hill, New Jersey is described in detail. The system is expected to furnish 31.5% of the overall heating load and 29.8% of the hot water load. The collectors are liquid evacuated tube type. The storage system is an above ground insulated steel water tank with a capacity of 7,500 gallons.

  12. Structure and Genome Organization of Cherry Virus A (Capillovirus, Betaflexiviridae) from China Using Small RNA Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiawei; Zhai, Ying; Liu, Weizhen; Dhingra, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Cherry virus A (CVA) (Capillovirus, Betaflexiviridae) is widely present in cherry-growing areas. We obtained the complete genome of a CVA isolate (CVA-TA) using small RNA deep sequencing, followed by overlapping reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The newly identified 5′-untranslated region (5′-UTR) from CVA-TA may form additional hairpin and loop structures to stabilize the CVA genome. PMID:27174277

  13. Tart cherry supplementation improves working memory, hippocampal inflammation, and autophagy in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Thangthaeng, Nopporn; Poulose, Shibu M; Gomes, Stacey M; Miller, Marshall G; Bielinski, Donna F; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    High consumption of fruits and vegetables has been associated with reduced risk of debilitating diseases and improved cognition in aged populations. These beneficial effects have been attributed to the phytochemicals found in fruits and vegetables, which have previously been shown to be anti-inflammatory and modulate autophagy. Tart cherries contain a variety of potentially beneficial phytochemicals; however, little research has been done to investigate the effects of tart cherry on the aging brain. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine if tart cherry supplementation can improve cognitive and motor function of aged rats via modulation of inflammation and autophagy in the brain. Thirty 19-month-old male Fischer 344 rats were weight-matched and assigned to receive either a control diet or a diet supplemented with 2 % Montmorency tart cherry. After 6 weeks on the diet, rats were given a battery of behavioral tests to assess for strength, stamina, balance, and coordination, as well as learning and working memory. Although no significant effects were observed on tests of motor performance, tart cherry improved working memory of aged rats. Following behavioral testing, the hippocampus was collected for western/densitometric analysis of inflammatory (GFAP, NOX-2, and COX-2) and autophagy (phosphorylated mTOR, Beclin 1, and p62/SQSTM) markers. Tart cherry supplementation significantly reduced inflammatory markers and improved autophagy function. Daily consumption of tart cherry reduced age-associated inflammation and promoted protein/cellular homeostasis in the hippocampus, along with improvements in working memory. Therefore, addition of tart cherry to the diet may promote healthy aging and/or delay the onset of neurodegenerative diseases.

  14. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF SOME IRANIAN SWEET CHERRY (PRUNUS AVIUM) CULTIVARS USING MICROSATELLITE MARKERS AND MORPHOLOGICAL TRAITS.

    PubMed

    Farsad, A; Esna-Ashari, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to characterize 23 important Iranian sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars collected from different provinces of Iran and 1 foreign cultivar, which was used as control, considered for breeding programs by using 21 microsatellite markers and 27 morphological traits. In sweet cherry (Prunus avium) accessions, leaf, fruit, and stone morphological characters were evaluated during two consecutive years. The study revealed a high variability in the set of evaluated sweet cherry accessions. The majority of important correlations were determined among variables representing fruit and leaf size and variables related to color. Cluster analysis distinguished sweet cherry accessions into two distinct groups. Principal component analysis (PCA) of qualitative and quantitative morphological parameters explained over 86.59% of total variability in the first seven axes. In PCA, leaf traits such as leaf length and width, and fruit traits such as length, width, and weight, and fruit flesh and juice color were predominant in the first two components, indicating that they were useful for the assessment of sweet cherry germplasm characterization. Out of 21 SSR markers, 16 were polymorphic, producing 177 alleles that varied from 4 to 16 alleles (9.35 on average) with a mean heterozygosity value of 0.82 that produced successful amplifications and revealed DNA polymorphisms. Allele size varied from 95 to 290 bp. Cluster analyses showed that the studied sweet cherry genotypes were classified intofive main groups based mainly on their species characteristics and SSR data. In general, our results did not show a clear structuring of genetic variability within the Iranian diffusion area of sweet cherry, so it was not possible to draw any indications on regions of provenance delimitation. The results of this study contribute to a better understanding of sweet cherry genetic variations in Iran, thus making for more efficient programs aimed at preserving biodiversity and

  15. Construction of Two mCherry Plasmids (pXG-mCherry) for Transgenic Leishmania: Valuable Tools for Future Molecular Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sugden, Conor; Velasco-Rodriguez, Óscar; Algarabel-Olona, Miriam; Larrea, Esther; Fernández-Rubio, Celia

    2017-01-01

    Leishmania is the causative agent of leishmaniasis, a neglected tropical disease that affects more than 12 million people around the world. Current treatments are toxic and poorly effective due to the acquisition of resistance within Leishmania populations. Thus, the pursuit for new antileishmanial drugs is a priority. The available methods for drug screening based on colorimetric assays using vital dyes are time-consuming. Currently, the use of fluorescent reporter proteins is replacing the use of viability indicator dyes. We have constructed two plasmids expressing the red fluorescent protein mCherry with multiple cloning sites (MCS), adequate for N- and C-terminal fusion protein constructs. Our results also show that the improved pXG-mCherry plasmid can be employed for drug screening in vitro. The use of the red fluorescent protein, mCherry, is an easier tool for numerous assays, not only to test pharmacological compounds, but also to determine the subcellular localization of proteins. PMID:28286673

  16. Integrated Management of European Cherry Fruit Fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L.): Situation in Switzerland and Europe.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Claudia; Grunder, Jürg

    2012-10-16

    The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a highly destructive pest. The low tolerance for damaged fruit requires preventive insecticide treatments for a marketable crop. The phase-out of old insecticides threatens cherry production throughout the European Union (EU). Consequently, new management techniques and tools are needed. With the increasing number of dwarf tree orchards covered against rain to avoid fruit splitting, crop netting has become a viable, cost-effective method of cherry fruit fly control. Recently, a biocontrol method using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has been developed for organic agriculture. However, for most situations, there is still a lack of efficient and environmentally sound insecticides to control this pest. This review summarizes the literature from over one hundred years of research on R. cerasi with focus on the biology and history of cherry fruit fly control as well as on antagonists and potential biocontrol organisms. We will present the situation of cherry fruit fly regulation in different European countries, give recommendations for cherry fruit fly control, show gaps in knowledge and identify future research opportunities.

  17. Chemical Characterization of Fruit Wine Made from Oblačinska Sour Cherry

    PubMed Central

    Pantelić, Milica; Dabić, Dragana; Matijašević, Saša; Davidović, Sonja; Dojčinović, Biljana; Milojković-Opsenica, Dušanka; Tešić, Živoslav; Natić, Maja

    2014-01-01

    This paper was aimed at characterizing the wine obtained from Oblačinska, a native sour cherry cultivar. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first paper with the most comprehensive information on chemical characterization of Oblačinska sour cherry wine. The chemical composition was characterized by hyphenated chromatographic methods and traditional analytical techniques. A total of 24 compounds were quantified using the available standards and another 22 phenolic compounds were identified based on the accurate mass spectrographic search. Values of total phenolics content, total anthocyanin content, and radical scavenging activity for cherry wine sample were 1.938 mg gallic acid eqv L−1, 0.113 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside L−1, and 34.56%, respectively. In general, cherry wine polyphenolics in terms of nonanthocyanins and anthocyanins were shown to be distinctive when compared to grape wines. Naringenin and apigenin were characteristic only for cherry wine, and seven anthocyanins were distinctive for cherry wine. PMID:25101316

  18. Comparative study of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity in different species of cherries.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Liu, Xinyan; Zhong, Fei; Tian, Rongrong; Zhang, Kaichun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Li, Tianhong

    2011-05-01

    A new spectrometric method ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric with high precision and rapid analysis was developed to separate 17 phenolic compounds. Different species of cherries, including 10 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars, a tart cherry (P. cerasus L.) rootstock (CAB), and a hybrid rootstock 'Colt' (P. avium × P. pseudocerasus), were analyzed for phenolics contents by this method. The results showed that significant differences were observed among the phenolic compound contents in different cherry species. In 10 sweet cherry cultivars, the contents of neochlorogenic acid and cyanidin-3O-rutinoside were much higher in red-colored fruits (for example, 64.60 and 44.50 mg/100 g fresh weight in Burlat, respectively) than those in bicolored ones. Principal component analysis revealed that cyanidin-3O-rutinoside was an effective index for grouping the cultivars with similar species and fruit colors. Moreover, there were strong positive correlations between phenolics content and antioxidant activity, which was higher in red-colored cherries.

  19. Detection and quantification of the antioxidant melatonin in Montmorency and Balaton tart cherries (Prunus cerasus).

    PubMed

    Burkhardt, S; Tan, D X; Manchester, L C; Hardeland, R; Reiter, R J

    2001-10-01

    The antioxidant melatonin was recently identified in a variety of edible plants and seeds in high concentrations. In plants, as in animals, melatonin is believed to function as a free radical scavenger and possibly in photoperiodism. In this study, melatonin was detected and quantified in fresh-frozen Balaton and Montmorency tart cherries (Prunus cerasus) using high-performance liquid chromatography. Both cherry species contain high levels of melatonin compared to the melatonin concentrations in the blood of mammals. Montmorency cherries (13.46 +/- 1.10 ng/g) contain approximately 6 times more melatonin than do Balaton cherries (2.06 +/- 0.17 ng/g). Neither the orchard of origin nor the time of harvest influenced the amount of melatonin in fresh cherries. The implication of the current findings is that consuming cherries could be an important source of dietary melatonin inasmuch as melatonin is readily absorbed when taken orally. Also, previously published data and the results presented here show that melatonin is not only endogenously produced but also present in the diet.

  20. Integrated Management of European Cherry Fruit Fly Rhagoletis cerasi (L.): Situation in Switzerland and Europe

    PubMed Central

    Daniel, Claudia; Grunder, Jürg

    2012-01-01

    The European cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cerasi (L.) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a highly destructive pest. The low tolerance for damaged fruit requires preventive insecticide treatments for a marketable crop. The phase-out of old insecticides threatens cherry production throughout the European Union (EU). Consequently, new management techniques and tools are needed. With the increasing number of dwarf tree orchards covered against rain to avoid fruit splitting, crop netting has become a viable, cost-effective method of cherry fruit fly control. Recently, a biocontrol method using the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana has been developed for organic agriculture. However, for most situations, there is still a lack of efficient and environmentally sound insecticides to control this pest. This review summarizes the literature from over one hundred years of research on R. cerasi with focus on the biology and history of cherry fruit fly control as well as on antagonists and potential biocontrol organisms. We will present the situation of cherry fruit fly regulation in different European countries, give recommendations for cherry fruit fly control, show gaps in knowledge and identify future research opportunities. PMID:26466721

  1. Acid soil indicators in forest soils of the Cherry River Watershed, West Virginia.

    PubMed

    Farr, C; Skousen, J; Edwards, P; Connolly, S; Sencindiver, J

    2009-11-01

    Declining forest health has been observed during the past several decades in several areas of the eastern USA, and some of this decline is attributed to acid deposition. Decreases in soil pH and increases in soil acidity are indicators of potential impacts on tree growth due to acid inputs and Al toxicity. The Cherry River watershed, which lies within the Monongahela National Forest in West Virginia, has some of the highest rates of acid deposition in Appalachia. East and West areas within the watershed, which showed differences in precipitation, stream chemistry, and vegetation composition, were compared to evaluate soil acidity conditions and to assess their degree of risk on tree growth. Thirty-one soil pits in the West area and 36 pits in the East area were dug and described, and soil samples from each horizon were analyzed for chemical parameters. In A horizons, East area soils averaged 3.7 pH with 9.4 cmol(c) kg(-1) of acidity compared to pH 4.0 and 6.2 cmol(c) kg(-1) of acidity in West area soils. Extractable cations (Ca, Mg, and Al) were significantly higher in the A, transition, and upper B horizons of East versus West soils. However, even with differences in cation concentrations, Ca/Al molar ratios were similar for East and West soils. For both sites using the Ca/Al ratio, a 50% risk of impaired tree growth was found for A horizons, while a 75% risk was found for deeper horizons. Low concentrations of base cations and high extractable Al in these soils translate into a high degree of risk for forest regeneration and tree growth after conventional tree harvesting.

  2. Investigations of Factors to Improve Texture and Color of Freeze- Dehydrated and Subsequently Compressed Red Tart Pitted Cherries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Freeze-dehydrated and compressed red tart pitted cherries , cultivar montmorency, were stored at 21C and 38 C for 12 to 6 months. Quality evaluations...better texture after rehydration. Red food color incorporation to the freeze dehydrated red tart pitted cherries improved the color; however, this was not successful on samples that had turned brown after storage at 38C....as storage time was increased. Sensory evaluations were made on dehydrated cherries prepared as pies. Sulfited cherries retained better color but the

  3. Simultaneous detection of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus and Cherry green ring mottle virus using real-time PCR and high resolution melting analysis.

    PubMed

    Komorowska, Beata; Fiore, Nicola; Zamorano, Alan; Li, Ruhui

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the real-time PCR assays were combined with high resolution melting (HRM) analysis for the simultaneous detection of Cherry necrotic rusty mottle virus (CNRMV) and Cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) infection in sweet cherry trees. Detection of CNRMV and CGRMV was performed in a real-time PCR using a primer set for both of them or duplex real-time PCR that included one specific primer set for each virus. These two strategies allowed us to confirmed virus infection in all tested samples. In 17 field samples the technique revealed samples positive for CNRMV or CGRMV as well as positive for both viruses. In addition, the HRM analysis made it possible to differentiate clearly between CNRMV and CGRMV. Sequence variations among CNRMV and CGRMV isolates observed from the HRM peaks were confirmed by sequencing. To test the capability to use this method in field, forty one sweet cherry samples were examined by HRM analysis. The HRM data showed that seven samples were positive for CNRMV and three were infected with CGRMV. The results presented in this study indicated that real-time PCR followed by HRM analysis provides sensitive, automated and rapid tool to detect and differentiate between CNRMV and CGRMV isolates.

  4. Seasonal Amounts of Nutrients in Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and Their Relation to Nutrient Availability on Cherry Plant Surfaces

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Relatively little is known about the nutritional ecology of fruit flies in the genus Rhagoletis. In this study, nutrient amounts in male and female western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, and the availability of nitrogen and sugar on surfaces of leaves, fruit, and extrafloral necta...

  5. Anti-inflammatory effect of Capuli cherry against LPS-induced cytotoxic damage in RAW 264.7 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Suarez, José M; Carrillo-Perdomo, Estefanía; Aller, Angel; Giampieri, Francesca; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; González-Pérez, Lien; Beltrán-Ayala, Pablo; Battino, Maurizio

    2017-04-01

    Capuli cherry (Prunus serotina Ehr. subsp. capuli (Cav.) McVaugh) fruits from the inter-Andean region of Ecuador were analysed to determine their bioactive compounds content, total antioxidant capacity, radical scavenging activity and their anti-inflammatory and protective effects against the cytotoxic damage mediated by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in RAW 264.7 macrophages. Capuli fruits proved to be a natural source of bioactive compounds such as anthocyanins, vitamin C and β-carotene as well as to present an important total antioxidant capacity and radical scavenging activities. RAW 264.7 macrophages were incubated with different concentration of Capuli crude extract and subsequently activated by LPS to determine the markers related to oxidative damage and the proinflammatory cytokine production. The markers of oxidative damage, nitrite levels, the interleukin 1β messenger RNA levels and the tumor necrosis factor α mRNA levels and secretion were significantly decreased after the pre-incubated with Capuli extract and subsequently stimulated with LPS. In summary, Capuli extract attenuated the LPS-induced damage in RAW 264.7 macrophages due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, showing that Capuli fruits may represent a relevant source of bioactive compounds with promising benefits for human health.

  6. Light versus Dark Carbon Metabolism in Cherry Tomato Fruits

    PubMed Central

    Laval-Martin, Danielle; Farineau, Jack; Diamond, Jeffrey

    1977-01-01

    The photosynthetic properties of the internal and peripheral tissues of the cherry tomato fruit (Lycopersicum esculentum var. cerasiforme Dun A. Gray) were investigated. Whole fruit and their isolated tissues evolve large amounts of CO2 in darkness. In the light, this evolution decreases but nevertheless remains a net evolution; 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea abolishes the effects of light. Incorporation of 14CO2 by leaves and fruit tissues demonstrates that the outer region of the fruit has the highest photosynthetic efficiency on a chlorophyll basis; the internal fruit tissue, richer in chlorophyll, has a much lower efficiency. The identification of intermediates following short term incubations with 14CO2 shows that in darkness the fruit accumulates the majority of label in malate. In the light, leaf tissue exhibits a pattern of incorporation characteristic of C-3 metabolism, whereas fruit tissue exhibits a decreased labeling of malate with a concomitant appearance of label in Calvin cycle intermediates. This is in agreement with the levels and types of carboxylating activities demonstrated in vitro; especially noteworthy is the very low ribulose diphosphate carboxylase activity in the internal fruit tissue. The photosynthetic potential, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activity, and quantities of malate accumulated by fruit tissues are parallel to their chlorophyll content during growth and maturation. PMID:16660204

  7. The bacterial communities of Drosophila suzukii collected from undamaged cherries.

    PubMed

    Chandler, James Angus; James, Pamela M; Jospin, Guillaume; Lang, Jenna M

    2014-01-01

    Drosophila suzukii is an introduced pest insect that feeds on undamaged, attached fruit. This diet is distinct from the fallen, discomposing fruits utilized by most other species of Drosophila. Since the bacterial microbiota of Drosophila, and of many other animals, is affected by diet, we hypothesized that the bacteria associated with D. suzukii are distinct from that of other Drosophila. Using 16S rDNA PCR and Illumina sequencing, we characterized the bacterial communities of larval and adult D. suzukii collected from undamaged, attached cherries in California, USA. We find that the bacterial communities associated with these samples of D. suzukii contain a high frequency of Tatumella. Gluconobacter and Acetobacter, two taxa with known associations with Drosophila, were also found, although at lower frequency than Tatumella in four of the five samples examined. Sampling D. suzukii from different locations and/or while feeding on different fruits is needed to determine the generality of the results determined by these samples. Nevertheless this is, to our knowledge, the first study characterizing the bacterial communities of this ecologically unique and economically important species of Drosophila.

  8. Foliar ozone injury and gas exchange among black cherry genotypes

    SciTech Connect

    Kouterick, K.B.; Skelly, J.M.; Fredericksen, T.S.; Kolb, T.E.; Savage, J.E.; Snyder, K.R. )

    1994-06-01

    The effect of differing ozone exposures on seedlings of black cherry genotypes was investigated in northcentral Pennsylvania. Ozone exclusion treatments were administrated to half-sib families R12 and MO-7, and wild-type (WT) grown in open-top chambers. Over the 1993 growing season, left gas exchange and stem volume were related to percentage of foliar ozone injury observed as adaxial stipple. Ozone symptoms decreased significantly with increasing ozone filtration. R12 exhibited the most severe foliar injury, while WT seedlings showed slightly less symptoms. MO-7 had the least amount of foliar injury. No clear trends in stomatal conductance or net photosynthesis were observed until August. During August, foliar injury was positively related to stomatal conductance. Stomatal conductance values were greatest in R12, followed by WT and MO-7. Photosynthesis followed the same pattern at stomatal conductance. Dark respiration rates were variable across treatments for the entire growing season. Differing ozone exposures did not affect stem volume, but stem volume of seedlings of all families in the open plot were significantly lower than seedlings within chambers. Overall, R12 had higher stem volume than MO-7 and WT seedlings.

  9. The pathogenicity of novel duck reovirus in Cherry Valley ducks.

    PubMed

    Li, Ning; Hong, Tianqi; Wang, Yao; Wang, Youling; Yu, Kexiang; Cai, Yumei; Liu, Sidang; Wei, Liangmeng; Chai, Tongjie

    2016-08-30

    The novel duck reovirus (NDRV) is an emerging, contagious infection. To better realize the pathogenic mechanism of NDRV in ducks, an infection experiment was conducted. The resulting data demonstrated that typical gross lesions were observed in the infected ducks. NDRV was able to replicate in various tissues, leading to these pathological lesions, especially on the liver and spleen. Real-time quantitative PCR showed that the expression of most innate immune-related genes was up-regulated and the antiviral innate immune response could be established in both the liver and spleen. This study indicates that NDRV is a pantropic virus. To resist viral infection, several pathogen recognition receptors can cooperatively recognize NDRV and initiate innate immunity, but the responses are different between different tissues. As far as we know, this is the first systematic investigation of the pathogenicity of NDRV in Cherry Valley ducks based on the host's innate immunity, and these data will provide new insights into the further study of the disease.

  10. A quantum Cherry theorem for perturbations of the plane rotator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barone, Fiorella; Graffi, Sandro

    2013-12-01

    We consider on L^2({T}^2) the Schrödinger operator family L_\\varepsilon : \\varepsilon in {R} with domain and action defined as D(L_\\varepsilon )=H^2({T}^2), L_\\varepsilon u=-1/2hbar ^2(α _1partial _{φ _1}^2+α _2partial _{φ _2}^2)u-ihbar (γ _1partial _{φ _1}+γ _2partial _{φ _2})u+\\varepsilon Vu. Here \\varepsilon in {R}, α = (α1, α2), γ = (γ1, γ2) are vectors of complex non-real frequencies, and V a pseudodifferential operator of order zero. Lɛ represents the Weyl quantization of the Hamiltonian family {L}_\\varepsilon (ξ,x)=1/2(α _1ξ _1^2+α _2ξ _2^2)+γ _1ξ _1+γ _2ξ _2+\\varepsilon {V}(ξ,x) defined on the phase space {R}^2× {T}^2, where {V}(ξ,x)in C^2({R}^2× {T}^2;{R}). We prove the uniform convergence with respect to ℏ ∈ [0, 1] of the quantum normal form, which reduces to the classical one for ℏ = 0. This result simultaneously entails an exact quantization formula for the quantum spectrum as well as a convergence criterion for the classical Birkhoff normal form generalizing a well known theorem of Cherry.

  11. Adsorption studies of methylene blue and phenol onto black stone cherries prepared by chemical activation.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Arana, José María Ramos; Mazzoco, René Reyes

    2010-08-15

    The production of granular activated carbon (GAC) basically depends on the correct selection of carbonization temperature, activation ratio and agent (physical or chemical) as well as the raw material. Black cherry, available in Mexico with relative abundance, is of the same genus as the European cherry, whose stones have yielded good GAC production results. Black cherry stones were tried as raw material for GAC production with phosphoric acid as the activating agent. Optimum carbonization temperatures were found to be between 500 and 550 degrees C with an activation ratio of 1.0 g of phosphoric acid/g raw material. Under these conditions the maximum yield was 48.16 g of GAC/100 g black cherry stones. The experimental adsorption parameters fitted into Langmuir's model with a maximum adsorption of 321.75 mg of methylene blue/g GAC and 133.33 mg of phenol/g GAC. Black cherry shells are an abundant agricultural by-product with no uses, and therefore are an alternative for producing GAC.

  12. A Jerte Valley Cherry-Based Product as a Supply of Tryptophan

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, María; Espino, Javier; Toribio-Delgado, Antonio F.; Cubero, Javier; Maynar-Mariño, Juan I.; Barriga, Carmen; Paredes, Sergio D.; Rodríguez, Ana B.

    2012-01-01

    L-Tryptophan (tryptophan) is an essential amino acid in humans. It has important roles as a precursor of different bioactive compounds. Based on previous studies in which tryptophan has been shown to be present in fresh cherries, the aim of the present work was to analyze the tryptophan content of a Jerte Valley cherry-based product. A previously optimized method of analysis of tryptophan was used, ie, high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (HPLC/FL). As expected, HPLC/FL technique permitted to detect and quantify the tryptophan content in a different matrix rather than fresh cherries. In fact, the Jerte Valley cherry-based product contained 69.54 ± 10.64 ppm of tryptophan, thereby showing that this product is a good source of tryptophan. In summary, it has been proven that the Jerte Valley cherry-based product is rich in tryptophan and may be indicated as a supply of this essential amino acid as well as having potential health benefits for conditions where tryptophan is necessary. PMID:22553424

  13. In vitro bioavailability of phenolic compounds from five cultivars of frozen sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.).

    PubMed

    Fazzari, Marco; Fukumoto, Lana; Mazza, Giuseppe; Livrea, Maria A; Tesoriere, Luisa; Marco, Luigi Di

    2008-05-28

    The bioavailability of phenolic compounds from five cultivars of frozen sweet cherries was assessed by a digestion process involving pepsin-HCl digestion (to simulate gastric digestion) and pancreatin digestion with bile salts (to simulate small intestine conditions) and dialyzed to assess serum- and colon-available fractions. After pepsin digestion, the % recovery of total phenolics, relative to the original starting material, increased, whereas the % anthocyanins did not change. Following pancreatic digestion and dialysis, the total phenolics in the IN (serum-available) fraction was about 26-30% and the OUT (colon-available) fraction was about 77-101%. The anthocyanin content in the IN fraction was 15-21%, and in the OUT fraction, it was 52-67%. Skeena, Lapins, and Sweetheart cultivars contained higher levels of total phenolics and anthocyanins, which resulted in higher concentrations of these compounds in the IN and OUT fractions. The potential bioavailability of phenolic compounds was also assessed in Bing and Lapins cultivars at three ripening stages. Immature cherries had higher % total phenolics in the IN fraction than mature or overmature cherries. However, immature cherries had the lowest concentrations of these compounds, making the actual bioavailable amounts of these compounds lower than for mature and overmature fruit. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of Lapins cherries at three maturity stages confirmed the results obtained using spectrophotometric methods for total phenolics and anthocyanins.

  14. Mapping of Candidate Genes Involved in Bud Dormancy and Flowering Time in Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium).

    PubMed

    Castède, Sophie; Campoy, José Antonio; Le Dantec, Loïck; Quero-García, José; Barreneche, Teresa; Wenden, Bénédicte; Dirlewanger, Elisabeth

    2015-01-01

    The timing of flowering in perennial plants is crucial for their survival in temperate climates and is regulated by the duration of bud dormancy. Bud dormancy release and bud break depend on the perception of cumulative chilling during endodormancy and heat during the bud development. The objectives of this work were to identify candidate genes involved in dormancy and flowering processes in sweet cherry, their mapping in two mapping progenies 'Regina' × 'Garnet' and 'Regina' × 'Lapins', and to select those candidate genes which co-localized with quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with temperature requirements for bud dormancy release and flowering. Based on available data on flowering processes in various species, a list of 79 candidate genes was established. The peach and sweet cherry orthologs were identified and primers were designed to amplify sweet cherry candidate gene fragments. Based on the amplified sequences of the three parents of the mapping progenies, SNPs segregations in the progenies were identified. Thirty five candidate genes were genetically mapped in at least one of the two progenies and all were in silico mapped. Co-localization between candidate genes and QTLs associated with temperature requirements and flowering date were identified for the first time in sweet cherry. The allelic composition of the candidate genes located in the major QTL for heat requirements and flowering date located on linkage group 4 have a significant effect on these two traits indicating their potential use for breeding programs in sweet cherry to select new varieties adapted to putative future climatic conditions.

  15. First Report of a New Phytoplasma Subgroup, 16SrIII-S, Associated with Decline Disease Affecting Sweet and Sour Cherry Trees

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During July 2007, we observed sweet cherry (Prunus avium) and sour cherry (Prunus cerasus) trees exhibiting disease symptoms suggestive of possible phytoplasma infection in a large orchard in the Kaunas region of Lithuania. Samples of leaf tissue were collected from sweet cherry trees that were aff...

  16. Chilling and host plant/site associated eclosion times of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera:Tephritidae) and a host-specific parasitoid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is native to bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ~100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of ad...

  17. 33 CFR 165.T09-0189 - Safety Zone; National Cherry Festival Air Show and Fireworks Display, West Grand Traverse Bay...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Safety Zone; National Cherry... Cherry Festival Air Show and Fireworks Display, West Grand Traverse Bay, Traverse City, MI. (a) National Cherry Festival Fireworks Display; Traverse City, MI—(1) Location. All U.S. navigable waters and...

  18. First report of sweet cherry virescence disease in China and its association with infection by a ‘Candidatus Phytoplasma ziziphi’-related strain

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) is a deciduous tree originating in the Black Sea/Caspian Sea region where Asia and Europe converge. Being highly valued for its timber and fruit, sweet cherry has been cultivated and naturalized on all continents. Over the past decade, the area of sweet cherry culti...

  19. Effects of Several Newer Insecticides and Kaolin on Oviposition and Adult Mortality in Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of newer insecticides and kaolin-based particle film (Surround™ WP Crop Protectant), on oviposition and mortality in the western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, were determined. In a no-choice experiment, azinphos-methyl sprayed on cherries reduced oviposition by 98.5% comp...

  20. Behavioral responses, rate of mortality, and oviposition of western cherry fruit fly exposed to Malathion, Zeta-cypermethrin, and Spinetoram

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a pest of sweet and tart cherry, Prunus avium L. (L.) and P. cerasus L., respectively, in western North America. This fly is commonly controlled with spinosad bait sprays, but these sprays are ineffective against sp...

  1. Reduction in Emergence of Rhagoletis indifferens (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Sweet Cherries with Different Egg and Larval Distributions Using Newer Insecticides

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is the major insect pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in the Pacific Northwest of the U.S. To reduce fly populations in unharvested fruit following the completion of commercial harvest, it is important to cont...

  2. Evidence for the non-pest status of codling moth on commercial fresh sweet cherries intended for export

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To gain acceptance of a systems approach as an alternative to methyl bromide fumigation for U.S. fresh sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., exported to Japan, additional evidence was needed to show that sweet cherries are poor or non-hosts for codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortri...

  3. Pupal Mortality and Adult Emergence of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Exposed to the Fungus Muscodor albus (Xylariales: Xylariaceae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., that is conventionally controlled using insecticides. One alternative to the use of insecticides for fly control could be fumigation of the fly’s overwintering habitat using the fungus Mus...

  4. Soil moisture and relative humidity effects during post-diapause on emergence of western cherry fruit fly (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., in western North America that is found in relatively moist and dry habitats. In this study, fly pupae from Kennewick and Roslyn in Washington state, U.S.A., were used to test the hypotheses tha...

  5. Phytoplasma infecting cherry and lilac represent two distinct lineages having close evolutionary affinities with clover phyllody phytoplasma

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phytoplasmas infecting cherry and lilac in Lithuania were found to represent two lineages related to clover phyllody phytoplasma (CPh), a subgroup 16SrI-C strain exhibiting rRNA interoperon sequence heterogeneity. 16S rDNAs amplified from the cherry bunchy leaf (ChBL) and lilac little leaf (LcLL) p...

  6. Optimizing postharvest methyl bromide treatments to control spotted wing drosophila, Drosophila suzukii, in sweet cherries from Western USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Methyl bromide (MB) chamber fumigations were evaluated for postharvest control of spotted wing drosophila (SWD), Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae), in fresh sweet cherry exports from Western USA. Sweet cherries were infested with SWD, incubated to maximize numbers of the most M...

  7. Inhibitory Effects of Tart Cherry (Prunus cerasus) Juice on Xanthine Oxidoreductase Activity and its Hypouricemic and Antioxidant Effects on Rats.

    PubMed

    Haidari, F; Mohammad Shahi, M; Keshavarz, S A; Rashidi, M R

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of tart cherry juice on serum uric acid levels, hepatic xanthine oxidoreductase activity and two non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress (total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde concentration), in normal and hyperuricemic rats. Tart cherry juice (5 ml/kg) was given by oral gavage to rats for 2 weeks. Allopurinol (5 mg/kg) was used as a positive control and was also given by oral gavage. Data showed that tart cherry juice treatment did not cause any significant reduction in the serum uric acid levels in normal rats, but significantly reduced (P<0.05) the serum uric acid levels of hyperuricemic rats in a time-dependent manner. Tart cherry juice treatment also inhibited hepatic xanthine oxidase/dehydrogenase activity. Moreover, a significant increase (P<0.05) in serum total antioxidant capacity was observed in tart cherry juice treated-rats in both normal and hyperuricemic groups. The oral administration of tart cherry juice also led to a significant reduction (P<0.05) in MDA concentration in the hyperuricemic rats. Although the hypouricemic effect of allopurinol, as a putative inhibitor of xanthine oxidoreductase, was much higher than that of tart cherry, it could not significantly change anti-oxidative parameters. These features of tart cherry make it an attractive candidate for the prophylactic treatment of hyperuricaemia, particularly if it is to be taken on a long-term basis. Further investigations to define its clinical efficacy would be highly desirable.

  8. The Effect of the Cherry Hill Study Skills Program on Eighth Grade Students' Reading Comprehension and Study Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    La Marca, Marilyn Tierney

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of the "Cherry Hill Study Skills Program" on eighth grade students' reading comprehension and study skills. The "Cherry Hill Study Skills Program" is a process oriented course dealing with the sequential development of nine specific skills deemed essential to the retrieval and retention of information…

  9. Temperature-mediated kill and oviposition of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the presence of Spinosad

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) that is managed using insecticides, including spinosad, an organic compound that can be applied in low spray volumes. Identifying factors that can increase the...

  10. 77 FR 24640 - Tart Cherries Grown in the State of Michigan, et al.; Increasing the Primary Reserve Capacity and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-25

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the State of...: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule invites comments on proposed... diversion activities prescribed under the marketing order for tart cherries (order). The order regulates...

  11. 78 FR 46494 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-01

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York... Requirements AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule with request for comments... prescribed under the marketing order for tart cherries grown in the States of Michigan, New...

