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Sample records for acesulfame-k sodium saccharin

  1. Intake of saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame K and cyclamate in Italian teenagers: present levels and projections.

    PubMed

    Leclercq, C; Berardi, D; Sorbillo, M R; Lambe, J

    1999-03-01

    The intake of saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame K and cyclamate was assessed in 212 Italian teenagers aged 13-19 in 1996. Total daily intake of intense sweeteners was assessed on the basis of dietary records (14 consecutive days). The sweetener content of sugar-free products (soft drinks, candies, chewing gums, yoghurts, jam and table-top sweeteners) was provided by manufacturers. Sugar-free products were consumed by 77% of the subjects. Mean daily intake among consumers was 0.24 mg/kg body weight (bw) for cyclamate (13 subjects), 0.21 mg/kg bw for saccharin (9 subjects), 0.03 mg/kg bw for aspartame (162 subjects), and 0.02 mg/kg bw for acesulfame K (56 subjects). No subject exceeded the ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake) of an intense sweetener. Projections based on the present levels of use of intense sweeteners in sugar-free products and on the dietary pattern observed in the sample suggest that approaching the ADI could be possible only if subjects with high intakes of both soft drinks and table-top sugar substituted these items with respectively sugar-free beverages and table-top sweeteners containing either saccharin or cyclamate.

  2. Genotoxicity testing of low-calorie sweeteners: aspartame, acesulfame-K, and saccharin.

    PubMed

    Bandyopadhyay, Atrayee; Ghoshal, Sarbani; Mukherjee, Anita

    2008-01-01

    Low-calorie sweeteners are chemicals that offer the sweetness of sugar without the calories. Consumers are increasingly concerned about the quality and safety of many products present in the diet, in particular, the use of low-calorie sweeteners, flavorings, colorings, preservatives, and dietary supplements. In the present study, we evaluated the mutagenicity of the three low-calorie sweeteners in the Ames/Salmonella/microsome test and their genotoxic potential by comet assay in the bone marrow cells of mice. Swiss albino mice, Mus musculus, were orally administered with different concentrations of aspartame (ASP; 7, 14, 28, and 35 mg/kg body weight), acesulfame-K (ASK; 150, 300, and 600 mg/kg body weight), and saccharin (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg body weight) individually. Concurrently negative and positive control sets were maintained. The animals were sacrificed and the bone marrow cells were processed for comet assay. The standard plate-incorporation assay was carried with the three sweeteners in Salmonella typhimurium TA 97a and TA 100 strains both in the absence and presence of the S9 mix. The comet parameters of DNA were increased in the bone marrow cells due to the sweetener-induced DNA strand breaks, as revealed by increased comet-tail extent and percent DNA in the tail. ASK and saccharin were found to induce greater DNA damage than ASP. However, none could act as a potential mutagen in the Ames/Salmonella /microsome test. These findings are important, since they represent a potential health risk associated with the exposure to these agents.

  3. Estimated intake of the artificial sweeteners acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin in a group of Swedish diabetics.

    PubMed

    Ilbäck, N-G; Alzin, M; Jahrl, S; Enghardt-Barbieri, H; Busk, L

    2003-02-01

    Few sweetener intake studies have been performed on the general population and only one study has been specifically designed to investigate diabetics and children. This report describes a Swedish study on the estimated intake of the artificial sweeteners acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate and saccharin by children (0-15 years) and adult male and female diabetics (types I and II) of various ages (16-90 years). Altogether, 1120 participants were asked to complete a questionnaire about their sweetener intake. The response rate (71%, range 59-78%) was comparable across age and gender groups. The most consumed 'light' foodstuffs were diet soda, cider, fruit syrup, table powder, table tablets, table drops, ice cream, chewing gum, throat lozenges, sweets, yoghurt and vitamin C. The major sources of sweetener intake were beverages and table powder. About 70% of the participants, equally distributed across all age groups, read the manufacturer's specifications of the food products' content. The estimated intakes showed that neither men nor women exceeded the ADI for acesulfame-K; however, using worst-case calculations, high intakes were found in young children (169% of ADI). In general, the aspartame intake was low. Children had the highest estimated (worst case) intake of cyclamate (317% of ADI). Children's estimated intake of saccharin only slightly exceeded the ADI at the 5% level for fruit syrup. Children had an unexpected high intake of tabletop sweeteners, which, in Sweden, is normally based on cyclamate. The study was performed during two winter months when it can be assumed that the intake of sweeteners was lower as compared with during warm, summer months. Thus, the present study probably underestimates the average intake on a yearly basis. However, our worst-case calculations based on maximum permitted levels were performed on each individual sweetener, although exposure is probably relatively evenly distributed among all sweeteners, except for cyclamate

  4. Sub-minute method for simultaneous determination of aspartame, cyclamate, acesulfame-K and saccharin in food and pharmaceutical samples by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Vistuba, Jacqueline Pereira; Dolzan, Maressa Danielli; Vitali, Luciano; de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu

    2015-05-29

    This paper reports the development of a sub-minute separation method by capillary zone electrophoresis for the determination of aspartame, cyclamate, acesulfame-K and saccharin in food products and pharmaceutical samples. Separations were performed in a fused uncoated silica capillary with UV detection at 220nm. Samples and standards were injected hydrodynamically using the short-end injection procedure. The electrophoretic system was operated under constant voltage of -30kV. The background electrolyte was composed of 45mmolL(-1) 2-amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol and 15mmolL(-1) benzoic acid at pH 8.4. The separation time for all analytes was less than 1min. Evaluation of analytical parameters of the method showed good linearity (r(2)>0.9972), limit of detection of 3.3-6.4mgL(-1), intermediate precision better than 9.75% (peak area of sample) and recovery in the range of 91-117%. PMID:25895731

  5. Sub-minute method for simultaneous determination of aspartame, cyclamate, acesulfame-K and saccharin in food and pharmaceutical samples by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Vistuba, Jacqueline Pereira; Dolzan, Maressa Danielli; Vitali, Luciano; de Oliveira, Marcone Augusto Leal; Micke, Gustavo Amadeu

    2015-05-29

    This paper reports the development of a sub-minute separation method by capillary zone electrophoresis for the determination of aspartame, cyclamate, acesulfame-K and saccharin in food products and pharmaceutical samples. Separations were performed in a fused uncoated silica capillary with UV detection at 220nm. Samples and standards were injected hydrodynamically using the short-end injection procedure. The electrophoretic system was operated under constant voltage of -30kV. The background electrolyte was composed of 45mmolL(-1) 2-amino-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol and 15mmolL(-1) benzoic acid at pH 8.4. The separation time for all analytes was less than 1min. Evaluation of analytical parameters of the method showed good linearity (r(2)>0.9972), limit of detection of 3.3-6.4mgL(-1), intermediate precision better than 9.75% (peak area of sample) and recovery in the range of 91-117%.

  6. Selective continuous monitoring and analysis of mixtures of acesulfame-K, cyclamate, and saccharin in artificial sweetener tablets, diet soft drinks, yogurts, and wines using filter-supported bilayer lipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Nikolelis, D P; Pantoulias, S

    2001-12-15

    This work describes a technique for the rapid and sensitive electrochemical flow injection monitoring and analysis of mixtures of the artificial sweeteners acesulfame-K, cyclamate, and saccharin using stabilized systems of filter-supported bilayer lipid membranes (BLMs). Injections of artificial sweeteners were made into flowing streams of a carrier electrolyte solution, and a transient current signal with duration of seconds reproducibly appeared in less than < 1 min after exposure of the lipid membranes to the artificial sweeteners. The magnitude of this signal was linearly related to the concentration of artificial sweeteners, which could be determined at micromolar levels. Repetitive cycles of injection of artificial sweeteners have shown no signal degradation during each cycle (30 sequential injections). The time of appearance of the transient response was different for each artificial sweetener and increased in the order of cyclamic acid, acesulfame-K, and saccharin. The difference in time of response has allowed selective detection and analysis of these artificial sweeteners in mixtures. The effect of potent interferences, including a wide range of compounds usually found in foods, proteins, and lipids was investigated. The results showed no interferences from these constituents of real food samples. The major interference from proteins (most common in lipid-film-based biosensors) can be eliminated by modulation of the carrier solution that does not allow adsorption of these compounds in BLMs. The technique was applied in real food samples, that is, in artificial sweetener tablets, diet soft drinks, wines, and yogurts that contain mixtures of these artificial sweeteners with aspartame and other compounds. A comparison of results using the present method and that of an Official Method of Analysis showed good agreement between the two methods.

  7. Title: Elucidation of Environmental Fate of Artificial Sweeteners (Aspartame, Acesulfame K and Saccharin) by Determining Bimolecular Rate Constants with Hydroxyl Radical at Various pH and Temperature Conditions and Possible Reaction By-Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teraji, T.; Arakaki, T.; Suzuka, T.

    2012-12-01

    Use of artificial sweeteners in beverages and food has been rapidly increasing because of their non-calorie nature. In Japan, aspartame, acesulfame K and sucralose are among the most widely used artificial sweeteners. Because the artificial sweeteners are not metabolized in human bodies, they are directly excreted into the environment without chemical transformations. We initiated a study to better understand the fate of artificial sweeteners in the marine environment. The hydroxyl radical (OH), the most potent reactive oxygen species, reacts with various compounds and determines the environmental oxidation capacity and the life-time of many compounds. The steady-state OH concentration and the reaction rate constants between the compound and OH are used to estimate the life-time of the compound. In this study, we determine the bimolecular rate constants between aspartame, acefulfame K and saccharin and OH at various pH and temperature conditions using a competition kinetics technique. We use hydrogen peroxide as a photochemical source of OH. Bimolecular rate constant we obtained so far for aspartame was (2.6±1.2)×109 M-1 s-1 at pH = 3.0 and (4.9±2.3)×109 M-1 s-1 at pH = 5.5. Little effect was seen by changing the temperatures between 15 and 40 oC. Activation energy (Ea) was calculated to be -1.0 kJ mol-1 at pH = 3.0, +8.5 kJ mol-1 at pH = 5.5, which could be regarded as zero. We will report bimolecular rate constants at different pHs and temperatures for acesulfame K and saccharin, as well. Possible reaction by-products for aspartame will be also reported. We will further discuss the fate of aspartame in the coastal environment.

  8. 21 CFR 180.37 - Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... purpose other than calorie reduction: (a) Saccharin is the chemical, 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one - 1,1...) When the additive is used for calorie reduction, such other labeling as is required by part 105 of...

  9. 21 CFR 180.37 - Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... purpose other than calorie reduction: (a) Saccharin is the chemical, 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one - 1,1...) When the additive is used for calorie reduction, such other labeling as is required by part 105 of...

  10. 21 CFR 180.37 - Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... purpose other than calorie reduction: (a) Saccharin is the chemical, 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one - 1,1...) When the additive is used for calorie reduction, such other labeling as is required by part 105 of...

  11. 21 CFR 180.37 - Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... purpose other than calorie reduction: (a) Saccharin is the chemical, 1,2-benzisothiazolin-3-one - 1,1...) When the additive is used for calorie reduction, such other labeling as is required by part 105 of...

  12. Assessment of Korean consumer exposure to sodium saccharin, aspartame and stevioside.

    PubMed

    Ha, Mi-Sun; Ha, Sang-Do; Choi, Sung-Hee; Bae, Dong-Ho

    2013-01-01

    The dietary intakes of sodium saccharin, aspartame and stevioside were estimated on the basis of food consumption data of the Korean consumer and the concentration of sweeteners in processed foods. Results were compared with the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of sweeteners. Among the 28 food categories for which the application of sodium saccharin, aspartame and stevioside is permitted in Korea, they were detected in 5, 12 and 13 categories, respectively. The estimated daily intake (EDI) of sodium saccharin and aspartame were high in infants and children, whereas the EDI of stevioside was high in adolescents and adults. The most highly consumed sweetener was aspartame, and the highest EDI/ADI ratio was found for sodium saccharin. The main food categories contributing to sweetener consumption were beverages, including alcoholic beverages. For most Korean consumers, the EDIs were no greater than 20% of their corresponding ADI; however, the EDI of sodium saccharin for conservative consumers aged 1-2 years reached 60% of their ADI.

  13. Liquid chromatographic determination of sodium saccharin, caffeine, aspartame, and sodium benzoate in cola beverages.

    PubMed

    Tyler, T A

    1984-01-01

    A rapid method has been developed for the determination of sodium saccharin, caffeine, aspartame, and sodium benzoate in cola beverages. The sample is degassed, diluted in water, and injected onto a C18 column. The mobile phase consists of 15% acetonitrile in triethylammonium phosphate buffer adjusted to pH 4.3 with NaOH. The total run time is less than 10 min and the active compounds are determined using absorbance detection at 214 nm.

  14. In vivo cytogenetic studies on blends of aspartame and acesulfame-K.

    PubMed

    Mukhopadhyay, M; Mukherjee, A; Chakrabarti, J

    2000-01-01

    Aspartame and acesulfame-K, non-nutritive sweeteners, are permitted individually in diets and beverages. These sweeteners of different classes, used in combination, have been found to possess a synergistic sweetening effect. Whether they also have a synergistic genotoxic effect is unknown. Swiss Albino male mice were exposed to blends of aspartame (3.5, 35, 350mg/kg body weight) and acesulfame-K (1.5, 15 and 150mg/kg body weight) by gavage. Bone marrow cells isolated from femora were analysed for chromosome aberrations. Statistical analysis of the results show that aspartame in combination with acesulfame-K is not significantly genotoxic.

  15. FTIR determination of Aspartame and Acesulfame-K in tabletop sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Armenta, Sergio; Garrigues, Salvador; de la Guardia, Miguel

    2004-12-29

    Two different strategies for sweeteners determination in tabletop samples by Fourier transform middle-infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, an off-line and a fully mechanized extraction of Aspartame and Acesulfame-K with different mixtures of chloroform and methanol, have been developed. The off-line method involves the extraction of both active principles by sonication of samples with 25:75 v/v CHCl3/CH3OH and direct measurement of the peak height values at 1751 cm(-1), corrected using a baseline defined at 1850 cm(-1) for Aspartame, and measurement of the peak height at 1170 cm(-1) in the first-order derivative spectra, corrected by using a horizontal baseline established at 1850 cm(-1), for Acesulfame-K. Limit of detection values of 0.10 and 0.9% w/w and relative standard deviations of 0.17 and 0.5% were found for Aspartame and Acesulfame-K, respectively. The time needed for the sweeteners determination is reduced from 35 min for the HPLC method to 7 min by FTIR. On the other hand, the fully mechanized on-line extraction avoids the contact of the operator with toxic solvents and differentiates between samples that contain Aspartame and Acesulfame-K and those that include only Aspartame, reducing the time needed for the analysis of the last kind of samples to 5 min.

  16. [Rapid determination of saccharin sodium in ice cream by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)].

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Zhang, W; Dai, J

    1999-07-01

    This is a method for the rapid determination of saccharin sodium in ice cream by HPLC. A radial compression C18 cohumn, 100 mm x 8 mm i.d., and ultraviolet detector at 220 nm were applied to the determination without extraction. The solution of samples would be determined after they were treated with the solution of copper sulfate and sodium hydroxide in water. The detectable amount was 0.38 mg/kg, the coefficient of variation CV was 1.72%, and the recovery was 96.25%-101.75%.

  17. [Use of HPLC technique for determination of aspartame and acesulfam-K in processed fruit products].

    PubMed

    Szymczyk, K; Czerwiecki, L

    1995-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic method for the determination of the intense sweeteners--aspartame and acesulfam-K in fruit and vegetable nectars was described. Samples were extracted with water, then clarified with Carrez solutions. An aliquot of the extract was analyzed on C-18 reverse-phase column with UV detection. Mean recoveries ranged from 95.9 to 101.8%. The method is suitable for routine determinations of both sweeteners.

  18. [Simultaneous determination of saccharin sodium and synthetic colours in flavourings by solid phase extraction and high performance liquid chromatography].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Fei; Gao, Guanghui; Na, Haiqiu; Ma, Dianjun; Wang, Xiaoli

    2013-05-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of saccharin sodium and synthetic colours in flavourings by solid phase extraction (SPE) and high performance liquid chromatography with variable wavelengths was established. After degreased with petroleum ether, extracted, purified with SPE, and concentrated, the sample was separated on a C18 column with a gradient elution of 0.02 mol/L ammonium acetate and methanol, and detected at 230, 510, 484 and 510 nm, separately. The saccharin sodium and synthetic colours were separated with this method. The recoveries were 88.6% - 97.1% with the RSD < 5%. The limit of detection was 0.05 mg/kg for all the analytes. The proposed method is simple, reliable and reproducible, and especially suitable for a lot of sample detections of saccharin sodium and synthetic colours in flavourings.

  19. Assessment of stability of binary sweetener blend (aspartame x acesulfame-K) during storage in whey lemon beverage.

    PubMed

    Arora, Sumit; Shendurse, Ashish M; Sharma, Vivek; Wadhwa, Balbir K; Singh, Ashish K

    2013-08-01

    In the present study, artificial sweeteners-aspartame, acesulfame-K and binary sweetener blend of aspartame x acesulfame-K were assessed for stability during storage in whey lemon beverage. A solid phase extraction method using C18 cartridges was standardized for the isolation of aspartame, acesulfame-K and their degradation products in whey lemon beverage. HPLC analytical conditions were standardized over C18 column for simultaneous separation of multiple sweeteners and their degradation products in sample isolates. Storage studies revealed that increase in acidity and viscosity and decrease in pH and ascorbic acid content of artificially sweetened whey lemon beverage samples were similar to the changes occurring in control samples during storage. Analysis using HPLC showed that aspartame (added either singly or in a blend) and acesulfame-K (added in a blend) were stable in whey lemon beverage under refrigerated condition for 15 days.

  20. [Development of a New Method for Determination of Sodium Saccharin and Acesulfame Potassium with the Aid of Coagulant].

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Jun; Nakajima, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    An HPLC method for determination of sodium saccharin and acesulfame potassium was newly developed, employing coagulant pretreatment to remove particles dispersed in the sample extract. The method showed recovery of 96-101% for both analytes with a repeatability of less than 1% and a reproducibility of less than 2%. The limit of quantification for sodium saccharin was 0.025 g/kg and that for acesulfame potassium was 0.025 g/kg. Only about 20 min was required for preparation of the test solution, whereas the dialysis method takes much longer.

  1. Water-compatible surface imprinting of 'Saccharin sodium' on silica surface for selective recognition and detection in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Song; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Haitian; Dong, Aijun; Wang, Jing; Zhang, Min; Huang, Weiwei

    2015-11-01

    In this work, a saccharin sodium imprinted nanoparticles composite material has been successfully synthesized in aqueous solution. This molecular imprinted material has promising practical utility in the detection of saccharin sodium. First, we synthesized SiO2 nanoparticles, followed by the modification of functional amino group. Then we used functionalized SiO2@NH2 as the cores, saccharin sodium as the template, acrylic acid (AA) as the functional monomer and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. Molecularly imprinted nanoparticles (MIPs) were synthesized by surface-imprinted polymerization under airtight tubes at 60 °C for 12 h. MIPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The binding experiments were shown to have relatively high adsorption capacity (8.965 mg g(-1)) and selective recognition ability over structurally related compounds. Therefore, MIPs provide a sensitive and selective approach and offer the potential to become a new key for the detection of saccharin sodium.

  2. Synthesis of some new benzisothiazolone and benzenesulfonamide derivatives of biological interest starting from saccharin sodium.

    PubMed

    El-Sabbagh, Osama I

    2013-10-01

    Two new series of benzenesulfonamide (4a-f, 5a-b, 6, 7) and 1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one-1,1-dioxide (9a-c, 10, 12a-d) derivatives were prepared starting from saccharin sodium. The novel compounds were characterized using elemental analyses and different spectroscopic methods. Assessment of the antiviral activities of these novel compounds against a broad panel of viruses in different cell cultures revealed that only the thiazole derivatives belonging to the benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one-1,1-dioxide series are the active ones. All thiazole derivatives 12a-d showed activity against both varicella-zoster virus, especially TK(-) VZV strain 07-1, and the cytomegalovirus strains AD-169 and Davis in human embryonic lung (HEL) cell culture.

  3. Binding characteristics of sodium saccharin with calf thymus DNA in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guowen; Wang, Langhong; Zhou, Xiaoyue; Li, Yu; Gong, Deming

    2014-01-29

    The binding characteristics of sodium saccharin (SSA), an artificial sweetener, with calf thymus DNA (ctDNA) were investigated by multispectroscopic techniques, chemometrics, and molecular simulation. A combined fluorescence and UV-vis spectroscopic data matrix was resolved by the multivariate curve resolution-alternating least-squares (MCR-ALS) chemometrics algorithm. The MCR-ALS analysis extracted simultaneously the concentration profiles and spectra for the three components (SSA, ctDNA, and SSA-ctDNA complex) to quantitatively monitor the SSA-ctDNA interaction, which is difficult to perform by conventional spectroscopic approach. The binding mode of SSA to ctDNA was principally through groove binding as revealed by ctDNA melting temperature studies, viscosity measurements, and iodide and salt quenching effects. Analysis of the Fourier transform infrared and circular dichroism spectra as well as molecular docking indicated that SSA preferentially bound to the guanine base of ctDNA and led to a transformation from B-like DNA structure to A-like conformation. Moreover, gel electrophoresis results suggested that SSA did not induce any significant cleavage in plasmid DNA.

  4. The effects of sodium dodecyl sulfate and sodium saccharin on morphology, hardness and wear behavior of Cr-WC nano composite coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rezaei-Sameti, M.; Nadali, S.; Falahatpisheh, A.; Rakhshi, M.

    2013-04-01

    The effects of sodium saccharin and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) additives on the amount of incorporated tungsten carbide (WC) particles and morphology of the coatings are investigated. The structure and morphology of the coatings are determined by scanning electron microscopy techniques (SEM). The hardness and tribological behavior of the coatings are studied by micro hardness and pin on disk methods. The experimental results show that with the addition of sodium saccharin and SDS the amount of WC particles in the coating decreases and the size of WC agglomerates reduces. The average size of WC particles is 70 nm. On the other hand the wear resistances of the coatings increase and the optimum wear resistance is 1 g/L.

  5. Localized Ni deposition improved by saccharin sodium in the intermittent MAGE process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, J. H.; Lin, J. C.; Chang, T. K.; You, X. B.; Jiang, S. B.

    2009-02-01

    Localized Ni deposition improved by saccharin sodium (SS) in the intermittent microanode guided electroplating (intermittent MAGE) process has been investigated. This effect is more complicated than conventional planar electroplating. If there was an insignificant amount of SS in the bath (i.e. less than 1.0 mM), then the radius of the fabricated nodular columns would range from 37.5 to 42.5 µm cyclically along the axis and the surface would be covered with a homogeneous layer of 3-8 µm Ni particles. In the presence of an optimal amount of SS (i.e. around 1.0-3.0 mM), columns with uniform radius (around 42.5 µm) were fabricated and the surface was covered by a homogeneous layer of fine Ni particles (i.e. diameter 1 µm). With higher SS (4.0-6.0 mM in the bath), columns were constructed with uniform radius but the surface was covered by alternating zones of coarse and fine Ni particles. For SS beyond critical concentrations (8.0 mM at 4.0 V and 10.0 mM at 4.5 and 5.0 V), no microcolumn could be constructed and a universal planar Ni deposition on the substrate was formed instead. SS is an absorbent and it leads to cathodic polarization in the electroplating process. The influence of SS on the asymmetrical electric field distributed in the local area and formed by localized electrochemical deposition (LECD) has been studied by the use of the proposed model in this work and commercial finite element software.

  6. Estimated intake of the sweeteners, acesulfame-K and aspartame, from soft drinks, soft drinks based on mineral waters and nectars for a group of Portuguese teenage students.

    PubMed

    Lino, C M; Costa, I M; Pena, A; Ferreira, R; Cardoso, S M

    2008-11-01

    In a survey of levels of acesulfame-K and aspartame in soft drinks and in light nectars, the intake of these intense sweeteners was estimated for a group of teenage students. Acesulfame-K was detected in 72% of the soft drinks, with a mean concentration of 72 mg l(-1) and aspartame was found in 92% of the samples with a mean concentration of 89 mg l(-1). When data on the content of these sweeteners in soft drinks were analysed according to flavour, cola drinks had the highest mean levels for both sweeteners with 98 and 103 mg l(-1) for acesulfame-K and aspartame, respectively. For soft drinks based on mineral water, aspartame was found in 62% of the samples, with a mean concentration of 82 mg l(-1) and acesulfame-K was found in 77%, with a mean level of 48 mg l(-1). All samples of nectars contained acesulfame-K, with a mean concentration of 128 mg l(-1) and aspartame was detected in 80% of the samples with a mean concentration of 73 mg l(-1). A frequency questionnaire, designed to identify adolescents having high consumption of these drinks, was completed by a randomly selected sample of teenagers (n = 65) living in the city of Coimbra, in 2007. The estimated daily intakes (EDI) of acesulfame-K and aspartame for the average consumer were below the acceptable daily intakes (ADIs). For acesulfame-K, the EDI was 0.7 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for soft drinks, 0.2 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for soft drinks based on mineral waters, and 0.5 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for nectars, representing 8.0%, 2.2%, and 5.8% of the ADI, respectively. A similar situation was observed for aspartame. In this way, the EDI for soft drinks was 1.1 mg kg(-1) day(-1), representing only 2.9% of the ADI. In respect of nectars, the EDI was 0.2 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), representing 0.5% of the ADI. Soft drinks based on mineral waters showed the lowest EDI values of 0.3 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1), accounting for 0.7% of the ADI.

  7. An Equiratio Mixture Model for non-additive components: a case study for aspartame/acesulfame-K mixtures.

    PubMed

    Schifferstein, H N

    1996-02-01

    The Equiratio Mixture Model predicts the psychophysical function for an equiratio mixture type on the basis of the psychophysical functions for the unmixed components. The model reliably estimates the sweetness of mixtures of sugars and sugar-alcohols, but is unable to predict intensity for aspartame/sucrose mixtures. In this paper, the sweetness of aspartame/acesulfame-K mixtures in aqueous and acidic solutions is investigated. These two intensive sweeteners probably do not comply with the model's original assumption of sensory dependency among components. However, they reveal how the Equiratio Mixture Model could be modified to describe and predict mixture functions for non-additive substances. To predict equiratio functions for all similar tasting substances, a new Equiratio Mixture Model should yield accurate predictions for components eliciting similar intensities at widely differing concentration levels, and for substances exhibiting hypo- or hyperadditivity. In addition, it should be able to correct violations of Stevens's power law. These three problems are resolved in a model that uses equi-intense units as the measure of physical concentration. An interaction index in the formula for the constant accounts for the degree of interaction between mixture components. Deviations from the power law are corrected by a nonlinear response output transformation, assuming a two-stage model of psychophysical judgment.

  8. Rebaudioside A and Rebaudioside D bitterness do not covary with Acesulfame K bitterness or polymorphisms in TAS2R9 and TAS2R31

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Alissa L.; McGeary, John E.; Hayes, John E.

    2013-01-01

    In order to reduce calories in foods and beverages, the food industry routinely uses non-nutritive sweeteners. Unfortunately, many are synthetically derived, and many consumers have a strong preference for natural sweeteners, irrespective of the safety data on synthetic non-nutritive sweeteners. Additionally, many non-nutritive sweeteners elicit aversive side tastes such as bitter and metallic in addition to sweetness. Bitterness thresholds of acesulfame-K (AceK) and saccharin are known to vary across bitter taste receptors polymorphisms in TAS2R31. RebA has shown to activate hTAS2R4 and hTAS2R14 in vitro. Here we examined bitterness and sweetness perception of natural and synthetic non-nutritive sweeteners. In a follow-up to a previous gene-association study, participants (n=122) who had been genotyped previously rated sweet, bitter and metallic sensations from rebaudioside A (RebA), rebaudioside D (RebD), aspartame, sucrose and gentiobiose in duplicate in a single session. For comparison, we also present sweet and bitter ratings of AceK collected in the original experiment for the same participants. At similar sweetness levels, aspartame elicited less bitterness than RebD, which was significantly less bitter than RebA. The bitterness of RebA and RebD showed wide variability across individuals, and bitterness ratings for these compounds were correlated. However, RebA and RebD bitterness did not covary with AceK bitterness. Likewise, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) shown previously to explain variation in the suprathreshold bitterness of AceK (rs3741845 in TAS2R9 and rs10772423 in TAS2R31) did not explain variation in RebA and RebD bitterness. Because RebA activates hT2R4 and hT2R14, a SNP in TAS2R4 previously associated with variation in bitterness perception was included here; there are no known functional SNPs for TAS2R14. In present data, a putatively functional SNP (rs2234001) in TAS2R4 did not explain variation in RebA or RebD bitterness. Collectively

  9. Rebaudioside A and Rebaudioside D bitterness do not covary with Acesulfame K bitterness or polymorphisms in TAS2R9 and TAS2R31.

    PubMed

    Allen, Alissa L; McGeary, John E; Hayes, John E

    2013-09-01

    In order to reduce calories in foods and beverages, the food industry routinely uses non-nutritive sweeteners. Unfortunately, many are synthetically derived, and many consumers have a strong preference for natural sweeteners, irrespective of the safety data on synthetic non-nutritive sweeteners. Additionally, many non-nutritive sweeteners elicit aversive side tastes such as bitter and metallic in addition to sweetness. Bitterness thresholds of acesulfame-K (AceK) and saccharin are known to vary across bitter taste receptors polymorphisms in TAS2R31. RebA has shown to activate hTAS2R4 and hTAS2R14 in vitro. Here we examined bitterness and sweetness perception of natural and synthetic non-nutritive sweeteners. In a follow-up to a previous gene-association study, participants (n=122) who had been genotyped previously rated sweet, bitter and metallic sensations from rebaudioside A (RebA), rebaudioside D (RebD), aspartame, sucrose and gentiobiose in duplicate in a single session. For comparison, we also present sweet and bitter ratings of AceK collected in the original experiment for the same participants. At similar sweetness levels, aspartame elicited less bitterness than RebD, which was significantly less bitter than RebA. The bitterness of RebA and RebD showed wide variability across individuals, and bitterness ratings for these compounds were correlated. However, RebA and RebD bitterness did not covary with AceK bitterness. Likewise, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) shown previously to explain variation in the suprathreshold bitterness of AceK (rs3741845 in TAS2R9 and rs10772423 in TAS2R31) did not explain variation in RebA and RebD bitterness. Because RebA activates hT2R4 and hT2R14, a SNP in TAS2R4 previously associated with variation in bitterness perception was included here; there are no known functional SNPs for TAS2R14. In present data, a putatively functional SNP (rs2234001) in TAS2R4 did not explain variation in RebA or RebD bitterness. Collectively

  10. Two-generation saccharin bioassays.

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, D L

    1983-01-01

    The controversy regarding the safety of saccharin for human consumption started shortly after its discovery over 100 years ago and has yet to subside appreciably. The consumption of saccharin, particularly in North America, began to escalate when the U.S. Food and Drug Administration set new standards of identity which allowed foods containing artificial sweeteners to be promoted as "nonnutritive" or "noncaloric" sweeteners for use by the general public. In 1969, when cyclamates were banned, at least 10 single-generation feeding studies were undertaken with saccharin to more accurately assess the potential toxicological consequences resulting from the anticipated increase in its consumption. None of these studies resulted in any overt regulatory action. Subsequently, the introduction of the two-generation chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity bioassay added a new tool to the toxicologist's arsenal. Three two-generation studies using saccharin have since been conducted. The results from these studies clearly show that when rats were exposed to diets containing 5 or 7.5% sodium saccharin from the time of conception to death, an increased frequency of urinary bladder cancers was found, predominantly in the males. While some study results suggested that impurities in commercial saccharin or the presence of urinary tract calculi may have been responsible for the observed bladder tumors, it now appears that these possibilities are highly unlikely. The mechanism by which saccharin elicited the bladder tumors using the two-generation experiment has not been ascertained. PMID:6347682

  11. The health risks of saccharin revisited.

    PubMed

    Ellwein, L B; Cohen, S M

    1990-01-01

    Almost from its discovery in 1879, the use of saccharin as an artificial, non-nutritive sweetener has been the center of several controversies regarding potential toxic effects, most recently focusing on the urinary bladder carcinogenicity of sodium saccharin in rats when fed at high doses in two-generation studies. No carcinogenic effect has been observed in mice, hamsters, or monkeys, and numerous epidemiological studies provide no clear or consistent evidence to support the assertion that sodium saccharin increases the risk of bladder cancer in the human population. Mechanism of action studies in the one susceptible species, the rat, continue to provide information useful in assessing potential risk to the human from saccharin consumption. Unlike typical carcinogens which interact with DNA, sodium saccharin is not genotoxic, but leads to an increase in cell proliferation of the urothelium, the only target tissue. It also appears that the effect of saccharin is modified by the salt form in which it is administered, despite equivalent concentrations of saccharin in the urine. The chemical form of saccharin in the urine is unaffected, and there is no evidence for a specific cell receptor for the saccharin molecule. Changes in several urinary parameters, such as pH, sodium, protein, silicates, volume, and others, appear to influence the reaction of the urothelium to sodium saccharin administration. Silicon-containing precipitate and/or crystals appear to be generated in the urine under specific circumstances, acting as microabrasive, cytotoxic material. Using a mathematical model of carcinogenesis, which encompasses the temporal dynamics and complexity of the process at a cellular level, including spontaneous genetic transitions, it has been shown that the effects of sodium saccharin can be explained entirely in terms of its non-genotoxic influence on cell proliferation. In interpreting these analytical studies in the human context, particularly as they pertain to

  12. Volumetric and acoustical behaviour of sodium saccharin in aqueous system over temperature range (20.0-45.0)°C.

    PubMed

    Jamal, Muhammad Asghar; Rashad, Muhammad; Khosa, Muhammad Kaleem; Bhatti, Haq Nawaz

    2015-04-15

    Densities and ultrasonic velocity values for aqueous solutions of sodium saccharin (SS) has been measured as a function of concentration at 20.0-45.0 °C and atmospheric pressure using DSA-5000 M. The density and ultrasonic velocity values have been further used to calculate apparent molar volume, apparent specific volume, isentropic apparent molar compressibility and compressibility hydration numbers and reported. The values for apparent molar volume obtained at given temperatures showed negative deviations from Debye-Hückel limiting law and used as a direct measure of the ion-ion and ion-solvent interactions. The apparent specific volumes of the solute were calculated and it was found that these values of the investigated solutions lie on the borderline between the values reported for sweet substances. The sweetness response of the sweeteners is then explained in terms of their solution behaviours. Furthermore, the partial molar expansibility, its second derivative, (∂(2)V°/∂T(2)) as Hepler's constant and thermal expansion coefficient have been estimated.

  13. 77 FR 48966 - Saccharin From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-15

    ... metalworking fluids. There are four primary chemical compositions of saccharin: (1) Sodium saccharin (American Chemical Society Chemical Abstract Service (``CAS'') Registry 128-44-9); (2) calcium saccharin (CAS...: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review and Intent To Rescind in Part, 77 FR...

  14. Photoisomerization of saccharin.

    PubMed

    Duarte, L; Reva, I; Cristiano, M L S; Fausto, R

    2013-04-01

    Most known applications of saccharin and saccharyl derivatives and their potential for new uses rely on the thermal and photochemical stability of the saccharyl system. Here, we show that saccharin undergoes structural rearrangement when subjected to a narrow-band ultraviolet irradiation. Monomeric saccharin was isolated in low-temperature argon matrices and its photochemistry was characterized by means of infrared spectroscopy and DFT calculations. Among several DFT methods used, the O3LYP/6-311++G(3df,3pd) level gave the best match with the experimental spectra. Irradiation of matrix-isolated saccharin, with a narrow-band source (290 nm), generates a so far unknown isomer that we call iso-saccharin. The structures of the conjugate bases of saccharin and iso-saccharin were also computed theoretically. Their free energies and dipole moments suggest that both anions may be relevant in systems where saccharin participates, as is the case of the recently proposed saccharin-based ionic liquids.

  15. 75 FR 43146 - Saccharin From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of the 2008-2009 Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-23

    ... saccharin: (1) Sodium saccharin (American Chemical Society Chemical Abstract Service (``CAS'') Registry 128...-2009 Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 75 FR 13495 (March 22, 2010) (``Preliminary Results... Xinhua Fine Chemical Factory (``Kaifeng'') did not respond to the Department's questionnaire, we...

  16. Sensory evaluation of soft drinks with various sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, S S; Crofton, V A; Beeker, T G

    1985-03-01

    Forty subjects participated in each of two experiments in which both lemon-line and cola-flavored beverages containing one of six sweeteners--sucrose, sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfam-K, and two calcium cyclamate/sodium saccharin blends (10:1 and 3.5:1)--were evaluated on similarity and adjective scales. The similarity data suggest that drinks containing sucrose and aspartame cannot be discriminated from one another in either a lemon-line or cola medium in this experimental design. Sucrose and aspartame were also statistically equivalent on every adjective scale for both lemon-line and cola drinks. On both similarity judgments and adjective scales, acesulfam-K and sodium saccharin were most different from sucrose. The calcium cyclamate/sodium saccharin blends tended to be less similar than aspartame but not as different from sucrose as the acesulfam-K or sodium saccharin sweetened beverages.

  17. [The psychophysics of sweet taste. 7. New determination of sweet taste parameters of acesulfame, aspartame, cyclamate, saccharin, glucose and sorbitol].

    PubMed

    Hoppe, K

    1995-01-01

    By means of a new method (double staircase) concentration pairs of equal intensity for the sweet compounds acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate-Na, saccharine-Na, dextrose and glucitol were determined with sucrose on 6 or 7 equidistant scaled levels, respectively, with 4 repetitions. The parameters maximal intensity Rm, the concentration coefficient b and the mean Rm/b, respectively, are calculated for each substance from the known parameters for sucrose using the exponential function R = Rm(1-e-bS/Rm), which describes the sweetness intensity R in dependence of the concentration S. For exact determination of the maximal intensity the upper concentration level was fixed at very high degree. Additionally, the relative sweetness of each concentration level of each substance is calculated. In all cases the exponential function is valid without limitation. The statistical parameters are homogenous and are laying within the applied staircase method. Systematical deviations could not be found.

  18. 21 CFR 180.37 - Saccharin, ammonium saccharin, calcium saccharin, and sodium saccharin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) and 1 CFR part 51. You may obtain copies from the United States Pharmacopeial Convention, 12601.../federal-register/cfr/ibr-locations.html. (c) Authority for such use shall expire when the Commissioner... or intended use is for an authorized technological purpose other than calorie reduction:...

  19. Selective inhibition of sweetness by the sodium salt of +/-2-(4-methoxyphenoxy)propanoic acid.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, S S; Booth, B J; Sattely-Miller, E A; Graham, B G; Gibes, K M

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the degree to which the sodium salt of +/-2-(4-methoxyphenoxy)propanoic acid (Na-PMP) reduced sweet intensity ratings of 15 sweeteners in mixtures. Na-PMP has been approved for use in confectionary/frostings, soft candy and snack products in the USA at concentrations up to 150 p.p.m. A trained panel evaluated the effect of Na-PMP on the intensity of the following 15 sweeteners: three sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose), three terpenoid glycosides (monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, rebaudioside-A, stevioside), two dipeptide derivatives (alitame, aspartame), two N-sulfonylamides (acesulfame-K, sodium saccharin), two polyhydric alcohols (mannitol, sorbitol), 1 dihydrochalcone (neohesperidin dihydrochalcone), one protein (thaumatin) and one sulfamate (sodium cyclamate). Sweeteners were tested at concentrations isosweet with 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10% sucrose in mixtures with two levels of Na-PMP: 250 and 500 p.p.m. In addition, the 15 sweeteners were tested either immediately or 30 s after a pre-rinse with 500 p.p.m. Na-PMP. In mixtures, Na-PMP at both the 250 and 500 p.p.m. levels significantly blocked sweetness intensity for 12 of the 15 sweeteners. However, when Na-PMP was mixed with three of the 15 sweeteners (monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone and thaumatin), there was little reduction in sweetness intensity. Pre-rinsing with Na-PMP both inhibited and enhanced sweetness with the greatest enhancements found for monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone and thaumatin, which were not suppressed by Na-PMP in mixtures. The mixture data suggest that Na-PMP is a selective competitive inhibitor of sweet taste. The finding that pre-treatment can produce enhancement may be due to sensitization of sweetener receptors by Na-PMP.

  20. Modified high-density lipoproteins by artificial sweetener, aspartame, and saccharin, showed loss of anti-atherosclerotic activity and toxicity in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Yong; Park, Ki-Hoon; Kim, Jihoe; Choi, Inho; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Safety concerns have been raised regarding the association of chronic consumption of artificial sweeteners (ASs) with metabolic disorders, especially in the heart and brain. There has been no information on the in vivo physiological effects of AS consumption in lipoprotein metabolism. High-dosage treatment (final 25, 50, and 100 mM) with AS (aspartame, acesulfame K, and saccharin) to human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) induced loss of antioxidant ability along with elevated atherogenic effects. Aspartame-treated HDL3 (final 100 mM) almost all disappeared due to putative proteolytic degradation. Aspartame- and saccharin-treated HDL3 showed more enhanced cholesteryl ester transfer activity, while their antioxidant ability was disappeared. Microinjection of the modified HDL3 exacerbated the inflammatory death in zebrafish embryos in the presence of oxLDL. These results show that AS treatment impaired the beneficial functions of HDL, resulting in loss of antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities. These results suggest that aspartame and saccharin could be toxic to the human circulation system as well as embryonic development via impairment of lipoprotein function. PMID:25142179

  1. Modified high-density lipoproteins by artificial sweetener, aspartame, and saccharin, showed loss of anti-atherosclerotic activity and toxicity in zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Yong; Park, Ki-Hoon; Kim, Jihoe; Choi, Inho; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Safety concerns have been raised regarding the association of chronic consumption of artificial sweeteners (ASs) with metabolic disorders, especially in the heart and brain. There has been no information on the in vivo physiological effects of AS consumption in lipoprotein metabolism. High-dosage treatment (final 25, 50, and 100 mM) with AS (aspartame, acesulfame K, and saccharin) to human high-density lipoprotein (HDL) induced loss of antioxidant ability along with elevated atherogenic effects. Aspartame-treated HDL3 (final 100 mM) almost all disappeared due to putative proteolytic degradation. Aspartame- and saccharin-treated HDL3 showed more enhanced cholesteryl ester transfer activity, while their antioxidant ability was disappeared. Microinjection of the modified HDL3 exacerbated the inflammatory death in zebrafish embryos in the presence of oxLDL. These results show that AS treatment impaired the beneficial functions of HDL, resulting in loss of antioxidant and anti-atherogenic activities. These results suggest that aspartame and saccharin could be toxic to the human circulation system as well as embryonic development via impairment of lipoprotein function.

  2. Determination of Aspartame, Caffeine, Saccharin, and Benzoic Acid in Beverages by High Performance Liquid Chromatography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaney, Michael F.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Describes a simple and reliable new quantitative analysis experiment using liquid chromatography for the determinaiton of caffeine, saccharin, and sodium benzoate in beverages. Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided. (JN)

  3. Bitterness of sweeteners as a function of concentration.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, S S; Booth, B J; Losee, M L; Pecore, S D; Warwick, Z S

    1995-01-01

    Sixteen trained tasters provided sweetness and bitterness intensity ratings for 19 compounds including: acesulfame-K, alitame, aspartame, fructose, glucose, glycine, lactitol, maltitol, monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, neosugar (fructo-oligosaccharide), palatinit (isomalt), rebaudioside-A, sodium cyclamate, sodium saccharin, stevioside, sucralose, sucrose, and thaumatin. With increasing concentration, high-potency sweeteners including acesulfame-K, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, sodium saccharin, rebaudioside-A, and stevioside tended to become more bitter. Low-potency sweeteners including fructose, sucrose, and lactitol tended to become less bitter with increasing concentration.

  4. Saccharin Taste Conditions Flavor Preference in Weanling Rats.

    PubMed

    Ueji, Kayoko; Minematsu, Yuji; Takeshita, Daisuke; Yamamoto, Takashi

    2016-02-01

    Innate and learned taste/flavor preferences to chemical stimuli in weanling rats are not fully understood. Our previous study showed that weanling rats could establish conditioned flavor preferences when low, but not high, concentrations of sucrose solutions were used as associative rewarding stimuli. Here, we examined whether 3-week-old rats could acquire flavor learning when the rewarding stimulus was saccharin, a non-nutritive artificial sweetener. In the acquisition session, they consumed water with a flavor (cherry or grape) and 0.1% sodium saccharin with another flavor (grape or cherry) for 15 min daily on alternative days over 6 consecutive days. The subsequent test session revealed significant preferences for the flavor previously associated with saccharin. However, they failed to retain the preference when retested in adulthood at the age of 20 weeks. These behavioral results were similar to those previously demonstrated when 2% sucrose was used as an associative sweetener. Although these 2 solutions were equally preferred, the taste quality may not be the same because the weanling rats showed neophobia to 0.1% saccharin and a larger chorda tympani response than 2% sucrose. The present study showed that a conditioned flavor preference was established to saccharin in weanling rats on the basis of flavor-taste association.

