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Sample records for acetaldehyde acrolein formaldehyde

  1. Concerns regarding 24-h sampling for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-coated solid sorbents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrington, Jason S.; Hays, Michael D.

    2012-08-01

    There is high demand for accurate and reliable airborne carbonyl measurement methods due to the human and environmental health impacts of carbonyls and their effects on atmospheric chemistry. Standardized 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-based sampling methods are frequently applied for measuring gaseous carbonyls in the atmospheric environment. However, there are multiple short-comings associated with these methods that detract from an accurate understanding of carbonyl-related exposure, health effects, and atmospheric chemistry. The purpose of this brief technical communication is to highlight these method challenges and their influence on national ambient monitoring networks, and to provide a logical path forward for accurate carbonyl measurement. This manuscript focuses on three specific carbonyl compounds of high toxicological interest—formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein. Further method testing and development, the revision of standardized methods, and the plausibility of introducing novel technology for these carbonyls are considered elements of the path forward. The consolidation of this information is important because it seems clear that carbonyl data produced utilizing DNPH-based methods are being reported without acknowledgment of the method short-comings or how to best address them.

  2. 40 CFR 80.56 - Measurement methods for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... and acetaldehyde. 80.56 Section 80.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Measurement methods for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. (a) Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde will be measured by... acetaldehyde are used to determine the response, repeatability, and limit of quantitation of the HPLC...

  3. BIOGENIC SOURCES FOR FORMALDEHYDE AND ACETALDEHYDE DURING SUMMER MONTHS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Photochemical modeling estimated contributions to ambient concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde from biogenic emissions over the continental United States during January 2001 (Eos Trans. AGU, 83(47), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract A52B-0117). Results showed that maximum co...

  4. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential wood combustion in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerqueira, Mário; Gomes, Luís; Tarelho, Luís; Pio, Casimiro

    2013-06-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to characterize formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential combustion of common wood species growing in Portugal. Five types of wood were investigated: maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), cork oak (Quercus suber), holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia) and pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica). Laboratory experiments were performed with a typical wood stove used for domestic heating in Portugal and operating under realistic home conditions. Aldehydes were sampled from diluted combustion flue gas using silica cartridges coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The average formaldehyde to acetaldehyde concentration ratio (molar basis) in the stove flue gas was in the range of 2.1-2.9. Among the tested wood types, pyrenean oak produced the highest emissions for both formaldehyde and acetaldehyde: 1772 ± 649 and 1110 ± 454 mg kg-1 biomass burned (dry basis), respectively. By contrast, maritime pine produced the lowest emissions: 653 ± 151 and 371 ± 162 mg kg-1 biomass (dry basis) burned, respectively. Aldehydes were sampled separately during distinct periods of the holm oak wood combustion cycles. Significant variations in the flue gas concentrations were found, with higher values measured during the devolatilization stage than in the flaming and smoldering stages.

  5. Effects of acetaldehyde and acrolein on blood pressure in guanethidine-pretreated hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Green, M.A.; Egle, J.L. Jr.

    1983-06-15

    These experiments were undertaken to study the effect of the interaction of the antihypertensive agent guanethidine and two aldehydes possessing sympathomimetic activity on the blood pressure of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Acetaldehyde, when administered iv to acutely guanethidine-pretreated (15 mg/kg) SHRs under urethane anesthesia, caused a potentiated pressor response in the dose range of 3 to 40 mg/kg. When administered iv to chronically guanethidine-pretreated SHRs, a pressor response was noted at low doses and a depressor response at high doses. Acrolein (0.05 to 0.5 mg/kg) produced a pressor response at low doses and a depressor response at high doses in both acutely and chronically guanethidine-pretreated SHRs. Pressor responses, particularly to acetaldehyde, may be due to an enlarged tyramine-releasable pool, hyperreactivity of alpha adrenergic receptors of SHRs, or guanethidine inhibition of norepinephrine reuptake. Depressor responses to high doses of aldehydes may be attributed to vagal stimulation or direct vasodilation. It is concluded that there is a significant interaction between the aldehydes and guanethidine which may have implications for someone undergoing treatment with guanethidine for hypertension while being exposed to acetaldehyde and related compounds from ethanol and tobacco smoke.

  6. 40 CFR 80.56 - Measurement methods for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 16 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Measurement methods for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde. 80.56 Section 80.56 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) REGULATION OF FUELS AND FUEL ADDITIVES Reformulated Gasoline § 80.56 Measurement methods for formaldehyde...

  7. Acrolein

    PubMed Central

    Stevens, Jan F.; Maier, Claudia S.

    2008-01-01

    Acrolein (2-propenal) is ubiquitously present in (cooked) foods and in the environment. It is formed from carbohydrates, vegetable oils and animal fats, amino acids during heating of foods, and by combustion of petroleum fuels and biodiesel. Chemical reactions responsible for release of acrolein include heat-induced dehydration of glycerol, retro-aldol cleavage of dehydrated carbohydrates, lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids, and Strecker degradation of methionine and threonine. Smoking of tobacco products equals or exceeds the total human exposure to acrolein from all other sources. The main endogenous sources of acrolein are myeloperoxidase-mediated degradation of threonine and amine oxidase-mediated degradation of spermine and spermidine, which may constitute a significant source of acrolein in situations of oxidative stress and inflammation. Acrolein is metabolized by conjugation with glutathione and excreted in the urine as mercapturic acid metabolites. Acrolein forms Michael adducts with ascorbic acid in vitro, but the biological relevance of this reaction is not clear. The biological effects of acrolein are a consequence of its reactivity towards biological nucleophiles such as guanine in DNA and cysteine, lysine, histidine, and arginine residues in critical regions of nuclear factors, proteases, and other proteins. Acrolein adduction disrupts the function of these biomacromolecules which may result in mutations, altered gene transcription, and modulation of apoptosis. PMID:18203133

  8. BIOGENIC SOURCES OF FORMALDEHYDE AND ACETALDEHYDE DURING SUMMER AND WINTER CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Photochemical modeling estimated contributions to ambient concentrations of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde from biogenic emissions over the continental United States during January 2001 (Eos Trans. AGU, 83(47), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract A52B-0117). Results showed that maximum co...

  9. Regional Sources of Atmospheric Formaldehyde and Acetaldehyde, and Implications for Atmospheric Modeling

    EPA Science Inventory

    Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations over the Eastern half of the United States are simulated with a 3-D air quality model to identify the most important chemical precursors under January and July conditions. We find that both aldehydes primarily result from photochemical...

  10. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in a high traffic street of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, Sérgio M.; Martins, Eduardo M.; Arbilla, Graciela

    The data for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde levels in ambient air of the city of Rio de Janeiro, obtained in the period from 4 December 1998 to 17 January 2001 is presented. A total of 28 samples were collected at a downtown area, where emissions may be mainly attributed to the vehicular fleet. Values between 1.52 and 54.31 ppb for formaldehyde and between 2.36 and 45.60 ppb for acetaldehyde were obtained. The high acetaldehyde/formaldehyde ratios (0.76 to 1.61) are a consequence of the use of oxygenated fuels. Brazilian cities are unique in that the vehicles use hydrated ethanol (over 4 million of light duty vehicles), gasohol (a mixture with gasoline and 24% v/v of ethanol) and diesel fuels. The analysis of vehicle exhaust and model simulations of the air quality in August and December 1999, confirmed that the high levels of acetaldehyde could be attributed to direct emissions of the vehicular fleet and to the photochemical initiated oxidation of organic compounds.

  11. Acrolein

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acrolein ; CASRN 107 - 02 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  12. Regional sources of atmospheric formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, and implications for atmospheric modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luecken, D. J.; Hutzell, W. T.; Strum, M. L.; Pouliot, G. A.

    2012-02-01

    Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde concentrations over the Eastern half of the United States are simulated with a 3-D air quality model to identify the most important chemical precursors under January and July conditions. We find that both aldehydes primarily result from photochemical production, although 25% or more result from direct emissions in urban areas during winter. Isoprene is the major precursor of formaldehyde in most areas during summer, contributing 20-60% of total production, with the magnitude being spatially variable. Other alkenes from anthropogenic and/or biogenic emissions dominate formaldehyde production in winter, contributing 60-85% of total formation, and are prominent contributors in summer. Alkenes, including biogenic alkenes, dominate acetaldehyde production during both seasons. These conclusions are based on the degradation of emitted VOCs described by the SAPRC07TB chemical mechanism, but even this detailed model has difficulty reproducing observed values better than a factor of 2. The substantial role of isoprene and other alkenes in aldehyde formation emphasizes that we examine and improve emission estimates of these compounds. Until we can estimate the emissions and understand the chemistry of VOC precursors to aldehyde formation with greater certainty, it will be difficult to accurately predict atmospheric concentrations of aldehydes and develop strategies to reduce their concentrations.

  13. Five years of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde monitoring in the Rio de Janeiro downtown area - Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corrêa, Sergio Machado; Arbilla, Graciela; Martins, Eduardo Monteiro; Quitério, Simone Lorena; de Souza Guimarães, Claudinei; Gatti, Luciana Vanni

    2010-06-01

    The fuel matrix used in Brazil is unique around the world. The intensive use of hydrated ethanol, gasohol (gasoline with 25% v/v of ethanol), compressed natural gas (CNG), and biodiesel leads to a peculiar composition of the urban atmosphere. From 1998 to 2002 an increase in formaldehyde levels was observed and since then, a reduction. This work presents a monitoring campaign that was executed from March 2004 to February 2009 by sampling at early morning on every sunny Wednesday for a total of 183 samples. The results indicate a strong reduction in formaldehyde levels from 2004 (average of 135.8 μg m -3 with SD 28.4 μg m -3) to 2009 (average of 49.3 μg m -3 with SD 27.4 μg m -3). The levels of acetaldehyde showed a slight reduction from 2004 (average of 34.9 μg m -3 with SD 8.0 μg m -3) to 2009 (average of 26.8 μg m -3 with SD 11.5 μg m -3). Comparing the results with the concurrent evolution of the fleet and of fuel composition indicates that the observed formaldehyde levels could be associated with the increase in ethanol use and in CNG use by engines with improved technology over the first converted CNG engines. Modelling studies using the OZIPR trajectory model and the SAPRC chemical mechanism indicate that formaldehyde is the main ozone precursor in Rio de Janeiro and acetaldehyde is the forth one.

  14. Acetaldehyde

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Acetaldehyde ; CASRN 75 - 07 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  15. Validation and Determination of the Contents of Acetaldehyde and Formaldehyde in Foods

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hye-Seung; Chung, Hyun; Song, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Cho-Il; Lee, Joon-Goo

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop an efficient quantitative method for the determination of acetaldehyde (AA) and formaldehyde (FA) contents in solid and liquid food matrices. The determination of those compounds was validated and performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined by solid phase micro-extraction after derivatization with O-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluoro-benzyl)-hydroxylamine hydrochloride. Validation was carried out in terms of limit of detection, limit of quantitation, linearity, precision, and recovery. Then their contents were analyzed in various food samples including 15 fruits, 22 milk products, 31 alcohol-free beverages, and 13 alcoholic beverages. The highest contents of AA and FA were determined in a white wine (40,607.02 ng/g) and an instant coffee (1,522.46 ng/g), respectively. PMID:26483886

  16. Polymerization of Formaldehyde and Acetaldehyde on Ordered (WO3)3 Films on Pt(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Zhenjun; Zhang, Zhenrong; Kay, Bruce D.; Dohnalek, Zdenek

    2011-05-19

    Polymerization of formaldehyde, H2CO, and acetaldehyde, CH3CHO, was studied under ultrahigh vacuum conditions on a model catalyst consisting of an ultra-thin WO3 film supported on Pt(111). The onset of polymerization is observed at very low temperatures of 70 and 80 K for H2CO and CH3CHO, respectively, as documented by the evolution of the IRAS spectra. The amount of polymer increases with increasing coverage and saturates at 5 and 8 monolayers (ML) for the H2CO and CH3CHO multilayer films that are thicker than 10 and 15 ML, respectively. Upon heating, the polymers decompose around 250 and 190 K for H2CO and CH3CHO, respectively, as evidenced mass spectrometrically by the desorption of their monomers and oligomers into the gas phase. The heats of H2CO and CH3CHO sublimation and polymerization determined based on our experiments are in good agreement with previously published values.

  17. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde exposure mitigation in US residences: in-home measurements of ventilation control and source control.

    PubMed

    Hult, E L; Willem, H; Price, P N; Hotchi, T; Russell, M L; Singer, B C

    2015-10-01

    Measurements were taken in new US residences to assess the extent to which ventilation and source control can mitigate formaldehyde exposure. Increasing ventilation consistently lowered indoor formaldehyde concentrations. However, at a reference air exchange rate of 0.35 h(-1), increasing ventilation was up to 60% less effective than would be predicted if the emission rate were constant. This is consistent with formaldehyde emission rates decreasing as air concentrations increase, as observed in chamber studies. In contrast, measurements suggest acetaldehyde emission was independent of ventilation rate. To evaluate the effectiveness of source control, formaldehyde concentrations were measured in Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED)-certified/Indoor airPLUS homes constructed with materials certified to have low emission rates of volatile organic compounds (VOC). At a reference air exchange rate of 0.35 h(-1), and adjusting for home age, temperature and relative humidity, formaldehyde concentrations in homes built with low-VOC materials were 42% lower on average than in reference new homes with conventional building materials. Without adjustment, concentrations were 27% lower in the low-VOC homes. The mean and standard deviation of formaldehyde concentration was 33 μg/m(3) and 22 μg/m(3) for low-VOC homes and 45 μg/m(3) and 30 μg/m(3) for conventional. PMID:25252109

  18. Reactive processing of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in aqueous aerosol mimics: surface tension depression and secondary organic products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Schwier, A. N.; Sareen, N.; McNeill, V. F.

    2011-07-01

    The reactive uptake of carbonyl-containing volatile organic compounds (cVOCs) by aqueous atmospheric aerosols is a likely source of particulate organic material. The aqueous-phase secondary organic products of some cVOCs are surface-active. Therefore, cVOC uptake can lead to organic film formation at the gas-aerosol interface and changes in aerosol surface tension. We examined the chemical reactions of two abundant cVOCs, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, in water and aqueous ammonium sulfate (AS) solutions mimicking tropospheric aerosols. Secondary organic products were identified using Aerosol Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Aerosol-CIMS), and changes in surface tension were monitored using pendant drop tensiometry. Hemiacetal oligomers and aldol condensation products were identified using Aerosol-CIMS. A hemiacetal sulfate ester was tentatively identified in the formaldehyde-AS system. Acetaldehyde depresses surface tension to 65(±2) dyn cm-1 in pure water and 62(±1) dyn cm-1 in AS solutions. Surface tension depression by formaldehyde in pure water is negligible; in AS solutions, a 9 % reduction in surface tension is observed. Mixtures of these species were also studied in combination with methylglyoxal in order to evaluate the influence of cross-reactions on surface tension depression and product formation in these systems. We find that surface tension depression in the solutions containing mixed cVOCs exceeds that predicted by an additive model based on the single-species isotherms.

  19. Reactive processing of formaldehyde and acetaldehyde in aqueous aerosol mimics: surface tension depression and secondary organic products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.; Schwier, A. N.; Sareen, N.; McNeill, V. F.

    2011-11-01

    The reactive uptake of carbonyl-containing volatile organic compounds (cVOCs) by aqueous atmospheric aerosols is a likely source of particulate organic material. The aqueous-phase secondary organic products of some cVOCs are surface-active. Therefore, cVOC uptake can lead to organic film formation at the gas-aerosol interface and changes in aerosol surface tension. We examined the chemical reactions of two abundant cVOCs, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, in water and aqueous ammonium sulfate (AS) solutions mimicking tropospheric aerosols. Secondary organic products were identified using Aerosol Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (Aerosol-CIMS), and changes in surface tension were monitored using pendant drop tensiometry. Hemiacetal oligomers and aldol condensation products were identified using Aerosol-CIMS. Acetaldehyde depresses surface tension to 65(±2) dyn cm-1 in pure water (a 10% surface tension reduction from that of pure water) and 62(±1) dyn cm-1 in AS solutions (a 20.6% reduction from that of a 3.1 M AS solution). Surface tension depression by formaldehyde in pure water is negligible; in AS solutions, a 9% reduction in surface tension is observed. Mixtures of these species were also studied in combination with methylglyoxal in order to evaluate the influence of cross-reactions on surface tension depression and product formation in these systems. We find that surface tension depression in the solutions containing mixed cVOCs exceeds that predicted by an additive model based on the single-species isotherms.

  20. Excretion of malondialdehyde, formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone in the urine of rats following acute and chronic administration of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Moser, J; Bagchi, D; Akubue, P I; Stohs, S J

    1993-05-01

    Recent studies have shown that xenobiotics which induce oxidative stress result in an increased production and excretion of acetaldehyde (ACT), formaldehyde (FA), acetone (ACON) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the urine of rats. We have therefore examined the effect of acute and chronic ethanol administration on the excretion of these four lipid metabolites in female Sprague-Dawley rats. Urine samples were collected over dry ice for 6 hr time periods. Aliquots of urine were derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine HCl, and extracted with n-pentane. High pressure lipid chromatogrpahy (HPLC) was used to quantitate and the hydrazones of the four lipid metabolite products. Following a single, oral, acute dose of 5 g ethanol/kg, urinary excretion of ACT increased approximately 5.8-fold from 6 to 12 hr posttreatment, and decreased thereafter. FA excretion decreased by approximately 50% from 0 to 12 hr, returned to control values in the 18-24 hr urine samples, and was 1.3-fold greater than control values at 42-48 hr. ACON increased 3.1-fold over control values from 0 to 30 hr and remained elevated throughout the remaining 18 hr of the study. The excretion of MDA increased approximately 1.5-fold from 18 to 36 hr, then remained constant through the 48 hr time point. In a separate series of experiments, a chronic oral dose of 0.5 g ethanol/kg was administered to rats for 10 consecutive days and the urinary excretion of the lipid metabolites MDA, FA, ACT and ACON was examined for 11 days, beginning with the first day of ethanol administration.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8352840

  1. A Theoretical Investigation of the Plausibility of Reactions Between Ammonia and Carbonyl Species (Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde, and Acetone) in Interstellar Ice Analogs at Ultracold Temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Lina; Woon, David E.

    2011-01-01

    We have reexamined the reaction between formaldehyde and ammonia, which was previously studied by us and other workers in modestly sized cluster calculations. Larger model systems with up to 12H2O were employed, and reactions of two more carbonyl species, acetaldehyde and acetone, were also carried out. Calculations were performed at the B3LYP/6-31+G** level with bulk solvent effects treated with a polarizable continuum model; limited MP2/6-31+G** calculations were also performed. We found that while the barrier for the concerted proton relay mechanism described in previous work remains modest, it is still prohibitively high for the reaction to occur under the ultracold conditions that prevail in dense interstellar clouds. However, a new pathway emerged in more realistic clusters that involves at least one barrierless step for two of the carbonyl species considered here: ammonia reacts with formaldehyde and acetaldehyde to form a partial charge transfer species in small clusters (4H2O) and a protonated hydroxyamino intermediate species in large clusters (9H2O, 12H2O); modest barriers that decrease sharply with cluster size are found for the analogous processes for the acetone-NH3 reaction. Furthermore, if a second ammonia replaces one of the water molecules in calculations in the 9H2O clusters, deprotonation can occur to yield the same neutral hydroxyamino species that is formed via the original concerted proton relay mechanism. In at least one position, deprotonation is barrierless when zero-point energy is included. In addition to describing the structures and energetics of the reactions between formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acetone with ammonia, we report spectroscopic predictions of the observable vibrational features that are expected to be present in ice mixtures of different composition.

  2. Uptake and Reactions of Formaldehyde, Acetaldehyde, Acetone, Propanal and Ethanol in Sulfuric Acid solutions at 200-240 K: Implications for upper tropospheric aerosol composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iraci, L. T.; Williams, M. B.; Axson, J.; Michelsen, R.

    2007-12-01

    The production of light absorbing, organic material in aerosol that is normally considered to be transparent in the UV and visible wavelength regions has significant implications for biogeochemical cycling and climate modelling. Production mechanisms likely involve carbonyl compounds such as formaldehyde, acetone, acetaldehyde and propanal that are present in significant quantities in the upper troposphere (UT). In this study, we have performed experiments focusing on a class of acid catalyzed carbonyl reactions, the formation of acetals. R2C=O + 2R'OH --> R2C(OR')2 + H2O Using a Knudsen cell apparatus, we have measured the rate of uptake of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acetone, propanal, and ethanol into sulfuric acid solutions ranging between 40-70 wt% of acid, containing 0-0.1 M of ethanol, acetone or formaldehyde at temperatures of 220-250 K. For all reactant pairs, the aldol condensation path, including self reaction, should be insignificant at the acidities studied. Evidence for reaction between organics was observed for all pairs, except those involving propanal which were likely limited by the very low solubility. We attribute enhanced uptake to the formation of acetals, such as 1,1-diethoxyethane and 2,2- diethoxypropane, among others. Enhanced uptake was observed to proceed on timescales > 1 hour and sometimes shows complex dependence on acidity that is likely related to speciation of the individual carbonyls in acidic solution. The acetal products do not absorb in the visible but are less volatile than parent molecules, allowing for accumulation in sulfuric acid particles, and enhanced uptake. Cross reactions of carbonyls with alcohols in sulfuric acid medium have not been previously measured, yet methanol and ethanol show high solubility and are present at significant concentrations in the UT. Thus even at slow reaction rates, the acetal reaction has ample starting material and proceeds under conditions common to the UT. We will present results for the

  3. New reactions of paraformaldehyde and formaldehyde with inorganic compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, R. S.; Bercovici, T.; Hong, K.

    1974-01-01

    Both paraformaldehyde and formaldehyde undergo reactions in the presence of several inorganic compounds to generate a variety of interesting organic products that can be important in chemical evolutionary processes. Some examples are acrolein, acetaldehyde, methyl formate, methanol, glycolaldehyde and formic acid. The organic compounds are produced at temperatures as low as 56 C and in high yield (up to 75%). The quantity produced depends principally on the nature of the inorganic compound, the ratio of the inorganic compound to paraformaldehyde, temperature and reaction time. The percent distribution of product depends on some of the foregoing factors.

  4. Formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Pontén, Ann; Bruze, Magnus

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde is the American Contact Dermatitis Society Contact Allergen of the Year for 2015. The exposure is widespread, and contact allergy might be difficult to suspect in the individual dermatitis patient. The relevance of contact allergy to formaldehyde might also be difficult to evaluate. Recently, however, several studies have been performed aimed at enhancing the patch test technique and evaluating the clinical relevance of contact allergy to formaldehyde. The patch test concentration of formaldehyde has been recommended by the European Environmental Contact Dermatitis Research Group to be 2.0%, that is, the dose of 0.60 mg/cm (wt/vol) instead of 1.0%, which is the concentration previously used for the baseline series in most countries. Without causing any more irritant reactions, the patch test concentration of 2.0% detects twice as many contact allergies and enables the diagnosis of formaldehyde-allergic patients who otherwise would have been missed. The studies that underpin the decision were performed in Europe and partly in the United States. The Finn Chamber patch test system was used. The allergen dose per area was kept uniform with a micropipette. This report describes the background for routinely using formaldehyde 2.0% instead of 1.0% and for using a micropipette when applying the test solution. PMID:25581665

  5. Formaldehyde

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Formaldehyde ; CASRN 50 - 00 - 0 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effec

  6. Acetaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity involves induction of spermine oxidase at the transcriptional level.

    PubMed

    Uemura, Takeshi; Tanaka, Yuka; Higashi, Kyohei; Miyamori, Daisuke; Takasaka, Tomokazu; Nagano, Tatsuo; Toida, Toshihiko; Yoshimoto, Kanji; Igarashi, Kazuei; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2013-08-01

    Ethanol consumption causes serious liver injury including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Ethanol is metabolized mainly in the liver to acetic acid through acetaldehyde. We investigated the effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde on polyamine metabolism since polyamines are essential factors for normal cellular functions. We found that acetaldehyde induced spermine oxidase (SMO) at the transcriptional level in HepG2 cells. The levels and activities of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) and spermidine/spermine acetyltransferase (SSAT) were not affected by acetaldehyde. Spermidine content was increased and spermine content was decreased by acetaldehyde treatment. Knockdown of SMO expression using siRNA reduced acetaldehyde toxicity. Acetaldehyde exposure increased free acrolein levels. An increase of acrolein by acetaldehyde was SMO dependent. Our results indicate that cytotoxicity of acetaldehyde involves, at least in part, oxidation of spermine to spermidine by SMO, which is induced by acetaldehyde. PMID:23707493

  7. Technical Note: Concerns regarding 24-h sampling for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-coated solid sorbents

    EPA Science Inventory

    A wide variety of natural and anthropogenic sources emit airborne carbonyls such as aldehydes (RCHO) and ketones (R1COR2). Vegetation, food, forest fires, fossil fuel combustion, disinfectants, fumigants, preservatives, and resins are a few examples of primary carbonyl sources. T...

  8. VOLTAMMETRIC DETERMINATION OF ACROLEIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A differential pulse polarographic method was developed for acrolein. It is based on electrochemical reduction of acrolein at the dropping mercury electrode. With this method, acrolein can be quantitated in natural and condenser cooling waters at concentrations of 0.05 to 0.5 mg/...

  9. Excretion of formaldehyde, malondialdehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone in the urine of rats in response to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, paraquat, endrin and carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed

    Shara, M A; Dickson, P H; Bagchi, D; Stohs, S J

    1992-05-01

    Formaldehyde (FA), acetaldehyde (ACT), malondialdehyde (MDA) and acetone (ACON) were simultaneously identified in urine, and their excretion quantitated in response to chemically induced oxidative stress. Urine samples of female Sprague-Dawley rats were collected over dry ice and derivatized with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. The hydrazones of the four lipid metabolic products were quantitated by high-performance liquid chromatography on a Waters 10-microns mu-Bondapak C18 column. The identities of FA, ACT, MDA and ACON in urine were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. An oxidative stress was induced by orally administering 100 micrograms/kg 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, 75 mg/kg paraquat, 6 mg/kg endrin or 2.5 ml/kg carbon tetrachloride to rats. Urinary excretion of FA, ACT, MDA and ACON increased relative to control animals 24 h after treatment with all xenobiotics. The system has wide-spread applicability to the investigation of altered lipid metabolism in disease states and exposure to environmental pollutants. PMID:1400710

  10. Prebiotic synthesis of imidazole-4-acetaldehyde and histidine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shen, Chun; Oro, J.; Yang, Lily; Miller, Stanley L.

    1987-01-01

    The prebiotic synthesis of imidazole-4-acetaldehyde and imidazole-4-glycol from erythrose and formamidine has been demonstrated as well as the prebiotic synthesis of imidazole-4-ethanol and imidazole-4-glycol from erythrose, formaldehyde, and ammonia. The maximum yields of imidazole-4-acetaldehyde, imidazole-4-ethanol, and imidazole-4-glycol obtained in these reactions are 1.6, 5.4, and 6.8 percent respectively, based on the erythrose. Imidazole-4-acetaldehyde would have been converted to histidine on the primitive earth by a Strecker synthesis, and several prebiotic reactions would convert imidazole-4-glycol and imidazole-4-ethanol to imidazole-4-acetaldehyde.

  11. Biotransformation of ethanol to acetaldehyde by wild and mutant strains of methylotrophic yeast

    SciTech Connect

    Moroz, O.M.; Sibirnyi, A.A.; Ksheminskaya, G.P. |

    1995-05-01

    The conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde by intact cells of wild and mutant strains of methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha was studied. It was established that mutations that lower the activity of aldehyde reductase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase stimulate acetaldehyde accumulation. The highest accumulation of acetaldehyde was found in a mutant that possessed increased alcohol oxidase activity in growth on a medium with glucose. A decrease in formaldehyde dehydrogenase did not stimulate acetaldehyde accumulation. Bioconversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde was most effective at lowered temperatures due to marked suppression of catabolic alcohol oxidase inactivation, but not to the activity of this enzyme under indicated conditions. 27 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Acetaldehyde and gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Salaspuro, Mikko

    2011-04-01

    Aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH2) and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) gene polymorphisms associating with enhanced acetaldehyde exposure and markedly increased cancer risk in alcohol drinkers provide undisputable evidence for acetaldehyde being a local carcinogen not only in esophageal but also in gastric cancer. Accordingly, acetaldehyde associated with alcoholic beverages has recently been classified as a Group 1 carcinogen to humans. Microbes are responsible for the bulk of acetaldehyde production from ethanol both in saliva and Helicobacter pylori-infected and achlorhydric stomach. Acetaldehyde is the most abundant carcinogen in tobacco smoke and it readily dissolves into saliva during smoking. Many foodstuffs and 'non-alcoholic' beverages are important but unrecognized sources of local acetaldehyde exposure. The cumulative cancer risk associated with increasing acetaldehyde exposure suggests the need for worldwide screening of the acetaldehyde levels of alcoholic beverages and as well of the ethanol and acetaldehyde of food produced by fermentation. The generally regarded as safe status of acetaldehyde should be re-evaluated. The as low as reasonably achievable principle should be applied to the acetaldehyde of alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages and food. Risk groups with ADH-and ALDH2 gene polymorphisms, H. pylori infection or achlorhydric atrophic gastritis, or both, should be screened and educated in this health issue. L-cysteine formulations binding carcinogenic acetaldehyde locally in the stomach provide new means for intervention studies. PMID:21401890

  13. Atmospheric chemistry of toxic contaminants. 3. Unsaturated aliphatics: Acrolein, acrylonitrile, maleic anhydride

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D. )

    1990-12-01

    Detailed mechanisms are outlined for the chemical reactions that contribute to in-situ formation and atmospheric removal of the unsaturated aliphatic contaminants acrolein, acrylonitrile, and maleic anhydride. In-situ formation of small amounts of acrolein and maleic anhydride may involve the reaction of OH (and O{sub 3}) with 1,3-dienes and the reaction of OH with aromatic hydrocarbons, respectively. There is no known pathway for in-situ formation of acrylonitrile. Rapid removal of acrolein (half-life = less than one day) and of maleic anhydride (half-life = several hours) is expected from their rapid reactions with OH (major), O{sub 3}, and NO{sub 3}. These reactions lead to formaldehyde and glyoxal from acrolein and to dicarbonyls from maleic anhydride. Acrylonitrile is removed at a slower rate (half-life = 2-7 days) by reaction with OH, leading to formaldehyde and formyl cyanide.

  14. MUTAGENICITY ASSESSMENT OF ACETALDEHYDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acetaldehyde has been shown in studies by several different laboratories to be a clastogen and inducer of sister chromatid exchanges in cultured mammalian cells. Although there have been very few studies in intact mammals, the available evidence suggests that acetaldehyde produce...

  15. Photocatalyzed oxidation of ethanol and acetaldehyde in humidified air

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, M.L.; Ollis, D.F.

    1996-02-01

    Photocatalysis is considered as a potential air treatment and purification technology. Photocatalyzed oxidation of ethanol and acetaldehyde in humidified air was carried out to establish a first complete kinetic model for a photocatalyzed multispecies network. Two photocatalysts were examined in a batch, recirculation reactor, near-UV illuminated TiO{sub 2} (anatase) coated (i) on the surface of a nonporous quartz glass plate and (ii) on a porous ceramic honeycomb monolith. The former contained only illuminated (active) surfaces, the latter consisted of substantial {open_quotes}dark{close_quotes} surfaces coated with a thin layer of illuminated (active) catalyst. Ethanol was photooxidized to acetaldehyde and formaldehyde intermediates, and eventually to carbon dioxide and water products. The catalyst and monolith surfaces adsorbed appreciable fractions of the trace ethanol, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, carbon dioxide and water present. Ethanol, acetaldehyde, and carbon dioxide adsorption isotherms were measured on both catalysts; the formaldehyde adsorption isotherms were assumed identical to those of acetaldehyde. On the fully illuminated glass plate reactor, all four species were accounted for, and closure of a transient carbon mass balance was demonstrated. Completion of a transient carbon mass balance on the monolith reactor required inclusion of additional reaction intermediates (acetic and formic acids), which appear to reversibly accumulate on only the dark surfaces. The ethanol and acetaldehyde photocatalyzed oxidation kinetic networks were modeled using Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate forms combined with adsorption isotherms for reactant, intermediates, and product CO{sub 2}. For both the quartz plate and monolith catalysts, satisfactory kinetic models were developed to predict the entire time course of ethanol and acetaldehyde multicomponent batch conversions. 43 refs., 16 figs.

  16. Purity Determination of Acetaldehyde in an Acetaldehyde Certified Reference Material.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Taichi; Watanabe, Takuro; Nakamura, Satoe; Kato, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Acetaldehyde is regulated as a toxic substance in various fields, and the method for monitoring or analysis of acetaldehyde is important. However, handling is difficult because of the high reactivity and low boiling point of acetaldehyde. Therefore, a reference material for high purity acetaldehyde with high accuracy was not available. Although the measuring method of acetaldehyde as a reagent is published in the Japanese Industrial Standard (JIS) where the specification of acetaldehyde purity is more than 80%, the analytical method described in JIS is not enough for an accuracy purity determination method. In this research, the high precision purity determination method for development of a certified reference material (CRM) of acetaldehyde was examined. By controlling the volatility and reactivity of acetaldehyde, we established the purity determination method of acetaldehyde with a relative standard uncertainty of less than 0.3%. Furthermore, this method was applied to develop a high purity acetaldehyde CRM with an expanded uncertainty of 0.005 kg kg(-1) (k = 2). PMID:26063006

  17. Acetaldehyde: A Chemical Whose Fortunes Have Changed.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wittcoff, Harold A.

    1983-01-01

    Describes industrial acetaldehyde synthesis/uses, explaining why acetaldehyde usage is declining in industry. Includes a discussion of the reaction chemistry, equations, and molecular structure diagrams. (JM)

  18. Atmospheric chemistry of toxic contaminants 2. Saturated aliphatics: Acetaldehyde, dioxane, ethylene glycol ethers, propylene oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Grosjean, D. )

    1990-11-01

    Detailed mechanisms are outlined for the chemical reactions that contribute to in-situ formation and atmospheric removal of the saturated aliphatic contaminants acetaldehyde, dioxane, ethylene glycol ethers (methyl, ethyl, n-butyl) and propylene oxide. In-situ formation is of major importance for acetaldehyde. In-situ removal involves reaction with OH (all compounds) and, for acetaldehyde, photolysis and reaction with NO{sub 3}. Acetaldehyde, dioxane, and the ethers are rapidly removed (half-lives of less than one day), leading to PAN (acetaldehyde) and to 2-oxodioxane and formaldehyde (dioxane). Reaction products of the glycol ethers include a large number of hydroxyesters, hydroxyacids, and hydroxycarbonyls. Propylene oxide reacts only slowly with OH, with an atmospheric half-life of 3 - 10 days, to yeild formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and PAN. Uncertainties in the reaction mechanisms for dioxane, the glycol ethers, and propylene oxide are discussed and include C-C vs C-O bond scission in alkoxy radicals as well as alkoxy radical unimolecular decomposition vs reaction with oxygen.

  19. PRIMARY PHOTOCHEMICAL PROCESSES OF ACROLEIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pollutants are removed from the atmosphere in a number of ways: they can react with OH and O3, they can be dry and wet deposited, photodissociate through solar radiation, or they can be biodegraded. The report presents the photodissociation processes of acrolein. Quantum yields o...

  20. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF ACROLEIN (2003 Final)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA is announcing the release of the final report, Toxicological Review of Acrolein: in support of the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS). The updated Summary for Acrolein and accompanying Quickview have also been added to the IRIS Database.

  1. 27 CFR 21.93 - Acetaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acetaldehyde. 21.93 Section 21.93 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Acetaldehyde. (a) Aldehyde content (as acetaldehyde). Not less than 95.0 percent by weight. (b)...

  2. 27 CFR 21.93 - Acetaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acetaldehyde. 21.93 Section 21.93 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Acetaldehyde. (a) Aldehyde content (as acetaldehyde). Not less than 95.0 percent by weight. (b)...

  3. 27 CFR 21.93 - Acetaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acetaldehyde. 21.93 Section 21.93 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT... Acetaldehyde. (a) Aldehyde content (as acetaldehyde). Not less than 95.0 percent by weight. (b)...

  4. [Biological actions of acetaldehyde].

    PubMed

    Ijiri, I

    1999-11-01

    Acetaldehyde (AcH), the first metabolite of ethanol (EtOH), is a chemically reactive and pharmacologically active compound. The author has been engaged in the study of AcH in cooperation with many researchers for three decades. We have found many biological actions of AcH which cause cardiovascular symptoms after drinking and also inhibited EtOH absorption via the canine and rat intestinal tract. This report covers the following five points. 1. The subjects were classified into a non-flushing group and a flushing group, according to the degree of facial flushing after drinking 200 ml of Sake (Japanese rice wire) at a rate of 100 ml per 5 min. Blood EtOH profile was much the same in both groups, yet peak blood AcH concentration in the flushing group was significantly higher than that in the non-flushing group. All subjects in the flushing group showed marked flushing and an increase in pulse rate after drinking, but these symptoms were not apparent in the non-flushing group. These results suggested that cardiovascular symptoms were caused by AcH itself. 2. Urinary excretions of both norepinephrine and epinephrine increased in the flushing cases after drinking Sake in comparison with those who drank the same volume of water. However, these catecholamines did not change in the non-flushing group. These results suggested that it is catecholamines released from the sympathetic nerve end or the adrenal medulla by AcH which caused an increase in pulse rate. 3. Bradykinin is released from high molecular kininogen by activated kallikrein and acts to dilate distal blood vessels and raise permeability in tissues. On the other hand, kallidin is released from low molecular kininogen by activated glandular kallikrein and its action is weaker than that of bradykinin. Blood low molecular kininogen levels in the flushing group decreased gradually after drinking and were mutually related to the blood AcH concentrations. But levels in the non-flushing group showed no difference

  5. Production of acetaldehyde by Zymomonas mobilis

    SciTech Connect

    Wecker, M.S.A.; Zall, R.R.

    1987-12-01

    Mutants of Zymomonas mobilis were selected for decreased alcohol dehydrogenase activity by using consecutively higher concentration of allyl alcohol. A mutant selected by using 100 mM allyl alcohol produced acetaldehyde at a level of 4.08 g/liter when the organism was grown in aerated batch cultures on a medium containing 4.0% (wt/wt) glucose. On the basis of the amount of glucose utilized, this level of acetaldehyde production represents nearly 40% of the maximum theoretical yield. Acetaldehyde produced during growth was continuously air stripped from the reactor. Acetaldehyde present in the exhaust stream was then trapped as the acetaldehyde-bisulfite addition product in an aqueous solution of sodium bisulfite and released by treatment with base. Acetaldehyde was found to inhibit growth of Z. mobilis at concentrations as low as 0.05% (wt/wt) acetaldehyde. An acetaldehyde-tolerant mutant of Z. mobilis was isolated after both mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine and selection in the presence of vapor-phase acetaldehyde. The production of acetaldehyde has potential advantages over that of ethanol: lower energy requirements for production separation, efficient separation of product from dilute feed streams, continuous separation of product from the reactor, and a higher marketplace value.

  6. Production of Acetaldehyde by Zymomonas mobilis

    PubMed Central

    Wecker, Matt S. A.; Zall, Robert R.

    1987-01-01

    Mutants of Zymomonas mobilis were selected for decreased alcohol dehydrogenase activity by using consecutively higher concentrations of allyl alcohol. A mutant selected by using 100 mM allyl alcohol produced acetaldehyde at a level of 4.08 g/liter when the organism was grown in aerated batch cultures on a medium containing 4.0% (wt/wt) glucose. On the basis of the amount of glucose utilized, this level of acetaldehyde production represents nearly 40% of the maximum theoretical yield. Acetaldehyde produced during growth was continuously air stripped from the reactor. Acetaldehyde present in the exhaust stream was then trapped as the acetaldehyde-bisulfite addition product in an aqueous solution of sodium bisulfite and released by treatment with base. Acetaldehyde was found to inhibit growth of Z. mobilis at concentrations as low as 0.05% (wt/wt) acetaldehyde. An acetaldehyde-tolerant mutant of Z. mobilis was isolated after both mutagenesis with nitrosoguanidine and selection in the presence of vapor-phase acetaldehyde. The production of acetaldehyde has potential advantages over that of ethanol: lower energy requirements for product separation, efficient separation of product from dilute feed streams, continuous separation of product from the reactor, and a higher marketplace value. PMID:16347497

  7. Blood and liver acetaldehyde concentration in rats following acetaldehyde inhalation and intravenous and intragastric ethanol administration

    SciTech Connect

    Watanabe, A.; Hobara, N.; Nagashima, H.

    1986-10-01

    Ethanol is metabolized to acetaldehyde, a highly reactive product of ethanol oxidation. Ethanol might be blended with gasoline and used as a fuel in the future; biohazard of acetaldehyde inhalation must be discussed. Recent improvements in our ability to measure acetaldehyde levels in blood and various tissues have made the assessment of acetaldehyde's role in alcoholic organ intoxication possible. Blood and liver acetaldehyde concentrations in rats were reported as being linearly correlated following intragastric ethanol administration. Acetaldehyde was administered by inhalation to study its toxicity. However, liver concentrations following the inhalation was not investigated. The present communication describes the relationship between blood and liver acetaldehyde concentrations in rats following acetaldehyde inhalation and different routes of ethanol administration.

  8. Acrolein metabolites, diabetes and insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Feroe, Aliya G; Attanasio, Roberta; Scinicariello, Franco

    2016-07-01

    Acrolein is a dietary and environmental pollutant that has been associated in vitro to dysregulate glucose transport. We investigated the association of urinary acrolein metabolites N-acetyl-S-(3-hydroxypropyl)-l-cysteine (3-HPMA) and N-acetyl-S-(carboxyethyl)-l-cysteine (CEMA) and their molar sum (∑acrolein) with diabetes using data from investigated 2027 adults who participated in the 2005-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). After excluding participants taking insulin or other diabetes medication we, further, investigated the association of the compounds with insulin resistance (n=850), as a categorical outcome expressed by the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA-IR>2.6). As secondary analyses, we investigated the association of the compounds with HOMA-IR, HOMA-β, fasting insulin and fasting plasma glucose. The analyses were performed using urinary creatinine as independent variable in the models, and, as sensitivity analyses, the compounds were used as creatinine corrected variables. Diabetes as well as insulin resistance (defined as HOMA-IR>2.6) were positively associated with the 3-HPMA, CEMA and ∑Acrolein with evidence of a dose-response relationship (p<0.05). The highest 3rd and 4th quartiles of CEMA compared to the lowest quartile were significantly associated with higher HOMA-IR, HOMA-β and fasting insulin with a dose-response relationship. The highest 3rd quartile of 3-HPMA and ∑Acrolein were positively and significantly associated with HOMA-IR, HOMA-β and fasting insulin. These results suggest a need of further studies to fully understand the implications of acrolein with type 2 diabetes and insulin. PMID:26991531

  9. Proton transfer in acetaldehyde and acetaldehyde-water clusters: Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization experiment and theoretical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostko, Oleg; Troy, Tyler P.; Bandyopadhyay, Biswajit; Ahmed, Musahid

    2015-03-01

    Acetaldehyde, a probable human carcinogen and of environmental importance, upon solvation provides a test bed for understanding proton transfer pathways and catalytic mechanisms. In this study, we report on single photon vacuum ultraviolet photoionization of small acetaldehyde and acetaldehyde-water clusters. Appearance energies of protonated clusters are extracted from the experimental photoionization efficiency curves and compared to electronic structure calculations. The comparison of experimental data to computational results provides mechanistic insight into the fragmentation mechanisms of the observed mass spectra. Using deuterated water for isotopic tagging, we observe that proton transfer is mediated via acetaldehyde and not water in protonated acetaldehyde-water clusters.

  10. 27 CFR 21.93 - Acetaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acetaldehyde. 21.93 Section 21.93 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.93 Acetaldehyde. (a) Aldehyde content...

  11. 27 CFR 21.93 - Acetaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acetaldehyde. 21.93 Section 21.93 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL FORMULAS FOR DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Specifications for Denaturants § 21.93 Acetaldehyde. (a) Aldehyde content...

  12. 40 CFR 63.2240 - What are the compliance options and operating requirements and how must I meet them?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... the definition of biofilter in § 63.2292, you must use 40 CFR part 63, appendix C, Determination of... include acetaldehyde, acrolein, formaldehyde, methanol, phenol, and propionaldehyde from your...

  13. 40 CFR 63.2240 - What are the compliance options and operating requirements and how must I meet them?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... the definition of biofilter in § 63.2292, you must use 40 CFR part 63, appendix C, Determination of... include acetaldehyde, acrolein, formaldehyde, methanol, phenol, and propionaldehyde from your...

  14. 40 CFR 63.2240 - What are the compliance options and operating requirements and how must I meet them?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the definition of biofilter in § 63.2292, you must use 40 CFR part 63, appendix C, Determination of... include acetaldehyde, acrolein, formaldehyde, methanol, phenol, and propionaldehyde from your...

  15. Exposure to acrolein by inhalation causes platelet activation

    SciTech Connect

    Sithu, Srinivas D.; Srivastava, Sanjay; Siddiqui, Maqsood A.; Vladykovskaya, Elena; Riggs, Daniel W.; Conklin, Daniel J.; Haberzettl, Petra; O'Toole, Timothy E.; Bhatnagar, Aruni; D'Souza, Stanley E.

    2010-10-15

    Acrolein is a common air pollutant that is present in high concentrations in wood, cotton, and tobacco smoke, automobile exhaust and industrial waste and emissions. Exposure to acrolein containing environmental pollutants such as tobacco smoke and automobile exhaust has been linked to the activation of the coagulation and hemostasis pathways and thereby to the predisposition of thrombotic events in human. To examine the effects of acrolein on platelets, adult male C57Bl/6 mice were subjected acute (5 ppm for 6 h) or sub-chronic (1 ppm, 6 h/day for 4 days) acrolein inhalation exposures. The acute exposure to acrolein did not cause pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, dyslipidemia or induce liver damage or muscle injury. Platelet GSH levels in acrolein-exposed mice were comparable to controls, but acrolein-exposure increased the abundance of protein-acrolein adducts in platelets. Platelets isolated from mice, exposed to both acute and sub-chronic acrolein levels, showed increased ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Exposure to acrolein also led to an increase in the indices of platelet activation such as the formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates in the blood, plasma PF4 levels, and increased platelet-fibrinogen binding. The bleeding time was decreased in acrolein exposed mice. Plasma levels of PF4 were also increased in mice exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Similar to inhalation exposure, acrolein feeding to mice also increased platelet activation and established a pro-thrombotic state in mice. Together, our data suggest that acrolein is an important contributing factor to the pro-thrombotic risk in human exposure to pollutants such as tobacco smoke or automobile exhaust, or through dietary consumption.

  16. Protein modification by acrolein: Formation and stability of cysteine adducts

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Jian; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Pierce, William M.

    2010-01-01

    The toxicity of the ubiquitous pollutant and endogenous metabolite, acrolein, is due in part to covalent protein modifications. Acrolein reacts readily with protein nucleophiles via Michael addition and Schiff base formation. Potential acrolein targets in protein include the nucleophilic side chains of cysteine, histidine, and lysine residues as well as the free amino terminus of proteins. Although cysteine is the most acrolein-reactive residue, cysteine-acrolein adducts are difficult to identify in vitro and in vivo. In this study, model peptides with cysteine, lysine, and histidine residues were used to examine the reactivity of acrolein. Results from these experiments show that acrolein reacts rapidly with cysteine residues through Michael addition to form M+56 Da adducts. These M+56 adducts are, however, not stable, even though spontaneous dissociation of the adduct is slow. Further studies demonstrated that when acrolein and model peptides are incubated at physiological pH and temperature, the M+56 adducts decreased gradually accompanied by the increase of M+38 adducts, which are formed from intra-molecular Schiff base formation. Adduct formation with the side chains of other amino acid residues (lysine and histidine) was much slower than cysteine and required higher acrolein concentration. When cysteine residues were blocked by reaction with iodoacetamide and higher concentrations of acrolein were used, adducts of the N-terminal amino group or histidyl residues were formed but lysine adducts were not detected. Collectively, these data demonstrate that acrolein reacts avidly with protein cysteine residues and that the apparent loss of protein-acrolein Michael adducts over time may be related to the appearance of a novel (M+38) adduct. These findings may be important in identification of in vivo adducts of acrolein with protein cysteine residues. PMID:19231900

  17. EXPOSURE TO ACROLEIN BY INHALATION CAUSES PLATELET ACTIVATION

    PubMed Central

    Sithu, Srinivas D; Srivastava, Sanjay; Siddiqui, Maqsood A; Vladykovskaya, Elena; Riggs, Daniel W; Conklin, Daniel J; Haberzettl, Petra; O’Toole, Timothy E; Bhatnagar, Aruni; D’Souza, Stanley E

    2010-01-01

    Acrolein is a common air pollutant that is present in high concentrations in wood, cotton, and tobacco smoke, automobile exhaust and industrial waste and emissions. Exposure to acrolein containing environmental pollutants such as tobacco smoke and automobile exhaust has been linked to the activation of the coagulation and hemostasis pathways and thereby to the predisposition of thrombotic events in human. To examine the effects of acrolein on platelets, adult male C57Bl/6 mice were subjected acute (5 ppm for 6 h) or sub-chronic (1 ppm, 6h/day for 4 days) acrolein inhalation exposures. The acute exposure to acrolein did not cause pulmonary inflammation and oxidative stress, dyslipidemia or induce liver damage or muscle injury. Platelet GSH levels in acrolein-exposed mice were comparable to controls, but acrolein-exposure increased the abundance of protein-acrolein adducts in platelets. Platelets isolated from mice, exposed to both acute and sub-chronic acrolein levels, showed increased ADP-induced platelet aggregation. Exposure to acrolein also led to an increase in the indices of platelet activation such as the formation of platelet-leukocyte aggregates in the blood, plasma PF4 levels, and increased platelet-fibrinogen binding. The bleeding time was decreased in acrolein exposed mice. Plasma levels of PF4 were also increased in mice exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. Similar to inhalation exposure, acrolein feeding to mice also increased platelet activation and established a pro-thrombotic state in mice. Together, our data suggest that acrolein is an important contributing factor to the pro-thrombotic risk in human exposure to pollutants such as tobacco smoke or automobile exhaust, or through dietary consumption. PMID:20678513

  18. [Determination methods for human blood acetaldehyde].

    PubMed

    Fukunaga, T; Yamamoto, H; Tanegashima, A

    1998-06-01

    Although a number of reports on human blood acetaldehyde have been published, most of them during alcohol intoxication are still various in each researcher. The difficult problems are summarized as follows; 1) low boiling point of acetaldehyde, 2) low level in blood, 3) rapid disappearance in blood, and 4) artefactual formation during the procedures. The most crucial problem is the artefactual formation from ethanol or other sources during the procedures. Hemolysation, heating and/or other analytical procedures cause the artefacts. In this report, several methods for the determination and the evaluation of the acetaldehyde levels are reviewed. PMID:9701996

  19. Synthesis of Reactive Polymers for Acrolein Capture Using AGET ATRP.

    PubMed

    Beringer, Laura T; Li, Shaohua; Gilmore, Gary; Lister, John; Averick, Saadyah

    2015-10-01

    Acrolein is a toxic metabolite of the anticancer agent cyclophosphamide (CP). Current strategies to mitigate acrolein toxicity are insufficient, and in this brief article, we report the synthesis of well-defined low molecular weight block copolymers using activators generated by electron transfer atom transfer radical polymerization (AGET ATRP) capable of reacting with the cytotoxic small molecule acrolein. Acrolein reactivity was introduced into the block copolymers via incorporation of either (a) aminooxy or (b) sulfhydryl groups. The cytoprotective effect of the polymers was compared to sodium 2-sulfanylethanesulfonate (mesna) the current gold standard for protection from CP urotoxicity, and we found that the polymers bearing sulfhydryl moieties demonstrated superior cytoprotective activity. PMID:26355438

  20. Acetaldehyde production from ethanol by oral streptococci.

    PubMed

    Kurkivuori, Johanna; Salaspuro, Ville; Kaihovaara, Pertti; Kari, Kirsti; Rautemaa, Riina; Grönroos, Lisa; Meurman, Jukka H; Salaspuro, Mikko

    2007-02-01

    Alcohol is a well documented risk factor for upper digestive tract cancers. It has been shown that acetaldehyde, the first metabolite of ethanol is carcinogenic. The role of microbes in the production of acetaldehyde to the oral cavity has previously been described in several studies. In the present study, the aim was to investigate the capability of viridans group streptococci of normal oral flora to produce acetaldehyde in vitro during ethanol incubation. Furthermore, the aim was to measure the alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activity of the bacteria. Eight clinical strains and eight American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains of viridans group streptococci were selected for the study. Bacterial suspensions were incubated in two different ethanol concentrations, 11 mM and 1100 mM and the acetaldehyde was measured by gas chromatography. ADH-activity was measured by using a sensitive spectroscopy. The results show significant differences between the bacterial strains regarding acetaldehyde production capability and the detected ADH-activity. In particular, clinical strain of Streptococcus salivarius, both clinical and culture collection strains of Streptococcus intermedius and culture collection strain of Streptococcus mitis produced high amounts of acetaldehyde in 11 mM and 1100 mM ethanol incubation. All these four bacterial strains also showed significant ADH-enzyme activity. Twelve other strains were found to be low acetaldehyde producers. Consequently, our study shows that viridans group streptococci may play a role in metabolizing ethanol to carcinogenic acetaldehyde in the mouth. The observation supports the concept of a novel mechanism in the pathogenesis of oral cancer. PMID:16859955

  1. New formaldehyde base disinfectants.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, R.; Lindell, K. F.

    1973-01-01

    Preparations of formaldehyde in various organic liquids - ethylene glycol, glycerol, and propylene glycol - serve as effective disinfectants towards microbial vegetative cells and spores. This disinfection is a temperature-dependent process and is manifest when these formaldehyde base disinfectants are dissolved in water. The irritating vapors associated with formaldehyde disinfection are not present in either of these new formaldehyde base disinfectants or in aqueous solutions of them.

  2. Proteomic analysis of rat cerebral cortex following subchronic acrolein toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Rashedinia, Marzieh; Lari, Parisa; Abnous, Khalil; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2013-10-01

    Acrolein, a member of reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, is a major environmental pollutant. Acrolein is also produced endogenously as a toxic by-product of lipid peroxidation. Because of high reactivity, acrolein may mediate oxidative damages to cells and tissues. It has been shown to be involved in a wide variety of pathological states including pulmonary, atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we employed proteomics approach to investigate the effects of subchronic oral exposures to 3 mg/kg of acrolein on protein expression profile in the brain of rats. Moreover effects of acrolein on malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were investigated. Our results revealed that treatment with acrolein changed levels of several proteins in diverse physiological process including energy metabolism, cell communication and transport, response to stimulus and metabolic process. Interestingly, several differentially over-expressed proteins, including β-synuclein, enolase and calcineurin, are known to be associated with human neurodegenerative diseases. Changes in the levels of some proteins were confirmed by Western blot. Moreover, acrolein increases the level of MDA, as a lipid peroxidation biomarker and decreased GSH concentrations, as a non-enzyme antioxidant in the brain of acrolein treated rats. These findings suggested that acrolein induces the oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation in the brain, and so that may contribute to the pathophysiology of neurological disorders. - Highlights: • Acrolein intoxication increased lipid peroxidation and deplete GSH in rat brain. • Effect of acrolein on protein levels of cerebral cortex was analyzed by 2DE-PAGE. • Levels of a number of proteins with different biological functions were increased.

  3. Methods of synthesis of acrolein and its α-substituted derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keiko, Nataliya A.; Voronkov, Mikhail G.

    1993-08-01

    The methods of synthesis of acrolein and its α-alkyl-substituted derivatives are examined: (a) catalytic oxidation of propene, isobutene, propane, isobutane, propyl and tert-butyl alcohols, tert-butyl alkanoates, propionaldehyde, isobutyraldehyde, and allyl alcohol and its ethers: (b) condensation of formaldehyde with aliphatic aldehydes by the Mannich reactions and also in the vapour phase over heterogeneous catalysts. Both general methods (the Mannich reaction, ipso-substitution of a α-halogen in the acrylic system, and interaction of 1-brom-2-ethoxycyclopropyllithium with electrophiles) and various special methods are used in the synthesis of the α, β-unsaturated aldehydes with functional-group-substitutents. The bibliography includes 323 references.

  4. Acrolein-mediated injury in nervous system trauma and diseases

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Riyi; Rickett, Todd; Sun, Wenjing

    2012-01-01

    Acrolein, an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde, is a ubiquitous pollutant that is also produced endogenously through lipid peroxidation. This compound is hundreds of times more reactive than other aldehydes such as 4-hydroxynonenal, is produced at much higher concentrations, and persists in solution for much longer than better known free radicals. It has been implicated in disease states known to involve chronic oxidative stress, particularly spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis. Acrolein may overwhelm the anti-oxidative systems of any cell by depleting glutathione reserves, preventing glutathione regeneration, and inactivating protective enzymes. On the cellular level, acrolein exposure can cause membrane damage, mitochondrial dysfunction, and myelin disruption. Such pathologies can be exacerbated by increased concentrations or duration of exposure, and can occur in normal tissue incubated with injured spinal cord, showing that acrolein can act as a diffusive agent, spreading secondary injury. Several chemical species are capable of binding and inactivating acrolein. Hydralazine in particular can reduce acrolein concentrations and inhibit acrolein-mediated pathologies in vivo. Acrolein scavenging appears to be a novel effective treatment which is primed for rapid translation to the clinic. PMID:21823221

  5. Molecular Mechanisms of Acrolein Toxicity: Relevance to Human Disease

    PubMed Central

    Moghe, Akshata; Ghare, Smita; Lamoreau, Bryan; Mohammad, Mohammad; Barve, Shirish; McClain, Craig; Joshi-Barve, Swati

    2015-01-01

    Acrolein, a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde, is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and its potential as a serious environmental health threat is beginning to be recognized. Humans are exposed to acrolein per oral (food and water), respiratory (cigarette smoke, automobile exhaust, and biocide use) and dermal routes, in addition to endogenous generation (metabolism and lipid peroxidation). Acrolein has been suggested to play a role in several disease states including spinal cord injury, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and neuro-, hepato-, and nephro-toxicity. On the cellular level, acrolein exposure has diverse toxic effects, including DNA and protein adduction, oxidative stress, mitochondrial disruption, membrane damage, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and immune dysfunction. This review addresses our current understanding of each pathogenic mechanism of acrolein toxicity, with emphasis on the known and anticipated contribution to clinical disease, and potential therapies. PMID:25628402

  6. Heterogeneous Interactions of Acetaldehyde and Sulfuric Acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michelsen, R. R.; Ashbourn, S. F. M.; Iraci, L. T.

    2004-01-01

    The uptake of acetaldehyde [CH3CHO] by aqueous sulfuric acid has been studied via Knudsen cell experiments over ranges of temperature (210-250 K) and acid concentration (40-80 wt. %) representative of the upper troposphere. The Henry's law constants for acetaldehyde calculated from these data range from 6 x 10(exp 2) M/atm for 40 wt. % H2SO4 at 228 K to 2 x 10(exp 5) M/atm for 80 wt. % H2SO4 at 212 K. In some instances, acetaldehyde uptake exhibits apparent steady-state loss. The possible sources of this behavior, including polymerization, will be explored. Furthermore, the implications for heterogeneous reactions of aldehydes in sulfate aerosols in the upper troposphere will be discussed.

  7. Decomposition of acetaldehyde : experiment and detailed theory.

    SciTech Connect

    Gupte, K. S.; Kiefer, J. H.; Tranter, R. S.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Harding, L. B.; Chemistry; Univ. of Illinois at Chicago

    2007-01-01

    The classic pyrolytic decomposition of acetaldehyde has been examined to the higher temperatures used in combustion and also lower pressures with 85 laser-schlieren, shock-tube measurements of density gradient covering 40-500 torr and 1550-2400 K. This work is supplemented and modeled with a CASPT2 based variable reaction coordinate RRKM prediction of the dissociation kinetics. These RRKM predictions are then incorporated in good two-dimensional master equation fits of the strong falloff seen in the laser-schlieren experiments, and also that shown in some previous shock-tube results using UV absorption of the acetaldehyde as diagnostic. The laser-schlieren data provide not only unambiguous dissociation rates but also solid indications of the secondary chemistry. Modeling of the full density gradient profiles offers good estimates of rates for H-atom abstraction from both the acetaldehyde and the HCO radical, again at high temperatures.

  8. Ethylene oxide and acetaldehyde in hot cores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Occhiogrosso, A.; Vasyunin, A.; Herbst, E.; Viti, S.; Ward, M. D.; Price, S. D.; Brown, W. A.

    2014-04-01

    Context. Ethylene oxide (c-C2H4O), and its isomer acetaldehyde (CH3CHO), are important complex organic molecules because of their potential role in the formation of amino acids. The discovery of ethylene oxide in hot cores suggests the presence of ring-shaped molecules with more than 3 carbon atoms such as furan (c-C4H4O), to which ribose, the sugar found in DNA, is closely related. Aims: Despite the fact that acetaldehyde is ubiquitous in the interstellar medium, ethylene oxide has not yet been detected in cold sources. We aim to understand the chemistry of the formation and loss of ethylene oxide in hot and cold interstellar objects (i) by including in a revised gas-grain network some recent experimental results on grain surfaces and (ii) by comparison with the chemical behaviour of its isomer, acetaldehyde. Methods: We introduce a complete chemical network for ethylene oxide using a revised gas-grain chemical model. We test the code for the case of a hot core. The model allows us to predict the gaseous and solid ethylene oxide abundances during a cooling-down phase prior to star formation and during the subsequent warm-up phase. We can therefore predict at what temperatures ethylene oxide forms on grain surfaces and at what temperature it starts to desorb into the gas phase. Results: The model reproduces the observed gaseous abundances of ethylene oxide and acetaldehyde towards high-mass star-forming regions. In addition, our results show that ethylene oxide may be present in outer and cooler regions of hot cores where its isomer has already been detected. Our new results are compared with previous results, which focused on the formation of ethylene oxide only. Conclusions: Despite their different chemical structures, the chemistry of ethylene oxide is coupled to that of acetaldehyde, suggesting that acetaldehyde may be used as a tracer for ethylene oxide towards cold cores.