  12. Breeding in peach, cherry and plum: from a tissue culture, genetic, transcriptomic and genomic perspective.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Basilio; Meisel, Lee; Gebauer, Marlene; Garcia-Gonzales, Rolando; Silva, Herman

    2013-01-01

    This review is an overview of traditional and modern breeding methodologies being used to develop new Prunus cultivars (stone fruits) with major emphasis on peach, sweet cherry and Japanese plum. To this end, common breeding tools used to produce seedlings, including in vitro culture tools, are discussed. Additionally, the mechanisms of inheritance of many important agronomical traits are described. Recent advances in stone fruit transcriptomics and genomic resources are providing an understanding of the molecular basis of phenotypic variability as well as the identification of allelic variants and molecular markers. These have potential applications for understanding the genetic diversity of the Prunus species, molecular marker-assisted selection and transgenesis. Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) and Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNPs) molecular markers are described as useful tools to describe genetic diversity in peach, sweet cherry and Japanese plum. Additionally, the recently sequenced peach genome and the public release of the sweet cherry genome are discussed in terms of their applicability to breeding programs.

  13. A collection of European sweet cherry phenology data for assessing climate change

    PubMed Central

    Wenden, Bénédicte; Campoy, José Antonio; Lecourt, Julien; López Ortega, Gregorio; Blanke, Michael; Radičević, Sanja; Schüller, Elisabeth; Spornberger, Andreas; Christen, Danilo; Magein, Hugo; Giovannini, Daniela; Campillo, Carlos; Malchev, Svetoslav; Peris, José Miguel; Meland, Mekjell; Stehr, Rolf; Charlot, Gérard; Quero-García, José

    2016-01-01

    Professional and scientific networks built around the production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) led to the collection of phenology data for a wide range of cultivars grown in experimental sites characterized by highly contrasted climatic conditions. We present a dataset of flowering and maturity dates, recorded each year for one tree when available, or the average of several trees for each cultivar, over a period of 37 years (1978–2015). Such a dataset is extremely valuable for characterizing the phenological response to climate change, and the plasticity of the different cultivars’ behaviour under different environmental conditions. In addition, this dataset will support the development of predictive models for sweet cherry phenology exploitable at the continental scale, and will help anticipate breeding strategies in order to maintain and improve sweet cherry production in Europe. PMID:27922629

  14. Authentication of Alicante's Mountain cherries protected designation of origin by their mineral profile.

    PubMed

    Matos-Reyes, M N; Simonot, J; López-Salazar, O; Cervera, M L; de la Guardia, M

    2013-12-01

    Chemometric analysis of inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) data was employed to verify the origin of cherry samples of different areas of Spain: Aragón, Cáceres, Castellón, Huesca and Alicante's Mountain Protected Geographic Indication (PGI). The ability of multivariate analysis methods, such as discriminant analysis (DA), was used to achieve cherry classification from their mineral content. The study was performed using 22 variables (concentrations of Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, Ti and Te) and 23 variables (concentrations of Al, As, B, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Li, Mg, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Se, Sr, Ti, Tl and V), for cherry stone and edible part, respectively, and the best discrimination was found on using edible part mineral composition which permits a correct classification of 100% of the considered samples.

  15. Effect of cultivar and variety on phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity of cherry wine.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Zuobing; Fang, Lingling; Niu, Yunwei; Yu, Haiyan

    2015-11-01

    To compare the influence of cultivar and variety on the phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity (AA) of cherry wines, total phenolic (TP), total flavonoid (TF), total anthocyanin (TA), total tannin (TT), five individual phenolic acids, and AA were determined. An ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD/ESI-MS) method was developed for the determination of gallic acid (GAE), p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHB), chlorogenic acid (CHL), vanillic acid (VAN), and caffeic acid (CAF). A principal component analysis (PCA) and a cluster analysis (CA) were used to analyze differences related to cultivar and variety. The TP, TF, TA, TT, and AA of samples sourced from the Shandong province of China were higher than those from the Jiangsu province. The PCA and CA results showed that phenolic compounds in cherry wines were closely related to cultivar and variety and that cultivar had more influence on the phenolic compounds of cherry wines than variety.

  16. A collection of European sweet cherry phenology data for assessing climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenden, Bénédicte; Campoy, José Antonio; Lecourt, Julien; López Ortega, Gregorio; Blanke, Michael; Radičević, Sanja; Schüller, Elisabeth; Spornberger, Andreas; Christen, Danilo; Magein, Hugo; Giovannini, Daniela; Campillo, Carlos; Malchev, Svetoslav; Peris, José Miguel; Meland, Mekjell; Stehr, Rolf; Charlot, Gérard; Quero-García, José

    2016-12-01

    Professional and scientific networks built around the production of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) led to the collection of phenology data for a wide range of cultivars grown in experimental sites characterized by highly contrasted climatic conditions. We present a dataset of flowering and maturity dates, recorded each year for one tree when available, or the average of several trees for each cultivar, over a period of 37 years (1978-2015). Such a dataset is extremely valuable for characterizing the phenological response to climate change, and the plasticity of the different cultivars' behaviour under different environmental conditions. In addition, this dataset will support the development of predictive models for sweet cherry phenology exploitable at the continental scale, and will help anticipate breeding strategies in order to maintain and improve sweet cherry production in Europe.

  17. An undigested cherry tomato as a rare cause of small bowel obstruction.

    PubMed

    Mortezavi, A; Schneider, P M; Lurje, G

    2015-07-01

    Small bowel obstruction due to undigested fibre from fruits and vegetables is a rare but known medical condition. We report a case of small bowel obstruction caused by a whole cherry tomato in a patient without a past medical history of abdominal surgery. A 66-year-old man presented to the emergency department complaining of lower abdominal pain with nausea and vomiting. His last bowel movement had occurred on the morning of presentation. He underwent abdominal computed tomography (CT), which showed a sudden change of diameter in the distal ileum with complete collapse of the proximal small bowel segment. Laparoscopy confirmed a small bowel obstruction with a transition point close to the ileocaecal valve. An enterotomy was performed and a completely undigested cherry tomato was retrieved. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of a small bowel obstruction caused by a whole cherry tomato.

  18. Study of the Antioxidant Property Variation of Cornelian Cherry Fruits during Storage Using HPTLC and Spectrophotometric Assays

    PubMed Central

    Hosu, Anamaria

    2016-01-01

    Cornus species fruits are well known as a rich source of antioxidant compounds responsible for their diverse health benefits. The present study aims to investigate the variation of the total antioxidant capacity of Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas L.) fruits during storage, using high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and two spectrophotometric assays based on different mechanisms: the 2,2-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazolyne-6-sulphonic acid) radical cation (ABTS+∙) assay and the ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay. The fruit extract was stored at room temperature (22°C) for 19 days. No major differences in the total antioxidant capacity were observed during this period, indicating that storage does not have any deleterious effect on the antioxidant properties of the investigated fruits extract. The antioxidant capacity varied between 12.91 and 12.83 µmol Trolox/g fruit as determined by the HPTLC method and from 36.13 to 33.93 µmol Trolox/g fruit as determined by the ABTS assay. PMID:27957382

  19. A quantum Cherry theorem for perturbations of the plane rotator

    SciTech Connect

    Barone, Fiorella; Graffi, Sandro

    2013-12-15

    We consider on L{sup 2}(T{sup 2}) the Schrödinger operator family L{sub ε}:ε∈R with domain and action defined as D(L{sub ε})=H{sup 2}(T{sup 2}), L{sub ε}u=−(1/2)ℏ{sup 2}(α{sub 1}∂{sub φ{sub 1}{sup 2}}+α{sub 2}∂{sub φ{sub 2}{sup 2}})u−iℏ(γ{sub 1}∂{sub φ{sub 1}}+γ{sub 2}∂{sub φ{sub 2}})u+εVu. Here ε∈R, α= (α{sub 1}, α{sub 2}), γ= (γ{sub 1}, γ{sub 2}) are vectors of complex non-real frequencies, and V a pseudodifferential operator of order zero. L{sub ε} represents the Weyl quantization of the Hamiltonian family L{sub ε}(ξ,x)=(1/2)(α{sub 1}ξ{sub 1}{sup 2}+α{sub 2}ξ{sub 2}{sup 2})+γ{sub 1}ξ{sub 1}+γ{sub 2}ξ{sub 2}+εV(ξ,x) defined on the phase space R{sup 2}×T{sup 2}, where V(ξ,x)∈C{sup 2}(R{sup 2}×T{sup 2};R). We prove the uniform convergence with respect to ℏ∈[0, 1] of the quantum normal form, which reduces to the classical one for ℏ= 0. This result simultaneously entails an exact quantization formula for the quantum spectrum as well as a convergence criterion for the classical Birkhoff normal form generalizing a well known theorem of Cherry.

  20. Optimization of Sour Cherry Juice Spray Drying as
Affected by Carrier Material and Temperature.

    PubMed

    Garofulić, Ivona Elez; Zorić, Zoran; Pedisić, Sandra; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-12-01

    Response surface methodology was applied for optimization of the sour cherry Marasca juice spray drying process with 20, 30 and 40% of carriers maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent (DE) value of 4-7 and 13-17 and gum arabic, at three drying temperatures: 150, 175 and 200 °C. Increase in carrier mass per volume ratio resulted in lower moisture content and powder hygroscopicity, higher bulk density, solubility and product yield. Higher temperatures decreased the moisture content and bulk density of powders. Temperature of 200 °C and 27% of maltodextrin with 4-7 DE were found to be the most suitable for production of sour cherry Marasca powder.

  1. Exact enumeration of cherries and pitchforks in ranked trees under the coalescent model.

    PubMed

    Disanto, Filippo; Wiehe, Thomas

    2013-04-01

    We consider exact enumerations and probabilistic properties of ranked trees when generated under the random coalescent process. Using a new approach, based on generating functions, we derive several statistics such as the exact probability of finding k cherries in a ranked tree of fixed size n. We then extend our method to consider also the number of pitchforks. We find a recursive formula to calculate the joint and conditional probabilities of cherries and pitchforks when the size of the tree is fixed. These results provide insights into structural properties of coalescent trees under the model of neutral evolution.

  2. Scion-rootstock interaction affects the physiology and fruit quality of sweet cherry.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Berta; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Santos, Alberto; Silva, Ana Paula; Bacelar, Eunice; Correia, Carlos; Rosa, Eduardo

    2006-01-01

    Water relations, leaf gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence, light canopy transmittance, leaf photosynthetic pigments and metabolites and fruit quality indices of cherry cultivars 'Burlat', 'Summit' and 'Van' growing on five rootstocks with differing size-controlling potentials that decrease in the order: Prunus avium L. > CAB 11E > Maxma 14 > Gisela 5 > Edabriz, were studied during 2002 and 2003. Rootstock genotype affected all physiological parameters. Cherry cultivars grafted on invigorating rootstocks had higher values of midday stem water potential (Psi(MD)), net CO(2) assimilation rate (A), stomatal conductance (g(s)), intercellular CO(2) concentration (C(i)) and maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) (F(v)/F(m)) than cultivars grafted on dwarfing rootstocks. The Psi(MD) was positively correlated with A, g(s) and C(i). Moreover, A was positively correlated with g(s), and the slopes of the linear regression increased from invigorating to dwarfing rootstocks, indicating a stronger regulation of photosynthesis by stomatal aperture in trees on dwarfing Edabriz and Gisela 5. The effect of rootstock genotype was also statistically significant for leaf photosynthetic pigments, whereas metabolite concentrations and fruit physicochemical characteristics were more dependent on cultivar genotype. Among cultivars, 'Burlat' leaves had the lowest concentrations of photosynthetic pigments, but were richest in total soluble sugars, starch and total phenols. Compared with the other cultivars, 'Summit' had heavier fruits, independent of the rootstock. 'Burlat' cherries were less firm and had lower concentrations of soluble sugars and a lower titratable acidity than 'Van' cherries. Nevertheless, 'Van' cherries had lower lightness, chroma and hue angle, representing redder and darker cherries, compared with 'Summit' fruits. In general, Psi(MD) was positively correlated with fruit mass and A was negatively correlated with lightness and chroma. These results

  3. Cherry Featured in NCI’s Spotlight on Scientists Video Series | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    James Cherry, Ph.D., learned at an early age that education is crucial to success. He credits his mentors, some of whom include his grandmother, Shepherd University professor Burton Lidgerding, Ph.D., David Munroe, Ph.D., Frederick National Lab, and Robert J. Hohman, Ph.D., National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, for guiding him to the career he has today. Cherry, scientific program director, Office of Scientific Operations (OSO), NCI at Frederick, is one of the scientists featured in NCI’s Spotlight on Scientists video series.

  4. Giant Paperclip Necklaces, Soup-Can Rings and Cherry-Pie Hats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winters, Laurel A.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes an art project inspired by the wearable sculpture art created by artist Marjorie Schick. Students used wallpaper paste and newspapers to create papier-mache for a mountain hat, a cherry-pie mask/hat, a "dress" shoe and a Cubistic mask. Cardboard was used in many of these things, in addition to being used as…

  5. Screening USDA-ARS wheat germplasm for bird cherry-oat aphid tolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bird cherry-oat aphid (Rhopalosiphum padi L.) can cause significant yield reduction in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) without causing aboveground visual damage signs or symptoms. This lack of obvious aboveground symptom development makes it difficult to use standard aphid tolerance testing protoc...

  6. Detection of cuticle defects on cherry tomatoes based on hyperspectral fluorescence imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Even though cherry tomato is one of the major vegetables consumed in the fresh-cut market, its quality evaluation process has been dependent on simple size- or color-sorting techniques, which currently is inadequate for meeting the increased consumer demand for high quality and safety products. Of ...

  7. Bird cherry-oat aphid (Hemiptera: Sternorrhyncha, Aphidinae): Biology, pest status, and management in wheat

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The bird cherry-oat aphid (BCOA), Rhopalosiphum padi (L.), is a worldwide pest of wheat and other small grains. This paper provides an overview of BCOA life history, reviews its pest status in wheat, synthesizes and integrates information on different management strategies, and gives up-to-date inf...

  8. Transition of phenolics and cyanogenic glycosides from apricot and cherry fruit kernels into liqueur.

    PubMed

    Senica, Mateja; Stampar, Franci; Veberic, Robert; Mikulic-Petkovsek, Maja

    2016-07-15

    Popular liqueurs made from apricot/cherry pits were evaluated in terms of their phenolic composition and occurrence of cyanogenic glycosides (CGG). Analyses consisted of detailed phenolic and cyanogenic profiles of cherry and apricot seeds as well as beverages prepared from crushed kernels. Phenolic groups and cyanogenic glycosides were analyzed with the aid of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and mass spectrophotometry (MS). Lower levels of cyanogenic glycosides and phenolics have been quantified in liqueurs compared to fruit kernels. During fruit pits steeping in the alcohol, the phenolics/cyanogenic glycosides ratio increased and at the end of beverage manufacturing process higher levels of total analyzed phenolics were detected compared to cyanogenic glycosides (apricot liqueur: 38.79 μg CGG per ml and 50.57 μg phenolics per ml; cherry liqueur 16.08 μg CGG per ml and 27.73 μg phenolics per ml). Although higher levels of phenolics are characteristic for liqueurs made from apricot and cherry pits these beverages nevertheless contain considerable amounts of cyanogenic glycosides.

  9. Effectiveness of dishwashing liquids in removing chlorothalonil and chlorpyrifos residues from cherry tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiwei; Huang, Jiexun; Chen, Jinyuan; Li, Feili

    2013-08-01

    Washing is the most practical way to remove pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. Two commonly used kitchen dishwashing liquids (detergents) in Chinese market were tested for enhanced removal of chlorpyrifos (CHP) and chlorothalonil (CHT) in cherry tomatoes by soaking the cherry tomatoes in the detergent solutions. The critical micelle concentrations of detergent A and detergent B were about 250 mg L(-1) and 444 mg L(-1), respectively. Detergent A had a higher solubilizing ability for pesticides and hence washing effectiveness than detergent B. The apparent solubility of CHP increased with increasing detergent concentration, while that of CHT remained comparatively invariant independent of detergent concentration within the tested range. The apparent solubility of CHP was also consistently higher in solutions of both detergents as compared to CHT. Due probably to its lower logKow value, CHT was more readily washed off cherry tomatoes than CHP. In terms of washing, a duration of 10-20 min was sufficient for removal of pesticides on cherry tomatoes in distilled water and detergent solutions. The effectiveness of removing pesticides increased with increasing detergent concentration from 50 mg L(-1) to 5 g L(-1), with up to 80% CHT and 42% CHP removed. Multiple washing further increased pesticide removal. Adding 10% acetic acid to lower pH or increasing washing temperature favored pesticide removal, but 10% NaCl produced the shielding effect and substantially reduced the effectiveness of detergent A for pesticide removal.

  10. Characterization of R genes involved in resistance to Cherry leaf roll virus in paradox hybrids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A single dominant ‘R’ gene (clrvR), in black walnuts (Juglans hindsii) or ‘paradox’ hybrids (J. hindsii x J. regia) confers resistance to Cherry leaf roll virus (CLRV), the causal agent of blackline disease. The identification and cloning of the ‘R’ gene is expected to aid the walnut breeding progra...

  11. Nutritional value and volatile compounds of black cherry (Prunus serotina) seeds.

    PubMed

    García-Aguilar, Leticia; Rojas-Molina, Alejandra; Ibarra-Alvarado, César; Rojas-Molina, Juana I; Vázquez-Landaverde, Pedro A; Luna-Vázquez, Francisco J; Zavala-Sánchez, Miguel A

    2015-02-17

    Prunus serotina (black cherry), commonly known in Mexico as capulín, is used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular, respiratory, and gastrointestinal diseases. Particularly, P. serotina seeds, consumed in Mexico as snacks, are used for treating cough. In the present study, nutritional and volatile analyses of black cherry seeds were carried out to determine their nutraceutical potential. Proximate analysis indicated that P. serotina raw and toasted seeds contain mostly fat, followed by protein, fiber, carbohydrates, and ash. The potassium content in black cherry raw and toasted seeds is high, and their protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores suggest that they might represent a complementary source of proteins. Solid phase microextraction and gas chromatography/flame ionization detection/mass spectrometry analysis allowed identification of 59 and 99 volatile compounds in the raw and toasted seeds, respectively. The major volatile compounds identified in raw and toasted seeds were 2,3-butanediol and benzaldehyde, which contribute to the flavor and odor of the toasted seeds. Moreover, it has been previously demonstrated that benzaldehyde possesses a significant vasodilator effect, therefore, the presence of this compound along with oleic, linoleic, and α-eleostearic fatty acids indicate that black cherry seeds consumption might have beneficial effects on the cardiovascular system.

  12. Parasitoid complex of the bird cherry ermine moth, Yponomeuta evonymellus, in Korea

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The parasitoid complex of Yponomeuta evonymellus L. (Lepidoptera: Yponomeutidae), the bird cherry ermine moth, was sought in the Republic of Korea (South Korea) with the goal of identifying potential biological controls of the moth. 13 primary and two secondary parasitoids were found. Diadegma armil...

  13. Utilization of Optical Coherence Tomography in the Evaluation of Cherry Hemangiomas.

    PubMed

    Aldahan, Adam S; Mlacker, Stephanie; Shah, Vidhi V; Chen, Lucy L; Nouri, Keyvan; Grichnik, James M

    2016-06-01

    Cherry hemangiomas are common vascular proliferative lesions that can be concerning from a cosmetic perspective. Laser therapy is often used to eradicate cherry hemangiomas, but some lesions require multiple treatments or do not resolve at all. The suboptimal response to laser treatment may be due to limitations in penetration depth by vascular lasers such as the pulsed dye laser. Optical coherence tomography is a low-energy, light-based imaging device that can evaluate the depth and extent of vascular lesions such as cherry hemangiomas by allowing visualization of tissue structure and blood vessel architecture, which cannot be appreciated by clinical or dermatoscopic examination alone. We present optical coherence tomography images of a cherry hemangioma to demonstrate the precision and resolution of this imaging modality. Optical coherence tomography provides valuable information that has the potential to predict response to laser therapy without unnecessary attempts. Future prospective studies will determine its value for this purpose.

    J Drugs Dermatol. 2016;15(6):713-714.

  14. 77 FR 72683 - Sweet Cherries Grown in Designated Counties in Washington; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-06

    ... of Washington sweet cherries. They are familiar with the Committee's needs and with the costs for...,000 for Committee expenses such as travel, accounting, and compliance; $5,000 for contingency; and $4...,000 for Committee expenses such as travel, accounting, and compliance; $5,000 for contingency; and...

  15. Before harvest survival of codling moth (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) in artificially infested sweet cherries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior to the 2009 season, sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., from North America were required to be fumigated with methyl bromide before being exported to Japan to eliminate possible infestation by codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.) (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae). However, based on recent biological...

  16. Metabolic profiling of ethephon-treated sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing costs and decreasing labor availability for sweet cherry harvest in Washington State, USA, has reinvigorated commercial and research interest of mechanized harvest. Ethephon (2-chloroethyl phosphonic acid) can be used to improve fruit abscission for mechanical harvest. Our previous work s...

  17. Molecular screening of walnut backcross populations for a DNA marker linked to cherry leafroll virus resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Blackline disease, a graft union disorder caused by infection of English walnut (Juglans regia) trees by Cherry leafroll virus (CLRV) is a major problem for walnut production in Northern California where scions are grafted onto virus resistant black walnut (J. hindsii) or ‘Paradox’ (J. hindsii × J. ...

  18. 33 CFR 208.82 - Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs. 208.82 Section 208.82 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF..., Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs. The Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District, acting jointly, hereinafter called the Districts, shall operate Don Pedro Dam and Reservoir...

  19. 33 CFR 208.82 - Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs. 208.82 Section 208.82 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF..., Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs. The Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District, acting jointly, hereinafter called the Districts, shall operate Don Pedro Dam and Reservoir...

  20. 33 CFR 208.82 - Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs. 208.82 Section 208.82 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF..., Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs. The Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District, acting jointly, hereinafter called the Districts, shall operate Don Pedro Dam and Reservoir...

  1. 33 CFR 208.82 - Hetch Hetchy, Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs. 208.82 Section 208.82 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF..., Cherry Valley, and Don Pedro Dams and Reservoirs. The Turlock Irrigation District and Modesto Irrigation District, acting jointly, hereinafter called the Districts, shall operate Don Pedro Dam and Reservoir...

  2. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the survival of Listeria monocytogenes and allergenicity of cherry tomatoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todoriki, Setsuko; Bari, Latiful; Kitta, Kazumi; Ohba, Mika; Ito, Yasuhiro; Tsujimoto, Yuka; Kanamori, Norihito; Yano, Erika; Moriyama, Tatsuya; Kawamura, Yukio; Kawamoto, Shinichi

    2009-07-01

    The presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fresh produce is a growing concern because of the possibility of food-borne illness. Ionizing radiation is an effective non-thermal means of eliminating pathogenic bacteria in fresh produce; however, the effect of ionizing irradiation on the allergenic properties of the host commodities remains unknown. This study aimed (i) to determine the effective dose of gamma-irradiation in eliminating L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes and (ii) to evaluate the effect of gamma-irradiation on the allergenic properties of tomato proteins. Cherry tomatoes that were inoculated with a mixture of five L. monocytogenes strains were treated with gamma-rays from a 60Co source. A 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation was found to be sufficient to eliminate L. monocytogenes on whole cherry tomatoes. The immunoblot profile of serum samples obtained from two patients with tomato allergy revealed that gamma-irradiation did not affect the allergenicity of tomato proteins for up to 7 days after irradiation when the tomatoes were stored at 20 °C. Additionally, the m-RNA levels of β-fructofuranosidase, polygalacturonase, pectin esterase, and superoxide dismutase, the main allergenic proteins in tomato, were not affected by the applied irradiation dose. Thus, this study demonstrated that a 1.25 kGy dose of gamma-irradiation effectively eliminates L. monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes without affecting the expression of allergenic proteins in the fruits.

  3. There Is Space to Play! Mexican American Children of Immigrants Learning With(in) Cherry Orchards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales, María Isabel

    2016-01-01

    While some children spend their summers in camps or other recreational activities, many children of immigrants in Washington state spend them picking cherries and learning with(in) orchards. Children's experiences consist of multiple narratives demonstrating that children's lives are complicated, yet full of possibilities for teaching and…

  4. Commercial yellow sticky strips more attractive than yellow boards to western cherry fruit fly (Dipt., Tephritidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Bright yellow sticky rectangles made of paper boards were previously identified as the most effective traps for capturing western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae). Thin rectangular sheets of yellow plastic allow higher light passage than yellow boards and may b...

  5. "Clever v. Cherry Hill Township Board of Education": Recognition of Religious Diversity in Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawdsley, Ralph D.

    1994-01-01

    A New Jersey school board enacted a policy to broaden students' understanding of their multicultural community's religious heritage. The federal district court upheld the Cherry Hill Township's approach to recognizing religious diversity in public schools. Reviews the policy and the court decision, and explores implications for public schools. (90…

  6. Prunus avium: nuclear DNA study in wild populations and sweet cherry cultivars.

    PubMed

    Guarino, Carmine; Santoro, Simona; De Simone, Luciana; Cipriani, Guido

    2009-04-01

    The PCR-SSR technique was used to detect nuclear DNA diversity in five wild populations of Prunus avium from deciduous forests in Italy, Slovenia, and Croatia and 87 sweet cherry accessions from different geographical areas that have been maintained in the sweet cherry collection in Italy. This sweet cherry collection includes local accessions from the Campania Region as well as accessions from different countries. Twenty-eight microsatellites, previously developed in this species, generated polymorphic amplification products. Between 2 and 14 alleles were revealed for the polymorphic loci studied, with the expected heterozygosity ranging from 0.045 to 0.831. The total probability of identity was 56.94 x 10-18. A model-based Bayesian clustering analysis identified nine distinct gene pools in cultivated P. avium. The probability that wild populations were assigned to cultivated gene pools indicated that three gene pools accounted for the genomic origin of 53% of P. avium sampled. A dendrogram was generated using UPGMA (unweighted pair group method with arithmetic averages) based on Nei genetic distance analysis. This dendrogram classified most of the genotypes into one major group with an additional group of five accessions. The results indicate that this set of SSRs is highly informative, and they are discussed in terms of the implications for sweet cherry characterization.

  7. Natural surface coating to inactivate Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium and maintain quality of cherry tomatoes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate the effectiveness of zein-based coatings in reducing populations of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and preserving quality of cherry tomatoes. Tomatoes were inoculated with a cocktail of S. Typhimurium LT2 plus three mutants on the smoo...

  8. A Tale of Two Bees: Looking at Pollination Fees for Both Almonds and Sweet Cherries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The economic theory of supply and demand can explain the recent drastic changes in the pollination prices for almonds and cherries, following large acreage increases for these crops and a concurrent drop in honey bee availability due to colony collapse disorder (CCD). We constructed a model which s...

  9. 76 FR 65357 - Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington, and Wisconsin...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-21

    ... / Friday, October 21, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing... Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule changes the grower diversion regulations prescribed under the marketing order for tart cherries (order). The order regulates the handling of...

  10. Optimal fluorescence waveband determination for detecting defect cherry tomatoes using fluorescence excitation-emission matrix

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A multi-spectral fluorescence imaging technique was used to detect defect cherry tomatoes. The fluorescence excitation and emission matrix was used to measure for defects, sound surface, and stem areas to determine the optimal fluorescence excitation and emission wavelengths for discrimination. Two-...

  11. A critical review on the spray drying of fruit extract: effect of additives on physicochemical properties.

    PubMed

    Krishnaiah, Duduku; Nithyanandam, Rajesh; Sarbatly, Rosalam

    2014-01-01

    Spray drying accomplishes drying while particles are suspended in the air and is one method in the family of suspended particle processing systems, along with fluid-bed drying, flash drying, spray granulation, spray agglomeration, spray reaction, spray cooling, and spray absorption. This drying process is unique because it involves both particle formation and drying. The present paper reviews spray drying of fruit extracts, such as acai, acerola pomace, gac, mango, orange, cactus pear, opuntia stricta fruit, watermelon, and durian, and the effects of additives on physicochemical properties such as antioxidant activity, total carotenoid content, lycopene and β-carotene content, hygroscopy, moisture content, volatile retention, stickiness, color, solubility, glass transition temperature, bulk density, rehydration, caking, appearance under electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The literature clearly demonstrates that the effect of additives and encapsulation play a vital role in determining the physicochemical properties of fruit extract powder. The technical difficulties in spray drying of fruit extracts can be overcome by modifying the spray dryer design. It also reveals that spray drying is a novel technology for converting fruit extract into powder form.

  12. Tart Cherry Juice Decreases Oxidative Stress in Healthy Older Men and Women1–3

    PubMed Central

    Traustadóttir, Tinna; Davies, Sean S.; Stock, Anthoney A.; Su, Yali; Heward, Christopher B.; Roberts, L. Jackson; Harman, S. Mitchell

    2009-01-01

    Compared with young adults, older adults have significantly impaired capacities to resist oxidative damage when faced with acute stress such as ischemia/reperfusion. This impairment likely contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in older adults in response to acute trauma, infections, and the susceptibility to diseases such as atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Consumption of foods high in polyphenols, particularly anthocyanins, have been associated with improved health, but the mechanisms contributing to these salutary effects remain to be fully established. This study tested the hypothesis that consumption of tart cherry juice containing high levels of anthocyanins improves the capacity of older adults to resist oxidative damage during acute oxidative stress. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 12 volunteers [6 men and 6 women; age 69 ± 4 y (61–75 y)] consumed in random order either tart cherry juice or placebo (240 mL twice daily for 14 d) separated by a 4-wk washout period. The capacity to resist oxidative damage was measured as the changes in plasma F2-isoprostane levels in response to forearm ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) before and after each treatment. The tart cherry juice intervention reduced the I/R-induced F2-isoprostane response (P < 0.05), whereas placebo had no significant effect. The tart cherry juice intervention also reduced basal urinary excretion of oxidized nucleic acids (8-hydroxy-2′-deoxyguanosine, 8-hydroxyguanosine) (P < 0.05) but not urinary excretion of isoprostanes. These data suggest that consumption of tart cherry juice improves antioxidant defenses in vivo in older adults as shown by an increased capacity to constrain an oxidative challenge and reduced oxidative damage to nucleic acids. PMID:19692530

  13. Tart cherry juice decreases oxidative stress in healthy older men and women.

    PubMed

    Traustadóttir, Tinna; Davies, Sean S; Stock, Anthoney A; Su, Yali; Heward, Christopher B; Roberts, L Jackson; Harman, S Mitchell

    2009-10-01

    Compared with young adults, older adults have significantly impaired capacities to resist oxidative damage when faced with acute stress such as ischemia/reperfusion. This impairment likely contributes to increased morbidity and mortality in older adults in response to acute trauma, infections, and the susceptibility to diseases such as atherosclerosis, cancer, diabetes, and Alzheimer's disease. Consumption of foods high in polyphenols, particularly anthocyanins, have been associated with improved health, but the mechanisms contributing to these salutary effects remain to be fully established. This study tested the hypothesis that consumption of tart cherry juice containing high levels of anthocyanins improves the capacity of older adults to resist oxidative damage during acute oxidative stress. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 12 volunteers [6 men and 6 women; age 69 +/- 4 y (61-75 y)] consumed in random order either tart cherry juice or placebo (240 mL twice daily for 14 d) separated by a 4-wk washout period. The capacity to resist oxidative damage was measured as the changes in plasma F(2)-isoprostane levels in response to forearm ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) before and after each treatment. The tart cherry juice intervention reduced the I/R-induced F(2)-isoprostane response (P < 0.05), whereas placebo had no significant effect. The tart cherry juice intervention also reduced basal urinary excretion of oxidized nucleic acids (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, 8-hydroxyguanosine) (P < 0.05) but not urinary excretion of isoprostanes. These data suggest that consumption of tart cherry juice improves antioxidant defenses in vivo in older adults as shown by an increased capacity to constrain an oxidative challenge and reduced oxidative damage to nucleic acids.

  14. Temperature-related development and population parameters for Drosophila suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) on cherry and blueberry.

    PubMed

    Tochen, Samantha; Dalton, Daniel T; Wiman, Nik; Hamm, Christopher; Shearer, Peter W; Walton, Vaughn M

    2014-04-01

    Temperature-related studies were conducted on Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae: Drosophilini). From 10-28°C, temperature had a significant impact on blueberries, Vaccinium corymbosum L. (Ericales: Ericaceae), and cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L. 1755 (Rosales: Rosaceae), important commercial hosts of D. suzukii. Temperature had a significant influence on D. suzukii developmental period, survival, and fecundity, with decreasing developmental periods as temperatures increased to 28°C. At 30°C, the highest temperature tested, development periods increased, indicating that above this temperature the developmental extremes for the species were approached. D. suzukii reared on blueberries had lower fecundity than reared on cherries at all temperatures where reproduction occurred. The highest net reproductive rate (R(o)) and intrinsic rate of population increase (r(m)) were recorded on cherries at 22°C and was 195.1 and 0.22, respectively. Estimations using linear and nonlinear fit for the minimum, optimal, and maximum temperatures where development can take place were respectively, 7.2, 28.1, and 42.1°C. The r(m) values were minimal, optimal, and maximal at 13.4, 21.0, and 29.3°C, respectively. Our laboratory cultures of D. suzukii displayed high rates of infection for Wolbachia spp. (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae), and this infection may have impacted fecundity found in this study. A temperature-dependent matrix population estimation model using fecundity and survival data were run to determine whether these data could predict D. suzukii pressure based on environmental conditions. The model was applied to compare the 2011 and 2012 crop seasons in an important cherry production region. Population estimates using the model explained different risk levels during the key cherry harvest period between these seasons.