  5. Potentiometric determination of saccharin in dietary products using mercurous nitrate as titrant.

    PubMed

    Fo, O F; Moraes, A J; Dos Santos, G

    1993-05-01

    A rapid, precise and low cost method for saccharin determination in dietary products is proposed. Saccharin in several samples is potentiometrically titrated with mercurous nitrate solution using a silver wire coated with a metallic mercury film as the working electrode, and the end point was found using a Gran's plot. The detection limit of sodium saccharin was 0.5 mg/ml and the best pH range was from 2.0 to 3.5. Sucrose, glucose, aspartame, sodium cyclamate, sorbitol, fructose, benzoic acid, salicylic acid and lactose do not interfere even in significant amounts. The interference due to the presence of chloride and/or phosphate ions can be eliminated by previous solvent extraction of this sweetener. Recovery of saccharin from various dietary products gave from 95.2 to 103.2% of the label claim.

  6. Adherence of Streptococcus mutans to smooth surfaces in the presence of artificial sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Linke, H A

    1983-01-01

    The adherence of Streptococcus mutans to smooth glass surfaces was studied in the presence of the artificial sweeteners, saccharin, acesulfame K and aspartame. The cells were grown aerobically in 2% yeast extract, 1% sucrose medium with artificial sweetener added in concentrations from 0.02 to 20.00 mg/ml. The artificial sweeteners tested reduced overall growth (adherent plus suspended cells), but observed growth was in favour of the adherent cells. As compared to the control optimum adherence was obtained using 2 mg/ml sodium saccharin, 2 to 20 mg/ml acesulfame K and 4 mg/ml aspartame.

  7. Cocarcinogenicity of saccharin and N-alkylnitrosoureas in cultured human diploid fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Milo, G.E.; Oldham, J.W.; Noyes, I.; Lehman, T.A.; Kumari, L.; West, R.W.; Kadlubar, F.F.

    1988-01-01

    Previous attempts to transform human foreskin fibroblasts in vitro with N-methylnitrosourea (MNU) or N-ethylnitrosourea (ENU) have been unsuccessful, and concurrent treatment with cocarcinogens or tumor promotors and either MNU or ENU have also failed to produce a neoplastic response. The present study was undertaken to test the effect of sodium saccharin on MNU- or ENU-induced cell transformation. Saccharin alone was not effective in inducing the growth of colonies in soft agar (anchorage-independent growth). However, concurrent treatment with saccharin (50 ..mu..g/ml, nontoxic dose) and MNU or ENU (29 ..mu..g/ml or 44 ..mu..g/ml, respectively) was effective in inducing transformation (greater than 300 colonies/10/sup 5/ cells), but only when the cells were treated with saccharin after being released from a G/sub 1/ block (amino acid deprivation) and followed by MNU or ENU treatment in early S phase. In contrast to results obtained with other chemical carcinogens, transformation frequencies induced by saccharin and MNU or ENU were only slightly decreased in the absence of insulin, which is normally required for growth in this system. Saccharin-MNU- or saccharin-ENU-treated cells that exhibited growth in soft agar also exhibited cellular invasiveness in 9-d-old embryonic chick skin in vitro. In addition, these cells reacted with a monoclonal antibody prepared against a molecular weight 115,000 sarcoma-cell surface-associated glycoprotein and also developed tumors in nude mice. These data demonstrate the cell-cycle-dependent cocarcinogenic potential of saccharin and MNU or ENU in cultured human skin fibroblasts.

  8. Flow injection potentiometric determination of saccharin in dietary products with relocation of filtration unit.

    PubMed

    Fatibello-Filho, O; Nóbrega, J A; Moraes Guaritá-Santos, A J

    1994-05-01

    A flow injection potentiometric procedure for saccharin determination in dietary products is proposed. Saccharin is precipitated as mercurous saccharinate and the excess of the mercurous cation is potentiometrically measured using a silver wire coated with a mercury film as the working electrode. A filter unit is used to avoid contact between the precipitate and the electrode surface. With relocation in the flow manifold, the accumulated precipitate is removed on-line. Sucrose, glucose, aspartame, sodium cyclamate and sodium benzoate do not interfere when present in amounts similar to those observed in commercial products. Results are comparable with those obtained by UV-spectrophotometry and the correlation coefficient between methods is equal to 0.9930. A linear relationship between DeltaE (mV) and the logarithm of saccharin concentration was obtained in the saccharin concentration range 2 x 10(-3) - 1 x 10(-2)M. The sampling frequency is 60/hour and only 0.76 mg of Hg(2+)(2) is consumed in each determination.

  9. Delay discounting of saccharin in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Kevin B; Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel; Woolverton, William L

    2009-10-01

    The value of a reinforcer decreases as the time until its receipt increases, a phenomenon referred to as delay discounting. Although delay discounting of non-drug reinforcers has been studied extensively in a number of species, our knowledge of discounting in non-human primates is limited. In the present study, rhesus monkeys were allowed to choose in discrete trials between 0.05% saccharin delivered in different amounts and with different delays. Indifference points were calculated and discounting functions were established. Discounting functions for saccharin were well described by a hyperbolic function. Moreover, the discounting rates for saccharin in all six monkeys were comparable to those of other non-human animals responding for non-drug reinforcers. Also consistent with other studies of non-human animals, changing the amount of a saccharin reinforcer available after a 10-s delay did not affect its relative subjective value. Discounting functions for saccharin were steeper than we found in a previous study with cocaine, raising the possibility that drugs such as cocaine may be discounted less steeply than non-drug reinforcers. PMID:19540317

  10. Delay discounting of saccharin in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Kevin B; Green, Leonard; Myerson, Joel; Woolverton, William L

    2009-10-01

    The value of a reinforcer decreases as the time until its receipt increases, a phenomenon referred to as delay discounting. Although delay discounting of non-drug reinforcers has been studied extensively in a number of species, our knowledge of discounting in non-human primates is limited. In the present study, rhesus monkeys were allowed to choose in discrete trials between 0.05% saccharin delivered in different amounts and with different delays. Indifference points were calculated and discounting functions were established. Discounting functions for saccharin were well described by a hyperbolic function. Moreover, the discounting rates for saccharin in all six monkeys were comparable to those of other non-human animals responding for non-drug reinforcers. Also consistent with other studies of non-human animals, changing the amount of a saccharin reinforcer available after a 10-s delay did not affect its relative subjective value. Discounting functions for saccharin were steeper than we found in a previous study with cocaine, raising the possibility that drugs such as cocaine may be discounted less steeply than non-drug reinforcers.

  11. New saccharin derivatives as tyrosinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Gençer, Nahit; Demir, Dudu; Sonmez, Fatih; Kucukislamoglu, Mustafa

    2012-05-01

    A newly series of 6-(phenylurenyl/thiourenyl) saccharin (6a-y) derivatives were synthesized and their inhibitory effects on the diphenolase activity of banana tyrosinase were evaluated. A 70-fold purification of the enzyme with 6.85% yield was achieved by using a Sepharose 4B-l-tyrosine-p-amino benzoic acid affinity column. The result showed that all the synthesized compounds inhibited the tyrosinase enzyme activity. Among the compounds synthesized, 6-(3-iodophenylthiourenyl) saccharin (6s) was found to be most active one (K(i)=3.95 μM) and the inhibition kinetics analyzed by Lineweaver-Burk double reciprocal plots revealed that compound 6s was a competitive inhibitor. Structure-activity relationships study showed that generally, most of the 6-(phenylthiourenyl) saccharin derivatives (6m-y) exhibited higher inhibitory activity than 6-(phenylurenyl) saccharin derivatives (6a-l). An electron-withdrawing group at 3-position of phenylurenyl-ring increased in activity and the halogen series at 3-position of phenylthiourenyl-ring showed a qualitative relationship for higher inhibitory activity with increasing size and polarizability. We also calculated HOMO-LUMO energy levels and dipole moments of some selected the synthesized compounds (6a, 6h, 6m and 6s) using Gaussian software.

  12. Simultaneous determination of some artificial sweeteners in ternary formulations by FT-IR and EI-MS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tosa, Nicoleta; Moldovan, Zaharie; Bratu, Ioan

    2012-02-01

    Artificial sweeteners are widely used in food, beverage and pharmaceutical industries all over the world. In this study some non-nutritive sweeteners such as aspartame, acesulfame-K, sodium cyclamate and sodium saccharin were simultaneously determined in ternary mixtures using FT-IR and EI-MS measurements. FT-IR method is based on direct measurements of the peak height values and area centered on 1736 cm-1, 836 cm-1, 2854 cm-1 and 1050 cm-1 for aspartame, acesulfame-K, sodium cyclamate and sodium saccharin, respectively. Mass spectrometry determinations show the characteristic peaks at m/z 91 and 262 for aspartame,m/z 43 and 163 acesulfame-K,m/z 83 and 97 for sodium cyclamate andm/z 104 and 183 for sodium saccharin. The results obtained by EI-MS in different formulations are in agreement with the FT-IR ones and provide also essential data concerning the purity grade of the components. It is concluded that FT-IR and EI-MS procedures developed in this work represent a fast, sensitive and low cost alternative in the quality control of such sweeteners in different ternary formulations.

  13. Sodium

    MedlinePlus

    ... sodium. Doctors recommend you eat less than 2.4 grams per day. That equals about 1 teaspoon of table salt a day. Reading food labels can help you see how much sodium is in prepared foods. NIH: National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute

  14. New type of saccharinate crystals: A possible supramolecular synthon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Norman; Tu, Wen-Han; Shing, Jia-Sheng; Wen, Yuh-Sheng; Liu, Ling-Kang

    2010-09-01

    Saccharin forms robust synthons with pyridine derivatives. A new 3-ring synthon has been found for saccharin and 2,2'-bpy derivatives at 2:1 M (molar) ratio. The acidic proton of saccharin is transferred to one of the 2,2'-bpy N-atoms and becomes located in central region of the 3 N-atoms in structure. The new synthon gives an opportunity for supramolecular construction that locks the 2,2'-bpy in cis conformation. As an acid, saccharin neutralizes 2,2'-bpy derivatives to give structures with a locked cis 2,2'-bpy skeleton, consistent to the known increasing solubility of 2,2'-bpy derivatives using saccharin to form salts. To the best of our knowledge, this is also one of the very rare times to have observed that ionic and neutral forms of saccharin coexist simultaneously in the solid state.

  15. Caffeine intensifies taste of certain sweeteners: role of adenosine receptor.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, S S; Diaz, C; Beeker, T G

    1986-03-01

    Caffeine, a potent antagonist of adenosine receptors, potentiates the taste of some but not all sweeteners. It significantly enhances the taste of acesulfam-K, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone, d-tryptophan, thaumatin, stevioside, and sodium saccharin. Adenosine reverses the enhancement. Caffeine has no effect on aspartame, sucrose, fructose, and calcium cyclamate. These results suggest that the inhibitory A1 adenosine receptor plays an important local role in modulating the taste intensity of certain sweeteners and that several transduction mechanisms mediate sweet taste.

  16. Cocaine decreases saccharin preference without altering sweet taste sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Roebber, Jennifer K.; Izenwasser, Sari; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2015-01-01

    In rodents, saccharin consumption is suppressed when the sweet taste stimulus is paired with moderate doses of cocaine. Several hypotheses have been used to explain the seemingly contradictory effect of decreased consumption of a normally preferred substance following a highly rewarding drug. A common theme across these hypotheses is that saccharin is interpreted as less rewarding after cocaine pairing. We considered the alternative possibility that suppression is caused not by a change in reward circuitry, but rather by a change in taste detection, for instance by altering the afferent taste response and decreasing sensitivity to sweet taste stimuli. To evaluate this possibility, we measured saccharin taste sensitivity of mice before and after a standard cocaine-pairing paradigm. We measured taste sensitivity using a brief-access lickometer equipped with multiple concentrations of saccharin solution and established concentration-response curves before and after saccharin-cocaine pairing. Our results indicate that the EC50 for saccharin was unaltered following pairing. Instead, the avidity of licking saccharin, an indicator of motivation, was depressed. Latency to first-lick, a negative indicator of motivation, was also dramatically increased. Thus, our findings are consistent with the interpretation that saccharin-cocaine pairing results in devaluing of the sweet taste reward. PMID:25812471

  17. Cocaine decreases saccharin preference without altering sweet taste sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Roebber, Jennifer K; Izenwasser, Sari; Chaudhari, Nirupa

    2015-06-01

    In rodents, saccharin consumption is suppressed when the sweet taste stimulus is paired with moderate doses of cocaine. Several hypotheses have been used to explain the seemingly contradictory effect of decreased consumption of a normally preferred substance following a highly rewarding drug. A common theme across these hypotheses is that saccharin is interpreted as less rewarding after cocaine pairing. We considered the alternative possibility that suppression is caused not by a change in reward circuitry, but rather by a change in taste detection, for instance by altering the afferent taste response and decreasing sensitivity to sweet taste stimuli. To evaluate this possibility, we measured saccharin taste sensitivity of mice before and after a standard cocaine-pairing paradigm. We measured taste sensitivity using a brief-access lickometer equipped with multiple concentrations of saccharin solution and established concentration-response curves before and after saccharin-cocaine pairing. Our results indicate that the EC50 for saccharin was unaltered following pairing. Instead, the avidity of licking saccharin, an indicator of motivation, was depressed. Latency to first-lick, a negative indicator of motivation, was also dramatically increased. Thus, our findings are consistent with the interpretation that saccharin-cocaine pairing results in devaluing of the sweet taste reward.

  18. Saccharin and aspartame, compared with sucrose, induce greater weight gain in adult Wistar rats, at similar total caloric intake levels.

    PubMed

    Feijó, Fernanda de Matos; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Batista, Bruna Aparecida Melo; Neves, Alice Magagnin; Ribeiro, Maria Flávia Marques; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the use of nonnutritive sweeteners (NNSs) can lead to weight gain, but evidence regarding their real effect in body weight and satiety is still inconclusive. Using a rat model, the present study compares the effect of saccharin and aspartame to sucrose in body weight gain and in caloric intake. Twenty-nine male Wistar rats received plain yogurt sweetened with 20% sucrose, 0.3% sodium saccharin or 0.4% aspartame, in addition to chow and water ad libitum, while physical activity was restrained. Measurements of cumulative body weight gain, total caloric intake, caloric intake of chow and caloric intake of sweetened yogurt were performed weekly for 12 weeks. Results showed that addition of either saccharin or aspartame to yogurt resulted in increased weight gain compared to addition of sucrose, however total caloric intake was similar among groups. In conclusion, greater weight gain was promoted by the use of saccharin or aspartame, compared with sucrose, and this weight gain was unrelated to caloric intake. We speculate that a decrease in energy expenditure or increase in fluid retention might be involved.

  19. Complexation of americium with {alpha}-d-iso-saccharinate

    SciTech Connect

    Allard, S.; Knutsson, A.; Oedegaard-Jensen, A.; Ekberg, C.; Jolsteraa, R.

    2008-07-01

    Under alkaline conditions, cellulose will degrade, with iso-saccharinate being the dominant end-product. One of the formed diastereomers, the {alpha}-D-iso-saccharinate, is a strong complexing agent for tri- and tetravalent actinides and is the dominant conformation at pH > 5, rendering other conformations insignificant at neutral to alkaline conditions. The presence of {alpha}-D-iso-saccharinate increases the amount of metal in solution and also affects the surface interactions. Understanding this complexation is of relevance for long-term repository assessments. This study has investigated the complexation of americium with {alpha}-D-iso-saccharinate using solvent-extraction and radioanalytical techniques at 25 deg. C. The stability constants for the complexation reactions were determined by curve fitting of a distribution-ratio equation to experimental data.

  20. Saccharin and aspartame. Are they safe to consume during pregnancy?

    PubMed

    London, R S

    1988-01-01

    Saccharin and aspartame are commonly used artificial sweeteners. Some of the currently available information on their safety in pregnancy was reviewed, with recommendations formulated on their use in the periconceptional period and pregnancy.

  1. Effect of saccharin on metabolic cooperation between human fibroblasts

    SciTech Connect

    Mosser, D.D.; Bols, N.C.

    1983-01-01

    Autoradiography was used to study the effect of saccharin on metabolic cooperation between human diploid fibroblasts. When the donors, HGPRT+ cells, and recipients, HGPRT- cells, were plated together in the presence of saccharin, all the interactions that developed in 4 and 24 h were positive for metabolic cooperation. When saccharin was added after donor cells and recipient cells had made contact, the proportion of interactions that were positive for metabolic cooperation was unchanged but the number of grains over primary recipients was reduced. However, in donor cells saccharin caused a reduction in (/sup 3/H)hypoxanthine incorporation into both acid-soluble and acid-insoluble fractions, although the relative distribution of radioactivity between these two fractions and between the phosphorylated and non-phosphorylated derivatives of (/sup 3/H)hypoxanthine was unchanged. Metabolic cooperation was studied under conditions in which the number of grains over the nuclei of both the primary recipient and the primary recipient's donor could be counted. The change in the number of grains over these two cell types in response to saccharin was compared and found to be the same. Thus in normal human fibroblasts saccharin does not appear to affect metabolic cooperation, which is a measure of cell-to-cell communication.

  2. Functional relationship between oxytocin and appetite for carbohydrates versus saccharin.

    PubMed

    Herisson, Florence M; Brooks, Lydia L; Waas, Joseph R; Levine, Allen S; Olszewski, Pawel K

    2014-08-20

    Centrally acting oxytocin (OT) inhibits feeding. Recent evidence suggests a link between OT and control of carbohydrate and saccharin intake, but it is unclear whether OT affects appetite for only carbohydrates, especially sweet ones, or sweet tastants irrespective of their carbohydrate content. Therefore, a blood-brain barrier penetrant OT receptor antagonist, L-368,899, was administered in mice and intake of liquid diets containing carbohydrates sucrose, glucose, fructose, polycose, or cornstarch (CS) or the noncarbohydrate, noncaloric sweetener saccharin was studied in episodic intake paradigms: one in which only one tastant was available and the other in which a choice between a carbohydrate (sucrose, glucose, or fructose) and saccharin was provided. We also used real-time PCR to examine hypothalamic Ot mRNA levels in mice provided short-term access to sucrose, CS, or saccharin. In the no-choice paradigm, L-368,899 increased the intake of all carbohydrates, whereas its effect on saccharin consumption showed only a trend. A 10 times lower dose (0.3 mg/kg) stimulated intake of sucrose than other carbohydrates. In the choice test, a very low 0.1 mg/kg dose of L-368,899 doubled the proportion of sucrose consumption relative to saccharin, but did not affect fructose or glucose preference. Ot gene expression increased after sucrose and CS, but not saccharin exposure compared with the controls; however, a higher level of significance was detected in the sucrose group. We conclude that OT inhibits appetite for carbohydrates. Sucrose consumption considerably enhances Ot gene expression and is particularly sensitive to OT receptor blockade, suggesting a special functional relationship between OT and sugar intake.

  3. Coamorphous repaglinide-saccharin with enhanced dissolution.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Liao, Jiao; Qi, Xuan; Zhang, Jianjun

    2013-06-25

    Recently, coamorphous systems composed of two drugs or a drug and a small molecule excipient, gained interests due to their ability in overcoming limitations associated with solid dispersions. In this study, coamorphous form of repaglinide (REP), a BCS class II anti-diabetic drug with low aqueous solubility and high permeability was achieved with saccharin (SAC) by solution crystallization and characterized. An accurate and precise HPLC method was established for the simultaneous determination of REP and SAC. Coamorphous REP-SAC with 1:1 stoichiometry had unique thermal behavior, obvious FTIR shifts and the absence of sharp diffraction peak, suggesting the formation of a coamorphous material and interaction of REP with SAC through hydrogen bonds formed between REP's secondary amine and SAC's carbonyl group. Coamorphous REP-SAC showed great improvement in solubility and dissolution under sink conditions in various media. In addition, it was conformed in supersaturated dissolution of coamorphous REP-SAC in distilled water that the coamorphous material had remarkably longer time length for REP to be remained at a supersaturated concentration and had better metastable solubility. This coamorphous system provides a feasible way to process drugs with low solubility into substances with enhanced dissolution and stabilized amorphous state that could be conducive to greater bioavailability than the crystalline drug.

  4. Individual differences in saccharin acceptance predict rats' food intake.

    PubMed

    Boakes, Robert A; Martire, Sarah I; Rooney, Kieron B; Kendig, Michael D

    2016-10-01

    Following previous results indicating that low acceptance of saccharin-sweetened yoghurt was associated with slower weight gain, the aim of this experiment was to determine which of three measures of individual differences would predict subsequent chow consumption, body weight gain, and fat mass. Pre-test measures consisted of amount of running in an activity wheel, amount of 0.1% saccharin solution consumed over 24h, and performance on an elevated plus maze (EPM). Rats were then maintained for three weeks on a diet of standard chow and water. Subsequent post-testing repeated the procedures used in pre-testing. The rats were then culled and fat pads excised and weighed. Pre-testing revealed a negative correlation between saccharin acceptance and activity, while neither measure correlated with anxiety in the EPM. Pre-test saccharin acceptance was positively correlated with subsequent chow consumption, percent weight gain, and g/kg fat mass. Multiple regression analyses including all three pre-test measures confirmed saccharin acceptance as a predictor of chow consumption and, marginally, of fat pad mass, while high anxiety predicted low percent body weight gain. PMID:27260516

  5. Incubation of saccharin craving and within-session changes in responding for a cue previously associated with saccharin.

    PubMed

    Aoyama, K; Barnes, J; Grimm, J W

    2014-01-01

    Time-dependent increases in cue-induced sucrose seeking after forced abstinence have been described in rats with a history of sucrose self-administration, suggesting sucrose craving "incubates". In the present study, we examined whether the incubation of craving generalizes to the artificial sweetener, saccharin. Thirty-one male Long-Evans rats lever pressed for 0.3% saccharin solution 1h/day for 10 days. On either Day 1 or 30 of forced abstinence, rats responded for 1h for presentation of a tone+light cue previously presented with every saccharin delivery during self-administration training. Rats responded more during this cue-reactivity test session following 30 vs. 1 day of forced abstinence ("incubation of craving"). This result is the first demonstration of the "incubation of saccharin craving" and suggests that a post-ingestive caloric consequence of self-administration is not a necessary condition for the development of incubation of sucrose craving. We also examined the time course (within-session decreases) of active-lever responding during the 1-h cue-reactivity test session. Rats in the Day 30 group responded more than rats in the Day 1 group from the beginning of the test session. In addition, within-session decreases in responding were shallower in slope in the Day 30 than the Day 1 group. These results indicate that "incubation of saccharin craving" enhances the persistence of seeking behavior.

  6. Unpredictable saccharin reinforcement enhances locomotor responding to amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Singer, B F; Scott-Railton, J; Vezina, P

    2012-01-01

    Drug-naïve, non-deprived rats were trained to lever press for saccharin under fixed-ratio (FR) or variable-ratio (VR) schedules of reinforcement. Rats trained on the VR schedule in which saccharin reinforcement was not predicted by a fixed number of lever presses subsequently showed an enhanced locomotor response to a threshold amphetamine challenge injection (0.5mg/kg IP) administered 2 weeks following the last saccharin session. This finding suggests that chronic exposure to gambling-like conditions of uncertain reinforcement can induce neuroadaptations in brain reward systems that are similar to those produced by repeated psychostimulant exposure and may lead to the development of addictive behaviors.

  7. Influence of saccharin on Polycose, sucrose, and glucose intake and preference in rats.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, A; Einberg, L T; Nissenbaum, J W

    1987-01-01

    The effect of adding 0.125% saccharin to 3% or 32% solutions of Polycose, sucrose and glucose on the fluid intake and preference of adult female rats was examined. In Experiment 1, the rats consumed more of a 3% Polycose + 0.125% saccharin solution (P + s) than of either a 3% Polycose or 0.125% saccharin solution; similar results were obtained with sucrose + saccharin (S + s) and glucose + saccharin (G + s) solutions. The polydipsic effects of the P + s, S + s, and G + s solutions were comparable (225 to 278 ml/day). Adding saccharin to 32% Polycose, sucrose, or glucose solutions did not increase solution intake. In two-solution preference tests, though, the rats preferred the 32% Polycose + saccharin and 32% glucose + saccharin solutions to 32% Polycose and 32% glucose solutions, respectively. Saccharin did not reliably affect the preference for the 32% sucrose solution. In Experiment 2, the preference for 3% carbohydrate solutions was assessed using two-solution tests. The rats preferred 3% sucrcose to 3% Polycose or 3% glucose; they also preferred 3% Polycose to 3% glucose. When saccharin was added to the solutions, the rats displayed equal preferences for the S + s and P + s solutions, and for the P + s and G + s solutions but they strongly preferred the S + s to the G + s solution. Recent findings suggest that polysaccharides such as Polycose taste qualitatively different from sucrose and saccharin to rats, i.e., have a "nonsweet" taste.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Stevia and Saccharin Preferences in Rats and Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bahrani, Mahsa; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2010-01-01

    Use of natural noncaloric sweeteners in commercial foods and beverages has expanded recently to include compounds from the plant Stevia rebaudiana. Little is known about the responses of rodents, the animal models for many studies of taste systems and food intake, to stevia sweeteners. In the present experiments, preferences of female Sprague–Dawley rats and C57BL/6J mice for different stevia products were compared with those for the artificial sweetener saccharin. The stevia component rebaudioside A has the most sweetness and least off-tastes to human raters. In ascending concentration tests (48-h sweetener vs. water), rats and mice preferred a high-rebaudioside, low-stevioside extract as strongly as saccharin, but the extract stimulated less overdrinking and was much less preferred to saccharin in direct choice tests. Relative to the extract, mice drank more pure rebaudioside A and showed stronger preferences but still less than those for saccharin. Mice also preferred a commercial mixture of rebaudioside A and erythritol (Truvia). Similar tests of sweet receptor T1R3 knockout mice and brief-access licking tests with normal mice suggested that the preferences were based on sweet taste rather than post-oral effects. The preference response of rodents to stevia sweeteners is notable in view of their minimal response to some other noncaloric sweeteners (aspartame and cyclamate). PMID:20413452

  9. Stevia and saccharin preferences in rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Bahrani, Mahsa; Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2010-06-01

    Use of natural noncaloric sweeteners in commercial foods and beverages has expanded recently to include compounds from the plant Stevia rebaudiana. Little is known about the responses of rodents, the animal models for many studies of taste systems and food intake, to stevia sweeteners. In the present experiments, preferences of female Sprague-Dawley rats and C57BL/6J mice for different stevia products were compared with those for the artificial sweetener saccharin. The stevia component rebaudioside A has the most sweetness and least off-tastes to human raters. In ascending concentration tests (48-h sweetener vs. water), rats and mice preferred a high-rebaudioside, low-stevioside extract as strongly as saccharin, but the extract stimulated less overdrinking and was much less preferred to saccharin in direct choice tests. Relative to the extract, mice drank more pure rebaudioside A and showed stronger preferences but still less than those for saccharin. Mice also preferred a commercial mixture of rebaudioside A and erythritol (Truvia). Similar tests of sweet receptor T1R3 knockout mice and brief-access licking tests with normal mice suggested that the preferences were based on sweet taste rather than post-oral effects. The preference response of rodents to stevia sweeteners is notable in view of their minimal response to some other noncaloric sweeteners (aspartame and cyclamate).

  10. Hazardous to Your Health: Magazine Coverage of the Saccharin Debate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haugh, Rita E.

    After the Food and Drug Administration announced the results of testing of saccharin as a possible carcinogen and ruled that it should be banned, a public outcry brought about a delay in the ban. A study of magazine coverage of the reasons for the ban and information about the testing showed that in eleven mass circulation magazines, the reporting…

  11. Simultaneous determination of saccharin and aspartame in commercial noncaloric sweeteners using the PLS-2 multivariate calibration method and validation by capillary electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Cantarelli, Miguel A; Pellerano, Roberto G; Marchevsky, Eduardo J; Camiña, José M

    2008-10-22

    A new method to determine a mixture for sweetener sodium saccharin and aspartame in commercial noncaloric sweeteners is proposed. A classical full factorial design for standards was used in the calibration step to build the partial least-squares (PLS-2) model. Instrumental data were obtained by means of UV-visible spectrophotometry. Salicylic acid was used as an internal standard to evaluate the adjustment of the real samples to the PLS model. The concentration of analytes in the commercial samples was evaluated using the obtained model by UV spectral data. The PLS-2 method was validated by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE), finding in all cases a relative error of less than 11% between the PLS-2 and the CZE methods. The proposed procedure was applied successfully to the determination of saccharin and aspartame in noncaloric commercial sweeteners.

  12. Saccharin and Cyclamate Inhibit Binding of Epidermal Growth Factor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, L. S.

    1981-02-01

    The binding of 125I-labeled mouse epidermal growth factor (EGF) to 18 cell lines, including HeLa (human carcinoma), MDCK (dog kidney cells), HTC (rat hepatoma), K22 (rat liver), HF (human foreskin), GM17 (human skin fibroblasts), XP (human xeroderma pigmentosum fibroblasts), and 3T3-L1 (mouse fibroblasts), was inhibited by saccharin and cyclamate. The human cells were more sensitive to inhibition by these sweeteners than mouse or rat cells. EGF at doses far above the physiological levels reversed the inhibition in rodent cells but not in HeLa cells. In HeLa cells, the doses of saccharin and cyclamate needed for 50% inhibition were 3.5 and 9.3 mg/ml, respectively. Glucose, 2-deoxyglucose, sucrose, and xylitol did not inhibit EGF binding. Previous studies have shown that phorbol esters, strongly potent tumor promoters, also inhibit EGF binding to tissue culture cells. To explain the EGF binding inhibition by such greatly dissimilar molecules as phorbol esters, saccharin, and cyclamate, it is suggested that they operate through the activation of a hormone response control unit.

  13. Vibrational spectra of saccharin nitranion and its orientation on the surface of silver metal particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imai, Yoshika; Kamada, Jun-ichi

    2005-02-01

    Infrared-reflectance spectra of the saccharin nitranion adsorbed on silver powder was observed. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) spectra of the saccharin nitranion were also recorded using cellulose acetate films doped with fine silver particles. The spectra suggested that the saccharin nitranion is bonded to the silver metal surface through the oxygen atom of carbonyl and the nitrogen atom of the imide ring groups and that the nitranion tilts at the surface.

  14. Enhancement of rat bladder contraction by artificial sweeteners via increased extracellular Ca{sup 2+} influx

    SciTech Connect

    Dasgupta, Jaydip; Elliott, Ruth A. . E-mail: rae5@leicester.ac.uk; Doshani, Angie; Tincello, Douglas G.

    2006-12-01

    Introduction: Consumption of carbonated soft drinks has been shown to be independently associated with the development of overactive bladder symptoms (OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.18, 2.22) [Dallosso, H.M., McGrother, C.W., Matthews, R.J., Donaldson, M.M.K., 2003. The association of diet and other lifestyle factors with overactive bladder and stress incontinence: a longitudinal study in women. BJU Int. 92, 69-77]. We evaluated the effects of three artificial sweeteners, acesulfame K, aspartame and sodium saccharin, on the contractile response of isolated rat detrusor muscle strips. Methods: Strips of detrusor muscle were placed in an organ bath and stimulated with electrical field stimulation (EFS) in the absence and presence of atropine, and with {alpha},{beta} methylene ATP, potassium, calcium and carbachol. Results: Sweeteners 10{sup -7} M to 10{sup -2} M enhanced the contractile response to 10 Hz EFS compared to control (p < 0.01). The atropine-resistant response to EFS was marginally increased by acesulfame K 10{sup -6} M, aspartame 10{sup -7} M and sodium saccharin 10{sup -7} M. Acesulfame K 10{sup -6} M increased the maximum contractile response to {alpha},{beta} methylene ATP by 35% ({+-} 9.6%) (p < 0.05) and to KCl by 12% ({+-} 3.1%) (p < 0.01). Sodium saccharin also increased the response to KCl by 37% ({+-} 15.2%) (p < 0.05). These sweeteners shifted the calcium concentration-response curves to the left. Acesulfame K 10{sup -6} M increased the log EC{sub 5} from -2.79 ({+-} 0.037) to -3.03 ({+-} 0.048, p < 0.01) and sodium saccharin 10{sup -7} M from -2.74 ({+-} 0.03) to 2.86 ({+-} 0.031, p < 0.05). The sweeteners had no significant effect on the contractile response to carbachol but they did increase the amplitude of spontaneous bladder contractions. Discussion: These results suggest that low concentrations of artificial sweeteners enhanced detrusor muscle contraction via modulation of L-type Ca{sup +2} channels.

  15. 77 FR 21966 - Saccharin From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-12

    ... People's Republic of China; Final Results of Antidumping Administrative Review, 60 FR 48687 (September 20... International Trade Administration Saccharin From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of... on saccharin from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') for the period of review (``POR'') July...

  16. 75 FR 7566 - Saccharin from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Changed Circumstances Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Changed Circumstances Review, 74 FR 62745... Republic of China, 68 FR 40906 (June 9, 2003) (``Saccharin Order''). \\3\\ See Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order on Saccharin from the People's Republic of China, 74 FR 27089 (June 8, 2009). On July...

  17. Saccharin-Mediated Systemic Protection of Soybean Against Infection by Soybean Rust

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a widely distributed plant defense system that confers broad-spectrum disease resistance. Saccharin is known to induce a SAR response in many plant species. To evaluate the potentiating capability of saccharin in this respect, soybean (Glycine max) plants were i...

  18. Concurrent phencyclidine and saccharin access: presentation of an alternative reinforcer reduces drug intake.

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, M E

    1985-01-01

    Six monkeys self-administered orally delivered phencyclidine ("angel dust") and saccharin under concurrent fixed-ratio 16 schedules during daily three-hour sessions. Liquid deliveries were contingent upon lip-contact responses on solenoid-operated drinking spouts. Three saccharin concentrations (0.003%, 0.03% and 0.3%, wt/vol) were tested in a nonsystematic order. For each saccharin concentration, the following series of phencyclidine concentrations (mg/ml) was presented: 0.25, 0.5, 1, 0.25 (retest), 0.125, 0.0625, 0.0312, 0.25 (retest) and 0 (water with stimuli signaling phencyclidine). As the saccharin concentration increased, the number of drug deliveries decreased, and the peaks of the concentration-response functions were shifted to the right. The lowest saccharin concentration (0.003%, wt/vol) maintained responding in excess of phencyclidine levels in only one monkey. The two higher saccharin concentrations maintained behavior far in excess of phencyclidine, but saccharin deliveries decreased in some monkeys as phencyclidine concentration and intake (mg/kg) increased. The time course and patterns of phencyclidine-reinforced responding were also altered when saccharin was concurrently available. The results are discussed in terms of strategies to reduce drug-reinforced behavior, preference between different reinforcers, and measures of reinforcing efficacy. PMID:3981084

  19. Sensitive simultaneous determination of three sulfanilamide artificial sweeters by capillary electrophoresis with on-line preconcentration and contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lirong; Zhou, ShengJi; Xiao, Yuezhou; Tang, Yufeng; Xie, Tianyao

    2015-12-01

    A sensitive method followed by capillary electrophoresis with on-line perconcentration and capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detection (CE-C(4)D) was evaluated as a novel approach for the determination of three sulfanilamide artificial sweeteners (acesulfame-K, sodium saccharin and sodium cyclamate) in beverages. The on-line preconcentration technique, namely field-amplified sample injection, coupled with CE-C(4)D were successfully developed and optimized. The separation was achieved within 10 min under the following conditions: an uncoated fused-silica capillary (45 cm × 50 μm i.d., Leff=40 cm), 20 mmol L(-1) HAc as running buffer, separation voltage of -12 kV, electrokinetic injection of -11 kV × 8 s. The detection limits of acesulfame-K, sodium saccharin and sodium cyclamate were 4.4, 6.7 and 8.8 μg L(-1), respectively. The relative standard deviation varied in the range of 3.0-5.0%. Results of this study show a great potential method for the fast screening of these artificial sweeteners contents in commercial beverages. PMID:26041216

  20. Separation and simultaneous determination of four artificial sweeteners in food and beverages by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Yan; Guo, Yingying; Ye, Mingli; James, Frits S

    2005-08-26

    In this paper, the separation and determination of four artificial sweeteners (aspartame, sodium cyclamate, acesulfame-K and sodium saccharin) by ion chromatography coupled with suppressed conductivity detector is reported. The four artificial sweeteners were separated using KOH eluent generator. Due to the use of eluent generator, very low conductance background conductivity can be obtained and sensitivity of sweeteners has been greatly improved. Under the experimental condition, several inorganic anions, such as F-, Cl-, NO3-, NO2-, Br-, SO4(2)-, PO4(3)- and some organic acid such as formate, acetate, benzoate, and citrate did not interfere with the determination. With this method, good linear relationship, sensitivity and reproducibility were obtained. Detection limits of aspartame, sodium cyclamate, acesulfame-K, sodium saccharin were 0.87, 0.032, 0.019, 0.045 mg/L, respectively. Rate of recovery were between 98.23 and 105.42%, 99.48 and 103.57%, 97.96 and 103.23%, 98.46 and 102.40%, respectively. The method has successfully applied to the determination of the four sweeteners in drinks and preserved fruits.

  1. [Simultaneous determination of five synthetic sweeteners in food by solid phase extraction-high performance liquid chromatography-evaporative light scattering detection].

    PubMed

    Liu, Fang; Wang, Yan; Wang, Yuhong; Zhou, Junyi; Yan, Chao

    2012-03-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method with evaporative light scattering detection (HPLC-ELSD) was developed for the simultaneous determination of five synthetic sweeteners (acesulfame-K, saccharin sodium, sodium cyclamate, sucralose and aspartame) in food. The sweeteners were extracted by 0.1% (v/v) formic acid buffer solution. The extract of sample was cleaned up and concentrated with solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridge. Then the sweeteners were separated on a C18 column (3 microm) using 0.1% (v/v) formic acid buffer (adjusted to pH = 3.5 with aqueous ammonia solution)-methanol (61: 39, v/v) as mobile phase, and finally detected by ELSD. The results showed that the reasonable linearity was achieved for all the analytes over the range of 30 - 1000 mg/L with the correlation coefficients (r) greater than 0.997. The recoveries for the five sweeteners ranged from 85.6% to 109.0% at three spiked concentrations with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) lower than 4.0%. The limits of detection (LODs, S/N = 3) were 2.5 mg/L for both acesulfame-K and sucralose, 3 mg/L for saccharin sodium, 10 mg/L for sodium cyclamate, and 5 mg/L for aspartame. The method is simple, sensitive and low cost, and has been successfully applied to the simultaneous determination of the five synthetic sweeteners in food.

  2. Conditioned saccharin avoidance and sensitization to drugs of abuse.

    PubMed

    Fenu, Sandro; Cadoni, Cristina; Di Chiara, Gaetano

    2010-12-25

    Saccharin avoidance conditioned by drugs of abuse (CSA) has been interpreted as an expression of the appetitive, dopamine-dependent, properties of the drug. Repeated exposure to these drugs induces an increase (sensitization) of their motor stimulant properties associated with differential changes in DA transmission in the NAc shell and core. The present study investigated the changes in drug CSA induced by schedules of repeated drug exposure that induce behavioral sensitization. CSA was performed in a two-bottle choice paradigm with two saccharin-drug associations in rats previously sensitized to morphine, cocaine, amphetamine and nicotine. In control rats morphine (1 and 5mg/kg s.c.), cocaine (5 and 10mg/kg i.p.), amphetamine (0.25 and 0.5mg/kg s.c.) and nicotine (0.4 mg/kg s.c.) induced dose-dependent CSA. Sensitization to morphine, cocaine and nicotine, which is known to reduce the responsiveness of NAc shell DA to the same drugs, also reduced CSA. In contrast, sensitization to amphetamine, that does not affect the responsiveness of NAc shell DA to the drug, failed to affect CSA. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that NAc shell DA is a substrate of the appetitive properties of drugs of abuse.

  3. Simultaneous determination of nonnutritive sweeteners in foods by HPLC/ESI-MS.

    PubMed

    Yang, Da-jin; Chen, Bo

    2009-04-22

    Nonnutritive sweeteners are the low calorie substances used to replace sugar and other caloric ones. Determination of these sweeteners in foods is important to ensure consistency in product quality. In this study, seven artificial (aspartame, saccharin, acesulfame-K, neotame, sucralose, cyclamate, and alitame) and one natural sweetener (stevioside) were simultaneously determined in different foods using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray ionization mass spectrometric detection (ESI-MS). The target compounds were quantified using a selective ionization recording (SIR) at m/z 178, 397, 377, 293, 641, 312, 162, and 182 to cyclamate, sucralose, neotame, aspartame, stevioside, alitame, acesulfame-K, and saccharin, respectively, with warfarin sodium (SIR m/z 307) being used as an internal standard. The correlation coefficient of the calibration curve was better than 0.998 (n = 6), in the range of 0.05 to 5.00 microg/mL for cyclamate, 0.30 to 30.0 microg/mL for sucralose, 0.10 to 10.0 microg/mL for neotame, 0.20 to 20.0 microg/mL for aspartame, 0.50 to 15.0 microg/mL for stevioside, 0.08 to 8.00 microg/mL for alitame, 0.10 to 15.0 microg/mL for acesulfame-K, and 0.05 to 5.00 microg/mL for saccharin. The limits of detection (LODs) were below 0.10 microg/mL, whereas the limits of quantification (LOQs) were below 0.30 microg/mL. It is concluded that the method has merits such as high sensitivity, specificity, and simplicity versus the those of the other methods reported in the literature.

  4. pH-dependent solubility of indomethacin-saccharin and carbamazepine-saccharin cocrystals in aqueous media.

    PubMed

    Alhalaweh, Amjad; Roy, Lilly; Rodríguez-Hornedo, Naír; Velaga, Sitaram P

    2012-09-01

    Cocrystals constitute an important class of pharmaceutical solids for their remarkable ability to modulate solubility and pH dependence of water insoluble drugs. Here we show how cocrystals of indomethacin-saccharin (IND-SAC) and carbamazepine-saccharin (CBZ-SAC) enhance solubility and impart a pH-sensitivity different from that of the drugs. IND-SAC exhibited solubilities 13 to 65 times higher than IND at pH values of 1 to 3, whereas CBZ-SAC exhibited a 2 to 10 times higher solubility than CBZ dihydrate. Cocrystal solubility dependence on pH predicted from mathematical models using cocrystal K(sp), and cocrystal component K(a) values, was in excellent agreement with experimental measurements. The cocrystal solubility increase relative to drug was predicted to reach a limiting value for a cocrystal with two acidic components. This limiting value is determined by the ionization constants of cocrystal components. Eutectic constants are shown to be meaningful indicators of cocrystal solubility and its pH dependence. The two contributions to solubility, cocrystal lattice and solvation, were evaluated by thermal and solubility determinations. The results show that solvation is the main barrier for the aqueous solubility of these drugs and their cocrystals, which are orders of magnitude higher than their lattice barriers. Cocrystal increase in solubility is thus a result of decreasing the solvation barrier compared to that of the drug. This work demonstrates the favorable properties of cocrystals and strategies that facilitate their meaningful characterization.

  5. Saccharin sulfonamides as inhibitors of carbonic anhydrases I, II, VII, XII, and XIII.

    PubMed

    Morkūnaitė, Vaida; Baranauskienė, Lina; Zubrienė, Asta; Kairys, Visvaldas; Ivanova, Jekaterina; Trapencieris, Pēteris; Matulis, Daumantas

    2014-01-01

    A series of modified saccharin sulfonamides have been designed as carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors and synthesized. Their binding to CA isoforms I, II, VII, XII, and XIII was measured by the fluorescent thermal shift assay (FTSA) and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC). Saccharin bound the CAs weakly, exhibiting the affinities of 1-10 mM for four CAs except CA I where binding could not be detected. Several sulfonamide-bearing saccharines exhibited strong affinities of 1-10 nM towards particular CA isoforms. The functional group binding Gibbs free energy additivity maps are presented which may provide insights into the design of compounds with increased affinity towards selected CAs.

  6. Saccharin derivatives as inhibitors of interferon-mediated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Csakai, Adam; Smith, Christina; Davis, Emily; Martinko, Alexander; Coulup, Sara; Yin, Hang

    2014-06-26

    A series of novel, saccharin-based antagonists have been identified for the interferon signaling pathway. Through in vitro high-throughput screening with the Colorado Center for Drug Discovery (C2D2) Pilot Library, we identified hit compound 1, which was the basis for extensive structure-activity relationship studies. Our efforts produced a lead anti-inflammatory compound, tert-butyl N-(furan-2-ylmethyl)-N-{4-[(1,1,3-trioxo-2,3-dihydro-1λ(6),2-benzothiazol-2-yl)methyl]benzoyl}carbamate CU-CPD103 (103), as a potent inhibitor using an established nitric oxide (NO) signaling assay. With further studies of its inhibitory mechanisms, we demonstrated that 103 carries out this inhibition through the JAK/STAT1 pathway, providing a drug-like small molecule inflammation suppressant for possible therapeutic uses.

  7. Compared with DBA/2J mice, C57BL/6J mice demonstrate greater preference for saccharin and less avoidance of a cocaine-paired saccharin cue.

    PubMed

    Freet, Christopher S; Arndt, Amanda; Grigson, Patricia S

    2013-06-01

    Rats avoid intake of a saccharin cue when paired with a drug of abuse. While this is true for most subjects, the degree of avoidance of the drug-paired cue depends upon many factors including an individual rat's preference for rewards. That said, the direction of this effect is complex. For example, reward-preferring Lewis rats exhibit greater cocaine-induced avoidance of a saccharin cue relative to Fischer 344 rats; while reward-preferring mice that overexpress ΔFosB (NSE-tTA × TetOp-ΔFosB) exhibit less avoidance of the drug-paired taste cue compared to controls. The aim here was to use two strains of commonly used mice, C57BL/6J and DBA/2J, to determine whether known differences in sensitivity to rewards will facilitate or attenuate drug-induced suppression of intake of a drug-paired taste cue. The results of Experiment 1 demonstrate that C57BL/6J mice, compared with DBA/2J mice, exhibit attenuated suppression of saccharin intake when it is paired with cocaine. The results of Experiment 2 demonstrate that strain differences in impulsivity are not likely to account for these differences. It is proposed that, while the C57BL/6J mice typically are more responsive to drug, they also are more responsive to natural rewards (in this case saccharin), and the stronger preference for saccharin serves to militate against drug.

