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Sample records for acesso superior ou

  1. Pictorial Superiority Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Douglas L.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Pictures generally show superior recognition relative to their verbal labels. This experiment was designed to link this pictorial superiority effect to sensory or meaning codes associated with the two types of symbols. (Editor)

  2. Superior Vena Cava Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Trainini, Jorge Carlos; Auricchio, Renato; Del Bagno, Horacio Augusto; Federico, Vicente; Acrich, Mario Willie; Osorio, Julio Nestor

    1983-01-01

    A case of superior vena cava obstruction due to carcinoma of unknown origin is reported. A superior vena cava bypass with polytetrafluoroethylene was performed by suturing the prosthesis to the left innominate vein and the right atrium, respectively. Long-term satisfactory results were achieved. Images PMID:15227139

  3. Superiorization with level control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cegielski, Andrzej; Al-Musallam, Fadhel

    2017-04-01

    The convex feasibility problem is to find a common point of a finite family of closed convex subsets. In many applications one requires something more, namely finding a common point of closed convex subsets which minimizes a continuous convex function. The latter requirement leads to an application of the superiorization methodology which is actually settled between methods for convex feasibility problem and the convex constrained minimization. Inspired by the superiorization idea we introduce a method which sequentially applies a long-step algorithm for a sequence of convex feasibility problems; the method employs quasi-nonexpansive operators as well as subgradient projections with level control and does not require evaluation of the metric projection. We replace a perturbation of the iterations (applied in the superiorization methodology) by a perturbation of the current level in minimizing the objective function. We consider the method in the Euclidean space in order to guarantee the strong convergence, although the method is well defined in a Hilbert space.

  4. Air Superiority Fighter Characteristics.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-06-05

    many a dispute could have been deflated into a single paragraph if the disputants had just dared to define their terms.7 Aristotle ...meaningful. This section will expand on some key ideology concepts. The phrase "air superiority fighter" may bring to mind visions of fighter... biographies are useful in garnering airpower advocate theories as well as identifying key characteristics. Air campaign results, starting with World

  5. Evaporation From Lake Superior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, C.; Blanken, P.; Hedstrom, N.; Leshkevich, G.; Fortin, V.; Charpentier, D.; Haywood, H.

    2009-05-01

    Evaporation is a critical component of the water balance of each of the Laurentian Great Lakes, and understanding the magnitude and physical controls of evaporative water losses are important for several reasons. Recently, low water levels in Lakes Superior and Michigan/Huron have had socioeconomic, ecological, and even meteorological impacts (e.g. water quality and quantity, transportation, invasive species, recreation, etc.). The recent low water levels may be due to increased evaporation, but this is not known as operational evaporation estimates are currently calculated as the residual of water or heat budgets. Perhaps surprisingly, almost nothing is known about evaporation dynamics from Lake Superior and few direct measurements of evaporation have been made from any of the Laurentian Great Lakes. This research is the first to attempt to directly measure evaporation from Lake Superior by deploying eddy covariance instrumentation. Results of evaporation rates, their patterns and controlling mechanisms will be presented. The direct measurements of evaporation are used with concurrent satellite and climate model data to extrapolate evaporation measurements across the entire lake. This knowledge could improve predictions of how climate change may impact the lake's water budget and subsequently how the water in the lake is managed.

  6. Statistics of superior records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Krapivsky, P. L.

    2013-08-01

    We study statistics of records in a sequence of random variables. These identical and independently distributed variables are drawn from the parent distribution ρ. The running record equals the maximum of all elements in the sequence up to a given point. We define a superior sequence as one where all running records are above the average record expected for the parent distribution ρ. We find that the fraction of superior sequences SN decays algebraically with sequence length N, SN˜N-β in the limit N→∞. Interestingly, the decay exponent β is nontrivial, being the root of an integral equation. For example, when ρ is a uniform distribution with compact support, we find β=0.450265. In general, the tail of the parent distribution governs the exponent β. We also consider the dual problem of inferior sequences, where all records are below average, and find that the fraction of inferior sequences IN decays algebraically, albeit with a different decay exponent, IN˜N-α. We use the above statistical measures to analyze earthquake data.

  7. Superior mesenteric artery syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Giedrius, Bernotavičius; Kęstutis, Saniukas; Irena, Karmonaitė; Rimantas, Zagorskis

    2016-01-01

    Background. An obstruction of the distal part of the duodenum can occur because of the superior mesenteric artery syndrome (SMAS) after a surgical correction of scoliosis. It is essential to evaluate the risk factors and diagnose the SMAS in time because complications of this condition are life-threatening and it is associated with a high rate of morbidity. Diagnostics of the SMAS is challenging, because it is rare and its symptoms are non-specific. Therefore, in order to better understand the essence of this pathology and to make diagnosis easier we present a rare clinical case of the superior mesenteric artery syndrome after a surgical correction of neuromuscular scoliosis. The clinical case. A 12-year-old girl with a specific development disorder, sensory neuropathy and progressive kypho-scoliosis was admitted to Vilnius University Children’s Hospital. The patient had right side 50-degree thoracic scoliosis and an 80-degree thoracic kyphosis. She underwent posterior spinal fusion with hooks and screws from Th1 to L2. On the fourth day after the surgery the patient developed nausea and began to vomit each day 1-2 times per day, especially after meals. The SMAS was suspected and a nasogastric tube was inserted, stomach decompression and the correction of electrolytes disbalance were made. After the treatment, the symptoms did not recur and a satisfactory correction and balance of the spine were made in coronal and sagittal planes. Conclusions. It is extremely important to identify the risk factors of the SMAS and begin preoperative diet supplements before surgical correction of scoliosis for patients with a low body mass index. After the first episode of vomiting following the surgery, we recommend to investigate these patients for a gastrointestinal obstruction as soon as possible. Decompression of the stomach, enteral or parenteral nutrition, and fluid therapy are essential in treating the SMAS. PMID:28356803

  8. Tunable, nonlinear Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oehri, D.; Pletyukhov, M.; Gritsev, V.; Blatter, G.; Schmidt, S.

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the two-photon scattering properties of a Jaynes-Cummings (JC) nonlinearity consisting of a two-level system (qubit) interacting with a single-mode cavity, which is coupled to two waveguides, each containing a single incident photon wave packet initially. In this scattering setup, we study the interplay between the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect arising due to quantum interference and effective photon-photon interactions induced by the presence of the qubit. We calculate the two-photon scattering matrix of this system analytically and identify signatures of interference and interaction in the second-order auto- and cross-correlation functions of the scattered photons. In the dispersive regime, when qubit and cavity are far detuned from each other, we find that the JC nonlinearity can be used as an almost linear, in situ tunable beam splitter giving rise to ideal Hong-Ou-Mandel interference, generating a highly path-entangled two-photon NOON state of the scattered photons. The latter manifests itself in strongly suppressed waveguide cross-correlations and Poissonian photon number statistics in each waveguide. If the two-level system and the cavity are on resonance, the JC nonlinearity strongly modifies the ideal HOM conditions leading to a smaller degree of path entanglement and sub-Poissonian photon number statistics. In the latter regime, we find that photon blockade is associated with bunched autocorrelations in both waveguides, while a two-polariton resonance can lead to bunched as well as antibunched correlations.

  9. Atomic Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, R.; Imanaliev, A.; Aspect, A.; Cheneau, M.; Boiron, D.; Westbrook, C. I.

    2015-04-01

    Two-particle interference is a fundamental feature of quantum mechanics, and is even less intuitive than wave-particle duality for a single particle. In this duality, classical concepts--wave or particle--are still referred to, and interference happens in ordinary space-time. On the other hand, two-particle interference takes place in a mathematical space that has no classical counterpart. Entanglement lies at the heart of this interference, as it does in the fundamental tests of quantum mechanics involving the violation of Bell's inequalities. The Hong, Ou and Mandel experiment is a conceptually simpler situation, in which the interference between two-photon amplitudes also leads to behaviour impossible to describe using a simple classical model. Here we report the realization of the Hong, Ou and Mandel experiment using atoms instead of photons. We create a source that emits pairs of atoms, and cause one atom of each pair to enter one of the two input channels of a beam-splitter, and the other atom to enter the other input channel. When the atoms are spatially overlapped so that the two inputs are indistinguishable, the atoms always emerge together in one of the output channels. This result opens the way to testing Bell's inequalities involving mechanical observables of massive particles, such as momentum, using methods inspired by quantum optics, and to testing theories of the quantum-to-classical transition. Our work also demonstrates a new way to benchmark non-classical atom sources that may be of interest for quantum information processing and quantum simulation.

  10. Atomic Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment.

    PubMed

    Lopes, R; Imanaliev, A; Aspect, A; Cheneau, M; Boiron, D; Westbrook, C I

    2015-04-02

    Two-particle interference is a fundamental feature of quantum mechanics, and is even less intuitive than wave-particle duality for a single particle. In this duality, classical concepts--wave or particle--are still referred to, and interference happens in ordinary space-time. On the other hand, two-particle interference takes place in a mathematical space that has no classical counterpart. Entanglement lies at the heart of this interference, as it does in the fundamental tests of quantum mechanics involving the violation of Bell's inequalities. The Hong, Ou and Mandel experiment is a conceptually simpler situation, in which the interference between two-photon amplitudes also leads to behaviour impossible to describe using a simple classical model. Here we report the realization of the Hong, Ou and Mandel experiment using atoms instead of photons. We create a source that emits pairs of atoms, and cause one atom of each pair to enter one of the two input channels of a beam-splitter, and the other atom to enter the other input channel. When the atoms are spatially overlapped so that the two inputs are indistinguishable, the atoms always emerge together in one of the output channels. This result opens the way to testing Bell's inequalities involving mechanical observables of massive particles, such as momentum, using methods inspired by quantum optics, and to testing theories of the quantum-to-classical transition. Our work also demonstrates a new way to benchmark non-classical atom sources that may be of interest for quantum information processing and quantum simulation.

  11. Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence (SSCD)

    MedlinePlus

    ... canal that is being activated. Analysis of the eye movements evoked by sound and pressure stimuli in patients ... to the identification of this syndrome. These evoked eye movements often align with the plane of the superior ...

  12. Superior sulcus tumors (Pancoast tumors)

    PubMed Central

    Battistella, Lucia; Mammana, Marco; Calabrese, Francesca; Rea, Federico

    2016-01-01

    Superior Sulcus Tumors, frequently termed as Pancoast tumors, are a wide range of tumors invading the apical chest wall. Due to its localization in the apex of the lung, with the potential invasion of the lower part of the brachial plexus, first ribs, vertebrae, subclavian vessels or stellate ganglion, the superior sulcus tumors cause characteristic symptoms, like arm or shoulder pain or Horner’s syndrome. The management of superior sulcus tumors has dramatically evolved over the past 50 years. Originally deemed universally fatal, in 1956, Shaw and Paulson introduced a new treatment paradigm with combined radiotherapy and surgery ensuring 5-year survival of approximately 30%. During the 1990s, following the need to improve systemic as well as local control, a trimodality approach including induction concurrent chemoradiotherapy followed by surgical resection was introduced, reaching 5-year survival rates up to 44% and becoming the standard of care. Many efforts have been persecuted, also, to obtain higher complete resection rates using appropriate surgical approaches and involving multidisciplinary team including spine surgeon or vascular surgeon. Other potential treatment options are under consideration like prophylactic cranial irradiation or the addition of other chemotherapy agents or biologic agents to the trimodality approach. PMID:27429965

  13. INTERDEPENDENT SUPERIORITY AND INFERIORITY FEELINGS

    PubMed Central

    Ingham, Harrington V.

    1949-01-01

    It is postulated that in neurotic persons who have unrealistic feelings of superiority and inferiority the two are interdependent. This is a departure from the concept of previous observers that either one or the other is primary and its opposite is overcompensation. The author postulates considerable parallelism, with equal importance for each. He submits that the neurotic person forms two logic-resistant compartments for the two opposed self-estimates and that treatment which makes inroads of logic upon one compartment, simultaneously does so upon the other. Two examples are briefly reported. The neurotic benefits sought in exaggeration of capability are the same as those sought in insistence upon inferiority: Presumption of superiority at once bids for approbation and delivers the subject from the need to prove himself worthy of it in dreaded competition; exaggeration of incapability baits sympathy and makes competition unnecessary because failure is conceded. Some of the characteristics of abnormal self-estimates that distinguish them from normal are: Preoccupation with self, resistance to logical explanation of personality problems, inconsistency in reasons for beliefs in adequacy on the one hand and inadequacy on the other, unreality, rationalization of faults, and difficulty and vacillation in the selection of adequate goals. PMID:15390573

  14. Superior Barrel & Drum, Elk Township, New Jersey

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Superior Barrel and Drum Superfund site is a 5.5-acre property located in Elk Township, Gloucester County, New Jersey. Superior Barrel and Drum is listed as a drum reconditioning business. These facilities typically clean and recondition metal

  15. 76 FR 11193 - Superior Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Superior Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Superior Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Duluth, Minnesota. The...

  16. Sidi Ali Ou Azza (L4): A New Moroccan Fall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chennaoui Aoudjehane, H.; Agee, C. B.; Aaranson, A.; Bouragaa, A.

    2016-08-01

    Sidi Ali Ou Azza is the latest meteorite fall in Morocco, it occurred on 28 July 2015 very close (about 40 km) to Tissint martian shergottite fall that occurred on 18 July 2011. It's one of the small group of 23 L4 ordinary chondrite falls.

  17. 75 FR 65296 - Superior Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ...: Lisa Radosevich-Craig, Partnership Coordinator & Tribal Liaison, Superior National Forest Headquarters...., Eastern Standard Time, Monday through Friday. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The meeting is open to the...

  18. Superior Electrical Contractors Inc. Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Superior Electrical Contractors Inc. (the Company) is located in Boise, Idaho. The settlement involves renovation activities conducted at a property constructed prior to 1978, located in Boise, Idaho.

  19. Hemispheric superiority for processing a mirror image.

    PubMed

    Garren, R B; Gehlsen, G M

    1981-04-01

    39 adult subjects were administered a test using tachistoscopic half-field presentations to determine hemispheric dominance and a mirror-tracing task to determine if an hemispheric superiority exists for processing a mirror-image. The results indicate superiority of the nondominant hemisphere for this task.

  20. Rehearsal Characteristics of "Superior" Band Directors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juchniewicz, Jay; Kelly, Steven N.; Acklin, Amy I.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the rehearsal characteristics of "superior" middle and high school band directors. A total of 131 respondents from Florida, Kentucky, and North Carolina who received a "superior" rating for 4 out of the past 5 years, completed an open-ended essay question online asking them to…

  1. Lake Effects: The Lake Superior Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beery, Tom; And Others

    This curriculum guide was launched in response to a need for Lake Superior-specific educational materials and contains lessons and activities that can be used to teach about Lake Superior. The lessons in this book are divided into four sections. Each of the first three sections has a background section that provides basic information about Lake…

  2. STATUS OF MYSIS RELICTA IN LAKE SUPERIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    The status of different components of the lower food web is reported for Lake Superior. Results are preliminary summaries from the Binational collaboration in 2005, which measured the lower food web at the request of the Lake Superior Fisheries Technical Committee and Lake Superi...

  3. Remodelling of the Superior Caval Vein After Angioplasty in an Infant with Superior Caval Vein Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Mert, Murat Saltik, Levent; Gunay, Ilhan

    2004-08-15

    An 8-month old girl was presented with superior caval vein syndrome early after cardiac surgery. Angiography showed severe stenosis of the superior caval vein with 50 mmHg pressure gradient. Following balloon angioplasty, the pressure gradient was reduced to 7 mmHg with some residual stenosis of the superior caval vein. When the patient was reevaluated 5 months after the procedure, angiography revealed a normal diameter of the superior caval vein without a pressure gradient.

  4. Eielson Air Force Base OU-1 baseline risk assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Jarvis, M.T.; Jarvis, T.T.; Van Houten, N.C.; Lewis, R.E.

    1993-09-01

    This Baseline Risk Assessment report is the second volume in a set of three volumes for operable Unit 1 (OU-1). The companion documents contain the Remedial Investigation and the Feasibility Study. Operable Unit 1 (OU-1) is one of several groups of hazardous waste sites located at Eielson Air Force Base (AFB) near Fairbanks, Alaska. The operable units at Eielson are typically characterized by petroleum, oil, lubricant/solvent contamination, and by the presence of organics floating at the water table. In 1989 and 1990, firms under contract to the Air Force conducted field studies to gather information about the extent of chemical contamination in soil, groundwater, and soil air pore space (soil gas) at the site. This report documents the results of a baseline risk assessment, which uses the 1989 and 1991 site characterization database to quantify the potential human health risk associated with past Base industrial activities in the vicinity of OU-1. Background data collected in 1992 were also used in the preparation of this report.

  5. Graduated recession of the superior oblique muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Caldeira, J A

    1975-01-01

    Recession of the superior oblique was performed bilaterally in 12 patients with the A phenomenon and unilaterally in four patients with vertical imbalance. The results are discussed. Images PMID:1191613

  6. Superior Restoration & Construction, LLC Information Sheet

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Superior Restoration & Construction, LLC (the Company) is located in Overland Park, Kansas. The Complaint involves renovation activities conducted at property constructed prior to 1978, located in Kansas City, Missouri.

  7. Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Lake Superior Aquatic Invasive Species Complete Prevention Plan is an expression of the best professional judgment of the members of the Lake Superior Task Force as to what is necessary to protect Lake Superior from new aquatic invasive species.

  8. Differentiation in Coregonus zenithicus in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Todd, Thomas N.; Smith, Gerald R.

    1980-01-01

    Morphological variation in Coregonus zenithicus has long plagued biologists working on Lake Superior ciscoes. Some of this variation is due to allometric growth; earlier workers incorrectly recognized large C. zenithicus as a distinct species, C. nigripinnis cyanopterus. Coregonus reighardi dymondi is a variant of C. zenithicus in northern bays of Lake Superior and Lake Nipigon. The morphological differences between members of spring and fall spawning populations of C. zenithicus in Lake Superior are no greater than those between geographically separate populations. We conclude that spawning time and geographic isolation act similarly in effecting differentiation of coregonine populations, and that populations with different spawning times do not necessarily represent different species.Key words: Coregonus zenithicus, cisco, Great Lakes, multivariate morphometrics, endangered species, taxonomy

  9. The picture superiority effect in associative recognition.

    PubMed

    Hockley, William E

    2008-10-01

    The picture superiority effect has been well documented in tests of item recognition and recall. The present study shows that the picture superiority effect extends to associative recognition. In three experiments, students studied lists consisting of random pairs of concrete words and pairs of line drawings; then they discriminated between intact (old) and rearranged (new) pairs of words and pictures at test. The discrimination advantage for pictures over words was seen in a greater hit rate for intact picture pairs, but there was no difference in the false alarm rates for the two types of stimuli. That is, there was no mirror effect. The same pattern of results was found when the test pairs consisted of the verbal labels of the pictures shown at study (Experiment 4), indicating that the hit rate advantage for picture pairs represents an encoding benefit. The results have implications for theories of the picture superiority effect and models of associative recognition.

  10. The state of Lake Superior in 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hansen, Michael J.

    1994-01-01

    The Lake Superior fish community in 1992 is substantially different than it was a half century ago and is far from a state desired by management agencies. Fish-community objectives were established for Lake Superior in response to A Joint Strategic Plan for Management of Great Lakes Fisheries (Great Lakes Fishery Commission 1980) and are the template for this report on the state of the lake. Reporting on progress toward meeting stated goals and objectives will focus attention on critical fishery issues and enhance understanding among fishery- and environmental-management agencies, political bodies, and the public.

  11. Superior sinus of the pericardium: CT appearance

    SciTech Connect

    Aronberg, D.J.; Peterson, R.R.; Glazer, H.S.; Sagel, S.S.

    1984-11-01

    On computed tomography, a mass-like density is often observed, just posterior to the ascending aorta, that occasionally has been mistaken for mediastinal lymph node enlargement. Cadaver studies confirmed this retroaortic structure to be an extension of the periocardial cavity, the superior sinus. Anatomic studies revealed the presence of a superior sinus in all of the 28 cadavers studied. Retrospective review of 116 consecutive adult chest computed tomographic examinations disclosed its presence in 49%. This normal variant has a characteristic location, shape, and attenuation value by CT that should allow recognition and prevent misinterpretation.

  12. Magnetic resonance imaging evaluation of meniscoid superior labrum: normal variant or superior labral tear*

    PubMed Central

    Simão, Marcelo Novelino; Vinson, Emily N.; Spritzer, Charles E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study was to determine the incidence of a "meniscoid" superior labrum. Materials and Methods This was a retrospective analysis of 582 magnetic resonance imaging examinations of shoulders. Of those 582 examinations, 110 were excluded, for a variety of reasons, and the final analysis therefore included 472 cases. Consensus readings were performed by three musculoskeletal radiologists using specific criteria to diagnose meniscoid labra. Results A meniscoid superior labrum was identified in 48 (10.2%) of the 472 cases evaluated. Arthroscopic proof was available in 21 cases (43.8%). In 10 (47.6%) of those 21 cases, the operative report did not include the mention a superior labral tear, thus suggesting the presence of a meniscoid labrum. In only one of those cases were there specific comments about a mobile superior labrum (i.e., meniscoid labrum). In the remaining 11 (52.4%), surgical correlation demonstrated superior labral tears. Conclusion A meniscoid superior labrum is not an infrequent finding. Depending upon assumptions and the requirement of surgical proof, the prevalence of a meniscoid superior labrum in this study was between 2.1% (surgically proven) and 4.8% (projected). However, superior labral tears are just as common and are often confused with meniscoid labra. PMID:27777474

  13. Hong-Ou-Mandel Interference with a Single Atom

    PubMed Central

    Ralley, K. A.; Lerner, I. V.; Yurkevich, I. V.

    2015-01-01

    The Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect is widely regarded as the quintessential quantum interference phenomenon in optics. In this work we examine how nonlinearity can smear statistical photon bunching in the HOM interferometer. We model both the nonlinearity and a balanced beam splitter with a single two-level system and calculate a finite probability of anti-bunching arising in this geometry. We thus argue that the presence of such nonlinearity would reduce the visibility in the standard HOM setup, offering some explanation for the diminution of the HOM visibility observed in many experiments. We use the same model to show that the nonlinearity affects a resonant two-photon propagation through a two-level impurity in a waveguide due to a “weak photon blockade” caused by the impossibility of double-occupancy and argue that this effect might be stronger for multi-photon propagation. PMID:26365761

  14. Hong-Ou-Mandel Interference with a Single Atom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ralley, K. A.; Lerner, I. V.; Yurkevich, I. V.

    2015-09-01

    The Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect is widely regarded as the quintessential quantum interference phenomenon in optics. In this work we examine how nonlinearity can smear statistical photon bunching in the HOM interferometer. We model both the nonlinearity and a balanced beam splitter with a single two-level system and calculate a finite probability of anti-bunching arising in this geometry. We thus argue that the presence of such nonlinearity would reduce the visibility in the standard HOM setup, offering some explanation for the diminution of the HOM visibility observed in many experiments. We use the same model to show that the nonlinearity affects a resonant two-photon propagation through a two-level impurity in a waveguide due to a “weak photon blockade” caused by the impossibility of double-occupancy and argue that this effect might be stronger for multi-photon propagation.

  15. Geology and hydrocarbon potential of the Oued Mya basin, Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Benamrane, O.; Messaoudi, M.; Messelles, H. )

    1993-09-01

    The Oued Mya hydrocarbon system is located in the Sahara basin. It is one of the best producing basins in Algeria, along with the Ghadames and Illizi basins. The stratigraphic section consists of Paleozoic and Mesozoic, and is about 5000 m thick. This intracratonic basin is limited to the north by the Toughourt saddle, and to the west and east it is flanked by regional arches, Allal-Tilghemt and Amguid-Hassi Messaoud, which culminate in the super giant Hassi Messaoud and Hassi R'mel hydrocarbon accumulations, respectively, producing oil from the Cambrian sands and gas from the Trissic sands. The primary source rock in this basin is lower Silurian shale, with an average thickness of 50 m and a total organic carbon of 6% (14% in some cases). Results of maturation modeling indicate that the lower Silurian source is in the oil window. The Ordovician shales are also source rocks, but in a second order. Clastic reservoirs are in the Trissic sequence, which is mainly fluvial deposits with complex alluvial channels, and the main target in the basin. Clastic reservoirs in the lower Devonian section have a good hydrocarbon potential east of the basin through a southwest-northwest orientation. The Late Trissic-Early Jurassic evaporites that overlie the Triassic clastic interval and extend over the entire Oued Mya basin, are considered to be a super-seal evaporite package, which consists predominantly of anhydrite and halite. For paleozoic targets, a large number of potential seals exist within the stratigraphic column. This super seal does not present oil dismigration possibilities. We can infer that a large amount of the oil generated by the Silurian source rock from the beginning of Cretaceous until now still is not discovered and significantly greater volumes could be trapped within structure closures and mixed or stratigraphic traps related to the fluvial Triassic sandstones, marine Devonian sands, and Cambrian-Ordovician reservoirs.

  16. Ecology of Lake Superior: Preface and Prospectus

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Special Issue of Aquatic Ecosystem Health and Management (AEHM) is the first of a two-volume set based on papers presented at a three-day International Conference in Duluth MN held in June 2010, and titled “Ecology of Lake Superior: Integrated Approaches and Challenges for t...

  17. Amnestying Superiority Violations: Processing Multiple Questions

    PubMed Central

    Clifton, Charles; Fanselow, Gisbert; Frazier, Lyn

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the acceptability of multiple questions. As expected, sentences violating the Superiority Condition were accepted less often than sentences obeying it. The status of the Superiority violations was not improved by the addition of a third wh, regardless of whether the third wh was an adjunct or an argument, though it was improved by the addition of a second question (e.g., and when). Further, in a small pilot study directly comparing a sentence with adjacent final wh-phrases that may induce a stress clash (I’d like to know who hid it where when) with a sentence violating Superiority but avoiding the final adjacent wh-phrases (I’d like to know where who hid it when), half the participants indicated that the Superiority violation sentence sounded better. This suggests that the status of some additional-wh sentences may appear to improve simply because the comparison sentence with adjacent final wh-phrases is degraded. Overall, the results of the studies suggest that there is no need to complicate syntactic theory to account for the additional-wh effect, because there is no general additional-wh effect. PMID:17356682

  18. [Anatomicosurgical study of the superior mesenteric vein].

    PubMed

    Dell'Isola, C; Tucci, G F

    1991-01-01

    Results of an autoptic study of the superior mesenteric vein in thirty cadavers are reported. The anatomo-surgical patterns of the venous axis are emphasized. In fact, a better knowledge of this vessel allows an easier and safer surgical approach during pancreatic resections.

  19. Sleep Patterns in Children of Superior Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busby, K.; Pivik, R. T.

    1983-01-01

    To examine the relationship between superior intellectual functioning and physiological patterns and events during sleep, sleep records made on five consecutive nights and based on standard electrographic measures were made for 11 male children between 8 and 12 years of age. (RH)

  20. 78 FR 21116 - Superior Supplier Incentive Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-09

    ..., performance, quality, and business relations would be granted Superior Supplier Status (SSS). Contractors that achieve SSS could receive more favorable contract terms and conditions in DoN contracts. In addition to recognition of SSS at the business unit level, multi-business unit corporations, that have several...

  1. COSEE Superior Creates Passion for Science

    EPA Science Inventory

    COSEE was a transformative educational experience that has changed the way I teach. In July, I participated in the COSEE Lake Superior Shipboard and Shoreline Science program. I spent a week on the US EPA’s R/V Lake Guardian with 14 other teachers and a crew of sailors and scient...

  2. The Picture Superiority Effect and Biological Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses learning behaviors where the "picture superiority effect" (PSE) seems to be most effective in biology education. Also considers research methodology and suggests a new research model which allows a more direct examination of the strategies learners use when matching up picture and text in efforts to "understand"…

  3. Reperfusion Hemorrhage Following Superior Mesenteric Artery Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Michael; McSweeney, Sean; Fulton, Gregory; Buckley, John; Maher, Michael Guiney, Michael

    2008-07-15

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stent placement is now an established treatment option for chronic mesenteric ischemia and is associated with low mortality and morbidity rates. We present a case of reperfusion hemorrhage complicating endovascular repair of superior mesenteric artery stenosis. Although a recognized complication following repair of carotid stenosis, hemorrhage has not previously been reported following mesenteric endovascular reperfusion. We describe both spontaneous cessation of bleeding and treatment with coil embolization.

  4. Gamma rays produce superior seedless citrus

    SciTech Connect

    Pyrah, D.

    1984-10-01

    Using gamma radiation, seedless forms of some varieties of oranges and grapefruit are being produced. Since it has long been known that radiation causes mutations in plants and animals, experiments were conducted to determine if seediness could be altered by exposing seeds or budwood to higher than natural doses of gamma radiation. Orange and grapefruit seeds and cuttings exposed to gamma rays in the early 1970's have produced trees that bear fruit superior to that now on the market.

  5. Birds of Isle Royale in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krefting, L.W.; Lee, F.B.; Shelton, P.C.; Gilbert, K.T.

    1966-01-01

    This report constitutes an annotated list of 197 species of birds reported from Isle Royale National Park, a 210-square-mile archipelago in northwestern Lake Superior including some 200 islets and rock outcrops. The island is 45 miles long and 8 miles wide at its widest point. Bird distribution and habitats are described, along with geography and vegetation; 62 species are known to have bred at least once, 26 are thought to be breeders, and the rest are migrants.

  6. Resolution of superior oblique myokymia with memantine.

    PubMed

    Jain, Saurabh; Farooq, Shegufta J; Gottlob, Irene

    2008-02-01

    We describe a novel treatment of superior oblique myokymia. A 40-year-old woman was treated with gabapentin for this disorder with partial success and reported significant side effects including loss of libido and weight gain. After a drug holiday, memantine therapy was initiated resulting in a substantial improvement in her symptoms with far fewer side effects and stability on long-term maintenance therapy.

  7. Hong Ou Mandel interferometer: A quantum measurement tool

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borjemscaia, Natalia

    Quantum computing research has been around for several decades, since it was first proposed by Richard Feynman. Many efforts have been made to utilize quantum systems in creation of new computing devices in the recent years. One of the essential tools used for characterization and manipulation of optical quantum systems is a Hong Ou Mandel (HOM) Interferometer. It is used in this work to provide information about propagation, distortion and degree of indistinguishability of single photons. This work provides complete characterization of an optical tunneling effect in dielectric Bragg gratings. Samples with different thin film configurations are examined and their corresponding propagation delay times are calculated with sub-femtosecond precision. It is determined that for specific configurations for dielectric stacks, propagation delays can exhibit superluminal behavior. The distortion due to this effect is also calculated using HOM profiles. HOM interferometer is also used to calculate the degree of coalescence between two dissimilar sources. Single photons generated by quantum dot emission and parametric down conversion are tailored through aggressive filtering techniques to be identical in their spectral, temporal and polarization profiles. The degree of their coalescence is then calculated in an attempt to create quantum interference. This work attempts to provide better understanding of single photon interactions through use of an HOM interferometer.

  8. The Holocene Paleolimnology of Lake Superior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyodo, A.; Longstaffe, F. J.

    2010-12-01

    This study describes contributions of glacial meltwater to Lake Superior over the last 11,000 cal BP. Rhythmites (interpreted as varves), lithological and mineralogical variations, and radiocarbon dating were used to establish chronostratigraphic correlation among four sediment cores from Lake Superior (Duluth, Caribou and Ile Parisienne basins, Thunder Bay Trough). Glacial sediments were deposited between 10,850 and 8,800 cal BP. The oxygen-isotope compositions of ostracodes record the presence of glacial meltwater in ancient Lake Superior as the Laurentide Ice Sheet waxed and waned. Glacial meltwater was increasingly dominant between ~10,850 and ~9,250 cal BP, particularly as thick varves formed in northern portions of the Lake Superior Basin (10,400-10,200, 9,900 and 9,300-9,200 cal BP). Glacial meltwater supply was reduced in the Thunder Bay Trough between 9,250 and 8,950 cal BP, but returned from 8,950 to 8,800 cal BP. Glacial meltwater flow from the Lake Superior Basin probably bypassed the Huron Basin several times during this period. Final termination of glacial meltwater supply occurred at 8,800 cal BP - coincident with cessation of varve formation and inception of ancient Lakes Agassiz-Ojibway and Houghton. Primary productivity was very low and algal growth occurred under conditions of extreme nitrogen deficiency - as determined using TOC, TN and C/N ratios - until glacial meltwater supply to the Basin was ended. The postglacial sediments are non-calcareous. The diatom silica proxy record shows that oxygen-isotope compositions of water rapidly increased after glacial meltwater termination, reaching -10 per mil during the Holocene Thermal Maximum. The oxygen-isotope compositions of water decreased at 3,000 cal BP in response to the Holocene Neoglacial Interval before gradually rising to Lake Superior’s modern value of -8.7 per mil. Aquatic primary productivity, inferred using TOC, TN, and the carbon- and nitrogen isotope compositions, has increased

  9. Extraocular Muscle Compartments in Superior Oblique Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Suh, Soh Youn; Clark, Robert A.; Le, Alan; Demer, Joseph L.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To investigate changes in volumes of extraocular muscle (EOM) compartments in unilateral superior oblique (SO) palsy using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods High-resolution, surface-coil MRI was obtained in 19 patients with unilateral SO palsy and 19 age-matched orthotropic control subjects. Rectus EOMs and the SO were divided into two anatomic compartments for volume analysis in patients with unilateral SO palsy, allowing comparison of total compartmental volumes versus controls. Medial and lateral compartmental volumes of the SO muscle were compared in patients with isotropic (round shape) versus anisotropic (elongated shape) SO atrophy. Results The medial and lateral compartments of the ipsilesional SO muscles were equally atrophic in isotropic SO palsy, whereas the lateral compartment was significantly smaller than the medial in anisotropic SO palsy (P = 0.01). In contrast to the SO, there were no differential compartmental volume changes in rectus EOMs; however, there was significant total muscle hypertrophy in the ipsilesional inferior rectus (IR) and lateral rectus (LR) muscles and contralesional superior rectus (SR) muscles. Medial rectus (MR) volume was normal both ipsi- and contralesionally. Conclusions A subset of patients with SO palsy exhibit selective atrophy of the lateral, predominantly vertically acting SO compartment. Superior oblique atrophy is associated with whole-muscle volume changes in the ipsilesional IR, ipsilesional LR, and contralesional SR; however, SO muscle atrophy is not associated with compartmentally selective volume changes in the rectus EOMs. Selective compartmental SO pathology may provide an anatomic mechanism that explains some of the variability in clinical presentations of SO palsy. PMID:27768791

  10. Motor Functions of the Superior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Neeraj J.; Katnani, Husam A.

    2013-01-01

    The mammalian superior colliculus (SC) and its nonmammalian homolog, the optic tectum, constitute a major node in processing sensory information, incorporating cognitive factors, and issuing motor commands. The resulting action—to orient toward or away from a stimulus—can be accomplished as an integrated movement across oculomotor, cephalomotor, and skeletomotor effectors. The SC also participates in preserving fixation during intersaccadic intervals. This review highlights the repertoire of movements attributed to SC function and analyzes the significance of results obtained from causality-based experiments (microstimulation and inactivation). The mechanisms potentially used to decode the population activity in the SC into an appropriate movement command are also discussed. PMID:21456962

  11. CSF hydrodynamics in superior sagittal sinus thrombosis.

    PubMed Central

    Kristensen, B; Malm, J; Markgren, P; Ekstedt, J

    1992-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid hydrodynamics were investigated with a constant pressure infusion method in patients with superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. Ten patients were studied with serial examinations up to 15 years after the onset of the disease. A total of 70 CSF hydrodynamic examinations were performed. A clear increase in intracranial pressure due to raised pressure in the major dural sinus was seen in all patients. A striking feature was the persistent intracranial pressure increase that declined only gradually. This had no obvious clinical impact. Change in CSF resorption facility played only a minor role in the intracranial pressure elevation. None of the patients developed hydrocephalus. PMID:1583513

  12. HARVEST STATES GRAIN COOPERATIVES, SUPERIOR WISCONSIN; CONSTRUCTED OVER VARIOUS DATES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    HARVEST STATES GRAIN COOPERATIVES, SUPERIOR WISCONSIN; CONSTRUCTED OVER VARIOUS DATES BEGINNING IN 1942; LEFT SLIP (HUGHITT AVENUE) RIGHT SLIP (TOWER AVENUE) - Cenex-Harvest States Grain Cooperatives, Dock Street between Hughitt Avenue & Tower Avenue slips, Superior, Douglas County, WI

  13. 15. Stress Sheet, Truss number 2, span number 6, Superior ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Stress Sheet, Truss number 2, span number 6, Superior Avenue viaduct. Drawing courtesy Engineering Dept., City of Cleveland. - Superior Avenue Viaduct, Cleveland East & West side, Cuyahoga Valley Vicinity, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  14. Monitoring Land Cover Change in the Lake Superior Basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lake Superior is the largest freshwater lake in the world by area and the third largest by volume. It is also the most pristine of the Great Lakes (Lake Superior Lakewide Management Plan 2006). Even still, Lake Superior is not without its threats ranging from chemical contamina...

  15. 14 CFR 385.7 - Exercise of authority by superiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Exercise of authority by superiors. 385.7... Exercise of authority by superiors. Any assignment of authority to a staff member other than the Chief... Department's principle of management responsibility, the superior may choose to exercise the assigned...

  16. 14 CFR 385.7 - Exercise of authority by superiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Exercise of authority by superiors. 385.7... Exercise of authority by superiors. Any assignment of authority to a staff member other than the Chief... Department's principle of management responsibility, the superior may choose to exercise the assigned...

  17. 14 CFR 385.7 - Exercise of authority by superiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Exercise of authority by superiors. 385.7... Exercise of authority by superiors. Any assignment of authority to a staff member other than the Chief... Department's principle of management responsibility, the superior may choose to exercise the assigned...

  18. 14 CFR 385.7 - Exercise of authority by superiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Exercise of authority by superiors. 385.7... Exercise of authority by superiors. Any assignment of authority to a staff member other than the Chief... Department's principle of management responsibility, the superior may choose to exercise the assigned...

  19. 14 CFR 385.7 - Exercise of authority by superiors.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Exercise of authority by superiors. 385.7... Exercise of authority by superiors. Any assignment of authority to a staff member other than the Chief... Department's principle of management responsibility, the superior may choose to exercise the assigned...

  20. Cytoarchitecture of the human superior olivary complex: medial and lateral superior olive.

    PubMed

    Kulesza, Randy J

    2007-03-01

    The superior olivary complex is a group of brainstem nuclei involved in hearing and includes the medial superior olive (MSO) and the lateral superior olive (LSO), surrounded by periolivary cell groups. The structure and functional roles of the MSO and LSO have been the subject of many investigations in laboratory animals and it has largely been assumed that these findings are directly transferable to humans. However, little is known conclusively regarding the detailed organization of the human superior olivary complex. The goal of this study is to provide a detailed analysis of the cytoarchitecture of the human MSO and LSO. Results from the examination of eight human brainstems confirm the existence of a conserved MSO and provide evidence of a prominent and highly ordered LSO. Unbiased stereological estimates of neuronal number indicate approximately 15,500 neurons in the MSO and 5600 neurons in the LSO. Additionally, a three-dimensional model of the MSO and LSO was constructed and provides evidence that the human LSO is composed of medial and lateral segments. Finally, an analysis of neuronal morphology, in Nissl stained and Golgi impregnated tissue, provides evidence of multiple neuronal classes within each nucleus and further that these neurons demonstrate a precise geometric arrangement (depending on the nucleus) that is suggestive of isofrequency laminae.

  1. Spontaneous Isolated Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Nath, Anand; Yewale, Sayali; Kousha, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    A true isolated superior mesenteric artery (SMA) dissection is a rare occurrence. The increasing use of diagnostic imaging studies has resulted in this rare disease being more recognized. A 68-year-old Caucasian female presented with sharp upper abdominal pain. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed dissection with thrombosis in the proximal SMA. Conservative management with bowel rest, blood pressure control, and anticoagulation relieved her symptoms. Follow-up CT showed stable dissection. Physicians should consider the diagnosis of isolated spontaneous SMA dissection after excluding more common causes. The optimal management pathway has not been firmly established. Conservative management with anticoagulation appears to be a safe first-line therapy in selected patients. PMID:28203123

  2. Superior colliculus and visual spatial attention.

    PubMed

    Krauzlis, Richard J; Lovejoy, Lee P; Zénon, Alexandre

    2013-07-08

    The superior colliculus (SC) has long been known to be part of the network of brain areas involved in spatial attention, but recent findings have dramatically refined our understanding of its functional role. The SC both implements the motor consequences of attention and plays a crucial role in the process of target selection that precedes movement. Moreover, even in the absence of overt orienting movements, SC activity is related to shifts of covert attention and is necessary for the normal control of spatial attention during perceptual judgments. The neuronal circuits that link the SC to spatial attention may include attention-related areas of the cerebral cortex, but recent results show that the SC's contribution involves mechanisms that operate independently of the established signatures of attention in visual cortex. These findings raise new issues and suggest novel possibilities for understanding the brain mechanisms that enable spatial attention.

  3. Lightning activity during the 1999 Superior derecho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Colin G.; Murphy, Brian P.

    2002-12-01

    On 4 July 1999, a severe convective windstorm, known as a derecho, caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators of severe weather.

  4. Lightning Activity During the 1999 Superior Derecho

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, C. G.; Murphy, B. P.

    2002-12-01

    On 4 July 1999, a severe convective windstorm, known as a derecho, caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators of severe weather.

  5. Superior calcium homeostasis of extraocular muscles.

    PubMed

    Zeiger, Ulrike; Mitchell, Claire H; Khurana, Tejvir S

    2010-11-01

    Extraocular muscles (EOMs) are a unique group of skeletal muscles with unusual physiological properties such as being able to undergo rapid twitch contractions over extended periods and escape damage in the presence of excess intracellular calcium (Ca(2+)) in Duchenne's muscular dystrophy (DMD). Enhanced Ca(2+) buffering has been proposed as a contributory mechanism to explain these properties; however, the mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated mechanisms modulating Ca(2+) levels in EOM and tibialis anterior (TA) limb muscles. Using Fura-2 based ratiometric Ca(2+) imaging of primary myotubes we found that EOM myotubes reduced elevated Ca(2+) ˜2-fold faster than TA myotubes, demonstrating more efficient Ca(2+) buffering. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) and western blotting revealed higher expression of key components of the Ca(2+) regulation system in EOM, such as the cardiac/slow isoforms sarcoplasmic Ca(2+)-ATPase 2 (Serca2) and calsequestrin 2 (Casq2). Interestingly EOM expressed monomeric rather than multimeric forms of phospholamban (Pln), which was phosphorylated at threonine 17 (Thr17) but not at the serine 16 (Ser16) residue. EOM Pln remained monomeric and unphosphorylated at Ser16 despite protein kinase A (PKA) treatment, suggesting differential signalling and modulation cascades involving Pln-mediated Ca(2+) regulation in EOM. Increased expression of Ca(2+)/SR mRNA, proteins, differential post-translational modification of Pln and superior Ca(2+) buffering is consistent with the improved ability of EOM to handle elevated intracellular Ca(2+) levels. These characteristics provide mechanistic insight for the potential role of superior Ca(2+) buffering in the unusual physiology of EOM and their sparing in DMD.

  6. STEREO Superior Solar Conjunction Mission Phase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ossing, Daniel A.; Wilson, Daniel; Balon, Kevin; Hunt, Jack; Dudley, Owen; Chiu, George; Coulter, Timothy; Reese, Angel; Cox, Matthew; Srinivasan, Dipak; Denissen, Ronald; Quinn, David A.

    2017-01-01

    With its long duration and high gain antenna (HGA) feed thermal constraint; the NASA Solar-TErestrial RElations Observatory (STEREO) solar conjunction mission phase is quite unique to deep space operations. Originally designed for a two year heliocentric orbit mission to primarily study coronal mass ejection propagation, after 8 years of continuous science data collection, the twin STEREO observatories entered the solar conjunction mission phase, for which they were not designed. Nine months before entering conjunction, an unforeseen thermal constraint threatened to stop daily communications and science data collection for 15months. With a 3.5 month long communication blackout from the superior solar conjunction, without ground commands, each observatory will reset every 3 days, resulting in 35 system resets at an Earth range of 2 AU. As the observatories will be conjoined for the first time in 8 years, a unique opportunity for calibrating the same instruments on identical spacecraft will occur. As each observatory has lost redundancy, and with only a limited fidelity hardware simulator, how can the new observatory configuration be adequately and safely tested on each spacecraft? Without ground commands, how would a 3-axis stabilized spacecraft safely manage the ever accumulating system momentum without using propellant for thrusters? Could science data still be collected for the duration of the solar conjunction mission phase? Would the observatories survive? In its second extended mission, operational resources were limited at best. This paper discusses the solutions to the STEREO superior solar conjunction operational challenges, science data impact, testing, mission operations, results, and lessons learned while implementing.

  7. The palaeoproductivity of ancient Lake Superior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyodo, Ayumi; Longstaffe, Fred J.

    2011-10-01

    We examine here variations in the organic carbon and nitrogen contents and isotopic compositions of Lake Superior sediments over the last 10,600 years, using bulk organic matter from four cores distributed across the Lake Superior Basin. Very low Organic Carbon (OC) and Total Nitrogen (TN) contents but high C org Mass Accumulation Rates (MARs) characterize these sediments until glacial meltwater supply to the Basin ended at ˜9000-8700 cal BP. The C/N ratios for organic matter from the glacial sediments span the range known both for organic matter adsorbed on soil clays and lacustrine algae grown under conditions of nitrogen deficiency. Organic matter in the glacial sediments has more-or-less uniform carbon-isotope compositions (˜-27‰), perhaps associated with a steady flux of soil clays. Coexisting ostracode valves vary by in carbon isotopic composition by as much as 5‰, particularly between 10,600 and 10,400 cal BP, reflecting changing DIC sources at this time. In the postglacial sediments, the C org MARs decreased sharply from glacial levels. The OC and TN concentrations increased steadily until ˜6000 cal BP, after which OC and TN concentrations either stabilized or increased at a slower rate. The C/N ratios of the postglacial organic matter (mostly <10) are typical of lacustrine algae. The carbon-isotope compositions of bulk organic matter in the postglacial sediments immediately after the end of glacial meltwater supply are lower (-29‰) than those of underlying glacial sediments. An upward increase in the carbon-isotope compositions within the postglacial sediments serves to characterize increasing primary productivity in the lake. This observation is supported by the small but steady rise in the nitrogen-isotope compositions of bulk organic matter in the postglacial sediments towards present time.

  8. Shouldice is superior to Bassini inguinal herniorrhaphy.

    PubMed

    Kux, M; Fuchsjäger, N; Schemper, M

    1994-07-01

    The original Bassini and Shouldice methods for inguinal herniorrhaphy were tested against each other and against their respective variants that avoid permanent suturing of the internal oblique muscle. Seven hundred fifty inguinal hernia repairs were prospectively allocated to 1 of 4 groups: group A: Bassini with absorbable sutures (polyglycolic acid); group B: Bassini with nonabsorbable sutures (polyester); group C: Shouldice with four rows of polypropylene sutures; and group D: Shouldice with two rows of polypropylene sutures. Outcome was correlated to prospectively defined types and risk factors such as direct hernia, repair for recurrent hernia, hernial sac diameter greater than 8 cm, age greater than 70 years, overweight, and chronic bronchitis. Actual (not actuarial) recurrence rates were determined through clinical examination by hospital staff surgeons (not through information by letter or phone) for 93.6% of surviving patients. Local complications exclusive of recurrence, but including the redoubtable and litigious sequelae of testicular atrophy and chronic ilioinguinal pain, were significantly reduced from 6.3% (group B and C) to 2.3% by omitting permanent muscle sutures (groups A and D; P < 0.05). However, the use of slowly absorbable suture material resulted in a disproportionately high recurrence rate of 12.8% in the modified Bassini group A. The original Bassini method, ie, division of the transversalis fascia and repair with nonabsorbable sutures, as was used in group B, had an actual 2-year recurrence rate of 8.7%, still a highly significant difference compared with 3.6% and 2.3% for Shouldice groups C and D, respectively (P = 0.012). For repair of recurrent hernia, the superiority of the Shouldice technique was not statistically significant: re-recurrence rate 7.6% versus 13.5% for the original Bassini group B. Repair of recurrent hernia was the only patient-related risk factor of equal significance as the method of repair. The Shouldice technique

  9. Dynamique sédimentaire comparative dans les bassins stéphano-permiens des Ida Ou Zal et Ida Ou Ziki, haut Atlas Occidental, MarocDynamic sedimentology of two Upper Stephano-Lower Permian basins: Ida Ou Zal and Ida Ou Ziki, western High Atlas, Morocco

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saber, H.; El-Wartiti, M.; Broutin, J.

    2001-05-01

    The intra-mountainous Ida Ou Zal Basin developed as a graben during the Stephanian (Carboniferous) and Lower Permian. Along its borders from east to west are the remnants of basal conglomerates. Passing laterally towards the centre of the basin are fine-grained fluvial-lacustrine sediments or flood-plain deposits. The important accumulation (1800 m) of sediments, associated with climatic and tectonic changes, caused substantial subsidence in a late orogenic setting. The remnants of sporadic volcanic products (shards) found in the Ida Ou Zal and the Ida Ou Zika Basins suggest nearby simultaneous magmatic activity. A comparison between the basins of Ida Ou Zal and Ida Ou Ziki suggest that the two basins formed a single unit, called the Souss Basin, ultimately terminated between the Lower Permian and Upper Permian times by a sinistral movement of the N70-80° Agadir Ou Anzizen Fault (west branch of the Tizi N'Test Fault) at the very end of the Hercynian Orogeny in Morocco.

  10. Lateral superior olive function in congenital deafness.

    PubMed

    Couchman, Kiri; Garrett, Andrew; Deardorff, Adam S; Rattay, Frank; Resatz, Susanne; Fyffe, Robert; Walmsley, Bruce; Leão, Richardson N

    2011-07-01

    The development of cochlear implants for the treatment of patients with profound hearing loss has advanced considerably in the last few decades, particularly in the field of speech comprehension. However, attempts to provide not only sound decoding but also spatial hearing are limited by our understanding of circuit adaptations in the absence of auditory input. Here we investigate the lateral superior olive (LSO), a nucleus involved in interaural level difference (ILD) processing in the auditory brainstem using a mouse model of congenital deafness (the dn/dn mouse). An electrophysiological investigation of principal neurons of the LSO from the dn/dn mouse reveals a higher than normal proportion of single spiking (SS) neurons, and an increase in the hyperpolarisation-activated I(h) current. However, inhibitory glycinergic input to the LSO appears to develop normally both pre and postsynaptically in dn/dn mice despite the absence of auditory nerve activity. In combination with previous electrophysiological findings from the dn/dn mouse, we also compile a simple Hodgkin and Huxley circuit model in order to investigate possible computational deficits in ILD processing resulting from congenital hearing loss. We find that the predominance of SS neurons in the dn/dn LSO may compensate for upstream modifications and help to maintain a functioning ILD circuit in the dn/dn mouse. This could have clinical repercussions on the development of stimulation paradigms for spatial hearing with cochlear implants.

  11. Lake Superior Coastal Wetland Fish Assemblages and ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The role of the coastal margin and the watershed context in defining the ecology of even very large lakes is increasingly being recognized and examined. Coastal wetlands are both important contributors to the biodiversity and productivity of large lakes and important mediators of the lake-basin connection. We explored wetland-watershed connections and their relationship to wetland function and condition using data collected from 37 Lake Superior wetlands spanning a substantial geographic and geomorphic gradient. While none of these wetlands are particularly disturbed, there were nevertheless clear relationships between watershed landuse and wetland habitat and biota, and these varied consistently across wetland type categories that reflected the strength of connection to the watershed. For example, water clarity and vegetation structure complexity declined with decreasing percent natural land cover, and these effects were strongest in riverine wetlands (having generally large watersheds and tributary-dominated hydrology) and weakest in lagoon wetlands (having generally small watersheds and lake-dominate hydrology). Fish abundance and species richness both increased with decreasing percent natural land cover while species diversity decreased, and again the effect was strongest in riverine wetlands. Lagoonal wetlands, which lack any substantial tributary, consistently harbored the fewest species of fish and a composition different from the more watershed-lin

  12. Carbon phosphide monolayers with superior carrier mobility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gaoxue; Pandey, Ravindra; Karna, Shashi P.

    2016-04-01

    Two dimensional (2D) materials with a finite band gap and high carrier mobility are sought after materials from both fundamental and technological perspectives. In this paper, we present the results based on the particle swarm optimization method and density functional theory which predict three geometrically different phases of the carbon phosphide (CP) monolayer consisting of sp2 hybridized C atoms and sp3 hybridized P atoms in hexagonal networks. Two of the phases, referred to as α-CP and β-CP with puckered or buckled surfaces are semiconducting with highly anisotropic electronic and mechanical properties. More remarkably, they have the lightest electrons and holes among the known 2D semiconductors, yielding superior carrier mobility. The γ-CP has a distorted hexagonal network and exhibits a semi-metallic behavior with Dirac cones. These theoretical findings suggest that the binary CP monolayer is a yet unexplored 2D material holding great promise for applications in high-performance electronics and optoelectronics.Two dimensional (2D) materials with a finite band gap and high carrier mobility are sought after materials from both fundamental and technological perspectives. In this paper, we present the results based on the particle swarm optimization method and density functional theory which predict three geometrically different phases of the carbon phosphide (CP) monolayer consisting of sp2 hybridized C atoms and sp3 hybridized P atoms in hexagonal networks. Two of the phases, referred to as α-CP and β-CP with puckered or buckled surfaces are semiconducting with highly anisotropic electronic and mechanical properties. More remarkably, they have the lightest electrons and holes among the known 2D semiconductors, yielding superior carrier mobility. The γ-CP has a distorted hexagonal network and exhibits a semi-metallic behavior with Dirac cones. These theoretical findings suggest that the binary CP monolayer is a yet unexplored 2D material holding great

  13. Multi-Objective Lake Superior Regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asadzadeh, M.; Razavi, S.; Tolson, B.

    2011-12-01

    At the direction of the International Joint Commission (IJC) the International Upper Great Lakes Study (IUGLS) Board is investigating possible changes to the present method of regulating the outflows of Lake Superior (SUP) to better meet the contemporary needs of the stakeholders. In this study, a new plan in the form of a rule curve that is directly interpretable for regulation of SUP is proposed. The proposed rule curve has 18 parameters that should be optimized. The IUGLS Board is also interested in a regulation strategy that considers potential effects of climate uncertainty. Therefore, the quality of the rule curve is assessed simultaneously for multiple supply sequences that represent various future climate scenarios. The rule curve parameters are obtained by solving a computationally intensive bi-objective simulation-optimization problem that maximizes the total increase in navigation and hydropower benefits of the new regulation plan and minimizes the sum of all normalized constraint violations. The objective and constraint values are obtained from a Microsoft Excel based Shared Vision Model (SVM) that compares any new SUP regulation plan with the current regulation policy. The underlying optimization problem is solved by a recently developed, highly efficient multi-objective optimization algorithm called Pareto Archived Dynamically Dimensioned Search (PA-DDS). To further improve the computational efficiency of the simulation-optimization problem, the model pre-emption strategy is used in a novel way to avoid the complete evaluation of regulation plans with low quality in both objectives. Results show that the generated rule curve is robust and typically more reliable when facing unpredictable climate conditions compared to other SUP regulation plans.