  15. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point approximately 6,800 feet west of the mouth of Slocum Creek, and all waters of Hancock and Slocum Creeks and...

  16. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, extending from the mouth of Hancock Creek to a point approximately 6,800 feet west of the mouth of Slocum Creek, and all waters of Hancock and Slocum Creeks and...

  17. Complete nucleotide sequences of two isolates of cherry green ring mottle virus from peach (Prunus persica) in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lihui; Jiang, Dongmei; Niu, Feiqing; Lu, Meiguang; Wang, Hongqing; Li, Shifang

    2013-03-01

    Two complete nucleotide sequences of cherry green ring mottle virus (CGRMV) isolated from peach in Hebei (Hs10) and Fujian (F9) Provinces, China, were determined. Five open reading frames (ORFs) were found in the genomes of both isolates. The F9 and Hs10 isolates shared 82.2 % and 83.4-94.4 % nucleotide sequence identity, respectively, with two CGRMV isolates from cherry. Analysis of the nucleotide and amino acid sequences from the five ORFs of both isolates showed that Hs10 shares the greatest sequence identity with P1A (GenBank AJ291761) from cherry. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that CGRMV isolates from peach and cherry are closely related to members of the genus Foveavirus.

  18. Engineering of mCherry variants with long Stokes shift, red-shifted fluorescence, and low cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Shen, Yi; Chen, Yingche; Wu, Jiahui; Shaner, Nathan C; Campbell, Robert E

    2017-01-01

    MCherry, the Discosoma sp. mushroom coral-derived monomeric red fluorescent protein (RFP), is a commonly used genetically encoded fluorophore for live cell fluorescence imaging. We have used a combination of protein design and directed evolution to develop mCherry variants with low cytotoxicity to Escherichia coli and altered excitation and emission profiles. These efforts ultimately led to a long Stokes shift (LSS)-mCherry variant (λex = 460 nm and λem = 610 nm) and a red-shifted (RDS)-mCherry variant (λex = 600 nm and λem = 630 nm). These new RFPs provide insight into the influence of the chromophore environment on mCherry's fluorescence properties, and may serve as templates for the future development of fluorescent probes for live cell imaging.

  19. Tart cherry anthocyanins inhibit tumor development in Apc(Min) mice and reduce proliferation of human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Soo-Young; Seeram, Navindra P; Nair, Muraleedharan G; Bourquin, Leslie D

    2003-05-08

    Anthocyanins, which are bioactive phytochemicals, are widely distributed in plants and especially enriched in tart cherries. Based on previous observations that tart cherry anthocyanins and their respective aglycone, cyanidin, can inhibit cyclooxygenase enzymes, we conducted experiments to test the potential of anthocyanins to inhibit intestinal tumor development in Apc(Min) mice and growth of human colon cancer cell lines. Mice consuming the cherry diet, anthocyanins, or cyanidin had significantly fewer and smaller cecal adenomas than mice consuming the control diet or sulindac. Colonic tumor numbers and volume were not significantly influenced by treatment. Anthocyanins and cyanidin also reduced cell growth of human colon cancer cell lines HT 29 and HCT 116. The IC(50) of anthocyanins and cyanidin was 780 and 63 microM for HT 29 cells, respectively and 285 and 85 microM for HCT 116 cells, respectively. These results suggest that tart cherry anthocyanins and cyanidin may reduce the risk of colon cancer.

  20. 77 FR 40250 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Increasing the Primary Reserve Capacity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-09

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Increasing the Primary Reserve Capacity and Revising Exemption Requirements AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing... the exemption provisions applicable to handler diversion activities prescribed under the...

  1. Cracking susceptibility of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) under different conditions.

    PubMed

    Mucha-Pelzer, T; Müller, S; Rohr, F; Mewis, I

    2006-01-01

    Rain and hail during ripening and harvesting season can cause yield losses up to 90 % in sweet cherry cultivations in Germany. Particularly, high yield losses after precipitation are due to the cracking and the following rotting process through bacteria and fungi's. In order to protect the crop and improve cherry quality they can be treated with chemicals dried or healthier covered with rain shelters. To date the cracking phenomenon of cherries is still not clearly understood. Therefore, in the present study the cracking resistance of three cherry varieties under different conditions was observed. We used 'Regina', 'Karina', and 'Summit' grafted on the rootstock GiSelA 5. The test-section in the field was covered with a plastic-foil (pc) as rain shelter and a bird net, whereby the control (c) was covered with a bird protection-net only. The cherry varieties have been harvested, weight and sorted into undamaged, rotten and cracked fruits. In order to compare the varieties under equal conditions the cracking sensitivity was also tested under laboratory conditions with the method from CHRISTENSEN (1996). The average yield per tree was significantly higher in the pc treatment in 'Summit' and 'Regina' than in the control. Furthermore, the average weight of rotten fruits per tree in these varieties was in c, without rain shelter, about two to three times higher as in the pc treatment. There was no significant difference in yield and rotten fruits among treatments in 'Karina'. But the percentage of cracked fruits between the cultivation methods was significant different. Hereby improvement of cherry quality was observed in the pc treatment with reduced numbers of useless fruits. Under field conditions 'Karina' was at least susceptible to cracking resistance followed by 'Regina' and 'Summit'. In the laboratory Cracking Test the result was different. Here, the variety 'Summit' showed the best cracking resistance compared to the other varieties. According to the method of

  2. Biological reduction of graphene oxide using plant leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Lee, Geummi; Kim, Beom Soo

    2014-01-01

    Two-dimensional graphene has attracted significant attention due to its unique mechanical, electrical, thermal, and optical properties. Most commonly employed methods to chemically reduce graphene oxide to graphene use hydrazine or its derivatives as the reducing agent. However, they are highly hazardous and explosive. Various phytochemicals obtained from different natural sources such as leaves and peels of a plant are used as reducing agents in the preparation of different gold, silver, copper, and platinum nanoparticles. In this study, seven plant leaf extracts (Cherry, Magnolia, Platanus, Persimmon, Pine, Maple, and Ginkgo) were compared for their abilities to reduce graphene oxide. The optimized reaction conditions for the reduction of graphene oxide were determined as follows. Type of plant: Cherry (Prunus serrulata), reaction time: 12 h, composition of the reaction mixture: 16.7% v/v of plant leaf extract in total suspension, and temperature: 95°C. The degree of reduction caused by Cherry leaf extract was analyzed by elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The reduction of graphene oxide was also confirmed by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis.

  3. Microbial diversity during maturation and natural processing of coffee cherries of Coffea arabica in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Silv, C F; Schwan, R F; Sousa Dias, E S; Wheals, A E

    2000-09-25

    The magnitude and diversity of the microbial population associated with dry (natural) processing of coffee (Coffea arabica) has been assessed during a 2-year period on 15 different farms in the Sul de Minas region of Brazil. Peptone water-washed samples were taken of maturing cherries on trees (cherries, raisins and dried cherries) and from ground fermentations. The microbial load varied from 3 x 10(4) to 2.2 x 10(9) cfu/cherry with a median value of 1.6 x 10(7) cfu/cherry. The microbial load increased after heavy rainfall on cherries that were drying on the ground. At all stages, bacteria were usually the most abundant group, followed by filamentous fungi and finally yeasts. Counts of bacteria, yeasts and fungi varied considerably between farms and at different stages of maturation and processing and no consistent pattern could be seen. Yeasts showed an increase during the fermentation process. Median counts were not significantly different for fungi, yeasts and bacteria between the 2 years although Gram-negative bacteria dominated in the wet year and Gram-positive bacteria dominated in the dry year. Of a total of 754 isolates, 626 were identified to at least genus level comprising 44 genera and 64 different species. The 164 isolates of Gram-negative bacteria included 17 genera and 26 species, the most common of which were members of the genera Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Enterobacter and Serratia. Of 191 isolates of Gram-positive bacteria, 23 were spore-forming and included six Bacillus species, and 118 were non-spore-formers of which over half were Cellulomonas with lesser numbers of Arthrobacter, Microbacterium, Brochothrix, Dermabacter and Lactobacillus. Of the 107 yeast isolates, 90 were identified into 12 genera and 24 different species and almost all were fermentative. The most common genera, in decreasing frequency, were Pichia, Candida, Arxula and Saccharomycopsis. There were many rarely described yeasts including Pichia lynferdii and Arxula adeninivorans

  4. High-resolution seismic reflection/refraction imaging from Interstate 10 to Cherry Valley Boulevard, Cherry Valley, Riverside County, California: implications for water resources and earthquake hazards

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gandhok, G.; Catchings, R.D.; Goldman, M.R.; Horta, E.; Rymer, M.J.; Martin, P.; Christensen, A.

    1999-01-01

    This report is the second of two reports on seismic imaging investigations conducted by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) during the summers of 1997 and 1998 in the Cherry Valley area in California (Figure 1a). In the first report (Catchings et al., 1999), data and interpretations were presented for four seismic imaging profiles (CV-1, CV-2, CV-3, and CV-4) acquired during the summer of 1997 . In this report, we present data and interpretations for three additional profiles (CV-5, CV-6, and CV-7) acquired during the summer of 1998 and the combined seismic images for all seven profiles. This report addresses both groundwater resources and earthquake hazards in the San Gorgonio Pass area because the shallow (upper few hundred meters) subsurface stratigraphy and structure affect both issues. The cities of Cherry Valley and Beaumont are located approximately 130 km (~80 miles) east of Los Angeles, California along the southern alluvial fan of the San Bernardino Mountains (see Figure 1b). These cities are two of several small cities that are located within San Gorgonio Pass, a lower-lying area between the San Bernardino and the San Jacinto Mountains. Cherry Valley and Beaumont are desert cities with summer daytime temperatures often well above 100 o F. High water usage in the arid climate taxes the available groundwater supply in the region, increasing the need for efficient management of the groundwater resources. The USGS and the San Gorgonio Water District (SGWD) work cooperatively to evaluate the quantity and quality of groundwater supply in the San Gorgonio Pass region. To better manage the water supplies within the District during wet and dry periods, the SGWD sought to develop a groundwater recharge program, whereby, excess water would be stored in underground aquifers during wet periods (principally winter months) and retrieved during dry periods (principally summer months). The SGWD preferred a surface recharge approach because it could be less expensive than a

  5. Determination of optimal excitation and emission wavebands for detection of defect cherry tomato by using fluorescence emission and excitation matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, In-Suck; Cho, Byoung-Kwan; Kim, Moon S.; Kim, Young-Sik

    2013-05-01

    Fluorescence imaging technique has been widely used for quality and safety measurements of agro-food materials. Fluorescence emission intensities of target materials are influenced by wavelengths of excitation sources. Hence, selection of a proper excitation wavelength is an important factor in differentiating target materials effectively. In this study, optimal fluorescence excitation wavelength was determined on the basis of fluorescence emission intensity of defect and sound areas of cherry tomatoes. The result showed that fluorescence responses of defect and sound surfaces of cherry tomatoes were most significantly separated with the excitation light wavelength range between 400 and 410 nm. Fluorescence images of defect cherry tomatoes were acquired with the LEDs with the central wavelength of 410 nm as the excitation source to verify the detection efficiency of cherry tomato defects. The resultant fluorescence images showed that the defects were discriminated from sound areas on cherry tomatoes with above 98% accuracy. This study shows that high power LEDs as the excitation source for fluorescence imaging are suitable for defect detection of cherry tomatoes.

  6. Genetic diversity and relatedness of sweet cherry (prunus avium L.) cultivars based on single nucleotide polymorphic markers.

    PubMed

    Fernandez I Marti, Angel; Athanson, Blessing; Koepke, Tyson; Font I Forcada, Carolina; Dhingra, Amit; Oraguzie, Nnadozie

    2012-01-01

    Most previous studies on genetic fingerprinting and cultivar relatedness in sweet cherry were based on isoenzyme, RAPD, and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. This study was carried out to assess the utility of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated from 3' untranslated regions (UTR) for genetic fingerprinting in sweet cherry. A total of 114 sweet cherry germplasm representing advanced selections, commercial cultivars, and old cultivars imported from different parts of the world were screened with seven SSR markers developed from other Prunus species and with 40 SNPs obtained from 3' UTR sequences of Rainier and Bing sweet cherry cultivars. Both types of marker study had 99 accessions in common. The SSR data was used to validate the SNP results. Results showed that the average number of alleles per locus, mean observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, and polymorphic information content values were higher in SSRs than in SNPs although both set of markers were similar in their grouping of the sweet cherry accessions as shown in the dendrogram. SNPs were able to distinguish sport mutants from their wild type germplasm. For example, "Stella" was separated from "Compact Stella." This demonstrates the greater power of SNPs for discriminating mutants from their original parents than SSRs. In addition, SNP markers confirmed parentage and also determined relationships of the accessions in a manner consistent with their pedigree relationships. We would recommend the use of 3' UTR SNPs for genetic fingerprinting, parentage verification, gene mapping, and study of genetic diversity in sweet cherry.

  7. Japanese flowering cherry tree as a woody plant candidate grown in space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita-Yokotani, K.; Yoshida, S.; Hashimoto, H.; Nyunoya, H.; Funada, R.; Katayama, T.; Suzuki, T.; Honma, T.; Nagatomo, M.; Nakamura, T.

    We are proposing to raise woody plant in space for several applications Japanese flowering cherry tree is a candidate to do wood science in space Mechanism of sensing gravity and controlling shape of tree has been studied quite extensively Cherry mutants associated with gravity are telling responsible plant hormones and molecular machinery for plant adaptation against action of gravity Space experiment using our wood model contribute to understand molecular and cellular process of gravitropism in plant Tree is considered to be an important member in space agriculture to produce excess oxygen wooden materials for constructing living environment and provide biomass for cultivating mushrooms and insects Furthermore trees and their flowers improve quality of life under stressful environment in outer space

  8. Optimization of Sour Cherry Juice Spray Drying as
Affected by Carrier Material and Temperature

    PubMed Central

    Zorić, Zoran; Pedisić, Sandra; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica

    2016-01-01

    Summary Response surface methodology was applied for optimization of the sour cherry Marasca juice spray drying process with 20, 30 and 40% of carriers maltodextrin with dextrose equivalent (DE) value of 4–7 and 13–17 and gum arabic, at three drying temperatures: 150, 175 and 200 °C. Increase in carrier mass per volume ratio resulted in lower moisture content and powder hygroscopicity, higher bulk density, solubility and product yield. Higher temperatures decreased the moisture content and bulk density of powders. Temperature of 200 °C and 27% of maltodextrin with 4–7 DE were found to be the most suitable for production of sour cherry Marasca powder. PMID:28115901

  9. Morphological and physiological characteristics of transgenic cherry tomato mutant with HBsAg gene.

    PubMed

    Guan, Z J; Guo, B; Huo, Y L; Hao, H Y; Wei, Y H

    2011-08-01

    HBsAg gene was previously introduced into cherry tomato (Lycopersicum esculentum var. cerasiforme) by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. To investigate the side effect of HBsAg gene in cherry tomato, we analyzed morphological and physiological characteristics of the transgenic mutant N244. The process was performed under field conditions. The results suggested that the mutant N244 exhibited morphological, cytological and physiological variation. First of all, compared with the wild plants NK, N244 had fleshy and dark green leaves, the fewer notches of leaf edge, more adventitious roots and barren seeds. Moreover, the chromosome of N244 were found to be triploid (n = 36) by flow cytometric analysis. Furthermore, N244 has obvious physiological alterations, as compared to NK. It was speculated that transformation of the genes probably led to ploidy variation, and further caused phenotype and physiological changes of plants. Our study will reveal side effects of the mutants, and promote cultivation of transgenic plants in the field.

  10. Characterization of cuticle composition after cold storage of "Celeste" and "Somerset" sweet cherry fruit.

    PubMed

    Belge, Burcu; Llovera, Montserrat; Comabella, Eva; Gatius, Ferran; Guillén, Pere; Graell, Jordi; Lara, Isabel

    2014-08-27

    Cuticle composition and structure may be relevant factors affecting the storage potential of fruits, but very few studies have analyzed fruit cuticle composition from a postharvest perspective. In this work, the chemical composition of waxes and cutin (major cuticular components) was analyzed in cuticle samples isolated from "Celeste" and "Somerset" cherries (Prunus avium L.) after cold storage at 0 °C. Total cuticle amounts per surface unit (μg cm(-2)) increased along with cold storage. The triterpene ursolic acid, the alkane nonacosane, linoleic acid, and β-sitosterol were the most abundant components of cuticular waxes, whereas cutin composition was dominated by C18-type monomers. In spite of being comprised of similar chemical families, cultivar-related differences were found regarding the abundance and the evolution of some compound families during cold storage. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on changes in cuticle composition of sweet cherry during postharvest storage.

  11. Construction and validation of a mCherry protein vector for promoter analysis in Lactobacillus acidophilus.

    PubMed

    Mohedano, M Luz; García-Cayuela, Tomás; Pérez-Ramos, Adrián; Gaiser, Rogier A; Requena, Teresa; López, Paloma

    2015-02-01

    Lactobacilli are widespread in natural environments and are increasingly being investigated as potential health modulators. In this study, we have adapted the broad-host-range vector pNZ8048 to express the mCherry protein (pRCR) to expand the usage of the mCherry protein for analysis of gene expression in Lactobacillus. This vector is also able to replicate in Streptococcus pneumoniae and Escherichia coli. The usage of pRCR as a promoter probe was validated in Lactobacillus acidophilus by characterizing the regulation of lactacin B expression. The results show that the regulation is exerted at the transcriptional level, with lbaB gene expression being specifically induced by co-culture of the L. acidophilus bacteriocin producer and the S. thermophilus STY-31 inducer bacterium.

  12. Physicochemical characterisation of four cherry species (Prunus spp.) grown in China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jinping; Jiang, Qing; Lin, Juanying; Li, Xian; Sun, Chongde; Chen, Kunsong

    2015-04-15

    The physicochemical characteristics of four cherry species (Prunus avium, Prunus cerasus, Prunus pseudocerasus and Prunus tomentosa) were evaluated. Inter-species variability was greater than intra-species differences. Glucose and fructose were the main sugars, and malic acid was the main organic acid in all species. Combining HPLC-DAD and LC-ESI-MS/MS technologies, total 25 phenolic components were preliminarily identified. P. avium was characterised by high fruit weight, edible proportion, sugar content and low acid content, which made it suitable for fresh eating. P. cerasus was high in acid content and anthocyanins content, making it a good processing species. P. pseudocerasus had rich flavonols varieties and high proportion of hydrocinnamic acids. P. tomentosa was characterised by high total phenolics content (especially flavonols and tannins) and antioxidant activity, indicating a great developmental potential as a health fruit. The results of the present study might provide theoretical guidance for the further development and utilisation of cherries.

  13. Assessing the potential for establishment of western cherry fruit fly using ecological niche modeling.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sunil; Neven, Lisa G; Yee, Wee L

    2014-06-01

    Sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.) L., grown in the western United States are exported to many countries around the world. Some of these countries have enforced strict quarantine rules and trade restrictions owing to concerns about the potential establishment and subsequent spread of western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), a major quarantine pest of sweet cherry. We used 1) niche models (CLIMEX and MaxEnt) to map the climatic suitability, 2) North Carolina State University-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Plant Pest Forecasting System to examine chilling requirement, and 3) host distribution and availability to assess the potential for establishment of R. indifferens in areas of western North America where it currently does not exist and eight current or potential fresh sweet cherry markets: Colombia, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Venezuela, and Vietnam. Results from niche models conformed well to the current distribution of R. indifferens in western North America. MaxEnt and CLIMEX models had high performance and predicted climatic suitability in some of the countries (e.g., Andean range in Colombia and Venezuela, northern and northeastern India, central Taiwan, and parts of Vietnam). However, our results showed no potential for establishment of R. indifferens in Colombia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Taiwan, Thailand, Venezuela, and Vietnam when the optimal chilling requirement to break diapause (minimum temperature < or = 3 degree C for at least 15 wk) was used as the criterion for whether establishment can occur. Furthermore, these countries have no host plant species available for R. indifferens. Our results can be used to make scientifically informed international trade decisions and negotiations by policy makers.

  14. Habitat-specific flight period in the cherry fruit fly Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Luís A F; Isaacs, Rufus; Gut, Larry J

    2007-12-01

    Flight periods of the cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis cingulata (Loew), were compared in the major sweet and tart cherry-growing regions of Michigan, among neglected orchards, managed orchards, and natural areas containing the ancestral host, black cherry. Traps were deployed from early June to late September 2005 and 2006. Captures indicated that cherry fruit fly has an early flight (June-July) in neglected orchards, a mid-season flight peaking immediately after harvest (June-August) in managed orchards, and an extended flight covering most of the season (June-September) in natural areas. We found that the period of fruit infestation mirrored the flight period in neglected and managed orchards. In natural areas, we found infestation late in the season only. The relative emergence periods for adults reared from pupae collected from the three habitats and maintained under the same conditions coincided with adult flight periods for each habitat. We also studied factors related to fruit availability that may have a role in shaping the flight periods. Fruit abundance decreased rapidly early in the season in neglected orchards, whereas in managed orchards, fruit left after harvest remained on the trees until late August. Measurements of fruit size and skin firmness revealed that fly activity in neglected and managed orchards began immediately after fruit increased in size and skin firmness decreased, whereas in natural areas, the flight began before fruit matured. In managed orchards, fruit harvest and insecticide sprays likely maintain the late flight period of resident fly populations by preventing the use of fruit earlier in the season. However, a significant proportion of these resident flies may still emerge before harvest and increase the risk of costly fruit infestation.

  15. Coherences of instrumental and sensory characteristics: case study on cherry tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Csambalik, László; Divéky-Ertsey, Anna; Pap, Zoltán; Orbán, Csaba; Stégerné Máté, Mónika; Gere, Attila; Stefanovits-Bányai, Éva; Sipos, László

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate 6 cherry tomato varieties in terms of morphological, instrumental, and sensory attributes. Hungarian cherry tomato landraces have not been investigated in comparison with new commercial varieties for these traits. Parameters investigated were water-soluble antioxidant capacity (FRAP, DPPH, and TEAC), and total polyphenol, vitamin C, β-carotene, lycopene, total soluble solids, and acid contents. Colorimetric measurements as well as sensory analyses were conducted. It was concluded that varied antioxidant assays should be used in parallel to overcome the selectivity of any 1 method. Total phenolic content significantly contributed to results of antioxidant assays for the investigated varieties. The sensory profiles of the 6 cherry tomato varieties have been created. The differences between the products based on the 18 attributes were analyzed by Tukey post hoc test. The biplot of the principal component analysis showed that the sensory panel could discriminate the samples along the principal components. No correlation was found between colorimetric data a* and b* measured from pulp and lycopene, but a negative connection of β-carotene and hue was noted. Total polyphenol content showed correlations with colorimetric results, except for b*. The influence of tomato skin color on color perception is significant as in the present study instrumental data measured from pulp did not match that of the panelists evaluating intact fruit. Instrumental results of sugar content were supported by the ratings of the sensory panel.

  16. Benzaldehyde in cherry flavour as a precursor of benzene formation in beverages.

    PubMed

    Loch, Christine; Reusch, Helmut; Ruge, Ingrid; Godelmann, Rolf; Pflaum, Tabea; Kuballa, Thomas; Schumacher, Sandra; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2016-09-01

    During sampling and analysis of alcohol-free beverages for food control purposes, a comparably high contamination of benzene (up to 4.6μg/L) has been detected in cherry-flavoured products, even when they were not preserved using benzoic acid (which is a known precursor of benzene formation). There has been some speculation in the literature that formation may occur from benzaldehyde, which is contained in natural and artificial cherry flavours. In this study, model experiments were able to confirm that benzaldehyde does indeed degrade to benzene under heating conditions, and especially in the presence of ascorbic acid. Analysis of a large collective of authentic beverages from the market (n=170) further confirmed that benzene content is significantly correlated to the presence of benzaldehyde (r=0.61, p<0.0001). In the case of cherry flavoured beverages, industrial best practices should include monitoring for benzene. Formulations containing either benzoic acid or benzaldehyde in combination with ascorbic acid should be avoided.

  17. Endophytic microbial diversity in coffee cherries of Coffea arabica from southeastern Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Marcelo N V; Santos, Thiago M A; Vale, Helson M M; Delvaux, Júlio C; Cordero, Alexander P; Ferreira, Alessandra B; Miguel, Paulo S B; Tótola, Marcos R; Costa, Maurício D; Moraes, Célia A; Borges, Arnaldo C

    2013-04-01

    The microbiota associated with coffee plants may play a critical role in the final expression of coffee quality. However, the microbial diversity in coffee cherries is still poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the endophytic diversity in cherries of Coffea arabica by using culture-independent approaches to identify the associated microbes, ultimately to better understand their ecology and potential role in determining coffee quality. Group-specific 16S rRNA and 26S rRNA genes polymerase chain reaction - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and clone library sequencing showed that the endophytic community is composed of members of the 3 domains of life. Bacterial sequences showing high similarity with cultured and uncultured bacteria belonged to the Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Firmicutes phyla. Phylogenetic analyses of cloned sequences from Firmicutes revealed that most sequences fell into 3 major genera: Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Paenibacillus. Archaeal sequences revealed the presence of operational taxonomic units belonging to Euryarchaeota and Crenarchaeota phyla. Sequences from endophytic yeast were not recovered, but various distinct sequences showing high identity with filamentous fungi were found. There was no obvious correlation between the microbial composition and cultivar or geographic location of the coffee plant. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating internal tissue colonization of plant fruits by members of the Archaea domain. The finding of archaeal small-subunit rRNA in coffee cherries, although not sufficient to indicate their role as active endophytes, certainly expands our perspectives toward considering members of this domain as potential endophytic microbes.

  18. Root density of cherry trees grafted on prunus mahaleb in a semi-arid region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paltineanu, Cristian; Septar, Leinar; Gavat, Corina; Chitu, Emil; Oprita, Alexandru; Moale, Cristina; Lamureanu, Gheorghe; Vrinceanu, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    Root density was investigated using the trench method in a cherry (Prunus avium grafted on Prunus mahaleb) orchard with clean cultivation in inter-rows and in-row. Trenches of 1 m width and 1.2 m depth were dug up between neighbouring trees. The objectives of the paper were to clarify the spatial distribution of root density of cherry trees under the soil and climate conditions of the region to expand knowledge of optimum planting distance and orchard management for a broad area of chernozems. Some soil physical properties were significantly worsened in inter-rows versus in-row, mainly due to soil compaction, and there were higher root density values in in-row versus inter-rows. Root density decreased more intensely with soil depth than with distance from trees. The pattern of root density suggests that the cherry tree density and fruit yield could be increased. However, other factors concerning orchard management and fruit yield should also be considered. The results obtained have a potential impact to improve irrigation and fertilizer application by various methods, considering the soil depth and distance from trees to wet soil, in accordance with root development.

  19. Characterization of the S-RNase promoters from sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.).

    PubMed

    Ishizaka, Takako; Nakano, Hideaki; Suzuki, Takashi; Kitashiba, Hiroyasu

    2003-04-01

    Genomic DNA fragments containing the S(3)-, S(4)-, and S(6)-RNase genes were isolated from the sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) and sequenced. Comparison of the 5'-flanking sequences of these three S-RNases indicated that a highly conserved region (designated CR) existed just upstream from the putative TATA boxes. We postulate that CR contains cis-regulatory element(s) involved in pistil expression. To examine the activity of the isolated S-RNase promoters of sweet cherry in the pistil, we transiently introduced approximately 650-bp fragments of the S(4)- and S(6)-RNase promoters fused to beta-glucuronidase (GUS) gene into the pistil of the petunia using a particle bombardment technique. Histochemical analysis showed that the 5'-flanking region of each S-RNase was active in the pistil. This suggests that cis-regulatory element(s) for pistil-specific expression may exist(s) within the 650-bp region upstream from the TATA box in the sweet cherry S-RNase promoter.

  20. The potency of plant extracts as antimicrobials for the skin or hide preservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suparno, Ono; Afifah, Amalia; Panandita, Tania; Marimin, Purnawati, Rini

    2017-03-01

    Preservation of skin or hide uses antimicrobial that will be disposed in wastewater in the skin or hide processing resulting in the environmental pollution. Extracts of some types of plants contain some antimicrobial substances which are potential to be used as biocides for the preservation of skin or hide and are more environmentally friendly. The objectives of this study were to determine the phytochemical contents of moringa, cucumber tree or wuluh starfruit, cherry, and white leadtree or lamtoro leaves and to analyse the antibacterial activities of the plant extracts against microorganisms that cause spoilage of skin or hide. Phytochemical constituents of the dried plant leaves were extracted by 70% ethanol. The resulting extracts were analysed their phytochemical contents and antimicrobial activities against gram negative and gram positive bacteria (inhibition zone test) by well diffusion method, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and the minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC). Phytochemical test showed that the four leaf extracts contained alkaloids, saponins, tannins, flavonoids, steroids, and glycosides. The inhibition zones of the extracts against Escherichia coli were 5 mm for moringa leaf, 6 mm for cucumber tree leaf, 12 mm for cherry leaf, and 17 mm for white leadtree leaf. Inhibition zone of the extracts against Staphylococcus aureus were 2.5 mm for moringa leaf, 7 mm for cucumber tree leaf, 7.3 mm for cherry leaf, and 13 mm for white leadtree leaf. Inhibition zones of the extracts against Bacillus subtilis were 8 mm for moringa leaf, 9 mm for cucumber tree starfruit leaf, 14 mm for cherry leaf, and 15 mm for white leadtree leaf. The best MIC and MBC tests were demonstrated by white leadtree leaf extract against E. coli found at concentration of 1500 µg/ml, against S. aureus at concentration of 3000 µg/ml, and against B. subtilis at concentration of 3000 µg/ml. The ethanol extract of white leadtree leaf had the best antibacterial activity

  1. Adaptive Response of Listeria monocytogenes to Heat, Salinity and Low pH, after Habituation on Cherry Tomatoes and Lettuce Leaves

    PubMed Central

    Poimenidou, Sofia V.; Chatzithoma, Danai-Natalia; Nychas, George-John; Skandamis, Panagiotis N.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogens found on fresh produce may encounter low temperatures, high acidity and limited nutrient availability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of habituation of Listeria monocytogenes on cherry tomatoes or lettuce leaves on its subsequent response to inhibitory levels of acid, osmotic and heat stress. Habituation was performed by inoculating lettuce coupons, whole cherry tomatoes or tryptic soy broth (TSB) with a three-strains composite of L. monocytogenes, which were further incubated at 5°C for 24 hours or 5 days. Additionally, cells grown overnight in TSB supplemented with 0.6% yeast extract (TSBYE) at 30°C were used as control cells. Following habituation, L. monocytogenes cells were harvested and exposed to: (i) pH 3.5 adjusted with lactic acid, acetic acid or hydrochloric acid (HCl), and pH 1.5 (HCl) for 6 h; (ii) 20% NaCl and (iii) 60°C for 150 s. Results showed that tomato-habituated L. monocytogenes cells were more tolerant (P < 0.05) to acid or osmotic stress than those habituated on lettuce, and habituation on both foods resulted in more stress resistant cells than prior growth in TSB. On the contrary, the highest resistance to heat stress (P < 0.05) was exhibited by the lettuce-habituated L. monocytogenes cells followed by TSB-grown cells at 5°C for 24 h, whereas tomato-habituated cells were highly sensitized. Prolonged starvation on fresh produce (5 days vs. 24 h) increased resistance to osmotic and acid stress, but reduced thermotolerance, regardless of the pre-exposure environment (i.e., tomatoes, lettuce or TSB). These results indicate that L. monocytogenes cells habituated on fresh produce at low temperatures might acquire resistance to subsequent antimicrobial treatments raising important food safety implications. PMID:27798688

  2. Systemic Inflammatory Load in Young and Old Ringdoves Is Modulated by Consumption of a Jerte Valley Cherry-Based Product

    PubMed Central

    Delgado, Jonathan; Terrón, María del Pilar; Garrido, María; Barriga, Carmen; Paredes, Sergio Damián; Espino, Javier

    2012-01-01

    Abstract A chronic subclinical inflammatory status that coexists with immune dysfunction is commonly found in the elderly population. Consumption of foods rich in antioxidants (e.g., cherries) is an attractive strategy to reduce risk from chronic diseases. Based on previous studies showing the antioxidant effect of a Jerte Valley cherry derivative product in humans, the objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the intake of a Jerte Valley cherry-based beverage on inflammatory load in both young and old ringdoves (Streptopelia risoria). To this purpose, circulating levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines as well as serum levels of different acute-phase proteins were measured before and after a 10-day treatment with the Jerte Valley cherry-based beverage. Thus, the 10-day treatment with the cherry-based beverage modulated the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in both young and old ringdoves by down-regulating the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ) and up-regulating the levels of anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-4, IL-2, and IL-10). Moreover, the 10-day treatment with the Jerte Valley cherry-based product reduced the levels of several proteins involved in acute-phase responses, such as C-reactive protein, haptoglobin, α2-macroglobulin, and serum amyloid P component. On the other hand, old birds showed imbalanced levels of inflammatory markers toward a pro-inflammatory status, thereby underlining the fact that aging is usually accompanied by systemic inflammation and inflammation-related chronic diseases. To sum up, the data suggest a potential health benefit by consuming the cherry-based beverage, especially in aged populations, through their anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:22846077

  3. Chilling and Host Plant/Site-Associated Eclosion Times of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) and a Host-Specific Parasitoid.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L; Goughnour, Robert B; Hood, Glen R; Forbes, Andrew A; Feder, Jeffrey L

    2015-08-01

    The western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is an endemic herbivore of bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata (Douglas ex Hooker) Eaton, but ∼100 years ago established on earlier-fruiting domesticated sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L. Here, we determined if eclosion times of adult R. indifferens from sweet and bitter cherry differ according to the phenology of their respective host plants and if eclosion times of the host-specific parasitoid Diachasma muliebre (Muesebeck) (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) attacking bitter and sweet cherry flies differ according to the eclosion phenology of their fly hosts. Fly pupae from sweet and bitter cherry fruit were collected from sympatric and allopatric sites in Washington state, and chilled at 5°C. Because timing of eclosion in R. indifferens depends on chill duration, eclosion time in wasps could also vary with chill duration. To account for this, fly pupae were chilled for 1, 2, 2.5, 3, 4, 6, or 8 mo. Both flies and wasps eclosed earlier with longer chill durations. Eclosion times of sweet and bitter cherry flies from a sympatric site in central Washington did not differ. However, at allopatric sites in northwestern and central Washington, bitter cherry flies eclosed later than sweet and bitter cherry flies at the sympatric site. Correspondingly, D. muliebre parasitizing a more isolated bitter cherry fly population eclosed later than D. muliebre parasitizing earlier-emerging sweet and bitter cherry fly populations. These results provide evidence for D. muliebre rapidly responding to changes in host plant shifts by R. indifferens.