  8. Physical properties of nanostructured CdO films from alkaline baths containing saccharin as additive.

    PubMed

    Şahin, Bünyamin

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured cadmium oxide (CdO) films were fabricated on glass substrates from alkaline baths containing saccharin as an additive by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The effects of saccharin concentration in the bath on the structural, morphological, and optical properties were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. The analyses showed that the surface morphologies, XRD peak intensities, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence properties of CdO films changed with saccharin concentration. From the results, it can be said that morphological characteristic and optical properties of the films could be calibrated by adding various saccharin percentages in the growth bath.

  9. Selective identification and quantification of saccharin by liquid chromatography and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Bruno, Sergio N F; Cardoso, Carlos R; Maciel, Márcia Mosca A; Vokac, Lidmila; da Silva Junior, Ademário I

    2014-09-15

    High-pressure liquid chromatography with ultra-violet detection (HPLC-UV) is one of the most commonly used methods to identify and quantify saccharin in non-alcoholic beverages. However, due to the wide variety of interfering UV spectra in saccharin-containing beverage matrices, the same method cannot be used to measure this analyte accurately. We have developed a new, highly effective method to identify and quantify saccharin using HPLC with fluorescence detection (HPLC-FLD). The excitation wavelength (250 nm) and emission wavelength (440 nm) chosen increased selectivity for all matrices and ensured few changes were required in the mobile phase or other parameters. The presence of saccharin in non-diet beverages - a fraud commonly used to replace more expensive sucrose - was confirmed by comparing coincident peaks as well as the emission spectra of standards and samples.

  10. Physical Properties of Nanostructured CdO Films from Alkaline Baths Containing Saccharin as Additive

    PubMed Central

    Şahin, Bünyamin

    2013-01-01

    Nanostructured cadmium oxide (CdO) films were fabricated on glass substrates from alkaline baths containing saccharin as an additive by a successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The effects of saccharin concentration in the bath on the structural, morphological, and optical properties were studied by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence, and Raman spectroscopy. The analyses showed that the surface morphologies, XRD peak intensities, Raman spectroscopy, and photoluminescence properties of CdO films changed with saccharin concentration. From the results, it can be said that morphological characteristic and optical properties of the films could be calibrated by adding various saccharin percentages in the growth bath. PMID:23844379

  11. Differential involvement of dopamine D1 receptors in morphine- and lithium-conditioned saccharin avoidance.

    PubMed

    Fenu, Sandro; Rivas, Emilia; Di Chiara, Gaetano

    2009-01-01

    Conditioned saccharin avoidance (CSA) can be produced when either lithium chloride (LiCl) or a reinforcing drug, such as morphine, is administered following exposure to the taste of saccharin. In this study we investigated the involvement of dopamine (DA) transmission in the acquisition of morphine and LiCl-CSA. CSA was evaluated in a two-bottle choice paradigm with two conditioning pairings between saccharin and morphine or LiCl as unconditioned stimulus (US). Morphine hydrochloride (7.5 mg/kg s.c.) or LiCl (40 mg/kg i.p.), administered 45 and 120' respectively after saccharin-drinking session, induced strong CSA. The DA D(1) receptor antagonist, SCH 39166 (0.1 mg/kg s.c.), impaired morphine-CSA if administered 15' and, to a lesser extent, 30' but not 45' before the drug (i.e immediately after saccharin drinking). In contrast SCH 39166 reduced LiCl-CSA when administered 45' before the drug and even more so when administered 105' before LiCl i.e. immediately after saccharin drinking. Therefore SCH 39166 impaired morphine-CSA when given shortly before the drug, while it impaired LiCl-CSA when given shortly after saccharin. Raclopride, a specific antagonist of D(2) receptors, failed to affect LiCl- and morphine-CSA. These results are consistent with the idea that DA, acting on D(1) receptors, plays a differential role in morphine- and LiCl-CSA. In LiCl-CSA DA is necessary for the processing (consolidation) of the short-term memory trace of the saccharin taste to be associated with the lithium-induced aversive state, while in morphine CSA contributes to mediate the appetitive properties of the drug.

  12. Effects of artificial sweeteners on insulin release and cationic fluxes in rat pancreatic islets.

    PubMed

    Malaisse, W J; Vanonderbergen, A; Louchami, K; Jijakli, H; Malaisse-Lagae, F

    1998-11-01

    Beta-L-glucose pentaacetate, but not alpha-D-galactose pentaacetate, was recently reported to taste bitter and to stimulate insulin release. This finding led, in the present study, to the investigation of the effects of both bitter and non-bitter artificial sweeteners on insulin release and cationic fluxes in isolated rat pancreatic islets. Sodium saccharin (1.0-10.0 mM), sodium cyclamate (5.0-10.0 mM), stevioside (1.0 mM) and acesulfame-K (1.0-15.0 mM), all of which display a bitter taste, augmented insulin release from islets incubated in the presence of 7.0 mM D-glucose. In contrast, aspartame (1.0-10.0 mM), which is devoid of bitter taste, failed to affect insulin secretion. A positive secretory response to acesulfame-K was still observed when the extracellular K+ concentration was adjusted to the same value as that in control media. No major changes in 86Rb and 45Ca outflow from pre-labelled perifused islets could be attributed to the saccharin, cyclamic or acesulfame anions. It is proposed that the insulinotropic action of some artificial sweeteners and, possibly, that of selected hexose pentaacetate esters may require G-protein-coupled receptors similar to those operative in the recognition of bitter compounds by taste buds.

  13. Sucrose-predictive cues evoke greater phasic dopamine release than saccharin-predictive cues

    PubMed Central

    McCutcheon, James E.; Beeler, Jeff A.; Roitman, Mitchell F.

    2012-01-01

    Cues that have been paired with food evoke dopamine in nucleus accumbens (NAc) and drive approach behavior. This cue-evoked dopamine signaling could contribute to overconsumption of food. One manner in which individuals try to restrict caloric intake is through the consumption of foods containing artificial (non-nutritive) sweeteners. We were interested in whether cues paired with a non-nutritive sweetener (saccharin) would evoke similar dopamine release as cues paired with a nutritive sweetener (sucrose). We trained food-restricted rats to associate distinct cues with sucrose or saccharin pellets. In the first group of rats, training sessions with each pellet took place on different days, maximizing the opportunity for rats to detect nutritional differences. After training, voltammetry recordings in NAc core revealed that sucrose cues evoked greater phasic dopamine release than saccharin cues. In a second group of rats, on each training day, sucrose and saccharin pellets were presented in pseudorandom order within the same session, to mask nutritional differences. In this condition, the difference in dopamine between sucrose and saccharin cues was attenuated, but not abolished. These results suggest that sucrose-paired cues will more powerfully motivate behavior than saccharin-paired cues. The differing responses to each cue seem to be driven by overall preference with both the nutritional value that the pellets predict as well as other factors, such as taste, contributing. PMID:22170625

  14. Differences in BOLD responses to intragastrically infused glucose and saccharin in rats.

    PubMed

    Tsurugizawa, Tomokazu; Uneyama, Hisayuki

    2014-10-01

    The postingestive effect is different between caloric and noncaloric sweeteners. The gut administration of glucose induces a preference for flavored water which is paired with the intragastric infusion of glucose. However, a comparison of the brain response to the gut glucose and saccharin stimuli still remains to be demonstrated. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal response to gut glucose and saccharin in the brain of conscious rats. Glucose induced a positive signal increase in the amygdala and nucleus accumben, both of which receive dopaminergic input from the ventral tegmental area. In contrast, saccharin administration did not activate these areas. Both glucose and saccharin increased the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal intensity in the insular cortex and the nucleus of the solitary tract. These results show that there were significant differences between postingestive glucose and saccharin-induced increases in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal in rats. Together with previous findings, these results suggest distinct activation patterns in the brain for both glucose and saccharin, which is partially due to different changes of internal signals, including the blood glucose and insulin levels. PMID:25179231

  15. Sucrose-predictive cues evoke greater phasic dopamine release than saccharin-predictive cues.

    PubMed

    McCutcheon, James E; Beeler, Jeff A; Roitman, Mitchell F

    2012-04-01

    Cues that have been paired with food evoke dopamine in nucleus accumbens (NAc) and drive approach behavior. This cue-evoked dopamine signaling could contribute to overconsumption of food. One manner in which individuals try to restrict caloric intake is through the consumption of foods containing artificial (non-nutritive) sweeteners. We were interested in whether cues paired with a non-nutritive sweetener (saccharin) would evoke similar dopamine release as cues paired with a nutritive sweetener (sucrose). We trained food-restricted rats to associate distinct cues with sucrose or saccharin pellets. In the first group of rats, training sessions with each pellet took place on different days, maximizing the opportunity for rats to detect nutritional differences. After training, voltammetry recordings in NAc core revealed that sucrose cues evoked greater phasic dopamine release than saccharin cues. In a second group of rats, on each training day, sucrose and saccharin pellets were presented in pseudorandom order within the same session, to mask nutritional differences. In this condition, the difference in dopamine between sucrose and saccharin cues was attenuated, but not abolished. These results suggest that sucrose-paired cues will more powerfully motivate behavior than saccharin-paired cues. The differing responses to each cue seem to be driven by overall preference with both the nutritional value that the pellets predict as well as other factors, such as taste, contributing.

  16. Differences in BOLD responses to intragastrically infused glucose and saccharin in rats.

    PubMed

    Tsurugizawa, Tomokazu; Uneyama, Hisayuki

    2014-10-01

    The postingestive effect is different between caloric and noncaloric sweeteners. The gut administration of glucose induces a preference for flavored water which is paired with the intragastric infusion of glucose. However, a comparison of the brain response to the gut glucose and saccharin stimuli still remains to be demonstrated. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal response to gut glucose and saccharin in the brain of conscious rats. Glucose induced a positive signal increase in the amygdala and nucleus accumben, both of which receive dopaminergic input from the ventral tegmental area. In contrast, saccharin administration did not activate these areas. Both glucose and saccharin increased the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal intensity in the insular cortex and the nucleus of the solitary tract. These results show that there were significant differences between postingestive glucose and saccharin-induced increases in the blood oxygenation level-dependent signal in rats. Together with previous findings, these results suggest distinct activation patterns in the brain for both glucose and saccharin, which is partially due to different changes of internal signals, including the blood glucose and insulin levels.

  17. Effect of Saccharin on the Structure and Properties of Electrodeposition NiWP Alloy Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuehua; Yu, Meiqi; Luo, Hongliang; Qiao, Qi; Xiao, Zeze; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Lili; Sun, Hui; Xu, Zhefeng; Matsugi, Kazuhiro; Yu, Jinku

    2016-08-01

    NiWP alloy coatings electrodeposited on pure copper substrates with additive saccharin (C7H5NO3S) contents of 0-6 g/L were investigated via scanning electron microscope (SEM), x-ray diffractometer, microhardness, polarization curves, deposition rate, and wear resistance. Results show that the corrosion resistance, microhardness, and wear resistance of the NiWP alloy coatings have been optimized with the increase in saccharin contents changing from 2 to 4 g/L. The morphology of the NiWP alloy coatings observed via SEM exhibits a typical spherical nodular structure. The increase in saccharin content will decrease crack formation. The phases of NiWP alloy coatings are mainly the mixture of amorphous and microcrystalline nickel. Moreover, the quality of the coating can be improved through a slight change in the deposition rate. The hardness of the NiWP alloy coating continues to increase from 530.5 to 630.5 HV with the increase in saccharin content from 0 to 6 g/L. In addition, the P and W contents in the alloy coating are increased from 8.29 to 8.66 wt.% and from 28.68 to 30.45 wt.%, respectively. The corrosion potential is varied from -0.332 to -0.247 V, and the current density is varied from 23.81 to 3.282 µA/cm2 when the saccharin content is in the range of 0-4 g/L. With the increase in saccharin content from 0 to 4 g/L, the wear loss decreases gradually. Subsequently, a plateau is reached when the saccharin content is higher than 4 g/L. NiWP coatings show better tribological performances under high rotational speed than those under low rotational speed. Several possible reasons have been discussed.

  18. Effect of Saccharin on the Structure and Properties of Electrodeposition NiWP Alloy Coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuehua; Yu, Meiqi; Luo, Hongliang; Qiao, Qi; Xiao, Zeze; Zhao, Yan; Zhao, Lili; Sun, Hui; Xu, Zhefeng; Matsugi, Kazuhiro; Yu, Jinku

    2016-10-01

    NiWP alloy coatings electrodeposited on pure copper substrates with additive saccharin (C7H5NO3S) contents of 0-6 g/L were investigated via scanning electron microscope (SEM), x-ray diffractometer, microhardness, polarization curves, deposition rate, and wear resistance. Results show that the corrosion resistance, microhardness, and wear resistance of the NiWP alloy coatings have been optimized with the increase in saccharin contents changing from 2 to 4 g/L. The morphology of the NiWP alloy coatings observed via SEM exhibits a typical spherical nodular structure. The increase in saccharin content will decrease crack formation. The phases of NiWP alloy coatings are mainly the mixture of amorphous and microcrystalline nickel. Moreover, the quality of the coating can be improved through a slight change in the deposition rate. The hardness of the NiWP alloy coating continues to increase from 530.5 to 630.5 HV with the increase in saccharin content from 0 to 6 g/L. In addition, the P and W contents in the alloy coating are increased from 8.29 to 8.66 wt.% and from 28.68 to 30.45 wt.%, respectively. The corrosion potential is varied from -0.332 to -0.247 V, and the current density is varied from 23.81 to 3.282 µA/cm2 when the saccharin content is in the range of 0-4 g/L. With the increase in saccharin content from 0 to 4 g/L, the wear loss decreases gradually. Subsequently, a plateau is reached when the saccharin content is higher than 4 g/L. NiWP coatings show better tribological performances under high rotational speed than those under low rotational speed. Several possible reasons have been discussed.

  19. Sweet taste in the calf: III. Behavioral responses to sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Hellekant, G; Hård af Segerstad, C; Roberts, T W

    1994-09-01

    The hedonic response to the sweeteners acesulfame-K, aspartame, fructose, galactose, glucose, glycine, lactose, maltose, Na-saccharine, sucrose, and xylitol was recorded in five groups of 4-16-week-old calves. The compounds were presented to the calves for 12 or 24 h in two-bottle preference tests with tap water as one choice. Glycine (10 mM and higher), sucrose (20 mM and higher), and fructose concentrations were most preferred. Sodium-saccharine was highly preferred at and above 4 mM concentration, fructose and lactose were preferred above 40 mM, galactose was preferred moderately, acesulfame-K and maltose were preferred inconsistently, and aspartame and xylitol were not preferred at any concentration. The change of preference during the tests was also studied. Three types of consumption changes were observed. 1) Increased preference of the tastant during consumption, seen during sucrose and, to lesser a extent, fructose consumption. 2) Initial high preference for the tastants, diminishing during the test period, observed with fructose, galactose, glucose, glycine, lactose, and maltose. 3) Initial large fluctuations in consumption from the two bottles, but no change in overall preference. This pattern was seen with xylitol and aspartame. This technique seems to offer a method to assess the long-term preference for a compound within one relatively short two-bottle preference session.

  20. Spectra structure correlations in solid metal saccharinates. I. The carbonyl stretchings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, P.; Jovanovski, G.

    2001-05-01

    Results from literature survey of the infrared carbonyl stretching bands of 73 solid saccharinates, saccharin and the saccharinato nitranion (the latter in diluted DMSO solution) are presented. The CO frequencies are correlated with the C-O and metal-saccharinato distances and the respective formal bond orders. The present survey reveals that occasionally some ν(CO) frequencies in the spectra of saccharinates may be higher than that of saccharin (1725 cm -1) indicating existence of molecular saccharin in the respective structures. Due to intra- and intermolecular reasons, often the numbers of ν(CO) bands and structural types of CO groups do not coincide. Presumably due to both vibrational and structural factors, saccharinato ν(CO) frequencies are not advantageous for very accurate prediction of the C-O and metal-saccharinato distances. Nevertheless, they can be used as a qualitative criterion for evaluation of the degree of covalency of metal-saccharinato bonding as well as for very approximate estimation of the C-O distances and metal-saccharinato bond orders.

  1. Saccharin pre-exposure enhances appetitive flavor learning in pre-weanling rats.

    PubMed

    Swithers, Susan E; Ogden, Sean B; Laboy, Alycia F; Davidson, T L

    2012-12-01

    In adult rats, data suggest that consumption of sweet tastes that do not deliver anticipated caloric consequences using high-intensity, non-caloric sweeteners, such as saccharin, interferes with learned relations that may contribute to energy balance. The goal of the present study was to assess the development of learning about sweet taste and calories by assessing whether pre-exposure to saccharin solutions reduces cue competition in pre-weanling rats. The results demonstrated that rats pre-exposed to saccharin and then trained with a novel grape flavor paired with a glucose-sweetened solution consumed more of the novel grape flavor presented alone than rats that had been pre-exposed to saccharin and given the grape flavor paired with water alone. No differences in intake of the novel grape flavor were observed in groups given pre-exposure to water or glucose solutions. Thus, by 15 days of age, rats appear to have established an association between sweet tastes and calories, and this association can be weakened by exposure to saccharin.

  2. Anti-solvent co-crystallization of carbamazepine and saccharin.

    PubMed

    Wang, In-Chun; Lee, Min-Jeong; Sim, Sang-Jun; Kim, Woo-Sik; Chun, Nan-Hee; Choi, Guang J

    2013-06-25

    The co-crystal approach has been investigated extensively over the past decade as one of the most promising methods to enhance the dissolution properties of insoluble drug substances. Co-crystal powders are typically produced by mechanical grinding (neat or wet) or a solution method (evaporation or cooling). In this study, high-purity carbamazepine-saccharin (CBZ-SAC) co-crystals were manufactured by a novel method, anti-solvent addition. Among various solvents, methanol was found to perform well with water as the anti-solvent for the co-crystallization of CBZ and SAC. When water was added to the methanol solution of CBZ and SAC at room temperature under agitation, nucleation of CBZ-SAC co-crystals occurred within 2-3 min. Co-crystallization was complete after 30 min, giving a solid yield as high as 84.5% on a CBZ basis. The effects of initial concentrations, focusing on the SAC/CBZ ratio, were examined to establish optimal conditions. The whole anti-solvent co-crystallization process was monitored at-line via ATR-FTIR analysis of regularly sampled solutions. The nucleation and crystal growth of CBZ-SAC co-crystals were detected by a significant increase in absorption in the range of 2400-2260 cm(-1), associated with the formation of hydrogen bonds between the carbonyl group in CBZ and the N-H of SAC. When CBZ hydrates were formed as impurities during anti-solvent co-crystallization, the hydrogen bonding between methanol and water was reduced greatly, primarily due to the incorporation of water molecules into the CBZ crystal lattice. In conclusion, an anti-solvent approach can be used to produce highly pure CBZ-SAC co-crystal powders with a high solid yield. PMID:23598078

  3. Anti-solvent co-crystallization of carbamazepine and saccharin.

    PubMed

    Wang, In-Chun; Lee, Min-Jeong; Sim, Sang-Jun; Kim, Woo-Sik; Chun, Nan-Hee; Choi, Guang J

    2013-06-25

    The co-crystal approach has been investigated extensively over the past decade as one of the most promising methods to enhance the dissolution properties of insoluble drug substances. Co-crystal powders are typically produced by mechanical grinding (neat or wet) or a solution method (evaporation or cooling). In this study, high-purity carbamazepine-saccharin (CBZ-SAC) co-crystals were manufactured by a novel method, anti-solvent addition. Among various solvents, methanol was found to perform well with water as the anti-solvent for the co-crystallization of CBZ and SAC. When water was added to the methanol solution of CBZ and SAC at room temperature under agitation, nucleation of CBZ-SAC co-crystals occurred within 2-3 min. Co-crystallization was complete after 30 min, giving a solid yield as high as 84.5% on a CBZ basis. The effects of initial concentrations, focusing on the SAC/CBZ ratio, were examined to establish optimal conditions. The whole anti-solvent co-crystallization process was monitored at-line via ATR-FTIR analysis of regularly sampled solutions. The nucleation and crystal growth of CBZ-SAC co-crystals were detected by a significant increase in absorption in the range of 2400-2260 cm(-1), associated with the formation of hydrogen bonds between the carbonyl group in CBZ and the N-H of SAC. When CBZ hydrates were formed as impurities during anti-solvent co-crystallization, the hydrogen bonding between methanol and water was reduced greatly, primarily due to the incorporation of water molecules into the CBZ crystal lattice. In conclusion, an anti-solvent approach can be used to produce highly pure CBZ-SAC co-crystal powders with a high solid yield.

  4. Alterations in lipid profile, oxidative stress and hepatic function in rat fed with saccharin and methyl-salicylates

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Kamal Adel; AlMuzafar, Hessah Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    Background: Food additives attract consumers, improve foods quality, control weight, and replace sugar in foods, while it may affect seriously children and adults health. Aim: To investigate the adverse effects of saccharin and methylsalicyltaes on lipid profile, blood glucose, renal, hepatic function, and oxidative stress/antioxidant (lipid peroxidation, Catalase and reduced glutathione (GSH) in liver tissues). Methods: 46 young male albino rats were used. Saccharin and methylsalicylate were giving orally as low and high dose for 30 days. Rats were divided into 5 groups, 1st control group, 2nd and 3rd low and high saccharin-treated groups and 4th and 5th low and high methylsalicylate-treated group. Results: Serum total cholesterol, triglyceride, glucose levels and body weight gain were decreased in saccharin high dose compared to control. Rats ingested high dose of saccharin presented a significant reduction in serum triglycerides, cholesterol and LDL levels. Low and high doses of saccharin exhibited a significant increase in liver function marker of ALT, AST, ALP activity, total proteins and albumin levels and renal function test (urea and creatinine levels) in comparison with control group. Saccharin high dose induce a significant decline in hepatic GSH levels, catalase and SOD activities while increased in hepatic MDA level. Conclusion: It could be concluded that, saccharin affects harmfully and alters biochemical markers in hepatic and renal tissues not only at greater doses but also at low doses. Whereas uses of metylsalicylates would not pose a risk for renal function and hepatic oxidative markers. PMID:26131217

  5. Induction of systemic protection against rust infection in broad bean by saccharin: effects on plant growth and development.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Celia; Walters, Dale

    2005-08-01

    Here, we examine the effect of saccharin on the induction of systemic resistance in broad bean (Vicia faba) to the rust fungus Uromyces viciae-fabae. Saccharin was applied to beans at the three-leaf stage, either as a soil drench or by painting the solution on to first leaves. Plants were then challenge inoculated with the rust 1, 6, 10 and 14 d following saccharin treatment, after which they were harvested, assessed for the intensity of rust infection and plant growth measurements conducted. Foliar application of saccharin did not induce systemic protection to rust infection until 14 d after application and was less effective than saccharin applied as a soil drench. When saccharin was applied as a drench, systemic protection was not observed until 6 d after application, but was still apparent in plants 14 d after application of the drench. Irrespective of the method of application, saccharin had no significant effect on fresh and dry weights or leaf area of the plants. Saccharin applied as a drench did, however, reduce the number of leaflets produced.

  6. 75 FR 13495 - Saccharin from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of the 2008-2009 Antidumping...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-22

    ... People's Republic of China, 68 FR 40906 (July 9, 2003) (``Saccharin Order''). \\2\\ See Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order on Saccharin from the People's Republic of China, 74 FR 27089 (June 8, 2009). \\3\\ See... Administrative Review, 74 FR 31406 (July 1, 2009). \\4\\ See Initiation of Antidumping and Countervailing...

  7. Pharmacological analysis of feeding in a caterpillar: different transduction pathways for umami and saccharin?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pszczolkowski, Maciej A.; Durden, Kevin; Marquis, Juleah; Ramaswamy, Sonny B.; Brown, John J.

    2009-05-01

    Neonate larvae of codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), modify their behavior in the presence of saccharin, monosodium glutamate (MSG), or L(+)-2-amino-4-phosphonobutyric acid (L-AP4) by commencing their feeding earlier. Previously published pharmacological analysis demonstrated that phagostimulatory effects of MSG and L-AP4 (which elicit umami taste sensation in humans) are reversed by adenylate cyclase activator and phosphodiesterase inhibitor. In this study, by measuring the time needed to start ingestion of foliage treated with mixtures of phagostimulants and signal transduction modulators, we show that phagostimulatory effects of l-aspartate (the third hallmark umami substance) are also abolished by both adenylate cyclase activator and phosphodiesterase inhibitor, but not by phospholipase C inhibitor. However, stimulatory effects of hemicalcium saccharin were affected only by phospholipase C inhibitor. The results suggest that codling moth neonates use different transduction pathways for perception of hemicalcium saccharin and umami.

  8. Electrodeposition of nanocrystalline Zn-Ni alloy from alkaline glycinate bath containing saccharin as additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mosavat, S. H.; Bahrololoom, M. E.; Shariat, M. H.

    2011-08-01

    Nanocrystalline Zn-Ni (crystallite sizes 13-68 nm) alloy coatings were produced from an alkaline glycinate bath containing saccharin as additive. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to determine the phase composition and average crystallite size of nanocrystalline Zn-Ni alloy coatings. The average grain size of a deposit was also studied by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The effects of saccharin concentration and current density on the crystallite size and surface roughness of the coatings were studied. Crystallite size and average surface roughness were diminished as a result of increasing saccharin concentration. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination showed that coatings had a colony-like morphology and the colony size was increased with increasing current density. Microhardness testing was carried out in order to determine the degree of dependence of this mechanical property on the crystallite size. It was found that microhardness did not depend on crystallite size (Hall-Petch).

  9. Influence of saccharin on the structure and corrosion resistance of electrodeposited Cu/Ni multilayers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troyon, Michel; Wang, Lin

    1996-12-01

    The influence of saccharin, a brightener, on the structure of Cu/Ni multilayers, electrodeposited from a single bath on a polycrystalline copper substrate, has been studied by transmission electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. It is shown that Cu/Ni multilayers do not present a columnar-growth morphology when saccharin is present in the electrolyte. The consequence of this is a much smaller surface roughness and thus a bright surface aspect. The presence of saccharin improves the corrosion resistance of the Cu/Ni multilayers in a 3% NaCl solution. This work also demonstrates that electrodeposition has a capacity to produce Cu/Ni multilayers with modulation distances as small as 2.5 nm.

  10. X-ray crystallographic and kinetic investigations of 6-sulfamoyl-saccharin as a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Alterio, V; Tanc, M; Ivanova, J; Zalubovskis, R; Vozny, I; Monti, S M; Di Fiore, A; De Simone, G; Supuran, C T

    2015-04-01

    6-Sulfamoyl-saccharin was investigated as an inhibitor of 11 α-carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4.2.1.1) isoforms of human (h) origin, hCA I-XIV, and X-ray crystallographic data were obtained for its adduct with hCA II, the physiologically dominant isoform. This compound possesses two potential zinc-binding groups, the primary sulfamoyl one and the secondary, acylatedsulfonamide. Saccharin itself binds to the Zn(II) ion from the CA active site coordinating with this last group, in deprotonated (SO2N(-)CO) form. Here we explain why 6-sulfamoyl-saccharin, unlike saccharin, binds to the metal ion from the hCA II active site by its primary sulfonamide moiety and not the secondary one as saccharin itself. Our study is useful for shedding new light to the structure-based drug design of isoform-selective CA inhibitors of the sulfonamide type.

  11. Defining, regulating and using saccharin at the outset of the industrial food era (1888-1914).

    PubMed

    Guillem-Llobat, Ximo

    2012-12-01

    This paper focuses on the in-depth debates on saccharin that took place around 1900. In numerous discussions among chemists and physicians the sweetener was defined and redefined in a complex way and with a clear lack of agreement among experts. Nevertheless, this fact did not hinder the search for an international agreement on the regulation of saccharin in the food market. This paper analyses these discussions by building on the new trends in material culture studies, and estimates the real impact of medical and chemical expertise on international agreements.

  12. Spectra-structure correlations in solid metal saccharinates. II. Ab initio molecular structures and vibrational spectra of N-substituted saccharins at the HF level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naumov, Panče; Jovanovski, Gligor; Ohashi, Yuji

    2002-02-01

    Ground-state ab initio molecular geometries and vibrational spectra of 24 N-substituted isolated saccharins with small-size B, Br, C, Cl, F, N, O, P or S-groups and the parent molecule are predicted at RHF/6-31G level to examine the molecular structural changes stemming from N-substitution of saccharin (o-sulfobenzimide). Trends in the molecular geometrical parameters of the sulfimide ring and the carbonyl stretching frequency are discussed in relation to the electronic properties of the substituent and the solid state effects. The results are compared with the crystallographic data for N-substituted saccharins and metal saccharinato salts/complexes retrieved from the Cambridge Structural Database. The ability of several theoretical methods to describe the substitution/deprotonation of the conjugated CONHSO 2 structure is summarized. Electronic properties of the substituent affect significantly only the immediate CN and SN bonds by as much as ±0.014 Å, while other bonds are relatively less influenced (±0.004 Å). Combined with the effects of the crystal packing and thermal vibrations, they impose flexibility on the intramolecular lengths up to ±0.02 Å. High correlation ( R=0.966) between the theoretical ν(CO) frequencies and CO distances is predictable for both of these parameters, but is lowered notably in the crystal by both vibrational and solid-state circumstances. From the structural viewpoint, the N sac-X bonds (X = B, Br, C, Cl, F, N, O, P, S; sac denotes saccharin) behave similarly to the purely covalent N sac-metal bonds.

  13. Simultaneous determination of antioxidants, preservatives and sweeteners permitted as additives in food by mixed micellar electrokinetic chromatography.

    PubMed

    Boyce, M C

    1999-06-25

    A micellar electrokinetic chromatography method was developed to simultaneously analyse commonly used food additives. The additive mixture, comprising propyl gallate, octyl gallate, dodecyl gallate, butylated hydroxyanisole, butylated hydroxytoluene, tertiary butylhydroquinone, p-hydroxybenzoic acid methyl ester, p-hydroxybenzoic acid ethyl ester, benzoic acid, sorbic acid, saccharin, aspartame and acesulfame-K, was not resolved using single surfactant micellar systems consisting of sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), sodium cholate (SC) or sodium deoxycholate (SDC). The separation of these additives using mixed micellar systems, involving SDS/SC, SDS/SDC and SC/SDC, was investigated. Organic solvents were added to the mixed micellar phases to optimise the separation. The mixture was successfully separated using a 20 mM borate buffer with 35 mM SC, 15 mM SDS and 10% methanol added at pH 9.3. Additives in cola beverages and low-joule jam were investigated and quantified using this method.

  14. Saccharin: a combined experimental and computational thermochemical investigation of a sweetener and sulfonamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostinha, M.; Matos, R.; Miranda, Margarida S.; Morais, Victor M. F.; Liebman, Joel F.

    2005-01-01

    The standard molar enthalpies of combustion, sublimation, and formation in the crystalline and gaseous phase at a temperature of 298.15 K have been experimentally determined for saccharin and for benzenesulfonamide. These compounds were also studied theoretically using density functional theory, the B3LYP functional and extended basis sets.

  15. Response to single dose of aspartame or saccharin by NIDDM patients.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, D L; McLane, M; Kobe, P

    1988-03-01

    Twelve normal subjects and 10 subjects with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus were given, in random order at intervals of greater than or equal to 1 wk, three drinks of the same beverage: one unsweetened, one sweetened with 400 mg aspartame, and one sweetened with 135 mg saccharin. The amount of sweetener approximated that in 1 L of sugar-free soft drink. Plasma glucose, insulin, and glucagon were measured for 3 h after ingestion of the test beverage. Plasma glucose declined slightly throughout the test period, probably due to fasting, with no differences between the three treatments. Neither sweetener affected peak insulin levels in subjects with or without diabetes. Analysis of area under the curve showed that mean insulin levels were statistically significantly higher after aspartame than after saccharin or unsweetened beverage in normal subjects only, but the magnitude of the difference was small and unlikely to be of physiological importance in the absence of differences in glucose levels. Furthermore, the differences could largely be accounted for by a decrease in insulin values after both unsweetened beverage and saccharin, with no change from baseline after aspartame. Glucagon levels showed time-to-time variation but no overall differences. We conclude that ingestion of aspartame- or saccharin-sweetened beverages by fasting subjects, with or without diabetes, did not affect blood glucose homeostasis.

  16. Administration of Saccharin to Neonatal Mice Influences Body Composition of Adult Males and Reduces Body Weight of Females

    PubMed Central

    Parlee, Sebastian D.; Simon, Becky R.; Scheller, Erica L.; Alejandro, Emilyn U.; Learman, Brian S.; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto

    2014-01-01

    Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice. PMID:24456165

  17. Analyzing the responses of saccharin in context with melatonin receptors on the melanophores of the fish Labeo rohita (Ham.).

    PubMed

    Mubashshir, M D; Ahmed, Fraz; Sumoona, Safia; Ovais, Mohd

    2012-04-01

    The hormone melatonin regulates the biological clock and assist in various other physiologies of vertebrates. Present work is intended to check the affinity of saccharin towards the melatonin receptors and the possible role of saccharin interference in the melatonin physiology. The present in vitro study is based on the working model of isolated scale melanophores in the dorso-lateral region of Labeo rohita. The pigment cells were incubated in the agonist and the antagonists within a limited time frame and subsequently their Melanophore Size Index (MSI) were calculated. The inferences were drafted through the observed signal transduction upshots in pigment translocations within the melanophores. Saccharin, in a wide dose range, has consistently induced a concentration-related aggregation similar to the aggregatory effect as shown by melatonin on the melanophores. Binding of saccharin with the receptors and eliciting its aggregatory effect is partially dependent on the release of neurotransmitters. The aggregatory effects were found to be significantly blocked by luzindole, K185, and prazosin, which are the potent melatonin receptor blockers, at the higher concentrations of saccharin. Hence, all the three subtypes of melatonin receptors viz. MT₁, MT₂, and MT₃ are participating in saccharin-mediated aggregations. Blocking by neomycin shows that Ca²⁺ ions are very crucial in dispensing the aggregatory effect of the sweetener. This research demands that an intensive and careful thorough study should be made about saccharin, specifically its effects upon melatonin physiology, before its unwarranted use as the food ingredients for human use.

  18. Administration of saccharin to neonatal mice influences body composition of adult males and reduces body weight of females.

    PubMed

    Parlee, Sebastian D; Simon, Becky R; Scheller, Erica L; Alejandro, Emilyn U; Learman, Brian S; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Bernal-Mizrachi, Ernesto; MacDougald, Ormond A

    2014-04-01

    Nutritional or pharmacological perturbations during perinatal growth can cause persistent effects on the function of white adipose tissue, altering susceptibility to obesity later in life. Previous studies have established that saccharin, a nonnutritive sweetener, inhibits lipolysis in mature adipocytes and stimulates adipogenesis. Thus, the current study tested whether neonatal exposure to saccharin via maternal lactation increased susceptibility of mice to diet-induced obesity. Saccharin decreased body weight of female mice beginning postnatal week 3. Decreased liver weights on week 14 corroborated this diminished body weight. Initially, saccharin also reduced male mouse body weight. By week 5, weights transiently rebounded above controls, and by week 14, male body weights did not differ. Body composition analysis revealed that saccharin increased lean and decreased fat mass of male mice, the latter due to decreased adipocyte size and epididymal, perirenal, and sc adipose weights. A mild improvement in glucose tolerance without a change in insulin sensitivity or secretion aligned with this leaner phenotype. Interestingly, microcomputed tomography analysis indicated that saccharin also increased cortical and trabecular bone mass of male mice and modified cortical bone alone in female mice. A modest increase in circulating testosterone may contribute to the leaner phenotype in male mice. Accordingly, the current study established a developmental period in which saccharin at high concentrations reduces adiposity and increases lean and bone mass in male mice while decreasing generalized growth in female mice.

  19. Nutritional status alters saccharin intake and sweet receptor mRNA expression in rat taste buds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Yan, Jianqun; Suo, Yi; Li, Jinrong; Wang, Qian; Lv, Bo

    2010-04-14

    Sweet taste usually signifies the presence of caloric food. It is commonly accepted that a close association exists among sweet taste perception, preference, and nutritional status. However, the mechanisms involved remain unknown. To investigate whether nutritional status affects the preference for palatable solutions and alters sweet taste receptor gene expression in rats, we measured saccharin intake and preference using a two-bottle preference test, and changes in body weight, plasma leptin levels, and gene expression for the sweet taste receptor in taste buds in high-fat diet-induced obese rats and chronically diet-restricted rats. We found that the consumption and preference ratios for 0.01 and 0.04 M saccharin were significantly lower in the high-fat diet-induced obese rats than in the normal diet rats, while the serum leptin levels were markedly increased in obese rats. Consistent with the changes in saccharin intake, the gene expression level of the sweet taste receptor T1R3 was significantly decreased in the high-fat diet-induced obese rats compared with the control rats. By contrast, the chronically diet-restricted rats showed remarkably enhanced consumption and preference for 0.04 M saccharin. The serum leptin concentration was decreased, and the gene expression of the leptin receptor was markedly increased in the taste buds. In conclusion, our results suggest that nutritional status alters saccharin preference and the expression of T1R3 in taste buds. These processes may be involved in the mechanisms underlying the modulation of peripheral sweet taste sensitivity, in which leptin plays a role.

  20. [Simultaneous determination of six synthetic sweeteners in food by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoxi; Ding, Li; Liu, Jinxia; Zhang, Ying; Huang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Libing; Chen, Bo

    2010-11-01

    A simple and sensitive method for the determination of six synthetic sweeteners (sodium cyclamate, saccharin sodium, acesulfame-K, aspartame, alitame and neotame) in food was developed. The synthetic sweeteners were extracted by methanol-water (1 : 1, v/v). The extract was separated on a C18 column using 0.1% (v/v) formic acid-5 mmol/L ammonium formate/acetonitrile as mobile phase, and then detected by high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. The good linearities (r > 0.998) were achieved for all the analytes over the range of 20-500 microg/L. The recoveries obtained ranged from 81.3% to 106.0% at three spiked concentrations, with the relative standard deviations lower than 11%. The established method has been successfully applied to the determination of synthetic sweeteners in food.

  1. An efficient, regioselective amination of 3,5-disubstituted pyridine N-oxides using saccharin as an ammonium surrogate.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Robert P; Silva Elipe, Maria Victoria; Bartberger, Michael D; Tedrow, Jason S; Vounatsos, Filisaty

    2013-01-01

    A process for the regioselective amination of unsymmetrical 3,5-substituted pyridine N-oxides has been developed utilizing cheap, readily available saccharin as an ammonium surrogate. High conversions of the corresponding saccharin adducts have been achieved under mild reaction conditions. In situ deprotection under acidic conditions allows for a one-pot process to substituted aminopyridines. High regioselectivities were obtained from a variety of 3,5-disubstituted pyridine N-oxides.

  2. Sweetening yoghurt with glucose, but not with saccharin, promotes weight gain and increased fat pad mass in rats.

    PubMed

    Boakes, Robert A; Kendig, Michael D; Martire, Sarah I; Rooney, Kieron B

    2016-10-01

    The claim that non-nutritive sweeteners accelerate body weight gain by disrupting sweet-calorie associations was tested in two experiments using rats. The experiments were modelled on a key study from a series of experiments reporting greater body weight gain in rats fed yoghurt sweetened with saccharin than with glucose (Swithers & Davidson, 2008). Both of the current experiments likewise compared groups fed saccharin- or glucose-sweetened yoghurt in addition to chow and water, while Experiment 1 included a third group (Control) given unsweetened yoghurt. In Experiment 1, but not in Experiment 2, rats were initially exposed to both saccharin- and glucose-sweetened yoghurts to assess their relative palatability. We also tested whether the provision of an energy-dense sweet biscuit would augment any effects of saccharin on food intake and weight gain, as seemingly predicted by Swithers and Davidson (2008). In Experiment 1 there were no differences in body weight gain or fat pad mass between the Saccharin and Control group, whereas the Glucose group was the heaviest by the final 5 weeks and at cull had the largest fat pads. Greater acceptance of saccharin predicted more weight gain over the whole experiment. Consistent with past reports, fasting blood glucose and insulin measures did not differ between the Saccharin and Control groups, but suggested some impairment of insulin sensitivity in the Glucose group. Experiment 2 found similar effects of glucose on fat mass, but not on body weight gain. In summary, adding saccharin had no detectable effects on body-weight regulation, whereas the effects of glucose on fat pad mass were consistent with previous studies reporting more harmful effects of sugars compared to non-nutritive sweeteners. PMID:27189382

  3. Effect of saccharin on albino rats' blood indices and the therapeutic action of vitamins C and E.

    PubMed

    Abdelaziz, Ismael; Ashour, Abd El Rahiem A

    2011-02-01

    The present work aimed to study some blood indices of rats as affected by saccharin and the therapeutic action of vitamins C and E. The used adult female Rattus norvegicus albino rats in the present study were weighing 100-120 g. Administration of saccharin at a dose of 35 mg kg⁻¹ body weight (b.wt.) day⁻¹ for 35 days significantly decreased serum glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein and albumin values. These decrements were by 20.16%, 22.76%, 44.92%, 20.16% and 40.44%, respectively, compared to control level (p value < 0.01). But it increased levels of kidney function indices. The effect of saccharin was more pronounced on creatinine. Activities of Alanine aminotranferease (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) increased significantly following saccharin treatment to rats. Concerning hematoligical parameters, the more obvious changes were observed in the increment of white blood cell (WBC), mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and platelets (PLT) and the decrease in hematocrit, hemoglobin (Hb) and red blood cells (RBCs) count in response to the administration of saccharin. In general, vitamin C or E (150 mg kg⁻¹ b.wt. day⁻¹ for 35 days) was able to reduce the effects of saccharin intake. Both vitamins, however, generally have beneficial effects in reducing the changes in the studied parameters.

  4. Saccharin and other artificial sweeteners in soils: estimated inputs from agriculture and households, degradation, and leaching to groundwater.

    PubMed

    Buerge, Ignaz J; Keller, Martina; Buser, Hans-Rudolf; Müller, Markus D; Poiger, Thomas

    2011-01-15

    Artificial sweeteners are consumed in substantial quantities as sugar substitutes and were previously shown to be ubiquitously present in the aquatic environment. The sweetener saccharin is also registered as additive in piglet feed. Saccharin fed to piglets was largely excreted and, consequently, found in liquid manure at concentrations up to 12 mg/L, where it was stable during 2 months of storage. Saccharin may thus end up in soils in considerable quantities with manure. Furthermore, other studies showed that saccharin is a soil metabolite of certain sulfonylurea herbicides. Sweeteners may also get into soils via irrigation with wastewater-polluted surface water, fertilization with sewage sludge (1-43 μg/L), or through leaky sewers. In soil incubation experiments, cyclamate, saccharin, acesulfame, and sucralose were degraded with half-lives of 0.4-6 d, 3-12 d, 3-49 d, and 8-124 d, respectively. The relative importance of entry pathways to soils was compared and degradation and leaching to groundwater were evaluated with computer simulations. The data suggest that detection of saccharin in groundwater (observed concentrations, up to 0.26 μg/L) is most likely due to application of manure. However, elevated concentrations of acesulfame in groundwater (up to 5 μg/L) may result primarily from infiltration of wastewater-polluted surface water through stream beds.

  5. Aspartame consumption in rats selectively bred for high versus low saccharin intake.

    PubMed

    De Francisco, J C; Dess, N K

    1998-11-15

    Whereas humans use aspartame as a sugar substitute, evidence to date from rats suggests that aspartame does not taste sweet or, more generally, hedonically positive to them. The present study provided a strong test of the appetitive properties of aspartame in rats by examining consumption of aspartame and, for comparison, several sugars by two lines of rats selectively bred for high (HiS) versus low (LoS) saccharin consumption. The HiS and LoS lines differed in consumption of fructose, glucose, sucrose, maltose, and saccharin solutions. Overall, the rats showed a weak but significant preference for aspartame. However, no line differences in aspartame consumption were observed. Thus, even among rats specifically bred on the basis of their responsiveness to sweet tastes, aspartame tastes minimally sweet or good.