  9. Acrolein consumption induces systemic dyslipidemia and lipoprotein modification

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, Daniel J.; Barski, Oleg A.; Lesgards, Jean-Francois; Juvan, Peter; Rezen, Tadeja; Rozman, Damjana; Prough, Russell A.; Vladykovskaya, Elena; Liu, SiQi; Srivastava, Sanjay; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2010-02-15

    Aldehydes such as acrolein are ubiquitous pollutants present in automobile exhaust, cigarette, wood, and coal smoke. Such aldehydes are also constituents of several food substances and are present in drinking water, irrigation canals, and effluents from manufacturing plants. Oral intake represents the most significant source of exposure to acrolein and related aldehydes. To study the effects of short-term oral exposure to acrolein on lipoprotein levels and metabolism, adult mice were gavage-fed 0.1 to 5 mg acrolein/kg bwt and changes in plasma lipoproteins were assessed. Changes in hepatic gene expression related to lipid metabolism and cytokines were examined by qRT-PCR analysis. Acrolein feeding did not affect body weight, blood urea nitrogen, plasma creatinine, electrolytes, cytokines or liver enzymes, but increased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. Similar results were obtained with apoE-null mice. Plasma lipoproteins from acrolein-fed mice showed altered electrophoretic mobility on agarose gels. Chromatographic analysis revealed elevated VLDL cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides levels with little change in LDL or HDL. NMR analysis indicated shifts from small to large VLDL and from large to medium-small LDL with no change in the size of HDL particles. Increased plasma VLDL was associated with a significant decrease in post-heparin plasma hepatic lipase activity and a decrease in hepatic expression of hepatic lipase. These observations suggest that oral exposure to acrolein could induce or exacerbate systemic dyslipidemia and thereby contribute to cardiovascular disease risk.

  10. Acrolein Consumption Induces Systemic Dyslipidemia and Lipoprotein Modification

    PubMed Central

    Conklin, Daniel J.; Barski, Oleg A.; Lesgards, Jean-Francois; Juvan, Peter; Rezen, Tadeja; Rozman, Damjana; Prough, Russell A.; Vladykovskaya, Elena; Liu, SiQi; Srivastava, Sanjay; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2010-01-01

    Aldehydes such as acrolein are ubiquitous pollutants present in automobile exhaust, cigarette, wood, and coal smoke. Such aldehydes are also constituents of several food substances and are present in drinking water, irrigation canals, and effluents from manufacturing plants. Oral intake represents the most significant source of exposure to acrolein and related aldehydes. To study the effects of short-term oral exposure to acrolein on lipoprotein levels and metabolism, adult mice were gavage fed 0.1 to 5 mg acrolein/kg bwt and changes in plasma lipoproteins were assessed. Changes in hepatic gene expression related to lipid metabolism and cytokines were examined by qRT-PCR analysis. Acrolein feeding did not affect body weight, BUN, plasma creatinine, electrolytes, cytokines or liver enzymes, but increased plasma cholesterol and triglycerides. Similar results were obtained with apoE-null mice. Plasma lipoproteins from acrolein-fed mice showed altered electrophoretic mobility on agarose gels. Chromatographic analysis revealed elevated VLDL cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerides levels with little change in LDL or HDL. NMR analysis indicated shifts from small to large VLDL and from large to medium-small LDL with no change in the size of HDL particles. Increased plasma VLDL was associated with a significant decrease in post-heparin plasma hepatic lipase activity and a decrease in hepatic expression of hepatic lipase. These observations suggest that oral exposure to acrolein could induce or exacerbate systemic dyslipidemia and thereby contribute to cardiovascular disease risk. PMID:20034506

  11. Acrolein induction of oxidative stress and degranulation in mast cells.

    PubMed

    Hochman, Daniel J; Collaco, Christopher R; Brooks, Edward G

    2014-08-01

    Increases in asthma worldwide have been associated epidemiologically with expanding urban air pollution. The mechanistic relationship between airway hyper-responsiveness, inflammation, and ambient airborne triggers remains ambiguous. Acrolein, a ubiquitous aldehyde pollutant, is a product of incomplete combustion reactions. Acrolein is abundant in cigarette smoke, effluent from industrial smokestacks, diesel exhaust, and even hot oil cooking vapors. Acrolein is a potent airway irritant and can induce airway hyper-responsiveness and inflammation in the lungs of animal models. In the present study, we utilized the mast cell analog, RBL-2H3, to interrogate the responses of cells relevant to airway inflammation and allergic responses as a model for the induction of asthma-like conditions upon exposure to acrolein. We hypothesized that acrolein would induce oxidative stress and degranulation in airway mast cells. Our results indicate that acrolein at 1 ppm initiated degranulation and promoted the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Introduction of antioxidants to the system significantly reduced both ROS generation and degranulation. At higher levels of exposure (above 100 ppm), RBL-2H3 cells displayed signs of severe toxicity. This experimental data indicates acrolein can induce an allergic inflammation in mast cell lines, and the initiation of degranulation was moderated by the application of antioxidants. PMID:23047665

  12. Pharmacological treatments and strategies for reducing oral and intestinal acetaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Salaspuro, Ville

    2007-01-01

    Strong epidemiological, genetic and biochemical evidence indicates that local acetaldehyde exposure is a major factor behind gastrointestinal cancers especially associated with alcohol drinking and smoking. Thus, reducing the exposure to carcinogenic acetaldehyde either by decreasing the production or by eliminating acetaldehyde locally might offer a preventive strategy against acetaldehyde-induced gastrointestinal cancers. Thiol products, such as the amino acid cysteine, are known to be able to protect against acetaldehyde toxicity. Cysteine is able to bind acetaldehyde efficiently by forming a stable thiazolidine-carboxylic acid compound. Special cysteine preparations (such as lozenge and chewing gum) have already been developed to bind smoking and alcohol drinking derived acetaldehyde from the oral cavity. Most importantly, these type of drug formulations offer a novel method for intervention studies aimed to resolve the eventual role of acetaldehyde in the pathogenesis of upper digestive tract cancers. Acetaldehyde exposure could also be influenced by modifying the acetaldehyde producing microbiota. With regard to the upper digestive tract, acetaldehyde production from ingested ethanol could be significantly reduced by using an antiseptic mouthwash, chlorhexidine. In the large intestine acetaldehyde production could be markedly decreased either by reducing the Gram-negative microbes by ciprofloxacin antibiotic or by lowering the intraluminal pH by lactulose. PMID:17590993

  13. Protein-bound acrolein: Potential markers for oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Uchida, Koji; Kanematsu, Masamichi; Sakai, Kensuke; Matsuda, Tsukasa; Hattori, Nobutaka; Mizuno, Yoshikuni; Suzuki, Daisuke; Miyata, Toshio; Noguchi, Noriko; Niki, Etsuo; Osawa, Toshihiko

    1998-01-01

    Acrolein (CH2=CH—CHO) is known as a ubiquitous pollutant in the environment. Here we show that this notorious aldehyde is not just a pollutant, but also a lipid peroxidation product that could be ubiquitously generated in biological systems. Upon incubation with BSA, acrolein was rapidly incorporated into the protein and generated the protein-linked carbonyl derivative, a putative marker of oxidatively modified proteins under oxidative stress. To verify the presence of protein-bound acrolein in vivo, the mAb (mAb5F6) against the acrolein-modified keyhole limpet hemocyanin was raised. It was found that the acrolein-lysine adduct, Nɛ-(3-formyl-3,4-dehydropiperidino)lysine, constitutes an epitope of the antibody. Immunohistochemical analysis of atherosclerotic lesions from a human aorta demonstrated that antigenic materials recognized by mAb5F6 indeed constituted the lesions, in which intense positivity was associated primarily with macrophage-derived foam cells and the thickening neointima of arterial walls. The observations that (i) oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein with Cu2+ generated the acrolein-low-density lipoprotein adducts and (ii) the iron-catalyzed oxidation of arachidonate in the presence of protein resulted in the formation of antigenic materials suggested that polyunsaturated fatty acids are sources of acrolein that cause the production of protein-bound acrolein. These data suggest that the protein-bound acrolein represents potential markers of oxidative stress and long-term damage to protein in aging, atherosclerosis, and diabetes. PMID:9560197

  14. Acrolein genotoxicity in Drosophila melanogaster. III. Effects of metabolism modification.

    PubMed

    Barros, A R; Sierra, L M; Comendador, M A

    1994-05-01

    In order to investigate the role of metabolism in acrolein genotoxicity in D. melanogaster, the action of several metabolism modifiers, namely phenobarbital, an inducer of xenobiotic metabolism, phenylimidazole and iproniazid, inhibitors of oxidative activities of cytochrome P450, and diethyl maleate, a glutathione-depleting agent, have been assayed using the sex-linked recessive lethal (SLRL) test, with two different administration routes (feeding and injection). The results support the hypothesis that acrolein is not only a direct mutagen but is also transformed, by oxidative activities of cytochrome P450 after glutathione conjugation, into an active metabolite, possibly glycidaldehyde. Moreover, acrolein is deactivated by an enzymatic activity induced by phenobarbital. PMID:7513061

  15. Transport and intracellular accumulation of acetaldehyde in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, G.A.; Pamment, N.B. )

    1993-06-05

    The rate of acetaldehyde efflux from yeast cells and its intracellular concentration were studied in the light of recent suggestions that acetaldehyde inhibition may be an important factor in yeast ethanol fermentations. When the medium surrounding cells containing ethanol and acetaldehyde was suddenly diluted, the rate of efflux of acetaldehyde was slow relative to the rate of ethanol efflux, suggesting that acetaldehyde, unlike ethanol, may accumulate intracellularly. Intracellular acetaldehyde concentrations were measured during high cell density fermentations, using direct injection gas chromatography to avoid the need to concentrate or disrupt the cells. Intracellular acetaldehyde concentrations substantially exceeded the extracellular concentrations throughout fermentation and were generally much higher than the acetaldehyde concentrations normally recorded in the culture broth in ethanol fermentations. The technique used was sensitive to the time taken to cool and freeze the samples. Measured intracellular acetaldehyde concentrations fell rapidly as the time taken to freeze the suspensions was extended beyond 2 s. The results add weight to recent claims that acetaldehyde toxicity is responsible for some of the effects previously ascribed to ethanol in alcohol fermentations, especially Zymomonas fermentations. Further work is required to confirm the importance of acetaldehyde toxicity under other culture conditions.

  16. Formaldehyde risk assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    We would like to comment on the paper by Crump et al. (2008), ‘Sensitivity analysis of biologically motivated model for formaldehyde-induced respiratory cancer in humans’. We are authors of the formaldehyde cancer risk assessment described in Conolly et al. (2003, 2004) that is t...

  17. Optical Detection of Formaldehyde

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patty, Kira D.; Gregory, Don A.

    2008-01-01

    The potential for buildup .of formaldehyde in closed space environments poses a direct health hazard to personnel. The National Aeronautic Space Agency (NASA) has established a maximum permitted concentration of 0.04 ppm for 7 to 180 days for all space craft. Early detection is critical to ensure that formaldehyde levels do not accumulate. above these limits. New sensor technologies are needed to enable real time,in situ detection in a compact and reusable form factor. Addressing this need,research into the use of reactive fluorescent dyes which reversibly bind to formaldehyde (liquid or gas) has been conducted to support the development of a formaldehyde.sensor. In the presence of formaldehyde the dyes' characteristic fluorescence peaks shift providing the basis for an optical detection. Dye responses to formaldehyde exposure were characterized; demonstrating the optical detection of formaldehyde in under 10 seconds and down to concentrations of 0.5 ppm. To .incorporate the dye .in.an optical sensor device requires. a means of containing and manipulating the dye. Multiple form factors using two dissimilar sbstrates were considered to determine a suitable configuration. A prototype sensor was demonstrated and considerations for a field able sensor were presented. This research provides a necessary first step toward the development of a compact, reusable; real time optical formaldehyde sensor suitable for use in the U.S. space program,

  18. Melamine-formaldehyde aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Pekala, R.W.

    1992-01-14

    Organic aerogels that are transparent and essentially colorless are prepared from the aqueous, sol-gel polymerization of melamine with formaldehyde. The melamine-formaldehyde (MF) aerogels have low densities, high surface areas, continuous porosity, ultrafine cell/pore sizes, and optical clarity. 3 figs.

  19. Formaldehyde in Our Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojanlatva, Ansa; Weeks, Charlie A.

    During the energy crisis of the early 1970s, there was a drive to conserve energy in every segment of society. Citizens were encouraged to insulate their homes and tighten them up to avoid loss of energy. One of the products to emerge from this crisis was urea formaldehyde foam insulation. (Urea formaldehyde is a well-known agent for preserving…

  20. Melamine-formaldehyde aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Pekala, Richard Walter

    1992-01-01

    Organic aerogels that are transparent and essentially colorless are prepa from the aqueous, sol-gel polymerization of melamine with formaldehyde. The melamine-formaldehyde (MF) aerogels have low densities, high surface areas, continuous porsity, ultrafine cell/pore sizes, and optical clarity.

  1. The formaldehyde dilemma.

    PubMed

    Salthammer, Tunga

    2015-06-01

    The IARC's 2004 classification of formaldehyde as a human carcinogen has led to intensive discussion on scientific and regulatory levels. In June 2014, the European Union followed and classified formaldehyde as a cause of cancer. This automatically triggers consequences in terms of emission minimization and the health-related assessment of building and consumer products. On the other hand, authorities are demanding and authorizing technologies and products which can release significant quantities of formaldehyde into the atmosphere. In the outdoor environment, this particularly applies to combusting fuels. The formation of formaldehyde through photochemical smog has also been a recognized problem for years. Indoors there are various processes which can contribute to increased formaldehyde concentrations. Overall, legislation faces a dilemma: primary sources are often over-regulated while a lack of consideration of secondary sources negates the regulations' effects. PMID:25772784

  2. Microbial Formaldehyde Oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy J. Donohue

    2004-12-09

    This project analyzed how cells sense and generate energy from formaldehyde oxidation. Formaldehyde is a toxin that is produced naturally, chemically or by metabolism of a wide variety of methyl-containing compounds. Our goals are to identify how cells sense the presence of this toxic compound and determine how they generate energy and nutrients from the oxidation of formaldehyde. This research capitalizes on the role of the Rhodobacter sphaeroides glutathione dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (GSH FDH) in a formaldehyde oxidation pathway that is apparently found in a wide variety of microbes, plants and animals. Thus, our findings illustrate what is required for a large variety of cells to metabolize this toxic compound. A second major focus of our research is to determine how cells sense the presence of this toxic compound and control the expression of gene products required for its detoxification.

  3. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Nanoparticles for Formaldehyde Sensing with QCM

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Munawar; Kotova, Kira; Lieberzeit, Peter A.

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for detecting formaldehyde vapors in air streams. A copolymer thin film consisting of styrene, methacrylic acid, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) yielded a detection limit of 500 ppb formaldehyde in dry air. Surprisingly, these MIPs showed specific behavior when tested against a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as acetaldehyde, methanol, formic acid, and dichloromethane. Despite thus being a suitable receptor in principle, the MIPs were not useful for measurements at 50% humidity due to surface saturation by water. This was overcome by introducing primary amino groups into the polymer via allyl amine and by changing the coating morphology from thin film to nanoparticles. This led to the same limit of detection (500 ppb) and selectivity as before, but at the real-life conditions of 50% relative humidity. PMID:27376287

  4. Molecularly Imprinted Polymer Nanoparticles for Formaldehyde Sensing with QCM.

    PubMed

    Hussain, Munawar; Kotova, Kira; Lieberzeit, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    Herein, we report on molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) for detecting formaldehyde vapors in air streams. A copolymer thin film consisting of styrene, methacrylic acid, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate on quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) yielded a detection limit of 500 ppb formaldehyde in dry air. Surprisingly, these MIPs showed specific behavior when tested against a range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), such as acetaldehyde, methanol, formic acid, and dichloromethane. Despite thus being a suitable receptor in principle, the MIPs were not useful for measurements at 50% humidity due to surface saturation by water. This was overcome by introducing primary amino groups into the polymer via allyl amine and by changing the coating morphology from thin film to nanoparticles. This led to the same limit of detection (500 ppb) and selectivity as before, but at the real-life conditions of 50% relative humidity. PMID:27376287

  5. Synthetic smoke with acrolein but not HCl produces pulmonary edema

    SciTech Connect

    Hales, C.A.; Barkin, P.W.; Jung, W.; Trautman, E.; Lamborghini, D.; Herrig, N.; Burke, J.

    1988-03-01

    The chemical toxins in smoke and not the heat are responsible for the pulmonary edema of smoke inhalation. We developed a synthetic smoke composed of carbon particles (mean diameter of 4.3 microns) to which toxins known to be in smoke, such as HCl or acrolein, could be added one at a time. We delivered synthetic smoke to dogs for 10 min and monitored extravascular lung water (EVLW) accumulation thereafter with a double-indicator thermodilution technique. Final EVLW correlated highly with gravimetric values (r = 0.93, P less than 0.01). HCl in concentrations of 0.1-6 N when added to heated carbon (120 degrees C) and cooled to 39 degrees C produced airway damage but no pulmonary edema. Acrolein, in contrast, produced airway damage but also pulmonary edema, whereas capillary wedge pressures remained stable. Low-dose acrolein smoke (less than 200 ppm) produced edema in two of five animals with a 2- to 4-h delay. Intermediate-dose acrolein smoke (200-300 ppm) always produced edema at an average of 147 +/- 57 min after smoke, whereas high-dose acrolein (greater than 300 ppm) produced edema at 65 +/- 16 min after smoke. Thus acrolein but not HCl, when presented as a synthetic smoke, produced a delayed-onset, noncardiogenic, and peribronchiolar edema in a roughly dose-dependent fashion.

  6. Synthetic smoke with acrolein but not HCl produces pulmonary edema.

    PubMed

    Hales, C A; Barkin, P W; Jung, W; Trautman, E; Lamborghini, D; Herrig, N; Burke, J

    1988-03-01

    The chemical toxins in smoke and not the heat are responsible for the pulmonary edema of smoke inhalation. We developed a synthetic smoke composed of carbon particles (mean diameter of 4.3 microns) to which toxins known to be in smoke, such as HCl or acrolein, could be added one at a time. We delivered synthetic smoke to dogs for 10 min and monitored extravascular lung water (EVLW) accumulation thereafter with a double-indicator thermodilution technique. Final EVLW correlated highly with gravimetric values (r = 0.93, P less than 0.01). HCl in concentrations of 0.1-6 N when added to heated carbon (120 degrees C) and cooled to 39 degrees C produced airway damage but no pulmonary edema. Acrolein, in contrast, produced airway damage but also pulmonary edema, whereas capillary wedge pressures remained stable. Low-dose acrolein smoke (less than 200 ppm) produced edema in two of five animals with a 2- to 4-h delay. Intermediate-dose acrolein smoke (200-300 ppm) always produced edema at an average of 147 +/- 57 min after smoke, whereas high-dose acrolein (greater than 300 ppm) produced edema at 65 +/- 16 min after smoke. Thus acrolein but not HCl, when presented as a synthetic smoke, produced a delayed-onset, noncardiogenic, and peribronchiolar edema in a roughly dose-dependent fashion. PMID:3284867

  7. Microfabricated Formaldehyde Gas Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Flueckiger, Jonas; Ko, Frank K.; Cheung, Karen C.

    2009-01-01

    Formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound that is widely used in textiles, paper, wood composites, and household materials. Formaldehyde will continuously outgas from manufactured wood products such as furniture, with adverse health effects resulting from prolonged low-level exposure. New, microfabricated sensors for formaldehyde have been developed to meet the need for portable, low-power gas detection. This paper reviews recent work including silicon microhotplates for metal oxide-based detection, enzyme-based electrochemical sensors, and nanowire-based sensors. This paper also investigates the promise of polymer-based sensors for low-temperature, low-power operation. PMID:22291561

  8. Acrolein Exposure Is Associated With Increased Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    DeJarnett, Natasha; Conklin, Daniel J.; Riggs, Daniel W.; Myers, John A.; O'Toole, Timothy E.; Hamzeh, Ihab; Wagner, Stephen; Chugh, Atul; Ramos, Kenneth S.; Srivastava, Sanjay; Higdon, Deirdre; Tollerud, David J.; DeFilippis, Andrew; Becher, Carrie; Wyatt, Brad; McCracken, James; Abplanalp, Wes; Rai, Shesh N.; Ciszewski, Tiffany; Xie, Zhengzhi; Yeager, Ray; Prabhu, Sumanth D.; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2014-01-01

    Background Acrolein is a reactive aldehyde present in high amounts in coal, wood, paper, and tobacco smoke. It is also generated endogenously by lipid peroxidation and the oxidation of amino acids by myeloperoxidase. In animals, acrolein exposure is associated with the suppression of circulating progenitor cells and increases in thrombosis and atherogenesis. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acrolein exposure in humans is also associated with increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Methods and Results Acrolein exposure was assessed in 211 participants of the Louisville Healthy Heart Study with moderate to high (CVD) risk by measuring the urinary levels of the major acrolein metabolite—3‐hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3‐HPMA). Generalized linear models were used to assess the association between acrolein exposure and parameters of CVD risk, and adjusted for potential demographic confounders. Urinary 3‐HPMA levels were higher in smokers than nonsmokers and were positively correlated with urinary cotinine levels. Urinary 3‐HPMA levels were inversely related to levels of both early (AC133+) and late (AC133−) circulating angiogenic cells. In smokers as well as nonsmokers, 3‐HPMA levels were positively associated with both increased levels of platelet–leukocyte aggregates and the Framingham Risk Score. No association was observed between 3‐HPMA and plasma fibrinogen. Levels of C‐reactive protein were associated with 3‐HPMA levels in nonsmokers only. Conclusions Regardless of its source, acrolein exposure is associated with platelet activation and suppression of circulating angiogenic cell levels, as well as increased CVD risk. PMID:25099132

  9. Acute and long-term ocular effects of acrolein vapor on the eyes and potential therapies.

    PubMed

    Ilhan, Abdullah; Yolcu, Umit; Uzun, Salih

    2016-03-01

    Acrolein is an important agent in chemical ocular burns. With regard to the results of the study reported by Dachir et al.; we discuss the particular role of acrolein in chemical warfare and the beneficial effects of proanthocyanidins on the acrolein-induced ocular injuries. PMID:25694172

  10. Acetaldehyde inhibition of protein synthesis in isolated rat pancreatic acini

    SciTech Connect

    Majumdar, A.P.; Haiman, M.J.; Zylbert, B.A.; Billy, H.T.; Vesenka, G.D.; Geokas, M.C.

    1986-03-30

    Exposure of isolated dispersed pancreatic acini to increasing concentrations of ethanol (5 to 500 mM) or acetaldehyde (0.5 to 100 mM) produced a progressive inhibition of (3H)leucine incorporation into both cellular (those remaining in the cell) and secretory (those released into the medium) proteins. Whereas 500 mM ethanol caused 90-95% inhibition in the synthesis of cellular and secretory proteins, the concentration of acetaldehyde needed to produce a similar inhibition was found to be 50 mM. All subsequent experiments were performed with 12.5 mM acetaldehyde, a concentration that consistently inhibited acinar protein synthesis by about 50%. The acetaldehyde-mediated inhibition of acinar protein synthesis was partially normalized when this metabolite was removed after 30 min during a 90-min incubation period. In the presence of acetaldehyde, the secretion of 3H-pulse-labeled proteins, but not amylase, trypsinogen, or chymotrypsinogen, was greatly depressed. Acetaldehyde also caused a marked reduction in (3H)uridine incorporation into acinar RNA. The entry of (3H)uridine, (3H)leucine, and (3H)aminoisobutyric acid into isolated acini was found to be slightly (15-25%) decreased by acetaldehyde. It is concluded that acetaldehyde exerts a direct toxic effect on isolated dispersed pancreatic acini as evidenced by diminution of both protein and RNA synthesis and decreased secretion of the newly synthesized proteins. This inhibitory effect of acetaldehyde could be partially reversed.

  11. Direct measurement of Criegee intermediate (CH2OO) reactions with acetone, acetaldehyde, and hexafluoroacetone.

    PubMed

    Taatjes, Craig A; Welz, Oliver; Eskola, Arkke J; Savee, John D; Osborn, David L; Lee, Edmond P F; Dyke, John M; Mok, Daniel W K; Shallcross, Dudley E; Percival, Carl J

    2012-08-14

    Criegee biradicals, i.e., carbonyl oxides, are critical intermediates in ozonolysis and have been implicated in autoignition chemistry and other hydrocarbon oxidation systems, but until recently the direct measurement of their gas-phase kinetics has not been feasible. Indirect determinations of Criegee intermediate kinetics often rely on the introduction of a scavenger molecule into an ozonolysis system and analysis of the effects of the scavenger on yields of products associated with Criegee intermediate reactions. Carbonyl species, in particular hexafluoroacetone (CF(3)COCF(3)), have often been used as scavengers. In this work, the reactions of the simplest Criegee intermediate, CH(2)OO (formaldehyde oxide), with three carbonyl species have been measured by laser photolysis/tunable synchrotron photoionization mass spectrometry. Diiodomethane photolysis produces CH(2)I radicals, which react with O(2) to yield CH(2)OO + I. The formaldehyde oxide is reacted with a large excess of a carbonyl reactant and both the disappearance of CH(2)OO and the formation of reaction products are monitored. The rate coefficient for CH(2)OO + hexafluoroacetone is k(1) = (3.0 ± 0.3) × 10(-11) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), supporting the use of hexafluoroacetone as a Criegee-intermediate scavenger. The reactions with acetaldehyde, k(2) = (9.5 ± 0.7) × 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), and with acetone, k(3) = (2.3 ± 0.3) × 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), are substantially slower. Secondary ozonides and products of ozonide isomerization are observed from the reactions of CH(2)OO with acetone and hexafluoroacetone. Their photoionization spectra are interpreted with the aid of quantum-chemical and Franck-Condon-factor calculations. No secondary ozonide was observable in the reaction of CH(2)OO with acetaldehyde, but acetic acid was identified as a product under the conditions used (4 Torr and 293 K). PMID:22481381

  12. Acrolein Impairs the Cholesterol Transport Functions of High Density Lipoproteins

    PubMed Central

    Chadwick, Alexandra C.; Holme, Rebecca L.; Chen, Yiliang; Thomas, Michael J.; Sorci-Thomas, Mary G.; Silverstein, Roy L.; Pritchard, Kirkwood A.; Sahoo, Daisy

    2015-01-01

    High density lipoproteins (HDL) are considered athero-protective, primarily due to their role in reverse cholesterol transport, where they transport cholesterol from peripheral tissues to the liver for excretion. The current study was designed to determine the impact of HDL modification by acrolein, a highly reactive aldehyde found in high abundance in cigarette smoke, on the cholesterol transport functions of HDL. HDL was chemically-modified with acrolein and immunoblot and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed apolipoprotein crosslinking, as well as acrolein adducts on apolipoproteins A-I and A-II. The ability of acrolein-modified HDL (acro-HDL) to serve as an acceptor of free cholesterol (FC) from COS-7 cells transiently expressing SR-BI was significantly decreased. Further, in contrast to native HDL, acro-HDL promotes higher neutral lipid accumulation in murine macrophages as judged by Oil Red O staining. The ability of acro-HDL to mediate efficient selective uptake of HDL-cholesteryl esters (CE) into SR-BI-expressing cells was reduced compared to native HDL. Together, the findings from our studies suggest that acrolein modification of HDL produces a dysfunctional particle that may ultimately promote atherogenesis by impairing functions that are critical in the reverse cholesterol transport pathway. PMID:25849485

  13. Effects of acrolein on the production of corticosterone in male rats.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Yung-Hsing; Chou, Jou-Chun; Weng, Ting-Chun; Lieu, Fu-Kong; Lin, Jou-Yu; Yeh, Chii-Chang; Hu, Sindy; Wang, Paulus S; Idova, Galina; Wang, Shyi-Wu

    2016-07-01

    Acrolein, an α, β-unsaturated aldehyde, exists in a wide range of sources. Acrolein can be not only generated from all types of smoke but also produced endogenously from the metabolism by lipid peroxidation. The cellular influence of acrolein is due to its electrophilic character via binding to and depleting cellular nucleophiles. Although the toxicity of acrolein has been extensively studied, there is relatively little information about its impact on hormone release. This study aimed at the effect of acrolein on hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (H-P-A) axis. In an in vivo study, male rats were administrated with acrolein for 1 or 3days. The plasma corticosterone in response to a single injection of adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) increased slowly in acrolein-pretreated rats than in control rats. Further investigating the steroidogenic pathway, the protein expressions of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) and the upper receptor-melanocortin 2 receptor (MC2R) were attenuated in acrolein-treated groups. Another experiment using trilostane showed less activity of P450scc in zona fasciculata-reticularis (ZFR) cells in acrolein-treated groups. In addition to the suppressed ability of corticosterone production in ZFR cells, acrolein even had extended influence at higher concentrations. The lower ACTH was observed in the plasma from acrolein-pretreated rats. In an in vitro study, ZFR cells were incubated with acrolein and the results showed that corticosterone concentrations in media were decreased in a dose-dependent manner. Acrolein also desensitized the response of the ZFR cells to ACTH. These results suggested that acrolein decreased the releasing ability of corticosterone via an inhibition on the response of ZFR cells to ACTH and the reduction of protein expressions of StAR and MC2R as well as the activity of P450scc in rat ZFR cells. The present evidences showed that the H-P-A axis was affected by the administration of acrolein. PMID:26996390

  14. Photoinduced catalytic synthesis of biologically important metabolites from formaldehyde and ammonia under plausible "prebiotic" conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delidovich, I. V.; Taran, O. P.; Simonov, A. N.; Matvienko, L. G.; Parmon, V. N.

    2011-08-01

    The article analyzes new and previously reported data on several catalytic and photochemical processes yielding biologically important molecules. UV-irradiation of formaldehyde aqueous solution yields acetaldehyde, glyoxal, glycolaldehyde and glyceraldehyde, which can serve as precursors of more complex biochemically relevant compounds. Photolysis of aqueous solution of acetaldehyde and ammonium nitrate results in formation of alanine and pyruvic acid. Dehydration of glyceraldehyde catalyzed by zeolite HZSM-5-17 yields pyruvaldehyde. Monosaccharides are formed in the course of the phosphate-catalyzed aldol condensation reactions of glycolaldehyde, glyceraldehyde and formaldehyde. The possibility of the direct synthesis of tetroses, keto- and aldo-pentoses from pure formaldehyde due to the combination of the photochemical production of glycolahyde and phosphate-catalyzed carbohydrate chain growth is demonstrated. Erythrulose and 3-pentulose are the main products of such combined synthesis with selectivity up to 10%. Biologically relevant aldotetroses, aldo- and ketopentoses are more resistant to the photochemical destruction owing to the stabilization in hemiacetal cyclic forms. They are formed as products of isomerization of erythrulose and 3-pentulose. The conjugation of the concerned reactions results in a plausible route to the formation of sugars, amino and organic acids from formaldehyde and ammonia under presumed 'prebiotic' conditions.

  15. Anti-acrolein treatment improves behavioral outcome and alleviates myelin damage in EAE mouse

    PubMed Central

    Leung, Gary; Sun, Wenjing; Zheng, Lingxing; Brookes, Sarah; Tully, Melissa; Shi, Riyi

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress is considered a major contributor in the pathology of multiple sclerosis (MS). Acrolein, a highly reactive aldehyde byproduct of lipid peroxidation, is thought to perpetuate oxidative stress. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of acrolein in an animal model of MS, experimental autoimmune enchephalomyelitis (EAE) mice. We have demonstrated a significant elevation of acrolein protein adduct levels in EAE mouse spinal cord. Hydralazine, a known acrolein scavenger, significantly improved behavioral outcomes and lessened myelin damage in spinal cord. We postulate that acrolein is an important pathological factor and likely a novel therapeutic target in MS. PMID:21081153

  16. Acute effects of acrolein in human volunteers during controlled exposure

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Aishwarya M.; Johanson, Gunnar; Lorentzen, Johnny C.; Palmberg, Lena; Sjögren, Bengt; Ernstgård, Lena

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context: Acrolein is a reactive aldehyde mainly formed by combustion. The critical effect is considered to be irritation of the eyes and airways; however, the scarce data available make it difficult to assess effect levels. Objective: The aim of the study was to determine thresholds for acute irritation for acrolein. Methods: Nine healthy volunteers of each sex were exposed at six occasions for 2 h at rest to: clean air, 15 ppm ethyl acetate (EA), and 0.05 ppm and 0.1 ppm acrolein with and without EA (15 ppm) to mask the potential influence of odor. Symptoms related to irritation and central nervous system effects were rated on 100-mm Visual Analogue Scales. Results: The ratings of eye irritation were slightly but significantly increased during exposure to acrolein in a dose-dependent manner (p < 0.001, Friedman test) with a median rating of 8 mm (corresponding to “hardly at all”) at the 0.1 ppm condition and with no influence from EA. No significant exposure-related effects were found for pulmonary function, or nasal swelling, nor for markers of inflammation and coagulation in blood (IL-6, C-reactive protein, serum amyloid A, fibrinogen, factor VIII, von Willebrand factor, and Clara cell protein) or induced sputum (cell count, differential cell count, IL-6 and IL-8). Blink frequency recorded by electromyography was increased during exposure to 0.1 ppm acrolein alone but not during any of the other five exposure conditions. Conclusion: Based on subjective ratings, the present study showed minor eye irritation by exposure to 0.1 ppm acrolein. PMID:26635308

  17. Metabolic shift in lung alveolar cell mitochondria following acrolein exposure.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Amit R; Yin, Fei; Cadenas, Enrique

    2013-11-15

    Acrolein, an α,β unsaturated electrophile, is an environmental pollutant released in ambient air from diesel exhausts and cooking oils. This study examines the role of acrolein in altering mitochondrial function and metabolism in lung-specific cells. RLE-6TN, H441, and primary alveolar type II (pAT2) cells were exposed to acrolein for 4 h, and its effect on mitochondrial oxygen consumption rates was studied by XF Extracellular Flux analysis. Low-dose acrolein exposure decreased mitochondrial respiration in a dose-dependent manner because of alteration in the metabolism of glucose in all the three cell types. Acrolein inhibited glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity, leading to decreased substrate availability for mitochondrial respiration in RLE-6TN, H441, and pAT2 cells; the reduced GAPDH activity was compensated in pAT2 cells by an increase in the activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, the regulatory control of the pentose phosphate pathway. The decrease in pyruvate from glucose metabolism resulted in utilization of alternative sources to support mitochondrial energy production: palmitate-BSA complex increased mitochondrial respiration in RLE-6TN and pAT2 cells. The presence of palmitate in alveolar cells for surfactant biosynthesis may prove to be the alternative fuel source for mitochondrial respiration. Accordingly, a decrease in phosphatidylcholine levels and an increase in phospholipase A2 activity were found in the alveolar cells after acrolein exposure. These findings have implications for understanding the decrease in surfactant levels frequently observed in pathophysiological situations with altered lung function following exposure to environmental toxicants. PMID:24056970

  18. Acetaldehyde and hexanaldehyde from cultured white cells

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hye-Won; Umber, Brandon J; Meinardi, Simone; Leu, Szu-Yun; Zaldivar, Frank; Blake, Donald R; Cooper, Dan M

    2009-01-01

    Background Noninvasive detection of innate immune function such as the accumulation of neutrophils remains a challenge in many areas of clinical medicine. We hypothesized that granulocytes could generate volatile organic compounds. Methods To begin to test this, we developed a bioreactor and analytical GC-MS system to accurately identify and quantify gases in trace concentrations (parts per billion) emitted solely from cell/media culture. A human promyelocytic leukemia cell line, HL60, frequently used to assess neutrophil function, was grown in serum-free medium. Results HL60 cells released acetaldehyde and hexanaldehyde in a time-dependent manner. The mean ± SD concentration of acetaldehyde in the headspace above the cultured cells following 4-, 24- and 48-h incubation was 157 ± 13 ppbv, 490 ± 99 ppbv, 698 ± 87 ppbv. For hexanaldehyde these values were 1 ± 0.3 ppbv, 8 ± 2 ppbv, and 11 ± 2 ppbv. In addition, our experimental system permitted us to identify confounding trace gas contaminants such as styrene. Conclusion This study demonstrates that human immune cells known to mimic the function of innate immune cells, like neutrophils, produce volatile gases that can be measured in vitro in trace amounts. PMID:19402909

  19. Biochemical basis of mitochondrial acetaldehyde dismutation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed Central

    Thielen, J; Ciriacy, M

    1991-01-01

    As reported previously, Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells deficient in all four known genes coding for alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH1 through ADH4) produce considerable amounts of ethanol during aerobic growth on glucose. It has been suggested that ethanol production in such adh0 cells is a corollary of acetaldehyde dismutation in mitochondria. This could be substantiated further by showing that mitochondrial ethanol formation requires functional electron transport, while the proton gradient or oxidative phosphorylation does not interfere with reduction of acetaldehyde in isolated mitochondria. This acetaldehyde-reducing activity is different from classical alcohol dehydrogenases in that it is associated with the inner mitochondrial membrane and also is unable to carry out ethanol oxidation. The putative cofactor is NADH + H+ generated by a soluble, matrix-located aldehyde dehydrogenase upon acetaldehyde oxidation to acetate. This enzyme has been purified from mitochondria of glucose-grown cells. It is clearly different from the known mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase, which is absent in glucose-grown cells. Both acetaldehyde-reducing and acetaldehyde-oxidizing activities are also present in the mitochondrial fraction of fermentation-proficient (ADH+) cells. Mitochondrial acetaldehyde dismutation may have some significance in the removal of surplus acetaldehyde and in the formation of acetate in mitochondria during aerobic glucose fermentation. Images FIG. 4 PMID:1938903

  20. 40 CFR 721.10036 - Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10036 Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10036 - Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10036 Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  2. 40 CFR 721.10036 - Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10036 Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as...

  3. Catalytic oxidation of ethanol and acetaldehyde in supercritical carbon dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, L.; Akgerman, A.

    1995-05-01

    Supercritical fluid (SCF) extraction has been receiving increasing attention for the remediation of environmental matrices contaminated with organic compounds. Catalytic oxidation of ethanol and acetaldehyde over a 4.45% Pt/TiO{sub 2} catalyst in supercritical carbon dioxide was studied in a 1/2 in. fixed bed reactor. Experiments for ethanol oxidation were performed at temperatures from 423 to 573 K and at a pressure of 8.96 MPa with a 5:1 molar ratio of oxygen to ethanol in the feed. Acetaldehyde oxidation was performed at temperatures from 423 to 548 K and at 8.96 MPa with an approximate 4.7:1 molar ratio of oxygen to acetaldehyde in the feed. In addition to CO{sub 2}, the complete oxidation product, acetaldehyde and trace amounts of CO were generated during ethanol oxidation, while a trace amount of CO was the only partial oxidation product during acetaldehyde oxidation. A parallel and consecutive reaction mechanism was postulated for ethanol oxidation, whereas dissociative adsorption of acetaldehyde on the catalyst surface and surface reaction rate control were postulated for acetaldehyde oxidation. The kinetic parameters in the rate expressions based on the mechanisms were obtained by fitting the experimental data with the results of the model calculation. The models were used to predict the conversion and yield for ethanol oxidation and acetaldehyde oxidation.

  4. 40 CFR 721.10036 - Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10036 Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... based polymer (PMN P-02-406) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  5. 40 CFR 721.10036 - Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.10036 Acetaldehyde based polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substance and... based polymer (PMN P-02-406) is subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  6. Acetaldehyde photochemistry on TiO2(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Zehr, Robert T.; Henderson, Michael A.

    2008-07-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) photon induced decomposition of acetaldehyde absorbed on the oxidized retile TIO2(110) surface was studied with photon stimulated desorption (PSD) and theral programmed desorption (TPD). Acetaldehyde desorbs molecularly from TiO2(110) with minor decomposition channels yielding butene on the reduced TiO2 surface and acetate on the oxidized TiO2 surface. Acetaldehyde absorbed on oxidized TiO2(110) undergoes a facile thermal reaction to form a photoactive acetaldehyde-oxygen complex. UV irradiation of the acetaldehyde-oxygen complex resulting in the ejection of methyl radical into gas phase and conversion of the surface bound fragment to formate.

  7. Acetaldehyde Photochemistry on TiO2(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Zehr, Robert T.; Henderson, Michael A.

    2008-07-01

    The ultraviolet (UV) photon induced decomposition of acetaldehyde adsorbed on the oxidized rutile TiO2(110) surface was studied with photon stimulated desorption (PSD) and thermal programmed desorption (TPD). Acetaldehyde desorbs molecularly from TiO2(110) with minor decomposition channels yielding butene on the reduced TiO2 surface and acetate on the oxidized TiO2 surface. Acetaldehyde adsorbed on oxidized TiO2(110) undergoes a facile thermal reaction to form a photoactive acetaldehyde-oxygen complex. UV irradiation of the acetaldehyde-oxygen complex initiated photofragmentation of the complex resulting in the ejection of methyl radical into gas phase and conversion of the surface bound fragment to formate.

  8. Mechanism of acetaldehyde-induced deactivation of microbial lipases

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Microbial lipases represent the most important class of biocatalysts used for a wealth of applications in organic synthesis. An often applied reaction is the lipase-catalyzed transesterification of vinyl esters and alcohols resulting in the formation of acetaldehyde which is known to deactivate microbial lipases, presumably by structural changes caused by initial Schiff-base formation at solvent accessible lysine residues. Previous studies showed that several lipases were sensitive toward acetaldehyde deactivation whereas others were insensitive; however, a general explanation of the acetaldehyde-induced inactivation mechanism is missing. Results Based on five microbial lipases from Candida rugosa, Rhizopus oryzae, Pseudomonas fluorescens and Bacillus subtilis we demonstrate that the protonation state of lysine ε-amino groups is decisive for their sensitivity toward acetaldehyde. Analysis of the diverse modification products of Bacillus subtilis lipases in the presence of acetaldehyde revealed several stable products such as α,β-unsaturated polyenals, which result from base and/or amino acid catalyzed aldol condensation of acetaldehyde. Our studies indicate that these products induce the formation of stable Michael-adducts at solvent-accessible amino acids and thus lead to enzyme deactivation. Further, our results indicate Schiff-base formation with acetaldehyde to be involved in crosslinking of lipase molecules. Conclusions Differences in stability observed with various commercially available microbial lipases most probably result from different purification procedures carried out by the respective manufacturers. We observed that the pH of the buffer used prior to lyophilization of the enzyme sample is of utmost importance. The mechanism of acetaldehyde-induced deactivation of microbial lipases involves the generation of α,β-unsaturated polyenals from acetaldehyde which subsequently form stable Michael-adducts with the enzymes. Lyophilization of

  9. [Allergic contact dermatitis caused by formaldehyde and formaldehyde releasers].

    PubMed

    Latorre, N; Silvestre, J F; Monteagudo, A F

    2011-03-01

    Formaldehyde is a colorless gas with a pungent odor that is widely used as a preservative in toiletries and cosmetics and in products for household and industrial use. Both formaldehyde itself and substances that can release it are a common cause of allergic contact dermatitis. This condition often becomes chronic, given that these allergens are found nearly everywhere and it is difficult for patients to avoid them completely. This article reviews the sources of exposure to formaldehyde and formaldehyde releasers and the clinical manifestations of allergen exposure. We also review current debates and recent developments and propose guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with formaldehyde contact dermatitis. PMID:21338980

  10. Dark- and photoreactions of ethanol and acetaldehyde over TiO{sub 2}/carbon molecular sieve fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Reztsova, T.; Chang, C.H.; Idriss, H.; Koresh, J.

    1999-07-01

    TiO{sub 2} has been synthesized within the pores of carbon molecular sieve fibers (CMSF) in order to grow particles of quantum size. TiO{sub 2}/CMSF characteristics were followed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and UV-vis diffuse reflectance. XPS showed that all Ti cations are in a +4 oxidation state. The reduction profile of Ti cations (made by preferential O anion removal due to Ar{sup +} sputtering), as evidenced by Ti{sup +x}/Ti{sup +4} cations, is very similar to that already observed for well-defined TiO{sub 2} surfaces. The absence of XRD pattern indicated that TiO{sub 2} particles are in an amorphous form. UV-vis diffuse reflectance showed a considerably blue shift ({Delta}E = 0.6--0.7 eV) of the band gap of TiO{sub 2}/CMSF when compared to TiO{sub 2} (anatase). This shift translates an average particle radius of 15 {+-} 2 {angstrom}. Larger TiO{sub 2} particles, outside the CMSF nanopores, are, however, observed by TEM. Dark- and photoreactions of ethanol and acetaldehyde have been investigated over TiO{sub 2}/CMSF by steady state kinetics and temperature programmed desorption in UHV conditions, as well as in batch conditions at atmospheric pressure. UHV-steady state ethanol reactions have shown eightfold increase in the reaction rate at 573 K in the presence of UV when compared to dark reactions at the same temperatures. The rate constants ratio k{sub 2}K{sub 2}/k{sub 1}K{sub 1}, for the photoreactions of ethanol, is ca. 40 times higher for TiO{sub 2}/CMSF than for TiO{sub 2} (powder) indicating the high selectivity of the former toward total conversion of ethanol to CO{sub 2} with minor accumulation of acetaldehyde (k{sub 1}K{sub 1} and k{sub 2}K{sub 2} are the rate constants for ethanol to acetaldehyde and acetaldehyde to CO{sub 2}, respectively). Evidence of C-C bond dissociation is given by formaldehyde desorption during UV-acetaldehyde-TPD over TiO{sub 2}/CMSF under UHV conditions. Moreover, UV-acetaldehyde

  11. EFFECT OF PH ON THE REACTION OF 2,4-DINITROPHENYLHYDRAZINE WITH FORMALDEHYDE AND ACETALDEHYDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The acid-catalyzed condensation reaction of a molecule of 2,4-dinitrophenyl-hydrazine (DNPH) with a carbonyl compound is a well known reaction for characterizing aldehydes and ketones. The DNPH derivatives are used to identify qualitatively the parent carbonyl compound by melting...

  12. 40 CFR 80.56 - Measurement methods for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... feed with 6mL of ACN. The eluate is collected in a graduated test tube and made up to the 5mL mark with... minimum limit of quantitation of the test method for at least a portion of the exhaust test procedure....

  13. 40 CFR 80.56 - Measurement methods for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... feed with 6mL of ACN. The eluate is collected in a graduated test tube and made up to the 5mL mark with... minimum limit of quantitation of the test method for at least a portion of the exhaust test procedure....

  14. 40 CFR 80.56 - Measurement methods for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... feed with 6mL of ACN. The eluate is collected in a graduated test tube and made up to the 5mL mark with... minimum limit of quantitation of the test method for at least a portion of the exhaust test procedure....

  15. Theoretical study on cycloaddition of singlet dichlorocarbene with formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and benzaldehyde and subsequent rearrangement reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, L.; Li, Q. S.; Fang, W. H.; Fu, C. J.; Zhang, J.

    2003-11-01

    Cycloaddition reactions of the singlet CCl 2 carbene with H 2CO, CH 3CHO and C 6H 5CHO and the subsequent rearrangement processes have been investigated with density functional theory. It was found that the interaction between the σ orbital of CCl 2 and the CO π* orbital plays an important role in the cycloaddition reactions. The addition reaction of CCl 2 with H 2CO proceeds very easily, which is slightly influenced by the methyl and phenyl substitutions. However, the substitutions significantly reduce the barrier to the rearrangement reactions. The interaction between solvent and solute has a little influence on the structures of the stationary points, but has a noticeable influence on the barrier heights of the rearrangement reactions.

  16. EFFECTS OF ACROLEIN ON MACROPHAGE FUNCTIONS IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0.1, 1.0, or 3.0 ppm acrolein or filtered air 6 h/day, 5 days/week for 3 weeks. Rats were tested one day following the last exposure and exhibited no change in pulmonary clearance of inhaled (35)S-labeled Klebsiella pneumoniae at any acrol...

  17. OPTIMIZING THE PAKS METHOD FOR MEASURING AIRBORNE ACROLEIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Airborne acrolein is produced from the combustion of fuel and tobacco and is of concern due to its potential for respiratory tract irritation and other adverse health effects. DNPH active-sampling is a method widely used for sampling airborne aldehydes and ketones (carbonyls); ...

  18. Proposed Mode of Action for Acrolein Respiratory Toxicity Associated with Inhaled Tobacco Smoke.

    PubMed

    Yeager, R Philip; Kushman, Mary; Chemerynski, Susan; Weil, Roxana; Fu, Xin; White, Marcella; Callahan-Lyon, Priscilla; Rosenfeldt, Hans

    2016-06-01

    This article presents a mode of action (MOA) analysis that identifies key mechanisms in the respiratory toxicity of inhaled acrolein and proposes key acrolein-related toxic events resulting from the inhalation of tobacco smoke. Smoking causes chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder (COPD) and acrolein has been previously linked to the majority of smoking-induced noncancer respiratory toxicity. In contrast to previous MOA analyses for acrolein, this MOA focuses on the toxicity of acrolein in the lower respiratory system, reflecting the exposure that smokers experience upon tobacco smoke inhalation. The key mechanisms of acrolein toxicity identified in this proposed MOA include (1) acrolein chemical reactivity with proteins and other macromolecules of cells lining the respiratory tract, (2) cellular oxidative stress, including compromise of the important anti-oxidant glutathione, (3) chronic inflammation, (4) necrotic cell death leading to a feedback loop where necrosis-induced inflammation leads to more necrosis and oxidative damage and vice versa, (5) tissue remodeling and destruction, and (6) loss of lung elasticity and enlarged lung airspaces. From these mechanisms, the proposed MOA analysis identifies the key cellular processes in acrolein respiratory toxicity that consistently occur with the development of COPD: inflammation and necrosis in the middle and lower regions of the respiratory tract. Moreover, the acrolein exposures that occur as a result of smoking are well above exposures that induce both inflammation and necrosis in laboratory animals, highlighting the importance of the role of acrolein in smoking-related respiratory disease. PMID:26969371

  19. The tobacco smoke component acrolein induces glucocorticoid resistant gene expression via inhibition of histone deacetylase.

    PubMed

    Randall, Matthew J; Haenen, Guido R M M; Bouwman, Freek G; van der Vliet, Albert; Bast, Aalt

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the leading cause of cigarette smoke-related death worldwide. Acrolein, a crucial reactive electrophile found in cigarette smoke mimics many of the toxic effects of cigarette smoke-exposure in the lung. In macrophages, cigarette smoke is known to hinder histone deacetylases (HDACs), glucocorticoid-regulated enzymes that play an important role in the pathogenesis of glucocorticoid resistant inflammation, a common feature of COPD. Thus, we hypothesize that acrolein plays a role in COPD-associated glucocorticoid resistance. To examine the role of acrolein on glucocorticoid resistance, U937 monocytes, differentiated with PMA to macrophage-like cells were treated with acrolein for 0.5h followed by stimulation with hydrocortisone for 8h, or treated simultaneously with LPS and hydrocortisone for 8h without acrolein. GSH and nuclear HDAC activity were measured, or gene expression was analyzed by qPCR. Acrolein-mediated TNFα gene expression was not suppressed by hydrocortisone whereas LPS-induced TNFα expression was suppressed. Acrolein also significantly inhibited nuclear HDAC activity in macrophage-like cells. Incubation of recombinant HDAC2 with acrolein led to the formation of an HDAC2-acrolein adduct identified by mass spectrometry. Therefore, these results suggest that acrolein-induced inflammatory gene expression is resistant to suppression by the endogenous glucocorticoid, hydrocortisone. PMID:26481333

  20. Determination of Urine 3-HPMA, a Stable Acrolein Metabolite in a Rat Model of Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Lingxing; Park, Jonghyuck; Walls, Michael; Tully, Melissa; Jannasch, Amber; Cooper, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Acrolein has been suggested to be involved in a variety of pathological conditions. The monitoring of acrolein is of significant importance in delineating the pathogenesis of various diseases. Aimed at overcoming the reactivity and volatility of acrolein, we describe a specific and stable metabolite of acrolein in urine, N-acetyl-S-3-hydroxypropylcysteine (3-HPMA), as a potential surrogate marker for acrolein quantification. Using the LC/MS/MS method, we demonstrated that 3-HPMA was significantly elevated in a dose-dependent manner when acrolein was injected into rats IP or directly into the spinal cord, but not when acrolein scavengers were co-incubated with acrolein solution. A nonlinear mathematic relationship is established between acrolein injected directly into the spinal cord and a correlated dose-dependent increase of 3-HPMA, suggesting the increase of 3-HPMA becomes less apparent as the level of injected acrolein increases. The elevation of 3-HPMA was further detected in the rat spinal cord injury, a pathological condition known to be associated with elevated endogenous acrolein. This finding was further validated by concomitant confirmation of increased acrolein-lysine adducts using established dot immunoblotting techniques. The noninvasive nature of measuring 3-HPMA concentrations in urine allows for long-term monitoring of acrolein in the same animal and ultimately in human clinical studies. Due to wide spread involvement of acrolein in human health, the benefits of this study have the potential to enhance human health significantly. PMID:23697633

  1. Acrolein generation stimulates hypercontraction in isolated human blood vessels

    SciTech Connect

    Conklin, D.J. . E-mail: dj.conklin@louisville.edu; Bhatnagar, A.; Cowley, H.R.; Johnson, G.H.; Trent, M.B.; Boor, P.J.

    2006-12-15

    Increased risk of vasospasm, a spontaneous hyperconstriction, is associated with atherosclerosis, cigarette smoking, and hypertension-all conditions involving oxidative stress, lipid peroxidation, and inflammation. To test the role of the lipid peroxidation- and inflammation-derived aldehyde, acrolein, in human vasospasm, we developed an ex vivo model using human coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) blood vessels and a demonstrated acrolein precursor, allylamine. Allylamine induces hypercontraction in isolated rat coronary artery in a semicarbazide-sensitive amine oxidase activity (SSAO) dependent manner. Isolated human CABG blood vessels (internal mammary artery, radial artery, saphenous vein) were used to determine: (1) vessel responses and sensitivity to acrolein, allylamine, and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} exposure (1 {mu}M-1 mM), (2) SSAO dependence of allylamine-induced effects using SSAO inhibitors (semicarbazide, 1 mM; MDL 72274-E, active isomer; MDL 72274-Z, inactive isomer; 100 {mu}M), (3) the vasoactive effects of two other SSAO amine substrates, benzylamine and methylamine, and (4) the contribution of extracellular Ca{sup 2+} to hypercontraction. Acrolein or allylamine but not H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, benzylamine, or methylamine stimulated spontaneous and pharmacologically intractable hypercontraction in CABG blood vessels that was similar to clinical vasospasm. Allylamine-induced hypercontraction and blood vessel SSAO activity were abolished by pretreatment with semicarbazide or MDL 72274-E but not by MDL 72274-Z. Allylamine-induced hypercontraction also was significantly attenuated in Ca{sup 2+}-free buffer. In isolated aorta of spontaneously hypertensive rat, allylamine-induced an SSAO-dependent contraction and enhanced norepinephrine sensitivity but not in Sprague-Dawley rat aorta. We conclude that acrolein generation in the blood vessel wall increases human susceptibility to vasospasm, an event that is enhanced in hypertension.

  2. Lack of evidence for sustained blood acetaldehyde concentrations during alcohol detoxification.

    PubMed

    Nijm, W P; Borge, G F; Origitano, T; Teas, G; Goldfarb, C; Collins, M A

    1978-04-01

    Contrary to a published report, blood acetaldehyde concentrations become undetectable in patients 1--2 days following admission for alcohol detoxification. The persistently elevated blood acetaldehydes reported by others probably were due to artifactual formation during analysis. Nevertheless, our admission blood acetaldehyde concentrations are significant enough to support the contention that acetaldehyde has a cytotoxic role in alcoholic disease. PMID:663401

  3. Acrolein cytotoxicity in hepatocytes involves endoplasmic reticulum stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress

    SciTech Connect

    Mohammad, Mohammad K.; Avila, Diana; Zhang, Jingwen; Barve, Shirish; Arteel, Gavin; McClain, Craig; Joshi-Barve, Swati

    2012-11-15

    Acrolein is a common environmental, food and water pollutant and a major component of cigarette smoke. Also, it is produced endogenously via lipid peroxidation and cellular metabolism of certain amino acids and drugs. Acrolein is cytotoxic to many cell types including hepatocytes; however the mechanisms are not fully understood. We examined the molecular mechanisms underlying acrolein hepatotoxicity in primary human hepatocytes and hepatoma cells. Acrolein, at pathophysiological concentrations, caused a dose-dependent loss of viability of hepatocytes. The death was apoptotic at moderate and necrotic at high concentrations of acrolein. Acrolein exposure rapidly and dramatically decreased intracellular glutathione and overall antioxidant capacity, and activated the stress-signaling MAP-kinases JNK, p42/44 and p38. Our data demonstrate for the first time in human hepatocytes, that acrolein triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activated eIF2α, ATF-3 and -4, and Gadd153/CHOP, resulting in cell death. Notably, the protective/adaptive component of ER stress was not activated, and acrolein failed to up-regulate the protective ER-chaperones, GRP78 and GRP94. Additionally, exposure to acrolein disrupted mitochondrial integrity/function, and led to the release of pro-apoptotic proteins and ATP depletion. Acrolein-induced cell death was attenuated by N-acetyl cysteine, phenyl-butyric acid, and caspase and JNK inhibitors. Our data demonstrate that exposure to acrolein induces a variety of stress responses in hepatocytes, including GSH depletion, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction and ER stress (without ER-protective responses) which together contribute to acrolein toxicity. Our study defines basic mechanisms underlying liver injury caused by reactive aldehyde pollutants such as acrolein. -- Highlights: ► Human primary hepatocytes and cultured cell lines are used. ► Multiple cell death signaling pathways are activated by acrolein. ► Novel finding of

  4. Multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase causing excessive acetaldehyde production from ethanol by oral streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Pavlova, Sylvia I.; Jin, Ling; Gasparovich, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    Ethanol consumption and poor oral hygiene are risk factors for oral and oesophageal cancers. Although oral streptococci have been found to produce excessive acetaldehyde from ethanol, little is known about the mechanism by which this carcinogen is produced. By screening 52 strains of diverse oral streptococcal species, we identified Streptococcus gordonii V2016 that produced the most acetaldehyde from ethanol. We then constructed gene deletion mutants in this strain and analysed them for alcohol and acetaldehyde dehydrogenases by zymograms. The results showed that S. gordonii V2016 expressed three primary alcohol dehydrogenases, AdhA, AdhB and AdhE, which all oxidize ethanol to acetaldehyde, but their preferred substrates were 1-propanol, 1-butanol and ethanol, respectively. Two additional dehydrogenases, S-AdhA and TdhA, were identified with specificities to the secondary alcohol 2-propanol and threonine, respectively, but not to ethanol. S. gordonii V2016 did not show a detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase even though its adhE gene encodes a putative bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Mutants with adhE deletion showed greater tolerance to ethanol in comparison with the wild-type and mutant with adhA or adhB deletion, indicating that AdhE is the major alcohol dehydrogenase in S. gordonii. Analysis of 19 additional strains of S. gordonii, S. mitis, S. oralis, S. salivarius and S. sanguinis showed expressions of up to three alcohol dehydrogenases, but none showed detectable acetaldehyde dehydrogenase, except one strain that showed a novel ALDH. Therefore, expression of multiple alcohol dehydrogenases but no functional acetaldehyde dehydrogenase may contribute to excessive production of acetaldehyde from ethanol by certain oral streptococci. PMID:23637459

  5. Inhibition by acrolein of light-induced stomatal opening through inhibition of inward-rectifying potassium channels in Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Islam, Md Moshiul; Ye, Wenxiu; Matsushima, Daiki; Khokon, Md Atiqur Rahman; Munemasa, Shintaro; Nakamura, Yoshimasa; Murata, Yoshiyuki

    2015-01-01

    Acrolein is a reactive α,β-unsaturated aldehyde derived from lipid peroxides, which are produced in plants under a variety of stress. We investigated effects of acrolein on light-induced stomatal opening using Arabidopsis thaliana. Acrolein inhibited light-induced stomatal opening in a dose-dependent manner. Acrolein at 100 μM inhibited plasma membrane inward-rectifying potassium (Kin) channels in guard cells. Acrolein at 100 μM inhibited Kin channel KAT1 expressed in a heterologous system using Xenopus leaves oocytes. These results suggest that acrolein inhibits light-induced stomatal opening through inhibition of Kin channels in guard cells. PMID:25144495

  6. Acrolein induces vasodilatation of rodent mesenteric bed via an EDHF-dependent mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Awe, S.O.; Adeagbo, A.S.O.; D'Souza, S.E.; Bhatnagar, A.; Conklin, D.J. . E-mail: dj.conklin@louisville.edu

    2006-12-15

    Acrolein is generated endogenously during lipid peroxidation and inflammation and is an environmental pollutant. Protein adducts of acrolein are detected in atherosclerotic plaques and neurons of patients with Alzheimer's disease. To understand vascular effects of acrolein exposure, we studied acrolein vasoreactivity in perfused rodent mesenteric bed. Acrolein induced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation that was more robust and more sensitive than dilation induced by 4-hydroxy-trans-2-nonenal, trans-2-hexenal, or propionaldehyde. Acrolein-induced vasodilatation was mediated by K{sup +}-sensitive components, e.g., it was abolished in 0 [K{sup +}]{sub o} buffer or in 3 mM tetrabutylammonium, inhibited 75% in 50 {mu}M ouabain, and inhibited 64% in 20 mM K{sup +} buffer. Moreover, combined treatment with the Ca{sup 2+}-activated K{sup +} channel inhibitors 1-[(2-chlorophenyl)diphenylmethyl]-1H-pyrazole (TRAM-34, 100 nM) and apamin (5 {mu}M) significantly reduced vasodilatation without altering sensitivity to acrolein. However, acrolein-induced % dilation was unaffected by L-NAME or indomethacin pretreatment indicating mechanistic independence of NO and prostaglandins. Moreover, acrolein induced vasodilatation in cirazoline-precontracted mesenteric bed of eNOS-null mice confirming eNOS independence. Pretreatment with 6-(2-propargyloxyphenyl) hexanoic acid (PPOH 50 {mu}M), an epoxygenase inhibitor, or the superoxide dismutase mimetic Tempol (100 {mu}M) significantly attenuated acrolein-induced vasodilatation. Collectively, these data indicate that acrolein stimulates mesenteric bed vasodilatation due to endothelium-derived signal(s) that is K{sup +}-, ouabain-, PPOH-, and Tempol-sensitive, and thus, a likely endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF). These data indicate that low level acrolein exposure associated with vascular oxidative stress or inflammation stimulates vasodilatation via EDHF release in medium-sized arteries - a novel function.