  14. The Business Value of Superior Energy Performance

    SciTech Connect

    McKane, Aimee; Scheihing, Paul; Evans, Tracy; Glatt, Sandy; Meffert, William

    2015-08-04

    Industrial facilities participating in the U.S. Department of Energy’s (US DOE) Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program are finding that it provides them with significant business value. This value starts with the implementation of ISO 50001-Energy management system standard, which provides an internationally-relevant framework for integration of energy management into an organization’s business processes. The resulting structure emphasizes effective use of available data and supports continual improvement of energy performance. International relevance is particularly important for companies with a global presence or trading interests, providing them with access to supporting ISO standards and a growing body of certified companies representing the collective knowledge of communities of practice. This paper examines the business value of SEP, a voluntary program that builds on ISO 50001, inviting industry to demonstrate an even greater commitment through third-party verification of energy performance improvement to a specified level of achievement. Information from 28 facilities that have already achieved SEP certification will illustrate key findings concerning both the value and the challenges from SEP/ISO 50001 implementation. These include the facilities’ experience with implementation, internal and external value of third-party verification of energy performance improvement; attractive payback periods and the importance of SEP tools and guidance. US DOE is working to bring the program to scale, including the Enterprise-Wide Accelerator (SEP for multiple facilities in a company), the Ratepayer-Funded Program Accelerator (supporting tools for utilities and program administrators to include SEP in their program offerings), and expansion of the program to other sectors and industry supply chains.

  15. Superiorization of incremental optimization algorithms for statistical tomographic image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helou, E. S.; Zibetti, M. V. W.; Miqueles, E. X.

    2017-04-01

    We propose the superiorization of incremental algorithms for tomographic image reconstruction. The resulting methods follow a better path in its way to finding the optimal solution for the maximum likelihood problem in the sense that they are closer to the Pareto optimal curve than the non-superiorized techniques. A new scaled gradient iteration is proposed and three superiorization schemes are evaluated. Theoretical analysis of the methods as well as computational experiments with both synthetic and real data are provided.

  16. Superiorization-based multi-energy CT image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Q.; Cong, W.; Wang, G.

    2017-04-01

    The recently-developed superiorization approach is efficient and robust for solving various constrained optimization problems. This methodology can be applied to multi-energy CT image reconstruction with the regularization in terms of the prior rank, intensity and sparsity model (PRISM). In this paper, we propose a superiorized version of the simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) based on the PRISM model. Then, we compare the proposed superiorized algorithm with the Split-Bregman algorithm in numerical experiments. The results show that both the Superiorized-SART and the Split-Bregman algorithms generate good results with weak noise and reduced artefacts.

  17. Variations in the origin of superior laryngeal artery

    PubMed Central

    Devadas, Deepa; Sukumaran, Tintu Thottiyil

    2016-01-01

    The superior laryngeal artery is the principal artery supplying the laryngeal mucosa, musculature, and glands. Knowledge of variations in the origin of superior laryngeal artery could prove to be very useful during reconstructive surgeries of the larynx, partial laryngectomy, laryngeal transplantation, and also during procedures like super-selective intra-arterial chemotherapy for laryngeal and hypolaryngeal cancers. However, relatively few studies have been done on the superior laryngeal artery in comparison to its clinical importance. The present study was aimed at documenting the prevalence of variable origin of the superior laryngeal artery within the carotid triangle. Sixty hemi-necks obtained from 30 South Indian cadavers were dissected and studied for variations in the origin of superior laryngeal artery. It was observed that the superior laryngeal artery took origin from superior thyroid in 91.7% cases. Variable origin from the external carotid artery was noted in 5% cases. The superior laryngeal artery was found to arise from the lingual artery in one case alone (1.7%). In addition to the above findings, a very rare variation of superior laryngeal artery arising from the ascending pharyngeal (1.7%) was also observed in the hemi-neck of one cadaver. All the variations that were observed were unilateral and on the left side. These findings may help provide further insight to the anatomists, radiologists and surgeons and can help improve performances during surgical manipulations of the larynx. PMID:28127500

  18. Crashworthy Seats Would Afford Superior Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gohmert, Dustin

    2009-01-01

    Seats to prevent or limit crash injuries to astronauts aboard the crew vehicle of the Orion spacecraft are undergoing development. The design of these seats incorporates and goes beyond crash-protection concepts embodied in prior spacecraft and racing-car seats to afford superior protection against impacts. Although the seats are designed to support astronauts in a recumbent, quasi-fetal posture that would likely not be suitable for non-spacecraft applications, parts of the design could be adapted to military and some civilian aircraft seats and to racing car seats to increase levels of protection. The main problem in designing any crashworthy seat is to provide full support of the occupant against anticipated crash and emergency-landing loads so as to safely limit motion, along any axis, of any part of the occupant s body relative to (1) any other part of the occupant s body, (2) the spacecraft or other vehicle, and (3) the seat itself. In the original Orion spacecraft application and in other applications that could easily be envisioned, the problem is complicated by severe limits on space available for the seat, a requirement to enable rapid egress by the occupant after a crash, and a requirement to provide for fitting of the seat to a wide range of sizes and shapes of a human body covered by a crash suit, space suit, or other protective garment. The problem is further complicated by other Orion-application-specific requirements that must be omitted here for the sake of brevity. To accommodate the wide range of crewmember body lengths within the limits on available space in the original Orion application, the design provides for taller crewmembers to pull their legs back closer toward their chests, while shorter crewmembers can allow their legs to stretch out further. The range of hip-support seat adjustments needed to effect this accommodation, as derived from NASA s Human Systems Integration Standard, was found to define a parabolic path along which the knees

  19. Algoma-, Superior-, and oolitic-type iron deposits of the Islamic Republic of Mauritania (phase V, deliverable 83): Chapter O in Second projet de renforcement institutionnel du secteur minier de la République Islamique de Mauritanie (PRISM-II)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Cliff D.; Finn, Carol A.; Anderson, Eric D.; Joud, M. Y.; Taleb, M. A.; Horton, John D.

    2015-01-01

    Phanerozoic oolitic ironstones are hosted in the upper Silurian and lower Devonian rocks of the Gara Bouya Ali Group and the Zemmour Group in the Tindouf Basin in northern Mauritania and in the end Ordovician Tichit Group, the Silurian Oued Chig Group, and the lower Devonian Tenemouj Group in the Taoudeni Basin near Tidjikja. These rock groups define 11 permissive tracts for Algoma-, Superior-, and oolitic-type iron deposits in Mauritania.

  20. FORAGE FISH AND ZOOPLANKTON COMMUNITY COMPOSITION IN WESTERN LAKE SUPERIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    We assessed the abundance, size, and species composition of the fish and zooplankton communities of western Lake Superior during 1996 and 1997. Data were analyzed for 3 ecoregions (Duluth-Superior (1), Apostle Islands (2), Minnesota coast (3) differing in lake bathymetry, phsiodo...

  1. Encoding Specificity: Relation Between Recall Superiority and Recognition Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Sandor; Tulving, Endel

    1976-01-01

    The results of four experiments show that (a) recall superiority over recognition is reversed by the use of unrelated word pairs in the study list, and (b) the reversal of recall superiority leaves intact the phenomenon of recognition failure of recallable words. (Editor)

  2. 33 CFR 117.495 - Superior Oil Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Superior Oil Canal. 117.495 Section 117.495 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.495 Superior Oil Canal. The draw...

  3. 33 CFR 117.495 - Superior Oil Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Superior Oil Canal. 117.495 Section 117.495 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.495 Superior Oil Canal. The draw...

  4. Analysis of the Lake Superior Watershed Seasonal Snow Cover

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    9 Figure 7. Snow density by day of year at Sault Ste Marie , Duluth, and in the Lake Superior watershed and vicinity in Ontario...Canada ....................................................................................11 Figure 8. Snow density histogram for Sault Ste Marie ... Marys River. The outflow from Lake Superior is controlled under stringent regulation plans agreed upon by Canada and the United States through the

  5. UCAV - The Next Generation Air-Superiority Fighter?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-06-01

    number. 1. REPORT DATE 00 JUN 2002 2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE UCAV - The Next Generation Air-Superiority...next- generation air-superiority fighter is entering development. Unmanned aircraft must be considered as an alternative to manned aircraft for this

  6. 33 CFR 117.495 - Superior Oil Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Superior Oil Canal. 117.495 Section 117.495 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.495 Superior Oil Canal. The draw...

  7. 33 CFR 117.495 - Superior Oil Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Superior Oil Canal. 117.495 Section 117.495 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.495 Superior Oil Canal. The draw...

  8. 33 CFR 117.495 - Superior Oil Canal.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Superior Oil Canal. 117.495 Section 117.495 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Louisiana § 117.495 Superior Oil Canal. The draw...

  9. Aging and the Picture Superiority Effect in Recall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winograd, Eugene; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Compared verbal and visual encoding using the picture superiority effect. One experiment found an interaction between age and type of material. In other experiments, the picture superiority effect was found in both age groups with no interaction. Performing a semantic-orienting task had no effect on recall. (Author/RC)

  10. The Development of the Picture-Superiority Effect

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Maybery, Murray T.; Durkin, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    When pictures and words are presented serially in an explicit memory task, recall of the pictures is superior. While this effect is well established in the adult population, little is known of the development of this picture-superiority effect in typical development. This task was administered to 80 participants from middle childhood to…

  11. 78 FR 18799 - Amendment of Class E Airspace; Superior, WI

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Amendment of Class E Airspace; Superior, WI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action amends Class E airspace at... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to amend Class E airspace for the Superior, WI, area, creating...

  12. 4. GLOBE ELEVATOR COMPANY, SUPERIOR WISCONSIN 1887; NO. 3 ANNEX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. GLOBE ELEVATOR COMPANY, SUPERIOR WISCONSIN 1887; NO. 3 ANNEX FOREGROUND. NO. 2 ANNEX WORKHOUSE NO. 1 TIMBER CRIB CONSTRUCTION, J.T. MOULTON AND SONS, CHICAGO ARCHITECT. - Peavey Globe Elevator, No. 1 House, West Gate Basin & Howard's Bay, east side of slip, Superior, Douglas County, WI

  13. 1. PEAVEY GLOVE ELEVATOR, SUPERIOR, WI 1887; WORKHOUSE (NO. 1 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PEAVEY GLOVE ELEVATOR, SUPERIOR, WI 1887; WORKHOUSE (NO. 1 HOUSE) WOOD FRAME CONSTRUCTION. VIEW FROM NORTHERN PACIFIC TRAIN BED, LOOKING APPROXIMATELY SOUTHEAST; NO. 2 HOUSE IN CENTER; NO. 3 HOUSE ON EXTREME RIGHT. - Peavey Globe Elevator, No. 1 House, West Gate Basin & Howard's Bay, east side of slip, Superior, Douglas County, WI

  14. The superior transvelar approach to the fourth ventricle and brainstem.

    PubMed

    Ezer, Haim; Banerjee, Anirban Deep; Bollam, Papireddy; Guthikonda, Bharat; Nanda, Anil

    2012-06-01

    Objective The superior transvelar approach is used to access pathologies located in the fourth ventricle and brainstem. The surgical path is below the venous structures, through the superior medullary velum. Following splitting the tentorial edge, near the tentorial apex, the superior medullary velum is split in the cerebello-mesencephalic fissure. Using the supracerebellar infratentorial, transtentorial or parietal interhemispheric routes, the superior medullary velum is approached. Splitting this velum provides a detailed view of the fourth ventricle and its floor. Materials and Methods A total of 10 formalin-fixed specimens were dissected in a stepwise manner to simulate the superior transvelar approach to the fourth ventricle. The exposure gained the distance from the craniotomy site and the ease of access was assessed for each of the routes. We also present an illustrative case, operated by the senior author (AN). Results The superior transvelar approach provides access to the entire length of the fourth ventricle floor, from the aqueduct to the obex, when using the parietal interhemispheric route. In addition, this approach provides access to the entire width of the floor of the fourth ventricle; however, this requires retracting the superior cerebellar peduncle. Using the supracerebellar infratentorial route gives a limited exposure of the superior part of the fourth ventricle. The occipital interhemispheric route is a compromise between these two. Conclusion The superior transvelar approach to the fourth ventricle provides a route for approaching the fourth ventricle from above. This approach does not require opening the posterior fossa in the traditional way, and provides a reasonable alternative for accessing the superior fourth ventricle.

  15. Absence of the superior petrosal veins and sinus: Surgical considerations

    PubMed Central

    Matsushima, Ken; Ribas, Eduardo Santamaria Carvalhal; Kiyosue, Hiro; Komune, Noritaka; Miki, Koichi; Rhoton, Albert L.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The superior petrosal vein, one of the most constant and largest drainage pathways in the posterior fossa, may result in complications if occluded. This study calls attention to a unique variant in which the superior petrosal veins and sinus were absent unilaterally, and the venous drainage was through the galenic and tentorial drainage groups. Methods: This study examines one venogram and another anatomic specimen in which the superior petrosal vein and sinus were absent. Results: The superior petrosal veins, described as 1–3 bridging veins, emptying into the superior petrosal sinus, are the major drainage pathways of the petrosal group of posterior fossa veins. In the cases presented, the superior petrosal vein and sinus were absent and venous drainage was through the galenic and tentorial groups, including the lateral mesencephalic or bridging vein on the tentorial cerebellar surface. Conclusions: In cases in which the superior petrosal sinus and veins are absent, care should be directed to preserving the collateral drainage through the galenic and tentorial tributaries. Although surgical strategies for intraoperative management and preservation of venous structures are still controversial, knowledge of the possible anatomical variations is considered to be essential to improve surgical outcomes. PMID:25745589

  16. Superior mesenteric aneurysm and arteriovenous fistula: angiographic and CT features

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, M.; Chuang, V.P.; Stewart, M.T.

    1985-08-01

    Of all splanchnic artery aneurysms, the superior mesenteric aneurysm is the least common type, and most of the reported cases are in the surgical literature. Reports of radiographic findings of superior mesenteric aneurysms and their complications are scarce. The authors present the first case of spontaneous rupture of an atherosclerotic aneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) with resultant arteriovenous fistula (AVF). Not only are the angiographic features diagnostic, but the CT scan also shows an interesting and suggestive finding that will be useful for the future diagnosis of similar cases.

  17. FIELD SCALE EVALUATION OF TREATMENT OF TCE IN A BIOWALL AT THE OU-1 SITE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A passive reactive barrier (Biowall) was installed at the OU-1 site at Altus Air Force Base, Oklahoma to treat TCE contamination in ground water from a landfill. Depth to ground water varies from 1.8 to 2.4 meters below land surface. To intercept and treat the plume of contamin...

  18. Gas physical conditions and kinematics of the giant outflow Ou4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradi, Romano L. M.; Grosso, Nicolas; Acker, Agnès; Greimel, Robert; Guillout, Patrick

    2014-10-01

    Context. The recently discovered bipolar outflow Ou4 has a projected size of more than one degree in the plane of the sky. It is apparently centred on the young stellar cluster - whose most massive representative is the triple system HR 8119 - inside the H ii region Sh 2-129. The driving source, the nature, and the distance of Ou4 are not known. Aims: The basic properties of Ou4 and its environment are investigated to shed light on the origin of this remarkable outflow. Methods: Deep narrow-band imagery of the whole nebula at arcsecond resolution was obtained to study the details of its morphology. Long-slit spectroscopy of the bipolar lobe tips was secured to determine the gas ionisation mechanism, physical conditions, and line-of-sight velocities. An estimate of the proper motions at the tip of the south lobe using archival plate images was attempted. The existing multi-wavelength data for Sh 2-129 and HR 8119 were also comprehensively reviewed. Results: The observed morphology of Ou4, its emission-line spatial distribution, line flux ratios, and the kinematic modelling developed adopting a bow-shock parabolic geometry, illustrate the expansion of a shock-excited fast collimated outflow. The observed radial velocities of Ou4 and its reddening are consistent with those of Sh 2-129 and HR 8119. The improved determination of the distance to HR 8119 (composed of two B0 V and one B0.5 V stars) and Sh 2-129 is 712 pc. We identify in WISE images at 22 μm an emission bubble of 5' radius (1 pc at the distance above) emitted by hot (107 K) dust grains, located inside the central part of Ou4 and corresponding to several [O iii] emission features of Ou4. Conclusions: The apparent position of Ou4 and the properties studied in this work are consistent with the hypothesis that Ou4 is located inside the Sh 2-129 H ii region, suggesting that it was launched some 90 000 yr ago by HR 8119. The outflow total kinetic energy is estimated to be ≈4 × 1047 ergs. However, we cannot

  19. 2. View of pier #3, West approach, Detroit Superior High ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. View of pier #3, West approach, Detroit Superior High Level bridge (1914-1917). Pier #3 and #4 support the steel rive span. They are 116 feet by 80 feet at the base and rest on stiff blue clay 45 feet below the surface of the river. Cast-steel bolsters of the three-hinge steel arch are anchored by structural steel grillage to the masory piers. - Detroit Superior High Level Bridge, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  20. Superior Mesenteric Artery Embolism Treated with Percutaneous Mechanical Thrombectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Popovic, Peter Kuhelj, Dimitrij; Bunc, Matjaz

    2011-02-15

    A case of acute superior mesenteric artery embolism treated with percutaneous thrombus aspiration is described. A 63-year-old man with chronic atrial fibrillation was admitted to the hospital with progressive abdominal pain. Computed tomography angiography revealed an occlusion of the distal part of the superior mesenteric artery. The patient was effectively treated using transaxillary percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy using a 6F Aspirex thrombectomy catheter.

  1. MR of superior mesenteric artery--renal vein fistula.

    PubMed

    Conces, D J; Kreipke, D L; Tarver, R D

    1986-01-01

    Traumatic arteriovenous fistulas involving the superior mesenteric artery are rare. Diagnosis is most commonly made shortly after the injury. Symptoms, when present, are usually related to intestinal ischemia. Angiography has been the conventional modality used in diagnosing arteriovenous fistulas. We report a patient with a superior mesenteric artery to left renal vein fistula who presented in overt heart failure five years after a gun shot wound. The fistula was evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging.

  2. Superior memorizers employ different neural networks for encoding and recall.

    PubMed

    Mallow, Johannes; Bernarding, Johannes; Luchtmann, Michael; Bethmann, Anja; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL) to memorize large amounts of information. The MoL, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers, we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits.

  3. Superior memorizers employ different neural networks for encoding and recall

    PubMed Central

    Mallow, Johannes; Bernarding, Johannes; Luchtmann, Michael; Bethmann, Anja; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Superior memorizers often employ the method of loci (MoL) to memorize large amounts of information. The MoL, known since ancient times, relies on a complex process where information to be memorized is bound to landmarks along mental routes in a previously memorized environment. However, functional magnetic resonance imaging data on groups of trained superior memorizer are rare. Based on the memorizing strategy reported by superior memorizers, we developed a scheme of the processes successively employed during memorizing and recalling digits and relate these to brain activation that is specific for the encoding and recall period. In the examined superior memorizers several regions, suggested to be involved in mental navigation and digit-to-word processing, were specifically activated during encoding: bilateral early visual cortex, retrosplenial cortex, left parahippocampus, left visual cortex, and left superior parietal cortex. Although the scheme suggests that some steps during encoding and recall seem to be analog, none of the encoding areas were specifically activated during the recall. Instead, we found strong activation in left anterior superior temporal gyrus, which we relate to recalling the sequential order of the digits, and right motor cortex that may be related to reciting the digits. PMID:26441560

  4. Spatial and temporal variation of the water quality of an intermittent river - Oued Fez (Morrocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, Jean-Louis; Bellarbi, Meriem; Lombard-Latune, Rémi; Rais, Naoual; Chahinian, Nanée.; Ijjaali, Mustafa

    2010-05-01

    In the South of the Mediterranean basin, many rivers are characterized by an alternation of very long dry periods only cut by short flood events. Currently, the socio-economical development of these zones is limited by the water scarcity but also by the poor quality of the water resources. In fact, human activities, generally concentrated in overpopulated cities, generate large quantity of domestic and industrial effluents which are directly rejected in the environment without any treatment. In Morocco, the well known city of Fez illustrates perfectly this situation observed in all the Maghreb countries. During the dry period, the Oued Fez which crosses the city, is only fed by non-treated anthropogenic inputs. Accumulation of pollutants is observed in the river bed sediments. Domestic and industrial effluents (200 000 m3/day) pollute all the down stream water bodies some of which are used for irrigation and other for fresh water supply. During floods, mainly generated by urban runoff, river bed sediments could be remobilized and a significant flush effect could occur. This study aims at characterising and quantifying the pollutant concentrations and fluxes in various points of the Oued Fez hydrological network and assessing its impact on the Sebou River; water resources of this river being considered as national priority in Morocco. Due to the peculiar Mediterranean hydrological regime, specific observation networks are set up to assess the temporal and spatial variability of pollutant fluxes in the river and to rank water and pollutant sources. The sampling sites on the Fez and Sebou oueds are selected based these criteria. A reference station is chosen upstream of the Oued Fez less than 300 metres from the direct anthropic inputs. Water quality is evaluated through nutrients (Total nitrogen, and total phosphorus essentially), heavy metals (essentially chromium) and suspended solids. The results of 4 sampling campaigns indicate that: in terms of nitrogen

  5. Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer with one and two photon pairs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cosme, Olavo; Pádua, S.; Bovino, Fabio A.; Mazzei, A.; Sciarrino, Fabio; de Martini, Francesco

    2008-05-01

    We study the Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer in the regime of spontaneous parametric down-conversion with high pump beam power at the crystal. In this regime one and two photons from a pump pulsed laser beam generate one and two pairs of photons, respectively. These photons are then directed to the beam splitter of the interferometer and detected at its exit in coincidence. An interesting phenomenon is observed: The reduction of the visibility of the Hong-Ou-Mandel coincidence peak (or dip) with the increase of pump power. We study the relation between the visibility of the fourth-order interference pattern and the power of the pumping laser beam for type I and type II phase-matching crystals. Our theoretical calculations are in good agreement with the experimental results.

  6. Hong-Ou-Mandel Interference between Two Deterministic Collective Excitations in an Atomic Ensemble.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Zhou, Ming-Ti; Jing, Bo; Wang, Xu-Jie; Yang, Sheng-Jun; Jiang, Xiao; Mølmer, Klaus; Bao, Xiao-Hui; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-10-28

    We demonstrate deterministic generation of two distinct collective excitations in one atomic ensemble, and we realize the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between them. Using Rydberg blockade we create single collective excitations in two different Zeeman levels, and we use stimulated Raman transitions to perform a beam-splitter operation between the excited atomic modes. By converting the atomic excitations into photons, the two-excitation interference is measured by photon coincidence detection with a visibility of 0.89(6). The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference witnesses an entangled NOON state of the collective atomic excitations, and we demonstrate its two times enhanced sensitivity to a magnetic field compared with a single excitation. Our work implements a minimal instance of boson sampling and paves the way for further multimode and multiexcitation studies with collective excitations of atomic ensembles.

  7. Complete three photon Hong-Ou-Mandel interference at a three port device.

    PubMed

    Mährlein, Simon; von Zanthier, Joachim; Agarwal, Girish S

    2015-06-15

    We report the possibility of completely destructive interference of three indistinguishable photons on a three port device providing a generalisation of the well known Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of two indistinguishable photons on a two port device. Our analysis is based on the underlying mathematical framework of SU(3) transformations rather than SU(2) transformations. We show the completely destructive three photon interference for a large range of parameters of the three port device and point out the physical origin of such interference in terms of the contributions from different quantum paths. As each output port can deliver zero to three photons the device generates higher dimensional entanglement. In particular, different forms of entangled states of qudits can be generated depending on the device parameters. Our system is different from a symmetric three port beam splitter which does not exhibit a three photon Hong-Ou-Mandel interference.

  8. Hong-Ou-Mandel Interference between Two Deterministic Collective Excitations in an Atomic Ensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jun; Zhou, Ming-Ti; Jing, Bo; Wang, Xu-Jie; Yang, Sheng-Jun; Jiang, Xiao; Mølmer, Klaus; Bao, Xiao-Hui; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-10-01

    We demonstrate deterministic generation of two distinct collective excitations in one atomic ensemble, and we realize the Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between them. Using Rydberg blockade we create single collective excitations in two different Zeeman levels, and we use stimulated Raman transitions to perform a beam-splitter operation between the excited atomic modes. By converting the atomic excitations into photons, the two-excitation interference is measured by photon coincidence detection with a visibility of 0.89(6). The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference witnesses an entangled NOON state of the collective atomic excitations, and we demonstrate its two times enhanced sensitivity to a magnetic field compared with a single excitation. Our work implements a minimal instance of boson sampling and paves the way for further multimode and multiexcitation studies with collective excitations of atomic ensembles.

  9. Percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy of superior mesenteric artery embolism

    PubMed Central

    Kuhelj, Dimitrij; Kavcic, Pavel; Popovic, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background The present series present three consecutive cases of successful percutaneous mechanical embolectomy in acute superior mesenteric artery ischemia. Superior mesenteric artery embolism is a rare abdominal emergency that commonly leads to bowel infarction and has a very high mortality rate. Prompt recognition and treatment are crucial for successful outcome. Endovascular therapeutic approach in patients with acute SMA embolism in median portion of its stem is proposed. Case reports. Three male patients had experienced a sudden abdominal pain and acute superior mesenteric artery embolism in median portion of its stem was revealed on computed tomography angiography. No signs of intestinal infarction were present. The decision for endovascular treatment was made in concordance with the surgeons. In one patient 6 French gauge Rotarex® device was used while in others 6 French gauge Aspirex® device were used. All patients experienced sudden relief of pain after the procedure with no signs of intestinal infarction. Minor procedural complication – rupture of a smaller branch of SMA during Aspirex® treatment was successfully managed by coiling while transient paralytic ileus presented in one patient resolved spontaneously. All three patients remained symptom-free with patent superior mesenteric artery during the follow-up period. Conclusions Percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy seems to be a rapid and effective treatment of acute superior mesenteric artery embolism in median portion of its stem in absence of bowel necrosis. Follow-up of our patients showed excellent short- and long-term results. PMID:24133388

  10. Status of the shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoff, Michael H.; Todd, Thomas N.

    2004-01-01

    The shortjaw cisco (Coregonus zenithicus) was historically found in Lakes Huron, Michigan, and Superior, but has been extirpated in Lakes Huron and Michigan apparently as the result of commercial overharvest. During 1999-2001, we conducted an assessment of shortjaw cisco abundance in five areas, spanning the U.S. waters of Lake Superior, and compared our results with the abundance measured at those areas in 1921-1922. The shortjaw cisco was found at four of the five areas sampled, but abundances were so low that they were not significantly different from zero. In the four areas where shortjaw ciscoes were found, abundance declined significantly by 99% from the 1920s to the present. To increase populations of this once economically and ecologically important species in Lake Superior, an interagency rehabilitation effort is needed. Population monitoring is recommended to assess population trends and to evaluate success of rehabilitation efforts.

  11. Occipital interhemispheric transtentorial approach to the superior cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Cardenas, Raul J; Javalkar, Vijayakumar; Ezer, Haim; Burnham, Jeremy; Nanda, Anil

    2011-01-01

    The occipital interhemispheric transtentorial approach is commonly used for pineal region tumors. However, there are few reports of this approach for lesions in the superior cerebellum. We present a 47-year-old male patient with an incidental cystic lesion in the superior cerebellum, detected on MRI consistent with cerebellar hemangioblastoma. The patient initially underwent stereotactic radiosurgery. After 5 months he presented with dizziness. A repeat MRI scan revealed an interval increase in lesion size. We performed surgery using the occipital interhemispheric transtentorial approach to remove the lesion. There were no intraoperative complications and the patient tolerated the procedure well. We describe our approach, supplemented by a short video, and review operative approaches to the superior cerebellum.

  12. Design of a fifth generation air superiority fighter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atique, Md. Saifuddin Ahmed; Barman, Shuvrodeb; Nafi, Asif Shahriar; Bellah, Masum; Salam, Md. Abdus

    2016-07-01

    Air Superiority Fighter is considered to be an effective dogfighter which is stealthy & highly maneuverable to surprise enemy along with improve survivability against the missile fire. This new generation fighter aircraft requires fantastic aerodynamics design, low wing loading (W/S), high thrust to weight ratio (T/W) with super cruise ability. Conceptual design is the first step to design an aircraft. In this paper conceptual design of an Air Superiority Fighter Aircraft is proposed to carry 1 crew member (pilot) that can fly at maximum Mach No of 2.3 covering a range of 1500 km with maximum ceiling of 61,000 ft. Payload capacity of this proposed aircraft is 6000 lb that covers two advanced missiles & one advanced gun. The Air Superiority Fighter Aircraft was designed to undertake all the following missions like: combat air petrol, air to air combat, maritime attack, close air support, suppression, destruction of enemy air defense and reconnaissance.

  13. Superior Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis Following Laparoscopic Nissen Fundoplication

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Matthew J.; Garafalo, Thomas; Ko, Tak-ming; Place, Ronald J.

    2003-01-01

    This report describes the second case of a superior mesenteric and portal vein thrombosis following an uneventful laparoscopic Nissen fundoplication. The patient presented on postoperative day 10 with acute onset of abdominal pain and inability to tolerate oral food. A computed tomography (CT) scan revealed superior mesenteric and portal venous thrombosis with questionable viability of the proximal small bowel. He was heparinized and taken for emergent exploratory laparotomy. At surgery and at a planned re-exploration the following day, the bowel was viable and no resection was needed. Despite continuation on anticoagulation therapy, he developed a pulmonary embolism. A hypercoagulable workup was normal. After continued anticoagulation therapy and supportive care, a duplex ultrasound 2 months after the event showed normal flow in both the superior mesenteric and portal veins. Possible mechanisms are discussed along with a review of the pertinent literature. PMID:12856849

  14. Aging and the picture superiority effect in recall.

    PubMed

    Winograd, E; Smith, A D; Simon, E W

    1982-01-01

    One recurrent theme in the literature on aging and memory is that the decline of memory for nonverbal information is steeper than for verbal information. This research compares verbal and visual encoding using the picture superiority effect, the finding that pictures are remembered better than words. In the first experiment, an interaction was found between age and type of material; younger subjects recalled more pictures than words while older subjects did not. However, the overall effect was small and two further experiments were conducted. In both of these experiments, the picture superiority effect was found in both age groups with no interaction. In addition, performing a semantic orienting task had no effect on recall. The finding of a picture superiority effect in older subjects indicates that nonverbal codes can be effectively used by subjects in all age groups to facilitate memory performance.

  15. Caracterisation des proprietes acoustiques des materiaux poreux a cellules ouvertes et a matrice rigide ou souple

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salissou, Yacoubou

    L'objectif global vise par les travaux de cette these est d'ameliorer la caracterisation des proprietes macroscopiques des materiaux poreux a structure rigide ou souple par des approches inverses et indirectes basees sur des mesures acoustiques faites en tube d'impedance. La precision des approches inverses et indirectes utilisees aujourd'hui est principalement limitee par la qualite des mesures acoustiques obtenues en tube d'impedance. En consequence, cette these se penche sur quatre problemes qui aideront a l'atteinte de l'objectif global precite. Le premier probleme porte sur une caracterisation precise de la porosite ouverte des materiaux poreux. Cette propriete en est une de passage permettant de lier la mesure des proprietes dynamiques acoustiques d'un materiau poreux aux proprietes effectives de sa phase fluide decrite par les modeles semi-phenomenologiques. Le deuxieme probleme traite de l'hypothese de symetrie des materiaux poreux selon leur epaisseur ou un index et un critere sont proposes pour quantifier l'asymetrie d'un materiau. Cette hypothese est souvent source d'imprecision des methodes de caracterisation inverses et indirectes en tube d'impedance. Le critere d'asymetrie propose permet ainsi de s'assurer de l'applicabilite et de la precision de ces methodes pour un materiau donne. Le troisieme probleme vise a mieux comprendre le probleme de transmission sonore en tube d'impedance en presentant pour la premiere fois un developpement exact du probleme par decomposition d'ondes. Ce developpement permet d'etablir clairement les limites des nombreuses methodes existantes basees sur des tubes de transmission a 2, 3 ou 4 microphones. La meilleure comprehension de ce probleme de transmission est importante puisque c'est par ce type de mesures que des methodes permettent d'extraire successivement la matrice de transfert d'un materiau poreux et ses proprietes dynamiques intrinseques comme son impedance caracteristique et son nombre d'onde complexe. Enfin, le

  16. The postdiction superiority effect in metacomprehension of text.

    PubMed

    Pierce, B H; Smith, S M

    2001-01-01

    Metacomprehension accuracy for texts was greater after, rather than before, answering test questions about the texts-a postdiction superiority effect. Although postdiction superiority was found across successive sets of test questions and across successive texts, there was no improvement in metacomprehension accuracy after participants had taken more tests. Neither prediction nor postdiction gamma correlations with test performance improved with successive tests. Although the results are consistent with retrieval hypotheses, they contradict predictions made by test knowledge hypotheses, which state that increasing knowledge of the nature of the tests should increase metacomprehension accuracy.

  17. [Neuralgia of the superior laryngeal nerve caused by phonatory malfunctions].

    PubMed

    Kittel, G

    1986-09-01

    Clinical observations show a close relationship between neuralgia of the superior laryngeal nerve and disorders of the larynx. Neuralgia, and more minor symptoms are usually caused by hyper- and hypotonic phonatory disorders. An unphysiological compensation for glottic insufficiency causes irritation of the sensory telodendrons of the superior laryngeal nerve. As incomplete adduction of the vocal cords can often be found in patients with an autonomic laryngeal dystonia, a syndrome related to anxiety, these disturbances are often misinterpreted as "globus hystericus". However, this diagnosis does not take into account the cause and should therefore no longer be used.

  18. [Superior vena cava thrombosis in a patient on hemodialysis].

    PubMed

    Saval, N; Pou, M; López Pedret, J; Burrell, M; Cases, A

    2004-01-01

    We present a patient with end-stage renal disease on maintenace hemodialysis through a permanent catheter (Permcath) on the right subclavian vein. One month after the catheter placement the patient exhibited a superior vena cava syndrome due to a pericatheter thrombosis. The patient was initially managed with anticoagulation with early clinical improvement. Nevertheless, the reappearance of the symptoms forced the removal of the catheter and percutaneous angioplasty of the superior vena cava. After those measures and anticoagulation with coumarin the patient remains stable with complete clinical resolution and angiographical improvement.

  19. Evidence of spring spawning lake trout in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, Charles R.

    1993-01-01

    In 1992, the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service began research on the life history, population dynamics, and stock delineation of siscowet lake trout Salvelinus namaycush siscowet in Lake Superior. Siscowet were captured with gill nets in 80-150 m of water on 23-26 April 1992 north of the Apostle Islands in western Lake Superior. Of 91 captured siscowets, one male had fully developed testes in nearly ripe condition and one female had eggs running from the vent. This observation represents the earliest dates that lake trout of any morphotype have been found in spawning or near-spawning condition.

  20. Behavior Analysis in Education. Focus on Measurably Superior Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardner, Ralph, III, Ed.; And Others

    This book was written to disseminate measurably superior instructional strategies to those interested in advancing sound, field-tested educational practices. Part 1 contains chapters that give two views of the future of behavior analysis in education, while part 2 focuses on promoting applied behavior analysis. Part 3 addresses issues in early…

  1. Aortocaval Tunnel to the Superior Vena Cava: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Salehi, Rezvanieh; Rastkar, Bahman; Afrasiabi, Abbas; Pourafkari, Leili

    2011-01-01

    A 20-year old female with a rare anomaly of aortocaval tunnel to superior vena cava is presented. Rare cases of congenital communications between aorta and right sided of the heart has been reported previously. The patient underwent surgical repair and had uneventful recovery. PMID:24250957

  2. The Quagga mussel invades the Lake Superior basin - journal article

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior studies recognized the presence of a single dreissenid species in Lake Superior--the zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha. However, taxonomic keys based on traditional shell morphology are not always able to differentiate dreissenid species with confidence. We thus employed ge...

  3. Water resources of the Lake Superior watershed, northeastern Minnesota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Olcott, Perry G.; Ericson, D.W.; Felsheim, P.E.; Broussard, W.L.

    1978-01-01

    The Nemadji River and tributaries drain the Nemadji Basin, the southern detached part of the watershed. Topographically, the Nemadji Basin is roughly spoon shaped with maximum total relief in Minnesota of about 800 ft (244 m). More than half of the approximately 55-mi (88-km) long river flows northeastward through Wisconsin before reaching Lake Superior.

  4. The effect of superior auditory skills on vocal accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amir, Ofer; Amir, Noam; Kishon-Rabin, Liat

    2003-02-01

    The relationship between auditory perception and vocal production has been typically investigated by evaluating the effect of either altered or degraded auditory feedback on speech production in either normal hearing or hearing-impaired individuals. Our goal in the present study was to examine this relationship in individuals with superior auditory abilities. Thirteen professional musicians and thirteen nonmusicians, with no vocal or singing training, participated in this study. For vocal production accuracy, subjects were presented with three tones. They were asked to reproduce the pitch using the vowel /a/. This procedure was repeated three times. The fundamental frequency of each production was measured using an autocorrelation pitch detection algorithm designed for this study. The musicians' superior auditory abilities (compared to the nonmusicians) were established in a frequency discrimination task reported elsewhere. Results indicate that (a) musicians had better vocal production accuracy than nonmusicians (production errors of 1/2 a semitone compared to 1.3 semitones, respectively); (b) frequency discrimination thresholds explain 43% of the variance of the production data, and (c) all subjects with superior frequency discrimination thresholds showed accurate vocal production; the reverse relationship, however, does not hold true. In this study we provide empirical evidence to the importance of auditory feedback on vocal production in listeners with superior auditory skills.

  5. Benthic and Pelagic Contributions to Mysis Nutrition across Lake Superior

    EPA Science Inventory

    Quantification of the sources of nutrition to Mysis diluviana is needed to better understand the basis for production in Mysis lakes and to improve models of migration-driven nutrient and contaminant transport. We collected Mysis, plankton, and benthos across Lake Superior using ...

  6. 77 FR 50079 - Meeting of the Superior Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... Forest Service Meeting of the Superior Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION... committee is to improve collaborative relationships and to provide advice and recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with the title 11 of the Act. The meeting is open...

  7. 7. Photocopy of map (from Superior Court of Chatham County ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of map (from Superior Court of Chatham County Land Records, Book 2G, p. 299) John McKinnon (County Surveyor), delineator 11 January 1817 PLAT OF SITE, SHOWING EASTERN PORTION OF BUILDING - William Taylor Store, 204 West Bay Street, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  8. Depth-specific Analyses of the Lake Superior Food Web

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characteristics of large, deep aquatic systems include depth gradients in community composition, in the quality and distribution of food resources, and in the strategies that organisms use to obtain their nutrition. In Lake Superior, nearshore communities that rely upon a combina...

  9. Word and pseudoword superiority effects reflected in the ERP waveform

    PubMed Central

    Coch, Donna; Mitra, Priya

    2010-01-01

    A variant of the Reicher-Wheeler task was used to determine when in the event-related potential (ERP) waveform indices of word and pseudoword superiority effects might be present, and whether ERP measures of superiority effects correlated with standardized behavioral measures of orthographic fluency and single word reading. ERPs were recorded to briefly presented, masked letter strings that included real words (DARK/PARK), pseudowords (DARL/PARL), nonwords (RDKA/RPKA), and letter-in-xs (DXXX, PXXX) stimuli. Participants decided which of two letters occurred at a given position in the string (here, forced-choice alternatives D and P). Behaviorally, both word (more accurate choices for letters in words than in baseline nonwords or letter-in-xs) and pseudoword (more accurate choices for letters in pseudowords than in baseline conditions) superiority effects were observed. Electrophysiologically, effects of orthographic regularity and familiarity were apparent as early as the P150 time window (100–160 ms), an effect of lexicality was observed as early as the N200 time window (160–200 ms), and peak amplitude of the N300 and N400 also differentiated word and pseudoword as compared to baseline stimuli. Further, the size of the P150 and N400 ERP word superiority effects was related to standardized behavioral measures of fluency and reading. Results suggest that orthographic fluency is reflected in both lower-level, sublexical, perceptual processing and higher-level, lexical processing in fluently reading adults. PMID:20211607

  10. Research Reports: Superior Students in Wisconsin High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanborn, Marshall P.; And Others

    The Research and Guidance Laboratory for Superior Students at the University of Wisconsin which offers educational procedures and guidance for Wisconsin students, grade 9 through college age, is described and research reviews, as well as 70 abstracts of research conducted in the laboratory are included. The program is discussed in relation to…

  11. Information and Decision Superiority: Right Concept, Right Tools, Right Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    individual services, and numerous defense contractors have spoken of " information dominance " and "information superiority." Both, particularly the former...technologies will offer an unimaginable level of information to decision makers and operators. Ideas of information dominance , however, are fundamentally...other futuristic sensors will offer an unimaginable level of information to decision makers and operators. Ideas of information dominance , however

  12. Denitrification Rates in a Lake Superior Coastal Wetland

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inputs of anthropogenic nitrogen to the Nation’s aquatic ecosystems have increased substantially over the past several decades. Nitrogen inputs to Lake Superior since about 1900 have increased at a rate of about 2% per year, doubling about every 35 years (Bennett, 1986), althoug...

  13. A new look at the Lake Superior biomass size spectrum

    EPA Science Inventory

    We synthesized data from multiple sampling programs and years to describe the Lake Superior pelagic biomass size structure for two time periods separated by 5 years. The data consisted of water analyzed on a Coulter counter for algae, in situ measurements with a laser optical pl...

  14. Superiority of Vicarious over Direct Experience in Interpersonal Conflict Resolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braver, Sanford L.; Rohrer, Van

    1978-01-01

    A laboratory experiment compared the relative effects of observing and participating in a first Prisoner's Dilemma Game (PDG) on subsequent PDG encounters by the original observer and participant. Concludes that vicarious experience is superior to direct experience in producing responses that reduce interpersonal conflict. Available from: Sage…

  15. Hospital Liability under Theories of Respondeat Superior and Corporate Negligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lisko, Roy K.

    1978-01-01

    Two theories of hospital liability--respondeat superior and corporate negligence and the legal intricacies of the physician-hospital-patient relationship--that affect hospital liability are examined. The impact of Darling vs Charleston Memorial Hospital as a medicolegal precedent is emphasized. (BH)

  16. Impairments in Tactile Search Following Superior Parietal Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skakoon-Sparling, Shayna P.; Vasquez, Brandon P.; Hano, Kate; Danckert, James

    2011-01-01

    The superior parietal cortex is critical for the control of visually guided actions. Research suggests that visual stimuli relevant to actions are preferentially processed when they are in peripersonal space. One recent study demonstrated that visually guided movements towards the body were more impaired in a patient with damage to superior…

  17. Area contingency plan western lake Superior Coastal zone. (COTP Duluth)

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-15

    The Area Contingency Plan, mandated under the Oil Pollution Act, was developed by the Western Lake Superior Area Committee, which is chaired by the Coast Guard and consists of local, state, federal, and private members. The plan prepares in advance for an oil or hazardous substance spill in the COTP Duluth Coastal Zone.

  18. Visuospatial Superiority in Developmental Dyslexia: Myth or Reality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brunswick, Nicola; Martin, G. Neil; Marzano, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Anecdotal evidence indicates that dyslexia is positively associated with superior visuospatial ability but empirical evidence is inconsistent. We explicitly tested the hypothesis that dyslexia is associated with visuospatial advantage in 20 dyslexic and 21 unimpaired adult readers using paper-and-pencil measures and tests of "everyday"…

  19. Memory for Pictorial Information and the Picture Superiority Effect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maisto, Albert A.; Queen, Debbie Elaine

    1992-01-01

    The performance of 53 younger adults (mean age 20.7) and 52 older adults (mean age 68.3) was compared in a memory task involving pictures, words, and pictures-plus-words. Results showed (1) significantly higher recall scores for younger adults; (2) equivalent picture superiority effect for both groups; and (3) decline in older adults' performance…

  20. A thermal scanning study of coastal upwelling in Lake Superior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scarpace, F. L.; Green, T., III; Madding, R. P.

    1979-01-01

    The use of a thermal scanner to monitor the time evolution of the thermal structure of the coastal waters in Lake Superior during an upwelling event is described. Mosaics of thermal imagery from ten different times are described. Qualitative descriptions of the imagery give insight into the upwelling event. Recommendations for future use of a thermal scanner to monitor an upwelling event are discussed.

  1. Early detection of non-indigenous fishes in Lake Superior

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invasive species pose a serious threat to the ecological stability of the Great Lakes warranting continual monitoring for the arrival of new species. Three locations in Lake Superior were identified as “high risk” for new introductions: St. Louis River near Duluth, M...

  2. Early detection of invasive fishes in Lake Superior

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invasive species pose a serious threat to the Great Lakes warranting continual monitoring for the arrival of new species. Three locations in Lake Superior were identified as "high risk" for new introductions: St. Louis River near Duluth, MN, Upper St. Marys River near S...

  3. Morphological variation of siscowet lake trout in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, C.R.; Moore, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Historically, Lake Superior has contained many morphologically distinct forms of the lake trout Salvelinus namaycush that have occupied specific depths and locations and spawned at specific times of the year. Today, as was probably the case historically, the siscowet morphotype is the most abundant. Recent interest in harvesting siscowets to extract oil containing omega-3 fatty acids will require additional knowledge of the biology and stock structure of these lightly exploited populations. The objective of this study was to determine whether shape differences exist among siscowet populations across Lake Superior and whether these shape differences can be used to infer stock structure. Morphometric analysis (truss protocol) was used to differentiate among siscowets sampled from 23 locations in Lake Superior. We analyzed 31 distance measurements among 14 anatomical landmarks taken from digital images of fish recorded in the field. Cluster analysis of size-corrected data separated fish into three geographic groups: The Isle Royale, eastern (Michigan), and western regions (Michigan). Finer scales of stock structure were also suggested. Discriminant function analysis demonstrated that head measurements contributed to most of the observed variation. Cross-validation classification rates indicated that 67–71% of individual fish were correctly classified to their region of capture. This is the first study to present shape differences associated with location within a lake trout morphotype in Lake Superior.

  4. Lake Superior Phytoplankton Characterization from the 2006 Probability Based Survey

    EPA Science Inventory

    We conducted a late summer probability based survey of Lake Superior in 2006 which consisted of 52 sites stratified across 3 depth zones. As part of this effort, we collected composite phytoplankton samples from the epilimnion and the fluorescence maxima (Fmax) at 29 of the site...

  5. Perturbation resilience and superiorization methodology of averaged mappings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Hongjin; Xu, Hong-Kun

    2017-04-01

    We first prove the bounded perturbation resilience for the successive fixed point algorithm of averaged mappings, which extends the string-averaging projection and block-iterative projection methods. We then apply the superiorization methodology to a constrained convex minimization problem where the constraint set is the intersection of fixed point sets of a finite family of averaged mappings.

  6. 28 CFR 2.60 - Superior program achievement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Superior program achievement. 2.60 Section 2.60 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE PAROLE, RELEASE, SUPERVISION AND RECOMMITMENT OF PRISONERS, YOUTH OFFENDERS, AND JUVENILE DELINQUENTS United States Code Prisoners and Parolees §...

  7. Biological Superiority in Math: Calvin or Susie? Spotlight: Gender Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luckenbill, Louise M.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses recent research findings, which do not appear to support the idea that boys' superiority in mathematics is biological. Cerebral lateralization studies are discussed; meta-analysis showed that the gender gap has narrowed, casting doubt on the importance of innate ability determining mathematics performance. Discusses implications of…

  8. Ileocolic Arteriovenous Fistula with Superior Mesenteric Vein Aneurism: Endovascular Treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Gregorio, Miguel Angel de; Gimeno, Maria Jose; Medrano, Joaquin; Schoenholz, Caudio; Rodriguez, Juan; D'Agostino, Horacio

    2004-09-15

    We report a case of a venous aneurysm secondary to an acquired ileocolic arteriovenous fistula in a 64-year-old woman with recurrent abdominal pain and history of appendectomy. The aneurysm was diagnosed by ultrasound and computed tomography. Angiography showed an arteriovenous fistula between ileocolic branches of the superior mesenteric artery and vein. This vascular abnormality was successfully treated with coil embolization.

  9. The pygmy whitefish, Coregonus coulteri, in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eschmeyer, Paul H.; Bailey, Reeve M.

    1955-01-01

    Other cold-water fishes–cottids, ninespine sticklebacks, smelt, and four species of coregonines–were the most frequent associates of the pygmy whitefish. Lake trout and trout-perch were also taken with it at the same stations or in the same trawl hauls. Its closest relative in Lake Superior, the round whitefish, was not an ecological associate.

  10. How nonlinear optical effects degrade Hong-Ou-Mandel like interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirza, Imran M.; van Enk, S. J.

    2015-05-01

    Two-photon interference effects, such as the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect, can be used to characterize to what extent two photons are identical [20]. Furthermore, these interference effects underly linear optics quantum computation. We show here how nonlinear optical effects, such as those mediated by atoms or quantum dots in a cavity, degrade the interference. This implies that, on the one hand, nonlinearities are to be avoided if one wishes to utilize the interference, but on the other hand, one may be able to measure or detect nonlinearities by observing the disappearance of the interference.

  11. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between triggered and heralded single photons from separate atomic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leong, Victor; Kosen, Sandoko; Srivathsan, Bharath; Gulati, Gurpreet Kaur; Cerè, Alessandro; Kurtsiefer, Christian

    2015-06-01

    We present Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of single photons generated via two different physical processes by two independent atomic systems: scattering by a single atom, and parametric generation via four-wave mixing in a cloud of cold atoms. Without any spectral filtering, we observe a visibility of V =62 ±4 % . After correcting for accidental coincidences, we obtain V =93 ±6 % . The observed interference demonstrates the compatibility of the two sources, forming the basis for an efficient quantum interface between different physical systems.

  12. Tolerance and biomarkers as useful tools for assessing environmental quality in the Oued Souss estuary (Bay of Agadir, Morocco).

    PubMed

    Ait Alla, A; Mouneyrac, C; Durou, C; Moukrim, A; Pellerin, J

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to assess aquatic environmental quality of Oued Souss (Agadir, Morocco). This estuary has been subjected for a long time to large amounts of sewage discharges and industrial effluents. Since November 2002, no waste outlets have been discharged in this site due to their connection to a wastewater purification plant. Firstly, we have compared metal tolerance of the annelid polychaete (Nereis diversicolor) originating from Oued Souss and a relatively clean site (Oualidia, Morocco). Secondly, we have evaluated with a multi-marker approach (acetylcholinesterase [AChE], glutathione-S-transferases [GSTs], catalase, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances [TBARs]) responses of worms to the pollution gradient. Results have shown that worms from Oued Souss have acquired tolerance to copper and zinc due to a long-term sub-lethal metal exposure and this metal tolerance was maintained in spite of the end of wastewater discharges in this site. Higher catalase, GSTs and TBARs values have been observed in worms from Oued Souss sampled before implantation of wastewater treatment. The multi-marker approach confirms that these worms have been submitted to various contaminants. In contrast, high inhibition in AChE activities measured in worms from Oued Souss could be explained by the continuous agricultural influence of nearest areas. The level of contamination was probably maintained since biomarker values were generally higher in worms from Oued Souss when compared to Oualidia.

  13. Bioaccumulation of toxaphene congeners in the lake superior food web

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Muir, D.C.G.; Whittle, D.M.; De Vault, D. S.; Bronte, C.R.; Karlsson, H.; Backus, S.; Teixeira, C.

    2004-01-01

    The bioaccumulation and biotransformation of toxaphene was examined in the food webs of Lake Superior and Siskiwit Lake (Isle Royale) using congener specific analysis as well as stable isotope ratios of carbon and nitrogen to characterize food webs. Toxaphene concentrations (calculated using technical toxaphene) in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) from the western basin of Lake Superior (N = 95) averaged (±SD) 889 ± 896 ng/g wet wt and 60 ± 34 ng/g wet wt in Siskiwit Lake. Major congeners in lake trout were B8-789 (P38), B8-2226 (P44), B9-1679 (P50), and B9-1025 (P62). Toxaphene concentrations were found to vary seasonally, especially in lower food web organisms in Lake Superior and to a lesser extent in Siskiwit Lake. Toxaphene concentrations declined significantly in lake herring (Coregonus artedii), rainbow smelt (Omerus mordax), and slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus) as well as in zooplankton (> 102 &mn;m) and Mysis (Mysis relicta) between May and October. The seasonal variation may reflect seasonal shifts in the species abundance within the zooplankton community. Trophic magnification factors (TMF) derived from regressions of toxaphene congener concentrations versus δ15N were > 1 for most octa- and nonachlorobornanes in Lake Superior except B8-1413 (P26) and B9-715. Log bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for toxaphene congeners in lake trout (ng/g lipid/ng/L dissolved) ranged from 4.54 to 9.7 and were significantly correlated with log octanol-water partition coefficients. TMFs observed for total toxaphene and congener B9-1679 in Lake Superior were similar to those in Arctic lakes, as well as to previous studies in the Great Lakes, which suggests that the bioaccumulation behavior of toxaphene is similar in pelagic food webs of large, cold water systems. However, toxaphene concentrations were lower in lake trout from Siskiwit Lake and lakes in northwestern Ontario than in Lake Superior possibly because of shorter food chains and greater reliance on zooplankton or

  14. The Penokean orogeny in the Lake Superior region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schulz, K.J.; Cannon, W.F.

    2007-01-01

    The Penokean orogeny began at about 1880 Ma when an oceanic arc, now the Pembine-Wausau terrane, collided with the southern margin of the Archean Superior craton marking the end of a period of south-directed subduction. The docking of the buoyant craton to the arc resulted in a subduction jump to the south and development of back-arc extension both in the initial arc and adjacent craton margin to the north. A belt of volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits formed in the extending back-arc rift within the arc. Synchronous extension and subsidence of the Superior craton resulted in a broad shallow sea characterized by volcanic grabens (Menominee Group in northern Michigan). The classic Lake Superior banded iron-formations, including those in the Marquette, Gogebic, Mesabi and Gunflint Iron Ranges, formed in that sea. The newly established subduction zone caused continued arc volcanism until about 1850 Ma when a fragment of Archean crust, now the basement of the Marshfield terrane, arrived at the subduction zone. The convergence of Archean blocks of the Superior and Marshfield cratons resulted in the major contractional phase of the Penokean orogeny. Rocks of the Pembine-Wausau arc were thrust northward onto the Superior craton causing subsidence of a foreland basin in which sedimentation began at about 1850 Ma in the south (Baraga Group rocks) and 1835 Ma in the north (Rove and Virginia Formations). A thick succession of arc-derived turbidites constitutes most of the foreland basin-fill along with lesser volcanic rocks. In the southern fold and thrust belt tectonic thickening resulted in high-grade metamorphism of the sediments by 1830 Ma. At this same time, a suite of post-tectonic plutons intruded the deformed sedimentary sequence and accreted arc terranes marking the end of the Penokean orogeny. The Penokean orogen was strongly overprinted by younger tectonic and thermal events, some of which were previously ascribed to the Penokean. Principal among these was a

  15. Nonlinear optical effects and Hong-Ou-Mandel interference in cavity quantum electrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirza, Imran M.; van Enk, Steven J.

    Pure quantum interference among single photons is one of the key ingredients to perform linear optics quantum computation (LOQC). The Hong-Ou-Mandel interference (HOMI) [C. K. Hong, Z. Y. Ou and L. Mandel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, (18), 2044-2046 (1987)] i.e. complete destructive interference between two identical and indistinguishable photons simultaneously entering input ports of a 50/50 beam splitter, is a well-known example in this context. In this talk, I'll present our theoretical study of HOMI in a coupled Jaynes-Cummings array. In particular and by applying quantum jump/trajectory formalism, I'll focus on how partial quantum interference between two photons survive both non-linearities produced by two-level emitter and spectral filtering due to optical cavities in our coupled cavity array setup [Imran M. Mirza and Steven J. van Enk, Opt. Comm. 343, 172-177 (2015)]. Along with LOQC, this work is crucial from the perspective of exploiting coupled cavity arrays to store single photons reliably (without altering their temporal and spectral traits) [Imran M. Mirza, Steven J. van Enk and Jeff Kimble, JOSA B, 10, 2640-2649, (2013)].