  6. Impact of aspartame and saccharin on the rat liver: Biochemical, molecular, and histological approach.

    PubMed

    Alkafafy, Mohamed El-Sayed; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban; Ahmed, Mohamed Mohamed; El-Shazly, Samir Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    The current work was undertaken to settle the debate about the toxicity of artificial sweeteners (AS), particularly aspartame and saccharin. Twenty-five, 7-week-old male Wistar albino rats with an average body weight of 101 ± 4.8 g were divided into a control group and four experimental groups (n = 5 rats). The first and second experimental groups received daily doses equivalent to the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of aspartame (250 mg/Kg BW) and four-fold ADI of aspartame (1000 mg/Kg BW). The third and fourth experimental groups received daily doses equivalent to ADI of saccharin (25 mg/Kg BW) and four-fold ADI of saccharin (100 mg/Kg BW). The experimental groups received the corresponding sweetener dissolved in water by oral route for 8 weeks. The activities of enzymes relevant to liver functions and antioxidants were measured in the blood plasma. Histological studies were used for the evaluation of the changes in the hepatic tissues. The gene expression levels of the key oncogene (h-Ras) and the tumor suppressor gene (P27) were also evaluated. In addition to a significant reduction in the body weight, the AS-treated groups displayed elevated enzymes activities, lowered antioxidants values, and histological changes reflecting the hepatotoxic effect of aspartame and saccharin. Moreover, the overexpression of the key oncogene (h-Ras) and the downregulation of the tumor suppressor gene (P27) in all treated rat groups may indicate a potential risk of liver carcinogenesis, particularly on long-term exposure. PMID:26015492

  7. Drinking sucrose or saccharin enhances sensitivity of rats to quinpirole-induced yawning.

    PubMed

    Serafine, Katherine M; Bentley, Todd A; Kilborn, Dylan J; Koek, Wouter; France, Charles P

    2015-10-01

    Diet can impact sensitivity of rats to some of the behavioral effects of drugs acting on dopamine systems. The current study tested whether continuous access to sucrose is necessary to increase yawning induced by the dopamine receptor agonist quinpirole, or if intermittent access is sufficient. These studies also tested whether sensitivity to quinpirole-induced yawning increases in rats drinking the non-caloric sweetener saccharin. Dose-response curves (0.0032-0.32 mg/kg) for quinpirole-induced yawning were determined once weekly in rats with free access to standard chow and either continuous access to water, 10% sucrose solution, or 0.1% saccharin solution, or intermittent access to sucrose or saccharin (i.e., 2 days per week with access to water on other days). Cumulative doses of quinpirole increased then decreased yawning, resulting in an inverted U-shaped dose-response curve. Continuous or intermittent access to sucrose enhanced sensitivity to quinpirole-induced yawning. Continuous, but not intermittent, access to saccharin also enhanced sensitivity to quinpirole-induced yawning. In all groups, pretreatment with the selective D3 receptor antagonist PG01037 shifted the ascending limb of the quinpirole dose-response curve to the right, while pretreatment with the selective D2 receptor antagonist L-741,626 shifted the descending limb to the right. These results suggest that even intermittent consumption of diets containing highly palatable substances (e.g. sucrose) alters sensitivity to drugs acting on dopamine systems in a manner that could be important in vulnerability to abuse drugs.

  8. Effect of chronic exposure to rimonabant and phytocannabinoids on anxiety-like behavior and saccharin palatability.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Lesley D; Wills, Kiri L; Segsworth, Blair; Dashney, Brittany; Rock, Erin M; Limebeer, Cheryl L; Parker, Linda A

    2013-01-01

    The acute effects of cannabinoid compounds have been investigated in animal models of anxiety-like behavior and palatability processing. However, the chronic effects of cannabinoids in such models are poorly understood. Experiment 1 compared the effects of both acute and chronic (14 days) exposure to the CB(1) receptor inverse agonist/antagonist, rimonabant, and the cannabis-derived CB(1) receptor neutral antagonist, tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), on: 1) time spent in the open, lit box in the Light-Dark (LD) immersion model of anxiety-like behavior and 2) saccharin hedonic reactions in the taste reactivity (TR) test of palatability processing. Experiment 2 compared the effects of chronic administration of cannabis-derived Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC), cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabigerol (CBG) in these models. Tests were administered on Days 1, 7 and 14 of drug administration. In Experiment 1, rimonabant, but not THCV, produced an anxiogenic-like reaction in the LD immersion test and reduced saccharin palatability in the TR test; both of these effects occurred acutely and were not enhanced by chronic exposure. In Experiment 2, Δ(9)-THC also produced an acute anxiogenic-like reaction in the LD immersion test, without enhancement by chronic exposure. However, Δ(9)-THC enhanced saccharin palatability in the TR test on Day 1 of drug exposure only. CBD and CBG did not modify anxiety-like responding, but CBG produced a weak enhancement of saccharin palatability on Day 1 only. The results suggest that the anxiogenic-like reactions and the suppression of hedonic responding produced by rimonabant, are mediated by inverse agonism of the CB(1) receptor and these effects are not enhanced with chronic exposure.

  9. Non-equilibrium growth patterns of carbohydrate and saccharin in gel media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Ishwar; Sharma, Archana; Kumar, Anuj; Lall, R. S.

    1997-02-01

    Non-equilibrium growth patterns of mono-, di-saccharides and a sweetener saccharin have been developed on microslides in the presence of a dense matrix. Scanned pictures were analyzed and fractal dimensions calculated by a box counting method. Morphologies and fractal dimension were found to depend on the compound-dense matrix composition. In case of di-saccharides, the morphology depends on a linkage between the monomer units.

  10. Determination of food preservatives and saccharin by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Leuenberger, U; Gauch, R; Baumgartner, E

    1979-05-21

    The quantitative analysis of benzoic and sorbic acid, methyl, ethyl and propyl esters of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and saccharin in foodstuffs is described. These compounds are quantitatively extracted with disposable clean-up columns packed with Extrelut and simultaneously determined by high-performance liquid chromatography on reversed-phase columns. Complicated matrices such as cheese, cake, ketchup and chocolate were tested and recoveries were generally better than 95% in the concentration ranges normally used in the food industry. PMID:546878

  11. Impact of aspartame and saccharin on the rat liver: Biochemical, molecular, and histological approach.

    PubMed

    Alkafafy, Mohamed El-Sayed; Ibrahim, Zein Shaban; Ahmed, Mohamed Mohamed; El-Shazly, Samir Ahmed

    2015-06-01

    The current work was undertaken to settle the debate about the toxicity of artificial sweeteners (AS), particularly aspartame and saccharin. Twenty-five, 7-week-old male Wistar albino rats with an average body weight of 101 ± 4.8 g were divided into a control group and four experimental groups (n = 5 rats). The first and second experimental groups received daily doses equivalent to the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of aspartame (250 mg/Kg BW) and four-fold ADI of aspartame (1000 mg/Kg BW). The third and fourth experimental groups received daily doses equivalent to ADI of saccharin (25 mg/Kg BW) and four-fold ADI of saccharin (100 mg/Kg BW). The experimental groups received the corresponding sweetener dissolved in water by oral route for 8 weeks. The activities of enzymes relevant to liver functions and antioxidants were measured in the blood plasma. Histological studies were used for the evaluation of the changes in the hepatic tissues. The gene expression levels of the key oncogene (h-Ras) and the tumor suppressor gene (P27) were also evaluated. In addition to a significant reduction in the body weight, the AS-treated groups displayed elevated enzymes activities, lowered antioxidants values, and histological changes reflecting the hepatotoxic effect of aspartame and saccharin. Moreover, the overexpression of the key oncogene (h-Ras) and the downregulation of the tumor suppressor gene (P27) in all treated rat groups may indicate a potential risk of liver carcinogenesis, particularly on long-term exposure.

  12. Microstructure of the rat's intake of food, sucrose and saccharin in 24-hour tests.

    PubMed

    Smith, J C

    2000-03-01

    A detailed description of a method for collecting meal and drinking bout patterns for the rat over 24-h preference tests is presented. Both the hardware and software are described for data collection with a 6-s resolution. As an example of the value of knowing the details of ingestive patterns, data are presented describing the meal and drinking bout patterns during daylong preference tests between sucrose or saccharin vs. water. During these two-day tests at each of a wide range of concentrations, the intake of powdered Purina Chow, sucrose and saccharin were observed and quantified into meals or bouts. The analysis allowed for a comparison of sucrose and saccharin ingestion in terms of number of bouts, duration of bouts, rate of licking during bouts, the juxtaposition of eating and drinking and the day/night patterns of intake. Comparisons of drinking during bouts were made with electrophysiological and short-term taste test data. The usefulness of microstructure analysis is discussed.

  13. Sodium Bicarbonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breast-feeding. If you become pregnant while taking sodium bicarbonate, call your doctor. ... your body. If you are on a sodium-restricted diet, check with your doctor before taking sodium bicarbonate.

  14. In vitro DNA binding studies of the sweetening agent saccharin and its copper(II) and zinc(II) complexes.

    PubMed

    Icsel, Ceyda; Yilmaz, Veysel T

    2014-01-01

    The interactions of fish sperm DNA (FS-DNA) with the sodium salt of sweetener saccharin (sacH) and its copper and zinc complexes, namely [M(sac)2(H2O)4]·2H2O (M=Cu(II) or Zn(II)) were studied by using UV-Vis titration, fluorometric competition, thermal denaturation, viscosity and gel electrophoresis measurements. The intrinsic binding constants (Kb) obtained from absorption titrations were estimated to be 2.86 (±0.06)×10(4)M(-1) for Na(sac), 6.67 (±0.12)×10(4)M(-1) for Cu-sac and 4.01 (±0.08)×10(4)M(-1) for Zn-sac. The Cu-sac complex binds to FS-DNA via intercalation with a KA value of 50.12 (±0.22)×10(4)M(-1) as evidenced by competitive binding studies with ethidium bromide. Moreover, competition experiments with Hoechst 33258 are indicative of a groove binding mode of Na(sac) and Zn-sac with binding constants of 3.13 (±0.16)×10(4)M(-1) and 5.25 (±0.22)×10(4)M(-1), respectively. The spectroscopic measurements indicate a moderate DNA binding affinity of Na(sac) and its metal complexes. The suggested binding modes are further confirmed by the thermal denaturation and viscosity measurements. In addition, Cu-sac and Zn-sac show weak ability to damage to pBR322 supercoiled plasmid DNA.

  15. Delta-opioid receptor blockade in the ventral pallidum increases perceived palatability and consumption of saccharin solution in rats.

    PubMed

    Inui, Tadashi; Shimura, Tsuyoshi

    2014-08-01

    The ventral pallidum (VP) is involved in ingestive behaviour. It receives dense GABAergic projections from the nucleus accumbens. GABAergic terminals in the VP co-express enkephalin, an endogenous ligand of delta-opioid receptors. The role of the delta-opioid receptors in the VP in the context of ingestive behaviour remains unclear, in contrast to the well-understood involvement of the mu-opioid receptors. We used the single-bottle test to examine the effects of VP microinjections of the delta-opioid receptor antagonist naltrindole on consumption of a saccharin solution. Naltrindole injections significantly increased the intake of saccharin, but not water, during a 2-h test session. We also investigated perceived palatability of saccharin using a taste reactivity test. The drug treatments increased ingestive responses to intraorally infused saccharin. Further experimentation explored the role of VP delta-opioid receptors in behavioural responses to saccharin that were previously paired with malaise upon the retrieval of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Naltrindole-injected rats exhibited longer latency for the first occurrence of aversive responses than vehicle-injected control rats. However, there was no between-group difference in total aversive responses. These results suggest that naltrindole injections into the VP induce an enhancement of perceived palatability of a normally preferred saccharin solution, and thereby facilitate consumption of the solution. On the other hand, delayed aversive responses to the conditioned aversive saccharin suggest that the delta-opioid receptors in the VP mediate the initiation of aversive taste reactivity responses to the conditioned stimulus upon CTA retrieval.

  16. Polymorphisms in the taste receptor gene (Tas1r3) region are associated with saccharin preference in 30 mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Reed, D R; Li, S; Li, X; Huang, L; Tordoff, M G; Starling-Roney, R; Taniguchi, K; West, D B; Ohmen, J D; Beauchamp, G K; Bachmanov, A A

    2004-01-28

    The results of recent studies suggest that the mouse Sac (saccharin preference) locus is identical to the Tas1r3 (taste receptor) gene. The goal of this study was to identify Tas1r3 sequence variants associated with saccharin preference in a large number of inbred mouse strains. Initially, we sequenced approximately 6.7 kb of the Tas1r3 gene and its flanking regions from six inbred mouse strains with high and low saccharin preference, including the strains in which the Sac alleles were described originally (C57BL/6J, Sac(b); DBA/2J, Sac(d)). Of the 89 sequence variants detected among these six strains, eight polymorphic sites were significantly associated with preferences for 1.6 mm saccharin. Next, each of these eight variant sites were genotyped in 24 additional mouse strains. Analysis of the genotype-phenotype associations in all 30 strains showed the strongest association with saccharin preference at three sites: nucleotide (nt) -791 (3 bp insertion/deletion), nt +135 (Ser45Ser), and nt +179 (Ile60Thr). We measured Tas1r3 gene expression, transcript size, and T1R3 immunoreactivity in the taste tissue of two inbred mouse strains with different Tas1r3 haplotypes and saccharin preferences. The results of these experiments suggest that the polymorphisms associated with saccharin preference do not act by blocking gene expression, changing alternative splicing, or interfering with protein translation in taste tissue. The amino acid substitution (Ile60Thr) may influence the ability of the protein to form dimers or bind sweeteners. Here, we present data for future studies directed to experimentally confirm the function of these polymorphisms and highlight some of the difficulties of identifying specific DNA sequence variants that underlie quantitative trait loci. PMID:14749438

  17. Effect of concurrent saccharin intake on ethanol consumption by high-alcohol-drinking (UChB) rats.

    PubMed

    Tampier, Lutske; Quintanilla, Maria Elena

    2009-07-01

    This study examined the effect of concurrent presentation of a highly palatable saccharin solution on ethanol consumption during the acquisition or maintenance of ethanol drinking by high-alcohol-drinking (UChB) rats. Rats were exposed to ethanol (10% v/v) and water under a home cage, two-bottle, free-choice regimen with unlimited access for 24 hours/day. After 7 days (acquisition) of ethanol exposure, a third bottle containing saccharin (0.2% w/v) was concomitantly offered for an additional seven consecutive days, and the same process was repeated after 3 months (maintenance) of ethanol exposure. We found that concurrent saccharin intake significantly reduced ethanol intake by UChB rats after 7 days of ethanol exposure indicating that preference for sweet taste tends to override the preference for ethanol. However, the concurrent saccharin presentation to rats after 3 months of stable ethanol consumption did not reduce ethanol intake, whereas their saccharin consumption reached polydipsic-like values. These results support the notion that in UChB rats, a time-dependent sensitization to the rewarding effects of ethanol is developed that may account for the increases in ethanol volition seen following chronic ethanol intake.

  18. The influence of chronic intake of saccharin on rat hepatic and pancreatic function and morphology: gender differences.

    PubMed

    Andrejić, Bojana M; Mijatović, Vesna M; Samojlik, Isidora N; Horvat, Olga J; Ćalasan, Jelena D; Đolai, Matilda A

    2013-05-01

    There are opposite hypotheses on the effect of saccharin. Our aim was reviewing the influence of chronically ingested saccharin on the function and histological structure of liver and pancreas and all this in light of gender differences. The rats were divided into control group - (Group C) and saccharin-treated group - (Group S) which was given a normal diet and 0.0005% saccharin in drinking water for 6 weeks. Liver and pancreas were histologically processed and quantitative histological analysis was performed. Glucose blood levels and plasma activities of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT), body weight, and food intake were analyzed. Quantitative histological analysis determined that the values of diameter and volume density of both Langerhans islets and exocrine acini were significantly higher in S group, especially in males. AST levels were significantly higher in treated group. Glucose levels were higher in treated group, mainly due to the values of the female subgroup. Food intake was significantly higher in control group, while weight gain was higher in treated group. Treated males had significantly higher food intake and weight gain in comparison with treated females. The data presented here suggests that chronic saccharin intake affects the examined parameters. Reported facts reflect various metabolic, hormonal and neural responses in males and females.

  19. Transduction mechanism(s) of Na-saccharin in the blowfly Protophormia terraenovae: evidence for potassium and calcium conductance involvement.

    PubMed

    Masala, Carla; Solari, Paolo; Sollai, Giorgia; Crnjar, Roberto; Liscia, Anna

    2009-12-01

    The study on transduction mechanisms underlying bitter stimuli is a particularly intriguing challenge for taste researchers. The present study investigates, in the labellar chemosensilla of the blowfly Protophormia terraenovae, the transduction mechanism by which saccharin evokes the response of the "deterrent" cell, with particular attention to the contribution of K(+) and Ca(2+) current and the role of cyclic nucleotides, since second messengers modulate Ca(2+), Cl(-) and K(+) currents to different extents. As assessed by extracellular single-sensillum recordings, our results show that the addition of a Ca(2+) chelator such as EGTA or the Ca(2+) current blockers SK&F-96365, Mibefradil, Nifedipine and W-7 decrease the response of the "deterrent" cell to saccharin. A similar decreasing effect was also obtained following the addition of 4-aminopyridine, a K(+) current blocker. On the contrary, the membrane-permeable cyclic nucleotide 8-bromoguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8Br-cGMP) activates this cell and shows an additive effect when presented mixed with saccharin. Our results are consistent with the hypothesis that in the labellar chemosensilla of the blowfly both Ca(2+) and K(+) ions are involved in the transduction mechanism of the "deterrent" cell in response to saccharin. Our results also suggest a possible pathway common to saccharin and 8Br-cGMP.

  20. Sweet taste of saccharin induces weight gain without increasing caloric intake, not related to insulin-resistance in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Foletto, Kelly Carraro; Melo Batista, Bruna Aparecida; Neves, Alice Magagnin; de Matos Feijó, Fernanda; Ballard, Cíntia Reis; Marques Ribeiro, Maria Flávia; Bertoluci, Marcello Casaccia

    2016-01-01

    In a previous study, we showed that saccharin can induce weight gain when compared with sucrose in Wistar rats despite similar total caloric intake. We now question whether it could be due to the sweet taste of saccharin per se. We also aimed to address if this weight gain is associated with insulin-resistance and to increases in gut peptides such as leptin and PYY in the fasting state. In a 14 week experiment, 16 male Wistar rats received either saccharin-sweetened yogurt or non-sweetened yogurt daily in addition to chow and water ad lib. We measured daily food intake and weight gain weekly. At the end of the experiment, we evaluated fasting leptin, glucose, insulin, PYY and determined insulin resistance through HOMA-IR. Cumulative weight gain and food intake were evaluated through linear mixed models. Results showed that saccharin induced greater weight gain when compared with non-sweetened control (p = 0.027) despite a similar total caloric intake. There were no differences in HOMA-IR, fasting leptin or PYY levels between groups. We conclude that saccharin sweet taste can induce mild weight gain in Wistar rats without increasing total caloric intake. This weight gain was not related with insulin-resistance nor changes in fasting leptin or PYY in Wistar rats.

  1. Daily intake assessment of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame from various processed foods in Korea.

    PubMed

    Chung, M-S; Suh, H-J; Yoo, W; Choi, S-H; Cho, Y-J; Cho, Y-H; Kim, C-J

    2005-11-01

    This study was carried out to estimate the daily intakes (EDIs) of artificial sweeteners such as saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame in order to evaluate the safety of the artificial sweeteners in Korea. A total of 274 food samples were selected from the foods considered to be representative sources of artificial sweeteners in the Korean diet and analysed by using HPLC with evaporative light scattering and ultraviolet detectors. In case of aspartame, the reference values were used without instrumental analysis. The EDIs of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame for average consumers were 0.028, 0.008, 4.9 and 0.14 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, respectively, and as a proportion of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) were not higher than 1% of ADI of the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). For 90th percentile consumers, the EDIs of saccharin, stevioside, D-sorbitol and aspartame were 2.0, 0.20, 141 and 4.6 mg kg-1 body weight day-1, respectively, and as a proportion of the ADI, the EDIs of saccharin and aspartame were 40.7% and 11.4% of the ADI set by the JECFA, respectively. Because JECFA did not assign ADIs for stevioside and D-sorbitol, the values for these sweeteners were not compared. According to these results, the EDIs of artificial sweeteners such as saccharin and aspartame in Korea are significantly lower than ADI set by the JECFA.

  2. Determination of aspartame by ion chromatography with electrochemical integrated amperometric detection.

    PubMed

    Qu, F; Qi, Z H; Liu, K N; Mou, S F

    1999-07-30

    In this paper, the separation and determination of the sweetener aspartame by ion chromatography coupled with electrochemical amperometric detection is reported. Sodium saccharin, acesulfame-K and aspartame were separated using 27.5 mmol/l NaOH isocratic elution on a Dionex IonPac AS4A-SC separation column. Aspartame can be determined by integrated amperometric detection without interference from the other two sweeteners. The method can be applied to the determination of aspartame in powered tabletop, fruit juice and carbonated beverage samples, and the results obtained by integrated amperometry were in agreement with those obtained using a UV detection method. A method for determining analytes with an NH2 group by ion chromatography with integrated amperometry was developed.

  3. Calcium phosphate-containing precipitate and the carcinogenicity of sodium salts in rats.

    PubMed

    Cohen, S M; Arnold, L L; Cano, M; Ito, M; Garland, E M; Shaw, R A

    2000-04-01

    Sodium saccharin, ascorbate and other sodium salts fed at high doses to rats produce urinary bladder urothelial cytotoxicity with consequent regenerative hyperplasia. For sodium salts that have been tested, tumor activity is enhanced when administered either alone or after a brief exposure to a known genotoxic bladder carcinogen. These sodium salts alter urinary composition of rats resulting in formation of an amorphous precipitate. We examined the precipitate to ascertain its composition and further delineate the basis for its formation in rat urine. Using scanning electron microscopy with attached X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy, the principal elements present were calcium, phosphorus, minor amounts of silicon and sulfur. Smaller elements are not detectable by this method. Infrared analyses demonstrated that calcium phosphate was in the tribasic form and silicon was most likely in the form of silica. Small amounts of saccharin were present in the precipitate from rats fed sodium saccharin (<5%), but ascorbate was not detectable in the precipitate from rats fed similar doses of sodium ascorbate. Large amounts of urea and mucopolysaccharide, apparently chondroitin sulfate, were detected in the precipitate by infrared analysis. Chemical analyses confirmed the presence of large amounts of calcium phosphate with variably small amounts of magnesium, possibly present as magnesium ammonium phosphate crystals, present in urine even in controls. Small amounts of protein, including albumin and alpha(2u)-globulin, were also detected (<5% of the precipitate). Calcium phosphate is an essential ingredient of the medium for tissue culture of epithelial cells, but when present at high concentrations (>5 mM) it precipitates and becomes cytotoxic. The nature of the precipitate reflects the unique composition of rat urine and helps to explain the basis for the species specificity of the cytotoxic and proliferative effects of high doses of these sodium salts. PMID:10753216

  4. Effects of Alcohol and Saccharin Deprivations on Concurrent Ethanol and Saccharin Operant Self-Administration by Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Toalston, Jamie E.; Oster, Scott M.; Kuc, Kelly A.; Pommer, Tylene J.; Murphy, James M.; Lumeng, Lawrence; Bell, Richard L.; McBride, William J.; Rodd, Zachary A.

    2008-01-01

    Consumption of sweet solutions has been associated with a reduction in withdrawal symptoms and alcohol craving in humans. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of EtOH and saccharin (SACC) deprivations on operant oral self-administration. P rats were allowed to lever press concurrently self-administer EtOH (15% v/v) and SACC (0.0125% g/v) for 8 weeks. Rats were then maintained on daily operant access (non-deprived), deprived of both fluids (2 weeks), deprived of SACC and given 2 ml of EtOH daily, or deprived of EtOH and given 2 ml of SACC daily. All groups were then given two weeks of daily operant access to EtOH and SACC, followed by an identical second deprivation period. P rats responded more for EtOH than SACC. All deprived groups increased responding on the EtOH lever, but not on the SACC lever. Daily consumption of 2 ml EtOH decreased the duration of the ADE. Home cage access to 2 ml SACC also decreased the ADE but to a lesser extent than access to EtOH. A second deprivation period further increased and prolonged the expression of an ADE. These results show EtOH is a more salient reinforcer than SACC. With concurrent access to EtOH and SACC, P rats do not display a saccharin deprivation effect. Depriving P rats of both EtOH and SACC had the most pronounced effect on the magnitude and duration of the ADE, suggesting that there may be some interactions between EtOH and SACC in their CNS reinforcing effects. PMID:18400451

  5. On the role of the mouth and gut in the control of saccharin and sugar intake: a reexamination of the sham-feeding preparation.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, A; Nissenbaum, J W

    1985-06-01

    Adult female rats, each fitted with a gastric fistula, were tested for their "normal-feeding" (fistula closed) and "sham-feeding" (fistula open) response to saccharin and sugar solutions under a variety of conditions. When hungry, rats consumed no more of a 0.2% saccharin solution with their fistula open than they did with their fistula closed. Increasing or decreasing the saccharin concentration did not increase the amount of solution sham fed, but adding a small amount of glucose (3%) to the saccharin solution did increase the amount sham fed. Thirsty rats, unlike hungry, significantly increased their 0.2% saccharin solution intake when tested with an open fistula. When tested with a 32% glucose solution, hungry rats consumed up to six times more solution with their fistula open than with their fistula closed. The hungry rats also sham fed significantly more of the 32% glucose solution than of the 0.2% saccharin solution or 0.2% saccharin + 3% glucose solution. Sham-feeding of a 32% sucrose solution significantly elevated blood glucose levels, but blocking this effect by adding acarbose, a drug that inhibits sucrose digestion, did not reduce the amount of solution sham fed. Several possible explanations for the differential sham-feeding response to saccharin and sugar solutions are discussed.

  6. In vitro inhibition effect and structure-activity relationships of some saccharin derivatives on erythrocyte carbonic anhydrase I and II.

    PubMed

    Sonmez, Fatih; Bilen, Cigdem; Sumersan, Sinem; Gencer, Nahit; Isik, Semra; Arslan, Oktay; Kucukislamoglu, Mustafa

    2014-02-01

    In this study, in vitro inhibitory effects of some saccharin derivatives on purified carbonic anhydrase I and II were investigated using CO2 as a substrate. The results showed that all compounds inhibited the hCA I and hCA II enzyme activities. Among the compounds, 6-(p-tolylthiourenyl) saccharin (6m) was found to be the most active one for hCA I activity (IC50=13.67 μM) and 6-(m-methoxyphenylurenyl) saccharin (6b) was found to be the most active one for hCA II activity (IC50=6.54 μM). Structure-activity relationships (SARs) study showed that, generally, thiourea derivatives (6l--v) inhibited more hCA I and hCA II than urea derivatives (6a-k). All compounds (excluding 6c and 6r) have higher inhibitory activity on hCA II than on hCA I.

  7. Synthesis and crystal structure of new heterocyles derived from saccharin and uracil carrying 1,2,4-oxadiazolylmethyl group.

    PubMed

    Dürüst, Yaşar; Özer, Besra; Kariuki, Benson M; Cariuki, Benson M

    2015-05-01

    Saccharin, uracil, and 1,2,4-oxadiazole heterocyles are important in terms of exhibiting various biological acitivities. In this work, four series of 1,2,4-oxadiazolylmethyl-substituted saccharin, and uracil derivatives are synthesized and their structures are identified by means of spectral/physical characteristics. The first series are oxadiazolylmethyl-substituted saccharins. The second one is oxadiazole-substituted uracils which are obtained as a separable mixture of both mono- and bis-substituted end products. Third series is obtained from 5-amino uracil and chloromethyl oxadiazoles. The fourth group is oxadiazolyl methyl-substituted imino uracils. The structures of some title compounds are also confirmed by X-ray diffraction data.

  8. Adaptation of sweeteners in water and in tannic acid solutions.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, S S; Pecore, S D; Booth, B J; Losee, M L; Carr, B T; Sattely-Miller, E; Graham, B G; Warwick, Z S

    1994-03-01

    Repeated exposure to a tastant often leads to a decrease in magnitude of the perceived intensity; this phenomenon is termed adaptation. The purpose of this study was to determine the degree of adaptation of the sweet response for a variety of sweeteners in water and in the presence of two levels of tannic acid. Sweetness intensity ratings were given by a trained panel for 14 sweeteners: three sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose), two polyhydric alcohols (mannitol, sorbitol), two terpenoid glycosides (rebaudioside-A, stevioside), two dipeptide derivatives (alitame, aspartame), one sulfamate (sodium cyclamate), one protein (thaumatin), two N-sulfonyl amides (acesulfame-K, sodium saccharin), and one dihydrochalcone (neohesperidin dihydrochalcone). Panelists were given four isointense concentrations of each sweetener by itself and in the presence of two concentrations of tannic acid. Each sweetener concentration was tasted and rated four consecutive times with a 30 s interval between each taste and a 2 min interval between each concentration. Within a taste session, a series of concentrations of a given sweetener was presented in ascending order of magnitude. Adaptation was calculated as the decrease in intensity from the first to the fourth sample. The greatest adaptation in water solutions was found for acesulfame-K, Na saccharin, rebaudioside-A, and stevioside. This was followed by the dipeptide sweeteners, alitame and aspartame. The least adaptation occurred with the sugars, polyhydric alcohols, and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone. Adaptation was greater in tannic acid solutions than in water for six sweeteners. Adaptation of sweet taste may result from the desensitization of sweetener receptors analogous to the homologous desensitization found in the beta adrenergic system.

  9. Saccharin: a lead compound for structure-based drug design of carbonic anhydrase IX inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Mahon, Brian P; Hendon, Alex M; Driscoll, Jenna M; Rankin, Gregory M; Poulsen, Sally-Ann; Supuran, Claudiu T; McKenna, Robert

    2015-02-15

    Carbonic anhydrase IX (CA IX) is a key modulator of aggressive tumor behavior and a prognostic marker and target for several cancers. Saccharin (SAC) based compounds may provide an avenue to overcome CA isoform specificity, as they display both nanomolar affinity and preferential binding, for CA IX compared to CA II (>50-fold for SAC and >1000-fold when SAC is conjugated to a carbohydrate moiety). The X-ray crystal structures of SAC and a SAC-carbohydrate conjugate bound to a CA IX-mimic are presented and compared to CA II. The structures provide substantial new insight into the mechanism of SAC selective CA isoform inhibition.

  10. Non-nutritive sweeteners: no class effect on the glycaemic or appetite responses to ingested glucose.

    PubMed

    Bryant, C E; Wasse, L K; Astbury, N; Nandra, G; McLaughlin, J T

    2014-05-01

    There is considerable interest in whether non-nutritive sweeteners are sensed in the gastrointestinal tract to modulate appetitive or absorptive responses to ingested carbohydrate. We determined the effect of a panel of non-nutritive sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin and acesulfame-K, delivered in doses that would be consumed in normal usage. Each was given in combination with glucose, assessing their effect on glycemic responses and appetite in 10 healthy human subjects. There was no additional effect of aspartame or saccharin on the blood glucose response to oral glucose at any time point, although acesulfame-K exerted a small effect. However, none had an effect on perceptions of hunger or fullness. We conclude that there is no consistent evidence that non-nutrient sweeteners, when acutely consumed with glucose in dietetically relevant doses, have a class effect in modulating blood glucose in healthy human subjects. However, acesulfame-K may require further exploration.

  11. Sodium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... be limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? Sodium Share this page: Was this page helpful? Also known as: Na Formal name: Sodium Related tests: Chloride , Bicarbonate , Potassium , Electrolytes , Osmolality , Basic ...

  12. c-Fos expression in rat brainstem following intake of sucrose or saccharin.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ke; Yan, Jianqun; Li, Jinrong; Lv, Bo; Zhao, Xiaolin

    2011-09-01

    To examine whether the activation of brainstem neurons during intake of a sweet tastant is due to orosensory signals or post-ingestive factors, we compared the distribution of c-Fos-like immunoreactivity (c-FLI) in the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) and parabrachial nucleus (PBN) of brainstem following ingestion of 0.25 Msucrose or 0.005 M saccharin solutions. Immunopositive neurons were localized mainly in the middle zone of the PBN and four rostral-caudal subregions of the NST. Intake of sucrose increased the number of FLI neurons in almost every subnucleus of the PBN (F((2,13)) = 7.610, P = 0.023), in addition to the caudal NST at the level of the area postrema (F((2,13)) = 10.777, P = 0.003) and the NST intermediate zone (F((2,13)) = 7.193, P = 0.014). No significant increase in the number of c-Fos positive neurons was detected in response to saccharin ingestion, although there was a trend towards a modest increase in a few select NST and PBN nuclei. These results suggest that the PBN and NST may be involved in sweet taste perception and modulation of sweet tastant intake, but the significantly enhanced intensity of Fos expression induced by sucrose indicates that PBN/NST neuronal activity is driven by the integrated effects of sweet taste sensation and post-ingestive signals.

  13. The effect of age on the recognition thresholds of three sweeteners: sucrose, saccharin and aspartame.

    PubMed

    Easterby-Smith, V; Besford, J; Heath, M R

    1994-07-01

    It is believed that people's sensitivity to taste declines with age but the evidence is inconclusive. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that taste recognition thresholds (TRTs) for sweetness are higher in older than in younger individuals, using groups of 16 younger subjects (18-30) and 16 older subjects (60-85). Three test substances were used: sucrose, aspartame and saccharin. A questionnaire recorded variables which might have affected TRTs, but data failed to show any trend that might have biased the principle variate-age. There was a significant alteration with age of recognition thresholds, at least for sucrose and saccharin. The differences between the groups for the three sweeteners were due to the fact that all the very sensitive subjects were young. None of the older subjects had particularly poor discrimination: all but one had TRTs within the range of younger subjects. Although there are age-related taste changes, they are much less dramatic than commonly occurs with other senses, such as sight and hearing. The findings of this study have implications for institutional catering and the dietary management of older people using non-sugar sweeteners.

  14. Synthesis, structure, spectroscopic and electrochemical properties of bis(histamine-saccharinate) copper(II) complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulut, İclal; Uçar, İbrahim; Karabulut, Bünyamin; Bulut, Ahmet

    2007-05-01

    Crystal structure of [Cu(hsm) 2(sac) 2] (hsm is histamine and sac is saccharinate) complex has been determined by X-ray diffraction analyses and its magnetic environment has been identified by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. The title complex crystallizes in the monoclinic system, space group P 21/ c with a = 7.4282(4), b = 22.5034(16), c = 8.3300(5) Å, β = 106.227(4)°, V = 1336.98(14) Å 3, and Z = 2. The structure consist of discrete [Cu(hsm) 2(sac) 2] molecules in which the copper ion is centrosymmetrically coordinated by two histamine ligands forming an equatorial plane [Cu-N hsm = 2.024(2) and Cu-N hsm = 2.0338(18) Å]. Two N atoms from the saccharinate ligands coordinate on the elongated axial positions with Cu-N sac being 2.609(5) Å. The complex is also characterized by spectroscopic (IR, UV/Vis) and thermal (TG, and TDA) methods. The cyclic voltammogram of the title complex investigated in DMSO (dimethylsulfoxide) solution exhibits only metal centred electroactivity in the potential range - 1.25-1.5 V versus Ag/AgCl reference electrode. The molecular orbital bond coefficients of Cu(II) ion in d 9 state is also calculated by using EPR and optical absorption parameters.

  15. The sugar industry, political authorities, and scientific institutions in the regulation of saccharin: Valencia (1888-1939).

    PubMed

    Guillem-Llobat, Ximo

    2011-07-01

    In the late-nineteenth century food production and trade were greatly transformed. Changes in the food chain gave rise to new problems connected with food safety and food quality, which caused new controls to be introduced throughout Europe. In this paper I will contribute to ongoing debates by focusing on the regulation of saccharin in an agrarian city in the south of Europe, Valencia. The laboratory-made sweetener was introduced into the food market at the turn of the century, becoming highly controversial shortly afterwards. Several local groups of players got involved in this dispute. The sugar industry was not only an important stakeholder in the passing of some specific laws that were to constrain the use of saccharin, but also the main driver of regulation, primarily in periods when saccharin could become a serious competitor and reduce the sector's profit. Furthermore, the combined work of the sugar industry and the municipal laboratories was essential for the implementation of regulations. It was in such municipal laboratories that scientists played a main role in regulation. My paper will address the commercial disputes linked to the use of saccharin and the limited role of science and scientists in its control.

  16. Evaluation of Derivative Ultraviolet Spectrometry for Determining Saccharin in Cola and Other Matrices: An Instrumental Methods Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolzberg, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    Background information and experimental procedures are provided for an experiment in which three samples of saccharin (a nickel plating solution, a dilute cola drink, and a more concentrated cola drink) are analyzed and the data interpreted using five methods. Precision and accuracy are evaluated and the best method is selected. (JN)

  17. Physical and emotional stress have differential effects on preference for saccharine and open field behaviour in rats.

    PubMed

    Pijlman, Femke T A; Wolterink, Gerrit; Van Ree, Jan M

    2003-02-17

    Stress may influence the sensitivity of subjects to rewarding stimuli and stress modality may differentially affect this sensitivity. This relation was investigated in our animal model using chronic physical (repeated mild foot shocks) and emotional (witness) stress. Previous research has established that the two stressors have differential long-term effects on behaviour, where physical stress caused inactivity in a small open field and emotional stress hyperactivity. Rats were stressed on 5 consecutive days and tested for locomotor activity in a small open field (day 10) and saccharine preference (day 11). The preference for graded concentrations of saccharine over water was used as a measure for their sensitivity to reward. Physical stress treatment induced a long-term decrease both in preference for saccharine and open field activity compared to control treatment. Emotional stress animals showed an increase in open field behaviour activity and a slight increase in saccharine preference. Physical stress seems to cause anhedonia, while emotional stress might cause an increased sensitivity to reward. In conclusion, stress can induce differential long-term effects on sensitivity to positive stimuli and the response to novelty depending on stress modality.

  18. The sugar industry, political authorities, and scientific institutions in the regulation of saccharin: Valencia (1888-1939).

    PubMed

    Guillem-Llobat, Ximo

    2011-07-01

    In the late-nineteenth century food production and trade were greatly transformed. Changes in the food chain gave rise to new problems connected with food safety and food quality, which caused new controls to be introduced throughout Europe. In this paper I will contribute to ongoing debates by focusing on the regulation of saccharin in an agrarian city in the south of Europe, Valencia. The laboratory-made sweetener was introduced into the food market at the turn of the century, becoming highly controversial shortly afterwards. Several local groups of players got involved in this dispute. The sugar industry was not only an important stakeholder in the passing of some specific laws that were to constrain the use of saccharin, but also the main driver of regulation, primarily in periods when saccharin could become a serious competitor and reduce the sector's profit. Furthermore, the combined work of the sugar industry and the municipal laboratories was essential for the implementation of regulations. It was in such municipal laboratories that scientists played a main role in regulation. My paper will address the commercial disputes linked to the use of saccharin and the limited role of science and scientists in its control. PMID:21999094

  19. Overexpression of DeltaFosB is associated with attenuated cocaine-induced suppression of saccharin intake in mice.

    PubMed

    Freet, Christopher S; Steffen, Cathy; Nestler, Eric J; Grigson, Patricia S

    2009-04-01

    Rodents suppress intake of saccharin when it is paired with a drug of abuse (Goudie, Dickins, & Thornton, 1978; Risinger & Boyce, 2002). By the authors' account, this phenomenon, referred to as reward comparison, is thought to be mediated by anticipation of the rewarding properties of the drug (P. S. Grigson, 1997; P. S. Grigson & C. S. Freet, 2000). Although a great deal has yet to be discovered regarding the neural basis of reward and addiction, it is known that overexpression of DeltaFosB is associated with an increase in drug sensitization and incentive. Given this, the authors reasoned that overexpression of DeltaFosB should also support greater drug-induced devaluation of a natural reward. To test this hypothesis, NSE-tTA x TetOp-DeltaFosB mice (Chen et al., 1998) with normal or overexpressed DeltaFosB in the striatum were given access to a saccharin cue and then injected with saline, 10 mg/kg cocaine, or 20 mg/kg cocaine. Contrary to the original prediction, overexpression of DeltaFosB was associated with attenuated cocaine-induced suppression of saccharin intake. It is hypothesized that elevation of DeltaFosB not only increases the reward value of drug, but the reward value of the saccharin cue as well.

  20. Post-session injections of a protein synthesis inhibitor, cycloheximide do not alter saccharin self-administration.

    PubMed

    Mierzejewski, Pawel; Korkosz, Agnieszka; Rogowski, Artur; Korkosz, Izabela; Kostowski, Wojciech; Scinska, Anna

    2009-03-17

    A large body of evidence indicates that reactivation of aversive memories leads to protein synthesis-dependent memory reconsolidation which can be disrupted by cycloheximide (CHX) and other protein synthesis inhibitors. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether CHX would alter maintenance of well-trained instrumental responding for 0.1% saccharin. Male Wistar rats were trained to lever press for saccharin. When lever pressing stabilized, experimental self-administration sessions with CHX (3 mg/kg, s.c.) started. The animals received four experimental sessions, with each session separated by 5 days. The protein synthesis inhibitor was injected immediately after the experimental sessions 1-3. Repeated post-session injections of CHX did not alter saccharin self-administration. A two-bottle choice test conducted after the last experimental session revealed that CHX had not induced any conditioned taste aversion to 0.1% saccharin. The present results suggest that well-consolidated long-term memory of an appetitive instrumental task does not depend on de novo protein synthesis.

  1. Design, synthesis and biological evaluation of saccharin-based N-hydroxybenzamides as histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Fu, Huansheng; Han, Leiqiang; Hou, Xuben; Dun, Yanyan; Wang, Lei; Gong, Xiaowei; Fang, Hao

    2015-09-01

    We report the development of a novel series of saccharin-based N-hydroxybenzamides as histone deacetylases inhibitors. Among them, 6 j exhibited potent HDACs inhibitory activity against Hela nuclear extract. Further biological evaluation found 6 i showed similar antiproliferative activities in vitro compared with the approved SAHA.

  2. Saccharin-induced systemic acquired resistance against rust (Phakopsora pachyrhizi) infection in soybean: Effects on growth and development

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the effect of saccharin on the systemic acquired resistance (SAR) response of soybean to the fungus Phakopsora pachyrhizi, the causal agent of soybean rust. Plants were grown hydroponically in half-strength Hoagland’s solution and were challenged with the pathogen 1, 5, 10 and 15 days af...

  3. Lack of DNA-damaging activity of five non-nutritive sweeteners in the rat hepatocyte/DNA repair assay.

    PubMed

    Jeffrey, A M; Williams, G M

    2000-04-01

    The non-nutritive sweeteners acesulfame-K, aspartame, cyclamate, saccharin and sucralose were tested for DNA damaging activity in the rat hepatocyte/DNA repair assay. Using hepatocytes from F344 and Sprague-Dawley male rats, all were inactive despite strong responses for the positive control, 2-aminofluorene.

  4. Experience with the high-intensity sweetener saccharin impairs glucose homeostasis and GLP-1 release in rats.

    PubMed

    Swithers, Susan E; Laboy, Alycia F; Clark, Kiely; Cooper, Stephanie; Davidson, T L

    2012-07-15

    Previous work from our lab has demonstrated that experience with high-intensity sweeteners in rats leads to increased food intake, body weight gain and adiposity, along with diminished caloric compensation and decreased thermic effect of food. These changes may occur as a result of interfering with learned relations between the sweet taste of food and the caloric or nutritive consequences of consuming those foods. The present experiments determined whether experience with the high-intensity sweetener saccharin versus the caloric sweetener glucose affected blood glucose homeostasis. The results demonstrated that during oral glucose tolerance tests, blood glucose levels were more elevated in animals that had previously consumed the saccharin-sweetened supplements. In contrast, during glucose tolerance tests when a glucose solution was delivered directly into the stomach, no differences in blood glucose levels between the groups were observed. Differences in oral glucose tolerance responses were not accompanied by differences in insulin release; insulin release was similar in animals previously exposed to saccharin and those previously exposed to glucose. However, release of GLP-1 in response to an oral glucose tolerance test, but not to glucose tolerance tests delivered by gavage, was significantly lower in saccharin-exposed animals compared to glucose-exposed animals. Differences in both blood glucose and GLP-1 release in saccharin animals were rapid and transient, and suggest that one mechanism by which exposure to high-intensity sweeteners that interfere with a predictive relation between sweet tastes and calories may impair energy balance is by suppressing GLP-1 release, which could alter glucose homeostasis and reduce satiety.

  5. Highly Stereoselective Synthesis of Saccharin-Substituted β-Lactams via in Situ Generation of a Heterosubstituted Ketene and a Zwitterionic Intermediate as Potential Antibacterial Agents.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Zahra F A; Islami, Mohammad R; Khaleghi, Moj

    2015-06-19

    Highly stereoselective synthesis of saccharin derivatives containing functionalized 2-azetidinone moiety was achieved starting from saccharin as an available precursor. The approach to these valuable heterocyclic scaffolds involves a formal [2π + 2π] cycloaddition between Schiff bases and the saccharinylketene as a novel ketene which was generated in situ and an electrocyclic reaction of a zwitterionic intermediate. The identification of the ketene was confirmed by reaction with the stable free radical TEMPO (TO•). Also, the antimicrobial activities of some new substituted saccharin against nine standard bacteria, four bacteria which were isolated from clinical samples and one yeast, were evaluated.

  6. Multivariate analysis of quaternary carbamazepine-saccharin mixtures by X-ray diffraction and infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Caliandro, Rocco; Di Profio, Gianluca; Nicolotti, Orazio

    2013-05-01

    Co-crystallization brings new opportunities for improving the solubility and dissolution rate of drugs with the chance of finely tuning some relevant chemical-physical properties of mixtures containing bioactive compounds. As co-crystallization process involves several molecular species, which are generally solid at room conditions, its control requires accurate knowledge and monitoring of the different phase that might appear during the formulation stage. In the present study the suitability of X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and Fourier-transformed infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy in quantifying mixtures of carbamazepine polymorphs (forms I and III), saccharin, and carbamazepine-saccharin cocrystals (form I) is assessed. Quaternary crystalline mixtures typically produced in the process of co-crystal production were analyzed by multivariate methods. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for the identification of the crystal phases, while unsupervised simultaneous fitting of the spectra from pure phases, or supervised partial least squares (PLS) methods were used for their quantitative determination. The performance of data analysis was enhanced by applying peculiar pre-processing methods, such as SNIP filtering in case of FTIR and PCA filtering in case of XRPD. It was found that, for XRPD data, the automatic multi-fitting procedures and PLS models developed in this study are able to quantify single phases in mixtures to an accuracy level comparable to that obtained by the widely used Rietveld method, which, however, requires knowledge of the crystal structures. For FTIR data the results here obtained prove that this technique can be used as a fast method for polymorph characterization.