  7. ORAL EXPOSURE TO ACROLEIN EXACERBATES ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN APO E-NULL MICE

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Sanjay; Sithu, Srinivas D.; Vladykovskaya, Elena; Haberzettl, Petra; Hoetker, David J.; Siddiqui, Maqsood A.; Conklin, Daniel J.; D'Souza, Stanley E.; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2011-01-01

    Background Acrolein is a dietary aldehyde that is present in high concentrations in alcoholic beverages and foods including cheese, donuts and coffee. It is also abundant in tobacco smoke, automobile exhaust and industrial waste and is generated in vivo during inflammation and oxidative stress. Objectives The goal of this study was to examine the effects of dietary acrolein on atherosclerosis. Methods Eight-week old male apoE-null mice were gavage-fed acrolein (2.5 mg/kg/day) for 8 weeks. Atherosclerotic lesion formation and composition and plasma lipids and platelet factor 4 (PF4) levels were measured. Effects of acrolein and PF4 on endothelial cell function was measured in vitro. Results Acrolein feeding increased the concentration of cholesterol in the plasma. NMR analysis of the lipoproteins showed that acrolein feeding increased the abundance of small and medium VLDL particles. Acrolein feeding also increased atherosclerotic lesion formation in the aortic valve and the aortic arch. Immunohistochemical analysis showed increased macrophage accumulation in the lesions of acrolein-fed mice. Plasma PF4 levels and accumulation of PF4 in atherosclerotic lesions was increased in the acrolein-fed mice. Incubation of endothelial cells with the plasma of acrolein-fed mice augmented transmigration of monocytic cells, which was abolished by anti-PF4 antibody treatment. Conclusions Dietary exposure to acrolein exacerbates atherosclerosis in apoE-null mice. Consumption of foods and beverages rich in unsaturated aldehydes such as acrolein may be a contributing factor to the progression of atherosclerotic lesions. PMID:21371710

  8. Acrolein increases 5-lipoxygenase expression in murine macrophages through activation of ERK pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Chae E.; Lee, Seung J.; Seo, Kyo W.; Park, Hye M.; Yun, Jung W.; Bae, Jin U.; Bae, Sun S.; Kim, Chi D.

    2010-05-15

    Episodic exposure to acrolein-rich pollutants has been linked to acute myocardial infarction, and 5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) is involved in the production of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which destabilizes atherosclerotic plaques. Thus, the present study determined the effect of acrolein on 5-LO/leukotriene B{sub 4} (LTB{sub 4}) production in murine macrophages. Stimulation of J774A.1 cells with acrolein led to increased LTB{sub 4} production in association with increased 5-LO expression. Acrolein-evoked 5-LO expression was blocked by pharmacological inhibition of the ERK pathway, but not by inhibitors for JNK and p38 MAPK pathways. In line with these results, acrolein exclusively increased the phosphorylation of ERK among these MAPK, suggesting a role for the ERK pathway in acrolein-induced 5-LO expression with subsequent production of LTB{sub 4}. Among the receptor tyrosine kinases including epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and platelet derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR), acrolein-evoked ERK phosphorylation was attenuated by AG1478, an EGFR inhibitor, but not by AG1295, a PDGFR inhibitor. In addition, acrolein-evoked 5-LO expression was also inhibited by inhibition of EGFR pathway, but not by inhibition of PDGFR pathway. These observations suggest that acrolein has a profound effect on the 5-LO pathway via an EGFR-mediated activation of ERK pathway, leading to acute ischemic syndromes through the generation of LTB{sub 4}, subsequent MMP-9 production and plaque rupture.

  9. Unilateral microinjection of acrolein into thoracic spinal cord produces acute and chronic injury and functional deficits.

    PubMed

    Gianaris, Alexander; Liu, Nai-Kui; Wang, Xiao-Fei; Oakes, Eddie; Brenia, John; Gianaris, Thomas; Ruan, Yiwen; Deng, Ling-Xiao; Goetz, Maria; Vega-Alvarez, Sasha; Lu, Qing-Bo; Shi, Riyi; Xu, Xiao-Ming

    2016-06-21

    Although lipid peroxidation has long been associated with spinal cord injury (SCI), the specific role of lipid peroxidation-derived byproducts such as acrolein in mediating damage remains to be fully understood. Acrolein, an α-β unsaturated aldehyde, is highly reactive with proteins, DNA, and phospholipids and is considered as a second toxic messenger that disseminates and augments initial free radical events. Previously, we showed that acrolein increased following traumatic SCI and injection of acrolein induced tissue damage. Here, we demonstrate that microinjection of acrolein into the thoracic spinal cord of adult rats resulted in dose-dependent tissue damage and functional deficits. At 24h (acute) after the microinjection, tissue damage, motoneuron loss, and spinal cord swelling were observed on sections stained with Cresyl Violet. Luxol fast blue staining further showed that acrolein injection resulted in dose-dependent demyelination. At 8weeks (chronic) after the microinjection, cord shrinkage, astrocyte activation, and macrophage infiltration were observed along with tissue damage, neuron loss, and demyelination. These pathological changes resulted in behavioral impairments as measured by both the Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan (BBB) locomotor rating scale and grid walking analysis. Electron microscopy further demonstrated that acrolein induced axonal degeneration, demyelination, and macrophage infiltration. These results, combined with our previous reports, strongly suggest that acrolein may play a critical causal role in the pathogenesis of SCI and that targeting acrolein could be an attractive strategy for repair after SCI. PMID:27058147

  10. Atmospheric Vinyl Alcohol to Acetaldehyde Tautomerization Revisited.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Jozef; Nguyen, Vinh Son; Müller, Jean-François

    2015-10-15

    The atmospheric oxidation of vinyl alcohol (VA) produced by photoisomerization of acetaldehyde (AA) is thought to be a source of formic acid (FA). Nevertheless, a recent theoretical study predicted a high rate coefficient k1(298 K) of ≈10(-14) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) for the FA-catalyzed tautomerization reaction 1 of VA back into AA, which suggests that FA buffers its own production from VA. However, the unusually high frequency factor implied by that study prompted us to reinvestigate reaction 1 . On the basis of a high-level ab initio potential energy profile, we first established that transition state theory is applicable, and derived a k1(298 K) of only ≈2 × 10(-20) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1), concluding that the reaction is negligible. Instead, we propose and rationalize another important VA sink: its uptake by aqueous aerosol and cloud droplets followed by fast liquid-phase tautomerization to AA; global modeling puts the average lifetime by this sink at a few hours, similar to oxidation by OH. PMID:26722769

  11. High Resolution Formaldehyde Photochemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ernest, C. T.; Bauer, D.; Hynes, A. J.

    2010-12-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is the most abundant and most important organic carbonyl compound in the atmosphere. The sources of formaldehyde are the oxidation of methane, isoprene, acetone, and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs); fossil fuel combustion; and biomass burning. The dominant loss mechanism for formaldehyde is photolysis which occurs via two pathways: (R1) HCHO + hv → HCO + H (R2) HCHO + hv → H2 + CO The first pathway (R1) is referred to as the radical channel, while the second pathway (R2) is referred to as the molecular channel. The products of both pathways play a significant role in atmospheric chemistry. The CO that is produced in the molecular channel undergoes further oxidation to produce CO2. Under atmospheric conditions, the H atom and formyl radical that are produced in the radical channel undergo rapid reactions with O2 to produce the hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) via (R3) and (R4). (R3) HCO + O2 → HO2 + CO (R4) H + O2 → HO2 Thus, for every photon absorbed, the photolysis of formaldehyde can contribute one CO2 molecule to the global greenhouse budget or two HO2 radicals to the tropospheric HOx (OH + HO2) cycle. The HO2 radicals produced during formaldehyde photolysis have also been implicated in the formation of photochemical smog. The HO2 radicals act as radical chain carriers and convert NO to NO2, which ultimately results in the catalytic production of O3. Constraining the yield of HO2 produced via HCHO photolysis is essential for improving tropospheric chemistry models. In this study, both the absorption cross section and the quantum yield of the radical channel (R1) were measured at high resolution over the tropospherically relevant wavelength range 304-330 nm. For the cross section measurements a narrow linewidth Nd:YAG pumped dye laser was used with a multi-pass cell. Partial pressures of HCHO were kept below 0.3 torr. Simultaneous measurement of OH LIF in a flame allowed absolute calibration of the wavelength scale. Pressure

  12. A single exposure to acrolein causes arrhythmogenesis, cardiac electrical dysfunction and decreased heart rate variability in hypertensive rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Epidemiological studies demonstrate an association between cardiovascular morbidity, arrhythmias, and exposure to air toxicants such as acrolein. We hypothesized that a single exposure to acrolein would increase arrhythmias and cause changes in the electrocardiogram (ECG) of hype...

  13. Variability of ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations in rainwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kieber, R. J.; Tatum, S.; Willey, J. D.; Avery, G. B.; Mead, R. N.

    2014-02-01

    Ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations were measured in 52 rain events collected between January 25, 2011 and March 4, 2012 in Wilmington, North Carolina, USA. Ethanol concentrations ranged from 23 nM to 908 nM with a volume weighted average concentration of 192 ± 20 nM while acetaldehyde ranged from 23 nM to 909 nM with a volume weighted average concentration of 193 ± 25 nM. There was a great deal of variability in the abundance of ethanol and acetaldehyde between rain events driven primarily by temporal and air mass back trajectory influences. The ratio of ethanol to acetaldehyde was at a minimum during periods of peak solar intensity underscoring the importance of alcohol oxidation by a photochemically generated oxidant such as hydroxyl radical in the gas and/or aqueous phase. Ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations were not strongly correlated with rain amount suggesting that gas-phase concentrations were not significantly depleted during the storm or that they were resupplied during the course of the rain event. The concentration of ethanol and acetaldehyde were correlated with nitrate and non-sea salt sulfate suggesting the importance of terrestrial and anthropogenic inputs at this location. Comparison of future ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations in rainwater to the data presented in this study will help delineate potential consequences of these labile oxygenated volatile organic compounds (OVOCs) on the chemistry of the troposphere as the United States transitions to more ethanol blended fuels. Aqueous phase impacts of increasing ethanol concentrations will be particularly significant to the oxidizing capacity of atmospheric waters because of its reactivity with OH and HO2 radicals in solution. Increased rainwater concentrations could also have significant ramifications on receiving watersheds because of the biogeochemical lability of the alcohol.

  14. Ambient concentrations of aldehydes in relation to Beijing Olympic air pollution control measures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, J. C.; Zhu, T.; Hu, M.; Zhang, L. W.; Cheng, H.; Zhang, L.; Tong, J.; Zhang, J.

    2010-08-01

    Aldehydes are ubiquitous constituents of the atmosphere. Their concentrations are elevated in polluted urban atmospheres. The present study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of most health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) in a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the air pollution control measures implemented to improve Beijing's air quality during the Olympics had any impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.34 ± 15.12 μg/m3, 27.09 ± 15.74 μg/m3 and 2.32 ± 0.95 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being the highest among the levels measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Among the three measured aldehydes, only acetaldehyde had a substantially reduced mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period. Formaldehyde and acrolein followed the changing pattern of temperature and were each significantly correlated with ozone (a secondary product of photochemical reactions). In contrast, acetaldehyde was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted mainly from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). These findings suggest that local direct emissions had a larger impact on acetaldehyde than formaldehyde and acrolein.

  15. Decarboxylation of Pyruvate to Acetaldehyde for Ethanol Production by Hyperthermophiles

    PubMed Central

    Eram, Mohammad S.; Ma, Kesen

    2013-01-01

    Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC encoded by pdc) is a thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)-containing enzyme responsible for the conversion of pyruvate to acetaldehyde in many mesophilic organisms. However, no pdc/PDC homolog has yet been found in fully sequenced genomes and proteomes of hyper/thermophiles. The only PDC activity reported in hyperthermophiles was a bifunctional, TPP- and CoA-dependent pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR)/PDC enzyme from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. Another enzyme known to be involved in catalysis of acetaldehyde production from pyruvate is CoA-acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (AcDH encoded by mhpF and adhE). Pyruvate is oxidized into acetyl-CoA by either POR or pyruvate formate lyase (PFL), and AcDH catalyzes the reduction of acetyl-CoA to acetaldehyde in mesophilic organisms. AcDH is present in some mesophilic (such as clostridia) and thermophilic bacteria (e.g., Geobacillus and Thermoanaerobacter). However, no AcDH gene or protein homologs could be found in the released genomes and proteomes of hyperthermophiles. Moreover, no such activity was detectable from the cell-free extracts of different hyperthermophiles under different assay conditions. In conclusion, no commonly-known PDCs was found in hyperthermophiles. Instead of the commonly-known PDC, it appears that at least one multifunctional enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the non-oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetaldehyde in hyperthermophiles. PMID:24970182

  16. IRIS TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW AND SUMMARY DOCUMENTS FOR ACROLEIN (EXTERNAL REVIEW DRAFT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acrolein is a colorless to yellowish flammable liquid with a disagreeable, choking odor. The principal use of acrolein is as an intermediate in the synthesis of acrylic acid, which is used to make acrylates, and of DL-methionine, an essential amino acid used as an animal feed su...

  17. ACROLEIN ACTIVATES MATRIX METALLOPROTEINASES BY INCREASING REACTIVE OXYGEN SPECIES IN MACROPHAGES

    PubMed Central

    O’Toole, Timothy E.; Zheng, Yu-Ting; Hellmann, Jason; Conklin, Daniel J.; Barski, Oleg; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2009-01-01

    Acrolein is a ubiquitous component of environmental pollutants such as automobile exhaust, cigarette, wood, and coal smoke. It is also a natural constituent of several foods and is generated endogenously during inflammation or oxidation of unsaturated lipids. Because increased inflammation and episodic exposure to acrolein-rich pollutants such as traffic emissions or cigarette smoke have been linked to acute myocardial infarction, we examined the effects of acrolein on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which destabilize atherosclerotic plaques. Our studies show that exposure to acrolein resulted in the secretion of MMP-9 from differentiated THP-1 macrophages. Acrolein-treatment of macrophages also led to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), free intracellular calcium ([Ca2+]i), and xanthine oxidase (XO) activity. ROS production was prevented by allopurinol, but not by rotenone or apocynin and by buffering changes in [Ca2+]I with BAPTA-AM. The increase in MMP production was abolished by pre-treatment with the antioxidants Tiron and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or with the xanthine oxidase inhibitors allopurinol or oxypurinol. Finally, MMP activity was significantly stimulated in aortic sections from apoE-null mice containing advanced atherosclerotic lesions after exposure to acrolein ex vivo. These observations suggest that acrolein exposure results in MMP secretion from macrophages via a mechanism that involves an increase in [Ca2+]I, leading to xanthine oxidase activation and an increase in ROS production. ROS-dependent activation of MMPs by acrolein could destabilize atherosclerotic lesions during brief episodes of inflammation or pollutant exposure. PMID:19371603

  18. Acrolein activates matrix metalloproteinases by increasing reactive oxygen species in macrophages.

    PubMed

    O'Toole, Timothy E; Zheng, Yu-Ting; Hellmann, Jason; Conklin, Daniel J; Barski, Oleg; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2009-04-15

    Acrolein is a ubiquitous component of environmental pollutants such as automobile exhaust, cigarette, wood, and coal smoke. It is also a natural constituent of several foods and is generated endogenously during inflammation or oxidation of unsaturated lipids. Because increased inflammation and episodic exposure to acrolein-rich pollutants such as traffic emissions or cigarette smoke have been linked to acute myocardial infarction, we examined the effects of acrolein on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which destabilize atherosclerotic plaques. Our studies show that exposure to acrolein resulted in the secretion of MMP-9 from differentiated THP-1 macrophages. Acrolein-treatment of macrophages also led to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), free intracellular calcium ([Ca2+](i)), and xanthine oxidase (XO) activity. ROS production was prevented by allopurinol, but not by rotenone or apocynin and by buffering changes in [Ca2+](I) with BAPTA-AM. The increase in MMP production was abolished by pre-treatment with the antioxidants Tiron and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or with the xanthine oxidase inhibitors allopurinol or oxypurinol. Finally, MMP activity was significantly stimulated in aortic sections from apoE-null mice containing advanced atherosclerotic lesions after exposure to acrolein ex vivo. These observations suggest that acrolein exposure results in MMP secretion from macrophages via a mechanism that involves an increase in [Ca2+](I), leading to xanthine oxidase activation and an increase in ROS production. ROS-dependent activation of MMPs by acrolein could destabilize atherosclerotic lesions during brief episodes of inflammation or pollutant exposure. PMID:19371603

  19. Indoor acrolein emission and decay rates resulting from domestic cooking events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seaman, Vincent Y.; Bennett, Deborah H.; Cahill, Thomas M.

    2009-12-01

    Acrolein (2-propenal) is a common constituent of both indoor and outdoor air, can exacerbate asthma in children, and may contribute to other chronic lung diseases. Recent studies have found high indoor levels of acrolein and other carbonyls compared to outdoor ambient concentrations. Heated cooking oils produce considerable amounts of acrolein, thus cooking is likely an important source of indoor acrolein. A series of cooking experiments were conducted to determine the emission rates of acrolein and other volatile carbonyls for different types of cooking oils (canola, soybean, corn and olive oils) and deep-frying different food items. Similar concentrations and emission rates of carbonyls were found when different vegetable oils were used to deep-fry the same food product. The food item being deep-fried was generally not a significant source of carbonyls compared to the cooking oil. The oil cooking events resulted in high concentrations of acrolein that were in the range of 26.4-64.5 μg m -3. These concentrations exceed all the chronic regulatory exposure limits and many of the acute exposure limits. The air exchange rate and the decay rate of the carbonyls were monitored to estimate the half-life of the carbonyls. The half-life for acrolein was 14.4 ± 2.6 h, which indicates that indoor acrolein concentrations can persist for considerable time after cooking in poorly-ventilated homes.

  20. UTILIZING THE PAKS METHOD FOR MEASURING ACROLEIN AND OTHER ALDEHYDES IN DEARS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acrolein is a hazardous air pollutant of high priority due to its high irritation potency and other potential adverse health effects. However, a reliable method is currently unavailable for measuring airborne acrolein at typical environmental levels. In the Detroit Exposure and A...

  1. Inorganic acid-catalyzed tautomerization of vinyl alcohol to acetaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karton, Amir

    2014-01-01

    The vinyl alcohol-acetaldehyde tautomerization reaction has recently received considerable attention as a potential route for the formation of organic acids in the troposphere (Andrews et al., 2012 [7]). We examine the catalytic effect of inorganic acids in the troposphere (e.g. HNO3, H2SO4 and HClO4) on the vinyl alcohol-acetaldehyde tautomerization reaction, by means high-level thermochemical procedures. We show that H2SO4 and HClO4 catalysts lead to near-zero reaction barrier heights for the vinyl alcohol → acetaldehyde reaction, and to low reaction barrier heights in the reverse direction (ΔH298‡=40.6 and 39.5 kJ mol, respectively).

  2. Role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in acrolein-induced endothelial activation

    SciTech Connect

    Haberzettl, Petra; Vladykovskaya, Elena; Srivastava, Sanjay; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2009-01-01

    Acrolein is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and an endogenous product of lipid peroxidation. It is also generated during the metabolism of several drugs and amino acids. In this study, we examined the effects of acrolein on endothelial cells. Treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with 2 to 10 {mu}M acrolein led to an increase in the phosphorylation of eIF-2{alpha} within 10 to 30 min of exposure. This was followed by alternate splicing of XBP-1 mRNA and an increase in the expression of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone genes Grp78 and Herp. Within 2-4 h of treatment, acrolein also increased the abundance and the nuclear transport of the transcription factors ATF3, AFT4, and CHOP. Acrolein-induced increase in ATF3 was prevented by treating the cells with the chemical chaperone - phenylbutyric acid (PBA). Treatment with acrolein increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK. The increase in JNK phosphorylation was prevented by PBA. Acrolein treatment led to activation and nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NF-{kappa}B and an increase in TNF-{alpha}, IL-6 and IL-8, but not MCP-1, mRNA. Increased expression of cytokine genes and NF-{kappa}B activation were not observed in cells treated with PBA. These findings suggest that exposure to acrolein induces ER stress and triggers the unfolded protein response and that NF-{kappa}B activation and stimulation of cytokine production by acrolein could be attributed, in part, to ER stress. Chemical chaperones of protein-folding may be useful in treating toxicological and pathological states associated with excessive acrolein exposure or production.

  3. ROLE OF ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM STRESS IN ACROLEIN-INDUCED ENDOTHELIAL ACTIVATION

    PubMed Central

    Haberzettl, Petra; Vladykovskaya, Elena; Srivastava, Sanjay; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2010-01-01

    Acrolein is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant and an endogenous product of lipid peroxidation. It is also generated during the metabolism of several drugs and amino acids. In this study, we examined the effects of acrolein on endothelial cells. Treatment of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) with 2 to 10 μM acrolein led to an increase in the phosphorylation of eIF-2α within 10 to 30 min of exposure. This was followed by alternate splicing of XBP-1 mRNA and an increase in the expression of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone genes Grp78 and Herp. Within 2–4 h of treatment, acrolein also increased the abundance and the nuclear transport of the transcription factors ATF3, AFT4, and CHOP. Acrolein-induced increase in ATF3 was prevented by treating the cells with the chemical chaperone – phenylbutryic acid (PBA). Treatment with acrolein increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK. The increase in JNK phosphorylation was prevented by PBA. Acrolein treatment led to the activation and nuclear translocation of the transcription factor NF-κB and an increase in TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-8, but not MCP-1, mRNA. Increased synthesis of cytokine genes and NF-κB activation were not observed in cells treated with PBA. These findings suggest that exposure to acrolein induces ER stress and triggers the unfolded protein response and that NF-κB activation and stimulation of cytokine production by acrolein could be attributed, in part, to ER stress. Chemical chaperones of protein-folding may be useful in treating toxicological and pathological states associated with excessive acrolein exposure or production. PMID:18951912

  4. An AB initio study of the cis- and trans -conformers of 1,3-butadiene, acrolein and glyoxal: evidence for a stabilizing interaction in cis-acrolein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    George, Philip; Bock, Charles W.; Trachtman, Mendel

    1980-12-01

    The cis- and trans-conformers of 1,3-butadiene, acrolein and glyoxal have been studied using the 4-31G and (7, 3) basis sets with full geometry optimization. The changes in geometry in going from the cis- to the trans-structures indicate that the terminal carbon and oxygen atoms in cis-acrolein are closer together than would otherwise be expected from the butadiene and glyoxal data, and that the hydrogens of the CH 2 group are also affected. These results, together with a comparison of the changes in force constants for key structural elements, suggest that some sort of attractive interaction is present in cis-acrolein. Δ ET, Δ EK, Δ Vee, Δ Vnn and Δ Ven are reported for the cis- trans isomerizations, the special geometrical features of the cis-conformer being reflected in Δ Vnn for the acrolein reaction. The positive Δ ET values for the disproportionation reactions of both conformers 2 acrolein → 1,3-butadiene + glyoxal show that the acrolein framework provides the most stable combination of the H 2C, CH- and O structural elements, while the bigger value for the cis-conformers affords additional evidence that the interaction in cis-acrolein is stabilizing in nature. However, in going from the trans- to the cis-structure neither the change in fC-H,C-H for the C-H that would be involved in an H- bond, nor the change in charge on the atoms in the C-H ⋯ O unit. based on Mulliken population analyses, are in accord with what would be expected for a hydrogen-bonding type of interaction. Instead the stabilization may be a manifestation of the different pattern of charge distribution along the polyene chain of acrolein, i.e. with the ends oppositely charged, compared to butadiene and glyoxal, in which the ends carry the same charge.

  5. Gas phase acetaldehyde production in a continuous bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Soon Ook . Dept. of Chemical Engineering); Trantolo, D.J. . Center for Biotechnology Engineering); Wise, D.L. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA . Center for Biotechnology Engineering)

    1993-08-20

    The gas phase continuous production of acetaldehyde was studied with particular emphasis on the development of biocatalyst (alcohol oxidase on solid phase support materials) for a fixed bed reactor. Based on the experimental results in a batch bioreactor, the biocatalysts were prepared by immobilization of alcohol oxidase on Amberlite IRA-400, packed into a column, and the continuous acetaldehyde production in the gas phase by alcohol oxidase was performed. The effects of the reaction temperature, flow rates of gaseous stream, and ethanol vapor concentration on the performance of the continuous bioreactor were investigated.

  6. Catalytic process for formaldehyde oxidation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kielin, Erik J. (Inventor); Brown, Kenneth G. (Inventor); D'Ambrosia, Christine M. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    Disclosed is a process for oxidizing formaldehyde to carbon dioxide and water without the addition of energy. A mixture of formaldehyde and an oxidizing agent (e.g., ambient air containing formaldehyde) is exposed to a catalyst which includes a noble metal dispersed on a metal oxide which possesses more than one oxidation state. Especially good results are obtained when the noble metal is platinum, and the metal oxide which possesses more than one oxidation state is tin oxide. A promoter (i.e., a small amount of an oxide of a transition series metal) may be used in association with the tin oxide to provide very beneficial results.

  7. Sporostatic and sporocidal properties of aqueous formaldehyde.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trujillo, R.; David, T. J.

    1972-01-01

    Aqueous formaldehyde is shown to exert both sporostatic and sporocidal effects on Bacillus subtilis spores. The sporostatic effect is a result of the reversible inhibition of spore germination occasioned by aqueous formaldehyde; the sporocidal effect is due to the temperature-dependent inactivation of these spores in aqueous formaldehyde. The physicochemical state of formaldehyde in solution provides a framework with which to interpret both the sporostatic and sporocidal properties of aqueous formaldehyde.

  8. Photoabsorption in formaldehyde

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langhoff, P. W.; Langhoff, S. R.; Corcoran, C. T.

    1977-01-01

    Theoretical studies of the vertical electronic dipole excitation and ionization spectra in molecular formaldehyde are reported. The investigations relied on configuration-interaction calculations and moment-theory techniques. A double-zeta basis of contracted Gaussian-lobe functions supplemented with appropriate polarization and bond functions was used to construct Fock spectra in C(2 nu) symmetry for certain states near the ground state equilibrium geometry. The ionization energies, discrete vertical transition frequencies, and oscillator strengths for occupied and vertical Fock orbitals are in general accord with experimental determinations and other theoretical calculations. Stieltjes and Chebyshev vertical electronic photoionization profiles were calculated and found to be in good agreement with appropriately averaged photoionization-mass spectrometric measurements of the cross section for parent H2CO(+) ion production.

  9. A low-molecular-mass protein from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) is responsible for the regulation of formaldehyde dehydrogenase activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tate, S; Dalton, H

    1999-01-01

    An 8.6 kDa protein, which the authors call a modifin, has been purified from Methylococcus capsulatus (Bath) and has been shown to alter the substrate specificity and kinetics of NAD+-linked formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FDH) isolated from the same organism. Purification methods for both the modifin and FDH are presented which reliably produced pure protein for further analysis. Analysis of the molecular mass and N-terminal sequence of both FDH and the modifin indicate that they are unique proteins and show no similarity to alcohol or aldehyde dehydrogenase enzymes isolated from methylotrophic bacteria. Substrate specificity studies demonstrated that FDH oxidized formaldehyde exclusively in the presence of the modifin; a diverse range of aldehydes and alcohols were oxidized by FDH in the absence of the modifin. No formaldehyde oxidation was detected in the absence of the modifin. Attempts to replace the modifin with glutathione or high concentrations of methanol to stimulate formaldehyde oxidation failed. With acetaldehyde as substrate, FDH showed standard Michaelis-Menten kinetics; interaction of FDH with the modifin using formaldehyde as substrate altered the kinetics of the reaction to sigmoidal. Kinetic analysis during turnover experiments indicated that the FDH may be associated with bound formaldehyde following enzyme isolation and that NAD may also be associated with the enzyme but in a form that is less tightly bound than found with the methanol dehydrogenase from Bacillus methanolicus. Data are presented which indicate that the modifin may play an important role in regulating formaldehyde concentration in vivo. PMID:10206695

  10. Acrolein Microspheres Are Bonded To Large-Area Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rembaum, Alan; Yen, Richard C. K.

    1988-01-01

    Reactive cross-linked microspheres produced under influence of ionizing radiation in aqueous solutions of unsaturated aldehydes, such as acrolein, with sodium dodecyl sulfate. Diameters of spheres depend on concentrations of ingredients. If polystyrene, polymethylmethacrylate, or polypropylene object immersed in solution during irradiation, microspheres become attached to surface. Resulting modified surface has grainy coating with reactivity similar to free microspheres. Aldehyde-substituted-functional microspheres react under mild conditions with number of organic reagents and with most proteins. Microsphere-coated macrospheres or films used to immobilize high concentrations of proteins, enzymes, hormones, viruses, cells, and large number of organic compounds. Applications include separation techniques, clinical diagnostic tests, catalytic processes, and battery separators.

  11. Visualization of Molecular Orbitals: Formaldehyde

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olcott, Richard J.

    1972-01-01

    Describes a computer program that plots a solid" representation of molecular orbital charge density which can be used to analyze wave functions of molecules. Illustrated with diagrams for formaldehyde. (AL)

  12. Formaldehyde Gas Sensors: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Po-Ren; Tzeng, Chun-Ta; Ke, Ming-Tsun; Lee, Chia-Yen

    2013-01-01

    Many methods based on spectrophotometric, fluorometric, piezoresistive, amperometric or conductive measurements have been proposed for detecting the concentration of formaldehyde in air. However, conventional formaldehyde measurement systems are bulky and expensive and require the services of highly-trained operators. Accordingly, the emergence of sophisticated technologies in recent years has prompted the development of many microscale gaseous formaldehyde detection systems. Besides their compact size, such devices have many other advantages over their macroscale counterparts, including a real-time response, a more straightforward operation, lower power consumption, and the potential for low-cost batch production. This paper commences by providing a high level overview of the formaldehyde gas sensing field and then describes some of the more significant real-time sensors presented in the literature over the past 10 years or so. PMID:23549368

  13. CRITICAL ROLE OF ACROLEIN IN SECONDARY INJURY FOLLOWING EX VIVO SPINAL CORD TRAUMA

    PubMed Central

    Hamann, Kristin; Durkes, Abigail; Ouyang, Hui; Pond, Amber

    2008-01-01

    The pathophysiology of spinal cord injury (SCI) is characterized by the initial, primary injury followed by secondary injury processes in which oxidative stress is a critical component. Secondary injury processes not only exacerbate pathology at the site of primary injury, but also result in spreading of injuries to the adjacent, otherwise healthy tissue. The lipid peroxidation byproduct acrolein has been implicated as one potential mediator of secondary injury. In order to further and rigorously elucidate the role of acrolein in secondary injury, a unique ex vivo model is utilized to isolate the detrimental effects of mechanical injury from toxins such as acrolein that are produced endogenously following SCI. We demonstrate that: 1) acrolein-lys adducts are capable of diffusing from compressed tissue to adjacent, otherwise uninjured tissue; 2) secondary injury by itself produces significant membrane damage and increased superoxide production; and 3) these injuries are significantly attenuated by the acrolein scavenger hydralazine. Furthermore, hydralazine treatment results in significantly less membrane damage 2 hours following compression injury, but not immediately after. These findings support our hypothesis that, following SCI, acrolein is increased to pathologic concentrations, contributes significantly to secondary injury, and thus represents a novel target for scavenging to promote improved recovery. PMID:18710419

  14. Modification and inactivation of Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase by the lipid peroxidation product, acrolein

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Jung Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Acrolein is the most reactive aldehydic product of lipid peroxidation and is found to be elevated in the brain when oxidative stress is high. The effects of acrolein on the structure and function of human Cu,Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD) were examined. When Cu,Zn-SOD was incubated with acrolein, the covalent crosslinking of the protein was increased, and the loss of enzymatic activity was increased in a dose-dependent manner. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavengers and copper chelators inhibited the acrolein-mediated Cu,Zn-SOD modification and the formation of carbonyl compound. The present study shows that ROS may play a critical role in acrolein-induced Cu,Zn-SOD modification and inactivation. When Cu,Zn-SOD that has been exposed to acrolein was subsequently analyzed by amino acid analysis, serine, histidine, arginine, threonine and lysine residues were particularly sensitive. It is suggested that the modification and inactivation of Cu,Zn-SOD by acrolein could be produced by more oxidative cell environments. [BMB Reports 2013; 46(11): 555-560] PMID:24152914

  15. [A gas chromatographic method for determining acetaldehyde in cadaver blood].

    PubMed

    Savich, V I; Valladares, Kh A; Gusakov, Iu A; Skachko, Z M

    1990-01-01

    Gas-chromatographic method of acetaldehyde detection in blood of subjects who died of alcoholic intoxication is suggested. Method is simple, does not require additional expenses, can be readily used in medicolegal practice and in difficult cases it may help the expert to make an objective conclusion on the cause of death. PMID:2087747

  16. 1,N(2)-propanodeoxyguanosine adduct formation in aortic DNA following inhalation of acrolein.

    PubMed Central

    Penn, A; Nath, R; Pan, J; Chen, L; Widmer, K; Henk, W; Chung, F L

    2001-01-01

    Recent reports indicate that many of the cytotoxic and health-threatening components of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) reside in the vapor phase of the smoke. We have reported previously that inhalation of 1,3-butadiene, a prominent vapor phase component of ETS, accelerates arteriosclerotic plaque development in cockerels. In this study we asked whether inhaled acrolein, a reactive aldehyde that is also a prominent vapor-phase component of ETS, damages artery-wall DNA and accelerates plaque development. Cockerels inhaled 0, 1, or 10 ppm acrolein mixed with HEPA-filtered air for 6 hr. Half were killed immediately (day 1 group) for detection of the stable, premutagenic 1,N(2)-propanodeoxyguanosine acrolein adduct (AdG3) in aortic DNA via a (32)P-postlabeling/HPLC method, and half were killed after 10 days (day 10 group) for indirect assessment of adduct repair. In the day 1 group, acrolein-DNA adducts were 5 times higher in the 1 and 10 ppm groups than in HEPA-filtered air controls. However, in the day 10 group, adduct levels in the 1 and 10 ppm acrolein groups were reduced to the control adduct level. For the plaque studies, cockerels inhaled 1 ppm acrolein (6 hr/day, 8 weeks), mixed with the same HEPA-filtered air inhaled by controls. Plaque development was measured blind by computerized morphometry. Unlike butadiene inhalation, acrolein inhalation did not accelerate plaque development. Thus, even though repeated exposure to acrolein alone has no effect on plaque size under the exposure conditions described here, a single, brief inhalation exposure to acrolein elicits repairable DNA damage to the artery wall. These results suggest that frequent exposure to ETS may lead to persistent artery-wall DNA damage and thus provide sites on which other ETS plaque accelerants can act. PMID:11333181

  17. Effects of acrolein on aldosterone release from zona glomerulosa cells in male rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kai-Lee; Huang, Wen-Ching; Chou, Jou-Chun; Weng, Ting-Chun; Hu, Sindy; Lieu, Fu-Kong; Lai, Wei-Ho; Idova, Galina; Wang, Paulus S; Wang, Shyi-Wu

    2016-07-01

    A positive correlation between smoking and hypertension has been well established. Acrolein is a major toxic volatile compound found in cigarette smoke. Human exposure to low levels of acrolein is unavoidable due to its production in daily activities, such as smoke from industrial, hot oil cooking vapors, and exhaust fumes from vehicles. The toxicity and the action mechanism of acrolein to induce apoptosis have been extensively studied, but the effects of acrolein on hypertension are still unknown. The present study aimed to examine the effects of acrolein on aldosterone release both in vivo and in vitro. Male rats were divided into three groups, and intraperitoneally injected with normal saline, or acrolein (2mg/kg) for 1 (group A-1) or 3 (group A-3) days, respectively. After sacrificing, rat blood samples were obtained to measure plasma aldosterone and angiotensin II (Ang II) levels. Zona glomerulosa (ZG) cells were prepared from rat adrenal cortex, and were incubated with or without stimulants. We found that the serum aldosterone was increased by 1.2-fold (p<0.05) in A-3 group as compared to control group. Basal aldosterone release from ZG cells in A-3 group was also increased significantly. Moreover, acrolein enhanced the stimulatory effects of Ang II and 8-bromo-cyclic AMP on aldosterone secretion from ZG cells prepared in both A-1 and A-3 groups. Furthermore, the enzyme activity of P450scc, the rate-limiting step of aldosterone synthesis, was elevated after acrolein injection. Plasma level of Ang II was increased in both A-1 and A-3 groups. These results suggested that acrolein exposure increased aldosterone production, at least in part, through elevating the level of plasma Ang II and stimulating steroidogenesis pathways. PMID:26980145

  18. Does formaldehyde induce aneuploidy?

    PubMed

    Speit, Günter; Kühner, Stefanie; Linsenmeyer, Regina; Schütz, Petra

    2011-11-01

    Formaldehyde (FA) was tested for a potential aneugenic activity in mammalian cells. We employed tests to discriminate between aneugenic and clastogenic effects in accordance with international guidelines for genotoxicity testing. The cytokinesis-block micronucleus test (CBMNT) in combination with fluorescence in situ hybridisation (FISH) with a pan-centromeric probe was performed with cultured human lymphocytes and the human A549 lung cell line. FA induced micronuclei (MN) in binuclear cells of both cell types under standard in vitro test conditions following the OECD guideline 487. FISH analysis revealed that the vast majority of induced MN were centromere negative, thus indicating a clastogenic effect. A similar result was obtained for MN induced by γ-irradiation, whereas the typical aneugens colcemid (COL) and vincristine (VCR) predominantly induced centromere-positive MN. Furthermore, COL and VCR clearly enhanced the MN frequency in mononuclear lymphocytes in the CBMNT, whereas such an effect was not observed for γ-irradiation and FA. In experiments with the Chinese hamster V79 cell line, the aneugens COL and VCR clearly increased the frequency of tetraploid second division metaphases, whereas FA did not cause such an effect. Altogether, our results confirm the clastogenicity of FA in cultured mammalian cells but exclude a significant aneugenic activity. PMID:21804075

  19. Aromatic Amines Exert Contrasting Effects on the Anticoagulant Effect of Acetaldehyde upon APTT

    PubMed Central

    Hall, La'Teese; Murrey, Sarah J.; Brecher, Arthur S.

    2014-01-01

    The pharmacological effects of amphetamine, procaine, procainamide, DOPA, isoproterenol, and atenolol upon activated partial thromboplastin time in the absence and presence of acetaldehyde have been investigated. In the absence of acetaldehyde, amphetamine and isoproterenol exhibit a procoagulant effect upon activated partial thromboplastin time, whereas atenolol and procaine display anticoagulant effects upon activated partial thromboplastin time. DOPA and procainamide do not alter activated partial thromboplastin time. Premixtures of procaine with acetaldehyde produce an additive anticoagulant effect on activated partial thromboplastin time, suggesting independent action of these compounds upon clotting factors. Premixtures of amphetamine with acetaldehyde, as well as atenolol with acetaldehyde, generate a detoxication of the anticoagulant effect of acetaldehyde upon activated partial thromboplastin time. A similar statistically significant decrease in activated partial thromboplastin time is seen when procainamide is premixed with acetaldehyde for 20 minutes at room temperature. Premixtures of DOPA and isoproterenol with acetaldehyde do not affect an alteration in activated partial thromboplastin time relative to acetaldehyde alone. Hence, a selective interaction of atenolol, procaine, and amphetamine with acetaldehyde to produce detoxication of the acetaldehyde is suggested, undoubtedly due to the presence of amino, hydroxyl, or amide groups in these drugs. PMID:25548568

  20. Acrolein in wine: importance of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde and derivatives in production and detection.

    PubMed

    Bauer, Rolene; Cowan, Donald A; Crouch, Andrew

    2010-03-24

    Certain lactic acid bacteria strains belonging to the genus Lactobacillus have been implicated in the accumulation of 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde (3-HPA) during anaerobic glycerol fermentation. In aqueous solution 3-HPA undergoes reversible dimerization and hydration, resulting in an equilibrium state between different derivatives. Wine quality may be compromised by the presence of 3-HPA due to the potential for spontaneous conversion into acrolein under winemaking conditions. Acrolein is highly toxic and has been implicated in the development of bitterness in wine. Interconversion between 3-HPA derivatives and acrolein is a complex and highly dynamic process driven by hydration and dehydration reactions. Acrolein is furthermore highly reactive and its steady-state concentration in complex systems very low. As a result, analytical detection and quantification in solution is problematic. This paper reviews the biochemical and environmental conditions leading to accumulation of its precursor, 3-HPA. Recent advances in analytical detection are summarized, and the roles played by natural chemical derivatives are highlighted. PMID:20192219

  1. The Mechanism of the Formaldehyde Clock Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnett, M. G.

    1982-01-01

    Provides background information and problems with the formaldehyde clock reaction, including comparisons of experimental clock times reported in the literature and conditions for the reliable use of the formaldehyde clock based on a method discussed. (JN)

  2. Formaldehyde Stress Responses in Bacterial Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Nathan H.; Djoko, Karrera Y.; Veyrier, Frédéric J.; McEwan, Alastair G.

    2016-01-01

    Formaldehyde is the simplest of all aldehydes and is highly cytotoxic. Its use and associated dangers from environmental exposure have been well documented. Detoxification systems for formaldehyde are found throughout the biological world and they are especially important in methylotrophic bacteria, which generate this compound as part of their metabolism of methanol. Formaldehyde metabolizing systems can be divided into those dependent upon pterin cofactors, sugar phosphates and those dependent upon glutathione. The more prevalent thiol-dependent formaldehyde detoxification system is found in many bacterial pathogens, almost all of which do not metabolize methane or methanol. This review describes the endogenous and exogenous sources of formaldehyde, its toxic effects and mechanisms of detoxification. The methods of formaldehyde sensing are also described with a focus on the formaldehyde responsive transcription factors HxlR, FrmR, and NmlR. Finally, the physiological relevance of detoxification systems for formaldehyde in bacterial pathogens is discussed. PMID:26973631

  3. Formaldehyde Stress Responses in Bacterial Pathogens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nathan H; Djoko, Karrera Y; Veyrier, Frédéric J; McEwan, Alastair G

    2016-01-01

    Formaldehyde is the simplest of all aldehydes and is highly cytotoxic. Its use and associated dangers from environmental exposure have been well documented. Detoxification systems for formaldehyde are found throughout the biological world and they are especially important in methylotrophic bacteria, which generate this compound as part of their metabolism of methanol. Formaldehyde metabolizing systems can be divided into those dependent upon pterin cofactors, sugar phosphates and those dependent upon glutathione. The more prevalent thiol-dependent formaldehyde detoxification system is found in many bacterial pathogens, almost all of which do not metabolize methane or methanol. This review describes the endogenous and exogenous sources of formaldehyde, its toxic effects and mechanisms of detoxification. The methods of formaldehyde sensing are also described with a focus on the formaldehyde responsive transcription factors HxlR, FrmR, and NmlR. Finally, the physiological relevance of detoxification systems for formaldehyde in bacterial pathogens is discussed. PMID:26973631

  4. Acrolein activates matrix metalloproteinases by increasing reactive oxygen species in macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    O'Toole, Timothy E. Zheng Yuting; Hellmann, Jason; Conklin, Daniel J.; Barski, Oleg; Bhatnagar, Aruni

    2009-04-15

    Acrolein is a ubiquitous component of environmental pollutants such as automobile exhaust, cigarette, wood, and coal smoke. It is also a natural constituent of several foods and is generated endogenously during inflammation or oxidation of unsaturated lipids. Because increased inflammation and episodic exposure to acrolein-rich pollutants such as traffic emissions or cigarette smoke have been linked to acute myocardial infarction, we examined the effects of acrolein on matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which destabilize atherosclerotic plaques. Our studies show that exposure to acrolein resulted in the secretion of MMP-9 from differentiated THP-1 macrophages. Acrolein-treatment of macrophages also led to an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), free intracellular calcium ([Ca{sup 2+}]{sub i}), and xanthine oxidase (XO) activity. ROS production was prevented by allopurinol, but not by rotenone or apocynin and by buffering changes in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub I} with BAPTA-AM. The increase in MMP production was abolished by pre-treatment with the antioxidants Tiron and N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) or with the xanthine oxidase inhibitors allopurinol or oxypurinol. Finally, MMP activity was significantly stimulated in aortic sections from apoE-null mice containing advanced atherosclerotic lesions after exposure to acrolein ex vivo. These observations suggest that acrolein exposure results in MMP secretion from macrophages via a mechanism that involves an increase in [Ca{sup 2+}]{sub I}, leading to xanthine oxidase activation and an increase in ROS production. ROS-dependent activation of MMPs by acrolein could destabilize atherosclerotic lesions during brief episodes of inflammation or pollutant exposure.

  5. Structural Elucidation of a Carnosine-Acrolein Adduct and its Quantification in Human Urine Samples

    PubMed Central

    Bispo, Vanderson S.; de Arruda Campos, Ivan P.; Di Mascio, Paolo; Medeiros, Marisa H. G.

    2016-01-01

    Aldehydes accumulate in inflammation, during myocardial infarction and have been associated with pain symptoms. One pathway of aldehyde detoxification is the conjugation with carnosine. A 3-methylpyridinium carnosine adduct from the reaction of carnosine and acrolein was characterized using extensive spectroscopic measurements. The adduct with urinary concentrations of 1.82 ± 0.68 nmol/mg of creatinine is one of the most abundant acrolein metabolites in urine and opens promising therapeutic strategies for carnosine. PMID:26783107

  6. Structural Elucidation of a Carnosine-Acrolein Adduct and its Quantification in Human Urine Samples.

    PubMed

    Bispo, Vanderson S; de Arruda Campos, Ivan P; Di Mascio, Paolo; Medeiros, Marisa H G

    2016-01-01

    Aldehydes accumulate in inflammation, during myocardial infarction and have been associated with pain symptoms. One pathway of aldehyde detoxification is the conjugation with carnosine. A 3-methylpyridinium carnosine adduct from the reaction of carnosine and acrolein was characterized using extensive spectroscopic measurements. The adduct with urinary concentrations of 1.82 ± 0.68 nmol/mg of creatinine is one of the most abundant acrolein metabolites in urine and opens promising therapeutic strategies for carnosine. PMID:26783107

  7. Formaldehyde exposures from tobacco smoke: a review.

    PubMed Central

    Godish, T

    1989-01-01

    Reports of formaldehyde levels in mainstream, sidestream, and environmental tobacco smoke from nine studies are reviewed. Considerable disparity exists between formaldehyde production rates determined from mainstream-sidestream studies and those reporting levels in environmental tobacco smoke. Tobacco smoke does not appear to increase vapor-phase formaldehyde levels significantly in indoor environments, but formaldehyde exposure in mainstream smoke may pose a risk of upper respiratory system cancer and increase the risk of cancer in smokers. PMID:2665532

  8. [Abilities of acetaldehyde removal in different water-treating techniques].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Lei; Wang, Dan; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Chen, Chao; Fan, Kang-Ping

    2011-03-01

    The effect of acetaldehyde removal by several kinds of water-treating technologies is experienced in laboratory and the results reveal that traditional water-treating processes have hardly any useful results and the absorption of GAC does no better either for its efficiency depending on the GAC service time greatly and with a very short leakage time. However, the micro-biological degradation process in the BAC filter can consume more than 95% acetaldehyde in 13 minutes when the biomass has been fully acclimatized. The acclimation process usually lasts 4-30 h under field conditions depending on the stabilization and maturity of the original biomass on the carbon, but can be shortened remarkably by means of inhibiting the activity of existing biomass or artificially inoculating acclimatized microbe. PMID:21634164

  9. Formaldehyde reactions in dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sen, A. D.; Anicich, V. G.; Federman, S. R.

    1992-01-01

    The low-pressure reactions of formaldehyde (H2CO) with D(+), D2(+), D3(+), and He(+) are studied by the ion-cyclotron resonance technique. These reactions are potential loss processes for formaldehyde in cores of dark interstellar clouds. The deuterated reactants represent direct analogs for protons. Rate coefficients and branching ratios of product channels have been measured. Charge transfer is observed to be the dominant reaction of H2CO with D(+), D2(+), and He(+) ions. Only the D3(+) reaction exhibits a proton-transfer channel. All reactions proceed at rate coefficients near the collision limit. Proton-deuteron exchange reactions are found to be inefficient processes in the formaldehyde system.

  10. Home Is Where the Formaldehyde Is.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Godish, Thad

    1983-01-01

    Discusses indoor air pollution in general and formaldehyde in particular, citing major sources of formaldehyde in home building materials and home furnishings. Also describes a laboratory procedure necessary to test for formaldehyde levels in the air and in materials. Includes list of equipment required. (JM)

  11. Photoionization of methanol and formaldehyde

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warneck, P.

    1971-01-01

    Photoions produced in methanol and formaldehyde by radiation in the spectral region 450-1150 A were analyzed mass spectrometrically, and their relative yields were determined as a function of wavelength. First ionization potentials were determined, and the ion yield curves were interpreted in terms of ionization processes in conjunction with other data. Fragment ions were detected on mass numbers of 31, 30, 29, 15, and 14 for methanol, and 29, 2, and 1 for formaldehyde. The associated appearance potentials were determined and were used to calculate heats of formation of the ions CH2OH(+) and HCO(+), and the radicals CH3, CH2, and HCO.

  12. Woodstoves, formaldehyde, and respiratory disease

    SciTech Connect

    Tuthill, R.W.

    1984-12-01

    Telephone interviews were completed in Western Massachusetts in April 1983 for 399 households (91.5 percent) in a random sample of households with elementary school children. Woodstoves were used in 64.7 percent of the homes, but such use was not associated with acute respiratory illness. However, formaldehyde exposure was significantly related, with a risk ratio of 2.4 (95 percent confidence interval 1.7-3.4). New construction/remodeling and new upholstered furniture had additive effects. Neither woodstove use nor formaldehyde exposure were significantly associated with asthma, chronic bronchitis, or allergies.

  13. Inhibition of acrolein-stimulated MUC5AC expression by Platycodon grandiflorum root-derived saponin in A549 cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jae Ho; Hwang, Yong Pil; Han, Eun Hee; Kim, Hyung Gyun; Park, Bong Hwan; Lee, Hyun Sun; Park, Byung Keun; Lee, Young Chun; Chung, Young Chul; Jeong, Hye Gwang

    2011-09-01

    Mucin overproduction is a hallmark of chronic airway diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this study, we investigated the inhibition of acrolein-induced expression of mucin 5, subtypes A and C (MUC5AC) by Changkil saponin (CKS) in A549 cells. Acrolein, a known toxin in tobacco smoke and an endogenous mediator of oxidative stress, increases the expression of airway MUC5AC, a major component of airway mucus. CKS, a Platycodon grandiflorum root-derived saponin, inhibited acrolein-induced MUC5AC expression and activity, through the suppression of NF-κB activation. CKS also repressed acrolein-induced phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK1/2, and p38MAPK, which are upstream signaling molecules that control MUC5AC expression. In addition, the MAPK inhibitors PD98059 (ERK1/2), SP600125 (JNK1/2), and SB203580 (p38 MAPK), and a PKC delta inhibitor (rottlerin; PKCδ) inhibited acrolein-induced MUC5AC expression and activity. CKS repressed acrolein-induced phosphorylation of PKCδ. Moreover, a reactive oxygen species (ROS) inhibitor, N-acetylcysteine, inhibited acrolein-induced MUC5AC expression and activity through the suppression of PKCδ and MAPK activation, and CKS repressed acrolein-induced ROS production. These results suggest that CKS suppresses acrolein-induced MUC5AC expression by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB via ROS-PKCδ-MAPK signaling. PMID:21664222

  14. Acute systemic accumulation of acrolein in mice by inhalation at a concentration similar to that in cigarette smoke

    PubMed Central

    Tully, Melissa; Zheng, Lingxing; Acosta, Glen; Tian, Ran; Shi, Riyi

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoke is an important environmental factor associated with a wide array of public health concerns. Acrolein, a component of tobacco smoke and a known toxin to various cell types, may be a key pathological factor mediating the adverse effects linked with tobacco smoke. Although acrolein is known to accumulate in the respiratory system after acute nasal exposure, it is not clear if it accumulates systemically, and less is known in the nervous system. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of acrolein accumulation in the circulation and in the spinal cord following acute acrolein inhalation in mice. Using a laboratory-fabricated inhalation chamber, we found elevated urinary 3-HPMA, an acrolein metabolite, and increased acrolein adducts in the spinal cord after weeks of nasal exposure to acrolein at a concentration similar to that in tobacco smoke. The data indicated that acrolein is absorbed into the circulatory system and some enters the nervous system. It is expected that these findings may facilitate further studies to probe the pathological role of acrolein in the nervous system resulting from smoke and other external sources. PMID:25446876

  15. On the Reaction Mechanism of Acetaldehyde Decomposition on Mo(110)

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Donghai; Karim, Ayman M.; Wang, Yong

    2012-02-16

    The strong Mo-O bond strength provides promising reactivity of Mo-based catalysts for the deoxygenation of biomass-derived oxygenates. Combining the novel dimer saddle point searching method with periodic spin-polarized density functional theory calculations, we investigated the reaction pathways of a acetaldehyde decomposition on the clean Mo(110) surface. Two reaction pathways were identified, a selective deoxygenation and a nonselective fragmentation pathways. We found that acetaldehyde preferentially adsorbs at the pseudo 3-fold hollow site in the η2(C,O) configuration on Mo(110). Among four possible bond (β-C-H, γ-C-H, C-O and C-C) cleavages, the initial decomposition of the adsorbed acetaldehyde produces either ethylidene via the C-O bond scission or acetyl via the β-C-H bond scission while the C-C and the γ-C-H bond cleavages of acetaldehyde leading to the formation of methyl (and formyl) and formylmethyl are unlikely. Further dehydrogenations of ethylidene into either ethylidyne or vinyl are competing and very facile with low activation barriers of 0.24 and 0.31 eV, respectively. Concurrently, the formed acetyl would deoxygenate into ethylidyne via the C-O cleavage rather than breaking the C-C or the C-H bonds. The selective deoxygenation of acetaldehyde forming ethylene is inhibited by relatively weaker hydrogenation capability of the Mo(110) surface. Instead, the nonselective pathway via vinyl and vinylidene dehydrogenations to ethynyl as the final hydrocarbon fragment is kinetically favorable. On the other hand, the strong interaction between ethylene and the Mo(110) surface also leads to ethylene decomposition instead of desorption into the gas phase. This work was financially supported by the National Advanced Biofuels Consortium (NABC). Computing time was granted by a user project (emsl42292) at the Molecular Science Computing Facility in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL). This work was financially supported

  16. Formaldehyde in Insulation: Villain or Innocent Bystander?

    PubMed Central

    Lees, R. E. M.

    1983-01-01

    When urea formaldehyde foam insulation (UFFI) deteriorates, it produces an off-gas mixture whose major constituent is formaldehyde. Most investigative studies of UFFI have concentrated on formaldehyde. Health concerns fall into three groups: irritant characteristics, allergenic capabilities and potential carcinogenicity. Except for the first of these, formaldehyde's hazard potential is not clear. The extent to which formaldehyde may be responsible for UFFI's evil reputation is explored in this paper but the degree to which either substance is a real threat to health still appears to open to debate. PMID:21283296

  17. Controlling formaldehyde emissions with boiler ash.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Jennifer; Abu-Daabes, Malyuba; Banerjee, Sujit

    2005-07-01

    Fluidized wood ash reduces formaldehyde in air from about 20 to <1 ppmv. Methanol is removed to a much lower extent. The efficiency of formaldehyde reduction increases with increasing moisture content of the ash. Sorption of formaldehyde to ash can be substantially accounted for by partitioning to the water contained in the ash followed by rate-controlling binding to the ash solids. Adsorption occurs at temperatures of up to 165 degrees C; oxidation predominates thereafter. It is proposed that formaldehyde could be stripped from an air stream in a fluidized bed containing ash, which could then be returned to a boiler to incinerate the formaldehyde. PMID:16053116

  18. Acetone and Acetaldehyde Exchange Above a Managed Temperate Mountain Grassland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörtnagl, L. J.; Bamberger, I.; Graus, M.; Ruuskanen, T.; Schnitzhofer, R.; Hansel, A.; Wohlfahrt, G.

    2011-12-01

    The exchange of acetone and acetaldehyde was measured above an intensively managed hay meadow in the Stubai Valley (Tyrol, Austria) during the growing seasons in 2008 and 2009. Half-hourly fluxes of both compounds were calculated by means of the virtual disjunct eddy covariance (vDEC) method by combining the 3-dimensional wind data from a sonic anemometer with the compound specific volume mixing ratios quantified with a proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS). The cutting of the meadow resulted in the largest perturbation of the VOC exchange rates. Peak emissions for both VOC species were observed during and right after the cutting of the meadow, with rates of up to 12.1 and 10.1 nmol m-2 s-1 for acetaldehyde and acetone, respectively, reflecting the drying of the wounded plant material. During certain time periods, undisturbed by management events, both compounds exhibited a clear diurnal cycle. Emission rates of up to 3.7 nmol m-2 s-1 for acetaldehyde and 3.2 nmol m-2 s-1 for acetone were measured in October 2008, while a uptake of both compounds with rates of up to 1.8 and 2.1 nmol m-2 s-1, respectively, could be observed in May 2009, when also clear compensation points of 0.3 ppb for acetaldehyde and 1.0 ppb for acetone were observed. In an effort to explore the controls on observed exchange patterns, a simple and multiple linear regression analysis was conducted. A clear interconnection between VOC concentrations and VOC exchange could be seen only in May 2009, when concentration values alone explained 30.6% and 11.7% of the acetaldehyde and acetone flux variance, respectively. However, when trying to predict the observed exchange patterns of both VOC species in a multiple linear regression based on supporting environmental measurements - including air and soil temperature, soil water content and PAR among others - the analysis yielded unsatisfactory results, accounting for 10% and 4% of the observed acetaldehyde and acetone flux variance over both

  19. Formaldehyde monitor for automobile exhausts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Easley, W. C.

    1973-01-01

    Device makes use of microwave spectral absorption in low-Q resonant Stark cell, and indications are that ultimate sensitivity of instrument is within 100 parts per billion of formaldehyde. Microwave source is very small and requires only six-volt dc bias for operation. Coarse tuning is accomplished mechanically and fine tuning by adjusting dc-bias voltage.

  20. Effect of acetaldehyde on Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Zymomonas mobilis subjected to environmental shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Stanley, G.A.; Hobley, T.J.; Pamment, N.B.

    1997-01-05

    The lag phase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae subjected to a step increase in temperature or ethanol concentration was reduced by as much as 60% when acetaldehyde was added to the medium at concentrations less than 0.1 g/L. Maximum specific growth rates were also substantially increased. Even greater proportional reductions in lag time due to acetaldehyde addition were observed for ethanol-shocked cultures of Zymomonas mobilis. Acetaldehyde had no effect on S. cerevisiae cultures started from stationary phase inocula in the absence of environmental shock and its lag-reducing effects were greater in complex medium than in a defined synthetic medium. Acetaldehyde reacted strongly with the ingredients of complex culture media. It is proposed that the effect of added acetaldehyde may be to compensate for the inability of cells to maintain transmembrane acetaldehyde gradients following an environmental shock.

  1. Adsorption and Reaction of Acetaldehyde over CeO(X)(111) Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Tsung-Liang; Mahurin, Shannon Mark

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the interaction of acetaldehyde with well-ordered CeO{sub X}(111) thin film surfaces. The fully oxidized CeO{sub 2}(111) surface shows a weak interaction with acetaldehyde with the sole desorption product (TPD) being the parent molecule at 210 K. The chemisorbed molecule binds to the surface as the {eta}{sub 1}-acetaldehyde species rather than through a bridge-bonded dioxy configuration. Acetaldehyde chemisorbs strongly on reduced CeO{sub 2-X}(111) with nonrecombinative and recombinative acetaldehyde desorbing at 405 and 550-600 K, respectively. Deoxygenation and dehydration also occur, producing ethylene and acetylene at 580 and 620 K, respectively. Acetaldehyde initially adsorbs in the {eta}{sub 1} configuration and then converts to a carbanion species with both C=C and C=O bond character above 300 K.

  2. Adsorption and Reaction of Acetaldehyde over CeOx(111) Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    T Chen; D Mullins

    2011-12-31

    This study reports the interaction of acetaldehyde with well-ordered CeO{sub X}(111) thin film surfaces. The fully oxidized CeO{sub 2}(111) surface shows a weak interaction with acetaldehyde with the sole desorption product (TPD) being the parent molecule at 210 K. The chemisorbed molecule binds to the surface as the {eta}{sub 1}-acetaldehyde species rather than through a bridge-bonded dioxy configuration. Acetaldehyde chemisorbs strongly on reduced CeO{sub 2-X}(111) with nonrecombinative and recombinative acetaldehyde desorbing at 405 and 550-600 K, respectively. Deoxygenation and dehydration also occur, producing ethylene and acetylene at 580 and 620 K, respectively. Acetaldehyde initially adsorbs in the {eta}{sub 1} configuration and then converts to a carbanion species with both C {double_bond} C and C {double_bond} O bond character above 300 K.