  16. Mnemonic Training Reshapes Brain Networks to Support Superior Memory.

    PubMed

    Dresler, Martin; Shirer, William R; Konrad, Boris N; Müller, Nils C J; Wagner, Isabella C; Fernández, Guillén; Czisch, Michael; Greicius, Michael D

    2017-03-08

    Memory skills strongly differ across the general population; however, little is known about the brain characteristics supporting superior memory performance. Here we assess functional brain network organization of 23 of the world's most successful memory athletes and matched controls with fMRI during both task-free resting state baseline and active memory encoding. We demonstrate that, in a group of naive controls, functional connectivity changes induced by 6 weeks of mnemonic training were correlated with the network organization that distinguishes athletes from controls. During rest, this effect was mainly driven by connections between rather than within the visual, medial temporal lobe and default mode networks, whereas during task it was driven by connectivity within these networks. Similarity with memory athlete connectivity patterns predicted memory improvements up to 4 months after training. In conclusion, mnemonic training drives distributed rather than regional changes, reorganizing the brain's functional network organization to enable superior memory performance.

  17. A cognitive assessment of highly superior autobiographical memory.

    PubMed

    LePort, Aurora K R; Stark, Shauna M; McGaugh, James L; Stark, Craig E L

    2017-02-01

    Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (HSAM) is characterised as the ability to accurately recall an exceptional number of experiences and their associated dates from events occurring throughout much of one's lifetime. The source of this ability has only begun to be explored. The present study explores whether other enhanced cognitive processes may be critical influences underlying HSAM abilities. We investigated whether enhanced abilities in the domains of verbal fluency, attention/inhibition, executive functioning, mnemonic discrimination, perception, visual working memory, or the processing of and memory for emotional details might contribute critically to HSAM. The results suggest that superior cognitive functioning is an unlikely basis of HSAM, as only modest advantages were found in only a few tests. In addition, we examined HSAM subjects' memory of the testing episodes. Interestingly, HSAM participants recalled details of their own experiences far better than those experiences that the experimenter shared with them. These findings provide additional evidence that HSAM involves, relatively selectively, recollection of personal, autobiographical material.

  18. False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals

    PubMed Central

    Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J.; LePort, Aurora K. R.; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M.; Stark, Craig E. L.; McGaugh, James L.; Loftus, Elizabeth F.

    2013-01-01

    The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants’ and age- and sex-matched controls’ susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed higher overall false memory compared with that of controls for details in a photographic slideshow. HSAM participants were equally as likely as controls to mistakenly report they had seen nonexistent footage of a plane crash. Finding false memories in a superior-memory group suggests that malleable reconstructive mechanisms may be fundamental to episodic remembering. Paradoxically, HSAM individuals may retrieve abundant and accurate autobiographical memories using fallible reconstructive processes. PMID:24248358

  19. [Superior mesenteric artery aneurysm treated with endovascular stentgraft implantation].

    PubMed

    Juszkat, Robert; Zarzecka, Anna; Winckiewicz, Marek; Majewski, Wacław

    2012-01-01

    Aneurysms of the superior mesenteric are very rare and comprises 5.5% of all visceral artery aneurysms. A 60-year-old male was admitted to the General and Vascular Surgery Department due to the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) aneurysm, diagnosed in angio CT. Due to wide neck of the aneurysm and its localization in the mid-die segment of the SMA, a decision to implant a stentgraft was made. After surgical exposure of the right common femoral artery, a stentgraft Viabahn was implanted into the SMA. Control angiography revealed total aneurysm exclusion and patent SMA. Periprocedural course was uneventful. Follow-up CT scan 2 year after the procedure revealed no contrast filling of the aneurysm and patent SMA. A stentgraft implantation is a effective method of treatment of the wide-necked SMA aneurysms.

  20. Geology and tectonics of the Archean Superior Province, Canadian Shield

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, K. D.

    1986-01-01

    Superior Province consists mainly of Late Archean rocks with Middle Archean gneisses in the south, and possibly in the north. The Late Archean supracrustal sequences are of island arc and interarc affinity and are cut by abundant plutonic rocks, including early arc-related intrusions, late synorogenic intrusions, and post-orogenic plutons that are possibly the product of crustal melting caused by thermal blanketing of newly-thickened continental crust combined with high mantle heat flux. The contemporaneity of magmatic and deformational events along the lengths of the belts is consistent with a subduction-dominated tectonic regime for assembly of the Kenoran Orogen. Successive addition of volcanic arcs accompanied and followed by voluminous plutonism resulted in crustal thickening and stabilization of the Superior craton prior to uplift of Kapuskasing granulites, emplacement of the Matachewan diabase dykes, and Early Proterozoic marginal rifting.

  1. False memories in highly superior autobiographical memory individuals.

    PubMed

    Patihis, Lawrence; Frenda, Steven J; LePort, Aurora K R; Petersen, Nicole; Nichols, Rebecca M; Stark, Craig E L; McGaugh, James L; Loftus, Elizabeth F

    2013-12-24

    The recent identification of highly superior autobiographical memory (HSAM) raised the possibility that there may be individuals who are immune to memory distortions. We measured HSAM participants' and age- and sex-matched controls' susceptibility to false memories using several research paradigms. HSAM participants and controls were both susceptible to false recognition of nonpresented critical lure words in an associative word-list task. In a misinformation task, HSAM participants showed higher overall false memory compared with that of controls for details in a photographic slideshow. HSAM participants were equally as likely as controls to mistakenly report they had seen nonexistent footage of a plane crash. Finding false memories in a superior-memory group suggests that malleable reconstructive mechanisms may be fundamental to episodic remembering. Paradoxically, HSAM individuals may retrieve abundant and accurate autobiographical memories using fallible reconstructive processes.

  2. Periphyton accumulation at remote reefs and shoals in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Edsall, Thomas A.; Stoermer, Eugene F.; Kociolek, John P.

    1991-01-01

    Observations made from a submarine showed that the bed-rock surfaces at water depths of about 5 to 14 m on Stannard Rock and Superior Shoal in Lake Superior were covered with a dense, fleece-like blanket of periphyton. Examination of the periphyton revealed it consisted primarily of structurally complex, diverse, diatom communities, but occasional small thalli of the green algae Cladophora andStigeoclonium were also noted. Extensive windrows of detritus-like material, apparently derived from the local periphyton community, were seen on soft bottoms at depths of about 20 to 60 m near the reefs. Our observations suggested that these periphyton communities may be locally important to the food web at these remote and oligotrophic sites, which are 22 to 77 km from the nearest mainland shore and are surrounded by water at least 140 m deep.

  3. [Superior Cava Venous syndrome as presentation of neoplasic disease].

    PubMed

    Pérez Maure, M; Subils, G; Peresin Paz, R; Cazaux, A; Cambursano, V H; Cortés, J R

    2013-01-01

    Superior Cava Venous Syndrome (SVCS) encompasses a constellation of signs and symptoms resulting from partial or complete obstruction of blood flow through the superior vena cava (SVC) to the right atrium. Thrombosis can be caused by intrinsic (primary) or extrinsic compression (with or without secondary thrombosis). The causes of SVCS can be grouped according to their etiology in non-neoplastic and neoplastic. The causes malignant correspond to 65-90% of them, thrombosis and nonmalignant conditions are another causes. The presentation may be acute, clinically characterized by dyspnea and a characteristic triad (facial, neck and arms edema, cyanosis and collateral circulation). Early detection improves prognosis and is based on clinical data and imaging studies. We describe 8 cases where the SVCS was the first manifestation of neoplastic diseases. Patients were predominantly of middle-aged, male, without association with consumption of tobacco and lymphoma was most frequent diagnosis.

  4. Superior vena cava syndrome caused by embolisation of liquid Onyx.

    PubMed

    Crusio, Robbert; Ramachandran, Kishan; Ramachandran, Kavan; Kupfer, Yizhak; Tessler, Sidney

    2011-02-14

    Superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) is usually caused by a malignancy or the presence of an intravascular device in a central vein. A 74-year-old male with a history of a superior vena cava (SVC) stent underwent embolisation of a brain arterio-venous malformation through the right meningeal artery with liquid Onyx. Two weeks later he presented with acute respiratory failure, upper airway obstruction, plethora, varices of the chest wall and stridor. He was intubated and placed on mechanical ventilatory support. Chest imaging revealed a linear structure in the SVC, extending to the right atrium. Interventional radiology removed the material, which was determined to be liquid Onyx. Venous pressures of the right internal jugular vein decreased after removal of the material. The symptoms resolved and patient was successfully extubated. This is the first reported case of SVCS caused by liquid Onyx.

  5. Can linear superiorization be useful for linear optimization problems?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Censor, Yair

    2017-04-01

    Linear superiorization (LinSup) considers linear programming problems but instead of attempting to solve them with linear optimization methods it employs perturbation resilient feasibility-seeking algorithms and steers them toward reduced (not necessarily minimal) target function values. The two questions that we set out to explore experimentally are: (i) does LinSup provide a feasible point whose linear target function value is lower than that obtained by running the same feasibility-seeking algorithm without superiorization under identical conditions? (ii) How does LinSup fare in comparison with the Simplex method for solving linear programming problems? Based on our computational experiments presented here, the answers to these two questions are: ‘yes’ and ‘very well’, respectively.

  6. Surgical approach to the superior mid-orbit.

    PubMed

    Krohn-Hansen, Dag; Nicolaissen, Bjørn; Meling, Torstein R; Haaskjold, Erling

    2013-09-01

    Access to the superior mid-orbit is required for procedures on the levator muscle in the correction of upper eyelid ptosis and in surgery aimed at local lesions in this region. The purpose with this human cadaver study was to clarify the anatomical substrate for a surgical approach to the levator muscle and the upper mid-orbit structures, in which the orbital septum and the retroseptal fat pad is not harmed during surgery. Macro-anatomical dissections and histological examinations were performed on five human orbits from three formalin embalmed cadaver heads. It was found that the orbital septum extends posteriorly from its junction with the levator aponeurosis. This posterior continuation of the orbital septum encloses the superior orbital fat pad and separates this from the anterior surface of the levator muscle. In between the orbital septum and the levator, there is a dissection space that provides a minimal invasive access corridor to the structures in the upper mid-orbit.

  7. The picture superiority effect: support for the distinctiveness model.

    PubMed

    Mintzer, M Z; Snodgrass, J G

    1999-01-01

    The form change paradigm was used to explore the basis for the picture superiority effect. Recognition memory for studied pictures and words was tested in their study form or the alternate form. Form change cost was defined as the difference between recognition performance for same and different form items. Based on the results of Experiment 1 and previous studies, it was difficult to determine the relative cost for studied pictures and words due to a reversal of the mirror effect. We hypothesized that the reversed mirror effect results from subjects' basing their recognition decisions on their assumptions about the study form. Experiments 2 and 3 confirmed this hypothesis and generated a method for evaluating the relative cost for pictures and words despite the reversed mirror effect. More cost was observed for pictures than words, supporting the distinctiveness model of the picture superiority effect.

  8. Organizational Self-Awareness in the Key to Knowledge Superiority

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    market leadership. The research behind this thesis identifies four attributes of self-awareness that are critical contributors to knowledge superiority...organizational needs that this thesis seeks to address are: (1) firms do not understand precisely why they succeed; (2) market leaders feel they must...leading to sustainable competitive advantages and market leadership. The research behind this thesis identifies four attributes of self-awareness

  9. Information Superiority generated through proper application of Geoinformatics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teichmann, F.

    2012-04-01

    Information Superiority generated through proper application of Geoinformatics Information management and especially geoscience information delivery is a very delicate task. If it is carried out successfully, geoscientific data will provide the main foundation of Information Superiority. However, improper implementation of geodata generation, assimilation, distribution or storage will not only waste valuable resources like manpower or money, but could also give rise to crucial deficiency in knowledge and might lead to potentially extremely harmful disasters or wrong decisions. Comprehensive Approach, Effect Based Operations and Network Enabled Capabilities are the current buzz terms in the security regime. However, they also apply to various interdisciplinary tasks like catastrophe relief missions, civil task operations or even in day to day business operations where geo-science data is used. Based on experience in the application of geoscience data for defence applications the following procedure or tool box for generating geodata should lead to the desired information superiority: 1. Understand and analyse the mission, the task and the environment for which the geodata is needed 2. Carry out a Information Exchange Requirement between the user or customer and the geodata provider 3. Implementation of current interoperability standards and a coherent metadata structure 4. Execute innovative data generation, data provision, data assimilation and data storage 5. Apply a cost-effective and reasonable data life cycle 6. Implement IT security by focusing of the three pillar concepts Integrity, Availability and Confidentiality of the critical data 7. Draft and execute a service level agreement or a memorandum of understanding between the involved parties 8. Execute a Continuous Improvement Cycle These ideas from the IT world should be transferred into the geoscience community and applied in a wide set of scenarios. A standardized approach of how to generate, provide

  10. Habitat change in a perched dune system along Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loope, Walter L.; McEachern, A. Kathryn; Mac, Michael J.; Opler, Paul A.; Puckett Haecker, Catherine E.; Doran, Peter D.

    1998-01-01

    Episodes of habitat change, driven by changes in levels of the Great Lakes, must be considered when assessing human effects upon coastal vegetation and rare species. Paleoecological studies, baseline inventories, and long-term monitoring programs within the Grand Sable Dunes, a perched-dune system along Lake Superior, provide a window on vegetation change at different spatial and temporal scales and also provide an illustrative case study.

  11. Water quality assessment of a highly polluted Mediterranean River - Oued Fez (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, J.-L.; Bellarbi, M.; Raïs, N.; Chahinian, N.; Moulin, P.; Ijjaali, M.

    2012-04-01

    In the South of the Mediterranean basin, many rivers are characterized by an alternation of very long dry periods only cut by short flood events. Currently, the socio-economical development of these zones is limited by water scarcity and poor quality of the water resources. Indeed human activities, generally concentrated in overpopulated cities, generate large quantity of domestic and industrial effluents which are directly rejected in the environment without any treatment. In Morocco, the well known city of Fez illustrates perfectly this situation, observed in most developing countries. The oued Fez receives continuously the non-treated domestic and industrial effluents (90.000 m3/day) of the city and pollutes all the downstream water bodies. Indeed, it is a tributary of the Sebou River, a major body of great economical importance used for irrigation and freshwater supply. This study aims at characterising and quantifying the pollutant concentrations and fluxes in various points of oued Fez's hydrological network and assessing its impact on the Sebou River; this river's preservation being considered a national priority in Morocco. A coupled water quality-water quantity monitoring scheme has been implemented on oued Fez since 2008. In addition to basic hydrological data, water quality samples are collected at regular intervals at 8 locations where discharge is simultaneously measured using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). Water samples are analysed for different forms of nitrogen (nitrates, nitrites, ammonium and total nitrogen), phosphorus (soluble reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus) but also total chromium which is used in the leather tanning processes, one of the most important industrial production of the city of Fez, using a photospectrometer (Hach Lange DR 2800 VIS-photometer (Germany). The results of 17 sampling campaigns, carried out over 3 hydrological years, indicate that the rural areas contribute mostly to baseflow during the wet

  12. Volatilization of toxaphene from Lakes Michigan and Superior.

    PubMed

    James, R R; McDonald, J G; Symonik, D M; Swackhamer, D L; Hites, R A

    2001-09-15

    The pesticide toxaphene was used extensively on cotton in the southern United States until its use was restricted in 1982. It was previously reported that the upper Great Lakes have received toxaphene by gas absorption following long-range transport from the south and are currently saturated with respect to toxaphene. However, the rate of loss of toxaphene from Lakes Michigan and Superior had been estimated using sparse or estimated data, and thus, these estimates had high uncertainties. For this investigation, samples were collected to provide extensive data on air, water, and sediment concentrations of toxaphene for the upper Great Lakes for the period 1997-98. These data were used to calculate the annual and seasonal fluxes of toxaphene from water to air and sediment. Lake Superior is 200-1000% saturated with toxaphene, and Lake Michigan is 200-500% saturated. It seems clear that both lakes will outgas toxaphene into the atmosphere for some considerable time in the future, and Lake Superior, because of its generally lower water temperatures and higher toxaphene concentration, will outgas toxaphene even longer than will Lake Michigan.

  13. Prey selection by the Lake Superior fish community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Isaac, Edmund J.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Gamble, Allison E.

    2012-01-01

    Mysis diluviana is an important prey item to the Lake Superior fish community as found through a recent diet study. We further evaluated this by relating the quantity of prey found in fish diets to the quantity of prey available to fish, providing insight into feeding behavior and prey preferences. We describe the seasonal prey selection of major fish species collected across 18 stations in Lake Superior in spring, summer, and fall of 2005. Of the major nearshore fish species, bloater (Coregonus hoyi), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax), and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) consumed Mysis, and strongly selected Mysis over other prey items each season. However, lake whitefish also selected Bythotrephes in the fall when Bythotrephes were numerous. Cisco (Coregonus artedi), a major nearshore and offshore species, fed largely on calanoid copepods, and selected calanoid copepods (spring) and Bythotrephes (summer and fall). Cisco also targeted prey similarly across bathymetric depths. Other major offshore fish species such as kiyi (Coregonus kiyi) and deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsoni) fed largely on Mysis, with kiyi targeting Mysis exclusively while deepwater sculpin did not prefer any single prey organism. The major offshore predator siscowet lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet) consumed deepwater sculpin and coregonines, but selected deepwater sculpin and Mysis each season, with juveniles having a higher selection for Mysis than adults. Our results suggest that Mysis is not only a commonly consumed prey item, but a highly preferred prey item for pelagic, benthic, and piscivorous fishes in nearshore and offshore waters of Lake Superior.

  14. Superior metallic alloys through rapid solidification processing (RSP) by design

    SciTech Connect

    Flinn, J.E.

    1995-05-01

    Rapid solidification processing using powder atomization methods and the control of minor elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon can provide metallic alloys with superior properties and performance compared to conventionally processing alloys. Previous studies on nickel- and iron-base superalloys have provided the baseline information to properly couple RSP with alloy composition, and, therefore, enable alloys to be designed for performance improvements. The RSP approach produces powders, which need to be consolidated into suitable monolithic forms. This normally involves canning, consolidation, and decanning of the powders. Canning/decanning is expensive and raises the fabrication cost significantly above that of conventional, ingot metallurgy production methods. The cost differential can be offset by the superior performance of the RSP metallic alloys. However, without the performance database, it is difficult to convince potential users to adopt the RSP approach. Spray casting of the atomized molten droplets into suitable preforms for subsequent fabrication can be cost competitive with conventional processing. If the fine and stable microstructural features observed for the RSP approach are preserved during spray casing, a cost competitive product can be obtained that has superior properties and performance that cannot be obtained by conventional methods.

  15. Levels of processing and picture memory: the physical superiority effect.

    PubMed

    Intraub, H; Nicklos, S

    1985-04-01

    Six experiments studied the effect of physical orienting questions (e.g., "Is this angular?") and semantic orienting questions (e.g., "Is this edible?") on memory for unrelated pictures at stimulus durations ranging from 125-2,000 ms. Results ran contrary to the semantic superiority "rule of thumb," which is based primarily on verbal memory experiments. Physical questions were associated with better free recall and cued recall of a diverse set of visual scenes (Experiments 1, 2, and 4). This occurred both when general and highly specific semantic questions were used (Experiments 1 and 2). Similar results were obtained when more simplistic visual stimuli--photographs of single objects--were used (Experiments 5 and 6). As in the case of the semantic superiority effect with words, the physical superiority effect for pictures was eliminated or reversed when the same physical questions were repeated throughout the session (Experiments 4 and 6). Conflicts with results of previous levels of processing experiments with words and nonverbal stimuli (e.g., faces) are explained in terms of the sensory-semantic model (Nelson, Reed, & McEvoy, 1977). Implications for picture memory research and the levels of processing viewpoint are discussed.

  16. Interactions between the hydrology and hydrochemistry of an intermittent southern Mediterranean River- Oued Fez (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, J.-L.; Bellarbi, M.; Chahinian, N.; Raïs, N.; Moulin, P.; Ijjaali, M.

    2012-04-01

    Mediterranean catchments are often characterized by highly variable rainfall inputs and intermittent flows. In comparison to the existing knowledge on their hydrological behaviour, the interactions between flow conditions and pollution levels remain less documented. This study aims at filling that gap through a case study on Oued Fez (Morocco). Oued Fez is an intermittent river located in central-eastern Morocco. It has a 615 km2 catchment 10% of which corresponds to the city of Fez, the 3rd biggest in the kingdom (1.2 M inhabitants). Oued Fes is a tributary of the Sebou River, a major body of great economical importance used for irrigation and freshwater supply. A coupled water quality-water quantity monitoring scheme has been implemented on Oued Fez since 2008. In addition to basic hydrological data, water quality samples are collected at regular intervals at 8 locations where discharge is simultaneously measured using an Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP). Water samples are analysed for different forms of nitrogen (nitrates, nitrites, ammonium and total nitrogen) and phosphorus (soluble reactive phosphorus and total phosphorus) using a photospectrometer (Hach Lange DR 2800 VIS-photometer (Germany). The results of the study indicate that, despite variations in annual rainfall, the catchment's hydrological response is controlled by the urban impervious zones during floods. The rural areas contribute mostly to baseflow during the wet period while non-treated anthropogenic inputs constitute most of the flow during the dry period. This in turn affects the water quality results. Indeed: - during low flow conditions the pollution levels are very high and total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations reach 45 mg/l N and 6.5 mg/l P respectively at the most polluted sites. - during average and high flow conditions the pollution levels decrease due to dilution. Total nitrogen and total phosphorus concentrations reach 32 mg/l N and 3.5 mg/l P respectively with

  17. Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment for temporal investigation of single-electron fractionalization.

    PubMed

    Freulon, V; Marguerite, A; Berroir, J-M; Plaçais, B; Cavanna, A; Jin, Y; Fève, G

    2015-04-21

    Coulomb interaction has a striking effect on electronic propagation in one-dimensional conductors. The interaction of an elementary excitation with neighbouring conductors favours the emergence of collective modes, which eventually leads to the destruction of the Landau quasiparticle. In this process, an injected electron tends to fractionalize into separated pulses carrying a fraction of the electron charge. Here we use two-particle interferences in the electronic analogue of the Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment in a quantum Hall conductor at filling factor 2 to probe the fate of a single electron emitted in the outer edge channel and interacting with the inner one. By studying both channels, we analyse the propagation of the single electron and the generation of interaction-induced collective excitations in the inner channel. These complementary pieces of information reveal the fractionalization process in the time domain and establish its relevance for the destruction of the quasiparticle, which degrades into the collective modes.

  18. Laser cooling atoms to indistinguishability: Atomic Hong-Ou-Mandel interference and entanglement through spin exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaufman, Adam

    2016-05-01

    Motional control of neutral atoms has a rich history and increasingly interest has turned to single-atom control. In my thesis work, we created a platform to individually prepare single bosonic atoms in highly pure quantum states, by developing methods to laser cool single atoms to the vibrational ground state of optical tweezer traps. Applying this toolset, we observe the atomic Hong-Ou-Mandel effect when we arrange for atom tunneling to play the role of a balanced beam splitter between two optical tweezers. In another experiment, we utilize spin exchange to create entanglement, which we then verify after spatially separating the atoms to observe their non-local correlations. Merging these results with our recent demonstration of deterministic loading of atomic arrays, our results establish the concept of quantum gas assembly, which could be applied to a variety of systems ranging from the production of single dipolar molecules to the assembly of low-entropy arrays of atoms.

  19. Multiparticle Correlations in Mesoscopic Scattering: Boson Sampling, Birthday Paradox, and Hong-Ou-Mandel Profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urbina, Juan-Diego; Kuipers, Jack; Matsumoto, Sho; Hummel, Quirin; Richter, Klaus

    2016-03-01

    The interplay between single-particle interference and quantum indistinguishability leads to signature correlations in many-body scattering. We uncover these with a semiclassical calculation of the transmission probabilities through mesoscopic cavities for systems of noninteracting particles. For chaotic cavities we provide the universal form of the first two moments of the transmission probabilities over ensembles of random unitary matrices, including weak localization and dephasing effects. If the incoming many-body state consists of two macroscopically occupied wave packets, their time delay drives a quantum-classical transition along a boundary determined by the bosonic birthday paradox. Mesoscopic chaotic scattering of Bose-Einstein condensates is, then, a realistic candidate to build a boson sampler and to observe the macroscopic Hong-Ou-Mandel effect.

  20. Two-dimensional fermionic Hong-Ou-Mandel interference with massless Dirac fermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, M. A.; Leuenberger, Michael N.

    2014-08-01

    We propose a two-dimensional Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) type interference experiment for massless Dirac fermions in graphene and 3D topological insulators. Since massless Dirac fermions exhibit linear dispersion, similar to photons in vacuum, they can be used to obtain the HOM interference intensity pattern as a function of the delay time between two massless Dirac fermions. We show that while the Coulomb interaction leads to a significant change in the angle dependence of the tunneling of two identical massless Dirac fermions incident from opposite sides of a potential barrier, it does not affect the HOM interference pattern. We apply our formalism to develop a massless Dirac fermion beam splitter (BS) for controlling the transmission and reflection coefficients. We calculate the resulting time-resolved correlation function for two identical massless Dirac fermions scattering off the BS.

  1. Effects of interactions on the generalized Hong-Ou-Mandel effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gertjerenken, B.; Kevrekidis, P. G.

    2015-09-01

    We numerically investigate the influence of interactions on the generalized Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect for bosonic particles in a (quasi-)one-dimensional set-up with weak harmonic confinement and show results for the cases of N = 2, N = 3 and N = 4 bosons interacting with a beam splitter, whose role is played by a δ-barrier. In particular, we focus on the effect of attractive interactions and compare the results with the repulsive case, as well as with the analytically available results for the non-interacting case (that we use as a benchmark). We observe a fermionization effect both for growing repulsive and attractive interactions, i.e., the dip in the HOM coincidence count is progressively smeared out, for increasing interaction strengths. The role of input asymmetries is also explored.

  2. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of entangled Hermite-Gauss modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yingwen; Prabhakar, Shashi; Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Roux, Filippus S.; Karimi, Ebrahim; Forbes, Andrew

    2016-09-01

    Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference is demonstrated experimentally for entangled photon pairs in the Hermite-Gauss (HG) basis. We use two Dove prisms in one of the paths of the photons to manipulate the entangled quantum state that enters the HOM interferometer. It is demonstrated that, when entangled photon pairs are in a symmetric Bell state in the Laguerre-Gauss (LG) basis, they will remain symmetric after decomposing them into the HG basis, thereby resulting in no coincidence events after the HOM interference. On the other hand, if the photon pairs are in an antisymmetric Bell state in the LG basis, then they will also be antisymmetric in the HG basis, thereby producing only coincidence events as a result of the HOM interference.

  3. Measurement of photon indistinguishability to a quantifiable uncertainty using a Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometer

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, Peter J.; Cheung, Jessica Y.; Chunnilall, Christopher J.; Dunn, Malcolm H.

    2010-04-10

    We present a method for using the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference technique to quantify photon indistinguishability within an associated uncertainty. The method allows the relative importance of various experimental factors affecting the HOM visibility to be identified, and enables the actual indistinguishability, with an associated uncertainty, to be estimated from experimentally measured quantities. A measurement equation has been derived that accounts for the non-ideal performance of the interferometer. The origin of each term of the equation is explained, along with procedures for their experimental evaluation and uncertainty estimation. These uncertainties are combined to give an overall uncertainty for the derived photon indistinguishability. The analysis was applied to measurements from an interferometer sourced with photon pairs from a parametric downconversion process. The measured photon indistinguishably was found to be 0.954+/-0.036 by using the prescribed method.

  4. Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment for temporal investigation of single-electron fractionalization

    PubMed Central

    Freulon, V.; Marguerite, A.; Berroir, J.-M.; Plaçais, B.; Cavanna, A.; Jin, Y.; Fève, G.

    2015-01-01

    Coulomb interaction has a striking effect on electronic propagation in one-dimensional conductors. The interaction of an elementary excitation with neighbouring conductors favours the emergence of collective modes, which eventually leads to the destruction of the Landau quasiparticle. In this process, an injected electron tends to fractionalize into separated pulses carrying a fraction of the electron charge. Here we use two-particle interferences in the electronic analogue of the Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment in a quantum Hall conductor at filling factor 2 to probe the fate of a single electron emitted in the outer edge channel and interacting with the inner one. By studying both channels, we analyse the propagation of the single electron and the generation of interaction-induced collective excitations in the inner channel. These complementary pieces of information reveal the fractionalization process in the time domain and establish its relevance for the destruction of the quasiparticle, which degrades into the collective modes. PMID:25896625

  5. Interactions and Charge Fractionalization in an Electronic Hong-Ou-Mandel Interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahl, Claire; Rech, Jérôme; Jonckheere, Thibaut; Martin, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    We consider an electronic analog of the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interferometer, where two single electrons travel along opposite chiral edge states and collide at a quantum point contact. Studying the current noise, we show that because of interactions between copropagating edge states, the degree of indistinguishability between the two electron wave packets is dramatically reduced, leading to reduced contrast for the HOM signal. This decoherence phenomenon strongly depends on the energy resolution of the packets. Insofar as interactions cause charge fractionalization, we show that charge and neutral modes interfere with each other, leading to satellite dips or peaks in the current noise. Our calculations explain recent experimental results [E. Bocquillon, et al., Science 339, 1054 (2013)] where an electronic HOM signal with reduced contrast was observed.

  6. Spectrally resolved Hong-Ou-Mandel interference between independent photon sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Rui-Bo; Gerrits, Thomas; Fujiwara, Mikio; Wakabayashi, Ryota; Yamashita, Taro; Miki, Shigehito; Terai, Hirotaka; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Takeoka, Masahiro; Sasaki, Masahide

    2015-11-01

    Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference between independent photon sources (HOMI-IPS) is the fundamental block for quantum information processing, such as quantum gate, Shor's algorithm, Boson sampling, etc. All the previous HOMI-IPS experiments were carried out in time-domain, however, the spectral information during the interference was lost, due to technical difficulties. Here, we investigate the HOMI-IPS in spectral domain using the recently developed fast fiber spectrometer, and demonstrate the spectral distribution during the HOM interference between two heralded single-photon sources, and two thermal sources. This experiment can not only deepen our understanding of HOMI-IPS in the spectral domain, but also be utilized to improve the visibility by post-processing spectral filtering.

  7. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of two phonons in trapped ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toyoda, Kenji; Hiji, Ryoto; Noguchi, Atsushi; Urabe, Shinji

    2015-11-01

    The quantum statistics of bosons and fermions manifest themselves in the manner in which two indistinguishable particles interfere quantum mechanically. When two photons, which are bosonic particles, enter a beam-splitter with one photon in each input port, they bunch together at either of the two output ports. The corresponding disappearance of the coincidence count is the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect. Here we show the phonon counterpart of this effect in a system of trapped-ion phonons, which are collective excitations derived by quantizing vibrational motions that obey Bose-Einstein statistics. We realize a beam-splitter transformation of the phonons by employing the mutual Coulomb repulsion between ions, and perform a two-phonon quantum interference experiment using that transformation. We observe an almost perfect disappearance of the phonon coincidence between two ion sites, confirming that phonons can be considered indistinguishable bosonic particles. The two-particle interference demonstrated here is purely a quantum effect, without a classical counterpart, hence it should be possible to demonstrate the existence of entanglement on this basis. We attempt to generate an entangled state of phonons at the centre of the Hong-Ou-Mandel dip in the coincidence temporal profile, under the assumption that the entangled phonon state is successfully generated if the fidelity of the analysis pulses is taken into account adequately. Two-phonon interference, as demonstrated here, proves the bosonic nature of phonons in a trapped-ion system. It opens the way to establishing phonon modes as carriers of quantum information in their own right, and could have implications for the quantum simulation of bosonic particles and analogue quantum computation via boson sampling.

  8. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference of two phonons in trapped ions.

    PubMed

    Toyoda, Kenji; Hiji, Ryoto; Noguchi, Atsushi; Urabe, Shinji

    2015-11-05

    The quantum statistics of bosons and fermions manifest themselves in the manner in which two indistinguishable particles interfere quantum mechanically. When two photons, which are bosonic particles, enter a beam-splitter with one photon in each input port, they bunch together at either of the two output ports. The corresponding disappearance of the coincidence count is the Hong-Ou-Mandel effect. Here we show the phonon counterpart of this effect in a system of trapped-ion phonons, which are collective excitations derived by quantizing vibrational motions that obey Bose-Einstein statistics. We realize a beam-splitter transformation of the phonons by employing the mutual Coulomb repulsion between ions, and perform a two-phonon quantum interference experiment using that transformation. We observe an almost perfect disappearance of the phonon coincidence between two ion sites, confirming that phonons can be considered indistinguishable bosonic particles. The two-particle interference demonstrated here is purely a quantum effect, without a classical counterpart, hence it should be possible to demonstrate the existence of entanglement on this basis. We attempt to generate an entangled state of phonons at the centre of the Hong-Ou-Mandel dip in the coincidence temporal profile, under the assumption that the entangled phonon state is successfully generated if the fidelity of the analysis pulses is taken into account adequately. Two-phonon interference, as demonstrated here, proves the bosonic nature of phonons in a trapped-ion system. It opens the way to establishing phonon modes as carriers of quantum information in their own right, and could have implications for the quantum simulation of bosonic particles and analogue quantum computation via boson sampling.

  9. Diencephalic connections of the superior colliculus in the hedgehog tenrec.

    PubMed

    Künzle, H

    1996-10-01

    Using different tracer substances the pathways connecting the superior colliculus with the diencephalon were studied in the Madagascan hedgehog tenrec (Echinops telfairi), a nocturnal insectivore with tiny eyes, a small and little differentiated superior colliculus and a visual cortex with no obvious fourth granular layer. The most prominent tecto-thalamic projection terminated in the ipsilateral dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. The entire region receiving contralateral retinal afferents was labeled with variable density. In addition, there was a widespread, homogeneously distributed collicular input to the lateralis posterior-pulvinar complex and a distinct tectal projection to the suprageniculate nucleus. The latter projections were bilateral with a clear ipsilateral predominance. Among the intra- and paralaminar nuclei the centralis lateralis complex was most heavily labeled on both sides, followed by the nucleus centralis medialis. The paralamellar portion of the nucleus medialis dorsalis and the nucleus parafascicularis received sparse projections. A clear projection to the nucleus ventralis medialis could not be demonstrated but its presence was not entirely excluded either. There were also projections to medial thalamic nuclei, particularly the reuniens complex and the nucleus paraventricularis thalami. The main tecto-subthalamic target regions were the zona incerta, the dorsal hypothalamus and distinct subdivisons of the ventral lateral geniculate nucleus. These regions also gave rise to projections to the superior colliculus, as did the intergeniculate leaflet. The pathways oriented toward the visual or frontal cortex and the projections possibly involved in limbic and circadian mechanisms were compared with the connectivity patterns reported in mammals with more differentiated brains. Particular attention was given to the tenrec's prominent tecto-geniculate projection, the presumed W- or K-pathway directed toward the supragranular layers.

  10. Conceptual process designs: Lurgi-Ruhrgas and superior circular grate

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-09-01

    Based on preliminary data on retort yields and previous conceptual designs, a Design Basis has been prepared, and an upgrading scheme developed against which all five retorting processes can be evaluated. Licensors for retorting technologies (American Lurgi Corporation for the Lurgi retort, Davy-McKee for the Superior Circular Grate retort, and Union Oil Company for the Union B retort); hydrotreaters (Gulf Oil and Chevron); wastewater treatment units (Chevron); and sulfur plants (Parsons) have been contacted for data related to their processes. Preliminary balances for the Lurgi and Superior processes have been developed and will be compared against the vendor information when received. A preliminary design basis is presented. This presents design assumptions and conditions to be used in developing the process designs, heat and material balances, and process flow diagrams for all cases. The shale oil upgrading scheme selected to be used in all evaluations consists of delayed coking the 850/sup 0/F plus fraction from the shale oil, and hydrotreating all virgin and coker naphthas and gas oils in separate hydrotreaters. This scheme was selected because it is simple and each of the units has proven to be reliable in refining conventional crude oils. Also, this upgrading scheme is not expected to penalize any specific retort system. The material and utility balances, along with process flow diagrams for Case I, the Lurgi-Ruhrgas process are given. In this case, 46,500 bpsd of 29.4 /sup 0/API upgraded shale oil are produced. The Superior Circular Grate material and utility balances and process flow diagrams are also given. The liquid product from this case is 40,500 bpsd of 27.4 /sup 0/API upgraded shale oil.

  11. The Building of the Archean Superior Craton: Thermal Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaupart, C. P.; Mareschal, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    The building of a craton involves the extraction of continental crust from the Earth's mantle and the lateral accretion of juvenile volcanic terranes. Ascertaining which conditions allow a newborn continental assemblage to survive requires information on its mechanical strength, which depends on the amount and vertical distribution of radioactive elements in the crust. There is thus a connection between crust formation mechanisms and a successful amalgamation process. To address outstanding questions concerning Archean cratons, the Superior province in Canada is the perfect region because it contains a well preserved geological record of accretion that provides compelling evidence for plate tectonic processes at 2.7 Ga. At almost the same time, the rate of continental growth decreased significantly, which may result from either slower crust formation or enhanced destruction through erosion and subduction. These issues are linked to the strength of the newborn continent. The extensive heat flow data set now available in the Superior Province reveals a clear demarcation between a chemically depleted and differentiated craton core and weakly differentiated enriched juvenile accreted terranes. The Superior craton was thus made of a strong core surrounded by weak terranes. This dichotomy implies that the accretion process could not involve complex imbrication of the accreted belts into the craton core. Subsequently, the craton may have been protected from convective disruption or delamination by its weak margins. Differences between the craton core and accreted terranes may be due to different crustal extraction processes, such as melting in a mantle plume or magmatism in a subduction zone. If subduction started at about 3 Ga, as advocated by several authors, the assembly and survival of large cratons may well be a consequence of this key shift in mantle activity. Alternatively, the chemical depletion of the craton core may be due to a prolonged history of internal

  12. Superiority, competition, and opportunism in the evolutionary radiation of dinosaurs.

    PubMed

    Brusatte, Stephen L; Benton, Michael J; Ruta, Marcello; Lloyd, Graeme T

    2008-09-12

    The rise and diversification of the dinosaurs in the Late Triassic, from 230 to 200 million years ago, is a classic example of an evolutionary radiation with supposed competitive replacement. A comparison of evolutionary rates and morphological disparity of basal dinosaurs and their chief "competitors," the crurotarsan archosaurs, shows that dinosaurs exhibited lower disparity and an indistinguishable rate of character evolution. The radiation of Triassic archosaurs as a whole is characterized by declining evolutionary rates and increasing disparity, suggesting a decoupling of character evolution from body plan variety. The results strongly suggest that historical contingency, rather than prolonged competition or general "superiority," was the primary factor in the rise of dinosaurs.

  13. Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissection after Extracorporeal Shockwave Lithotripsy

    PubMed Central

    Bakoyiannis, Christos; Anastasiou, Ioannis; Koutsoumpelis, Andreas; Fragiadis, Evangelos; Felesaki, Eleni; Kafeza, Marina; Georgopoulos, Sotirios; Tsigris, Christos

    2012-01-01

    The use of shockwave lithotripsy is currently the mainstay of treatment in renal calculosis. Several complications including vessel injuries have been implied to extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. We report an isolated dissection of the superior mesenteric artery in a 60-year-old male presenting with abdominal pain which occurred three days after extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy. The patient was treated conservatively and the abdominal pain subsided 24 hours later. The patient's history, the course of his disease, and the timing may suggest a correlation between the dissection and the ESWL. PMID:23304627

  14. Current Understandings of Spontaneous Isolated Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Wook

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous isolated superior mesenteric artery dissection (SISMAD) has been known as a rare vascular disease. However it is increasingly reported in these days with the development of advanced imaging technology. Underlying etiology, natural course or an optimal management strategy of SISMAD is not exactly known at the moment. During the past 10 years, we have had an interest in this rare vascular disease and collected clinical and image data in 100 or more patients with SISMAD. In this review article, I would like to describe my current understanding of SISMAD on the base of our recent publications in the major vascular surgery journals. PMID:27386450

  15. Successful nutritional therapy for superior mesenteric artery syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chan, Dedrick Kok Hong; Mak, Kenneth Seck Wai; Cheah, Yee Lee

    2012-11-01

    Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is an uncommon cause of duodenal outlet obstruction. Symptoms and signs suggestive of this condition are nonspecific, and a high index of suspicion coupled with appropriate imaging studies are necessary for diagnosis. We present the case of a 70-year-old man who developed SMA syndrome following prolonged hospitalisation for a surgically treated bleeding duodenal ulcer. His SMA syndrome resolved after successful nonoperative management based on accepted guidelines for nutritional therapy, thus avoiding the need for reoperation and its attendant risks in a malnourished patient.

  16. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome with Abdominal Compartment Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Reece, Kevin; Day, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Superior Mesenteric Artery (SMA) syndrome is a condition in which the duodenum becomes compressed between the SMA and the aorta, resulting in bowel obstruction which subsequently compresses surrounding structures. Pressure on the inferior vena cava (IVC) and aorta decreases cardiac output which compromises distal blood flow, resulting in abdominal compartment syndrome with ischemia and renal failure. A 15-year-old male with SMA syndrome presented with 12 hours of pain, a distended, rigid abdomen, mottled skin below the waist, and decreased motor and sensory function in the lower extremities. Exploratory laparotomy revealed ischemic small bowel and stomach with abdominal compartment syndrome. Despite decompression, the patient arrested from hyperkalemia following reperfusion. PMID:28003918

  17. Radiological Management of Superior Vena Caval Stent Migration and Infection

    SciTech Connect

    Srinathan, Sadeesh McCafferty, Ian; Wilson, Ian

    2005-01-15

    We report a case of venous obstruction secondary to Hodgkin's lymphoma. Multiple Wallstents were inserted into the superior vena cava to relieve obstructive symptoms secondary to tumor. This procedure was complicated by stent migration into the right ventricle and a presumed stent infection. We describe the percutaneous management of these complications and discuss the issues surrounding the use of stents in this setting. We conclude that these complications can be managed percutaneously. However, the technical details of stent placement are essential in minimizing complications of this type.

  18. Partially hydrolyzed polyacrylamides with superior flooding and injection properties

    SciTech Connect

    Argabright, P.A.; Philips, B.L.; Rhudy, J.S.

    1982-09-01

    A versatile process for the manufacture of PHPA has been developed. The applicability of this process for the production of PHPA in the field has been demonstrated. Based on performance in radial disk floods, Marathon PHPA's exhibit ideal mobility behavior. The superior performance of the Marathon polymers is attained without near wellbore plugging. An ultracentrifugation technique was developed to obtain both average molecular weights and molecular weight distributions for PHPA. The performance and solution properties of Marathon's PHPA's correlate well with their average molecular weights. Indirect evidence indicates that microgel may be responsible for the near wellbore plugging observed with the commercial products evaluated. Polymer augmented waterflooding is most beneficial in heterogeneous formations.

  19. Infantile intracranial aneurysm of the superior cerebellar artery.

    PubMed

    Del Santo, Molly Ann; Cordina, Steve Mario

    2016-03-03

    Intracranial aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare. We report a case of a 3-month-old infant who presented with inconsolable crying, vomiting, and sunset eye sign. CT revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage, with CT angiogram revealing a superior cerebellar artery aneurysm. An external ventricular drain was placed for acute management of hydrocephalus, with definitive treatment by endovascular technique with a total of six microcoils to embolize the aneurysm. Serial transcranial Dopplers revealed no subsequent vasospasm. Although aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare, once the diagnosis is established, early treatment results in better outcomes.

  20. Infantile intracranial aneurysm of the superior cerebellar artery.

    PubMed

    Del Santo, Molly Ann; Cordina, Steve Mario

    2016-02-29

    Intracranial aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare. We report a case of a 3-month-old infant who presented with inconsolable crying, vomiting, and sunset eye sign. CT revealed a subarachnoid hemorrhage, with CT angiogram revealing a superior cerebellar artery aneurysm. An external ventricular drain was placed for acute management of hydrocephalus, with definitive treatment by endovascular technique with a total of six microcoils to embolize the aneurysm. Serial transcranial Dopplers revealed no subsequent vasospasm. Although aneurysms in the pediatric population are rare, once the diagnosis is established, early treatment results in better outcomes.

  1. Surgical Repair of a Superior Sternal Cleft in an Infant

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Tobias; Kellner, Maximilian; Boemers, Thomas Michael; Mack-Detlefsen, Birte

    2015-01-01

    Sternal cleft is a rare congenital malformation with little more than 100 cases published worldwide. Incomplete sternal clefting in a female newborn is the most frequent form seen. First-line treatment is the surgical defect closure in the neonatal period. Presurgical examination has to focus on common associated malformations, in particular cardiac defects. The surgical repair of sternal cleft itself shows satisfying functional and cosmetic results with low complication rates. We present the case of a 4-month-old male infant with a superior sternal cleft. PMID:26788449

  2. Superior cell penetration by a rigid and anisotropic synthetic protein.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Norihisa; Hagiwara, Kyoji; Ito, Yoshihiro; Ijiro, Kuniharu; Osada, Yoshihito; Sano, Ken-Ichi

    2015-03-10

    Molecules with structural anisotropy and rigidity, such as asbestos, demonstrate high cell-penetrating activity but also high toxicity. Here we synthesize a biodegradable, rigid, and fibrous artificial protein, CCPC 140, as a potential vehicle for cellular delivery. CCPC 140 penetrated 100% of cells tested in vitro, even at a concentration of 3.1 nM-superior to previously reported cell-penetrating peptides. The effects of cell-strain-dependency and aspect ratio on the cell-penetrating activity of CCPC 140 were also investigated.

  3. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome Treated with Percutaneous Radiologic Gastrojejunostomy.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong Woo; Lee, Ju Young; Cho, Hyeon Geun

    2016-06-25

    Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is a rare condition that must be differentiated from other gastrointestinal diseases manifesting as upper abdominal pain, nausea, or vomiting. The description of SMA syndrome is compression of the third portion of the duodenum by the SMA and the abdominal aorta. SMA syndrome is managed with nasoenteral nutrition or surgical strategies such as laparoscopic duodenojejunostomy. However, SMA syndrome treated using enteral nutrition by percuta-neous radiologic gastrojejunostomy has not been reported. Here, we report our experience of successfully managing a case of SMA syndrome with percutaneous radiologic gastrojejunostomy.

  4. Clipping of ipsilateral posterior communicating and superior cerebellar artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Welch, Babu G

    2015-01-01

    The case is a 55-year-old female who presented with dizziness as the chief complaint. She has a family history of two relatives with subarachnoid hemorrhage. Digital subtraction angiography revealed the presence of a left-sided posterior communicating artery aneurysm and an ipsilateral superior cerebellar artery (SCA) aneurysm. Due to the smaller nature of the SCA, a decision was made to proceed with surgical clipping of both lesions through a pterional approach. A narrated video with illustrations depicts the intraoperative management of these lesions with postoperative angiography results. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/HCHToSsXv-4 .

  5. Marked antiinflammatory effects of decentralization of the superior cervical ganglia

    PubMed Central

    1990-01-01

    Intravenous challenge with parasite antigens in Nippostrongylus brasiliensis-sensitized rats resulted in anaphylactic shock and, in some animals, death. Surviving animals showed significant drop in mean arterial blood pressure, cardiac output, and blood flow to the trachea, bronchioles, and mesentery. After anaphylaxis, changes in the cellular and protein composition in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids (BALF) were assessed. 8 h after antigen challenge, there was significant influx of inflammatory cells and an increase in the levels of histamine and serum- derived immunoglobulins (IgG and IgM) in BALF. Chemotactic activity for neutrophils was also present in BALF. Once we established this anaphylaxis-induced model of pulmonary inflammation, we sought to determine whether or not the superior cervical ganglia (SCG) modulate this inflammation. We performed bilateral superior cervical ganglionectomy or decentralization of the SCG. Our results show that decentralization significantly reduced mortality (by 68%) after anaphylaxis. Furthermore, the increases in levels of serum-derived proteins, histamine, and influx of cells (especially neutrophils) observed in BALF after anaphylaxis were attenuated by both decentralization and ganglionectomy. By contrast, hemodynamic parameters in the respiratory tract and the presence of neutrophil chemotactic activity in BALF were not influenced by decentralization. Thus, the severity of pulmonary inflammation initiated by systemic anaphylaxis is depressed by bilateral ganglionectomy or decentralization of SCG. PMID:2258709

  6. Fish community change in Lake Superior, 1970-2000

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, Charles R.; Ebener, Mark P.; Schreiner, Donald R.; DeVault, David S.; Petzold, Michael M.; Jensen, Douglas A.; Richards, Carl; Lozano, Steven J.

    2003-01-01

    Changes in Lake Superior's fish community are reviewed from 1970 to 2000. Lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) and lake whitefish (Coregonus clupeaformis) stocks have increased substantially and may be approaching ancestral states. Lake herring (Coregonus artedi) have also recovered, but under sporadic recruitment. Contaminant levels have declined and are in equilibrium with inputs, but toxaphene levels are higher than in all other Great Lakes. Sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus) control, harvest limits, and stocking fostered recoveries of lake trout and allowed establishment of small nonnative salmonine populations. Natural reproduction supports most salmonine populations, therefore further stocking is not required. Nonnative salmonines will likely remain minor components of the fish community. Forage biomass has shifted from exotic rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) to native species, and high predation may prevent their recovery. Introductions of exotics have increased and threaten the recovering fish community. Agencies have little influence on the abundance of forage fish or the major predator, siscowet lake trout, and must now focus on habitat protection and enhancement in nearshore areas and prevent additional species introductions to further restoration. Persistence of Lake Superior's native deepwater species is in contrast to other Great Lakes where restoration will be difficult in the absence of these ecologically important fishes.

  7. Air-water gas exchange of toxaphene in Lake Superior.

    PubMed

    Jantunen, Liisa M; Bidleman, Terry F

    2003-06-01

    Parallel air and water samples were collected in Lake Superior during August 1996 and May 1997, to determine the levels and air-water exchange direction of toxaphene. Concentration of toxaphene in water did not vary across Lake Superior or between seasons (averaging 918 +/- 218 pg/L) but atmospheric levels were lower in May (12 +/- 4.6 pg/m3) than in August (28 +/- 10 pg/m3). Two recalcitrant congeners, Parlar 26 and 50, also were determined. These congeners were enriched in the air samples, compared to a standard of technical toxaphene, but not in the water. Water-air fugacity ratios varied from 1.4 to 2.6 in August and 1.3 to 4.7 in May, implying volatilization of toxaphene from the lake. Estimated net fluxes ranged from 5.4 to 13 and 1.8 to 6.4 nm/m2d, respectively. The temperature dependence of toxaphene partial pressure (P) in air was log P/Pa = -3.291/T(a) + 1.67, where T(a) is air temperature. By using this relationship, the atmospheric levels of toxaphene, fugacity ratios, and net fluxes were estimated for the entire year. Fugacity ratios were highest in the winter and lowest in the summer; thus toxaphene was predicted to undergo net volatilization from the lake during all months. A net removal of approximately 220 kg/year by gas exchange was estimated.

  8. A new look at the Lake Superior biomass size spectrum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yurista, Peder M.; Yule, Daniel L.; Balge, Matt; VanAlstine, Jon D.; Thompson, Jo A.; Gamble, Allison E.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Kelly, John R.; Stockwell, Jason D.; Vinson, Mark

    2014-01-01

    We synthesized data from multiple sampling programs and years to describe the Lake Superior pelagic biomass size structure. Data consisted of Coulter counts for phytoplankton, optical plankton counts for zooplankton, and acoustic surveys for pelagic prey fish. The size spectrum was stable across two time periods separated by 5 years. The primary scaling or overall slope of the normalized biomass size spectra for the combined years was −1.113, consistent with a previous estimate for Lake Superior (−1.10). Periodic dome structures within the overall biomass size structure were fit to polynomial regressions based on the observed sub-domes within the classical taxonomic positions (algae, zooplankton, and fish). This interpretation of periodic dome delineation was aligned more closely with predator–prey size relationships that exist within the zooplankton (herbivorous, predacious) and fish (planktivorous, piscivorous) taxonomic positions. Domes were spaced approximately every 3.78 log10 units along the axis and with a decreasing peak magnitude of −4.1 log10 units. The relative position of the algal and herbivorous zooplankton domes predicted well the subsequent biomass domes for larger predatory zooplankton and planktivorous prey fish.

  9. Transient stimulation expands superior antitumor T cells for adoptive therapy

    PubMed Central

    Kagoya, Yuki; Nakatsugawa, Munehide; Ochi, Toshiki; Guo, Tingxi; Anczurowski, Mark; Saso, Kayoko; Butler, Marcus O.

    2017-01-01

    Adoptive cell therapy is a potentially curative therapeutic approach for patients with cancer. In this treatment modality, antitumor T cells are exponentially expanded in vitro prior to infusion. Importantly, the results of recent clinical trials suggest that the quality of expanded T cells critically affects their therapeutic efficacy. Although anti-CD3 mAb-based stimulation is widely used to expand T cells in vitro, a protocol to generate T cell grafts for optimal adoptive therapy has yet to be established. In this study, we investigated the differences between T cell stimulation mediated by anti–CD3/CD28 mAb–coated beads and cell-based artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPCs) expressing CD3/CD28 counter-receptors. We found that transient stimulation with cell-based aAPCs, but not prolonged stimulation with beads, resulted in the superior expansion of CD8+ T cells. Transiently stimulated CD8+ T cells maintained a stem cell–like memory phenotype and were capable of secreting multiple cytokines significantly more efficiently than chronically stimulated T cells. Importantly, the chimeric antigen receptor–engineered antitumor CD8+ T cells expanded via transient stimulation demonstrated superior persistence and antitumor responses in adoptive immunotherapy mouse models. These results suggest that restrained stimulation is critical for generating T cell grafts for optimal adoptive immunotherapy for cancer. PMID:28138559

  10. Superior cross-species reference genes: a blueberry case study.

    PubMed

    Die, Jose V; Rowland, Lisa J

    2013-01-01

    The advent of affordable Next Generation Sequencing technologies has had major impact on studies of many crop species, where access to genomic technologies and genome-scale data sets has been extremely limited until now. The recent development of genomic resources in blueberry will enable the application of high throughput gene expression approaches that should relatively quickly increase our understanding of blueberry physiology. These studies, however, require a highly accurate and robust workflow and make necessary the identification of reference genes with high expression stability for correct target gene normalization. To create a set of superior reference genes for blueberry expression analyses, we mined a publicly available transcriptome data set from blueberry for orthologs to a set of Arabidopsis genes that showed the most stable expression in a developmental series. In total, the expression stability of 13 putative reference genes was evaluated by qPCR and a set of new references with high stability values across a developmental series in fruits and floral buds of blueberry were identified. We also demonstrated the need to use at least two, preferably three, reference genes to avoid inconsistencies in results, even when superior reference genes are used. The new references identified here provide a valuable resource for accurate normalization of gene expression in Vaccinium spp. and may be useful for other members of the Ericaceae family as well.

  11. Visual Sensitivity of Deepwater Fishes in Lake Superior

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Kelly A.; Hrabik, Thomas R.; Mensinger, Allen F.