  7. Simultaneous conditioning of "gaping" responses and taste avoidance in rats injected with LiCl and saccharin: examining the role of context and taste cues in the rodent model of anticipatory nausea.

    PubMed

    Cloutier, Caylen J; Cross-Mellor, Shelley K; Kavaliers, Martin; Ossenkopp, Klaus-Peter

    2011-09-15

    This study examined whether rats can simultaneously learn to associate lithium chloride (LiCl)-induced nausea with both contextual and intravascular taste cues. During the conditioning phase (4 days, 72h apart), 32 male Long Evans rats were injected intraperitoneally with either isotonic saline (NaCl), lithium chloride (LiCl, 127mg/kg), saline plus 2% saccharin (NaCl+Saccharin), or lithium chloride plus 2% saccharin (LiCl+Saccharin) immediately prior to a 30min exposure to a novel context. 72h following the final conditioning day, each animal was re-exposed to the context on a drug-free test day. The next day, animals received a 24h 2-bottle preference test with a choice between water and a palatable saccharin solution. Results showed that animals treated with LiCl during conditioning, with or without saccharin, displayed significantly higher levels of conditioned gaping responses, indicative of nausea, upon re-exposure to the context, relative to NaCl and NaCl+Saccharin controls. Animals administered LiCl+Saccharin during conditioning also displayed significant conditioned taste avoidance to the saccharin solution during the two bottle choice test. These results indicate that systemic administration (intraperitoneal) of a LiCl+Saccharin solution is effective in simultaneously conditioning toxin elicited nausea to both internal (taste) and external (context) cues.

  8. Conditioned enhancement of natural killer cell activity, but not interferon, with camphor or saccharin-LiCl conditioned stimulus.

    PubMed

    Ghanta, V K; Hiramoto, N S; Solvason, H B; Tyring, S K; Spector, N H; Hiramoto, R N

    1987-01-01

    Pavlovian conditioning of the natural killer (NK) cell response has been demonstrated by pairing camphor with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) in nine association trials. The NK cell response could be conditioned also by using combined saccharin and lithium chloride (LiCl) as the conditioned stimulus. The camphor and saccharin-LiCl paradigms were tested to determine if the conditioned NK cell activity was the result of conditioning of the interferon response. Interferon levels were measured at 6 hr and NK cell activity at 24 hr after application of the conditioned stimulus. The interferon levels measured in separate experiments were not uniformly elevated in conditioned animals compared with controls.

  9. The infrared spectra and structure of o-sulfobenzimide (saccharin) and of its nitranion: An ab initio force field treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binev, Ivan G.; Stamboliyska, Bistra A.; Velcheva, Evelina A.

    1996-08-01

    The structure of o-sulfobenzimide (saccharin) and of its nitranion has been studied on the basis of both infrared spectra and ab initio force field calculations. A good agreement has been found between the theoretical and experimental spectroscopic characteristics of the particles studied. The theoretical method used gives a good description of the strong spectral changes caused by the conversion of the saccharin molecule into the corresponding nitranion. The structural changes which accompany this conversion are essential and they spread over the whole sulfocarboximide group and the adjacent bonds. The nitranionic charge is delocalized over the phenylene group (0.29 e -), sulfonyl group (0.26 e -), nitranionic center (0.25 e -), and carbonyl group (0.20 e -).

  10. Sodium Oxybate

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to prevent attacks of cataplexy (episodes of muscle weakness that begin suddenly and last for a ... of your body that you cannot control, sweating, muscle cramps, and fast heartbeat.Sodium oxybate may help ...

  11. Simultaneous determination of sweeteners and preservatives in preserved fruits by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y H; Chou, S S; Sheu, F; Shyu, Y T

    2000-08-01

    A micellar electrokinetic capillary method for the simultaneous determination of the sweeteners dulcin, aspartame, saccharin, and acesulfame-K and the preservatives sorbic acid; benzoic acid; sodium dehydroacetate; and methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, isopropyl-, butyl-, and isobutyl-p-hydroxybenzoate in preserved fruits is developed. These additives are ion-paired and extracted using sonication followed by solid-phase extraction from the sample. Separation is achieved using a 57-cm fused-silica capillary with a buffer comprised of 0.05 M sodium deoxycholate, 0.02 M borate-phosphate buffer (pH 8.6), and 5% acetonitrile, and the wavelength for detection is 214 nm. The average recovery rate for all sweeteners and preservatives is approximately 90% with good reproducibility, and the detection limits range from 10 to 25 microg/g. Fifty preserved fruit samples are analyzed for the content of sweeteners and preservatives. The sweeteners found in 28 samples was aspartame (0.17-11.59 g/kg) or saccharin (0.09-5.64 g/kg). Benzoic acid (0.02-1.72 g/kg) and sorbic acid (0.27-1.15 g/kg) were found as preservatives in 29 samples.

  12. Degradation of artificial sweetener saccharin in aqueous medium by electrochemically generated hydroxyl radicals.

    PubMed

    Lin, Heng; Wu, Jie; Oturan, Nihal; Zhang, Hui; Oturan, Mehmet A

    2016-03-01

    The removal of artificial sweetener saccharin (SAC) in aqueous solution by electrochemical advanced oxidation using electro-Fenton process was performed. Experiments were carried out in an undivided cylindrical glass cell with a carbon-felt cathode and a Pt or boron-doped diamond (BDD) anode. The removal of SAC by electrochemically generated hydroxyl radicals followed pseudo-first-order kinetics with both Pt and BDD anode. The absolute rate constant of the SAC hydroxylation reaction was determined for the first time using the competition kinetic method and found to be (1.85 ± 0.01) × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). The comparative study of TOC removal efficiency during electro-Fenton treatment indicated a higher mineralization rate with BDD than Pt anode. The identification and evolution of short-chain carboxylic acids and inorganic ions formed during oxidation process were monitored by ion-exchange chromatography and ion chromatography, respectively. The assessment of toxicity of SAC and/or its reaction by-products during treatment was performed using Microtox® method based on the Vibrio fischeri bacteria luminescence inhibition. Results showed that the process was able to efficiently detoxify the treated solution.

  13. Structural characterization and EPR spectral studies on mononuclear copper(II) complex of saccharin with ethylnicotinate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uçar, İbrahim; Bozkurt, Esat; Kazak, Canan; Bulut, Ahmet

    2009-02-01

    Mononuclear copper(II) saccharinate (sac) complex containing ethylnicotinate (enc), [Cu(enc) 2(sac) 2(H 2O)]·1.4H 2O has been synthesized and characterized by spectroscopic (IR, UV-vis, EPR), X-ray diffraction technique and electrochemical methods. It crystallizes in the tetragonal crystal systems with space group I4 1cd and Z = 8. The copper(II) ion presents a CuN 4O distorted square pyramidal coordination. Based on EPR and optical absorption studies, spin-Hamiltonian and bonding parameters have been calculated. The g-values, calculated for title complex in polycrystalline state at 298 K and in frozen DMF (110 K), indicate the presence of the unpaired electron in the d orbital. The evaluated metal-ligand bonding parameters showed strong in-plane σ and in-plane π-bonding. Some comparisons with related structures are made and the most important features of its IR spectrum were also discussed. The cyclic voltammogram of the title complex investigated in DMF (dimethylformamide) solution exhibits only metal centred electroactivity in the potential range ±1.25 V vs. Ag/AgCl reference electrode.

  14. Synthesis, spectroscopic and voltammetric studies of a novel Schiff-base of cysteine and saccharin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çakır, Semiha; Odabaşoğlu, Mustafa; Biçer, Ender; Yazar, Zehra

    2009-01-01

    In this study, a novel Schiff-base of cysteine and saccharin [( 2R)-2-(1, 1-dioxo-1, 2-dihydro-1λ6-benzo[ d]isothiazol-3-ylideneamino)-3-mercapto-propionic acid] was synthesized and characterized by UV-Vis, FT-IR, 1H NMR and elemental analysis. The voltammetric behaviour of Schiff-base was investigated on the static mercury drop electrode (SMDE) by using Square-Wave voltammetry (SWV) and Cyclic voltammetry (CV). The voltammograms of the Schiff-base gave three reduction waves in Britton-Robinson buffer (pH 5.0-9.0) for the potential range from 0.0 to -1.4 V. The first reversible cathodic peak is due to reduction of the mercury thiolate, produced by the thiol group of Schiff-base which adsorbs at Hg electrode surface, to metallic mercury and free thiol. The second reduction peak may be assigned to the reduction of azomethine center (>C dbnd N sbnd ) in the Schiff-base and the last peak may be related to the catalytic hydrogen reduction.

  15. Phosphodiesterase 10A regulates alcohol and saccharin self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Logrip, Marian L; Vendruscolo, Leandro F; Schlosburg, Joel E; Koob, George F; Zorrilla, Eric P

    2014-06-01

    A history of stress produces increases in rodent relapse-like alcohol self-administration behavior and regional brain gene expression of phosphodiesterase 10A (PDE10A), a dual-specificity cyclic adenosine monophosphate/cyclic guanosine monophosphate-inhibiting enzyme. Here, we tested the hypothesis that administration of TP-10, a specific PDE10A inhibitor, would reduce alcohol self-administration in conditions predisposing to elevated self-administration. TP-10 administration dose-dependently (0.562, 1.0 mg/kg; subcutaneously) reduced relapse-like alcohol self-administration regardless of stress history enhancement of relapse-like behavior. TP-10 also reduced alcohol self-administration in genetically alcohol-preferring rats, as well as in alcohol-non-dependent and -dependent rats. Effective systemic TP-10 doses did not alter alcohol pharmacokinetics, significantly reduce motor activity or intrabout operant response speed, or promote a conditioned place aversion. TP-10 also reduced saccharin self-administration, suggesting a general role for PDE10A in the self-administration of reinforcing substances. PDE10A inhibition in the dorsolateral striatum, but not the nucleus accumbens, reduced alcohol self-administration. Taken together, the results implicate dorsolateral striatum PDE10A in facilitating alcohol intake and support further investigation of PDE10A systems in the pathophysiology and potential treatment of substance use disorders.

  16. Aspartame-fed zebrafish exhibit acute deaths with swimming defects and saccharin-fed zebrafish have elevation of cholesteryl ester transfer protein activity in hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae-Yong; Seo, Juyi; Cho, Kyung-Hyun

    2011-11-01

    Although many artificial sweeteners (AS) have safety issues, the AS have been widely used in industry. To determine the physiologic effect of AS in the presence of hyperlipidemia, zebrafish were fed aspartame or saccharin with a high-cholesterol diet (HCD). After 12 days, 30% of zebrafish, which consumed aspartame and HCD, died with exhibiting swimming defects. The aspartame group had 65% survivability, while the control and saccharin groups had 100% survivability. Under HCD, the saccharin-fed groups had the highest increase in the serum cholesterol level (599 mg/dL). Aspartame-fed group showed a remarkable increase in serum glucose (up to 125 mg/dL), which was 58% greater than the increase in the HCD alone group. The saccharin and HCD groups had the highest cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) activity (52% CE-transfer), while the HCD alone group had 42% CE-transfer. Histologic analysis revealed that the aspartame and HCD groups showed more infiltration of inflammatory cells in the brain and liver sections. Conclusively, under presence of hyperlipidemia, aspartame-fed zebrafish exhibited acute swimming defects with an increase in brain inflammation. Saccharin-fed zebrafish had an increased atherogenic serum lipid profile with elevation of CETP activity.

  17. Ceftriaxone attenuates acquisition and facilitates extinction of cocaine-induced suppression of saccharin intake in C57BL/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Freet, Christopher S; Lawrence, Antoneal L

    2015-10-01

    Growing evidence implicates glutamate homeostasis in a number of behaviors observed in addiction such as acquisition of drug taking, motivation, and reinstatement. To date, however, the role of glutamate homeostasis in the avoidance of natural rewards due to exposure to drugs of abuse has received little attention. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the beta-lactam antibiotic, ceftriaxone, which has been shown to normalize disrupted glutamate homeostasis associated with exposure to drugs of abuse, in cocaine-induced suppression of saccharin intake in C57BL/6J mice. Briefly, C57BL/6J mice received daily injections of either 200mg/kg ceftriaxone or saline. Mice were then given access to 0.15% saccharin for 1h and immediately injected intraperitoneally with either saline or 30 mg/kg cocaine; taste-drug pairings occurred every 24h for 5 trials followed by a final CS only trial. One week following taste-drug pairings, extinction was evaluated in a series of one- and two-bottle saccharin intake tests. Individual differences in cocaine-induced suppression were observed (i.e., low and high suppressors) with differential effects of ceftriaxone. Ceftriaxone delayed suppression of saccharin intake in high suppressors but prevented suppression in low suppressors. In addition, ceftriaxone history facilitated extinction in the high suppressors. These data suggest that changes in glutamate homeostasis may be involved in the formation and expression of cocaine-induced suppression of saccharin intake in mice.

  18. Microstructure, magnetic, and magnetoimpedance properties of electrodeposited NiFe/Cu and CoNiFe/Cu wire: A study on influence of saccharin additive in plating bath

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Amaresh Chandra; Sahoo, Trilochan; Srinivas, V.; Thakur, Awalendra K.

    2011-04-01

    Magnetic thin films of NiFe and CoNiFe were electrodeposited from three different deposition baths on copper wires of 100 μm diameter. The magnetic and magneto-impedance (MI) properties of the samples were investigated as a function of saccharin additive concentration in the plating bath. For all intermediate frequencies, the MI ratio increased with saccharin concentration in the plating bath up to a critical concentration and then saturates. The change in MI with saccharin concentration in electrodeposition bath was attributed to the grain size reducing action of saccharin which in turn reduces the coercivity of the film, making it soft magnetic. The origin of MI lies in the combined effect of domain wall motion and spin rotation which contributes to permeability. Inductance spectroscopy was used to evaluate the magnetic characteristic of the samples by modeling magnetic film-coated wires in terms of equivalent electrical circuit; namely parallel inductance and resistance circuit in series with series A circuit. The domain wall motion was found to be greatly affected by saccharin addition to the bath, which was revealed through the study of variations in these circuit parameters. The domain wall motion thereby affects the magnetic softness of samples, which is reflected by MI enhancement.

  19. Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium diethyldithiocarbamate ; CASRN 148 - 18 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Non

  20. Sodium fluoroacetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium fluoroacetate ; CASRN 62 - 74 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogen

  1. Sodium azide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Sodium azide ; CASRN 26628 - 22 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Ef

  2. Acifluorfen, sodium

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acifluorfen , sodium ; CASRN 62476 - 59 - 9 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcino

  3. Sodium cyanide

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 28 , 2010 , the assessment summary for sodium cyanide is included in the

  4. Increased impulsive choice for saccharin during PCP withdrawal in female monkeys: influence of menstrual cycle phase

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Marilyn E.; Kohl, Emily A.; Johnson, Krista M.; LaNasa, Rachel M.

    2013-01-01

    Background In previous studies with male and female rhesus monkeys withdrawal of access to oral phencyclidine (PCP) self administration reduced responding for food under a high fixed-ratio (FR) schedule more in males than females and with a delay discounting (DD) task with saccharin (SACC) as the reinforcer. Impulsive choice for SACC increased during PCP withdrawal more than females. Objectives The goal of the present study was to examine the effect of PCP (0.25 or 0.5 mg/ml) withdrawal on impulsive choice for SACC in females during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. Materials and methods In Component 1 PCP and water were available from 2 drinking spouts for 1.5 h sessions under concurrent FR 16 schedules. In Component 2 a SACC solution was available for 45 min under a DD schedule. Monkeys had a choice of one immediate SACC delivery (0.6 ml) or 6 delayed SACC deliveries, and the delay was increased by 1 sec after a response on the delayed lever and decreased by 1 sec after a response on the immediate lever. There was then a 10-day water substitution phase, or PCP-withdrawal, that occurred during the mid-folllicular phase (Days 7–11) or the late-luteal (Days 24–28) phase of the menstrual cycle. Access to PCP and concurrent water was then restored, and the PCP withdrawal procedure was repeated over several follicular and luteal menstrual phases. Results PCP deliveries were higher during the luteal vs the follicular phase. Impulsive choice was greater during the luteal (vs follicular) phase during withdrawal of the higher PCP concentration. Conclusions PCP withdrawal was associated with elevated impulsive choice for SACC, especially in the luteal (vs follicular) phase of the menstrual cycle in female monkeys. PMID:23344553

  5. Brain activation induced by voluntary alcohol and saccharin drinking in rats assessed with manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Mateusz; Abo-Ramadan, Usama; Hermann, Derik; Brown, Matthew; Canals, Santiago; Sommer, Wolfgang H; Hyytiä, Petri

    2015-11-01

    The neuroanatomical and neurochemical basis of alcohol reward has been studied extensively, but global alterations of neural activity in reward circuits during chronic alcohol use remain poorly described. Here, we measured brain activity changes produced by long-term voluntary alcohol drinking in the alcohol-preferring AA (Alko alcohol) rats using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). MEMRI is based on the ability of paramagnetic manganese ions to accumulate in excitable neurons and thereby enhance the T1-weighted signal in activated brain areas. Following 6 weeks of voluntary alcohol drinking, AA rats were allowed to drink alcohol for an additional week, during which they were administered manganese chloride (MnCl2 ) with subcutaneous osmotic minipumps before MEMRI. A second group with an identical alcohol drinking history received MnCl2 during the abstinence week following alcohol drinking. For comparing alcohol with a natural reinforcer, MEMRI was also performed in saccharin-drinking rats. A water-drinking group receiving MnCl2 served as a control. We found that alcohol drinking increased brain activity extensively in cortical and subcortical areas, including the mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine pathways and their afferents. Remarkably similar activation maps were seen after saccharin ingestion. Particularly in the prelimbic cortex, ventral hippocampus and subthalamic nucleus, activation persisted into early abstinence. These data show that voluntary alcohol recruits an extensive network that includes the ascending dopamine systems and their afferent connections, and that this network is largely shared with saccharin reward. The regions displaying persistent alterations after alcohol drinking could participate in brain networks underlying alcohol seeking and relapse.

  6. Impulsivity (delay discounting) for food and cocaine in male and female rats selectively bred for high and low saccharin intake.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jennifer L; Nelson, Sarah E; Anderson, Marissa M; Morgan, Andrew D; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2007-04-01

    Previous research in rats indicates that delay discounting for food, a model of impulsivity, predicted the rate of acquisition of cocaine self-administration. In other studies, rats bred for high saccharin intake (HiS) acquired cocaine self-administration at higher rates than those with low saccharin intake (LoS), and female (F) rats acquired cocaine self-administration more rapidly than males (M). The purpose of this study was to examine a possible connection between impulsivity, saccharin intake, and sex by comparing M and F rats from the HiS and LoS selectively bred lines on measures of impulsivity; i.e., their rate of delay discounting for food or i.v. cocaine infusions. The adjusting delay procedure allowed rats access to 2 response levers, and a pellet dispenser or an i.v. drug infusion pump. In 4 groups (HiS M, HiS F, LoS M, LoS F) responses under a fixed-ratio (FR) 1 schedule on one lever resulted in one 45 mg pellet immediately, and responses on the other lever resulted in 3 or 6 pellets after a delay. Four additional groups received either a small cocaine (0.2, 0.4, or 0.8 mg/kg) infusion immediately or a delayed larger infusion (3x the amount of the small infusions). The delay to the larger reinforcer began at 6 s and increased or decreased by 1 s following responses on the delay or immediate levers, respectively. A mean adjusted delay (MAD) was calculated over 30 choice trials during each daily 3-hour session, and it was used as a quantitative measure of impulsivity. In groups maintained by food, HiS rats were more impulsive (lower MADs) than LoS rats, and LoS females were more impulsive than LoS males. There were no phenotype or sex differences in delay discounting for cocaine. Understanding the relationship between impulsivity and other predictors of drug abuse (e.g., sex, saccharin intake) is important in developing prevention and treatment strategies.

  7. Test Your Sodium Smarts

    MedlinePlus

    ... You may be surprised to learn how much sodium is in many foods. Sodium, including sodium chloride ... foods with little or no salt. Test your sodium smarts by answering these 10 questions about which ...

  8. Acquisition of i.v. cocaine self-administration in adolescent and adult male rats selectively bred for high and low saccharin intake.

    PubMed

    Perry, Jennifer L; Anderson, Marissa M; Nelson, Sarah E; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2007-05-16

    Adolescence and excessive intake of saccharin have each been previously associated with enhanced vulnerability to drug abuse. In the present study, we focused on the relationship between these two factors using male adolescent and adult rats selectively bred for high (HiS) and low (LoS) levels of saccharin intake. On postnatal day 25 (adolescents) or 150 (adults), rats were implanted with an intravenous catheter and trained to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg) using an autoshaping procedure that consisted of two 6-h sessions. In the first 6 h, rats were given non-contingent cocaine infusions at random intervals 10 times per hour, and during the second 6-h session, rats were allowed to self-administer cocaine under a fixed ratio 1 (FR 1) lever-response contingency. Acquisition was defined as a total of at least 250 infusions over 5 consecutive days, and rats were given 30 days to meet the acquisition criterion. Subsequently, saccharin phenotype scores were determined by comparing 24-h saccharin and water consumption in two-bottle tests to verify HiS/LoS status. Adolescent LoS rats had a faster rate of acquisition of cocaine self-administration than adult LoS rats; however, adolescent and adult HiS rats acquired at the same rate. Both HiS and LoS adolescents had significantly higher saccharin phenotype scores than HiS and LoS adults, respectively. Additionally, saccharin score was negatively correlated with the number of days to meet the acquisition criterion for cocaine self-administration, but this was mostly accounted for by the HiS adolescents. These results suggest that during adolescence, compared with adulthood, rats have both an increased avidity for sweets and vulnerability to initiate drug abuse.

  9. Changes in saccharin preference behavior as a primary outcome to evaluate pain and analgesia in acetic acid-induced visceral pain in mice

    PubMed Central

    de la Puente, Beatriz; Romero-Alejo, Elizabeth; Vela, José Miguel; Merlos, Manuel; Zamanillo, Daniel; Portillo-Salido, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Reflex-based procedures are important measures in preclinical pain studies that evaluate stimulated behaviors. These procedures, however, are insufficient to capture the complexity of the pain experience, which is often associated with the depression of several innate behaviors. While recent studies have made efforts to evidence the suppression of some positively motivated behaviors in certain pain models, they are still far from being routinely used as readouts for analgesic screening. Here, we characterized and compared the effect of the analgesic ibuprofen (Ibu) and the stimulant, caffeine, in assays of acute pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behavior. Intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid (AA) served as a noxious stimulus to stimulate a writhing response or depress saccharin preference and locomotor activity (LMA) in mice. AA injection caused the maximum number of writhes between 5 and 20 minutes after administration, and writhing almost disappeared 1 hour later. AA-treated mice showed signs of depression-like behaviors after writhing resolution, as evidenced by reduced locomotion and saccharin preference for at least 4 and 6 hours, respectively. Depression-like behaviors resolved within 24 hours after AA administration. A dose of Ibu (40 mg/kg) – inactive to reduce AA-induced abdominal writhing – administered before or after AA injection significantly reverted pain-induced saccharin preference deficit. The same dose of Ibu also significantly reverted the AA-depressed LMA, but only when it was administered after AA injection. Caffeine restored locomotion – but not saccharin preference – in AA-treated mice, thus suggesting that the reduction in saccharin preference – but not in locomotion – was specifically sensitive to analgesics. In conclusion, AA-induced acute pain attenuated saccharin preference and LMA beyond the resolution of writhing behavior, and the changes in the expression of hedonic behavior, such as sweet taste preference, can be

  10. Changes in saccharin preference behavior as a primary outcome to evaluate pain and analgesia in acetic acid-induced visceral pain in mice.

    PubMed

    de la Puente, Beatriz; Romero-Alejo, Elizabeth; Vela, José Miguel; Merlos, Manuel; Zamanillo, Daniel; Portillo-Salido, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Reflex-based procedures are important measures in preclinical pain studies that evaluate stimulated behaviors. These procedures, however, are insufficient to capture the complexity of the pain experience, which is often associated with the depression of several innate behaviors. While recent studies have made efforts to evidence the suppression of some positively motivated behaviors in certain pain models, they are still far from being routinely used as readouts for analgesic screening. Here, we characterized and compared the effect of the analgesic ibuprofen (Ibu) and the stimulant, caffeine, in assays of acute pain-stimulated and pain-depressed behavior. Intraperitoneal injection of acetic acid (AA) served as a noxious stimulus to stimulate a writhing response or depress saccharin preference and locomotor activity (LMA) in mice. AA injection caused the maximum number of writhes between 5 and 20 minutes after administration, and writhing almost disappeared 1 hour later. AA-treated mice showed signs of depression-like behaviors after writhing resolution, as evidenced by reduced locomotion and saccharin preference for at least 4 and 6 hours, respectively. Depression-like behaviors resolved within 24 hours after AA administration. A dose of Ibu (40 mg/kg) - inactive to reduce AA-induced abdominal writhing - administered before or after AA injection significantly reverted pain-induced saccharin preference deficit. The same dose of Ibu also significantly reverted the AA-depressed LMA, but only when it was administered after AA injection. Caffeine restored locomotion - but not saccharin preference - in AA-treated mice, thus suggesting that the reduction in saccharin preference - but not in locomotion - was specifically sensitive to analgesics. In conclusion, AA-induced acute pain attenuated saccharin preference and LMA beyond the resolution of writhing behavior, and the changes in the expression of hedonic behavior, such as sweet taste preference, can be used as a more

  11. Low sodium diet (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ... for you. Look for these words on labels: low-sodium, sodium-free, no salt added, sodium-reduced, or ...

  12. Production method of carbamazepine/saccharin cocrystal particles by using two solution mixing based on the ternary phase diagram

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Shoji; Takiyama, Hiroshi

    2014-04-01

    In the pharmaceutical field, improvement of drug solubility is required, and an interest in cocrystals is growing. Crystallization methods for industrial production of cocrystals have not been developed enough whereas many cocrystals have been prepared in order to find a new crystal form by screening in the laboratory. The objective of this study was the development of the crystallization method which is useful for the industrial production of cocrystal particles based on the phase diagram. A cocrystal of carbamazepine and saccharin was selected as a model substance. The ternary phase diagram of carbamazepine and saccharin in methanol at 303 K was measured. A cocrystallization method of mixing two kinds of different eutectic solutions was designed based on the ternary phase diagram. In order to adjust the cocrystallization conditions, the determination method of the driving force for cocrystal deposition such as supersaturation based on mass balance was proposed. The cocrystal particles were obtained under all the conditions of the five mixing ratios. From these experimental results, the relationship between the supersaturation and the induction time for nucleation was confirmed as well as conventional crystallization. In conclusion, the crystallization method for industrial production of cocrystal particles including the determination of the supersaturation was suggested.

  13. Risk assessment of additives through soft drinks and nectars consumption on Portuguese population: a 2010 survey.

    PubMed

    Diogo, Janina S G; Silva, Liliana S O; Pena, Angelina; Lino, Celeste M

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether the Portuguese population is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, aspartame, caffeine, benzoic and sorbic acid through an assessment of dietary intake of additives and specific consumption of four types of beverages, traditional soft drinks and soft drinks based on mineral waters, energetic drinks, and nectars. The highest mean levels of additives were found for caffeine in energetic drinks, 293.5mg/L, for saccharin in traditional soft drinks, 18.4 mg/L, for acesulfame-K and aspartame in nectars, with 88.2 and 97.8 mg/L, respectively, for benzoic acid in traditional soft drinks, 125.7 mg/L, and for sorbic acid in soft drinks based on mineral water, 166.5 mg/L. Traditional soft drinks presented the highest acceptable daily intake percentages (ADIs%) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, benzoic and sorbic acid and similar value for saccharin (0.5%) when compared with soft drinks based on mineral water, 0.7%, 0.08%, 7.3%, and 1.92% versus 0.2%, 0.053%, 0.6%, and 0.28%, respectively. However for saccharin the highest percentage of ADI was obtained for nectars, 0.9%, in comparison with both types of soft drinks, 0.5%. Therefore, it is concluded that the Portuguese population is not at risk of exceeding the established ADIs for the studied additives.

  14. Differences in saccharin preference and genetic alterations of the Tas1r3 gene among senescence-accelerated mouse strains and their parental AKR/J strain.

    PubMed

    Niimi, Kimie; Takahashi, Eiki

    2014-05-10

    The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) is used as an animal model of senescence acceleration and age-associated disorders. SAM is derived from unexpected crosses between the AKR/J and unknown mouse strains. There are nine senescence-prone (SAMP) strains and three senescence-resistant (SAMR) strains. Although SAMP strains exhibit strain-specific and age-related pathological changes, the genes responsible for the pathologic changes in SAMP strains have not been comprehensively identified. In the present study, we evaluated sweet taste perception using the two-bottle test. We compared genotypes of the taste related gene, Tas1r3, using SAM strains and the parental AKR/J strain. The two-bottle test revealed that SAMR1 (R1), SAMP6 (P6), SAMP8 (P8), and SAMP10 (P10) mice were saccharin-preferring strains, whereas AKR/J did not prefer saccharin. All genotypes of the R1, P6, P8, and P10 strains at the polymorphic sites in Tas1r3, which is known to influence saccharin preference, were identical to those of C57BL6/J, a well-known saccharin-preferring strain, and were completely different from those of the parental AKR/J strain. These genetic alterations in SAM strains appear to arise from an unknown strain that is thought to have been crossed with AKR/J initially. PMID:24726396

  15. Eating high fat chow, but not drinking sucrose or saccharin, enhances the development of sensitization to the locomotor effects of cocaine in adolescent female rats.

    PubMed

    Serafine, Katherine M; Bentley, Todd A; Koek, Wouter; France, Charles P

    2015-04-01

    Eating high fat chow accelerates the development of sensitization to cocaine-induced locomotion in female rats. It is not known whether consumption of sucrose or saccharin also increases sensitivity to the behavioral effects of cocaine or whether continuous (or intermittent) access to these feeding conditions is necessary to change sensitivity. Adolescent female Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of seven feeding conditions from postnatal day 25 through to postnatal day 60. The rats either ate high fat (60% kcal from fat) chow and drank water or ate standard (17% kcal from fat) chow and drank either water, a 10% sucrose solution, or a 0.1% saccharin solution. The rats either had continuous access to high fat chow, sucrose, or saccharin, or had intermittent access (i.e. 2 days/week) to these substances, with access to water and standard chow on other days. As compared with standard chow, continuous (but not intermittent) access to high fat chow enhanced the development of sensitization to cocaine-induced (1-17.8 mg/kg) locomotion; drinking sucrose or saccharin (continuous or intermittent access) did not alter the development of sensitization to cocaine-induced locomotion. The impact of feeding condition on the behavioral effects of cocaine varies between sexes and across dietary composition.

  16. Differences in saccharin preference and genetic alterations of the Tas1r3 gene among senescence-accelerated mouse strains and their parental AKR/J strain.

    PubMed

    Niimi, Kimie; Takahashi, Eiki

    2014-05-10

    The senescence-accelerated mouse (SAM) is used as an animal model of senescence acceleration and age-associated disorders. SAM is derived from unexpected crosses between the AKR/J and unknown mouse strains. There are nine senescence-prone (SAMP) strains and three senescence-resistant (SAMR) strains. Although SAMP strains exhibit strain-specific and age-related pathological changes, the genes responsible for the pathologic changes in SAMP strains have not been comprehensively identified. In the present study, we evaluated sweet taste perception using the two-bottle test. We compared genotypes of the taste related gene, Tas1r3, using SAM strains and the parental AKR/J strain. The two-bottle test revealed that SAMR1 (R1), SAMP6 (P6), SAMP8 (P8), and SAMP10 (P10) mice were saccharin-preferring strains, whereas AKR/J did not prefer saccharin. All genotypes of the R1, P6, P8, and P10 strains at the polymorphic sites in Tas1r3, which is known to influence saccharin preference, were identical to those of C57BL6/J, a well-known saccharin-preferring strain, and were completely different from those of the parental AKR/J strain. These genetic alterations in SAM strains appear to arise from an unknown strain that is thought to have been crossed with AKR/J initially.

  17. Evaluation of saccharin intake and expression of fructose-conditioned flavor preferences following opioid receptor antagonism in the medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala or lateral hypothalamus in rats.

    PubMed

    Malkusz, Danielle C; Bernal, Sonia Y; Banakos, Theodore; Malkusz, Gina; Mohamed, Andrew; Vongwattanakit, Tracy; Bodnar, Richard J

    2014-04-01

    In prior studies, systemic opioid receptor antagonism with naltrexone (NTX) failed to block flavor preference conditioning by the sweet taste or post-oral actions of sugar despite reducing overall flavored saccharin intake. Further, NTX microinjections into the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell or core failed to alter the expression of preferences conditioned by the sweet taste or post-oral actions of sugars. In contrast, fructose-conditioned flavor preferences (CFP) were reduced or eliminated by systemic or intracerebral administration of dopamine (DA) D1 or D2 antagonists in the NAc, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), amygdala (AMY) or lateral hypothalamus (LH). The present study examined whether NTX microinjections into the mPFC, AMY or LH would alter expression of fructose-CFP and total flavored saccharin intake. Food-restricted rats with bilateral cannulae aimed at the mPFC, AMY or LH were trained to drink a fructose (8%)+saccharin (0.2%) solution mixed with one flavor (CS+, e.g., cherry) and a 0.2% saccharin solution mixed with another flavor (CS-, e.g., grape) during 10 one-bottle sessions. Two-bottle tests with the cherry and grape flavors in 0.2% saccharin solutions occurred 10min following total bilateral NTX doses of 0, 1, 25 and 50μg administered into the mPFC, AMY or LH. Rats preferred the CS+ over CS- flavor following vehicle and all NTX doses administered into either the mPFC or LH. CS+ intake was significantly greater than CS- intake following vehicle and the low NTX dose in the AMY; however, at the 25 and 50μg AMY NTX doses, CS+ intakes did not significantly exceed CS- intakes. Total flavored saccharin intake was significantly reduced by all three LH NTX doses (20-35%), by the 25 (14%) and 50 (22%)μg AMY NTX doses, but not by mPFC NTX. Thus, opioid antagonism in the AMY, but not the mPFC or LH attenuated, but did not block the expression of fructose-CFP, and LH and AMY, but not mPFC, NTX significantly reduced total saccharin intake. Therefore, whereas

  18. Dopamine D1 and opioid receptor antagonist-induced reductions of fructose and saccharin intake in BALB/c and SWR inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Kraft, Tamar T; Huang, Donald; Natanova, Elona; Lolier, Melanie; Yakubov, Yakov; La Magna, Sam; Warshaw, Deena; Sclafani, Anthony; Bodnar, Richard J

    2015-04-01

    Sugar and fat intake in rodents are mediated in part by brain dopamine (DA) and opioid neurotransmitter systems although important strain differences exist. Thus, whereas sucrose intake of BALB/c and SWR mice was reduced by DA D1 (SCH23390: SCH) receptor antagonism, opioid (naltrexone: NTX) receptor antagonism reduced intake only in BALB/c mice. Both SCH and NTX reduced fat (Intralipid) intake in SWR, but not BALB/c mice. The present study extended this pharmacological analysis to caloric and non-caloric sweeteners by examining whether fructose (8%) or saccharin (0.2%) intakes were differentially suppressed in BALB/c and SWR mice by SCH (50-1600nmol/kg) or NTX (0.01-5mg/kg) over a 5- to 120-min time course. SCH significantly reduced fructose (200-1600nmol/kg) and saccharin (50-1600nmol/kg) intakes in both strains as did NTX (0.1-5mg/kg). Antagonist ID40 potencies were <50nmol/kg for SCH and 0.9mg/kg for NTX in inhibiting saccharin intake, and 1234nmol/kg for SCH and 5mg/kg for NTX in inhibiting fructose intake in BALB/c mice. For SWR mice, the ID40 potencies were <50nmol/kg for SCH and 0.02mg/kg for NTX in inhibiting saccharin intake, and 298nmol/kg for SCH and 2.6mg/kg for NTX in inhibiting fructose intake. Thus, saccharin intake was similarly reduced by SCH and NTX in BALB/c and SWR mice, but greater potencies of opioid (1.9-fold) and DA D1 (4-fold) receptor antagonism of fructose intake were observed in SWR relative to BALB/c mice, indicating strong strain differences.

  19. Low sodium level

    MedlinePlus

    Low sodium level is a condition in which the amount of sodium (salt) in the blood is lower than normal. The ... Sodium is found mostly in the body fluids outside the cells. It is very important for maintaining ...

  20. Synthesis, characterization and antimycobacterial activity of Ag(I)-aspartame, Ag(I)-saccharin and Ag(I)-cyclamate complexes.

    PubMed

    Cavicchioli, Maurício; Leite, Clarice Q F; Sato, Daisy N; Massabni, Antonio C

    2007-10-01

    The present work describes the synthesis and antimycobacterial activity of three Ag(I)-complexes with the sweeteners aspartame, saccharin, and cyclamate as ligands, with the aim of finding new candidate substances for fighting tuberculosis and other mycobacterial infections. The minimal inhibitory concentration of these three complexes was investigated in order to determine their in-vitro antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Mycobacterium avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, Mycobacterium malmoense, and Mycobacterium kansasii. The MIC values were determined using the Microplate Alamar Blue Assay. The best MIC values found for the complexes were 9.75 microM for Ag(I)-aspartame against M. kansasii and 15.7 microM for Ag(I)-cyclamate against M. tuberculosis.

  1. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies of Cu 2+ ion in Tetraaqua-di(nicotinamide)Ni(II)-saccharinates single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerli, Y.; Kazan, S.; Yalçın, O.; Aktaş, B.

    2006-06-01

    X-band (˜9.8 GHz) electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) measurement at ambient temperature in three mutually perpendicular planes have been carried out on a single crystal of Cu 2+ doped mixed ligand complex of Ni(II) with saccharin and nicotinamide [Ni(Nic) 2(H 2O) 4](sac) 2. The angular dependent spectra showed that the Cu 2+ ion enters Ni 2+ sites in the lattice and distorted local environment of Ni 2+ site. The principal g and A values, covalency parameter ( α' 2), mixing coefficients ( α and β) and Fermi contact term ( K) have been evaluated from the EPR analysis. The ground-state wave function of the Cu 2+ ion has been constructed using the α' 2, α and β values. The nature of the distortion present in the lattice is obtained from the values of the mixing coefficients.

  2. Characteristics of indomethacin-saccharin (IMC-SAC) co-crystals prepared by an anti-solvent crystallization process.

    PubMed

    Chun, Nan-Hee; Wang, In-Chun; Lee, Min-Jeong; Jung, Yun-Taek; Lee, Sangkil; Kim, Woo-Sik; Choi, Guang J

    2013-11-01

    The creation of co-crystals of various insoluble drug substances has been extensively investigated as a promising approach to improve their pharmaceutical performance. In this study, co-crystal powders of indomethacin and saccharin (IMC-SAC) were prepared by an anti-solvent (water) addition and compared with co-crystals by evaporation method. No successful synthesis of a pharmaceutical co-crystal powder via an anti-solvent approach has been reported. Among solvents examined, methanol was practically the only one that resulted in the formation of highly pure IMC-SAC co-crystal powders by anti-solvent approach. The mechanism of a preferential formation of IMC-SAC co-crystal to IMC was explained with two aspects: phase solubility diagram and solution complexation concept. Accordingly, the anti-solvent approach can be considered as a competitive route for producing pharmaceutical co-crystal powders with acceptable properties.

  3. Nonvolatile oxidation products of glucose in Maillard model systems: formation of saccharinic and aldonic acids and their corresponding lactones.

    PubMed

    Haffenden, Luke J W; Yaylayan, Varoujan A

    2008-03-12

    By using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based methodologies, nonvolatile oxidation products of isotopically labeled glucose/glycine model systems were studied through a postpyrolytic in situ derivatization technique by using trimethylsilyldiethylamine. Analysis of the data indicated that the known reactive sugar intermediates such as glucosone and its deoxy derivatives can undergo in Maillard model systems three types of transformations: oxidation of the aldehydic groups into carboxylic acids, oxidative cleavage of alpha-dicarbonyl moieties into aldonic acids, and benzylic acid rearrangement of 1-deoxy-glucosone into saccharinic acids. The aldonic and saccharinic acids were identified through silylation of their lactone derivatives, and their origin was verified through (13)C-labeling studies. The following lactones were identified in glucose and glucose/glycine model systems: trans-dihydro-3,4-bis[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]-2(3 H)-furanone, cis-dihydro-3,4-bis[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]-2(3H)-furanone, 2-C-methyl-2,3,5-tris-O-(trimethylsilyl)-D-ribonic acid gamma-lactone, 3-deoxy-2,5,6-tris-O-(trimethylsilyl)-D-ribo-hexonic acid gamma-lactone, 2-deoxy-3,5-bis-O-(trimethylsilyl)-pentonic acid gamma-lactone, and 2,3,5-tris-O-(trimethylsilyl)-D-arabinonic acid gamma-lactone. The observed reduction in color and aroma in Maillard reactions performed under oxidative conditions may be attributed to the oxidation of reactive dicarbonyls into the corresponding carboxylic acids or their corresponding lactones. PMID:18251497

  4. Nonvolatile oxidation products of glucose in Maillard model systems: formation of saccharinic and aldonic acids and their corresponding lactones.

    PubMed

    Haffenden, Luke J W; Yaylayan, Varoujan A

    2008-03-12

    By using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based methodologies, nonvolatile oxidation products of isotopically labeled glucose/glycine model systems were studied through a postpyrolytic in situ derivatization technique by using trimethylsilyldiethylamine. Analysis of the data indicated that the known reactive sugar intermediates such as glucosone and its deoxy derivatives can undergo in Maillard model systems three types of transformations: oxidation of the aldehydic groups into carboxylic acids, oxidative cleavage of alpha-dicarbonyl moieties into aldonic acids, and benzylic acid rearrangement of 1-deoxy-glucosone into saccharinic acids. The aldonic and saccharinic acids were identified through silylation of their lactone derivatives, and their origin was verified through (13)C-labeling studies. The following lactones were identified in glucose and glucose/glycine model systems: trans-dihydro-3,4-bis[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]-2(3 H)-furanone, cis-dihydro-3,4-bis[(trimethylsilyl)oxy]-2(3H)-furanone, 2-C-methyl-2,3,5-tris-O-(trimethylsilyl)-D-ribonic acid gamma-lactone, 3-deoxy-2,5,6-tris-O-(trimethylsilyl)-D-ribo-hexonic acid gamma-lactone, 2-deoxy-3,5-bis-O-(trimethylsilyl)-pentonic acid gamma-lactone, and 2,3,5-tris-O-(trimethylsilyl)-D-arabinonic acid gamma-lactone. The observed reduction in color and aroma in Maillard reactions performed under oxidative conditions may be attributed to the oxidation of reactive dicarbonyls into the corresponding carboxylic acids or their corresponding lactones.

  5. Low-calorie sweeteners in food and food supplements on the Italian market.

    PubMed

    Janvier, Steven; Goscinny, Séverine; Le Donne, Cinzia; Van Loco, Joris

    2015-01-01

    This study determines the occurrence and concentration levels of artificial low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) in food and food supplements on the Italian market. The analysed sample set (290 samples) was representative of the Italian market and comprised of beverages, jams, ketchups, confectionery, dairy products, table-top sweeteners and food supplements. All samples were analysed via UPLC-MS/MS. The method was in-house validated for the analysis of seven LCSs (aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, neotame and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone) in food and for five LCSs (aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate and sucralose) in food supplements. Except for cyclamate in one beverage which exceeded the maximum level (ML) with 13%, all concentrations measured in food were around or below the ML. In food supplements, 40 of the 52 samples (77%) were found to be above the ML, with exceedances of up to 200% of the ML. PMID:26406785

  6. Low-calorie sweeteners in food and food supplements on the Italian market.

    PubMed

    Janvier, Steven; Goscinny, Séverine; Le Donne, Cinzia; Van Loco, Joris

    2015-01-01

    This study determines the occurrence and concentration levels of artificial low-calorie sweeteners (LCSs) in food and food supplements on the Italian market. The analysed sample set (290 samples) was representative of the Italian market and comprised of beverages, jams, ketchups, confectionery, dairy products, table-top sweeteners and food supplements. All samples were analysed via UPLC-MS/MS. The method was in-house validated for the analysis of seven LCSs (aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, sucralose, cyclamate, neotame and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone) in food and for five LCSs (aspartame, acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate and sucralose) in food supplements. Except for cyclamate in one beverage which exceeded the maximum level (ML) with 13%, all concentrations measured in food were around or below the ML. In food supplements, 40 of the 52 samples (77%) were found to be above the ML, with exceedances of up to 200% of the ML.