  3. Report of the Federal Panel on Formaldehyde.

    PubMed Central

    1982-01-01

    The Federal Panel on Formaldehyde concluded that definitive experiments exist which demonstrate the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity of formaldehyde under laboratory conditions. Formaldehyde induces both gene mutations and chromosomal aberrations in a variety of test systems. Inhalation of formaldehyde causes cancer of the nose in rats. The concentrations of formaldehyde in inhaled air that caused nasal cancer in Fisher 344 rats are within the same order of magnitude as those to which humans may be exposed. The data presently available do not permit a direct assessment of the carcinogenicity of formaldehyde to man. Epidemiologic studies on exposed human populations are in progress and may further clarify the situation. Other experimental and human studies on toxic effects such as teratogenicity and reproductive disorders are as yet inadequate for a health risk assessment. The CIIT 24 month study on animal carcinogenicity has not yet been completely evaluated. Additional data are expected on the effects of prolonged exposure to lower doses of formaldehyde and on the possible carcinogenicity of formaldehyde in the mouse. The panel recommends that, for a comprehensive health risk assessment, further experiments be conducted on the effects of other modes of exposure (ingestion and skin penetration), the effects in humans, and on the pharmacokinetics of formaldehyde in man and animals and the possible role for formaldehyde in reproductive and chronic respiratory disorders. It is the conclusion of the panel that formaldehyde should be presumed to pose a carcinogenic risk to humans. PMID:6977445

  4. Divergent pathways of acetaldehyde and ethanol decarbonylation on the Rh(111) surface

    SciTech Connect

    Houtman, C.J.; Barteau, M.A. )

    1991-08-01

    The decomposition reactions of acetaldehyde and ethanol on the Rh(111) surface were compared in temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and high-resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) experiments. The decarbonylation of acetaldehyde produced methane at 267 K in TPD. For acetaldehyde coverages less than 0.05 monolayer, no methane was desorbed, but for a coverage that saturated the first layer, methane was produced with 50% selectivity. Coadsorbing deuterium with a low coverage of acetaldehyde resulted in the enhancement of methane production. This result indicates that the selectivity to methane was partially controlled by the availability of hydrogen atoms on the surface required to hydrogenate the hydrocarbon species produced by acetaldehyde decarbonylation. Monodeuterated methane was the primary methane product observed after these coadsorption experiments. Thus it was concluded that acetaldehyde decarbonylates via a methyl migration mechanism on the Rh(111) surface. Decarbonylation of ethanol did not produce methane. The absence of methane production indicated that the decomposition of ethanol on the Rh(111) surface did not proceed via dehydrogenation to adsorbed acetaldehyde, but instead, ethanol appeared to dehydrogenate by methyl hydrogen abstraction resulting in the formation of an oxametallacycle. Since this proposed intermediate rapidly dehydrogenated to carbon monoxide and surface carbon, it was difficult to characterize spectroscopically. The existence of an ethanol decomposition pathway that does not include acetaldehyde intermediates indicates that ethanol formation on supported Rh catalysts may not be the result of acetaldehyde hydrogenation.

  5. Intrathecal cannabinoid-1 receptor agonist prevents referred hyperalgesia in acute acrolein-induced cystitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Marsha Ritter; Wang, Zun-Yi; Bjorling, Dale E

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the capacity of intrathecal arachidonyl-2’-chloroethylamide (ACEA), a cannabinoid-1 receptor (CB1R) agonist, to inhibit referred hyperalgesia and increased bladder contractility resulting from acute acrolein-induced cystitis in rats. 24 female rats were divided into 4 groups: 1) intrathecal vehicle/intravesical saline; 2) intrathecal vehicle/intravesical acrolein; 3) intrathecal ACEA/intravesical saline; and 4) intrathecal ACEA/intravesical acrolein. Bladder catheters were placed 4-6 days prior to the experiment. On the day of the experiment, rats were briefly anesthetized with isoflurane to recover the external end of the cystostomy catheter. After recovery from anesthesia, pre-treatment cystometry was performed, and mechanical sensitivity of the hindpaws was determined. Rats were again briefly anesthetized with isoflurane to inject ACEA or vehicle into the intrathecal space between L5-L6. Beginning 10 minutes after intrathecal injection, saline or acrolein was infused into the bladder for 30 minutes. Post-treatment cystometry and mechanical sensitivity testing were performed. Rats were euthanized, and bladders were collected, weighed, and fixed for histology. The intrathecal vehicle/intravesical acrolein group developed mechanical hyperalgesia with post-treatment mechanical sensitivity of 6 ± 0.3 g compared to pretreatment of 14 ± 0.4 g (p < 0.01). Pre- and post-treatment hind paw mechanical sensitivity was statistically similar in rats that received intrathecal ACEA prior to intravesical infusion of acrolein (15 ± 0.2 g and 14 ± 0.4 g, respectively). Acrolein treatment increased basal bladder pressure and maximal voiding pressure and decreased intercontraction interval and voided volume. However, intrathecal ACEA was ineffective in improving acrolein-related urodynamic changes. In addition, bladder histology demonstrated submucosal and muscularis edema that was similar for all acrolein-treated groups, irrespective of ACEA treatment

  6. Terahertz Spectroscopy of Deuterated Acetaldehyde: CH_2DCHO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Coudert, L. H.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2014-06-01

    This study follows our recent investigations about deuterated methyl-top species of complex organic molecules: methanol, methyl formate, In particular these works led the first ISM detection of HCOOCH_2D and CH_2DOCH_3. Acetaldehyde is not very abundant in the ISM, but this is a very interesting case from the spectroscopic point of view as it is an intermediate case between methyl formate and methanol. In the normal species of acetaldehyde, the barrier to internal rotation which is close to the value in methyl formate: 373 cm-1. However, the value of the Coriolis coupling constant ρ is 0.33 in acetaldehyde which is a much larger value than in methyl formate, 0.08, meaning that the coupling between the torsion and the overall rotation is more important. The sample was not a commercial one and half of its amount is the normal species which leads to a more difficult line assignment. The spectra were recorded in Lille between 75 and 950 GHz with a solid-state submillimeter-wave spectrometer. The starting point of the analysis was the centimeter-wave measurements carried out for the sym and asym- conformers. A comparison between the approach developed for deuterated methyl formate (HCOOCH_2D), based on the water dimer formalism, and that designed recently for deuterated methanola (CH_2DOH) will be presented. This work is supported by the CNES and the Action sur Projets de l'INSU, PCMI. Coudert, L. H.; et al. J. Chem. Phys., 140, (2014) 64307 Coudert, L. H.; et al. ApJ, 779, (2013) 119 Richard, C.; et al. A&A, 552, (2013) A117 Smirnov, I. A.; et al. J. Mol. Spectrosc., 295 (2014) 44 Ilyushin, V.; et al. J. Mol. Spectrosc., 255 (2009) 32 Turner, P. H.; and Cox, A. P. Chem. Phys. Lett., 42, (1976) 84 Turner, P. H.; Cox, A. P.; and Hardy, J. A. J.C.S. Farady Trans., 2, (1981) 1217

  7. Mass spectrometry-based quantification of myocardial protein adducts with acrolein in an in vivo model of oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Jianyong; Stevens, Jan F.; Maier, Claudia S.

    2012-01-01

    Acrolein exposure leads to the formation of protein-acrolein adducts. Protein modification by acrolein has been associated with various chronic diseases including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Here we report an analytical strategy that enables the quantification of Michael-type protein adducts of acrolein in mitochondrial proteome samples using liquid chromatography in combination with tandem mass spectrometry and selected ion monitoring (LC-MS/MS SRM) analysis. Our approach combines site-specific identification and relative quantification at the peptide level of protein–acrolein adducts in relation to the unmodified protein thiol pool. Treatment of 3-month old rats with CCl4, an established in vivo model of acute oxidative stress, resulted in significant increases in the ratios of distinct acrolein-adducted peptides to the corresponding unmodified thiol-peptides obtained from proteins that were isolated from cardiac mitochondria. The mitochondrial proteins that were found adducted by acrolein were malate dehydrogenase, NADH dehydrogenase [ubiquinone] flavoprotein 1, cytochrome c oxidase subunit VIb isoform 1, ATP synthase d chain, and ADP/ATP translocase 1. The findings indicate that protein modification by acrolein has potential value as an index of mitochondrial oxidative stress. PMID:21809440

  8. Acrolein inhalation causes myocardial strain delay and decreased cardiac performance as detected by high-frequency echocardiography in mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acrolein, an unsaturated aldehyde found in air pollution, impairs Ca2+ flux and contraction in cardiomyocytes in vitro. To better define direct and delayed functional cardiac effects, we hypothesized that a single exposure to acrolein would modify myocardial strain and performanc...

  9. Mediating the potent ROS toxicity of acrolein in neurons with silica nanoparticles and a natural product approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White-Schenk, Désirée.; Shi, Riyi; Leary, James F.

    2014-03-01

    Acrolein, a very reactive aldehyde, is a culprit in the biochemical cascade after primary, mechanical spinal cord injury (SCI), which leads to the destruction of tissue initially unharmed, referred to as "secondary injury". Additionally, in models of multiple sclerosis (MS) and some clinical research, acrolein levels are significantly increased. Due to its ability to make more copies of itself in the presence of tissue via lipid peroxidation, researchers believe that acrolein plays a role in the increased destruction of the central nervous system in both SCI and MS. Hydralazine, an FDAapproved hypotensive drug, has been shown to scavenge acrolein, but its side effects and short half life at the appropriate dose for acrolein scavenging must be improved for beneficial clinical translation. Therefore, a nanomedical approach has been designed using silica nanoparticles as a porous delivery vehicle hydralazine. The silica particles are formed in a one-step method that incorporates poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG), a stealth molecule, directly onto the nanoparticles. As an additional avenue for study, a natural product in green tea, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), has been explored for its ability to react with acrolein, disabling its reactive capabilities. Upon demonstration of attenuating acrolein, EGCG's delivery may also be improved using the nanomedical approach. The current work exposes the potential of using silica nanoparticles as a delivery vehicle and EGCG's antioxidant capabilities in B35 neuroblastoma cells exposed to acrolein. We also measure nanotoxicity to individual rat neurons using high-throughput image scanning cytometry.

  10. POTENTIATION OF PULMONARY REFLEX RESPONSE TO CAPSAICIN 24 HOURS FOLLOWING WHOLE-BODY ACROLEIN EXPOSURE IS MEDIATED BY TRPV1

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pulmonary C-fibers are stimulated by irritant air pollutants producing apnea, bronchospasm, and decrease in HR. C-fiber chemoreflex activation is mediated by TRPV1 and release of substance P. While acrolein has been shown to stimulate C-fibers, the persistence of acrolein effect...

  11. Acetaldehyde stimulates monocyte adhesion in a P-selectin- and TNFα-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Redmond, Eileen M.; Morrow, David; Kundimi, Sreenath; Miller-Graziano, Carol L.; Cullen, John P.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to determine the effects of acetaldehyde on various steps of the monocyte recruitment cascade. Methods Human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVEC), primary blood monocytes (PBM) and THP-1 monocytes, were treated with acetaldehyde (0.1–0 μM) for 6 h. Monocyte adherence experiments were performed using 2′,7′-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-5,6-carboxyfluorescein-acetoxymethylester labeled PBM or 3H-thymidine labeled THP-1 cells. HUVEC TNFα mRNA and protein levels were determined by quantitative real-time PCR and immunoassay, respectively, and HUVEC P-selectin and monocyte CCR2 expression were determined by FACS analysis. Results Acetaldehyde dose-dependently increased the number of CCR2 positive THP-1 monocytes, with a maximal increase of ~50% observed in the presence of 10 μM acetaldehyde. There was a significant increase in both the number of P-selectin positive cells and P-selectin receptor density when HUVEC were incubated with acetaldehyde. HUVEC TNFα mRNA expression and secretion were enhanced by acetaldehyde. Moreover, acetaldehyde increased THP-1 and PBM adhesion to HUVEC. Inhibition of P-selectin or TNFα, using antibodies or siRNA-directed gene knockdown, attenuated acetaldehyde-induced monocyte adhesion. In conclusion, acetaldehyde increased the number of CCR2 positive monocytes and stimulated endothelial cell P-selectin and TNFα expression. Moreover, acetaldehyde increased monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells, an effect that was both P-selectin- and TNFα-dependent. Conclusion These effects of acetaldehyde may contribute, in part, to the increase in coronary heart disease that is associated with binge patterns of alcohol consumption. PMID:19036374

  12. Collisional excitation of interstellar formaldehyde

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, S.; Garrison, B. J.; Lester, W. A., Jr.; Miller, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    Previous calculations for rates of excitation of ortho-H2CO by collisions with He have been extended to higher rotational levels and kinetic temperatures to 80 K. Rates for para-H2CO have also been computed. Pressure-broadening widths for several spectral lines have been obtained from these calculations and are found to agree with recent data within the experimental uncertainty of 10%. Excitation of formaldehyde by collisions with H2 molecules is also discussed.

  13. Effect of Carcinogenic Acrolein on DNA Repair and Mutagenic Susceptibility*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hsiang-Tsui; Hu, Yu; Tong, Dan; Huang, Jian; Gu, Liya; Wu, Xue-Ru; Chung, Fung-Lung; Li, Guo-Min; Tang, Moon-shong

    2012-01-01

    Acrolein (Acr), a ubiquitous environmental contaminant, is a human carcinogen. Acr can react with DNA to form mutagenic α- and γ-hydroxy-1, N2-cyclic propano-2′-deoxyguanosine adducts (α-OH-Acr-dG and γ-OH-Acr-dG). We demonstrate here that Acr-dG adducts can be efficiently repaired by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway in normal human bronchial epithelia (NHBE) and lung fibroblasts (NHLF). However, the same adducts were poorly processed in cell lysates isolated from Acr-treated NHBE and NHLF, suggesting that Acr inhibits NER. In addition, we show that Acr treatment also inhibits base excision repair and mismatch repair. Although Acr does not change the expression of XPA, XPC, hOGG1, PMS2 or MLH1 genes, it causes a reduction of XPA, XPC, hOGG1, PMS2, and MLH1 proteins; this effect, however, can be neutralized by the proteasome inhibitor MG132. Acr treatment further enhances both bulky and oxidative DNA damage-induced mutagenesis. These results indicate that Acr not only damages DNA but can also modify DNA repair proteins and further causes degradation of these modified repair proteins. We propose that these two detrimental effects contribute to Acr mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. PMID:22275365

  14. Formaldehyde photodissociation: Dependence on total angular momentum and rotational alignment of the CO product

    SciTech Connect

    Farnum, John D.; Zhang, Xiubin; Bowman, Joel M.

    2007-04-07

    Quasiclassical trajectory calculations are reported to investigate the effects of rotational excitation of formaldehyde on the branching ratios of the fragmentation products, H{sub 2}+CO and H+HCO. The results of tens of thousands of trajectories show that increased rotational excitation causes suppression of the radical channel and enhancement of the molecular channel. Decomposing the molecular channel into ''direct'' and ''roaming'' channels shows that increased rotation switches from suppressing to enhancing the roaming products across our chosen energy range. However, decomposition into these pathways is difficult because the difference between them does not appear to have a distinct boundary. A vector correlation investigation of the CO rotation shows different characteristics in the roaming versus direct channels and this difference is a potentially useful signature of the roaming mechanism, as first speculated by Kable and Houston in their experimental study of photodissociation of acetaldehyde [P. L. Houston and S. H. Kable, Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. 103, 16079 (2006)].

  15. Sulforaphane protects against acrolein-induced oxidative stress and inflammatory responses: modulation of Nrf-2 and COX-2 expression

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yu-Hui; Cui, Fa-Cai

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acrolein (2-propenal) is a reactive α, β-unsaturated aldehyde which causes a health hazard to humans. The present study focused on determining the protection offered by sulforaphane against acrolein-induced damage in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Material and methods Acrolein-induced oxidative stress was determined through evaluating the levels of reactive oxygen species, protein carbonyl and sulfhydryl content, thiobarbituric acid reactive species, total oxidant status and antioxidant status (total antioxidant capacity, glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione-S-transferase activity). Also, Nrf-2 expression levels were determined using western blot analysis. Acrolein-induced inflammation was determined through analyzing expression of cyclooxygenase-2 by western blot and PGE2 levels by ELISA. The protection offered by sulforaphane against acrolein-induced oxidative stress and inflammation was studied. Results Acrolein showed a significant (p < 0.001) increase in the levels of oxidative stress parameters and down-regulated Nrf-2 expression. Acrolein-induced inflammation was observed through upregulation (p < 0.001) of COX-2 and PGE2 levels. Pretreatment with sulforaphane enhanced the antioxidant status through upregulating Nrf-2 expression (p < 0.001) in PBMC. Acrolein-induced inflammation was significantly inhibited through suppression of COX-2 (p < 0.001) and PGE2 levels (p < 0.001). Conclusions The present study provides clear evidence that pre-treatment with sulforaphane completely restored the antioxidant status and prevented inflammatory responses mediated by acrolein. Thus the protection offered by sulforaphane against acrolein-induced damage in PBMC is attributed to its anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potential. PMID:27478470

  16. The detection of acetaldehyde in cold dust clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Matthews, H. E.; Friber, P.; Irvine, W. M.

    1985-01-01

    Observations of the 1(01)-0(00) rotational transitions of A and E state acetaldehyde are reported. The transitions were detected, for the first time in interstellar space, in the cold dust clouds TMC-1 and L134N, and in Sgr B2. This is also the first time acetaldehyde has been found in a dust cloud and is the most complex oxygen-bearing molecule yet known in this environment. A column density of 6 x 10 to the 12th/sq cm in TMC-1, comparable to many other species detected there, and an approximately equal column density in L134N are formed. In the direction of Sgr B2, the CH3CHO profile appears to consist of broad emission features from the hot molecular cloud core, together with absorption features resulting from intervening colder material. The possible detection of HC9N toward IRC + 10 deg 216 through its J = 33-32 transition is also reported. Implications for cold dust cloud chemistry and excitation are discussed.

  17. Roaming radical kinetics in the decomposition of acetaldehyde.

    SciTech Connect

    Harding, L. B.; Georgievskii, Y.; Klippenstein, S. J.; Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2010-01-01

    A novel theoretical framework for predicting the branching between roaming and bond fission channels in molecular dissociations is described and applied to the decomposition of acetaldehyde. This reduced dimensional trajectory (RDT) approach, which is motivated by the long-range nature of the roaming, bond fission, and abstraction dynamical bottlenecks, involves the propagation of rigid-body trajectories on an analytic potential energy surface. The analytic potential is obtained from fits to large-scale multireference ab initio electronic structure calculations. The final potential includes one-dimensional corrections from higher-level electronic structure calculations and for the effect of conserved mode variations along both the addition and abstraction paths. The corrections along the abstraction path play a significant role in the predicted branching. Master equation simulations are used to transform the microcanonical branching ratios obtained from the RDT simulations to the temperature- and pressure-dependent branching ratios observed in thermal decomposition experiments. For completeness, a transition-state theory treatment of the contributions of the tight transition states for the molecular channels is included in the theoretical analyses. The theoretically predicted branching between molecules and radicals in the thermal decomposition of acetaldehyde is in reasonable agreement with the corresponding shock tube measurement described in the companion paper. The prediction for the ratio of the tight to roaming contributions to the molecular channel also agrees well with results extracted from recent experimental and experimental/theoretical photodissociation studies.

  18. Spectators Control Selectivity in Surface Chemistry: Acrolein Partial Hydrogenation Over Pd.

    PubMed

    Dostert, Karl-Heinz; O'Brien, Casey P; Ivars-Barceló, Francisco; Schauermann, Swetlana; Freund, Hans-Joachim

    2015-10-28

    We present a mechanistic study on selective hydrogenation of acrolein over model Pd surfaces--both single crystal Pd(111) and Pd nanoparticles supported on a model oxide support. We show for the first time that selective hydrogenation of the C═O bond in acrolein to form an unsaturated alcohol is possible over Pd(111) with nearly 100% selectivity. However, this process requires a very distinct modification of the Pd(111) surface with an overlayer of oxopropyl spectator species that are formed from acrolein during the initial stages of reaction and turn the metal surface selective toward propenol formation. By applying pulsed multimolecular beam experiments and in situ infrared reflection-absorption spectroscopy, we identified the chemical nature of the spectator and the reactive surface intermediate (propenoxy species) and experimentally followed the simultaneous evolution of the reactive intermediate on the surface and formation of the product in the gas phase. PMID:26481220

  19. Spectators Control Selectivity in Surface Chemistry: Acrolein Partial Hydrogenation Over Pd

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    We present a mechanistic study on selective hydrogenation of acrolein over model Pd surfaces—both single crystal Pd(111) and Pd nanoparticles supported on a model oxide support. We show for the first time that selective hydrogenation of the C=O bond in acrolein to form an unsaturated alcohol is possible over Pd(111) with nearly 100% selectivity. However, this process requires a very distinct modification of the Pd(111) surface with an overlayer of oxopropyl spectator species that are formed from acrolein during the initial stages of reaction and turn the metal surface selective toward propenol formation. By applying pulsed multimolecular beam experiments and in situ infrared reflection–absorption spectroscopy, we identified the chemical nature of the spectator and the reactive surface intermediate (propenoxy species) and experimentally followed the simultaneous evolution of the reactive intermediate on the surface and formation of the product in the gas phase. PMID:26481220

  20. Quantitative analysis of acrolein in heated vegetable oils by liquid chromatography with pulsed electrochemical detection.

    PubMed

    Casella, Innocenzo G; Contursi, Michela

    2004-09-22

    A sensitive and selective analytical method for the determination of acrolein in heated vegetable oils by liquid chromatographic separation with pulsed electrochemical detection is described. An optimized triple-step pulsed waveform, based on the formation/inhibition of PtOH species on the electrode surface, a consequence of the absence/presence of adsorbing analytes, is described for the sensitive detection of acrolein in acidic medium. Under these optimized experimental conditions the proposed analytical method allowed detection limits of 0.15 microM without pre- or postcolumn derivatization or tedious cleanup procedures. The proposed analytical method was successfully employed for the sensitive determination of acrolein in fresh and heated vegetable oils with good mean recoveries, selectivity, and analytical reproducibility. PMID:15366826

  1. Microencapsulated fragrances in melamine formaldehyde resins.

    PubMed

    Bône, Stéphane; Vautrin, Claire; Barbesant, Virginie; Truchon, Stéphane; Harrison, Ian; Geffroy, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    The process for making melamine formaldehyde microcapsules containing fragrant oil is well-known. Recently, this technology has been used to enhance the olfactory performance on fabrics. However keeping the fragrance in the capsule during storage, improving the olfactory benefit and releasing a low amount of formaldehyde is highly challenging. To answer these challenges, Givaudan has developed its own melamine formaldehyde microcapsule, called Mechacaps, which is described in this article. PMID:21528653

  2. Studies on the mechanism of acetaldehyde-mediated inhibition of rat liver transaminases.

    PubMed

    Solomon, L R

    1987-09-30

    Incubation of mitochondria-depleted rat liver homogenates with 5 mmol/l acetaldehyde at 37 degrees C for 1 h inhibited both aspartate and alanine aminotransferases by 30%. Inhibition was prevented by decreasing temperature to 4 degrees C or by preincubating homogenates with cyanate but was unaffected by cyanamide and methylpyrazole which block acetaldehyde oxidation and reduction respectively. Cyanate-sensitive acetaldehyde-mediated inhibition of purified porcine heart transaminases was also demonstrated in the presence of rat liver homogenate but not in Tris/sucrose medium. Moreover, porcine transaminases were inhibited by trichloroacetic acid extracts of rat liver homogenates previously incubated with acetaldehyde but not by extracts of homogenates incubated with both acetaldehyde and cyanate. These findings suggest that acetaldehyde-mediated transaminase inhibition requires further non-oxidative metabolism of acetaldehyde. Since transaminase activities were not restored by addition of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate to the assay systems, acetaldehyde-induced transaminase inhibition does not appear to be mediated by displacement or depletion of this B6 coenzyme. PMID:3677417

  3. Acetaldehyde alters MAP kinase signalling and epigenetic histone modifications in hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Shivendra D; Lee, Youn Ju; Park, Pil-hoon; Aroor, Annayya R

    2007-01-01

    Although both oxidative and non-oxidative metabolites of ethanol are involved in generating ethanol matabolic stress (Emess), the oxidative metabolite acetaldehyde plays a critical role in the cellular actions of ethanol. We have investigated the effects of acetaldehyde on p42/44 MAP kinase, p46/p54 c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK1/JNK2) and p38 MAP kinase in hepatocytes. Acetaldehyde caused temporal activation of p42/44 MAPK followed by JNK, but the activation of the p42/44 MAPK was not a prerequisite for the JNK activation. Activation ofJNK1 by acetaldehyde was greater than JNK2. Ethanol and acetaldehyde activatedJNK have opposing roles; ethanol-induced JNK activation increased apoptosis whereas that by acetaldehyde decreased apoptosis. Acetaldehyde also caused histone H3 acetylation at Lys9 and phosphorylation of histone H3 at Serl0 and 28, the latter being dependent on p38 MAP kinase. Phosphorylation at Ser28 was higher than at Serl0. Thus acetaldehyde distinctively alters MAP kinase signalling and histone modifications, processes involved in transcriptional activation. PMID:17590997

  4. The hydrogen-storing microporous silica 'Microcluster' reduces acetaldehyde contained in a distilled spirit.

    PubMed

    Kato, Shinya; Miwa, Nobuhiko

    2016-12-01

    Acetaldehyde is a detrimental substance produced in alcoholic liquor aging. We assessed an ability of hydrogen-storing microporous silica 'Microcluster' (MC+) to reduce acetaldehyde, as compared with autoclave-dehydrogenated MC+ (MC-). Acetaldehyde was quantified spectrophotometrically by an enzymatic method. Authentic acetaldehyde was treated by MC+ for 20min, and decreased from 43.4ppm to 10.9ppm, but maintained at 49.3ppm by MC-. On the other hand, acetaldehyde contained in a distilled spirit was decreased from 29.5ppm to 3.1ppm at 20min by MC+, but not decreased by MC-. Addition of MC+ or MC- to distilled water without acetaldehyde showed no seeming effect on the quantification used. Accordingly acetaldehyde in a distilled spirit is reduced to ethanol by hydrogen contained in MC+, but not by the silica moiety of MC+. Hydrogen gas of 1.2mL was released for 20min from MC+ of 0.59g in water, resulting in dissolved hydrogen of 1.09ppm and an oxidation- reduction potential of -687.0mV indicative of a marked reducing ability. Thus, MC+ has an ability to reduce acetaldehyde in a distilled spirit due to dissolved hydrogen released from MC+. PMID:27612695

  5. Oxygen vacancy-assisted coupling and enolization of acetaldehyde on CeO2(111).

    PubMed

    Calaza, Florencia C; Xu, Ye; Mullins, David R; Overbury, Steven H

    2012-10-31

    The temperature-dependent adsorption and reaction of acetaldehyde (CH(3)CHO) on a fully oxidized and a highly reduced thin-film CeO(2)(111) surface have been investigated using a combination of reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS) and periodic density functional theory (DFT+U) calculations. On the fully oxidized surface, acetaldehyde adsorbs weakly through its carbonyl O interacting with a lattice Ce(4+) cation in the η(1)-O configuration. This state desorbs at 210 K without reaction. On the highly reduced surface, new vibrational signatures appear below 220 K. They are identified by RAIRS and DFT as a dimer state formed from the coupling of the carbonyl O and the acyl C of two acetaldehyde molecules. This dimer state remains up to 400 K before decomposing to produce another distinct set of vibrational signatures, which are identified as the enolate form of acetaldehyde (CH(2)CHO¯). Furthermore, the calculated activation barriers for the coupling of acetaldehyde, the decomposition of the dimer state, and the recombinative desorption of enolate and H as acetaldehyde are in good agreement with previously reported TPD results for acetaldehyde adsorbed on reduced CeO(2)(111) [Chen et al. J. Phys. Chem. C 2011, 115, 3385]. The present findings demonstrate that surface oxygen vacancies alter the reactivity of the CeO(2)(111) surface and play a crucial role in stabilizing and activating acetaldehyde for coupling reactions. PMID:23020248

  6. Removal of acetaldehyde and skatole in gas by a corona-discharge reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, Noriaki; Nagamoto, Toshiki; Hamon, Hajime; Suzuki, Tetsuo; Okazaki, Morio

    1997-09-01

    Recently, ultrahigh gas purification has been important in many cases, such as, for example, (1) removal of dioxin from incineration plants, (2) complete removal of radioactive iodine compounds from nuclear fuel recycling, (3) simultaneous removal of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x} in exhaust gases from cogeneration plants, (4) removal or decomposition of chlorofluorocarbons, and (5) supply of purified gas for semiconductor industries. A corona-discharge reactor, called a deposition-type reactor, was applied to remove acetaldehyde and skatole from nitrogen and an oxygen-nitrogen mixture. In the removal from nitrogen, acetaldehyde and skatole are negatively ionized and removed by depositing at the anode surface. In simultaneous removals of acetaldehyde and skatole, it is found that skatole has a higher reactivity of electron attachment than acetaldehyde. In the removal of acetaldehyde from an oxygen-nitrogen mixture, 40 molecules of acetaldehyde were removed by one electron. The reason for the extremely high removal efficiency is considered to be based on the ozone reaction and the formation of negative-ion clusters. Stabilization energies of the negative-ion clusters were estimated by ab initio molecular orbital calculation. Skatole was removed from a nitrogen-oxygen mixture perfectly with extremely low discharge current by the ozone reaction. Simultaneous removals of acetaldehyde and skatole from a nitrogen-oxygen mixture suggest that coexisting skatole inhibits the removal of acetaldehyde.

  7. A PBPK MODEL FOR EVALUATING THE IMPACT OF ALDEHYDE DEHYDROGENASE POLYMORPHISMS ON COMPARATIVE RAT AND HUMAN NASAL TISSUE ACETALDEHYDE DOSIMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: Acetaldehyde is an important intermediate in chemical synthesis and a byproduct of normal oxidative metabolism of several industrially important compounds including ethanol, ethyl acetate and vinyl acetate. Chronic inhalation of acetaldehyde leads to degeneratio...

  8. A PBPK model for evaluating the impact of aldehyde dehydrogenase polymorphisms on comparative rat and human nasal tissue acetaldehyde dosimetry*

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acetaldehyde is an important intermediate in the chemical synthesis and normal oxidative metabolism of several industrially important compounds, including ethanol, ethyl acetate, and vinyl acetate. Chronic inhalation of acetaldehyde leads to degeneration of the olfactory and resp...

  9. Dissociative electron attachments to ethanol and acetaldehyde: A combined experimental and simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xu-Dong; Xuan, Chuan-Jin; Feng, Wen-Ling; Tian, Shan Xi

    2015-02-01

    Dissociation dynamics of the temporary negative ions of ethanol and acetaldehyde formed by the low-energy electron attachments is investigated by using the anion velocity map imaging technique and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The momentum images of the dominant fragments O-/OH- and CH3- are recorded, indicating the low kinetic energies of O-/OH- for ethanol while the low and high kinetic energy distributions of O- ions for acetaldehyde. The CH3- image for acetaldehyde also shows the low kinetic energy. With help of the dynamics simulations, the fragmentation processes are qualitatively clarified. A new cascade dissociation pathway to produce the slow O- ion via the dehydrogenated intermediate, CH3CHO- (acetaldehyde anion), is proposed for the dissociative electron attachment to ethanol. After the electron attachment to acetaldehyde molecule, the slow CH3- is produced quickly in the two-body dissociation with the internal energy redistributions in different aspects before bond cleavages.

  10. Impairment of histone H1 DNA binding by adduct formation with acetaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Niemela, O.; Mannermaa, R.; Oikarinen, J. )

    1990-01-01

    Incubation of histone H1 with pharmacologically relevant concentrations of acetaldehyde resulted in the formation of spontaneously stable acetaldehyde-protein linkages. The reaction of acetaldehyde and H1 purified from rat liver either by a DNA recognition site affinity chromatography or by perchloric acid extraction occurred primarily at the lysine residues in the carboxyterminal tail of H1, which is crucial for its function as a eukaryotic repressor. It was further shown using an H1-lacZ fusion protein produced in E. coli and the protein isolated from rat liver that the formation of acetaldehyde adducts with H1 impair its DNA binding properties. They propose that such a reaction may occur in vivo and lead to an inability to repress genes in the liver upon excessive alcohol consumption. This mechanism may play a role in acetaldehyde-induced collagen synthesis in alcoholics.

  11. Enantioselective intermolecular cross Rauhut-Currier reactions of activated alkenes with acrolein.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Chen, Peng; Tao, Mengna; Su, Xiao; Zhao, Qingjie; Zhang, Junliang

    2016-06-18

    The enantioselective intermolecular cross Rauhut-Currier reaction of acrolein with active olefins has been a long-standing challenge because of the competitive MBH reaction and polymerization. Herein a highly enantioselective intermolecular cross Rauhut-Currier reaction of acrolein with 3-acyl acrylates and 2-ene-1,4-diones, which is enabled by newly designed Peng-Phos catalysts. This method is scalable and highly enantioselective (up to 96% ee). Several transformations of the R-C products are carried out to showcase the synthetic utility. PMID:27225510

  12. Upregulation of endothelial heme oxygenase-1 expression through the activation of the JNK pathway by sublethal concentrations of acrolein

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.C.; Hsieh, C.W.; Lai, P.H.; Lin, J.B.; Liu, Y.C.; Wung, B.S. . E-mail: bswung@mail.ncyu.edu.tw

    2006-08-01

    Acrolein is a highly electrophilic {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated aldehyde that is present in cigarette smoke. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a cytoprotective enzyme activated by various such electrophilic compounds. In this study, the regulatory effects of acrolein upon the expression of HO-1 were investigated in endothelial cells (ECs). We demonstrate that acrolein induces the elevation of HO-1 protein levels, and subsequent enzyme activity, at non-cytotoxic concentrations. An additional {alpha},{beta}-unsaturated aldehyde, cinnamaldehyde, was also found to increase HO-1 expression and have less cytotoxicity than acrolein. Moreover, acrolein-mediated HO-1 induction is abrogated in the presence of actinomycin D and cycloheximide. Nrf2 is a transcription factor involved in the induction of HO-1 through an antioxidant response element (ARE) in the promoter region of the HO-1 gene. We show that acrolein induces Nrf2 translocation and ARE-luciferase reporter activity. Acrolein was also found to induce the production of both superoxide and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} at levels greater than 100 {mu}M. However, with the exception of NAC, no antioxidant generated any effect upon acrolein-dependent HO-1 expression in ECs. Our present findings suggest that reactive oxygen species (ROS) may not be a major modulator for HO-1 induction. Using buthionine sulfoximine to deplete the intracellular GSH levels further enhanced the effects of acrolein. We also found that cellular GSH level was rapidly reduced after both 10 and 100 {mu}M acrolein treatment. However, after 6 h of exposure to ECs, only 10 {mu}M acrolein treatment increases GSH level. In addition, only the JNK inhibitor SP600125 and tyrosine kinase inhibitor genistein had any significant inhibitory impact upon the upregulation of HO-1 by acrolein. Pretreatment with a range of other PI3 kinase inhibitors, including wortmannin and LY294002, showed no effects. Hence, we show in our current experiments that a sublethal concentration of

  13. Protection of HepG2 cells against acrolein toxicity by 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-imidazolide via glutathione-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Shah, Halley; Speen, Adam M; Saunders, Christina; Brooke, Elizabeth A S; Nallasamy, Palanisamy; Zhu, Hong; Li, Y Robert; Jia, Zhenquan

    2015-10-01

    Acrolein is an environmental toxicant, mainly found in smoke released from incomplete combustion of organic matter. Several studies showed that exposure to acrolein can lead to liver damage. The mechanisms involved in acrolein-induced hepatocellular toxicity, however, are not completely understood. This study examined the cytotoxic mechanisms of acrolein on HepG2 cells. Acrolein at pathophysiological concentrations was shown to cause apoptotic cell death and an increase in levels of protein carbonyl and thiobarbituric acid reactive acid substances. Acrolein also rapidly depleted intracellular glutathione (GSH), GSH-linked glutathione-S-transferases, and aldose reductase, three critical cellular defenses that detoxify reactive aldehydes. Results further showed that depletion of cellular GSH by acrolein preceded the loss of cell viability. To further determine the role of cellular GSH in acrolein-mediated cytotoxicity, buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) was used to inhibit cellular GSH biosynthesis. It was observed that depletion of cellular GSH by BSO led to a marked potentiation of acrolein-mediated cytotoxicity in HepG2 cells. To further assess the contribution of these events to acrolein-induced cytotoxicity, triterpenoid compound 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-imidazolide (CDDO-Im) was used for induction of GSH. Induction of GSH by CDDO-Im afforded cytoprotection against acrolein toxicity in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, BSO significantly inhibited CDDO-Im-mediated induction in cellular GSH levels and also reversed cytoprotective effects of CDDO-Im in HepG2 cells. These results suggest that GSH is a predominant mechanism underlying acrolein-induced cytotoxicity as well as CDDO-Im-mediated cytoprotection. This study may provide understanding on the molecular action of acrolein which may be important to develop novel strategies for the prevention of acrolein-mediated toxicity. PMID:25504014

  14. Formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics: relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy. Part 2. Patch test relationship to formaldehyde contact allergy, experimental provocation tests, amount of formaldehyde released, and assessment of risk to consumers allergic to formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Anton; White, Ian R; Flyvholm, Mari-Ann; Lensen, Gerda; Coenraads, Pieter-Jan

    2010-01-01

    This is the second part of an article on formaldehyde-releasers in cosmetics. The patch test relationship between the releasers in cosmetics to formaldehyde contact allergy is reviewed and it is assessed whether products preserved with formaldehyde-releasers may contain enough free formaldehyde to pose a threat to individuals with contact allergy to formaldehyde. There is a clear relationship between positive patch test reactions to formaldehyde-releasers and formaldehyde contact allergy: 15% of all reactions to 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol and 40-60% of the reactions to the other releasers are caused by a reaction to the formaldehyde in the test material. There is only fragmented data on the amount of free formaldehyde in cosmetics preserved with formaldehyde donors. However, all releasers (with the exception of 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol, for which adequate data are lacking) can, in the right circumstances of concentration and product composition, release >200 p.p.m. formaldehyde, which may result in allergic contact dermatitis. Whether this is actually the case in any particular product cannot be determined from the ingredient labelling. Therefore, we recommend advising patients allergic to formaldehyde to avoid leave-on cosmetics preserved with quaternium-15, diazolidinyl urea, DMDM hydantoin, or imidazolidinyl urea, acknowledging that many would tolerate some products. PMID:20136876

  15. A method for treating wastewater containing formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Lotfy, Hesham R; Rashed, I G

    2002-02-01

    Many industrial activities utilise formaldehyde as a key chemical in organic synthesis including: synthesis of special chemicals such as pentaerythritol and ethylene glycol, synthetic resins, paper products, medicinal products and drugs and others, too numerous to mention. Therefore, effluents arising from these applications may contain significant amounts of formaldehyde. In a biodegradation experiments of a wastewater sample containing formaldehyde ranging from 31.5 to 125 mg/l, residual formalin (a solution of formaldehyde gas in water) ranging from 40% to 85%, respectively, was found at the end of the run (16 d) showing the inhibition effect of formalin which increased with the increase in formalin concentration. The biodegradation of formalin decreased significantly at concentrations higher than 300 mg/l. A method to convert formaldehyde to an easily biodegradable substance is herein described. In the commercial manufacture of resins from phenol and formalin the reaction is never completely quantitative. As a result during the dehydration stage phenol and formalin are distilled from the wastewater. Phenol is toxic to several biochemical reactions. However, biological transformation of phenol to a non-toxic entity is possible through specialized microbes. Transformation of phenol is inhibited by the presence of formaldehyde. Biotransformation of phenol in a wastewater containing high concentrations of formaldehyde started shortly after treating the wastewater with calculated amounts of sodium sulphite. Sodium sulphite is believed to react with formaldehyde forming sodium formaldehyde bisulphite, which is not only non-toxic to microorganisms but also a biodegradable substance. From the DO measurements before and after the addition of sodium sulphite, the authors noticed that the dissolved oxygen in a wastewater containing formaldehyde is not affected by the addition of the calculated amount of sodium sulphite, which is just enough to consume the measured amount

  16. Resolving Some Paradoxes in the Thermal Decomposition Mechanism of Acetaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishnan, Raghu; Michael, Joe V; Harding, Lawrence B; Klippenstein, Stephen J

    2015-07-16

    The mechanism for the thermal decomposition of acetaldehyde has been revisited with an analysis of literature kinetics experiments using theoretical kinetics. The present modeling study was motivated by recent observations, with very sensitive diagnostics, of some unexpected products in high temperature microtubular reactor experiments on the thermal decomposition of CH3CHO and its deuterated analogs, CH3CDO, CD3CHO, and CD3CDO. The observations of these products prompted the authors of these studies to suggest that the enol tautomer, CH2CHOH (vinyl alcohol), is a primary intermediate in the thermal decomposition of acetaldehyde. The present modeling efforts on acetaldehyde decomposition incorporate a master equation reanalysis of the CH3CHO potential energy surface (PES). The lowest-energy process on this PES is an isomerization of CH3CHO to CH2CHOH. However, the subsequent product channels for CH2CHOH are substantially higher in energy, and the only unimolecular process that can be thermally accessed is a reisomerization to CH3CHO. The incorporation of these new theoretical kinetics predictions into models for selected literature experiments on CH3CHO thermal decomposition confirms our earlier experiment and theory-based conclusions that the dominant decomposition process in CH3CHO at high temperatures is C-C bond fission with a minor contribution (∼10-20%) from the roaming mechanism to form CH4 and CO. The present modeling efforts also incorporate a master-equation analysis of the H + CH2CHOH potential energy surface. This bimolecular reaction is the primary mechanism for removal of CH2CHOH, which can accumulate to minor amounts at high temperatures, T > 1000 K, in most lab-scale experiments that use large initial concentrations of CH3CHO. Our modeling efforts indicate that the observation of ketene, water, and acetylene in the recent microtubular experiments are primarily due to bimolecular reactions of CH3CHO and CH2CHOH with H-atoms and have no bearing on

  17. Mitigation of sensory and motor deficits by acrolein scavenger phenelzine in a rat model of spinal cord contusive injury.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhe; Park, Jonghyuck; Butler, Breanne; Acosta, Glen; Vega-Alvarez, Sasha; Zheng, Lingxing; Tang, Jonathan; McCain, Robyn; Zhang, Wenpeng; Ouyang, Zheng; Cao, Peng; Shi, Riyi

    2016-07-01

    Currently there are no effective therapies available for the excruciating neuropathic pain that develops after spinal cord injuries (SCI). As such, a great deal of effort is being put into the investigation of novel therapeutic targets that can alleviate this pain. One such target is acrolein, a highly reactive aldehyde produced as a byproduct of oxidative stress and inflammation that is capable of activating the transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) cation channel, known to be involved in the transmission and propagation of chronic neuropathic pain. One anti-acrolein agent, hydralazine, has already been shown to reduce neuropathic pain behaviors and offer neuroprotection after SCI. This study investigates another acrolein scavenger, phenelzine, for its possible role of alleviating sensory hypersensitivity through acrolein suppression. The results show that phenelzine is indeed capable of attenuating neuropathic pain behaviors in acute, delayed, and chronic administration schedules after injury in a rat model of SCI. In addition, upon the comparison of hydralazine to phenelzine, both acrolein scavengers displayed a dose-dependent response in the reduction of acrolein in vivo. Finally, phenelzine proved capable of providing locomotor function recovery and neuroprotection of spinal cord tissue when administered immediately after injury for 2 weeks. These results indicate that phenelzine may be an effective treatment for neuropathic pain after SCI and likely a viable alternative to hydralazine. We have shown that phenelzine can attenuate neuropathic pain behavior in acute, delayed, and chronic administration in post-SCI rats. This was accompanied by a dose-dependent reduction in an acrolein metabolite in urine and an acrolein adduct in spinal cord tissue, and the suppression of TRPA1 over-expression in central and peripheral locations post-trauma. Acrolein scavenging might be a novel therapeutic strategy to reduce post-SCI neuropathic pain. PMID:27060873

  18. Computer modeling of cool flames and ignition of acetaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanagh, J.; Cox, R.A. ); Olson, G. )

    1990-10-01

    A detailed mechanism for the oxidation of acetaldehyde at temperatures between 500-1000 K has been assembled using 77 elementary reactions involving 32 reactant, product, and intermediate species. Rate coefficients were taken from recent critical evaluations of experimental data. Where experimental measurements were not available, the rate parameters were estimated from the body of currently available kinetics information. The mechanism was shown to predict correctly the rates and products observed in CH{sub 3}CHO oxidation studies in a low-pressure in a stirred flow reactor and at high pressure in a rapid compression machine. The oscillatory phenomena in the flow system and the two-stage ignition observed at high pressure were satisfactorily described by the mechanism. It is shown that cool flames are caused by degenerate branching mainly by peracetic acid and that hydrogen peroxide promotes hot ignition.

  19. Pyrolysis of Acetaldehyde: a Fleeting Glimpse of Vinylidene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilou, A. J.; Piech, K. M.; Ellison, G. B.; Golan, A.; Kostko, O.; Ahmed, M.; Osborn, D. L.; Daily, J. W.; Nimlos, M. R.; Stanton, J. F.

    2011-06-01

    The thermal decomposition of acetaldehyde has been studied in a heated silicon carbide ``microtubular reactor", with products monitored by both photoionization mass spectrometry and matrix-isolation Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. A well-known, and observed, route of decomposition occurs when the weakest C-C bond is broken; this process leads to methyl and formyl radicals. In addition to this, we find evidence for two additional channels: CH_3CHO + Δ → H_2CCO (ketene) and CH_3CHO + Δ → C_2H_2 (acetylene), reactions that also generate molecular hydrogen and water, respectively. This talk focuses on the last pathway, which proceeds via vinyl alcohol. Evidence is presented that the high temperature unimolecular dehydration of vinyl alcohol proceeds by two mechanisms; one of these is a (1,2) elimination that directly yields acetylene, and the other is a (1,1) elimination that necessarily accesses the vinylidene isomer of C_2H_2 as an intermediate.

  20. Velocity-map imaging study of the photodissociation of acetaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Cruse, H.A.; Softley, T.P.

    2005-03-22

    Velocity-map imaging studies are reported for the photodissociation of acetaldehyde over a range of photolysis wavelengths (317.5-282.5 nm). Images are obtained for both the HCO and CH{sub 3} fragments. The mean rotational energy of both fragments increases with photodissociation energy, with a lesser degree of excitation in the CH{sub 3} fragment. The CH{sub 3} images demonstrate that the CH{sub 3} fragments are rotationally aligned with respect to the recoil direction and this is interpreted, and well modeled, on the basis of a propensity for forming CH{sub 3} fragments with M{approx}K, where M is the projection of the rotational angular momentum along the recoil direction. The origin of the CH{sub 3} rotation is conserved motion from the torsional and methyl-rocking modes of the parent molecule. Nonstatistical vibrational distributions for the CH{sub 3} fragment are obtained at higher energies.

  1. 29 CFR 1915.1048 - Formaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formaldehyde. 1915.1048 Section 1915.1048 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... Formaldehyde. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical...

  2. 29 CFR 1915.1048 - Formaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formaldehyde. 1915.1048 Section 1915.1048 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... Formaldehyde. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical...

  3. 29 CFR 1915.1048 - Formaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formaldehyde. 1915.1048 Section 1915.1048 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... Formaldehyde. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical...

  4. 29 CFR 1915.1048 - Formaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formaldehyde. 1915.1048 Section 1915.1048 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... Formaldehyde. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical...

  5. Formaldehyde concentrations in biology department teaching facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Korky, J.K.; Schwarz, S.R.; Lustigman, B.K.

    1987-05-01

    As students and faculty in the biological sciences can attest, low grade exposure to formaldehyde by skin contact and inhalation during dissection is quite irritating. Health effects noted upon exposure to formaldehyde at concentrations of 0.1 to 5 ppm are burning of the eyes, lacrimation, and general irritation to the upper respiratory passages. Symptoms reported for higher exposures, 10 to 20 ppm, include coughing, tightening of the chest, headache and palpitation of the heart. Long exposures at 50 to 100 ppm or more might result in pulmonary edema, pneumonitis, and even death. There is also concern with regard to potential long term detrimental effects. Formaldehyde has been cited as a possible carcinogen in animals. It is a known mutagen in laboratory experimental systems involving Drosophilia, grasshoppers, flowering plants, fungi and bacteria. Animal testing has led investigators to postulate that the primary damage resulting from formaldehyde exposure may involve DNA synthesis and ribosomal RNA transcription. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health Administration (NIOSH) investigators have been studying occupational exposure to formaldehyde for over a decade in a variety of industries. This study was undertaken to assess formaldehyde concentrations in biology department dissecting facilities in the 1982-1983 academic year in order if routine dissection produces levels of formaldehyde which were unsafe according to NIOSH and OSHA standards. Chronic formaldehyde exposure is cause for greater concern than incidental exposure.

  6. 29 CFR 1915.1048 - Formaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde. 1915.1048 Section 1915.1048 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED... Formaldehyde. Note: The requirements applicable to shipyard employment under this section are identical...

  7. Role of apoptotic hepatocytes in HCV dissemination: regulation by acetaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Ganesan, Murali; Natarajan, Sathish Kumar; Zhang, Jinjin; Mott, Justin L; Poluektova, Larisa I; McVicker, Benita L; Kharbanda, Kusum K; Tuma, Dean J; Osna, Natalia A

    2016-06-01

    Alcohol consumption exacerbates hepatitis C virus (HCV) pathogenesis and promotes disease progression, although the mechanisms are not quite clear. We have previously observed that acetaldehyde (Ach) continuously produced by the acetaldehyde-generating system (AGS), temporarily enhanced HCV RNA levels, followed by a decrease to normal or lower levels, which corresponded to apoptosis induction. Here, we studied whether Ach-induced apoptosis caused depletion of HCV-infected cells and what role apoptotic bodies (AB) play in HCV-alcohol crosstalk. In liver cells exposed to AGS, we observed the induction of miR-122 and miR-34a. As miR-34a has been associated with apoptotic signaling and miR-122 with HCV replication, these findings may suggest that cells with intensive viral replication undergo apoptosis. Furthermore, when AGS-induced apoptosis was blocked by a pan-caspase inhibitor, the expression of HCV RNA was not changed. AB from HCV-infected cells contained HCV core protein and the assembled HCV particle that infect intact hepatocytes, thereby promoting the spread of infection. In addition, AB are captured by macrophages to switch their cytokine profile to the proinflammatory one. Macrophages exposed to HCV(+) AB expressed more IL-1β, IL-18, IL-6, and IL-10 mRNAs compared with those exposed to HCV(-) AB. The generation of AB from AGS-treated HCV-infected cells even enhanced the induction of aforementioned cytokines. We conclude that HCV and alcohol metabolites trigger the formation of AB containing HCV particles. The consequent spread of HCV to neighboring hepatocytes via infected AB, as well as the induction of liver inflammation by AB-mediated macrophage activation potentially exacerbate the HCV infection course by alcohol and worsen disease progression. PMID:27056722

  8. Effects of acetaldehyde on brush border enzyme activities in human colon adenocarcinoma cell line Caco-2.

    PubMed

    Koivisto, T; Salaspuro, M

    1997-12-01

    The treatment of Caco-2 cells, a human colon adenocarcinoma cell line that closely resembles normal human small intestinal epithelial cells, with acetaldehyde resulted in significantly decreased activities of brush border enzymes sucrase, maltase, lactase, and gamma-glutamyltransferase; alkaline phosphatase activity was not affected. In the case of sucrase and maltase, the activities were also decreased by a combination of acetaldehyde and ethanol, although ethanol alone markedly increased them. The possibility that intraintestinal acetaldehyde, formed by intestinal microbes, might play a role in some small intestinal enzyme deficiencies observed earlier in alcoholics should therefore be considered. The mechanism by which acetaldehyde alters these enzyme activities remains unclear. The observation that acetaldehyde also disturbed cell polarization, an initial step in the process of differentiation in Caco-2 cells, indicates that acetaldehyde might decrease these enzyme activities by interfering with cell differentiation. Because ethanol and acetaldehyde metabolizing enzymes have not been previously studied from Caco-2 cells, alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activities were also measured from these cells, and their ALDH isoenzyme pattern was characterized. Like many cancerous cell lines, Caco-2 cells were found to express no ADH. They, however, possessed ALDH activity that was comparable with normal colonic mucosal activity and also expressed the same ALDH classes (ALDHs 1 to 3) than normal human colonic mucosa. PMID:9438518

  9. Daidzin suppresses ethanol consumption by Syrian golden hamsters without blocking acetaldehyde metabolism.

    PubMed Central

    Keung, W M; Lazo, O; Kunze, L; Vallee, B L

    1995-01-01

    Daidzin is a potent, selective, and reversible inhibitor of human mitochondrial aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) that suppresses free-choice ethanol intake by Syrian golden hamsters. Other ALDH inhibitors, such as disulfiram (Antabuse) and calcium citrate carbimide (Temposil), have also been shown to suppress ethanol intake of laboratory animals and are thought to act by inhibiting the metabolism of acetaldehyde produced from ingested ethanol. To determine whether or not daidzin inhibits acetaldehyde metabolism in vivo, plasma acetaldehyde in daidzin-treated hamsters was measured after the administration of a test dose of ethanol. Daidzin treatment (150 mg/kg per day i.p. for 6 days) significantly suppresses (> 70%) hamster ethanol intake but does not affect overall acetaldehyde metabolism. In contrast, after administration of the same ethanol dose, plasma acetaldehyde concentration in disulfiram-treated hamsters reaches 0.9 mM, 70 times higher than that of the control. In vitro, daidzin suppresses hamster liver mitochondria-catalyzed acetaldehyde oxidation very potently with an IC50 value of 0.4 microM, which is substantially lower than the daidzin concentration (70 microM) found in the liver mitochondria of daidzin-treated hamsters. These results indicate that (i) the action of daidzin differs from that proposed for the classic, broad-acting ALDH inhibitors (e.g., disulfiram), and (ii) the daidzin-sensitive mitochondrial ALDH is not the one and only enzyme that is essential for acetaldehyde metabolism in golden hamsters. PMID:7568058

  10. Acrolein contributes to TRPA1 up-regulation in peripheral and central sensory hypersensitivity following spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Park, Jonghyuck; Zheng, Lingxing; Acosta, Glen; Vega-Alvarez, Sasha; Chen, Zhe; Muratori, Breanne; Cao, Peng; Shi, Riyi

    2015-12-01

    Acrolein, an endogenous aldehyde, has been shown to be involved in sensory hypersensitivity after rat spinal cord injury (SCI), for which the pathogenesis is unclear. Acrolein can directly activate a pro-algesic transient receptor protein ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channel that exists in sensory neurons. Both acrolein and TRPA1 mRNA are elevated post SCI, which contributes to the activation of TRPA1 by acrolein and consequently, neuropathic pain. In the current study, we further showed that, post-SCI elevation of TRPA1 mRNA exists not only in dorsal root ganglias but also in both peripheral (paw skin) and central endings of primary afferent nerves (dorsal horn of spinal cord). This is the first indication that pain signaling can be over-amplified in the peripheral skin by elevated expressions of TRPA1 following SCI, in addition over-amplification previously seen in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia. Furthermore, we show that acrolein alone, in the absence of physical trauma, could lead to the elevation of TRPA1 mRNA at various locations when injected to the spinal cord. In addition, post-SCI elevation of TRPA1 mRNA could be mitigated using acrolein scavengers. Both of these attributes support the critical role of acrolein in elevating TRPA1 expression through gene regulation. Taken together, these data indicate that acrolein is likely a critical causal factor in heightening pain sensation post-SCI, through both the direct binding of TRPA1 receptor, and also by boosting the expression of TRPA1. Finally, our data also further support the notion that acrolein scavenging may be an effective therapeutic approach to alleviate neuropathic pain after SCI. We propose that the trauma-mediated elevation of acrolein causes neuropathic pain through at least two mechanisms: acrolein stimulates the production of transient receptor protein ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) in both central and peripheral locations, and it activates TRPA1 channels directly. Therefore, acrolein appears to be a critical

  11. One-pot sequential asymmetric hydrogenation of β-aryl-β-aryloxy acroleins.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yufeng; Chen, Jianzhong; Zhang, Zhenfeng; Qin, Jian; Zhao, Min; Zhang, Wanbin

    2016-08-01

    A one-pot sequential asymmetric hydrogenation of β-aryl-β-aryloxy acroleins has been realized for the preparation of chiral 3-aryl-3-aryloxy alcohols with excellent yields and good enantioselectivities. This methodology can be employed in new synthetic routes for the synthesis of fluoxetine, atomoxetine, and related analogues. PMID:27439010

  12. Laboratory evaluation of an aldehyde scrubber system specifically for the detection of acrolein.

    PubMed

    Knighton, W Berk; Herndon, Scott C; Shorter, Joanne H; Miake-Lye, Richard C; Zahniser, Mark S; Akiyama, Kenichi; Shimono, Akio; Kitasaka, Kazuya; Shimajiri, Hatsumi; Sugihara, Koichi

    2007-11-01

    We demonstrate the use of an aldehyde scrubber system to resolve isobaric aldehyde/alkene interferences in a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) by selectively removing the aldehydes from the gas mixture without loss of quantitative information for the alkene components. The aldehyde scrubber system uses a bisulfite solution, which scrubs carbonyl compounds from the gas stream by forming water-soluble carbonyl bisulfite addition products, and has been evaluated using a synthetic mixture of acrolein and isoprene. Trapping efficiencies of acrolein exceeded 97%, whereas the transmission efficiency of isoprene was better than 92%. Quantification of the PTR-MS response to acrolein was validated through an intercomparison study that included two derivatization methods, dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) and O-(4-cyano-2-ethoxybenzyl)hydroxylamine (CNET), and a spectroscopic method using a quantum cascade laser infrared absorption spectroscopy (QCL) instrument. Finally, using cigarette smoke as a complex matrix, the acrolein content was assessed using the scrubber and compared with direct QCL-based detection. PMID:18069460

  13. Molecular mechanisms of acrolein-mediated myelin destruction in CNS trauma and disease

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Riyi; Page, Jessica; Tully, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    Myelin is a critical component of the nervous system facilitating efficient propagation of electrical signals and thus communication between the central and peripheral nervous systems and organ systems they innervate throughout the body. In instances of neurotrauma and neurodegenerative disease, injury to myelin is a prominent pathological feature responsible for conduction deficits and leaves axons vulnerable to damage from noxious compounds. Although the pathological mechanisms underlying myelin loss have yet to be fully characterized, oxidative stress appears to play a prominent role. Specifically, acrolein, a neurotoxic aldehyde that is both a product and instigator of oxidative stress, has been observed in studies to elicit demyelination through calcium-independent and -dependent mechanisms and also by affecting glutamate uptake and promoting excitotoxicity. Furthermore, pharmacological scavenging of acrolein has demonstrated a neuroprotective effect in animal disease models by conserving myelin structural integrity and alleviating functional deficits. This evidence is indicative that acrolein may be a key culprit of myelin damage while acrolein scavenging could potentially be a promising therapeutic approach for patients suffering from nervous system trauma and disease. PMID:25879847

  14. ALDH2 modulates autophagy flux to regulate acetaldehyde-mediated toxicity thresholds

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Koji; Whelan, Kelly A; Chandramouleeswaran, Prasanna M; Kagawa, Shingo; Rustgi, Sabrina L; Noguchi, Chiaki; Guha, Manti; Srinivasan, Satish; Amanuma, Yusuke; Ohashi, Shinya; Muto, Manabu; Klein-Szanto, Andres J; Noguchi, Eishi; Avadhani, Narayan G; Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    A polymorphic mutation in the acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene has been epidemiologically linked to the high susceptibility to esophageal carcinogenesis for individuals with alcohol use disorders. Mice subjected to alcohol drinking show increased oxidative stress and DNA adduct formation in esophageal epithelia where Aldh2 loss augments alcohol-induced genotoxic effects; however, it remains elusive as to how esophageal epithelial cells with dysfunctional Aldh2 cope with oxidative stress related to alcohol metabolism. Here, we investigated the role of autophagy in murine esophageal epithelial cells (keratinocytes) exposed to ethanol and acetaldehyde. We find that ethanol and acetaldehyde trigger oxidative stress via mitochondrial superoxide in esophageal keratinocytes. Aldh2-deficient cells appeared to be highly susceptible to ethanol- or acetaldehyde-mediated toxicity. Alcohol dehydrogenase-mediated acetaldehyde production was implicated in ethanol-induced cell injury in Aldh2 deficient cells as ethanol-induced oxidative stress and cell death was partially inhibited by 4-methylpyrazole. Acetaldehyde activated autophagy flux in esophageal keratinocytes where Aldh2 deficiency increased dependence on autophagy to cope with ethanol-induced acetaldehyde-mediated oxidative stress. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy flux by chloroquine stabilized p62/SQSTM1, and increased basal and acetaldehyde-mediate oxidative stress in Aldh2 deficient cells as documented in monolayer culture as well as single-cell derived three-dimensional esophageal organoids, recapitulating a physiological esophageal epithelial proliferation-differentiation gradient. Our innovative approach indicates, for the first time, that autophagy may provide cytoprotection to esophageal epithelial cells responding to oxidative stress that is induced by ethanol and its major metabolite acetaldehyde. Defining autophagymediated cytoprotection against alcohol-induced genotoxicity in the context of

  15. ALDH2 modulates autophagy flux to regulate acetaldehyde-mediated toxicity thresholds.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Koji; Whelan, Kelly A; Chandramouleeswaran, Prasanna M; Kagawa, Shingo; Rustgi, Sabrina L; Noguchi, Chiaki; Guha, Manti; Srinivasan, Satish; Amanuma, Yusuke; Ohashi, Shinya; Muto, Manabu; Klein-Szanto, Andres J; Noguchi, Eishi; Avadhani, Narayan G; Nakagawa, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    A polymorphic mutation in the acetaldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) gene has been epidemiologically linked to the high susceptibility to esophageal carcinogenesis for individuals with alcohol use disorders. Mice subjected to alcohol drinking show increased oxidative stress and DNA adduct formation in esophageal epithelia where Aldh2 loss augments alcohol-induced genotoxic effects; however, it remains elusive as to how esophageal epithelial cells with dysfunctional Aldh2 cope with oxidative stress related to alcohol metabolism. Here, we investigated the role of autophagy in murine esophageal epithelial cells (keratinocytes) exposed to ethanol and acetaldehyde. We find that ethanol and acetaldehyde trigger oxidative stress via mitochondrial superoxide in esophageal keratinocytes. Aldh2-deficient cells appeared to be highly susceptible to ethanol- or acetaldehyde-mediated toxicity. Alcohol dehydrogenase-mediated acetaldehyde production was implicated in ethanol-induced cell injury in Aldh2 deficient cells as ethanol-induced oxidative stress and cell death was partially inhibited by 4-methylpyrazole. Acetaldehyde activated autophagy flux in esophageal keratinocytes where Aldh2 deficiency increased dependence on autophagy to cope with ethanol-induced acetaldehyde-mediated oxidative stress. Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy flux by chloroquine stabilized p62/SQSTM1, and increased basal and acetaldehyde-mediate oxidative stress in Aldh2 deficient cells as documented in monolayer culture as well as single-cell derived three-dimensional esophageal organoids, recapitulating a physiological esophageal epithelial proliferation-differentiation gradient. Our innovative approach indicates, for the first time, that autophagy may provide cytoprotection to esophageal epithelial cells responding to oxidative stress that is induced by ethanol and its major metabolite acetaldehyde. Defining autophagymediated cytoprotection against alcohol-induced genotoxicity in the context of

  16. Formaldehyde Absorption toward W51

    SciTech Connect

    Kogut, A.; Smoot, G.F.; Bennett, C.L.; Petuchowski, S.J.