    2015-01-01

    The predator-prey interactions in the offshore food web of Lake Superior have been well documented, but the sensory systems mediating these interactions remain unknown. The deepwater sculpin, (Myoxocephalus thompsoni), siscowet (Salvelinus namaycush siscowet), and kiyi (Coregonus kiyi) inhabit low light level environments. To investigate the potential role of vision in predator-prey interactions, electroretinography was used to determine visual sensitivity for each species. Spectral sensitivity curves revealed peak sensitivity at 525 nm for each species which closely corresponds to the prevalent downwelling light spectrum at depth. To determine if sufficient light was available to mediate predator-prey interactions, visual sensitivity was correlated with the intensity of downwelling light in Lake Superior to construct visual depth profiles for each species. Sufficient daytime irradiance exists for visual interactions to approximately 325 m for siscowet and kiyi and 355 m for the deepwater sculpin during summer months. Under full moon conditions, sufficient irradiance exists to elicit ERG response to light available at approximately 30 m for the siscowet and kiyi and 45 m for the deepwater sculpin. Visual interactions are therefore possible at the depths and times when these organisms overlap in the water column indicating that vision may play a far greater role at depth in deep freshwater lakes than had been previously documented. PMID:25646781

  12. Superior mentalizing abilities of female patients with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Abu-Akel, Ahmad; Bo, Sune

    2013-12-30

    Mentalizing abilities are severely disrupted in patients with schizophrenia, but gender-related differences in this domain are virtually unexplored. Given the importance of these abilities in understanding psychopathology, social functioning and outcome, this study aimed to examine the mentalizing abilities of male and female patients with schizophrenia. The cognitive and affective mentalizing abilities of self and other of clinically stable male and female patients with schizophrenia were analyzed using the abbreviated version of the Metacognitive Assessment Scale (MAS-A). Compared to their male counterparts, the female patients demonstrated superior overall mentalizing abilities. This advantage was also evident when mentalizing about the Self or the Other. When examining cognitive versus affective mentalizing, women were significantly better in their ability to attribute and understand the affective mental states of others. These differences were unrelated to intelligence or psychopathology. The superior mentalizing abilities of female patients extend gender-related differences in schizophrenia to include social cognition. This suggests that our current knowledge of socio-cognitive abilities in schizophrenia is generalizable to male but not to female patients. The findings also provide important insights to understanding how etiological differences affect social cognition. Awareness to such differences has important implications for diagnosis and clinical treatment.

  13. Neural underpinnings of superior action prediction abilities in soccer players

    PubMed Central

    Urgesi, Cosimo

    2015-01-01

    The ability to form anticipatory representations of ongoing actions is crucial for effective interactions in dynamic environments. In sports, elite athletes exhibit greater ability than novices in predicting other players’ actions, mainly based on reading their body kinematics. This superior perceptual ability has been associated with a modulation of visual and motor areas by visual and motor expertise. Here, we investigated the causative role of visual and motor action representations in experts’ ability to predict the outcome of soccer actions. We asked expert soccer players (outfield players and goalkeepers) and novices to predict the direction of the ball after perceiving the initial phases of penalty kicks that contained or not incongruent body kinematics. During the task, we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the superior temporal sulcus (STS) and the dorsal premotor cortex (PMd). Results showed that STS-rTMS disrupted performance in both experts and novices, especially in those with greater visual expertise (i.e. goalkeepers). Conversely, PMd-rTMS impaired performance only in expert players (i.e. outfield players and goalkeepers), who exhibit strong motor expertise into facing domain-specific actions in soccer games. These results provide causative evidence of the complimentary functional role of visual and motor action representations in experts’ action prediction. PMID:24771282

  14. Superiority of escitalopram to paroxetine in the treatment of depression.

    PubMed

    Kasper, Siegfried; Baldwin, David S; Larsson Lönn, Sara; Boulenger, Jean-Philippe

    2009-04-01

    Post-hoc pooled analysis of data from two 6-month randomised controlled trials in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) revealed superior efficacy and tolerability of escitalopram when compared with paroxetine. Escitalopram (n=394) produced a significantly (p<0.01) greater mean treatment difference of 2.0 points in primary endpoints, judged using the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) total score, compared with paroxetine (n=383). Significant differences were also observed in Clinical Global Impression (CGI)--severity (escitalopram, 2.1; paroxetine, 2.4; p<0.01) and CGI--improvement (escitalopram, 1.8; paroxetine, 2.0: p<0.01). In the sub-group of severely depressed patients (baseline MADRS> or = 30), escitalopram showed further improved efficacy compared with paroxetine in all scores. This analysis supports previous observations of superior efficacy and tolerability of long-term escitalopram treatment (10 to 20 mg/day) compared with paroxetine (20 to 40 mg/day). Escitalopram is a good therapeutic option for the long-term treatment of MDD, particularly in severely depressed patients.

  15. Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence Syndrome – Diagnosis and Surgical Management

    PubMed Central

    Palma Diaz, Marite; Cisneros Lesser, Juan Carlos; Vega Alarcón, Alfredo

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome was described by Minor et al in 1998. It is a troublesome syndrome that results in vertigo and oscillopsia induced by loud sounds or changes in the pressure of the external auditory canal or middle ear. Patients may present with autophony, hyperacusis, pulsatile tinnitus and hearing loss. When symptoms are mild, they are usually managed conservatively, but surgical intervention may be needed for patients with debilitating symptoms. Objective The aim of this manuscript is to review the different surgical techniques used to repair the superior semicircular canal dehiscence. Data Sources PubMed and Ovid-SP databases. Data Synthesis The different approaches are described and discussed, as well as their limitations. We also review the advantages and disadvantages of the plugging, capping and resurfacing techniques to repair the dehiscence. Conclusions Each of the surgical approaches has advantages and disadvantages. The middle fossa approach gives a better view of the dehiscence, but comes with a higher morbidity than the transmastoid approach. Endoscopic assistance may be advantageous during the middle cranial fossa approach for better visualization. The plugging and capping techniques are associated with higher success rates than resurfacing, with no added risk of hearing loss. PMID:28382131

  16. Douglass Houghton and the Precambrian of Lake Superior

    SciTech Connect

    Merk, G.

    1985-01-01

    The first chronological subdivision of Precambrian rocks in the Lake Superior area was made in 1841 by Douglass Houghton for the Upper Peninsula of Michigan. In spite of the fact that the then prevailing philosophy of geologic history was quite different from that of today, Houghton's chronological subdivision became the commonly accepted framework for Precambrian studies on the south shore of Lake Superior. Using only megascopic rock analyses and the physical stratigraphic criteria of relative age, Houghton and his assistants recognized these division, in ascending order: the Primary (granite-gneiss-greenstone); the Metamorphic (slates, iron ore, quartz rock); and on the Keweenaw Peninsula, the Trap (with copper ore); the Trap Conglomerate; and the Red Sandrock. This Pioneer study demanded heroic effort and imagination because the swampy, forested terrain was barely penetrable, the outcrops are discontinuous, the rocks are often deformed, and the lithology changes locally within the formations. Houghton was aided in these accomplishments by William A. Burt, a US Linear Surveyor and the inventor of the solar compass, a sextant-like device used to supplement the surveyors compass. Together, Houghton and Burt formed the first combined geological-linear survey in the US. The combined survey was completed by the assistants Houghton had trained so well, William Burt and Bela Hubbard. Their reports (1846, 1847) supplemented Houghton's report of 1841 by showing the areal distribution of the exposed Precambrian rocks in the region thus facilitating future research, prospecting, and development.

  17. An auditory analog of the picture superiority effect.

    PubMed

    Crutcher, Robert J; Beer, Jenay M

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has found that pictures (e.g., a picture of an elephant) are remembered better than words (e.g., the word "elephant"), an empirical finding called the picture superiority effect (Paivio & Csapo. Cognitive Psychology 5(2):176-206, 1973). However, very little research has investigated such memory differences for other types of sensory stimuli (e.g. sounds or odors) and their verbal labels. Four experiments compared recall of environmental sounds (e.g., ringing) and spoken verbal labels of those sounds (e.g., "ringing"). In contrast to earlier studies that have shown no difference in recall of sounds and spoken verbal labels (Philipchalk & Rowe. Journal of Experimental Psychology 91(2):341-343, 1971; Paivio, Philipchalk, & Rowe. Memory & Cognition 3(6):586-590, 1975), the experiments reported here yielded clear evidence for an auditory analog of the picture superiority effect. Experiments 1 and 2 showed that sounds were recalled better than the verbal labels of those sounds. Experiment 2 also showed that verbal labels are recalled as well as sounds when participants imagine the sound that the word labels. Experiments 3 and 4 extended these findings to incidental-processing task paradigms and showed that the advantage of sounds over words is enhanced when participants are induced to label the sounds.

  18. The different origins of magnetic fields and activity in the Hertzsprung gap stars, OU Andromedae and 31 Comae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisova, A.; Aurière, M.; Petit, P.; Konstantinova-Antova, R.; Charbonnel, C.; Drake, N. A.

    2016-06-01

    Context. When crossing the Hertzsprung gap, intermediate-mass stars develop a convective envelope. Fast rotators on the main sequence, or Ap star descendants, are expected to become magnetic active subgiants during this evolutionary phase. Aims: We compare the surface magnetic fields and activity indicators of two active, fast rotating red giants with similar masses and spectral class but different rotation rates - OU And (Prot = 24.2 d) and 31 Com (Prot = 6.8 d) - to address the question of the origin of their magnetism and high activity. Methods: Observations were carried out with the Narval spectropolarimeter in 2008 and 2013. We used the least-squares deconvolution (LSD) technique to extract Stokes V and I profiles with high signal-to-noise ratio to detect Zeeman signatures of the magnetic field of the stars. We then provide Zeeman-Doppler imaging (ZDI), activity indicators monitoring, and a precise estimation of stellar parameters. We use state-of-the-art stellar evolutionary models, including rotation, to infer the evolutionary status of our giants, as well as their initial rotation velocity on the main sequence, and we interpret our observational results in the light of the theoretical Rossby numbers. Results: The detected magnetic field of OU Andromedae (OU And) is a strong one. Its longitudinal component Bl reaches 40 G and presents an about sinusoidal variation with reversal of the polarity. The magnetic topology of OU And is dominated by large-scale elements and is mainly poloidal with an important dipole component, as well as a significant toroidal component. The detected magnetic field of 31 Comae (31 Com) is weaker, with a magnetic map showing a more complex field geometry, and poloidal and toroidal components of equal contributions. The evolutionary models show that the progenitors of OU And and 31 Com must have been rotating at velocities that correspond to 30 and 53%, respectively, of their critical rotation velocity on the zero age main sequence

  19. Deep Space Network to Viking Orbiter telecommunication link effects during 1976 superior conjunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, F. H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Planning of the Viking superior conjunction by the Viking Project and the Deep Space Network is reviewed. Spacecraft and ground station activities and configuration during the three month superior conjunction period are presented and observations made are described.

  20. 77 FR 37321 - Safety Zone, Barrel Recovery, Lake Superior; Duluth, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-21

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Barrel Recovery, Lake Superior; Duluth, MN... in the 1960's in a portion of Lake Superior approximately between Stoney Point and Brighton Beach... munitions waste materials dumped offshore in a portion of Lake Superior approximately 50 years ago....

  1. Coastal geology and recent origins for Sand Point, Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Timothy G.; Krantz, David E.; Castaneda, Mario R.; Loope, Walter L.; Jol, Harry M.; Goble, Ronald J.; Higley, Melinda C.; DeWald, Samantha; Hansen, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Sand Point is a small cuspate foreland located along the southeastern shore of Lake Superior within Pictured Rocks National Lakeshore near Munising, Michigan. Park managers’ concerns for the integrity of historic buildings at the northern periphery of the point during the rising lake levels in the mid-1980s greatly elevated the priority of research into the geomorphic history and age of Sand Point. To pursue this priority, we recovered sediment cores from four ponds on Sand Point, assessed subsurface stratigraphy onshore and offshore using geophysical techniques, and interpreted the chronology of events using radiocarbon and luminescence dating. Sand Point formed at the southwest edge of a subaqueous platform whose base is probably constructed of glacial diamicton and outwash. During the post-glacial Nipissing Transgression, the base was mantled with sand derived from erosion of adjacent sandstone cliffs. An aerial photograph time sequence, 1939–present, shows that the periphery of the platform has evolved considerably during historical time, infl uenced by transport of sediment into adjacent South Bay. Shallow seismic refl ections suggest slump blocks along the leading edge of the platform. Light detection and ranging (LiDAR) and shallow seismic refl ections to the northwest of the platform reveal large sand waves within a deep (12 m) channel produced by currents fl owing episodically to the northeast into Lake Superior. Ground-penetrating radar profi les show transport and deposition of sand across the upper surface of the platform. Basal radiocarbon dates from ponds between subaerial beach ridges range in age from 540 to 910 cal yr B.P., suggesting that Sand Point became emergent during the last ~1000 years, upon the separation of Lake Superior from Lakes Huron and Michigan. However, optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) ages from the beach ridges were two to three times as old as the radiocarbon ages, implying that emergence of Sand Point may have begun

  2. [Persistent left superior vena cava. Implications in central venous catheterisation].

    PubMed

    Lacuey Lecumberri, G; Ureña, M; Martínez Basterra, J; Basterra, N

    2009-01-01

    The placement of central catheters through the subclavian and jugular venous path can be complicated by the cannulation of an artery or an aberrant venous path. The most frequent anomaly of the embryological development of the caval vein is the persistence of the left superior vena cava (LSVC). The implantation of catheters in the LSVC can be suspected by its anomalous route in thorax radiography. Gasometry and the pressure curve of the vessel make it possible to rule out an arterial catheterisation. Diagnostic confirmation is obtained through angiography, echocardiography, computerised tomography or cardiac resonance. The doctor who regularly implants central venous catheters must be familiar with the anatomy of the venous system and its variants and anomalies, since their presence might influence the handling of the patient.

  3. Superior optical nonlinearity of an exceptional fluorescent stilbene dye

    SciTech Connect

    He, Tingchao; Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Zhao, Yanli; Gao, Yang; Grimsdale, Andrew C.; Lin, Xiaodong E-mail: hdsun@ntu.edu.sg; Sun, Handong E-mail: hdsun@ntu.edu.sg

    2015-03-16

    Strong multiphoton absorption and harmonic generation in organic fluorescent chromophores are, respectively, significant in many fields of research. However, most of fluorescent chromophores fall short of the full potential due to the absence of the combination of such different nonlinear upconversion behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that an exceptional fluorescent stilbene dye could exhibit efficient two- and three-photon absorption under the excitation of femtosecond pulses in solution phase. Benefiting from its biocompatibility and strong excited state absorption behavior, in vitro two-photon bioimaging and superior optical limiting have been exploited, respectively. Simultaneously, the chromophore could generate efficient three-photon excited fluorescence and third-harmonic generation (THG) when dispersed into PMMA film, circumventing the limitations of classical fluorescent chromophores. Such chromophore may find application in the production of coherent light sources of higher photon energy. Moreover, the combination of three-photon excited fluorescence and THG can be used in tandem to provide complementary information in biomedical studies.

  4. Endovascular Management of Superior Mesenteric Artery Pseudoaneurysm and Fistula

    SciTech Connect

    Narayanan, Govindarajan; Barbery, Katuska; Lamus, Daniel; Nanavati, Kunal

    2008-11-15

    The uncommon presentation of an arterioportal fistula (APF) involving the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) associated with a pseudoaneurysm represents a therapeutic challenge. We present the case of a 24-year-old female admitted to the hospital after multiple gunshot wounds to the abdomen; the patient underwent multiple surgeries and, in the process, developed a SMA pseudoaneurysm and fistula. The vascular interventional radiology team was consulted for treatment of the pseudoaneurysm and fistula. A covered stent was inserted percutaneously to exclude the APF and the pseudoaneurysm in a single procedure. The patient returned to our service after 21 months for a follow-up CT scan, which demonstrated the stent and the distal vasculature to be patent.

  5. Superior optical nonlinearity of an exceptional fluorescent stilbene dye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Tingchao; Sreejith, Sivaramapanicker; Gao, Yang; Grimsdale, Andrew C.; Zhao, Yanli; Lin, Xiaodong; Sun, Handong

    2015-03-01

    Strong multiphoton absorption and harmonic generation in organic fluorescent chromophores are, respectively, significant in many fields of research. However, most of fluorescent chromophores fall short of the full potential due to the absence of the combination of such different nonlinear upconversion behaviors. Here, we demonstrate that an exceptional fluorescent stilbene dye could exhibit efficient two- and three-photon absorption under the excitation of femtosecond pulses in solution phase. Benefiting from its biocompatibility and strong excited state absorption behavior, in vitro two-photon bioimaging and superior optical limiting have been exploited, respectively. Simultaneously, the chromophore could generate efficient three-photon excited fluorescence and third-harmonic generation (THG) when dispersed into PMMA film, circumventing the limitations of classical fluorescent chromophores. Such chromophore may find application in the production of coherent light sources of higher photon energy. Moreover, the combination of three-photon excited fluorescence and THG can be used in tandem to provide complementary information in biomedical studies.

  6. Superior Optical Properties of Perovskite Nanocrystals as Single Photon Emitters.

    PubMed

    Hu, Fengrui; Zhang, Huichao; Sun, Chun; Yin, Chunyang; Lv, Bihu; Zhang, Chunfeng; Yu, William W; Wang, Xiaoyong; Zhang, Yu; Xiao, Min

    2015-12-22

    The power conversion efficiency of photovoltaic devices based on semiconductor perovskites has reached ∼20% after just several years of research efforts. With concomitant discoveries of other promising applications in lasers, light-emitting diodes, and photodetectors, it is natural to anticipate what further excitement these exotic perovskites could bring about. Here we report on the observation of single photon emission from single CsPbBr3 perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) synthesized from a facile colloidal approach. Compared with traditional metal-chalcogenide NCs, these CsPbBr3 NCs exhibit nearly 2 orders of magnitude increase in their absorption cross sections at similar emission colors. Moreover, the radiative lifetime of CsPbBr3 NCs is greatly shortened at both room and cryogenic temperatures to favor an extremely fast output of single photons. The above superior optical properties have paved the way toward quantum-light applications of perovskite NCs in various quantum information processing schemes.

  7. A superior edge preserving filter with a systematic analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holladay, Kenneth W.; Rickman, Doug

    1991-01-01

    A new, adaptive, edge preserving filter for use in image processing is presented. It had superior performance when compared to other filters. Termed the contiguous K-average, it aggregates pixels by examining all pixels contiguous to an existing cluster and adding the pixel closest to the mean of the existing cluster. The process is iterated until K pixels were accumulated. Rather than simply compare the visual results of processing with this operator to other filters, some approaches were developed which allow quantitative evaluation of how well and filter performs. Particular attention is given to the standard deviation of noise within a feature and the stability of imagery under iterative processing. Demonstrations illustrate the performance of several filters to discriminate against noise and retain edges, the effect of filtering as a preprocessing step, and the utility of the contiguous K-average filter when used with remote sensing data.

  8. Superior thermal conductivity in suspended bilayer hexagonal boron nitride

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chengru; Guo, Jie; Dong, Lan; Aiyiti, Adili; Xu, Xiangfan; Li, Baowen

    2016-01-01

    We reported the basal-plane thermal conductivity in exfoliated bilayer hexagonal boron nitride h-BN that was measured using suspended prepatterned microstructures. The h-BN sample suitable for thermal measurements was fabricated by dry-transfer method, whose sample quality, due to less polymer residues on surfaces, is believed to be superior to that of PMMA-mediated samples. The measured room temperature thermal conductivity is around 484 Wm−1K−1(+141 Wm−1K−1/ −24 Wm−1K−1) which exceeds that in bulk h-BN, providing experimental observation of the thickness-dependent thermal conductivity in suspended few-layer h-BN. PMID:27142571

  9. Comparative biology of the sculpins of Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selgeby, James H.

    1988-01-01

    The slimy sculpin (Cottus cognatus), spoonhead sculpin (Cottus ricei), and deepwater sculpin (Myoxocephalus thompsoni) are abundant fishes in Lake Superior. Slimy and spoonhead sculpins occupy a zone from near shore to depths of 210 m but are generally most abundant in waters 50 to 90 m deep. Deepwater sculpins are found in waters from 15 to 407 m deep and are most abundant at depths greater than 70 m. All three species of sculpins eat mainly burrowing amphipods (Pontoporeia affinis) although deepwater sculpins also eat substantial quantities of opossum shrimp (Mysis relicta). The three sculpins grow at similar rates. Among the fishes aged, the maximum age of slimy sculpins was 5 years, compared with 6 years for spoonhead sculpins, and 7 years for deepwater sculpins. Indirect evidence indicates that slimy and spoonhead sculpins spawn in the spring, and deepwater sculpins spawn in midwinter.

  10. Superhydrophobic paper with superior stability against deformations and humidity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Nan; Xiong, Dangsheng; Pan, Sai; Deng, Yaling; Shi, Yan; Wang, Kun

    2016-12-01

    Superhydrophobic coatings on paper were achieved by means of incorporating micro-nano hierarchical topography, where the water droplet was repelled and rested in a spherical shape. A silica sol, which was prepared using tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) as precursor and trimethylethoxysilane (TMES) as co-precursor, was poured on the paper to form a superhydrophobic surface. The coating was fluorine-free, environmentally friend, and could be easily fabricated on different kinds of papers. Besides, the transmittance of prepared coating reached up to 92% in visible light range, and the words on treated paper showed a good visualization. Moreover, the treated paper showed superior mechanical durability against 100 times of deformation, remarkable stability towards both the acidic and basic solutions. The treated paper could withstand 70 cycles of water condensation test (from 60 °C, 90% relative humidity to 10 °C) without losing superhydrophobicity, suggesting a long-term protection for paper.

  11. Voice range in superior laryngeal nerve paresis and paralysis.

    PubMed

    Eckley, C A; Sataloff, R T; Hawkshaw, M; Spiegel, J R; Mandel, S

    1998-09-01

    Evaluation of Physiologic Frequency Range (PFR) and Musical Frequency Range (MRP) of Phonation was performed on 56 adults (singers and nonsingers) presenting with superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) paresis or paralysis confirmed by laryngeal electromyography. The most common etiology was neuritis (69.7%), followed by iatrogenic and unknown causes,each accounting for 10.2% of cases, and finally trauma (8.9%). Both female and male singers with SLN paresis or paralysis had significantly higher PFR and MPR than nonsingers. Female classical singers presented PFR and MPR of up to 10 semitones (ST) higher than nonclassical singers and nonsingers. The lowest PFR and musical ranges were found in patients with SLN paresis associated with recurrent laryngeal nerve paresis or paralysis. The authors suggest that voice range measurement is a useful parameter for analyzing the effects of SLN paresis or paralysis on voice and that it may also assist in measuring outcome following voice therapy.

  12. Wilkie's Syndrome or Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome: Fact or Fantasy?

    PubMed Central

    Zaraket, Vera; Deeb, Liliane

    2015-01-01

    Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome (known as Wilkie's syndrome) is a rare cause of upper gastrointestinal obstruction. It is an acquired disorder in which acute angulation of the SMA causes compression of the third part of the duodenum between the SMA and the aorta. This is commonly due to loss of fatty tissue as a result of a variety of debilitating conditions. We report a 17-year-old female who presented with intermittent abdominal pain and intractable vomiting following significant weight loss after hospitalization for pneumonia. Symptoms persisted for 2 years and the patient underwent extensive invasive and non-invasive tests, but to no avail. Thereafter she developed acute high intestinal obstruction, which unraveled her diagnosis. This case emphasizes the challenges in the diagnosis of SMA syndrome and the need for increased awareness of this entity. This will improve early recognition in order to reduce irrelevant tests and unnecessary treatments. PMID:26120301

  13. Superior Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis Associated with Hormonal Contraceptive Use

    PubMed Central

    Koyama, Nobuatsu

    2016-01-01

    A 44-year-old woman was admitted with a 7-day history of lower abdominal pain and nausea. Physical examination demonstrated tenderness in the lower abdomen without signs of peritonitis. There were no specific findings in the laboratory evaluation. She had a history of dysmenorrhea for 15 years and was taking a combined hormonal contraceptive containing 0.02 mg ethinyl estradiol and 3 mg drospirenone for 19 months. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography showed superior mesenteric vein thrombosis (SMVT). Systemic anticoagulant infusion was immediately administered and the symptoms disappeared within 2 days. The thrombus disappeared after 3 months. This case report suggests that early diagnosis of SMVT and immediate systemic anticoagulant therapy may reduce the rate of intestinal infarction. PMID:27462195

  14. Extensions of the picture superiority effect in associative recognition.

    PubMed

    Hockley, William E; Bancroft, Tyler

    2011-12-01

    Previous research has shown that the picture superiority effect (PSE) is seen in tests of associative recognition for random pairs of line drawings compared to pairs of concrete words (Hockley, 2008). In the present study we demonstrated that the PSE for associative recognition is still observed when subjects have correctly identified the individual items of each pair as old (Experiment 1), and that this effect is not due to rehearsal borrowing (Experiment 2). The PSE for associative recognition also is shown to be present but attenuated for mixed picture-word pairs (Experiment 3), and similar in magnitude for pairs of simple black and white line drawings and coloured photographs of detailed objects (Experiment 4). The results are consistent with the view that the semantic meaning of nameable pictures is activated faster than that of words thereby affording subjects more time to generate and elaborate meaningful associations between items depicted in picture form.

  15. Superior colliculus inactivation alters the weighted integration of visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Nummela, Samuel U; Krauzlis, Richard J

    2011-06-01

    The primate superior colliculus (SC) is important for the winner-take-all selection of targets for orienting movements. Such selection takes time, however, and the earliest motor responses typically are guided by a weighted vector average of the visual stimuli, before the winner-take-all selection of a single target. We tested whether SC activity plays a role in this initial stage of orienting by inactivating the SC in two macaques (Macaca mulatta) with local muscimol injections. After SC inactivation, initial orienting responses still followed a vector average, but the contribution of the visual stimulus inside the affected field was decreased, and the contribution of the stimulus outside the affected field was increased. These results demonstrate that the SC plays an important role in the weighted integration of visual signals for orienting, in addition to its role in the winner-take-all selection of the target.

  16. Metabolic Maturation of Auditory Neurones in the Superior Olivary Complex

    PubMed Central

    Trattner, Barbara; Gravot, Céline Marie; Grothe, Benedikt; Kunz, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal activity is energetically costly, but despite its importance, energy production and consumption have been studied in only a few neurone types. Neuroenergetics is of special importance in auditory brainstem nuclei, where neurones exhibit various biophysical adaptations for extraordinary temporal precision and show particularly high firing rates. We have studied the development of energy metabolism in three principal nuclei of the superior olivary complex (SOC) involved in precise binaural processing in the Mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus). We used immunohistochemistry to quantify metabolic markers for energy consumption (Na+/K+-ATPase) and production (mitochondria, cytochrome c oxidase activity and glucose transporter 3 (GLUT3)). In addition, we calculated neuronal ATP consumption for different postnatal ages (P0–90) based upon published electrophysiological and morphological data. Our calculations relate neuronal processes to the regeneration of Na+ gradients perturbed by neuronal firing, and thus to ATP consumption by Na+/K+-ATPase. The developmental changes of calculated energy consumption closely resemble those of metabolic markers. Both increase before and after hearing onset occurring at P12–13 and reach a plateau thereafter. The increase in Na+/K+-ATPase and mitochondria precedes the rise in GLUT3 levels and is already substantial before hearing onset, whilst GLUT3 levels are scarcely detectable at this age. Based on these findings we assume that auditory inputs crucially contribute to metabolic maturation. In one nucleus, the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB), the initial rise in marker levels and calculated ATP consumption occurs distinctly earlier than in the other nuclei investigated, and is almost completed by hearing onset. Our study shows that the mathematical model used is applicable to brainstem neurones. Energy consumption varies markedly between SOC nuclei with their different neuronal properties. Especially for the

  17. Prise en Charge du Syndrome de Lyell ou Necrolyse Epidermique Toxique

    PubMed Central

    Siah, S.; Baite, A.; Bakkali, H.; Atmani, M.; Ababou, K.; Ihrai, H.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Le syndrome de Lyell ou nécrolyse épidermique toxique (NET) est une pathologie très grave des dermatoses bulleuses d'étiologie médicamenteuse. Il se caractérise par une nécrose aiguë de l'épiderme sur toute la hauteur du corps muqueux. L'aspect clinique de la NET est celui d'une brûlure étendue du deuxième degré profond. A ce tableau s'associent constamment des lésions muqueuses et une atteinte multiviscérale qui aggrave le pronostic. Nous rapportons deux cas de NET qui illustrent l'importance d'une prise en charge précoce et multidisciplinaire de ces patients atteints au sein d'un service de réanimation des brûlés, dont les fondements reposent sur l'asepsie rigoureuse, l'apport hydroélectrolytique et nutritionnel, la prévention de l'infection et son traitement par une antibiothérapie adaptée, et un nursing et des soins locaux. L'efficacité supposée des immunoglobulines intraveineuses ne repose que sur des cas isolés et il n'y a pas encore d'études randomisées. PMID:21991170

  18. The 'ouR-HOPE' approach for ethics and communication about neonatal neurological injury.

    PubMed

    Racine, Eric; Bell, Emily; Farlow, Barbara; Miller, Steven; Payot, Antoine; Rasmussen, Lisa Anne; Shevell, Michael I; Thomson, Donna; Wintermark, Pia

    2017-02-01

    Predicting neurological outcomes of neonates with acute brain injury is an essential component of shared decision-making, in order to guide the development of treatment goals and appropriate care plans. It can aid parents in imagining the child's future, and guide timely and ongoing treatment decisions, including shifting treatment goals and focusing on comfort care. However, numerous challenges have been reported with respect to evidence-based practices for prognostication such as biases about prognosis among clinicians. Additionally, the evaluation or appreciation of living with disability can differ, including the well-known disability paradox where patients self-report a good quality of life in spite of severe disability. Herein, we put forward a set of five practice principles captured in the "ouR-HOPE" approach (Reflection, Humility, Open-mindedness, Partnership, and Engagement) and related questions to encourage clinicians to self-assess their practice and engage with others in responding to these challenges. We hope that this proposal paves the way to greater discussion and attention to ethical aspects of communicating prognosis in the context of neonatal brain injury.

  19. Hong-Ou-Mandel Interference with Atomic Many-Body States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Islam, Rajibul; Lukin, Alexander; Ma, Ruichao; Preiss, Philipp; Rispoli, Matthew; Tai, M. Eric; Greiner, Markus

    2015-05-01

    Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference experiments are a powerful probe for the indistinguishability and underlying quantum statistics of particles. In the classic HOM experiment, a pair of identical photons incident on different input ports of a beamsplitter exits via the same output port. Using the precise control and readout afforded by our quantum gas microscope, we present an implementation of this classic experiment using massive bosons in a doublewell optical potential. Identical states are prepared on each site of the doublewell and by lowering the tunnel coupling between the sites for specific times, we drive a beam splitter operation between the sites. For single-atom Fock input states, we have realized a high fidelity beamsplitter operation and observed an HOM interference contrast of >90%. By generalizing to more complex initial states on the input ports, we have been able to establish HOM experiment protocols as a robust approach towards studying the indistinguishability of many-body states as well as probe interaction-induced effects. These techniques open a path towards the measurement of purity in a quantum system and entanglement entropy in many-body states.

  20. Hong-Ou-Mandel Interference Between Triggered And Heralded Single Photons From Separate Atomic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cere, Alessandro; Leong, Victor; Kaur Gulati, Gurpreet; Srivathsan, Bharath; Kosen, Sandoko; Kurtsiefer, Christian

    2015-05-01

    The realization of quantum networks and long distance quantum communication rely on the capability of generating entanglement between separated nodes. We demonstrate the compatibility of two different sources of single photons: a single atom and four-wave mixing in a cold cloud of atoms. The four-wave mixing process in a cloud of cold 87Rb generates photon pairs. The cascade level scheme used ensures the generation of heralded single photons with exponentially decaying temporal envelope. The temporal shape of the heralding photons matches the shape of photons emitted by spontaneous decay but for the shorter coherence time A single 87Rb atom is trapped in an far-off-resonance optical dipole trap and can be excited with high probability using a short (~3 ns) intense pulse of resonant light, emitting a single photon by spontaneous decay. A large numerical aperture lens collects ~4% of the total fluorescence. The heralded and the triggered photons are launched into a Houng-Ou-Mandel interferometer: a symmetrical beam-splitter with outputs connected to single photon detectors. Scanning the relative delay between the two sources we observe the HOM dip with a maximum visibility of 70 +/-4%.

  1. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference with two independent weak coherent states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Chen; Xue-Bi, An; Juan, Wu; Zhen-Qiang, Yin; Shuang, Wang; Wei, Chen; Zhen-Fu, Han

    2016-02-01

    Recently, the Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference between two independent weak coherent pulses (WCPs) has been paid much attention due to the measurement-device-independent (MDI) quantum key distribution (QKD). Using classical wave theory, articles reported before show that the visibility of this kind of HOM-type interference is ≤ 50%. In this work, we analyze this kind of interference using quantum optics, which reveals more details compared to the wave theory. Analyses confirm the maximum visibility of 50%. And we conclude that the maximum visibility of 50% comes from the two single-photon states in WCPs, without considering the noise. In the experiment, we successfully approach the visibility of 50% by using WCPs splitting from the single pico-second laser source and phase scanning. Since this kind of HOM interference is immune to slow phase fluctuations, both the realized and proposed experiment designs can provide stable ways of high-resolution optical distance detection. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grants Nos. 2011CBA00200 and 2011CB921200), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61201239, 61205118, 11304397, and 61475148) and the “Strategic Priority Research Program (B)” of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. XDB01030100 and XDB01030300).

  2. Agreement between Lake Superior State College and Lake Superior State College Faculty Association, MEA-NEA, September 1, 1986-September 1, 1988.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Education Association, East Lansing.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Lake Superior State College (Michigan) and Lake Superior State College Faculty Association, an affiliate of the National Education Association, covering the period September 1, 1986-September 1, 1988, is presented. Items covered in the agreement include: unit recognition, association rights, grievances…

  3. Agreement between Lake Superior State College and Lake Superior State College Faculty Association (MEA/NEA), September 1, 1983-September 1, 1986.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michigan Education Association, East Lansing.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Lake Superior State College and the Lake Superior State College Faculty Association Chapter, an affiliate of the National Education Association and Michigan Education Association, covering the period September 1, 1983-September 1, 1986 is presented. The unit consists of 102 full-time and regular…

  4. Agreement between Lake Superior State University and Lake Superior State University Faculty Association MEA-NEA. Effective Sept. 1, 1988 to August 31, 1991.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lake Superior State Univ., Sault Sainte Marie, MI.

    The collective bargaining agreement between Lake Superior State University (Michigan) and the Lake Superior State University Faculty Association, an affiliate of the National Education Association, covering the period September 1, 1988 to August 31, 1991 is presented. The agreement covers the following items: definitions; recognition; association…

  5. Intercomparison of Groundwater Flow Monitoring Technologies at Site OU 1, Former Fort Ord, California

    SciTech Connect

    Daley, P F; Jantos, J; Pedler, W H; Mandell, W A

    2005-09-20

    This report presents an intercomparison of three groundwater flow monitoring technologies at a trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume at Operational Unit 1 (OU 1) adjacent to the former Fritzsche Army Airfield at the former Fort Ord Army Base, located on Monterey Bay in northern Monterey County, California. Soil and groundwater at this site became contaminated by fuels and solvents that were burned on a portion of OU 1 called the Fire Drill Area (FDA) as part of firefighter training from 1962 and 1985. Cont Contamination is believed to be restricted to the unconfined A-aquifer, where water is reached at a depth of approximately 60 to 80 feet below the ground surface; the aquifer is from 15 to 20 feet in thickness, and is bounded below by a dense clay layer, the Salinas Valley Aquitard. Soil excavation and bioremediation were initiated at the site of fire training activities in the late 1980s. Since that time a pump-and-treat operation has been operated close to the original area of contamination, and this system has been largely successful at reducing groundwater contamination in this source area. However, a trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume extends approximately 3000 ft (900 m) to the northwest away from the FDA. In this report, we have augmented flow monitoring equipment permanently installed in an earlier project (Oldenburg et al., 2002) with two additional flow monitoring devices that could be deployed in existing monitoring wells, in an effort to better understand their performance in a nearly ideal, homogeneous sand aquifer, that we expected would exhibit laminar groundwater flow owing to the site's relatively simple hydrogeology. The three flow monitoring tools were the Hydrotechnics{reg_sign} In In-Situ Permeable Flow Sensor (ISPFS), the RAS Integrated Subsurface Evaluation Hydrophysical Logging tool (HPL), and the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Scanning Colloidal Borescope Flow Meter (SCBFM). All three devices produce groundwater flow

  6. Methods of systematic analysis: The relative superiority of phylogenetic systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lipscomb, Diana L.

    1984-03-01

    The superiority of cladistic methods to both synthetic and phenetic methods is briefly advanced and reviewed. Cladistics creates testable hypotheses of phylogeny that also give a highly informative summary of available data. Thus it best fits the criteria for a method for determining the general reference classification in biology. For protistologists in particular, cladistics is especially useful. Inundated by an abundance of ultrastructural, biochemical, and cell biological information, protistologists could be greatly helped by the informative way in which cladistics orders and summarizes the data. In addition to classifying protist taxa, hypotheses about the evolution of cell organelles and cellular could be scientifically formulated and tested by cladistics. Because cladistic classifications best summarize the data, they would also be best for making predictions about taxa and characters. They would, for the same reason, be the most stable. Widespread adoption of cladistic methods would serve to stabilize the now fluid state of protist taxonomy. It is for all of these reasons that such methods best suit the needs of the evolutionary protistologist.

  7. Anesthetic efficacy of the anterior middle superior alveolar (AMSA) injection.

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Shelly; Reader, Al; Nusstein, John; Beck, Mike; Weaver, Joel

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, blinded study was to determine the anesthetic efficacy of the anterior middle superior alveolar (AMSA) injection using the computer-assisted Wand Plus injection system versus a conventional syringe. The authors, using a crossover design, randomly administered in a blind manner 2 AMSA injections utilizing the computer-assisted injection system and a conventional syringe to 40 subjects during 2 separate appointments. A pulp tester was used to test for anesthesia, in 4-minute cycles for 60 minutes, of the central and lateral incisors, canine, and first and second premolars. Anesthesia was considered successful when 2 consecutive no responses (80 readings) with the pulp tester were obtained. For all teeth, except the central incisor, the use of the computer-assisted injection system was significantly (P < .05) more likely to result in pulpal anesthesia than the use of the conventional syringe technique. For the computer-assisted injection system, successful pulpal anesthesia ranged from 35 to 58%, and for the conventional syringe, successful pulpal anesthesia ranged from 20 to 42%. For both techniques, the onset of pulpal anesthesia was slow, and duration of pulpal anesthesia declined steadily over 60 minutes. We conclude that although the AMSA injection using the computer-assisted injection system was more successful than the conventional syringe technique, the rather modest to low success rates, slow onset, and declining duration of pulpal anesthesia over 60 minutes would not ensure predictable pulpal anesthesia from the second premolar to the central incisor. PMID:15497297

  8. Effect of Reversible Inactivation of Superior Colliculus on Head Movements

    PubMed Central

    Walton, Mark M. G.; Bechara, Bernard; Gandhi, Neeraj J.

    2013-01-01

    Because of limitations in the oculomotor range, many gaze shifts must be accomplished using coordinated movements of the eyes and head. Stimulation and recording data have implicated the primate superior colliculus (SC) in the control of these gaze shifts. The precise role of this structure in head movement control, however, is not known. The present study uses reversible inactivation to gain insight into the role of this structure in the control of head movements, including those that accompany gaze shifts and those that occur in the absence of a change in gaze. Forty-five lidocaine injections were made in two monkeys that had been trained on a series of behavioral tasks that dissociate movements of the eyes and head. Reversible inactivation resulted in clear impairments in the animals’ ability to perform gaze shifts, manifested by increased reaction times, lower peak velocities, and increased durations. In contrast, comparable effects were not found for head movements (with or without gaze shifts) with the exception of a very small increase in reaction times of head movements associated with gaze shifts. Eye-head coordination was clearly affected by the injections with gaze onset occurring relatively later with respect to head onset. Following the injections, the head contributed slightly more to the gaze shift. These results suggest that head movements (with and without gaze shifts) can be controlled by pathways that do not involve SC. PMID:18305088

  9. Delineation of sympatric morphotypes of lake trout in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Seth A.; Bronte, Charles R.

    2001-01-01

    Three morphotypes of lake trout Salvelinus namaycush are recognized in Lake Superior: lean, siscowet, and humper. Absolute morphotype assignment can be difficult. We used a size-free, whole-body morphometric analysis (truss protocol) to determine whether differences in body shape existed among lake trout morphotypes. Our results showed discrimination where traditional morphometric characters and meristic measurements failed to detect differences. Principal components analysis revealed some separation of all three morphotypes based on head and caudal peduncle shape, but it also indicated considerable overlap in score values. Humper lake trout have smaller caudal peduncle widths to head length and depth characters than do lean or siscowet lake trout. Lean lake trout had larger head measures to caudal widths, whereas siscowet had higher caudal peduncle to head measures. Backward stepwise discriminant function analysis retained two head measures, three midbody measures, and four caudal peduncle measures; correct classification rates when using these variables were 83% for leans, 80% for siscowets, and 83% for humpers, which suggests the measures we used for initial classification were consistent. Although clear ecological reasons for these differences are not readily apparent, patterns in misclassification rates may be consistent with evolutionary hypotheses for lake trout within the Laurentian Great Lakes.

  10. Energetic Particle Synthesis of Metastable Layers for Superior Mechanical Properties

    SciTech Connect

    Follstaedt, D.M.; Knapp, J.A.; Myers, S.M.; Dugger, M.T.; Friedmann, T.A.; Sullivan, J.P.; Monteiro, O.R.; Ager, J.W. III; Brown, I.G.; Christenson, T.

    1998-01-01

    Energetic particle methods have been used to synthesize two metastable layers with superior mechanical properties: amorphous Ni implanted with overlapping Ti and C, and amorphous diamond-like carbon (DLC) formed by vacuum-arc deposition or pulsed laser deposition. Elastic modulus, yield stress and hardness were reliably determined for both materials by fitting finite-element simulations to the observed layer/substrate responses during nanoindentation. Both materials show exceptional properties, i.e., the yield stress of amorphous Ni(Ti,C) exceeds that of hardened steels and other metallic glasses, and the hardness of DLC (up to 88 GPa) approaches that of crystalline diamond (approx. 100 GPa). Tribological performance of the layers during unlubricated sliding contact appears favorable for treating Ni-based micro-electromechanical systems: stick-slip adhesion to Ni is eliminated, giving a low coefficient of friction (approx. 0.3-0.2) and greatly reduced wear. We discuss how energetic particle synthesis is critical to forming these phases and manipulating their properties for optimum performance.

  11. [Central projections of the rat superior laryngeal nerve].

    PubMed

    Pascual-Font, A; Maranillo, E; Merchán, A; Vázquez, T; Safiudo, J R; Valderrama-Canales, F

    2006-01-01

    Laryngeal nerves contain the fibres that control the laryngeal function. On the rat, the studies on the functional components and the real origin of the fibres conveyed by the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) are few. No one of such works were developed using biotinylated dextrane amines (BDA), a powerful tool for tracing neural pathways. The aim of our study was to identify by using BDA, in the rat, the nuclei of real origin of the fibres of the SLN, knowing in this way the functional components of this nerve. The study has been developed in 11 adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, applying the BDA into the damaged SLN. The results obtained in all the animals shown that the rat SLN carries efferent fibres originated within the ipsilateral nucleus ambiguous (NA) and dorsal nucleus of the vagus (DNV), and that afferent fibres reach the tractus solitari and the nucleus tractus solitari. So, in the rat, the SLN seems to convey efferent fibres from the NA and DNV and, probably, all the laryngeal afferent fibres.

  12. Planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells with superior reproducibility

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Ye-Jin; Lee, Sehyun; Kang, Rira; Kim, Jueng-Eun; Yeo, Jun-Seok; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Seok-Soon; Yun, Jin-Mun; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2014-01-01

    Perovskite solar cells (PeSCs) have been considered one of the competitive next generation power sources. To date, light-to-electric conversion efficiencies have rapidly increased to over 10%, and further improvements are expected. However, the poor device reproducibility of PeSCs ascribed to their inhomogeneously covered film morphology has hindered their practical application. Here, we demonstrate high-performance PeSCs with superior reproducibility by introducing small amounts of N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone (CHP) as a morphology controller into N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). As a result, highly homogeneous film morphology, similar to that achieved by vacuum-deposition methods, as well as a high PCE of 10% and an extremely small performance deviation within 0.14% were achieved. This study represents a method for realizing efficient and reproducible planar heterojunction (PHJ) PeSCs through morphology control, taking a major step forward in the low-cost and rapid production of PeSCs by solving one of the biggest problems of PHJ perovskite photovoltaic technology through a facile method. PMID:25377945

  13. Planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells with superior reproducibility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeon, Ye-Jin; Lee, Sehyun; Kang, Rira; Kim, Jueng-Eun; Yeo, Jun-Seok; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Seok-Soon; Yun, Jin-Mun; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2014-11-01

    Perovskite solar cells (PeSCs) have been considered one of the competitive next generation power sources. To date, light-to-electric conversion efficiencies have rapidly increased to over 10%, and further improvements are expected. However, the poor device reproducibility of PeSCs ascribed to their inhomogeneously covered film morphology has hindered their practical application. Here, we demonstrate high-performance PeSCs with superior reproducibility by introducing small amounts of N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone (CHP) as a morphology controller into N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). As a result, highly homogeneous film morphology, similar to that achieved by vacuum-deposition methods, as well as a high PCE of 10% and an extremely small performance deviation within 0.14% were achieved. This study represents a method for realizing efficient and reproducible planar heterojunction (PHJ) PeSCs through morphology control, taking a major step forward in the low-cost and rapid production of PeSCs by solving one of the biggest problems of PHJ perovskite photovoltaic technology through a facile method.

  14. Planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells with superior reproducibility.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Ye-Jin; Lee, Sehyun; Kang, Rira; Kim, Jueng-Eun; Yeo, Jun-Seok; Lee, Seung-Hoon; Kim, Seok-Soon; Yun, Jin-Mun; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2014-11-07

    Perovskite solar cells (PeSCs) have been considered one of the competitive next generation power sources. To date, light-to-electric conversion efficiencies have rapidly increased to over 10%, and further improvements are expected. However, the poor device reproducibility of PeSCs ascribed to their inhomogeneously covered film morphology has hindered their practical application. Here, we demonstrate high-performance PeSCs with superior reproducibility by introducing small amounts of N-cyclohexyl-2-pyrrolidone (CHP) as a morphology controller into N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). As a result, highly homogeneous film morphology, similar to that achieved by vacuum-deposition methods, as well as a high PCE of 10% and an extremely small performance deviation within 0.14% were achieved. This study represents a method for realizing efficient and reproducible planar heterojunction (PHJ) PeSCs through morphology control, taking a major step forward in the low-cost and rapid production of PeSCs by solving one of the biggest problems of PHJ perovskite photovoltaic technology through a facile method.

  15. A Astronomia no Ensino Superior Brasileiro entre 1808 e 1889

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretones, Paulo S.; Videira, Antonio A. P.

    2003-05-01

    Este artigo apresenta os principais eventos ocorridos na história do ensino de astronomia nos cursos superiores que existiram no Brasil desde a chegada da Família Real portuguesa em 1808 até o final do período monárquico. Para compor esse esboço histórico, utilizamos, principalmente, livros didáticos, regulamentos, decretos e leis responsáveis pelas organizações dos conteúdos oferecidos e das carreiras dos responsáveis pela disciplina. Na análise do material empregado, investigamos a presença de concepções filosóficas e científicas, que podem ter norteado os conteúdos disciplinares. Não realizamos nenhuma comparação com o ensino de astronomia em outros países. Concluímos mostrando que o estudo de astronomia, durante o período monárquico, foi mais direcionado para a formação d engenheiros do que astrônomos. Gostaríamos de observar que o presente artigo não tem a pretensão de abordar o assunto de maneira completa e detalhada.

  16. Superior Performance of Artificial Nacre Based on Graphene Oxide Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Yuan, Hao; Ma, Piming; Bai, Huiyu; Chen, Mingqing; Dong, Weifu; Xie, Yi; Deshmukh, Yogesh S

    2017-02-01

    Natural nacre is well-known by its unique properties due to the well-recognized "bricks-and-mortar" structure. Inspired by the natural nacre, graphene oxide (GO) was reduced by dopamine with simultaneous coating by polydopamine (PDA) in aqueous solution to yield polydopamine-capped reduce GO (PDG). The artificial nacre nanocomposite materials of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and PDG presenting layered structure had been successfully constructed via a vacuum-assisted assembly process, in which PDG and PVA served as "bricks" and "mortar", respectively. A combination of hydrogen bonding, strong adhesion and friction between PDG nanosheets and PVA chains resulted in enhancements for mechanical properties. The tensile strength, elongation at break, and toughness of PDG-PVA nanocomposite reached to 327 ± 19.3 MPa, 8 ± 0.2%, and 13.0 ± 0.7 MJ m(-3), which is simultaneously 2.4, 8, and 7 times higher than that of nature nacre with 80-135 MPa, ∼1%, and ∼1.8 MJ m(-3), respectively. More interestingly, the obtained nanocomposites demonstrated a high anisotropy of thermal conductivity (k∥/k⊥ ≈ 380). Combined with superior mechanical properties and high anisotropy of thermal conductivity make these biomimetic materials promising candidates in aerospace, tissue engineering, and thermal management applications.

  17. Anisotropic vanadium dioxide sculptured thin films with superior thermochromic properties.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yaoming; Xiao, Xiudi; Xu, Gang; Dong, Guoping; Chai, Guanqi; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Pengyi; Zhu, Hanmin; Zhan, Yongjun

    2013-09-25

    VO2 (M) STF through reduction of V2O5 STF was prepared. The results illustrate that V2O5 STF can be successfully obtained by oblique angle thermal evaporation technique. After annealing at 550 °C/3 min, the V2O5 STF deposited at 85° can be easily transformed into VO2 STF with slanted columnar structure and superior thermochromic properties. After deposition SiO2 antireflective layer, Tlum of VO2 STF is enhanced 26% and ΔTsol increases 60% compared with that of normal VO2 thin films. Due to the anisotropic microstructure of VO2 STF, angular selectivity transmission of VO2 STF is observed and the solar modulation ability is further improved from 7.2% to 8.7% when light is along columnar direction. Moreover, the phase transition temperature of VO2 STF can be depressed into 54.5 °C without doping. Considering the oblique incidence of sunlight on windows, VO2 STF is more beneficial for practical application as smart windows compared with normal homogenous VO2 thin films.

  18. Behavioral and neuroanatomical investigation of Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (HSAM)

    PubMed Central

    LePort, Aurora K.R.; Mattfeld, Aaron T.; Dickinson-Anson, Heather; Fallon, James H.; Stark, Craig E.L.; Kruggel, Frithjof; Cahill, Larry; McGaugh, James L.

    2013-01-01

    A single case study recently documented one woman’s ability to recall accurately vast amounts of autobiographical information, spanning most of her lifetime, without the use of practiced mnemonics (Parker, Cahill, & McGaugh, 2006). The current study reports findings based on eleven participants expressing this same memory ability, now referred to as Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (HSAM). Participants were identified and subsequently characterized based on screening for memory of public events. They were then tested for personal autobiographical memories as well as for memory assessed by laboratory memory tests. Additionally, whole-brain structural MRI scans were obtained. Results indicated that HSAM participants performed significantly better at recalling public as well as personal autobiographical events as well as the days and dates on which these events occurred. However, their performance was comparable to age- and sex-matched controls on most standard laboratory memory tests. Neuroanatomical results identified nine structures as being morphologically different from those of control participants. The study of HSAM may provide new insights into the neurobiology of autobiographical memory. PMID:22652113

  19. Social cognition and the superior temporal sulcus: implications in autism.

    PubMed

    Saitovitch, A; Bargiacchi, A; Chabane, N; Brunelle, F; Samson, Y; Boddaert, N; Zilbovicius, M

    2012-10-01

    The most common clinical sign of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is social interaction impairment, which is associated with communication deficits and stereotyped behaviors. Based on brain-imaging results, our hypothesis is that abnormalities in the superior temporal sulcus (STS) are highly implicated in ASD. These abnormalities are characterized by decreased grey matter concentration, rest hypoperfusion and abnormal activation during social tasks. STS anatomofunctional anomalies occurring early across brain development could constitute the first step in the cascade of neural dysfunctions underlying autism. It is known that STS is highly implicated on social perception processing, from perception of biological movements, such as body movements or eye gaze, to more complex social cognition processes. Among the impairments that can be described in social perception processing, eye gaze perception is particularly relevant in autism. Gaze abnormalities can now be objectively measured using eye-tracking methodology. In the present work, we will review recent data on STS contributions to normal social cognition and its implication in autism, with particular focus on eye gaze perception.

  20. Dynamics of a yellow perch population in western Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, Charles R.; Selgeby, James H.; Swedberg, Donald V.

    1993-01-01

    Yellow perch Perca flavescens were sampled annually in 1973–1988 with bottom trawls in Chequamegon Bay, Lake Superior. Biomass averaged l.6 kg/hectare. Fish l–3 years old made up 64% of the biomass, whereas fish of harvestable size (≥4 years old) made up only 31% of the biomass. Year-class strength was variable among years, but a Ricker recruitment function described the relation between year-class strength and parental stock size, Age-specific mortality increased substantially as fish became sexually mature at age 4, perhaps as a result of energy depletion associated with high reproductive and maintenance costs in a suboptimal thermal environment. Yield-per-recruit analysis indicated that most of the age-specific annual mortality was due to natural causes. Natural mortality, rather than limited recruitment or fishing mortality, was the major factor controlling harvestable stock size, Regardless of the size of a year-class produced, natural mortality greatly reduced its abundance prior to maturity and recruitment to the fishable stock. This high mortality, combined with very slow growth, limits the biomass potential of the harvestable stock, and sustainable yields from this population are therefore low.

  1. Food of salmonine predators in Lake Superior, 1981-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Conner, David J.; Bronte, Charles R.; Selgeby, James H.; Collins, Hollie L.

    1993-01-01

    Diets of ten species of Lake Superior salmonines are described. Rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) were the primary prey during all seasons and years for inshore lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush), Pacific salmon (Oncorhynchus spp.), Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), brown trout (S. trutta), brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis), and splake (lake trout x brook trout hybrid). Coregonines were the second most-important prey for chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha), siscowet trout (S. namaycush siscowet), and splake. Invertebrates were important to rainbow trout (O. mykiss), coho salmon (O. kisutch), and pink salmon (O. gorbuscha), especially during the summer. Diets of lake trout from inshore and offshore locations differed markedly. Rainbow smelt were the primary food of inshore lake trout, and coregonines were the main food of offshore lake trout. Chinook salmon and inshore lake trout had the most similar diets because they ate similar proportions of rainbow smelt and coregonines. Salmonines generally ate more rainbow smelt and less coregonines in proportion to the abundance of these prey in the lake. If rainbow smelt populations collapse, the ability of salmonines to convert to a diet based on lake herring (Coregonus artedi) could be important to the stability of predator populations.