  7. Behavioral study in the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) using compounds considered sweet by humans.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Alain; Danilova, Vicktoria; Hellekant, Goran

    2004-01-01

    This study presents the results from two-bottle preference (TBP) tests performed on the gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus), a small Malagasy primate. We found that of 18 compounds considered sweet by humans, M. murinus preferred only six: D-tryptophan, dulcin, fructose, sucrose, SC45647, and xylitol. The animals neither preferred nor rejected acesulfame-K, alitame, aspartame, N-4-cyanophenyl-N'-cyanoguanidineacetate (CCGA), cyanosuosan, cyclamate, monellin, saccharin, suosan, super-aspartame, N-trifluoroacetyl-L-glutamyl-4-aminophenylcarbonitrile (TGC), and thaumatin. Together with previously recorded taste-nerve responses in M. murinus to acesulfame-K, alitame, aspartame, cyclamate, monellin, saccharin, and suosan [Hellekant et al., Chem Senses 18:307-320, 1993b], the current results suggest that these compounds either do not taste sweet to M. murinus or they have an aversive taste component. In this work we also relate these findings to phylogeny.

  8. Central opioid receptors differentially regulate the nalmefene-induced suppression of ethanol- and saccharin-reinforced behaviors in alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    June, Harry L; Cummings, Rancia; Eiler, William J A; Foster, Katrina L; McKay, Peter F; Seyoum, Regat; Garcia, Marin; McCane, Shannan; Grey, Collette; Hawkins, Stephanie E; Mason, Dynesha

    2004-02-01

    The exact opioid-sensitive receptors participating in EtOH-seeking behaviors remains unclear. Previous studies have reported higher densities of micro-opioid receptor binding in the nucleus accumbens (NACC) of P relative to NP rats; however, no differences were seen in delta-receptor binding. In contrast to the NACC, substantially lower levels of micro-receptor binding have been observed in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of both P and NP rats, albeit no line differences have been observed. In the present study, opioid receptors in the NACC, VTA, and hippocampus were evaluated for their capacity to regulate both EtOH- and saccharin-motivated behaviors in the genetically selected alcohol-preferring (P) rat. To accomplish this, nalmefene, an opiate antagonist with preferential binding affinity for the micro-opioid receptor was unilaterally or bilaterally infused during concurrent availability of 1 h daily EtOH (10% v/v) and saccharin (0.025 or 0.050% w/v) solutions. Rats performed under a two-lever fixed ratio (FR) schedule in which four responses on one lever produced the EtOH solution, and four on a second lever produced the saccharin solution. The results demonstrated that when responding maintained by both EtOH and saccharin are matched at basal levels, unilateral (1-60 microg) or bilateral (0.5-10 microg) microinjections of nalmefene into the NACC produced selective dose-dependent reductions on responding maintained by EtOH. Unilateral (40, 60 microg) and bilateral (10 microg) VTA infusions were also observed to selectively reduced EtOH responding; however, greater nalmefene doses were required and the magnitude of suppression on EtOH responding was markedly less compared with the NACC. The greater sensitivity of nalmefene to suppress EtOH responding in the NACC is likely due to the greater number of opioid receptors in the NACC relative to the VTA. Only bilateral infusion of the 40 microg dose in the NACC and VTA suppressed responding maintained by both Et

  9. Dietary intake of artificial sweeteners by the Belgian population.

    PubMed

    Huvaere, Kevin; Vandevijvere, Stefanie; Hasni, Moez; Vinkx, Christine; Van Loco, Joris

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated whether the Belgian population older than 15 years is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, cyclamate, aspartame and sucralose through an assessment of usual dietary intake of artificial sweeteners and specific consumption of table-top sweeteners. A conservative Tier 2 approach, for which an extensive label survey was performed, showed that mean usual intake was significantly lower than the respective ADIs for all sweeteners. Even consumers with high intakes were not exposed to excessive levels, as relative intakes at the 95th percentile (p95) were 31% for acesulfame-K, 13% for aspartame, 30% for cyclamate, 17% for saccharin, and 16% for sucralose of the respective ADIs. Assessment of intake using a Tier 3 approach was preceded by optimisation and validation of an analytical method based on liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Concentrations of sweeteners in various food matrices and table-top sweeteners were determined and mean positive concentration values were included in the Tier 3 approach, leading to relative intakes at p95 of 17% for acesulfame-K, 5% for aspartame, 25% for cyclamate, 11% for saccharin, and 7% for sucralose of the corresponding ADIs. The contribution of table-top sweeteners to the total usual intake (<1% of ADI) was negligible. A comparison of observed intake for the total population with intake for diabetics (acesulfame-K: 3.55 versus 3.75; aspartame: 6.77 versus 6.53; cyclamate: 1.97 versus 2.06; saccharine: 1.14 versus 0.97; sucralose: 3.08 versus 3.03, expressed as mg kg(-1) bodyweight day(-1) at p95) showed that the latter group was not exposed to higher levels. It was concluded that the Belgian population is not at risk of exceeding the established ADIs for sweeteners.

  10. Danaparoid sodium.

    PubMed

    Acostamadiedo, J M; Iyer, U G; Owen, J

    2000-05-01

    Danaparoid sodium (Orgaran, Organon) is a heparinoid glycosamino-glycuronan antithrombotic agent approved for the prophylaxis of post-operative deep vein thrombosis (DVT), which may lead to pulmonary embolism (PE) in patients undergoing elective hip replacement surgery. Danaparoid is a low molecular weight heparinoid consisting of a mixture of heparan sulphate (84%), dermatan sulphate (12%) and small amounts of chondroitin sulphate (4%), whose antithrombotic activity has been well established. Its pharmacological effect is exerted primarily by inhibiting Factors Xa (FXa) and IIa (FIIa) at a ratio greater than heparin, with a minimal effect on platelet function. Danaparoid exhibits low cross-reactivity with heparin-induced antibodies when compared with heparin or low molecular weight heparins (LMWH), thereby making it an excellent choice for the management of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT). It has excellent bioavailability following s.c. injection. Danaparoid has little effect on routine coagulation tests (activated partial thromboplastin time [aPTT], prothrombin time [PT], and thrombin time [TT]). Patients with elevated serum creatinine should be monitored carefully. For its FDA approved indication (DVT prophylaxis during hip replacement surgery), its cost per day is approximately eight times more than LMWH. Even though monitoring is not routinely necessary according to the manufacturer for its approved indication, monitoring is frequently necessary when it is used in other clinical scenarios. Its higher cost than comparable therapies for DVT prophylaxis and the low availability of the FXa assay in most non-tertiary care hospitals has limited the widespread use of danaparoid. Danaparoid has been found to be effective in the treatment of HIT although this is an off label use, despite being the most frequent reason why danaparoid is used. PMID:11249517

  11. Nedocromil sodium (Tilade).

    PubMed

    Bartels, L A; Farrington, E

    1994-01-01

    Nedocromil sodium is a well-tolerated antiasthmatic agent for initial therapy in patients with mild or moderate asthma not well controlled with inhaled beta-2 agonists and/or where methylxanthines are indicated. Like cromolyn sodium, nedocromil sodium offers a potential alternative to inhaled corticosteroids as maintenance therapy in patients with mild or moderate asthma not adequately controlled by bronchodilators. Furthermore, cromolyn sodium and nedocromil sodium may also reduce the usage of corticosteroids and provide some additional symptom control in patients whose asthma is not suitably controlled by optimal doses of inhaled corticosteroids. Both nedocromil sodium and cromolyn sodium are more efficacious than placebo for controlling of asthma, however, few studies have compared the effectiveness of cromolyn versus nedocromil at this time. Further experience and comparison studies of nedocromil sodium with cromolyn sodium in children are required before the role of nedocromil sodium as maintenance treatment in young asthmatic patients can be defined.

  12. Apoptosis-inducing effect of a palladium(II) saccharinate complex of terpyridine on human breast cancer cells in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ari, Ferda; Cevatemre, Buse; Armutak, Elif Ilkay Ikitimur; Aztopal, Nazlihan; Yilmaz, Veysel T; Ulukaya, Engin

    2014-09-01

    The anti-growth effect of a palladium(II) complex-[PdCl(terpy)](sac)·2H2O] (sac=saccharinate, and terpy=2,2':6',2″-terpyridine)-was tested against human breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231. Anti-growth effect was assayed by the MTT and ATP viability assays in vitro and then confirmed on Balb/c mice in vivo. The mode of cell death was determined by both histological and biochemical methods. The Pd(II) complex had anti-growth effect on a dose dependent manner in vitro and in vivo. The cells died by apoptosis as evidenced by the pyknotic nucleus, cleavage of poly-(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and induction of active caspase-3. These results suggest that the palladium(II) saccharinate complex of terpyridine represents a potentially active novel complex for the breast cancer treatment, thus warrants further studies.

  13. Baclofen has opposite effects on escalation of cocaine self-administration: increased intake in rats selectively bred for high (HiS) saccharin intake and decreased intake in those selected for low (LoS) saccharin intake.

    PubMed

    Holtz, Nathan A; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2011-12-01

    Rats selectively bred for high saccharin intake (HiS) self-administer more cocaine, escalate their cocaine intake during long access, and reinstate cocaine seeking at higher levels than those bred for low saccharin intake (LoS). The present study was conducted to determine if baclofen, an agonist at the GABA(b) receptor, has differential effects on the escalation of i.v. cocaine intake and reinstatement of cocaine-seeking in HiS and LoS rats. HiS and LoS rats self-administered cocaine during a 2-h daily short-access (ShA) phase for 3 days and then long-access (LgA) sessions for 21 days followed by a second ShA phase. One group of HiS and LoS rats received i.p. injections of 2.5 mg/kg baclofen (HiS+B and LoS+B, respectively), and other groups of HiS and LoS rats received saline (HiS+Sal and LoS+Sal) before each daily session. In a second experiment, HiS and LoS rats self-administered i.v. cocaine during 2-h sessions for 14 days followed by a 21-day extinction period. Baclofen (2.5 mg/kg, i.p.) or saline was administered before saline- or cocaine-primed reinstatement sessions. The HiS+B group escalated their cocaine self-administration and had increased cocaine infusions in the post-LgA ShA phase. The LoS+B group self-administered less cocaine throughout the entire LgA period compared to the LoS+Sal or HiS groups. Baclofen attenuated reinstatement of cocaine seeking in both the HiS and LoS rats with no phenotype differences. Thus, baclofen had opposite effects on cocaine intake in HiS and LoS rats during escalation; but similar effects during reinstatement. These results suggest that treatment effects might vary with individual differences (HiS vs. LoS) and the phase of drug-motivated behavior that is modeled.

  14. The Reinforcing Properties of Ethanol are Quantitatively Enhanced in Adulthood by Peri-Adolescent Ethanol, but not Saccharin, Consumption in Female Alcohol-Preferring (P) Rats

    PubMed Central

    Toalston, Jamie E.; Deehan, Gerald A.; Hauser, Sheketha R.; Engleman, Eric A.; Bell, Richard L.; Murphy, James M.; McBride, William J.; Rodd, Zachary A.

    2015-01-01

    Alcohol drinking during adolescence is associated in adulthood with heavier alcohol drinking and an increased rate of alcohol dependence. Past research in our laboratory has indicated that peri-adolescent ethanol consumption can enhance the acquisition and reduce the rate of extinction of ethanol self-administration in adulthood. Caveats of the past research include reinforcer specificity, increased oral consumption during peri-adolescence, and a lack of quantitative assessment of the reinforcing properties of ethanol. The current experiments were designed to determine the effects of peri-adolescent ethanol or saccharin drinking on acquisition and extinction of oral ethanol self-administration and ethanol seeking, and to quantitatively assess the reinforcing properties of ethanol (progressive ratio). Ethanol or saccharin access by alcohol-preferring (P) rats occurred during postnatal day (PND) 30–60. Animals began operant self-administration of ethanol or saccharin after PND 85. After 10 weeks of daily operant self-administration, rats were tested in a progressive ratio paradigm. Two weeks later, self-administration was extinguished in all rats. Peri-adolescent ethanol consumption specifically enhanced the acquisition of ethanol self-administration, reduced the rate of extinction for ethanol self-administration, and quantitatively increased the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. Peri-adolescent saccharin consumption was without effect. The data indicate that ethanol consumption during peri-adolescence results in neuroadaptations that may specifically enhance the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. This increase in the reinforcing properties of ethanol could be a part of biological sequelae that are the basis for the effects of adolescent alcohol consumption on the increase in the rate of alcoholism during adulthood. PMID:26074425

  15. The reinforcing properties of ethanol are quantitatively enhanced in adulthood by peri-adolescent ethanol, but not saccharin, consumption in female alcohol-preferring (P) rats.

    PubMed

    Toalston, Jamie E; Deehan, Gerald A; Hauser, Sheketha R; Engleman, Eric A; Bell, Richard L; Murphy, James M; McBride, William J; Rodd, Zachary A

    2015-08-01

    Alcohol drinking during adolescence is associated in adulthood with heavier alcohol drinking and an increased rate of alcohol dependence. Past research in our laboratory has indicated that peri-adolescent ethanol consumption can enhance the acquisition and reduce the rate of extinction of ethanol self-administration in adulthood. Caveats of the past research include reinforcer specificity, increased oral consumption during peri-adolescence, and a lack of quantitative assessment of the reinforcing properties of ethanol. The current experiments were designed to determine the effects of peri-adolescent ethanol or saccharin drinking on acquisition and extinction of oral ethanol self-administration and ethanol seeking, and to quantitatively assess the reinforcing properties of ethanol (progressive ratio). Ethanol or saccharin access by alcohol-preferring (P) rats occurred during postnatal day (PND) 30-60. Animals began operant self-administration of ethanol or saccharin after PND 85. After 10 weeks of daily operant self-administration, rats were tested in a progressive ratio paradigm. Two weeks later, self-administration was extinguished in all rats. Peri-adolescent ethanol consumption specifically enhanced the acquisition of ethanol self-administration, reduced the rate of extinction for ethanol self-administration, and quantitatively increased the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. Peri-adolescent saccharin consumption was without effect. The data indicate that ethanol consumption during peri-adolescence results in neuroadaptations that may specifically enhance the reinforcing properties of ethanol during adulthood. This increase in the reinforcing properties of ethanol could be a part of biological sequelae that are the basis for the effects of adolescent alcohol consumption on the increase in the rate of alcoholism during adulthood.

  16. EPR Studies of Cu2+ Doped Zinc Saccharin, [Zn(sac)2·(H20)4 ]·2H20 Single Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartal, İ.; Karabulut, B.; Köksal, F.; İçbudak, H.

    2000-12-01

    The EPR spectra of Cu2+ in zinc saccharin crystalline powder and single crystals have been recorded at room temperature. The angular variation of the spectra indicates the substitution of the host Zn2+ with Cu2+. Two magnetically inequivalent sites for Cu2+ have been observed. The spectra were fitted with a rhombic spin-Hamiltonian, and the ground state wave function of the complex has been constructed.

  17. Cocaine-induced c-Fos expression in rats selectively bred for high or low saccharin intake and in rats selected for high or low impulsivity.

    PubMed

    Regier, Paul S; Carroll, Marilyn E; Meisel, Robert L

    2012-08-01

    Sweet preference and impulsivity are predictors of cocaine self-administration; however, no research has been conducted to investigate neuronal activation in key brain reward areas after first time exposure to cocaine in rats that differ in their propensity for cocaine-seeking and -taking behavior. In this study we used rats that had been selectively bred for high vs. low saccharin intake and rats selected for high vs. low impulsivity for food. The goal of this study was to investigate whether there are differences of c-Fos reactivity between high and low phenotypes and determine whether these differences are similar between the two animal models. A group of rats was bred for high or low saccharin intake. Another group of rats was selected as high or low impulsive based on performance in a delay-discounting task. Subsequently, rats were given an acute injection of cocaine or saline and then c-Fos expression was observed and analyzed in several brain regions. The low reward-seeking phenotypes showed higher cocaine-induced c-Fos expression in several of these regions. Low saccharin preferring rats showed higher cocaine-induced c-Fos expression in the nucleus accumbens shell, and low impulsive rats showed higher cocaine-induced c-Fos expression in the orbitofrontal cortex and cingulate gyrus 1 area. In addition, both low impulsive and low saccharin rats had higher cocaine-induced c-Fos in the dorsal medial and dorsal lateral caudate putamen. The results indicate that individual differences in neuronal reactivity exist prior to chronic exposure to drugs of abuse. Furthermore, similar differences between the two animal models may be indicative of a common mechanism underlying vulnerability to drugs of abuse.

  18. Conditioned saccharin avoidance induced by infusion of amphetamine in the nucleus accumbens shell and morphine in the ventral tegmental area: behavioral and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Fenu, S; Espa, E; Cadoni, C; Di Chiara, G

    2014-08-01

    Drugs of abuse possess the seemingly paradoxical property of conditioning rats to avoid from drinking a saccharin solution that had been predictively paired with their systemic administration (conditioned saccharin avoidance, CSA). CSA is dependent upon an intact dopamine (DA) transmission but the locus, central or peripheral, and eventually the brain area from which this effect originates and its relationship with the rewarding properties of the drug is debated. In order to clarify this issue we tested the ability of amphetamine and morphine to induce CSA after infusion at the same dose-range and in the same areas from which these drugs induce conditioned place preference (CPP). Drugs were infused intracerebrally immediately after saccharin drinking in two acquisition trials and CSA was tested on a two bottle saccharin/water choice. Amphetamine (10 and 20 μg/0.5 μl) induced CSA after infusion in the NAc shell but was ineffective in the NAc core. Morphine (0.5 and 1 μg/0.5 μl) induced CSA from the VTA at both doses tested. Amphetamine (20 μg/0.5 μl) and morphine (1 μg/0.5 μl) failed to induce CSA after infusion 1.2mm dorsal the NAc shell and the VTA respectively. Finally, morphine (1 μg/0.5 μl), infused in the VTA, elicited a selective increase in dialysate DA in the NAc shell. These results indicate that drugs of abuse induce CSA from the same intracerebral sites and at the same doses at which they induce CPP. These observations are consistent with the existence of a strong relationship between CSA and drug reward related to their ability to stimulate DA transmission in the NAc shell.

  19. Micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatographic determination of artificial sweeteners in low-Joule soft drinks and other foods.

    PubMed

    Thompson, C O; Trenerry, V C; Kemmery, B

    1995-03-10

    A rapid method for the determination of artificial sweeteners in low-Joule soft drinks and other foods by micellar electrokinetic capillary chromatography (MEKC) is described. Caffeine, benzoic acid and sorbic acid, which are often added to soft drinks, can also be determined with this procedure. The artificial sweeteners, aspartame, saccharin, acesulfame-K, alitame and dulcin, and the other food additives are well separated in less than 12 min using an uncoated fused-silica capillary column with a buffer consisting of 0.05 M sodium deoxycholate, 0.01 M potassium dihydrogenorthophosphate, 0.01 M sodium borate operating at 20 kV. Dehydroacetic acid was used as the internal standard for the determinations. The levels of artificial sweeteners, preservatives and caffeine were in good agreement with those determined by the high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) procedure currently used in our Laboratory. The MEKC procedure has the same order of repeatability, is faster and less costly to operate than the HPLC method.

  20. Investigation of synergism in binary mixtures of sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, S S; Booth, B J; Carr, B T; Losee, M L; Sattely-Miller, E A; Graham, B G

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the presence and degree of synergism among all binary mixtures of 14 sweeteners varying in chemical structure. A trained panel evaluated binary combinations of the following sweeteners: three sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose), two polyhydric alcohols (mannitol, sorbitol), two diterpenoid glycosides (rebaudioside-A, stevioside), two dipeptide derivatives (alitame, aspartame), one sulfamate (sodium cyclamate), one protein (thaumatin), two N-sulfonyl amides (acesulfame-K, sodium saccharin), and one dihydrochalcone (neohesperidin dihydrochalcone). Each sweetener was tested at three concentrations that were isosweet with 3%, 5%, and 7% sucrose. Two methods of analysis were performed to determine synergistic effects. In Method I, an ANOVA was performed for each intensity level to determine if the mean sweetness intensity ratings of each binary mixture were equal to nominal sweetness (i.e., additivity) or not equal to nominal sweetness (i.e., synergism or suppression). In Method II, an additional ANOVA was performed to determine if the sweetness intensity ratings of any given mixture were equal to or greater than the average of the sweetness ratings of the two pure components in that blend.

  1. Effect of temperature, pH, and ions on sweet taste.

    PubMed

    Schiffman, S S; Sattely-Miller, E A; Graham, B G; Bennett, J L; Booth, B J; Desai, N; Bishay, I

    2000-02-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine the effects of temperature (50 degrees C and 6 degrees C), pH (pH 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6. 0, and 7.0) and the addition of monovalent and divalent cations (5 mM Na(+), 5 mM K(+), and 5 mM Ca(2)+ ) on the sweetness intensity ratings of sweeteners ranging widely in chemical structure. A trained panel provided intensity evaluations for prototypical tastes (sweet, bitter, sour, and salty) as well as aromatic and mouth-feel attributes. The following sweeteners were included in this experiment: three sugars (fructose, glucose, sucrose), three terpenoid glycosides (monoammonium glycyrrhizinate, rebaudioside-A, stevioside), two polyhydric alcohols (mannitol, sorbitol), two dipeptide derivatives (alitame, aspartame), two N-sulfonylamides (acesulfame-K, sodium saccharin), one sulfamate (sodium cyclamate), one protein (thaumatin), one dihydrochalcone (neohesperidin dihydrochalcone), and one chlorodeoxysugar (sucralose). Two to five levels of each sweetener reflecting a range of sweetness intensities were tested, using formulae developed by DuBois et al. The main finding from this three-part study was that temperature, pH, and ions had little effect on perceived sweetness intensity. Even when significant differences were found in the temperature study, the effects were very small.

  2. Solution properties and sweetness response of selected bulk and intense sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Parke, S A; Birch, G G

    1999-04-01

    Two bulk sweeteners (sucrose and maltitol) and four intense sweeteners (acesulfame K, aspartame, sodium cyclamate, and sodium saccharin) are used in this study. Densities and sound velocity values of the sweeteners in solution are measured at 20 degrees C, and their apparent molar and specific volumes, their isentropic apparent molar and specific compressibilities, as well as their compressibility hydration numbers are calculated and reported. The introduction of solute molecules in water results in a volume change of the solvent as a result of attractive forces exerted by the solute molecules; such forces are in the form of electrostrictive or hydrogen-bonding forces, or charge-dipole attraction. Changes of molar volumes with increasing concentration give an indication of the extent of solute-solute interaction, whereas isentropic compressibilities give a direct measurement of the state of hydration of the solute molecules. The compressibility hydration numbers reported give an indication of the number of water molecules disturbed by the presence of each solute molecule in solution. Isentropic compressibilities seem to be a more sensitive parameter for distinguishing the bulk sweeteners from the artificial sweeteners. The sweetness response of the sweeteners is then explained in terms of their solution behaviors.

  3. High locomotor reactivity to novelty is associated with an increased propensity to choose saccharin over cocaine: new insights into the vulnerability to addiction.

    PubMed

    Vanhille, Nathalie; Belin-Rauscent, Aude; Mar, Adam C; Ducret, Eric; Belin, David

    2015-02-01

    Drug addiction is associated with a relative devaluation of natural or socially-valued reinforcers that are unable to divert addicts from seeking and consuming the drug. Before protracted drug exposure, most rats prefer natural rewards, such as saccharin, over cocaine. However, a subpopulation of animals prefer cocaine over natural rewards and are thought to be vulnerable to addiction. Specific behavioral traits have been associated with different dimensions of drug addiction. For example, anxiety predicts loss of control over drug intake whereas sensation seeking and sign-tracking are markers of a greater sensitivity to the rewarding properties of the drug. However, how these behavioral traits predict the disinterest for natural reinforcers remains unknown. In a population of rats, we identified sensation seekers (HR) on the basis of elevated novelty-induced locomotor reactivity, high anxious rats (HA) based on the propensity to avoid open arms in an elevated-plus maze and sign-trackers (ST) that are prone to approach, and interaction with, reward-associated stimuli. Rats were then tested on their preference for saccharin over cocaine in a discrete-trial choice procedure. We show that HR rats display a greater preference for saccharin over cocaine compared with ST and HA whereas the motivation for the drug was comparable between the three groups. The present data suggest that high locomotor reactivity to novelty, or sensation seeking, by predisposing to an increased choice toward non-drug rewards at early stages of drug use history, may prevent the establishment of chronic cocaine use.

  4. Backward conditioning of tumor necrosis factor-α in a single trial: changing intervals between exposures to lipopolysaccharide and saccharin taste.

    PubMed

    Washio, Yukiko; Hayes, Linda J; Hunter, Kenneth W; Pritchard, Josh K

    2011-02-01

    The current study examined the effect of backward conditioning with three different time intervals between exposures to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as the unconditioned stimulus (US) and saccharin taste in water as the potential conditioned stimulus (CS). Forty-eight naïve female BALB/c mice at three months of age served as subjects, divided into six groups. Four groups were assigned to Experiment 1 for the tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) measure, and the remaining two groups were used in Experiment 2 to measure taste aversion behavior. Both experiments employed a single trial. The timing of introduction to the saccharin taste varied between 3 min, 7 h, and 24 h following an LPS injection in Experiment 1. Experiment 2 employed the three-minute interval only. These intervals correspond to distinct immunological, physiological, and behavioral events induced by LPS. On the day after re-exposure to the saccharin taste, the TNF-α groups were challenged with LPS to test the LPS tolerance response. While backward conditioning of taste aversion behavior was not observed, some evidence of conditioned TNF-α response and subsequent development of LPS tolerance was observed with backward conditioning in a single trial. This exploratory study demonstrated that the effect of backward conditioning on conditioned TNF-α response and LPS tolerance response in a single trial depended on the timing of when a CS is presented after LPS exposure.

  5. Combined anti-solvent and cooling method of manufacturing indomethacin-saccharin (IMC-SAC) co-crystal powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chun, Nan-Hee; Lee, Min-Jeong; Song, Geon-Hyung; Chang, Kwan-Young; Kim, Chang-Sam; Choi, Guang J.

    2014-12-01

    The anti-solvent approach has been demonstrated as one potential industrial method to produce pharmaceutical co-crystal powders with high purity. In this study, we combined the anti-solvent method with cooling to maximize the yield of the solution-based co-crystallization between indomethacin (IMC) and saccharin (SAC). The cooling start time was the key process parameter; other parameters were fixed based on results of preliminary work. Highly pure IMC-SAC co-crystal powders were produced via the combined method, regardless of the cooling start time, and the yield was substantially enhanced. However, some material properties, such as crystallinity and particle size, were affected by the cooling start time; i.e., whether cooling was started before nucleation (pre-nucleation cooling) or after nucleation (post-nucleation cooling). When pre-nucleation cooling was applied, a greater degree of supersaturation led to nucleation of α-IMC and IMC-SAC together. The metastable α-IMC eventually transitioned to stable IMC-SAC co-crystal particles, followed by crystal growth. When post-nucleation cooling was applied, the transient α-IMC was not detected during the entire process.

  6. Cocaine withdrawal in rats selectively bred for low (LoS) versus high (HiS) saccharin intake

    PubMed Central

    Radke, Anna K.; Zlebnik, Natalie E.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine use results in anhedonia during withdrawal, but it is not clear how this emotional state interacts with an individual's vulnerability for addiction. Rats selectively bred for high (HiS) or low (LoS) saccharin intake are a well-established model of drug abuse vulnerability, with HiS rats being more likely to consume sweets and drugs of abuse such as cocaine and heroin (Carroll et al. 2002) than LoS rats. This study examined whether the motivational consequences of cocaine withdrawal are differentially expressed in HiS and LoS rats. HiS and LoS rats were trained to respond for a sucrose reward on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement and breakpoints were measured during and after chronic, continuous exposure to cocaine (30 mg/kg/day). Cocaine, but not saline, treatment resulted in lower breakpoints for sucrose during withdrawal in LoS rats only. These results suggest anhedonia during withdrawal is more pronounced in the less vulnerable LoS rats. Fewer motivational deficits during withdrawal may contribute to drug vulnerability in the HiS line. PMID:25482327

  7. "Jello® shots" and cocktails as ethanol vehicles: parametric studies with high- and low-saccharin-consuming rats.

    PubMed

    Dess, Nancy K; Madkins, Chardonnay D; Geary, Bree A; Chapman, Clinton D

    2013-11-21

    Naïve humans and rats voluntarily consume little ethanol at concentrations above ~6% due to its aversive flavor. Developing procedures that boost intake of ethanol or ethanol-paired flavors facilitates research on neural mechanisms of ethanol-associated behaviors and helps identify variables that modulate ethanol intake outside of the lab. The present study explored the impact on consumption of ethanol and ethanol-paired flavors of nutritionally significant parametric variations: ethanol vehicle (gelatin or solution, with or without polycose); ethanol concentration (4% or 10%); and feeding status (chow deprived or ad lib.) during flavor conditioning and flavor preference testing. Individual differences were modeled by testing rats of lines selectively bred for high (HiS) or low (LoS) saccharin intake. A previously reported preference for ethanol-paired flavors was replicated when ethanol had been drunk during conditioning. However, indifference or aversion to ethanol-paired flavors generally obtained when ethanol had been eaten in gelatin during conditioning, regardless of ethanol concentration, feeding status, or caloric value of the vehicle. Modest sex and line variations occurred. Engaging different behavioral systems when eating gelatin, rather than drinking solution, may account for these findings. Implications for parameter selection in future neurobiological research and for understanding conditions that influence ethanol intake outside of the lab are discussed.

  8. Design, synthesis and evaluation of N-substituted saccharin derivatives as selective inhibitors of tumor-associated carbonic anhydrase XII.

    PubMed

    D'Ascenzio, Melissa; Carradori, Simone; De Monte, Celeste; Secci, Daniela; Ceruso, Mariangela; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2014-03-15

    A series of N-alkylated saccharin derivatives were synthesized and tested for the inhibition of four different isoforms of human carbonic anhydrase (CA, EC 4. 2.1.1): the transmembrane tumor-associated CA IX and XII, and the cytosolic CA I and II. Most of the reported derivatives inhibited CA XII in the nanomolar/low micromolar range, hCA IX with KIs ranging between 11 and 390 nM, whereas they were inactive against both CA I (KIs >50 μM) and II (K(I)s ranging between 39.1 nM and 50 μM). Since CA I and II are off-targets of antitumor carbonic anhydrase inhibitors (CAIs), the obtained results represent an encouraging achievement for the development of new anticancer candidates without the common side effects of non-selective CAIs. Moreover, the lack of an explicit zinc binding function on these inhibitors opens the way towards the exploration of novel mechanisms of inhibition that could explain the high selectivity of these compounds for the inhibition of the transmembrane, tumor-associated isoforms over the cytosolic ones.

  9. Cocaine withdrawal in rats selectively bred for low (LoS) versus high (HiS) saccharin intake.

    PubMed

    Radke, Anna K; Zlebnik, Natalie E; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2015-02-01

    Cocaine use results in anhedonia during withdrawal, but it is not clear how this emotional state interacts with an individual's vulnerability for addiction. Rats selectively bred for high (HiS) or low (LoS) saccharin intake are a well-established model of drug abuse vulnerability, with HiS rats being more likely to consume sweets and drugs of abuse such as cocaine and heroin (Carroll et al., 2002) than LoS rats. This study examined whether the motivational consequences of cocaine withdrawal are differentially expressed in HiS and LoS rats. HiS and LoS rats were trained to respond for a sucrose reward on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement and breakpoints were measured during and after chronic, continuous exposure to cocaine (30 mg/kg/day). Cocaine, but not saline, treatment resulted in lower breakpoints for sucrose during withdrawal in LoS rats only. These results suggest anhedonia during withdrawal is more pronounced in the less vulnerable LoS rats. Fewer motivational deficits during withdrawal may contribute to greater drug vulnerability in the HiS line.

  10. Crystal structure and EPR studies of mixed ligand complex of cobalt(II) with saccharin and ethylisonicotine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uçar, İbrahim; Karabulut, Bünyamin; Bulut, Ahmet; Büyükgüngör, Orhan

    2008-12-01

    The tetraaquabis(ethylisonicotinate)cobalt(II) disaccharinate, [Co(ein) 2(H 2O) 4]·(sac) 2, (CENS), (ein: ethylisonicotinate and sac: saccharinate) complex has been synthesized and its crystal structure has been determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The title complex crystallizes in monoclinic system with space group P2 1/ c and Z = 2. The Co(II) cations present a slightly distorted CoN 2O 4 octahedral environment, with equatorially coordinated water molecules and axially pyridine N-bound ethylisonicotinate ligands. The magnetic environments of Cu 2+-doped Co(II) complex have been identified by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) technique. Cu 2+-doped CENS single crystals have been studied at room temperature in three mutually perpendicular planes. The calculated results of the Cu 2+-doped CENS indicate that Cu 2+ ion substitute with the Co 2+ ion in the host lattice. The angular variations of the EPR spectra have shown that two different Cu 2+ complexes are located in different chemical environments, and each environment contains two magnetically inequvalent Cu 2+sites in distinct orientations occupying substitutional positions in the lattice and show very high angular dependence. The cyclic voltammogram of the title complex investigated in dimethylformamide (DMF) solution exhibits only metal centerd electroactivity in the potential range -1.0-1.25 V versus Ag/AgCl reference electrode.

  11. Docusate Sodium and Pregnancy

    MedlinePlus

    ... live chat Live Help Fact Sheets Share Docusate Sodium Friday, 01 April 2016 In every pregnancy, a ... This sheet talks about whether exposure to docusate sodium may increase the risk for birth defects over ...

  12. Diclofenac sodium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002630.htm Diclofenac sodium overdose To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Diclofenac sodium is a prescription medicine used to relieve pain ...

  13. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  14. Fractional excretion of sodium

    MedlinePlus

    FE sodium; FENa ... to a lab. There, they are examined for salt (sodium) and creatinine levels. Creatinine is a chemical waste ... your normal foods with a normal amount of salt, unless otherwise instructed by your health care provider. ...

  15. Simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners, preservatives, caffeine, theobromine and theophylline in food and pharmaceutical preparations by ion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Chen, Q C; Wang, J

    2001-12-01

    A novel ion chromatographic method was proposed for the simultaneous determination of artificial sweeteners (sodium saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K), preservatives (benzoic acid, sorbic acid), caffeine, theobromine and theophylline. The separation was performed on an anion-exchange analytical column operated at 40 degrees C within 45 min by an isocratic elution with 5 mM aqueous NaH2PO4 (pH 8.20) solution containing 4% (v/v) acetonitrile as eluent, and the determination by wavelength-switching ultraviolet absorbance detection. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio 3:1) for all analytes were below the sub-microg/ml level. Under the experimental conditions, several organic acids, including citric acid, malic acid, tartaric acid and ascorbic acid, did not interfere with the determination. The method has been successfully applied to the analysis of various food and pharmaceutical preparations, and the average recoveries for real samples ranged from 85 to 104%. The levels of all analytes determined by this method were in good agreement with those obtained by the high-performance liquid chromatographic procedure. The results also indicated that ion chromatography would be possibly a beneficial alternative to conventional high-performance liquid chromatography for the separation and determination of these compounds.

  16. Oral zinc sulfate solutions inhibit sweet taste perception.

    PubMed

    Keast, Russell S J; Canty, Thomas M; Breslin, Paul A S

    2004-07-01

    We investigated the ability of zinc sulfate (5, 25, 50 mM) to inhibit the sweetness of 12 chemically diverse sweeteners, which were all intensity matched to 300 mM sucrose [800 mM glucose, 475 mM fructose, 3.25 mM aspartame, 3.5 mM saccharin, 12 mM sodium cyclamate, 14 mM acesulfame-K, 1.04 M sorbitol, 0.629 mM sucralose, 0.375 mM neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC), 1.5 mM stevioside and 0.0163 mM thaumatin]. Zinc sulfate inhibited the sweetness of most compounds in a concentration dependent manner, peaking with 80% inhibition by 50 mM. Curiously, zinc sulfate never inhibited the sweetness of Na-cyclamate. This suggests that Na-cyclamate may access a sweet taste mechanism that is different from the other sweeteners, which were inhibited uniformly (except thaumatin) at every concentration of zinc sulfate. We hypothesize that this set of compounds either accesses a single receptor or multiple receptors that are inhibited equally by zinc sulfate at each concentration.

  17. Modelling Cometary Sodium Tails

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birkett, K. S.; Jones, G. H.; Coates, A. J.

    2013-12-01

    Neutral sodium is readily observed in cometary spectra and can be seen to form its own distinct tail at high activity comets. Solar radiation pressure accelerates the sodium atoms antisunward and, as strong sodium absorption lines are present in the solar spectrum, the magnitude of this force is dependent upon the Doppler shift of the incident solar radiation. Therefore the heliocentric velocity of the sodium atom directly determines its acceleration. This can produce unique effects, such as a stagnation region. Sodium is relatively easy to detect and so can potentially be used to trace mechanisms in the coma that are otherwise difficult to observe. The source of neutral sodium in the tail currently remains unknown. We have therefore developed a new, three dimensional Monte-Carlo model of neutral cometary sodium in order to facilitate testing of different source production functions. It includes weightings due to neutral sodium lifetime, variation of cometary sodium emission due to Fraunhofer absorption lines and solar flux variation with heliocentric distance. The Swings and Greenstein effects, which can have particularly dramatic effects in near-Sun comets, are also considered comprehensively. Preliminary results from this model are presented, focusing on a comparison of predictions of the neutral sodium tail of Comet C/2012 S1 (ISON) with initial observations.

  18. Sodium remote from Io

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, R. A.; Schneider, N. M.

    1981-12-01

    Measurements of sodium emission lines originating in the middle Jupiter magnetosphere are measured, confirming the wide dispersal of neutral sodium in the Jovian system in at least two distinct manifestations. Candidate neutral transport processes in the context of the observed kinematical signatures are discussed. It is argued that the normal emission feature is produced by sodium atoms on bound elliptical orbits originating in the Io sodium cloud but with apojove in the field of view. Observations of the fast sodium feature indicate that atoms episodically acquire a broad range of line-of-sight velocities above the Jupiter gravitational escape speed and far above the speeds characteristic of surface-sputtered atoms. Three suggested reactions are distinguished according to (1) production rates based on estimated plasmaspheric properties, (2) kinematical signature, and (3) the timing of occurrences of the fast sodium feature.

  19. Blockade of central delta-opioid receptors inhibits salt appetite in sodium-depleted rats.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, A I R; Ferreira, H S; Cerqueira, D R; Fregoneze, J B

    2014-05-01

    Various studies have investigated the role of central opioid peptides in feeding behavior; however, only a few have addressed the participation of opioids in the control of salt appetite. The present study investigated the effect of intracerebroventricular injections of the δ-opioid antagonist, naltrindole (5, 10 and 20 nmol/rat) and the agonist, deltorphin II (2.5, 5, 10 and 20 nmol/rat) on salt intake. Two protocols for inducing salt intake were used: sodium-depletion and the central injection of angiotensin II. In addition, the effect of a central δ-opioid receptor blockade on locomotor activity, on palatable solution intake (0.1% saccharin) and on blood pressure was also studied. The blockade of central δ-opioid receptors inhibits salt intake in sodium-depleted rats, while the pharmacological stimulation of these receptors increases salt intake in sodium-replete animals. Furthermore, the blockade of central δ-opioid receptors inhibits salt intake induced by central angiotensinergic stimulation. These data suggest that during sodium-depletion activation of the δ-opioid receptors regulates salt appetite to correct the sodium imbalance and it is possible that an interaction between opioidergic and angiotensinergic brain system participates in this control. Under normonatremic conditions, δ-opioid receptors may be necessary to modulate sodium intake, a response that could be mediated by angiotensin II. The decrease in salt intake following central δ-opioid receptors blockade does not appear to be due to a general inhibition of locomotor activity, changes in palatability or in blood pressure.

  20. Measurement of the relative sweetness of stevia extract, aspartame and cyclamate/saccharin blend as compared to sucrose at different concentrations.

    PubMed

    Cardello, H M; Da Silva, M A; Damasio, M H

    1999-01-01

    Special diets are used to mitigate many human diseases. When these diets require changes in carbohydrate content, then sweetness becomes an important characteristic. The range of low-calorie sweeteners available to the food industry is expanding. It is essential to have an exact knowledge of the relative sweetness of various sweeteners in relation to different sucrose concentrations. The objective of this study was to determine the variation on the relative sweetness of aspartame (APM), stevia [Stevia rebaudiana (Bert.) Bertoni] leaf extract (SrB) and the mixture cyclamate/saccharin--two parts of cyclamate and one part of saccharin--(C/S) with the increase in their concentrations, and in neutral and acid pH in equisweet concentration to 10% sucrose, using magnitude estimation. Sweetness equivalence of SrB in relation to sucrose concentrations of 20% or higher and of APM and C/S to sucrose concentrations of 40% or higher could not be determined, because a bitter taste predominated. The potency of all sweeteners decreased as the level of sweetner increased. In equi-sweet concentration of sucrose at 10%, with pH 7.0 and pH 3.0, the potency was practically the same for all sweeteners evaluated.

  1. Decode the Sodium Label Lingo

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Preschooler For Gradeschooler For Teen Decode the Sodium Label Lingo Published January 24, 2013 Print Email Reading food labels can help you slash sodium. Here's how to decipher them. "Sodium free" or " ...

  2. Mercury's sodium exosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, F.; Johnson, R. E.

    2003-08-01

    Mercury's neutral sodium exosphere is simulated using a comprehensive 3D Monte Carlo model following sodium atoms ejected from Mercury's surface by thermal desorption, photon stimulated desorption, micro-meteoroid vaporization and solar wind sputtering. The evolution of the sodium surface density with respect to Mercury's rotation and its motion around the Sun is taken into account by considering enrichment processes due to surface trapping of neutrals and ions and depletion of the sodium available for ejection from the surfaces of grains. The change in the sodium exosphere is calculated during one Mercury year taking into account the variations in the solar radiation pressure, the photo-ionization frequency, the solar wind density, the photon and meteoroid flux intensities, and the surface temperature. Line-of-sight column densities at different phase angles, the supply rate of new sodium, average neutral and ion losses over a Mercury year, surface density distribution and the importance of the different processes of ejection are discussed in this paper. The sodium surface density distribution is found to become significantly nonuniform from day to night sides, from low to high latitudes and from morning to afternoon because of rapid depletion of sodium atoms in the surfaces of grains mainly driven by thermal depletion. The shape of the exosphere, as it would be seen from the Earth, changes drastically with respect to Mercury's heliocentric position. High latitude column density maxima are related to maxima in the sodium surface concentration at high latitudes in Mercury's surface and are not necessarily due to solar wind sputtering. The ratio between the sodium column density on the morning side of Mercury's exosphere and the sodium column density on the afternoon side is consistent with the conclusions of Sprague et al. (1997, Icarus 129, 506-527). The model, which has no fitting parameters, shows surprisingly good agreement with recent observations of Potter et

  3. METHOD FOR REMOVING SODIUM OXIDE FROM LIQUID SODIUM

    DOEpatents

    Bruggeman, W.H.; Voorhees, B.G.

    1957-12-01

    A method is described for removing sodium oxide from a fluent stream of liquid sodium by coldtrapping the sodium oxide. Apparatus utilizing this method is disclosed in United States Patent No. 2,745,552. Sodium will remain in a molten state at temperatures below that at which sodium oxide will crystallize out and form solid deposits, therefore, the contaminated stream of sodium is cooled to a temperature at which the solubility of sodium oxide in sodium is substantially decreased. Thereafter the stream of sodium is passed through a bed of stainless steel wool maintained at a temperature below that of the stream. The stream is kept in contact with the wool until the sodium oxide is removed by crystal growth on the wool, then the stream is reheated and returned to the system. This method is useful in purifying reactor coolants where the sodium oxide would otherwise deposit out on the walls and eventually plug the coolant tubes.

  4. SODIUM DEUTERIUM REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Oppenheimer, E.D.; Weisberg, R.A.

    1963-02-26

    This patent relates to a barrier system for a sodium heavy water reactor capable of insuring absolute separation of the metal and water. Relatively cold D/sub 2/O moderator and reflector is contained in a calandria into which is immersed the fuel containing tubes. The fuel elements are cooled by the sodium which flows within the tubes and surrounds the fuel elements. The fuel containing tubes are surrounded by concentric barrier tubes forming annular spaces through which pass inert gases at substantially atmospheric pressure. Header rooms above and below the calandria are provided for supplying and withdrawing the sodium and inert gases in the calandria region. (AEC)

  5. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, G.V.; Lopez, J.T.; Olich, E.E.; West, C.W.

    1989-11-21

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates. 14 figs.

  6. Submersible sodium pump

    DOEpatents

    Brynsvold, Glen V.; Lopez, John T.; Olich, Eugene E.; West, Calvin W.

    1989-01-01

    An electromagnetic submerged pump has an outer cylindrical stator with an inner cylindrical conductive core for the submerged pumping of sodium in the cylindrical interstitial volume defined between the stator and core. The cylindrical interstitial volume is typically vertically oriented, and defines an inlet at the bottom and an outlet at the top. The outer stator generates upwardly conveyed toroidal magnetic fields, which fields convey preferably from the bottom of the pump to the top of the pump liquid sodium in the cold leg of a sodium cooled nuclear reactor. The outer cylindrical stator has a vertically disposed duct surrounded by alternately stacked layers of coil units and laminates.

  7. Environmental enrichment protects against the acquisition of cocaine self-administration in adult male rats, but does not eliminate avoidance of a drug-associated saccharin cue.