    1988-04-01

    We have measured formaldehyde (H{sub 2}CO) absorption toward the HII region complex W51A (G49.5-0.4) in the 6 cm and 2 cm wavelength rotational transitions with angular resolution of approximately 4 inch. The continuum HII region shows a large, previously undetected shell structure 5.5 pc along the major axis. We observe no H{sub 2}CO emission in regions of low continuum intensity. The absorption, converted to optical depth, shows a higher degree of clumping than previous maps at lower resolution. The good S/N of the maps allows accurate estimation of the complicated line profiles, showing some of the absorbing clouds to be quite patchy. We list the properties of the opacity spectra for a number of positions both in the clumps and in the more diffuse regions of the absorbing clouds, and derive column densities for the 1{sub 11} and 2{sub 12} rotational levels of ortho-formaldehyde.

  17. A single sip of a strong alcoholic beverage causes exposure to carcinogenic concentrations of acetaldehyde in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Linderborg, Klas; Salaspuro, Mikko; Väkeväinen, Satu

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to explore oral exposure to carcinogenic (group 1) acetaldehyde after single sips of strong alcoholic beverages containing no or high concentrations of acetaldehyde. Eight volunteers tasted 5 ml of ethanol diluted to 40 vol.% with no acetaldehyde and 40 vol.% calvados containing 2400 μM acetaldehyde. Salivary acetaldehyde and ethanol concentrations were measured by gas chromatography. The protocol was repeated after ingestion of ethanol (0.5 g/kg body weight). Salivary acetaldehyde concentration was significantly higher after sipping calvados than after sipping ethanol at 30s both with (215 vs. 128 μmol/l, p<0.05) and without (258 vs. 89 μmol/l, p<0.05) alcohol ingestion. From 2 min onwards there were no significant differences in the decreasing salivary acetaldehyde concentration, which remained above the level of carcinogenicity still at 10 min. The systemic alcohol distribution from blood to saliva had no additional effect on salivary acetaldehyde after sipping of the alcoholic beverages. Carcinogenic concentrations of acetaldehyde are produced from ethanol in the oral cavity instantly after a small sip of strong alcoholic beverage, and the exposure continues for at least 10 min. Acetaldehyde present in the beverage has a short-term effect on total acetaldehyde exposure. PMID:21641957

  18. Acrolein-Exposed Normal Human Lung Fibroblasts in Vitro: Cellular Senescence, Enhanced Telomere Erosion, and Degradation of Werner’s Syndrome Protein

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jun-Ho; Bruse, Shannon; Huneidi, Salam; Schrader, Ronald M.; Monick, Martha M.; Lin, Yong; Carter, A. Brent; Klingelhutz, Aloysius J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Acrolein is a ubiquitous environmental hazard to human health. Acrolein has been reported to activate the DNA damage response and induce apoptosis. However, little is known about the effects of acrolein on cellular senescence. Objectives: We examined whether acrolein induces cellular senescence in cultured normal human lung fibroblasts (NHLF). Methods: We cultured NHLF in the presence or absence of acrolein and determined the effects of acrolein on cell proliferative capacity, senescence-associated β-galactosidase activity, the known senescence-inducing pathways (e.g., p53, p21), and telomere length. Results: We found that acrolein induced cellular senescence by increasing both p53 and p21. The knockdown of p53 mediated by small interfering RNA (siRNA) attenuated acrolein-induced cellular senescence. Acrolein decreased Werner’s syndrome protein (WRN), a member of the RecQ helicase family involved in DNA repair and telomere maintenance. Acrolein-induced down-regulation of WRN protein was rescued by p53 knockdown or proteasome inhibition. Finally, we found that acrolein accelerated p53-mediated telomere shortening. Conclusions: These results suggest that acrolein induces p53-mediated cellular senescence accompanied by enhanced telomere attrition and WRN protein down-regulation. Citation: Jang JH, Bruse S, Huneidi S, Schrader RM, Monick MM, Lin Y, Carter AB, Klingelhutz AJ, Nyunoya T. 2014. Acrolein-exposed normal human lung fibroblasts in vitro: cellular senescence, enhanced telomere erosion, and degradation of Werner’s syndrome protein. Environ Health Perspect 122:955–962; http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1306911 PMID:24747221

  19. Translesion synthesis past acrolein-derived DNA adducts by human mitochondrial DNA polymerase γ.

    PubMed

    Kasiviswanathan, Rajesh; Minko, Irina G; Lloyd, R Stephen; Copeland, William C

    2013-05-17

    Acrolein, a mutagenic aldehyde, is produced endogenously by lipid peroxidation and exogenously by combustion of organic materials, including tobacco products. Acrolein reacts with DNA bases forming exocyclic DNA adducts, such as γ-hydroxy-1,N(2)-propano-2'-deoxyguanosine (γ-HOPdG) and γ-hydroxy-1,N(6)-propano-2'-deoxyadenosine (γ-HOPdA). The bulky γ-HOPdG adduct blocks DNA synthesis by replicative polymerases but can be bypassed by translesion synthesis polymerases in the nucleus. Although acrolein-induced adducts are likely to be formed and persist in mitochondrial DNA, animal cell mitochondria lack specialized translesion DNA synthesis polymerases to tolerate these lesions. Thus, it is important to understand how pol γ, the sole mitochondrial DNA polymerase in human cells, acts on acrolein-adducted DNA. To address this question, we investigated the ability of pol γ to bypass the minor groove γ-HOPdG and major groove γ-HOPdA adducts using single nucleotide incorporation and primer extension analyses. The efficiency of pol γ-catalyzed bypass of γ-HOPdG was low, and surprisingly, pol γ preferred to incorporate purine nucleotides opposite the adduct. Pol γ also exhibited ∼2-fold lower rates of excision of the misincorporated purine nucleotides opposite γ-HOPdG compared with the corresponding nucleotides opposite dG. Extension of primers from the termini opposite γ-HOPdG was accomplished only following error-prone purine nucleotide incorporation. However, pol γ preferentially incorporated dT opposite the γ-HOPdA adduct and efficiently extended primers from the correctly paired terminus, indicating that γ-HOPdA is probably nonmutagenic. In summary, our data suggest that acrolein-induced exocyclic DNA lesions can be bypassed by mitochondrial DNA polymerase but, in the case of the minor groove γ-HOPdG adduct, at the cost of unprecedented high mutation rates. PMID:23543747

  20. Formaldehyde Exposures in a University Anatomy Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkler, Kyle William

    Air sampling studies were conducted within a university anatomical laboratory during the embalmment of a cadaver in order to determine if dangerous concentrations of formaldehyde existed. Three air sampling studies were conducted in the anatomical laboratory on three separate days that a cadaver was being embalmed. Samples were collected and analyzed using the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Sampling and Analytical Methods: Method 52. Each air sampling study sampled for short term exposure limit (STEL) and time weighted mean (TWA) breathing zone formaldehyde concentrations as well as area TWA formaldehyde concentrations. A personal aldehyde monitor was also used in each air sampling study to sample for breathing zone formaldehyde concentrations. Measured TWA mean exposures to formaldehyde ranged from 0.15--1.3 parts per million (ppm), STEL formaldehyde exposures ranged from 0.019--0.64 ppm, and eight-hour TWAs ranged from 0.03 to 3.6 ppm. All 8-hour TWA formaldehyde concentrations sampled in the anatomy laboratory during an embalmment were less than the permissible exposure limit (PEL) required by OSHA.

  1. Mechanistic study on formaldehyde-induced hepatotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Strubelt, O.; Younes, M.; Pentz, R.; Kuehnel, W. )

    1989-01-01

    In isolated, hemoglobin-free perfused livers of fasted rats, formaldehyde at an initial concentration of 10 mmol/l produced toxicity as evidenced by a release of enzymes (GPT, SDH) and of glutathione (mainly GSSG) into the perfusate, an accumulation of calcium in the liver, and a depletion of hepatic glatathione. Formaldehyde also led to an enhanced release of malondialdehyde into the perfusate, indicating peroxidative processes and decreased hepatic oxygen consumption by about 50-70%. The electron microscopic investigation of formaldehyde-exposed livers showed a destruction of the mitochondria (ruptured membranes, loss of the cristae) and some damage of the rough endoplasmic reticulum. Feeding the rats prior to surgery attenuated the hepatotoxic effects of 10 mmol/l formaldehyde. At an initial concentration of 3 mmol/l, formaldehyde did not release enzymes from livers of fed or fasted rats but only from whose glutathione content had been depleted by treatment with phorone (250 mg/kg ip 2 h earlier). Formaldehyde liberated glucose and lactate from the livers of fed but not from those of fasted rats, indicating anaerobic energy supply in the fed state. The hepatotoxic action of formaldehyde is not due to its metabolism to formate or to the 10% methanol added as a stabilizing agent to the commercially available 37% solution named formalin.

  2. Formaldehyde asthma--rare or overlooked

    SciTech Connect

    Nordman, H.; Keskinen, H.; Tuppurainen, M.

    1985-01-01

    A total of 230 persons who had been exposed to formaldehyde and suffered from asthma-like respiratory symptoms were examined between January 1, 1977, and May 31, 1983. All the subjects had a bronchial provocation test with formaldehyde. On the basis of the medical and occupational history of the patients, the specific bronchial provocation test, and other test results, 12 cases were considered to be caused by specific sensitization to formaldehyde. All subjects had been exposed occupationally. An exposure period of between 1 mo and 19 yr preceded the onset of symptoms. Three persons displayed no bronchial hyperreactivity as assessed with a histamine or metacholine provocation test. Eleven of the 12 reactions were triggered by about 2.5 mg/m3 and one reaction by about 1.2 mg/m3 of formaldehyde. The late reaction in 1 patient was completely blocked by the inhalation of 100 micrograms of beclomethasone di-isoproprionate before the challenge with formaldehyde. Seventy-one of the 218 subjects who did not react when they were challenged with formaldehyde demonstrated bronchial hyperreactivity. The authors conclude that formaldehyde asthma, although apparently a rare disease, is under reported. Removal from exposure has a favorable effect on the symptoms. Low domestic exposures, however, may maintain the symptoms in individuals already sensitized.

  3. Reaction of tobacco smoke aldehydes with human hemoglobin.

    PubMed

    Hoberman, H D; San George, R C

    1988-01-01

    Formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, isobutyraldehyde, and acrolein, all of which are constituents of tobacco smoke, were reacted in 5 mM concentration with the purified major fraction of normal adult human hemoglobin (hemoglobin Ao) in 1 mM concentration. A cigarette smoke condensate, diluted to contain 5 mM total aldehydes, was also reacted with 1 mM hemoglobin Ao. Cationic exchange high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the products formed from simple aliphatic aldehydes, with the exception of formaldehyde, were analogues of those formed from acetaldehyde, earlier shown by us to be imidazolidinone derivatives, that is, cyclic addition products of the N-terminal aminoamide function of alpha and beta chains. Formaldehyde and acrolein produced a heterogeneous mixture of derivatives including cross-linked hemoglobin dimers. The greater proportion of modified hemoglobins produced by condensate aldehydes resembled those formed from acetaldehyde, the most abundant aldehyde in the condensate. A smaller fraction consisted of cross-linked hemoglobin dimers, presumably due to the action of formaldehyde. Mass spectrometric and HPLC analyses of the 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazones precipitated from the condensate documented the presence of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, butyraldehyde, furfural, and methylfurfural. The toxicity of aldehydes is briefly discussed in the context of the findings of this study. PMID:3236330

  4. Acrolein-an α,β-Unsaturated Aldehyde: A Review of Oral Cavity Exposure and Oral Pathology Effects.

    PubMed

    Aizenbud, Dror; Aizenbud, Itay; Reznick, Abraham Z; Avezov, Katia

    2016-01-01

    Acrolein is a highly reactive unsaturated aldehyde widely present in the environment, particularly as a product of tobacco smoke. Our previous studies indicated the adverse consequences of even short-term acrolein exposure and proposed a molecular mechanism of its potential harmful effect on oral cavity keratinocytic cells. In this paper we chose to review the broad spectrum of acrolein sources such as pollution, food, and smoking. Consequently, in this paper we consider a high level of oral exposure to acrolein through these sources and discuss the noxious effects it has on the oral cavity including on salivary quality and contents, oral resistance to oxidative stress, and stress mechanism activation in a variety of oral cells. PMID:27487309

  5. Rosiglitazone protects human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells against acetaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Jung, Tae Woo; Lee, Ji Young; Shim, Wan Sub; Kang, Eun Seok; Kim, Soo Kyung; Ahn, Chul Woo; Lee, Hyun Chul; Cha, Bong Soo . E-mail: bscha@yumc.yonsei.ac.kr

    2006-02-03

    Acetaldehyde, an inhibitor of mitochondrial function, has been widely used as a neurotoxin because it elicits a severe Parkinson's disease-like syndrome with elevation of the intracellular reactive oxygen species level and apoptosis. Rosiglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} agonist, has been known to show various non-hypoglycemic effects, including anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, and anti-apoptotic. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of rosiglitazone on acetaldehyde-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells and attempted to examine its mechanism. Acetaldehyde-induced apoptosis was moderately reversed by rosiglitazone treatment. Our results suggest that the protective effects of rosiglitazone on acetaldehyde-induced apoptosis may be ascribed to ability to induce the expression of anti-oxidant enzymes and to regulate Bcl-2 and Bax expression. These data indicate that rosiglitazone may provide a useful therapeutic strategy for the prevention of progressive neurodegenerative disease such as Parkinson's disease.

  6. Acetaldehyde Adsorption and Reaction onCeO2(100) Thin Films

    SciTech Connect

    Mullins, David R; Albrecht, Peter M

    2013-01-01

    This study reports and compares the adsorption and dissociation of acetaldehyde on oxidized and reduced CeOX(100) thin films. Acetaldehyde reacts and decomposes on fully oxidized CeO2(100) whereas it desorbs molecularly at low temperature on CeO2(111). The primary products are CO, CO2 and water along with trace amounts of crotonaldehyde and acetylene. The acetaldehyde adsorbs as the 2-acetaldehyde species, dioxyethylene. Decomposition proceeds by dehydrogenation through acetate and enolate intermediates. The reaction pathway is similar on the reduced CeO2-X(100) surface however the inability to react with surface O on the reduced surface results in H2 rather than H2O desorption and C is left on the surface rather than producing CO and CO2. C-O bond cleavage in the enolate intermediate followed by reaction with surface H results in ethylene desorption.

  7. Urea formaldehyde foam: a dangerous insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Keough, C.

    1980-12-01

    Insulating a home with urea formaldehyde foam can lead to severe health problems due to poisoning from formaldehyde gas. Respiratory problems, allergies, memory loss, and mental problems can result from exposure to foam insulation fumes. Research is now under way at the Chemical Industry Inst., Univ. of Washington, and other institutions to learn more about the health effects of formaldehyde foam and to develop possible remedies to these problems. Several states are either banning or controlling the use of this type of home insulation.

  8. Acrolein and Asthma Attack Prevalence in a Representative Sample of the United States Adult Population 2000 – 2009

    PubMed Central

    deCastro, B. Rey

    2014-01-01

    Background Acrolein is an air toxic and highly potent respiratory irritant. There is little epidemiology available, but US EPA estimates that outdoor acrolein is responsible for about 75 percent of non-cancer respiratory health effects attributable to air toxics in the United States, based on the Agency's 2005 NATA (National-Scale Air Toxics Assessment) and acrolein's comparatively potent inhalation reference concentration of 0.02 µg/m3. Objectives Assess the association between estimated outdoor acrolein exposure and asthma attack reported by a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. Methods NATA 2005 chronic outdoor acrolein exposure estimates at the census tract were linked with residences oif adults (≥18 years old) in the NHIS (National Health Interview Survey) 2000 – 2009 (n = 271,348 subjects). A sample-weighted logistic regression model characterized the association between the prevalence of reporting at least one asthma attack in the 12 months prior to survey interview and quintiles of exposure to outdoor acrolein, controlling for potential confounders. Results In the highest quintile of outdoor acrolein exposure (0.05 – 0.46 µg/m3), there was a marginally significant increase in the asthma attack pOR (prevalence-odds ratio [95% CI]  = 1.08 [0.98∶1.19]) relative to the lowest quintile. The highest quintile was also associated with a marginally significant increase in prevalence-odds (1.13 [0.98∶1.29]) in a model limited to never smokers (n = 153,820). Conclusions Chronic exposure to outdoor acrolein of 0.05 – 0.46 µg/m3 appears to increase the prevalence-odds of having at least one asthma attack in the previous year by 8 percent in a representative cross-sectional sample of the adult United States population. PMID:24816802

  9. Coproduction of Acetaldehyde and Hydrogen during Glucose Fermentation by Escherichia coli ▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Huilin; Gonzalez, Ramon; Bobik, Thomas A.

    2011-01-01

    Escherichia coli K-12 strain MG1655 was engineered to coproduce acetaldehyde and hydrogen during glucose fermentation by the use of exogenous acetyl-coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) reductase (for the conversion of acetyl-CoA to acetaldehyde) and the native formate hydrogen lyase. A putative acetaldehyde dehydrogenase/acetyl-CoA reductase from Salmonella enterica (SeEutE) was cloned, produced at high levels, and purified by nickel affinity chromatography. In vitro assays showed that this enzyme had both acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activity (68.07 ± 1.63 μmol min−1 mg−1) and the desired acetyl-CoA reductase activity (49.23 ± 2.88 μmol min−1 mg−1). The eutE gene was engineered into an E. coli mutant lacking native glucose fermentation pathways (ΔadhE, ΔackA-pta, ΔldhA, and ΔfrdC). The engineered strain (ZH88) produced 4.91 ± 0.29 mM acetaldehyde while consuming 11.05 mM glucose but also produced 6.44 ± 0.26 mM ethanol. Studies showed that ethanol was produced by an unknown alcohol dehydrogenase(s) that converted the acetaldehyde produced by SeEutE to ethanol. Allyl alcohol was used to select for mutants with reduced alcohol dehydrogenase activity. Three allyl alcohol-resistant mutants were isolated; all produced more acetaldehyde and less ethanol than ZH88. It was also found that modifying the growth medium by adding 1 g of yeast extract/liter and lowering the pH to 6.0 further increased the coproduction of acetaldehyde and hydrogen. Under optimal conditions, strain ZH136 converted glucose to acetaldehyde and hydrogen in a 1:1 ratio with a specific acetaldehyde production rate of 0.68 ± 0.20 g h−1 g−1 dry cell weight and at 86% of the maximum theoretical yield. This specific production rate is the highest reported thus far and is promising for industrial application. The possibility of a more efficient “no-distill” ethanol fermentation procedure based on the coproduction of acetaldehyde and hydrogen is discussed. PMID:21803884

  10. Biological production of acetaldehyde from ethanol using non-growing Pichia pastoris whole cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chiang, Heien-Kun; Foutch, G.L.; Fish, W.W.

    1991-12-31

    Acetaldehyde has been produced biologically using whole-cell Pichia Pass in a semibatch fermentor. Ethanol and air were fed continuously, and the product, acetaldehyde, was removed by the air stream. Operation of the reactor exceeded 100 h, maintaining high alcohol oxidase activity. Low cell-mass concentration (9.9 g/L) minimized product inhibition. Ethanol concentration in the broth, oxygen concentration in the air, and pH were evaluated for their effects on the fermentation process.

  11. Effects of acetaldehyde on hepatocyte glycerol uptake and cell size: implication of Aquaporin 9

    PubMed Central

    Potter, James J.; Koteish, Ayman; Hamilton, James; Liu, Xiaopu; Liu, Kun; Agre, Peter; Mezey, Esteban

    2010-01-01

    Background The effects of ethanol and acetaldehyde on uptake of glycerol and on cell size of hepatocytes and a role Aquaporin 9 (AQP9), a glycerol transport channel, were evaluated. Methods The studies were done in primary rat and mouse hepatocytes. The uptake of [14C] glycerol was determined with hepatocytes in suspension. For determination of cell size, rat hepatocytes on coated dishes were incubated with a lipophilic fluorochrome that is incorporated into the cell membrane and examined by confocal microscopy. A three dimensional z scan of the cell was performed, and the middle slice of the z scan was used for area measurements. Results Acute exposure to acetaldehyde, but not to ethanol, causes a rapid increase in the uptake of glycerol and an increase in hepatocyte size, which was inhibited by HgCl2, an inhibitor of aquaporins. This was not observed in hepatocytes from AQP9 knockout mice, nor observed by direct application of acetaldehyde to AQP9 expressed in Xenopus Laevis oocytes. Prolonged 24 hours exposure to either acetaldehyde or ethanol did not result in an increase in glycerol uptake by rat hepatocytes. Acetaldehyde decreased AQP9 mRNA and AQP9 protein, while ethanol decreased AQP9 mRNA but not AQP9 protein. Ethanol, but not acetaldehyde, increased the activities of glycerol kinase and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase. Conclusions The acute effects of acetaldehyde, while mediated by AQP9, are probably influenced by binding of acetaldehyde to hepatocyte membranes and changes in cell permeability. The effects of ethanol in enhancing glucose kinase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase leading to increased formation of glycerol-3-phosphate most likely contribute to alcoholic fatty liver. PMID:21294757

  12. Acrolein enhances epigenetic modifications, FasL expression and hepatocyte toxicity induced by anti-HIV drug Zidovudine.

    PubMed

    Ghare, Smita S; Donde, Hridgandh; Chen, Wei-Yang; Barker, David F; Gobejishvilli, Leila; McClain, Craig J; Barve, Shirish S; Joshi-Barve, Swati

    2016-09-01

    Zidovudine (AZT) remains the mainstay of antiretroviral therapy against HIV in resource-poor countries; however, its use is frequently associated with hepatotoxicity. Not all HIV patients on AZT develop hepatotoxicity, and the determining factors are unclear. Alcohol consumption and cigarette smoking are known risk factors for HIV hepatotoxicity, and both are significant sources of acrolein, a highly reactive and toxic aldehyde. This study examines the potential hepatotoxic interactions between acrolein and AZT. Our data demonstrate that acrolein markedly enhanced AZT-induced transcriptionally permissive histone modifications (H3K9Ac and H3K9Me3) allowing the recruitment of transcription factor NF-kB and RNA polymerase II at the FasL gene promoter, resulting in FasL upregulation and apoptosis in hepatocytes. Notably, the acrolein scavenger, hydralazine prevented these promoter-associated epigenetic changes and inhibited FasL upregulation and apoptosis induced by the combination of AZT and acrolein, as well as AZT alone. Our data strongly suggest that acrolein enhancement of promoter histone modifications and FasL upregulation are major pathogenic mechanisms driving AZT-induced hepatotoxicity. Moreover, these data also indicate the therapeutic potential of hydralazine in mitigating AZT hepatotoxicity. PMID:27238871

  13. Cooking-related PM2.5 and acrolein measured in grocery stores and comparison with other retail types.

    PubMed

    Chan, W R; Sidheswaran, M; Sullivan, D P; Cohn, S; Fisk, W J

    2016-06-01

    We measured particulate matter (PM), acrolein, and other indoor air contaminants in eight visits to grocery stores in California. Retail stores of other types (hardware, furniture, and apparel) were also sampled on additional visits. Based on tracer gas decay data, most stores had adequate ventilation according to minimum ventilation rate standards. Grocery stores had significantly higher concentrations of acrolein, fine and ultrafine PM, compared to other retail stores, likely attributable to cooking. Indoor concentrations of PM2.5 and acrolein exceeded health guidelines in all tested grocery stores. Acrolein emission rates to indoors in grocery stores had a mean estimate about 30 times higher than in other retail store types. About 80% of the indoor PM2.5 measured in grocery stores was emitted indoors, compared to only 20% for the other retail store types. Calculations suggest a substantial increase in outdoor air ventilation rate by a factor of three from current level is needed to reduce indoor acrolein concentrations. Alternatively, acrolein emission to indoors needs to be reduced 70% by better capturing of cooking exhaust. To maintain indoor PM2.5 below the California annual ambient standard of 12 μg/m(3) , grocery stores need to use air filters with an efficiency rating higher than the MERV 8 air filters commonly used today. PMID:25939855

  14. 78 FR 34795 - Formaldehyde; Third-Party Certification Framework for the Formaldehyde Standards for Composite...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-10

    ..., automotive, and food and consumer products. The standards used in third-party certification are typically... TPCs and their formaldehyde emissions testing laboratories. EPA would exercise authority to...

  15. Enhanced Formaldehyde Detoxification by Overexpression of Glutathione-Dependent Formaldehyde Dehydrogenase from Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Achkor, Hakima; Díaz, Maykelis; Fernández, M. Rosario; Biosca, Josep Antoni; Parés, Xavier; Martínez, M. Carmen

    2003-01-01

    The ADH2 gene codes for the Arabidopsis glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (FALDH), an enzyme involved in formaldehyde metabolism in eukaryotes. In the present work, we have investigated the potential role of FALDH in detoxification of exogenous formaldehyde. We have generated a yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) mutant strain (sfa1Δ) by in vivo deletion of the SFA1 gene that codes for the endogenous FALDH. Overexpression of Arabidopsis FALDH in this mutant confers high resistance to formaldehyde added exogenously, which demonstrates the functional conservation of the enzyme through evolution and supports its essential role in formaldehyde metabolism. To investigate the role of the enzyme in plants, we have generated Arabidopsis transgenic lines with modified levels of FALDH. Plants overexpressing the enzyme show a 25% increase in their efficiency to take up exogenous formaldehyde, whereas plants with reduced levels of FALDH (due to either a cosuppression phenotype or to the expression of an antisense construct) show a marked slower rate and reduced ability for formaldehyde detoxification as compared with the wild-type Arabidopsis. These results show that the capacity to take up and detoxify high concentrations of formaldehyde is proportionally related to the FALDH activity in the plant, revealing the essential role of this enzyme in formaldehyde detoxification. PMID:12913179

  16. The total margin of exposure of ethanol and acetaldehyde for heavy drinkers consuming cider or vodka.

    PubMed

    Lachenmeier, Dirk W; Gill, Jan S; Chick, Jonathan; Rehm, Jürgen

    2015-09-01

    Heavy drinkers in Scotland may consume 1600 g ethanol per week. Due to its low price, cider may be preferred over other beverages. Anecdotal evidence has linked cider to specific health hazards beyond other alcoholic beverages. To examine this hypothesis, nine apple and pear cider samples were chemically analysed for constituents and contaminants. None of the products exceeded regulatory or toxicological thresholds, but the regular occurrence of acetaldehyde in cider was detected. To provide a quantitative risk assessment, two collectives of exclusive drinkers of cider and vodka were compared and the intake of acetaldehyde was estimated using probabilistic Monte-Carlo type analysis. The cider consumers were found to ingest more than 200-times the amount of acetaldehyde consumed by vodka consumers. The margins of exposure (MOE) of acetaldehyde were 224 for the cider and over 220,000 for vodka consumers. However, if the effects of ethanol were considered in a cumulative assessment of the combined MOE, the effect of acetaldehyde was minor and the combined MOE for both groups was 0.3. We suggest that alcohol policy priority should be given on reducing ethanol intake by measures such as minimum pricing, rather than to focus on acetaldehyde. PMID:26116882

  17. Effect of rinsing with ethanol-containing mouthrinses on the production of salivary acetaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Moazzez, Rebecca; Thompson, Hayley; Palmer, Richard M; Wilson, Ron F; Proctor, Gordon B; Wade, William G

    2011-12-01

    It has been suggested that the use of alcohol-containing mouthrinses could lead to the presence of acetaldehyde in saliva. In this cross-over study, salivary acetaldehyde levels and microbial profiles were determined before and after rinsing with ethanol-containing mouthrinses with essential oils (EO) and cetyl pyridinium chloride (CPC) as the active ingredients, and with 21.6% ethanol and water controls. After rinsing with all ethanol-containing rinses, acetaldehyde was detected in saliva after 30 s but declined to low levels after 5 min. The highest peak levels were seen with the ethanol control (median = 82.9 μM at 2 min) and were significantly higher than those seen at the same time after rinsing with the EO rinse (43.1 μM). There was no correlation between microbial counts or plaque scores and acetaldehyde levels, although dividing the subjects on the basis of a peak acetaldehyde salivary concentration of > 90.8 μM after the ethanol rinse revealed that the high responders were highly significantly more likely to harbour salivary yeasts than were the low responders. Rinsing with ethanol-containing mouthrinses causes a rapid, but transient, increase in salivary acetaldehyde levels. PMID:22112029

  18. Theoretical survey of the reaction between osmium and acetaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Guo-Liang; Wang, Chuan-Feng

    2012-05-01

    The mechanism of the reaction of osmium atom with acetaldehyde has been investigated with a DFT approach. All the stationary points are determined at the UB3LYP/ sdd/6-311++G** level of the theory. Both ground and excited state potential energy surfaces are investigated in detail. The present results show that the title reaction start with the formation of a CH3CHO-metal complex followed by C-C, aldehyde C-H, C-O, and methyl C-H activation. These reactions can lead to four different products (HOsCH3 + CO, OsCO + CH4, OsCOCH3 + H, and OsO + C2H4). The minimum energy reaction path is found to involve the spin inversion in the initial reaction step. This potential energy curve-crossing dramatically affects reaction exothermic. The present results may be helpful in understanding the mechanism of the title reaction and further experimental investigation of the reaction.

  19. Acetaldehyde involvement in ethanol's postabsortive effects during early ontogeny.

    PubMed

    March, Samanta M; Abate, P; Molina, Juan C

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and biomedical studies sustains the notion that early ontogeny is a vulnerable window to the impact of alcohol. Experiences with the drug during these stages increase latter disposition to prefer, use or abuse ethanol. This period of enhanced sensitivity to ethanol is accompanied by a high rate of activity in the central catalase system, which metabolizes ethanol in the brain. Acetaldehyde (ACD), the first oxidation product of ethanol, has been found to share many neurobehavioral effects with the drug. Cumulative evidence supports this notion in models employing adults. Nevertheless very few studies have been conducted to analyze the role of ACD in ethanol postabsorptive effects, in newborns or infant rats. In this work we review recent experimental literature that syndicates ACD as a mediator agent of reinforcing aspects of ethanol, during early ontogenetic stages. We also show a meta-analytical correlational approach that proposes how differences in the activity of brain catalase across ontogeny, could be modulating patterns of ethanol consumption. PMID:23801947

  20. Acetaldehyde involvement in ethanol's postabsortive effects during early ontogeny

    PubMed Central

    March, Samanta M.; Abate, P.; Molina, Juan C.

    2013-01-01

    Clinical and biomedical studies sustains the notion that early ontogeny is a vulnerable window to the impact of alcohol. Experiences with the drug during these stages increase latter disposition to prefer, use or abuse ethanol. This period of enhanced sensitivity to ethanol is accompanied by a high rate of activity in the central catalase system, which metabolizes ethanol in the brain. Acetaldehyde (ACD), the first oxidation product of ethanol, has been found to share many neurobehavioral effects with the drug. Cumulative evidence supports this notion in models employing adults. Nevertheless very few studies have been conducted to analyze the role of ACD in ethanol postabsorptive effects, in newborns or infant rats. In this work we review recent experimental literature that syndicates ACD as a mediator agent of reinforcing aspects of ethanol, during early ontogenetic stages. We also show a meta-analytical correlational approach that proposes how differences in the activity of brain catalase across ontogeny, could be modulating patterns of ethanol consumption. PMID:23801947

  1. Health and Environmental Effects Profile for Formaldehyde

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for formaldehyde was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous cons...

  2. HETEROGENOUS PHOTOREACTION OF FORMALDEHYDE WITH HYDROXYL RADICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Atmospheric heterogeneous photoreactions occur between formaldehyde and hydroxyl radicals to produce formic acid. hese photoreactions not only occur in clouds, but also in other tropospheric hydrometeors such as precipitation and dew droplets. xperiments were performed by irradia...

  3. Contribution of formaldehyde to respiratory cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, N; Levine, R J; Albert, R E; Blair, A E; Griesemer, R A; Landrigan, P J; Stayner, L T; Swenberg, J A

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews the available data on the carcinogenicity of formaldehyde from experimental and epidemiologic studies and makes recommendations for further research. Two definitive chronic inhalation bioassays on rodents have demonstrated that formaldehyde produces nasal cancer in rats and mice at 14 ppm and in rats at 6 ppm, which is within the domain of present permissible human exposure (8-hr time-weighted average of 3 ppm, a 5 ppm ceiling, and a 10 ppm short-term exposure limit). Biochemical and physiologic studies in rats have shown that inhaled formaldehyde can depress respiration, inhibit mucociliary clearance, stimulate cell proliferation, and crosslink DNA and protein in the nasal mucosa. No deaths from nasal cancer have been reported in epidemiologic studies of cohorts exposed to formaldehyde, but three case-control studies suggest the possibility of increased risk. Although excesses of lung cancer deaths have been observed in some studies at industrial plants with formaldehyde exposure, uncertainties in interpretation limit the evaluation of these findings. Excess cancers of the brain and of lymphatic and hematopoietic tissues have been reported in certain studies of industrial groups and in most studies of formaldehyde-exposed professionals, but whether these excesses are related to formaldehyde exposure is not known. Several properties of formaldehyde pose unique problems for future research: the mechanisms responsible for its nonlinear response; its probable mechanism of carcinogenic action as a cross-linking agent; its formation in tissues as a normal metabolite; its possible action as a promoter and/or a cocarcinogen; and the importance of glutathione as a host defense at low exposure. PMID:3830109

  4. Nucleotide excision repair deficiency increases levels of acrolein-derived cyclic DNA adduct and sensitizes cells to apoptosis induced by docosahexaenoic acid and acrolein.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jishen; Sinclair, Elizabeth; Xuan, Zhuoli; Dyba, Marcin; Fu, Ying; Sen, Supti; Berry, Deborah; Creswell, Karen; Hu, Jiaxi; Roy, Rabindra; Chung, Fung-Lung

    2016-07-01

    The acrolein derived cyclic 1,N(2)-propanodeoxyguanosine adduct (Acr-dG), formed primarily from ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids such as docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) under oxidative conditions, while proven to be mutagenic, is potentially involved in DHA-induced apoptosis. The latter may contribute to the chemopreventive effects of DHA. Previous studies have shown that the levels of Acr-dG are correlated with apoptosis induction in HT29 cells treated with DHA. Because Acr-dG is shown to be repaired by the nucleotide excision repair (NER) pathway, to further investigate the role of Acr-dG in apoptosis, in this study, NER-deficient XPA and its isogenic NER-proficient XAN1 cells were treated with DHA. The Acr-dG levels and apoptosis were sharply increased in XPA cells, but not in XAN1 cells when treated with 125μM of DHA. Because DHA can induce formation of various DNA damage, to specifically investigate the role of Acr-dG in apoptosis induction, we treated XPA knockdown HCT116+ch3 cells with acrolein. The levels of both Acr-dG and apoptosis induction increased significantly in the XPA knockdown cells. These results clearly demonstrate that NER deficiency induces higher levels of Acr-dG in cells treated with DHA or acrolein and sensitizes cells to undergo apoptosis in a correlative manner. Collectively, these results support that Acr-dG, a ubiquitously formed mutagenic oxidative DNA adduct, plays a role in DHA-induced apoptosis and suggest that it could serve as a biomarker for the cancer preventive effects of DHA. PMID:27036235

  5. Report on the Consensus Workshop on Formaldehyde.

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    The Consensus Workshop on Formaldehyde consisted of bringing together scientists from academia, government, industry and public interest groups to address some important toxicological questions concerning the health effects of formaldehyde. The participants in the workshop, the Executive Panel which coordinated the meeting, and the questions posed, all were chosen through a broadly based nomination process in order to achieve as comprehensive a consensus as possible. The subcommittees considered the toxicological problems associated with formaldehyde in the areas of exposure, epidemiology, carcinogenicity/histology/genotoxicity, immunology/sensitization/irritation, structure activity/biochemistry/metabolism, reproduction/teratology, behavior/neurotoxicity/psychology and risk estimation. Some questions considered included the possible human carcinogenicity of formaldehyde, as well as other human health effects, and the interpretation of pathology induced by formaldehyde. These reports, plus introductory material on the procedures used in setting up the Consensus Workshop are presented here. Additionally, there is included a listing of the data base that was made available to the panel chairmen prior to the meeting and was readily accessible to the participants during their deliberations in the meeting. This data base, since it was computerized, was also capable of being searched for important terms. These materials were supplemented by information brought by the panelists. The workshop has defined the consensus concerning a number of major points in formaldehyde toxicology and has identified a number of major deficits in understanding which are important guides to future research. PMID:6525992

  6. Formaldehyde and skin tumorigenesis in Sencar mice

    SciTech Connect

    Iversen, O.H.

    1988-01-01

    Previous experiments involving topical applications of formaldehyde on hairless mouse skin were repeated with SENCAR mice, which are bred for maximum sensitivity to chemical tumorigenesis. Most experimental groups consisted of 32 mice. Topical skin applications of either 100 ..mu..l acetone of about 200 ..mu..l 4% formaldehyde in water twice weekly, resulted in two tumor-bearing animals, each with one small, benign papilloma. A group of 96 mice, treated once with 51.2 ..mu..g DMBA in acetone, developed a total of 107 tumors in 40 tumor-bearing animals. Thus, DMBA is a strong, complete tumorigen also in SENCAR mice. Animals given 51.2 ..mu..g DMBA first and then treated twice weekly with 1% formaldehyde developed a total of 30 tumors in 8 tumor-bearing animals, whereas mice given 51.2 ..mu..g DMBA first, followed by twice weekly treatment with 4% formaldehyde, developed 51 tumors in 15 animals. When two widely accepted, statistical methods were used, there was no significant difference between the groups treated once with DMBA alone and that treated once with DMBA followed by 4% formaldehyde. The results in SENCAR mice confirm that formaldehyde has no skin tumorigenic or carcinogenic potency of its own. It seems doubtful whether it may act as a very weak enhancer of DMBA-induced tumorigenesis, but it has no significant influence on DMBA-induced carcinogenesis.

  7. Report on the Consensus Workshop on Formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    1984-12-01

    The Consensus Workshop on Formaldehyde consisted of bringing together scientists from academia, government, industry and public interest groups to address some important toxicological questions concerning the health effects of formaldehyde. The participants in the workshop, the Executive Panel which coordinated the meeting, and the questions posed, all were chosen through a broadly based nomination process in order to achieve as comprehensive a consensus as possible. The subcommittees considered the toxicological problems associated with formaldehyde in the areas of exposure, epidemiology, carcinogenicity/histology/genotoxicity, immunology/sensitization/irritation, structure activity/biochemistry/metabolism, reproduction/teratology, behavior/neurotoxicity/psychology and risk estimation. Some questions considered included the possible human carcinogenicity of formaldehyde, as well as other human health effects, and the interpretation of pathology induced by formaldehyde. These reports, plus introductory material on the procedures used in setting up the Consensus Workshop are presented here. Additionally, there is included a listing of the data base that was made available to the panel chairmen prior to the meeting and was readily accessible to the participants during their deliberations in the meeting. This data base, since it was computerized, was also capable of being searched for important terms. These materials were supplemented by information brought by the panelists. The workshop has defined the consensus concerning a number of major points in formaldehyde toxicology and has identified a number of major deficits in understanding which are important guides to future research. PMID:6525992

  8. Detection of acrolein and acrylonitrile with a pulsed room temperature quantum cascade laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manne, J.; Jäger, W.; Tulip, J.

    2010-06-01

    We investigated the use of a pulsed, distributed feedback quantum cascade laser centered at 957 cm-1 in combination with an astigmatic Herriot cell with 250 m path length for the detection of acrolein and acrylonitrile. These molecules have been identified as hazardous air-pollutants because of their adverse health effects. The spectrometer utilizes the intra-pulse method, where a linear frequency down-chirp, that is induced when a top-hat current pulse is applied to the laser, is used for sweeping across the absorption line. Up to 450 ns long pulses were used for these measurements which resulted in a spectral window of ~2.2 cm-1. A room temperature mercury-cadmium-telluride detector was used, resulting in a completely cryogen free spectrometer. We demonstrated detection limits of ~3 ppb for acrylonitrile and ~6 ppb for acrolein with ~10 s averaging time. Laser characterization and optimization of the operational parameters for sensitivity improvement are discussed.

  9. EFFECTS OF FORMALDEHYDE AND PARTICLE-BOUND FORMALDEHYDE ON LUNG MACROPHAGE FUNCTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dr. George Jakab and associates exposed mice to varying levels (ranging from 0.5 to 15 parts per million [ppm]) of formaldehyde alone or to formaldehyde (5 and 2.5 ppm) mixed with carbon black particles. Carbon black particles were chosen because of their similarity to comb...

  10. Bronchial artery ligation modifies pulmonary edema after exposure to smoke with acrolein.

    PubMed

    Hales, C A; Barkin, P; Jung, W; Quinn, D; Lamborghini, D; Burke, J

    1989-09-01

    Pulmonary edema can follow smoke inhalation and is believed to be due to the multiple chemical toxins in smoke, not the heat. We have developed a synthetic smoke composed of aerosolized charcoal particles to which one toxin at a time can be added to determine whether it produces pulmonary edema. Acrolein, a common component of smoke, when added to the synthetic smoke, produced a delayed-onset pulmonary edema in dogs in which the extravascular lung water (EVLW) as detected by a double-indicator technique began to rise after 42 +/- 2 (SE) min from 148 +/- 16 to 376 +/- 60 ml at 165 min after smoke exposure. The resulting pulmonary edema was widespread macroscopically but appeared focal microscopically with fibrin deposits in alveoli adjacent to small bronchi and bronchioles. Bronchial vessels were markedly dilated and congested. Monastral blue B when injected intravenously leaked into the walls of the bronchial vessels down to the region of the small bronchioles (less than or equal to 0.5 mm ID) of acrolein-smoke-exposed dogs but not into the pulmonary vessels. Furthermore, ligation of the bronchial arteries delayed the onset of pulmonary edema (87 +/- 3 min, P less than 0.05) and lessened the magnitude (232 +/- 30 ml, P less than 0.05) at 166 +/- 3 min after acrolein-smoke exposure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:2793693

  11. Effect of (L)-cysteine on acetaldehyde self-administration.

    PubMed

    Peana, Alessandra T; Muggironi, Giulia; Fois, Giulia R; Zinellu, Manuel; Sirca, Donatella; Diana, Marco

    2012-08-01

    Acetaldehyde (ACD), the first metabolite of ethanol, has been implicated in several behavioural actions of alcohol, including its reinforcing effects. Recently, we reported that l-cysteine, a sequestrating agent of ACD, reduced oral ethanol self-administration and that ACD was orally self-administered. This study examined the effects of l-cysteine pre-treatment during the acquisition and maintenance phases of ACD (0.2%) self-administration as well as on the deprivation effect after ACD extinction and on a progressive ratio (PR) schedule of reinforcement. In a separate PR schedule of reinforcement, the effect of l-cysteine was assessed on the break-point produced by ethanol (10%). Furthermore, we tested the effect of l-cysteine on saccharin (0.2%) reinforcement. Wistar rats were trained to self-administer ACD by nose poking on a fixed ratio (FR1) schedule in 30-min daily sessions. Responses on an active nose-poke caused delivery of ACD solution, whereas responses on an inactive nose-poke had no consequences. l-cysteine reduced the acquisition (40 mg/kg), the maintenance and the deprivation effect (100 mg/kg) of ACD self-administration. Furthermore, at the same dose, l-cysteine (120 mg/kg) decreased both ACD and ethanol break point. In addition, l-cysteine was unable to suppress the different responses for saccharin, suggesting that its effect did not relate to an unspecific decrease in a general motivational state. Compared to saline, l-cysteine did not modify responses on inactive nose-pokes, suggesting an absence of a non-specific behavioural activation. Taken together, these results could support the hypotheses that ACD possesses reinforcing properties and l-cysteine reduces motivation to self-administer ACD. PMID:22440691

  12. Acrolein inhalation alters arterial blood gases and triggers carotid body-mediated cardiovascular responses in hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Christina M.; Hazari, Mehdi S.; Ledbetter, Allen D.; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Carll, Alex P.; Cascio, Wayne E.; Winsett, Darrell W.; Costa, Daniel L.; Farraj, Aimen K.

    2016-01-01

    Context Air pollution exposure affects autonomic function, heart rate, blood pressure and left ventricular function. While the mechanism for these effects is uncertain, several studies have reported that air pollution exposure modifies activity of the carotid body, the major organ that senses changes in arterial oxygen and carbon dioxide levels, and elicits downstream changes in autonomic control and cardiac function. Objective We hypothesized that exposure to acrolein, an unsaturated aldehyde and mucosal irritant found in cigarette smoke and diesel exhaust, would activate the carotid body chemoreceptor response and lead to secondary cardiovascular responses in rats. Materials and methods Spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats were exposed once for 3 h to 3 ppm acrolein gas or filtered air in whole body plethysmograph chambers. To determine if the carotid body mediated acrolein-induced cardiovascular responses, rats were pretreated with an inhibitor of cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE), an enzyme essential for carotid body signal transduction. Results Acrolein exposure induced several cardiovascular effects. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure increased during exposure, while cardiac contractility decreased 1 day after exposure. The cardiovascular effects were associated with decreases in pO2, breathing frequency and expiratory time, and increases in sympathetic tone during exposure followed by parasympathetic dominance after exposure. The CSE inhibitor prevented the cardiovascular effects of acrolein exposure. Discussion and conclusion Pretreatment with the CSE inhibitor prevented the cardiovascular effects of acrolein, suggesting that the cardiovascular responses with acrolein may be mediated by carotid body-triggered changes in autonomic tone. (This abstract does not reflect EPA policy.) PMID:25600140

  13. Formaldehyde OMI operational retrieval upgrades

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez Abad, G.; Chance, K.; Liu, X.

    2013-05-01

    Total column of formaldehyde (HCHO), a proxy for biogenic emissions, can be observed from satellites using the ultraviolet region of the spectrum. The operational HCHO retrievals from the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) on board the AURA satellite, part of NASA's A-train constellation of Earth Observing satellites, are described. The operational retrieval, based on a basic optical absorption spectroscopy (BOAS) algorithm, has been affected by the degradation of the instrument especially from 2008 onwards. The most significant problems are the unrealistic increasing high background concentrations of HCHO retrieved from OMI and the row anomaly. An upgrade for the original operational algorithm is therefore needed to ensure its trend quality and to account for these difficulties. The strategies implemented to deal with the instrumental degradation are presented here. Air mass factors (AMFs) in the current fitting window show significant wavelength dependence. Fitting uncertainties can potentially be improved by including shorter wavelengths as long as the AMFs wavelength dependence is taken into account. As part of these improvements a look-up table of wavelength-dependent AMFs have been calculated. Using this new table it is possible to retrieve the HCHO total column directly, weighting the HCHO cross sections with the wavelength-dependent AMFs. Additionally, the pixels affected by the row anomaly are now flagged in the level 2 data generated with the upgraded algorithm.

  14. Formaldehyde absorption toward W51

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kogut, A.; Smoot, G. F.; Bennett, C. L.; Petuchowski, S. J.

    1989-01-01

    Formaldehyde (H2CO) absorption toward the H II region complex W51A (G49.5 - 0.4) in the 6 cm and 2 cm wavelength rotational transitions has been measured with angular resolution of about 0.15 pc. The continuum H II region shows a large, previously undetected shell structure 5.5 pc along the major axis. The absorption, converted to optical depth, shows a higher degree of clumping throughout the map than previous maps at lower resolution; in particular, two narrow regions of enhanced opacity are observed. The absorption in the velocity range 64-67 km/s LSR extends over most of the region, with an observed velocity gradient of 5.2 km/s pc. The opacity structure largely parallels the velocity structure, with a ridge of enhanced opacity to the north of the highest velocity feature. The S/N of the maps allows accurate modeling of the spectral profiles. Nine distinct clumps in the foreground clouds have been identified and parametrized, and column densities for the 1(11) and 2(12) rotational levels of orthoformaldehyde have been derived.

  15. Mechanistic understanding of hydrogenation of acetaldehyde on Au(111): A DFT investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qingsen; Shen, Yongli; Xu, Jing; Ma, Xinbin; Gong, Jinlong

    2012-11-01

    This paper describes the reaction pathways for hydrogenation of acetaldehyde on atomic hydrogen pre-adsorbed Au(111) employing density functional theory (DFT) calculations. All the surface species involved in the reaction scheme have low diffusion barriers, suggesting that the rearrangement and movement of these species on the surface are facile under reaction condition. The hydroxyethyl is proposed to be the intermediate for the hydrogenation of acetaldehyde, and the activation energy for its formation is 0.37 eV. Additionally, the coupling reaction of hydroxyethyl and acetaldehyde - resulting in the formation of the ethylidene ethylene glycol (CH3C*HOCH(CH3)OH) species - also readily occurs at the reaction condition. Two-dimensional (2-D) polyacetaldehyde ((CH3CHO)2) can be easily hydrogenated to ethylidene ethylene glycol or ethoxy hemiacetal (CH3CH2OCH(CH3)O*); the latter can be converted to ethanol and acetaldehyde via further hydrogenation. As the hydrogenation products of ethylidene ethylene glycol and ethoxy hemiacetal, ethoxyethanol (CH3CH2OCH(CH3)OH) can be deeply hydrogenated to hydroxyethyl and ethanol. Our calculations also suggest that the formation of an ethoxyl intermediate is not likely, which agrees with the experimental observation that no deuterated acetaldehydes have been detected in isotopic measurements.

  16. Adsorption and Reaction of Acetaldehyde on Stoichiometric and Defective SrTiO₃(100) Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Li Q.; Ferris, Kim F.; Azad, Samina; Engelhard, Mark H.; Peden, Charles HF.

    2004-02-05

    The adsorption and reaction of acetaldehyde (CH{sub 3}CHO), on stoichiometric (TiO{sub 2}-terminated) and reduced SrTiO{sub 3}(100) surfaces, have been investigated using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Acetaldehyde adsorbs molecularly on the stoichiometric SrTiO{sub 3}(100) surface that contains predominantly Ti{sup 4+} cations. The Ti{sup 4+} sites on the stoichiometric SrTiO{sub 3}(100) surface are not sufficiently active for surface reactions such as aldol condensation, as opposed to the Ti{sup 4+} ions on the TiO{sub 2}(001) surface. However, decomposition and redox reactions of acetaldehyde occur in the presence of surface defects created by Ar{sup +} sputtering. The decomposition products following reactions of acetaldehyde on the defective surface include H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, CO, C{sub 4}H{sub 6}, and C{sub 4}H{sub 8}. Reductive coupling, to produce C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and C{sub 4}H{sub 8} is the main reaction pathway for decomposition of acetaldehyde on the sputter reduced SrTiO{sub 3}(100) surface.

  17. Dissociative electron attachments to ethanol and acetaldehyde: A combined experimental and simulation study

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xu-Dong; Xuan, Chuan-Jin; Feng, Wen-Ling; Tian, Shan Xi

    2015-02-14

    Dissociation dynamics of the temporary negative ions of ethanol and acetaldehyde formed by the low-energy electron attachments is investigated by using the anion velocity map imaging technique and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations. The momentum images of the dominant fragments O{sup −}/OH{sup −} and CH{sub 3}{sup −} are recorded, indicating the low kinetic energies of O{sup −}/OH{sup −} for ethanol while the low and high kinetic energy distributions of O{sup −} ions for acetaldehyde. The CH{sub 3}{sup −} image for acetaldehyde also shows the low kinetic energy. With help of the dynamics simulations, the fragmentation processes are qualitatively clarified. A new cascade dissociation pathway to produce the slow O{sup −} ion via the dehydrogenated intermediate, CH{sub 3}CHO{sup −} (acetaldehyde anion), is proposed for the dissociative electron attachment to ethanol. After the electron attachment to acetaldehyde molecule, the slow CH{sub 3}{sup −} is produced quickly in the two-body dissociation with the internal energy redistributions in different aspects before bond cleavages.

  18. Correlations between serum proteins modified by acetaldehyde and biochemical variables in heavy drinkers.

    PubMed Central

    Wickramasinghe, S N; Marjot, D H; Rosalki, S B; Fink, R S

    1989-01-01

    A strong and highly significant correlation was observed between serum aspartate transaminase (AST) activity and an index of the cytotoxic activity associated with serum proteins modified by acetaldehyde in a group of 24 heavy drinkers. A weaker but significant correlation (R = 0.564, p = 0.008) was found between total serum creatine kinase activity and this index of serum cytotoxicity. As it is likely that the concentration of circulating modified protein was largely determined by the quantity of free acetaldehyde generated in the liver and that the AST activity was mainly derived from damaged hepatocytes, the data indicate a correlation between hepatic acetaldehyde generation and hepatocyte damage. This correlation may indicate either that increased quantities of acetaldehyde are released by damaged hepatocytes or that acetaldehyde is hepatotoxic in vivo. As only the creatine kinase isoenzyme present in skeletal muscle (CK-MM) was demonstrable in the serum in all but one of our patients, the data also suggest that circulating modified serum proteins may be toxic towards skeletal muscle cells. PMID:2703546

  19. Evidence for chemical and cellular reactivities of the formaldehyde releaser bronopol, independent of formaldehyde release.

    PubMed

    Kireche, Mustapha; Peiffer, Jean-Luc; Antonios, Diane; Fabre, Isabelle; Giménez-Arnau, Elena; Pallardy, Marc; Lepoittevin, Jean-Pierre; Ourlin, Jean-Claude

    2011-12-19

    Formaldehyde and formaldehyde releasers are widely used preservatives and represent an important group of skin sensitizers. Formaldehyde is very often suspected to be the sensitizing agent of formaldehyde-releasers; however, many reported clinical cases of contact allergy to these molecules such as bronopol (2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol) indicate negative skin reactions to formaldehyde suggesting a more complex mechanism. The aim of this study was to compare the chemical reactivity and biological activity of formaldehyde with those of two formaldehyde releasers: 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol and 1,3-dimethylol-5,5-dimethylhydantoin. A key step in the sensitization to chemicals is the formation of the hapten-protein antigenic complex via covalent binding between the chemical sensitizer and amino acids in proteins. The chemical reactivity of the three compounds was thus addressed using (13)C NMR analysis of adduct formation upon incubation with a set of nucleophilic amino acids. The biological activity was measured in two in vitro models based on dendritic cells and a monocytic cell line (CD34-DC and THP-1 model) through monitoring of a panel of biomarkers. The results obtained show that 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol produces low amount of free formaldehyde in physiological buffers but that its degradation generates various molecules including 2-bromoethanol. In addition, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol also generates adducts with amino acids, not observed with formaldehyde alone, that could be explained by the reactivity of 2-bromoethanol. In parallel, in a cellular approach using the human monocytic THP-1 cell line, 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol activates THP-1 cells at concentrations that are not correlated to simple formaldehyde release. This observation is confirmed in the more physiological model CD34-DC. Moreover, in the THP-1 model, the expression profiles of several biomarkers are specific to 2-bromo-2-nitropropane-1,3-diol. Finally, the use in the

  20. Development and application of a sensitive method to determine concentrations of acrolein and other carbonyls in ambient air.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Thomas M; Charles, M Judith; Seaman, Vincent Y

    2010-05-01

    Acrolein, an unsaturated aldehyde, has been identified as one of the most important toxic air pollutants in recent assessments of ambient air quality. Current methods for determining acrolein concentrations, however, suffer from poor sensitivity, selectivity, and reproducibility. The collection and analysis of unsaturated carbonyls, and acrolein in particular, is complicated by unstable derivatives, coelution of similar compounds, and ozone interference. The primary objective of this research was to develop an analytical method to measure acrolein and other volatile carbonyls present in low part-per-trillion concentrations in ambient air samples obtained over short sampling periods. The method we devised uses a mist chamber in which carbonyls from air samples form water-soluble adducts with bisulfite in the chamber solution, effectively trapping the carbonyls in the solution. The mist chamber methodology proved effective, with collection efficiency for acrolein of at least 70% for each mist chamber at a flow rate of approximately 17 L/min. After the sample collection, the carbonyls are liberated from the bisulfite adducts through the addition of hydrogen peroxide, which converts the bisulfite to sulfate, reversing the bisulfite addition reaction. The free carbonyls are then derivatized by o-(2,3,4,5,6-pentafluorobenzyl)hydroxylamine (PFBHA*), which stabilizes the analytes and makes them easier to detect by electron-capture negative ionization mass spectrometry (ECNI-MS). The derivatives are then extracted and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The mist chamber method was applied in a field test to determine the extent of acrolein in ambient air near the Peace Bridge plaza in Buffalo, New York, an area of heavy traffic near a major border crossing between the United States and Canada. In addition, XAD-2 adsorbent cartridges coated with 2-(hydroxymethyl)piperidine (2-HMP) according to Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Method

  1. Acrolein Modification Impairs Key Functional Features of Rat Apolipoprotein E: Identification of Modified Sites by Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Tuyen N.; Kosaraju, Malathi G.; Tamamizu-Kato, Shiori; Akintunde, Olayemi; Zheng, Ying; Bielicki, John K.; Pinkerton, Kent; Uchida, Koji; Lee, Yuan Yu; Narayanaswami, Vasanthy

    2014-01-01

    Apolipoprotein E (apoE), an anti-atherogenic apolipoprotein, plays a significant role in the metabolism of lipoproteins. It lowers plasma lipid levels by acting as a ligand for low-density lipoprotein receptor (LDLr) family of proteins, in addition to playing a role in promoting macrophage cholesterol efflux in atherosclerotic lesions. The objective of this study is to examine the effect of acrolein modification on the structure and function of rat apoE and to determine sites and nature of modification by mass spectrometry. Acrolein is a highly reactive aldehyde, which is generated endogenously as one of the products of lipid peroxidation and is present in the environment in pollutants such as tobacco smoke and heated oils. In initial studies, acrolein-modified apoE was identified by immunoprecipitation using an acrolein-lysine specific antibody, in the plasma of ten-week old male rats that were exposed to filtered air (FA) or low doses of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). While both groups displayed acrolein-modified apoE in the lipoprotein fraction, the ETS group had higher levels in lipid-free fraction compared to the FA group. This observation provided the rationale to further investigate the effect of acrolein modification on rat apoE at a molecular level. Treatment of recombinant rat apoE with a 10-fold molar excess of acrolein resulted in: (i) a significant decrease in lipid-binding and cholesterol efflux abilities, (ii) impairment in the LDLr- and heparin-binding capabilities, and (iii) significant alterations in the overall stability of the protein. The disruption in the functional abilities is attributed directly or indirectly to acrolein modification yielding: an aldimine adduct at K149 and K155 (+38); a propanal adduct at K135 and K138 (+56); an Nε-(3-methylpyridinium)lysine (MP-lysine) at K64, K67 and K254 (+76), and Nε-(3-formyl-3,4-dehydropiperidino)lysine (FDP-lysine) derivative at position K68 (+94), as determined by Matrix-Assisted Laser

  2. Formaldehyde content of atmospheric aerosol.

    PubMed

    Toda, Kei; Yunoki, Satoru; Yanaga, Akira; Takeuchi, Masaki; Ohira, Shin-Ichi; Dasgupta, Purnendu K

    2014-06-17

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a highly soluble polar molecule with a large sticking coefficient and thus likely exists in both gaseous and particulate forms. Few studies, however, address particulate HCHO (HCHO(p)). Some report that HCHO(p) concentrations (obtained only with long duration sampling) are very low. The lack of data partly reflects the difficulty of specifically measuring HCHO(p). Long duration filter sampling may not produce meaningful results for a variety of reasons. In this work, gaseous HCHO (HCHO(g)) and (HCHO(p)) were, respectively, collected with a parallel plate wet denuder (PPWD) followed by a mist chamber/hydrophilic filter particle collector (PC). The PPWD quantitatively removed HCHO(g) and the PC then collected the transmitted aerosol. The collected HCHO from either device was alternately analyzed by Hantzsch reaction-based continuous flow fluorometry. Each gas and particle phase measurement took 5 min each, with a 10 min cycle. The limits of detection were 0.048 and 0.0033 μg m(-3), respectively, for HCHO(g) and HCHO(p). The instrument was deployed in three separate campaigns in a forest station in western Japan in March, May, and July of 2013. Based on 1296 data pairs, HCHO(p), was on the average, 5% of the total HCHO. Strong diurnal patterns were observed, with the HCHO(p) fraction peaking in the morning. The relative humidity dependence of the partition strongly suggests that it is driven by the liquid water content of the aerosol phase. However, HCHO(p) was 100× greater than that expected from Henry's law. We propose that the low water activity in the highly saline droplets lead to HCHO oligomerization. PMID:24857706

  3. Comparative study of the damage produced by acute ethanol and acetaldehyde treatment in a human fetal hepatic cell line.