  2. Anisotropic vanadium dioxide sculptured thin films with superior thermochromic properties

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yaoming; Xiao, Xiudi; Xu, Gang; Dong, Guoping; Chai, Guanqi; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Pengyi; Zhu, Hanmin; Zhan, Yongjun

    2013-01-01

    VO2 (M) STF through reduction of V2O5 STF was prepared. The results illustrate that V2O5 STF can be successfully obtained by oblique angle thermal evaporation technique. After annealing at 550°C/3 min, the V2O5 STF deposited at 85° can be easily transformed into VO2 STF with slanted columnar structure and superior thermochromic properties. After deposition SiO2 antireflective layer, Tlum of VO2 STF is enhanced 26% and ΔTsol increases 60% compared with that of normal VO2 thin films. Due to the anisotropic microstructure of VO2 STF, angular selectivity transmission of VO2 STF is observed and the solar modulation ability is further improved from 7.2% to 8.7% when light is along columnar direction. Moreover, the phase transition temperature of VO2 STF can be depressed into 54.5°C without doping. Considering the oblique incidence of sunlight on windows, VO2 STF is more beneficial for practical application as smart windows compared with normal homogenous VO2 thin films. PMID:24067743

  3. Optogenetic cholinergic modulation of the mouse superior colliculus in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, John A.; Felsen, Gidon

    2015-01-01

    The superior colliculus (SC) plays a critical role in orienting movements, in part by integrating modulatory influences on the sensorimotor transformations it performs. Many species exhibit a robust brain stem cholinergic projection to the intermediate and deep layers of the SC arising mainly from the pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg), which may serve to modulate SC function. However, the physiological effects of this input have not been examined in vivo, preventing an understanding of its functional role. Given the data from slice experiments, cholinergic input may have a net excitatory effect on the SC. Alternatively, the input could have mixed effects, via activation of inhibitory neurons within or upstream of the SC. Distinguishing between these possibilities requires in vivo experiments in which endogenous cholinergic input is directly manipulated. Here we used anatomical and optogenetic techniques to identify and selectively activate brain stem cholinergic terminals entering the intermediate and deep layers of the awake mouse SC and recorded SC neuronal responses. We first quantified the pattern of the cholinergic input to the mouse SC, finding that it was predominantly localized to the intermediate and deep layers. We then found that optogenetic stimulation of cholinergic terminals in the SC significantly increased the activity of a subpopulation of SC neurons. Interestingly, cholinergic input had a broad range of effects on the magnitude and timing of SC responses, perhaps reflecting both monosynaptic and polysynaptic innervation. These findings begin to elucidate the functional role of this cholinergic projection in modulating the processing underlying sensorimotor transformations in the SC. PMID:26019317

  4. Effects on Spacecraft Radiometric Data at Superior Solar Conjunction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morley, Trevor; Budnik, Frank

    2007-01-01

    During 2006, three ESA interplanetary spacecraft, Rosetta, Mars Express (MEX) and Venus Express (VEX), passed through superior solar conjunction. For all three spacecraft, the noise in the post-fit range-rate residuals from the orbit determination was analysed. At small Sun-Earth-Probe (SEP) angles the level was almost two orders of magnitude higher than normal. The main objective was to characterize the Doppler (rangerate) noise as a function of SEP angle. At least then the range-rate data can be appropriately weighted within the orbit determination so that the solution uncertainties are realistic. For VEX, some intervals of particularly noisy Doppler data could be correlated with unusual solar activity. For Rosetta, the biases in the range data residuals were analysed with the aim of improving the model used for calibrating the signal delay due to the solar plasma. The model, which originally had fixed coefficients, was adjusted to achieve better fits to the data. Even the relatively small Doppler biases were well represented. Using the improved model, the electron density at 20 solar radii was compared with earlier results obtained by radio science studies using Voyager 2 and Ulysses radiometric data. There is some evidence for a dependency of the density on the phase within the 11 years solar cycle.

  5. Using Lake Superior Parks to Present the Midcontinent Rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, C. A.; Stein, S. A.; Blavascunas, E.

    2014-12-01

    Some of the Midwest's most spectacular scenery occurs near Lake Superior, in places like Pictured Rocks and Apostle Islands National Lakeshores, Isle Royale National Park, Interstate Park, and Porcupine Mountains State Park. These landscapes provide an enormous, but underutilized opportunity for park interpreters and educators to explain some of the most exciting concepts of modern geology. A crucial aspect of doing this is recognizing that many of the rocks and landforms in individual parks are pieces of a huge regional structure. This structure, called the Midcontinent Rift System (MCRS), is a 1.1 billion year old 3000 km (2000 mile) long scar along which the North American continent started to tear apart, just as Africa is splitting today along the East African Rift, but for some reason failed to form a new ocean. Drawing on our experience as researchers and teachers studying the MCRS (Steins) and as an interpreter at Isle Royale National Park (Blavascunas), we seek to give interpreters a brief introduction to MCRS to help them present information about what geologists know already and what they are learning from continuing research. Our goal is to help interpreters visualize how what they see at a specific site fits into an exciting regional picture spanning much of the Midwest.

  6. Superior longitudinal fasciculus and language functioning in healthy aging.

    PubMed

    Madhavan, Kiely M; McQueeny, Tim; Howe, Steven R; Shear, Paula; Szaflarski, Jerzy

    2014-05-08

    Structural deterioration of brain tissue in older adults is thought to be responsible for the majority of age-related cognitive decline. Disruption of widespread cortical networks due to a loss of axonal integrity may also play an important role. Research examining correlations between structural change and functional decline has focused heavily on working memory, processing speed, and executive processes while other aspects of cognition, such as language functioning, have received less attention. The current study aimed to determine whether age-related changes in the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), are responsible for the deterioration in language functioning associated with age. Subjects included 112 right-handed volunteers (ages 19-76). For each subject, the SLF of the left hemisphere was reconstructed from diffusion tensor images (DTI). Mean fractional anisotropy (FA) values were extracted from parietal (SLFp) and temporal (SLFt) bundles. Language functioning was measured using the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT), Boston Naming Test (BNT), Controlled Oral Word Association Test (COWAT), and Semantic Fluency Test (SFT). Regression analyses revealed that males and females showed a different pattern of decline in FA across adulthood. For males, greater SLFt FA was significantly associated with increased COWAT performance, and there was a positive relationship between both age and SLFp FA with BNT scores. In females, greater SLFp FA was related to lower COWAT performance. Taken together, the results suggest that white matter integrity of the SLF follows a different pattern of decline in adulthood for males and females, and this decline differentially affects language functioning.

  7. Superior temporal sulcus and social cognition in dangerous drivers.

    PubMed

    Zelinková, Jana; Shaw, Daniel Joel; Mareček, Radek; Mikl, Michal; Urbánek, Tomáš; Peterková, Lenka; Zámečník, Petr; Brázdil, Milan

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the neural systems underpinning social cognition is a primary focus of contemporary social neuroscience. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), the present study asked if brain activity reflecting socio-cognitive processes differs between individuals according to their social behavior; namely, between a group of drivers with frequent traffic offenses and a group with none. Socio-cognitive processing was elicited by employing videos from a traffic awareness campaign, consisting of reckless and anti-social driving behavior ending in tragic consequences, and control videos with analogous driving themes but without such catastrophic endings. We investigated whether relative increases in brain function during the observation of these campaign stimuli compared with control videos differed between these two groups. To develop the results of our previous study we focused our analyses on superior temporal sulcus/gyrus (STS/STG). This revealed a bigger increase in brain activity within this region during the campaign stimuli in safe compared with dangerous drivers. Furthermore, by thematically coding drivers' verbal descriptions of the stimuli, we also demonstrate differences in STS reactivity according to drivers' scores on two indices of socio-cognitive processing: subjects' perceived consequences of actors' actions, and their affective evaluation of the clips. Our results demonstrate the influence of social behavior and socio-cognitive processing on STS reactivity to social stimuli, developing considerably our understanding of the role of this region in social cognition.

  8. Modeling the Value of Strategic Actions in the Superior Colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Thevarajah, Dhushan; Webb, Ryan; Ferrall, Christopher; Dorris, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    In learning models of strategic game play, an agent constructs a valuation (action value) over possible future choices as a function of past actions and rewards. Choices are then stochastic functions of these action values. Our goal is to uncover a neural signal that correlates with the action value posited by behavioral learning models. We measured activity from neurons in the superior colliculus (SC), a midbrain region involved in planning saccadic eye movements, while monkeys performed two saccade tasks. In the strategic task, monkeys competed against a computer in a saccade version of the mixed-strategy game ”matching-pennies”. In the instructed task, saccades were elicited through explicit instruction rather than free choices. In both tasks neuronal activity and behavior were shaped by past actions and rewards with more recent events exerting a larger influence. Further, SC activity predicted upcoming choices during the strategic task and upcoming reaction times during the instructed task. Finally, we found that neuronal activity in both tasks correlated with an established learning model, the Experience Weighted Attraction model of action valuation (Camerer and Ho, 1999). Collectively, our results provide evidence that action values hypothesized by learning models are represented in the motor planning regions of the brain in a manner that could be used to select strategic actions. PMID:20161807

  9. Interactions between the Midbrain Superior Colliculus and the Basal Ganglia

    PubMed Central

    Redgrave, Peter; Coizet, Veronique; Comoli, Eliane; McHaffie, John G.; Leriche, Mariana; Vautrelle, Nicolas; Hayes, Lauren M.; Overton, Paul

    2010-01-01

    An important component of the architecture of cortico-basal ganglia connections is the parallel, re-entrant looped projections that originate and return to specific regions of the cerebral cortex. However, such loops are unlikely to have been the first evolutionary example of a closed-loop architecture involving the basal ganglia. A phylogenetically older, series of subcortical loops can be shown to link the basal ganglia with many brainstem sensorimotor structures. While the characteristics of individual components of potential subcortical re-entrant loops have been documented, the full extent to which they represent functionally segregated parallel projecting channels remains to be determined. However, for one midbrain structure, the superior colliculus (SC), anatomical evidence for closed-loop connectivity with the basal ganglia is robust, and can serve as an example against which the loop hypothesis can be evaluated for other subcortical structures. Examination of ascending projections from the SC to the thalamus suggests there may be multiple functionally segregated systems. The SC also provides afferent signals to the other principal input nuclei of the basal ganglia, the dopaminergic neurones in substantia nigra and to the subthalamic nucleus. Recent electrophysiological investigations show that the afferent signals originating in the SC carry important information concerning the onset of biologically significant events to each of the basal ganglia input nuclei. Such signals are widely regarded as crucial for the proposed functions of selection and reinforcement learning with which the basal ganglia have so often been associated. PMID:20941324

  10. Of guns and snakes: testing a modern threat superiority effect.

    PubMed

    Subra, Baptiste; Muller, Dominique; Fourgassie, Lisa; Chauvin, Alan; Alexopoulos, Theodore

    2017-02-03

    Previous studies suggest that ancient (i.e. evolutionary-based) threats capture attention because human beings possess an inborn module shaped by evolution and dedicated to their detection. An alternative account proposes that a key feature predicting whether a stimulus will capture attention is its relevance rather than its ontology (i.e. phylogenetic or ontogenetic threat). Within this framework, the present research deals with the attentional capture by threats commonly encountered in our urban environment. In two experiments, we investigate the attentional capture by modern threats (i.e. weapons). In Experiment 1, participants responded to a target preceded by a cue, which was a weapon or a non-threatening stimulus. We found a larger cuing effect (faster reaction times to valid vs. invalid trials) with weapons as compared with non-threatening cues. In Experiment 2, modern (e.g. weapons) and ancient threats (e.g. snakes) were pitted against one another as cues to determine which ones preferentially capture attention. Crucially, participants were faster to detect a target preceded by a modern as opposed to an ancient threat, providing initial evidence for a superiority of modern threat. Overall, the present findings appear more consistent with a relevance-based explanation rather than an evolutionary-based explanation of threat detection.

  11. The Anesthetic Effect of Anterior Middle Superior Alveolar Technique (AMSA)

    PubMed Central

    de Souza Tolentino, Lívia; Barbisan Souza, André; Girardi, Ana Alice; Romito, Giuseppe Alexandre; Araújo, Maurício Guimarães

    2015-01-01

    Anesthesia of the soft and hard tissues of the maxilla may require up to 5 injections. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the anesthetic efficacy of the anterior middle superior alveolar (AMSA) and supraperiosteal injection techniques during subgingival scaling and root planing (SRP). Thirty individuals with periodontitis were scheduled for SRP on the buccal aspect of teeth in the anterior maxilla. Before SRP, on a randomly chosen side of the maxilla, the supraperiosteal injection was performed in 1 session, while the AMSA injection was conducted in the contralateral side of the same patient in another session. Immediately after each SRP session, patients rated their pain perception during the procedure with a visual analog scale. No statistically significant differences in mean pain ratings during SRP were found after both anesthetic techniques (P > .05). This preliminary study demonstrated that the AMSA and supraperiosteal injection techniques provided similar anesthetic comfort during SRP. The AMSA injection could be an alternative to anesthetize the buccal aspect of maxilla, without the undesirable effects on facial structures such as the upper lip, nostrils, and lower eyelids. However, further randomized clinical trials with larger samples are necessary to confirm such results. PMID:26650493

  12. Neonatal cortical ablation disrupts multisensory development in superior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wan; Jiang, Huai; Stein, Barry E.

    2006-01-01

    The ability of cat superior colliculus (SC) neurons to synthesize information from different senses depends on influences from two areas of the cortex: the anterior ectosylvian sulcus (AES) and the rostral lateral suprasylvian sulcus (rLS). Reversibly deactivating the inputs to the SC from either of these areas in normal adults severely compromises this ability and the SC-mediated behaviors that depend on it. In the present study we found that removal of these areas in neonatal animals precluded the normal development of multisensory SC processes. At maturity there was a substantial decrease in the incidence of multisensory neurons, and those multisensory neurons that did develop were highly abnormal. Their cross-modal receptive field register was severely compromised, as was their ability to integrate cross-modal stimuli. Apparently, despite the impressive plasticity of the neonatal brain, it cannot compensate for the early loss of these cortices. Surprisingly, however, neonatal removal of either AES or rLS had comparatively minor consequences on these properties. At maturity multisensory SC neurons were quite common: they developed the characteristic spatial register among their unisensory receptive fields and exhibited normal adult-like multisensory integration. These observations suggest that during early ontogeny, when the multisensory properties of SC neurons are being crafted, AES and rLS may have the ability to compensate for the loss of one another’s cortico-collicular influences so that normal multisensory processes can develop in the SC. PMID:16267111

  13. Multisensory Speech Perception Without the Left Superior Temporal Sulcus

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Sarah H.; Martin, Randi C.; Hamilton, A. Cris; Beauchamp, Michael S.

    2012-01-01

    Converging evidence suggests that the left superior temporal sulcus (STS) is a critical site for multisensory integration of auditory and visual information during speech perception. We report a patient, SJ, who suffered a stroke that damaged the left tempo-parietal area, resulting in mild anomic aphasia. Structural MRI showed complete destruction of the left middle and posterior STS, as well as damage to adjacent areas in the temporal and parietal lobes. Surprisingly, SJ demonstrated preserved multisensory integration measured with two independent tests. First, she perceived the McGurk effect, an illusion that requires integration of auditory and visual speech. Second, her perception of morphed audiovisual speech with ambiguous auditory or visual information was significantly influenced by the opposing modality. To understand the neural basis for this preserved multisensory integration, blood-oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) was used to examine brain responses to audiovisual speech in SJ and 23 healthy age-matched controls. In controls, bilateral STS activity was observed. In SJ, no activity was observed in the damaged left STS but in the right STS, more cortex was active in SJ than in any of the normal controls. Further, the amplitude of the BOLD response in right STS response to McGurk stimuli was significantly greater in SJ than in controls. The simplest explanation of these results is a reorganization of SJ's cortical language networks such that the right STS now subserves multisensory integration of speech. PMID:22634292

  14. The properties of retrieval cues constrain the picture superiority effect.

    PubMed

    Weldon, M S; Roediger, H L; Challis, B H

    1989-01-01

    In three experiments, we examined why pictures are remembered better than words on explicit memory tests like recall and recognition, whereas words produce more priming than pictures on some implicit tests, such as word-fragment and word-stem completion (e.g., completing -l-ph-nt or ele----- as elephant). One possibility is that pictures are always more accessible than words if subjects are given explicit retrieval instructions. An alternative possibility is that the properties of the retrieval cues themselves constrain the retrieval processes engaged; word fragments might induce data-driven (perceptually based) retrieval, which favors words regardless of the retrieval instructions. Experiment 1 demonstrated that words were remembered better than pictures on both the word-fragment and word-stem completion tasks under both implicit and explicit retrieval conditions. In Experiment 2, pictures were recalled better than words with semantically related extralist cues. In Experiment 3, when semantic cues were combined with word fragments, pictures and words were recalled equally well under explicit retrieval conditions, but words were superior to pictures under implicit instructions. Thus, the inherently data-limited properties of fragmented words limit their use in accessing conceptual codes. Overall, the results indicate that retrieval operations are largely determined by properties of the retrieval cues under both implicit and explicit retrieval conditions.

  15. The mesoproterozoic midcontinent rift system, Lake Superior region, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ojakangas, R.W.; Morey, G.B.; Green, J.C.

    2001-01-01

    Exposures in the Lake Superior region, and associated geophysical evidence, show that a 2000 km-long rift system developed within the North American craton ??? 1109-1087 Ma, the age span of the most of the volcanic rocks. This system is characterized by immense volumes of mafic igneous rocks, mostly subaerial plateau basalts, generated in two major pulses largely by a hot mantle plume. A new ocean basin was nearly formed before rifting ceased, perhaps due to the remote effect of the Grenville continental collision to the east. Broad sagging/subsidence, combined with a system of axial half-grabens separated along the length of the rift by accommodation zones, provided conditions for the accumulation of as much as 20 km of volcanic rocks and as much as 10 km of post-rift clastic sediments, both along the rift axis and in basins flanking a central, post-volcanic horst. Pre-rift mature, quartzose sandstones imply little or no uplift prior to the onset of rift volcanism. Early post-rift red-bed sediments consist almost entirely of intrabasinally derived volcanic sediment deposited in alluvial fan to fluvial settings; the exception is one gray to black carbon-bearing lacustrine(?) unit. This early sedimentation phase was followed by broad crustal sagging and deposition of progressively more mature red-bed, fluvial sediments with an extra-basinal provenance. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Teaching condom use skills: practice is superior to observation.

    PubMed

    Calsyn, Donald A; Hatch-Maillette, Mary A; Doyle, Suzanne R; Cousins, Sarah; Chen, TeChieh; Godinez, Melinda

    2010-10-01

    Men exposed to a condom skills practice exercise were hypothesized to perform better on condom skills measures than those exposed only to a demonstration or to no intervention. As part of a larger National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) Clinical Trials Network HIV Prevention protocol, men in substance abuse treatment were administered male and female condom use skills measures (MCUS, FCUS) at preintervention, 2 weeks, 3 months, and 6 months postintervention. The MCUS and FCUS scores were compared for 3 intervention exposure groups (demonstration only [DO, n = 149], demonstration plus practice [D+P; n = 112], attended no sessions [NS, n = 139]) across the 4 assessment time points using a mixed effects linear regression model. There is a statistically significant intervention group-by-time effect (P < .0001) for both the MCUS and FCUS. Post hoc, pairwise linear trends across time indicated that for both the MCUS and the FCUS, the D+P group is significantly superior to the DO group and the NS group.

  17. Subthreshold activation of the superior colliculus drives saccade motor learning.

    PubMed

    Soetedjo, Robijanto; Fuchs, Albert F; Kojima, Yoshiko

    2009-12-02

    How the brain learns and maintains accurate precision movements is currently unknown. At times throughout life, rapid gaze shifts (saccades) become inaccurate, but the brain makes gradual adjustments so they again stop on target. Previously, we showed that complex spikes (CSs) in Purkinje cells of the oculomotor cerebellum report the direction and amplitude by which saccades are in error. Anatomical studies indicate that this error signal could originate in the superior colliculus (SC). Here, we deliver subthreshold electrical stimulation of the SC after the saccade lands to signal an apparent error. The size of saccades in the same direction as the simulated error gradually increase; those in the opposite direction decrease. The electrically adapted saccades endure after stimulation is discontinued, exhibit an adaptation field, can undergo changes in direction, and depend on error timing. These electrically induced adaptations were virtually identical with those produced by the visually induced adaptations that we report here for comparable visual errors in the same monkeys. Therefore, our experiments reveal that an additional role for the SC in the generation of saccades is to provide a vector error signal that drives dysmetric saccades to adapt. Moreover, the characteristics of the electrically induced adaptation reflect those of error-related CS activity in the oculomotor cerebellum, suggesting that CS activity serves as the learning signal. We speculate that CS activity may serve as the error signal that drives other kinds of motor learning as well.

  18. MRI Assessment of Superior Temporal Gyrus in Williams Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio, Adriana; Sousa, Nuno; Férnandez, Montse; Vasconcelos, Cristiana; Shenton, Martha E.; Gonçalves, Óscar F.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate volumes and asymmetry of superior temporal gyrus (STG) and correlate these measures with a neurocognitive evaluation of verbal performance in Williams syndrome (WS) and in a typically developing age-matched and sex-matched group. Background Despite initial claims of language strength in WS, recent studies suggest delayed language milestones. The STG is implicated in linguistic processing and is a highly lateralized brain region. Method Here, we examined STG volumes and asymmetry of STG in WS patients and in age-matched controls. We also correlated volume of STG with a subset of verbal measures. Magnetic resonance imaging scans were obtained on a GE 1.5-T magnet with 1.5-mm contiguous slices, and were used to measure whole gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid volumes, and also STG volume. Results Results revealed significantly reduced intracranial volume in WS patients, compared with controls. Right and left STG were also significantly smaller in WS patients. In addition, compared with normal controls, a lack of normal left >right STG asymmetry was evident in WS. Also of note was the finding that, in contrast to controls, WS patients did not reveal a positive correlation between verbal intelligence quotient and left STG volume, which further suggests a disruption in this region of the brain. Conclusions In conclusion, atypical patterns of asymmetry and reduced STG volume in WS were observed, which may, in part, contribute to some of the linguistic impairments found in this cohort of WS patients. PMID:18797257

  19. A superior descriptor of random textures and its predictive capacity

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Y.; Stillinger, F. H.; Torquato, S.

    2009-01-01

    Two-phase random textures abound in a host of contexts, including porous and composite media, ecological structures, biological media, and astrophysical structures. Questions surrounding the spatial structure of such textures continue to pose many theoretical challenges. For example, can two-point correlation functions be identified that can be manageably measured and yet reflect nontrivial higher-order structural information about the textures? We present a solution to this question by probing the information content of the widest class of different types of two-point functions examined to date using inverse “reconstruction” techniques. This enables us to show that a superior descriptor is the two-point cluster function C2(r), which is sensitive to topological connectedness information. We demonstrate the utility of C2(r) by accurately reconstructing textures drawn from materials science, cosmology, and granular media, among other examples. Our work suggests a theoretical pathway to predict the bulk physical properties of random textures and that also has important ramifications for atomic and molecular systems. PMID:19805040

  20. Size of the superior palpebral involuntary muscle (Müller muscle).

    PubMed

    Hwang, Kun; Huan, Fan; Kim, Dae Joong; Hwang, Se Ho

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the width and length of the superior palpebral muscle by using anti-α-smooth muscle actin antibody. Ten orbits of 5 adult Korean cadavers were used. Eyelids were cut in vertical planes through midpupilliary, medial limbus, and lateral limbus and in horizontal planes at the anterior border of the superior transverse ligament and 2 mm proximal to the upper tarsal border. Superior palpebral muscle was localized using mouse monoclonal anti-α-smooth muscle actin and counterstained with light green for collagen. In enlarged pictures of sections, widths, lengths, and thicknesses of the superior palpebral involuntary muscle were measured with a curved scale and were analyzed. The levator palpebrae superioris muscle was divided into superficial and deep parts below the superior transverse ligament. The levator aponeurosis originated from the superficial part and the superior palpebral muscle originated from the deep part of the levator palpebrae superioris muscle. The aponeurosis was inserted into the upper border of tarsus. The superior palpebral muscle fibers arose 2.71 ± 0.64 mm posterior to the anterior border of the superior transverse ligament. The superior palpebral muscle was trapezoidal. The lengths of its sides were 15.58 ± 1.82 and 22.30 ± 5.25 mm, and its height was 13.70 ± 2.74 mm. The levator aponeurosis covered the superior palpebral muscle anteriorly. The width of the levator aponeurosis was approximately 4 mm wider than the superior palpebral muscle. The thicknesses of the superior palpebral muscle were 0.14 ± 0.13 mm at the anterior border of the superior transverse ligament, 0.45 ± 0.11 mm at the superior fornix level, and 0.10 ± 0.03 mm at the upper border of the tarsal plate. One vascular layer was between the levator aponeurosis and the superior palpebral muscle (upper vascular layer), and the other was between the superior palpebral muscle and the conjunctiva (lower vascular layer). At the superior

  1. 200-DV-1OU Sediment and Pore Water Analysis and Report for Samples at Borehole C8096

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, Michael J.

    2011-10-01

    This is an analytical data report for sediment samples received at 200-DV-1 OU. On August 30, 2011 sediment samples were received from 200-DV-1 OU Borehole C8096 for geochemical studies. The analyses for this project were performed at the 331 building located in the 300 Area of the Hanford Site. The analyses were performed according to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) approved procedures and/or nationally recognized test procedures. The data sets include the sample identification numbers, analytical results, estimated quantification limits (EQL), and quality control data. The preparatory and analytical quality control requirements, calibration requirements, acceptance criteria, and failure actions are defined in the on-line QA plan 'Conducting Analytical Work in Support of Regulatory Programs' (CAW). This QA plan implements the Hanford Analytical Services Quality Assurance Requirements Documents (HASQARD) for PNNL.

  2. Implementation of Enhanced Attenuation at the DOE Mound Site OU-1 Landfill: Accelerating Progress and Reducing Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hooten, Gwendolyn; Cato, Rebecca; Looney, Brian

    2016-03-06

    At the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Legacy Management, Mound, Ohio, Site, chlorinated organic contaminants (cVOCs) originating from the former solid-waste landfill have impacted groundwater in Operable Unit 1 (OU-1). The baseline groundwater remedy was groundwater pump and treat (P&T). Since the source materials have been removed from the landfill, the Mound core team, which consists of DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA), Ohio EPA, and other stakeholders, is assessing the feasibility of switching from the active P&T remedy to a passive attenuation-based remedy. Toward this end, an enhanced attenuation (EA) strategy based on the creation of structured geochemical zones was developed. This EA strategy addresses the residual areas of elevated cVOCs in soil and groundwater while minimizing the rebound of groundwater concentrations above regulatory targets (e.g., maximum contaminant levels [MCLs]) and avoiding plume expansion while the P&T system is turned off. The EA strategy has improved confidence and reduced risk on the OU-1 groundwater transition path to monitored natural attenuation (MNA). To better evaluate the EA strategy, DOE is conducting a field demonstration to evaluate the use of edible oils to enhance the natural attenuation processes. The field demonstration is designed to determine whether structured geochemical zones can be established that expedite the attenuation of cVOCs in the OU-1 groundwater. The EA approach at OU-1 was designed based on “structured geochemical zones” and relies on groundwater flow through a succession of anaerobic and aerobic zones. The anaerobic zones stimulate relatively rapid degradation of the original solvent source compounds (e.g., cVOCs such as tetrachloroethene [PCE] and trichloroethene [TCE]). The surrounding aerobic areas encourage relatively rapid degradation of daughter products (such as dichloroethene [DCE] and vinyl chloride [VC]) as well as enhanced cometabolism of TCE resulting from

  3. Age and growth of the whitefish in Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dryer, William R.

    1963-01-01

    The average annual commercial production of whitefish in the U.S. waters of Lake Superior dropped from 2,194,000 pounds in 1879-1908 to 504,000 pounds in 1911-59. The modern production, though far below the earlier, has accounted for more than 10 percent of the total value of the fishery in all but one of the last 20 years. Data are given on growth rate, age and year-class composition, size distribution, and length-weight relation of 1,800 fish collected in 1957-59 at Bayfield, Wis., and Marquette, Whitefish Point, and Dollar Settlement, Mich. Studies of the body-scale relation, sex ratio, and age and size at maturity were limited to fish collected at Bayfield. The age composition and mean age varied widely by port and year of capture. Oldest fish were those of the 1957 Bayfield samples which were dominated by age group VII and averaged 5.5 years old. The youngest were from Whitefish Point in 1959; age-group III was dominant, and the mean age was 3.2 years. The evidence on the strength of year classes was not clear-cut, but it was obvious that fluctuations in stocks of different areas were largely independent. The percentage of legal-size fish (17 inches or longer) in age groups ranged widely; only 8.6 percent of the V group were legal in the 1957 Bayfield collections, whereas 100 percent of fish of the same age were legal in the 1957-59 collections from Whitefish Point. The weight of whitefish in the combined samples increased as the 3.2408 power of the length. The growth rate from the fastest to the slowest growing stocks ranked as follows: Whitefish Point; Dollar Settlement and Marquette (fish from the two ports reversed ranks after 3 years); Bayfield. The major differences in growth in length among the various stocks occurred during the first years of life. Beyond the fifth year the annual increments were nearly the same in all stocks. The whitefish from Whitefish Point, Dollar Settlement, and Marquette are among the fastest growing in the Great Lakes. The

  4. Selection of superior bifidobacteria in the presence of rotavirus

    PubMed Central

    Alp Avci, G.

    2016-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to investigate bifidobacteria flora in fecal samples from children with rotavirus infection and determine the significance of their selected probiotic properties for improvement of health status. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to identify rotavirus antigen in fecal samples from 94 patients with gastroenteritis and from 30 without gastroenteritis. Bifidobacteria were identified by selective media, gram reaction, colony morphology, fructose-6-phosphate phosphoketolase enzyme activity and classical identification tests. Exopolysaccharide (EPS) production was identified by phenol-sulphuric acid method. The modified method was then used to identify the quantity of taurocholic and glycocholic acid deconjugation and cholesterol elimination of the strains. Thirty-five of the 94 fecal samples were found positive for rotavirus antigen (37.23%). Bifidobacteria were identified in 59 of the samples. The EPS production ranges were 29.56-102.21 mg/L. The cholesterol elimination rates ranged between 8.36-39.22%. Furthermore, a positive and strong correlation was determined between EPS production and the presence of cholesterol (r=0.984, P<0.001). The deconjugation rates for the sodium glycocholate group was higher than the sodium taurocholate group. Rotavirus (+) bifidobacteria strains had higher EPS production, deconjugation rate and cholesterol elimination compared to bifidobacteria strains isolated from children in the rotavirus (-) sample and without gastroenteritis. Significant differences were observed among groups in all parameters (P<0.05). Given the increased number of rotavirus cases in Turkey and worldwide, it is very important to add superior bifidobacteria in the diets of infected children to improve the intestinal and vital functions. PMID:27849251

  5. A surgical view of the superior nasal turbinate: anatomical study.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Mustafa; Govsa, Figen; Saylam, Canan

    2010-06-01

    Differences of the superior nasal turbinate (SNT), presence of the supreme nasal turbinate (SpNT) and measurements of opening sphenoid sinus (OSS) are consistent anatomical landmarks that allow for safe entrances, such as posterior ethmoidectomy and sphenoid sinusotomy. The purpose of study was to investigate the anatomical details of the SNT for approaching the OSS on 20 specimens of adult cadavers under an operating microscope. The SNT and SpNT were localized more perpendicular than parallel to their axes. The SpNT structure was observed in 12 specimens (60%) and it was classified into three types. Type A SpNT was shortest of all turbinates (58.3%). In types B and C, SpNT was equal or larger than the SNT. These types were seen in 41.7% of specimens. In 11 specimens, posterior ethmoidal cells opened to supreme nasal meatus. In 7 specimens, there was one opening to supreme nasal meatus, while 2 openings were detected in 12 specimens, and 3 openings were seen in 1 specimen. All these openings belonged to posterior ethmoidal cells. To determine the position of the OSS, distances between some anatomical points were measured. In cases where the SpNT is present or the SpNT is bigger than the SNT, it is certain that a different method will be applied during the procedure in the nasal cavity. The SNT and the SpNT may easily be injured by unrecognized dissection in types B and C, leading to the disruption of its olfactory neuroepithelium and possibly to postoperative hyposmia.

  6. High-Frequency Resonance in the Gerbil Medial Superior Olive

    PubMed Central

    Mikiel-Hunter, Jason; Kotak, Vibhakar; Rinzel, John

    2016-01-01

    A high-frequency, subthreshold resonance in the guinea pig medial superior olive (MSO) was recently linked to the efficient extraction of spatial cues from the fine structure of acoustic stimuli. We report here that MSO neurons in gerbil also have resonant properties and, based on our whole-cell recordings and computational modeling, that a low-voltage-gated potassium current, IKLT, underlies the resonance. We show that resonance was lost following dynamic clamp replacement of IKLT with a leak conductance and in the model when voltage-gating of IKLT was suppressed. Resonance was characterized using small amplitude sinusoidal stimuli to generate impedance curves as typically done for linear systems analysis. Extending our study into the nonlinear, voltage-dependent regime, we increased stimulus amplitude and found, experimentally and in simulations, that the subthreshold resonant frequency (242Hz for weak stimuli) increased continuously to the resonant frequency for spiking (285Hz). The spike resonance of these phasic-firing (type III excitable) MSO neurons and of the model is of particular interest also because previous studies of resonance typically involved neurons/models (type II excitable, such as the standard Hodgkin-Huxley model) that can fire tonically for steady inputs. To probe more directly how these resonances relate to MSO neurons as slope-detectors, we presented periodic trains of brief, fast-rising excitatory post-synaptic potentials (EPSCs) to the model. While weak subthreshold EPSC trains were essentially low-pass filtered, resonance emerged as EPSC amplitude increased. Interestingly, for spike-evoking EPSC trains, the threshold amplitude at spike resonant frequency (317Hz) was lower than the single ESPC threshold. Our finding of a frequency-dependent threshold for repetitive brief EPSC stimuli and preferred frequency for spiking calls for further consideration of both subthreshold and suprathreshold resonance to fast and precise temporal processing

  7. Persistent left superior vena cava in cardiac congenital surgery.

    PubMed

    Giuliani-Poncini, Cristina; Perez, Marie-Hélène; Cotting, Jacques; Hurni, Michel; Sekarski, Nicole; Pfammatter, Jean-Pierre; Di Bernardo, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Persistent left superior vena cava (LSVC) is a relatively frequent finding in congenital cardiac malformation. The scope of the study was to analyze the timing of diagnosis of persistent LSVC, the timing of diagnosis of associated anomalies of the coronary sinus, and the global impact on morbidity and mortality of persistent LSVC in children with congenital heart disease after cardiac surgery. Retrospective analysis of a cohort of children after cardiac surgery on bypass for congenital heart disease. Three hundred seventy-one patients were included in the study, and their median age was 2.75 years (IQR 0.65-6.63). Forty-seven children had persistent LSVC (12.7 %), and persistent LSVC was identified on echocardiography before surgery in 39 patients (83 %). In three patients (6.4 %) with persistent LSVC, significant inflow obstruction of the left ventricle developed after surgery leading to low output syndrome or secondary pulmonary hypertension. In eight patients (17 %), persistent LSVC was associated with a partially or completely unroofed coronary sinus and in two cases (4 %) with coronary sinus ostial atresia. Duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly shorter in the control group (1.2 vs. 3.0 days, p = 0.04), whereas length of stay in intensive care did not differ. Mortality was also significantly lower in the control group (2.5 vs. 10.6 %, p = 0.004). The results of study show that persistent LSVC in association with congenital cardiac malformation increases the risk of mortality in children with cardiac surgery on cardiopulmonary bypass. Recognition of a persistent LSVC and its associated anomalies is mandatory to avoid complications during or after cardiac surgery.

  8. New Observations at the Slate Islands Impact Structure, Lake Superior

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dressler, B. O.; Sharpton, V. L.; Schnieders, B.; Scott, J.

    1995-01-01

    Slate Islands, a group of 2 large and several small islands, is located in northern Lake Superior, approximately 10 km south of Terrace Bay. Shatter cones, breccias and shock metamorphic features provide evidence that the Slate Islands Structure was formed as a result of asteroid or comet impact. Most of the island group is believed to represent the central uplift of a complex impact crater. The structure possibly has a diameter of about 32 km. For Sage (1978, 1991) shock metamorphic features, shatter cones and pervasive rock brecciation are the results of diatreme activity. The present investigations represent the second year of a co-operative study of the Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, Texas and the Field Services Section (Northwest) of the Ontario Geological Survey. The objective of this investigation is to come to a better understanding of the formation of mid-size impact structures on Earth and the planets of the solar system. Impact processes played a fundamental role in the formation of the planets and the evolution of life on Earth. Meteorite and comet impacts are not a phenomenon of the past. Last year, more than 20 pieces of the Shoemaker-Levy 9 impacted on Jupiter and the Tunguska comet impacted in Siberia in the early years of this century. The study of impact processes is a relatively young part of geoscience and much is still to be learnt by detailed field and laboratory investigations. The State Islands Structure has been selected for the present detailed investigations because of the excellent shoreline outcrops of rock units related to the impact. The structure is a complex impact crater that has been eroded so that important lithological and structural elements are exposed. We know of no other mid-size terrestrial impact structure with equal or better exposures. In this publication we present preliminary results of our 1994 and 1995 field and laboratory investigations. We have tentatively identified a few impact melt and a considerable

  9. Experiencing the changing climate on the shores of Lake Superior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akerlof, K.; Maibach, E.

    2011-12-01

    The Great Lakes of the United States - the largest freshwater system in the world - have been termed "the canary in the coal mine" of environmental change. To assess if and how residents of Alger County, Michigan are experiencing changes in climate on the shores of Lake Superior, during the summer of 2010 we conducted a representative household mail survey in collaboration with a national lakeshore and watershed partnership. A total of 765 adult residents (18 years or older) responded to the survey; a 57% survey completion rate. We content analyzed respondents' open-ended characterizations of how they have personally experienced global warming, and compared the results with land surface and storm data for the same geographic region to see whether public perceptions of local changes match trends in National Climatic Data Center data. Just over a quarter of residents (27%) indicated that they had personally experienced global warming. Those who had were most likely to say that they had experienced global warming locally (as opposed to in other locations of the country or globally), and most frequently cited changes in seasons, weather, lake levels, and animals or plant species. However, some local public perceptions appeared to conflict with weather records. For example, residents were more likely to say that they had been experiencing less snow in the winters, while NCDC data suggests the reverse is true. As climate changes differentially in regions across the United States, the public will in turn experience its physical impacts in distinct ways that are unique to each landscape. This may be counter-intuitive to a public that increasingly experiences the world, and issues such as climate change, through sources of information such as national news media that operate at much larger geographic scales. Understanding where these forms of cognitive dissonance may arise may assist researchers, educators, and communicators in furthering discourses with the public about

  10. Endovascular Therapeutic Approaches for Acute Superior Mesenteric Artery Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Acosta, S. Sonesson, B.; Resch, T.

    2009-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the outcome of attempted endovascular intervention in patients with acute embolic or thrombotic superior mesenteric artery (SMA) occlusion. The records of 21 patients during a 3-year period between 2005 and 2008 were retrieved from the in-hospital registry. The first group included 10 patients (6 women and 4 men; median age 78 years) with acute embolic occlusion of the SMA. The median duration of symptoms from symptom onset to angiography was 30 hours (range 6 to 120). Synchronous emboli (n = 12) occurred in 6 patients. Embolus aspiration was performed in 9 patients, and 7 of these had satisfactory results. Complementary local thrombolysis was successful in 2 of 3 patients. Residual emboli were present at completion angiography in all 7 patients who underwent successful aspiration embolectomy, and bowel resection was necessary in only 1 of these patients. One serious complication occurred because of a long SMA dissection. The in-hospital survival rate was 90% (9 of 10 patients). The second group included 11 patients (10 women and 1 man; median age 68 years) with atherosclerotic acute SMA occlusions. The median time of symptom duration before intervention was 97 hours (range 17 to 384). The brachial, femoral, and SMA routes were used in 6, 7, and 5 patients, respectively. SMA stenting was performed through an antegrade (n = 7) or retrograde (n = 3) approach. Bowel resection was necessary in 4 patients. No major complications occurred. The in-hospital survival rate was 82% (9 of 11 patients). Endovascular therapy of acute SMA occlusion provides a good alternative to open surgery.

  11. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy: Superiority over laparoscopic partial nephrectomy.

    PubMed

    Shiroki, Ryoichi; Fukami, Naohiko; Fukaya, Kosuke; Kusaka, Mamoru; Natsume, Takahiro; Ichihara, Takashi; Toyama, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Nephron-sparing surgery has been proven to positively impact the postoperative quality of life for the treatment of small renal tumors, possibly leading to functional improvements. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy is still one of the most demanding procedures in urological surgery. Laparoscopic partial nephrectomy sometimes results in extended warm ischemic time and severe complications, such as open conversion, postoperative hemorrhage and urine leakage. Robot-assisted partial nephrectomy exploits the advantages offered by the da Vinci Surgical System to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy, equipped with 3-D vision and a better degree in the freedom of surgical instruments. The introduction of the da Vinci Surgical System made nephron-sparing surgery, specifically robot-assisted partial nephrectomy, safe with promising results, leading to the shortening of warm ischemic time and a reduction in perioperative complications. Even for complex and challenging tumors, robotic assistance is expected to provide the benefit of minimally-invasive surgery with safe and satisfactory renal function. Warm ischemic time is the modifiable factor during robot-assisted partial nephrectomy to affect postoperative kidney function. We analyzed the predictive factors for extended warm ischemic time from our robot-assisted partial nephrectomy series. The surface area of the tumor attached to the kidney parenchyma was shown to significantly affect the extended warm ischemic time during robot-assisted partial nephrectomy. In cases with tumor-attached surface area more than 15 cm(2) , we should consider switching robot-assisted partial nephrectomy to open partial nephrectomy under cold ischemia if it is imperative. In Japan, a nationwide prospective study has been carried out to show the superiority of robot-assisted partial nephrectomy to laparoscopic partial nephrectomy in improving warm ischemic time and complications. By facilitating robotic technology, robot-assisted partial nephrectomy

  12. The role of the superior laryngeal nerve in esophageal reflexes.

    PubMed

    Lang, I M; Medda, B K; Jadcherla, S; Shaker, R

    2012-06-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the role of the superior laryngeal nerve (SLN) in the following esophageal reflexes: esophago-upper esophageal sphincter (UES) contractile reflex (EUCR), esophago-lower esophageal sphincter (LES) relaxation reflex (ELIR), secondary peristalsis, pharyngeal swallowing, and belch. Cats (N = 43) were decerebrated and instrumented to record EMG of the cricopharyngeus, thyrohyoideus, geniohyoideus, and cricothyroideus; esophageal pressure; and motility of LES. Reflexes were activated by stimulation of the esophagus via slow balloon or rapid air distension at 1 to 16 cm distal to the UES. Slow balloon distension consistently activated EUCR and ELIR from all areas of the esophagus, but the distal esophagus was more sensitive than the proximal esophagus. Transection of SLN or proximal recurrent laryngeal nerves (RLN) blocked EUCR and ELIR generated from the cervical esophagus. Distal RLN transection blocked EUCR from the distal cervical esophagus. Slow distension of all areas of the esophagus except the most proximal few centimeters activated secondary peristalsis, and SLN transection had no effect on secondary peristalsis. Slow distension of all areas of the esophagus inconsistently activated pharyngeal swallows, and SLN transection blocked generation of pharyngeal swallows from all levels of the esophagus. Slow distension of the esophagus inconsistently activated belching, but rapid air distension consistently activated belching from all areas of the esophagus. SLN transection did not block initiation of belch but blocked one aspect of belch, i.e., inhibition of cricopharyngeus EMG. Vagotomy blocked all aspects of belch generated from all areas of esophagus and blocked all responses of all reflexes not blocked by SLN or RLN transection. In conclusion, the SLN mediates all aspects of the pharyngeal swallow, no portion of the secondary peristalsis, and the EUCR and ELIR generated from the proximal esophagus. Considering that SLN is not

  13. Brain Organization Underlying Superior Mathematical Abilities in Children with Autism

    PubMed Central

    Iuculano, Teresa; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Supekar, Kaustubh; Lynch, Charles J.; Khouzam, Amirah; Phillips, Jennifer; Uddin, Lucina Q.; Menon, Vinod

    2013-01-01

    Background Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by social and communication deficits. While such deficits have been the focus of most research, recent evidence suggests that individuals with ASD may exhibit cognitive strengths in domains such as mathematics. Methods Cognitive assessments and functional brain imaging were used to investigate mathematical abilities in 18 children with ASD and 18 age-, gender-, and IQ-matched typically developing (TD) children. Multivariate classification and regression analyses were used to investigate whether brain activity patterns during numerical problem solving were significantly different between the groups and predictive of individual mathematical abilities. Results Children with ASD showed better numerical problem solving abilities and relied on sophisticated decomposition strategies for single-digit addition problems more frequently than TD peers. Although children with ASD engaged similar brain areas as TD children, they showed different multivariate activation patterns related to arithmetic problem complexity in ventral temporal-occipital cortex, posterior parietal cortex, and medial temporal lobe. Furthermore, multivariate activation patterns in ventral temporal-occipital cortical areas typically associated with face processing predicted individual numerical problem solving abilities in children with ASD but not in TD children. Conclusions Our study suggests that superior mathematical information processing in children with ASD is characterized by a unique pattern of brain organization and that cortical regions typically involved in perceptual expertise may be utilized in novel ways in ASD. Our findings of enhanced cognitive and neural resources for mathematics have critical implications for educational, professional, and social outcomes for individuals with this lifelong disorder. PMID:23954299

  14. Coding of multisensory temporal patterns in human superior temporal sulcus

    PubMed Central

    Noesselt, Tömme; Bergmann, Daniel; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Münte, Thomas; Spence, Charles

    2012-01-01

    Philosophers, psychologists, and neuroscientists have long been interested in how the temporal aspects of perception are represented in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the neural basis of the temporal perception of synchrony/asynchrony for audiovisual speech stimuli using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Subjects judged the temporal relation of (a)synchronous audiovisual speech streams, and indicated any changes in their perception of the stimuli over time. Differential hemodynamic responses for synchronous versus asynchronous stimuli were observed in the multisensory superior temporal sulcus complex (mSTS-c) and prefrontal cortex. Within mSTS-c we found adjacent regions expressing an enhanced BOLD-response to the different physical (a)synchrony conditions. These regions were further modulated by the subjects' perceptual state. By calculating the distances between the modulated regions within mSTS-c in single-subjects we demonstrate that the “auditory leading (AL)” and “visual leading (VL) areas” lie closer to “synchrony areas” than to each other. Moreover, analysis of interregional connectivity indicates a stronger functional connection between multisensory prefrontal cortex and mSTS-c during the perception of asynchrony. Taken together, these results therefore suggest the presence of distinct sub-regions within the human STS-c for the maintenance of temporal relations for audiovisual speech stimuli plus differential functional connectivity with prefrontal regions. The respective local activity in mSTS-c is dependent both upon the physical properties of the stimuli presented and upon the subjects' perception of (a)synchrony. PMID:22973202

  15. Duplex ultrasound of the superior mesenteric artery in chronic pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Hornum, M; Larsen, S; Olsen, O; Pedersen, J F

    2006-10-01

    Blood flow in the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) increases after a meal due to a vasoactive effect of the decomposed food. In exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, the digestion of food is compromised. We used duplex ultrasound to test the hypothesis that blood flow in the SMA after a meal increases less in patients with pancreatic insufficiency than in control persons. We studied 16 patients with chronic pancreatitis, eight of them with exocrine insufficiency, and eight healthy volunteers. The resistive index (RI) in the SMA was determined before and after a liquid meal. The RI reflects the downstream circulatory resistance, giving a precise description of mesenteric hyperaemia. Both groups of patients with chronic pancreatitis unexpectedly had lower fasting RI than controls, 0.818 and 0.815 vs 0.851, p = 0.028 and p = 0.0030, respectively. Postprandialy there was significantly less decrease in RI (less increase in flow) in patients with exocrine insufficiency than in controls, 0.055 vs 0.099, p = 0.0047. There was a significant trend for a less pronounced postprandial decrease in RI with more impaired pancreatic function (p = 0.0036). Our study thus demonstrates a reduced postprandial increase in SMA flow in patients with exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, and suggests an increased fasting SMA flow in chronic pancreatitis. Further studies are needed to evaluate the possible role of the test-meal-induced shift in RI in the SMA and of a lower-than-normal fasting RI in the diagnosis and monitoring of chronic pancreatitis.

  16. Lait humain provenant d’une banque de dons ou acheté en ligne?

    PubMed Central

    St-Onge, Maude; Chaudhry, Shahnaz; Koren, Gideon

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Question Une de mes patientes m’a demandé si elle pourrait se procurer du lait humain par Internet pour allaiter son nourrisson s’il le fallait. L’usage de lait humain provenant d’une banque de dons est-il plus sécuritaire que son achat en ligne? Réponse L’Organisation mondiale de la Santé et l’American Academy of Pediatrics recommandent d’utiliser des dons de lait humain comme choix à privilégier lorsque le lait maternel n’est pas disponible. Cependant, la Société canadienne de pédiatrie n’approuve pas le partage de lait humain non traité. Le lait humain entreposé dans les banques de lait diffère de celui qu’on peut se procurer par Internet en raison du processus rigoureux de sélection des donneuses, des fréquentes inspections de la qualité, des procédés de transport règlementés et du processus de pasteurisation conforme aux directives établies par l’Agence canadienne d’inspection des aliments. La plupart des échantillons achetés en ligne contiennent des bactéries à gram négatif ou comptent au total plus de 104 unités formant colonies de bactéries aérobiques par millilitre; ils renferment aussi en moyenne au décompte total plus de bactéries aérobiques, de bactéries à gram négatif, de coliformes et de Staphylococcus spp que les échantillons des banques de lait. La croissance de la plupart des espèces de bactéries est associée au nombre de jours en transit, ce qui porte à croire que les conditions de collecte, d’entreposage et de transport sont médiocres pour le lait acheté en ligne.

  17. Successful Treatment of Isolated Spontaneous Superior Mesenteric Artery Dissection with Stent Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Young-Won; Choi, Donghoon; Cho, Seung-Yun; Lee, Do Yun

    2003-09-15

    Isolated dissection of superior mesenteric artery is a rare condition and is usually treated surgically. We treated a patient with severe abdominal pain who was angiographically confirmed to have superior mesenteric artery thrombosis associated with isolated spontaneous dissection. He was treated initially by thrombolysis and oral anticoagulation, but recurrent symptoms developed with radiologic evidence of disease progression. We performed superior mesenteric artery stenting and recovery was uneventful.

  18. Market memory and fat tail consequences in option pricing on the expOU stochastic volatility model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perelló, Josep

    2007-08-01

    The expOU stochastic volatility model is capable of reproducing fairly well most important statistical properties of financial markets daily data. Among them, the presence of multiple time scales in the volatility autocorrelation is perhaps the most relevant which makes appear fat tails in the return distributions. This paper wants to go further on with the expOU model we have studied in Ref. [J. Masoliver, J. Perelló, Quant. Finance 6 (2006) 423] by exploring an aspect of practical interest. Having as a benchmark the parameters estimated from the Dow Jones daily data, we want to compute the price for the European option. This is actually done by Monte Carlo, running a large number of simulations. Our main interest is to “see” the effects of a long-range market memory from our expOU model in its subsequent European call option. We pay attention to the effects of the existence of a broad range of time scales in the volatility. We find that a richer set of time scales brings the price of the option higher. This appears in clear contrast to the presence of memory in the price itself which makes the price of the option cheaper.

  19. Acute thromboembolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery following covered stent occlusion in the superior mesenteric artery: endovascular therapy using mechanical rotational thrombectomy.

    PubMed

    Goltz, Jan P; Petritsch, Bernhard; Spor, Leo; Hahn, Dietbert; Kickuth, Ralph

    2012-09-01

    Acute thromboembolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery is a rare and often fatal condition in which surgery represents the golden standard in therapy. We present a case in which a patient was treated with covered stent implantation for acute bleeding from the superior mesenteric artery following pancreatic resection, radiation, and embolization of a hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm. Some weeks later clinical signs were suggestive of acute thromboembolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery and digital subtraction angiography showed occlusion of the previously implanted covered stents. The patient was successfully treated transfemorally with percutaneous mechanical instent thrombectomy using a 6F Rotarex® catheter. We conclude that in selected cases percutaneous mechanical thrombectomy may represent a minimally-invasive alternative to open surgical thrombectomy for treatment of acute thromboembolic occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery.

  20. Cortical projections to the superior colliculus in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri)

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Mary K L; Wei, Haiyang; Reed, Jamie L; Bickford, Martha E; Petry, Heywood M; Kaas, Jon H

    2012-01-01

    The visuomotor functions of the superior colliculus depend not only on direct inputs from the retina, but also on inputs from neocortex. As mammals vary in the areal organization of neocortex, and in the organization of the number of visual and visuomotor areas, patterns of corticotectal projections vary. Primates in particular have a large number of visual areas projecting to the superior colliculus. As tree shrews are close relatives of primates, and they are also highly visual, we studied the distribution of cortical neurons projecting to the superior colliculus by injecting anatomical tracers into the colliculus. Since projections from visuotopically organized visual areas are expected to match the visuotopy of the superior colliculus, injections at different retinotopic locations in the superior colliculus provide information about the locations and organization of topographic areas in extrastriate cortex. Small injections in the superior colliculus labeled neurons in locations within areas 17 (V1) and 18 (V2) that are consistent with the known topography of these areas and the superior colliculus. In addition, the separate locations of clusters of labeled cells in temporal visual cortex provide evidence for five or more topographically organized areas. Injections that included deeper layers of the superior colliculus also labeled neurons in medial frontal cortex, likely in premotor cortex. Only occasional labeled neurons were observed in somatosensory or auditory cortex. Regardless of tracer injection location, we found that unlike primates, a substantial projection to the superior colliculus from posterior parietal cortex is not a characteristic of tree shrews. PMID:23124770

  1. Cortical projections to the superior colliculus in tree shrews (Tupaia belangeri).

    PubMed

    Baldwin, Mary K L; Wei, Haiyang; Reed, Jamie L; Bickford, Martha E; Petry, Heywood M; Kaas, Jon H

    2013-05-01

    The visuomotor functions of the superior colliculus depend not only on direct inputs from the retina, but also on inputs from neocortex. As mammals vary in the areal organization of neocortex, and in the organization of the number of visual and visuomotor areas, patterns of corticotectal projections vary. Primates in particular have a large number of visual areas projecting to the superior colliculus. As tree shrews are close relatives of primates, and they are also highly visual, we studied the distribution of cortical neurons projecting to the superior colliculus by injecting anatomical tracers into the colliculus. Since projections from visuotopically organized visual areas are expected to match the visuotopy of the superior colliculus, injections at different retinotopic locations in the superior colliculus provide information about the locations and organization of topographic areas in extrastriate cortex. Small injections in the superior colliculus labeled neurons in locations within areas 17 (V1) and 18 (V2) that are consistent with the known topography of these areas and the superior colliculus. In addition, the separate locations of clusters of labeled cells in temporal visual cortex provide evidence for five or more topographically organized areas. Injections that included deeper layers of the superior colliculus also labeled neurons in medial frontal cortex, likely in premotor cortex. Only occasional labeled neurons were observed in somatosensory or auditory cortex. Regardless of tracer injection location, we found that, unlike primates, a substantial projection to the superior colliculus from posterior parietal cortex is not a characteristic of tree shrews.

  2. Electrophysiologic Responses in Hamster Superior Colliculus Evoked by Regenerating Retinal Axons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keirstead, S. A.; Rasminsky, M.; Fukuda, Y.; Carter, D. A.; Aguayo, A. J.; Vidal-Sanz, M.