  4. Evaluation of messenger plant activator as a preharvest and postharvest treatment of sweet cherry fruit under a controlled atmosphere.

    PubMed

    Akbudak, Bulent; Tezcan, Himmet; Eris, Atilla

    2009-08-01

    The preservation methods as an alternative to chemical control to prevent postharvest quality losses of sweet cherry were examined. The efficacy of preharvest and postharvest messenger (M) treatments on sweet cherry cv. '0900 Ziraat' was tested under a controlled atmosphere in 2004 and 2005. The factors investigated included the separate or combined effect of low oxygen, high carbon dioxide and M on the quality and fungal pathogens of sweet cherries in a normal atmosphere (NA) and in a controlled atmosphere (CA). Cherries were placed at six different atmosphere combinations (0.03%:21% [NA, control], 5%:5%, 10%:5%, 15%:5%, 20%:5% and 25%:5% CO(2):O(2)) at 0°C and 90% relative humidity for up to 8 weeks. Mass values were higher in cherries stored under NA compared with CA. Initial firmness was 1.45 kg and 1.41 kg in fruits without messenger (WM) and in M fruits, respectively; and was measured as 0.30-0.59 kg in WM and 0.57-0.95 kg in M at the end of the trials. The highest acidity and ascorbic acid values were recorded at the end of storage from the fruit stored under CA + M. The CA + M treatment proved the most effective with regard to delaying the maturity and preserving the fruit quality in sweet cherries during storage. Moreover, the CA + M treatments reduced the rotten fruit from 24.06% to 3.80% in cv. '0900 Ziraat'. Better fruit quality was obtained under CA + M compared with NA and CA. The fungi most frequently isolated from sweet cherries were Botrytis cinerea, Penicillium expansum, Monilinia fructicola, Alternaria alternata and Rhizopus stolonifer. It was concluded that sweet cherry cv. '0900 Ziraat' could be stored successfully under CA (20%:5%) + M, and partially under CA (25%:5%) + M, conditions for more than 60 days. Thus, it is recommended that CO(2) levels for sweet cherry storage can be increased above 15% with M.

  5. Implication of Abscisic Acid on Ripening and Quality in Sweet Cherries: Differential Effects during Pre- and Post-harvest.

    PubMed

    Tijero, Verónica; Teribia, Natalia; Muñoz, Paula; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Sweet cherry, a non-climacteric fruit, is usually cold-stored during post-harvest to prevent over-ripening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abscisic acid (ABA) on fruit growth and ripening of this fruit, considering as well its putative implication in over-ripening and effects on quality. We measured the endogenous concentrations of ABA during the ripening of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. var. Prime Giant) collected from orchard trees and in cherries exposed to 4°C and 23°C during 10 days of post-harvest. Furthermore, we examined to what extent endogenous ABA concentrations were related to quality parameters, such as fruit biomass, anthocyanin accumulation and levels of vitamins C and E. Endogenous concentrations of ABA in fruits increased progressively during fruit growth and ripening on the tree, to decrease later during post-harvest at 23°C. Cold treatment, however, increased ABA levels and led to an inhibition of over-ripening. Furthermore, ABA levels positively correlated with anthocyanin and vitamin E levels during pre-harvest, but not during post-harvest. We conclude that ABA plays a major role in sweet cherry development, stimulating its ripening process and positively influencing quality parameters during pre-harvest. The possible influence of ABA preventing over-ripening in cold-stored sweet cherries is also discussed.

  6. Determination of feed value of cherry, apricot and almond tree leaves in ruminant using in situ method.

    PubMed

    Nahand, M K; Doust-Nobar, R S; Maheri-Sis, N; Mahmoudi, S

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, chemical composition and in situ rumen dry matter degradability (DMD) of some tree species (cherry, apricot and almond tree leaves) were determined. Crude protein (CP) concentration varied from 6.76% for almond tree to 2.76% for cherry tree, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF), from 29.2, 20.8% for apricot tree to 20.8 and 15.8% for almond tree leaves respectively. Polyphenol and tannin composition measured from 3.49, 1.2% for almond tree to 1.51 and 0.61% for apricot tree, respectively. In situ rumen degradability was carried out in three fistulaed Taleshi native male cattle which were incubated at times of 0, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96-hour. Almond leaves had higher potential degradation (a+b) for dry matter (92.37%) and cherry leaves showed lower potential degradation (84.12%), respectively. Effective rumen degradable dry matter at rate of 0.05/h varied from 69.86% for almond tree to 52.20% for cherry leaves. Results showed that the almond leaves were higher in nutritive value than cherry and apricot leaves. Therefore, almond tree leaves could be used with forage in ruminant diets to reduce cost of animals feed requirements. Overall, it seemed that the tree leaves used in this study, had a higher nutritive value in ruminant's nutrition, however more experiments are needed for an accurate determination of nutritional values of these resources.

  7. Implication of Abscisic Acid on Ripening and Quality in Sweet Cherries: Differential Effects during Pre- and Post-harvest

    PubMed Central

    Tijero, Verónica; Teribia, Natalia; Muñoz, Paula; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-01-01

    Sweet cherry, a non-climacteric fruit, is usually cold-stored during post-harvest to prevent over-ripening. The aim of the study was to evaluate the role of abscisic acid (ABA) on fruit growth and ripening of this fruit, considering as well its putative implication in over-ripening and effects on quality. We measured the endogenous concentrations of ABA during the ripening of sweet cherries (Prunus avium L. var. Prime Giant) collected from orchard trees and in cherries exposed to 4°C and 23°C during 10 days of post-harvest. Furthermore, we examined to what extent endogenous ABA concentrations were related to quality parameters, such as fruit biomass, anthocyanin accumulation and levels of vitamins C and E. Endogenous concentrations of ABA in fruits increased progressively during fruit growth and ripening on the tree, to decrease later during post-harvest at 23°C. Cold treatment, however, increased ABA levels and led to an inhibition of over-ripening. Furthermore, ABA levels positively correlated with anthocyanin and vitamin E levels during pre-harvest, but not during post-harvest. We conclude that ABA plays a major role in sweet cherry development, stimulating its ripening process and positively influencing quality parameters during pre-harvest. The possible influence of ABA preventing over-ripening in cold-stored sweet cherries is also discussed. PMID:27200070

  8. Effects of a tart cherry juice beverage on the sleep of older adults with insomnia: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pigeon, Wilfred R; Carr, Michelle; Gorman, Colin; Perlis, Michael L

    2010-06-01

    This study ascertained whether a proprietary tart cherry juice blend (CherryPharm, Inc., Geneva, NY, USA) associated with anecdotal reports of sleep enhancement improves subjective reports of insomnia compared to a placebo beverage. The pilot study used a randomized, double-blind, crossover design where each participant received both treatment and placebo for 2 weeks with an intervening 2-week washout period. Sleep continuity (sleep onset, wake after sleep onset, total sleep time, and sleep efficiency) was assessed by 2-week mean values from daily sleep diaries and disease severity by the Insomnia Severity Index in a cohort of 15 older adults with chronic insomnia who were otherwise healthy. The tart cherry juice beverage was associated with statistically significant pre- to post-treatment improvements on all sleep variables. When compared to placebo, the study beverage produced significant reductions in insomnia severity (minutes awake after sleep onset); no such improvements were observed for sleep latency, total sleep time, or sleep efficiency compared to placebo. Effect sizes were moderate and in some cases negligible. The results of this pilot study suggest that CherryPharm, a tart cherry juice blend, has modest beneficial effects on sleep in older adults with insomnia with effect sizes equal to or exceeding those observed in studies of valerian and in some, but not all, studies of melatonin, the two most studied natural products for insomnia. These effects, however, were considerably less than those for evidence-based treatments of insomnia: hypnotic agents and cognitive-behavioral therapies for insomnia.

  9. Effect of a tart cherry juice supplement on arterial stiffness and inflammation in healthy adults: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Lynn, Anthony; Mathew, Shilpa; Moore, Chris T; Russell, Jean; Robinson, Emma; Soumpasi, Vithleem; Barker, Margo E

    2014-06-01

    Tart cherries are a particularly rich source of anthocyanins. Evidence indicates that dietary intake of anthocyanins is inversely associated with arterial stiffness. We conducted an open-label randomised placebo controlled study to determine whether a tart cherry juice concentrate (Cherry Active) reduced arterial stiffness, inflammation and risk markers for cardiovascular disease in 47 healthy adults (30-50 years). Participants consumed 30 ml of cherry concentrate diluted to a volume of 250 ml with water or the same volume of an energy matched control drink daily for six weeks. Measurements were taken at baseline and at the end of the intervention. There was no effect of the intervention on arterial stiffness (P = 0.218), c-reactive protein (P = 0.220), systolic blood pressure (P = 0.163), diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.121), total cholesterol (P = 0.342) and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (P = 0.127). At the end of the intervention, plasma antioxidant capacity (measured as the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP)) was significantly higher in the intervention group than the control group (P = 0.012). We conclude that a tart cherry juice concentrate rich in anthocyanins has no effect on arterial stiffness, c-reactive protein and risk markers for cardiovascular disease, but evokes a minor increase in antioxidant status in healthy adults.

  10. Phenolic Compounds, Volatiles, and Sensory Characteristics of Twelve Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) Cultivars Grown in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hayaloglu, Ali Adnan; Demir, Nurullah

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports the phenolic, anthocyanin, and volatile compounds and sensory characteristics of 12 cultivars of sweet cherries including cvs. Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, Durona di Cesena, Lambert, Merton Late, Starks Gold, Summit, Sweetheart, Van, Vista, and 0-900 Ziraat. Eight individual phenolic compounds were determined by the HPLC-DAD method. Among these cherries, cvs. Bing, Durona di Cesena, and Lambert contained higher levels of total individual phenolic compounds than the other cultivars. Six anthocyanins were detected in cherries and cyanidin-3-O-rutinoside was principal and it was the highest level in cv. Bing. The major volatiles found were 1-hexanol, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, benzylalcohol, hexenal, (E)-2-hexenal, and benzaldehyde. Sensory evaluation of the cherries showed that cvs. Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, and Summit have higher textural and flavor scores than others. It was concluded that the same compounds for phenolic or volatiles profiles of sweet cherries were similar in qualitative; however, quantitative differences were observed in these cultivars.

  11. Preharvest application of oxalic acid increased fruit size, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant capacity in sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).

    PubMed

    Martínez-Esplá, Alejandra; Zapata, Pedro Javier; Valero, Daniel; García-Viguera, Cristina; Castillo, Salvador; Serrano, María

    2014-04-16

    Trees of 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late' sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.) were treated with oxalic acid (OA) at 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 mM at 98, 112, and 126 days after full blossom. Results showed that all treatments increased fruit size at harvest, manifested by higher fruit volume and weight in cherries from treated trees than from controls, the higher effect being found with 2.0 mM OA (18 and 30% higher weight for 'Sweet Heart' and 'Sweet Late', respectively). Other quality parameters, such as color and firmness, were also increased by OA treatments, although no significant differences were found in total soluble solids or total acidity, showing that OA treatments did not affect the on-tree ripening process of sweet cherry. However, the increases in total anthocyanins, total phenolics, and antioxidant activity associated with the ripening process were higher in treated than in control cherries, leading to fruit with high bioactive compounds and antioxidant potential at commercial harvest (≅45% more anthocyanins and ≅20% more total phenolics). In addition, individual anthocyanins, flavonols, and chlorogenic acid derivatives were also increased by OA treatment. Thus, OA preharvest treatments could be an efficient and natural way to increase the quality and functional properties of sweet cherries.

  12. Construction of an intra-specific sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) genetic linkage map and synteny analysis with the Prunus reference map

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Linkage maps of the sweet cherry cultivar ‘Emperor Francis’ (EF) and the wild forest cherry ‘New York 54’ (NY) were constructed using primarily simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and gene-derived markers with known positions on the Prunus reference map. The success rate for identifying SSR markers...

  13. Engineering of mCherry variants with long Stokes shift, red-shifted fluorescence, and low cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Yi; Chen, Yingche; Wu, Jiahui; Shaner, Nathan C.; Campbell, Robert E.

    2017-01-01

    MCherry, the Discosoma sp. mushroom coral-derived monomeric red fluorescent protein (RFP), is a commonly used genetically encoded fluorophore for live cell fluorescence imaging. We have used a combination of protein design and directed evolution to develop mCherry variants with low cytotoxicity to Escherichia coli and altered excitation and emission profiles. These efforts ultimately led to a long Stokes shift (LSS)-mCherry variant (λex = 460 nm and λem = 610 nm) and a red-shifted (RDS)-mCherry variant (λex = 600 nm and λem = 630 nm). These new RFPs provide insight into the influence of the chromophore environment on mCherry’s fluorescence properties, and may serve as templates for the future development of fluorescent probes for live cell imaging. PMID:28241009

  14. Nanostructural difference of water-soluble pectin and chelate-soluble pectin among ripening stages and cultivars of Chinese cherry.

    PubMed

    Lai, Shaojuan; Chen, Fusheng; Zhang, Lifen; Yang, Hongshun; Deng, Yun; Yang, Bao

    2013-03-01

    Nanostructure of water-soluble pectin (WSP) and chelate-soluble pectin (CSP) of two Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus L.) cultivars (soft cultivar 'Caode' and crisp cultivar 'Bende') with two different ripening stages were characterised using atomic force microscopy. Both cultivars shared some common values of chain widths for WSP or CSP, and both pectins shared several values of chain widths including 37, 55 and 61 nm. The results indicate that different cultivars shared similar components of pectin, and cultivar textural difference might be related to the interaction between pectin and other cherry components or the dissociation of pectin. During ripening, the wide WSP and CSP gradually dissociate in width. The results demonstrated that the changes of WSP and CSP of Chinese cherry in widths were a dissociation process.

  15. Reduction of stem growth and site dependency of leaf injury in Massachusetts black cherries exhibiting ozone symptoms.

    PubMed

    Vollenweider, P; Woodcock, H; Kelty, M J; Hofer, R-M

    2003-01-01

    Leaf ozone symptoms in natural ecosystems are increasingly reported but ozone effects on tree growth and the mediation of site conditions are still little documented. This study tests two hypotheses: (1) leaf injury in black cherry is associated with decline in radial growth, (2) symptoms are more prevalent on mesic sites. On sites supporting black cherry across Massachusetts, tree growth and leaf ozone injury were surveyed in 1996 using a randomized plot network established in the 1960s. Forty-seven percent of 120 trees sampled for ozone symptoms were symptomatic with generally low levels of injury. Over a 31-year period symptomatic trees had 28% lower stem growth rates than asymptomatic trees. Ozone symptom expression was enhanced in well growing stands on moister, cooler and more elevated sites. Ozone appeared to increase environmental stress and had a more pronounced effect on growth in better growing black cherry stands. This complicates management decisions as thinning increases growth and moisture availability.

  16. Volatile compounds and sensorial characterisation of red wine aged in cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood barrels.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Simón, B; Martínez, J; Sanz, M; Cadahía, E; Esteruelas, E; Muñoz, A M

    2014-03-15

    The wood-related volatile profile of wines aged in cherry, acacia, ash, chestnut and oak wood barrels was studied by GC-MS, and could be a useful tool to identify the wood specie used. Thus, 2,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde in wines aged in acacia barrels, and ethyl-2-benzoate in cherry barrels could be used as chemical markers of these wood species, for authenticity purposes. Also, the quantitative differences obtained in the volatile profiles allow a good classification of all wines regarding wood species of barrels, during all aging time, and they contributed with different intensities to aromatic and gustative characteristics of aged wines. Wines aged in oak were the best valuated during all aging time, but the differences were not always significant. The lowest scores were assigned to wines aged in cherry barrels from 6 months of aging, so this wood could be more suitable in short aging times.

  17. Development and investigation of recombinant immunotoxin protein 4D5scFv-mCherry-PE(40).

    PubMed

    Shilova, O N; Souslova, E A; Pilunov, A M; Deyev, S M; Petrov, R V

    2016-11-01

    Development of agents for theranostics implies combining the targeting module, the effector module, and the detection module within the same complex or recombinant protein. We have constructed, isolated, and characterized the 4D5scFv-mCherry-PE(40) protein, which exhibits fluorescent properties and specifically binds to cancer cells expressing the HER2 receptor and reduces their viability. The ability of the obtained targeted antitumor agent 4D5scFv-mCherry-PE(40) to selectively stain the HER2-positive cells and its highly selective cytotoxicity against these cells make the obtained targeted recombinant protein 4D5scFv-mCherry-PE(40) a promising theranostic agent for the diagnostics and therapy of HER2-positive human tumors.

  18. Proteomic Comparison of Fruit Ripening between 'Hedelfinger' Sweet Cherry (Prunus avium L.) and Its Somaclonal Variant 'HS'.

    PubMed

    Prinsi, Bhakti; Negri, Alfredo S; Espen, Luca; Piagnani, M Claudia

    2016-05-25

    The somaclonal variant HS, from sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) 'Hedelfinger' (H), was previously selected for reduced tree vegetative vigor and lesser canopy density. In this work, we compared H and HS fruits at early unripe (green) and full ripe (dark red) stages by biochemical and proteomic approaches. The main biochemical parameters showed that fruit quality was not affected by somaclonal variation. The proteomic analysis identified 39 proteins differentially accumulated between H and HS fruits at the two ripening stages, embracing enzymes involved in several pathways, such as carbon metabolism, cell wall modification, stress response, and secondary metabolism. The evaluation of fruit phenolic composition by mass spectrometry showed that HS sweet cherries have higher levels of procyanidin, flavonol, and anthocyanin compounds. This work provides the first proteomic characterization of fruit ripening in sweet cherry, revealing new positive traits of the HS somaclonal variant.

  19. Genetic Diversity and Relatedness of Sweet Cherry (Prunus Avium L.) Cultivars Based on Single Nucleotide Polymorphic Markers

    PubMed Central

    Fernandez i Marti, Angel; Athanson, Blessing; Koepke, Tyson; Font i Forcada, Carolina; Dhingra, Amit; Oraguzie, Nnadozie

    2012-01-01

    Most previous studies on genetic fingerprinting and cultivar relatedness in sweet cherry were based on isoenzyme, RAPD, and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. This study was carried out to assess the utility of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers generated from 3′ untranslated regions (UTR) for genetic fingerprinting in sweet cherry. A total of 114 sweet cherry germplasm representing advanced selections, commercial cultivars, and old cultivars imported from different parts of the world were screened with seven SSR markers developed from other Prunus species and with 40 SNPs obtained from 3′ UTR sequences of Rainier and Bing sweet cherry cultivars. Both types of marker study had 99 accessions in common. The SSR data was used to validate the SNP results. Results showed that the average number of alleles per locus, mean observed heterozygosity, expected heterozygosity, and polymorphic information content values were higher in SSRs than in SNPs although both set of markers were similar in their grouping of the sweet cherry accessions as shown in the dendrogram. SNPs were able to distinguish sport mutants from their wild type germplasm. For example, “Stella” was separated from “Compact Stella.” This demonstrates the greater power of SNPs for discriminating mutants from their original parents than SSRs. In addition, SNP markers confirmed parentage and also determined relationships of the accessions in a manner consistent with their pedigree relationships. We would recommend the use of 3′ UTR SNPs for genetic fingerprinting, parentage verification, gene mapping, and study of genetic diversity in sweet cherry. PMID:22737155

  20. Reduction of Optimal Thermal Range in Aging Western Cherry Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G

    2015-01-01

    The western cherry fruit fly is an economically important pest of sweet cherries in the western United States. The potential of this pest to establish and spread in areas in which it is not currently present has been the focus of recent research. Most published information on the thermal tolerance and optimal thermal range of this pest has focused primarily on the diapausing pupae and predictive phenology models. Microrespirometry and differential calorimetry can be useful tools in describing the thermotolerance and optimal thermal range of insects. This methodology was employed to investigate the effects of western cherry fruit fly adult age on the optimal thermal range. Newly emerged flies exhibited the widest optimal thermal range spanning from 6.6 to 42.2°C for a total range of 35.8°C during heating scans of 0.4°C/min from 2 to 50°C. This range diminished as the flies aged, with the shortest span observed with 28-d-old flies ranging from 10.5 to 37.8°C, a span of 27.2°C. Measurements of heat rate and oxygen consumption at isothermal, or static, temperatures indicated that all flies could survive exposure to 40°C for at least 20 min, and that metabolism was greatly reduced, with a concomitant reduction in oxygen consumption rate at 40 to 42°C. All flies exhibited a heat rate and oxygen consumption rate of zero when exposed to 45 and 50°C. The loss of thermotolerance in adult flies can influence its ability to establish and spread in climates where daily temperatures exceed the optimal thermal range of this species.

  1. Reduction of Optimal Thermal Range in Aging Western Cherry Fruit Flies (Diptera: Tephritidae)

    PubMed Central

    Neven, Lisa G.

    2015-01-01

    The western cherry fruit fly is an economically important pest of sweet cherries in the western United States. The potential of this pest to establish and spread in areas in which it is not currently present has been the focus of recent research. Most published information on the thermal tolerance and optimal thermal range of this pest has focused primarily on the diapausing pupae and predictive phenology models. Microrespirometry and differential calorimetry can be useful tools in describing the thermotolerance and optimal thermal range of insects. This methodology was employed to investigate the effects of western cherry fruit fly adult age on the optimal thermal range. Newly emerged flies exhibited the widest optimal thermal range spanning from 6.6 to 42.2°C for a total range of 35.8°C during heating scans of 0.4°C/min from 2 to 50°C. This range diminished as the flies aged, with the shortest span observed with 28-d-old flies ranging from 10.5 to 37.8°C, a span of 27.2°C. Measurements of heat rate and oxygen consumption at isothermal, or static, temperatures indicated that all flies could survive exposure to 40°C for at least 20 min, and that metabolism was greatly reduced, with a concomitant reduction in oxygen consumption rate at 40 to 42°C. All flies exhibited a heat rate and oxygen consumption rate of zero when exposed to 45 and 50°C. The loss of thermotolerance in adult flies can influence its ability to establish and spread in climates where daily temperatures exceed the optimal thermal range of this species. PMID:26106089

  2. Stability of Commercially Available Grape and Compounded Cherry Oral Vancomycin Preparations Stored in Syringes and Cups.

    PubMed

    Kirk, Loren; Lewis, Paul; Luu, Yao; Brown, Stacy

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of two preparations of vancomycin oral solution in two different storage containers, capped amber oral-dosing syringes and heat-sealed oral-dosing cups, stored under refrigerated conditions. Commercially available grape-flavored vancomycin oral preparation and compounded vancomycin for intravenous use in cherry syrup oral preparation were divided into 5-mL aliquots into heat-sealed plastic dosing cups and capped oral-dosing syringes. All samples were stored under refrigeration (2°C to 8°C) and evaluated at days 0, 3, 7, 14, 30, 60, and 90. For each evaluation, samples were visually inspected and analyzed for potency using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatographic method with ultraviolet detection. Over the study period, at least 90% of the initial concentrations for the preparation and the product in both storage containers were retained at 60 days. The commercially available oral vancomycin further demonstrated stability within 90% out to 90 days in the syringe and the unit-dose cups. Visual inspection revealed no changes in the grape-flavored vancomycin oral preparation, but a detectable red-dye precipitate could be seen in the crevices of the dosing cups from the vancomycin in cherry syrup oral preparation after 60 days. Commercially available grape-flavored vancomycin oral preparation was stable up to 90 days, and com- pounded vancomycin for intravenous use in cherry syrup oral preparation maintained stability for 60 days when dispensed in capped amber polypropylene oral-dosing syringes and heat-sealed plastic dosing cups when stored at refrigerated conditions.

  3. Multiple introductions boosted genetic diversity in the invasive range of black cherry (Prunus serotina; Rosaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Pairon, Marie; Petitpierre, Blaise; Campbell, Michael; Guisan, Antoine; Broennimann, Olivier; Baret, Philippe V.; Jacquemart, Anne-Laure; Besnard, Guillaume

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Black cherry (Prunus serotina) is a North American tree that is rapidly invading European forests. This species was introduced first as an ornamental plant then it was massively planted by foresters in many countries but its origins and the process of invasion remain poorly documented. Based on a genetic survey of both native and invasive ranges, the invasion history of black cherry was investigated by identifying putative source populations and then assessing the importance of multiple introductions on the maintenance of gene diversity. Methods Genetic variability and structure of 23 populations from the invasive range and 22 populations from the native range were analysed using eight nuclear microsatellite loci and five chloroplast DNA regions. Key Results Chloroplast DNA diversity suggests there were multiple introductions from a single geographic region (the north-eastern United States). A low reduction of genetic diversity was observed in the invasive range for both nuclear and plastid genomes. High propagule pressure including both the size and number of introductions shaped the genetic structure in Europe and boosted genetic diversity. Populations from Denmark, The Netherlands, Belgium and Germany showed high genetic diversity and low differentiation among populations, supporting the hypothesis that numerous introduction events, including multiple individuals and exchanges between sites, have taken place during two centuries of plantation. Conclusions This study postulates that the invasive black cherry has originated from east of the Appalachian Mountains (mainly the Allegheny plateau) and its invasiveness in north-western Europe is mainly due to multiple introductions containing high numbers of individuals. PMID:20400456

  4. Phylogeny, biogeography, and molecular dating of cornelian cherries (Cornus, Cornaceae): tracking Tertiary plant migration.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Qiu-Yun; Manchester, Steve R; Thomas, David T; Zhang, Wenheng; Fan, Chuanzhu

    2005-08-01

    Data from four DNA regions (rbcL, matK, 26S rDNA, and ITS) as well as extant and fossil morphology were used to reconstruct the phylogeny and biogeographic history of an intercontinentally disjunct plant group, the cornelian cherries of Cornus (dogwoods). The study tests previous hypotheses on the relative roles of two Tertiary land bridges, the North Atlantic land bridge (NALB) and the Bering land bridge (BLB), in plant migration across continents. Three approaches, the Bayesian, nonparametric rate smoothing (NPRS), and penalized likelihood (PL) methods, were employed to estimate the times of geographic isolations of species. Dispersal and vicariance analysis (DIVA) was performed to infer the sequence and directionality of biogeographic pathways. Results of phylogenetic analyses suggest that among the six living species, C. sessilis from western North America represents the oldest lineage, followed by C. volkensii from Africa. The four Eurasian species form a clade consisting of two sister pairs, C. mas-C. officinalis and C. chinensis-C. eydeana. Results of DIVA and data from fossils and molecular dating indicate that the cornelian cherry subgroup arose in Europe as early as the Paleocene. Fossils confirm that the group was present in North America by the late Paleocene, consistent with the DIVA predictions that, by the end of the Eocene, it had diversified into several species and expanded its distribution to North America via the NALB and to Africa via the last direct connection between Eurasia and Africa prior to the Miocene, or via long-distance dispersal. The cornelian cherries in eastern Asia appear to be derived from two independent dispersal events from Europe. These events are inferred to have occurred during the Oligocene and Miocene. This study supports the hypothesis that the NALB served as an important land bridge connecting the North American and European floras, as well as connecting American and African floras via Europe during the early Tertiary.

  5. Identification of chilling and heat requirements of cherry trees—a statistical approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luedeling, Eike; Kunz, Achim; Blanke, Michael M.

    2013-09-01

    Most trees from temperate climates require the accumulation of winter chill and subsequent heat during their dormant phase to resume growth and initiate flowering in the following spring. Global warming could reduce chill and hence hamper the cultivation of high-chill species such as cherries. Yet determining chilling and heat requirements requires large-scale controlled-forcing experiments, and estimates are thus often unavailable. Where long-term phenology datasets exist, partial least squares (PLS) regression can be used as an alternative, to determine climatic requirements statistically. Bloom dates of cherry cv. `Schneiders späte Knorpelkirsche' trees in Klein-Altendorf, Germany, from 24 growing seasons were correlated with 11-day running means of daily mean temperature. Based on the output of the PLS regression, five candidate chilling periods ranging in length from 17 to 102 days, and one forcing phase of 66 days were delineated. Among three common chill models used to quantify chill, the Dynamic Model showed the lowest variation in chill, indicating that it may be more accurate than the Utah and Chilling Hours Models. Based on the longest candidate chilling phase with the earliest starting date, cv. `Schneiders späte Knorpelkirsche' cherries at Bonn exhibited a chilling requirement of 68.6 ± 5.7 chill portions (or 1,375 ± 178 chilling hours or 1,410 ± 238 Utah chill units) and a heat requirement of 3,473 ± 1,236 growing degree hours. Closer investigation of the distinct chilling phases detected by PLS regression could contribute to our understanding of dormancy processes and thus help fruit and nut growers identify suitable tree cultivars for a future in which static climatic conditions can no longer be assumed. All procedures used in this study were bundled in an R package (`chillR') and are provided as Supplementary materials. The procedure was also applied to leaf emergence dates of walnut (cv. `Payne') at Davis, California.

  6. Degradation of Anthocyanin Content in Sour Cherry Juice During Heat Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Szalóki-Dorkó, Lilla; Ladányi, Márta; Ficzek, Gitta; Stéger-Máté, Mónika

    2015-01-01

    Summary Sour cherry juices made from two sour cherry cultivars (Érdi bőtermő and Kántorjánosi 3) were investigated to determine their total anthocyanin content and half-life of anthocyanins during heat treatment at different temperatures (70, 80 and 90 °C) for 4 h. Before the heat treatment, Érdi bőtermő juice had higher anthocyanin concentration (812 mg/L) than Kántorjánosi 3 juice (513 mg/L). The greatest heat sensitivity of anthocyanins was measured at 90 °C, while the treatments at 80 and 70 °C caused lower thermal degradation. The loss of anthocyanins in Érdi bőtermő juice after treatment was 38, 29 and 18%, respectively, while in Kántorjánosi 3 juice losses of 46, 29 and 19% were observed, respectively. At 90 °C sour cherry Érdi bőtermő juice had higher half-life (t1/2) of anthocyanins, while the Kántorjánosi 3 juice had higher t1/2 values at 70 °C. Cyanidin-3-glucosyl-rutinoside was present in higher concentrations in both cultivars (Érdi bőtermő: 348 and Kántorjánosi 3: 200 mg/L) than cyanidin-3-rutinoside (177 and 121 mg/L) before treatment. However, during the experiment, cyanidin-3-rutinoside was proved to be more resistant to heat. Comparing the two varieties, both investigated pigment compounds were more stable in Kántorjánosi 3 than in Érdi bőtermő. Degradation rate of anthocyanins was cultivar-dependent characteristic, which should be taken into account in the food production. PMID:27904369

  7. Distribution and fine-scale spatial-genetic structure in British wild cherry (Prunus avium L.).

    PubMed

    Vaughan, S P; Cottrell, J E; Moodley, D J; Connolly, T; Russell, K

    2007-05-01

    Insights into the within-population spatial-genetic structure (SGS) of forest tree species, where little is known regarding seed and pollen dispersal patterns, enhance understanding of their ecology and provide information of value in conservation and breeding. This study utilised 13 polymorphic simple sequence repeat loci to investigate the impact of asexual recruitment, management regime and tree size on the development of SGS in wild cherry (Prunus avium L). Only 246 genotypes were identified in the 551 trees sampled, reflecting significant levels of clonal reproduction in both managed and unmanaged populations. Naturally regenerated wild cherry was spatially aggregated under both management regimes. However, in the managed population, sexually derived trees accounted for a greater proportion of the smaller size classes, whereas vegetatively produced trees dominated the smaller size classes in the unmanaged population. High overall SGS values (Sp 0.030-Sp 0.045) were observed when considering only sexually derived genets and kinship coefficients were significant up to the 120 m distance class for both populations. The inclusion of clonal ramets in the analysis significantly increased the overall SGS (Sp 0.089-Sp 0.119) as well as kinship coefficients in the 40-80 m distance classes, illustrating the dramatic impact of vegetative propagation on SGS in this species. Increased spatial aggregation and regeneration appeared to be concomitant with increased SGS in the 40 m distance class in the unmanaged population. Neighbourhood size estimates were relatively small for both populations and kinship coefficients were found to decline with distance under both management regimes, suggesting that common mechanisms may restrict gene dispersal in wild cherry.

  8. 'Cherry red spot' in a patient with Tay-Sachs disease: case report.