    PubMed

    Olivares, I P; Bucio, L; Souza, V; Cárabez, A; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, M C

    1997-06-27

    The effects of acute ethanol and acetaldehyde treatment on cell proliferation, cell adhesion capacity, neutral red incorporation into lysosomes, glutathione content, protein sulfhydryl compounds, lipid peroxidation, inner mitochondrial membrane integrity (MTT test), lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH) and ultrastructural alterations were investigated in a human fetal hepatic cell line (WRL-68 cells). WRL-68 cells were used, due to the fact that, although this cell line expresses some hepatic characteristics, it does not express alcohol dehydrogenase or cytochrome P450 activity, so it could be a good model to study the effect of the toxic agents per se. Cells were exposed during 120 min with 200 mM ethanol or 10 mM acetaldehyde. Under these conditions, cells presented 100% viability and no morphological alteration was observed by light microscopy. Acetaldehyde-treated cells reduced their proliferative capacity drastically while the ethanol-treated ones presented no difference with control cells. Cell adhesion to substrate, measured as time required to adhere to the substrate and time required to detach from the substrate, was diminished in acetaldehyde WRL-68-treated cells. Cytotoxicity measures as neutral red and MTT test showed that acetaldehyde-treated cells presented more damage than ethanol-treated ones. Cellular respiratory capacity was compromised by acetaldehyde treatment due to 40% less oxygen consumption than control cells. Lipid peroxidation values, measured as malondialdehyde production, were higher in ethanol-treated WRL-68 cells (127%) than in acetaldehyde-treated ones (60%) to control cell values. Lactate dehydrogenase activity (LDH) in extracellular media of ethanol-treated cells presented the highest values. GSH content was reduced 95% and thiol protein content was diminished severely in acetaldehyde-treated cells. Transmission electron microscopy showed more ultrastructural alterations in cells treated with acetaldehyde. The results indicate that

  4. Production of Melamine-Formaldehyde PCM Microcapsules with Ammonia Scavenger used for Residual Formaldehyde Reduction.

    PubMed

    Sumiga, Boštjan; Knez, Emil; Vrtačnik, Margareta; Ferk-Savec, Vesna; Starešinič, Marica; Boh, Bojana

    2011-03-01

    Paraffinic phase change materials (PCM) were microencapsulated by in situ polymerization of melamine-formaldehyde prepolymers. Partly methylated trimethylolmelamine was used as an aminoaldehyde prepolymer for the microcapsule wall, a styrene-maleic acid anhydride copolymer as an emulsifier and modifying agent, and ammonia as a scavenger for reducing residual formaldehyde. For the determination of residual formaldehyde in a ppm concentration range, EDANA and malachite green analytical methods were studied, and the EDANA 210.1-99 was applied for the determination of residual formaldehyde in 25 samples of microcapsules, produced in a 200-L reactor. A linear correlation was observed between the added ammonia scavenger concentration and the reduction of residual formaldehyde concentration. Compared with 0.45% (4500 ppm) formaldehyde in a non-treated microcapsule suspension, with ammonia scavenger concentrations 0.80, 0.90 and 1.35%, the concentration of residual formaldehyde dropped to 0.27, 0.20 and 0.09% (i.e. 2700, 2000 and 900 ppm), respectively. Morphological characterisation of microcapsules by SEM and microcapsule wall permeability measurements by gravimetry / mass loss at an elevated temperature (135 °C) suggested that ammonia positively contributed to the wall elasticity / durability, while microcapsules with no ammonia scavenger added tended to have more brittle walls, and were more prone to cracking. PMID:24061938

  5. Acetaldehyde and parkinsonism: role of CYP450 2E1

    PubMed Central

    Vaglini, Francesca; Viaggi, Cristina; Piro, Valentina; Pardini, Carla; Gerace, Claudio; Scarselli, Marco; Corsini, Giovanni Umberto

    2013-01-01

    The present review update the relationship between acetaldehyde (ACE) and parkinsonism with a specific focus on the role of P450 system and CYP 2E1 isozyme particularly. We have indicated that ACE is able to enhance the parkinsonism induced in mice by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, a neurotoxin able to damage the nigrostriatal dopaminergic pathway. Similarly diethyldithiocarbamate, the main metabolite of disulfiram, a drug widely used to control alcoholism, diallylsulfide (DAS) and phenylisothiocyanate also markedly enhance the toxin-related parkinsonism. All these compounds are substrate/inhibitors of CYP450 2E1 isozyme. The presence of CYP 2E1 has been detected in the dopamine (DA) neurons of rodent Substantia Nigra (SN), but a precise function of the enzyme has not been elucidated yet. By treating CYP 2E1 knockout (KO) mice with the neurotoxin 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine, the SN induced lesion was significantly reduced when compared with the lesion observed in wild-type animals. Several in vivo and in vitro studies led to the conclusion that CYP 2E1 may enhance the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine toxicity in mice by increasing free radical production inside the dopaminergic neurons. ACE is a good substrate for CYP 2E1 enzyme as the other substrate-inhibitors and by this way may facilitate the susceptibility of dopaminergic neurons to toxic events. The literature suggests that ethanol and/or disulfiram may be responsible for toxic parkinsonism in human and it indicates that basal ganglia are the major targets of disulfiram toxicity. A very recent study reports that there are a decreased methylation of the CYP 2E1 gene and increased expression of CYP 2E1 mRNA in Parkinson's disease (PD) patient brains. This study suggests that epigenetic variants of this cytochrome contribute to the susceptibility, thus confirming multiples lines of evidence which indicate a link between environmental toxins and PD. PMID:23801948

  6. Impact of bioethanol fuel implementation in transport based on modelled acetaldehyde concentration in the urban environment.

    PubMed

    Sundvor, Ingrid; López-Aparicio, Susana

    2014-10-15

    This study shows the results obtained from emission and air dispersion modelling of acetaldehyde in the city of Oslo and associated with the circulation of bioethanol vehicles. Two scenarios of bioethanol implementation, both realistic and hypothetical, have been considered under winter conditions; 1) realistic baseline scenario, which corresponds to the current situation in Oslo where one bus line is running with bioethanol (E95; 95% ethanol-5% petrol) among petrol and diesel vehicles; and 2) a hypothetical scenario characterized by a full implementation of high-blend bioethanol (i.e. E85) as fuel for transportation, and thus an entire bioethanol fleet. The results indicate that a full implementation of bioethanol will have a certain impact on urban air quality due to direct emissions of acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde emissions are estimated to increase by 233% and concentration levels increase up to 650% with regard to the baseline. PMID:25064718

  7. Redirection of the Reaction Specificity of a Thermophilic Acetolactate Synthase toward Acetaldehyde Formation

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Maria; Yoshiyasu, Hayato; Okano, Kenji; Ohtake, Hisao; Honda, Kohsuke

    2016-01-01

    Acetolactate synthase and pyruvate decarboxylase are thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent enzymes that convert pyruvate into acetolactate and acetaldehyde, respectively. Although the former are encoded in the genomes of many thermophiles and hyperthermophiles, the latter has been found only in mesophilic organisms. In this study, the reaction specificity of acetolactate synthase from Thermus thermophilus was redirected to catalyze acetaldehyde formation to develop a thermophilic pyruvate decarboxylase. Error-prone PCR and mutant library screening led to the identification of a quadruple mutant with 3.1-fold higher acetaldehyde-forming activity than the wild-type. Site-directed mutagenesis experiments revealed that the increased activity of the mutant was due to H474R amino acid substitution, which likely generated two new hydrogen bonds near the thiamine pyrophosphate-binding site. These hydrogen bonds might result in the better accessibility of H+ to the substrate-cofactor-enzyme intermediate and a shift in the reaction specificity of the enzyme. PMID:26731734

  8. Feasibility studies of a fuel cell for cogeneration of homogeneously catalyzed acetaldehyde and electricity from ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Malhotra, S.; Datta, R.

    1996-10-01

    The development and feasibility of a novel fuel cell for simultaneously generating electricity and homogeneously catalyzed acetaldehyde from ethanol are reported. The fuel cell is based on the supported molten-salt electrocatalysis technique that allows use of homogeneous (liquid-phase) catalysts in fuel cells for the first time. The electrocatalytic reaction combines the chemistry of the Wacker process conventionally used for acetaldehyde production from the partial oxidation of ethylene and that of the Veba-Chemie method. Nafion membranes impregnated with different electrolytic materials were used in the fuel cell as electrolytes to allow operation at reaction temperatures up to 165 C. Results obtained are comparable to those reported in the literature on partial oxidation of ethylene to acetaldehyde in a fuel cell based on conventional heterogeneous electrocatalysts.

  9. Exposure to formaldehyde: effects of pulmonary function

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandersson, R.; Kolmodin-Hedman, B.; Hedenstierna, G.

    1982-09-01

    Forty-seven subjects exposed to formaldehyde (mean air concentration 0.45 mg/m/sup 3/) and 20 unexposed subjects, all of whom were employed at a carpentry shop, were studied with regard to symptoms and pulmonary function. Symptoms involving eyes and throat as well as chest oppression were significantly more common in the exposed subjects than in the unexposed controls. Spirometry and single breath nitrogen washout were normal Monday morning before exposure to formaldehyde. A reduction in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec by an average of 0.2 L (P = .002), percent forced expiratory volume by 2% (P = .04), maximum midexpiratory flow by 0.3 L/sec (P = .04) and an increase in closing volume in percentage of vital capacity by 3.4% (P = .002) were seen after a day of work and exposure to formaldehyde, suggesting bronchoconstriction. Smokers and nonsmokers displayed similar changes in spirometry and nitrogen washout.

  10. Porous Nickel Oxide Film Sensor for Formaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cindemir, U.; Topalian, Z.; Österlund, L.; Granqvist, C. G.; Niklasson, G. A.

    2014-11-01

    Formaldehyde is a volatile organic compound and a harmful indoor pollutant contributing to the "sick building syndrome". We used advanced gas deposition to fabricate highly porous nickel oxide (NiO) thin films for formaldehyde sensing. The films were deposited on Al2O3 substrates with prefabricated comb-structured electrodes and a resistive heater at the opposite face. The morphology and structure of the films were investigated with scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. Porosity was determined by nitrogen adsorption isotherms with the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller method. Gas sensing measurements were performed to demonstrate the resistive response of the sensors with respect to different concentrations of formaldehyde at 150 °C.

  11. Artisanal alcohol production in Mayan Guatemala: chemical safety evaluation with special regard to acetaldehyde contamination.

    PubMed

    Kanteres, Fotis; Rehm, Jürgen; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2009-11-01

    There is a lack of knowledge regarding the composition, production, distribution, and consumption of artisanal alcohol, particularly in the developing world. In Nahualá, an indigenous Mayan municipality located in highland Guatemala, heavy alcohol consumption appears to have had a significant negative impact on health, a major role in cases of violence and domestic abuse, and a link to street habitation. Cuxa, an artisanally, as well as commercially produced sugarcane alcohol, is widely consumed by heavy drinkers in this community. Cuxa samples from all distribution points in the community were obtained and chemically analyzed for health-relevant constituents and contaminants including methanol, acetaldehyde, higher alcohols, and metals. From those, only acetaldehyde was confirmed to be present in unusually high levels (up to 126 g/hl of pure alcohol), particularly in samples that were produced clandestinely. Acetaldehyde has been evaluated as "possibly carcinogenic" and has also been identified as having significant human exposure in a recent risk assessment. This study explores the reasons for the elevated levels of acetaldehyde, through both sampling and analyses of raw and intermediary products of cuxa production, as well as interviews from producers of the clandestine alcohol. For further insight, we experimentally produced this alcohol in our laboratory, based on the directions provided by the producers, as well as materials from the town itself. Based on these data, the origin of the acetaldehyde contamination appears to be due to chemical changes induced during processing, with the major causative factors consisting of poor hygiene, aerobic working conditions, and inadequate yeast strains, compounded by flawed distillation methodology that neglects separation of the first fractions of the distillate. These results indicate a preventable public health concern for consumers, which can be overcome through education about good manufacturing practices, as well

  12. EPAC activation inhibits acetaldehyde-induced activation and proliferation of hepatic stellate cell via Rap1.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Yang, Feng; Wu, Xiaojuan; Lv, Xiongwen; Li, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) activation represents an essential event during alcoholic liver fibrosis (ALF). Previous studies have demonstrated that the rat HSCs could be significantly activated after exposure to 200 μmol/L acetaldehyde for 48 h, and the cAMP/PKA signaling pathways were also dramatically upregulated in activated HSCs isolated from alcoholic fibrotic rat liver. Exchange protein activated by cAMP (EPAC) is a family of guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for the small Ras-like GTPases Rap, and is being considered as a vital mediator of cAMP signaling in parallel with the principal cAMP target protein kinase A (PKA). Our data showed that both cAMP/PKA and cAMP/EPAC signaling pathways were involved in acetaldehyde-induced HSCs. Acetaldehyde could reduce the expression of EPAC1 while enhancing the expression of EPAC2. The cAMP analog Me-cAMP, which stimulates the EPAC/Rap1 pathway, could significantly decrease the proliferation and collagen synthesis of acetaldehyde-induced HSCs. Furthermore, depletion of EPAC2, but not EPAC1, prevented the activation of HSC measured as the production of α-SMA and collagen type I and III, indicating that EPAC1 appears to have protective effects on acetaldehyde-induced HSCs. Curiously, activation of PKA or EPAC perhaps has opposite effects on the synthesis of collagen and α-SMA: EPAC activation by Me-cAMP increased the levels of GTP-bound (activated) Rap1 while PKA activation by Phe-cAMP had no significant effects on such binding. These results suggested that EPAC activation could inhibit the activation and proliferation of acetaldehyde-induced HSCs via Rap1. PMID:26854595

  13. Self-Sufficient Formaldehyde-to-Methanol Conversion by Organometallic Formaldehyde Dismutase Mimic.

    PubMed

    van der Waals, Dominic; Heim, Leo E; Vallazza, Simona; Gedig, Christian; Deska, Jan; Prechtl, Martin H G

    2016-08-01

    The catalytic networks of methylotrophic organisms, featuring redox enzymes for the activation of one-carbon moieties, can serve as great inspiration in the development of novel homogeneously catalyzed pathways for the interconversion of C1 molecules at ambient conditions. An imidazolium-tagged arene-ruthenium complex was identified as an effective functional mimic of the bacterial formaldehyde dismutase, which provides a new and highly selective route for the conversion of formaldehyde to methanol in absence of any external reducing agents. Moreover, secondary amines are reductively methylated by the organometallic dismutase mimic in a redox self-sufficient manner with formaldehyde acting both as carbon source and reducing agent. PMID:27380865

  14. The effect of clothing care activities on textile formaldehyde content.

    PubMed

    Novick, Rachel M; Nelson, Mindy L; McKinley, Meg A; Anderson, Grace L; Keenan, James J

    2013-01-01

    Textiles are commonly treated with formaldehyde-based residues that may potentially induce allergic contact dermatitis in sensitive individuals. This study examined the initial formaldehyde content in clothing and resulting changes due to care activities. Twenty clothing articles were examined and 17 of them did not have detectable levels of formaldehyde. One shirt contained a formaldehyde concentration of 3172 ppm, and two pairs of pants had formaldehyde concentrations of 1391 ppm and 86 ppm. The two highest results represent formaldehyde levels that are up to 40-fold greater than international textile regulations. The two items with the greatest formaldehyde content were washed and dried in a manner similar to that used by consumers, including hand and machine washing in hot or cold water followed by air or machine drying. The washing and drying procedures reduced formaldehyde levels to between 26 and 72% of untreated controls. Differences in the temperature or type of washing and drying did not result in a clear trend in the subsequent formaldehyde content. In addition, samples were hot ironed, which did not affect the formaldehyde content as significantly. Understanding the formaldehyde content in clothing and its potential reduction through care activities may be useful for manufacturers and formaldehyde-sensitive individuals. PMID:24053365

  15. STATUS OF IODINE IN FORMALDEHYDE-PRESERVED MILK - REVISITED

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of formaldehyde as a preservative for milk prior to radiochemical analysis for 131I was studied. Results suggest that the formaldehyde concentration is critical and that at low formaldehyde concentrations (<0.5 M) significant protein binding of iodine occurs. Various a...

  16. 24 CFR 3280.309 - Health Notice on formaldehyde emissions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Health Notice on formaldehyde... Construction Requirements § 3280.309 Health Notice on formaldehyde emissions. (a) Each manufactured home shall have a Health Notice on formaldehyde emissions prominently displayed in a temporary manner in...

  17. Developing a Reference Material for Formaldehyde Emissions Testing; Final Report

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to formaldehyde has been shown to produce broad and potentially severe adverse human health effects. With ubiquitous formaldehyde sources in the indoor environment, formaldehyde concentrations in indoor air are usually higher than outdoors, ranging from 10 to 4000 μg/m3....

  18. Effect of variable power levels on the yield of total aerosol mass and formation of aldehydes in e-cigarette aerosols.

    PubMed

    Gillman, I G; Kistler, K A; Stewart, E W; Paolantonio, A R

    2016-03-01

    The study objective was to determine the effect of variable power applied to the atomizer of refillable tank based e-cigarette (EC) devices. Five different devices were evaluated, each at four power levels. Aerosol yield results are reported for each set of 25 EC puffs, as mass/puff, and normalized for the power applied to the coil, in mass/watt. The range of aerosol produced on a per puff basis ranged from 1.5 to 28 mg, and, normalized for power applied to the coil, ranged from 0.27 to 1.1 mg/watt. Aerosol samples were also analyzed for the production of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein, as DNPH derivatives, at each power level. When reported on mass basis, three of the devices showed an increase in total aldehyde yield with increasing power applied to the coil, while two of the devices showed the opposite trend. The mass of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein produced per gram of total aerosol produced ranged from 0.01 to 7.3 mg/g, 0.006 to 5.8 mg/g, and <0.003 to 0.78 mg/g, respectively. These results were used to estimate daily exposure to formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein from EC aerosols from specific devices, and were compared to estimated exposure from consumption of cigarettes, to occupational and workplace limits, and to previously reported results from other researchers. PMID:26743740

  19. Chemical Characterization of Phenol/Formaldehyde Resins

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brayden, T. H.

    1986-01-01

    Report discusses tests of commercial phenol/formaldehyde resins to establish relationships among composition before use, behavior during curing, and strength after curing. Resin used in carbon/carbon laminates. In curing process, two molecules of phenol joined together in sequence of reactions involving molecule of formaldehyde. Last step of sequence, molecule of water released. Sequence repeats until one of ingredients used up, leaving solidified thermoset plastic. Issues to be resolved: number and relative abundances of ingredients, presence of certain chemical groups, heat-producing ability of resin, and range of molecular weights present.

  20. Quantification of DNA adducts in lungs, liver and brain of rats exposed to acetaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Camila C M; Batista, Guilherme L; Freitas, Florêncio P; Lopes, Fernando S; Sanchez, Angélica B; Gutz, Ivano G R; Di Mascio, Paolo; Medeiros, Marisa H G

    2014-10-01

    Air pollution is a major risk for human health. Acetaldehyde is an environmental pollutant present in tobacco smoke, vehicle exhaust and several food products. Formation of DNA adducts has been regarded as a critical factor in the mechanisms of acetaldehyde mutagenicity and carcinogenesis. Acetaldehyde reacts with 2'-deoxyguanosine in DNA to primarily form N(2)-ethylidene-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-ethylidene-dGuo). The subsequent reaction of N(2)-ethylidene-dGuo with another molecule of acetaldehyde gives rise to 1,N(2)-propano-2´-deoxyguanosine (1,N(2)-propanodGuo). In this study, on-line reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) separation with tandem mass spectrometry detection was utilized for the accurate quantification of 1,N(2)-propanodGuo and 1,N(2)-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine (1,N(2)-edGuo) in tissues of rats exposed to 12 ppb, 33 ppb and 96 ppb acetaldehyde in atmospheric air for 50 days. A significant increase in the levels of 1,N(2)-propanodGuo was observed in lung tissues of rats exposed to 12 ppb (7.8/10(8) dGuo); 33 ppb (8.9/10(8) dGuo) and 96 ppb (11.6/10(8) dGuo) compared to controls (4.2/10(8) dGuo). For comparative purposes, the levels of 1,N(2)-etheno-2'-deoxyguanosine (1,N(2)-edGuo), which is produced from a,b-unsaturated aldehydes formed during the lipid peroxidation process were also measured. Elevated levels of 1,N(2)-edGuo were observed only in lung tissues of animals exposed to 96 ppb acetaldehyde. 1,N(2)-propanodGuo also differed quantitatively in liver but not in brain. The monitoring of 1,N(2)-propanodGuo levels in tissues provides important information on acetaldehyde genotoxicity and may contribute to the elucidation of the mechanisms associated with acetaldehyde exposure and cancer risk. Supported byFAPESP:2011/10048-5, CAPES, INCT Redoxoma:573530/2008-4,NAP Redoxoma: 2011.1.9352.1.8, CEPID Redoxoma:2013/07937-8. PMID:26461370

  1. Gene cloning, expression, and characterization of a novel acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Issatchenkia terricola strain XJ-2.

    PubMed

    Yao, Zhengying; Zhang, Chong; Lu, Fengxia; Bie, Xiaomei; Lu, Zhaoxin

    2012-03-01

    Acetaldehyde is a known mutagen and carcinogen. Active aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) represents an important mechanism for acetaldehyde detoxification. A yeast strain XJ-2 isolated from grape samples was found to produce acetaldehyde dehydrogenase with a high activity of 2.28 U/mg and identified as Issatchenkia terricola. The enzyme activity was validated by oxidizing acetaldehyde to acetate with NAD(+) as coenzyme based on the headspace gas chromatography analysis. A novel acetaldehyde dehydrogenase gene (ist-ALD) was cloned by combining SiteFinding-PCR and self-formed adaptor PCR. The ist-ALD gene comprised an open reading frame of 1,578 bp and encoded a protein of 525 amino acids. The predicted protein of ist-ALD showed the highest identity (73%) to ALDH from Pichia angusta. The ist-ALD gene was expressed in Escherichia coli, and the gene product (ist-ALDH) presented a productivity of 442.3 U/mL cells. The purified ist-ALDH was a homotetramer of 232 kDa consisting of 57 kDa-subunit according to the SDS-PAGE and native PAGE analysis. Ist-ALDH exhibited the optimal activity at pH 9.0 and 40°C, respectively. The activity of ist-ALDH was enhanced by K(+), NH4(+), dithiothreitol, and 2-mercaptoethanol but strongly inhibited by Ag(+), Hg(2+), Cu(2+), and phenylmethyl sulfonylfluoride. In the presence of NAD(+), ist-ALDH could oxidize many aliphatic, aromatic, and heterocyclic aldehydes, preferably acetaldehyde. Kinetic study revealed that ist-ALDH had a k (cat) value of 27.71/s and a k (cat)/K (m) value of 26.80 × 10(3)/(mol s) on acetaldehyde, demonstrating ist-ALDH, a catalytically active enzyme by comparing with other ALDHs. These studies indicated that ist-ALDH was a potential enzymatic product for acetaldehyde detoxification. PMID:21858493

  2. Acetaldehyde Induces Cytotoxicity of SH-SY5Y Cells via Inhibition of Akt Activation and Induction of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Tingting; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Xia

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction. It has been shown that heavy drinking is associated with an earlier onset of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Acetaldehyde, the most toxic metabolite of ethanol, is speculated to mediate the brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction induced by the chronic excessive consumption of alcohol. However, the exact mechanisms by which acetaldehyde induces neurotoxicity are not totally understood. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of acetaldehyde in SH-SY5Y cells and found that acetaldehyde induced apoptosis of SH-SY5Y cells by downregulating the expression of antiapoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL and upregulating the expression of proapoptotic Bax. Acetaldehyde treatment led to a significant decrease in the levels of activated Akt and cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB). In addition, acetaldehyde induced the activation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) while inhibiting the activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs, p44/p42MAPK). Meanwhile, acetaldehyde treatment caused an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species and elevated the oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, acetaldehyde induces cytotoxicity of SH-SY5Y cells via promotion of apoptotic signaling, inhibition of cell survival pathway, and induction of oxidative stress. PMID:26649137

  3. Determination of acrolein in serum by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection after pre-column fluorogenic derivatization using 1,2-diamino-4,5-dimethoxybenzene.

    PubMed

    Imazato, Takahiro; Kanematsu, Mariko; Kishikawa, Naoya; Ohyama, Kaname; Hino, Takako; Ueki, Yukitaka; Maehata, Eisuke; Kuroda, Naotaka

    2015-09-01

    Acrolein is a major unsaturated aldehyde that is generated during the lipid peroxidation process. The measurement of acrolein in biological samples should be useful to estimate the degree of lipid peroxidation and to evaluate the effect of hazardous properties of acrolein on human health. In this study, a highly sensitive and selective high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection method was developed for the determination of acrolein in human serum. The proposed method involves the pre-column fluorogenic derivatization of acrolein with 1,2-diamino-4,5-dimethoxybenzene (DDB) as a reagent. The fluorescent derivative of acrolein could be detected clearly without any interfering reagent blank peaks because DDB does not have intrinsic fluorescence itself, and the detection limit was 10 nM (signal-to-noise ratio = 3). The proposed method could selectively detect acrolein in human serum with a simple protein precipitation treatment. PMID:25620324

  4. Acrolein Exposure in U.S. Tobacco Smokers and Non-Tobacco Users: NHANES 2005–2006

    PubMed Central

    deCastro, B. Rey; Morrow, John C.; Blount, Benjamin C.

    2015-01-01

    Background Acrolein is a highly reactive α,β unsaturated aldehyde and respiratory irritant. Acrolein is formed during combustion (e.g., burning tobacco or biomass), during high-temperature cooking of foods, and in vivo as a product of oxidative stress and polyamine metabolism. No biomonitoring reference data have been reported to characterize acrolein exposure for the U.S. population. Objectives Our goals were to a) evaluate two acrolein metabolites in urine—N-acetyl-S-(3-hydroxypropyl)-l-cysteine (3HPMA) and N-acetyl-S-(2-carboxyethyl)-l-cysteine (CEMA)—as biomarkers of exposure to acrolein for the U.S. population by age, sex, race, and smoking status; and b) assess tobacco smoke as a predictor of acrolein exposure. Methods We analyzed urine from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES 2005–2006) participants ≥ 12 years old (n = 2,866) for 3HPMA and CEMA using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/ESI-MSMS). Sample-weighted linear regression models stratified for non-tobacco users versus tobacco smokers (as defined by serum cotinine and self-report) characterized the association of urinary 3HPMA and CEMA with tobacco smoke exposure, adjusting for urinary creatinine, sex, age, and race/ethnicity. Results 3HPMA and CEMA levels were higher among tobacco smokers (cigarettes, cigars, and pipe users) than among non-tobacco users. The median 3HPMA levels for tobacco smokers and non-tobacco users were 1,089 and 219 μg/g creatinine, respectively. Similarly, median CEMA levels were 203 μg/g creatinine for tobacco smokers and 78.8 μg/g creatinine for non-tobacco users. Regression analysis showed that serum cotinine was a significant positive predictor (p < 0.0001) of both 3HPMA and CEMA among tobacco smokers. Conclusions Tobacco smoke was a significant predictor of acrolein exposure in the U.S. population. Citation Alwis KU, deCastro BR, Morrow JC, Blount BC. 2015

  5. Unusual formaldehyde-induced hypersensitivity in two schoolgirls

    SciTech Connect

    Gammage, R.B. ); Hanna, W.T.; Painter, P.B. )

    1990-01-01

    Two schoolgirls developed a syndrome resembling Henoch-Schonlein purpura while attending a recently opened school insulated with urea-formaldehyde foam (UFFI). Skin rashes and swellings were accompanied by bizarre, blue-green discoloration of the skin. Subsequent investigations by county, state and federal authorities, and low measured concentrations of formaldehyde, prompted initial conclusions that in-school formaldehyde exposures were not responsible for the girls' problems. Subsequent controlled exposures to UFFI and formaldehyde while in hospital elicited the whole cascade of symptoms. The chronology of the onset and amplification of systems make it probable that the formaldehyde exposures precipitating the girls' hypersensitivity, occurred in the school. 3 refs.

  6. Acrolein depletes the neuropeptides CGRP and substance P in sensory nerves in rat respiratory tract.

    PubMed Central

    Springall, D R; Edginton, J A; Price, P N; Swanston, D W; Noel, C; Bloom, S R; Polak, J M

    1990-01-01

    The mammalian respiratory tract is densely innervated by autonomic and sensory nerves around airways and blood vessels. Subsets of these nerves contain a number of putative neurotransmitter peptides, such as substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in sensory nerves and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), possibly serving autonomic functions. CGRP is also found in endocrine cells in rat airway epithelium. These peptides are all pharmacologically potent effectors of bronchial and vascular smooth muscle and bronchial secretion. Their functions in vivo are less well established. We have therefore examined the effects of inhaled acrolein, a sensory irritant, on three pulmonary neuropeptides: CGRP, substance P, and VIP. Groups of rats (n = 3 each) were exposed for 10 min to acrolein in air (Ct = 510, 1858, and 5693 mg.min/m3) or to air alone. Fifteen minutes later they were killed (pentabarbitone IP) and their respiratory tracts were dissected and fixed in 0.4% p-benzoquinone solution. Cryostat sections were stained by indirect immunofluorescence for a general nerve marker (PGP 9.5) and neuropeptides. The acrolein-treated animals had a dose-related decrease in tracheal substance P- and CGRP-immunoreactive nerve fibers compared with controls. No change was seen in total nerve fiber distribution and number (PGP 9.5) or VIP immunoreactivity, nor in CGRP-immunoreactive epithelial endocrine cells. It is concluded that the rat tracheal peptidergic nerves are a sensitive indicator of inhaled irritant substances. Their reduced immunoreactivity may be because of a release of sensory neuropeptides that could play a role in the physiological response to irritant or toxic compounds. Images FIGURE 4. a FIGURE 4. b FIGURE 5. a FIGURE 5. b FIGURE 6. a FIGURE 6. b FIGURE 7. a FIGURE 7. b FIGURE 7. c FIGURE 8. a FIGURE 8. b PMID:1696540

  7. 29 CFR 1926.1148 - Formaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Formaldehyde. 1926.1148 Section 1926.1148 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1148...

  8. 29 CFR 1926.1148 - Formaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Formaldehyde. 1926.1148 Section 1926.1148 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1148...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.1148 - Formaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Formaldehyde. 1926.1148 Section 1926.1148 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1148...

  10. 29 CFR 1926.1148 - Formaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Formaldehyde. 1926.1148 Section 1926.1148 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1148...

  11. A passive sampler for airborne formaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosjean, Daniel; Williams, Edwin L.

    A simple, inexpensive passive sampler is described that is capable of reliable measurements of formaldehyde at the parts per billion (ppb) levels relevant to indoor and outdoor air quality. The passive sampler consists of a modified dual filter holder in which the upper stage serves as the diffusion barrier, the lower stage includes a 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH)-coated filter which collects formaldehyde, and the space between the two stages serve as the diffusion gap. The measured sampling rate, 18.8 ± 1.8 ml min -1, was determined in experiments involving sampling of ppb levels of formaldehyde with the passive sampler and with DNPH-coated C 18 cartridges and agrees well with the value of 19.4 ± 2.0 ml min -1 calculated from theory. The measured sampling rate was independent of formaldehyde concentration (16-156 ppb) and sampling duration (1.5-72 h). The precision of the measurements for colocated passive samplers averaged 8.6% in purified and indoor air (office and museums) and 10.2% in photochemically polluted outdoor air. With a 1.2-μm pore size Teflon filter as the diffusion barrier, the detection limit is 32 ppb h, e.g. 4 ppb in an 8-h sample, 1.3 ppb in a 24-h sample, and so on. Perceived advantages and limitations of the sampler are discussed including flexibility, cost effectiveness and possible negative bias at high ambient levels of ozone.

  12. CHRONIC RESPIRATORY EFFECTS OF INDOOR FORMALDEHYDE EXPOSURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relation of chronic respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to formaldehyde (HCHO) in homes was studied in a sample of 298 children (6 - 15 years of age) and 613 adults. CHO measurements were made with passive samplers two one-week periods. ata on chronic cough and phlegm...

  13. Gypsum Wallboard as a sink for formaldehyde

    EPA Science Inventory

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) has been of special concern as an indoor air pollutant because of its presence in a wide range of consumer products and its adverse health effects. Materials acting as HCHO sinks, such as painted gypsum wallboard, can become emission sources. However, adsorpti...

  14. Electrospinning formaldehyde cross-linked zein solutions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to develop zein fibers with improved physical properties and solvent resistance, formaldehyde was used as the cross-linking reagent before spinning. The cross-linking reaction was carried out in either acetic acid or ethanolic-HCl where the amount of cross-linking reagent was between 1 and...

  15. 29 CFR 1926.1148 - Formaldehyde.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Formaldehyde. 1926.1148 Section 1926.1148 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Toxic and Hazardous Substances § 1926.1148...

  16. Edible carbohydrates from formaldehyde in a spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weiss, A. H.

    1975-01-01

    The autocatalytic nature of the base catalyzed condensation of formaldehyde to formose sugars is eliminated by using as a cocatalyst, an aldose, or ketose having an alpha-hydrogen. This is more strongly complexed by base than is formaldehyde and the cocatalyst and sugar products accumulate as catalyst complexes instead of formaldehyde. Because of the presence of alpha-hydrogen atoms in cocatalysts and formose sugars, their removal by cross Cannizzaro reaction of complexed sugars does not occur, so the formose reaction behaves autocatalytically due to this accumulation. It is believed that a given catalytic formose complex is not a discrete complexed sugar, but rather, a scrambled dynamic mixture of sugars having weakened structures. The sugar complexes derive from a common salt-like formaldehyde complex, which, because of the absence of alpha-hydrogen, has a greater tendency to undergo Cannizzaro reaction, rather than formose condensation. Because of this, the Cannizzaro reaction can proceed without measurable formose condensation. The reverse is not possible.

  17. Development of melamine-formaldehyde resin microcapsules with low formaldehyde emission suited for seed treatment.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Huizhu; Li, Guangxing; Yang, Lijuan; Yan, Xiaojing; Yang, Daibin

    2015-04-01

    To reduce the application frequency and improve the efficacy of insecticides, melamine-formaldehyde (MF) resin microcapsules suited for seed treatment containing a mixture of fipronil and chlorpyrifos were prepared by in situ polymerization. A formaldehyde/melamine molar ratio of 4:1 yielded microcapsules with the smallest size and the most narrow size distribution. The level of unreacted formaldehyde in the microcapsule suspension increased proportionally with the F/M molar ratio. When the MF resin microcapsule suspension was used as a seed treatment to coat peanut seeds, the unreacted formaldehyde did not significantly inhibit the seedling emergence, but the ongoing release of formaldehyde generated from the degradation of MF resins played an important role in inhibiting emergence. Melamine was shown to be an effective formaldehyde scavenger that mitigated this inhibition when it was incorporated within the microcapsule wall. Field experiments showed that MF-resin-encapsulated mixtures of fipronil and chlorpyrifos have much greater efficacies against white grubs than the conventional formulation. PMID:25734968

  18. Toxic effects of formaldehyde on the urinary system

    PubMed Central

    İnci, Mehmet; Zararsız, İsmail; Davarcı, Mürsel; Görür, Sadık

    2013-01-01

    Formaldehyde is a chemical substance with a pungent odor that is highly soluble in water and occurs naturally in organisms. Formaldehyde, when taken into organisms, is metabolized into formic acid in the liver and erythrocytes and is then excreted, either with the urine and feces or via the respiratory system. Form-aldehyde is widely used in the industrial and medical fields, and employees in these sectors are frequently exposed to it. Anatomists and medical students are affected by formaldehyde gas during dissection lessons. Because full protection from formaldehyde is impossible for employees in industrial plants using this chemical and for workers in laboratory conditions, several measures can be implemented to prevent and/or reduce the toxic effects of formaldehyde. In this review, we aimed to identify the toxic effects of formaldehyde on the urinary system. PMID:26328078

  19. Metabolism and binding of cyclophosphamide and its metabolite acrolein to rat hepatic microsomal cytochrome P-450

    SciTech Connect

    Marinello, A.J.; Bansal, S.K.; Paul, B.; Koser, P.L.; Love, J.; Struck, R.F.; Gurtoo, H.L.

    1984-10-01

    The hepatic cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolism and metabolic activation of (chloroethyl-3H)cyclophosphamide (( chloroethyl-3H)CP) and (4-14C)cyclophosphamide (( 4-14C)CP) were investigated in vitro in the reconstituted system containing cytochrome P-450 isolated from phenobarbital-treated rats. In addition, hepatic microsomal binding and the hepatic microsome-mediated metabolism of (14C)acrolein, a metabolite of (4-14C)CP, were also investigated. The metabolism of (chloroethyl-3H)CP and (4-14C)CP to polar metabolites was found to depend on the presence of NADPH and showed concentration dependence with respect to cytochrome P-450 and NADPH:cytochrome P-450 reductase. Km and Vmax values were essentially similar. The patterns of inhibition by microsomal mixed-function oxidase inhibitors, anti-cytochrome P-450 antibody, and heat denaturation of the cytochrome P-450 were essentially similar, with subtle differences between (4-14C)CP and (chloroethyl-3H)CP metabolism. The in vitro metabolic activation of CP in the reconstituted system demonstrated predominant binding of (chloroethyl-3H)CP to nucleic acids and almost exclusive binding of (4-14C)CP to proteins. Gel electrophoresis-fluorography of the proteins in the reconstituted system treated with (4-14C)CP demonstrated localization of the 14C label in the cytochrome P-450 region. To examine this association further, hepatic microsomes were modified with (14C)acrolein in the presence and the absence of NADPH. The results confirmed covalent association between (14C)acrolein and cytochrome P-450 in the microsomes and also demonstrated further metabolism of (14C)acrolein, apparently to an epoxide, which is capable of binding covalently to proteins. The results of these investigations not only confirm the significance of primary metabolism but also emphasize the potential role of the secondary metabolism of cyclophosphamide in some of its toxic manifestations.

  20. Development of industrial brewing yeast with low acetaldehyde production and improved flavor stability.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinjing; Shen, Nan; Yin, Hua; Liu, Chunfeng; Li, Yongxian; Li, Qi

    2013-02-01

    Higher acetaldehyde concentration in beer is one of the main concerns of current beer industry in China. Acetaldehyde is always synthesized during beer brewing by the metabolism of yeast. Here, using ethanol as the sole carbon source and 4-methylpyrazole as the selection marker, we constructed a new mutant strain with lower acetaldehyde production and improved ethanol tolerance via traditional mutagenesis strategy. European Brewery Convention tube fermentation tests comparing the fermentation broths of mutant strain and industrial brewing strain showed that the acetaldehyde concentration of mutant strain was 81.67 % lower, whereas its resistant staling value was 1.0-fold higher. Owing to the mutation, the alcohol dehydrogenase activity of the mutant strain decreased to about 30 % of the wild-type strain. In the meantime, the fermentation performance of the newly screened strain has little difference compared with the wild-type strain, and there are no safety problems regarding the industrial usage of the mutant strain. Therefore, we suggest that the newly screened strain could be directly applied to brewing industry. PMID:23296804

  1. PRIMARY PROCESSES IN THE PHOTOLYSIS OF ACETALDEHYDE AT 3000 A AND 25 DEGREES C

    EPA Science Inventory

    The quantum yields of the gaseous products CH4, CO, and H2 have been determined in 3000-A photolyses of acetaldehyde and its mixtures with CO2, i-C4H8, and O2. The results help define the nature and the quantum yields of the primary processes.

  2. Involvement of the endogenous opioid system in the psychopharmacological actions of ethanol: the role of acetaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Font, Laura; Luján, Miguel Á.; Pastor, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    Significant evidence implicates the endogenous opioid system (EOS) (opioid peptides and receptors) in the mechanisms underlying the psychopharmacological effects of ethanol. Ethanol modulates opioidergic signaling and function at different levels, including biosynthesis, release, and degradation of opioid peptides, as well as binding of endogenous ligands to opioid receptors. The role of β-endorphin and µ-opioid receptors (OR) have been suggested to be of particular importance in mediating some of the behavioral effects of ethanol, including psychomotor stimulation and sensitization, consumption and conditioned place preference (CPP). Ethanol increases the release of β-endorphin from the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (NArc), which can modulate activity of other neurotransmitter systems such as mesolimbic dopamine (DA). The precise mechanism by which ethanol induces a release of β-endorphin, thereby inducing behavioral responses, remains to be elucidated. The present review summarizes accumulative data suggesting that the first metabolite of ethanol, the psychoactive compound acetaldehyde, could participate in such mechanism. Two lines of research involving acetaldehyde are reviewed: (1) implications of the formation of acetaldehyde in brain areas such as the NArc, with high expression of ethanol metabolizing enzymes and presence of cell bodies of endorphinic neurons and (2) the formation of condensation products between DA and acetaldehyde such as salsolinol, which exerts its actions via OR. PMID:23914161

  3. 40 CFR 721.10662 - Acetaldehyde, substituted-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Acetaldehyde, substituted-, reaction... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  4. 40 CFR 721.10662 - Acetaldehyde, substituted-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-, reaction products with 2-butyne-1, 4-diol (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Acetaldehyde, substituted-, reaction... ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF...

  5. Modeling the IR Spectra of Acetaldehyde from a New Vibrational Configuration Interaction Method

    SciTech Connect

    Begue, Didier; Pouchan, Claude

    2007-12-26

    In this paper we present a new vibrational configuration interaction method known as a parallel vibrational multiple window configuration interaction P lowbar VMWCI which generates several VCI matrices and enables the variational treatment of medium size molecular systems. Application to acetaldehyde gives a new interpretation of the MIR experimental data.

  6. Formation of a Vitamin C Conjugate of Acrolein and its Paraoxonase-mediated Conversion into 5,6,7,8-Tetrahydroxy-4-oxooctanal

    PubMed Central

    Kesinger, Nicholas G.; Langsdorf, Brandi L.; Yokochi, Alexandre F.; Miranda, Cristobal L.; Stevens, Jan F.

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin C (ascorbic acid) has been reported to participate in Michael addition reactions in vitro to form vitamin C conjugates with α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, such as acrolein. This study shows evidence for the formation and metabolism of the vitamin C conjugate of acrolein (AscACR) in cultured human monocytic THP-1 cells exposed to acrolein diacetate. By using 18O and 13C labeling in combination with liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry, AscACR was shown to undergo hydrolytic conversion of the ascorbyl lactone into an intermediate carboxylic acid. Subsequent decarboxylation of the carboxylic acid yielded 5,6,7,8-tetrahydroxy-4-oxooctanal (THO). When THP-1 cells were pretreated with ascorbic acid (1 mM, 18 hours) and then exposed to acrolein diacetate, THO was detected as its pentafluorobenzyl oxime derivative in the cell lysates and medium. Treatment of THP-1 cells with both ascorbic acid and acrolein diacetate was required for THO formation. The formation of THO from AscACR was facilitated by the lactonase enzymes, human recombinant paraoxonases 1 and 2. THP-1 cells exhibited PON activity which explains the catalytic conversion of AscACR into THO in these cells. THO was formed in addition to metabolites of the glutathione conjugate of acrolein, indicating that THO formation contributes to the elimination of acrolein in a cellular environment. PMID:20353174

  7. Acetaldehyde stimulation of net gluconeogenic carbon movement from applied malic Acid in tomato fruit pericarp tissue.

    PubMed

    Halinska, A; Frenkel, C

    1991-03-01

    Applied acetaldehyde is known to lead to sugar accumulation in fruit including tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) (O Paz, HW Janes, BA Prevost, C Frenkel [1982] J Food Sci 47: 270-274) presumably due to stimulation of gluconeogenesis. This conjecture was examined using tomato fruit pericarp discs as a test system and applied i-[U-(14)C]malic acid as the source for gluconeogenic carbon mobilization. The label from malate was recovered in respiratory CO(2), in other organic acids, in ethanol insoluble material, and an appreciable amount in the ethanol soluble sugar fraction. In Rutgers tomatoes, the label recovery in the sugar fraction and an attendant label reduction in the organic acids fraction intensified with fruit ripening. In both Rutgers and in the nonripening tomato rin, these processes were markedly stimulated by 4000 ppm acetaldehyde. The onset of label apportioning from malic acids to sugars coincided with decreased levels of fructose-2,6-biphosphate, the gluconeogenesis inhibitor. In acetaldehyde-treated tissues, with enhanced label mobilization, this decline reached one-half to one third of the initial fructose-2,6-biphosphate levels. Application of 30 micromolar fructose-2,6-biphosphate or 2,5-anhydro-d-mannitol in turn led to a precipitous reduction in the label flow to sugars presumably due to inhibition of fructose-1,6-biphosphatase by the compounds. We conclude that malic and perhaps other organic acids are carbon sources for gluconeogenesis occurring normally in ripening tomatoes. The process is stimulated by acetaldehyde apparently by attenuating the fructose-2,6-biphosphate levels. The mode of the acetaldehyde regulation of fructose-2,6-biphosphate metabolism awaits clarification. PMID:16668078

  8. Abundances of ethylene oxide and acetaldehyde in hot molecular cloud cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nummelin, A.; Dickens, J. E.; Bergman, P.; Hjalmarson, A.; Irvine, W. M.; Ikeda, M.; Ohishi, M.

    1998-01-01

    We have searched for millimetre-wave line emission from ethylene oxide (c-C2H4O) and its structural isomer acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) in 11 molecular clouds using SEST. Ethylene oxide and acetaldehyde were detected through multiple lines in the hot cores NGC 6334F, G327.3-0.6, G31.41+0.31, and G34.3+0.2. Acetaldehyde was also detected towards G10.47+0.03, G322.2+0.6, and Orion 3'N, and one ethylene oxide line was tentatively detected in G10.47+0.03. Column densities and rotational excitation temperatures were derived using a procedure which fits the observed line intensifies by finding the minimum chi 2-value. The resulting rotational excitation temperatures of ethylene oxide and acetaldehyde are in the range 16-38 K, indicating that these species are excited in the outer, cooler parts of the hot cores or that the excitation is significantly subthermal. For an assumed source size of 20", the deduced column densities are (0.6-1)x10(14) cm-2 for ethylene oxide and (2-5)x10(14) cm-2 for acetaldehyde. The fractional abundances with respect to H2 are X[c-C2H4O]=(2-6)xl0(-10), and X[CH3CHO]=(0.8-3)x10(-9). The ratio X[CH3CHO]/X[c-C2H4O] varies between 2.6 (NGC 6334F) and 8.5 (G327.3-0.6). We also detected and analysed multiple transitions of CH3OH, CH3OCH3, C2H5OH, and HCOOH. The chemical, and possibly evolutionary, states of NGC 6334F, G327.3-0.6, G31.41+0.31, and G34.3+0.2 seem to be very similar.

  9. Modeling of experimental treatment of acetaldehyde-laden air and phenol-containing water using corona discharge technique.

    PubMed

    Faungnawakij, Kajornsak; Sano, Noriaki; Charinpanitkul, Tawatchai; Tanthapanichakoon, Wiwut

    2006-03-01

    Acetaldehyde-laden air and phenol-contaminated water were experimentally treated using corona discharge reactions and gas absorption in a single water-film column. Mathematical modeling of the combined treatment was developed in this work. Efficient removal of the gaseous acetaldehyde was achieved while the corona discharge reactions produced short-lived species such as O and O- as well as ozone. Direct contact of the radicals and ions with water was known to produce aqueous OH radical, which contributes to the decomposition of organic contaminants: phenol, absorbed acetaldehyde, and intermediate byproducts in the water. The influence of initial phenol concentration ranging from 15 to 50 mg L(-1) and that of influent acetaldehyde ranging from 0 to 200 ppm were experimentally investigated and used to build the math model. The maximum energetic efficiency of TOC, phenol, and acetaldehyde were obtained at 25.6 x 10(-9) mol carbon J(-1), 25.0 x 10(-9) mol phenol J(-1), and 2.0 x 10(-9) mol acetaldehyde J(-1), respectively. The predictions for the decomposition of acetaldehyde, phenol, and their intermediates were found to be in good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:16568779

  10. Formation of 2-propanol in condensed molecular films of acetaldehyde following electron impact ionisation-induced proton transfer*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borrmann, Tobias; Swiderek, Petra

    2016-06-01

    Experimental studies on thin condensed layers of acetaldehyde have previously revealed that electron exposure at an energy above the ionisation threshold leads to formation of 2-propanol. However, the mechanism of this reaction remained unclear. Therefore, a computational approach is used to explore the electron-induced reactions of acetaldehyde yielding 2-propanol. Starting from hydrogen-bonded dimers of acetaldehyde we show that the initial ionisation event triggers proton transfer between the two acetaldehyde moieties resulting in a hydrogen-bonded complex of a [OCCH3] radical and a protonated acetaldehyde cation. Given an excess energy of up to 0.75 eV and a favourable arrangement, a methyl radical released upon dissociation of the CC bond within the [OCCH3] radical can migrate to the carbonyl carbon of the protonated acetaldehyde cation. This produces a 2-propanol radical cation and CO. Neutral 2-propanol is then obtained by recombination with a second electron. A mechanism involving ionisation-driven proton transfer is thus proposed as pathway to the formation of 2-propanol during electron exposure of condensed layers of acetaldehyde.

  11. Theoretical study of the regioselectivity of [2 + 2] photocycloaddition reactions of acrolein with olefins.

    PubMed

    Jaque, Pablo; Toro-Labbé, Alejandro; Geerlings, Paul; De Proft, Frank

    2009-01-01

    The regioselectivity of the [2 + 2] photocycloaddition reaction between triplet pi pi(*) acrolein and substituted olefins in their ground states was studied using the reaction force concept and reactivity indices from conceptual spin-polarized density functional theory. In the first part, the reaction path was determined for the attack of the acrolein alpha- and beta-carbon atoms on the alkenes, yielding biradical intermediates evolving to the head-to-tail (HT) and head-to-head (HH) regioisomers, respectively. The beta pathway was found to be the most favorable path from the thermodynamic and kinetic points of view, indicating that the formation of the HH cycloadduct should be preferred for reactions with both electron-rich and electron-poor alkenes if this first step determines the final regioselectivity. In the second part, the reactivity of the biradical intermediates was characterized through global and local spin-polarized response functions, together with the local hard-soft acid-base principle. The results indicate that the intermediate formed from the electron-rich alkenes evolves preferentially toward the HT regioisomer whereas electron-poor alkenes tend to form the HH isomer, in agreement with experiment and previous theoretical studies. PMID:19072329

  12. Quantum Monte Carlo Study of the Reactions of CH with Acrolein: Major and Minor Channels.

    PubMed

    Pakhira, Srimanta; Singh, Ravi I; Olatunji-Ojo, Olayinka; Frenklach, Michael; Lester, William A

    2016-05-26

    Acrolein is an important unsaturated hydrocarbon, containing both C═O and C═C bonds, and responsible for atmospheric pollution. A recent study of major reactions of CH with acrolein has been supplemented with computations of other reactions of the system. Similar to the previous approach, the quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) method in the accurate diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) method was implemented. Single determinant wave functions were used as trial functions for the random walks. Rate coefficients and product branching ratios were computed by solving master equations using the MultiWell software suite. At room temperature, the dominant product channels are 2-methylvinyl + CO (P6), 1,3-butadienal + H (P2), and furan + H (P1). At elevated temperatures, 2,3-butadienal + H (P10) is also a major product. The chain decomposition pathway to form C3H4 + HCO was not competitive with the cyclization pathway at any of the temperatures studied. The DMC branching fractions of the products formed in the subject reaction are in reasonable accord with previous experimental and theoretical values. The computed rate coefficients were found to be independent of pressure at temperatures relevant to combustion (1500-2500 K). PMID:27046018

  13. Dehydration of Glycerin to Acrolein Over Heteropolyacid Nano-Catalysts Supported on Silica-Alumina.

    PubMed

    Kang, Tae Hun; Choi, Jung Ho; Choi, Jun Seon; Song, In Kyu

    2015-10-01

    A series of H3PW12O40 nano-catalysts supported on silica-alumina (XH3PW12O40/SA (X = 10, 15, 20, 25, and 30)) with different H3PW12O40 content (X, wt%) were prepared, and they were applied to the dehydration of glycerin to acrolein. The effect of H3PW12O40 content on the physicochemical properties and catalytic activities of XH3PW12O40/SA nano-catalysts was investigated. Surface area and pore volume of XH3PW12O40/SA catalysts decreased with increasing H3PW12O40 content. Formation of H3PW12O40 aggregates was observed in the catalysts with high H3PW12O40 loading. Brønsted acidity of the catalysts showed a volcano-shaped trend with respect to H3PW12O40 content. It was revealed that yield for acrolein increased with increasing Brønsted acidity of XH3PW12O40/SA catalysts. Brønsted acidity of XH3PW12O40/SA catalysts served as a crucial factor determining the catalytic performance in the dehydration of glycerin. Among the catalysts tested, 25H3PW12O40/SA catalyst with the largest Brønsted acidity showed the best catalytic performance. PMID:26726511

  14. Determination of molecular line parameters for acrolein (C 3H 4O) using infrared tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harward, Charles N.; Thweatt, W. David; Baren, Randall E.; Parrish, Milton E.

    2006-04-01

    Acrolein (C 3H 4O) molecular line parameters, including infrared (IR) absorption positions, strengths, and nitrogen broadened half-widths, must be determined since they are not included in the high resolution transmission (HITRAN) molecular absorption database of spectral lines. These parameters are required for developing a quantitative analytical method for measuring acrolein in a single puff of cigarette smoke using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS). The task is complex since acrolein has many highly overlapping infrared absorption lines in the room temperature spectrum and the cigarette smoke matrix contains thousands of compounds. This work describes the procedure for estimating the molecular line parameters for these overlapping absorption lines in the wavenumber range (958.7-958.9 cm -1) using quantitative reference spectra taken with the infrared lead-salt TDLAS instrument at different pressures and concentrations. The nitrogen broadened half-width for acrolein is 0.0937 cm -1 atm -1 and to our knowledge, is the first time it has been reported in the literature.

  15. Protective effect of Pycnogenol in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells following acrolein-induced cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Mubeen A; Keller, Jeffrey N; Scheff, Stephen W

    2008-12-01

    Oxidative stress is one of the hypotheses involved in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Considerable attention has been focused on increasing the intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels in many neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. Pycnogenol (PYC) has antioxidant properties and stabilizes intracellular antioxidant defense systems including glutathione levels. The present study investigated the protective effects of PYC on acrolein-induced oxidative cell toxicity in cultured SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Decreased cell survival in SH-SY5Y cultures treated with acrolein correlated with oxidative stress, increased NADPH oxidase activity, free radical production, protein oxidation/nitration (protein carbonyl, 3-nitrotyrosine), and lipid peroxidation (4-hydroxy-2-nonenal). Pretreatment with PYC significantly attenuated acrolein-induced cytotoxicity, protein damage, lipid peroxidation, and cell death. A dose-response study suggested that PYC showed protective effects against acrolein toxicity by modulating oxidative stress and increasing GSH. These findings provide support that PYC may provide a promising approach for the treatment of oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative diseases such as AD. PMID:18822368

  16. Simultaneous exposure to concentrated ambient particles and acrolein causes cardiac effects mediated by parasympathetic modulation in mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study shows that exposure to CAPs and acrolein causes an increase in HRV that is mediated by the parasympathetic nervous system. Numerous studies show that short-term air pollution exposure modulates heart rate variability (HRV), which is an indicator of autonomic influence...

  17. Acrolein Causes TRPA1-Mediated Sensory Irritation and Indirect Potentiation of TRPV1-Mediated Pulmonary Chemoreflex Response

    EPA Science Inventory

    We previously demonstrated that acute exposure to acrolein causes immediate sensory irritation, with rapid decrease in heart rate (HR) and increase in inspiratory time (Ti), and potentiation of pulmonary chemoreflex response 24hrs later; of these effects only the latter is mediat...

  18. Acrolein with an alpha, beta-unsaturated Carbonyl Group Inhibits LPS-induced Homodimerization of Toll-like Receptor 4

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Acrolein is a highly electrophilic a,ß-unsaturated aldehyde present in a number of environmental sources, especially cigarette smoke. It reacts strongly with the thiol groups of cysteine residues by Michael addition and has been reported to inhibit nuclear factor-kB (NF-kB) activation by lipopolysac...

  19. The microcapsule-type formaldehyde scavenger: the preparation and the application in urea-formaldehyde adhesives.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hongyun; Qiu, Teng; Guo, Longhai; Ye, Jun; Li, Xiaoyu

    2015-08-15

    The limitation and regulation of formaldehyde emissions (FE) now shows great importance in wood-based materials such as plywood and particle board manufactured for building and furnishing materials. The widely used formaldehyde-based adhesives are one of the main sources of FE from the wood products. In this work, a new kind of long-term effective formaldehyde scavenger in the microcapsule form was prepared by using an intra-liquid desiccation method. The characterizations of the capsule (UC) were performed including the morphologies, the yields, the loading efficiency as well as its sustained-release of urea in aqueous conditions. The prepared UC could be integrated in urea-formaldehyde resins by simply physical blending, and the mixtures were available to be applied as the adhesives for the manufacture of plywood. The bonding strength (BS) and the FE of the bonded plywood in both short (3h) and long (12 week) period were evaluated in detail. It was found that the FE profile of the plywood behaved following a duple exponential law within 12 week. The addition of UC in the adhesive can effectively depress the FE of the plywood not only in a short period after preparation but also in a long-term period during its practical application. The slow released urea would continuously suppress the emission of toxic formaldehyde in a sustained manner without obviously deteriorating on the BS of the adhesives. PMID:25855565

  20. Effect of Relative Humidity on Formaldehyde Decontamination

    PubMed Central

    Spiner, David R.; Hoffman, Robert K.

    1971-01-01

    Death rate studies were conducted to determine the effect of varying the concentration, humidity, and type of surface on the sporicidal activity of formaldehyde gas. Washed and unwashed spores were similarly exposed to detect the influence of residual nutrient growth medium upon the rate of kill. The results indicated that the sporicidal activity of formaldehyde gas varies directly with its concentration. Relative humidities (RH) over 50% proved essential for sterility. Spores on a porous surface (cotton cloth) were more readily killed at lower RH than those on a nonporous surface (glass). The reverse occurred at very high RH. At 75% RH, the unwashed spores on glass were killed faster than the washed spores. Images PMID:5002898

  1. Formaldehyde in envelopes of interstellar dark clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Federman, S. R.; Allen, M.

    1991-01-01

    Observed formaldehyde column densities of 1 x 10 to the 12th - 3 x 10 to the 13th/sq cm in cloud envelopes along lines of sight with A(V) = 1-4 mag can not be explained with the current understanding of interstellar gas phase chemistry. However, these column densities can be reproduced by a simple time-dependent model in which H2CO is supplied to the gas phase by the erosion of icy grain mantles. The release of H2CO from the grain mantles must occur on time scales comparable to the time scales for mixing from the cloud interior to the cloud envelope. Thus, in low-density regions of clouds, it appears that formaldehyde is the second molecule whose gas phase source is primarily ejection from grains. This simple model suggests understanding gas phase steady state in clouds on macroscopic, rather than microscopic, spatial scales.

  2. Polyphenol Extract from Phellinus igniarius Protects against Acrolein Toxicity In Vitro and Provides Protection in a Mouse Stroke Model

    PubMed Central

    Suabjakyong, Papawee; Saiki, Ryotaro; Van Griensven, Leo J. L. D.; Higashi, Kyohei; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Igarashi, Kazuei; Toida, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    The basidiomycetous mushroom Phellinus igniarius (L.) Quel. has been used as traditional medicine in various Asian countries for many years. Although many reports exist on its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities and therapeutic effects against various diseases, our current knowledge of its effect on stroke is very limited. Stroke is a neurodegenerative disorder in which oxidative stress is a key hallmark. Following the 2005 discovery by Igarashi’s group that acrolein produced from polyamines in vivo is a major cause of cell damage by oxidative stress, we now describe the effects of anti-oxidative extracts from P. igniarius on symptoms of experimentally induced stroke in mice. The toxicity of acrolein was compared with that of hydrogen peroxide in a mouse mammary carcinoma cell line (FM3A). We found that the complete inhibition of FM3A cell growth by 5 μM acrolein could be prevented by crude ethanol extract of P. igniarius at 0.5 μg/ml. Seven polyphenol compounds named 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-3-buten-2one, inonoblin C, phelligridin D, inoscavin C, phelligridin C and interfungin B were identified from this ethanolic extract by LCMS and 1H NMR. Polyphenol-containing extracts of P. igniarius were then used to prevent acrolein toxicity in a mouse neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a) cell line. The results suggested that Neuro-2a cells were protected from acrolein toxicity at 2 and 5 μM by this polyphenol extract at 0.5 and 2 μg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, in mice with experimentally induced stroke, intraperitoneal treatment with P. igniarius polyphenol extract at 20 μg/kg caused a reduction of the infarction volume by 62.2% compared to untreated mice. These observations suggest that the polyphenol extract of P. igniarius could serve to prevent ischemic stroke. PMID:25811373

  3. Cytotoxicity of Thirdhand Smoke and Identification of Acrolein as a Volatile Thirdhand Smoke Chemical That Inhibits Cell Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Bahl, Vasundhra; Weng, Nikki J-H; Schick, Suzaynn F; Sleiman, Mohamad; Whitehead, Jacklyn; Ibarra, Allison; Talbot, Prue

    2016-03-01

    Thirdhand smoke (THS) is a mixture of chemicals that remain on indoor surfaces after smoking has ceased. These chemicals can be inhaled, ingested, or absorbed dermally, and thus could impact human health. We evaluated the cytotoxicity and mode of action of fresh and aged THS, the toxicity of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) in THS, and the molecular targets of acrolein, a VOC in THS. Experiments were done using mouse neural stem cells (mNSC), human pulmonary fibroblasts (hPF), and lung A549 epithelial cells. THS-exposed cotton cloth was extracted in Dulbecco's Eagle Medium and caused cytotoxicity in the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. THS extracts induced blebbing, immotility, vacuolization, cell fragmentation, severing of microfilaments and depolymerization of microtubules in mNSC. Cytotoxicity was inversely related to headspace volume in the extraction container and was lost upon aging, suggesting that VOCs in THS were cytotoxic. Phenol, 2',5'-dimethyl furan and acrolein were identified as the most cytotoxic VOCs in THS, and in combination, their cytotoxicity increased. Acrolein inhibited proliferation of mNSC and hPF and altered expression of cell cycle regulatory genes. Twenty-four hours of treatment with acrolein decreased expression of transcription factor Dp-1, a factor needed for the G1 to S transition in the cell cycle. At 48 h, WEE1 expression increased, while ANACP1 expression decreased consistent with blocking entry into and completion of the M phase of the cell cycle. This study identified acrolein as a highly cytotoxic VOC in THS which killed cells at high doses and inhibited cell proliferation at low doses. PMID:26719373

  4. Polyphenol extract from Phellinus igniarius protects against acrolein toxicity in vitro and provides protection in a mouse stroke model.