    PubMed

    Puhl, Matthew D; Blum, Joshua S; Acosta-Torres, Stefany; Grigson, Patricia S

    2012-02-01

    One of the most menacing consequences of drug addiction is the devaluation of natural rewards (e.g. food, sex, work, money, caring for one's offspring). However, evidence also suggests that natural rewards, such as an enriched environment, can devalue drugs of abuse. Thus, this study used a rodent model to test whether exposure to an enriched environment could protect adult rats from acquiring cocaine self-administration and from the resultant drug-induced devaluation of a natural saccharin reward cue. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were implanted with intravenous jugular catheters. Rats were then separated into two housing conditions: an enriched condition, including social companions(four/cage) and novel objects (e.g. balls, polyethylene tubes, paper, etc.), and a nonenriched condition where the rats were singly housed with no novel objects. During testing, the rats were given 5-min access to 0.15% saccharin, followed by 1 h to self-administer saline or cocaine (0.167 mg/infusion) on fixed ratio and progressive ratio schedules of reinforcement. The results showed that rats that were singly housed in the nonenriched environment fell into two groups: low drug-takers (n=34) and high drug-takers (n=12). In comparison, only one out of the 22 rats housed in the enriched environment was a high drug-taker. Thus, all rats in the enriched environment, except one, behaved like low drug-takers under the nonenriched condition. As such, these rats self-administered almost no drug on either the fixed ratio or the progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement and were extremely slow to self-administer their first cocaine infusion. Interestingly, despite their very low levels of drug self-administration, low-drug-taking rats housed in the enriched environment continued to avoid intake of the drug-associated saccharin cue. Taken together, these data suggest that the enriched environment itself served as a salient natural reward that reduced cocaine seeking and cocaine taking, but

  8. Sodium bisulfate poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... in large amounts. This article discusses poisoning from swallowing sodium bisulfate. This article is for information only. ... Symptoms from swallowing more than a tablespoon of this acid may include: Burning pain in the mouth Chest pain from burns ...

  9. Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat hyperkalemia (increased amounts of potassium in the body). Sodium polystyrene sulfonate is in a class of medications called potassium-removing agents. It works by removing excess potassium ...

  10. Synthesis and spectroscopic studies of novel Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) mixed ligand complexes with saccharin and nicotinamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çakır, S.; Bulut, İ.; Naumov, P.; Biçer, E.; Çakır, O.

    2001-01-01

    Four novel mixed ligand complexes of Cu(II), Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) with saccharin and nicotinamide were synthesised and characterised on the basis of elemental analysis, FT-IR spectroscopic study, UV-Vis spectrometric and magnetic susceptibility data. The structure of the Cu (II) complex is completely different from those of the Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes. From the frequencies of the saccharinato CO and SO 2 modes, it has been proven that the saccharinato ligands in the structure of the Cu complex are coordinated to the metal ion ([Cu(NA) 2(Sac) 2(H 2O)], where NA — nicotinamide, Sac — saccharinato ligand or ion), whilst in the Co(II), Ni(II) and Zn(II) complexes are uncoordinated and exist as ions ([M(NA) 2(H 2O) 4](Sac) 2).

  11. Coformer selection based on degradation pathway of drugs: a case study of adefovir dipivoxil-saccharin and adefovir dipivoxil-nicotinamide cocrystals.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yuan; Gao, Jing; Liu, Ziling; Kan, Hongliang; Zu, Hui; Sun, Wanjin; Zhang, Jianjun; Qian, Shuai

    2012-11-15

    Adefovir dipivoxil (AD) is a bis(pivaloyloxymethyl) prodrug of adefovir with chemical stability problem. It undergoes two degradation pathways including hydrolysis and dimerization during storage. Pharmaceutical cocrystallization exhibits a promising approach to enhance aqueous solubility as well as physicochemical stability. In this study we attempted to prepare and investigate the physiochemical properties of AD cocrystals, which were formed with two coformers having different acidity and alkalinity (weakly acidic saccharin (SAC) and weakly basic nicotinamide (NCT)). The presence of different coformer molecules along with AD resulted in altered physicochemical properties. AD-SAC cocrystal showed great improvement in solubility and chemical stability, while AD-NCT did not. Several potential factors giving rise to different solid-state properties were summarized. Different coformers resulted in different cocrystal formation, packing style and hydrogen bond formation. This study could provide the coformer selection strategy based on degradation pathways for some unstable drugs in pharmaceutical cocrystal design.

  12. Synthesis, molecular and crystal structure of bis(triethanolamine)manganese(II) saccharinate: a seven-coordinate manganese complex with tri- and tetradentate triethanolamine ligands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topcu, Yildiray; Andac, Omer; Yilmaz, Veysel T.; Harrison, William T. A.

    2002-06-01

    The synthesis, molecular and crystal structure of bis(triethanolamine)Mn(II) saccharinate, [Mn(tea) 2](sac) 2 are reported. The configuration of the tea ligands results in an unusual example of coordination number seven for the Mn(II) ion. The two triethanolamine (tea) ligands coordinate to the Mn(II) ion forming a monocapped trigonal prism geometry, in which one of the tea ligands behaves as a tridentate ligand, while the other one acts as a tetradentate donor. The free and coordinated hydroxyl hydrogens of the tea ligands are involved in hydrogen bonding with the amine nitrogen, carbonyl and sulfonyl oxygens of the neighbouring sac ions to form a three-dimensional infinite network. A weak π-π interaction between the phenyl rings of the sac ions also occurs.

  13. Differential orexin/hypocretin expression in addiction-prone and -resistant rats selectively bred for high (HiS) and low (LoS) saccharin intake.

    PubMed

    Holtz, Nathan A; Zlebnik, Natalie E; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2012-07-26

    Rats that have been selectively bred for high (HiS) saccharin intake demonstrate elevated drug-seeking behavior in several phases of addiction compared to those bred for low (LoS) saccharin intake. HiS rats also consume greater amounts of highly palatable substances compared to LoS rats; however, little is known about the neurobiological substrates moderating the divergent behaviors found between the HiS and LoS lines. Orexins are neuropeptides that have been implicated in the conditioned cue aspects of drug abuse and overconsumption of palatable substances, and differential orexin activity in the HiS and LoS phenotypes may enhance our understanding of the close relationship between food and drug reward, and ultimately food and drug addiction. The lateral hypothalamus (LH) and perifornical area (PFA) are brain regions that have been implicated in regulating feeding behavior and addiction processes, and they contain orexinergic neurons that project broadly throughout the brain. Thus, we investigated orexin and c-Fos expression in the LH and PFA using immunohistochemistry in HiS and LoS rats following either control or cocaine (15 mg/kg) injections. Results indicated that HiS rats have higher orexin-positive cell counts compared to LoS rats in both the LH and PFA, regardless of cocaine (vs. saline) treatment. In contrast, neuronal activity indicated by c-Fos expression did not differ in either of these brain areas in HiS vs. LoS rats. These results suggest that the orexin system may be involved in aspects of genetically-mediated differences in vulnerability to compulsive, reward-driven behaviors.

  14. Effects of long-term cycling between palatable cafeteria diet and regular chow on intake, eating patterns, and response to saccharin and sucrose.

    PubMed

    Martire, Sarah I; Westbrook, R Fred; Morris, Margaret J

    2015-02-01

    When exposed to a diet containing foods that are rich in fat and sugar, rats eat to excess and gain weight. We examined the effects of alternating this diet with laboratory chow on intake of each type of diet, the eating elicited by a palatable food (biscuits), and the drinking elicited by sweet solutions that did (sucrose) or did not (saccharin) contain calories. Each week for 13 weeks, cycled rats were provided with the cafeteria diet for three successive days/nights and the chow diet for the remaining four days/nights, whereas other rats received continuous access to either the cafeteria or the chow diets. On each of the 13 weeks, cycled rats ate more across the first 24 hour exposure to the cafeteria diet than rats continuously fed this diet. In contrast, cycled rats ate less across the first 24 hour exposure to the chow diet than rats continuously fed this diet and ate less when presented a novel palatable biscuit than chow-fed rats. The three groups exhibited similar licks per cluster to saccharin, but cafeteria-fed and cycled rats showed fewer clusters than chow-fed rats. In contrast, chow-fed rats and cycled rats exhibited more licks per cluster to sucrose than cafeteria-fed rats, but all three groups had a similar number of clusters. The results were discussed in relation to the effects of diet cycling on eating patterns, body weight, and 'wanting' and 'liking'. These findings with rats may have important implications for yo-yo dieting in people.

  15. Dietary sodium intake, airway responsiveness, and cellular sodium transport.

    PubMed

    Tribe, R M; Barton, J R; Poston, L; Burney, P G

    1994-06-01

    Both epidemiologic and experimental evidence suggest that a high dietary sodium intake may increase airway responsiveness, but no adequate explanation exists of how changes in sodium intake might lead to increased responsiveness. This investigation was carried out to study dietary sodium intake and airway response to methacholine in relation to cellular sodium transport in 52 young men. Airway response to methacholine was associated with urinary sodium excretion when subjects were on normal sodium intake. Airway responsiveness in patients with mild asthma correlated with the furosemide-insensitive influx of sodium into peripheral leukocytes stimulated by autologous serum, but there was no relation between this influx and 24-h urinary sodium excretion. In a separate investigation, serum from subjects with increased airway responsiveness caused an increase in the sodium influx and sodium content of leukocytes from nonatopic subjects. The magnitude of the furosemide-insensitive, serum stimulated influx was related to the degree of airway responsiveness of the serum donor, as was the increase in intracellular sodium content. Neither was related to the 24-h urinary sodium excretion of the donor. Patients with airway hyperresponsiveness have an increased sodium influx into cells stimulated by a serum-borne factor. This is independent of the effect of added dietary sodium on airway responsiveness.

  16. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1981-01-01

    This disclosure is directed to an improvement in a sodium sulfur battery construction in which a seal between various battery compartments is made by a structure in which a soft metal seal member is held in a sealing position by holding structure. A pressure applying structure is used to apply pressure on the soft metal seal member when it is being held in sealing relationship to a surface of a container member of the sodium sulfur battery by the holding structure. The improvement comprises including a thin, well-adhered, soft metal layer on the surface of the container member of the sodium sulfur battery to which the soft metal seal member is to be bonded.

  17. Sodium storage and injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeton, A. R. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A sodium storage and injection system for delivering atomized liquid sodium to a chemical reactor employed in the production of solar grade silicon is disclosed. The system is adapted to accommodate start-up, shut-down, normal and emergency operations, and is characterized by (1) a jacketed injection nozzle adapted to atomize liquefied sodium and (2) a supply circuit connected to the nozzle for delivering the liquefied sodium. The supply circuit is comprised of a plurality of replaceable sodium containment vessels, a pump interposed between the vessels and the nozzle, and a pressurizing circuit including a source of inert gas connected with the vessels for maintaining the sodium under pressure.

  18. Dalapon, sodium salt

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Dalapon , sodium salt ; CASRN 75 - 99 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  19. Chlorite (sodium salt)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Chlorite ( sodium salt ) ; CASRN 7758 - 19 - 2 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarc

  20. Decomposition of Sodium Tetraphenylborate

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, M.J.

    1998-11-20

    The chemical decomposition of aqueous alkaline solutions of sodium tetraphenylborate (NaTPB) has been investigated. The focus of the investigation is on the determination of additives and/or variables which influence NaTBP decomposition. This document describes work aimed at providing better understanding into the relationship of copper (II), solution temperature, and solution pH to NaTPB stability.

  1. Sodium sulfur battery seal

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which a flexible diaphragm sealing elements respectively engage opposite sides of a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  2. Clinical overview of nedocromil sodium.

    PubMed

    König, P

    1995-01-01

    Nedocromil sodium is a novel anti-inflammatory agent that has been demonstrated to significantly improve pulmonary function and decrease bronchial hyperreactivity in asthmatic patients. Currently available only as an inhaled drug, nedocromil sodium has an excellent safety profile, the only adverse effect being a slightly unpleasant taste. Nedocromil sodium has been used as a replacement for sustained-release theophylline therapy; the overall efficacy of nedocromil sodium is at least equivalent to that of theophylline, with less adverse effects occurring in those patients treated with nedocromil sodium rather than with theophylline. Nedocromil sodium also appears to be equal in efficacy to low doses of beclomethasone when employed in patients with mild to moderate asthma. Addition of nedocromil sodium to an ongoing regimen of beclomethasone may also allow for reduction in the dosage of inhaled corticosteroid. The overall safety of therapy with nedocromil sodium suggests that it be considered as initial therapy for those patients having mild to moderate asthma.

  3. Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark.

    PubMed

    Leth, T; Fabricius, N; Fagt, S

    2007-03-01

    In 1999, 116 samples of non-alcoholic beverages were analysed for the intense sweeteners cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin. High contents of cyclamate close to the maximum permitted level in 1999 of 400 mg l(-1) were found in many soft drinks. The estimated intake of the sweeteners was calculated using the Danish Dietary Survey based on 3098 persons aged 1-80 years. The estimated intake with 90th percentiles of 0.7, 4.0 and 0.2 mg kg(-1) body weight (bw) day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin, respectively, was much lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI) values of 15, 40 and 2.5 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame and saccharin, respectively. However, the 90th percentile of the estimated cyclamate intake in 1-3 year olds was close to the ADI value of 7 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1); and the 99th percentile in the 1-10 year olds far exceeded the ADI value. Boys aged 7-10 years had a significantly higher estimated intake of cyclamate than girls. The 90th percentile for the whole population was 1.8 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1). After the reduction in the maximum permitted level in the European Union in 2004 from 400 to 250 mg cyclamate l-1, the exposure in Denmark can also be expected to be reduced. A new investigation in 2007 should demonstrate whether the problem with high cyclamate intake is now solved.

  4. Estimated intake of intense sweeteners from non-alcoholic beverages in Denmark, 2005.

    PubMed

    Leth, T; Jensen, U; Fagt, S; Andersen, R

    2008-06-01

    In 2005, 76 out of 177 analysed samples of non-alcoholic beverages were found to contain the intense sweeteners cyclamate, acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin. The content of cyclamate did not exceed the now permitted maximum level in the European Union of 250 mg l(-1) in soft drinks. The estimated intake of the sweeteners was calculated using the Danish Dietary Survey based on 3098 persons aged 1-80 years. The estimated intake with 90th percentiles of 0.7, 0.8 and 0.2 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin, respectively, was much lower than the acceptable daily intake values of 15, 40, 7, and 2.5 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, and saccharin, respectively, and on the same level as in the similar investigation from 1999. In contrast to the 1999 investigation, the 90th percentile of the estimated cyclamate intake in 1-3 year olds with 3.7 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) was in 2005 lower than the acceptable daily intake of 7 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1). However, the 99th percentile for 1-3 year olds with 7.4 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) still exceeded the acceptable daily intake slightly. The 90th percentile for the whole population with 0.9 mg kg(-1) body weight day(-1) was halved compared with 1999. The reduction in the European Union of the maximum permitted level for cyclamate from 400 to 250 mg l(-1) has brought the intake of cyclamate in small children down to well below the acceptable daily intake value.

  5. Advantame sweetener preference in C57BL/6J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Ackroff, Karen

    2015-03-01

    Advantame is a new ultrahigh-intensity noncaloric sweetener derived from aspartame and approved for human use. Rats and mice are not attracted to the taste of aspartame and this study determined their preference for advantame. In 24-h choice tests with water, C57BL/6J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats were indifferent to advantame at concentrations of 0.01, 0.03, and 0.1mM but significantly preferred 0.3 and 1mM advantame to water. Both species also preferred 1mM advantame to 1mM saccharin in direct choice tests, but preferred 10mM saccharin to 1mM advantame, which is near the solubility limit for this sweetener. Mice also preferred 1mM advantame to 1mM sucralose or acesulfame K, but preferred both sweeteners at 10mM to 1mM advantame. In addition, mice preferred 1mM advantame to 1 and 10mM aspartame. Thus, advantame is a potent sweetener for rodents but, because of limited solubility, is not an effective alternative to saccharin, sucralose, or acesulfame K at higher concentrations. PMID:25560795

  6. Advantame sweetener preference in C57BL/6J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Sclafani, Anthony; Ackroff, Karen

    2015-03-01

    Advantame is a new ultrahigh-intensity noncaloric sweetener derived from aspartame and approved for human use. Rats and mice are not attracted to the taste of aspartame and this study determined their preference for advantame. In 24-h choice tests with water, C57BL/6J mice and Sprague-Dawley rats were indifferent to advantame at concentrations of 0.01, 0.03, and 0.1mM but significantly preferred 0.3 and 1mM advantame to water. Both species also preferred 1mM advantame to 1mM saccharin in direct choice tests, but preferred 10mM saccharin to 1mM advantame, which is near the solubility limit for this sweetener. Mice also preferred 1mM advantame to 1mM sucralose or acesulfame K, but preferred both sweeteners at 10mM to 1mM advantame. In addition, mice preferred 1mM advantame to 1 and 10mM aspartame. Thus, advantame is a potent sweetener for rodents but, because of limited solubility, is not an effective alternative to saccharin, sucralose, or acesulfame K at higher concentrations.

  7. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1736 - Sodium bicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium bicarbonate. 184.1736 Section 184.1736 Food... GRAS § 184.1736 Sodium bicarbonate. (a) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3, CAS Reg. No. 144-55-8) is prepared by treating a sodium carbonate or a sodium carbonate and sodium bicarbonate solution with...

  13. Sodium intake and cardiovascular health.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-03-13

    Sodium is an essential nutrient. Increasing sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure, whereas low sodium intake results in increased renin and aldosterone levels. Randomized controlled trials have reported reductions in blood pressure with reductions in sodium intake, to levels of sodium intake <1.5 g/d, and form the evidentiary basis for current population-wide guidelines recommending low sodium intake. Although low sodium intake (<2.0 g/d) has been achieved in short-term feeding clinical trials, sustained low sodium intake has not been achieved by any of the longer term clinical trials (>6-month duration). It is assumed that the blood pressure-lowering effects of reducing sodium intake to low levels will result in large reductions in cardiovascular disease globally. However, current evidence from prospective cohort studies suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and cardiovascular events, based on studies from >300 000 people, and suggests that the lowest risk of cardiovascular events and death occurs in populations consuming an average sodium intake range (3-5 g/d). The increased risk of cardiovascular events associated with higher sodium intake (>5 g/d) is most prominent in those with hypertension. A major deficit in the field is the absence of large randomized controlled trials to provide definitive evidence on optimal sodium intake for preventing cardiovascular events. Pending such trials, current evidence would suggest a recommendation for moderate sodium intake in the general population (3-5 g/d), with targeting the lower end of the moderate range among those with hypertension.

  14. Review of present and future use of nonnutritive sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Bertorelli, A M; Czarnowski-Hill, J V

    1990-01-01

    In response to growing consumer demand for better tasting, low-calorie, sugar-free food products, the number of food items containing nonnutritive sweeteners has grown markedly in recent years. In this paper, present sweetener consumption is reviewed; the history, properties, uses, advantages, and safety of approved sweeteners such as saccharin, aspartame, and acesulfame-K are presented, as well as those of sweeteners such as cyclamate, sucralose, and alitame that are awaiting FDA approval; the role of sweeteners in the dietary management of persons with diabetes is discussed; and counseling guidelines for safe consumption are given.

  15. The content of high-intensity sweeteners in different categories of foods available on the Polish market.

    PubMed

    Zygler, Agata; Wasik, Andrzej; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the concentrations of nine high-intensity sweeteners (acesulfame-K, aspartame, alitame, cyclamate, dulcin, neohesperidin DC, neotame, saccharin and sucralose) in different categories of food available on the Polish market. Over 170 samples of different brands of beverages, yoghurts, fruit preparations, vegetable preserves and fish products were analysed using an analytical procedure based on SPE and LC/MS. The results indicated that foodstuffs under the study generally comply with European Union legislation in terms of sweetener content. However, a few cases of food product mislabelling were detected, i.e. the use of cyclamate for non-approved applications.

  16. Analysis of multiple sweeteners and their degradation products in lassi by HPLC and HPTLC plates.

    PubMed

    George, V; Arora, S; Wadhwa, B K; Singh, A K

    2010-08-01

    A solid phase extraction method using C18 cartridges was standardized for the isolation of multiple sweeteners (aspartame, acesulfame-K and saccharin) and their degradation products (diketopiperazine, Lphenylalanine, acetoacetamide and 2-sulfobenzoic acid) from lassi. Analytical conditions for HPLC were standardized over C18 column using UV detector for the simultaneous separation and estimation of multiple sweeteners and their degradation products in lassi sample isolates. A simple cartridge free method was developed for the isolation of sucralose from lassi. Method was also standardized for qualitative detection and quantitative estimation of sucralose over amino and silica gel plates of HPTLC.

  17. Cocaine-induced suppression of saccharin intake and morphine modulation of Ca²⁺ channel currents in sensory neurons of OPRM1 A118G mice.

    PubMed

    Freet, Christopher S; Ballard, Sarah M; Alexander, Danielle N; Cox, Taylor A; Imperio, Caesar G; Anosike, Nnaemeka; Carter, Alyssa B; Mahmoud, Saifeldin; Ruiz-Velasco, Victor; Grigson, Patricia S

    2015-02-01

    Several studies have shown that human carriers of the single nucleotide polymorphism of the μ-opioid receptor, OPRM1 A118G, exhibit greater drug and alcohol use, increased sensitivity to pain, and reduced sensitivity to the antinociceptive effects of opiates. In the present study, we employed a 'humanized' mouse model containing the wild-type (118AA) or variant (118GG) allele to examine behavior in our model of drug-induced suppression of a natural reward cue and to compare the morphine pharmacological profile in acutely isolated sensory neurons. Compared with 118AA mice, our results demonstrate that homozygous 118GG mice exhibit greater avoidance of the cocaine-paired saccharin cue, a behavior linked to an aversive withdrawal-like state. Electrophysiological recordings confirmed the reduced modulation of Ca(2+) channels by morphine in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons from 118GG mice compared to the 118AA control cells. However, repeated cocaine exposure in 118GG mice led to a leftward shift of the morphine concentration-response relationship when compared with 118GG control mice, while a rightward shift was observed in 118AA mice. These results suggest that cocaine exposure of mice carrying the 118G allele leads to a heightened sensitivity of the reward system and a blunted modulation of Ca(2+) channels by morphine in sensory neurons. PMID:25449401

  18. Biochemical and proteomic analysis of a potential anticancer agent: Palladium(II) Saccharinate complex of terpyridine acting through double strand break formation.

    PubMed

    Adiguzel, Zelal; Baykal, Ahmet Tarik; Kacar, Omer; Yilmaz, Veysel T; Ulukaya, Engin; Acilan, Ceyda

    2014-11-01

    Metal based chemotherapeutic drugs are widely used as an effective method to defeat various cancers. In this study, the mechanism of action of a novel therapeutic agent, [Pd(sac)(terpy)](sac)·4H2O (sac = saccharinate, and terpy = 2,2':6',2″-terpyridine) was studied. To better understand the proteomic changes in response to this agent, we performed nano LC-MS/MS analyses in human breast cancer cells (MDA-MB-231). Thirty proteins were identified to be differentially expressed more than 40% after drug treatment. Many cellular pathways were affected, including proteins involved in DNA repair, apoptosis, energy metabolism, protein folding, cytoskeleton, pre-mRNA maturation, or protein translation. The changes in protein expression were further verified for XRCC5, which plays a role in double strand break (DSB) repair, and ubiquitin, which is involved in protein degradation and apoptosis. The elevated XRCC5 levels were suggestive of increased DSBs. The presence of DSBs was confirmed by smearing of plasmid DNA in vitro and induction of γH2AX foci in vivo. There was also increased intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, as detected by 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFDA) staining. Scavenging ROS by N-acetylcysteine rescued cell death in response to Pd(II) treatment, potentially explaining how the Pd(II) complex damaged the DNA. The details of this analysis and the significance will be discussed during the scope of this work.

  19. Intracranial self-stimulation reward thresholds during morphine withdrawal in rats bred for high (HiS) and low (LoS) saccharin intake

    PubMed Central

    Holtz, Nathan A.; Radke, Anna K.; Zlebnik, Natalie E.; Harris, Andrew C.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2015-01-01

    Rational Sweet preference is a marker of vulnerability to substance use disorders, and rats selectively bred for high (HiS) vs. low saccharin (LoS) intake display potentiated drug-seeking behaviors. Recent work indicated that LoS rats were more responsive to the negative effects of drugs in several assays. Objective The current study used the intracranial self-stimulation (ICSS) procedure to investigate the anhedonic component of morphine withdrawal in male HiS and LoS rats. Methods Rats were administered morphine (10 mg/kg) or saline for 8 days. To evaluate withdrawal effects, reward thresholds were measured 24 and 28 h following the 8th morphine injection (spontaneous withdrawal) and again for 4 days following daily acute morphine and naloxone (1 mg/kg) administration (precipitated withdrawal). Results Twenty-four hr following the final morphine injection, reward thresholds in LoS rats were significantly elevated compared to reward thresholds in LoS controls, indicating spontaneous withdrawal. This effect was not observed in HiS rats. LoS rats also showed greater elevations of reward thresholds on several days during naloxone-precipitated withdrawal compared to their HiS counterparts. Conclusions LoS rats were more sensitive to morphine withdrawal-mediated elevations in ICSS thresholds than HiS rats. While these differences were generally modest, our data suggest that severity of the negative affective component of opiate withdrawal may be influenced by genotypes related to addiction vulnerability. PMID:25582876

  20. Cocaine-induced suppression of saccharin intake and morphine modulation of Ca²⁺ channel currents in sensory neurons of OPRM1 A118G mice.

    PubMed

    Freet, Christopher S; Ballard, Sarah M; Alexander, Danielle N; Cox, Taylor A; Imperio, Caesar G; Anosike, Nnaemeka; Carter, Alyssa B; Mahmoud, Saifeldin; Ruiz-Velasco, Victor; Grigson, Patricia S

    2015-02-01

    Several studies have shown that human carriers of the single nucleotide polymorphism of the μ-opioid receptor, OPRM1 A118G, exhibit greater drug and alcohol use, increased sensitivity to pain, and reduced sensitivity to the antinociceptive effects of opiates. In the present study, we employed a 'humanized' mouse model containing the wild-type (118AA) or variant (118GG) allele to examine behavior in our model of drug-induced suppression of a natural reward cue and to compare the morphine pharmacological profile in acutely isolated sensory neurons. Compared with 118AA mice, our results demonstrate that homozygous 118GG mice exhibit greater avoidance of the cocaine-paired saccharin cue, a behavior linked to an aversive withdrawal-like state. Electrophysiological recordings confirmed the reduced modulation of Ca(2+) channels by morphine in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons from 118GG mice compared to the 118AA control cells. However, repeated cocaine exposure in 118GG mice led to a leftward shift of the morphine concentration-response relationship when compared with 118GG control mice, while a rightward shift was observed in 118AA mice. These results suggest that cocaine exposure of mice carrying the 118G allele leads to a heightened sensitivity of the reward system and a blunted modulation of Ca(2+) channels by morphine in sensory neurons.

  1. Cocaine-induced suppression of saccharin intake and morphine modulation of Ca2+ channel currents in sensory neurons of OPRM1 A118G mice

    PubMed Central

    Freet, Christopher S.; Ballard, Sarah M.; Alexander, Danielle N.; Cox, Taylor A.; Imperio, Caesar G.; Anosike, Nnaemeka; Carter, Alyssa B.; Mahmoud, Saifeldin; Ruiz-Velasco, Victor; Grigson, Patricia S.

    2014-01-01

    Several studies have shown that human carriers of the single nucleotide polymorphism of the µ-opioid receptor, OPRM1 A118G, exhibit greater drug and alcohol use, increased sensitivity to pain, and reduced sensitivity to the antinociceptive effects of opiates. In the present study, we employed a ‘humanized’ mouse model containing the wild-type (118AA) or variant (118GG) allele to examine behavior in our model of drug-induced suppression of a natural reward cue and to compare the morphine pharmacological profile in acutely isolated sensory neurons. Compared with 118AA mice, our results demonstrate that homozygous 118GG mice exhibit greater avoidance of the cocaine-paired saccharin cue, a behavior linked to an aversive withdrawal-like state. Electrophysiological recordings confirmed the reduced modulation of Ca2+ channels by morphine in trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons from 118GG mice compared to the 118AA control cells. However, repeated cocaine exposure in 118GG mice led to a leftward shift of the morphine concentration-response relationship when compared with 118GG control mice, while a rightward shift was observed in 118AA mice. These results suggest that cocaine exposure of mice carrying the 118G allele leads to a heightened sensitivity of the reward system and a blunted modulation of Ca2+ channels by morphine in sensory neurons. PMID:25449401

  2. Sodium channels and pain.

    PubMed

    Habib, Abdella M; Wood, John N; Cox, James J

    2015-01-01

    Human and mouse genetic studies have led to significant advances in our understanding of the role of voltage-gated sodium channels in pain pathways. In this chapter, we focus on Nav1.7, Nav1.8, Nav1.9 and Nav1.3 and describe the insights gained from the detailed analyses of global and conditional transgenic Nav knockout mice in terms of pain behaviour. The spectrum of human disorders caused by mutations in these channels is also outlined, concluding with a summary of recent progress in the development of selective Nav1.7 inhibitors for the treatment of pain. PMID:25846613

  3. Magnetometry with mesospheric sodium

    PubMed Central

    Higbie, James M.; Rochester, Simon M.; Patton, Brian; Holzlöhner, Ronald; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico; Budker, Dmitry

    2011-01-01

    Measurement of magnetic fields on the few 100-km length scale is significant for many geophysical applications including mapping of crustal magnetism and ocean circulation measurements, yet available techniques for such measurements are very expensive or of limited accuracy. We propose a method for remote detection of magnetic fields using the naturally occurring atomic sodium-rich layer in the mesosphere and existing high-power lasers developed for laser guide star applications. The proposed method offers a dramatic reduction in cost and opens the way to large-scale, parallel magnetic mapping and monitoring for atmospheric science, navigation, and geophysics. PMID:21321235

  4. Sodium bicarbonate in chemical flooding: Part 1: Topical report. [Sodium bicarbonate and sodium carbonate

    SciTech Connect

    Peru, D.A.; Lorenz, P.B.

    1987-07-01

    To compare oil recovery and alkali consumption in alkaline flooding using sodium bicarbonate with other alkaline agents, coreflooding experiments were performed in turn with viscosified sodium bicarbonate and viscosified sodium carbonate solutions. Oil recovery was monitored, and the effluent brine from these corefloods was analyzed for silicon, aluminum, pH, and total inorganic carbon. The results indicate that viscosified sodium bicarbonate recovered more of the asphaltic Cerro-Negro crude than of the less asphaltic Wilmington crude oil. The recovery efficiency using the viscosified sodium carbonate was similar for the two crudes. For both crudes, the percent oil recovery using viscosified sodium carbonate was slightly higher than that using the viscosified sodium bicarbonate. Mineral dissolution and decrease in pH were found to be greater in corefloods using viscosified sodium carbonate. Total inorganic carbon recovery can be obtained in corefloods with either agent, provided that a sufficient water drive follows the chemical slug. Long-term experiments were performed by recirculating alkaline solutions through oil-free, unfired Berea sandstone to monitor the rock/alkali interactions. The experimental results indicate an eight-fold decrease in quartz dissolution by sodium bicarbonate compared with sodium carbonate. Moderate magnesium solubility was observed at the pH of the bicarbonate solution. Low solubility of magnesium and aluminum at the pH of the carbonate indicates the possible formation of precipitates. In these experiments 13% of the carbonate was converted to bicarbonate. Total alkalinity was not significantly decreased with either agent. 18 refs., 5 tabs.

  5. Europa Sodium Cloud: orbital variability and Sodium recycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cipriani, F.; Leblanc, F.; Witasse, O.

    2007-08-01

    Discovery and further observations of Europa's thin atmosphere of sodium have been carried out by M.E. Brown (Brown and Hill 1996, Brown 2001, Brown 2004) and A.E. Potter and co-workers (Leblanc et al, 2005). The resonant scattering emission of sodium around Europa has been successfully modelled and compared to the compilation of such observations by Leblanc at al 2002; Leblanc et al 2005). Such an analysis confirmed that the cloud morphology is dominated by the production of Na from the trailing hemisphere. The influence of Europa's centrifugal latitude as well as the contribution of Io's sodium source at Europa orbit were also estimated. These studies concluded that the observed sodium atmosphere should be largely endogenic to Europa. However, significant variations of the total emission intensity along Europa's orbit around Jupiter were reported that were difficult to explain without adhoc assumptions on the variability of the sodium ejecta rate with respect to Europa position in Jupiter magnetosphere. In the present study, we investigate the redistribution of the ejected sodium atoms on the surface of the moon during its orbit around Jupiter following the suggestion by Leblanc et al (2005). In our model, the redistribution of sodium atoms at Europa's surface occurs from a set of ejection and absorption of the sodium atoms. Ejection processes are sputtering induced by energetic jovian particles, as well as photo-stimulated and thermal desorptions from the surface. Absorption mainly depends on the surface temperature and porosity. We will present comparisons of the newly calculated sodium emission with the observations, as well as density distributions of sodium at Europa's surface. Consequences of those calculations on the sodium cloud morphology will also be discussed.

  6. A Simple Quantitative Synthesis: Sodium Chloride from Sodium Carbonate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gold, Marvin

    1988-01-01

    Describes a simple laboratory procedure for changing sodium carbonate into sodium chloride by adding concentrated HCl to cause the reaction and then evaporating the water. Claims a good stoichiometric yield can be obtained in one three-hour lab period. Suggests using fume hood for the reaction. (ML)

  7. GENOTOXICITY STUDIES OF SODIUM DICHLOROACETATE AND SODIUM TRICHLOROACETATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The genotoxic properties of sodium dichloroacetate (DCA) and sodium trichloroacetate (TCA)were evaluated in several short-term in vitro and in vivo assays. Neither compound was mutagenic in tester strain TA102 in the Salmonella mutagenicity assay. Both DCA and TCA were weak induc...

  8. Final report on the safety assessment of Sodium Metaphosphate, Sodium Trimetaphosphate, and Sodium Hexametaphosphate.

    PubMed

    Lanigan, R S

    2001-01-01

    These inorganic polyphosphate salts all function as chelating agents in cosmetic formulations. In addition, Sodium Metaphosphate functions as an oral care agent, Sodium Trimetaphosphate as a buffering agent, and Sodium Hexametaphosphate as a corrosion inhibitor. Only Sodium Hexametaphosphate is currently reported to be used. Although the typical concentrations historically have been less than 1%, higher concentrations have been used in products such as bath oils, which are diluted during normal use. Sodium Metaphosphate is the general term for any polyphosphate salt with four or more phosphate units. The four-phosphate unit version is cyclic, others are straight chains. The hexametaphosphate is the specific six-chain length form. The trimetaphosphate structure is cyclic. Rats fed 10% Sodium Trimetaphosphate for a month exhibited transient tubular necrosis; rats given 10% Sodium Metaphosphate had retarded growth and those fed 10% Sodium Hexametaphosphate had pale and swollen kidneys. In chronic studies using animals, growth inhibition, increased kidney weights (with calcium deposition and desquamation), bone decalcification, parathyroid hypertrophy and hyperplasia, inorganic phosphaturia, hepatic focal necrosis, and muscle fiber size alterations. Sodium Hexametaphosphate was a severe skin irritant in rabbits, whereas a 0.2% solution was only mildly irritating. A similar pattern was seen with ocular toxicity. These ingredients were not genotoxic in bacterial systems nor were they carcinogenic in rats. No reproductive or developmental toxicity was seen in studies using rats exposed to Sodium Hexametaphosphate or Sodium Trimetaphosphate. In clinical testing, irritation is seen as a function of concentration; concentrations as high as 1% produced no irritation in contact allergy patients. Because of the corrosive nature of Sodium Hexametaphosphate, it was concluded that these ingredients could be used safely if each formulation was prepared to avoid skin irritation; for

  9. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Sodium alginate is prepared by...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown algae. Sodium alginate...

  11. 21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1756 Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2, CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium formate. 186.1756 Section 186.1756 Food...

  12. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  14. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  16. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium carbonate, or... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733 Food...

  18. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  19. 21 CFR 201.64 - Sodium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... contains sodium bicarbonate, sodium phosphate, or sodium biphosphate as an active ingredient for oral... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium labeling. 201.64 Section 201.64 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.64 Sodium labeling. (a) The labeling...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Sodium benzoate is the chemical benzoate of soda (C7H5NaO2), produced by the neutralization of benzoic acid with sodium bicarbonate, sodium... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 184.1733 Section 184.1733...

  1. Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate in refrigerated sliced salmon

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological quality and lipid oxidation of fresh salmon slices treated by dipping in 2.5% (w/v) aqueous solution of sodium acetate (NaA), sodium lactate (NaL), or sodium citrate (NaC) and stored at 1 °C. The results revealed that these salts were efficient (P < 0.05) against the proliferation of various categories of spoilage microorganisms; including aerobic and psychrotrophic populations, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae. The general order of antibacterial activity of the different organic salts used was; sodium acetate > sodium lactate > sodium citrate. Lipid oxidation, as expressed by peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, was significantly (P < 0.05) delayed in NaA- and NaC-treated samples. The antioxidant activity followed the order: NaC > NaA > NaL. The shelf life of the treated products was extended by 4–7 days more than that of the control. Therefore, sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate can be utilized as safe organic preservatives for fish under refrigerated storage. PMID:17471315

  2. Reduced emotional signs of opiate withdrawal in rats selectively bred for low (LoS) versus high (HiS) saccharin intake

    PubMed Central

    Radke, Anna K.; Holtz, Nathan A.; Gewirtz, Jonathan C.; Carroll, Marilyn E.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Rats bred for high (HiS) and low (LoS) saccharin intake exhibit divergent behavioral responses to multiple drugs of abuse, with HiS rats displaying greater vulnerability to drug taking. Previous research indicates that this effect may be due to increased sensitivity to reward in HiS rats and to the aversive effects of acute drug administration in LoS rats. Objective The current study investigated whether HiS and LoS rats also exhibit different behavioral signs of withdrawal following one or repeated opiate exposures. Methods Emotional signs of opiate withdrawal were assessed with potentiation of the acoustic startle reflex and conditioned place aversion (CPA) in male and female HiS and LoS rats. Startle was measured before and 4 h after a 10 mg/kg injection of morphine on days 1, 2, and 7 of opiate exposure. CPA was induced with a two-day, naloxone-precipitated conditioning paradigm. Somatic signs of withdrawal and weight loss were used also measured. Results Male and female LoS rats exhibited lower startle potentiation than HiS rats on the seventh day of morphine exposure. LoS male rats also failed to develop a CPA to morphine withdrawal. No differences in physical withdrawal signs were observed between HiS and LoS rats, but males of both lines had more physical signs of withdrawal than females. Conclusions These results suggest that LoS rats are less vulnerable to the negative emotional effects of morphine withdrawal than HiS rats. A less severe withdrawal syndrome may contribute to decreased levels of drug taking in the LoS line. PMID:23254375

  3. Cocaine self-administration punished by i.v. histamine in rat models of high and low drug abuse vulnerability: effects of saccharin preference, impulsivity, and sex.

    PubMed

    Holtz, Nathan A; Anker, Justin J; Regier, Paul S; Claxton, Alex; Carroll, Marilyn E

    2013-10-01

    A key feature of substance use disorders is continued drug consumption despite aversive consequences. This has been modeled in the animal laboratory by pairing drug self-administration with electric shock, thereby punishing drug intake (Deroche-Gamonet et al. 2004). In the present experiments, we examined the effects of punishment on i.v. cocaine self-administration by adding histamine to the cocaine solution with three different animal models of high and low vulnerability to drug abuse: rats selectively bred for high (HiS) and low (LoS) saccharin consumption, rats selected for high (HiI) and low (LoI) impulsivity, and sex differences. Animals were allowed to self-administer cocaine (0.4 mg/kg/infusion) to establish a baseline of operant responding. Histamine (4.0mg/kg/infusion) was then added directly into the cocaine solution and its consequent effects on self-administration were compared to baseline. The histamine+cocaine solution was then replaced with a cocaine-only solution, and the rats' operant responding was again compared to baseline. Concurrent histamine exposure was effective in reducing cocaine consumption in all groups of rats; however, LoS and female rats took longer to return to baseline levels of cocaine consumption after histamine was removed compared to HiS and male rats. These data suggest that the reduction of drug self-administration by aversive consequences may differ in groups that vary in drug use vulnerability . Such results may inform pharmacological strategies that enhance the negative aspects of drug consumption.

  4. Thermal analysis and FTIR spectral curve-fitting investigation of formation mechanism and stability of indomethacin-saccharin cocrystals via solid-state grinding process.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gang-Chun; Lin, Hong-Liang; Lin, Shan-Yang

    2012-07-01

    The cocrystal formation of indomethacin (IMC) and saccharin (SAC) by mechanical cogrinding or thermal treatment was investigated. The formation mechanism and stability of IMC-SAC cocrystal prepared by cogrinding process were explored. Typical IMC-SAC cocrystal was also prepared by solvent evaporation method. All the samples were identified and characterized by using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy with curve-fitting analysis. The physical stability of different IMC-SAC ground mixtures before and after storage for 7 months was examined. The results demonstrate that the stepwise measurements were carried out at specific intervals over a continuous cogrinding process showing a continuous growth in the cocrystal formation between IMC and SAC. The main IR spectral shifts from 3371 to 3,347 cm(-1) and 1693 to 1682 cm(-1) for IMC, as well as from 3094 to 3136 cm(-1) and 1718 to 1735 cm(-1) for SAC suggested that the OH and NH groups in both chemical structures were taken part in a hydrogen bonding, leading to the formation of IMC-SAC cocrystal. A melting at 184 °C for the 30-min IMC-SAC ground mixture was almost the same as the melting at 184 °C for the solvent-evaporated IMC-SAC cocrystal. The 30-min IMC-SAC ground mixture was also confirmed to have similar components and contents to that of the solvent-evaporated IMC-SAC cocrystal by using a curve-fitting analysis from IR spectra. The thermal-induced IMC-SAC cocrystal formation was also found to be dependent on the temperature treated. Different IMC-SAC ground mixtures after storage at 25 °C/40% RH condition for 7 months had an improved tendency of IMC-SAC cocrystallization.

  5. Immunopharmacologic profile of nedocromil sodium.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, S I

    1995-01-01

    Nedocromil sodium, a pyranoquinolone, was specifically designed as an agent to suppress allergic inflammation. Nedocromil sodium significantly affects not only the early-phase of allergen-induced responses, but also expression of late-phase inflammation, even when administered after the onset of early-phase responses. Nedocromil sodium also limits bronchoconstriction induced by nonallergic factors, including cold air and sulfur dioxide at dosages lower than required with cromolyn sodium. Nedocromil sodium is more potent than cromolyn sodium in preventing mast cell degranulation in selective animal models. In addition, nedocromil sodium limits leukotriene C4 production by calcium ionophore-stimulated eosinophils and also limits the activity of platelet activating factor to induce neutrophil generation of superoxides. Diurnal variation of peak flow rates in asthmatics and requirement for both beta 2-agonists and inhaled beclomethasone have been noted to be reduced in several trials employing nedocromil sodium, suggesting that its in vivo activity parallels its in vitro activity as an anti-inflammatory agent.

  6. 40 CFR 415.170 - Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. 415.170 Section 415.170 Protection of... MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Sodium Dichromate and Sodium Sulfate Production Subcategory § 415.170 Applicability; description of the sodium dichromate and sodium sulfate production subcategory. The provisions...

  7. Sodium fire testing: structural evaluation of sodium fire suppression system

    SciTech Connect

    1984-08-01

    This report describes the development and the lessons learned from the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Sodium Fire Testing Program (DRS 26.03). The purpose of this program was to evaluate the behavior of the Sodium Fire Suppression System and validate the analytical techniques used in the calculation of the effects of sodium fires in air-filled cells. This report focuses on the fire suppression capability and the structural integrity of the Fire Suppression System. System features are discussed; the test facility is described and the key results are provided. Modifications to the fire suppression system and the plant made as a result of test experience are also discussed.

  8. Abnormal membrane sodium transport in Liddle's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gardner, J D; Lapey, A; Simopoulos, P; Bravo, E L

    1971-11-01

    We have documented the presence of abnormal sodium transport in Liddle's syndrome by measuring sodium concentration, sodium influx, and fractional sodium outflux in vitro in erythrocytes from normal subjects, two patients with Liddle's syndrome, and one patient with primary hyperaldosteronism. Sodium influx and fractional sodium outflux, but not sodium concentration, were significantly increased in patients with Liddle's syndrome. Sodium outflux in a patient with primary hyperaldosteronism did not differ significantly from normal. These alterations of sodium transport in erythrocytes from patients with Liddle's syndrome were not attributable to circulating levels of aldosterone, renin, angiotensin, or serum potassium. Furthermore, changes in aldosterone secretory rate and levels of circulating renin produced by varying dietary sodium intake, did not alter sodium influx or fractional sodium outflux in either patients with Liddle's syndrome or normal subjects. The response of fractional sodium outflux and sodium influx to ouabain, ethacrynic acid, and to changes in the cation composition of the incubation medium suggests that the increased sodium fluxes in Liddle's syndrome do not result solely from a quantitative increase in those components of sodium transport which occur in normal human erythrocytes. Instead, at least a portion of the increased erythrocyte sodium transport in Liddle's syndrome represents a component of sodium transport which does not occur in normal human erythrocytes.