    1989-10-01

    Autologous peripheral nerve grafts were used to permit and direct the regrowth of retinal ganglion cell axons from the eye to the ipsilateral superior colliculus of adult hamsters in which the optic nerves had been transected within the orbit. Extracellular recordings in the superior colliculus 15 to 18 weeks after graft insertion revealed excitatory and inhibitory postsynaptic responses to visual stimulation. The finding of light-induced responses in neurons in the superficial layers of the superior colliculus close to the graft indicates that axons regenerating from axotomized retinal ganglion cells can establish electrophysiologically functional synapses with neurons in the superior colliculus of these adult mammals.

  3. Are porous tantalum cups superior to conventional reinforcement rings?

    PubMed

    Brüggemann, Anders; Fredlund, Erik; Mallmin, Hans; Hailer, Nils P

    2017-02-01

    Background and purpose - Porous tantalum cups have been introduced as an alternative to various reinforcement rings in revision hip surgery. We hypothesized that porous tantalum cups would be superior to Müller acetabular roof reinforcement rings (MARRs) in revision hip surgery with re-revision for aseptic loosening as the primary outcome measure. Patients and methods - 207 hips operated with either a porous tantalum cup (TM cup, n = 111) or a MARR (n = 96) at index procedure were identified in our local arthroplasty register. Acetabular defects were classified according to Paprosky. There were 96 men and 111 women with a median age of 71 (35-95) years, presenting acetabular defect size type I in 39 cases, IIA in 22, IIB in 27, IIC in 43, IIIA in 32, and IIIB in 37 cases. Analysis of medical records identified all patients with subsequent re-revision and reasons for re-revisions. Kaplan-Meier survival functions were used to estimate implant survival. Results - With re-revision for aseptic loosening as the endpoint, the 6-year unadjusted cumulative survival was 97% (95% CI: 94-100) for TM cups and 96% (CI: 92-100) for MARR (p = 0.6). Using re-revision for any reason as the endpoint, 6-year survival was 87% (CI: 81-94) for TM cups and 95% (CI: 90-99) for MARR (p = 0.06). The main reason for re-revision in the TM group was dislocation (n = 10), followed by loosening (n = 3), whereas the main reason for re-revision in the MARR group was aseptic loosening (n = 8). Duration of the index procedure and perioperative blood loss were lower in the TM group. Interpretation - Both TM and MARR lead to good 6-year results in acetabular revision surgery. The methods differ in their respective failure mechanisms. We conclude that TM cups are a valuable treatment option in acetabular revision surgery, but the reasons underlying dislocations after the use of TM cups must be analyzed further.

  4. Teaching tracheal intubation: Airtraq is superior to Macintosh laryngoscope

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Tracheal intubation with Macintosh laryngoscope is taught to medical students as it is a lifesaving procedure. However, it is a difficult technique to learn and the consequences of intubation failure are potentially serious. The Airtraq optical laryngoscope is a relatively novel intubation device, which allows visualization of the glottic plane without alignment of the oral, pharyngeal, and tracheal axes, possessing advantages over Macintosh for novice personnel. We introduced a teaching mode featured with a progressive evaluation scheme for preparation and performance of tracheal intubation with medical students in this prospective randomized crossover trial who had no prior airway management experience to find the superior one. Methods Twenty-six medical students of the 8-year programme in the 6th year participated in this trial, when they did their one-week rotation in the department of anaesthesiology. Each of the students intubated 6 patients, who were scheduled for surgeries under general anaesthesia, each laryngoscope for 3 patients respectively. One hundred and forty-nine consecutive patients scheduled for surgical procedures requiring tracheal intubation were enrolled. Patients were randomly allocated to undergo tracheal intubation using Macintosh (n = 75) or Airtraq (n =74) laryngoscope. The progressive evaluation scheme was applied to each intubation attempt. Results Intubation success rate was significantly higher in Airtraq group than Macintosh group (87.8% vs. 66.7%, P < 0.05). Duration of glottis exposure was significantly shorter in Airtraq group compared to Macintosh group (50 ± 19 s vs. 81 ± 27 s, P < 0.001). A grade I Cormack and Lehane glottic view was obtained in 94.6% of patients in the Airtraq group versus 32% of patients in the Macintosh group (P <0.001). Duration of intubation in Airtraq group was significantly shorter (68 ± 21 s vs. 96 ± 22 s, P < 0.05) compared to Macintosh group

  5. Are porous tantalum cups superior to conventional reinforcement rings?

    PubMed Central

    Brüggemann, Anders; Fredlund, Erik; Mallmin, Hans; Hailer, Nils P

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose— Porous tantalum cups have been introduced as an alternative to various reinforcement rings in revision hip surgery. We hypothesized that porous tantalum cups would be superior to Müller acetabular roof reinforcement rings (MARRs) in revision hip surgery with re-revision for aseptic loosening as the primary outcome measure. Patients and methods— 207 hips operated with either a porous tantalum cup (TM cup, n = 111) or a MARR (n = 96) at index procedure were identified in our local arthroplasty register. Acetabular defects were classified according to Paprosky. There were 96 men and 111 women with a median age of 71 (35–95) years, presenting acetabular defect size type I in 39 cases, IIA in 22, IIB in 27, IIC in 43, IIIA in 32, and IIIB in 37 cases. Analysis of medical records identified all patients with subsequent re-revision and reasons for re-revisions. Kaplan-Meier survival functions were used to estimate implant survival. Results— With re-revision for aseptic loosening as the endpoint, the 6-year unadjusted cumulative survival was 97% (95% CI: 94–100) for TM cups and 96% (CI: 92–100) for MARR (p = 0.6). Using re-revision for any reason as the endpoint, 6-year survival was 87% (CI: 81–94) for TM cups and 95% (CI: 90–99) for MARR (p = 0.06). The main reason for re-revision in the TM group was dislocation (n = 10), followed by loosening (n = 3), whereas the main reason for re-revision in the MARR group was aseptic loosening (n = 8). Duration of the index procedure and perioperative blood loss were lower in the TM group. Interpretation— Both TM and MARR lead to good 6-year results in acetabular revision surgery. The methods differ in their respective failure mechanisms. We conclude that TM cups are a valuable treatment option in acetabular revision surgery, but the reasons underlying dislocations after the use of TM cups must be analyzed further. PMID:27892748

  6. Tympanometric findings in superior semicircular canal dehiscence syndrome.

    PubMed

    Castellucci, A; Brandolini, C; Piras, G; Modugno, G C

    2013-04-01

    The diagnostic role of audio-impedancemetry in superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) disease is well known. In particular, since the first reports, the presence of evoked acoustic reflexes has represented a determining instrumental exhibit in differential diagnosis with other middle ear pathologies that are responsible for a mild-low frequencies air-bone gap (ABG). Even though high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) completed by parasagittal reformatted images still represents the diagnostic gold standard, several instrumental tests can support a suspect of labyrinthine capsule dehiscence when "suggestive" symptoms occur. Objective and subjective audiometry often represents the starting point of the diagnostic course aimed at investigating the cause responsible for the so-called "intra-labyrinthine conductive hearing loss". The purpose of this study is to evaluate the role of tympanometry, in particular of the inter-aural asymmetry ratio in peak compliance as a function of different mild-low frequencies ABG on the affected side, in the diagnostic work-up in patients with unilateral SSCD. The working hypothesis is that an increase in admittance of the "inner-middle ear" conduction system due to a "third mobile window" could be detected by tympanometry. A retrospective review of the clinical records of 45 patients with unilateral dehiscence selected from a pool of 140 subjects diagnosed with SSCD at our institution from 2003 to 2011 was performed. Values of ABG amplitude on the dehiscent side and tympanometric measurements of both ears were collected for each patient in the study group (n = 45). An asymmetry between tympanometric peak compliance of the involved side and that of the contralateral side was investigated by calculating the inter-aural difference and the asymmetry ratio of compliance at the eardrum. A statistically significant correlation (p = 0.015 by Fisher's test) between an asymmetry ratio ≥ 14% in favour of the pathologic ear and an ABG

  7. Superior Labrum Anterior Posterior Lesions and Associated Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Beyzadeoglu, Tahsin; Circi, Esra

    2015-01-01

    Background: Superior labrum anterior posterior (SLAP) lesions often cause shoulder pain, dysfunction, and instability. Professional athletes require a high level of shoulder function for competition and overhead activities. Purpose: To evaluate elite athletes who had arthroscopic surgery for common shoulder pathologies and SLAP lesions with a follow-up of more than 3 years. The associated intra-articular pathologies and return to play were documented. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Thirty-five shoulders in 34 elite athletes (4 women and 30 men; mean age, 25 years [range, 18-32 years]) had arthroscopic repair of SLAP lesions and accompanying Bankart or rotator cuff tears between January 2008 and November 2011. The documentation included patient symptoms, physical examination, radiological analysis with radiographs, and magnetic resonance imaging. Shoulder function was evaluated preoperatively and at follow-up using American Shoulder and Elbow Surgeons (ASES) and Kerlan Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic (KJOC) scores. The mean follow-up was 52 months. Results: Isolated SLAP lesions were seen in 17.1% of patients, SLAP lesions and partial cuff tear occurred in 25.7%, associated Bankart lesions in 37.1%, full-thickness rotator cuff tears in 8.6%, Bankart and posterior labrum lesions in 8.6%, and Bankart and full-thickness rotator cuff tears in 2.9%. Return to play was a mean 6.4 ± 1.5 months. The mean postoperative ASES and KJOC scores were 89.6 ± 4.6 and 80.9 ± 6.8, respectively, compared with preoperative scores of 64.0 ± 7.2 and 50.5 ± 10.3 (t test, P < .01). Conclusion: The majority (88.2%) of professional athletes returned to their preinjury levels. SLAP lesions may frequently occur with Bankart lesions and rotator cuff tears. A high rate of return to sport at the same level of athletic performance can be achieved by anatomic repair and effective rehabilitation. PMID:26665050

  8. Lateralization for dynamic facial expressions in human superior temporal sulcus.

    PubMed

    De Winter, François-Laurent; Zhu, Qi; Van den Stock, Jan; Nelissen, Koen; Peeters, Ronald; de Gelder, Beatrice; Vanduffel, Wim; Vandenbulcke, Mathieu

    2015-02-01

    Most face processing studies in humans show stronger activation in the right compared to the left hemisphere. Evidence is largely based on studies with static stimuli focusing on the fusiform face area (FFA). Hence, the pattern of lateralization for dynamic faces is less clear. Furthermore, it is unclear whether this property is common to human and non-human primates due to predisposing processing strategies in the right hemisphere or that alternatively left sided specialization for language in humans could be the driving force behind this phenomenon. We aimed to address both issues by studying lateralization for dynamic facial expressions in monkeys and humans. Therefore, we conducted an event-related fMRI experiment in three macaques and twenty right handed humans. We presented human and monkey dynamic facial expressions (chewing and fear) as well as scrambled versions to both species. We studied lateralization in independently defined face-responsive and face-selective regions by calculating a weighted lateralization index (LIwm) using a bootstrapping method. In order to examine if lateralization in humans is related to language, we performed a separate fMRI experiment in ten human volunteers including a 'speech' expression (one syllable non-word) and its scrambled version. Both within face-responsive and selective regions, we found consistent lateralization for dynamic faces (chewing and fear) versus scrambled versions in the right human posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), but not in FFA nor in ventral temporal cortex. Conversely, in monkeys no consistent pattern of lateralization for dynamic facial expressions was observed. Finally, LIwms based on the contrast between different types of dynamic facial expressions (relative to scrambled versions) revealed left-sided lateralization in human pSTS for speech-related expressions compared to chewing and emotional expressions. To conclude, we found consistent laterality effects in human posterior STS but not

  9. MERCURY IN METAL ORE DEPOSITS: AN UNRECOGNIZED, WIDESPREAD SOURCE TO LAKE SUPERIOR SEDIMENTS, CONTRIBUTION #1072

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mining operations have worked the rich mineral resources of the Lake Superior Basin for over 150 years, leaving industrially impacted regions with tailing piles and smelters. In Lake Superior sediments, mercury and copper inventories increase towards shorelines and are highly cor...

  10. Superior vena cava syndrome with retropharyngeal edema as a complication of ventriculoatrial shunt

    PubMed Central

    Al-Natour, Mohammed S; Entezami, Pouya; Nazzal, Munier M S; Casabianca, Andrew B; Assaly, Ragheb; Riley, Kalen; Gaudin, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Key Clinical Message Thirty-seven-year old female with hydrocephalus managed by a ventriculoatrial (VA) shunt presented with upper body edema, dysphagia, and headache. Imaging demonstrated thrombosis of the superior vena cava (SVC). Direct catheter thrombolysis led to resolution of thrombus burden. Superior vena cava thrombosis is a rare consequence of VA shunting and must be managed emergently. PMID:26509004

  11. Word-Superiority Effect as a Function of Semantic Transparency of Chinese Bimorphemic Compound Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mok, Leh Woon

    2009-01-01

    The word-superiority effect (WSE) describes the superior recognition of word constituents in a word, as opposed to a non-word, context. In this study, the WSE was used as a diagnostic tool to examine the modulatory effect of word semantic transparency on the degree to which Chinese bimorphemic compound words are lexically represented as unitised…

  12. 33 CFR 117.661 - Duluth Ship Canal (Duluth-Superior Harbor).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Duluth Ship Canal (Duluth-Superior Harbor). 117.661 Section 117.661 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Ship Canal (Duluth-Superior Harbor). The draw of the Duluth Ship Canal Aerial bridge, mile 0.25...

  13. 33 CFR 117.661 - Duluth Ship Canal (Duluth-Superior Harbor).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Duluth Ship Canal (Duluth-Superior Harbor). 117.661 Section 117.661 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Ship Canal (Duluth-Superior Harbor). The draw of the Duluth Ship Canal Aerial bridge, mile 0.25...

  14. 33 CFR 117.661 - Duluth Ship Canal (Duluth-Superior Harbor).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duluth Ship Canal (Duluth-Superior Harbor). 117.661 Section 117.661 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Ship Canal (Duluth-Superior Harbor). The draw of the Duluth Ship Canal Aerial bridge, mile 0.25...

  15. 33 CFR 117.661 - Duluth Ship Canal (Duluth-Superior Harbor).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Duluth Ship Canal (Duluth-Superior Harbor). 117.661 Section 117.661 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF... Ship Canal (Duluth-Superior Harbor). The draw of the Duluth Ship Canal Aerial bridge, mile 0.25...

  16. 77 FR 35857 - Safety Zone, Fireworks Display, Lake Superior; Duluth, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone, Fireworks Display, Lake Superior; Duluth... vessels from a portion of the Duluth area of Lake Superior during the Duluth Fourth Fest fireworks display... with fireworks displays. DATES: This rule is effective from 7 p.m. to 11 p.m. on July 4, 2012...

  17. Superior Temporal Activation as a Function of Linguistic Knowledge: Insights from Deaf Native Signers Who Speechread

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capek, Cheryl M.; Woll, Bencie; MacSweeney, Mairead; Waters, Dafydd; McGuire, Philip K.; David, Anthony S.; Brammer, Michael J.; Campbell, Ruth

    2010-01-01

    Studies of spoken and signed language processing reliably show involvement of the posterior superior temporal cortex. This region is also reliably activated by observation of meaningless oral and manual actions. In this study we directly compared the extent to which activation in posterior superior temporal cortex is modulated by linguistic…

  18. ANTHROPOGENIC COPPER INVENTORIES AND MERCURY PROFILES FROM LAKE SUPERIOR: EVIDENCE FOR MINING IMPACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    During the past 150 years, the mining indstry discharged more than a billion tons of tailings along Lake Superior shorelines and constructed numerous smelters in the watershed. Given the vast size of Lake Superior, were sediment profiles at locations far offshore impacted by near...

  19. Is There a Limit to the Superiority of Individuals with ASD in Visual Search?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hessels, Roy S.; Hooge, Ignace T. C.; Snijders, Tineke M.; Kemner, Chantal

    2014-01-01

    Superiority in visual search for individuals diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a well-reported finding. We administered two visual search tasks to individuals with ASD and matched controls. One showed no difference between the groups, and one did show the expected superior performance for individuals with ASD. These results offer an…

  20. INFLUENCES OF HYDROLOGY ON NUTRIENT DYNAMICS IN LAKE SUPERIOR COASTAL WETLANDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Little is known about the role of the coastal wetlands (CWs) of Lake Superior in modifying or contributing to nutrient fluxes from watersheds to the lake. We are studying factors controlling nutrient retention and transformation of CWs in Western Lake Superior. CWs may be unique ...

  1. LAKE-WETLAND LINKAGE AND PERIPHYTON DYNAMICS IN A LAKE SUPERIOR COASTAL WETLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Tributaries feeding coastal wetlands along the Wisconsin shore of Lake Superior are generally depleted in inorganic nitrogen (TIN) relative to phosphorus (SRP), while Lake Superior is phosphorous depleted and relatively rich in TIN. Within wetlands, mixing of tributary and lake w...

  2. Visual search for emotional expressions: Effect of stimulus set on anger and happiness superiority.

    PubMed

    Savage, Ruth A; Becker, Stefanie I; Lipp, Ottmar V

    2016-01-01

    Prior reports of preferential detection of emotional expressions in visual search have yielded inconsistent results, even for face stimuli that avoid obvious expression-related perceptual confounds. The current study investigated inconsistent reports of anger and happiness superiority effects using face stimuli drawn from the same database. Experiment 1 excluded procedural differences as a potential factor, replicating a happiness superiority effect in a procedure that previously yielded an anger superiority effect. Experiments 2a and 2b confirmed that image colour or poser gender did not account for prior inconsistent findings. Experiments 3a and 3b identified stimulus set as the critical variable, revealing happiness or anger superiority effects for two partially overlapping sets of face stimuli. The current results highlight the critical role of stimulus selection for the observation of happiness or anger superiority effects in visual search even for face stimuli that avoid obvious expression related perceptual confounds and are drawn from a single database.

  3. Geomicrobiology of Fe-rich crusts in Lake Superior sediment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittrich, M.; Monreau, L.; Quazi, S.; Raoof, B.; Chesnyuk, A.; Katsev, S.; Fulthorpe, R.

    2012-04-01

    The limnological puzzles of Lake Superior are increasingly attracting scientists, and very little is known about the sediments and their associated microflora. The sediments are organic poor (less than 5%C) and the lake is deep oligotrophic, with water temperatures at the bottom around 3C. Previous studies reveal Fe-rich layers in the sediments at multiple loccations around the lake. The origin and mechanisms of formation of this layer remain unknown. In this study we investigated geochemical and microbiological processes that may lead to the formation of a two cm thick iron layer about 10 cm below the sediment surface. Sediment cores from two stations (EM, 230m water depth and ED, 310m water depth) in the East Basin were used. We monitored oxygen and pH depth profiles with microsensors, porewater and sediment solid matter were analyzed for nutrient and metal contents. Furthermore, phosphorus and iron sequantial extractions of sediment cores have been perfomed. The total cell count was determined using DAPI epifluoresence microscopy. DNA was extracted from the sediment samples and 16S ribosonal RNA amplicons were analyzed with denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE). For a more in depth analysis, DNA samples from 8-10 cm and 10-12 cm were sent to the Research and Testing Lab (Texas) for pyrosequencing of 16S rRNA gene amplicons amplified using barcoded universal primers 27f-519r. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images from the iron layer 10-12cm show filaments that were encrusted with spheres ca. 20 nm in diameter. SEM observations of thin sections also indicate the presence of very fine particles showing various morphologies. Analyses of the deposit material by SEM and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) indicate that bacteria cells surfaces served as nucleation surfaces for Fe-oxide formation. EDS line-scans through bacterial cells covered with precipitates reveal phosphorus and carbon peaks at interface between cell surface and Fe

  4. In vitro characterisation of dopamine receptors in the superior colliculus of the rat.

    PubMed

    Weller, M E; Rose, S; Jenner, P; Marsden, C D

    1987-04-01

    In membrane preparations of superior colliculus of the rat, the binding of [3H]spiperone (0.15 nM) was displaced by the incorporation of (+)-butaclamol, haloperidol, apomorphine and (+/-)-sulpiride, but not by (-)-butaclamol, prazosin, propranolol, ketanserin or cinanserin. The Ki values for the displacement of [3H]spiperone by (+/-)-sulpiride, (+)-butaclamol and haloperidol were similar in tissue preparations from superior colliculus and striatum. Equilibrium analysis of the specific binding of [3H]spiperone (0.03-1.0 nM), defined by 10(-5) M (+/-)-sulpiride, to membrane preparations of the superior colliculus, showed the interaction to be saturable and of high affinity. However, the Bmax was only approximately 10% of that found in preparations of striatum; the apparent dissociation constant (KD) was the same in both preparations of the superior colliculus and striatum. Uptake of [3H]dopamine into synaptosomal preparations of the superior colliculus was approximately 20% of that found in synaptosomes from the striatum. In preparations of striatum nomifensine, but not desipramine or fluoxetine, inhibited the uptake of [3H]dopamine. However, in preparations from the superior colliculus, nomifensine, desipramine and fluoxetine were without effect on the uptake of [3H]dopamine. Dopamine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and 3-methoxytyramine (3-MT) were present in small concentrations in the superior colliculus. Homovanillic acid (HVA) was present in larger concentrations and the HVA plus DOPAC/dopamine ratios were greater in the superior colliculus than in the striatum. The superior colliculus contained only small amounts of noradrenaline but 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were present in larger amounts.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Water quality assessment of highly polluted rivers in a semi-arid Mediterranean zone Oued Fez and Sebou River (Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrin, J. L.; Raïs, N.; Chahinian, N.; Moulin, P.; Ijjaali, M.

    2014-03-01

    Oued Fez (one of the Sebou River tributaries - Morocco) allowed us to study and quantify the effect of the lack of wastewater treatment on surface water quality in semi-arid hydrological context. The analysis is based on field data collected from June 2009 to December 2011. Concentration and load patterns of nitrogen, phosphorus and chromium (used in the processing of leather) are compared in stable hydrological conditions during low flow and high flow periods in an eight-location sampling network. The Oued Fez and the Sebou River are characterised by severe pollution downstream from the city of Fez, particularly TN (mainly NH4 and Norg), TP (mainly Ppart) and TCr. The most polluted sites are those directly under the influence of domestic and industrial waste water inputs, particularly tannery effluents. Obviously, the concentrations measured at these locations are above all environmental quality standards. Pollutant loads are very heavy in the Sebou River and can contaminate the river course for kilometres. Moreover, as the water of the Sebou River is used for the irrigation of vegetables, serious problems of public health could arise. A better understanding of contaminant dynamics and self-purifying processes in these rivers will help implement actions and steps aimed at improving water quality in the Sebou River, which is the primary water supply source in Morocco and is used for agricultural and industrials purposes as well as for drinking water.

  6. Analysis of Aquifer Response, Groundwater Flow, and PlumeEvolution at Site OU 1, Former Fort Ord, California

    SciTech Connect

    Jordan, Preston D.; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Su, Grace W.

    2005-02-24

    This report presents a continuation from Oldenburg et al. (2002) of analysis of the hydrogeology, In-Situ Permeable Flow Sensor (ISPFS) results, aquifer response, and changes in the trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume at Operational Unit 1 (OU 1) adjacent to the former Fritzsche Army Airfield at the former Fort Ord Army Base, located on Monterey Bay in northern Monterey County. Fuels and solvents were burned on a portion of OU 1 called the Fire Drill Area (FDA) during airport fire suppression training between 1962 and 1985. This activity resulted in soil and groundwater contamination in the unconfined A-aquifer. In the late 1980's, soil excavation and bioremediation were successful in remediating soil contamination at the site. Shortly thereafter, a groundwater pump, treat, and recharge system commenced operation. This system has been largely successful at remediating groundwater contamination at the head of the groundwater plume. However, a trichloroethylene (TCE) groundwater plume extends approximately 3000 ft (900 m) to the northwest away from the FDA. In the analyses presented here, we augment our prior work (Oldenburg et al., 2002) with new information including treatment-system totalizer data, recent water-level and chemistry data, and data collected from new wells to discern trends in contaminant migration and groundwater flow that may be useful for ongoing remediation efforts. Some conclusions from the prior study have been modified based on these new analyses, and these are pointed out clearly in this report.

  7. Computed tomography in the evaluation of Brown syndrome of the superior oblique tendon sheath

    SciTech Connect

    Mafee, M.F.; Folk, E.R.; Langer, B.G.; Miller, M.T.; Lagouros, P.; Mittleman, D.

    1985-03-01

    Computed tomographic (CT) findings in 4 patients with superior oblique tendon sheath syndrome (congenital or acquired Brown syndrome) are described. When the inferior oblique muscle moves the eye upward, the superior oblique muscle normally relaxes, while its tendon lengthens and slides freely through the trochlea. In Brown syndrome this process is somehow restricted, which is most apparent during attempts at elevation when the eye is adducted, resulting in an apparent inferior oblique palsy (pseudopalsy). CT is a valuable tool in understanding the pathophysiology and management of acquired Brown syndrome, showing thickening and inflammatory changes of the reflected portion of the superior oblique tendon.

  8. Spontaneous Recanalization of Superior Mesenteric Artery Occlusion Following Angioplasty and Stenting of Inferior Mesenteric Artery

    SciTech Connect

    Akpinar, Erhan Cil, Barbaros E.; Arat, Anil; Baykal, Atac; Karaman, Kerem; Balkanci, Ferhun

    2006-02-15

    An 84-year-old woman with a history of hypertension and coronary artery disease was admitted with a progressively worsening diffuse abdominal pain. Computed tomography scan of the abdomen and angiography revealed occlusion of the origin and proximal portion of superior mesenteric artery. Aortography also showed severe origin stenosis of inferior mesenteric artery and that the distal part of the superior mesenteric artery was supplied by a prominent marginal artery of Drummond. Patient was effectively treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and stenting of the inferior mesenteric artery. Follow-up imaging studies demonstrated patency of the stent and spontaneous recanalization of superior mesenteric artery occlusion.

  9. The "medio-latero-superior trajectory technique": an alternative cortical trajectory for pedicle fixation.

    PubMed

    Mobbs, Ralph J

    2013-02-01

    An alternative pedicle trajectory for use at the superior end of a construct to limit dissection of the mobile superior facet joint and reduce incision length and muscle dissection, thus minimizing approach-related trauma during pedicle fixation, is reported. The medio-latero-superior trajectory technique involves a starting point on the medial aspect of the pars and angulation of the pedicle screw in a mediolateral and caudocranial direction. This approach takes advantage of a predominantly cortical trajectory to assist with bone fixation. Drawbacks of this new screw trajectory are discussed along with its potential benefits.

  10. Subjective qualities of memories associated with the picture superiority effect in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Huron, Caroline; Danion, Jean-Marie; Rizzo, Lydia; Killofer, Valérie; Damiens, Annabelle

    2003-02-01

    Patients with schizophrenia (n = 24) matched with 24 normal subjects were presented with both words and pictures. On a recognition memory task, they were asked to give remember, know, or guess responses to items that were recognized on the basis of conscious recollection, familiarity, or guessing, respectively. Compared with normal subjects, patients exhibited a lower picture superiority effect selectively related to remember responses. Unlike normal subjects, they did not exhibit any word superiority effect in relation to guess responses; this explains why the overall picture superiority effect appeared to be intact. These results emphasize the need to take into account the subjective states of awareness when analyzing memory impairments in schizophrenia.

  11. DYNAMICS OF NUTRIENTS AND HYDROLOGY IN A LAKE SUPERIOR COASTAL WETLAND

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coastal wetlands are hydrologically complex ecosystems situated at the interface of upland catchments and oligotrophic Lake Superior. Little is known about nutrient dynamics within coastal wetlands or their role in modifying or contributing to nutrient fluxes from watersheds to ...

  12. Hemispheric Specialization within the Superior Anterior Temporal Cortex for Social and Nonsocial Concepts.

    PubMed

    Pobric, Gorana; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Zahn, Roland

    2016-03-01

    Studies of semantic dementia, imaging, and repetitive TMS have suggested that the bilateral anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) underpin a modality-invariant representational hub within the semantic system. Questions remain, however, regarding functional specialization across a variety of knowledge domains within the ATL region. We investigated direct evidence for the functional relevance of the superior ATL in processing social concepts. Using converging evidence from noninvasive brain stimulation and neuropsychology, we demonstrate graded differentiation of right and left superior anterior temporal areas in social cognition. Whereas the left superior ATL is necessary for processing both social and nonsocial abstract concepts, social conceptual processing predominates in the right superior ATL. This graded hemispheric specialization is mirrored in the patient results. Our data shed new light on the classic debate about hemispheric differences in semantic and social cognition. These results are considered in the context of models of semantic representation and the emerging data on connectivity for left and right ATL regions.

  13. Perceived ethnic superiority and immigrants' attitudes towards multiculturalism and the national majority.

    PubMed

    Mähönen, Tuuli Anna; Brylka, Asteria; Jasinskaja-Lahti, Inga

    2014-08-01

    Despite the recent multidimensional conceptualisations of social identities, previous research on the relationship between ingroup identification and outgroup attitudes has approached the former mainly through the strength of cognitive-emotional identification. In our study among Russian-speaking immigrants living in Finland (N = 312), we focused on the direct and interactive effects of the strength of ethnic identification and perceived ethnic superiority on immigrants' support for multiculturalism and outgroup attitudes towards national majority. First, we found perceived ethnic superiority to be directly and negatively associated with outgroup attitudes. Second, we found a positive relationship between ethnic identification and support for multiculturalism only when ethnic superiority was not perceived. The results highlight the different ramifications of high ethnic identification and perceived superiority and speak for the destructive attitudinal effects of the latter.

  14. Intrapericardial haematic cyst. A rare form of left superior vena cava atresia.

    PubMed Central

    Cabrera, A; Martinez, P; Del Campo, A

    1984-01-01

    A 21 month old infant was found to have an intrapericardial haematic cyst at operation. This rare entity may be explained by a pouch-like dilatation of an atretic left superior vena cava. Images PMID:6380550

  15. Evaluation of superior vena cava syndrome by axial CT and CT phlebography

    SciTech Connect

    Moncada, R.; Cardella, R.; Demos, T.C.; Churchill, R.J.; Cardoso, M.; Love, L.; Reynes, C.J.

    1984-10-01

    Transverse axial computed tomography (CT) has been combined with CT digital phlebography to study nine patients with superior vena cava syndrome. Six were due to malignancy, two were secondary to benign disease, and one was a paraneoplastic manifestation. This combined CT approach successfully identified the abnormal morphology of the superior vena cava, demonstrating external compression, encasement, or intraluminal thrombus in all patients and the collateral venous channels in eight. This technique is a rapid, informative, and cost-effective method for the workup of superior vena cava syndrome. The CT digital phlebogram, however, is not successful in regularly and optimally opacifying the normal superior vena cava because of the limited amount of contrast material, dilution effect of the nonopacified incoming flow from the jugular and azygos veins, and the lack of image enhancement from the CT digital scanograms.

  16. Ventilation and dissolved oxygen cycle in Lake Superior: Insights from a numerical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsumoto, Katsumi; Tokos, Kathy S.; Gregory, Chad

    2015-09-01

    Ventilation and dissolved oxygen in Lake Superior are key factors that determine the fate of various natural and anthropogenic inputs to the lake. We employ an idealized age tracer and biogeochemical tracers in a realistically configured numerical model of Lake Superior to characterize its ventilation and dissolved O2 cycle. Our results indicate that Lake Superior is preferentially ventilated over rough bathymetry and that spring overturning following a very cold winter does not completely ventilate the lake interior. While this is unexpected for a dimictic lake, no part of the lake remains isolated from the atmosphere for more than 300 days. Our results also show that Lake Superior's oxygen cycle is dominated by solubility changes; as a result, the expected relationship between biological consumption of dissolved O2 and ventilation age does not manifest.

  17. The picture superiority effect in patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Ally, Brandon A; Gold, Carl A; Budson, Andrew E

    2009-01-01

    The fact that pictures are better remembered than words has been reported in the literature for over 30 years. While this picture superiority effect has been consistently found in healthy young and older adults, no study has directly evaluated the presence of the effect in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Clinical observations have indicated that pictures enhance memory in these patients, suggesting that the picture superiority effect may be intact. However, several studies have reported visual processing impairments in AD and MCI patients which might diminish the picture superiority effect. Using a recognition memory paradigm, we tested memory for pictures versus words in these patients. The results showed that the picture superiority effect is intact, and that these patients showed a similar benefit to healthy controls from studying pictures compared to words. The findings are discussed in terms of visual processing and possible clinical importance.

  18. Picture superiority in free recall: the effects of normal aging and primary degenerative dementia.

    PubMed

    Rissenberg, M; Glanzer, M

    1986-01-01

    A key factor in the decline of memory with age may be a breakdown of communication in the information network involved in memory and cognitive processing. A special case of this communication is assumed to underlie the picture superiority effect in recall. From this hypothesis it follows that the picture superiority effect should lessen with age. In Experiment 1, three groups of adults (young, old normal, and old memory-impaired) were tested in free recall of pictures and word lists. As predicted, the picture superiority effect declined with age. Experiment 2 replicated these findings and showed, moreover, that the picture superiority effect can be reestablished in normal old adults by instructing them to verbalize overtly during item presentation.

  19. Variant Branching Pattern of Superior Thyroid Artery and Its Clinical Relevance: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Motwani, Rohini

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid surgeries are most common neck surgeries; hence thorough knowledge of the blood supply of this gland to the surgeons is of immense importance to prevent any alarming haemorrhage. We report a rare unilateral branching pattern of superior thyroid artery (STA) on right side during routine dissection on an adult male cadaver in the Department of Anatomy, A.I.I.M.S, New Delhi. Left superior thyroid artery was normal. The common trunk (CT) arose from anterior surface of right external carotid artery (ECA) just above the bifurcation of common carotid artery (CCA) soon dividing into five branches i.e., infrahyoid, superior laryngeal, superior thyroid, cricothyroid and sternocleidomastoid artery. This variant branching pattern of STA is very rare. The inferior thyroid arteries did not show any unusual distribution. Knowledge of such arterial variations related to the thyroid gland is immensely helpful to the surgeons to avoid damage of the vital organs in this region. PMID:26266110

  20. Fenestration of the superior medullary velum as treatment for a trapped fourth ventricle: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Tubbs, R Shane; Wellons, John C; Salter, George; Oakes, W Jerry

    2004-03-01

    We developed a novel approach for fenestration of the trapped fourth ventricle utilizing the superior medullary velum (valve of Vieussens). Trapped fourth ventricles, which are seen often in the pediatric hydrocephalic population, are troublesome entities surgically. A right burr hole was carried out in 10 adult cadavers with no gross intracranial pathology and the superior medullary velum was fenestrated to the quadrigeminal cistern with the aid of an endoscope. This technique was carried out easily in all cadaveric specimens. With endoscopy, no vascular insult was appreciated either before or after fenestration of the superior medullary velum. These preliminary findings demonstrate that fenestration of the superior medullary velum may provide a good alternative to the present therapy of shunting trapped fourth ventricles, a therapy wrought with complications.

  1. Transcutaneous Puncture of the Superior Ophthalmic Vein for Embolization of Dural Carotid-Ophthalmic Fistula

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wen-Hsien; Tsai, I-Chen; Huang, Hou-Chi; Lin, Chun-Han; Hung, Hao-Chun; Wu, Chen-Hao; Chi-Chang Chen, Clayton

    2008-01-01

    Summary Carotid-ophthalmic fistula is a rare disease, which can be treated by transvenous endovascular embolization. Here, we report a unique case with draining vein thrombosed, making a transvenous approach impossible. An old but valuable technique, direct transcutaneous puncture of the superior ophthalmic vein, was used to save the patient's right eye. The old technique, direct puncture of the superior ophthalmic vein, retains its irreplaceable usefulness in this special situation. Thus, interventional neuroradiologists should equip themselves with this essential technique. PMID:20557794

  2. Superior Patellar Dislocation Misdiagnosed as Patellar Tendon Rupture: The Value of Ultrasonography

    PubMed Central

    Sumanont, Sermsak; Boonard, Manusak; Boonrod, Arunnit

    2016-01-01

    Superior dislocation of the patella with intact patellar tendon is a rare condition. Most cases in literatures were diagnosed by clinical examination and plain radiography; however there are many cases that were misdiagnosed as patellar tendon rupture. In this case, we demonstrate the use of ultrasound for diagnosis of superior dislocation of the patella in the emergency department. We also include a literature review of similar cases and discuss the advantages of different types of imaging for diagnosis in this condition. PMID:28101389

  3. The Effect of Adversary Unmanned Aerial Systems on the US Concept of Air Superiority

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-04

    release; distribution is unlimited. 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The last time an enemy aircraft attacked a member of the American...joint, and primarily offensive operations can preclude enemy attacks from the air. The United States can either change its concept of air superiority...or commit the necessary resources to ensure continued immunity from aerial attack . 15. SUBJECT TERMS Air Superiority, Remotely Piloted Aircraft

  4. Bounded perturbation resilience and superiorization techniques for the projected scaled gradient method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hong-Kun

    2017-04-01

    Bounded perturbation resilience and superiorization techniques for the projected scaled gradient (PSG) method are studied under the general Hilbert space setting. Weak convergence results of the (superiorized) PSG method and its relaxed version are proved under the assumption that the errors be summable. It is also shown that the PSG method converges in a sublinear rate and can be accelerated to the convergence rate O≤ft(\\tfrac{1}{{n}2}\\right). Applications to linear inverse problems and split feasibility problems are discussed.

  5. In search of the emotional face: anger versus happiness superiority in visual search.

    PubMed

    Savage, Ruth A; Lipp, Ottmar V; Craig, Belinda M; Becker, Stefanie I; Horstmann, Gernot

    2013-08-01

    Previous research has provided inconsistent results regarding visual search for emotional faces, yielding evidence for either anger superiority (i.e., more efficient search for angry faces) or happiness superiority effects (i.e., more efficient search for happy faces), suggesting that these results do not reflect on emotional expression, but on emotion (un-)related low-level perceptual features. The present study investigated possible factors mediating anger/happiness superiority effects; specifically search strategy (fixed vs. variable target search; Experiment 1), stimulus choice (Nimstim database vs. Ekman & Friesen database; Experiments 1 and 2), and emotional intensity (Experiment 3 and 3a). Angry faces were found faster than happy faces regardless of search strategy using faces from the Nimstim database (Experiment 1). By contrast, a happiness superiority effect was evident in Experiment 2 when using faces from the Ekman and Friesen database. Experiment 3 employed angry, happy, and exuberant expressions (Nimstim database) and yielded anger and happiness superiority effects, respectively, highlighting the importance of the choice of stimulus materials. Ratings of the stimulus materials collected in Experiment 3a indicate that differences in perceived emotional intensity, pleasantness, or arousal do not account for differences in search efficiency. Across three studies, the current investigation indicates that prior reports of anger or happiness superiority effects in visual search are likely to reflect on low-level visual features associated with the stimulus materials used, rather than on emotion.

  6. Discrimination among spawning concentrations of Lake Superior lake herring based on trace element profiles in sagittae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, Charles R.; Hesselberg, Robert J.; Shoesmith, John A.; Hoff, Michael H.

    1996-01-01

    Little is known about the stock structure of lake herring Coregonus artedi in Lake Superior, and recent increases in harvestable stock sizes has led to expanded exploitation in some areas. Research on marine teleosts has demonstrated that chemical differences in sagittal otoliths can be used for identification of fish stocks. We used plasma emission spectrophotometry to measure the concentrations of 10 trace elements in the sagittal otoliths from lake herring captured at eight spawning sites in Lake Superior and from Little Star Lake, an inland lake outside the Lake Superior basin. Discriminant function analysis indicated that elemental concentrations provided site-specific information but that considerable overlap existed among some locations, especially those in western Lake Superior. Correct classification rates varied from 12.0% to 86.1% and were generally higher for spawning locations from embayments in eastern Lake Superior and for the outgroup population from Little Star Lake. The results presented here demonstrate the potential usefulness of this technique for strictly freshwater species, especially those that live in highly oligotrophic waters such as Lake Superior.

  7. Performing Hong-Ou-Mandel-type numerical experiments with repulsive condensates: The case of dark and dark-bright solitons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Zhi-Yuan; Kevrekidis, Panayotis G.; Krüger, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The Hong-Ou-Mandel experiment leads indistinguishable photons simultaneously reaching a 50:50 beam splitter to emerge on the same port through a two-photon interference. Motivated by this phenomenon, we consider numerical experiments of the same flavor for classical wave objects in the setting of repulsive condensates. We examine dark solitons interacting with a repulsive barrier, a case in which we find no significant asymmetries in the emerging waves after the collision, presumably due to their topological nature. We also consider case examples of two-component systems, where the dark solitons trap a bright structure in the second component (dark-bright solitary waves). For these, pronounced asymmetries upon collision are possible for the nontopological bright component. We also show an example of a similar phenomenology for ring dark-bright structures in two dimensions.

  8. Hong-Ou-Mandel interference mediated by the magnetic plasmon waves in a three-dimensional optical metamaterial.

    PubMed

    Wang, S M; Mu, S Y; Zhu, C; Gong, Y X; Xu, P; Liu, H; Li, T; Zhu, S N; Zhang, X

    2012-02-27

    We studied the quantum properties of magnetic plasmon waves in a three-dimensional coupled metamaterial. A Hong-Ou-Mandel dip of two-photon interference with a visibility of 86 ± 6.0% was explicitly observed, when the sample was inserted into one of the two arms of the interferometer. This meant that the quantum interference property survived in such a magnetic plasmon wave-mediated transmission process, thus testifying the magnetic plasmon waves owned a quantum nature. A full quantum model was utilized to describe our experimental results. The results showed that the metamaterials could not only steer the classical light but also the non-classical light and they might have potential application in the future quantum information.

  9. Loss-tolerant state engineering for quantum-enhanced metrology via the reverse Hong-Ou-Mandel effect.

    PubMed

    Ulanov, Alexander E; Fedorov, Ilya A; Sychev, Demid; Grangier, Philippe; Lvovsky, A I

    2016-06-21

    Highly entangled quantum states, shared by remote parties, are vital for quantum communications and metrology. Particularly promising are the N00N states-entangled N-photon wavepackets delocalized between two different locations-which outperform coherent states in measurement sensitivity. However, these states are notoriously vulnerable to losses, making them difficult to both share them between remote locations and recombine in order to exploit interference effects. Here we address this challenge by utilizing the reverse Hong-Ou-Mandel effect to prepare a high-fidelity two-photon N00N state shared between two parties connected by a lossy optical medium. We measure the prepared state by two-mode homodyne tomography, thereby demonstrating that the enhanced phase sensitivity can be exploited without recombining the two parts of the N00N state. Finally, we demonstrate the application of our method to remotely prepare superpositions of coherent states, known as Schrödinger's cat states.

  10. Loss-tolerant state engineering for quantum-enhanced metrology via the reverse Hong-Ou-Mandel effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ulanov, Alexander E.; Fedorov, Ilya A.; Sychev, Demid; Grangier, Philippe; Lvovsky, A. I.

    2016-06-01

    Highly entangled quantum states, shared by remote parties, are vital for quantum communications and metrology. Particularly promising are the N00N states--entangled N-photon wavepackets delocalized between two different locations--which outperform coherent states in measurement sensitivity. However, these states are notoriously vulnerable to losses, making them difficult to both share them between remote locations and recombine in order to exploit interference effects. Here we address this challenge by utilizing the reverse Hong-Ou-Mandel effect to prepare a high-fidelity two-photon N00N state shared between two parties connected by a lossy optical medium. We measure the prepared state by two-mode homodyne tomography, thereby demonstrating that the enhanced phase sensitivity can be exploited without recombining the two parts of the N00N state. Finally, we demonstrate the application of our method to remotely prepare superpositions of coherent states, known as Schrödinger's cat states.

  11. The safe gate to the posterior paranasal sinuses: reassessing the role of the superior turbinate.

    PubMed

    Eweiss, Ahmed Z; Ibrahim, Ahmed A; Khalil, Hisham S

    2012-05-01

    Surgery of the posterior ethmoid and sphenoid sinuses can be challenging. In 1999, a technique was described for identification of the superior turbinate and utilizing it as a landmark in endoscopic posterior ethmoidectomy and sphenoidotomy. Although this was more than a decade ago, it has not been supported by further studies. In our practice, we have routinely adopted this technique, and have modified it to allow further orientation during endoscopic surgery of the posterior sinuses. To describe a review of our technique, and to prospectively assess the value of the superior turbinate as a useful landmark during endoscopic posterior ethmoidectomy and sphenoidotomy. Fifty patients listed for endoscopic posterior ethmoidectomy with or without sphenoidotomy were included in a prospective study utilising our surgical technique. Data were collated for the success or failure of identification of the landmarks, and for any complications during the surgery. A total of 93 sides of endoscopic posterior ethmoidectomy and 73 sides of endoscopic sphenoidotomy were performed. The superior turbinate was identified in 100% of the cases. The coronal part of the superior turbinate basal lamella was identified in 60.22% of the cases, and the axial part in 88.17% of the cases. The natural sphenoid ostium was identified medial to the posterior part of the superior turbinate in 98.63% of the cases. The axial part of the superior turbinate basal lamella was a constant landmark for the level of the sphenoid ostium. The number of transverse septae between the axial part of the superior turbinate basal lamella and the skull base was studied, and was found never to exceed one septum. No major complications were recorded. One case of small posterior septal perforation was detected with no post-operative effects. Our study represents the first report of identifying the two parts of the superior turbinate basal lamella intra-operatively. It also represents the first report of using the axial

  12. Contribution to the study of pollution of soil and water in Oued El Maleh area (Mohammedia, Morocco)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El hajjaji, Souad; Dahchour, Abdelmalek; Belhsaien, Kamal; Zouahri, Abdelmjid; Moussadek, Rachid; Douaik, Ahmed

    2016-04-01

    In Morocco, diffuse ground and surface water pollution in irrigated areas has caused an increase in the risk of water and soil quality deterioration. This has generated a health and environmental risks. The present study was carried out in the Oued El Maleh region located 65 Km to the south of Rabat on the Moroccan Atlantic coast. It covers a surface area of 310 km2 where agriculture constitutes the main activity of the population. This region is considered as a very important agricultural area, known nationally for its high potential for market gardening. This intensification has been accompanied by an excessive use of agrochemical inputs and poor control of irrigation and drainage. Consequently, salinization phenomena and deterioration of soil structure as well as water are about to create an alarming situation. In order to assess the state of pollution of waters and soil in the region, our study focuses on the determination of physicochemical parameters for the quality of water and soil. The obtained results from sampled wells and surface water show relatively higher values of nitrate and conductivity exceeding Moroccan national standards and revealing net degradation of water quality; therefore the water can be considered not suitable for human consumption and can induce a degradation of soil. The results of the studied soil show that the pH of these soils is weakly to moderately basic; they are usually non-saline with organic matter content moderately filled. Moreover, very high concentrations of nutrients (potassium, phosphorus and nitrogen) were recorded, highlighting poor management fertilizing vegetable crops in the region of Oued El Maleh.

  13. L’administration postnatale de corticoïdes pour traiter ou prévenir les affections pulmonaires chroniques chez les prématurés

    PubMed Central

    2002-01-01

    Le présent énoncé est conçu à l’intention des professionnels de la santé qui soignent des nouveau-nés et de jeunes nourrissons. Il vise à examiner les effets à court et à long terme de l’administration postnatale de corticoïdes systémiques et par inhalation pour prévenir ou traiter une affection pulmonaire chronique évolutive ou établie et à faire des recommandations quant à l’usage de corticoïdes chez les nourrissons à très faible poids de naissance. Le recours systématique à la dexaméthasone systémique pour prévenir ou traiter une affection pulmonaire chronique n’est pas recommandé chez les nourrissons à très faible poids de naissance.

  14. Effects of Climate Change on Biogeochemistry in Lake Superior: A Numerical Modeling Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, B. A.; Matsumoto, K.; Austin, J.

    2008-12-01

    Physical and biogeochemical dynamics in mid-latitude lakes are tightly coupled due to strong seasonal forcing. Regional climate change has influenced and will continue to influence the physical dynamics in temperate lakes such as Lake Superior. A negative trend in average areal ice coverage on Lake Superior due to regional climate change exists. Recently, an unexpectedly strong positive trend in summer surface water temperatures (twice the rate of regional atmospheric temperature increase) was shown to exist. A positive trend in wind speeds over Lake Superior, possibly connected to increasing water temperatures, was also shown. Studies using numerical modeling of the impacts of changing physical dynamics in Lake Superior due to regional climate change on biogeochemical dynamics within the lake are presented. The Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS), a three-dimensional high resolution hydrodynamic model, is used. A dynamic-thermodynamic sea ice model is coupled to the physical model. An ecological- biogeochemical model based on the Fasham et al. (1990) NPZD model, but with multiple plankton size classes and biological limitation by phosphorus, is used. We report the results of our sensitivity experiments examining the effects of variability in winter ice coverage and increasing surface water temperatures and wind speeds on seasonal biogeochemical dynamics in Lake Superior.

  15. Trophic connections in Lake Superior Part II: the nearshore fish community

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gamble, A.E.; Hrabik, T.R.; Yule, D.L.; Stockwell, J.D.

    2011-01-01

    We use detailed diet analyses of the predominant planktivorous, benthivorous and piscivorous fish species from Lake Superior to create a nearshore (bathymetric depths Mysis diluviana and Diporeia spp). Although the piscivorous fishes like lean lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) fed to a lesser extent on Diporeia and Mysis, they were still strongly connected to these macroinvertebrates, which were consumed by their primary prey species (sculpin spp., rainbow smelt Osmerus mordax, and coregonines). The addition of Bythotrephes to summer/fall cisco and lake whitefish diets, and the decrease in rainbow smelt in lean lake trout diets (replaced by coregonines) were the largest observed differences relative to historic Lake Superior diet studies. Although the offshore food web of Lake Superior was simpler than nearshore in terms of number of fish species present, the two areas had remarkably similar food web structures, and both fish communities were primarily supported by Mysis and Diporeia. We conclude that declines in Mysis or Diporeia populations would have a significant impact on energy flow in Lake Superior. The food web information we generated can be used to better identify management strategies for Lake Superior.

  16. Evaluation of Surgical Strategy Based on the Intraoperative Superior Oblique Tendon Traction Test

    PubMed Central

    Komori, Miwa; Suzuki, Hiroko; Hikoya, Akiko; Sawada, Mayu; Hotta, Yoshihiro; Sato, Miho

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To clarify the efficacy of a surgical strategy based on the superior oblique tendon traction test. Methods A retrospective chart review was performed between January 2002 and June 2015. During that period, a single inferior oblique muscle (IO) myectomy and a combined IO myectomy and superior oblique muscle (SO) tuck procedure were performed based on SO tendon looseness as revealed by a traction test. The surgical effects of both procedures and the number of operations were analyzed. Results Sixty-five cases were retrieved. Seventy-four surgeries were required. The IO myectomy and simultaneous groups included 48 and 17 cases, respectively. Pre-operative vertical deviation was significantly lower in the IO myectomy (11.8 prism diopters) than in the simultaneous (27.2 prism diopters; Mann–Whitney U-test, P < 0.001) group. The mean induced changes were 9.4 prism diopters and 21.6 prism diopters in the IO myectomy and simultaneous groups, respectively, and the postoperative vertical deviation was not significantly different. On average, 1.13 and 1.18 surgeries per patient were performed in the IO myectomy and simultaneous groups, respectively. Conclusion The simultaneous surgery of inferior oblique myectomy and superior oblique tuck is safe and effective for treating large angle of congenital/idiopathic superior oblique palsy with a lax superior oblique tendon, as determined by the traction test. PMID:27992486

  17. Superiority inferences on individual endpoints following noninferiority testing in clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Logan, Brent R; Tamhane, Ajit C

    2008-10-01

    We consider the problem of drawing superiority inferences on individual endpoints following non-inferiority testing. Röhmel et al. (2006) pointed out this as an important problem which had not been addressed by the previous procedures that only tested for global superiority. Röhmel et al. objected to incorporating the non-inferiority tests in the assessment of the global superiority test by exploiting the relationship between the two, since the results of the latter test then depend on the non-inferiority margins specified for the former test. We argue that this is justified, besides the fact that it enhances the power of the global superiority test. We provide a closed testing formulation which generalizes the three-step procedure proposed by Röhmel et al. for two endpoints. For the global superiority test, Röhmel et al. suggest using the Läuter (1996) test which is modified to make it monotone. The resulting test not only is complicated to use, but the modification does not readily extend to more than two endpoints, and it is less powerful in general than several of its competitors. This is verified in a simulation study. Instead, we suggest applying the one-sided likelihood ratio test used by Perlman and Wu (2004) or the union-intersection t(max) test used by Tamhane and Logan (2004).

  18. Weinert and Giachino ligament arthroplasty for the surgical treatment of chronic superior tibiofibular joint instability.

    PubMed

    Cazeneuve, J F; Bracq, H; Meeseman, M

    1997-01-01

    Recurrent dislocations of the superior tibiofibular joint are rare. The majority of these patients are physically active, young adults. Different surgical techniques have been described for the management of this pathology: resection of the proximal aspect of the fibula, arthrodesis of the superior tibiofibular joint with or without fibular osteotomy. Because of the problems reported with these techniques, we opted for Weinert and Giachino ligament reconstruction. From 1989 to 1994, three patients were treated and reviewed in our practice: all, soccer players on the local team, 20, 23, and 25 years old, with superior tibiofibular pain and tumefaction, without neurological symptoms, but with anteroposterior mobility of the fibular head. The average duration of the symptoms before operation was 9 months, and the average follow-up was 15 months. At the follow-up, pain and anteroposterior mobility were gone. Soccer playing was resumed at 7 months without recurrence but with low frequency and stress. In our opinion, the Weinert and Giachino ligament reconstruction, using a portion of the biceps tendon to reconstruct the superior tibiofibular ligament, appears an effective approach to restore indolence and stability to the superior tibiofibular joint and to avoid complications of resection and arthrodesis.

  19. Superior temporal activation as a function of linguistic knowledge: insights from deaf native signers who speechread.

    PubMed

    Capek, Cheryl M; Woll, Bencie; MacSweeney, Mairéad; Waters, Dafydd; McGuire, Philip K; David, Anthony S; Brammer, Michael J; Campbell, Ruth

    2010-02-01

    Studies of spoken and signed language processing reliably show involvement of the posterior superior temporal cortex. This region is also reliably activated by observation of meaningless oral and manual actions. In this study we directly compared the extent to which activation in posterior superior temporal cortex is modulated by linguistic knowledge irrespective of differences in language form. We used a novel cross-linguistic approach in two groups of volunteers who differed in their language experience. Using fMRI, we compared deaf native signers of British Sign Language (BSL), who were also proficient speechreaders of English (i.e., two languages) with hearing people who could speechread English, but knew no BSL (i.e., one language). Both groups were presented with BSL signs and silently spoken English words, and were required to respond to a signed or spoken target. The interaction of group and condition revealed activation in the superior temporal cortex, bilaterally, focused in the posterior superior temporal gyri (pSTG, BA 42/22). In hearing people, these regions were activated more by speech than by sign, but in deaf respondents they showed similar levels of activation for both language forms - suggesting that posterior superior temporal regions are highly sensitive to language knowledge irrespective of the mode of delivery of the stimulus material.

  20. Differential expression of the microRNAs in superior and inferior spikelets in rice (Oryza sativa).

    PubMed

    Peng, Ting; Lv, Qiang; Zhang, Jing; Li, Junzhou; Du, Yanxiu; Zhao, Quanzhi

    2011-10-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in post-transcriptional gene regulation and have been shown to control many genes involved in various biological and metabolic processes. This work investigated miRNAs in rice (Oryza sativa), an important food crop. High-throughput sequencing technology was used to reveal expression differences in miRNAs between superior and inferior spikelets in rice (japonica cultivar Xinfeng 2) at 18 d after fertilization. Totals of 351 and 312 known miRNAs were obtained from the superior and inferior spikelets, respectively. Analysis of the expression profiles of these miRNAs showed that 189 miRNAs were differentially expressed between superior spikelets and inferior spikelets. In addition, 43 novel miRNAs were identified mostly by the accumulation of miRNA*s expressed differentially between the superior and inferior spikelets. Further analysis with bioinformatics software and comparison with existing databases showed that these differentially expressed miRNAs may individually participate in regulating hormone metabolism, carbohydrate metabolic pathways, and cell division during rice grain development. The results indicate that the slow grain-filling and low grain weight of rice inferior spikelets are attributed partly to differences in expression and function between superior and inferior spikelet miRNAs.