    PubMed

    Suabjakyong, Papawee; Saiki, Ryotaro; Van Griensven, Leo J L D; Higashi, Kyohei; Nishimura, Kazuhiro; Igarashi, Kazuei; Toida, Toshihiko

    2015-01-01

    The basidiomycetous mushroom Phellinus igniarius (L.) Quel. has been used as traditional medicine in various Asian countries for many years. Although many reports exist on its anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory activities and therapeutic effects against various diseases, our current knowledge of its effect on stroke is very limited. Stroke is a neurodegenerative disorder in which oxidative stress is a key hallmark. Following the 2005 discovery by Igarashi's group that acrolein produced from polyamines in vivo is a major cause of cell damage by oxidative stress, we now describe the effects of anti-oxidative extracts from P. igniarius on symptoms of experimentally induced stroke in mice. The toxicity of acrolein was compared with that of hydrogen peroxide in a mouse mammary carcinoma cell line (FM3A). We found that the complete inhibition of FM3A cell growth by 5 μM acrolein could be prevented by crude ethanol extract of P. igniarius at 0.5 μg/ml. Seven polyphenol compounds named 3,4-dihydroxybenzaldehyde, 4-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-3-buten-2one, inonoblin C, phelligridin D, inoscavin C, phelligridin C and interfungin B were identified from this ethanolic extract by LCMS and 1H NMR. Polyphenol-containing extracts of P. igniarius were then used to prevent acrolein toxicity in a mouse neuroblastoma (Neuro-2a) cell line. The results suggested that Neuro-2a cells were protected from acrolein toxicity at 2 and 5 μM by this polyphenol extract at 0.5 and 2 μg/ml, respectively. Furthermore, in mice with experimentally induced stroke, intraperitoneal treatment with P. igniarius polyphenol extract at 20 μg/kg caused a reduction of the infarction volume by 62.2% compared to untreated mice. These observations suggest that the polyphenol extract of P. igniarius could serve to prevent ischemic stroke. PMID:25811373

  5. Problems associated with the use of urea-formaldehyde foam for residential insulation. Part II. The effects of temperature and humidity on free formaldehyde, extractable formaldehyde, formaldehyde emission, and physical characteristics of the foam

    SciTech Connect

    Schutte, W.C.; Cole, R.S.; Frank, C.W.; Long, K.R.

    1981-02-01

    Results of testing with two products of urea-formaldehyde based foams are described. Results of three products have previously been reported. Methods for detection and quantitative determination of formaldehyde, design of the experimental chambers, and the procedures are described. Samples of Product D were monitored for about 29 days and samples of Product E were monitored for 60 days in chambers and results are tabulated for formaldehyde emission. Additional tests performed on the two products are: extractable formaldehyde (high and low temperature conditions); free formaldehyde (high and low temperature conditions); comparison of free formaldehyde concentration; density (high and low temperature conditions); shrinkage (high and low temperature conditions). Control panels were constructed to simulate a wall in a home and observations were made and compared with results of the experimental products.

  6. Formaldehyde exposure affects growth and metabolism of common bean

    SciTech Connect

    Mutters, R.G.; Madore, M. ); Bytnerowicz, A. )

    1993-01-01

    Recent state and federal directives have slated a substantial increase in the use of methanol as an alternative to gasoline in both fleet and private vehicles in the coming decade. The incomplete combustion of methanol produces formaldehyde vapor, and catalytic converter technology that completely oxidizes formaldehyde has yet to be developed. The approach of this study was to use a range of methanol concentrations encompassing levels currently found or that may occur in the future in the ambient air of some heavily polluted areas to test the potential phytotoxicity of formaldehyde. The study had the following objectives: (1) design and build a formaldehyde vapor generator with sufficient capacity for long-term plant fumigations; (2) determine growth response of common bean to formaldehyde; (3) evaluate physiological and biochemical changes of bean plants associated with formaldehyde exposures. 20 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Determination of Formaldehyde in Cigarette Smoke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Jon W.; Ngim, Kenley K.; Eiserich, Jason P.; Yeo, Helen C. H.; Shibamoto, Takayuki; Mabury, Scott A.

    1997-09-01

    Formaldehdye is considered a hazardous air pollutant with numerous sources that include environmental tobacco smoke (ETS). With the increasing interest regarding ETS and public health the measurement of formaldehyde readily lends itself to a laboratory experiment comparing methods of analysis. This experiment involves the collection, derivatization, extraction, and analysis of formaldehyde from cigarette smoke using two methods. Formaldehyde is extracted from smoke and derivitized with a solution of 2,4-DNPH with subsequent cleanup by solid-phase extraction and analysis of the hydrazone by HPLC with UV detection; additionally a solution of cysteamine yields the corresponding thiazolidine derivative that is liquid/liquid extracted and subsequently analyzed by either GC with NPD or FPD (sulfur mode). Reasonable agreement among the methods was obtained by lab demonstrators with spike recoveries yielding 94.7 + 6.8 (n=5) and 89.2 (n = 4) % for NPD and FPD, respectively while HPLC spiked recoveries were 83.6 + 3.2 (n = 5) %; mean class spike recoveries ranged from 80-100%. Student results (in mg/cigarette) from smoke samples were similar to literature values with 163.2 + 69.2 (n = 7) and 149.4 (n = 7) % for NPD and FPD, respectively; the HPLC result was significantly lower at 45.1 + 23.7(n = 7) with losses presumably due to hydrazone precipitating from the smoke extracted solution. Students particularly benefited from the "real world" nature of the analysis and the experience evaluating disparate methods of determining a common analyte.

  8. Health and environmental effects profile for formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    The Health and Environmental Effects Profile for formaldehyde was prepared by the Office of Health and Environmental Assessment, Environmental Criteria and Assessment Office, Cincinnati, OH for the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response to support listings of hazardous constituents of a wide range of waste streams under Section 3001 of the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) and to provide health-related limits for emergency actions under Section 101 of the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act (CERCLA). Both published literature and information obtained from Agency program office files were evaluated as they pertained to potential human health, aquatic life, and environmental effects of hazardous-waste constituents. Quantitative estimates are presented, provided sufficient data are available. Existing data are insufficient to determine an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) or a carcinogenic potency factor for formaldehyde. The Reportable Quantity (RQ) value of 1, 10, 100, 1000, or 5000 pounds is used to determine the quantity of a hazardous substance for which notification is required in the event of a release as specified by CERCLA based on chronic toxicity. The RQ value for formaldehyde is 10.

  9. Importance of formaldehyde in cloud chemistry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adewuyi, Y. G.; Cho, S.-Y.; Tsay, R.-P.; Carmichael, G. R.

    1984-01-01

    A physical-chemical model which is an extension of that of Hong and Carmichael (1983) is used to investigate the role of formaldehyde in cloud chemistry. This model takes into account the mass transfer of SO2, O3, NH3, HNO3, H2O2, CO2, HCl, HCHO, O2, OH and HO2 into cloud droplets and their subsequent chemical reactions. The model is used to assess the importance of S(IV)-HCHO adduct formation, the reduction of H2O2 by HCHO, HCHO-free radical interactions, and the formation of HCOOH in the presence of HCHO in cloud droplets. Illustrative calculations indicate that the presence of HCHO inhibits sulfate production rate in cloud droplets. The direct inhibition of sulfate production rate in cloudwater due to nucleophilic addition of HSO3(-) to HCHO(aq) to form hydroxymethanesulfonate is generally low for concentrations of HCHO typical of ambient air. However, inhibition of sulfate production due to formaldehyde-free radical interactions in solution can be important. These formaldehyde-free radical reactions can also generate appreciable quantities of formic acid.

  10. Transient receptor potential cation channel A1 (TRPA1) mediates changes in heart rate variability following a single exposure to acrolein in mice

    EPA Science Inventory

    The data show that a single exposure to acrolein causes autonomic imbalance in mice through the TRPA1 sensor and subsequent cardiac dysfunction. Human and animal studies have shown that short-term air pollution exposure causes...

  11. Acetaldehyde as an Intermediate in the Electroreduction of Carbon Monoxide to Ethanol on Oxide‐Derived Copper

    PubMed Central

    Bertheussen, Erlend; Verdaguer‐Casadevall, Arnau; Ravasio, Davide; Montoya, Joseph H.; Trimarco, Daniel B.; Roy, Claudie; Meier, Sebastian; Wendland, Jürgen; Nørskov, Jens K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Oxide‐derived copper (OD‐Cu) electrodes exhibit unprecedented CO reduction performance towards liquid fuels, producing ethanol and acetate with >50 % Faradaic efficiency at −0.3 V (vs. RHE). By using static headspace‐gas chromatography for liquid phase analysis, we identify acetaldehyde as a minor product and key intermediate in the electroreduction of CO to ethanol on OD‐Cu electrodes. Acetaldehyde is produced with a Faradaic efficiency of ≈5 % at −0.33 V (vs. RHE). We show that acetaldehyde forms at low steady‐state concentrations, and that free acetaldehyde is difficult to detect in alkaline solutions using NMR spectroscopy, requiring alternative methods for detection and quantification. Our results represent an important step towards understanding the CO reduction mechanism on OD‐Cu electrodes. PMID:26692282

  12. Acetaldehyde as an intermediate in the electroreduction of carbon monoxide to ethanol on oxide-derived copper

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Bertheussen, Erlend; Verdaguer-Casadevall, Arnau; Ravasio, Davide; Montoya, Joseph H.; Trimarco, Daniel B.; Roy, Claudie; Meier, Sebastian; Wendland, Jürgen; Nørskov, Jens K.; Stephens, Ifan E. L.; et al

    2015-12-21

    Oxide-derived copper (OD-Cu) electrodes exhibit unprecedented CO reduction performance towards liquid fuels, producing ethanol and acetate with >50 % Faradaic efficiency at -0.3 V (vs. RHE). By using static headspace-gas chromatography for liquid phase analysis, we identify acetaldehyde as a minor product and key intermediate in the electroreduction of CO to ethanol on OD-Cu electrodes. Acetaldehyde is produced with a Faradaic efficiency of ≈5 % at -0.33 V (vs. RHE). We show that acetaldehyde forms at low steady-state concentrations, and that free acetaldehyde is difficult to detect in alkaline solutions using NMR spectroscopy, requiring alternative methods for detection and quantification.more » Our results indicate an important step towards understanding the CO reduction mechanism on OD-Cu electrodes.« less

  13. Acetaldehyde as an intermediate in the electroreduction of carbon monoxide to ethanol on oxide-derived copper

    SciTech Connect

    Bertheussen, Erlend; Verdaguer-Casadevall, Arnau; Ravasio, Davide; Montoya, Joseph H.; Trimarco, Daniel B.; Roy, Claudie; Meier, Sebastian; Wendland, Jürgen; Nørskov, Jens K.; Stephens, Ifan E. L.; Chorkendorff, Ib

    2015-12-21

    Oxide-derived copper (OD-Cu) electrodes exhibit unprecedented CO reduction performance towards liquid fuels, producing ethanol and acetate with >50 % Faradaic efficiency at -0.3 V (vs. RHE). By using static headspace-gas chromatography for liquid phase analysis, we identify acetaldehyde as a minor product and key intermediate in the electroreduction of CO to ethanol on OD-Cu electrodes. Acetaldehyde is produced with a Faradaic efficiency of ≈5 % at -0.33 V (vs. RHE). We show that acetaldehyde forms at low steady-state concentrations, and that free acetaldehyde is difficult to detect in alkaline solutions using NMR spectroscopy, requiring alternative methods for detection and quantification. Our results indicate an important step towards understanding the CO reduction mechanism on OD-Cu electrodes.

  14. 40 CFR 721.9480 - Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9480 Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted... chemical substance identified generically as resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin...

  15. 40 CFR 721.9480 - Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9480 Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted... chemical substance identified generically as resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin...

  16. 40 CFR 721.9480 - Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 31 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9480 Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted... chemical substance identified generically as resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin...

  17. 40 CFR 721.9480 - Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.9480 Resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted... chemical substance identified generically as resorcinol, formaldehyde substituted carbomonocycle resin...

  18. Formaldehyde and LeukemiA: Epidemiology, Potential Mechanisms and Implications for Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    Formaldehyde is widely used in the United States and other countries. Occupational and environmental exposures to formaldehyde may be associated with an increased risk of leukemia in exposed individuals. However, risk assessment of formaldehyde and leukemia has been challenging ...

  19. Exposure to formaldehyde and its potential human health hazards.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Jahan, Shamin Ara; Lee, Jong-Tae

    2011-10-01

    A widely used chemical, formaldehyde is normally present in both indoor and outdoor air. The rapid growth of formaldehyde-related industries in the past two decades reflects the result of its increased use in building materials and other commercial sectors. Consequently, formaldehyde is encountered almost every day from large segments of society due to its various sources. Many governments and agencies around the world have thus issued a series of standards to regulate its exposure in homes, office buildings, workshops, public places, and food. In light of the deleterious properties of formaldehyde, this article provides an overview of its market, regulation standards, and human health effects. PMID:22107164

  20. Formaldehyde crosslinking: a tool for the study of chromatin complexes.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Elizabeth A; Frey, Brian L; Smith, Lloyd M; Auble, David T

    2015-10-30

    Formaldehyde has been used for decades to probe macromolecular structure and function and to trap complexes, cells, and tissues for further analysis. Formaldehyde crosslinking is routinely employed for detection and quantification of protein-DNA interactions, interactions between chromatin proteins, and interactions between distal segments of the chromatin fiber. Despite widespread use and a rich biochemical literature, important aspects of formaldehyde behavior in cells have not been well described. Here, we highlight features of formaldehyde chemistry relevant to its use in analyses of chromatin complexes, focusing on how its properties may influence studies of chromatin structure and function. PMID:26354429

  1. Effect of natural compounds on reducing formaldehyde emission from plywood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uchiyama, Shigehisa; Matsushima, Erica; Kitao, Nahoko; Tokunaga, Hiroshi; Ando, Masanori; Otsubo, Yasufumi

    The effects of natural compounds on reducing formaldehyde emission from plywood were investigated. Urea, catechin and vanillin were examined as the natural formaldehyde reducers. The microemission cell, with an internal volume of 35 ml, the maximum exposed test surface area of 177 cm 2 and an air purge flow rate of 50 ml min -1, was used to measure specific emission rate (SER). In the case of no reducer treatment, formaldehyde emission from plywood was fast and SERs were 4.4 mg m -2 h -1 at 30 °C and 15 mg m -2 h -1 at 60 °C. When this plywood was treated with the natural compounds, the SERs of formaldehyde were decreased at all temperatures. In the case of urea treatment, the SERs of formaldehyde decreased to 0.30 mg m -2 h -1 at 30 °C and 0.65 mg m -2 h -1 at 60 °C. When the urea treatment was applied to the inside of kitchen cabinet (made from plywood; 270 cm wide, 60 cm deep, 250 cm high), the concentration of formaldehyde was reduced substantially from 1600 to 130 μg m -3. The reducing effect of formaldehyde continued during the observation period (6 months), with a mean concentration of 100 μg m -3. Reducers in the plywood would react with released formaldehyde. Application of natural compounds such as urea, catechin and vanillin could provide a simple and effective approach for suppressing formaldehyde emission from plywood.

  2. Ambient temperature operated acetaldehyde vapour detection of spray deposited cobalt doped zinc oxide thin film.

    PubMed

    Shalini, S; Balamurugan, D

    2016-03-15

    Undoped and Co-doped ZnO thin films were prepared by a home built spray pyrolysis method. X-ray diffraction results indicate that both undoped and Co-doped ZnO have a polycrystalline nature and a preferential orientation peak in the (002) plane. From a field-emission scanning electron micrographs of annealed films, a uniform distribution of nanoparticles along with nanorods was observed. UV-Visible measurement indicated that all the films are transparent in the visible region. The electrical resistance was also reported. The acetaldehyde sensing behaviour of the prepared undoped and Co-doped ZnO thin films was studied using the chemi-resistive method at ambient temperature (∼30 °C). In the presence of 10 ppm of acetaldehyde vapour, the Co-doped ZnO thin films showed good sensing response of 74% with fast response and recovery time of 3 s and 110 s respectively. PMID:26748067

  3. [Medichronal lowers blood ethanol and acetaldehyde and restores the concentration of catecholamines in rat tissues].

    PubMed

    Bozhko HKZh; Boĭko, T P; Kostiukovs'ka, L S

    1995-01-01

    Variation of ethanol and acetaldehyde concentrations in blood, catecholamines in hypothalamus, brain stem and hemispheres, heart and adrenal glands, serotonin in the same structures of the brain, thin intestine and blood in rats was studied. Isolated action of medichronal during 10 days against the background of prolonged administration of moderate doses of ethanol significantly lowered ethanol and acetaldehyde concentration in the animal blood. Medichronal increased the level of noradrenaline, lowered under the conditions of ethanol intoxication in the hypothalamus, and increased adrenalina level in the heart; noradrenaline level in adrenal glands is restored. The amount of serotonin in the blood and tissues increased under the conditions of ethanol intoxication did not vary under the action of medichronal. The obtained results indicate to pronounced detoxication influence of medichronal. One of the mechanisms of its action is normalizing the catecholamine changes caused by the ethanol intoxication in tissues. PMID:8592777

  4. Photocatalytic and thermal catalytic oxidation of acetaldehyde on Pt/TiO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Falconer, J.L.; Magrini-Bair, K.A.

    1998-10-01

    Low concentrations of acetaldehyde in air (60 ppm) were oxidized over TiO{sub 2} (Degussa P25) and 0.5% Pt/TiO{sub 2} catalysts from 24 to 200 C by photocatalytic and thermal catalytic reactions. On Pt/TiO{sub 2}, the contribution by photocatalytic oxidation (PCO) is a maximum at 140 C, where conversion is 2.8 times that at 24 C. Titania without Pt deactivates rapidly during PCO at elevated temperature due to a thermal catalytic reaction that takes place in parallel with PCO, but the addition of Pt dramatically slows deactivation. Apparently, Pt supplies spillover oxygen onto the TiO{sub 2}, and the oxygen oxidizes the acetaldehyde decomposition products in a dark reaction. Deactivated TiO{sub 2} without Pt was regenerated by PCO at room temperature. Seven distinct reactions (photocatalytic and thermal catalytic) are identified on Pt/TiO{sub 2}.

  5. Proton transfer reactions between nitric acid and acetone, hydroxyacetone, acetaldehyde and benzaldehyde in the solid phase.

    PubMed

    Lasne, Jérôme; Laffon, Carine; Parent, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    The heterogeneous and homogeneous reactions of acetone, hydroxyacetone, acetaldehyde and benzaldehyde with solid nitric acid (HNO(3)) films have been studied with Reflection-Absorption Infrared Spectroscopy (RAIRS) under Ultra-High Vacuum (UHV) conditions in the 90-170 K temperature range. In the bulk or at the surface of the films, nitric acid transfers its proton to the carbonyl function of the organic molecules, producing protonated acetone-H(+), hydroxyacetone-H(+), acetaldehyde-H(+) and benzaldehyde-H(+), and nitrate anions NO(3)(-), a reaction not observed when nitric acid is previously hydrated [J. Lasne, C. Laffon and Ph. Parent, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2012, 14, 697]. This provides a molecular-scale description of the carbonyl protonation reaction in an acid medium, the first step of the acid-catalyzed condensation of carbonyl compounds, fuelling the growth of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) in the atmosphere. PMID:23090634

  6. Spectrophotometric study and potentiometric titration between sulfite and nitrite ions using acetaldehyde complex of nitroprusside as a carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Y.Z.; Abd-Elmottalb, M.

    1985-11-01

    A complex between sodium nitroprusside (NP) and acetaldehyde of 1:1 in aqueous solution of pH 10 has been prepared and used as an analytical reagent for the spectrophotometric determination of sulfite and nitrite ions. Nitrite ion can be titrated against sulfite ion and vise versa in equivalent amounts with high accuracy in the presence of the acetaldehyde complex of nitroprusside as a carrier using a potentiometric titration technique. 9 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  7. (3s←n) REMPI of jet-cooled acetaldehyde using two laser beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philis, J. G.; Kosmidis, C.

    2001-05-01

    The 3s←n Rydberg transition of acetaldehyde has been studied by a two-color experiment (545 and 272.5 nm light) by means of a TOF mass spectrometer. The recorded spectra are in close resemblance to the known one-color (2R+1) MPI spectra (364 nm). Nevertheless, the observed mass spectra are different. These differences are discussed in detail. Moreover, two-photon resonances of atomic carbon have been detected, indicating complete dissociation of some neutral fragments.

  8. Enzymic conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde as a model recovery system

    SciTech Connect

    Kierstan, M.

    1982-10-01

    Ethanol is readily produced by use of traditional fermentation processes using yeasts, and more recently by use of immobilized cell systems. However, the product concentrations obtained in these systems are limited by the inhibitory effects on the microorganisms of the product, ethanol. Furthermore, the dilute product concentrations thus obtained combined with the relatively high boiling point of ethanol result in systems which require a high degree of energy input for product recovery. Recent advances in genetic engineering techniques offer opportunities for improving the characteristics of the yeasts used in ethanol production. These techniques also provide the potential for improving the production yields of microbial enzymes for specific applications. With this consideration in mind work was undertaken on an enzymic system for removal from a fermentation media of an ethanol product which also results in upgrading of the product. Conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde can be achieved without the involvement of nicotinamide cofactors by use of the enzyme alcohol oxidase obtainable from Candida boidinii. The product acetaldehyde has a relatively low boiling point (21 degrees C) and, therefore, readily evaporates from systems operating above this temperature. This is compatible with normal operating temperatures for ethanol production. The acetaldehyde so produced can then be readily condensed and be utilized or chemically converted to other products. The production of acetaldehyde is accompanied by production of hydrogen peroxide. The effect of the removal of this product, by the use of catalase, on the primary process was also investigated. The system outlined has potential for development into an immobilized enzyme or cell system which may be made compatible with an immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae system for improved efficiency of glucose utilization.

  9. Acetaldehyde Oxime, A Product Formed during the In Vivo Nitrate Reductase Assay of Soybean Leaves 1

    PubMed Central

    Mulvaney, Charlene S.; Hageman, Richard H.

    1984-01-01

    Evolution of nitrogen oxides (NO(x), primarily as nitric oxide) from soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) leaves during purged in vivo nitrate reductase assays had been reported; however, these reports were based on a method that had been used for determination of NO(x) in air. This method also detects other N compounds. Preliminary work led us to doubt that the evolved N was nitric oxide. Studies were undertaken to identify the N compound evolved from the in vivo assay that had been reported as NO(x). Material for identification was obtained by cryogenic trapping and fractional distillation, and by chemical trapping procedures. Mass spectrometry, ultraviolet spectroscopy, and 15N-labeled nitrate were used to identify the compounds evolved and to determine whether these compounds were derived from nitrate. Acetaldehyde oxime was identified as the predominant N compound evolved and this compound is readily detected by the method for NO(x) determination. Substantial quantities of acetaldehyde oxime (16.2 micromoles per gram fresh weight per hour) were evolved during the in vivo assay. Small amounts of nitrous oxide (0.63 micrograms N per gram fresh weight per hour) were evolved, but this compound is not detected as NO(x). Acetaldehyde oxime and nitrous oxide were both produced as a result of nitrate (15NO3−) reduction during the assay. PMID:16663781

  10. Acetaldehyde Oxime, A Product Formed during the In Vivo Nitrate Reductase Assay of Soybean Leaves.

    PubMed

    Mulvaney, C S; Hageman, R H

    1984-09-01

    Evolution of nitrogen oxides (NO((x)), primarily as nitric oxide) from soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.) leaves during purged in vivo nitrate reductase assays had been reported; however, these reports were based on a method that had been used for determination of NO((x)) in air. This method also detects other N compounds. Preliminary work led us to doubt that the evolved N was nitric oxide. Studies were undertaken to identify the N compound evolved from the in vivo assay that had been reported as NO((x)). Material for identification was obtained by cryogenic trapping and fractional distillation, and by chemical trapping procedures. Mass spectrometry, ultraviolet spectroscopy, and (15)N-labeled nitrate were used to identify the compounds evolved and to determine whether these compounds were derived from nitrate. Acetaldehyde oxime was identified as the predominant N compound evolved and this compound is readily detected by the method for NO((x)) determination. Substantial quantities of acetaldehyde oxime (16.2 micromoles per gram fresh weight per hour) were evolved during the in vivo assay. Small amounts of nitrous oxide (0.63 micrograms N per gram fresh weight per hour) were evolved, but this compound is not detected as NO((x)). Acetaldehyde oxime and nitrous oxide were both produced as a result of nitrate ((15)NO(3) (-)) reduction during the assay. PMID:16663781

  11. Cholesterol Enhances the Toxic Effect of Ethanol and Acetaldehyde in Primary Mouse Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    López-Islas, Anayelly; Chagoya-Hazas, Victoria; Pérez-Aguilar, Benjamin; Palestino-Domínguez, Mayrel; Souza, Verónica; Miranda, Roxana U.; Bucio, Leticia; Gómez-Quiroz, Luis Enrique; Gutiérrez-Ruiz, María-Concepción

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and alcohol consumption are risk factors for hepatic steatosis, and both commonly coexist. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde on primary hepatocytes obtained from mice fed for two days with a high cholesterol (HC) diet. HC hepatocytes increased lipid and cholesterol content. HC diet sensitized hepatocytes to the toxic effect of ethanol and acetaldehyde. Cyp2E1 content increased with HC diet, as well as in those treated with ethanol or acetaldehyde, while the activity of this enzyme determined in microsomes increased in the HC and in all ethanol treated hepatocytes, HC and CW. Oxidized proteins were increased in the HC cultures treated or not with the toxins. Transmission electron microscopy showed endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and megamitochondria in hepatocytes treated with ethanol as in HC and the ethanol HC treated hepatocytes. ER stress determined by PERK content was increased in ethanol treated hepatocytes from HC mice and CW. Nuclear translocation of ATF6 was observed in HC hepatocytes treated with ethanol, results that indicate that lipids overload and ethanol treatment favor ER stress. Oxidative stress, ER stress, and mitochondrial damage underlie potential mechanisms for increased damage in steatotic hepatocyte treated with ethanol. PMID:26788255

  12. Risk assessment for the Italian population of acetaldehyde in alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages.

    PubMed

    Paiano, Viviana; Bianchi, Giancarlo; Davoli, Enrico; Negri, Eva; Fanelli, Roberto; Fattore, Elena

    2014-07-01

    Acetaldehyde is a naturally-occurring carcinogenic compound, present in different food items, especially in alcoholic beverages. The aims of this study were to measure acetaldehyde concentration in different beverages consumed in Italy and to estimate the potential cancer risk. The analytical procedure was based on headspace solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), using the isotopic dilution method. The margin of exposure (MOE) approach of the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) was used for risk characterisation. The highest concentrations (median, min-max) were detected in grappa samples (499, 23.4-1850mg/l), followed by fruit-based liqueurs and spirits (62.0, 5.23-483mg/l) and wine (68.0, 18.1-477mg/l); the lowest were detected in gin (0.91, 0.78-1.90mg/l). The lowest MOE was estimated for high wine consumers (69). These results suggest that regulatory measures and consumer guidance may be necessary for acetaldehyde in beverages. PMID:24518311

  13. Astrochemistry at work in the L1157-B1 shock: acetaldehyde formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Codella, C.; Fontani, F.; Ceccarelli, C.; Podio, L.; Viti, S.; Bachiller, R.; Benedettini, M.; Lefloch, B.

    2015-04-01

    The formation of complex organic molecules (COMs) in protostellar environments is a hotly debated topic. In particular, the relative importance of the gas phase processes as compared to a direct formation of COMs on the dust grain surfaces is so far unknown. We report here the first high-resolution images of acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) emission towards the chemically rich protostellar shock L1157-B1, obtained at 2 mm with the IRAM Plateau de Bure interferometer. Six blueshifted CH3CHO lines with Eu = 26-35 K have been detected. The acetaldehyde spatial distribution follows the young (˜ 2000 yr) outflow cavity produced by the impact of the jet with the ambient medium, indicating that this COM is closely associated with the region enriched by iced species evaporated from dust mantles and released into the gas phase. A high CH3CHO relative abundance, 2-3 × 10-8, is inferred, similarly to what found in hot corinos. Astrochemical modelling indicates that gas phase reactions can produce the observed quantity of acetaldehyde only if a large fraction of carbon, of the order of 0.1 per cent, is locked into iced hydrocarbons.

  14. A combined experimental and computational study of the catalytic dehydration of glycerol on microporous zeolites: an investigation of the reaction mechanism and acrolein selectivity.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xufeng; Lv, Yanhong; Qu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Guodong; Xi, Yanyan; Phillips, David L; Liu, Chenguang

    2013-12-14

    The catalytic activity and the acrolein selectivity for liquid phase glycerol dehydration on β zeolites (HNa-β-k) were found to be dependent on the reaction temperature as well as on the amount of acid sites on the zeolites. An increase in the reaction temperature favors the acrolein selectivity. The acrolein selectivity increases with the Na(+)/H(+) ratio and the glycerol conversion decreases with it so that a maximum acrolein yield is obtained when a certain amount of acidic sites are replaced by non-active Na(+) sites. The computational results indicate that 3-hydoxylpropanal (HPA) is an important intermediate that determines the final product selectivity. The relative rates of the different reaction pathways for HAP can be affected by the amount of water molecules involved in its homogeneous reaction. Based on the reaction mechanism proposed, it was hypothesized that smaller pores reduce activity but increase selectivity to acrolein, and results of the H-MFI zeolite were consistent with this hypothesis. Our work provides important insight into the overall landscape of the reaction mechanism and can be used to help design reaction systems that have good acrolein selectivity for the liquid phase glycerol dehydration reactions. PMID:24158544

  15. NMR investigation of acrolein stability in hydroalcoholic solution as a foundation for the valid HS-SPME/GC-MS quantification of the unsaturated aldehyde in beverages.

    PubMed

    Kächele, Martin; Monakhova, Yulia B; Kuballa, Thomas; Lachenmeier, Dirk W

    2014-04-11

    Acrolein (propenal) is found in many foods and beverages and may pose a health hazard due to its cytotoxicity. Considerable knowledge gaps regarding human exposure to acrolein exist, and there is a lack of reliable analytical methods. Hydroalcoholic dilutions prepared for calibration purposes from pure acrolein show considerable degradation of the compound and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy showed that 1,3,3-propanetriol and 3-hydroxypropionaldehyde are formed. The degradation can be prevented by addition of hydroquinone as stabilizer to the calibration solutions, which then show linear concentration-response behaviour required for quantitative analysis. The stabilized calibration solutions were used for quantitative headspace solid-phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME/GC-MS) determination of acrolein in alcoholic beverages with a detection limit of 14 μg L(-1). Of 117 tested alcoholic beverages, 64 were tested positive with the highest incidence in grape marc spirits and whiskey (100%, mean 252 μg L(-1)), followed by fruit spirits (86%, mean 591 μg/L(-1)), tequila (86%, mean 404 μg L(-1)), Asian spirits (43%, mean 54 μg L(-1)) and wine (9%, mean 0.7 μg L(-1)). Acrolein could not be detected in beer, vodka, absinthe and bottled water. Six of the fruit and grape marc spirits had acrolein levels above the World Health Organization (WHO) provisional tolerable concentration of 1.5 mg L(-1). PMID:24745744

  16. Embryo toxicity and teratogenicity of formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Thrasher, J D; Kilburn, K H

    2001-01-01

    C-14 formaldehyde crosses the placenta and enters fetal tissues. The incorporated radioactivity is higher in fetal organs (i.e., brain and liver) than in maternal tissues. The incorporation mechanism has not been studied fully, but formaldehyde enters the single-carbon cycle and is incorporated as a methyl group into nucleic acids and proteins. Also, formaldehyde reacts chemically with organic compounds (e.g., deoxyribonucleic acid, nucleosides, nucleotides, proteins, amino acids) by addition and condensation reactions, thus forming adducts and deoxyribonucleic acid-protein crosslinks. The following questions must be addressed: What adducts (e.g., N-methyl amino acids) are formed in the blood following formaldehyde inhalation? What role do N-methyl-amino adducts play in alkylation of nuclear and mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid, as well as mitochondrial peroxidation? The fact that the free formaldehyde pool in blood is not affected following exposure to the chemical does not mean that formaldehyde is not involved in altering cell and deoxyribonucleic acid characteristics beyond the nasal cavity. The teratogenic effect of formaldehyde in the English literature has been sought, beginning on the 6th day of pregnancy (i.e., rodents) (Saillenfait AM, et al. Food Chem Toxicol 1989, pp 545-48; Martin WJ. Reprod Toxicol 1990, pp 237-39; Ulsamer AG, et al. Hazard Assessment of Chemicals; Academic Press, 1984, pp 337-400; and U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Toxicological Profile of Formaldehyde; ATSDR, 1999 [references 1-4, respectively, herein]). The exposure regimen is critical and may account for the differences in outcomes. Pregnant rats were exposed (a) prior to mating, (b) during mating, (c) or during the entire gestation period. These regimens (a) increased embryo mortality; (b) increased fetal anomalies (i.e., cryptochordism and aberrant ossification centers); (c) decreased concentrations of ascorbic acid; and (d) caused abnormalities in enzymes of

  17. Silver as acrolein hydrogenation catalyst: intricate effects of catalyst nature and reactant partial pressures.

    PubMed

    Bron, Michael; Teschner, Detre; Knop-Gericke, Axel; Jentoft, Friederike C; Kröhnert, Jutta; Hohmeyer, Jens; Volckmar, Claudia; Steinhauer, Bernd; Schlögl, Robert; Claus, Peter

    2007-07-21

    The hydrogenation of acrolein over pure and supported silver has been investigated with a focus on the influence of catalyst structure and reaction pressure (mbar to 20 bar range) on activity and selectivity. An onset of formation of allyl alcohol beyond 100 mbar reaction pressure (at 250 degrees C) is ascribed to a change in adsorption geometry upon increasing coverage. Smaller silver particles (in the nanometer range), the proximity of a reducible oxide component as well as high pressure lead to enhanced allyl alcohol formation; the selectivity to the other main product propionaldehyde is reduced. The silver dispersion changed depending on the reaction pressure. Moreover, the presence of oxygen, most likely as subsurface oxygen, and the presence of defects are of paramount importance for the catalytic behaviour. The considerable changes of the silver catalysts under reaction conditions and the pressure dependence call for in situ measurements to establish true structure-activity/selectivity relationships for this system. PMID:17612721

  18. BLM protein mitigates formaldehyde-induced genomic instability

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Anuradha; Owen, Nichole; Juarez, Eleonora; McCullough, Amanda K.

    2015-01-01

    Formaldehyde is a reactive aldehyde that has been classified as a class I human carcinogen by the International Agency for Cancer Research. There are growing concerns over the possible adverse health effects related to the occupational and environmental human exposures to formaldehyde. Although formaldehyde-induced DNA and protein adducts have been identified, the genomic instability mechanisms and the cellular tolerance pathways associated with formaldehyde exposure are not fully characterized. This study specifically examines the role of a genome stability protein, Bloom (BLM) in limiting formaldehyde-induced cellular and genetic abnormalities. Here, we show that in the absence of BLM protein, formaldehyde-treated cells exhibited increased cellular sensitivity, an immediate cell cycle arrest, and an accumulation of chromosome radial structures. In addition, live-cell imaging experiments demonstrated that formaldehyde-treated cells are dependent on BLM for timely segregation of daughter cells. Both wild-type and BLM-deficient formaldehyde-treated cells showed an accumulation of 53BP1 and γH2AX foci indicative of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs); however, relative to wild-type cells, the BLM-deficient cells exhibited delayed repair. In response to formaldehyde exposure, we observed co-localization of 53BP1 and BLM foci at the DSB repair site, where ATM-dependent accumulation of formaldehyde-induced BLM foci occurred after the recruitment of 53BP1. Together, these findings highlight the significance of functional interactions among ATM, 53BP1, and BLM proteins as responders associated with the repair and tolerance mechanisms induced by formaldehyde. PMID:25770783

  19. Vapor Phase Dehydration of Glycerol to Acrolein Over SBA-15 Supported Vanadium Substituted Phosphomolybdic Acid Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Viswanadham, Balaga; Srikanth, Amirineni; Kumar, Vanama Pavan; Chary, Komandur V R

    2015-07-01

    Vapor phase dehydration of glycerol to acrolein was investigated over heteropolyacid (HPA) catalysts containing vanadium substituted phosphomolybdic acid (H4PMo11VO40) supported on mesoporous SBA-15. A series of HPA catalysts with HPA loadings varying from 10-50 wt% were prepared by impregnation method on SBA-15 support. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy, temperature-programmed desorption of NH3, pyridine adsorbed FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, pore size distribution and specific surface area measurements. The nature of acidic sites was examined by pyridine adsorbed FT-IR spectroscopy. XRD results suggest that the active phase containing HPA was highly dispersed at lower loadings on the support. FT-IR and Raman spectra results confirm that the presence of primary Keggin ion structure of HPA on the support and it was not affected during the preparation of catalysts. Pore size distribution results reveal that all the samples show unimodel pore size distribution with well depicted mesoporous structure. NH3-TPD results suggest that the acidity of catalysts increased with increase of HPA loading. The findings of acidity measurements by FT-IR spectra of pyridine adsorption reveals that the catalysts consist both the Brønsted and Lewis acidic sites and the amount of Brønsted acidic sites are increasing with HPA loading. SBA-15 supported vanadium substituted phosphomolybdic acid catalysts are found to be highly active during the dehydration reaction and exhibited 100% conversion of glycerol (10 wt% of glycerol) and the acrolein selectivity was appreciably changed with HPA active phase loading. The catalytic functionalities during glycerol dehydration are well correlated with surface acidity of the catalysts. PMID:26373149

  20. Respiratory response to formaldehyde and off-gas of urea formaldehyde foam insulation.

    PubMed Central

    Day, J H; Lees, R E; Clark, R H; Pattee, P L

    1984-01-01

    In 18 subjects, 9 of whom had previously complained of various nonrespiratory adverse effects from the urea formaldehyde foam insulation (UFFI) in their homes, pulmonary function was assessed before and after exposure in a laboratory. On separate occasions formaldehyde, 1 part per million (ppm), and UFFI off-gas yielding a formaldehyde concentration of 1.2 ppm, were delivered to each subject in an environmental chamber for 90 minutes and a fume hood for 30 minutes respectively. None of the measures of pulmonary function used (forced vital capacity, forced expiratory volume in 1 second or maximal midexpiratory flow rate) showed any clinically or statistically significant response to the exposure either immediately after or 8 hours after its beginning. There were no statistically significant differences between the responses of the group that had previously complained of adverse effects and of the group that had not. There was no evidence that either formaldehyde or UFFI off-gas operates as a lower airway allergen or important bronchospastic irritant in this heterogeneous population. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6388780

  1. Low temperature steam and formaldehyde sterilization.

    PubMed

    Robertshaw, R G

    1983-09-01

    A standard low temperature steam/formaldehyde autoclave was tested according to the manufacturer's instructions, using a range of test pieces containing Bacillus stearothermophilus spores as the challenge organism. There were failures in killing the challenge organism and the reasons for these are discussed. A description of modifications made to the autoclave is given together with details of an improved operating cycle. The performance of the modified autoclave was greatly improved and conditions were established for reliable and consistent sterilization of all the test pieces. A commercially produced prototype autoclave similarly modified also showed effective sterilization. PMID:6195245

  2. Low density, resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Pekala, R.W.

    1989-10-10

    The polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde under alkaline conditions results in the formation of surface functionalized polymer clusters. The covalent crosslinking of these clusters produces gels which when processed under supercritical conditions, produce low density, organic aerogels (density [<=]100 mg/cc; cell size [<=]0.1 microns). The aerogels are transparent, dark red in color and consist of interconnected colloidal-like particles with diameters of about 100 [angstrom]. These aerogels may be further carbonized to form low density carbon foams with cell size of about 0.1 micron.

  3. Low density, resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Pekala, Richard W.

    1991-01-01

    The polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde under alkaline conditions results in the formation of surface functionalized polymer "Clusters". The covalent crosslinking of these "clusters" produces gels which when processed under supercritical conditions, produce low density, organic aerogels (density.ltoreq.100 mg/cc; cell size .ltoreq.0.1 microns). The aerogels are transparent, dark red in color and consist of interconnected colloidal-like particles with diameters of about 100.circle.. These aerogels may be further carbonized to form low density carbon foams with cell size of about 0.1 micron.

  4. Low density, resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Pekala, R.W.

    1988-05-26

    The polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde under alkaline conditions results in the formation of surface functionalized polymer ''clusters''. The covalent crosslinking of these ''clusters'' produces gels which when processed under supercritical conditions, produce low density, organic aerogels (density less than or equal to100 mg/cc; cell size less than or equal to0.1 microns). The aerogels are transparent,dark red in color and consist of interconnected colloidal-like particles with diameters of about 100 A/degree/. These aerogels may be further carbonized to form low density carbon foams with cell size of about 0.1 micron. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  5. Low density, resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels

    DOEpatents

    Pekala, Richard W.

    1989-01-01

    The polycondensation of resorcinol with formaldehyde under alkaline conditions results in the formation of surface functionalized polymer "clusters". The covalent crosslinking of these "clusters" produces gels which when processed under supercritical conditions, produce low density, organic aerogels (density .ltoreq.100 mg/cc; cell size .ltoreq.0.1 microns). The aerogels are transparent, dark red in color and consist of interconnected colloidal-like particles with diameters of about 100 .ANG.. These aerogels may be further carbonized to form low density carbon foams with cell size of about 0.1 micron.

  6. Effect of Formaldehyde on Asthmatic Response to Inhaled Allergen Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Ezratty, Véronique; Bonay, Marcel; Neukirch, Catherine; Orset-Guillossou, Gaëlle; Dehoux, Monique; Koscielny, Serge; Cabanes, Pierre-André; Lambrozo, Jacques; Aubier, Michel

    2007-01-01

    Background Exposure to formaldehyde may lead to exacerbation of asthma. Objectives Our aim in this study was to investigate whether exposure to a low level (500 μg/m3) of formaldehyde enhances inhaled allergen responses. Methods Twelve subjects with intermittent asthma and allergy to pollen were exposed, at rest, in a double-blind crossover study to either formaldehyde or purified air for 60 min. The order of exposure to formaldehyde and air-only was randomized, and exposures were separated by 2 weeks. We also performed an allergen inhalation challenge after each exposure. Airway responsiveness to methacholine and lower airway inflammation (induced sputum) were assessed 8 hr after allergen challenge. Results The median dose of allergen producing a 15% decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (PD15FEV1) was 0.80 IR (index of reactivity) after formaldehyde exposure compared with 0.25 IR after air-only exposure (p = 0.06). Formaldehyde exposure did not affect allergen-induced increase in responsiveness to methacholine (p = 0.42). We found no formaldehyde-associated effect on the airway inflammatory response, in particular the eosinophilic inflammatory response, induced by the allergen challenge 8 hr before. Conclusion In this study, exposure to 500 μg/m3 formaldehyde had no significant deleterious effect on airway allergen responsiveness of patients with intermittent asthma; we found a trend toward a protective effect. PMID:17384766

  7. Chromogenic Detection of Aqueous Formaldehyde Using Functionalized Silica Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    El Sayed, Sameh; Pascual, Lluı́s; Licchelli, Maurizio; Martínez-Máñez, Ramón; Gil, Salvador; Costero, Ana M; Sancenón, Félix

    2016-06-15

    Silica nanoparticles functionalized with thiol reactive units and bulky polar polyamines were used for the selective colorimetric detection of formaldehyde. The reaction of thiols groups in the nanoparticles surface with a squaraine dye resulted in loss of the π-conjugation of the chromophores, and the subsequent bleaching of the solution. However, when formaldehyde was present in the suspension, the thiol-squaraine reaction was inhibited and a chromogenic response was observed. A selective response to formaldehyde was observed only when the thiol and polyamine groups were anchored to the silica surface. The observed selective response was ascribed to the fact that bulky polyamines generate a highly polar environment around thiols, which were only able to react with the small and polar formaldehyde, but not with other aldehydes. The sensing nanoparticles showed a limit of detection (LOD) for formaldehyde of 36 ppb in water. PMID:27250594

  8. Determination of tritiated formaldehyde in effluents from tritium facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Belot, Y.; Camus, H.; Marini, T. )

    1992-03-01

    Recent observations suggested that formal-dehyde can be incorporated in vegetation at a very high rate. In this paper, the authors develop a methodology for determining tritiated formaldehyde (CHTO) in gaseous effluent containing HTO and HT as dominant species. CHTO being very soluble in water is collected in a solution of carrier formaldehyde. This carrier is necessary for precipitating for formaldehyde derivative of dimedone and collecting it by filtration. The precipitate, which contains the formaldehyde hydrogens, is freed from exchangeable tritium, dried in oven, and combusted to water for tritium determination. CHTO can thus be separated from HTO with a high efficiency, leading to the possibility of determining accurately 1 Bq of CHTO in as much as 5 {times} 10{sup 4} Bq of HTO. The methodology has been applied in preliminary experiments to determine the ratio of CHTO to HTO in effluent from a tritium-handling facility and effluent released from solid miscellaneous wastes.

  9. Formaldehyde: an analysis of its respiratory, cutaneous, and immunologic effects

    SciTech Connect

    Bardana, E.J. Jr.; Montanaro, A. )

    1991-06-01

    Formaldehyde is truly ubiquitous in our ecology and continuing important commercial applications. Most of us have daily contact with this chemical. The most significant outdoor source of this chemical is gasoline and diesel fuel combustion. The primary indoor source is combustion of tobacco products. Formaldehyde is associated with a disagreeable odor that can produce annoyance symptoms and at higher concentrations can be a transient and completely reversible irritant to the eyes and mucous membranes of the respiratory tract. It is so soluble and rapidly metabolized that it rarely reaches the lower respiratory tract to inflict damage. The exception is in cigarette smokers who actively inhale. Formaldehyde may on rare occasions induce bronchial asthma at relatively high exposure doses. There are no conclusive studies that prove the development of de novo IgE-mediated respiratory tract symptoms secondary to inhalation of formaldehyde vapors. The approach to formaldehyde-induced symptoms should be one of careful documentation of objective physiologic changes.147 references.

  10. Imaging Surface Reactions of Formaldehyde on TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhenrong; Tang, Miru; Wang, Zhi-Tao; Ke, Zhu; Xia, Yaobiao; Park, Kenneth; Lyubinetsky, Igor; Dohnálek, Zdenek; Ge, Qingfeng

    2015-03-01

    Formaldehyde is involved in many surface catalytic and photo-catalytic reactions on metal oxides. We studied surface reactions of formaldehyde on reduced TiO2(110) surfaces using variable-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and density functional theory (DFT). STM images taken from a same area at various temperatures clearly show that formaldehyde preferentially adsorbs on the bridge-bonded oxygen vacancy (VO) defect sites. Bias-dependent STM images suggest the bonding configurations of the Ti-bound CH2O and the VO-bound CH2O. The isothermal time dependent images show the rotation of VO-bound CH2O and the two diffusion channels of formaldehyde at different temperatures. We also directly observed the formation of formaldehyde dimmer.

  11. Formaldehyde: an analysis of its respiratory, cutaneous, and immunologic effects.

    PubMed

    Bardana, E J; Montanaro, A

    1991-06-01

    Formaldehyde is truly ubiquitous in our ecology and continuing important commercial applications. Most of us have daily contact with this chemical. The most significant outdoor source of this chemical is gasoline and diesel fuel combustion. The primary indoor source is combustion of tobacco products. Formaldehyde is associated with a disagreeable odor that can produce "annoyance" symptoms and at higher concentrations can be a transient and completely reversible irritant to the eyes and mucous membranes of the respiratory tract. It is so soluble and rapidly metabolized that it rarely reaches the lower respiratory tract to inflict damage. The exception is in cigarette smokers who actively inhale. Formaldehyde may on rare occasions induce bronchial asthma at relatively high exposure doses. There are no conclusive studies that prove the development of de novo IgE-mediated respiratory tract symptoms secondary to inhalation of formaldehyde vapors. The approach to formaldehyde-induced symptoms should be one of careful documentation of objective physiologic changes. PMID:2048760

  12. Partially-irreversible sorption of formaldehyde in five polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Wei; Cox, Steven S.; Zhao, Xiaomin; Frazier, Charles E.; Little, John C.

    2014-12-01

    Due to its environmental ubiquity and concern over its potential toxicity, the mass-transfer characteristics of formaldehyde are of critical importance to indoor air quality research. Previous studies have suggested that formaldehyde mass transfer in polymer is partially irreversible. In this study, mechanisms that could cause the observed irreversibility were investigated. Polycarbonate and four other polymeric matrices were selected and subjected to formaldehyde sorption/desorption cycles. Mass transfer of formaldehyde was partially irreversible in all cases, and three potential mechanisms were evaluated. First, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) analysis was used to investigate possible formaldehyde polymerization on polymer surfaces. ATR-FTIR showed no detectable paraformaldehyde or formaldehyde on the film surfaces that had been exposed to formaldehyde and air. ATR-FTIR did detect aliphatic acids suggesting oxidation had occurred on film surfaces as a result of exposure to formaldehyde. However, additional study suggested that air is not the primary cause for irreversibility. Second, statistical physics theory was tested as a possible explanation. According to this theory, reversible and irreversible sorption could be taking place simultaneously. The irreversible fraction should be constant during sorption and the fraction could be determined by performing a complete sorption/desorption test. The sorption/desorption data was consistent with this theory. Third, chemisorption was considered as another possible cause for irreversibility. Extraction/fluorimetry testing of post-sorption and post-desorption polymer films showed measurable quantities of formaldehyde suggesting that some of the chemisorbed formaldehyde was reversible at the higher extraction temperature. Further quantitative study on chemical reaction products is needed.

  13. Formaldehyde exposure and acute health effects study

    SciTech Connect

    Quackenboss, J.J.; Lebowitz, M.D.; Michaud, J.P.; Bronnimann, D. )

    1989-01-01

    To assess the effects of formaldehyde exposures on health, exposure groups were defined using baseline exposure and health questionnaires. Formaldehyde concentrations were poorly correlated with these exposure classifications, perhaps due to the time delay between classification and monitoring. The 151 households reported here had a mean HCHO concentration of 35 (S.E. 1.5 and median 30) {mu}g/m{sup 3}. Passive samplers prepared in our lab were calibrated in a chamber to derive an estimated sampling rate of 0.311 {mu}g/(mg {center dot} m{sup {minus}3} {center dot} hr). They were also compared to commercially available samplers inside of the homes, with a correlation coefficient of 0.896 and mean difference of 2.6 {mu}g/m{sup 3}. In this report of initial findings from an ongoing study, daily symptoms and peak expiratory flow measurements were compared with an HCHO exposure classification based on the median measured concentrations. None of the symptoms groups were related to HCHO exposure when controlling for age and sex. There was a significant relationship between HCHO exposure and variability in peak expiratory flows that was dependent on age group. It may be especially important to assess the variability in reactive individuals and children to determine the short-term effects of HCHO exposures and possible long-term consequences.

  14. Aβ seeds resist inactivation by formaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Fritschi, Sarah K.; Cintron, Amarallys; Ye, Lan; Mahler, Jasmin; Bühler, Anika; Baumann, Frank; Neumann, Manuela; Nilsson, K. Peter R.; Hammarström, Per; Walker, Lary C.; Jucker, Mathias

    2014-01-01

    Cerebral β-amyloidosis can be exogenously induced by the intracerebral injection of brain extracts containing aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ) into young, pre-depositing Aβ precursor protein- (APP) transgenic mice. Previous work has shown that the induction involves a prion-like seeding mechanism in which the seeding agent is aggregated Aβ itself. Here we report that the β-amyloid-inducing activity of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) brain tissue or aged APP-transgenic mouse brain tissue is preserved, albeit with reduced efficacy, after formaldehyde fixation. Moreover, spectral analysis with amyloid conformation-sensitive luminescent conjugated oligothiophene dyes reveals that the strain-like properties of aggregated Aβ are maintained in fixed tissues. The resistance of Aβ seeds to inactivation and structural modification by formaldehyde underscores their remarkable durability, which in turn may contribute to their persistence and spread within the body. The present findings can be exploited to establish the relationship between the molecular structure of Aβ aggregates and the variable clinical features and disease progression of AD even in archived, formalin-fixed autopsy material. PMID:25193240

  15. Aβ seeds resist inactivation by formaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Fritschi, Sarah K; Cintron, Amarallys; Ye, Lan; Mahler, Jasmin; Bühler, Anika; Baumann, Frank; Neumann, Manuela; Nilsson, K Peter R; Hammarström, Per; Walker, Lary C; Jucker, Mathias

    2014-10-01

    Cerebral β-amyloidosis can be exogenously induced by the intracerebral injection of brain extracts containing aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ) into young, pre-depositing Aβ precursor protein- (APP) transgenic mice. Previous work has shown that the induction involves a prion-like seeding mechanism in which the seeding agent is aggregated Aβ itself. Here we report that the β-amyloid-inducing activity of Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain tissue or aged APP-transgenic mouse brain tissue is preserved, albeit with reduced efficacy, after formaldehyde fixation. Moreover, spectral analysis with amyloid conformation-sensitive luminescent conjugated oligothiophene dyes reveals that the strain-like properties of aggregated Aβ are maintained in fixed tissues. The resistance of Aβ seeds to inactivation and structural modification by formaldehyde underscores their remarkable durability, which in turn may contribute to their persistence and spread within the body. The present findings can be exploited to establish the relationship between the molecular structure of Aβ aggregates and the variable clinical features and disease progression of AD even in archived, formalin-fixed autopsy material. PMID:25193240

  16. Evaluation of N-acetylcysteine and methylprednisolone as therapies for oxygen and acrolein-induced lung damage

    SciTech Connect

    Critchley, J.A.J.H. ); Beeley, J.M.; Clark, R.J.; Buchanan, J.D. ); Summerfield, M.; Bell, S. ); Spurlock, M.S.; Edginton, J.A.G. )

    1990-04-01

    Reactive oxidizing species are implicated in the etiology of a range of inhalational pulmonary injuries. Consequently, various free radical scavengers have been tested as potential prophylactic agents. The sulfydryl compound, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) is the only such compound clinically available for use in realistic dosages, and it is well established as an effective antidote for the hepatic and renal toxicity of paracetamol. Another approach in pulmonary injury prophylaxis is methylprednisolone therapy. The authors evaluated NAC and methylprednisolone in two rats models of inhalation injury: 40-hr exposure to >97% oxygen at 1.1 bar and 15-min exposure to acrolein vapor (210 ppm). The increases in lung wet/dry weight ratios, seen with both oxygen and acrolein toxicity were reduced with both treatments. However, with oxygen, NAC therapy was associated with considerably increased mortality and histological changes. Furthermore, IP NAC administration resulted in large volumes of ascitic fluid. With acrolein, IV, NAC had no significant effect on mortality or pulmonary histological damage. Methylprednisolone had no beneficial effects on either the mortality or histological damage observed in either toxicity model. They caution against the ad hoc use of NAC in the management of inhalational pulmonary injury.

  17. ACTION OF FORMALDEHYDE ON ENZYMES AND ON CERTAIN PBOTEIDS

    PubMed Central

    Bliss, C. L.; Novy, F. G.

    1899-01-01

    The following general conclusions may be drawn from the preceding work: Fibrin is altered by formaldehyde and is then less easily digested by pepsin and by trypsin. Papaïn is apparently unable to digest fibrin even when this is exposed to very weak formaldehyde (1:1000) for a very short time. The casein of milk, on contact with formaldehyde, undergoes rapid alteration and is as a result not coagulated by rennet, or but very slowly. Such altered casein, like similar fibrin, is not readily digested by the proteolytic ferments. The longer the formaldehyde acts on casein and on fibrin the more marked is the result. Pepsin is not affected by a one per cent solution of formaldehyde, even when the mixture has stood for four weeks. Even a five per cent solution of formaldehyde acting for three weeks has no effect on pepsin. Contrary results obtained by others are due to an alteration of the fibrin by the formaldehyde. A putrid solution of pepsin in distilled water one month old digests fibrin as readily as a fresh solution. Rennet is not affected even by a four per cent solution of formaldehyde acting for several weeks. The absence of coagulation at times is due to the action of formaldehyde on the casein of the milk and not on the rennet ferment. Papaïn is very quickly altered by formaldehyde, even in very dilute solution. Moreover, it is unable to digest fibrin that has been exposed to the action of a very dilute solution of formaldehyde for a short time. Trypsin is altered by formaldehyde to such an extent that digestion of fibrin will not take place, or but very slowly. The extent to which trypsin is affected by formaldehyde depends largely upon the amount of organic matter present, as well as on the amount of ferment in the solution. Amylopsin is not destroyed by very dilute solutions of formaldehyde, but stronger solutions decrease the activity of the ferment, and if used in sufficient concentration will destroy it completely. Ptyalin, like the diastatic ferment of

  18. Acrolein coupling on reduced TiO 2(1 1 0): The effect of surface oxidation and the role of subsurface defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, Lauren; Haubrich, Jan; Quiller, Ryan G.; Friend, Cynthia M.

    2009-04-01

    Reactions of acrolein, water, and oxygen with the vacuum-reduced surface of TiO 2(1 1 0) are reported in a temperature programmed reaction study of the interaction of an aldehydic pollutant with a reducible metal oxide. A total of 25% of the acrolein that binds to the surface is converted to products. Notably, carbon-carbon coupling occurs with 86% selectivity for formation of C 6 products: C 6H 8, identified as 1,3-cyclohexadiene, in a peak at 500 K and benzene immediately thereafter at 530 K. Acrolein is evolved from the surface in three peaks: a peak independent of coverage at 495 K, attributed to decomposition of an intermediate that is partly converted to C 6H 8; a coverage-dependent peak that shifts from 370 K (low coverage) to 260 K (high coverage), which is attributed to adsorption at 5-fold coordinated Ti sites; and a multilayer state at 160 K. Water and acrolein compete for 5-fold coordinated titanium sites when dosed sequentially. The addition of water also opens a new reaction pathway, leading to the hydrogenation of acrolein to form propanal. Water has no effect on the yield of 1,3-cyclohexadiene. Exposure of the surface to oxygen prior to acrolein dosing quenches the evolution of acrolein at 495 K and concurrently eliminates the coupling. From these results, we propose that reduced subsurface defects such as titanium ion interstitials play a role in the reactions observed here. The notion that subsurface defects may contribute to the reactivity of organic molecules over reducible oxide substrates may prove to be general.

  19. Aldehydes: occurrence, carcinogenic potential, mechanism of action and risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Feron, V J; Til, H P; de Vrijer, F; Woutersen, R A; Cassee, F R; van Bladeren, P J

    1991-01-01

    Aldehydes constitute a group of relatively reactive organic compounds. They occur as natural (flavoring) constituents in a wide variety of foods and food components, often in relatively small, but occasionally in very large concentrations, and are also widely used as food additives. Evidence of carcinogenic potential in experimental animals is convincing for formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, limited for crotonaldehyde, furfural and glycidaldehyde, doubtful for malondialdehyde, very weak for acrolein and absent for vanillin. Formaldehyde carcinogenesis is a high-dose phenomenon in which the cytotoxicity plays a crucial role. Cytotoxicity may also be of major importance in acetaldehyde carcinogenesis but further studies are needed to prove or disprove this assumption. For a large number of aldehydes (relevant) data on neither carcinogenicity nor genotoxicity are available. From epidemiological studies there is no convincing evidence of aldehyde exposure being related to cancer in humans. Overall assessment of the cancer risk of aldehydes in the diet leads to the conclusion that formaldehyde, acrolein, citral and vanillin are no dietary risk factors, and that the opposite may be true for acetaldehyde, crotonaldehyde and furfural. Malondialdehyde, glycidaldehyde, benzaldehyde, cinnamaldehyde and anisaldehyde cannot be evaluated on the basis of the available data. A series of aldehydes should be subjected to at least mutagenicity, cytogenicity and cytotoxicity tests. Priority setting for testing should be based on expected mechanism of action and degree of human exposure. PMID:2017217

  20. Kinetics of cytochrome P450 2E1-catalyzed oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid via acetaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Bell-Parikh, L C; Guengerich, F P

    1999-08-20

    The P450 2E1-catalyzed oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde is characterized by a kinetic deuterium isotope effect that increases K(m) with no effect on k(cat), and rate-limiting product release has been proposed to account for the lack of an isotope effect on k(cat) (Bell, L. C., and Guengerich, F. P. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 29643-29651). Acetaldehyde is also a substrate for P450 2E1 oxidation to acetic acid, and k(cat)/K(m) for this reaction is at least 1 order of magnitude greater than that for ethanol oxidation to acetaldehyde. Acetic acid accounts for 90% of the products generated from ethanol in a 10-min reaction, and the contribution of this second oxidation has been overlooked in many previous studies. The noncompetitive intermolecular kinetic hydrogen isotope effects on acetaldehyde oxidation to acetic acid ((H)(k(cat)/K(m))/(D)(k(cat)/K(m)) = 4.5, and (D)k(cat) = 1.5) are comparable with the isotope effects typically observed for ethanol oxidation to acetaldehyde, and k(cat) is similar for both reactions, suggesting a possible common catalytic mechanism. Rapid quench kinetic experiments indicate that acetic acid is formed rapidly from added acetaldehyde (approximately 450 min(-1)) with burst kinetics. Pulse-chase experiments reveal that, at a subsaturating concentration of ethanol, approximately 90% of the acetaldehyde intermediate is directly converted to acetic acid without dissociation from the enzyme active site. Competition experiments suggest that P450 2E1 binds acetic acid and acetaldehyde with relatively high K(d) values, which preclude simple tight binding as an explanation for rate-limiting product release. The existence of a rate-determining step between product formation and release is postulated. Also proposed is a conformational change in P450 2E1 occurring during the course of oxidation and the discrimination of P450 2E1 between acetaldehyde and its hydrated form, the gem-diol. This multistep P450 reaction is characterized by kinetic

  1. Acetaldehyde removal using an atmospheric non-thermal plasma combined with a packed bed: role of the adsorption process.