  9. Susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to the food preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su-Chen; Foster, Niki F; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important enteric pathogen of humans and food animals. Recently it has been isolated from retail foods with prevalences up to 42%, prompting concern that contaminated foods may be one of the reasons for increased community-acquired C. difficile infection (CA-CDI). A number of studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in raw meats and fresh vegetables; however, fewer studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in ready-to-eat meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of 11 C. difficile isolates of food animal and retail food origins to food preservatives commonly used in ready-to-eat meats. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite against C. difficile. Checkerboard assays were used to investigate the combined effect of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate, commonly used in combination in meats. Modal MIC values for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite were 250 μg/ml, >4000 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml, respectively. No bactericidal activity was observed for all three food preservatives. The checkerboard assays showed indifferent interaction between sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate. This study demonstrated that C. difficile can survive in the presence of food preservatives at concentrations higher than the current maximum permitted levels allowed in ready-to-eat meats. The possibility of retail ready-to-eat meats contaminated with C. difficile acting as a source of CDI needs to be investigated. PMID:26700884

  10. Susceptibility of Clostridium difficile to the food preservatives sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite.

    PubMed

    Lim, Su-Chen; Foster, Niki F; Riley, Thomas V

    2016-02-01

    Clostridium difficile is an important enteric pathogen of humans and food animals. Recently it has been isolated from retail foods with prevalences up to 42%, prompting concern that contaminated foods may be one of the reasons for increased community-acquired C. difficile infection (CA-CDI). A number of studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in raw meats and fresh vegetables; however, fewer studies have examined the prevalence of C. difficile in ready-to-eat meat. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro susceptibility of 11 C. difficile isolates of food animal and retail food origins to food preservatives commonly used in ready-to-eat meats. The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite against C. difficile. Checkerboard assays were used to investigate the combined effect of sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate, commonly used in combination in meats. Modal MIC values for sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate and sodium metabisulphite were 250 μg/ml, >4000 μg/ml and 1000 μg/ml, respectively. No bactericidal activity was observed for all three food preservatives. The checkerboard assays showed indifferent interaction between sodium nitrite and sodium nitrate. This study demonstrated that C. difficile can survive in the presence of food preservatives at concentrations higher than the current maximum permitted levels allowed in ready-to-eat meats. The possibility of retail ready-to-eat meats contaminated with C. difficile acting as a source of CDI needs to be investigated.

  11. Sodium MRI: Methods and applications

    PubMed Central

    Madelin, Guillaume; Lee, Jae-Seung; Regatte, Ravinder R.; Jerschow, Alexej

    2014-01-01

    Sodium NMR spectroscopy and MRI have become popular in recent years through the increased availability of high-field MRI scanners, advanced scanner hardware and improved methodology. Sodium MRI is being evaluated for stroke and tumor detection, for breast cancer studies, and for the assessment of osteoarthritis and muscle and kidney functions, to name just a few. In this article, we aim to present an up-to-date review of the theoretical background, the methodology, the challenges and limitations, and current and potential new applications of sodium MRI. PMID:24815363

  12. Teratogenicity of sodium valproate.

    PubMed

    Alsdorf, Rachel; Wyszynski, Diego F

    2005-03-01

    The teratogenicity of the widely popular antiepileptic drug (AED) and mood stabiliser sodium valproate (also known as valproate, VPA) has been evidenced by previous research; however, these findings have often been limited by a small population sample of exposed women and a retrospective study design. Many factors contribute to the teratogenicity of VPA. These include the number of drugs that are co-administered, drug dosage, differences in maternal and/or infant metabolism, the gestational age of the fetus at exposure, and hereditary susceptibility. VPA has been associated with a variety of major and minor malformations, including a 20-fold increase in neural tube defects, cleft lip and palate, cardiovascular abnormalities, genitourinary defects, developmental delay, endocrinological disorders, limb defects, and autism. It has been suggested that polytherapy treatment in epileptic pregnant women increases the risk of teratogenicity in offspring. Furthermore, there is an established relationship between VPA dose and adverse outcome. Large single doses of VPA potentially cause high peak levels in the fetal serum resulting in deleterious effects. Currently there is an increase in the number of national and international pregnancy registries being formed in an effort to better identify the teratogenic effects of AEDs. These efforts hope to enhance our understanding of AEDs and their associated risks by addressing past study limitations.

  13. CALANDRIA TYPE SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR

    DOEpatents

    Peterson, R.M.; Mahlmeister, J.E.; Vaughn, N.E.; Sanders, W.J.; Williams, A.C.

    1964-02-11

    A sodium graphite power reactor in which the unclad graphite moderator and fuel elements are contained within a core tank is described. The core tank is submersed in sodium within the reactor vessel. Extending longitudinally through the core thnk are process tubes with fuel elements positioned therein. A bellows sealing means allows axial expansion and construction of the tubes. Within the core tank, a leakage plenum is located below the graphite, and above the graphite is a gas space. A vent line regulates the gas pressure in the space, and another line removes sodium from the plenum. The sodium coolant flows from the lower reactor vessel through the annular space between the fuel elements and process tubes and out into the reactor vessel space above the core tank. From there, the heated coolant is drawn off through an outlet line and sent to the heat exchange. (AEC)

  14. Catalyst for sodium chlorate decomposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, T.

    1972-01-01

    Production of oxygen by rapid decomposition of cobalt oxide and sodium chlorate mixture is discussed. Cobalt oxide serves as catalyst to accelerate reaction. Temperature conditions and chemical processes involved are described.

  15. Stability of Ampicillin Sodium, Nafcillin Sodium, And Oxacillin Sodium in AutoDose Infusion System Bags.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanping; Trissel, Lawrence A

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical and chemical stability of ampicillin sodium 1g/100mL, nafcillin sodium 1g/100mL, and oxacillin sodium 1g/100mL, each of which was admixed in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and packaged in an AutoDose Infusion System bag. Triplicate test samples were prepared by reconstituting the penicillin antibiotics and bringing the required amount of each drug to a final volume of 100 mL with 0.9% sodium chloride injection. The test solutions were packaged in AutoDose Bags, which are ethylene vinyl acetate plastic containers designed for use in the AutoDose Infusion System. Samples were stored protected from light and were evaluated at appropriate intervals for up to 7 days at 23 deg C and up to 30 days at 4 deg C. Physical stability was assessed by means of a multistep evaluation procedure that included both turbidimetric and particulate measurement as well as visual inspection. Chemical stability was assesed with stability-indicating high-perofrmance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analytical techniques based on the determination of drug concentrations initially and at appropriate intervals over the study periods. All the penicillin admixtures were initially clear when viewed in normal fluorescent room light. When the admixtures were viewed with a Tyndall beam, a trace haze was observed with the ampicillin sodium and nafcillin sodium mixtures but not with the oxacillin sodium mixture. Measured turbidity and particulate content were low and exhibited little change in the ampicillin sodium and oxacillin sodium samples throughout the study. The nafcillin sodium samples stored at room temperature remained clear, but a microprecipitate developed in the refrigerated samples between 14 and 21 days of storage. All samples were essentially colorless throughout the study. HPLC analysis indicated some decomposition in the samples. Ampicillin sodium, which was the least stable, exhibited a 10% loss after 24 hours at 23 deg C. In the

  16. Dietary sodium and cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Andrew; O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2015-06-01

    Although an essential nutrient, higher sodium intake is associated with increasing blood pressure (BP), forming the basis for current population-wide sodium restriction guidelines. While short-term clinical trials have achieved low intake (<2.0 g/day), this has not been reproduced in long-term trials (>6 months). Guidelines assume that low sodium intake will reduce BP and reduce cardiovascular disease (CVD), compared to moderate intake. However, current observational evidence suggests a J-shaped association between sodium intake and CVD; the lowest risks observed with 3-5 g/day but higher risk with <3 g/day. Importantly, these observational data also confirm the association between higher intake (>5 g/day) and increased risk of CVD. Although lower intake may reduce BP, this may be offset by marked increases in neurohormones and other adverse effects which may paradoxically be adverse. Large randomised clinical trials with sufficient follow-up are required to provide robust data on the long-term effects of sodium reduction on CVD incidence. Until such trials are completed, current evidence suggests that moderate sodium intake for the general population (3-5 g/day) is likely the optimum range for CVD prevention.

  17. The capsaicin receptor participates in artificial sweetener aversion.

    PubMed

    Riera, Céline E; Vogel, Horst; Simon, Sidney A; Damak, Sami; le Coutre, Johannes

    2008-11-28

    Artificial sweeteners such as saccharin, aspartame, acesulfame-K, and cyclamate produce at high concentrations an unpleasant after-taste that is generally attributed to bitter and metallic taste sensations. To identify receptors involved with the complex perception of the above compounds, preference tests were performed in wild-type mice and mice lacking the TRPV1 channel or the T1R3 receptor, the latter being necessary for the perception of sweet taste. The sweeteners, including cyclamate, displayed a biphasic response profile, with the T1R3 mediated component implicated in preference. At high concentrations imparting off-taste, omission of TRPV1 reduced aversion. In a heterologous expression system the Y511A point mutation in the vanilloid pocket of TRPV1 did not affect saccharin and aspartame responses but abolished cyclamate and acesulfame-K activities. The results rationalize artificial sweetener tastes and off-tastes by showing that at low concentrations, these molecules stimulate the gustatory system through the hedonically positive T1R3 pathway, and at higher concentrations, their aversion is partly mediated by TRPV1.

  18. Determination of artificial sweeteners by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection optimized by hydrodynamic pumping.

    PubMed

    Stojkovic, Marko; Mai, Thanh Duc; Hauser, Peter C

    2013-07-17

    The common sweeteners aspartame, cyclamate, saccharin and acesulfame K were determined by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection. In order to obtain the best compromise between separation efficiency and analysis time hydrodynamic pumping was imposed during the electrophoresis run employing a sequential injection manifold based on a syringe pump. Band broadening was avoided by using capillaries of a narrow 10 μm internal diameter. The analyses were carried out in an aqueous running buffer consisting of 150 mM 2-(cyclohexylamino)ethanesulfonic acid and 400 mM tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane at pH 9.1 in order to render all analytes in the fully deprotonated anionic form. The use of surface modification to eliminate or reverse the electroosmotic flow was not necessary due to the superimposed bulk flow. The use of hydrodynamic pumping allowed easy optimization, either for fast separations (80s) or low detection limits (6.5 μmol L(-1), 5.0 μmol L(-1), 4.0 μmol L(-1) and 3.8 μmol L(-1) for aspartame, cyclamate, saccharin and acesulfame K respectively, at a separation time of 190 s). The conditions for fast separations not only led to higher limits of detection but also to a narrower dynamic range. However, the settings can be changed readily between separations if needed. The four compounds were determined successfully in food samples.

  19. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  20. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  1. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  2. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  3. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown...

  8. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  9. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  10. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  11. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2727 Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance. This substance is generally recognized...

  12. 21 CFR 178.3900 - Sodium pentachlorophenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium pentachlorophenate. 178.3900 Section 178... § 178.3900 Sodium pentachlorophenate. Sodium pentachlorophenate may be safely used as a preservative for... temperature. The quantity of sodium pentachlorophenate used shall not exceed 0.5 percent by weight of...

  13. 21 CFR 182.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium aluminosilicate. 182.2727 Section 182.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  14. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  15. 21 CFR 582.1745 - Sodium carboxymethylcellulose.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. 582.1745 Section... Food Additives § 582.1745 Sodium carboxymethylcellulose. (a) Product. Sodium carboxymethyl- cellulose is the sodium salt of carboxymethylcellulose not less than 99.5 percent on a dry-weight basis,...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1724 - Sodium alginate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium alginate. 184.1724 Section 184.1724 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1724 Sodium alginate. (a) Sodium alginate (CAS Reg. No. 9005-38-3) is the sodium salt of alginic acid, a natural polyuronide constituent of certain brown...

  17. 21 CFR 582.2727 - Sodium aluminosilicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium aluminosilicate. 582.2727 Section 582.2727 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium aluminosilicate. (a) Product. Sodium aluminosilicate (sodium silicoaluminate). (b) Tolerance....

  18. Are Reductions in Population Sodium Intake Achievable?

    PubMed Central

    Levings, Jessica L.; Cogswell, Mary E.; Gunn, Janelle Peralez

    2014-01-01

    The vast majority of Americans consume too much sodium, primarily from packaged and restaurant foods. The evidence linking sodium intake with direct health outcomes indicates a positive relationship between higher levels of sodium intake and cardiovascular disease risk, consistent with the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure. Despite communication and educational efforts focused on lowering sodium intake over the last three decades data suggest average US sodium intake has remained remarkably elevated, leading some to argue that current sodium guidelines are unattainable. The IOM in 2010 recommended gradual reductions in the sodium content of packaged and restaurant foods as a primary strategy to reduce US sodium intake, and research since that time suggests gradual, downward shifts in mean population sodium intake are achievable and can move the population toward current sodium intake guidelines. The current paper reviews recent evidence indicating: (1) significant reductions in mean population sodium intake can be achieved with gradual sodium reduction in the food supply, (2) gradual sodium reduction in certain cases can be achieved without a noticeable change in taste or consumption of specific products, and (3) lowering mean population sodium intake can move us toward meeting the current individual guidelines for sodium intake. PMID:25325254

  19. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No....

  20. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No....

  1. 21 CFR 184.1784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... It is prepared by neutralizing propionic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredients meets the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 184.1784 Section 184.1784 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1784 Sodium propionate. (a) Sodium propionate (C3H5NaO2, CAS...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... It is prepared by neutralizing propionic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredients meets the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium propionate. 184.1784 Section 184.1784 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1784 Sodium propionate. (a) Sodium propionate (C3H5NaO2, CAS...

  3. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2,...

  4. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels from... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS Reg. No....

  5. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is used at levels from 125 to 250... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2, CAS Reg. No. 7758-19-2) exists...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... It is prepared by neutralizing propionic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredients meets the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 184.1784 Section 184.1784 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1784 Sodium propionate. (a) Sodium propionate (C3H5NaO2, CAS...

  7. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2,...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... It is prepared by neutralizing propionic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredients meets the... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 184.1784 Section 184.1784 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1784 Sodium propionate. (a) Sodium propionate (C3H5NaO2, CAS...

  9. 21 CFR 186.1750 - Sodium chlorite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... passing chlorine dioxide into a solution of sodium hydroxide and hydrogen peroxide. (b) the ingredient is... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium chlorite. 186.1750 Section 186.1750 Food... of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1750 Sodium chlorite. (a) Sodium chlorite (NaCLO2,...

  10. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No....

  11. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... crystalline powder. It is prepared by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No....

  12. 21 CFR 186.1797 - Sodium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... by the neutralization of sulfuric acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient is used as a... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfate. 186.1797 Section 186.1797 Food and....1797 Sodium sulfate. (a) Sodium sulfate (Na2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7757-82-6), also known as Glauber's...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as a pH...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as a pH...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as a pH...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No... empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium hydroxide is prepared commercially by the electrolysis of sodium chloride... following current good manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as a pH...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1763 - Sodium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... GRAS § 184.1763 Sodium hydroxide. (a) Sodium hydroxide (NaOH, CAS Reg. No. 1310-73-2) is also known as sodium hydrate, soda lye, caustic soda, white caustic, and lye. The empirical formula is NaOH. Sodium... manufacturing practice conditions of use: (1) The ingredient is used as a pH control agent as defined in §...

  18. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not...

  19. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not...

  20. 21 CFR 172.175 - Sodium nitrite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... sodium nitrate, in smoked, cured sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad so that the level of sodium nitrite does not exceed 200 parts per million and the level of sodium nitrate does not... sodium nitrate, in meat-curing preparations for the home curing of meat and meat products...

  1. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not...

  2. 21 CFR 172.170 - Sodium nitrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium nitrate. 172.170 Section 172.170 Food and... Preservatives § 172.170 Sodium nitrate. The food additive sodium nitrate may be safely used in or on specified... sablefish, smoked, cured salmon, and smoked, cured shad, so that the level of sodium nitrate does not...

  3. Effects of intense sweeteners on hunger, food intake, and body weight: a review.

    PubMed

    Rolls, B J

    1991-04-01

    The sweet taste of aspartame, saccharin, and acesulfame-K has been reported to increase ratings of hunger and, after saccharin consumption, to increase food intake. However, most investigators have found that aspartame consumption is associated with decreased or unchanged ratings of hunger. Even if aspartame consumption increases ratings of hunger in some situations, it apparently has little impact on the controls of food intake and body weight. Aspartame has not been found to increase food intake; indeed, both short-term and long-term studies have shown that consumption of aspartame-sweetened foods or drinks is associated with either no change or a reduction in food intake. Preliminary clinical trials suggest that aspartame may be useful aid in a complete diet-and-exercise program or in weight maintenance. Intense sweeteners have never been found to cause weight gain in humans.

  4. The metabolism of intense sweeteners.

    PubMed

    Renwick, A G

    1986-01-01

    Three organic acids (saccharin, acesulfame-K and cyclamate) are used or have been used extensively as intense sweeteners. Once absorbed from the gut they are eliminated, largely in the urine, without undergoing metabolism. Early studies using radiolabelled saccharin indicated the existence of limited metabolism, but this was not confirmed by later more extensive studies using highly purified compound. Metabolism could not be induced by a variety of pretreatments. Following an initial report of the presence of traces of cyclohexylamine in the urines of subjects given cyclamate, it was shown that chronic administration of the sweetener caused the induction of extensive metabolism. The metabolism, which showed wide inter- and intra-individual variability was performed the gut microflora. The peptide sweeteners (aspartame and thaumatin) are metabolized to their constituent amino acids in the gastro intestinal tract, prior to absorption. As such they are incorporated into normal intermediary metabolism and their low-calorie applications derive from their intense sweetness.

  5. The sweet taste in the calf. II. Glossopharyngeal nerve responses to taste stimulation of the tongue.

    PubMed

    Hård af Segerstad, C H; Hellekant, G

    1989-05-01

    Recordings were obtained from the glossopharyngeal nerve in 1-5-week-old calves during stimulation of the circumvallate tongue area with NaCl, quinine hydrochloride, citric acid, and the sweet compounds: acesulfam-K, aspartame, fructose, galactose, glucose, glycine, lactose, maltose, monellin, Na-saccharin, sucrose, thaumatin, and xylitol. All compounds except aspartame, monellin and thaumatin gave a nerve response. Glycine, followed by Na-saccharin, elicited the largest responses. Sucrose gave the largest response among the disaccharides, while there was no significant difference between the monosaccharides. Expressed as percent of the NaCl responses, the responses to glycine, sucrose, xylitol, fructose, galactose, glucose, lactose and maltose were considerably larger in the glossopharyngeal nerve than in the chorda tympani nerve. This can be taken as an indication that the posterior region of the tongue serves as the major receptive area for sweet in cattle.

  6. Insect sodium channels and insecticide resistance

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Voltage-gated sodium channels are essential for the generation and propagation of action potentials (i.e., electrical impulses) in excitable cells. Although most of our knowledge about sodium channels is derived from decades of studies of mammalian isoforms, research on insect sodium channels is revealing both common and unique aspects of sodium channel biology. In particular, our understanding of the molecular dynamics and pharmacology of insect sodium channels has advanced greatly in recent years, thanks to successful functional expression of insect sodium channels in Xenopus oocytes and intensive efforts to elucidate the molecular basis of insect resistance to insecticides that target sodium channels. In this review, I discuss recent literature on insect sodium channels with emphases on the prominent role of alternative splicing and RNA editing in the generation of functionally diverse sodium channels in insects and the current understanding of the interactions between insect sodium channels and insecticides. PMID:17206406

  7. 21 CFR 522.2444b - Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2444b Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection. (a) Specifications. Each gram of the drug contains 750 milligrams of sodium thiopental and 250 milligrams of...

  8. 21 CFR 522.2444b - Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for... FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.2444b Sodium thiopental, sodium pentobarbital for injection. (a) Specifications. Each gram of the drug contains 750 milligrams of sodium thiopental and 250 milligrams of...

  9. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material other than sodium, sulfur or sodium compounds...

  10. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material other than sodium, sulfur or sodium compounds...

  11. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material other than sodium, sulfur or sodium compounds...

  12. 49 CFR 173.189 - Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Batteries containing sodium or cells containing... Than Class 1 and Class 7 § 173.189 Batteries containing sodium or cells containing sodium. (a) Batteries and cells may not contain any hazardous material other than sodium, sulfur or sodium compounds...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  18. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  19. Long term dietary methoxychlor exposure in rats increases sodium solution consumption but has few effects on other sexually dimorphic behaviors.

    PubMed

    Flynn, K M; Delclos, K B; Newbold, R R; Ferguson, S A

    2005-09-01

    Methoxychlor is an insecticide with estrogen-like activity, thus exposure during development might cause sexually dimorphic behavioral alterations. To evaluate this, pregnant rats consumed diets containing 0, 10, 100 or 1000 ppm methoxychlor from gestational day 7, and offspring continued on these diets until postnatal day (PND) 77. Assessments of sexually dimorphic behaviors in offspring indicated that intake of a 3.0% sodium chloride solution was significantly increased (41%) in males and females of the 1000 ppm group. No treatment group differed from controls in open field nor running wheel activity, play behavior, nor 0.3% saccharin solution intake. Offspring of the 1000 ppm group showed significantly decreased body weight, reaching 17% less than controls at PND 77, but not clearly related to their salt solution intake. During pregnancy, 1000 ppm dams consumed 23% less food and weighed 10% less than controls, but this did not affect litter outcomes. These results indicate that in rodents, developmental and chronic exposure to dietary methoxychlor alters the sexually dimorphic behavior of salt-solution intake in young adults of both sexes. Similar behavioral alterations with other xenoestrogens, and the potential for interactions among xenoestrogens, suggest that this report may minimize the true effects of dietary methoxychlor exposure.

  20. Hydrogen Generation Via Sodium Borohydride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohring, Richard M.; Wu, Ying

    2003-07-01

    Along with the technological challenges associated with developing fuel cells and hydrogen burning engines, a major issue that must be addressed to ensure the ultimate success of a hydrogen economy is the ability to store and transport hydrogen effectively. Millennium Cell has developed and patented a proprietary system for storing and generating hydrogen gas called Hydrogen on Demand™. The system releases the hydrogen stored in fuel solutions of sodium borohydride as needed through an easily controllable catalytic process. The fuel itself is water-based, rich in hydrogen content, and non-flammable. It can be stored in plastic containers under no pressure. After the hydrogen from the fuel is consumed, the remaining product, sodium metaborate (chemically similar to borax), can be recycled back into fresh fuel. In this paper, an overview of the Hydrogen on Demand™ technology is presented along with data showing the performance characteristics of practical hydrogen generation systems. A brief discussion of sodium borohydride regeneration chemistry is also provided.

  1. Voltage-Gated Sodium Channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanck, Dorothy A.; Fozzard, Harry A.

    Voltage-gated sodium channels subserve regenerative excitation throughout the nervous system, as well as in skeletal and cardiac muscle. This excitation results from a voltage-dependent mechanism that increases regeneratively and selectively the sodium conductance of the channel e-fold for a 4-7 mV depolarization of the membrane with time constants in the range of tens of microseconds. Entry of Na+ into the cell without a companion anion depolarizes the cell. This depolarization, called the action potential, is propagated at rates of 1-20 meters/sec. In nerve it subserves rapid transmission of information and, in muscle cells, coordinates the trigger for contraction. Sodium-dependent action potentials depolarize the membrane to inside positive values of about 30-40 mV (approaching the electrochemical potential for the transmembrane sodium gradient). Repolarization to the resting potential (usually between -60 and -90 mV) occurs because of inactivation (closure) of sodium channels, which is assisted in different tissues by variable amounts of activation of voltage-gated potassium channels. This sequence results in all-or-nothing action potentials in nerve and fast skeletal muscle of 1-2 ms duration, and in heart muscle of 100-300 ms duration. Recovery of regenerative excitation, i.e., recovery of the ability of sodium channels to open, occurs after restoration of the resting potential with time constants of a few to several hundreds of milliseconds, depending on the channel isoform, and this rate controls the minimum interval for repetitive action potentials (refractory period).

  2. Tremor due to sodium valproate.

    PubMed

    Hyman, N M; Dennis, P D; Sinclair, K G

    1979-08-01

    Four patients developed postural tremor after ingestion of sodium valproate. The tremor was recorded by a variable-capacitance transducer and was of the "benign essential" type. The dosages of sodium valproate varied between 1000 mg and 2000 mg daily and serum levels were between 34.9 microgram per milliliter and 154.3 microgram per milliliter. Tremor was ameliorated in two cases when the dosage was reduced. In only one case was the serum level in the toxic range for our laboratory. The pharmacology of essential tremor is unknown; production of a similar tremor by a drug could serve as a biochemical model. PMID:379690

  3. In situ Microscopic Observation of Sodium Deposition/Dissolution on Sodium Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Yui, Yuhki; Hayashi, Masahiko; Nakamura, Jiro

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical sodium deposition/dissolution behaviors in propylene carbonate-based electrolyte solution were observed by means of in situ light microscopy. First, granular sodium was deposited at pits in a sodium electrode in the cathodic process. Then, the sodium particles grew linearly from the electrode surface, becoming needle-like in shape. In the subsequent anodic process, the sodium dissolved near the base of the needles on the sodium electrode and the so-called “dead sodium” broke away from the electrode. The mechanisms of electrochemical sodium deposition and dissolution on a copper electrode were similar to those on the sodium electrode. PMID:26925554

  4. Intra-nucleus accumbens shell injections of R(+)- and S(-)-baclofen bidirectionally alter binge-like ethanol, but not saccharin, intake in C57Bl/6J mice.

    PubMed

    Kasten, Chelsea R; Boehm, Stephen L

    2014-10-01

    The GABAB agonist baclofen has been widely researched clinically and preclinically as a treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). However, the efficacy of baclofen remains uncertain. The clinically used racemic compound can be separated into separate enantiomers. These enantiomers have produced different profiles in behavioral assays, with the S- compound often being ineffective compared to the R- compound, or the S- compound antagonizing the effects of the R- compound. We have previously demonstrated that the R(+)-baclofen enantiomer decreases binge-like ethanol intake in the Drinking-in-the-Dark (DID) paradigm, whereas the S(-)-baclofen enantiomer increases ethanol intake. One area implicated in drug abuse is the nucleus accumbens shell (NACsh).The current study sought to define the role of the NACsh in the enantioselective effects of baclofen on binge-like ethanol consumption by directly microinjecting each enantiomer into the structure. Following bilateral cannulation of the NACsh, C57Bl/6J mice were given 5 days of access to ethanol or saccharin for 2h, 3h into the dark cycle. On Day 5 mice were given an injection of aCSF, 0.02 R(+)-, 0.04R(+)-, 0.08 S(-)-, or 0.16 S(-)-baclofen (μg/side dissolved in 200nl of aCSF). It was found that the R(+)-baclofen dose-dependently decreased ethanol consumption, whereas the high S(-)-baclofen dose increased ethanol consumption, compared to the aCSF group. Saccharin consumption was not affected. These results further confirm that GABAB receptors and the NACsh shell are integral in mediating ethanol intake. They also demonstrate that baclofen displays bidirectional, enantioselective effects which are important when considering therapeutic uses of the drug.

  5. Resolution of an intense sweetener mixture by use of a flow injection sensor with on-line solid-phase extraction. Application to saccharin and aspartame in sweets and drinks.

    PubMed

    Capitán-Vallvey, L F; Valencia, M C; Arana Nicolás, E; García-Jiménez, J F

    2006-05-01

    An integrated solid-phase spectrophotometry-FIA method is proposed for simultaneous determination of the mixture of saccharin (1,2-benzisothiazol-3(2H)-one-1,1-dioxide; E-954) (SA) and aspartame (N-L-alpha-aspartyl-L-phenylalanine-1-methyl ester; E-951) (AS). The procedure is based on on-line preconcentration of AS on a C18 silica gel minicolumn and separation from SA, followed by measurement, at lambda = 210 nm, of the absorbance of SA which is transiently retained on the adsorbent Sephadex G-25 placed in the flow-through cell of a monochannel FIA setup using pH 3.0 orthophosphoric acid-dihydrogen phosphate buffer, 3.75x10(-3) mol L(-1), as carrier. Subsequent desorption of AS with methanol enables its determination at lambda = 205 nm. With a sampling frequency of 10 h(-1), the applicable concentration range, the detection limit, and the relative standard deviation were from 1.0 to 200.0 microg mL(-1), 0.30 microg mL(-1), and 1.0% (80 microg mL(-1), n = 10), respectively, for SA and from 10.0 to 200.0 microg mL(-1), 1.4 microg mL(-1), and 1.6% (100 microg mL(-1), n = 10) for AS. The method was used to determine the amounts of aspartame and saccharin in sweets and drinks. Recovery was always between 99 and 101%. The method enabled satisfactory determination of blends of SA and AS in low-calorie and dietary products and the results were compared with those from an HPLC reference method.

  6. Intra-nucleus accumbens shell injections of R(+)- and S(-)-baclofen bidirectionally alter binge-like ethanol, but not saccharin, intake in C57Bl/6J mice

    PubMed Central

    Kasten, Chelsea R.; Boehm, Stephen L.

    2014-01-01

    The GABAB agonist baclofen has been widely researched clinically and preclinically as a treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUDs). However, the efficacy of baclofen remains uncertain. The clinically used racemic compound can be separated into separate enantiomers. These enantiomers have produced different profiles in behavioral assays, with the S- compound often being ineffective compared to the R- compound, or the S- compound antagonizing the effects of the R- compound. We have previously demonstrated that the R(+)-baclofen enantiomer decreases binge-like ethanol intake in the Drinking-in-the-Dark (DID) paradigm, whereas the S(-)-baclofen enantiomer increases ethanol intake. One area implicated in drug abuse is the nucleus accumbens shell (NACsh).The current study sought to define the role of the NACsh in the enantioselective effects of baclofen on binge-like ethanol consumption by directly microinjecting each enantiomer into the structure. Following bilateral cannulation of the NACsh, C57Bl/6J mice were given 5 days of access to ethanol or saccharin for 2 hours, 3 hours into the dark cycle. On Day 5 mice were given an injection of aCSF, 0.02 R(+)-, 0.04R(+)-, 0.08 S(-)-, or 0.16 S(-)-baclofen (μg/side dissolved in 200nl of aCSF). It was found that the R(+)-baclofen dose-dependently decreased ethanol consumption, whereas the high S(-)-baclofen dose increased ethanol consumption, compared to the aCSF group. Saccharin consumption was not affected. These results further confirm that GABAB receptors and the NACsh shell are integral in mediating ethanol intake. They also demonstrate that baclofen displays bidirectional, enantioselective effects which are important when considering therapeutic uses of the drug. PMID:25026094

  7. SIMPLIFIED SODIUM GRAPHITE REACTOR SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Dickinson, R.W.

    1963-03-01

    This patent relates to a nuclear power reactor comprising a reactor vessel, shielding means positioned at the top of said vessel, means sealing said reactor vessel to said shielding means, said vessel containing a quantity of sodium, a core tank, unclad graphite moderator disposed in said tank, means including a plurality of process tubes traversing said tank for isolating said graphite from said sodium, fuel elements positioned in said process tubes, said core tank being supported in spaced relation to the walls and bottom of said reactor vessel and below the level of said sodium, neutron shielding means positioned adjacent said core tank between said core tank and the walls of said vessel, said neutron shielding means defining an annuiar volume adjacent the inside wall of said reactor vessel, inlet plenum means below said core tank for providing a passage between said annular volume and said process tubes, heat exchanger means removably supported from the first-named shielding means and positioned in said annular volume, and means for circulating said sodium over said neutron shielding means down through said heat exchanger, across said inlet plenum and upward through said process tubes, said last-named means including electromagnetic pumps located outside said vessel and supported on said vessel wall between said heat exchanger means and said inlet plenum means. (AEC)

  8. Borocaptate sodium (BSH) toxicity issues

    SciTech Connect

    LaHann, T.

    1995-11-01

    ISU`s Center for Toxicology Research has been conducting toxicity testing of borocaptate sodium (BSH) to aid in assessing if proposed human studies of BSH are likely to be acceptably safe. This report describes BSH interactions with other biological agents.

  9. Seal for sodium sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Topouzian, Armenag; Minck, Robert W.; Williams, William J.

    1980-01-01

    This invention is directed to a seal for a sodium sulfur battery in which the sealing is accomplished by a radial compression seal made on a ceramic component of the battery which separates an anode compartment from a cathode compartment of the battery.

  10. Volume efficient sodium sulfur battery

    DOEpatents

    Mikkor, Mati

    1980-01-01

    In accordance with the teachings of this specification, a sodium sulfur battery is formed as follows. A plurality of box shaped sulfur electrodes are provided, the outer surfaces of which are defined by an electrolyte material. Each of the electrodes have length and width dimensions substantially greater than the thicknesses thereof as well as upwardly facing surface and a downwardly facing surface. An electrode structure is contained in each of the sulfur electrodes. A holding structure is provided for holding the plurality of sulfur electrodes in a stacked condition with the upwardly facing surface of one sulfur electrode in facing relationship to the downwardly facing surface of another sulfur electrode thereabove. A small thickness dimension separates each of the stacked electrodes thereby defining between each pair of sulfur electrodes a volume which receives the sodium reactant. A reservoir is provided for containing sodium. A manifold structure interconnects the volumes between the sulfur electrodes and the reservoir. A metering structure controls the flow of sodium between the reservoir and the manifold structure.

  11. 21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5772 Sodium pantothenate. (a) Product. Sodium pantothenate. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  13. 21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5772 Sodium pantothenate. (a) Product. Sodium pantothenate. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  15. 21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5772 Sodium pantothenate. (a) Product. Sodium pantothenate. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 582.5778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  17. 21 CFR 582.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or... feeding practice, except that it is not used in meats or in food recognized as source of vitamin B1....

  18. 21 CFR 582.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....3739 Sodium bisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation... feeding practice, except that it is not used in meats or in food recognized as source of vitamin B1....

  19. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This... practice, except that it is not used in meats or in food recognized as source of vitamin B1....

  20. 21 CFR 184.1754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 184.1754 Section 184.1754 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1754 Sodium diacetate. (a) Sodium diacetate (C4H7O4Na·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 126-96-5) is a molecular compound of acetic acid, sodium acetate, and water of hydration....

  1. 21 CFR 184.1754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 184.1754 Section 184.1754 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1754 Sodium diacetate. (a) Sodium diacetate (C4H7O4Na·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 126-96-5) is a molecular compound of acetic acid, sodium acetate, and water of hydration....

  2. 21 CFR 184.1754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 184.1754 Section 184.1754 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1754 Sodium diacetate. (a) Sodium diacetate (C4H7O4Na·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 126-96-5) is a molecular compound of acetic acid, sodium acetate, and water of hydration....

  3. 21 CFR 184.1754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 184.1754 Section 184.1754 Food... GRAS § 184.1754 Sodium diacetate. (a) Sodium diacetate (C4H7O4Na·xH2O, CAS Reg. No. 126-96-5) is a molecular compound of acetic acid, sodium acetate, and water of hydration. The technical grade is...

  4. Liquid sodium dip seal maintenance system

    DOEpatents

    Briggs, Richard L.; Meacham, Sterling A.

    1980-01-01

    A system for spraying liquid sodium onto impurities associated with liquid dip seals of nuclear reactors. The liquid sodium mixing with the impurities dissolves the impurities in the liquid sodium. The liquid sodium having dissolved and diluted the impurities carries the impurities away from the site thereby cleaning the liquid dip seal and surrounding area. The system also allows wetting of the metallic surfaces of the dip seal thereby reducing migration of radioactive particles across the wetted boundary.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium citrate. 184.1751 Section 184.1751 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Sodium citrate (C6H5Na3O7·2H2O, CAS Reg. No. 68... may be prepared in an anhydrous state or may contain two moles of water per mole of sodium citrate....

  6. 21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium formate. 186.1756 Section 186.1756 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1756 Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2, CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for its intended use. (c) In accordance... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3)...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... hydroxide or sodium carbonate. The product occurs as colorless crystals or a white crystalline powder. It... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 184.1751 Section 184.1751 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Sodium citrate (C6H5Na3O7·2H2O, CAS Reg. No....

  9. 21 CFR 186.1770 - Sodium oleate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium oleate. 186.1770 Section 186.1770 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1770 Sodium oleate. (a) Sodium oleate (C18H33O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 143-19-1) is the sodium salt of oleic acid (cis-9-octadecenoic acid). It exists as a white to yellowish...

  10. 21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium formate. 186.1756 Section 186.1756 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1756 Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2, CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for its intended use. (c) In accordance... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3)...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for its intended use. (c) In accordance... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3)...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient must be of a purity suitable for its intended use. (c) In accordance... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3)...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... neutralizing propionic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b) The ingredients meets the specifications of the Food... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 184.1784 Section 184.1784 Food... GRAS § 184.1784 Sodium propionate. (a) Sodium propionate (C3H5NaO2, CAS Reg. No. 137-40-6) is...

  15. 21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium formate. 186.1756 Section 186.1756 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1756 Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2, CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with...

  16. 21 CFR 186.1756 - Sodium formate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium formate. 186.1756 Section 186.1756 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 186.1756 Sodium formate. (a) Sodium formate (CHNaO2, CAS Reg. No. 141-53-7) is the sodium salt of formic acid. It is produced by the reaction of carbon monoxide with...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3 or C2H3O2Na·3H2O, CAS Reg. No. 6131-90-4) is the sodium salt of acetic acid and occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues....

  18. 21 CFR 582.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium metabisulfite. 582.3766 Section 582.3766 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions,...

  19. 21 CFR 182.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 182.6760 Section 182.6760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 582.1792 Section 582.1792 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) Conditions of...

  3. 21 CFR 556.620 - Sulfabromomethazine sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfabromomethazine sodium. 556.620 Section 556... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.620 Sulfabromomethazine sodium. Tolerances for residues of sulfabromomethazine sodium in food are established as follows: (a) In the uncooked edible tissues of cattle at...

  4. 21 CFR 582.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sorbate. 582.3795 Section 582.3795 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.1751 Section 582.1751 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.3739 - Sodium bisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium bisulfite. 582.3739 Section 582.3739 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3739 Sodium bisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium bisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or...

  7. 21 CFR 582.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 582.6757 Section 582.6757 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 182.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.6810 Section 182.6810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  10. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  11. 21 CFR 182.3766 - Sodium metabisulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium metabisulfite. 182.3766 Section 182.3766...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3766 Sodium metabisulfite. (a) Product. Sodium metabisulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 582.6760 Section 582.6760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  13. 21 CFR 182.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.6810 Section 182.6810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  14. 21 CFR 582.6754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 582.6754 Section 582.6754 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium diacetate. (a) Product. Sodium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 556.620 - Sulfabromomethazine sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfabromomethazine sodium. 556.620 Section 556... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.620 Sulfabromomethazine sodium. Tolerances for residues of sulfabromomethazine sodium in food are established as follows: (a) In the uncooked edible tissues of cattle at...

  16. 21 CFR 582.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium ascorbate. 582.3731 Section 582.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3731 Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  17. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  18. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-,...

  19. 40 CFR 721.9526 - Sodium perthiocarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Sodium perthiocarbonate. 721.9526... Substances § 721.9526 Sodium perthiocarbonate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as sodium perthiocarbonate (PMN P-94-2166) is subject...

  20. 21 CFR 182.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 182.6757 Section 182.6757 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6757 Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  1. 21 CFR 582.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 582.6769 Section 582.6769 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.1810 Section 582.1810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  3. 21 CFR 582.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 582.6787 Section 582.6787 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Condition of use. This substance...

  4. 21 CFR 522.1610 - Oleate sodium.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Oleate sodium. 522.1610 Section 522.1610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... sodium. (a) Specifications. Each milliliter of solution contains 50 milligrams (mg) of sodium oleate....

  5. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  6. 21 CFR 182.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.1810 Section 182.1810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  7. 21 CFR 582.3784 - Sodium propionate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium propionate. 582.3784 Section 582.3784 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3784 Sodium propionate. (a) Product. Sodium propionate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 582.1742 Section 582.1742 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Product. Sodium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1775 - Sodium pectinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium pectinate. 582.1775 Section 582.1775 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1775 Sodium pectinate. (a) Product. Sodium pectinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.6801 - Sodium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium tartrate. 582.6801 Section 582.6801 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 182.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sorbate. 182.3795 Section 182.3795 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3795 Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  12. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  13. 21 CFR 582.6807 - Sodium thiosulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium thiosulfate. 582.6807 Section 582.6807 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium thiosulfate. (a) Product. Sodium thiosulfate. (b) Tolerance. 0.1 percent. (c)...

  14. 21 CFR 173.405 - Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate. 173.405 Section 173.405 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... § 173.405 Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate. Sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (CAS No. 25155-30-0) may...

  15. 21 CFR 182.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 182.6760 Section 182.6760 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED....6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 182.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 182.6787 Section 182.6787 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  17. 21 CFR 582.6801 - Sodium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium tartrate. 582.6801 Section 582.6801 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 178.3900 - Sodium pentachlorophenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium pentachlorophenate. 178.3900 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3900 Sodium pentachlorophenate. Sodium... that contact food at temperatures not to exceed room temperature. The quantity of...

  19. 21 CFR 582.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 582.6757 Section 582.6757 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 582.6754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 582.6754 Section 582.6754 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium diacetate. (a) Product. Sodium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 182.6769 - Sodium metaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium metaphosphate. 182.6769 Section 182.6769 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Sodium metaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium metaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  2. 21 CFR 582.6787 - Sodium pyrophosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium pyrophosphate. 582.6787 Section 582.6787 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium pyrophosphate. (a) Product. Sodium pyrophosphate. (b) Condition of use. This substance...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 582.1742 Section 582.1742 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Product. Sodium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium pantothenate. 582.5772 Section 582.5772 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5772 Sodium pantothenate. (a) Product. Sodium pantothenate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 182.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium ascorbate. 182.3731 Section 182.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 40 CFR 721.9526 - Sodium perthiocarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Sodium perthiocarbonate. 721.9526... Substances § 721.9526 Sodium perthiocarbonate. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified as sodium perthiocarbonate (PMN P-94-2166) is subject...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1742 - Sodium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium carbonate. 582.1742 Section 582.1742 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1742 Sodium carbonate. (a) Product. Sodium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 21 CFR 182.6760 - Sodium hexametaphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium hexametaphosphate. 182.6760 Section 182...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6760 Sodium hexametaphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium hexametaphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when...

  9. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate...

  11. 21 CFR 582.3733 - Sodium benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium benzoate. 582.3733 Section 582.3733 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3733 Sodium benzoate. (a) Product. Sodium benzoate. (b) Tolerance. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  13. 21 CFR 182.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium ascorbate. 182.3731 Section 182.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 582.3798 Section 582.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS... Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation....

  15. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium sulfite. (b) (c) Limitations, restrictions, or explanation. This substance...

  16. 21 CFR 182.8778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.8778 Section 182.8778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  17. 21 CFR 182.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium ascorbate. 182.3731 Section 182.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.6810 Section 582.6810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  19. 21 CFR 182.3795 - Sodium sorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium sorbate. 182.3795 Section 182.3795 Food and... CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3795 Sodium sorbate. (a) Product. Sodium sorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  20. 21 CFR 182.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.1810 Section 182.1810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD... Substances § 182.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 582.1748 Section 582.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.1778 Section 582.1778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic)....

  3. 21 CFR 582.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 582.6778 Section 582.6778 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.6810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.6810 Section 582.6810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 582.1792 Section 582.1792 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) Conditions of...

  6. 21 CFR 182.1748 - Sodium caseinate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium caseinate. 182.1748 Section 182.1748 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1748 Sodium caseinate. (a) Product. Sodium caseinate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  7. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  8. 21 CFR 582.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium ascorbate. 582.3731 Section 582.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3731 Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  9. 21 CFR 182.3798 - Sodium sulfite.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sulfite. 182.3798 Section 182.3798 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Chemical Preservatives § 182.3798 Sodium sulfite. (a) Product. Sodium...

  10. 21 CFR 182.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium gluconate. 182.6757 Section 182.6757 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6757 Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  11. 21 CFR 582.6757 - Sodium gluconate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium gluconate. 582.6757 Section 582.6757 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium gluconate. (a) Product. Sodium gluconate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.6751 - Sodium citrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium citrate. 582.6751 Section 582.6751 Food and..., FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 2 § 582.6751 Sodium citrate. (a) Product. Sodium citrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  13. 21 CFR 582.6754 - Sodium diacetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium diacetate. 582.6754 Section 582.6754 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium diacetate. (a) Product. Sodium diacetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 182.6778 - Sodium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium phosphate. 182.6778 Section 182.6778 Food... HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Sequestrants 1 § 182.6778 Sodium phosphate. (a) Product. Sodium phosphate (mono-, di-, and tribasic). (b) Conditions of use. This...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5772 - Sodium pantothenate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium pantothenate. 582.5772 Section 582.5772 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5772 Sodium pantothenate. (a) Product. Sodium pantothenate. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 582.3731 - Sodium ascorbate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium ascorbate. 582.3731 Section 582.3731 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL....3731 Sodium ascorbate. (a) Product. Sodium ascorbate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1792 - Sodium sesquicarbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium sesquicarbonate. 582.1792 Section 582.1792 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1792 Sodium sesquicarbonate. (a) Product. Sodium sesquicarbonate. (b) Conditions of...

  18. 21 CFR 582.6801 - Sodium tartrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium tartrate. 582.6801 Section 582.6801 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Sodium tartrate. (a) Product. Sodium tartrate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 582.1810 Section 582.1810 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of...

  20. 21 CFR 182.1810 - Sodium tripolyphosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium tripolyphosphate. 182.1810 Section 182.1810...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Multiple Purpose GRAS Food Substances § 182.1810 Sodium tripolyphosphate. (a) Product. Sodium tripolyphosphate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...