  1. Superior sagittal sinus thrombosis: assessment with Tc-99m labeled red blood cells

    SciTech Connect

    Front, D.; Israel, O.; Even-Sapir, E.; Feinsud, M.

    1986-02-01

    The diagnostic value of scintigraphy with technetium-99m labeled red blood cells (Tc-RBC) was assessed in 19 patients with clinical suggestion of superior sagittal sinus thrombosis (SSST). Comparison of Tc-RBC static images with dynamic flow studies in the brain showed a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 86%, and accuracy of 94% for static studies and values of 87%, 20%, and 61%, respectively, for the flow studies. Tc-RBC scintigraphy enables direct visualization of the integrity of the superior sagittal sinus, whereas CT scanning shows various but nonspecific changes in the brain associated with SSST. Single-photon emission CT study using Tc-RBC, performed in six patients, appears to have potential in the diagnosis of SSST, allowing separation of vascular structures that are superimposed on the superior sagittal sinus in planar scintigraphy study.

  2. Social vigilantism: measuring individual differences in belief superiority and resistance to persuasion.

    PubMed

    Saucier, Donald A; Webster, Russell J

    2010-01-01

    Social vigilantism (SV) is an enduring individual difference that assesses the tendency of individuals to impress and propagate their "superior" beliefs onto others to correct others' more "ignorant" opinions. After establishing a reliable measure of SV, three studies showed that SV was associated with greater expressions of belief superiority (whether reacting to others holding dissimilar or similar beliefs) and greater resistance to persuasion (via increased rates of counterarguing and greater attitude stability after persuasion appeals) even after controlling for relevant individual differences (narcissism, dogmatism, psychological reactance, and need for cognition), as well as attitude importance and extremity. Thus, SV predicts expressions of belief superiority and resistance to persuasion above and beyond characteristics of the attitude and individual difference variables previously studied in the attitude literature. SV is a meaningful construct in increasing the understanding of persuasion, attitude resistance, and attitude dissemination that can be applied in a variety of psychological domains.

  3. Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava Draining into the Coronary Sinus: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kurtoglu, Ertugrul; Cakin, Ozlem; Akcay, Selahaddin; Akturk, Erdal; Korkmaz, Hasan

    2011-01-01

    Persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) is a congenital anomaly of the thoracic venous system resulting from the abnormal persistence of an embryological vessel that normally regresses during early fetal life. This anomaly is often discovered incidentally during surgery, cardiovascular imaging or invasive cardiovascular procedures. In most cases, a PLSVC drains into the right atrium through the coronary sinus. In the remainder of cases, it enters directly or through the pulmonary veins into the left atrium. A dilated coronary sinus on echocardiography should always raise the suspicion of a PLSVC as it has important clinical implications. The diagnosis should be confirmed by saline contrast echocardiography. We report a patient with persistent left superior vena cava with an enlarged coronary sinus and normal right superior vena cava.

  4. [A case of spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery treated by percutaneous stent placement].

    PubMed

    Ko, Geun Jun; Han, Ki Jun; Han, Seo Goo; Hwang, Sang Yon; Choi, Chang Hwan; Gham, Chang Woo; Cho, Hyeon Geun; Song, Soon-Young; Jung, Jin Ho

    2006-02-01

    Acute mesenteric ischemia can result from emboli, arterial and venous thrombi or vasoconstriction secondary to low-flow states. Isolated spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery is a rare cause of acute mesenteric ischemia. The mortality rates of acute mesenteric ischemia averages 71% with a range of 59-93%. Diagnosis before the occurrence of intestinal infarction is the most important factor in improving survival rate for patients with acute mesenteric ischemia. A 68-year-old female presented with postprandial epigastric pain, and a dissection of the superior mesenteric artery and a gallbladder polyp were shown in abdominal computed tomographic scan. After the percutaneous metalic stent placement and laparoscopic cholecystectomy, her symptoms improved. We report a case of spontaneous dissection of main trunk of the superior mesenteric artery which was successfully treated by percutaneous stent placement with a review of literature.

  5. Evolution of aroma and phenolic compounds during ripening of 'superior seedless' grapes.

    PubMed

    Hellín, Pilar; Manso, Angela; Flores, Pilar; Fenoll, José

    2010-05-26

    The evolution of aroma and phenolic compounds was studied during ripening of Vitis vinifera cv. 'Superior Seedless' grapes in two consecutive years. The major free detected compounds were citral, geraniol, and benzyl alcohol whereas geraniol, citral, nerol, citronellol, dienediol I, linalol oxide I, linalol oxide II, benzyl alcohol, and 2-phenylethanol were identified in the glycosidically bound fraction. Concentrations of the main free terpene alcohols responsible for 'Superior Seedless' aroma decreased during grape development, and bound compounds became predominant at grape maturity. Calculation of odor activity values showed that geraniol was the most active odorant followed to a lesser extent by citral and nerol. With regard to phenolic compound evolution, flavan-3-ols and flavonols were maximal at veraison and decreased throughout the ripening, stilbenes content decreased from the first stage, and total phenolics increased to show a maximum in the ripe grapes. At ripening, quercetin 3-O-glucoside and catechin were the main compounds detected in 'Superior Seedless'.

  6. Genomic analysis of hybrid rice varieties reveals numerous superior alleles that contribute to heterosis.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xuehui; Yang, Shihua; Gong, Junyi; Zhao, Yan; Feng, Qi; Gong, Hao; Li, Wenjun; Zhan, Qilin; Cheng, Benyi; Xia, Junhui; Chen, Neng; Hao, Zhongna; Liu, Kunyan; Zhu, Chuanrang; Huang, Tao; Zhao, Qiang; Zhang, Lei; Fan, Danlin; Zhou, Congcong; Lu, Yiqi; Weng, Qijun; Wang, Zi-Xuan; Li, Jiayang; Han, Bin

    2015-02-05

    Exploitation of heterosis is one of the most important applications of genetics in agriculture. However, the genetic mechanisms of heterosis are only partly understood, and a global view of heterosis from a representative number of hybrid combinations is lacking. Here we develop an integrated genomic approach to construct a genome map for 1,495 elite hybrid rice varieties and their inbred parental lines. We investigate 38 agronomic traits and identify 130 associated loci. In-depth analyses of the effects of heterozygous genotypes reveal that there are only a few loci with strong overdominance effects in hybrids, but a strong correlation is observed between the yield and the number of superior alleles. While most parental inbred lines have only a small number of superior alleles, high-yielding hybrid varieties have several. We conclude that the accumulation of numerous rare superior alleles with positive dominance is an important contributor to the heterotic phenomena.

  7. Enhanced anger superiority effect in generalized anxiety disorder and panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Ashwin, Chris; Holas, Pawel; Broadhurst, Shanna; Kokoszka, Andrzej; Georgiou, George A; Fox, Elaine

    2012-03-01

    People are typically faster and more accurate to detect angry compared to happy faces, which is known as the anger superiority effect. Many cognitive models of anxiety suggest anxiety disorders involve attentional biases towards threat, although the nature of these biases remains unclear. The present study used a Face-in-the-Crowd task to investigate the anger superiority effect in a control group and patients diagnosed with either generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) or panic disorder (PD). The main finding was that both anxiety groups showed an enhanced anger superiority effect compared to controls, which is consistent with key theories of anxiety. Furthermore, both anxiety groups showed a differential pattern of enhanced bias towards threat depending on the crowd in the displays. The different attentional bias patterns between the GAD and PD groups may be related to the diverse symptoms in these disorders. These findings have implications for the diagnosis and treatment of anxiety.

  8. Primary pulmonary artery sarcoma extending retrograde into the superior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Portillo-Sanchez, José; Hessein-Abdou, Yasser; Puga-Alcalde, Eugenio; Perez-Martinez, Maria Angeles; Del Carmen Jimenez-Meneses, Maria; Camacho-Pedrero, Agustín; Valdepeñas-Herrero, Luís Ruíz

    2011-01-01

    Primary pulmonary artery sarcoma is a rare tumor that is highly fatal. It can be misdiagnosed as acute or chronic pulmonary thromboembolic disease. Herein, we report the case of a 22-year-old woman with a preoperative diagnosis of pulmonary embolism and superior vena caval thrombosis. Intraoperatively, an extensive sarcoma was seen to extend retrograde from the pulmonary artery, past the right ventricle and right atrium, and into the superior vena cava. Surgical resection of the tumor and reconstruction of the central pulmonary arteries, followed by adjuvant chemotherapy, relieved the clinical symptoms. The patient remained free of cancer at 14 months postoperatively. We believe that this is the 1st report of a primary pulmonary artery sarcoma that extended retrograde into the superior vena cava.

  9. Laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication with duodenojejunostomy for the management of superior mesenteric artery syndrome with reflux symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Chao; Hu, Zhi-Wei; Wu, Ji-Min; Zhang, Chao; Yan, Liang; Wang, Zhong-Gao

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: The patient had symptoms of GERD and the reflux even caused the symptom of cough. Gaining weight is a risk factor for the treatment of reflux as it could exacerbated symptoms of reflux and the drug treatment is not effective. Surgical intervention becomes necessary when there is failure following conservative medical therapy or the patient. Patient concerns: The patient was not satisfied with the drug treatment. Diagnoses: Superior mesenteric artery syndrome, gastroesophageal reflux disease. Interventions: Laparoscopic Toupet fundoplication with duodenojejunostomy. Outcomes: The patient discharged from hospital 10 days after surgery without any postoperative complication. The patient achieved complete relief of symptoms and discontinuation of drug. Lessons subsections: Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome may manifest the symptoms of GERD such as heartburn, acid reflux and cough. It is necessary to complete examination to exclude superior mesenteric artery syndrome for these patients. Laparoscopic fundoplication with duodenojejunostomy provided an effective treatment for patients who failed drug treatment. PMID:28099334

  10. The picture superiority effect in conceptual implicit memory: a conceptual distinctiveness hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Maryellen; Geraci, Lisa

    2006-01-01

    According to leading theories, the picture superiority effect is driven by conceptual processing, yet this effect has been difficult to obtain using conceptual implicit memory tests. We hypothesized that the picture superiority effect results from conceptual processing of a picture's distinctive features rather than a picture's semantic features. To test this hypothesis, we used 2 conceptual implicit general knowledge tests; one cued conceptually distinctive features (e.g., "What animal has large eyes?") and the other cued semantic features (e.g., "What animal is the figurehead of Tootsie Roll?"). Results showed a picture superiority effect only on the conceptual test using distinctive cues, supporting our hypothesis that this effect is mediated by conceptual processing of a picture's distinctive features.

  11. Sources of Heavy Metal Pollution into the St. Louis River, Lake Superior Watershed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sternberg, S. P.; Palokangas, C.

    2013-12-01

    The St. Louis River begins in Hoyt Lakes, Minnesota and enters Lake Superior between Duluth, Minnesota and Superior, Wisconsin. The Partridge River and the Embarrass River are two of its main tributaries. National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permits are issued for surface water dischargers under the Clean Water Act. The Permit Compliance System (PCS) and the Integrated Compliance Information System (ICIS) is a tool allowing public access to information contained in NPDES permits. Along the way to Lake Superior, 19 facilities list the St. Louis River, St. Louis Bay, part of the St. Louis River estuary, or one of its tributaries as a receiving water. Of these 19 locations, four report discharging heavy metals into the receiving water. Copper and Lead are the metals most frequently discharged.

  12. Methodology of superiority vs. equivalence trials and non-inferiority trials.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Erik

    2007-05-01

    The randomized clinical trial (RCT) is generally accepted as the best method of comparing effects of therapies. Most often the aim of an RCT is to show that a new therapy is superior to an established therapy or placebo, i.e. they are planned and performed as superiority trials. Sometimes the aim of an RCT is just to show that a new therapy is not superior but equivalent to or not inferior to an established therapy, i.e. they are planned and performed as equivalence trials or non-inferiority trials. Since the types of trials have different aims, they differ significantly in various methodological aspects. The awareness of the methodological differences is generally quite limited. This paper reviews the methodology of these types of trials with special reference to differences in respect to planning, performance, analysis and reporting of the trial. In this context the relevant basal statistical concepts are reviewed. Some of the important points are illustrated by examples.

  13. Imaging of superior labral anterior to posterior (SLAP) tears of the shoulder.

    PubMed

    Simoni, P; Scarciolla, L; Kreutz, J; Meunier, B; Beomonte Zobel, B

    2012-12-01

    Superior labral anterior to posterior (SLAP) tears include a number of abnormal changes of the superior glenoid labrum. SLAP tears have been first reported in elite young atlete and are caused by repetitive overhead motion or by a fall on an outstretched arm. SLAP can lead to chronic pain and instability of shoulder. A diagnosis of SLAP may be difficult on the basis of clinical tests. Hence, modern imaging, including computed tomography arthrography (CTA), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and magnetic resonance arthrography (MRA) play a key role in the diagnosis of SLAP. The large number of normal anatomic variants of the superior labrum and the surrounding structures make the interpretation of SLAP challenging on imaging and at arthroscopy. In this article the imaging of SLAP are discussed in detail along with relevant anatomy, anatomic variants and biomechanics.

  14. Stratigraphic and structural characterization of the OU-1 area at the former George Air Force Base, Adelanto, Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Catchings, R.D.; Gandhok, G.; Goldman, M.R.

    2001-01-01

    The former George Air Force Base (GAFB), now known as the Southern California Logistics Airport (SCLA), is located in the town of Adelanto, approximately 100 km northeast of Los Angeles, California (Fig. 1). In this report, we present acquisition parameters, data, and interpretations of seismic images that were acquired in the OU-1 area of GAFB during July 1999 (Fig. 2). GAFB is scheduled for conversion to civilian use, however, during its years as an Air Force base, trichlorethylene (TCE) was apparently introduced into the subsurface as a result of spills during normal aircraft maintenance operations. To comply with congressional directives, TCE contaminant removal has been ongoing since the early-tomid 1990s. However, only a small percentage of the TCE believed to have been introduced into the subsurface has been recovered, due largely to difficulty in locating the TCE within the subsurface. Because TCE migrates within the subsurface by ground water movement, attempts to locate the TCE contaminants in the subsurface have employed an array of ground-water monitoring and extraction wells. These wells primarily sample within a shallow-depth (~40 m) aquifer system. Cores obtained from the monitoring and extraction wells indicate that the aquifer, which is composed of sand and gravel channels, is bounded by aquitards composed largely of clay and other fine-grained sediments. Based on well logs, the aquifer is about 3 to 5 m thick along the seismic profiles. A more thorough understanding of the lateral variations in the depth and thickness of the aquifer system may be a key to finding and removing the remaining TCE. However, due to its complex depositional and tectonic history, the structural and stratigraphic sequences are not easily characterized. An indication of the complex nature of the structure and stratigraphy is the appreciable variation in stratigraphic sequences observed in some monitoring wells that are only a few tens of meters apart. To better

  15. Endothelium-dependent and-independent relaxation induced by resveratrol in rat superior mesenteric arteries

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulong; Xu, Cangbao; Wei, Yahui; Zhang, Yaping; Cao, Ailan

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol (Res) is a specific agonist of sirtuin 1, and has many cardioprotective effects. Although Res is able to relax various vascular beds, its pharmacological properties in rat superior mesenteric arteries and the underlying mechanism are not well clarified. The aim of present study was to investigate the vasorelaxant effects of Res on rat superior mesenteric arteries and the mechanisms involved. The isometric tension of rat superior mesenteric arterial rings was recorded in vitro using myography. It was found that Res concentration-dependently relaxed endothelium-intact superior mesenteric artery rings pre-contracted by phenylephrine hydrochloride (Emax, 97.66±0.79%; pD2, 4.30±0.14) or KCl (Emax, 101.3±0.6%; pD2, 4.12±0.03). The vasorelaxant effect of Res on the superior mesenteric artery rings was partially endothelium-dependent. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (100 µM) significantly inhibited the Res-induced vasorelaxant effect. However, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one (10 µM) and indomethacin (5 µM) each had no effect on the Res-induced vasorelaxation. In artery rings without endothelium, the vasorelaxation induced by Res was attenuated by 4-aminopyridine (100 µM) and glibenclamide (10 µM). However, barium chloride dehydrate (10 µM) and tetraethylammonium chloride (1 mM) did not affect the vasorelaxation induced by Res. Moreover, Res also inhibited the contraction induced by an increase in external calcium concentration in Ca2+-free medium plus KCl (60 mM). These results suggest that Res induces relaxation in superior mesenteric arterial rings through an endothelium-dependent pathway, involving nitric oxide release, and also through an endothelium-independent pathway, with opening of voltage-dependent K+ channels and ATP-sensitive K+ channels and blockade of extracellular Ca2+ influx. PMID:27698719

  16. Nearshore versus offshore copper loading in Lake Superior sediments: Implications for transport and cycling

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolak, J.J.; Long, D.T.; Kerfoot, W.C.; Beals, T.M.; Eisenreich, Steven J.

    1999-01-01

    A thorough understanding of the fate and transport of metals in Lake Superior is necessary in order to predict the ability of Lake Superior to recover from anthropogenic perturbations (copper mining). Sediment cores were collected from nearshore and offshore sites in Lake Superior and used to evaluate spatial and temporal variations in copper loading associated with mining-related activities. Although both settings have been strongly affected by anthropogenic releases of copper, copper concentrations in nearshore cores are significantly greater than those found in offshore cores, implying that nearshore copper loading is dominated by simple deposition and burial of sediment generated from mining activities. Temporal variations in copper profiles in sediments from nearshore environments closely mimic copper production rates. Conversely, copper loading histories derived from offshore sediments are not well correlated to production rates. The offshore sediment cores, when compared with analogous cores from Lakes Ontario and Michigan, show that the average, lake-wide intensity of copper loading in Lake Superior is comparable to the other two lakes, despite the fact that Lake Superior has received the largest total burden of anthropogenic copper. Cu/Zn ratios, used to evaluate the amount of copper loading derived from mining discharges, vary strongly in nearshore environments in response to loading. Cu/Zn ratios in offshore sediments are much less variable, implying that copper loading may be regulated by additional mechanisms (solution chemistry and/or biologic uptake). Study of trace metal partitioning within Lake Superior sediments indicates that the organic fraction of the sediment contains the majority of the copper. Copper concentrations in offshore sediments are significantly correlated to organic carbon content of the sediment whereas copper concentrations in nearshore sediments are not. These findings support the model that transport and deposition of particles

  17. Association fiber pathways to the frontal cortex from the superior temporal region in the rhesus monkey

    SciTech Connect

    Petrides, M.; Pandya, D.N.

    1988-07-01

    The projections to the frontal cortex that originate from the various areas of the superior temporal region of the rhesus monkey were investigated with the autoradiographic technique. The results demonstrated that the rostral part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Pro, Ts1, and Ts2) projects to the proisocortical areas of the orbital and medial frontal cortex, as well as to the nearby orbital areas 13, 12, and 11, and to medial areas 9, 10, and 14. These fibers travel to the frontal lobe as part of the uncinate fascicle. The middle part of the superior temporal gyrus (areas Ts3 and paAlt) projects predominantly to the lateral frontal cortex (areas 12, upper 46, and 9) and to the dorsal aspect of the medial frontal lobe (areas 9 and 10). Only a small number of these fibers terminated within the orbitofrontal cortex. The temporofrontal fibers originating from the middle part of the superior temporal gyrus occupy the lower portion of the extreme capsule and lie just dorsal to the fibers of the uncinate fascicle. The posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus projects to the lateral frontal cortex (area 46, dorsal area 8, and the rostralmost part of dorsal area 6). Some of the fibers from the posterior superior temporal gyrus run initially through the extreme capsule and then cross the claustrum as they ascend to enter the external capsule before continuing their course to the frontal lobe. A larger group of fibers curves round the caudalmost Sylvian fissure and travels to the frontal cortex occupying a position just above and medial to the upper branch of the circular sulcus. This latter pathway constitutes a part of the classically described arcuate fasciculus.

  18. Inferior retinal light exposure is more effective than superior retinal exposure in suppressing melatonin in humans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glickman, Gena; Hanifin, John P.; Rollag, Mark D.; Wang, Jenny; Cooper, Howard; Brainard, George C.

    2003-01-01

    Illumination of different areas of the human retina elicits differences in acute light-induced suppression of melatonin. The aim of this study was to compare changes in plasma melatonin levels when light exposures of equal illuminance and equal photon dose were administered to superior, inferior, and full retinal fields. Nine healthy subjects participated in the study. Plexiglass eye shields were modified to permit selective exposure of the superior and inferior halves of the retinas of each subject. The Humphrey Visual Field Analyzer was used both to confirm intact full visual fields and to quantify exposure of upper and lower visual fields. On study nights, eyes were dilated, and subjects were exposed to patternless white light for 90 min between 0200 and 0330 under five conditions: (1) full retinal exposure at 200 lux, (2) full retinal exposure at 100 lux, (3) inferior retinal exposure at 200 lux, (4) superior retinal exposure at 200 lux, and (5) a dark-exposed control. Plasma melatonin levels were determined by radioimmunoassay. ANOVA demonstrated a significant effect of exposure condition (F = 5.91, p < 0.005). Post hoc Fisher PLSD tests showed significant (p < 0.05) melatonin suppression of both full retinal exposures as well as the inferior retinal exposure; however, superior retinal exposure was significantly less effective in suppressing melatonin. Furthermore, suppression with superior retinal exposure was not significantly different from that of the dark control condition. The results indicate that the inferior retina contributes more to the light-induced suppression of melatonin than the superior retina at the photon dosages tested in this study. Findings suggest a greater sensitivity or denser distribution of photoreceptors in the inferior retina are involved in light detection for the retinohypothalamic tract of humans.

  19. Difficulties in Demonstrating Superiority of an Antibiotic for Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria in Nonrandomized Studies

    PubMed Central

    Eliopoulos, George M.; Stafford, Kristen A.; Boutin, Mallory; Evans, Scott R.; Harris, Anthony D.

    2014-01-01

    The discovery and development of new antimicrobials is critically important, especially as multidrug-resistant bacteria continue to emerge. Little has been written about the epidemiological issues in nonrandomized trials aiming to evaluate the superiority of one antibiotic over another. In this manuscript, we outline some of the methodological difficulties in demonstrating superiority and discuss potential approaches to these problems. Many of the difficulties arise due to confounding by indication, which we define and explain. Epidemiological methods including restriction, matching, stratification, multivariable regression, propensity scores, and instrumental variables are discussed. PMID:24982037

  20. Vertical eye movements during horizontal head impulse test: a new clinical sign of superior vestibular neuritis.

    PubMed

    D'Onofrio, F

    2013-12-01

    In some patients suffering from acute unilateral peripheral vestibular deficit, the head impulse test performed towards the affected side reveals the typical catch-up saccade in the horizontal plane, and an oblique, mostly vertical, upward catch-up saccade after the rotation of the head towards the healthy side. Three cases are reported herein, which have been studied using slow motion video analysis of the eye movements captured by a high-speed webcam (90 fps). The clinical evidence is discussed and a pathophysiological explanation is proposed, consisting in a selective hypofunction of the superior semicircular canal during superior vestibular neuritis.

  1. Facilitating superior chronic disease management through a knowledge-based systems development model.

    PubMed

    Wickramasinghe, Nilmini S; Goldberg, Steve

    2008-01-01

    To date, the adoption and diffusion of technology-enabled solutions to deliver better healthcare has been slow. There are many reasons for this. One of the most significant is that the existing methodologies that are normally used in general for Information and Communications Technology (ICT) implementations tend to be less successful in a healthcare context. This paper describes a knowledge-based adaptive mapping to realisation methodology to traverse successfully from idea to realisation rapidly and without compromising rigour so that success ensues. It is discussed in connection with trying to implement superior ICT-enabled approaches to facilitate superior Chronic Disease Management (CDM).

  2. Superior Vena Cava Obstruction Complicated by Upper Extremity Deep Vein Thrombosis: A Novel Endovascular Approach.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Mohamed; Patel, Neeral; Moser, Steven

    2016-04-01

    Superior vena cava obstruction (SVCO) and associated thrombus formation can occur in patients with upper mediastinal or right apical masses. While stenting is useful in relieving obstruction, it can facilitate the passage of upper extremity deep vein thrombus to the pulmonary arterial tree, resulting in a potentially fatal pulmonary embolism (PE). We present a case that illustrates a novel technique, which protects the patient from PE while also relieving the SVCO. This involves placing an inferior vena cava filter in an inverted position within a superior vena cava (SVC) stent to capture emboli. This procedure offers a potentially lifesaving endovascular therapeutic option to patients who would otherwise be deemed unsuitable for SVC stenting.

  3. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome: A Case Report of Two Surgical Options, Duodenal Derotation and Duodenojejunostomy

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is a rare cause of duodenal obstruction and its management is usually conservative with nasojejunal feeding. The pathophysiology entails the loss of the fat pad between the superior mesenteric artery and the abdominal aorta. This reduces the angle between the two vessels to less than 20 degrees with the resultant compression of the third part of the duodenum. The surgical management is usually a laparoscopic duodenojejunostomy. The two cases in our series had two different surgical procedures with good outcomes in both patients. The surgical management of each patient should be determined on its own merits irrespective of the standard of care. PMID:28101395

  4. Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome: A Case Report of Two Surgical Options, Duodenal Derotation and Duodenojejunostomy.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Yagan

    2016-01-01

    Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is a rare cause of duodenal obstruction and its management is usually conservative with nasojejunal feeding. The pathophysiology entails the loss of the fat pad between the superior mesenteric artery and the abdominal aorta. This reduces the angle between the two vessels to less than 20 degrees with the resultant compression of the third part of the duodenum. The surgical management is usually a laparoscopic duodenojejunostomy. The two cases in our series had two different surgical procedures with good outcomes in both patients. The surgical management of each patient should be determined on its own merits irrespective of the standard of care.

  5. Wave Information Studies of US Coastlines: Hindcast Wave Information for the Great Lakes: Lake Superior

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-01-01

    SWAVE INFORMATION STUDIES OF US COASTLINES AD-A248 002 wsREPORT 23IIIE11I1K1E1E1 UIIE UL III HINDCAST WAVE INFORMATION FOR THE GREAT LAKES : LAKE ...Hindcast Wave Information for the Great Lakes : Lake Superior 6. AUTHOR(S) David B. Driver, Robin D. Reinhard, Jon M. Hubertz 7. PERFORMING...information is summarized for 95 locations along the shoreline of Lake Superior in four data products: percent occurrence tables, wave rose diagrams, mean and

  6. Contaminant concentrations in stormwater from eight lake Superior basin cities, 1993-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Steuer, J.J.; Selbig, W.R.; Hornewer, N.J.

    1996-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey collected Stormwater samples from eight Lake Superior Basin cities to determine the quality of urban runoff entering Lake Superior from urban areas. The samples were collected during July 1993-September 1994 from storm sewers in Ishpeming, Negaunee, Sault Ste. Marie, and Houghton, Michigan; Virginia and Ribbing, Minnesota; and Ashland and Hurley, Wisconsin. Automated samplers were installed in manholes draining the selected sewers within each city. Water samples were collected for analyses of total recoverable metals, nutrients, and poly cyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Concentrations of these constituents for each site are listed in data tables.

  7. Superior Mesenteric Artery Pseudoaneurysm Associated with Celiac Axis Occlusion Treated Using Endovascular Techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Ray, Biswajit; Kuhan, Ganesh; Johnson, Brian; Nicholson, Anthony A.; Ettles, Duncan F.

    2006-10-15

    The case of a 30-year-old woman with a post-traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the superior mesenteric artery and associated celiac axis occlusion is presented. The patient was successfully treated with celiac artery recanalization and placement of a covered stent within the superior mesenteric artery. Follow-up at 3, 6, and 12 months and 3 years demonstrated patency of the covered stent and continued exclusion of the aneurysm. Although the long-term success of this procedure is unknown this management option should be considered where facilities are available, to reduce the increased morbidity associated with open surgical procedure.

  8. Transradial Approach for Transcatheter Selective Superior Mesenteric Artery Urokinase Infusion Therapy in Patients with Acute Extensive Portal and Superior Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Maoqiang Guo Liping; Lin Hanying; Liu Fengyong; Duan Feng; Wang Zhijun

    2010-02-15

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess the feasibility and effectiveness of transradial approach for transcatheter superior mesenteric artery (SMA) urokinase infusion therapy in patients with acute extensive portal and superior mesenteric venous thrombosis. During a period of 7 years, 16 patients with acute extensive thrombosis of the portal (PV) and superior mesenteric veins (SMV) were treated by transcatheter selective SMA urokinase infusion therapy by way of the radial artery. The mean age of the patients was 39.5 years. Through the radial sheath, a 5F Cobra catheter was inserted into the SMA, and continuous infusion of urokinase was performed for 5-11 days (7.1 {+-} 2.5 days). Adequate anticoagulation was given during treatment, throughout hospitalization, and after discharge. Technical success was achieved in all 16 patients. Substantial clinical improvement was seen in these 16 patients after the procedure. Minor complications at the radial puncture site were observed in 5 patients, but trans-SMA infusion therapy was not interrupted. Follow-up computed tomography scan before discharge demonstrated nearly complete disappearance of PV-SMV thrombosis in 9 patients and partial recanalization of PV-SMV thrombosis in 7 patients. The 16 patients were discharged 9-19 days (12 {+-} 6.0 days) after admission. Mean duration of follow-up after hospital discharge was 44 {+-} 18.5 months, and no recurrent episodes of PV-SMV thrombosis developed during that time period. Transradial approach for transcatheter selective SMA urokinase infusion therapy in addition to anticoagulation is a safe and effective therapy for the management of patients with acute extensive PV-SMV thrombosis.

  9. The planetary nebula IPHASXJ211420.0+434136 (Ou5): insights into common-envelope dynamical and chemical evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradi, R. L. M.; Rodríguez-Gil, P.; Jones, D.; García-Rojas, J.; Mampaso, A.; García-Alvarez, D.; Pursimo, T.; Eenmäe, T.; Liimets, T.; Miszalski, B.

    2014-07-01

    While analysing the images of the IPHAS (INT/WFC Photometric Hα Survey of the northern Galactic plane) survey, we noticed that the central star of the candidate planetary nebula IPHASXJ211420.0+434136 (also named Ou5) was clearly variable. This is generally considered as an indication of binarity. To confirm it, we performed a photometric monitoring of the central star, and obtained images and spectra of the nebula. The nebular spectrum confirms that IPHASXJ211420.0+434136 is a planetary nebula of moderately high excitation. It has a remarkable morphology with two nested pairs of bipolar lobes and other unusual features. The light curve of the central star reveals that it is an eclipsing binary system with an orbital period of 8.74 h. It also displays a strong irradiation effect with an amplitude of 1.5 mag. The presence of multiple bipolar outflows adds constraints to the formation of these nebulae, suggesting the occurrence of discrete ejection events during, or immediately before, the common-envelope phase. IPHASXJ211420.0+434136 also adds evidence to the hypothesis that a significant fraction of planetary nebulae with close binary central stars have a peculiar nebular chemistry and a relatively low nebular mass. This may point to low-mass, low-metallicity progenitors, with additional effects related to the binary evolution. We also suggest that these objects may be relevant to understand the abundance discrepancy problem in planetary nebulae.

  10. Geo-environmental risk in the upper valley of the Oued Sebou (Fès, Central Morocco): a preliminary approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Waele, J.; Di Gregorio, F.; El Wartiti, M.; Fadli, D.; Follesa, R.; Marini, A.; Melis, M. T.

    2004-06-01

    In the framework of several projects sustained by the Regional Sardinian Government Laws no. 43 (28/09/1990) and no. 19 (11/04/1996), research groups of the University of Cagliari (Sardinia, Italy) and of the University Mohamed V-Agdal of Rabat (Morocco) have started a series of preliminary geo-environmental studies in the basin of the Oued Sebou. An area of almost 1000 square km around the famous city of Fès has been studied, using satellite images and two ground surveying campaigns. These surveys aim to define the geological and structural settings, the vegetation and land use, in order to define the landscape units and to select the areas of major hydrogeological and geo-environmental risk. The satellite data used are the LANDSAT TM5 images taken on the 9th of October 1997. These images have been analysed to obtain the different bases for further thematic mapping, resulting in the geo-environmental map of the area around Fès that constitutes an up-to-date representation of the geological and environmental state of the territory and a useful instrument for further risk assessment and urban and territorial planning.

  11. The properties of the extraocular muscles of the frog. I. Mechanical properties of the isolated superior oblique and superior rectus muscles.

    PubMed

    Asmussen, G

    1978-01-01

    The mechanical properties of two extraocular muscles (superior oblique and superior rectus muscles) of the frog were studied and compared with those of a frog's skeletal muscle (iliofibularis muscle) which contains the same types of muscle fibres as the oculorotatory muscles. The extraocular muscles are very fast twitching muscles. They exhibit a smaller contraction time, a smaller half-relaxation time, a higher fusion frequency, and a lower twitch-tetanus ratio than the skeletal muscles. The maximum isometric tetanic tension produced per unit cross-sectional area is lower in the extraocular muscles than in skeletal muscles. However, the extraocular muscles show a higher fatigue resistance than the skeletal muscles. With respect to the dynamic properties there are some differences between the various oculorotatory muscles of the frog. The superior rectus muscle exhibits a faster time-course of the contraction, a higher fusion frequency, and a higher fatigability than the superior oblique muscle. An increase of the extracellular K+-concentration evokes sustained contractures not only in the extraocular muscles but also in the iliofibularis muscle; between these muscles there are no striking differences in the mechanical threshold of the whole muscle preparation. The mechanical threshold depends on the Ca++-concentration of the bathing solution and it is found in a range between 12.5 and 17.5 mM K+ in a normal Ringer solution containing 1.8 mM Ca++. The static-mechanical properties of the extraocular muscles of the frog and the dependence of the active developed tension on the muscle extension are very similar to those which are known to exist in the extraocular muscles of other vertebrates. In tetanic activated frog's oculorotatory muscles a linear relationship exists between length and tension. A variation of the stimulation frequency does not change the slope of this curve but causes parallel shifts of the curve. The peculiar properties of the extraocular muscles

  12. Ou (Psittirostra psittacea)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Snetsinger, Thomas J.; Reynolds, Michelle H.; Herrmann, Christina M.

    1998-01-01

    The ‘Ö‘ü and the Läna‘i Hookbill are plump, predominantly olive green, thick-billed Hawaiian honeycreepers. The ‘Ö‘ü is now very rare and restricted to remote, high-elevation native forest, and the Läna‘i Hookbill is extinct. They are closely related species, belonging to a specialized tribe, Psittirostrini, consisting of nine historically known Hawaiian species with heavy, finchlike to parrotlike bills. Because of their taxonomic affinity and the paucity of information on the Läna‘i Hookbill, we are treating the two species in a single account.

  13. New Records and Range Extensions for Several Chironomid Genera from Lake Superior

    EPA Science Inventory

    Five genera of chironomids have been reported for the first time in Lake Superior. Chironomids are small flying insects with a sediment-dwelling aquatic larval stage. The chironomids were collected by scientists at the Mid-Continent Ecology Division as part of a research program ...

  14. Physiological modifications of seston in response to physicochemical gradients within Lake Superior (presentation)

    EPA Science Inventory

    We show for the first time the importance of plankton producing non-phosphorus lipids as a strategy for reducing cellular P inventories in Lake Superior. In September 2011, we investigated the distribution of dissolved and particulate phosphorus (PP) pools throughout the lake. Av...

  15. Superior Temporal Activation in Response to Dynamic Audio-Visual Emotional Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robins, Diana L.; Hunyadi, Elinora; Schultz, Robert T.

    2009-01-01

    Perception of emotion is critical for successful social interaction, yet the neural mechanisms underlying the perception of dynamic, audio-visual emotional cues are poorly understood. Evidence from language and sensory paradigms suggests that the superior temporal sulcus and gyrus (STS/STG) play a key role in the integration of auditory and visual…

  16. A new look at the Lake Superior biomass size-spectrum

    EPA Science Inventory

    We combined data from multiple sampling programs to describe the Lake Superior pelagic biomass size structure. The data represented phytoplankton, zooplankton and prey-fish that spanned over 10 orders of magnitude in size and two time periods separated by five years. The biomas...

  17. A Research Study for Developing a Strategic Plan for Recruiting Academically Superior Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasad, Sarada; Murphy, Michael

    The study reported in this document was conducted to facilitate strategic recruiting and marketing plans aimed at enhancing enrollments of academically superior students at the University of Wisconsin-Washington County (UWWC). Data on college choice criteria, perceptions, evaluations, information sources, "influentials," and choice outcomes…

  18. Challenges to Lake Superior's Condition, Assessment, and Management: A Few Observations Across a Generation of Change

    EPA Science Inventory

    Selected comparisons of water quality and biological properties in lakewide samplings of 1970s and 2005/2006 provide a simple illustration of significant changes within Lake Superior in the last three decades. Observations of warmed surface layers, increased nitrate and increase...

  19. Status of Aquatic Non-indigenous Species in the Duluth-Superior Harbor

    EPA Science Inventory

    As part of a study to develop recommendations for aquatic non-indigenous species (NIS) monitoring in Great Lakes areas at risk of invasion, we conducted comprehensive, multi-gear sampling in the Duluth, MN-Superior, WI harbor and lower St. Louis River in 2005-2007. This effort r...

  20. MERCURY IN STAMP SAND DISCHARGES: IMPLICATIONS FOR LAKE SUPERIOR MERCURY CYCLING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Approximately a half billion tons of waste rock from the extraction of native copper and silver ores was discharged into the Lake Superior basin. Stamping was the method of choice to recover these metals from the surrounding poor rock. This process created large amounts of extre...

  1. On the Auditory Modality Superiority Effect in Serial Recall: Separating Input and Output Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowan, Nelson; Saults, J. Scott; Brown, Gordon D.A.

    2004-01-01

    The modality effect in immediate recall refers to superior recall of the last few items within lists presented in spoken as opposed to printed form. The locus of this well-known effect has been unclear. N. Cowan, J. S. Saults, E. M. Elliott, and M. Moreno (2002) introduced a new method to distinguish between the effects of input serial position,…

  2. Hydroacoustic estimates of abundance and spatial distribution of pelagic prey fishes in western Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mason, Doran M.; Johnson, Timothy B.; Harvey, Chris J.; Kitchell, James F.; Schram, Stephen T.; Bronte, Charles R.; Hoff, MIchael H.; Lozano, Stephen J.; Trebitz, Anett S.; Schreiner, Donald R.; Lamon, E. Conrad; Hrabik, Thomas R.

    2005-01-01

    Lake herring (Coregonus artedi) and rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) are a valuable prey resource for the recovering lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) in Lake Superior. However, prey biomass may be insufficient to support the current predator demand. In August 1997, we assessed the abundance and spatial distribution of pelagic coregonines and rainbow smelt in western Lake Superior by combining a 120 kHz split beam acoustics system with midwater trawls. Coregonines comprised the majority of the midwater trawl catches and the length distributions for trawl caught fish coincided with estimated sizes of acoustic targets. Overall mean pelagic prey fish biomass was 15.56 kg ha−1 with the greatest fish biomass occurring in the Apostle Islands region (27.98 kg ha−1), followed by the Duluth Minnesota region (20.22 kg ha−1), and with the lowest biomass occurring in the open waters of western Lake Superior (9.46 kg ha−1). Biomass estimates from hydroacoustics were typically 2–134 times greater than estimates derived from spring bottom trawl surveys. Prey fish biomass for Lake Superior is about order of magnitude less than acoustic estimates for Lakes Michigan and Ontario. Discrepancies observed between bioenergetics-based estimates of predator consumption of coregonines and earlier coregonine biomass estimates may be accounted for by our hydroacoustic estimates.

  3. Spatial patterns in assemblage structures of pelagic forage fish and zooplankton in western Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Timothy B.; Hoff, Michael H.; Trebitz, Anett S.; Bronte, Charles R.; Corry, Timothy D.; Kitchell, James F.; Lozano, Stephen J.; Mason, Doran M.; Scharold, Jill V.; Schram, Stephen T.; Schreiner, Donald R.

    2004-01-01

    We assessed abundance, size, and species composition of forage fish and zooplankton communities of western Lake Superior during August 1996 and July 1997. Data were analyzed for three ecoregions (Duluth-Superior, Apostle Islands, and the open lake) differing in bathymetry and limnological and biological patterns. Zooplankton abundance was three times higher in the Duluth-Superior and Apostle Islands regions than in the open lake due to the large numbers of rotifers. Copepods were far more abundant than Cladocera in all ecoregions. Mean zooplankton size was larger in the open lake due to dominance by large calanoid copepods although size of individual taxa was similar among ecoregions. Forage fish abundance and biomass was highest in the Apostle Islands region and lowest in the open lake ecoregion. Lake herring (Coregonus artedi), rainbow smelt (Osmerus mordax) and deepwater ciscoes (Coregonus spp.) comprised over 90% of the abundance and biomass of fishes caught in midwater trawls and recorded with hydroacoustics. Growth and condition of fish was good, suggesting they were not resource limited. Fish and zooplankton assemblages differed among the three ecoregions of western Lake Superior, due to a combination of physical and limnological factors related to bathymetry and landscape position.

  4. LAKE HERRING (COREGONUS ARTEDI) AND RAINBOW SMELT (OSMERUS MORDAX) DIETS IN LAKE SUPERIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript reports on the diets of lake herring and rainbow smelt, currently the two dominant forage fish species (fish that are food for game fishes) in western Lake Superior. Despite the pelagic nature of both these species, they have substantially different diets and henc...

  5. Benthic versus Planktonic Foundations of Three Lake Superior Coastal Food Webs

    EPA Science Inventory

    The structure of aquatic food webs can provide information on system function, trophic dynamics and, potentially, responses to anthropogenic stressors. Stable isotope analyses in a Lake Superior coastal wetland (Allouez Bay, WI, USA) revealed that the food web was based upon carb...

  6. Developmement of second-generation Environmentally Superior Technology for treatment of swine manure in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New swine waste management systems in North Carolina need to meet high performance standards of an environmentally superior technology (EST) regarding nitrogen, phosphorus, heavy metals, pathogens, ammonia and odor emissions, and remain affordable and simple to operate. The objective of this study w...

  7. Predicting geomorphic stability in low-order streams of the western Lake Superior basin - Poster

    EPA Science Inventory

    Width:depth ratios, entrenchment ratios, gradients, and median substrate particle sizes (D50s) were measured in 32 second- and third-order stream reaches in the western Lake Superior basin in 1997-1998. More than 700 measurements of suspended sediment concentration during snowmel...

  8. A Prediction for the Outcome of Press-Enterprise Co. v. Superior Court (II).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Thomas A.

    To determine whether U.S. Supreme Court judges have a systematic attitude toward court cases dealing with the law of newsgathering and fair trial-free press, and whether that attitude can help predict the outcome of the pending case Press-Enterprise Co. v. Superior Court (II), this paper applies an attitudinal theory from the field of social…

  9. Comparative Evaluation of Two Superior Stopping Rules for Hierarchical Cluster Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atlas, Robert S.; Overall, John E.

    1994-01-01

    A split-sample replication stopping rule for hierarchical cluster analysis is compared with the internal criterion previously found superior by Milligan and Cooper (1985) in their comparison of 30 different procedures. Situations under which the methods are equivalent or not equally useful are discussed. (SLD)

  10. Rare Anomalous Origin of Superior Left Pulmonary Artery from Left Subclavian Vein

    SciTech Connect

    Lv, Tian-shi Wang, Chao Song, Li Lv, Yong-xing Zou, Ying-hua

    2013-10-15

    We report for the first time an extremely rare anomalous origin of the superior left pulmonary artery in a 60 year-old man. Although it was occult in clinical indications, such a malformation still ought to be considered, especially during endovascular procedures.

  11. Anthropogenic climate change has driven Lake Superior productivity beyond the range of Holocene variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    OBeirne, M. D.; Werne, J. P.; Hecky, R. E.; Johnson, T. C.; Katsev, S.; Reavie, E. D.

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies have noted that changes in Lake Superior's physical, chemical and biological processes are apparent - including a warming of the surface waters at a rate twice as great as the surrounding airshed in the last 20 years. These changes are often difficult to perceive as cause for concern when not placed within a historical context. In this study, bulk C and N abundance and stable isotope composition was determined on sediments from three piston and corresponding gravity cores, representing a record of lake-wide paleoproductivity trends spanning the Holocene. These data are compared with the same measurements on eight multi-cores sampled at high resolution spanning the past ~200 years, which allows for the historical comparison with recent (1800 A.D. to present) productivity trends. Throughout the Holocene, Lake Superior experienced a slow, steady increase in productivity consistent with conventional lake ontogeny. During the last 200 years, however, the Lake Superior basin has undergone biogeochemical changes that are unique in the context of the Holocene. Lake-wide sedimentary bulk organic carbon data indicate increasing primary production between 1900 and present, as indicated by a ~2‰ increase in δ13Corg. In contrast,δ15Norg values, which increased throughout the Holocene, become progressively 15N-depleted after 1900, likely due to atmospheric deposition of NOx from fossil fuel combustion. The most recent increases in primary productivity are likely a response to increasing water temperatures, leading to longer ice-free periods as previously documented in Lake Superior.

  12. Psychosocial Experiences and Adjustment among Adult Swedes with Superior General Mental Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stalnacke, Jannica; Smedler, Ann-Charlotte

    2011-01-01

    In Sweden, special needs of high-ability individuals have received little attention. For this purpose, adult Swedes with superior general mental ability (GMA; N = 302), defined by an IQ score greater than 130 on tests of abstract reasoning, answered a questionnaire regarding their views of themselves and their giftedness. The participants also…

  13. Expression of zinc transporter ZnT7 in mouse superior cervical ganglion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons contain a considerable amount of zinc ions, but little is known about zinc homeostasis in the SCG. It is known that zinc transporter 7 (ZnT7, Slc30a7), a member of the Slc30 ZnT family, is involved in mobilizing zinc ions from the cytoplasm into the Golgi...

  14. Physiological modifications by seston in response to physicochemical gradients within Lake Superior

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lake Superior is a non-steady state and phosphorus (P) depleted ecosystem. In September 2011, the vertical distribution and composition of dissolved and particulate P-pools throughout the Lake were examined. Differences in seston P content were evident with depth, as average sest...

  15. Depth-specific Analyses of the Lake Superior Food Web, oral presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Characteristics of large, deep aquatic systems include depth gradients in community composition, in the quality and distribution of food resources, and in the strategies that organisms use to obtain their nutrition. In Lake Superior, nearshore communities that rely upon a combina...

  16. 33 CFR 162.110 - Duluth-Superior Harbor, Minnesota and Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duluth-Superior Harbor, Minnesota and Wisconsin. 162.110 Section 162.110 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS §...

  17. 33 CFR 162.110 - Duluth-Superior Harbor, Minnesota and Wisconsin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Duluth-Superior Harbor, Minnesota and Wisconsin. 162.110 Section 162.110 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY INLAND WATERWAYS NAVIGATION REGULATIONS §...

  18. Exploring trends, causes, and consequences of declining lipids in Lake Superior lake trout

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ability of lake trout to forage in deepwater habitats is facilitated by high lipid content, which affords buoyancy. In Lake Superior, lean lake trout historically occupied depths < 80 m, and siscowet lake trout occupied depths > 80 m. Siscowets have been known f...

  19. Role of the wolf in a deer decline in the Superior National Forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mech, L.D.; Karns, P.D.

    1977-01-01

    White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) declined in the Superior National Forest of Minnesota between 1968 and 1974. In a 3,000 sq km area of the poorest habitat, deer were decimated. Contributing factors were severe winters, deteriorating habitat, and wolves. Wolves killed older deer, but insufficient fawns were available to replace them.

  20. Stenting of a Spontaneous Dissection of the Superior Mesenteric Artery: A New Therapeutic Approach?

    SciTech Connect

    Froment, P. Alerci, M.; Vandoni, R.E.; Bogen, M.; Gertsch, P.; Galeazzi, G.

    2004-09-15

    Spontaneous dissection of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) is rare and has been reported only sporadically. Therapeutic options are either a surgical approach, which is the more frequently adopted, or a simple observation. We report a case of spontaneous dissection of the SMA with a review of the literature and present a new therapeutic approach.

  1. Seismic reflection study of recessional moraines beneath Lake Superior and their relationship to regional deglaciation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Landmesser, C.W.; Johnson, T.C.; Wold, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Approximately 8000 km of continuous seismic reflection profiles throughout Lake Superior were examined for evidence of recessional moraines and other ice-margin deposits associated with the retreat of late Wisconsin ice. These features are correlated with the record of glacial-lake evolution in western Lake Superior. An offlapping sequence of glacial and glacial-lacustrine dediments overlying bedrock is recognized in west-central Lake Superior that is progressively younger to the northeast. The sequence underlies more recent glaical-lacustrine and postglacial sediments. Four facies are recognized on the basis of geomorphologic and acoustic properties and are interpreted to represent a southwest-to-northeast assemblage of: proglacial stratified drift (facies A), drift in major end moraines (facies B), till deposited as glacial retreat resumed, or possibly late-stage ablation till (facies C), and basal till (facies D). The prominent moraines of facies B are unusually thick and are believed to mark the ice-margin shorelines of successive major proglacial lakes that formerly occupied parts of western Lake Superior. The moraines are tentatively correlated with Glacial Lake Duluth (unit 1), Glacial Lake Washburn (unit 2), and Glacial Lake Beaver Bay (unit 3), the most prominent of lakes drained via the progressively lower outlets via the Moose Lake/ Brule-St. Croix Rivers, the Huron Mountains, and the Au Train-Whitefish regions, respectively. ?? 1982.

  2. 76 FR 45655 - Airworthiness Directives; Superior Air Parts and Lycoming Engines (Formerly Textron Lycoming...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ... Administration 14 CFR Part 39 [Docket No. FAA-2011-0547; Directorate Identifier 2011-NE-13-AD; Amendment 39-16757; AD 2011-15-10] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; Superior Air Parts and Lycoming Engines...: Final rule; request for comments. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD)...

  3. 5 CFR 531.212 - Superior qualifications and special needs pay-setting authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... pay-setting authority. 531.212 Section 531.212 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Appointment Or Position Changes § 531.212 Superior qualifications and special needs pay-setting authority. (a... from NAFI position to GS position with a break in service of 3 days or less and without a change...

  4. 5 CFR 531.212 - Superior qualifications and special needs pay-setting authority.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... pay-setting authority. 531.212 Section 531.212 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Appointment Or Position Changes § 531.212 Superior qualifications and special needs pay-setting authority. (a... from NAFI position to GS position with a break in service of 3 days or less and without a change...

  5. Exploring What's Missing: What Do Target Absent Trials Reveal about Autism Search Superiority?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keehn, Brandon; Joseph, Robert M.

    2016-01-01

    We used eye-tracking to investigate the roles of enhanced discrimination and peripheral selection in superior visual search in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Children with ASD were faster at visual search than their typically developing peers. However, group differences in performance and eye-movements did not vary with the level of difficulty of…

  6. Melt-polymerization of TEMPO methacrylates with nano carbons enables superior battery materials.

    PubMed

    Vlad, Alexandru; Rolland, Julien; Hauffman, Guillaume; Ernould, Bruno; Gohy, Jean-François

    2015-05-22

    A solvent-free, melt polymerization process of a 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO) precursor for rechargeable organic radical batteries is proposed. In situ carbon incorporation in the melted monomer phase yields a nanoscale homogenous polymer composite. Superior battery performances including higher power and cycling stability are attained by using the melt-polymerization method.

  7. Dynamic Analysis of Gene Expression in Rice Superior and Inferior Grains by RNA-Seq.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hongzheng; Peng, Ting; Zhao, Yafan; Du, Yanxiu; Zhang, Jing; Li, Junzhou; Xin, Zeyu; Zhao, Quanzhi

    2015-01-01

    Poor grain filling of inferior grains located on lower secondary panicle branch causes great drop in rice yield and quality. Dynamic gene expression patterns between superior and inferior grains were examined from the view of the whole transcriptome by using RNA-Seq method. In total, 19,442 genes were detected during rice grain development. Genes involved in starch synthesis, grain storage and grain development were interrogated in particular in superior and inferior grains. Of the genes involved in sucrose to starch transformation process, most were expressed at lower level in inferior grains at early filling stage compared to that of superior grains. But at late filling stage, the expression of those genes was higher in inferior grains and lower in superior grains. The same trends were observed in the expression of grain storage protein genes. While, evidence that genes involved in cell cycle showed higher expression in inferior grains during whole period of grain filling indicated that cell proliferation was active till the late filling stage. In conclusion, delayed expression of most starch synthesis genes in inferior grains and low capacity of sink organ might be two important factors causing low filling rate of inferior grain at early filling stage, and shortage of carbohydrate supply was a limiting factor at late filling stage.

  8. [Various cases of direct connections between the celiac artery and the superior mesenteric].

    PubMed

    Bertelli, E; Di Gregorio, F; Civeli, L

    1991-01-01

    The authors produce three cases in which an anastomotic arterial trunk between the coeliac artery and the superior mesenteric artery was present. Although this finding is rather rare (0.4% in vivo) it is important for the surgeons who operate upon the pancreas.

  9. 76 FR 11332 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Duluth Ship Canal, Duluth-Superior Harbor, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-02

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Duluth Ship Canal... proposed rulemaking (NPRM) entitled Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Duluth Ship Canal, Duluth-Superior... located 0.25 miles from Duluth Harbor North Pier Light at the lakeward end of the Duluth Ship Canal. It...

  10. SPATIAL PATTERNS IN ASSEMBLAGE STRUCTURES OF PELAGIC FORAGE FISH AND ZOOPLANKTON IN WESTERN LAKE SUPERIOR

    EPA Science Inventory

    This manuscript reports on the spatial distribution of zooplankton and forage fish in western Lake Superior. Fish and zooplankton assemblages are shown to differ substantially in abundance and size structure both between the open lake and nearshore regions and between two differe...

  11. 75 FR 76324 - Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Duluth Ship Canal, Duluth-Superior Harbor, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 117 RIN 1625-AA09 Drawbridge Operation Regulation; Duluth Ship Canal... North Pier Light at the lakeward end of the Duluth Ship Canal. It is a vertical lift type bridge that... Sec. 117.661 to read as follow: Sec. 117.661 Duluth Ship Canal (Duluth-Superior Harbor). The draw...

  12. 33 CFR 117.661 - Duluth Ship Canal (Duluth-Superior Harbor).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Duluth Ship Canal (Duluth... Ship Canal (Duluth-Superior Harbor). The draw of the Duluth Ship Canal bridge, mile 0.1 at Duluth... prolonged blast, one short blast. If the Duluth Ship Canal Bridge is disabled, the bridge authorities...

  13. In Search of ''Master Mindreaders'': Are Psychics Superior in Reading the Language of the Eyes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dziobek, I.; Rogers, K.; Fleck, S.; Hassenstab, J.; Gold, S.; Wolf, O.T.; Convit, A.

    2005-01-01

    Much of the effort to understand the brain substrate of theory of mind and empathy has involved the study of individuals with deficits in that domain, such as those on the autism spectrum. Studying individuals with presumed superior abilities in picking up social signals may yield important additional information. We predicted that psychic readers…

  14. Paleoproterozoic basin development and sedimentation in the Lake Superior region, North America

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ojakangas, R.W.; Morey, G.B.; Southwick, D.L.