    PubMed

    Aragão, Ricardo Evangelista Marrocos de; Ramos, Régia Maria Gondim; Pereira, Felipe Bezerra Alves; Bezerra, Andreya Ferreira Rodrigues; Fernandes, Daniel Nogueira

    2009-01-01

    Tay-Sachs disease is an autosomal recessive disorder of sphingolipid metabolism, caused by enzyme hexosaminidase A deficiency that leads to an accumulation of GM2 in neurocytes which results in progressive loss of neurological function. The accumulation of lipid in retinal ganglion cells that leads to a chalk-white appearance of the fundus called 'cherry red spot' is the hallmark of Tay-Sachs disease. It is also seen in others neurometabolic diseases as well as in central retinal artery occlusion. This case reports a child with Tay-Sachs disease in a family with four previous similar deaths without diagnostic.

  9. Antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities of anthocyanins and their aglycon, cyanidin, from tart cherries.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Nair, M G; Strasburg, G M; Chang, Y C; Booren, A M; Gray, J I; DeWitt, D L

    1999-02-01

    The anthocyanins (1-3) and cyanidin isolated from tart cherries exhibited in vitro antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities comparable to commercial products. The inhibition of lipid peroxidation of anthocyanins 1-3 and their aglycon, cyanidin, were 39, 70, 75, and 57%, respectively, at 2-mM concentrations. The antioxidant activities of 1-3 and cyanidin were comparable to the antioxidant activities of tert-butylhydroquinone and butylated hydroxytoluene and superior to vitamin E at 2-mM concentrations. In the antiinflammatory assay, cyanidin gave IC50 values of 90 and 60 mM, respectively, for prostaglandin H endoperoxide synthase-1 and prostaglandin H endoperoxide synthase-2 enzymes.

  10. Right to use groundwater in Arizona after Chino Valley II and Cherry vs Steiner

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, E.K.

    1983-01-01

    Two cases which upheld Groundwater Code provisions are reviewed, Chino Valley II and Cherry vs Steiner. Arizona law regarding private rights in groundwater and the state's police power authority to limit those rights are also considered. The possibility of constitutional protection for already-exercised rights to use groundwater is explored through a discussion of decisions in other jurisdictions, and statements are made which indicate that Arizona will follow those decisions. It is thought that state-mandated conservation measures would provide adequate regulation of police-powered regulation of private interests. 158 references.

  11. Late onset angioma serpiginosum of the breast with co-existing cherry angioma

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Samipa; Salphale, Pankaj; Singh, Vandita

    2014-01-01

    Angioma serpiginosum is a cutaneous vascular nevoid disorder that presents as red, nonblanchable and grouped macules distributed in a serpiginous pattern and resembles purpura. It usually begins in childhood and commonly affects the lower limbs and the buttocks. Late onset of the lesions is unusual. We report a 46-year-old female who presented with progressively extending lesions on her breast since preceding four years. She also had a cherry angioma overlying the lesions, an observation hitherto not reported so far. PMID:25165654

  12. Construction of Commercial Sweet Cherry Linkage Maps and QTL Analysis for Trunk Diameter

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Kaichun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yan, Guohua; Zhou, Yu; Feng, Laibao; Ni, Yang; Duan, Xuwei

    2015-01-01

    A cross between the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars ‘Wanhongzhu’ and ‘Lapins’ was performed to create a mapping population suitable for the construction of a linkage map. The specific-locus amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing technique used as a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery platform and generated 701 informative genotypic assays; these, along with 16 microsatellites (SSRs) and the incompatibility (S) gene, were used to build a map which comprised 8 linkage groups (LGs) and covered a genetic distance of 849.0 cM. The mean inter-marker distance was 1.18 cM and there were few gaps > 5 cM in length. Marker collinearity was maintained with the established peach genomic sequence. The map was used to show that trunk diameter (TD) is under the control of 4 loci, mapping to 3 different LGs. Different locus influenced TD at a varying stage of the tree’s development. The high density ‘W×L’ genetic linkage map has the potential to enable high-resolution identification of QTLs of agronomically relevant traits, and accelerate sweet cherry breeding. PMID:26516760

  13. Microwave-vacuum drying of sour cherry: comparison of mathematical models and artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Motavali, Ali; Najafi, Gholam Hassan; Abbasi, Solayman; Minaei, Saeid; Ghaderi, Abdurrahman

    2013-08-01

    Drying characteristics of sour cherries were determined using microwave vacuum drier at various microwave powers (360, 600, 840, 1200 W) and absolute pressures (200, 400, 600, 800 mbars). In addition, using the artificial neural networks (ANN), trained by standard Back-Propagation algorithm, the effects of microwave power, pressure and drying time on moisture ratio (MR) and drying rate (DR) were investigated Based on the evaluation of experimental data fitting with semi-theoretical and empirical models, the Midilli et al. model was selected as the most appropriate one. Furthermore, the ANN model was able to predict the moisture ratio and drying rate quite well with determination coefficients (R(2)) of 0.9996, 0.9961 and 0.9958 for training, validation and testing, respectively. The prediction Mean Square Error of ANN was about 0.0003, 0.0071 and 0.0053 for training, validation and testing, respectively. This parameter signifies the difference between the desired outputs (as measured values) and the simulated values by the model. The good agreement between the experimental data and ANN model leads to the conclusion that the model adequately describes the drying behavior of sour cherries, in the range of operating conditions tested.

  14. Active paraffin-based paper packaging for extending the shelf life of cherry tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Lafuente, Angel; Nerin, Cristina; Batlle, Ramon

    2010-06-09

    A new active paraffin coating for paper and board was evaluated for antimicrobial protection and decay retardation for cherry tomatoes. Different active agents were evaluated against Alternaria alternata fungus both in vitro and in vivo using artificially inoculated cherry tomatoes. Bark cinnamon and oregano essential oil showed the best performance (versus clove and leaf cinnamon essential oils) when incorporated to active paper or board used for packaging at nominal concentrations of 3 and 6% (w/w), respectively. Almost total inhibition of the fungus was obtained when 6% of bark cinnamon essential oil was applied to the packaging material. A number of physicochemical parameters such as pH, weight loss, water activity, and color were monitored, and no significant differences between active, blank, and control samples were found for weight loss and color difference. The maximum transfer of trans-cinnamaldehyde and carvacrol to the food was detected after 1 or 2 days of storage. Sensorial analysis was performed, and panelists were not able to detect changes in cinnamon-based packaged tomatoes but they could in the oregano-based tomatoes.

  15. Response of different-aged black cherry trees to ambient ozone exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Fredericksen, T.S.; Joyce, B.J.; Kouterick, K.B.; Kolb, T.E.; Skelly, J.M.; Steiner, K.C.; Savage, J.E.; Snyder, K.R. )

    1994-06-01

    Black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) is a valuable commercial timber species which is also highly sensitive to ozone relative to other eastern deciduous tree species. Studies of ozone effects on forest trees have been restricted mostly to experiments using small seedlings under controlled conditions. Yet, mature trees may differ from seedlings in physiology, morphology, and exposure to air pollutants. An experiment was conducted in 1993 to determine differences in ozone uptake and foliar injury symptoms between open-ground seedlings, forest saplings, and mature forest trees of black cherry in northcentral Pennsylvania. Seedlings grew under the highest ozone concentrations and also had greater seasonal ozone uptake due to higher rates of stomatal conductance. However, because of their indeterminate growth habit, seedlings had lower cumulative ozone uptake per leaf lifespan than saplings or mature trees, both of which had determinate shoot growth. Although greater initially for seedlings, foliar injury was nearly identical between size classes by the end of the growing season. Leaves in the lower crown of larger trees had lower ozone uptake than leaves in the upper crown, but exhibited more foliar injury symptoms. Lower crown leaves received more effective exposure to ozone because of their thinner leaves and had less available photosynthate for repair or replacement of damaged tissue.

  16. Degradation products of cyanidin glycosides from tart cherries and their bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Seeram, N P; Bourquin, L D; Nair, M G

    2001-10-01

    The bioactive anthocyanins present in tart cherries, Prunus cerasus L. (Rosaceae) cv. Balaton, are cyanidin 3-glucosylrutinoside (1), cyanidin 3-rutinoside (2), and cyanidin 3-glucoside (3). Cyanidin (4) is the major anthocyanidin in tart cherries. In our continued evaluation of the in vivo and in vitro efficacy of these anthocyanins to prevent inflammation and colon cancer, we have added these compounds to McCoy's 5A medium in an effort to identify their degradation products during in vitro cell culture studies. This resulted in the isolation and characterization of protocatechuic acid (5), the predominant degradation product. In addition, 2,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid (6) and 2,4,6-trihydroxybenzoic acid (7) were identified as degradation products. However, these degradation products were not quantified. Compounds 5-7 were also identified as degradation products when anthocyanins were subjected to varying pH and thermal conditions. In cyclooxygenase (COX)-I and -II enzyme inhibitory assays, compounds 5-7 did not show significant activities when compared to the NSAIDs Naproxen, Celebrex, and Vioxx, or Ibuprofen, at 50 microM concentrations. However, at a test concentration of 50 microM, the antioxidant activity of protocatechuic acid (5) was comparable to those of the commercial antioxidants tert-butylhydroquinone (TBHQ), butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT), and butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA), and superior to that of vitamin E at 10 microM concentrations.

  17. Combined heat and controlled atmosphere quarantine treatments for control of codling moth in sweet cherries.

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G

    2005-06-01

    Nonchemical quarantine treatments, using a combination of short-duration high temperatures under low oxygen, elevated carbon dioxide atmospheric environment were developed to control codling moth in sweet cherries, Prunus avium (L.). The two treatments developed are a chamber temperature of 45 degrees C for 45 min and a chamber temperature of 47 degreesC for 25 min under a 1% oxygen, 15% carbon dioxide, -2 degrees C dew point environment. Both these treatments have been shown to provide control of all life stages of codling moth while preserving commodity market quality. The third and fourth instars of codling moth are equally tolerant to CATTS treatments and are the most tolerant immature stages to these treatments. We determined that low levels of oxygen are more important than elevated carbon dioxide in achieving high levels of insect mortality. Efficacy tests of both treatments resulted in 100% mortality of 5000 third instars of codling moth in each treatment. These treatments may be used to provide quarantine security in exported sweet cherries where codling moth is a quarantine concern and fumigation with methyl bromide is not desired.

  18. Late-onset Fabry disease associated with angiokeratoma of Fordyce and multiple cherry angiomas.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, V; Dhoat, S; Mehta, A B; Orteu, C H

    2011-07-01

    Fabry disease (FD) is a lysosomal storage disorder. The prevalence and clinical spectrum is higher than previously thought. The average time between onset of symptoms and diagnosis is 10 years. Early identification of patients is essential to institute enzyme therapy and reduce morbidity. We report the case of a 76-year-old man, who presented with loss of consciousness following exertional chest pain. He was found to have tortuous corneal vessels, > 100 cherry angiomas on his trunk, and angiokeratomas on his scrotum. The latter were indistinguishable from angiokeratoma of Fordyce, a diagnosis reported in 15% of men over the age of 50 years, and generally ignored by them. The patient's α-galactosidase levels were low, and a mutation in exon 5 of the GLA gene was identified on DNA analysis, confirming the diagnosis of FD. This case highlights the importance of considering a diagnosis of FD in all male patients with angiokeratoma. It also raises the question of whether the presence of multiple cherry angiomas in patients with cardiac disease should raise the possible diagnosis of FD.

  19. Cherry-flavoured electronic cigarettes expose users to the inhalation irritant, benzaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Kosmider, Leon; Sobczak, Andrzej; Prokopowicz, Adam; Kurek, Jolanta; Zaciera, Marzena; Knysak, Jakub; Smith, Danielle; Goniewicz, Maciej L

    2016-04-01

    Many non-cigarette tobacco products, including e-cigarettes, contain various flavourings, such as fruit flavours. Although many flavourings used in e-cigarettes are generally recognised as safe when used in food products, concerns have been raised about the potential inhalation toxicity of these chemicals. Benzaldehyde, which is a key ingredient in natural fruit flavours, has been shown to cause irritation of respiratory airways in animal and occupational exposure studies. Given the potential inhalation toxicity of this compound, we measured benzaldehyde in aerosol generated in a laboratory setting from flavoured e-cigarettes purchased online and detected benzaldehyde in 108 out of 145 products. The highest levels of benzaldehyde were detected in cherry-flavoured products. The benzaldehyde doses inhaled with 30 puffs from flavoured e-cigarettes were often higher than doses inhaled from a conventional cigarette. Levels in cherry-flavoured products were >1000 times lower than doses inhaled in the workplace. While e-cigarettes seem to be a promising harm reduction tool for smokers, findings indicate that using these products could result in repeated inhalation of benzaldehyde, with long-term users risking regular exposure to the substance. Given the uncertainty surrounding adverse health effects stemming from long-term inhalation of flavouring ingredients such as benzaldehyde, clinicians need to be aware of this emerging risk and ask their patients about use of flavoured e-cigarettes.

  20. Curative activity of insecticides against plum curculio (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in tart cherries.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Eric J; Vandervoort, Christine; Wise, John C

    2009-10-01

    Tart cherry, Prunus cerasus L. variety Montmorency, fruit were infested with plum curculio, Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), and treated with insecticides to target late instars, neonates, and eggs. The organophosphates azinphos-methyl and phosmet and the neonicotinoid thiamethoxam reduced larval emergence rates by >90% for all life stage targets; after >30 d, few surviving larvae were found inside fruit. Acetamiprid and thiacloprid also had curative activity and yielded >75% reductions in emergence and few surviving larvae in the fruit after >30 d. The juvenile hormone analog pyriproxyfen reduced larval emergence, but 66% of fruit that was treated to target late-instars still had live larvae inside of them after >30 d. Novaluron, chlorantraniliprole, and esfenvalerate had no curative activity. Indoxacarb had limited curative activity, and all targeted life stages had larval emergence. Internal and external residues were analyzed and are discussed in relation to their penetration and curative potential. The curative activity of azinphos-methyl has played an important role in meeting federal standards for infestation-free tart cherries at processing. Regulatory changes are eliminating the use of this compound, and new integrated pest management programs for plum curculio will need to address the loss of azinphos-methyl's curative activity.

  1. Tissue bioavailability of anthocyanins from whole tart cherry in healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Kirakosyan, Ara; Seymour, E Mitchell; Wolforth, Janet; McNish, Robert; Kaufman, Peter B; Bolling, Steven F

    2015-03-15

    Our aim was to confirm and identify the presence of tart cherry anthocyanins in several target tissues of healthy rats. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was employed for detection and characterisation of anthocyanin metabolites. It was shown that four native anthocyanins, namely cyanidin 3-glucosylrutinoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside 5-β-D-glucoside, and peonidin 3-rutinoside were differentially distributed among targeted tissues of rats. Bladder and kidney contained more total anthocyanins than all other tissues analysed. It was also revealed that the bioavailability pattern of these native anthocyanins among tissues is varied. The highest concentration of individual anthocyanin cyanidin 3-glucosylrutinoside (2339 picograms/gram of tissue) was detected in bladder, followed by cyanidin 3-rutinoside 5-β-d-glucoside (916 picograms/gram) in the liver of rats. Although the diverse distribution of tart cherry anthocyanins in different rat tissues still requires further explanation, it may provide an evidentiary link between tissue bioavailability and health-enhancing properties of anthocyanins at target sites.

  2. Genetic relationships between diploid and allotetraploid cherry species (Prunus avium, Prunus x gondouinii and Prunus cerasus).

    PubMed

    Tavaud, M; Zanetto, A; David, J L; Laigret, F; Dirlewanger, E

    2004-12-01

    Prunus avium L. (diploid, AA, 2n=2x=16), Prunus cerasus L. (allotetraploid, AAFF, 2n=4x=32) species, and their hybrid Prunus x gondouinii Rehd., constitute the most widely cultivated cherry tree species. P. cerasus is supposed to be an hybrid species produced by the union of unreduced P. avium gametes and normal P. fruticosa gametes. A continuum of morphological traits between these three species makes their assignation difficult. The aim of this paper is to study the genetic relationships between tetraploid and diploid cherry species. In all, 114 genotypes belonging to these species were analyzed using 75 AFLP markers. The coordinates of these genotypes on the first axis of a correspondence analysis allowed us to clearly distinguish each species, to identify misclassifications and to assign unknown genotypes to one species. We showed that there are specific alleles in P. cerasus, which are not present in the A genome of P. avium and which probably come from the F genome of P. cerasus. The frequencies of each marker in the A and the F genomes were estimated in order to identify A and F specific markers. We discuss the utility of these specific markers for finding the origin of the A and F genomes in the allopolyploid species.

  3. Construction of Commercial Sweet Cherry Linkage Maps and QTL Analysis for Trunk Diameter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jing; Zhang, Kaichun; Zhang, Xiaoming; Yan, Guohua; Zhou, Yu; Feng, Laibao; Ni, Yang; Duan, Xuwei

    2015-01-01

    A cross between the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivars 'Wanhongzhu' and 'Lapins' was performed to create a mapping population suitable for the construction of a linkage map. The specific-locus amplified fragment (SLAF) sequencing technique used as a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) discovery platform and generated 701 informative genotypic assays; these, along with 16 microsatellites (SSRs) and the incompatibility (S) gene, were used to build a map which comprised 8 linkage groups (LGs) and covered a genetic distance of 849.0 cM. The mean inter-marker distance was 1.18 cM and there were few gaps > 5 cM in length. Marker collinearity was maintained with the established peach genomic sequence. The map was used to show that trunk diameter (TD) is under the control of 4 loci, mapping to 3 different LGs. Different locus influenced TD at a varying stage of the tree's development. The high density 'W×L' genetic linkage map has the potential to enable high-resolution identification of QTLs of agronomically relevant traits, and accelerate sweet cherry breeding.

  4. Ultrasound treatment: effect on physicochemical, microbial and antioxidant properties of cherry (Prunus avium).

    PubMed

    Muzaffar, Sabeera; Ahmad, Mudasir; Wani, S M; Gani, Adil; Baba, Waqas N; Shah, Umar; Khan, Asma Ashraf; Masoodi, F A; Gani, Asir; Wani, Touseef Ahmed

    2016-06-01

    The cherry was treated with ultrasonic waves (33 kHz, 60 W) at different time intervals (10, 20, 30, 40, 60 min) and study was carried out to analyze the change in physico-chemical properties (TSS, pH, color, acidity and firmness), antioxidant potential and microbial load of the fruit during the storage period of 15 days at 4 °C. It was observed that ultrasound treatment (US) between 30 and 40 min showed better retention of color of the fruit during the storage period. The antioxidant assays (DPPH, ABTS and TPC) also increased significantly (P ≤ 0.05) up to 40 min, however the firmness of the fruit was affected and it showed a significant decrease beyond 20 min of US treatment. The sample with 40 min US treatment showed significantly less microbial load than other samples. The 20-40 min US treatment time (33 kHz, 60 W) was suggested for preservation of cherry during the storage at 4 °C.

  5. Free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds in cherry (Prunus avium L.).

    PubMed

    Wen, Ya-Qin; He, Fei; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Lan, Yi-Bin; Pan, Qiu-Hong; Li, Chun-You; Reeves, Malcolm J; Wang, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the occurrence of both free and glycosidically bound aroma compounds in three sweet cherry cultivars ('Hongdeng', 'Hongyan' and 'Rainier'), with 97 compounds being identified in the three cultivars. The major free volatile compounds found were hexanal, (E)-2-hexenal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, benzyl alcohol and benzaldehyde. The major bound volatile compounds found were benzyl alcohol, geraniol, 2-phenylethanol. Also 4-vinylphenol was found in cherry fruit for the first time, and has a relatively high concentration of the glycosidically-bound form in 'Rainier'. Odour activity values (OAVs) were determined for both free and bound volatiles, with 18 compounds having an OAV above 1. The highest OAVs for three cultivars were (E)-β-ionone, hexanal, decanal and (E)-2-hexenal with the highest being over 800 for (E)-β-ionone in 'Honyang'. From these results, it was concluded that the aroma compounds present were similar in all three cultivars, but there was significant variation found in their levels and hence contribution to the aroma of these cultivars.

  6. Effect of the frequency of the mixing of coffee cherries put out for drying on the kinetics of drying and the relationship to ochratoxin A production.

    PubMed

    Kouadio, A I; Agbo, N G; Lebrihi, A; Mathieu, F; Dosso, M

    2006-03-01

    The effect of the frequency of the mixing of coffee cherries put out for sun drying on the kinetics of the drying, fungal growth and kinetics of ochratoxin A production was evaluated. The results showed that the more coffee cherries were mixed, the quicker they dried. This rapidity of drying led to a reduction of fungal development. Indeed, coffee cherries mixed eight and ten times a day, dried quickly and were free inside of fungi. However, infection by fungi gives little indication of ochratoxin A production in coffee cherries. Indeed, although coffee cherries mixed twice a day were more contaminated by fungi, the analysis of ochratoxin A content showed they were free of this mycotoxin. The coffee cherries that were more contaminated by ochratoxin A were those mixed four times a day (containing 0.35-5.46 microg kg(-1) ochratoxin A). Ochratoxin A contamination was essentially due to the presence of Aspergillus species capable of producing ochratoxin A inside the coffee cherries.

  7. Inactivation of Salmonella Typhimurium and quality preservation of cherry tomatoes by in-package aerosolization of antimicrobials

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of in-package aerosolized aqueous sanitizers in reducing populations of attenuated Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium inoculated on tomato fruit and in maintaining fruit quality. Cherry tomatoes were inoculated with a cocktail of ...

  8. 76 FR 31577 - Notice of Availability of a Pest Risk Analysis for the Importation of Fresh Apricot, Sweet Cherry...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... cinch bug (Macchiademus diplopterus). Apricots and plumcots must be cold treated for fruit flies... cherries must be cold treated for the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis capitata) in accordance with 7 CFR... of false codling moth and Natal fruit fly (Ceratitis rosa) via the interstate movement or...

  9. Genome sequence of the leaf-colonizing Bacterium Bacillus sp. strain 5B6, isolated from a cherry tree.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Kwon; Chung, Joon-hui; Kim, Seon-Young; Jeong, Haeyoung; Kang, Sung Gyun; Kwon, Soon-Kyeong; Lee, Choong Hoon; Song, Ju Yeon; Yu, Dong Su; Ryu, Choong-Min; Kim, Jihyun F

    2012-07-01

    Plant growth-promoting bacteria colonize various habitats, including the phyllosphere. Here, we present the high-quality draft genome sequence of Bacillus sp. strain 5B6, which was isolated from the leaf of a cherry tree. The 3.9-Mb genome uncovers its potential for understanding the nature of leaf colonization as well as antibiosis against plant pathogens.

  10. Non-Destructive Sensor-Based Prediction of Maturity and Optimum Harvest Date of Sweet Cherry Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Overbeck, Verena; Schmitz, Michaela; Blanke, Michael

    2017-01-01

    (1) Background: The aim of the study was to use innovative sensor technology for non-destructive determination and prediction of optimum harvest date (OHD), using sweet cherry as a model fruit, based on different ripening parameters. (2) Methods: Two cherry varieties in two growing systems viz. field and polytunnel in two years were employed. The fruit quality parameters such as fruit weight and size proved unsuitable to detect OHD alone due to their dependence on crop load, climatic conditions, cultural practices, and season. Coloration during cherry ripening was characterized by a complete decline of green chlorophyll and saturation of the red anthocyanins, and was measured with a portable sensor viz. spectrometer 3–4 weeks before expected harvest until 2 weeks after harvest. (3) Results: Expressed as green NDVI (normalized differential vegetation index) and red NAI (normalized anthocyanin index) values, NAI increased from −0.5 (unripe) to +0.7 to +0.8 in mature fruit and remained at this saturation level with overripe fruits, irrespective of variety, treatment, and year. A model was developed to predict the OHD, which coincided with when NDVI reached and exceeded zero and the first derivative of NAI asymptotically approached zero. (4) Conclusion: The use of this sensor technology appears suitable for several cherry varieties and growing systems to predict the optimum harvest date. PMID:28146114

  11. Adding food baits to expand the list of insecticide classes used to manage Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in cherry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Drosophila suzukii has become a major pest of fruit crops, including cherry in the western United States. We evaluated whether the addition of sugary baits could improve the efficacy of two classes of insecticides not considered to be sufficiently effective for this pest, diamides and spinosyns, in ...

  12. 78 FR 28182 - Tart Cherries Grown in Michigan, New York, Et al.; Notice of Request for Extension and Revision...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ..., 2013. ADDRESSES: Interested persons are invited to submit written comments concerning this notice... for a reserve pool in times of heavy cherry supplies. The order also provides for minimum grade and... collected; and (4) ways to minimize the burden of the collection of information on those who...

  13. Ethanol vapor and saprophytic yeast treatments reduce decay and maintain quality of intact and fresh-cut cherries

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the use of an ethanol vapor release pad and a saprophytic yeast (Cryptococcus infirmo-miniatum) to reduce decay and maintain postharvest quality of intact or fresh-cut sweet cherries (Prunus avium L.) cv. Lapins and Bing. Intact or fresh-cut fruit were pac...

  14. 75 FR 31719 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-04

    ... Amendment of Marketing Agreement and Order No. 930 AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION... exceptions to proposed amendments to Marketing Agreement and Order No. 930 (order), which regulates the... Wisconsin. Seven amendments were proposed by the Cherry Industry Administrative Board (Board), which...

  15. Evaluation of the virus and viroid infection status of flowering cherry (Prunus yedoensis) collections in Korea and the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The virus and viroid infection status of flowering cherry trees (Prunus yedoensis) in prominent ornamental collections in Korea (Seoul, Jinhae, Jeju) and the U.S. (Washington, D.C.) was investigated. A total of 344 trees were tested by conventional RT-PCR for 13 viruses and 2 viroids. Eight viruses ...

  16. Physicochemical characteristics, antioxidant activity, organic acid and sugar contents of 12 sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars grown in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hayaloglu, Ali Adnan; Demir, Nurullah

    2015-03-01

    Physical characteristics, antioxidant activity and chemical constituents of 12 cultivars (Prunus avium L.) of sweet cherry (Belge, Bing, Dalbasti, Durona di Cesena, Lambert, Merton Late, Starks Gold, Summit, Sweetheart, Van, Vista, and 0-900 Ziraat) were investigated. Significant differences (P < 0.05) were observed among tested cultivars for pH, total soluble solid, hardness, color parameters, antioxidant activities and pomological measurements (P < 0.05). The color parameters were important tools for the determination of fruit maturity and anthocyanin contents. Belge cultivar showed the highest levels of total phenolic and anthocyanin, while Starks Gold contained the lowest level of anthocyanins. The darker cultivars, measured by ABTS(+•) , DPPH(•) and FRAP, exhibited higher antioxidant activities than the lighter ones. Bing (42.78 g/kg) and Sweetheart (40.53 g/kg) cultivars contained higher levels of malic acid, which was the most intense organic acid in sweet cherries. Four different sugars were observed in the samples and their concentrations ordered as glucose > fructose > sucrose > xylose. Sugar alcohol in the cherries was represented by sorbitol (more than 90%) and its concentration varied between 13.93 and 27.12 g/kg. As a result significant differences were observed among the physical properties and chemical constituents of the cherry cultivars.

  17. Post-storage cell wall metabolism in two sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars displaying different postharvest performance.

    PubMed

    Belge, Burcu; Comabella, Eva; Graell, Jordi; Lara, Isabel

    2015-09-01

    The biochemical processes underlying firmness loss of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) fruit are poorly understood. Studies on cell wall metabolism of sweet cherry have been generally undertaken during on-tree development or at harvest maturity, while published reports on postharvest changes are scarce and fragmentary. In this work, cell wall modifications after storage at 0 ℃ were studied in two cherry cultivars ('Celeste' and 'Somerset') displaying different postharvest potential. Firmness was largely determined by the yields of the Na2CO3- and KOH-soluble fractions, enriched in covalently-bound pectins and in matrix glycans, respectively, and correlated well with ascorbic acid contents. The yields of these two cell wall fractions were correlated inversely with pectinmethylesterase and endo-1,4-β-d-glucanase activities, indicating a relevant role of these two enzymes in postharvest firmness changes in sweet cherry. The amount of solubilised cell wall materials was closely associated to the contents of dehydroascorbic acid, suggesting the possible involvement of oxidative mechanisms in cell wall disassembly. These data may help understanding the evolution of fruit quality during the marketing period, and give hints for the design of suitable management strategies to preserve key attributes.

  18. Environmental flow studies of the Fort Collins Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey-Cherry Creek, Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waddle, Terry J.; Bovee, Ken D.

    2010-01-01

    At the request of the U.S. Forest Service, an instream flow assessment was conducted at Cherry Creek, Ariz., to investigate habitat for native and introduced fish species and to describe the beneficial use of a possible instream flow water right. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Fort Collins Science Center performed an intensive field study of two sections of Cherry Creek in September 2008 to provide base data for hydrodynamic simulation of the flow conditions in the stream. The USGS Arizona Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Research Unit, at the University of Arizona School of Natural Resources, conducted a survey of the habitat requirements of the resident fish species in Cherry Creek and provided the habitat suitability criteria used in this study. The habitat suitability criteria were combined with hydrodynamic simulation results to quantify fish habitat for the full range of daily flow experienced in the creek and to produce maps of habitat occurrence for those flows. The flow record at the Cherry Creek stream gage was used to generate habitat response values over time. The long-term habitat response was incorporated into an Excel (Registered) spreadsheet to allow evaluation of habitat occurrence with and without an instream water right under different hypothetical water withdrawal scenarios. The spreadsheet displays information about the time sequence of habitat events, the duration of critical events, and habitat retention.

  19. 75 FR 33673 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, New York, Pennsylvania, Oregon, Utah, Washington...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-15

    ... marketing challenge for the tart cherry industry because demand for the product is relatively static. In... / Tuesday, June 15, 2010 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing..., Washington, and Wisconsin; Order Amending Marketing Order No. 930 AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing...

  20. 77 FR 36115 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Final Free and Restricted Percentages for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-18

    ... amount of fruit needed by the industry to be carried into the succeeding crop year to meet marketing... / Monday, June 18, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing... Percentages for the 2011-12 Crop Year for Tart Cherries AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA....

  1. 77 FR 12748 - Tart Cherries Grown in the States of Michigan, et al.; Final Free and Restricted Percentages for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-02

    ... amount of fruit needed by the industry to be carried into the succeeding crop year to meet marketing...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 930 Tart Cherries Grown in the States of...: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule invites comments on...

  2. Landing and Oviposition Responses of Rhagoletis indifferens (Dipt., Tephritidae) on Sweet Cherry Treated with Kaolin- and Limestone-Based Products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Kaolin- and limestone-based products were compared for their effects on landing and oviposition on sweet cherry by Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Dipt., Tephritidae). Surround (95% calcined kaolin), Cocoon (100% hydrous kaolin), Eclipse (>97% limestone), and Purshade (62.5% limestone) were studied....

  3. 33 CFR 334.430 - Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point, North Carolina; restricted area and danger zone. 334.430 Section... DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.430 Neuse River and tributaries at Marine Corps.... That portion of Neuse River within 500 feet of the shore along the reservation of the Marine Corps...

  4. Photoactivation mechanism of PAmCherry based on crystal structures of the protein in the dark and fluorescent states

    SciTech Connect

    Subach, Fedor V.; Malashkevich, Vladimir N.; Zencheck, Wendy D.; Xiao, Hui; Filonov, Grigory S.; Almo, Steven C.; Verkhusha, Vladislav V.

    2010-01-12

    Photoactivatable fluorescent proteins (PAFPs) are required for super-resolution imaging of live cells. Recently, the first red PAFP, PAmCherry1, was reported, which complements the photo-activatable GFP by providing a red super-resolution color. PAmCherry1 is originally 'dark' but exhibits red fluorescence after UV-violet light irradiation. To define the structural basis of PAmCherry1 photoactivation, we determined its crystal structure in the dark and red fluorescent states at 1.50 {angstrom} and 1.65 {angstrom}, respectively. The non-coplanar structure of the chromophore in the dark PAmChery1 suggests the presence of an N-acylimine functionality and a single non-oxidized C{alpha}-C{beta} bond in the Tyr-67 side chain in the cyclized Met-66-Tyr-67-Gly-68 tripeptide. MS data of the chromophore-bearing peptide indicates the loss of 20 Da upon maturation, whereas tandem MS reveals the C{alpha}-N bond in Met-66 is oxidized. These data indicate that PAmCherry1 in the dark state possesses the chromophore N-[(E)-(5-hydroxy-1H-imidazol-2-yl)methylidene]acetamide, which, to our knowledge, has not been previously observed in PAFPs. The photoactivated PAmCherry1 exhibits a non-coplanar anionic DsRed-like chromophore but in the trans configuration. Based on the crystallographic analysis, MS data, and biochemical analysis of the PAmCherry1 mutants, we propose the detailed photoactivation mechanism. In this mechanism, the excited-state PAmCherry1 chromophore acts as the oxidant to release CO{sub 2} molecule from Glu-215 via a Koble-like radical reaction. The Glu-215 decarboxylation directs the carbanion formation resulting in the oxidation of the Tyr-67 C{alpha}-C{beta} bond. The double bond extends the {pi}-conjugation between the phenolic ring of Tyr-67, the imidazolone, and the N-acylimine, resulting in the red fluorescent chromophore.