    2001-01-01

    The peneplaned Archean craton in the Lake Superior region was the platform upon which a continental margin assemblage was deposited. Extension resulted in localized rifts that received thicker accumulations of sediments and volcanic rocks than did adjacent parts of the platform. Seas transgressed onto the continent several times and an ocean basin opened south of the present-day Lake Superior. Island arcs that formed during subduction collided with the craton margin as the ocean basin closed; oceanic crust is poorly preserved as a dismembered ophiolite sequence. The arc volcanics are preserved as the Wisconsin magmatic terranes. The collision resulted in a fold-and-thrust belt known as the Penokean orogen. To the north of the fold-and-thrust belt, a northward-migrating foreland basin - the Animikie basin - developed. Thick turbidite successions were deposited along the basin axis, and terrigenous clastics and Lake Superior-type iron-formation were deposited on the shelf along the northern margin of the basin. The primary paleoclimatic indicators are: (1) glaciogenic rocks at the base of the Paleoproterozoic succession in Michigan indicating ice-house conditions; 2) remnants of a paleosol on the glaciogenic rocks indicative of deep weathering, probably under subtropical conditions and therefore of greenhouse conditions; and (3) carbonate minerals after gypsum, halite, and anhydrite in stromatolitic dolomite, indicative of aridity. Three second-order depositional sequences are bounded by major unconformities, and can be correlated throughout the Lake Superior region. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Predicting geomorphic stability in low-order streams of the western Lake Superior basin

    EPA Science Inventory

    Width:depth ratios, entrenchment ratios, gradients, and median substrate particle sizes (D50s) were measured in 32 second and third order stream reaches in the western Lake Superior basin, and stream reaches were assigned a Rosgen geomorphic classification. Over 700 measurements ...

  16. Interventional treatment for symptomatic acute-subacute portal and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Feng-Yong; Wang, Mao-Qiang; Fan, Qing-Sheng; Duan, Feng; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Song, Peng

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To summarize our methods and experience with interventional treatment for symptomatic acute-subacute portal vein and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis (PV-SMV) thrombosis. METHODS: Forty-six patients (30 males, 16 females, aged 17-68 years) with symptomatic acute-subacute portal and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis were accurately diagnosed with Doppler ultrasound scans, computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. They were treated with interventional therapy, including direct thrombolysis (26 cases through a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt; 6 through percutaneous transhepatic portal vein cannulation) and indirect thrombolysis (10 through the femoral artery to superior mesenteric artery catheterization; 4 through the radial artery to superior mesenteric artery catheterization). RESULTS: The blood reperfusion of PV-SMV was achieved completely or partially in 34 patients 3-13 d after thrombolysis. In 11 patients there was no PV-SMV blood reperfusion but the number of collateral vessels increased significantly. Symptoms in these 45 patients were improved dramatically without severe operational complications. In 1 patient, the thrombi did not respond to the interventional treatment and resulted in intestinal necrosis, which required surgical treatment. In 3 patients with interventional treatment, thrombi re-formed 1, 3 and 4 mo after treatment. In these 3 patients, indirect PV-SMV thrombolysis was performed again and was successful. CONCLUSION: Interventional treatment, including direct or indirect PV-SMV thrombolysis, is a safe and effective method for patients with symptomatic acute-subacute PV-SMV thrombosis. PMID:19859995

  17. Wisconsin's Lake Superior Basin Water Quality Study. Supplement. Technical Report No. 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whisnant, David M., Ed.

    During the period extending from May 1972 through April 1973, an investigation of the overall water quality conditions of streams flowing into Lake Superior from the entire state of Wisconsin was conducted. The goal of this publication was to provide much needed regional information on water quality, drainage basins, pollution sources and loads,…

  18. Do the Brain Networks of Scientists Account for Their Superiority in Hypothesis-Generating?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jun-Ki

    2012-01-01

    Where do scientists' superior abilities originate from when generating a creative idea? What different brain functions are activated between scientists and i) general academic high school students and ii) science high school students when generating a biological hypothesis? To reveal brain level explanations for these questions, this paper…

  19. The non-native faucet snail (Bithynia tentaculata) makes the leap to Lake Superior

    EPA Science Inventory

    The European-origin faucet snail (Bithynia tentaculata) has been present in the lower Great Lakes since the late 1800s but only very recently reached Lake Superior. Surveys from 2011 through 2013 found faucet snail to be abundant and wide-spread in the St. Louis River Estuary wi...

  20. Presentation Time Concerning System-Paced Multimedia Instructions and the Superiority of Learner Pacing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiller, Klaus D.; Petzold, Kirstin; Zinnbauer, Peter

    2011-01-01

    The superiority of learner-paced over system-paced instructions was demonstrated in multiple experiments. In these experiments, the system-paced presentations were highly speeded, causing cognitive overload, while the learner-paced instructions allowed adjustments of the presentational flow to the learner's needs by pacing facilities, mostly…

  1. Mammaplasty with a single, vertical, superiorly-based pedicle to support the nipple-areola.

    PubMed

    Arufe, H N; Erenfryd, A; Saubidet, M

    1977-08-01

    We present our technique for mammaplasty, using a vertical, single-pedicled, flap with a superior base. The procedure is simple, and it allows final determination of the areola and nipple location after the newly shaped and positioned mound is closed.

  2. Compression of the common peroneal nerve by intramuscular ganglion from the superior tibio-fibular joint.

    PubMed

    Muckart, R D

    1976-05-01

    Eight patients had symptoms from ganglia arising from the superior tibio-fibular joint with physical signs that resembled the anterior tibial and peroneal compartment syndromes. Five ganglia were in the peroneus longus muscle in which they produced only an ill-defined firmness. Histologically the ganglia showed much cellular activity which must not be mistaken for malignant change.

  3. Break dance hip: chronic avulsion of the anterior superior iliac spine.

    PubMed

    Winkler, A R; Barnes, J C; Ogden, J A

    1987-01-01

    A case of chronic, progressive avulsion of the anterior superior iliac spine leading to the formation of a long, attenuated spur of bone in an 18-year-old black male break dancer is described. The mechanism of formation appeared to be repetitive avulsion from break dancing.

  4. Wisconsin's Lake Superior Basin Water Quality Study. Technical Report No. 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickas, Albert B., Ed.

    This hydrologic study focuses on Wisconsin's Lake Superior Basin. Water is the most important natural resource in this area which includes Douglass, Bayfield, Ashland, and Iron counties. This study was undertaken to determine the character of this hydrologic base and to determine the effects and extent of man-influenced disturbances. It includes…

  5. 75 FR 67950 - Notice of Designation of the Lake Superior National Estuarine Research Reserve in Wisconsin

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-04

    ... of Designation of the Lake Superior National Estuarine Research Reserve in Wisconsin AGENCY: Estuarine Reserves Division, Office of Ocean and Coastal Resource Management, National Ocean Service... certain lands and waters of the St. Louis River freshwater estuary in Wisconsin as the Lake...

  6. Do Adults with Mental Retardation Show Pictorial Superiority Effects in Recall and Recognition?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherry, Katie E.; Applegate, Heather; Reese, Celinda M.

    2002-01-01

    A study examined memory for pictures and words in 16 adults with mental retardation and 24 controls. Pictorial superiority effects occurred in free recall and recognition for both intelligence-level groups. Correlational analyses indicated working memory span was primarily related to recall performance, irrespective of stimulus format. (Contains…

  7. The Picture Superiority Effect in Recognition Memory: A Developmental Study Using the Response Signal Procedure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defeyter, Margaret Anne; Russo, Riccardo; McPartlin, Pamela Louise

    2009-01-01

    Items studied as pictures are better remembered than items studied as words even when test items are presented as words. The present study examined the development of this picture superiority effect in recognition memory. Four groups ranging in age from 7 to 20 years participated. They studied words and pictures, with test stimuli always presented…

  8. Memory for Pictures, Words, and Spatial Location in Older Adults: Evidence for Pictorial Superiority.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Denise Cortis; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Tested recognition memory for items and spatial location by varying picture and word stimuli across four slide quadrants. Results showed a pictorial superiority effect for item recognition and a greater ability to remember the spatial location of pictures versus words for both old and young adults (N=95). (WAS)

  9. The apparent size of three-dimensional objects and their silhouettes: a solid-superiority effect.

    PubMed

    Walker, J T; Walker, M J

    1988-01-01

    A solid object looks larger than its outline or silhouette under many viewing conditions. This solid-superiority effect may result from the assimilation or confusion of visual contours within the projection of a three-dimensional object on the picture plane. An aspect of the Müller-Lyer illusion may also play a role.

  10. Picture Superiority Doubly Dissociates the ERP Correlates of Recollection and Familiarity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curran, Tim; Doyle, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    Two experiments investigated the processes underlying the picture superiority effect on recognition memory. Studied pictures were associated with higher accuracy than studied words, regardless of whether test stimuli were words (Experiment 1) or pictures (Experiment 2). Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) recorded during test suggested that the…

  11. Word and pseudoword superiority effects in a shallow orthography language: the role of hemispheric lateralization.

    PubMed

    Ripamonti, Enrico; Traficante, Daniela; Crippa, Franca; Luzzattii, Claudio

    2014-04-01

    The word superiority effect (WSE) has made it possible to demonstrate the automatic activation of lexical-orthographic entries in reading. The observation of this effect is important since it led to experimental support of the main cognitive reading models. These models were mostly developed on English data, hence the verification in different orthography systems is relevant. The present study tested WSE in Italian, a language in which this effect was predicted to be less constant given the highly consistent correspondence between orthography and phonology. Moreover, the presentation of the items in a lateralized visual field condition allowed testing of assumptions about the roles of the right and left hemispheres in written word recognition and, in particular, on the hemispheric lateralization of lexical processing. Two experiments were conducted with undergraduate students who had to recognize a target letter within a word, pseudoword, or nonword. In Experiment 1, prime and probe letters were in the same letter case, while in Experiment 2 they were in different letter cases. Error rates and reaction times were analyzed with mixed models. The results showed a superiority of pseudowords (pseudoword superiority effect; PSE) over illegal strings with no evidence of a clear superiority of words over pseudowords for both left and right visual field presentations. This suggests that in Italian, the sub-lexical route could play a major role in reading and that this route relies on a visual-perceptual orthographic coding concerning familiarity of letter combinations, which is also available to the right hemisphere.

  12. Scales for Rating the Behavioral Characteristics of Superior Students. Technical and Administration Manual. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renzulli, Joseph S.; Smith, Linda H.; White, Alan J.; Callahan, Carolyn M.; Hartman, Robert K.; Westberg, Karen L.

    This manual describes development and use of the revised "Scales for Rating the Behavioral Characteristics of Superior Students" (SRBCSS-R), a teacher judgment instrument appropriate for use as one measure in the identification of gifted students. Part 1 explains the judgmental and empirical procedures used to revise the items on the original…

  13. From Berries to Orchards: Tracing the History of Berrying and Economic Transformation among Lake Superior Ojibwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norrgard, Chantal

    2009-01-01

    This article explores the history of berrying as a significant example of how Lake Superior Ojibwe weathered economic transitions in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It looks at the emergence of the berry industry surrounding the Fond du Lac, Red Cliff, and Bad River communities, beginning with Ojibwe relocation to these…

  14. Superselective embolization of superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysms following intramuscular injection: case report.

    PubMed

    Vauthey, J N; Maddern, G J; Balsiger, D; Blumgart, L H; Triller, J

    1991-08-01

    Two bleeding superior gluteal artery pseudoaneurysms occurred in a patient with advanced malignant disease following an intramuscular injection. This was diagnosed by angiography and successfully managed by superselective embolization. This avoided further surgery and no additional complication from the pseudoaneurysm occurred up to the time of the patient's demise.

  15. Increased Activation in Superior Temporal Gyri as a Function of Increment in Phonetic Features

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osnes, Berge; Hugdahl, Kenneth; Hjelmervik, Helene; Specht, Karsten

    2011-01-01

    A common assumption is that phonetic sounds initiate unique processing in the superior temporal gyri and sulci (STG/STS). The anatomical areas subserving these processes are also implicated in the processing of non-phonetic stimuli such as music instrument sounds. The differential processing of phonetic and non-phonetic sounds was investigated in…

  16. Visual Processing in Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Evidence from Embedded Figures and Configural Superiority Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillen, Claudia; Steyaert, Jean; Op de Beeck, Hans P.; Boets, Bart

    2015-01-01

    The embedded figures test has often been used to reveal weak central coherence in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we administered a more standardized automated version of the embedded figures test in combination with the configural superiority task, to investigate the effect of contextual modulation on local feature…

  17. Interhemispheric visuo-motor integration in humans: the role of the superior parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Iacoboni, Marco; Zaidel, Eran

    2004-01-01

    We used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the neural correlates of basic interhemispheric visuo-motor integration. In a simple reaction time task, subjects responded to lateralized left and right light flashes with unimanual left and right hand responses. Typically, reaction times are faster for uncrossed responses (that is, visual stimulus and response hand on the same side) than for crossed responses (that is, visual stimulus and response hand on opposite sides). The chronometric difference between crossed and uncrossed responses is called crossed-uncrossed difference (CUD) and it is typically taken to represent a behavioral estimate of interhemispheric transfer time. The fMRI results obtained in normal right-handers show that the crossed conditions yielded greater activity, compared to the uncrossed conditions, in bilateral prefrontal, bilateral dorsal premotor, and right superior parietal areas. These results suggest that multiple transfers between the hemispheres occur in parallel at the functional levels of sensory-motor integration (posterior parietal), decision-making (prefrontal) and preparation of motor response (premotor). To test the behavioral significance of these multiple transfers, we correlated the individual CUDs with the difference in signal intensity between crossed and uncrossed responses in the prefrontal, dorsal premotor, and right superior parietal activated areas. The analyses demonstrated a strong correlation between the CUD and signal intensity difference between crossed and uncrossed responses in the right superior parietal cortex. These data suggest a critical role of the superior parietal cortex in interhemispheric visuo-motor integration.

  18. Cardiac Metastasis from Invasive Thymoma Via the Superior Vena Cava: Cardiac MRI Findings

    SciTech Connect

    Dursun, Memduh Sarvar, Sadik; Cekrezi, Bledi; Kaba, Erkan; Bakir, Baris; Toker, Alper

    2008-07-15

    Cardiac tumors are rare, and metastatic deposits are more common than primary cardiac tumors. We present cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings of a 50-year-old woman with invasive thymoma. Cardiac MRI revealed a heterogeneous, lobulated anterior mediastinal mass invading the superior vena cava and extending to the right atrium. In cine images there was no invasion to the right atrial wall.

  19. A Holocene history of dune-mediated landscape change along the southeastern shore of Lake Superior

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loope, Walter L.; Fisher, Timothy G.; Jol, Harry M.; Anderton, John B.; Blewett, William L.

    2004-01-01

    Causal links that connect Holocene high stands of Lake Superior with dune building, stream damming and diversion and reservoir impoundment and infilling are inferred from a multidisciplinary investigation of a small watershed along the SE shore of Lake Superior. Radiocarbon ages of wood fragments from in-place stumps and soil O horizons, recovered from the bottom of 300-ha Grand Sable Lake, suggest that the near-shore inland lake was formed during multiple episodes of late Holocene dune damming of ancestral Sable Creek. Forest drownings at ~3000, 1530, and 300 cal. years BP are highly correlated with local soil burial events that occurred during high stands of Lake Superior. During these and earlier events, Sable Creek was diverted onto eastward-graded late Pleistocene meltwater terraces. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) reveals the early Holocene valley of Sable Creek (now filled) and its constituent sedimentary structures. Near-planar paleosols, identified with GPR, suggest two repeating modes of landscape evolution mediated by levels of Lake Superior. High lake stands drove stream damming, reservoir impoundment, and eolian infilling of impoundments. Falling Lake Superior levels brought decreased sand supply to dune dams and lowered stream base level. These latter factors promoted stream piracy, breaching of dune dams, and aerial exposure and forestation of infilled lakebeds. The bathymetry of Grand Sable Lake suggests that its shoreline configuration and depth varied in response to events of dune damming and subsequent dam breaching. The interrelated late Holocene events apparent in this study area suggest that variations in lake level have imposed complex hydrologic and geomorphic signatures on upper Great Lakes coasts.

  20. Can spatial heterogeneity explain the perceived imbalance in Lake Superior's carbon budget? A model study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bennington, Val; McKinley, Galen A.; Urban, Noel R.; McDonald, Cory P.

    2012-09-01

    Lake Superior is the largest lake in the world by surface area, containing 10% of the world's surface freshwater. Yet, little is known about its role within the regional carbon budget. Observational studies on Lake Superior have been limited by harsh winters and the challenges of covering such a vast expanse. To date, carbon budgets extrapolated from observational studies are largely out of balance and suggest a large efflux of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere (˜3 TgC/yr) that cannot be supported by the estimated net inputs into the lake (<1 TgC/yr). We couple a hydrodynamic model of Lake Superior to an ecosystem model to understand the seasonal cycle of the partial pressure of carbon dioxide (pCO2) in the lake surface waters, the resulting air-lake carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes, and whether spatial heterogeneity can explain the previously imbalanced carbon budget. The model sufficiently simulates lake productivity, circulation, respiration, pCO2, and chlorophyll. We find that the seasonal cycle of pCO2is generally a double sinusoidal curve during the simulated period of 1996-2001. The lake acts as a sink of carbon dioxide in summer and during late winter of cold years and as a source to the atmosphere during winter and spring. We find significant spatial heterogeneity of respiration in Lake Superior, with near-shore to offshore rates of respiration varying by two orders of magnitude. Thus, Lake Superior need not act as a significant source of carbon dioxide (˜0.5 TgC/yr) to the atmosphere in order to be consistent with in situ observations of respiration.

  1. A Holocene history of dune-mediated landscape change along the southeastern shore of Lake Superior

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loope, Walter L.; Fisher, Timothy G.; Jol, Harry M.; Goble, Ronald J.; Anderton, John B.; Blewett, William L.

    2004-08-01

    Causal links that connect Holocene high stands of Lake Superior with dune building, stream damming and diversion and reservoir impoundment and infilling are inferred from a multidisciplinary investigation of a small watershed along the SE shore of Lake Superior. Radiocarbon ages of wood fragments from in-place stumps and soil O horizons, recovered from the bottom of 300-ha Grand Sable Lake, suggest that the near-shore inland lake was formed during multiple episodes of late Holocene dune damming of ancestral Sable Creek. Forest drownings at ˜3000, 1530, and 300 cal. years BP are highly correlated with local soil burial events that occurred during high stands of Lake Superior. During these and earlier events, Sable Creek was diverted onto eastward-graded late Pleistocene meltwater terraces. Ground penetrating radar (GPR) reveals the early Holocene valley of Sable Creek (now filled) and its constituent sedimentary structures. Near-planar paleosols, identified with GPR, suggest two repeating modes of landscape evolution mediated by levels of Lake Superior. High lake stands drove stream damming, reservoir impoundment, and eolian infilling of impoundments. Falling Lake Superior levels brought decreased sand supply to dune dams and lowered stream base level. These latter factors promoted stream piracy, breaching of dune dams, and aerial exposure and forestation of infilled lakebeds. The bathymetry of Grand Sable Lake suggests that its shoreline configuration and depth varied in response to events of dune damming and subsequent dam breaching. The interrelated late Holocene events apparent in this study area suggest that variations in lake level have imposed complex hydrologic and geomorphic signatures on upper Great Lakes coasts.

  2. Numerical magnitude processing in abacus-trained children with superior mathematical ability: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jian; Du, Feng-lei; Yao, Yuan; Wan, Qun; Wang, Xiao-Song; Chen, Fei-Yan

    2015-08-01

    Distance effect has been regarded as the best established marker of basic numerical magnitude processes and is related to individual mathematical abilities. A larger behavioral distance effect is suggested to be concomitant with lower mathematical achievement in children. However, the relationship between distance effect and superior mathematical abilities is unclear. One could get superior mathematical abilities by acquiring the skill of abacus-based mental calculation (AMC), which can be used to solve calculation problems with exceptional speed and high accuracy. In the current study, we explore the relationship between distance effect and superior mathematical abilities by examining whether and how the AMC training modifies numerical magnitude processing. Thus, mathematical competencies were tested in 18 abacus-trained children (who accepted the AMC training) and 18 non-trained children. Electroencephalography (EEG) waveforms were recorded when these children executed numerical comparison tasks in both Arabic digit and dot array forms. We found that: (a) the abacus-trained group had superior mathematical abilities than their peers; (b) distance effects were found both in behavioral results and on EEG waveforms; (c) the distance effect size of the average amplitude on the late negative-going component was different between groups in the digit task, with a larger effect size for abacus-trained children; (d) both the behavioral and EEG distance effects were modulated by the notation. These results revealed that the neural substrates of magnitude processing were modified by AMC training, and suggested that the mechanism of the representation of numerical magnitude for children with superior mathematical abilities was different from their peers. In addition, the results provide evidence for a view of non-abstract numerical representation.

  3. Winter Fish Populations in Probable Locations of Air Bubblers in the St. Marys River-Lake Superior Area

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    macrobenthos communities of St. Marys River, Lake Superior and Lake Huron ." 2. A reconnaissance trip in October 1979 was used to test sampling gear and...Marys River, Lake Superior and Lake Huron . D - cological Effects of Air bubblers in the Winter, a Partially Annotated Bibliography. Acoession For NTTS...8217 APPENDIX C Ar,’JOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON WINTER FISH AND MACROBENTHOS COMMUNITIES OF ST. MARYS RIVER, LAKE SUPERIOR AND LAKE HURON ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY ON

  4. Stenting of the superior vena cava and left brachiocephalic vein with preserving the central venous catheter in situ.

    PubMed

    Isfort, Peter; Penzkofer, Tobias; Goerg, Fabian; Mahnken, Andreas H

    2011-01-01

    Stenting of the central veins is well established for treating localized venous stenosis. The techniques regarding catheter preservation for central venous catheters in the superior vena cava have been described. We describe here a method for stent implantation in the superior vena cava and the left brachiocephalic vein, and principally via a single jugular venous puncture, while saving a left sided jugular central venous catheter in a patient suffering from central venous stenosis of the superior vena cava and the left brachiocephalic vein.

  5. The properties of the extraocular muscles of the frog. II. Pharmacological properties of the isolated superior oblique and superior rectus muscles.

    PubMed

    Asmussen, G

    1978-01-01

    The pharmacological properties of the superior oblique and the superior rectus muscles of the frog's eye were investigated in comparison with those of a skeletal muscle (iliofibularis muscle) of the same animal. Acetylcholine causes sustained contractures of the extraocular muscles; this effect is increased by physostigmine and decreased or abolished by d-tubocurarine. Also the applications of succinylcholine, choline or caffeine are able to evoke contractures. There are no striking differences in pharmacological properties between extraocular and skeletal muscles of the frog. The time-course of the contractures and the sensitivity of the muscle preparations to the drugs which evoke contractures are identical in extraocular and iliofibularis muscles. In comparison with skeletal muscles there is no higher sensitivity of the extraocular muscles against curare-like drugs. The existence of adrenergic receptors could not be found neither in extraocular nor in skeletal muscles of the frog. It is concluded that in frogs no pharmacological differences exist between the muscle fibre types which compose the extraocular and the skeletal muscles.

  6. Ligation of superior mesenteric vein and portal to splenic vein anastomosis after superior mesenteric-portal vein confluence resection during pancreaticoduodenectomy – Case report

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Jianlin; Abbas, Jihad; Hoetzl, Katherine; Allison, David; Osman, Mahamed; Williams, Mallory; Zelenock, Gerald B.

    2014-01-01

    62 year old Caucasian female with pancreatic head mass abutting the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) presented with fine needle aspiration biopsy confirmed diagnosis of ductal adenocarcinoma. CT scan showed near complete obstruction of portal vein and large SMV collateral development. After 3 months of neoadjuvant therapy, her portal vein flow improved significantly, SMV collateral circulation was diminished. Pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and superior mesenteric portal vein (SMPV) confluence resection were performed; A saphenous vein interposition graft thrombosed immediately. The splenic vein remnant was distended and adjacent to the stump of the portal vein. Harvesting an internal jugular vein graft required extra time and using a synthetic graft posed a risk of graft thrombosis or infection. As a result, we chose to perform a direct anastomosis of the portal and splenic vein in a desperate situation. The anastomosis decompressed the mesenteric venous system, so we then ligated the SMV. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course, except transient ascites. She redeveloped ascites more than one year later. At that time a PET scan showed bilateral lung and right femur metastatic disease. She expired 15 months after PD. Conclusion The lessons we learned are (1) Before SMPV confluence resection, internal jugular vein graft should be ready for reconstruction. (2) Synthetic graft is an alternative for internal jugular vein graft. (3) Direct portal vein to SMV anastomosis can be achieved by mobilizing liver. (4) It is possible that venous collaterals secondary to SMV tumor obstruction may have allowed this patient's post-operative survival. PMID:25568802

  7. Giant saccular superior vena cava aneurysm—a rare and difficult clinical case

    PubMed Central

    Janczak, Dariusz; Skiba, Jacek; Gemel, Marek; Mak, Marek; Ziomek, Agnieszka; Malinowski, Maciej; Dorobisz, Tadeusz; Lesniak, Michal; Janczak, Dawid

    2016-01-01

    A superior vena cava (SVC) aneurysm is an extremely rare case of vascular malformation in the chest cavity. This is a report of a case of a 57-year-old woman with a saccular SVC aneurysm which was 8 cm wide. The chest computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed a giant 75 mm × 79 mm × 81 mm mass containing the contrast medium from SVC, constricting the right lung parenchyma, narrowing the right innominate vein, in contact with the anterolateral chest cavity wall, and adjoining the superior mediastinum. Under general anesthesia and employing the median sternotomy approach, using a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), the venous aneurysm was successfully resected. The postoperative period was uneventful. Radical surgical resection using a sternotomy and a CPB is recommended. PMID:27076981

  8. Idiopathic Superior Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis Resulting in Small Bowel Ischemia in a Pregnant Woman

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Hao; Lin, Chih-Che; Huang, Wan-Ting

    2011-01-01

    Background. Small bowel ischemia due to superior mesenteric vein thrombosis (MVT) is rare during pregnancy. However, additional precipitating factors should usually be identified. Case. A 31-year-old woman, pregnant at 34 weeks, was sent to the emergency department because of acute peritonitis. An emergency exploration revealed a segmental gangrene of the small intestine without any mechanical obstruction. Together with the termination of pregnancy, resection of the damaged small bowel was performed, and an end-to-end enterostomy was followed. Based on the operative and pathological findings, small bowel ischemia might be attributed to superior mesenteric vein thrombosis. Conclusion. Hypercoagulation state normally found in pregnant women is believed to lead to this catastrophic condition without other precipitating factors. PMID:22567515

  9. Isolated Persistent Left Superior Vena Cava: A Case Report and its Clinical Implications

    PubMed Central

    Bisoyi, Samarjit; Jagannathan, Usha; Dash, Anjan Kumar; Tripathy, Sabyasachi; Mohapatra, Raghunath; Pattnaik, Naba Kumar; Sahu, Satyajit; Nayak, Debashish

    2017-01-01

    The venous anomaly of a persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC) affects 0.3%–0.5% of the general population. PLSVC with absent right superior vena cava, also termed as “isolated PLSVC,” is an extremely rare venous anomaly. Almost half of the patients with isolated PLSVC have cardiac anomalies in the form of atrial septal defect, endocardial cushion defects, or tetralogy of Fallot. Isolated PLSVC is usually innocuous. Its discovery, however, has important clinical implications. It can pose clinical difficulties with central venous access, cardiothoracic surgeries, and pacemaker implantation. When it drains to the left atrium, it may create a right to left shunt. In this case report, we present the incidental finding of isolated PLSVC in a patient who underwent aortic valve replacement. Awareness about this condition and its variations is important to avoid complications. PMID:28074807

  10. Superior labrum anterior to posterior lesions of the shoulder: Diagnosis and arthroscopic management

    PubMed Central

    Aydin, Nuri; Sirin, Evrim; Arya, Alp

    2014-01-01

    After the improvement in arthroscopic shoulder surgery, superior labrum anterior to posterior (SLAP) tears are increasingly recognized and treated in persons with excessive overhead activities like throwers. Several potential mechanisms for the pathophysiology of superior labral tears have been proposed. The diagnosis of this condition can be possible by history, physical examination and magnetic resonance imaging combination. The treatment of type 1 SLAP tears in many cases especially in older patients is non-operative but some cases need arthroscopic intervention. The arthroscopic management of type 2 lesions in older patients can be biceps tenodesis, but young and active patients like throwers will need an arthroscopic repair. The results of arthroscopic repair in older patients are not encouraging. The purpose of this study is to perform an overview of the diagnosis of the SLAP tears and to help decision making for the surgical management. PMID:25035838

  11. Association of efferent neurons to the compartmental architecture of the superior colliculus.

    PubMed Central

    Illing, R B

    1992-01-01

    The superior colliculus is a layered structure in the mammalian midbrain serving multimodal sensorimotor integration. Its intermediate layers are characterized by a compartmental architecture. These compartments are apparent through the clustering of terminals of major collicular afferents, which in many instances match the heterogeneous distribution of tissue components such as acetylcholinesterase, choline acetyltransferase, substance P, and parvalbumin. The present study was undertaken to determine whether efferent cells observe this compartmental architecture. It was found that subpopulations of both descending and ascending collicular efferents originate from perikarya situated in characteristic positions relative to the collicular compartments defined by elevated acetylcholinesterase activity and that their dendrites appear to be specifically coordinated with the heterogeneous environment. With the specific interlocking of afferent and efferent neurons through spatially distinguished neural networks, the compartmental architecture apparently constitutes an essential element for the determination of information flow in the superior colliculus. Images PMID:1438296

  12. [Reconstruction of an abdominal wall defect with a superior epigastric perforator propeller flap: case report].

    PubMed

    Lepivert, J-C; Alet, J-M; Michot, A; Pélissier, P; Pinsolle, V

    2014-10-01

    Perforators flaps take a special place in reconstructive surgery. These flaps can be dissected and turned as a propeller blade on its pedicule axis. We report the case of a 54-year-old man presenting a recurrence of a dermatofibrosarcoma in the right hypochondrium. Tumor resection caused a large abdominal wall defect taking the anterior aponeurosis of the rectus abdominis. An angioscanner was realized in preoperative to locate the perforators of the deep superior epigastric artery. We realized a propeller flap based on a perforator of the left superior epigastric artery who allowed to cover the wall defect. We set up a patch of Vicryl® to reconstruct the aponeurosis plan at the same operative time. We didn't note any necrosis and complete healing occurred in 2 weeks. The margins were healthy. The cosmetic result and the low morbidity make this flap a good therapeutic option. This flap seems reliable, arteries perforators are constant with good diameter.

  13. Life histories and abundance of crustacean zooplankton in the outlet of Lake Superior, 1971-72

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Selgeby, James H.

    1975-01-01

    In sampling throughout a year, at about 3-wk intervals, of the crustacean zooplankton discharged from Lake Superior through the St. Marys River, 30 species were collected, including three not previously recorded for the lake: the copepod Cyclops strenuus, and the cladocerans Alona costata and Alonella acutirostris. Five copepods, Cyclops bicuspidatus thomasi, Diaptomus ashlandi, D. sicilis, Limnocalanus macrurus, and Senecella calanoides were present in the plankton throughout the year while three other copepods, Diaptomus minutus, Epischura lacustris, and Mesocyclops edax, along with all cladocerans, were present only during summer and fall. Five species of copepods, Diaptomus sicilis, D. minutus, Limnocalanus macrurus, Senecella calanoides, and Epischura lacustris produced a single generation annually; three other copepods and all cladocerans produced two or more generations. All species breed 1-3 mo later in Lake Superior than in lakes Michigan and Erie.

  14. Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory: Quality and Quantity of Retention Over Time

    PubMed Central

    LePort, Aurora K. R.; Stark, Shauna M.; McGaugh, James L.; Stark, Craig E. L.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals who have Highly Superior Autobiographical Memory (HSAM) are able to recall, with considerable accuracy, details of daily experiences that occurred over many previous decades. The present study parametrically investigates the quantity and quality of details of autobiographical memories acquired 1-week, 1-month, 1-year, and 10-years prior in HSAMs and controls. In addition, we tested the consistency of details provided at the 1-week delay by testing the subjects 1 month later with a surprise assessment. At the 1-week delay, HSAMs and controls recalled an equivalent number of events. In contrast, HSAM recall performance was superior at more remote delays, with remarkable consistency following a 1-month delay. Further, we revealed a relationship between the consistency of recall and HSAMs’ obsessive–compulsive tendencies. These data suggest that HSAMs experience normal encoding, yet enhanced consolidation and later recall of autobiographical events. PMID:26834661

  15. Tectonic setting and evolution of late Archaean greenstone belts of Superior Province, Canada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, K. D.

    1986-01-01

    Late Archean (3.0-2.5 Ga) greenstone belts are a major component of the Superior Province of the Canadian Shield where alternating, metavolcanic - rich and metasedimentary - rich subprovinces form a prominent central striped region bordered in part by high-grade gneiss subprovinces, the Pikiwitonei and Minto in the north, and the Minnesota River Valley in the south. The high-grade gneiss subprovinces are characterized by granulite facies gneiss of plutonic and supracrustal origin, and by abundant plutonic rocks. Minnesota River Valley has rocks older than 3.5 Ga; absolute ages of Pikiwitonei and Minto rocks are unknown but Minto does have north-south structural trends distinctive from the dominant east-west structures of Superior Province. A discussion follows.

  16. Reversing the picture superiority effect: a speed-accuracy trade-off study of recognition memory.

    PubMed

    Boldini, Angela; Russo, Riccardo; Punia, Sahiba; Avons, S E

    2007-01-01

    Speed-accuracy trade-off methods have been used to contrast single- and dual-process accounts of recognition memory. With these procedures, subjects are presented with individual test items and required to make recognition decisions under various time constraints. In three experiments, we presented words and pictures to be intentionally learned; test stimuli were always visually presented words. At test, we manipulated the interval between the presentation of each test stimulus and that of a response signal, thus controlling the amount of time available to retrieve target information. The standard picture superiority effect was significant in long response deadline conditions (i.e., > or = 2,000 msec). Conversely, a significant reverse picture superiority effect emerged at short response-signal deadlines (< 200 msec). The results are congruent with views suggesting that both fast familiarity and slower recollection processes contribute to recognition memory. Alternative accounts are also discussed.

  17. Memory for pictures, words, and spatial location in older adults: evidence for pictorial superiority.

    PubMed

    Park, D C; Puglisi, J T; Sovacool, M

    1983-09-01

    In the present study the spatial location of picture and word stimuli was varied across four quadrants of photographic slides. Young and old people received either pictures or words to study and were told to remember either just the item or the item and its location. Recognition memory for items and memory for spatial location were tested. A pictorial superiority effect occurred for both old and young people's item recognition. Additionally, instructions to study position decreased item memory and facilitated position memory in both age groups. Spatial memory was markedly superior for pictures compared with matched words for old and young adults. The results are interpreted within the Hasher and Zacks framework of automatic processing. The implications of the data for designing mnemonic aids for elderly persons are considered.

  18. Reasons for superior mechanical and corrosion properties of 2219 aluminum alloy electron beam welds

    SciTech Connect

    Koteswara Rao, S.R. . E-mail: sajjarkr@yahoo.com; Madhusudhan Reddy, G.; Srinivasa Rao, K.; Kamaraj, M.; Prasad Rao, K.

    2005-11-15

    Electron beam welds of aluminum alloy 2219 offer much higher strength compared to gas tungsten arc welds of the same alloy and the reasons for this have not been fully explored. In this study both types of welds were made and mechanical properties were evaluated by tensile testing and pitting corrosion resistance by potentio dynamic polarization tests. It is shown that electron beam welds exhibit superior mechanical and corrosion properties. The weld metals have been characterized by scanning electron microscopy; transmission electron microscopy and electron probe micro analysis. Presence of partially disintegrated precipitates in the weld metal, finer micro porosity and uniform distribution of copper in the matrix were found to be the reasons for superior properties of electron beam welds apart from the fine equiaxed grain structure. Transmission electron micrographs of the heat affected zones revealed the precipitate disintegration and over aging in gas tungsten arc welds.

  19. Speedup of lexicographic optimization by superiorization and its applications to cancer radiotherapy treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonacker, Esther; Gibali, Aviv; Küfer, Karl-Heinz; Süss, Philipp

    2017-04-01

    Multicriteria optimization problems occur in many real life applications, for example in cancer radiotherapy treatment and in particular in intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). In this work we focus on optimization problems with multiple objectives that are ranked according to their importance. We solve these problems numerically by combining lexicographic optimization with our recently proposed level set scheme, which yields a sequence of auxiliary convex feasibility problems; solved here via projection methods. The projection enables us to combine the newly introduced superiorization methodology with multicriteria optimization methods to speed up computation while guaranteeing convergence of the optimization. We demonstrate our scheme with a simple 2D academic example (used in the literature) and also present results from calculations on four real head neck cases in IMRT (Radiation Oncology of the Ludwig-Maximilians University, Munich, Germany) for two different choices of superiorization parameter sets suited to yield fast convergence for each case individually or robust behavior for all four cases.

  20. Acute Superior Mesenteric Venous Thrombosis: Transcatheter Thrombolysis and Aspiration Thrombectomy Therapy by Combined Route of Superior Mesenteric Vein and Artery in Eight Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Shuofei Liu, Baochen Ding, Weiwei He, Changsheng Wu, Xingjiang Li, Jieshou

    2015-02-15

    PurposeTo assess the feasibility, effectiveness, and safety of catheter-directed thrombolysis and aspiration thrombectomy therapy by combined route of superior mesenteric vein and artery (SMV+SMA) for acute superior mesenteric venous thrombosis (ASMVT).MethodsThis retrospective study reviewed eight ASMVT patients with transcatheter direct thrombolysis and aspiration thrombectomy therapy via SMV and indirect thrombolysis via SMA during a period of 14 months. The demographics, etiology, risk factors, therapeutic effect, complications, mortality, and follow-up of the study population were assessed. Anatomic and imaging classification of location and extent of thrombus at diagnosis and degree of thrombus lysis were described.ResultsTechnical success was achieved with substantial improvement in symptoms and thrombus resolution after thrombolytic therapy in all patients. The local urokinase infusion by SMA and SMV was performed for 5–7 (6.13 ± 0.83) and 7–15 (12 ± 2.51) days. Anticoagulation was performed catheter-directed and then orally throughout hospitalization and after discharge. Four patients required delayed localized bowel resection after thrombolytic therapy with no death. Thrombolytic therapy was not interrupted despite minor bleeding at the puncture site in two patients and sepsis in another two postoperatively. Nearly complete removal of thrombus was demonstrated by contrast-enhanced CT scan and portography before discharge. Patients were discharged in 10–27 (19.25 ± 4.89) days after admission. No recurrence developed during the follow-up of 10–13 (12.13 ± 0.99) months.ConclusionsCatheter-directed thrombolytic and aspiration therapy via SMV+SMA is beneficial for ASMVT in avoiding patient death, efficient resolving thrombus, rapid improving symptoms, reversing extensive intestinal ischemia, averting bowel resection, or localizing infarcted bowel segment and preventing short bowel syndrome.

  1. Effect of neck position during radionuclide superior cavography. Its value in the diagnosis of superior vena cava obstruction due to retrosternal goiter

    SciTech Connect

    Vincken, W.; Roels, P.; Soenstaboe, R.; DeGreve, J.; Bossuyt, A.; Jonckheer, M.

    1983-09-01

    In five patients with substernal goiter, three of whom presented with superior vena cava (SVC) syndrome, and in five normal subjects, radionuclide superior cavography (RNSC) was performed with extension and flexion of the neck during tracer administration (simultaneous bilateral injection of Tc-/sup 99/m pertechnetate). When the tracer was injected during neck extension, venous flow pattern was abnormal in four of five patients, and transit time (TT) prolonged in three of five patients. In this posture, mean TT +/- 1 standard deviation (SD) was 6.3 +/- 2.6 s (range 3.5 to 9 s) for the five patients and 3.5 +/- 0.7 s (range 2.5 to 4.5 s) for a group of five control subjects. When the tracer was injected during neck flexion, all five patients showed abnormal flow patterns and prolonged TT (mean +/- 1 SD 10.1 +/- 4.1 s; range 4.4 to 16 s), in contrast to the control group where a slight decrease in TT was found (mean +/- 1 SD 3 +/- 0.6 s; range 2 to 3.5 s). In the presence of a substernal goiter, or any mobile mass at the thoracic inlet, impairment of venous flow through the SVC system appears to be a common occurrence, readily detectable by RNSC. RNSC should be performed with neck flexion during tracer injection, since in this posture its ability to detect compromised venous flow through the SVC system is enhanced, even in patients without a clinically apparent SVC syndrome.

  2. Cannabis legalization with strict regulation, the overall superior policy option for public health.

    PubMed

    Rehm, J; Fischer, B

    2015-06-01

    Cannabis is the most prevalently used drug globally, with many jurisdictions considering varying reform options to current policies to deal with this substance and associated harm. Three policy options are available: prohibition, decriminalization, and legalization, with prohibition currently the dominant model globally. This contribution gives reasons why legalization with strict regulation should be considered superior to other options with respect to public health in high income countries in North America.

  3. Wave Action and Breakwater Location, Taconite Harbor (Two Islands), Lake Superior, Minnesota: Hydraulic Model Investigation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1955-05-01

    model demonstrations and review test results: Mr. H. W. Campbell, engineer, Interlake Iron Corp., Cleveland, Ohio Mr. L. H. Chater , chief engineer... cities along the southern shores of the Great Lakes. The deep water that prevails within a short distance of the shore along the north shore of Lake...respectively. The averase level of Lake Superior during the period 186o-1951 was 602.2 ft above mean tide at New York City , 1935 Datmn. The highest one

  4. Evaluation of the Posterior Superior Alveolar Artery Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Pandharbale, Atul A.; Gadgil, Rajeev M.; Bhoosreddy, Ajay R.; Kunte, Varun R.; Ahire, Bhushan S.; Shinde, Manila R.; Joshi, Sidharth S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Maxillary posterior tooth region is an important area with respect to periapical surgery, implant placement, and sinus lifts. Posterior superior alveolar artery (PSAA) is located on the lateral wall of maxillary sinus and may become injured during such surgical procedures. Therefore, knowledge of the subject is essential to a clinician. The goal was to determine the anatomical relationship of posterior superior alveolar artery to the floor of maxillary sinus and alveolar crest. In our study we attempted to present the locations and course of posterior superior alveolar artery (PSAA) using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging. Material/Methods CBCT scans of 50 patients (30 males, 20 females) who had undergone computed tomography imaging were analyzed. We assessed the visibility and location of vascular canal/notch of posterior superior alveolar artery on cross sectional images and measured the distances from lower margin to the floor of maxillary sinus and alveolar crest in the 1st molar and 2nd molar regions. Unpaired t-test was carried out in the analysis to determine the level of significance. Results Maxillary PSAA was visualized in 36 patients (70%). Mean diameter of the vessel was 0.63 mm. Mean distance between PSAA and alveolar crest was the shortest in the 2nd molar region. The mean distance between PSAA and floor of maxillary sinus was 9.96 mm. Conclusions Periapical surgeries, implants and maxillary sinus lift are performed on routine basis. PSAA is an important structure in the posterior maxillary region; the clinician should be aware of its location and course. CBCT is an excellent tool to localize the PSAA because of it provides finer details at low exposure and less radiation. It should be recommended in clinical practices. PMID:28058075

  5. PCT MAO’s Enhanced Performance by Specially Designed Sealers for Superior Service & Environments

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-11-01

    PCT MAO’s Enhanced Performance by Specially Designed S alers f r Superior Service & Environments 1 Report Documentation Page Form ...unclassified c. THIS PAGE unclassified Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Protective Coating Technologies PCT Lightweights...for Aluminium 20 Al Substrate Ultra Hard MAO layer SURFACE Hydrophilic surface with high adhesive strength. HARDNESS 1,500 HV depending on

  6. The spatial scale for cisco recruitment dynamics in Lake Superior during 1978-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rook, Benjamin J.; Hansen, Michael J.; Gorman, Owen T.

    2012-01-01

    The cisco Coregonus artedi was once the most abundant fish species in the Great Lakes, but currently cisco populations are greatly reduced and management agencies are attempting to restore the species throughout the basin. To increase understanding of the spatial scale at which density-independent and density-dependent factors influence cisco recruitment dynamics in the Great Lakes, we used a Ricker stock–recruitment model to identify and quantify the appropriate spatial scale for modeling age-1 cisco recruitment dynamics in Lake Superior. We found that the recruitment variation of ciscoes in Lake Superior was best described by a five-parameter regional model with separate stock–recruitment relationships for the western, southern, eastern, and northern regions. The spatial scale for modeling was about 260 km (range = 230–290 km). We also found that the density-independent recruitment rate and the rate of compensatory density dependence varied among regions at different rates. The density-independent recruitment rate was constant among regions (3.6 age-1 recruits/spawner), whereas the rate of compensatory density dependence varied 16-fold among regions (range = −0.2 to −2.9/spawner). Finally, we found that peak recruitment and the spawning stock size that produced peak recruitment varied among regions. Both peak recruitment (0.5–7.1 age-1 recruits/ha) and the spawning stock size that produced peak recruitment (0.3–5.3 spawners/ha) varied 16-fold among regions. Our findings support the hypothesis that the factors driving cisco recruitment operate within four different regions of Lake Superior, suggest that large-scale abiotic factors are more important than small-scale biotic factors in influencing cisco recruitment, and suggest that fishery managers throughout Lake Superior and the entire Great Lakes basin should address cisco restoration and management efforts on a regional scale in each lake.

  7. Superior performance of cone beam tomography in detecting a calcaneus fracture.

    PubMed

    Lohse, Christian; Catala-Lehnen, Philip; Regier, Marc; Heiland, Max

    2015-01-01

    Cone beam computed tomography is a state-of-the-art imaging tool, initially developed for dental and maxillofacial application. With its high resolution and low radiation dose, cone beam tomography has been expanding its application fields, for example, to diagnosis of traumata and fractures in the head and neck area. In this study, we demonstrate superior and satisfactory performance of cone beam tomography for the imaging of a calcaneus fracture in comparison to conventional X-ray and computed tomography.

  8. Immediate Bilateral Breast Reconstruction with Unilateral Deep Superior Epigastric Artery and Superficial Circumflex Iliac Artery Flaps

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Keith S.; Hartman, Brett C.; Sood, Rajiv; Socas, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Autologous breast reconstruction utilizing a perforator flap is an increasingly popular method for reducing donor site morbidity and implant-related complications. However, aberrant anatomy not readily visible on computed tomography angiography is a rare albeit real risk when undergoing perforator flap reconstruction. We present an operative case of a patient who successfully underwent a bilateral breast reconstruction sourced from a unilateral abdominal flap divided into deep superior epigastric artery and superficial circumflex iliac artery flap segments. PMID:27689054

  9. The Navy’s Superior Supplier Incentive Program: Analysis of Supplier Proposed Benefits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Logistics (PB L) contract policy to authorize use of aw ard term techniques Part 16: Type of C ontracts Part 37: Service C ontracting Procurem ent...2015 3. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED MBA Professional Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE THE NAVY’S SUPERIOR SUPPLIER INCENTIVE PROGRAM: ANALYSIS OF...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES The views expressed in this thesis are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of

  10. Paraplegia after aortic and superior mesenteric artery stenting for occlusive disease.

    PubMed

    Hans, Sachinder S; Ngo, William; McAllister, Michael

    2014-02-01

    Paraplegia after endovascular therapy for aortic and visceral artery occlusive disease is an extremely uncommon occurrence. Two cases of paraplegia after placement of an aortic covered stent for infrarenal aortic stenosis and a superior mesenteric artery stent for chronic visceral ischemia are presented. In both patients, embolization of the arterial supply to the spinal cord was the presumed cause. One patient had a slight recovery after intense physical therapy and rehabilitation. The second patient did not have any recovery from her paraplegia.

  11. Decline of shortjaw cisco in Lake Superior: the role of overfishing and risk of extinction

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bronte, Charles R.; Hoff, Michael H.; Gorman, Owen T.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Schneeberger, Philip J.; Todd, Thomas N.

    2010-01-01

    Recent reviews have further documented the decline of the shortjaw cisco Coregonus zenithicus in Lake Superior. This fish was the most abundant deepwater cisco species in Lake Superior in the early 1920s but presently makes up less than 1% of all deepwater ciscoes (i.e., including shortjaw cisco, bloater C. hoyi, and kiyi C. kiyi) captured in biological surveys. Directed overfishing of deepwater cisco species during the 1930s and again during the mid-1960s and 1970s has been suggested as the cause of the shortjaw cisco's demise. In this paper, we re-examined the overfishing hypothesis by using historical and recent survey data to estimate the proportion of the historical commercial fishery landings that comprised shortjaw ciscoes. We developed time series of estimated harvest and relative abundance for all statistical districts in Michigan waters of Lake Superior during 1929–1996, for which aggregate catch and effort data were available but not previously examined. The spatial distribution of the fishery and the relationships of catch to fishing effort were examined for evidence of overfishing. Our analysis suggested that directed overfishing was probably not the cause of shortjaw cisco demise, as this species appeared to be declining in all statistical districts regardless of the intensity of the fishery. A count-based population viability analysis indicated that quasi-extinction of the shortjaw cisco is highly probable in the near future. We propose an alternative hypothesis based on the decline of Lake Superior's keystone predator, the lake trout Salvelinus namaycush, which resulted in an expansion of the population of its principal prey, the cisco C. artedi, due to release from predation pressure. Competitive or predation interactions between the cisco and shortjaw cisco may be more likely explanations for the demise of the latter species.

  12. EMG study of the anterior, superior and posterior auricular muscles in man.

    PubMed

    Bérzin, F; Fortinguerra, C R

    1993-04-01

    Anterior, superior and posterior auricular muscles were studied electromyographically by means of wire electrodes. During ear movement the three muscles acted as a group and the movement was always directed upwards and backwards. The highest electrical activities were observed during natural smiling and yawning. Mouth opening without the drawing backwards of the comissura labiorum and the displacement of galea aponeurotica also produced electrical activity by the auricular muscles, with however, less intensity and in only 50% of the cases studied.

  13. Unique properties of halide perovskites as possible origins of the superior solar cell performance.

    PubMed

    Yin, Wan-Jian; Shi, Tingting; Yan, Yanfa

    2014-07-16

    Halide perovskites solar cells have the potential to exhibit higher energy conversion efficiencies with ultrathin films than conventional thin-film solar cells based on CdTe, CuInSe2 , and Cu2 ZnSnSe4 . The superior solar-cell performance of halide perovskites may originate from its high optical absorption, comparable electron and hole effective mass, and electrically clean defect properties, including point defects and grain boundaries.

  14. Melanotic Neuroectodermal Tumor of Infancy with Involvement of the Superior Sagittal Sinus.

    PubMed

    Foster, Kimberly A; Choudhri, Asim; Lingo, Ryan; Boop, Frederick

    2017-01-01

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy (MNTI) is a rare lesion that typically manifests in the first year of life, most commonly involving the facial bones. We present 2 infants with MNTI involving the posterior skull with associated compression of the superior sagittal sinus (SSS). A review of the anatomical locations of MNTI is offered, and the implications of SSS involvement are described. This represents the first known description of MNTI with involvement of the posterior SSS.

  15. A Superior Kirchhoff Method for Aeroacoustic Noise Prediction: The Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings Equation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brentner, Kenneth S.

    1997-01-01

    The prediction of aeroacoustic noise is important; all new aircraft must meet noise certification requirements. Local noise standards can be even more stringent. The NASA noise reduction goal is to reduce perceived noise levels by a factor of two in 10 years. The objective of this viewgraph presentation is to demonstrate the superiority of the FW-H approach over the Kirchoff method for aeroacoustics, both analytically and numerically.

  16. Byting Back. Regaining Information Superiority Against 21st-Century Insurgents

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    the low likelihood that handsets can be subsidized by high monthly service charges. One approach may be to make a mass initial purchase (e.g., in...engagement decisions, the threshold for high confidence would probably be quite different . 124 Byting Back—Regaining Information Superiority...peer review to ensure high standards for research quality and objectivity. Prepared for the Office of the Secretary of Defense Approved for public

  17. Spawning Cisco investigations in Canada waters of Lake Superior during 2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yule, Daniel L.; Evrard, Lori M.; Cholwek, Gary A.; Addison, Peter A.; Cullis, Ken I.

    2008-01-01

    Cisco Coregonus artedi form pre-spawning aggregations in Lake Superior during November with the bulk of spawning occurring during late November through early December (Dryer and Beil 1964). Eggs are broadcast into open water (Smith 1956) with fertilized eggs settling to the lakebed (Dryer and Beil 1964). Peak hatching occurs the following May (United States Geological Survey – Great Lakes Science Center, GLSC, unpublished data). Interannual variability in year class strength is high, but tends to be synchronous across different regions of Lake Superior (Bronte et al. 2003). November 2005 sampling of Thunder Bay showed 14 year-classes were present with the oldest fish being from the 1984 year-class (Yule et al. 2008). The ciscoes sampled were predominantly from five year classes that hatched during 1988, 1989, 1990, 1998, and 2003. These same strong year-classes were found in the western arm of Lake Superior during November 2006 (GLSC, unpublished data). Growth is rapid in the first few years of life with minimal growth after age-8 (Yule et al. 2008). Ciscoes exceeding 250 mm total length (TL) are typically sexually mature (Yule et al. 2006b, 2008). Thunder Bay ciscoes have high annual survival with rates for females and males averaging 0.80 and 0.75, respectively; females have higher rates of fishing-induced mortality compared to males but lower rates of natural mortality (Yule et al. 2008). Some Lake Superior stocks are currently commercially fished with the bulk of harvest occurring during November when fishers target females for their roe. The bulk of fish are harvested from Thunder Bay using suspended gillnets with mesh sizes ranging from 79-89 mm stretch measure. Ciscoes younger then age-5 make up a very small proportion (<0.1%) of the harvest (Yule, et al. 2008).

  18. Superior semicircular canal dehiscence associated with external, middle, and inner ear abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jenny R; Parnes, Lorne S

    2010-02-01

    We report a case of bilateral superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) in a 38-year-old man who presented with congenital hearing loss without vestibular symptoms. This case is unusual due to the association of SSCD with multiple congenital anomalies of the external, middle, and inner ears, but without any other craniofacial or systemic developmental anomalies. Findings of multiple malformations of temporal bone structures in this case lend support to the theory that SSCD may have an underlying developmental or congenital etiology.

  19. Privacy on thin ice? Considering the California Court of Appeal decision in Johnson v. Superior Court.

    PubMed

    Plosker, J A

    2001-01-01

    In Johnson v. Superior Court, the California Court of Appeal determined that a provision of a contract limiting the discovery of the identity of a sperm donor was against public policy and that the privacy interest did not protect against disclosure of this information. Although the court's analysis of the public policy exception to the enforcement of contracts was unnecessary, the opinion properly balances California's and petitioners' interests against an anonymous donor's privacy right.

  20. A Case of Superior Mesenteric Artery Syndrome in a Healthy Active Duty Marine.

    PubMed

    Thota, Darshan; Portouw, Steven J; Bruner, David I

    2015-10-01

    Superior mesenteric artery (SMA) syndrome is an uncommon disorder that can lead to small bowel obstructions or perforations. Typical populations include young females with anorexia. However, there have been a few reports of healthy males with acute vomiting reported to have SMA syndrome. Our case report highlights an active duty Marine who developed SMA syndrome and the importance of recognizing this disease given the severity in delay of diagnosis in population of young healthy active duty members.