  5. Determination of feed value of cherry, apricot and almond tree leaves in ruminant using in situ method

    PubMed Central

    Nahand, M.K.; Doust-Nobar, R.S.; Maheri-Sis, N.; Mahmoudi, S.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, chemical composition and in situ rumen dry matter degradability (DMD) of some tree species (cherry, apricot and almond tree leaves) were determined. Crude protein (CP) concentration varied from 6.76% for almond tree to 2.76% for cherry tree, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and acid detergent fiber (ADF), from 29.2, 20.8% for apricot tree to 20.8 and 15.8% for almond tree leaves respectively. Polyphenol and tannin composition measured from 3.49, 1.2% for almond tree to 1.51 and 0.61% for apricot tree, respectively. In situ rumen degradability was carried out in three fistulaed Taleshi native male cattle which were incubated at times of 0, 4, 8, 16, 24, 48, 72 and 96-hour. Almond leaves had higher potential degradation (a+b) for dry matter (92.37%) and cherry leaves showed lower potential degradation (84.12%), respectively. Effective rumen degradable dry matter at rate of 0.05/h varied from 69.86% for almond tree to 52.20% for cherry leaves. Results showed that the almond leaves were higher in nutritive value than cherry and apricot leaves. Therefore, almond tree leaves could be used with forage in ruminant diets to reduce cost of animals feed requirements. Overall, it seemed that the tree leaves used in this study, had a higher nutritive value in ruminant’s nutrition, however more experiments are needed for an accurate determination of nutritional values of these resources. PMID:26623298

  6. Use of mCherry Red fluorescent protein for studies of protein localization and gene expression in Clostridium difficile.

    PubMed

    Ransom, Eric M; Ellermeier, Craig D; Weiss, David S

    2015-03-01

    Fluorescent proteins are powerful reporters in biology, but most require O2 for chromophore maturation, making them inherently difficult to use in anaerobic bacteria. Clostridium difficile, a strict anaerobe with a genomic GC content of only 29%, is the leading cause of hospital-acquired diarrhea in developed countries, and new methods for studying this pathogen are sorely needed. We recently demonstrated that a cyan fluorescent protein called CFPopt that has been codon optimized for production in low-GC bacteria can be used to study protein localization in C. difficile provided the cells are fixed prior to exposure to air. We describe here a codon-optimized variant of mCherry (mCherryOpt) that exhibits faster acquisition of fluorescence and a better signal-to-noise ratio than CFPopt. We utilized mCherryOpt to construct plasmids for studying protein localization (pRAN473) and gene expression (pDSW1728) in C. difficile. Plasmid pRAN473 is an mCherryOpt fusion vector with a tetracycline-inducible promoter. To document its biological utility, we demonstrated septal localization of two cell division proteins, MldA and ZapA. Plasmid pDSW1728 is designed for cloning a promoter of interest upstream of mCherryOpt. As proof of principle, we studied the expression of the pdaV operon, which is required for lysozyme resistance. In confirmation and extension of previous reports, we found that expression of the pdaV operon requires the alternative sigma factor σ(v) and that induction by lysozyme is dose dependent and uniform across the population of lysozyme-treated cells.

  7. Characterization of microsatellites in wild and sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.)--markers for individual identification and reproductive processes.

    PubMed

    Schueler, Silvio; Tusch, Alexandra; Schuster, Mirko; Ziegenhagen, Birgit

    2003-02-01

    Nuclear microsatellites were characterized in Prunus avium and validated as markers for individual and cultivar identification, as well as for studies of pollen- and seed-mediated gene flow. We used 20 primer pairs from a simple sequence repeat (SSR) library of Prunus persica and identified 7 loci harboring polymorphic microsatellite sequences in P. avium. In a natural population of 75 wild cherry trees, the number of alleles per locus ranged from 4 to 9 and expected heterozygosity from 0.39 to 0.77. The variability of the SSR markers allowed an unambiguous identification of individual trees and potential root suckers. Additionally, we analyzed 13 sweet cherry cultivars and differentiated 12 of them. An exclusion probability of 0.984 was calculated, which indicates that the seven loci are suitable markers for paternity analysis. The woody endocarp was successfully used for resolution of all microsatellite loci and exhibited the same multilocus genotype as the mother tree, as shown in a single seed progeny. Hence, SSR fingerprinting of the purely maternal endocarp was also successful in this Prunus species, allowing the identification of the mother tree of the dispersed seeds. The linkage of microsatellite loci with PCR-amplified alleles of the self-incompatibility locus was tested in two full-sib families of sweet cherry cultivars. From low recombination frequencies, we inferred that two loci are linked with the S locus. The present study provides markers that will significantly facilitate studies of spatial genetic variation and gene flow in wild cherry, as well as breeding programs in sweet cherry.

  8. Cell number regulator genes in Prunus provide candidate genes for the control of fruit size in sweet and sour cherry.

    PubMed

    De Franceschi, P; Stegmeir, T; Cabrera, A; van der Knaap, E; Rosyara, U R; Sebolt, A M; Dondini, L; Dirlewanger, E; Quero-Garcia, J; Campoy, J A; Iezzoni, A F

    2013-01-01

    Striking increases in fruit size distinguish cultivated descendants from small-fruited wild progenitors for fleshy fruited species such as Solanum lycopersicum (tomato) and Prunus spp. (peach, cherry, plum, and apricot). The first fruit weight gene identified as a result of domestication and selection was the tomato FW2.2 gene. Members of the FW2.2 gene family in corn (Zea mays) have been named CNR (Cell Number Regulator) and two of them exert their effect on organ size by modulating cell number. Due to the critical roles of FW2.2/CNR genes in regulating cell number and organ size, this family provides an excellent source of candidates for fruit size genes in other domesticated species, such as those found in the Prunus genus. A total of 23 FW2.2/CNR family members were identified in the peach genome, spanning the eight Prunus chromosomes. Two of these CNRs were located within confidence intervals of major quantitative trait loci (QTL) previously discovered on linkage groups 2 and 6 in sweet cherry (Prunus avium), named PavCNR12 and PavCNR20, respectively. An analysis of haplotype, sequence, segregation and association with fruit size strongly supports a role of PavCNR12 in the sweet cherry linkage group 2 fruit size QTL, and this QTL is also likely present in sour cherry (P. cerasus). The finding that the increase in fleshy fruit size in both tomato and cherry associated with domestication may be due to changes in members of a common ancestral gene family supports the notion that similar phenotypic changes exhibited by independently domesticated taxa may have a common genetic basis.

  9. Compositional changes in cell wall polysaccharides from five sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars during on-tree ripening.

    PubMed

    Basanta, María F; Ponce, Nora M A; Salum, María L; Raffo, María D; Vicente, Ariel R; Erra-Balsells, Rosa; Stortz, Carlos A

    2014-12-24

    Excessive softening is a major cause of postharvest deterioration during transportation and storage of fresh cherries. In continuing our studies to identify the factors determining the textural differences between sweet cherry fruit genotypes, we evaluated the solubilization, depolymerization, and monosaccharide composition of pectin and hemicelluloses from five sweet cherry cultivars ('Chelan', 'Sumele', 'Brooks', 'Sunburst', and 'Regina') with contrasting firmness and cracking susceptibility at two developmental stages (immature and ripe). In contrast to what is usually shown in most fruits, cherry softening could occur is some cultivars without marked increases in water-soluble pectin. Although polyuronide and hemicellulose depolymerization was observed in the water-soluble and dilute-alkali-soluble fractions, only moderate association occurs between initial polymer size and cultivar firmness. In all the genotypes the Na2CO3-soluble polysaccharides (NSF) represented the most abundant and dynamic wall fraction during ripening. Firm cultivars showed upon ripening a lower neutral sugars/uronic acid ratio in the NSF, suggesting that they have a lower proportion of highly branched polyuronides. The similar molar ratios of arabinose plus galactose to rhamnose [(Ara+Gal)/Rha] suggest that the cultivars differed in their relative proportion of homogalacturonan (HG) and rhamnogalacturonan I (RG-I) rather than in the size of the RG side chains; with greater proportions of HG in firmer cherries. Ultraviolet matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry was useful to identify the depolymerization patterns of weakly bound pectins, but gave less accurate results on ionically bound pectins, and was unable to find any pattern on covalently bound pectins.

  10. Are commercial sweet cherry rootstocks adapted to climate change? Short-term waterlogging and CO2 effects on sweet cherry cv. 'Burlat'.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jiménez, Margarita; Hernández-Munuera, María; Piñero, M Carmen; López-Ortega, Gregorio; Del Amor, Francisco M

    2017-01-20

    High CO2 is able to ameliorate some negative effects due to climate change and intensify others. This study involves the sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivar 'Burlat' grafted on the 'Mariana 2624', 'Adara' and 'LC 52' rootstocks. In a climate chamber at two CO2 concentrations, ambient (400 µmol mol(-1) ) and elevated (800 µmol mol(-1) ), the plants were submitted to waterlogging for 7 d, followed by 7 d of recovery after drainage. Waterlogging drastically decreased the rate of photosynthesis, significantly endangering plant survival, particularly for the 'LC 52' and 'Adara' rootstocks. 'Mariana 2624' was also clearly affected by waterlogging that increased lipid peroxidation and the Cl(-) and SO4(2-) concentrations in all the studied plants. Nevertheless, CO2 was able to overcome this reduction in photosynthesis, augmenting growth, increasing soluble sugars and starch, raising turgor and regulating the concentrations of Cl(-) and SO4(2-) , while lowering the NO3(-) concentration in leaves of all the studied rootstocks. In concordance with these results, the proline levels indicated a more intense stress at control CO2 than at high CO2 for waterlogged plants. 'Mariana 2624' was more resistant to waterlogging than 'Adara', and both were more resistant than 'LC 52' in control CO2 conditions; this clearly enhanced the chance of survival under hypoxia.

  11. Development of negative feedback during successive growth cycles of black cherry.

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Alissa; Clay, Keith

    2004-01-01

    Negative feedback between plant and soil microbial communities can be a key determinant of vegetation structure and dynamics. Previous research has shown that negative feedback between black cherry (Prunus serotina) and soil pathogens is strongly distance dependent. Here, we investigate the temporal dynamics of negative feedback. To examine short-term changes, we planted successive cycles of seedlings in the same soil. We found that seedling mortality increased steadily with growth cycle when sterile background soil was inoculated with living field soil but not in controls inoculated with sterilized field soil. To examine long-term changes, we quantified negative feedback across successive growth cycles in soil inoculated with living field soil from a mature forest system (more than 70 years old) versus a younger successional site (ca. 25 years old). In both cases negative feedback developed similarly. Our results suggest that negative feedback can develop very quickly in forest systems, at the spatial scale of a single seedling. PMID:15058444

  12. Novel duck parvovirus identified in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus), China.

    PubMed

    Li, Chuanfeng; Li, Qi; Chen, Zongyan; Liu, Guangqing

    2016-10-01

    An unknown infectious disease in Cherry Valley ducks (Anas platyrhynchos domesticus) characterized by short beak and strong growth retardation occurred in China during 2015. The causative agent of this disease, tentatively named duck short beak and dwarfism syndrome (DSBDS), as well as the evolutionary relationships between this causative agent and all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses were clarified by virus isolation, transmission electron microscope (TEM) observation, analysis of nuclear acid type, (RT-)PCR identification, whole genome sequencing, and NS1 protein sequences-based phylogenetic analyses. The results indicated that the causative agent of DSBDS is closely related with the goose parvovirus-like virus, which is divergent from all currently known avian-origin parvoviruses and should be a novel duck parvovirus (NDPV).

  13. Growth and photosynthesis of Japanese flowering cherry under simulated microgravity conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sugano, Mami; Ino, Yoshio; Nakamura, Teruko

    2002-01-01

    The photosynthetic rate, the leaf characteristics related to photosynthesis, such as the chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a/b ratio and density of the stomata, the leaf area and the dry weight in seedlings of Japanese flowering cherry grown under normal gravity and simulated microgravity conditions were examined. No significant differences were found in the photosynthetic rates between the two conditions. Moreover, leaf characteristics such as the chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a/b ratio and density of the stomata in the seedlings grown under the simulated microgravity condition were not affected. However, the photosynthetic product of the whole seedling under the simulated microgravity condition increased compared with the control due to its leaf area increase. The results suggest that dynamic gravitational stimulus controls the partitioning of the products of photosynthesis.

  14. Hydrothermal liquefaction of cornelian cherry stones for bio-oil production.

    PubMed

    Akalın, Mehmet K; Tekin, Kubilay; Karagöz, Selhan

    2012-04-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction of cornelian cherry stones, fruit processing wastes, was performed at 200, 250 and 300°C with residence times of 0, 15, and 30min. The highest total bio-oil yield was obtained at both 250 and 300°C for the shortest residence time (0min) and found to be 28wt.%.ca. The solid residue yields were reduced as both the hydrothermal liquefaction temperature and the holding time was increased. The highest heating values of LBO and HBO were estimated to be 23.86 and 28.35MJkg(-1), respectively. The major compounds identified in the LBOs were furfurals, phenols, acetic acid and vanillin. The major components of the HBOs contained furfurals, phenols and fatty acids. Among major identified compounds in the HBOs, the relative concentration of Linoleic acid was the highest both at 250 and 300°C.

  15. Development of deficit irrigation scheduling strategies for 'Prime Giant' sweet cherry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blanco, Víctor; Domingo, Rafael; Torres, Roque; Pérez Pastor, Alejandro; García, Manuel; López, Juan Antonio

    2016-04-01

    Precision regulated deficit irrigation scheduling is useful for improving water productivity and ensuring crop production sustainability. This form of water management requires continuous monitoring in order to know soil and/or plant water status at all times. Water status sensors are key tools for modulating irrigation water amounts. The objective of this work was to study the physiological and agronomic response of cherry trees to different irrigation treatments based on crop evapotranspiration (ETc). However, the final purpose was to establish threshold values of water stress indicators, which can be considered of practical applicability in automatic irrigation scheduling. The experiment was carried out in 2015 in a 0.5 ha commercial plot of 'Prime Giant' cherry [Prunus avium (L.)] in SE Spain. Three treatments were studied i) T110, irrigated above the maximum crop water requirements (110% of ETc), ii) T85, sustained deficit irrigation, irrigated to satisfy 85% of ETc, throughout the growing season, and iii) T100-55, regulated deficit irrigation with different water deficit levels: 100% and 55% of ETc during pre- and postharvest, respectively. Each treatment was randomly distributed in blocks and run in triplicate. Soil and plant water status were assessed from the soil matric potential and volumetric water content (Ym and Ov), midday stem and fruit water potential (Ys and Yf), maximum daily trunk shrinkage (MDS), daily trunk growth rate (TGR), stomatal conductance (gs), photosynthesis (Pn) and transpiration rates (E). Vegetative growth, yield and the quality of the fruit were also evaluated. Ys and MDS signal intensity were used as the main indicators of water stress. The water applied during the 2015 growing season was 7190, 5425 and 4225 m3 ha-1 for T110, T85 and T100-55, respectively. The mean values of Ys during pre- and postharvest were -0.51, -0.57, -0.54 and -0.65, -0.77 and -0.97 MPa in T110, T85 and T100-55, respectively, while Yf was -1.20, -1.36, -1

  16. Growth and photosynthesis of Japanese flowering cherry under simulated microgravity conditions.

    PubMed

    Sugano, Mami; Ino, Yoshio; Nakamura, Teruko

    2002-12-01

    The photosynthetic rate, the leaf characteristics related to photosynthesis, such as the chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a/b ratio and density of the stomata, the leaf area and the dry weight in seedlings of Japanese flowering cherry grown under normal gravity and simulated microgravity conditions were examined. No significant differences were found in the photosynthetic rates between the two conditions. Moreover, leaf characteristics such as the chlorophyll content, chlorophyll a/b ratio and density of the stomata in the seedlings grown under the simulated microgravity condition were not affected. However, the photosynthetic product of the whole seedling under the simulated microgravity condition increased compared with the control due to its leaf area increase. The results suggest that dynamic gravitational stimulus controls the partitioning of the products of photosynthesis.

  17. Cyclooxygenase active bioflavonoids from Balaton tart cherry and their structure activity relationships.

    PubMed

    Wang, H; Nair, M G; Strasburg, G M; Booren, A M; Gray, I; Dewitt, D L

    2000-03-01

    Several flavonoids and isoflavonoids isolated from Balaton tart cherry were assayed for prostaglandin H endoperoxide synthase (PGHS-1) enzyme or cyclooxygenase isoform-1 (COX-1) activity. Genistein showed the highest COX-1 inhibitory activity among the isoflavonoids studied, with an IC50 value of 80 microM. Kaempferol gave the highest COX-1 inhibitory activity among the flavonoids tested, with an IC50 value of 180 microM. The structure-activity relationships of flavonoids and isoflavonoids revealed that hydroxyl groups at C4', C5 and C7 in isoflavonoids were essential for appreciable COX-1 inhibitory activity. Also, the C2-C3 double bond in flavonoids is important for COX-1 inhibitory activity. However, a hydroxyl group at the position decreased COX-1 inhibitory activity by flavonoids.

  18. Engineering cherry rootstocks with resistance to Prunus necrotic ring spot virus through RNAi-mediated silencing.

    PubMed

    Song, Guo-qing; Sink, Kenneth C; Walworth, Aaron E; Cook, Meridith A; Allison, Richard F; Lang, Gregory A

    2013-08-01

    Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV) is a major pollen-disseminated ilarvirus that adversely affects many Prunus species. In this study, an RNA interference (RNAi) vector pART27-PNRSV containing an inverted repeat (IR) region of PNRSV was transformed into two hybrid (triploid) cherry rootstocks, 'Gisela 6' (GI 148-1) and 'Gisela 7'(GI 148-8)', which are tolerant and sensitive, respectively, to PNRSV infection. One year after inoculation with PNRSV plus Prune Dwarf Virus, nontransgenic 'Gisela 6' exhibited no symptoms but a significant PNRSV titre, while the transgenic 'Gisela 6' had no symptoms and minimal PNRSV titre. The nontransgenic 'Gisela 7' trees died, while the transgenic 'Gisela 7' trees survived. These results demonstrate the RNAi strategy is useful for developing viral resistance in fruit rootstocks, and such transgenic rootstocks may have potential to enhance production of standard, nongenetically modified fruit varieties while avoiding concerns about transgene flow and exogenous protein production that are inherent for transformed fruiting genotypes.

  19. Open Cherry Picker simulation results. [manned platform for satellite servicing from Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nathan, C. A.

    1982-01-01

    The Open Cherry Picker (OCP) is a manned platform, mounted at the end of the Remote Manipulator System (RMS), which is used to enhance extravehicular activities. The objective of the simulation program described was to reduce the existing complexity of those OCP design features that are mandatory for initial Space Shuttle applications. The OCP development test article consists of a torque box, a rotating foot restraint, a rotating stanchion that houses handholds, and a tool storage section with an interface with payload modules. If the size or complexity of the payload increases, payload handling devices may be added at a later data. The simulations have shown that the crew can control the RMS from the Aft Flight Deck of the Shuttle, using voice commands from the EVA crewman. No need for a stabilizer was evident, and RMS dynamics due to crew-induced workloads were found to be minor.

  20. Recovery facilitation with Montmorency cherries following high-intensity, metabolically challenging exercise.

    PubMed

    Bell, Phillip G; Walshe, Ian H; Davison, Gareth W; Stevenson, Emma J; Howatson, Glyn

    2015-04-01

    The impact of Montmorency tart cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) concentrate (MC) on physiological indices and functional performance was examined following a bout of high-intensity stochastic cycling. Trained cyclists (n = 16) were equally divided into 2 groups (MC or isoenergetic placebo (PLA)) and consumed 30 mL of supplement, twice per day for 8 consecutive days. On the fifth day of supplementation, participants completed a 109-min cycling trial designed to replicate road race demands. Functional performance (maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), cycling efficiency, 6-s peak cycling power) and delayed onset muscle soreness were assessed at baseline, 24, 48, and 72 h post-trial. Blood samples collected at baseline, immediately pre- and post-trial, and at 1, 3, 5, 24, 48, and 72 h post-trial were analysed for indices of inflammation (interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor alpha, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP)), oxidative stress (lipid hydroperoxides), and muscle damage (creatine kinase). MVIC (P < 0.05) did not decline in the MC group (vs. PLA) across the 72-h post-trial period and economy (P < 0.05) was improved in the MC group at 24 h. IL-6 (P < 0.001) and hsCRP (P < 0.05) responses to the trial were attenuated with MC (vs. PLA). No other blood markers were significantly different between MC and PLA groups. The results of the study suggest that Montmorency cherry concentrate can be an efficacious functional food for accelerating recovery and reducing exercise-induced inflammation following strenuous cycling exercise.

  1. Metabolism of the seed and endocarp of cherry (Prunus avium L.) during development.

    PubMed

    Walker, Robert P; Battistelli, Alberto; Moscatello, Stefano; Chen, Zhi-Hui; Leegood, Richard C; Famiani, Franco

    2011-08-01

    In this study some aspects of organic and amino acid metabolism in cherry endocarp and seed were investigated during their development. The abundance and location of a number of enzymes involved in these processes were investigated. These enzymes were aspartate aminotransferase (AspAT; EC:2.6.1.1), glutamine synthetase (GS; EC:6.3.1.2), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC; EC:4.1.1.31), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK; EC:4.1.1.49), and ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco; EC:4.1.1.39). There was a transient and massive accumulation of vegetative storage proteins in the endocarp. These proteins were remobilised as the endocarp lignified and at the same time that proteins were accumulated in the seed. This raised the possibility that a proportion of imported amino acids were temporarily stored in the endocarp as protein, and that these were later utilised by the seed when it started to accumulate storage proteins. Rubisco was present in the embryo and integuments of the seed although no chlorophyll was present. This is the first time that Rubisco has been detected in non-green seeds. The maximum abundance of Rubisco in the seed coincided with the deposition of seed storage proteins. A possible function for Rubisco in cherry seed is discussed. PEPCK was located in the integuments and appeared when seed storage proteins were being accumulated. In the integuments and embryo AspAT, GS, PEPC and Rubisco also appeared, or greatly increased in abundance, when seed storage proteins were being deposited.

  2. Viroid-like RNAs from cherry trees affected by leaf scorch disease: further data supporting their association with mycoviral double-stranded RNAs.

    PubMed

    Minoia, S; Navarro, B; Covelli, L; Barone, M; García-Becedas, M T; Ragozzino, A; Alioto, D; Flores, R; Di Serio, F

    2014-03-01

    Cherry trees from Spain affected by cherry leaf scorch (CLS), a fungal disease proposed to be caused by Apiognomonia erythrostoma, show symptoms (translucent-chlorotic leaf spots evolving into rusty areas) very similar to those of cherry chlorotic rusty spot disease (CCRS) and Amasya cherry disease, reported in Italy and Turkey, respectively. The three maladies are closely associated with 10-12 double-stranded viral RNAs, and CCRS is additionally associated with two cherry small circular RNAs (cscRNA1 and cscRNA2). Here, we report that a small viroid-like RNA similar to the CCRS-associated cscRNA1 is also present in CLS-affected trees, thus extending the link between the two diseases. Both CLS and CCRS cscRNA1 elements have common features, including sequence identity (88 %), a predicted quasi rod-like conformation with short bifurcations at both termini, and the presence of hammerhead ribozymes in the strands of both polarities. However, cscRNA2, apparently derived from cscRNA1 by deletion of a short hairpin, was not detected in CLS-affected material. Although the biological nature of cscRNAs is unknown, the identification of at least cscRNA1 in different cherry cultivars and in two distinct geographic areas (Spain and Italy), always in close association with the same mycoviral dsRNAs, supports that these viroid-like RNAs could be satellite RNAs.

  3. Viroid-like RNAs from cherry trees affected by leaf scorch disease: further data supporting their association with mycoviral double-stranded RNAs.

    PubMed

    Minoia, S; Navarro, B; Covelli, L; Barone, M; García-Becedas, M T; Ragozzino, A; Alioto, D; Flores, R; Di Serio, F

    2014-03-01

    Cherry trees from Spain affected by cherry leaf scorch (CLS), a fungal disease proposed to be caused by Apiognomonia erythrostoma, show symptoms (translucent-chlorotic leaf spots evolving into rusty areas) very similar to those of cherry chlorotic rusty spot disease (CCRS) and Amasya cherry disease, reported in Italy and Turkey, respectively. The three maladies are closely associated with 10-12 double-stranded viral RNAs, and CCRS is additionally associated with two cherry small circular RNAs (cscRNA1 and cscRNA2). Here, we report that a small viroid-like RNA similar to the CCRS-associated cscRNA1 is also present in CLS-affected trees, thus extending the link between the two diseases. Both CLS and CCRS cscRNA1 elements have common features, including sequence identity (88%), a predicted quasi rod-like conformation with short bifurcations at both termini, and the presence of hammerhead ribozymes in the strands of both polarities. However, cscRNA2, apparently derived from cscRNA1 by deletion of a short hairpin, was not detected in CLS-affected material. Although the biological nature of cscRNAs is unknown, the identification of at least cscRNA1 in different cherry cultivars and in two distinct geographic areas (Spain and Italy), always in close association with the same mycoviral dsRNAs, supports that these viroid-like RNAs could be satellite RNAs.

  4. Polyphenolic compounds as chemical markers of wine ageing in contact with cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood.

    PubMed

    Fernández de Simón, B; Sanz, M; Cadahía, E; Martínez, J; Esteruelas, E; Muñoz, A M

    2014-01-15

    The nonanthocyanic phenolic composition of four red wines, one white, and one rosé aged using barrels and chips of cherry, chestnut, false acacia, ash and oak wood was studied by LC-DAD-ESI/MS, to identify the phenolic compounds that woods other than oak contribute to wines, and if some of them can be used as chemical markers of ageing with them. A total of 68 nonanthocyanic phenolic compounds were identified, 15 found only in wines aged with acacia wood, 6 with cherry wood, and 1 with chestnut wood. Thus, the nonanthocyanic phenolic profile could be a useful tool to identify wines aged in contact with these woods. In addition, some differences in the nonanthocyanic phenolic composition of wines were detected related to both the levels of compounds provided by each wood species and the different evolution of flavonols and flavanols in wines during ageing in barrels or in contact with chips.

  5. A multivariate statistical analysis coming from the NMR metabolic profile of cherry tomatoes (The Sicilian Pachino case)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallamace, Domenico; Corsaro, Carmelo; Salvo, Andrea; Cicero, Nicola; Macaluso, Andrea; Giangrosso, Giuseppe; Ferrantelli, Vincenzo; Dugo, Giacomo

    2014-05-01

    We have studied by means of High Resolution Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance the metabolic profile of the famous Sicilian cherry tomato of Pachino. Thanks to its organoleptic and healthy properties, this particular foodstuff was the first tomato accredited by the European PGI (Protected Geographical Indication) certification of quality. Due to the relatively high price of the final product commercial frauds originated in the Italian and international markets. Hence, there is a growing interest to develop analytical techniques able to predict the origin of a tomato sample, indicating whether or not it originates from the area of Pachino, Sicily (Italy). In this paper we have determined the molar concentration of the metabolites constituent the PGI cherry tomato of Pachino. Furthermore, by means of a multivariate statistical analysis we have identified which metabolites are relevant for sample differentiation.

  6. Cherry blossom phenological data since the seventeenth century for Edo (Tokyo), Japan, and their application to estimation of March temperatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aono, Yasuyuki

    2015-04-01

    The changes in March mean temperatures in Edo (Tokyo), Japan, since the seventeenth century, were reconstructed using phenological data for the cherry blossoms of Prunus jamasakura deduced from old diaries and chronicles. The observations of the time of full blossoming and of cherry blossom viewing parties were acquired and used to construct a full-blossoming phenological data series for P. jamasakura. Phenological data from 207 of the years from 1601 to 1905 were used for this study. The reconstructed temperatures suggested the existence of two cold periods (the second half of the seventeenth century and the beginning of the nineteenth century), during which times the estimated March mean temperatures were about 4 °C and 5 °C, respectively. These two cold periods at Edo coincided with those reconstructed at Kyoto in previous studies. These cold periods coincided with two less extreme periods, the Maunder and Dalton minima, in the long-term solar variation cycle.

  7. Linking hormonal profiles with variations in sugar and anthocyanin contents during the natural development and ripening of sweet cherries.

    PubMed

    Teribia, Natalia; Tijero, Verónica; Munné-Bosch, Sergi

    2016-12-25

    Sweet cherries are highly appreciated by consumers worldwide and are usually cold-stored during postharvest to prevent over-ripening before distribution to the market. Sweet cherry is a non-climacteric fruit, for which ripening is known to be regulated by abscisic acid. Here we aimed to examine the hormone profiles, including measurements of abscisic acid, auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins by ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS), in relation to variations in sugar and anthocyanin contents, during growth and ripening of this fruit. Hormonal profiling revealed that indole-3-acetic acid, GA1 and trans-zeatin levels decreased at early stages of fruit development, while GA3 levels decreased at early stages but also later, once anthocyanin accumulation started. Conversely, abscisic acid levels rose significantly once the fruit started to synthetize anthocyanins, and isopentenyladenosine levels also increased during the ripening of sweet cherries. A strong negative correlation was found between GA4 levels and both fruit biomass and anthocyanin levels, and between the levels of trans-zeatin and both fruit biomass and total sugar contents. In contrast, abscisic acid and isopentenyladenosine levels correlated positively with fruit biomass, anthocyanin and total soluble sugar content. Results suggest that auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins may act coordinately with abscisic acid in the regulation of sweet cherry development and ripening. Furthermore, it is shown that hormonal profile measurements by UHPLC-MS/MS may be a helpful tool to elucidate the timing of action of each specific hormonal compound during ripening, which has important applications in the agri-food biotechnological sector.

  8. Integration of ozonation and an anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (AnSBR) for the treatment of cherry stillage.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Pedro M; Beltrán, Fernando J; Rodríguez, Eva M

    2005-01-01

    Cherry stillage is a high strength organic wastewater arising from the manufacture of alcoholic products by distillation of fermented cherries. It is made up of biorefractory polyphenols in addition to readily biodegradable organic matter. An anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (AnSBR) was used to treat cherry stillage at influent COD ranging from 5 to 50 g/L. Different cycle times were selected to test biomass organic loading rates (OLR(B)), from 0.3 to 1.2 g COD/g VSS.d. COD and TOC efficiency removals higher than 80% were achieved at influent COD up to 28.5 g/L but minimum OLR(B) tested. However, as a result of the temporary inhibition of acetogens and methanogens, volatile fatty acids (VFA) noticeably accumulated and methane production came to a transient standstill when operating at influent COD higher than 10 g/L. At these conditions, the AnSBR showed signs of instability and could not operate efficiently at OLR(B) higher than 0.3 g COD/g VSS.d. A feasible explanation for this inhibition is the presence of toxic polyphenols in cherry stillage. Thus, an ozonation step prior to the AnSBR was observed to be useful, since more than 75% of polyphenols could be removed by ozone. The integrated process was shown to be a suitable treatment technology as the following advantages compared to the single AnSBR treatment were observed: greater polyphenols and color removals, higher COD and TOC removal rates thus enabling the process to effectively operate at higher OLR, higher degree of biomethanation, and good stability with less risk of acidification.

  9. Complete Genomic Characterization of Plum bark necrosis stem pitting–associated virus Infecting Sweet Cherry in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiawei; Zhai, Ying; Liu, Weizhen; Zhu, Dongzi

    2016-01-01

    Plum bark necrosis stem pitting–associated virus (PBNSPaV) causes the plum bark necrosis stem pitting–associated disease. We obtained the complete genome of a PBNSPaV isolate (PBNSPaV-TA) using small RNA deep sequencing followed by overlapping RT-PCR. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a completed genome of PBNSPaV identified from cherry trees. PMID:27198034

  10. Development of microsatellite markers in peach [ Prunus persica (L.) Batsch] and their use in genetic diversity analysis in peach and sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L.).

    PubMed

    Dirlewanger, E.; Cosson, P.; Tavaud, M.; Aranzana, J.; Poizat, C.; Zanetto, A.; Arús, P.; Laigret, F.

    2002-07-01

    We report the sequence of 41 primer pairs of microsatellites from a CT-enriched genomic library of the peach cultivar 'Merrill O'Henry'. Ten microsatellite-containing clones had sequences similar to plant coding sequences in databases and could be used as markers for known functions. For microsatellites segregating at least in one of the two Prunus F(2) progenies analyzed, it was possible to demonstrate Mendelian inheritance. Microsatellite polymorphism was evaluated in 27 peach and 21 sweet cherry cultivars. All primer pairs gave PCR-amplification products on peach and 33 on cherry (80.5%). Six PCR-amplifications revealed several loci (14.6%) in peach and eight (19.5%) in sweet cherry. Among the 33 single-locus microsatellites amplified in peach and sweet cherry, 13 revealed polymorphism both in peach and cherry, 19 were polymorphic only on peach and one was polymorphic only on cherry. The number of alleles per locus ranged from 1 to 9 for peach and from 1 to 6 on sweet cherry with an average of 4.2 and 2.8 in peach and sweet cherry, respectively. Cross-species amplification was tested within the Prunus species: Prunus avium L. (sweet cherry and mazzard), Prunus cerasus L. (sour cherry), Prunus domestica L. (European plum), Prunus amygdalus Batsch. (almond), Prunus armeniaca L. (apricot), Prunus cerasifera Ehrh. (Myrobalan plum). Plants from other genera of the Rosaceae were also tested: Malus (apple) and Fragaria (strawberry), as well as species not belonging to the Rosaceae: Castanea (chestnut tree), Juglans (walnut tree) and Vitis (grapevine). Six microsatellites gave amplification on all the tested species. Among them, one had an amplified region homologous to sequences encoding a MADS-box protein in Malus x domestica. Twelve microsatellites (29.3%) were amplified in all the Rosaceae species tested and 31 (75.6%) were amplified in all the six Prunus species tested. Thirty three (80.5%), 18 (43.9%) and 13 (31.7%) gave amplification on chestnut tree, grapevine

  11. Physiological and biochemical changes relating to postharvest splitting of sweet cherries affected by calcium application in hydrocooling water.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan; Long, Lynn E

    2015-08-15

    Hydrocooling sweet cherries shortly after harvest (4h) and then transporting fruit in cold flume water during packing are used to maximize postharvest quality, but can cause fruit splitting. This study demonstrated that cherry fruit (two splitting-susceptible cultivars) absorbed Ca in a quadratic polynomial manner with increasing CaCl2 concentration from 0.2% to 2.0% in cold water (0°C) for 5 min, but did not take up Cl. The enhanced tissue Ca content reduced splitting potential by decreasing fruit soluble pectin release and increasing the splitting threshold. In contrast, depleting Ca from fruit tissue by EDTA or low pH, increased soluble pectin release and splitting potential. In a simulated commercial procedure, hydrocooling cherry fruit in appropriate CaCl2 solutions (i.e., 0.2-0.5%) for 5 min and then passing the fruit in cold flume water for 15 min increased fruit firmness, retarded losses in ascorbic acid, titratable acidity, and skin color, and reduced splitting and decay following 4 weeks of cold storage.

  12. Agronomic properties of wastewater sludge biochar and bioavailability of metals in production of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum).

    PubMed

    Hossain, Mustafa K; Strezov, Vladimir; Chan, K Yin; Nelson, Peter F

    2010-02-01

    This work presents agronomic values of a biochar produced from wastewater sludge through pyrolysis at a temperature of 550 degrees C. In order to investigate and quantify effects of wastewater sludge biochar on soil quality, growth, yield and bioavailability of metals in cherry tomatoes, pot experiments were carried out in a temperature controlled environment and under four different treatments consisting of control soil, soil with biochar; soil with biochar and fertiliser, and soil with fertiliser only. The soil used was chromosol and the applied wastewater sludge biochar was 10tha(-1). The results showed that the application of biochar improves the production of cherry tomatoes by 64% above the control soil conditions. The ability of biochar to increase the yield was attributed to the combined effect of increased nutrient availability (P and N) and improved soil chemical conditions upon amendment. The yield of cherry tomato production was found to be at its maximum when biochar was applied in combination with the fertiliser. Application of biochar was also found to significantly increase the soil electrical conductivity as well as phosphorus and nitrogen contents. Bioavailability of metals present in the biochar was found to be below the Australian maximum permitted concentrations for food.

  13. Postharvest sour cherry quality and safety maintenance by exposure to Hot- water or treatment with fresh Aloe vera gel.

    PubMed

    Ravanfar, Rahele; Niakousari, Mehrdad; Maftoonazad, Neda

    2014-10-01

    Iranian sour cherries (Prunus cerasus) were coated with fresh Aloe vera gel or treated with hot water (40 ± 2 °C) for 2 min and stored for 17 days at 4 ± 1 °C. The physicochemical characteristics of gel coated and hot water treated samples were compared with untreated fruit during the cold storage period. Untreated fruit showed increased respiration rate, rapid weight loss and colour change, accelerated aging and ripening. On the contrary, sour cherries, particularly those coated with gel significantly delayed the above mentioned parameters allowing a fruit storability extension. The sensory analysis in both treatments revealed beneficial effects in terms of delaying dehydration, maintenance of fruit visual aspect without any detrimental effect on taste, aroma or flavours. Consequently, Aloe vera gel coating and immersion in hot water maintained the properties during postharvest storage of sour cherries and could be introduced as two valuable, simple and non-contaminating treatments.

  14. Evaluation of different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains on the profile of volatile compounds and polyphenols in cherry wines.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shu Yang; Jiang, Wen Guang; Zhao, Yu Ping

    2011-07-15

    Tart cherries of 'Early Richmond', widely grown in Shandong (China), were fermented with six different Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (BM4×4, RA17, RC212, D254, D21 and GRE) to elucidate their influence on the production of volatiles and polyphenols. Acetic acid and 3-methylbutanol were found in the highest concentrations among all identified volatiles with all six yeast strains, followed by 2-methylpropanol and ethyl lactate. RA17 and GRE cherry wines were characterised by a higher amount of esters and acids. D254 wine contained a higher concentration of alcohols. With respect to polyphenols, five phenolic acids and four anthocyanins were identified among all tested samples, with chlorogenic and neochlorogenic acids, cyanidin 3-glucosylrutinoside and cyanidin 3-rutinoside being the major compounds. When using principal component analysis to classify the cherry wines according to the volatiles and polyphenols, they were divided into three groups: (1) RA17 and GRE, (2) RC212 and D254 and (3) BM4×4 and D21.

  15. Characterization and mapping of non-S gametophytic self-compatibility in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.).

    PubMed

    Cachi, A M; Wünsch, A

    2011-03-01

    Self-incompatibility in Prunus (Rosaceae) species, such as sweet cherry, is controlled by a multiallelic locus (S), in which two tightly linked genes, S-RNase and SFB (S haplotype-specific F-box), determine the specificity of the pollen and the style. Fertilization in these species occurs only if the S-specificities expressed in the pollen and the pistils are different. However, modifier genes have been proposed to be necessary for a full manifestation of the self-incompatibility response. 'Cristobalina' is a spontaneous self-compatible sweet cherry cultivar that originated in Eastern Spain. Previous studies with this genotype suggested that pollen modifier gene(s), not linked to the S-locus, may be the cause of self-incompatibility breakdown. In this work, an F(1) population from 'Cristobalina' that segregates for this trait was used to identify molecular markers linked to self-compatibility by bulked segregant analysis. One simple sequence repeat (SSR) locus (EMPaS02) was found to be linked to self-compatibility in this population at 3.2 cM. Two additional populations derived from 'Cristobalina' were used to confirm the linkage of this marker to self-compatibility. Since EMPaS02 has been mapped to the sweet cherry linkage group 3, other markers located on the same linkage group were analysed in these populations to confirm the location of the self-compatibility locus.

  16. Inheritance of hetero-diploid pollen S-haplotype in self-compatible tetraploid Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus Lindl).

    PubMed

    Gu, Chao; Liu, Qing-Zhong; Yang, Ya-Nan; Zhang, Shu-Jun; Khan, Muhammad Awais; Wu, Jun; Zhang, Shao-Ling

    2013-01-01

    The breakdown of self-incompatibility, which could result from the accumulation of non-functional S-haplotypes or competitive interaction between two different functional S-haplotypes, has been studied extensively at the molecular level in tetraploid Rosaceae species. In this study, two tetraploid Chinese cherry (Prunus pseudocerasus) cultivars and one diploid sweet cherry (Prunus avium) cultivar were used to investigate the ploidy of pollen grains and inheritance of pollen-S alleles. Genetic analysis of the S-genotypes of two intercross-pollinated progenies showed that the pollen grains derived from Chinese cherry cultivars were hetero-diploid, and that the two S-haplotypes were made up of every combination of two of the four possible S-haplotypes. Moreover, the distributions of single S-haplotypes expressed in self- and intercross-pollinated progenies were in disequilibrium. The number of individuals of the two different S-haplotypes was unequal in two self-pollinated and two intercross-pollinated progenies. Notably, the number of individuals containing two different S-haplotypes (S1- and S5-, S5- and S8-, S1- and S4-haplotype) was larger than that of other individuals in the two self-pollinated progenies, indicating that some of these hetero-diploid pollen grains may have the capability to inactivate stylar S-RNase inside the pollen tube and grow better into the ovaries.

  17. A 280-Year Long Series of Phenological Observations of Cherry Tree Blossoming Dates for Switzerland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rutishauser, T.; Luterbacher, J.; Wanner, H.

    2003-04-01

    Phenology is generally described as the timing of life cycle phases or activities of plants and animals in their temporal occurrence throughout the year (Lieth 1974). Recent studies have shown that meteorological and climatological impacts leave their 'fingerprints' across natural systems in general and strongly influence the seasonal activities of single animal and plant species. During the 20th century, phenological observation networks have been established around the world to document and analyze the influence of the globally changing climate to plants and wildlife. This work presents a first attempt of a unique 280-year long series of phenological observations of cherry tree blossoming dates for the Swiss plateau region. In Switzerland, a nation-wide phenological observation network has been established in 1951 currently documenting 69 phenophases of 26 different plant species. A guidebook seeks to increase objectiveness in the network observations. The observations of the blooming of the cherry tree (prunus avium) were chosen to calculate a mean series for the Swiss plateau region with observations from altitudes ranging between 370 and 860 asl. A total number of 737 observations from 21 stations were used. A linear regression was established between the mean blooming date and altitude in order to correct the data to a reference altitude level. Other ecological parameters were unaccounted for. The selected network data series from 1951 to 2000 was combined and prolonged with observations from various sources back to 1721. These include several historical observation series by farmers, clergymen and teachers, data from various stations collected at the newly established Swiss meteorological network from 1864 to 1873 and the single long series of observations from Liestal starting in 1894. The homogenized time series of observations will be compared with reconstructions of late winter temperatures as well as statistical estimations of blooming time based on

  18. Cherry Valley Ducks Mitochondrial Antiviral-Signaling Protein-Mediated Signaling Pathway and Antiviral Activity Research

    PubMed Central

    Li, Ning; Hong, Tianqi; Li, Rong; Wang, Yao; Guo, Mengjiao; Cao, Zongxi; Cai, Yumei; Liu, Sidang; Chai, Tongjie; Wei, Liangmeng

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial antiviral-signaling protein (MAVS), an adaptor protein of retinoic acid-inducible gene I (RIG-I)-like receptors (RLRs)-mediated signal pathway, is involved in innate immunity. In this study, Cherry Valley duck MAVS (duMAVS) was cloned from the spleen and analyzed. duMAVS was determined to have a caspase activation and recruitment domain at N-terminal, followed by a proline-rich domain and a transmembrane domain at C-terminal. Quantitative real-time PCR indicated that duMAVS was expressed in all tissues tested across a broad expression spectrum. The expression of duMAVS was significantly upregulated after infection with duck Tembusu virus (DTMUV). Overexpression of duMAVS could drive the activation of interferon (IFN)-β, nuclear factor-κB, interferon regulatory factor 7, and many downstream factors (such as Mx, PKR, OAS, and IL-8) in duck embryo fibroblast cells. What is more, RNA interference further confirmed that duMAVS was an important adaptor for IFN-β activation. The antiviral assay showed that duMAVS could suppress the various viral replications (DTMUV, novel reovirus, and duck plague virus) at early stages of infection. Overall, these results showed that the main signal pathway mediated by duMAVS and it had a broad-spectrum antiviral ability. This research will be helpful to better understanding the innate immune system of ducks. PMID:27708647

  19. Development of the Potential for Cyanogenesis in Maturing Black Cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) Fruits 1

    PubMed Central

    Swain, Elisabeth; Li, Chun Ping; Poulton, Jonathan E.

    1992-01-01

    Biochemical changes related to cyanogenesis (hydrogen cyanide production) were monitored during maturation of black cherry (Prunus serotina Ehrh.) fruits. At weekly intervals from flowering until maturity, fruits (or selected parts thereof) were analyzed for (a) fresh and dry weights, (b) prunasin and amygdalin levels, and (c) levels of the catabolic enzymes amygdalin hydrolase, prunasin hydrolase, and mandelonitrile lyase. During phase I (0-28 days after flowering [DAF]), immature fruits accumulated prunasin (mean: 3 micromoles/fruit) but were acyanogenic because they lacked the above enzymes. Concomitant with cotyledon development during mid-phase II, the seeds began accumulating both amygdalin (mean: 3 micromoles/seed) and the catabolic enzymes and were highly cyanogenic upon tissue disruption. Meanwhile, prunasin levels rapidly declined and were negligible by maturity. During phases II (29-65 DAF) and III (66-81 DAF), the pericarp also accumulated amygdalin, whereas its prunasin content declined toward maturity. Lacking the catabolic enzymes, the pericarp remained acyanogenic throughout all developmental stages. ImagesFigure 2Figure 4 PMID:16668810

  20. In vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.).

    PubMed

    Sulusoglu, Melekber; Cavusoglu, Aysun

    2014-01-01

    Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.). Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and IKI (iodine potassium iodide), were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r(2) = 0.0614 and r(2) = 0.0015, resp.). Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  1. Tembusu virus infection in Cherry Valley ducks: the effect of age at infection.

    PubMed

    Sun, X Y; Diao, Y X; Wang, J; Liu, X; Lu, A L; Zhang, L; Ge, P P; Hao, D M

    2014-01-10

    Three groups of Cherry Valley ducks at 5 day, 2 week and 5 week of age were intranasally infected with the WFCL strain of Tembusu virus (TMUV) to investigate the effect of host age on the outcome of TMUV infection. For each age group, clinical signs, gross and microscopic lesions, viral copy numbers in tissues and serum neutralizing antibody titers were recorded. Age-related differences in the resistance to TMUV infection were observed with younger ducks being more susceptible. Some ducks infected at 5 day and 2 week of age developed severe clinical signs, including severe neurological dysfunction and death. However, subclinical signs and no mortality were observed in ducks infected at 5 week of age. A decline in the severity of gross and microscopic lesions was observed as ducks mature. Systemic infections were established in the three age groups post challenge. Higher viral copy numbers in the tissues, especially in vital organs such as the brain and the heart, were developed in the ducks infected at 5 day of age than older ducks, correlating with the severity of clinical signs and lesions in the tissues. Furthermore, ducks infected at 5 week of age developed significantly higher serum neutralizing antibody titers than ducks infected at 5 day of age as determined by serum neutralization test. Therefore, age-related differences in the resistance to TMUV infection should be considered when studying the pathogenicity, pathogenesis, formulation of the vaccination and therapy strategies of TMUV infection in ducks.

  2. Economic Impact of the Introduction and Establishment of Drosophila suzukii on Sweet Cherry Production in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Mazzi, Dominique; Bravin, Esther; Meraner, Manuela; Finger, Robert; Kuske, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    First detected in Switzerland in 2011, the invasive Drosophila suzukii, spotted wing drosophila, has caused recurring costs for growers of berries and fruit. Recommended management approaches rely on a set of methods, tailored to suit crop requirements under the prevailing local conditions. Control of D. suzukii represents a substantial economic burden for growers, in terms of material, equipment, new infrastructure and extra labour. However, those growers who invest wisely to deliver unblemished produce are rewarded with high payoffs. We present insights from a growers’ survey conducted in 2015 and 2016 to gauge the impact of the introduction and establishment of D. suzukii on Swiss sweet cherry production. The surveyed growers (111 in 2015 and 298 in 2016) observed the recommended surveillance, sanitation and control measures. The use of insecticides (78% and 79% of respondents in 2015 and 2016, respectively) and the harvest of all fruits (93% and 59% of respondents in 2015 and 2016, respectively) were the most widespread methods used to reduce damage. Nearly one-third of the respondents set up enclosure nets. Our economic evaluation of different scenarios provides a quantitative indication of the potentially incurred costs. We argue for enhanced stakeholder involvement to raise the acceptance of integrated pest management practices, and to inform research and outreach by providing insights into the motivations and barriers to adoption. PMID:28208692

  3. Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov., isolated from crown gall tumors on raspberry and cherry plum.

    PubMed

    Kuzmanović, Nemanja; Puławska, Joanna; Prokić, Anđelka; Ivanović, Milan; Zlatković, Nevena; Jones, Jeffrey B; Obradović, Aleksa

    2015-09-01

    Two plant-tumorigenic strains KFB 330(T) and KFB 335 isolated from galls on raspberry (Rubus idaeus) in Serbia, and a non-pathogenic strain AL51.1 recovered from a cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera) tumor in Poland, were genotypically and phenotypically characterized. Phylogenetic reconstruction based on 16S rDNA placed them within the genus Agrobacterium, with A. nepotum as their closest relative. Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) based on the partial sequences of atpD, glnA, gyrB, recA and rpoB housekeeping genes suggested that these three strains represent a new Agrobacterium species, that clustered with type strains of A. nepotum, A. radiobacter, "A. fabrum" and A. pusense. This was further supported by average nucleotide identity values (<92%) between the whole genome sequences of strain KFB 330(T) and related Agrobacterium species. The major cellular fatty acids of the novel strains were 18:1 w7c (72.8-77.87%) and 16:0 (6.82-8.58%). Phenotypic features allowed their differentiation from closely related species. Polyphasic characterization showed that the three strains represent a novel species of the genus Agrobacterium, for which the name Agrobacterium arsenijevicii sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain of A. arsenijevicii is KFB 330(T) (= CFBP 8308(T) = LMG 28674(T)).

  4. Radiation-induced mutations in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L. ) cvs Napoleon and Bing

    SciTech Connect

    Saamin, S.

    1987-01-01

    Experiments were conducted using gamma radiation to determine radiosensitivities of main and accessory buds, to increase the proportion of mutant tissue, and to determine the type of damage and mode of recovery in irradiated shoot spices of sweet cherry cvs Napoleon and Bin. Survival, growth, and the types of mutations of V/sub 1/ (primary) shoots and V/sub 2/ plants were observed. LD/sub 50/ values, based on survival of forced buds were about 5kR for both acute and fractionated irradiation in air, 5.5kR for acute exposure in water, and 6kR for fractionated dose in water. 0.39-0.69 accessory buds/site on non-irradiated Napoleon had forced after 30 days in the glasshouse. In the Bing field experiment with main buds, the LD/sub 50/ for both acute and fractionated irradiation in air was 3.5kR. In water, the LD/sub 50/ was 5kR for acute treatment and 6.5kR for fractionated dose. The overall mutation frequency in Napoleon V/sub 2/ shoots derived from main buds was 7.6%: 0.04% growth-reduced mutants, 0.4% total leaf mutants, and7.1% partial leaf mutants.

  5. Effect of ripeness and postharvest storage on the phenolic profiles of Cherries (Prunus avium L.).

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Berta; Landbo, Anne-Katrine; Knudsen, David; Silva, Ana P; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Rosa, Eduardo; Meyer, Anne S

    2004-02-11

    The phenolic compounds hydroxycinnamates, anthocyanins, flavonols, and flavan-3-ols of sweet cherry cultivars Burlat, Saco, Summit, and Van harvested in 2001 and 2002 were quantified by HPLC-DAD. Phenolics were analyzed at partially ripe and ripe stages and during storage at 15 +/- 5 degrees C (room temperature) and 1-2 degrees C (cool temperature). Neochlorogenic and p-coumaroylquinic acids were the main hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives, but chlorogenic acid was also identified in all cultivars. The 3-glucoside and 3-rutinoside of cyanidin were the major anthocyanins. Peonidin and pelargonidin 3-rutinosides were the minor anthocyanins, and peonidin 3-glucoside was also present in cvs. Burlat and Van. Epicatechin was the main monomeric flavan-3-ol with catechin present in smaller amounts in all cultivars. The flavonol rutin was also detected. Cultivar Saco contained the highest amounts of phenolics [227 mg/100 g of fresh weight (fw)] and cv. Van the lowest (124 mg/100 g of fw). Phenolic acid contents generally decreased with storage at 1-2 degrees C and increased with storage at 15 +/- 5 degrees C. Anthocyanin levels increased at both storage temperatures. In cv. Van the anthocyanins increased up to 5-fold during storage at 15 +/- 5 degrees C (from 47 to 230 mg/100 g of fw). Flavonol and flavan-3-ol contents remained quite constant. For all cultivars the levels of phenolic acids were higher in 2001 and the anthocyanin levels were higher in 2002, which suggest a significant influence of climatic conditions on these compounds.

  6. Influence of Cultivar and Industrial Processing on Polyphenols in Concentrated Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) Juice

    PubMed Central

    Repajić, Maja; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica; Kušt, Josipa; Čošić, Zrinka; Levaj, Branka

    2015-01-01

    Summary The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of cultivar and industrial processing on total polyphenols, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids and antioxidant activity in concentrated sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L., cvs. Marasca and Oblačinska) juices. Samples were collected during four processing steps: from fresh fruit prior to processing, then from pressed, filtered and concentrated juices. The content of total phenols was the same in both cultivars, but antioxidant activity (Oblačinska>Marasca) and total monomeric anthocyanins (Marasca>Oblačinska) differed. All processing steps significantly influenced the content of total phenols, total monomeric anthocyanins and antioxidant activity. In all samples four major anthocyanins were identified by HPLC with UV/VIS PDA detector, listed in the descending order based on their abundance: cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-sophoroside and cyanidin-3-glucoside. Marasca cv. contained more total anthocyanins, and contents of cyanidin-3-sophoroside and cyanidin-3- -glucosylrutinoside. The content of total hydroxycinnamic acids was also higher in Marasca than Oblačinska cv. After processing, the concentration of all identified anthocyanins increased in both cultivars. Majority of the highest values of polyphenols were detected in the juice after pressing. The content of polyphenols and their antioxidant activity were considerably stable during industrial processing to concentrated juice. Although Marasca had higher polyphenolic content than Oblačinska, both cultivars showed promising industrial potential for processing to concentrated juice. PMID:27904351

  7. Diversity of lactic acid bacteria associated with fresh coffee cherries in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Leong, Kun-hon; Chen, Yi-sheng; Pan, Shwu-fen; Chen, Jen-jye; Wu, Hui-chung; Chang, Yu-chung; Yanagida, Fujitoshi

    2014-04-01

    A total of 102 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from three different coffee farms in Taiwan. These isolates were classified and identified by the restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis and sequencing of 16S ribosomal DNA. Heterofermentative Leuconostoc, and Weissella species were the most common LAB found in two farms located at an approximate altitude of 800 m. Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis was the most common LAB found in the remaining farm was located at an approximate altitude of 1,200 m. It is therefore suggested that the altitude and climate may affect the distribution of LAB. On the basis of phylogenetic analysis, two strains included in the genera Enterococcus were considered as two potential novel species or subspecies. In addition, a total of 34 isolates showed the antifungal activity against Aspergillus flavus. Moreover, seven Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis strains and one Enterococcus faecalis strain were found to have bacteriocin-like inhibitory substance-producing capability. These results suggest that various LAB are associated with fresh coffee cherries in Taiwan. Some of the isolates found in this study showed potential as antifungal agents.

  8. Economic Impact of the Introduction and Establishment of Drosophila suzukii on Sweet Cherry Production in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Mazzi, Dominique; Bravin, Esther; Meraner, Manuela; Finger, Robert; Kuske, Stefan

    2017-02-08

    First detected in Switzerland in 2011, the invasive Drosophila suzukii, spotted wing drosophila, has caused recurring costs for growers of berries and fruit. Recommended management approaches rely on a set of methods, tailored to suit crop requirements under the prevailing local conditions. Control of D. suzukii represents a substantial economic burden for growers, in terms of material, equipment, new infrastructure and extra labour. However, those growers who invest wisely to deliver unblemished produce are rewarded with high payoffs. We present insights from a growers' survey conducted in 2015 and 2016 to gauge the impact of the introduction and establishment of D. suzukii on Swiss sweet cherry production. The surveyed growers (111 in 2015 and 298 in 2016) observed the recommended surveillance, sanitation and control measures. The use of insecticides (78% and 79% of respondents in 2015 and 2016, respectively) and the harvest of all fruits (93% and 59% of respondents in 2015 and 2016, respectively) were the most widespread methods used to reduce damage. Nearly one-third of the respondents set up enclosure nets. Our economic evaluation of different scenarios provides a quantitative indication of the potentially incurred costs. We argue for enhanced stakeholder involvement to raise the acceptance of integrated pest management practices, and to inform research and outreach by providing insights into the motivations and barriers to adoption.

  9. The Effects of Montmorency Tart Cherry Concentrate Supplementation on Recovery Following Prolonged, Intermittent Exercise

    PubMed Central

    Bell, Phillip G.; Stevenson, Emma; Davison, Gareth W.; Howatson, Glyn

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated Montmorency tart cherry concentrate (MC) supplementation on markers of recovery following prolonged, intermittent sprint activity. Sixteen semi-professional, male soccer players, who had dietary restrictions imposed for the duration of the study, were divided into two equal groups and consumed either MC or placebo (PLA) supplementation for eight consecutive days (30 mL twice per day). On day 5, participants completed an adapted version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LISTADAPT). Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), 20 m Sprint, counter movement jump (CMJ), agility and muscle soreness (DOMS) were assessed at baseline, and 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Measures of inflammation (IL-1-β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, hsCRP), muscle damage (CK) and oxidative stress (LOOH) were analysed at baseline and 1, 3, 5, 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Performance indices (MVIC, CMJ and agility) recovered faster and muscle soreness (DOMS) ratings were lower in the MC group (p < 0.05). Additionally, the acute inflammatory response (IL-6) was attenuated in the MC group. There were no effects for LOOH and CK. These findings suggest MC is efficacious in accelerating recovery following prolonged, repeat sprint activity, such as soccer and rugby, and lends further evidence that polyphenol-rich foods like MC are effective in accelerating recovery following various types of strenuous exercise. PMID:27455316

  10. In Vitro Pollen Viability and Pollen Germination in Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sulusoglu, Melekber; Cavusoglu, Aysun

    2014-01-01

    Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.). Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and IKI (iodine potassium iodide), were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r2 = 0.0614 and r2 = 0.0015, resp.). Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media. PMID:25405230

  11. Phenolic profiles of cherry tomatoes as influenced by hydric stress and rootstock technique.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Eva; Ruiz, Juan M; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A

    2012-09-15

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of genetic and technological factors (cultivar and grafting) combined with the abiotic stress (water stress) on the content of phenolic compounds (flavonoids and phenolic acids classes and total phenolics) in cherry tomato. The identification and contents of phenolic compounds and flavonoids were determined by HPLC-MS in fruits on reciprocal grafting between a drought-tolerant cultivar (Zarina) and drought-sensible cultivar (Josefina), compared with both self-grafted and non-grafted plants. The results show how pre-harvest factors, such as grafting and water stress, can influence the phenolic content of tomato fruits. Phenolic compounds, including rutin that belongs to the group of flavonoids, display a remarkable array of biological and pharmacological activities. So, the richness of ZarxJos under water stress conditions with these compounds confirms its nutritional value and it can be used as a potential source of phenols. The results suggest that grafting on specific rootstocks more adapted to water stress conditions may be a tool to improve crop quality under artificially imposed mild water stress.

  12. Phenolic metabolism in grafted versus nongrafted cherry tomatoes under the influence of water stress.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Eva; Ruiz, Juan Manuel; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A

    2011-08-24

    Use of grafts using rootstocks capable of palliating the effects of water stress can be a possible solution to reduce yield losses. For response to stress, plants can induce the metabolism of phenylpropanoids. The aim of the present work is to determine the response of reciprocal grafts made between one tolerant cherry tomato cultivar, Zarina, and a more sensitive cultivar, Josefina. The analysis of the phenylpropanoids pathway was carried out both enzymatically and metabolically. DAHP synthase, shikimate dehydrogenase, phenylalanine ammonium-lyase, cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, and 4-coumarate CoA ligase activities were determined, and characteristic metabolites from the pathway were measured by means of HPLC-MS. Growth in the grafts JosxZar and ZarxJos was not appreciably affected by stress. JosxZar had increased concentrations of phenolic compounds after water stress. This could be correlated with the greater activity of synthesis enzymes as well as a decrease in phenol-degrading enzymes. Phenolic metabolism is more influenced by the aerial part, and therefore it is concluded that the capacity of inducing tolerance in rootstocks depends on the genotype of the shoot.

  13. Mountain-climbing bears protect cherry species from global warming through vertical seed dispersal.

    PubMed

    Naoe, Shoji; Tayasu, Ichiro; Sakai, Yoichiro; Masaki, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kazuki; Nakajima, Akiko; Sato, Yoshikazu; Yamazaki, Koji; Kiyokawa, Hiroki; Koike, Shinsuke

    2016-04-25

    In a warming climate, temperature-sensitive plants must move toward colder areas, that is, higher latitude or altitude, by seed dispersal [1]. Considering that the temperature drop with increasing altitude (-0.65°C per 100 m altitude) is one hundred to a thousand times larger than that of the equivalent latitudinal distance [2], vertical seed dispersal is probably a key process for plant escape from warming temperatures. In fact, plant geographical distributions are tracking global warming altitudinally rather than latitudinally, and the extent of tracking is considered to be large in plants with better-dispersed traits (e.g., lighter seeds in wind-dispersed plants) [1]. However, no study has evaluated vertical seed dispersal itself due to technical difficulty or high cost. Here, we show using a stable oxygen isotope that black bears disperse seeds of wild cherry over several hundred meters vertically, and that the dispersal direction is heavily biased towards the mountain tops. Mountain climbing by bears following spring-to-summer plant phenology is likely the cause of this biased seed dispersal. These results suggest that spring- and summer-fruiting plants dispersed by animals may have high potential to escape global warming. Our results also indicate that the direction of vertical seed dispersal can be unexpectedly biased, and highlight the importance of considering seed dispersal direction to understand plant responses to past and future climate change.

  14. The Effects of Montmorency Tart Cherry Concentrate Supplementation on Recovery Following Prolonged, Intermittent Exercise.

    PubMed

    Bell, Phillip G; Stevenson, Emma; Davison, Gareth W; Howatson, Glyn

    2016-07-22

    This study investigated Montmorency tart cherry concentrate (MC) supplementation on markers of recovery following prolonged, intermittent sprint activity. Sixteen semi-professional, male soccer players, who had dietary restrictions imposed for the duration of the study, were divided into two equal groups and consumed either MC or placebo (PLA) supplementation for eight consecutive days (30 mL twice per day). On day 5, participants completed an adapted version of the Loughborough Intermittent Shuttle Test (LISTADAPT). Maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC), 20 m Sprint, counter movement jump (CMJ), agility and muscle soreness (DOMS) were assessed at baseline, and 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Measures of inflammation (IL-1-β, IL-6, IL-8, TNF-α, hsCRP), muscle damage (CK) and oxidative stress (LOOH) were analysed at baseline and 1, 3, 5, 24, 48 and 72 h post-exercise. Performance indices (MVIC, CMJ and agility) recovered faster and muscle soreness (DOMS) ratings were lower in the MC group (p < 0.05). Additionally, the acute inflammatory response (IL-6) was attenuated in the MC group. There were no effects for LOOH and CK. These findings suggest MC is efficacious in accelerating recovery following prolonged, repeat sprint activity, such as soccer and rugby, and lends further evidence that polyphenol-rich foods like MC are effective in accelerating recovery following various types of strenuous exercise.

  15. Effect of temperature on pollen tube kinetics and dynamics in sweet cherry, Prunus avium (Rosaceae).

    PubMed

    Hedhly, A; Hormaza, J I; Herrero, M

    2004-04-01

    Prevailing ambient temperature during the reproductive phase is one of several important factors for seed and fruit set in different plant species, and its consequences on reproductive success may increase with global warming. The effect of temperature on pollen performance was evaluated in sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.), comparing as pollen donors two cultivars that differ in their adaptation to temperature. 'Sunburst' is a cultivar that originated in Canada with a pedigree of cultivars from Northern Europe, while 'Cristobalina' is a cultivar native to southeast Spain, adapted to warmer conditions. Temperature effects were tested either in controlled-temperature chambers or in the field in a plastic cage. In both genotypes, an increase in temperature reduced pollen germination, but accelerated pollen tube growth. However, a different genotypic response, which reflected the overall adaptation of the pollen donor, was obtained for pollen tube dynamics, expressed as the census of the microgametophyte population that successfully reached the base of the style. While both cultivars performed similarly at 20°C, the microgametophyte population was reduced at 30°C for Sunburst and at 10°C for Cristobalina. These results indicate a differential genotypic response to temperature during the reproductive phase, which could be important in terms of the time needed for a plant species to adapt to rapid temperature changes.

  16. In vitro plant regeneration from leaves and internode sections of sweet cherry cultivars (Prunus avium L.).

    PubMed

    Matt, Andrea; Jehle, Johannes A

    2005-10-01

    Regeneration of adventitious shoots from leaves and, for the first time, from internode sections were compared and optimized for five economically important sweet cherry cultivars, i.e. "Schneiders", "Sweetheart", "Starking Hardy Giant", "Kordia" and "Regina" (Prunus avium L.). The influence of basal media, carbon source, combination and dosage of phytohormones, ethylene inhibitor such as silver thiosulfate and a 16 h:8 h light:dark photoperiod versus complete darkness were evaluated. Both, DKW/WPM (1:1) and Quoirin/Lepoivre (QL) basal media stimulated organogenesis more than QL/WPM (1:1), Chee and Pool (CP), Murashige Skoog (MS), Driver and Kuniyuki (DKW) or woody plant (WPM) media did. An induction phase in darkness resulted in lower or zero regeneration rates. The best regeneration efficiencies were generally obtained with thidiazuron in combination with indole-3-butyric-acid. The addition of silver thiosulfate resulted in a similar or reduced regeneration efficiency. Significant genotypic variability in adventitious bud formation was evident for both explant sources, leaf and internode section. Adventitious shoots were obtained from 11% of leaf explants and 50% of internode sections indicating that shoot regeneration from internodes was significantly more efficient than from leaves.

  17. [Identifying the S genotypes of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) cultivars].

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Liu; Chen, Xue-Sen; Shu, Huai-Rui

    2004-10-01

    This report identified S-RNase genes (S genes) of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.), presented the sequences of S genes by using a pair of specific primers PruC2 and PruC4R based on the conserved regions C2 and RC4 of Rosaceous S-RNase genes and researched the S gene specific products from the genomic DNAs of different cultivars in which most of the S genotypese were unknown. The bands of PCR were cloned and their sequences were compared in GenBank. Four S genes were defined and the conclusion was made that all the same bands from PCR in the agarose gel had the same length and sequence of nucleic acid and were the same kind of S gene. The lengths of the amplified S genes are as follows: S1 is 677 bp, S3 762 bp, S4 945 bp, S6 456 bp. The S genotypes (S gene genotypes) of the tested self-incompatible cultivars were identified as follows: 'Hongdeng', 'Hongyan' and 'Early ruby', as same as 'Van', were S1 S3; 'Jueze', 'Hongfeng' and 'Napoleon' were S3S4; 'Dazi' was S1 S6; 'Changbahong' was S1 S4; 'Elton' was S3S6. The self-compatibile cultivars 'Waiyin No.7' and 'Stella' had the same S genotypes S3 S4'.

  18. Influence of Cultivar and Industrial Processing on Polyphenols in Concentrated Sour Cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) Juice.

    PubMed

    Repajić, Maja; Kovačević, Danijela Bursać; Putnik, Predrag; Dragović-Uzelac, Verica; Kušt, Josipa; Čošić, Zrinka; Levaj, Branka

    2015-06-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the influence of cultivar and industrial processing on total polyphenols, anthocyanins, hydroxycinnamic acids and antioxidant activity in concentrated sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L., cvs. Marasca and Oblačinska) juices. Samples were collected during four processing steps: from fresh fruit prior to processing, then from pressed, filtered and concentrated juices. The content of total phenols was the same in both cultivars, but antioxidant activity (Oblačinska>Marasca) and total monomeric anthocyanins (Marasca>Oblačinska) differed. All processing steps significantly influenced the content of total phenols, total monomeric anthocyanins and antioxidant activity. In all samples four major anthocyanins were identified by HPLC with UV/VIS PDA detector, listed in the descending order based on their abundance: cyanidin-3-glucosylrutinoside, cyanidin-3-rutinoside, cyanidin-3-sophoroside and cyanidin-3-glucoside. Marasca cv. contained more total anthocyanins, and contents of cyanidin-3-sophoroside and cyanidin-3- -glucosylrutinoside. The content of total hydroxycinnamic acids was also higher in Marasca than Oblačinska cv. After processing, the concentration of all identified anthocyanins increased in both cultivars. Majority of the highest values of polyphenols were detected in the juice after pressing. The content of polyphenols and their antioxidant activity were considerably stable during industrial processing to concentrated juice. Although Marasca had higher polyphenolic content than Oblačinska, both cultivars showed promising industrial potential for processing to concentrated juice.

  19. High pressure and thermal pasteurization effects on sweet cherry juice microbiological stability and physicochemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queirós, Rui P.; Rainho, Daniel; Santos, Mauro D.; Fidalgo, Liliana G.; Delgadillo, Ivonne; Saraiva, Jorge A.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated high pressure processing (P1 - 400 MPa/5 min; P2 - 550 MPa/2 min) and thermal pasteurization (TP - 70°C/30 s) effects on sweet cherry juice's microbiological and physicochemical parameters, during four weeks of refrigerated storage. All treatments reduced the microbiological load to undetectable levels not affecting total soluble solids and titratable acidity. The pH increased with all treatments, however, it decreased during storage. Phenols were differently affected: TP increased them by 6%, P1 had no effect while P2 decreased them by 11%. During storage, phenols in control and TP samples decreased by 26% and 20%, P1 samples decreased them by 11% whereas P2 showed no variation. TP had no effect on anthocyanins, while pressure treatments increased them by 8%. Anthocyanins decreased during storage, particularly in the control and P1 (decreasing 41%). All treatments had no effect on antioxidant activity until the 14th day, thereafter high pressure processing samples showed the highest antioxidant activity.

  20. Inactivation of Penicillum expansum in sour cherry juice, peach and apricot nectars by pulsed electric fields.

    PubMed

    Evrendilek, Gulsun Akdemir; Tok, Fatih M; Soylu, E Mine; Soylu, Soner

    2008-08-01

    Inhibitory effects of pulsed electric fields (PEF) on Penicillum expansum inoculated into sour cherry juice, apricot and peach nectars were determined based on germination tube elongation, spore germination rate, and light and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations in this study. After inoculation of juice/nectar samples with P. expansum spores at the level of 10(5)-10(6)cfu/mL, the samples were processed by bench scale PEF pulse generator as a function of differing electric field strengths (0, 13, 17, 20, 23, 27, 30 and 34kV/cm) and processing times (0, 62, 94, 123, 163, 198 and 218mus). Results revealed that with an increase in electric field strength and processing time, germination tube elongation and spore germination rate were completely inhibited. Light and SEM observations revealed considerable morphological alterations in fungal conidia such as cytoplasmic coagulation, vacuolations, shrinkage and protoplast leakage. PEF processing of juice/nectars was demonstrated to be effective in inactivating P. expansum. To our knowledge, this is the first study confirming the inhibitory effects of PEF on germination tube elongation and spore germination rate of P. expansum in fruit juice/nectars.

  1. Meat quality, fatty acid composition and sensory evaluation of Cherry Valley, Spent Layer and Crossbred ducks.

    PubMed

    Qiao, Yan; Huang, Jichao; Chen, Yulian; Chen, Haochun; Zhao, Liang; Huang, Ming; Zhou, Guanghong

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this research was to compare meat quality characteristics of Cherry Valley (CV), Spent Layer (SL) and Crossbred (CB) ducks. Meat quality, proximate and fatty acid composition were measured in breast and thigh muscles from CV, SL and CB, as well as sensory evaluation of duck soup made from three breeds. The results showed SL contained a highest percentage of protein but lowest moisture than those of CV and intermediate CB (P < 0.05). The L* and b* value of SL ducks were lowest among three breeds (P < 0.05). The breast of SL had higher water-holding capacity compared to CV (P < 0.05), although CV was the most tender among the three breeds (P < 0.05). SL had lower contents of saturated fatty acid and higher contents of unsaturated fatty acids with a more acceptable P/S ratio of 0.57 and n-6/n-3 ratio of 1.52 (P < 0.05). Intramuscular fat and polyunsaturated fatty acids were involved in producing intense aroma and flavor of duck meats. Differences of color and tenderness in meats were attributed to values of L* and cooking loss of muscles. In conclusion, it would be suggested that SL was more suitable for producing duck soup among the three breeds.

  2. A Chitosan Coating Containing Essential Oil from Origanum vulgare L. to Control Postharvest Mold Infections and Keep the Quality of Cherry Tomato Fruit.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Tainá A; Andrade, Sonalle C A; Maciel, Janeeyre F; Arcanjo, Narciza M O; Madruga, Marta S; Meireles, Bruno; Cordeiro, Ângela M T; Souza, Evandro L; Magnani, Marciane

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of an edible chitosan coating (CHI; 4 mg/mL) and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO; 1.25 μL/mL) for maintaining the quality of cherry tomato fruit during storage at room (25°C; 12 days) and cold (12°C; 24 days) temperatures was assessed. CHI and OVEO in combination showed in vitro fungicidal effects against R. stolonifer and Aspergillus niger. CHI-OVEO coating reduced the incidence of black mold and soft rot caused by these fungi in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit during storage at both temperatures. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the appearance of the first visible signs of black mold and soft rot in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit stored at room temperature by 6 days and by more than 9 days in those stored at cold temperature. At the end of storage at room and cold temperature fruit coated with CHI-OVEO showed higher firmness (>2 N/mm) and lower weight loss (>2%) compared to uncoated tomato fruit. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the decrease of lycopene, ascorbic citric acid, glucose and fructose during the storage time assessed at room or cold temperatures. The increase of catechin, myricetin, caffeic and syringic acids was higher (1-9 mg/g) in cherry tomato fruit coated with CHI-OVEO compared to uncoated fruit during the storage at both temperatures studied. CHI-OVEO coating is a feasible treatment for maintaining the storage quality of cherry tomato fruit.

  3. Effect of the commercial ripening stage and postharvest storage on microbial and aroma changes of 'Ambrunés' sweet cherries.

    PubMed

    Serradilla, Manuel Joaquín; Martín, Alberto; Hernandez, Alejandro; López-Corrales, Margarita; Lozano, Mercedes; Córdoba, María de Guía

    2010-08-25

    The purpose of this work was to investigate the effect of the commercial ripening stage and postharvest storage on microbial and aroma changes of 'Ambrunés' sweet cherries. The microbial counts and volatile profile of sweet cherry batches automatically sanitized and classified in three commercial ripening stages were studied for five postharvest storages. The batches were also evaluated sensorially, and the correlations between volatile compounds and aroma quality were determined. The microbial counts provided evidence that 21 days of cold storage is near the maximum extension of 'Ambrunés' sweet cherry storage in maintaining the minimal microbial quality during their shelf-life period. Relevant changes associated with longer cold storages were found in different aroma constituents with a negative impact on flavor. These changes were more evident in less ripened sweet cherries, including a decrease of (E)-2-hexenal and 1-hexanol and an increase of 2-methyl-propanal and 2-methyl-butanal. These compounds could constitute a good tool to predict flavor quality in 'Ambrunés' sweet cherries during the cold-storage process.

  4. Application and validation of autochthonous Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures for controlled malolactic fermentation and its influence on the aromatic profile of cherry wines.

    PubMed

    Sun, Shu Yang; Gong, Han Sheng; Liu, Wen Li; Jin, Cheng Wu

    2016-05-01

    Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) used for malolactic fermentation (MLF) has a great effect on the production and quality of cherry wines. The present study used an autochthonous Lb. plantarum strain of SGJ-24 which was isolated from spontaneous MLF cherry wines and selected by its best MLF performance and tolerance, to investigate its effect on the kinetic of vinification and on chemical and volatile characteristics of Rainer and May Duck cherry wines, in comparison with a commercial Oenococcus oeni strain of 31 MBR. Monitoring of MLF was carried out by measuring cell viability and malic acid metabolism, and results showed that for both cherry varieties, SGJ-24 can significantly minimize MLF duration. After fermentation, wine samples were chemically characterized and analyzed for volatile profiles. Results demonstrated that no negative impact on the analytical parameters has been found, and a general increase of volatile esters and terpenes was observed when SGJ-24 was involved. Sensory analysis revealed that the global aromatic intensity was enhanced by the introduction of SGJ-24. All these data suggested that the application of Lb. plantarum strain of SGJ-24 as a worthwhile alternative LAB species for Rainer and May Duck cherry winemaking.

  5. Hydrogeologic and water-quality data from well clusters near the wastewater-treatment plant, U.S. Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Murray, L.C.; Daniel, C. C.

    1990-01-01

    Hydrogeologic and ground-water quality data were collected near the wastewater-treatment plant and associated polishing lagoons at the Marine Corps Air Station, Cherry Point, North Carolina, in 1988. Between March and May 1988, two observation wells were installed upgradient and six wells were installed downgradient of the polishing lagoons and sampled for organic and inorganic U.S. Environmental Protection Agency priority pollutants. Placement of the well screens allowed sampling from both the upper and lower parts of the surficial aquifer. Natural gamma-ray geophysical logs were run in the four deepest wells. Lithologic logs were prepared from split-spoon samples collected during the drilling operations. Laboratory hydraulic conductivity tests were conducted on samples of fine-grained material recovered from the two confining units that separate the surficial aquifer and the drinking-water supply aquifer; values ranged from 0.011 to 0.014 foot per day (4x10-6 to 5x10-6 centimeters per second). Static water levels were recorded on April 25, 1988. Relatively low concentrations of purgeable organic compounds (up to 2.2 micrograms per liter for dichlorodifluoromethane), acid and base/neutral extractable compounds (up to 58 micrograms per liter for bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate), or pesticides (up to 0.03 micrograms per liter for diazinon and methyl parathion) were detected in water samples collected from all of the wells. Trace metals were detected in concentrations above minimum detectable limits in all of the wells and were found to be higher in water samples collected from the downgradient wells (up to 320 micrograms per liter for zinc) than in water samples from the upgradient wells.

  6. 1H NMR Metabolic Fingerprinting to Probe Temporal Postharvest Changes on Qualitative Attributes and Phytochemical Profile of Sweet Cherry Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Goulas, Vlasios; Minas, Ioannis S.; Kourdoulas, Panayiotis M.; Lazaridou, Athina; Molassiotis, Athanassios N.; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P.; Manganaris, George A.

    2015-01-01

    Sweet cherry fruits (Prunus avium cvs. ‘Canada Giant’, ‘Ferrovia’) were harvested at commercial maturity stage and analyzed at harvest and after maintenance at room temperature (storage at ∼20°C, shelf life) for 1, 2, 4, 6, and 8 days, respectively. Fruit were initially analyzed for respiration rate, qualitative attributes and textural properties: ‘Canada Giant’ fruit were characterized by higher weight losses and stem browning index, being more intense over the late stages of shelf life period; meanwhile ‘Ferrovia’ possessed appreciably better performance even after extended shelf life period. A gradual decrease of respiration rate was monitored in both cultivars, culminated after 8 days at 20°C. The sweet cherry fruit nutraceutical profile was monitored using an array of instrumental techniques (spectrophotometric assays, HPLC, 1H-NMR). Fruit antioxidant capacity was enhanced with the progress of shelf life period, concomitant with the increased levels of total anthocyanin and of phenolic compounds. ‘Ferrovia’ fruit presented higher contents of neochlorogenic acid and p-coumaroylquinic acid throughout the shelf life period. We further developed an 1H-NMR method that allows the study of primary and secondary metabolites in a single running, without previous separation and isolation procedures. Diagnostic peaks were located in the aliphatic region for sugars and organic acids, in the aromatic region for phenolic compounds and at 8.2–8.6 ppm for anthocyanins. This NMR-based methodology provides a unifying tool for quantitative and qualitative characterization of metabolite changes of sweet cherry fruits; it is also expected to be further exploited for monitoring temporal changes in other fleshy fruits. PMID:26617616

  7. Ribeye a-mCherry fusion protein: a novel tool for labeling synaptic ribbons of the hair cell.

    PubMed

    West, Megan C; McDermott, Brian M

    2011-04-30

    Synaptic ribbons are presynaptic cytomatrices that are required for efficient transfer of auditory information from hair cells to the central nervous system. In the hair cell, each electron-dense ribbon tethers numerous synaptic vesicles by fine filaments. The ribbon generally resides juxtaposed to the active zone plasma membrane. A dearth of appropriate tools to visualize the ribbon synapse has limited our knowledge of its development. Here we present the design and implementation of a method to visualize synaptic ribbons in hair cells. This scheme uses a tagged version of the protein Ribeye a, which is specific to ribbons. We generate the DNA construct Tg(pvalb3b:ribeye a-mCherry) to transgenically express the fusion protein Ribeye a-mCherry in zebrafish hair cells. The fusion protein localizes to the basolateral surface of the hair cell with a pattern similar to that of a hair cell labeled with an antiserum that recognizes ribeye proteins. Moreover, using this antiserum to label transgenics that express Ribeye a-mCherry, we demonstrate that the fusion protein and antibody-associated fluorescent signals overlap. In addition, ribbons labeled with the fusion protein are proximal to afferent nerve endings. Finally, the fusion protein labels hair-cell ribbons of zebrafish at different developmental time points. These findings indicate that the fusion protein is an effective tool to label ribbons in live and fixed hair cells, which will make it useful in the study of ribbon synapse development and to characterize zebrafish mutants with defects in synapse formation.

  8. Impact of Prolonged Absence of Low Temperature on Adult Eclosion Patterns of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Neven, Lisa G; Yee, Wee L

    2017-03-25

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens (Curran) (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a serious pest of cherries (Prunus spp.) in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. Previous research suggests that R. indifferens is unlikely to establish in commercial cherry production areas in California and in tropical export markets because cold temperatures, below 5 °C, in those regions appear insufficient to complete diapause. However, it is unclear how prolonged absence of cold exposure affects diapause termination in R. indifferens. Here, we examined this question by exposing R. indifferens pupae for 40 wk to simulated temperate and tropical conditions of 23 or 26 °C, 40 or 80% RH, and a photoperiod of 16:8 or 12:12 (L:D) h. Eclosion patterns among fly groups in the four conditions did not differ. For all groups, fly eclosion from pupae not exposed to cold exhibited a bimodal distribution. The first major peak, comprising 3.2% of the total fly emergence, occurred at 1-10 wk. The second major peak, comprising the remaining 96.8%, occurred at a mode of ∼30 wk. Based on responses to no cold and cold (3 ± 1.5 °C) exposures, there were three distinct pupal diapause groups: the first eclosion group was likely nondiapausing pupae; the second eclosion group was likely diapausing pupae; a third group that remained viable but did not produce adults after 40 wk may represent prolonged dormancy pupae. We suggest that eclosion of adults after prolonged absence of cold exposure needs to be incorporated into models for potential fly establishment in warm climates.

  9. Effect of 1-methylcyclopropene post-harvest treatment on ripening process in cherry tomato fruit (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme).

    PubMed

    Opiyo, Arnold M; Ying, Tie-Jin

    2005-02-01

    The responses of cherry tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum var. cerasiforme) fruits to post-harvest treatment with 1-MCP were investigated. The maturity stage at which 1-MCP application is most effective in delaying the ripening process was determined, and then the effects of different concentrations (0, 0.035, 0.07 and 0.11 microL/L) of 1-MCP on ethylene production, fruit softening, chlorophyll, lycopene and carotenoids contents of mature green (MG) cherry tomato fruits were assessed. 1-MCP at 0.07 and 0.11 microL/L reduced fruit C(2)H(4) production, delayed the C(2)H(4) peak at ambient temperature. Although 1-MCP at 0.035 microL/L was effective in retarding fruit ripening, it did not suppress endogenous ethylene production. Fruit softening was suppressed by 1-MCP, but its initiation was not affected by 1-MCP. The rate of chlorophyll degradation and its pattern of change with time, and the initiation of lycopene biosynthesis as well as its accumulation were all affected by 1-MCP, but only the accumulation of carotenoids was suppressed. Accumulation of lycopene and carotenoids was almost permanently hampered by 1-MCP at 0.07 microL/L or higher concentrations, and fruit color could not reach the control level even 2 weeks after 1-MCP treatment, indicating the close association of the metabolism of these pigments with ethylene perception. Since the concentration of 0.11 microL/L of 1-MCP was so high that it did not elicit additional response very much than 0.07 microL/L, these concentrations were considered to be practically effective concentrations for cherry tomato at MG stage. The effective 1-MCP concentrations might provide a useful reference to the levels of ethylene receptors as well as ethylene sensitivity in a specific fruit at given development stage.

  10. Simulated monthly hydrologic data and estimated flood characteristics for Cherry Creek at a proposed reservoir site near Terry, Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Parrett, Charles; Johnson, D.R.

    1995-01-01

    A monthly hydrologic budget for water years 1937- 92 was developed for the proposed Cherry Creek Reservoir (maximum volume about 14,100 acre-feet). Monthly suspended-sediment loads and dissolved- solids concentrations in the reservoir and flood hydrographs and volumes having recurrence intervals of 25-, 50-, and 100-years were estimated. Monthly streamflow and precipitation were estimated using a mixed-station, record-extension procedure. Monthly suspended-sediment and dissolved-solids concentrations in the reservoir were estimated from regression relations between logarithms of concen- tration and streamflow. The simulation showed that flows that Cherry Creek generally were adequate to maintain the reservoir elevation above the minimum operating level for a seepage loss of 0 cubic ft per square. With a seepage loss rate of 3 cubic ft per square, diversions from the Yellowstone River were required for about on third of the months. Cumulative sediment deposition during the 56-year simulation period was about 138 acre-ft from Cherry Creek alone and was about 149 acre-ft when additional water was imported from the Yellowstone River. The concentration of dissolved solids in the reservoir reached a maximum value of about 2,540 mg/L for a seepage loss of 0 cubic ft per square. For a seepage loss of 3 cubic ft per square, water was imported from the Yellowstone River and the maximum concentration of dissolved solids was about 1,200 mg/L. Volumes for flood discharges were estimated from synthetic 24-hour duration storms that were used in a rainfall-runoff model (HEC-1).

  11. Cloning and characterization of genomic DNA sequences of four self-incompatibility alleles in sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L.).

    PubMed

    Wünsch, A; Hormaza, J I

    2004-01-01

    Gametophytic self-incompatibility (GSI) in sweet cherry is determined by a locus S with multiple alleles. In the style, the S-locus codifies for an allele-specific ribonuclease ( S-RNase) that is involved in the rejection of pollen that carries the same S allele. In this work we report the cloning and genomic DNA sequence analysis including the 5' flanking regions of four S-RNases of sweet cherry ( Prunus avium L., Rosaceae). DNA from the cultivars Ferrovia, Pico Colorado, Taleguera Brillante and Vittoria was amplified through PCR using primers designed in the conserved sequences of sweet cherry S-RNases. Two alleles were amplified for each cultivar and three of them correspond to three new S-alleles named S23, S24 and S25 present in 'Pico Colorado', 'Vittoria' and 'Taleguera Brillante' respectively. To confirm the identity of the amplified fragments, the genomic DNA of these three putative S-RNases and the allele S12 amplified in the cultivar Ferrovia were cloned and sequenced. The nucleotide and deduced amino-acid sequences obtained contained the structural features of rosaceous S-RNases. The isolation of the 5'-flanking sequences of these four S-RNases revealed a conserved putative TATA box and high similarity among them downstream from that sequence. However, similarity was low compared with the 5'-flanking regions of S-RNases from the Maloideae. S6- and S24-RNase sequences are highly similar, and most amino-acid substitutions among these two RNases occur outside the rosaceous hypervariable region (RHV), but within another highly variable region. The confirmation of the different specificity of these two S-RNases would help elucidate which regions of the S-RNase sequences play a role in S-pollen specific recognition.

  12. Temperature-Mediated Kill and Oviposition of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) in the Presence of Spinosad.

    PubMed

    Yee, Wee L

    2016-02-01

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran (Diptera: Tephritidae), is a quarantine pest of sweet cherry (Prunus avium (L.) L.) that is managed using insecticides, including spinosad, an organic compound that can be applied in low spray volumes. Identifying factors that can increase the efficacy of spinosad can be useful for improving fly control. Here, the major objective was to determine if temperature mediates kill and oviposition of R. indifferens in the presence of low spinosad coverage in the laboratory. Experiments were conducted by placing flies in cages with cherries and with a Petri dish containing 3-12 small spots of dry spinosad at 18.3, 23.9, and 29.4°C. Effects of spinosad rates were also determined. More flies were killed at 23.9 and 29.4°C than at 18.3°C by 1-7 d post exposure. More flies were killed at 29.4 than 23.9°C by 1 d post exposure. However, flies laid more eggs at these temperatures than at 18.3°C. Higher spinosad rates increased kill and decreased oviposition, but even within the highest rate, oviposition was greater at 29.4 than 18.3°C. More flies walked over 5-min observation periods at 29.4 and 23.9°C than 18.3°C, suggesting higher temperatures up to 29.4°C increase kill by increasing fly contact with spinosad as well as increase oviposition rate. Results suggest that spinosad rates in sprays used against R. indifferens should be greater at higher than lower ambient temperatures.

  13. [Comparison of the efficiency of polygalacturonase and beta-glucosidase enzyme preparations in stabilization of cherry plum wine material].

    PubMed

    Stepanova, E V; Landesman, E O; Fedorova, T V; Iakovleva, K E; Koroleva, O V

    2006-01-01

    Pektofoetidin and Pectinex, enzyme preparations with the highest polygalacturonase and beta-glucosidase activities, were covalently immobilized on DEAE cellulose and Aminosilochromes 10 and 30. After treatment of cherry plum wine material with the soluble and immobilized enzyme preparations, the content of phenolics increased by 26 and 40%, respectively. The increase was accompanied by a decrease in the protein content (by up to 37%), carbohydrate content (by 17% on the average), and antioxidant activity (5-37%). The most efficient treatment involved Pektofoetidin immobilized on Aminosilochrome 10. It increased the clarity of the wine material and its antioxidant activity by 100 and 10%, respectively.

  14. Accidental choke-cherry poisoning: early symptoms and neurological sequelae of an unusual case of cyanide intoxication.

    PubMed

    Pentore, R; Venneri, A; Nichelli, P

    1996-06-01

    We report the case of a 56-year-old woman who was accidentally poisoned when she ingested choke cherries whose pulp contained cyanide, and describe the acute clinical picture, the neurological sequelae and the neuroradiological findings. After recovery from coma, the patient showed signs of a parkinsonian syndrome, retrobulbar neuritis and sensory-motor neuropathy. MRI showed abnormal signal intensities involving the basal ganglia. Since no memory deficits were observed, we argue that the parkinsonian syndrome was caused by cyanide intoxication rather than by subcortical damage due to hypoxia.

  15. Improving the quality of Web surveys: the Checklist for Reporting Results of Internet E-Surveys (CHERRIES).

    PubMed

    Eysenbach, Gunther

    2004-09-29

    Analogous to checklists of recommendations such as the CONSORT statement (for randomized trials), or the QUORUM statement (for systematic reviews), which are designed to ensure the quality of reports in the medical literature, a checklist of recommendations for authors is being presented by the Journal of Medical Internet Research (JMIR) in an effort to ensure complete descriptions of Web-based surveys. Papers on Web-based surveys reported according to the CHERRIES statement will give readers a better understanding of the sample (self-)selection and its possible differences from a "representative" sample. It is hoped that author adherence to the checklist will increase the usefulness of such reports.

  16. Predicting the Timing of Cherry Blossoms in Washington, DC and Mid-Atlantic States in Response to Climate Change

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Uran; Mack, Liz; Yun, Jin I.; Kim, Soo-Hyung

    2011-01-01

    Cherry blossoms, an icon of spring, are celebrated in many cultures of the temperate region. For its sensitivity to winter and early spring temperatures, the timing of cherry blossoms is an ideal indicator of the impacts of climate change on tree phenology. Here, we applied a process-based phenology model for temperate deciduous trees to predict peak bloom dates (PBD) of flowering cherry trees (Prunus×yedoensis ‘Yoshino’ and Prunus serrulata ‘Kwanzan’) in the Tidal Basin, Washington, DC and the surrounding Mid-Atlantic States in response to climate change. We parameterized the model with observed PBD data from 1991 to 2010. The calibrated model was tested against independent datasets of the past PBD data from 1951 to 1970 in the Tidal Basin and more recent PBD data from other locations (e.g., Seattle, WA). The model performance against these independent data was satisfactory (Yoshino: r2 = 0.57, RMSE = 6.6 days, bias = 0.9 days and Kwanzan: r2 = 0.76, RMSE = 5.5 days, bias = −2.0 days). We then applied the model to forecast future PBD for the region using downscaled climate projections based on IPCC's A1B and A2 emissions scenarios. Our results indicate that PBD at the Tidal Basin are likely to be accelerated by an average of five days by 2050 s and 10 days by 2080 s for these cultivars under a mid-range (A1B) emissions scenario projected by ECHAM5 general circulation model. The acceleration is likely to be much greater (13 days for 2050 s and 29 days for 2080s ) under a higher (A2) emissions scenario projected by CGCM2 general circulation model. Our results demonstrate the potential impacts of climate change on the timing of cherry blossoms and illustrate the utility of a simple process-based phenology model for developing adaptation strategies to climate change in horticulture, conservation planning, restoration and other related disciplines. PMID:22087317

  17. Effects of gamma irradiation on physicochemical properties, antioxidant and microbial activities of sour cherry juice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjeh, Edris; Barzegar, Mohsen; Ali Sahari, Mohammad

    2015-09-01

    Recently, due to the beneficial effects of bioactive compounds, demand for minimally processed fruits and fruit juices has increased rapidly in the world. In this study, sour cherry juice (SCJ) was exposed to gamma irradiation at 0.0, 0.5, 1.5, 3.0, 4.5, and 6.0 kGy and then stored at 4 °C for 60 days. Total soluble solids (TSS), total acidity (TA), color, total phenolic content (TPC), total monomeric anthocyanin content (TMC), antioxidant activity, organic acid profile, and microbial analysis were evaluated at regular intervals during the storage. Results indicated that irradiation did not have any significant effect on TSS, while level of TA increased significantly at the dose of 6 kGy (p<0.05). Furthermore, irradiation treatment and storage time led to a significant increase in L* and b* values and a decrease in a* values. Total monomeric anthocyanin content of the irradiated SCJ was lower than that of the non-irradiated one (24% at 3.0 kGy) and also changed toward a more negative direction during the storage (63% at 3.0 kGy for 60 days). There was a significant decrease in the antioxidant activity (DPPH radical scavenging and FRAP assay) in both irradiated and stored SCJs. After irradiation (0-6 kGy), the results showed that the concentration of malic and oxalic acid significantly increased; but, the concentration of ascorbic, citric, fumaric, and succinic acids significantly decreased. Gamma irradiation with doses of ≥3 kGy resulted in overall reduction in microbial loads. Based on the results obtained from the changes of physicochemical properties, antioxidant activity, and microbial analysis, irradiation of SCJ at doses of higher than 3.0 kGy is not recommended.

  18. Rhizobium skierniewicense sp. nov., isolated from tumours on chrysanthemum and cherry plum.

    PubMed

    Puławska, Joanna; Willems, Anne; Sobiczewski, Piotr

    2012-04-01

    Three isolates of Gram-negative, rod-shaped, non-spore-forming bacteria were recovered from galls on chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum L.; Ch11T, Ch12) and cherry plum (Prunus cerasifera var. divaricata; AL9.3). All three isolates were able to cause crown galls on various plant species. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the three isolates were probably identical (100% sequence similarity) and closely related to Rhizobium rubi (99.6 %), Rhizobium radiobacter (98.7 %) and Rhizobium larrymoorei (98.1 %). Similar analysis based on the housekeeping genes glnA, gyrB and rpoB also indicated that the novel isolates were identical and closely related to R. rubi. The major cellular fatty acids of strain Ch11T were C18:1ω7c (62.1 %), summed feature 2 (comprising C12:0 aldehyde, iso-C16:1 I and/or C14:0 3-OH; 10.8 %), summed feature 3 (comprising C16:1ω7c and/or iso-C15:0 2-OH; 7.7 %) and C10:0 3-OH (7.5 %). However, the DNA-DNA relatedness between Ch11T and R. rubi LMG 156T was only 48 % and, unlike phylogenetically related established Rhizobium species, the novel isolates were able to utilize β-hydroxybutyric acid but not L-fucose. Based on the phylogenetic and phenotypic evidence, the isolates are considered to represent a single novel species of the genus Rhizobium, for which the name Rhizobium skierniewicense sp. nov. is proposed; the type strain is Ch11T (=LMG 26191T=CFBP 7420T).

  19. Natural surface coating to inactivate Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and maintain quality of cherry tomatoes.

    PubMed

    Yun, Juan; Fan, Xuetong; Li, Xihong; Jin, Tony Z; Jia, Xiaoyu; Mattheis, James P

    2015-01-16

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of zein-based coatings in reducing populations of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and preserving quality of cherry tomatoes. Tomatoes were inoculated with a cocktail of S. Typhimurium LT2 plus three attenuated strains on the smooth skin surface and stem scar area. The zein-based coatings with and without cinnamon (up to 20%) and mustard essential oil or a commercial wax formulation were applied onto tomatoes and the treated fruits were stored at 10 °C for up to 3 weeks. Populations of S. Typhimurium decreased with increased essential oil concentration and storage duration. S. Typhimurium populations on the smooth skin surface were reduced by 4.6 and 2.8 log colony forming units(CFU)/g by the zein coatings with 20% cinnamon and 20% mustard oil, respectively, 5h after coating. The same coating reduced populations of S. Typhimurium to levels below detection limit (1.0 log CFU/g) on the stem scar area of tomato during 7 days of storage at 10 °C. Salmonella populations were not reduced on fruit coated with the commercial wax. All of the coatings resulted in reduced weight loss compared with uncoated control. Compared with the control, loss of firmness and ascorbic acid during storage was prevented by all of the coatings except the zein coating with 20% mustard oil which enhanced softening. Color was not consistently affected by any of the coating treatments during 21 days of storage at 10°C. The results suggest that the zein-based coating containing cinnamon oil might be used to enhance microbial safety and quality of tomato.

  20. Carbohydrate production, balance and translocation in leaves, shoots and fruits of Montmorency sour cherry

    SciTech Connect

    Kappes, E.M.

    1986-01-01

    Carbohydrate production, export and use were studied for different organs of sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L. Montmorency). Gross carbohydrate (/sup 14/CO/sub 2/) export started between 27.2 and 77.6% of full leaf expansion. The 10th leaf developing started export later than the 7th leaf, suggesting that higher carbohydrate availability during leaf expansion delays export initiation. In support of this, gross export started earlier (44.4-52.4% full expansion) after source leaf removal, than in the control (77.6%). Translocation was primarily vertical (following orthostichies). Most leaves of fruiting shoots exported bidirectionally to the apex and fruits, only leaves closest to fruits exported exclusively to fruits during rapid cell division (Stage I) and rapid cell expansion (Stage III). Net export, determined from carbohydrate balance models started at 17 and 51% expansion for the 7th and terminal leaf, and at 26.5% of shoot elongation. Cumulative carbohydrate production of the 7th and terminal leaves during the first 9 and 11 days after emergence, exceeded carbohydrate accumulated at final size, 464.2 and 148.9 mg. A fruit carbohydrate balance was developed to determine contributions by fruit photosynthesis and fruit respiration, and to identify periods of greatest carbohydrate import. Fruit photosynthesis during development was characterized under different environmental conditions. Gross photosynthesis and chlorophyll content per fruit increased to a maximum during stage II and decreased thereafter. Gross photosynthesis approached a maximum at 40/sub 0/C. Since dark respiration increased exponentially over the same temperature range, net photosynthesis reached a maximum at 18/sup 0/C. Photorespiration was not detected.