    PubMed

    Klett, C; Duten, X; Tieng, S; Touchard, S; Jestin, P; Hassouni, K; Vega-González, A

    2014-08-30

    This work is an attempt in order to help towards understanding the influence of the adsorption process on the removal of a VOC (acetaldehyde, CH3CHO) using cyclic non thermal plasma (NTP) combined with a packed-bed of a catalyst support, α-Al2O3. In the first part, the results obtained by placing the saturated alumina pellets inside the plasma discharge zone are discussed, in terms of acetaldehyde removal, CO and CO2 production. In the second part, adsorption of CH3CHO, CO, CO2 and O3 was carried out, from single and multicomponent mixtures of the different compounds. The results showed that (i) the adsorption capacities followed the order CH3CHO≫  CO2>CO; (ii) O3 was decomposed on the alumina surface; (iii) CO oxidation occurred on the surface when O3 was present. In the third part, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to follow the alumina surface during acetaldehyde adsorption. DRIFTS measurements demonstrated that besides the bands of molecularly adsorbed acetaldehyde, several absorptions appeared on the spectra showing the intermediate surface transformation of acetaldehyde already at 300K. Finally, the relationship between the adsorption results and the NTP combined with a packed-bed process is discussed. PMID:25072139

  2. Effect of acetaldehyde generated from ethanol by ADH-transfected CHO cells on their membrane fatty acid profiles.

    PubMed

    Meskar, A; Holownia, A; Bardou, L G; Menez, J F

    1996-01-01

    Ethanol has been previously shown to reduce the unsaturated fatty acid content of cell membranes. It is not known, however, if the observed deleterious effects are due to ethanol itself or its metabolite, acetaldehyde. The present study was undertaken to assess the effect of acetaldehyde produced from ethanol by alcohol-deyhdrogenase-transfected Chinese hamster ovary Cells on the membrane lipids and the lipid peroxidation measured by free and bound malondialdehyde (MDA). The effects of ethanol alone was assessed in the presence of 4-methylpyrazole (4-MP), an inhibitor of alcohol dehydrogenase. After 8 days of incubation, total cellular lipids were extracted, subjected to TLC, and analyzed by gas chromatography. MDA concentration were determined by thiobarbituric acid reaction followed by HPLC detection. The level of acetaldehyde in the culture medium increased with concentration of ethanol from 5 to 20 mM as did the lipid peroxidation. Total cholesterol, phospholipids, and triglycerids all increased with increasing concentration of acetaldehyde. These effects were due to acetaldehyde as they were blocked by 4-MP. Some changes in fatty acid profiles were observed by effect of ethanol itself. PMID:8949957

  3. Biochemical characterization of a bifunctional acetaldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase purified from a facultative anaerobic bacterium Citrobacter sp. S-77.

    PubMed

    Tsuji, Kohsei; Yoon, Ki-Seok; Ogo, Seiji

    2016-03-01

    Acetaldehyde-alcohol dehydrogenase (ADHE) is a bifunctional enzyme consisting of two domains of an N-terminal acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) and a C-terminal alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). The enzyme is known to be important in the cellular alcohol metabolism. However, the role of coenzyme A-acylating ADHE responsible for ethanol production from acetyl-CoA remains uncertain. Here, we present the purification and biochemical characterization of an ADHE from Citrobacter sp. S-77 (ADHES77). Interestingly, the ADHES77 was unable to be solubilized from membrane with detergents either 1% Triton X-100 or 1% Sulfobetaine 3-12. However, the enzyme was easily dissociated from membrane by high-salt buffers containing either 1.0 M NaCl or (NH4)2SO4 without detergents. The molecular weight of a native protein was estimated as approximately 400 kDa, consisting of four identical subunits of 96.3 kDa. Based on the specific activity and kinetic analysis, the ADHES77 tended to have catalytic reaction towards acetaldehyde elimination rather than acetaldehyde formation. Our experimental observation suggests that the ADHES77 may play a pivotal role in modulating intracellular acetaldehyde concentration. PMID:26216639

  4. Adsorption and Reaction of Acetaldehyde on Shape-Controlled CeO2 Nanocrystals: Elucidation of Structure-function Relationships

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, Amanda K; Wu, Zili; Calaza, Florencia; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H

    2014-01-01

    CeO2 cubes with {100} facets, octahedra with {111} facets, and wires with highly defective structures were utilized to probe the structure-dependent reactivity of acetaldehyde. Using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD), temperature-programmed surface reactions (TPSR), and in situ infrared spectroscopy it was found that acetaldehyde desorbs unreacted or undergoes reduction, coupling, or C-C bond scission reactions depending on the surface structure of CeO2. Room temperature FTIR indicates that acetaldehyde binds primarily as 1-acetaldehyde on the octahedra, in a variety of conformations on the cubes, including coupling products and acetate and enolate species, and primarily as coupling products on the wires. The percent consumption of acetaldehyde follows the order of wires > cubes > octahedra. All the nanoshapes produce the coupling product crotonaldehyde; however, the selectivity to produce ethanol follows the order wires cubes >> octahedra. The selectivity and other differences can be attributed to the variation in the basicity of the surfaces, defects densities, coordination numbers of surface atoms, and the reducibility of the nanoshapes.

  5. Adsorption and Reaction of Acetaldehyde on Stoichiometric and Defective SrTiO{sub 3}(100) Surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Li Q.; Ferris, Kim F.; Azad, Samina; Engelhard, Mark H.; Peden, Charles HF.

    2004-02-05

    The adsorption and reaction of acetaldehyde (CH{sub 3}CHO), on stoichiometric (TiO{sub 2}-terminated) and reduced SrTiO{sub 3}(100) surfaces, have been investigated using temperature-programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Acetaldehyde adsorbs molecularly on the stoichiometric SrTiO{sub 3}(100) surface that contains predominantly Ti{sup 4+} cations. The Ti{sup 4+} sites on the stoichiometric SrTiO{sub 3}(100) surface are not sufficiently active for surface reactions such as aldol condensation, as opposed to the Ti{sup 4+} ions on the TiO{sub 2}(001) surface. However, decomposition and redox reactions of acetaldehyde occur in the presence of surface defects created by Ar{sup +} sputtering. The decomposition products following reactions of acetaldehyde on the defective surface include H{sub 2}, C{sub 2}H{sub 4}, CO, C{sub 4}H{sub 6} and C{sub 4}H{sub 8}. Reductive coupling, to produce C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and C{sub 4}H{sub 8}, is the main reaction pathway for decomposition of acetaldehyde on the sputter reduced SrTiO{sub 3}(100) surface.

  6. 21 CFR 177.1460 - Melamine-formaldehyde resins in molded articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Melamine-formaldehyde resins in molded articles...-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. Melamine-formaldehyde resins may be safely used as the food-contact...: (a) For the purpose of this section, melamine-formaldehyde resins are those produced when 1 mole...

  7. 21 CFR 177.1460 - Melamine-formaldehyde resins in molded articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Melamine-formaldehyde resins in molded articles...-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. Melamine-formaldehyde resins may be safely used as the food-contact...: (a) For the purpose of this section, melamine-formaldehyde resins are those produced when 1 mole...

  8. 21 CFR 177.1460 - Melamine-formaldehyde resins in molded articles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Melamine-formaldehyde resins in molded articles...-formaldehyde resins in molded articles. Melamine-formaldehyde resins may be safely used as the food-contact...: (a) For the purpose of this section, melamine-formaldehyde resins are those produced when 1 mole...

  9. What’s in that Drink: The Biological Actions of Ethanol, Acetaldehyde, and Salsolinol

    PubMed Central

    Deehan, Gerald A.; Brodie, Mark S.; Rodd, Zachary A.

    2016-01-01

    Alcohol abuse and alcoholism represent substantial problems that affect a large portion of individuals throughout the world. Extensive research continues to be conducted in an effort to identify the biological basis of the reinforcing properties of alcohol in order to develop effective pharmacotherapeutic and behavioral interventions. One theory that has developed within the alcohol field over the past 4 decades postulates that the reinforcing properties of alcohol are due to the action of the metabolites/products of alcohol within the central nervous system (CNS). The most extreme version of this theory suggests that the biologically active metabolites/products of alcohol, created from the breakdown from alcohol, are the ultimate source of the reinforcing properties of alcohol. The contrary theory proposes that the reinforcing properties of alcohol are mediated completely through the interaction of the ethanol molecule with several neurochemical systems within the CNS. While there are scientific findings that offer support for both of these stances, the reinforcing properties of alcohol are most likely generated through a complex series of peripheral and central effects of both alcohol and its metabolites. Nonetheless, the development of a greater understanding for how the metabolites/products of alcohol contribute to the reinforcing properties of alcohol is an important factor in the development of efficacious pharmacotherapies for alcohol abuse and alcoholism. This chapter is intended to provide a historical perspective of the role of acetaldehyde (the first metabolite of alcohol) in alcohol reinforcement as well as review the basic research literature on the effects of acetaldehyde (and acetaldehyde metabolites/products) within the CNS and how these function with regard to alcohol reward. PMID:22351424

  10. Proportional mortality patterns among chemical plant workers exposed to formaldehyde.

    PubMed Central

    Marsh, G M

    1982-01-01

    To examine the possible health risks associated with occupational exposure to formaldehyde a proportional mortality analysis was conducted on deaths occurring between 1950 and 1976 among 136 men who had been employed a month or more in one of five formaldehyde-related areas of a large chemical producing plant located in Springfield, Massachusetts, USA. Overall, no statistically significant excesses or deficits in proportional mortality were observed among the formaldehyde-exposed group based on comparisons with both United States men and men from the local county area. In addition, no important differences in mortality were observed among this group when comparisons were made with 456 male decedents from the same plant who had not had a month or more of formaldehyde exposure. Within the calendar period examined, no deaths from sinonasal cancer were observed among the chemical workers studied nor was mention made on any death certificate of sinonasal cancer as a contributory cause of death. No important excesses, trends, or patterns in cancer mortality were observed among white male formadelhyde-exposed workers when consideration was given to age and time period of death, type and duration of formaldehyde exposure, and the lapse period from the onset of the first formaldehyde-related job assignment. Although certain limitations of this study do not allow definite conclusions to be drawn, the results indicate no trends or patterns in proportional mortality that could be directly linked to exposures to formaldehyde. PMID:7138792

  11. Aldehydes in relation to air pollution sources: A case study around the Beijing Olympics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altemose, Brent; Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Liwen; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Tong, Jian; Kipen, Howard M.; Ohman-Strickland, Pamela; Meng, Qingyu; Robson, Mark G.; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-05-01

    This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) at a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres come from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the dramatic air pollution control measures implemented during the Olympics had an impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes and their underlying primary and secondary sources. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.3 ± 15.1 μg/m3, 27.1 ± 15.7 μg/m3 and 2.3 ± 1.0 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being at the high end of concentration ranges measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic Games, followed the changing pattern of temperature, and were significantly correlated with ozone and with a secondary formation factor identified by principal component analysis (PCA). In contrast, acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period and was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). Acetaldehyde was also more strongly associated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion factors identified through the PCA. All three aldehydes were lower during the post-Olympic sampling period compared to the before and during Olympic periods, likely due to seasonal and regional effects. Our findings point to the complexity of source control strategies for secondary pollutants.

  12. Aldehydes in Relation to Air Pollution Sources: A Case Study around the Beijing Olympics

    PubMed Central

    Altemose, Brent; Gong, Jicheng; Zhu, Tong; Hu, Min; Zhang, Liwen; Cheng, Hong; Zhang, Lin; Tong, Jian; Kipen, Howard M.; Strickland, Pamela Ohman; Meng, Qingyu; Robson, Mark G.; Zhang, Junfeng

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to characterize three aldehydes of health concern (formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and acrolein) at a central Beijing site in the summer and early fall of 2008 (from June to October). Aldehydes in polluted atmospheres come from both primary and secondary sources, which limits the control strategies for these reactive compounds. Measurements were made before, during, and after the Beijing Olympics to examine whether the dramatic air pollution control measures implemented during the Olympics had an impact on concentrations of the three aldehydes and their underlying primary and secondary sources. Average concentrations of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were 29.3±15.1 μg/m3, 27.1±15.7 μg/m3 and 2.3±1.0 μg/m3, respectively, for the entire period of measurements, all being at the high end of concentration ranges measured in cities around the world in photochemical smog seasons. Formaldehyde and acrolein increased during the pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic Games, followed the changing pattern of temperature, and were significantly correlated with ozone and with a secondary formation factor identified by principal component analysis (PCA). In contrast, acetaldehyde had a reduction in mean concentration during the Olympic air pollution control period compared to the pre-Olympic period and was significantly correlated with several pollutants emitted from local emission sources (e.g., NO2, CO, and PM2.5). Acetaldehyde was also more strongly associated with primary emission sources including vegetative burning and oil combustion factors identified through the PCA. All three aldehydes were lower during the post-Olympic sampling period compared to the before and during Olympic periods, likely due to seasonal and regional effects. Our findings point to the complexity of source control strategies for secondary pollutants. PMID:25883528

  13. Millimeter and submillimeter wave spectra of mono-13C-acetaldehydes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Ilyushin, V. V.; Guillemin, J. C.

    2015-07-01

    Context. The acetaldehyde molecule is ubiquitous in the interstellar medium of our galaxy, and due to its dense and complex spectrum, large dipole moment, and several low-lying torsional states, acetaldehyde is considered to be a "weed" molecule for radio astronomy observations. Mono-13C acetaldehydes 13CH3CHO and CH313CHO are likely to be identified in astronomical surveys, such as those available with the very sensitive ALMA telescope. Laboratory measurements and analysis of the millimeter and submillimeter-wave spectra are the prerequisites for the successful radioastronomical search for the new interstellar molecular species, as well as for new isotopologs of already detected interstellar molecules. Aims: In this context, to provide reliable predictions of 13CH3CHO and CH313CHO spectra in millimeter and submillimeter wave ranges, we study rotational spectra of these species in the frequency range from 50 to 945 GHz. Methods: The spectra of mono-13C acetaldehydes were recorded using the spectrometer based on Schottky-diode frequencymultiplication chains in the Lille laboratory. The rotational spectra of 13CH3CHO and CH313CHO molecules were analyzed using the Rho axis method. Results: In the recorded spectra we have assigned 6884 for the 13CH3CHO species and 6458 for CH313CHO species new rotational transitions belonging to the ground, first, and second excited torsional states. These measurements were fitted together with previously published data to the Hamiltonian models that use 91 and 87 parameters to achieve overall weighted rms deviations 0.88 for the 13CH3CHO species and 0.95 for CH313CHO. On the basis of the new spectroscopic results, predictions of transition frequencies in the frequency range up to 1 THz with J ≤ 60 and Ka ≤ 20 are presented for both isotopologs. Full Tables 3-6 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/579/A46

  14. Sensitive gas chromatographic detection of acetaldehyde and acetone using a reduction gas detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Hara, Dean; Singh, Hanwant B.

    1988-01-01

    The response of a newly available mercuric oxide Reduction Gas Detector (RGD-2) to subpicomole and larger quantities of acetaldehyde and acetone is tested. The RGD-2 is found to be capable of subpicomole detection for these carbonyls and is more sensitive than an FID (Flame Ionization Detector) by an order of magnitude. Operating parameters can be further optimized to make the RGD-2 some 20-40 times more sensitive than an FID. The detector is linear over a wide range and is easily adapted to a conventional gas chromatograph (GC). Such a GC-RGD-2 system should be suitable for atmospheric carbonyl measurements in clean as well as polluted environments.

  15. INSTRUCTIONS FOR OPERATING LBL FORMALDEHYDE SAMPLER

    SciTech Connect

    Fanning, L.Z.; Allen, J.R.; Miksch, R.R.

    1981-09-01

    The LBL formaldehyde sampler consists of two parts: 1) a pump box and 2) a small refrigerator housing sampling bubblers. The pump box contains two pumps, a timer, a flow controller, an electrical cord, and a ten-foot piece of tubing to connect the refrigerator to the pump box. The small refrigerator contains four columns of bubbler sampling trains attached to a metal plate. Two sampling trains each are plumbed in parallel to two sampling ports on the back of the refrigerator. The two sampling lines supplied are to be attached to these ports to allow two locations to be sampled at once (usually one indoor and one outdoor). The refrigerator also contains a rack for holding bubbler tubes. In the sampling process, air is drawn through a sampling line attached to the fitting at the back of the refrigerator and into a prlmary bubbler containing a trapping solution. This trapping solution can be distilled water or an aqueous solution of some compound that reacts with formaldehyde. From this bubbler the air goes through a second bubbler containing the same trapping solution as the first bubbler. (To maintain sample integrity, all parts that the air sample contacts are made of Teflon, polypropylene, and stainless steel.) The air then goes into the third bubbler, which contains no liquid. This bubbler contains a hypodermic needle that serves as a flow-control orifice. The hypodermic needle, in conjunction with the flow controller in the pump box, ensures a constant a flow rate. The refrigerator contains four columns of these sets of three bubblers. After samples have been collected, the bubbler bottoms are detached and the contents of the first and second bubblers in each column are poured together, capped, and labeled. The use of a refrigerated primary and secondary bubbler whose contents are combined at the end of a sampling period ensures 95% collection efficiency. After the bubbler tubes are capped and labeled, they are stored either in the rack supplied in the

  16. c-Fos immunoreactivity in prefrontal, basal ganglia and limbic areas of the rat brain after central and peripheral administration of ethanol and its metabolite acetaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Segovia, Kristen N.; Vontell, Regina; López-Cruz, Laura; Salamone, John D.; Correa, Mercè

    2013-01-01

    Considerable evidence indicates that the metabolite of ethanol (EtOH), acetaldehyde, is biologically active. Acetaldehyde can be formed from EtOH peripherally mainly by alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), and also centrally by catalase. EtOH and acetaldehyde show differences in their behavioral effects depending upon the route of administration. In terms of their effects on motor activity and motivated behaviors, when administered peripherally acetaldehyde tends to be more potent than EtOH but shows very similar potency administered centrally. Since dopamine (DA) rich areas have an important role in regulating both motor activity and motivation, the present studies were undertaken to compare the effects of central (intraventricular, ICV) and peripheral (intraperitoneal, IP) administration of EtOH and acetaldehyde on a cellular marker of brain activity, c-Fos immunoreactivity, in DA innervated areas. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received an IP injection of vehicle, EtOH (0.5 or 2.5 g/kg) or acetaldehyde (0.1 or 0.5 g/kg) or an ICV injection of vehicle, EtOH or acetaldehyde (2.8 or 14.0 μmoles). IP administration of EtOH minimally induced c-Fos in some regions of the prefrontal cortex and basal ganglia, mainly at the low dose (0.5 g/kg), while IP acetaldehyde induced c-Fos in virtually all the structures studied at both doses. Acetaldehyde administered centrally increased c-Fos in all areas studied, a pattern that was very similar to EtOH. Thus, IP administered acetaldehyde was more efficacious than EtOH at inducing c-Fos expression. However, the general pattern of c-Fos induction promoted by ICV EtOH and acetaldehyde was similar. These results are consistent with the pattern observed in behavioral studies in which both substances produced the same magnitude of effect when injected centrally, and produced differences in potency after peripheral administration. PMID:23745109

  17. Photochemical production of formaldehyde in earth's primitive atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinto, J. P.; Gladstone, G. R.; Yung, Y. L.

    1980-10-01

    Formaldehyde could have been produced by photochemical reactions in the earth's primitive atmosphere, at a time when it consisted mainly of molecular nitrogen, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and trace amounts of molecular hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Removal of formaldehyde from the atmosphere by precipitation can provide a source of organic carbon to the oceans at the rate of 100 billion moles per year. Subsequent reactions of formaldehyde in primeval aquatic environments would have implications for the abiotic synthesis of complex organic molecules and the origin of life.

  18. Photochemical production of formaldehyde in earth's primitive atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinto, J. P.; Gladstone, G. R.; Yung, Y. L.

    1980-01-01

    Formaldehyde could have been produced by photochemical reactions in the earth's primitive atmosphere, at a time when it consisted mainly of molecular nitrogen, water vapor, carbon dioxide, and trace amounts of molecular hydrogen and carbon monoxide. Removal of formaldehyde from the atmosphere by precipitation can provide a source of organic carbon to the oceans at the rate of 100 billion moles per year. Subsequent reactions of formaldehyde in primeval aquatic environments would have implications for the abiotic synthesis of complex organic molecules and the origin of life.

  19. Formaldehyde: a candidate toxic air contaminant. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, B.; Parker, T.

    1988-03-01

    Formaldehyde (HCHO) is a gas widely used in adhesives and resins, textiles, embalming fluids, fungicides, air fresheners, and cosmetics. It is directly emitted into the ambient outdoor air from vehicular and stationary sources, and is also produced in the atmosphere from other substances by photochemical smog processes. The International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) has determined that there is sufficient evidence for carcinogenicity of formaldehyde to animals, and limited evidence for carcinogenicity to humans. EPA classifies formaldehyde as a probable human carcinogen with a one in a million risk concentration of 0.08 ppb.

  20. Mineralization of gaseous acetaldehyde by electrochemically generated Co(III) in H2SO4 with wet scrubber combinatorial system.

    PubMed

    Govindan, Muthuraman; Chung, Sang-Joon; Moon, Il-Shik

    2012-06-11

    Electrochemically generated Co(III) mediated catalytic room temperature incineration of acetaldehyde, which is one of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), combined with wet scrubbing system was developed and investigated. Depending on the electrolyte's type, absorption come removal efficiency is varied. In presence of electrogenerated Co(III) in sulfuric acid, acetaldehyde was mineralized to CO2 and not like only absorption in pure sulfuric acid. The Co(III) mediated catalytic incineration led to oxidative absorption and elimination to CO2, which was evidenced with titration, CO2, and cyclic voltammetric analyses. Experimental conditions, such as current density, concentration of mediator, and gas molar flow rate were optimized. By the optimization of the experimental conditions, the complete mineralization of acetaldehyde was realized at a room temperature using electrochemically generated Co(III) with wet scrubber combinatorial system. PMID:22551057

  1. Multi-Walled Carbon Nanotubes as a Catalyst for Gas-Phase Oxidation of Ethanol to Acetaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Huang, Rui; Feng, Zhenbao; Liu, Hongyang; Su, Dangsheng

    2016-07-21

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were directly used as a sustainable and green catalyst to convert ethanol into acetaldehyde in the presence of molecular oxygen. The C=O groups generated on the nanocarbon surface were demonstrated as active sites for the selective oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde. The transformation of disordered carbon debris on the CNT surface to ordered graphitic structures induced by thermal-treatment significantly enhanced the stability of the active C=O groups, and thus the catalytic performance. A high reactivity with approximately 60 % ethanol conversion and 93 % acetaldehyde selectivity was obtained over the optimized CNT catalyst at 270 °C. More importantly, the catalytic performance was quite stable even after 500 h, which is comparable with a supported gold catalyst. The robust catalytic performance displayed the potential application of CNTs in the industrial catalysis field. PMID:27282126

  2. Measurement of formaldehyde in clean air

    SciTech Connect

    Neitzert, V.; Seiler, W.

    1981-01-01

    A method for the measurement of small amounts of formaldehyde in air has been developed. The method is based on the derivatization of HCHO with 2.4-Denetrophenylhydragine, forming 2.4-Dentrophylhydragine, measured with GC-ECD-technique. HCHO is preconcentrated using a cryogenic sampling technique. The detection limit is 0.05 ppbv for a sampling volume of 200 liter. The method has been applied for measurements in continental and marine air masses showing HCHO mixing ratios of 0.4--5.0 ppbv and 0.2--1.0 ppbv, respectively. HCHO mixing ratios show diurnal variations with maximum values during the early afternoon and minimum values during the early morning. In continental air, HCHO mixing ratios are positively correlated with CO and SO/sub 2/, indicating anthropogenic HCHO sources which are estimated to be 6--11 x 10/sup 12/g/year/sup -1/ on a global scale.

  3. High efficiency annual denuder for formaldehyde monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Cecchini, F.; Febo, A.; Possanzini, M.

    1985-01-01

    A practical and correct methodology for evaluating CH/sub 2/O in air without sampling artifact formation is presented. Formaldehyde is collected on an annual denuder coated with bisulfite-triethanolamine. The sorbent layer is extracted with water and the solution analyzed by the chromotropic acid (CTA) procedure. Sorption efficiency and loading capacity have been investigated along with storage stability. Results of laboratory validation studies have indicated that a small annual denuder was able to sample about 300 ..mu..g CH/sub 2/O without an appreciable decrease in the initial collection efficiency (99% at 2.5 1 min/sup -1/). Tests on storage stability before and after exposure have also demonstrated that both oxidation of bisulfite and release of CH/sub 2/O did not occur for time periods as long as 1 month.

  4. Chronic respiratory effects of indoor formaldehyde exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Krzyzanowski, M.; Quackenboss, J.J.; Lebowitz, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    The relation of chronic respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to formaldehyde (HCHO) in homes was studied in a sample of 298 children (6-15 years of age) and 613 adults. HCHO measurements were made with passive samplers two one-week periods. Data on chronic cough and phlegm, wheeze, attacks of breathlessness, and doctor diagnoses of chronic bronchitis and asthma were collected with self-completed questionnaires. Peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) were obtained during the evenings and mornings for up to 14 consecutive days for each individual. Significantly greater prevalence rates of asthma and chronic bronchitis were found in children from houses with HCHO levels 60-120 ppb than in those less exposed, especially in children also exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. In children, levels of PEFR linearly decreased with HCHO exposure, with estimated decrease due to 60 ppb of HCHO equivalent to 22% of PEFR level in nonexposed children.

  5. The effects of acetaldehyde, glyoxal and acetic acid on the heterogeneous reaction of nitrogen dioxide on gamma-alumina.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhenyu; Kong, Lingdong; Ding, Xiaoxiao; Du, Chengtian; Zhao, Xi; Chen, Jianmin; Fu, Hongbo; Yang, Xin; Cheng, Tiantao

    2016-04-14

    Heterogeneous reactions of nitrogen oxides on the surface of aluminium oxide result in the formation of adsorbed nitrite and nitrate. However, little is known about the effects of other species on these heterogeneous reactions and their products. In this study, diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy (DRIFTS) was used to analyze the process of the heterogeneous reaction of NO2 on the surface of aluminium oxide particles in the presence of pre-adsorbed organic species (acetaldehyde, glyoxal and acetic acid) at 298 K and reveal the influence of these organic species on the formation of adsorbed nitrite and nitrate. It was found that the pre-adsorption of organic species (acetaldehyde, glyoxal and acetic acid) on γ-Al2O3 could suppress the formation of nitrate to different extents. Under the same experimental conditions, the suppression of the formation of nitrate by the pre-adsorption of acetic acid is much stronger than that by pre-adsorption of acetaldehyde and glyoxal, indicating that the influence of acetic acid on the heterogeneous reaction of NO2 is different from that of acetaldehyde and glyoxal. Surface nitrite is formed and identified to be an intermediate product. For the heterogeneous reaction of NO2 on the surface of γ-Al2O3 with and without the pre-adsorption of acetaldehyde and glyoxal, it is firstly formed and then gradually disappears as the reaction proceeds, but for the reaction with the pre-adsorption of acetic acid, it is the final main product besides nitrate. This indicates that the pre-adsorption of acetic acid would promote the formation of nitrite, while the others would not change the trend of the formation of nitrite. The possible influence mechanisms of the pre-adsorption of acetaldehyde, glyoxal and acetic acid on the heterogeneous conversion of NO2 on γ-Al2O3 are proposed and atmospheric implications based on these results are discussed. PMID:26745767

  6. The (impossible?) formation of acetaldehyde on the grain surfaces: insights from quantum chemical calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enrique-Romero, J.; Rimola, A.; Ceccarelli, C.; Balucani, N.

    2016-06-01

    Complex Organic Molecules (COMs) have been detected in the interstellar medium (ISM). However, it is not clear whether their synthesis occurs on the icy surfaces of interstellar grains or via a series of gas-phase reactions. As a test case of the COMs synthesis in the ISM, we present new quantum chemical calculations on the formation of acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) from the coupling of the HCO and CH3 radicals, both in gas phase and on water ice surfaces. The binding energies of HCO and CH3 on the amorphous water ice were also computed (2333 and 734 K, respectively). Results indicate that, in gas phase, the products could be either CH3CHO, CH4 + CO, or CH3OCH, depending on the relative orientation of the two radicals. However, on the amorphous water ice, only the CH4 + CO product is possible due to the geometrical constraints imposed by the water ice surface. Therefore, acetaldehyde cannot be synthesized by the CH3 + HCO coupling on the icy grains. We discuss the implications of these results and other cases, such as ethylene glycol and dimethyl ether, in which similar situations can occur, suggesting that formation of these molecules on the grain surfaces might be unlikely.

  7. Oxidation of Ethanol to Acetaldehyde over Na-promoted vanadium oxide catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Chimentao, Ricardo J.; Herrera, Jose L.; Kwak, Ja Hun; Medina, Francesc; Wang, Yong; Peden, Charles HF

    2007-11-20

    Sodium-promoted vanadium oxide catalysts supported on MCM-41 and TiO2 (anatase) were investigated for the partial oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde. The catalysts were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation with a vanadium oxide content of 6 wt. %. The experimental characterization was performed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption, temperature programmed reduction (TPR), and diffuse reflectance UV-Vis. Temperature programmed oxidation (TPO) was also used to identify carbon deposits on the spent catalysts. The presence of sodium plays a strong role in the dispersion and reducibility of the vanadium species as detected by TPR analysis and optical absorption spectroscopy. While sodium addition increases the dispersion of the VOx species, its presence also decreases their reducibility. Additionally, TPO of the spent catalysts revealed that an increase in the Na loading decreases the carbon deposition during reaction. In the case of the catalysts supported on MCM-41, these modifications were mirrored by a change in the activity and selectivity to acetaldehyde. Additionally, on the VOx/TiO2 catalysts the catalytic activity decreased with increasing sodium content in the catalyst. A model in which sodium affects dispersion, reducibility and also acidity of the supported-vanadia species is proposed to explain all these observations.

  8. Identification of active sites in gold-catalyzed hydrogenation of acrolein.

    PubMed

    Mohr, Christian; Hofmeister, Herbert; Radnik, Jörg; Claus, Peter

    2003-02-19

    The active sites of supported gold catalysts, favoring the adsorption of C=O groups of acrolein and subsequent reaction to allyl alcohol, have been identified as edges of gold nanoparticles. After our recent finding that this reaction preferentially occurs on single crystalline particles rather than multiply twinned ones, this paper reports on a new approach to distinguish different features of the gold particle morphology. Elucidation of the active site issue cannot be simply done by varying the size of gold particles, since the effects of faceting and multiply twinned particles may interfere. Therefore, modification of the gold particle surface by indium has been used to vary the active site characteristics of a suitable catalyst, and a selective decoration of gold particle faces has been observed, leaving edges free. This is in contradiction to theoretical predictions, suggesting a preferred occupation of the low-coordinated edges of the gold particles. On the bimetallic catalyst, the desired allyl alcohol is the main product (selectivity 63%; temperature 593 K, total pressure p(total) = 2 MPa). From the experimentally proven correlation between surface structure and catalytic behavior, the edges of single crystalline gold particles have been identified as active sites for the preferred C=O hydrogenation. PMID:12580618

  9. Emissions of acrolein and other aldehydes from biodiesel-fueled heavy-duty vehicles.

    PubMed

    Cahill, Thomas M; Okamoto, Robert A

    2012-08-01

    Aldehyde emissions were measured from two heavy-duty trucks, namely 2000 and 2008 model year vehicles meeting different EPA emission standards. The tests were conducted on a chassis dynamometer and emissions were collected from a constant volume dilution tunnel. For the 2000 model year vehicle, four different fuels were tested, namely California ultralow sulfur diesel (CARB ULSD), soy biodiesel, animal biodiesel, and renewable diesel. All of the fuels were tested with simulated city and high speed cruise drive cycles. For the 2008 vehicle, only soy biodiesel and CARB ULSD fuels were tested. The research objective was to compare aldehyde emission rates between (1) the test fuels, (2) the drive cycles, and (3) the engine technologies. The results showed that soy biodiesel had the highest acrolein emission rates while the renewable diesel showed the lowest. The drive cycle also affected emission rates with the cruise drive cycle having lower emissions than the urban drive cycle. Lastly, the newer vehicle with the diesel particulate filter had greatly reduced carbonyl emissions compared to the other vehicles, thus demonstrating that the engine technology had a greater influence on emission rates than the fuels. PMID:22746209

  10. IRIS Toxicological Review of Formaldehyde (Inhalation) (External Review Draft 2010)

    EPA Science Inventory

    UPDATE EPA is currently revising its Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) assessment of formaldehyde to address the 2011 NAS peer review recommendations. This assessment addresses both noncancer and cancer human health effects that are relevant to assessing ...

  11. Ion laser isotope enrichment by photo-predissociation of formaldehyde

    DOEpatents

    Marling, John B.

    1977-06-17

    Enrichment of carbon, hydrogen and/or oxygen isotopes by means of isotopically selective photo-predissociation of formaldehyde is achieved by irradiation with a fixed frequency ion laser, specifically, a neon, cadmium, or xenon ion laser.

  12. PHOTOCHEMICAL REACTIONS AMONG FORMALDEHYDE, CHLORINE, AND NITROGEN DIOXIDE IN AIR

    EPA Science Inventory

    Photochemical reactions among chlorine, nitrogen dioxide, and formaldehyde were studied, using parts-per-million concentrations in 1 atm of air. The reactant mixtures were irradiated by ultraviolet fluorescent lamps and simultaneously analyzed by the Fourier transform infrared te...

  13. ETV REPORT: CERTEK, INC. 1414RH FORMALDEHYDE GENERATOR/NEUTRALIZER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Environmental Technology Verification report discusses the technology and performance of the 1414RH Formaldehyde Generator/Neuralizer, a biological decontamination device manufactured by CERTEK, Inc. The unit was tested by evaluating its ability to decontaminate seven types ...

  14. Microbial urea-formaldehyde degradation involves a new enzyme, methylenediurease.

    PubMed

    Jahns, T; Schepp, R; Siersdorfer, C; Kaltwasser, H

    1998-01-01

    The enzymic mechanism of metabolization of urea-formaldehyde condensation products (methyleneureas; MU) and the fate of the degradation products ammonium, urea and formaldehyde were studied in bacteria isolated from garden soil, which were able to use methyleneureas as the sole source of nitrogen for growth. An organism identified as Ochrobactrum anthropi completely degraded methylenediurea (MDU) and dimethylenetriurea (DMTU) to urea, ammonia, formaldehyde and carbon dioxide. An enzyme designated as methylenediurease (methylenediurea deiminase; MDUase) was responsible for the degradation of both MDU and DMTU as well as higher polymerized MU. Growth on MU as the nitrogen source specifically induced the synthesis of this enzyme, which seems to be located in the periplasm of the bacterium. Under these growth conditions, urease as well as NAD-specific formaldehyde and formiate dehydrogenase were expressed to high levels, efficiently using the products of MU degradation, and high-affinity transport systems for urea and ammonia were synthesized scavenging the environment for these products. PMID:10526991

  15. Formaldehyde Surface Distributions and Variability in the Mexico City Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junkermann, W.; Mohr, C.; Steinbrecher, R.; Ruiz Suarez, L.

    2007-05-01

    Formaldehyde ambient air mole fractions were measured throughout the dry season in March at three different locations in the Mexico City basin. The continuously running instruments were operated at Tenago del Aire, a site located in the Chalco valley in the southern venting area of the basin, at the Intituto Mexicano del Petroleo (IMP) in the northern part of the city and about 30 km north of the city at the campus of the Universidad Tecnològica de Tecamac (UTTEC). The technique used is the Hantzsch technology with a time resolution of 2 minutes and a detection limit of 100 ppt. Daily maxima peaked at 35 ppb formaldehyde in the city and about 15 to 20 ppb at the other sites. During night formaldehyde levels dropped to about 5 ppb or less. It is evident that the observed spatial and temporal variability in near surface formaldehyde distributions is strongly affected by local and regional advection processes.

  16. Quantification of aldehydes emissions from alternative and renewable aviation fuels using a gas turbine engine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hu; Altaher, Mohamed A.; Wilson, Chris W.; Blakey, Simon; Chung, Winson; Rye, Lucas

    2014-02-01

    In this research three renewable aviation fuel blends including two HEFA (Hydrotreated Ester and Fatty Acid) blends and one FAE (Fatty Acids Ethyl Ester) blend with conventional Jet A-1 along with a GTL (Gas To Liquid) fuel have been tested for their aldehydes emissions on a small gas turbine engine. Three strong ozone formation precursors: formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acrolein were measured in the exhaust at different operational modes and compared to neat Jet A-1. The aim is to assess the impact of renewable and alternative aviation fuels on aldehydes emissions from aircraft gas turbine engines so as to provide informed knowledge for the future deployment of new fuels in aviation. The results show that formaldehyde was a major aldehyde species emitted with a fraction of around 60% of total measured aldehydes emissions for all fuels. Acrolein was the second major emitted aldehyde species with a fraction of ˜30%. Acetaldehyde emissions were very low for all the fuels and below the detention limit of the instrument. The formaldehyde emissions at cold idle were up to two to threefold higher than that at full power. The fractions of formaldehyde were 6-10% and 20% of total hydrocarbon emissions in ppm at idle and full power respectively and doubled on a g kg-1-fuel basis.

  17. A Density Functional Theory Study of Formaldehyde Adsorption on Ceria

    SciTech Connect

    Mei, Donghai; Deskins, N. Aaron; Dupuis, Michel

    2007-11-01

    Molecular adsorption of formaldehyde on the stoichiometric CeO2(111) and CeO2(110) surfaces was studied using periodic density functional theory. Two adsorption modes (strong chemisorbed and weak physisorbed) were identified on both surfaces. This is consistent with recent experimental observations. On the (111) surface, formaldehyde strongly chemisorbs with an adsorption energy of 0.86 eV to form a dioxymethylene-like structure, in which a surface O lifts from the surface to bind with the C of formaldehyde. A weak physisorbed state with adsorption energy of 0.28 eV was found with the O of formaldehyde interacting with a surface Ce. On the (110) surface, dioxymethyelene formation was also observed, with an adsorption energy of 1.31 eV. The weakly adsorbed state of formaldehyde on the (110) surface was energetically comparable to the weak adsorption state on the (111) surface, but adsorption occurred through a formaldehyde C and surface O interaction. Analysis of the local density of states and charge density differences after adsorption shows that strong covalent bonding occurs between the C of formaldehyde and surface O when dioxymethylene forms. Calculated vibrational frequencies also confirm dioxymethylene formation. Our results also show that as the coverage increases, the adsorption of formaldehyde on the (111) surface becomes weak, but is nearly unaffected on the (110) surface. This work was supported by a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The computations were performed using the Molecular Science Computing Facility in the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, which is a U.S. Department of Energy national scientific user facility located at PNNL in Richland, Washington. Computing time was made under a Computational Grand Challenge “Computational Catalysis”. Part of the computing time was also granted by the National Energy Research Scientific Computing

  18. Injection Seeded Laser for Formaldehyde Differential Fluorescence Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwemmer, G.; Yakshin, M.; Prasad, C.; Hanisco, T.; Mylapore, A. R.; Hwang, I. H.; Lee, S.

    2016-06-01

    We describe the design and development of an injection seeded Nd:YVO4 laser for use in a differential fluorescence lidar for measuring atmospheric formaldehyde profiles. A high repetition rate Q-switched laser is modified to accept injection seed input to spectrally narrow and tune the output. The third harmonic output is used to excite formaldehyde (HCHO) fluorescence when tuned to a HCHO absorption line. Spectral confirmation is made with the use of a photoacoustic cell and grating spectrometer.

  19. Formaldehyde Levels in Traditional and Portable Classrooms: A Pilot Investigation.

    PubMed

    Lucas, Isabela Ribeiro; Kowalski, Peter; Callahan, David B; Noonan, Gary P; Moffett, Daphne B; Olson, David H; Malilay, Josephine

    2016-03-01

    The pilot study discussed in this article assessed formaldehyde levels in portable classrooms (PCs) and traditional classrooms the authors evaluated formaldehyde levels in day and overnight indoor air (TCs) and explored factors influencing indoor air quality (e.g., carbon dioxide, temperature, and relative humidity). In a cross-sectional design, samples from nine PCs renovated within three years previously and three TCs in a school district in metropolitan Atlanta, Georgia. Formaldehyde levels ranged from 0.0068 to 0.038 parts per million (ppm). In both types of classroom, overnight formaldehyde median levels (PCs = 0.018 ppm; TCs = 0.019 ppm) were higher than day formaldehyde median levels (PCs = 0.011 ppm; TCs = 0.016 ppm). Carbon dioxide levels measured 470-790 ppm at 7:00 a.m. and 470-1800 ppm at 4:00 p.m. Afternoon medians were higher in TCs (1,400 ppm) than in PCs (780 ppm). Consistent with previous studies, formaldehyde levels were similar among PCs and TCs. Reducing carbon dioxide levels by improving ventilation is recommended for classrooms. PMID:27197349

  20. Formaldehyde emissions from ventilation filters under different relative humidity conditions.

    PubMed

    Sidheswaran, Meera; Chen, Wenhao; Chang, Agatha; Miller, Robert; Cohn, Sebastian; Sullivan, Douglas; Fisk, William J; Kumagai, Kazukiyo; Destaillats, Hugo

    2013-05-21

    Formaldehyde emissions from fiberglass and polyester filters used in building heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) systems were measured in bench-scale tests using 10 and 17 cm(2) coupons over 24 to 720 h periods. Experiments were performed at room temperature and four different relative humidity settings (20, 50, 65, and 80% RH). Two different air flow velocities across the filters were explored: 0.013 and 0.5 m/s. Fiberglass filters emitted between 20 and 1000 times more formaldehyde than polyester filters under similar RH and airflow conditions. Emissions increased markedly with increasing humidity, up to 10 mg/h-m(2) at 80% RH. Formaldehyde emissions from fiberglass filters coated with tackifiers (impaction oils) were lower than those from uncoated fiberglass media, suggesting that hydrolysis of other polymeric constituents of the filter matrix, such as adhesives or binders was likely the main formaldehyde source. These laboratory results were further validated by performing a small field study in an unoccupied office. At 80% RH, indoor formaldehyde concentrations increased by 48-64%, from 9-12 μg/m(3) to 12-20 μg/m(3), when synthetic filters were replaced with fiberglass filtration media in the HVAC units. Better understanding of the reaction mechanisms and assessing their overall contributions to indoor formaldehyde levels will allow for efficient control of this pollution source. PMID:23597095

  1. Clinical evaluation of patients with complaints related to formaldehyde exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Imbus, H.R.

    1985-12-01

    Formaldehyde is a very widely used chemical in our present society and one with which every physician has had a first-hand experience in his early days of training in the anatomy laboratory. The National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health lists 52 occupations that expose people to formaldehyde. In recent years, however, the increasing use of formaldehyde resins in the production of building materials such as particleboard and urea-formaldehyde foam insulation has resulted in exposures of large numbers of people in nonoccupational settings. Consumer products such as cosmetics, cigarettes, textiles, furniture, draperies, and preservatives release formaldehyde. It is present in the outdoor atmosphere from products of combustion and automobile exhaust and likewise in the home from such things as gas cooking. These more widespread and increased exposures have resulted in concern regarding potential health effects. Therefore, it is likely that physicians have or will encounter patients who wish evaluations of a present or potential health effect from formaldehyde. This article is for the purpose of providing assistance in such evaluation.110 references.

  2. Histomorphometric comparison after fixation with formaldehyde or glyoxal

    PubMed Central

    Wang, YN; Lee, K; Pai, S; Ledoux, WR

    2014-01-01

    Formaldehyde has long been the fixative of choice for histological examination of tissue. The use of alternatives to formaldehyde has grown, however, owing to the serious hazards associated with its use. Companies have striven to maintain the morphological characteristics of formaldehyde-fixed tissue when developing alternatives. Glyoxal-based fixatives now are among the most popular formaldehyde alternatives. Although there are many studies that compare staining quality and immunoreactivity, there have been no studies that quantify possible structural differences. Histomorphometric analysis commonly is used to evaluate diseased tissue. We compared fixation with formaldehyde and glyoxal with regard to the histomorphological properties of plantar foot tissue using a combination of stereological methods and quantitative morphology. We measured skin thickness, interdigitation index, elastic septa thickness, and adipocyte area and diameter. No significant differences were observed between formaldehyde and glyoxal fixation for any feature measured. The glyoxal-based fixative used therefore is a suitable fixative for structural evaluation of plantar soft tissue. Measurements obtained from the glyoxal-fixed tissue can be combined with data obtained from formalin-fixed for analysis. PMID:20854226

  3. Health risks from indoor formaldehyde exposures in northwest weatherized residences

    SciTech Connect

    Mellinger, P.J.; Sever, L.E.

    1986-10-01

    Conflicting opinions on the potential hazards associated with formaldehyde exposure triggered a national workshop to address the toxicological questions concerning the health effects of formaldehyde. Since quantitative human data are not available to derive a dose-response curve for formaldehyde risk assessment, nonhuman data are used. In the case of formaldehyde, data from animals exposed to high concentrations are used to estimate human risk at much lower concentrations. This study presents the several steps that make up a risk assessment and examines any additional data that might alter significantly the risk estimates presented in the 1984 EIS. Rat inhalation chronic bioassay data from a study sponsored by the Chemical Industry Institute of Toxicology (CIIT) have been used to develop a risk equation that was subsequently used by BPA in its EIS. The CIIT data base remains the only acceptable animal data that can support the estimation of a dose-response curve. The development of mathematical models continues with a great deal of energy, and the use of different models is largely responsible for the great variability of the formaldehyde risk estimates. While one can calculate different values for carcinogenic risk associated with formaldehyde exposure than were presented earlier in the BPA EIS, they are not likely to be any better.

  4. Measurement of acrolein and 1,3-butadiene in a single puff of cigarette smoke using lead-salt tunable diode laser infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thweatt, W. Dave; Harward, Charles N., Sr.; Parrish, Milton E.

    2007-05-01

    Acrolein and 1,3-butadiene in cigarette smoke generally are measured using two separate analytical methods, a carbonyl derivative HPLC method for acrolein and a volatile organic compound (VOC) GC/MS method for 1,3-butadiene. However, a single analytical method having improved sensitivity and real-time per puff measurement will offer more specific information for evaluating experimental carbon filtered cigarettes designed to reduce the smoke deliveries of these constituents. This paper describes an infrared technique using two lead-salt tunable diode lasers (TDLs) operating with liquid nitrogen cooling with emissions at 958.8 cm -1 and 891.0 cm -1 respectively for the simultaneous measurement of acrolein and 1,3-butadiene, respectively, in each puff of mainstream cigarette smoke in real time. The dual TDL system uses a 3.1 l volume, 100 m astigmatic multiple pass absorption gas cell. Quantitation is based on a spectral fit that uses previously determined infrared molecular line parameters generated in our laboratory, including line positions, line strengths and nitrogen-broadened half-widths for these species. Since acrolein and ethylene absorption lines overlap and 1,3-butadiene, ethylene and propylene absorption lines overlap, the per puff deliveries of ethylene and propylene were determined since their overlapping absorption lines must be taken into account by the spectral fit. The acrolein and 1,3-butadiene total cigarette deliveries for the 1R5F Kentucky Reference cigarette were in agreement with the HPLC and GC/MS methods, respectively. The limit of detection (LOD) for 1,3-butadiene and acrolein was 4 ng/puff and 24 ng/puff, respectively, which is more than adequate to determine at which puff they break through the carbon filter. The retention and breakthrough behavior for the two primary smoke constituents depend on the cigarette design and characteristics of the carbon filter being evaluated.

  5. A SUBCHRONIC INHALATION STUDY OF FISCHER 344 RATS EXPOSED TO 0, 0.4, 1.4 OR 4.0 PPM ACROLEIN.

    SciTech Connect

    KUTZMAN,R.S.

    1981-10-01

    Fischer 344 rats were exposed to 0.0, 0.4, 1.4, or 4.0 ppm acrolein for 62 days. The major objective of the study was to relate the results of a series of pulmonary function tests to biochemical and pathological alterations observed in the lung. Cytological and reproductive potential endpoints were also assessed after acrolein exposure. Rats were exposed to acrolein for 6 hours/day, 5 days/week for 62 days. Mortality was observed only in the 4.0 ppm chamber where 32 of 57 exposed males died; however, none of the 8 exposed females died. Most of the mortality occurred within the first 10 exposure days. Histologic examination indicated that the animals died of acute bronchopneumonia. The surviving males and females exposed to 4.0 ppm acrolein gained weight at a significantly slower rate than control animals. The growth of both sexes in the 0.4 and 1.4 ppm groups was similar to that of their respective controls. Histopathologic examination of animals after 62 days of exposure revealed bronchiolar epithelial necrosis and sloughing, bronchiolar edema with macrophages, and focal pulmonary edema in the 4.0 ppm group. These lesions were, in some cases, associated with edema of the trachea and peribronchial lymph nodes, and acute rhinitis which indicated an upper respiratory tract effect of acrolein. Of particular interest was the variability of response between rats in the 4.0 ppm group, some not affected at all while others were moderately affected. Intragroup variability in toxicity was also apparent in the 1.4 ppm exposure group where only 3 of 31 animals examined had lesions directly related to acrolein exposure. Extra respiratory organs appeared unaffected.

  6. Use of In Vivo and In Vitro Data to Derive a Chronic Reference Value for Crotonaldehyde Based on Relative Potency to Acrolein

    PubMed Central

    Grant, Roberta L.; Jenkins, Allison F.

    2015-01-01

    The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) conducted a chronic inhalation noncancer toxicity assessment for crotonaldehyde (CRO). Since there were limited toxicity data for CRO, a reference value (ReV) was derived using a relative potency factor (RPF) approach with acrolein as the index chemical. Both CRO and acrolein are α,β-unsaturated carbonyls and share common steps in their mode of action (MOA). Only studies that investigated the effects of CRO and acrolein in the same study were used to calculate a CRO:acrolein RPF. In vivo findings measuring both 50% respiratory depression in rats and two species of mice and subcutaneous 50% lethality in rats and mice were used to calculate an RPF of 3 (rounded to one significant figure). In vitro data were useful to compare the MOA of CRO and acrolein and to support the RPF determined using in vivo data. In vitro cell culture studies investigating cytotoxicity in normal human lung fibroblast cultures using the propidium iodide cytotoxicity assay and in mouse lymphocyte cultures using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cytotoxicity assay were used to calculate an in vitro RPF of 3, which supports the in vivo RPF. The chronic ReV for acrolein of 1.2 ppb derived by TCEQ was multiplied by the RPF of 3 to calculate the ReV for CRO of 3.6 ppb (10 μg/m3). The ReV for CRO was developed to protect the general public from adverse health effects from chronic exposure to CRO in ambient air. PMID:26580244

  7. Astaxanthin Inhibits Acetaldehyde-Induced Cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells by Modulating Akt/CREB and p38MAPK/ERK Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Tingting; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Xia; Lin, Xiaotong

    2016-01-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction. Acetaldehyde, the most toxic metabolite of ethanol, mediates the brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction induced by chronic excessive alcohol consumption. In this study, the effect of astaxanthin, a marine bioactive compound, on acetaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity was investigated in SH-SY5Y cells. It was found that astaxanthin protected cells from apoptosis by ameliorating the effect of acetaldehyde on the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins, preventing the reduction of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the increase of pro-apoptotic protein Bak induced by acetaldehyde. Further analyses showed that astaxanthin treatment inhibited acetaldehyde-induced reduction of the levels of activated Akt and cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB). Astaxanthin treatment also prevented acetaldehyde-induced increase of the level of activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and decrease of the level of activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs). Activation of Akt/CREB pathway promotes cell survival and is involved in the upregulation of Bcl-2 gene. P38MAPK plays a critical role in apoptotic events while ERKs mediates the inhibition of apoptosis. Thus, astaxanthin may inhibit acetaldehyde-induced apoptosis through promoting the activation of Akt/CREB and ERKs and blocking the activation of p38MAPK. In addition, astaxanthin treatment suppressed the oxidative stress induced by acetaldehyde and restored the antioxidative capacity of SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, astaxanthin may protect cells against acetaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity through maintaining redox balance and modulating apoptotic and survival signals. The results suggest that astaxanthin treatment may be beneficial for preventing neurotoxicity associated with acetaldehyde and excessive alcohol consumption. PMID:26978376

  8. Astaxanthin Inhibits Acetaldehyde-Induced Cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y Cells by Modulating Akt/CREB and p38MAPK/ERK Signaling Pathways.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tingting; Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Xia; Lin, Xiaotong

    2016-03-01

    Excessive alcohol consumption can lead to brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction. Acetaldehyde, the most toxic metabolite of ethanol, mediates the brain tissue damage and cognitive dysfunction induced by chronic excessive alcohol consumption. In this study, the effect of astaxanthin, a marine bioactive compound, on acetaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity was investigated in SH-SY5Y cells. It was found that astaxanthin protected cells from apoptosis by ameliorating the effect of acetaldehyde on the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins, preventing the reduction of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the increase of pro-apoptotic protein Bak induced by acetaldehyde. Further analyses showed that astaxanthin treatment inhibited acetaldehyde-induced reduction of the levels of activated Akt and cyclic AMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB). Astaxanthin treatment also prevented acetaldehyde-induced increase of the level of activated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and decrease of the level of activated extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs). Activation of Akt/CREB pathway promotes cell survival and is involved in the upregulation of Bcl-2 gene. P38MAPK plays a critical role in apoptotic events while ERKs mediates the inhibition of apoptosis. Thus, astaxanthin may inhibit acetaldehyde-induced apoptosis through promoting the activation of Akt/CREB and ERKs and blocking the activation of p38MAPK. In addition, astaxanthin treatment suppressed the oxidative stress induced by acetaldehyde and restored the antioxidative capacity of SH-SY5Y cells. Therefore, astaxanthin may protect cells against acetaldehyde-induced cytotoxicity through maintaining redox balance and modulating apoptotic and survival signals. The results suggest that astaxanthin treatment may be beneficial for preventing neurotoxicity associated with acetaldehyde and excessive alcohol consumption. PMID:26978376

  9. Genotoxic effects in occupational exposure to formaldehyde: A study in anatomy and pathology laboratories and formaldehyde-resins production

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background According to the Report on Carcinogens, formaldehyde ranks 25th in the overall U.S. chemical production, with more than 5 million tons produced each year. Given its economic importance and widespread use, many people are exposed to formaldehyde environmentally and/or occupationally. Presently, the International Agency for Research on Cancer classifies formaldehyde as carcinogenic to humans (Group 1), based on sufficient evidence in humans and in experimental animals. Manyfold in vitro studies clearly indicated that formaldehyde can induce genotoxic effects in proliferating cultured mammalian cells. Furthermore, some in vivo studies have found changes in epithelial cells and in peripheral blood lymphocytes related to formaldehyde exposure. Methods A study was carried out in Portugal, using 80 workers occupationally exposed to formaldehyde vapours: 30 workers from formaldehyde and formaldehyde-based resins production factory and 50 from 10 pathology and anatomy laboratories. A control group of 85 non-exposed subjects was considered. Exposure assessment was performed by applying simultaneously two techniques of air monitoring: NIOSH Method 2541 and Photo Ionization Detection equipment with simultaneously video recording. Evaluation of genotoxic effects was performed by application of micronucleus test in exfoliated epithelial cells from buccal mucosa and peripheral blood lymphocytes. Results Time-weighted average concentrations not exceeded the reference value (0.75 ppm) in the two occupational settings studied. Ceiling concentrations, on the other hand, were higher than reference value (0.3 ppm) in both. The frequency of micronucleus in peripheral blood lymphocytes and in epithelial cells was significantly higher in both exposed groups than in the control group (p < 0.001). Moreover, the frequency of micronucleus in peripheral blood lymphocytes was significantly higher in the laboratories group than in the factory workers (p < 0.05). A moderate positive

  10. Thz Spectroscopy of 13C Isotopic Species of a "weed": Acetaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margulès, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Guillemin, J.-C.

    2011-06-01

    Our studies of the isotopic species of 13C and D isotopologues of methyl formate (HCOOCH_3), have allowed the detection of more than 600 lines in Orion. This confirms that many observed U-lines are coming from isotopic species of one of the most abundant molecules in space. Since its first detection in 1976 in SgrB2 and in Orion A, acetaldehyde (CH_3CHO) was detected in many other numerous objects. If its deuterated species (CD_3CHO and CH_3CDO) have been previously studied in the millimeterwave range, the data concerning the 13C species are limited to few lines measured in 1957 up to 40 GHz. In this context we decided to study the 13C species of acetaldehyde. Acetaldehyde molecule displays a large amplitude motion: the hindered rotation of the methyl group with respect to the rest of the molecule. The analysis is performed with the Rho Axis Method. Recent versions of the codes include high orders term in order to reproduce the observed frequencies for large quantum numbers values as J-values as high as 70a,b,. Measurements and analysis of the rotational spectra of 13C isotopic species are in progress in Lille with a solid-state submillimetre-wave spectrometer (50-950 GHz), the first results will be presented. This work is supported by the contract ANR-08-BLAN-0054 and by the Programme National de Physico-Chimie du Milieu Interstellaire (PCMI-CNRS). Carvajal, M.; Margulès, L.; Tercero, B.; et al.A&A 500, (2009) 1109 Margulès, L.; Huet, T. R.; Demaison J.; et al.,ApJ 714, (2010) 1120. Ikeda, M.; Ohishi, M.; Nummelin, A.; et al., ApJ, 560, (2001) 792 Kleiner, I.; Lopez, J.-C.; Blanco, S.; et al.J. Mol. Spectrosc. 197, (1999) 275 Elkeurti M.; Coudert, L. H.; Medvedev, I. R.; et al.J. Mol. Spectrosc. 263, (2010) 145 Kilb, R.W.; Lin, C.C.; and Wilson, E.B.J. Chem. Phys. 26, (1957) 1695 Kleiner, I. J. Mol. Spectrosc. 260, (2010) 1 Ilyushin, V.V.; Kryvda, A; and Alekseev, E;J. Mol. Spectrosc. 255, (2009) 32

  11. The Involvement of Acetaldehyde in Ethanol-Induced Cell Cycle Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Scheer, Marc A.; Schneider, Katrina J.; Finnigan, Rochelle L.; Maloney, Eamon P.; Wells, Mark A.; Clemens, Dahn L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hepatocytes metabolize the vast majority of ingested ethanol. This metabolic activity results in hepatic toxicity and impairs the ability of hepatocytes to replicate. Previous work by our group has shown that ethanol metabolism results in a G2/M cell cycle arrest. The intent of these studies was to discern the roles of acetaldehyde and reactive oxygen, two of the major by-products of ethanol metabolism, in the G2/M cell cycle arrest. Methods: To investigate the role of ethanol metabolites in the cell cycle arrest, VA-13 and VL-17A cells were used. These are recombinant Hep G2 cells that express alcohol dehydrogenase or alcohol dehydrogenase and cytochrome P450 2E1, respectively. Cells were cultured with or without ethanol, lacking or containing the antioxidants N-acetylcysteine (NAC) or trolox, for three days. Cellular accumulation was monitored by the DNA content of the cultures. The accumulation of the cyclin-dependent kinase, Cdc2 in the inactive phosphorylated form (p-Cdc2) and the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 were determined by immunoblot analysis. Results: Cultures maintained in the presence of ethanol demonstrated a G2/M cell cycle arrest that was associated with a reduction in DNA content and increased levels of p-Cdc2 and p21, compared with cells cultured in its absence. Inclusion of antioxidants in the ethanol containing media was unable to rescue the cells from the cell cycle arrest or these ethanol metabolism-mediated effects. Additionally, culturing the cells in the presence of acetaldehyde alone resulted in increased levels of p-Cdc2 and p21. Conclusions: Acetaldehyde produced during ethanol oxidation has a major role in the ethanol metabolism-mediated G2/M cell cycle arrest, and the concurrent accumulation of p21 and p-Cdc2. Although reactive oxygen species are thought to have a significant role in ethanol-induced hepatocellular damage, they may have a less important role in the inability of hepatocytes to replace dead or damaged

  12. Experimental and modeling study of the oxidation of acetaldehyde in an atmospheric-pressure pulsed corona discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klett, C.; Touchard, S.; Vega-Gonzalez, A.; Redolfi, M.; Bonnin, X.; Hassouni, K.; Duten, X.

    2012-08-01

    This paper reports the results obtained for the degradation of acetaldehyde by an atmospheric plasma corona discharge working in a pulsed regime. It was shown that a few hundred ppm of acetaldehyde diluted in a pure N2 gas flow can be removed up to 80% by a discharge fed with an electric power lower than 1 W. Under the same conditions, adding up to 5% of O2 allowed the removal of up to 95% of the initial acetaldehyde. The main identified end products were CO2, CO and methanol. A quasi-homogeneous zero-dimensional chemical model was developed to investigate the respective efficiency of the discharge and post-discharge periods in the global removal of the pollutant. The identified main pathways of acetaldehyde degradation were quenching of N2 metastable states during plasma pulses and oxidation by O and OH radicals during the post-discharge. This latter contribution increased with input power because of ozone accumulation in the gas mixture acting as an additional oxygen reservoir.

  13. Biomarkers of Exposure and Effect in Human Lymphoblastoid TK6 Cells Following [13C2]-Acetaldehyde Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Swenberg, James A.

    2013-01-01

    The dose-response relationship for biomarkers of exposure (N2-ethylidene-dG adducts) and effect (cell survival and micronucleus formation) was determined across 4.5 orders of magnitude (50nM–2mM) using [13C2]-acetaldehyde exposures to human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells for 12h. There was a clear increase in exogenous N 2-ethylidene-dG formation at exposure concentrations ≥ 1µM, whereas the endogenous adducts remained nearly constant across all exposure concentrations, with an average of 3.0 adducts/107 dG. Exogenous adducts were lower than endogenous adducts at concentrations ≤ 10µM and were greater than endogenous adducts at concentrations ≥ 250µM. When the endogenous and exogenous adducts were summed together, statistically significant increases in total adduct formation over the endogenous background occurred at 50µM. Cell survival and micronucleus formation were monitored across the exposure range and statistically significant decreases in cell survival and increases in micronucleus formation occurred at ≥ 1000µM. This research supports the hypothesis that endogenously produced reactive species, including acetaldehyde, are always present and constitute the majority of the observed biological effects following very low exposures to exogenous acetaldehyde. These data can replace default assumptions of linear extrapolation to very low doses of exogenous acetaldehyde for risk prediction. PMID:23425604

  14. Quantitative Determination of Acetaldehyde in Foods Using Automated Digestion with Simulated Gastric Fluid Followed by Headspace Gas Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Uebelacker, Michael; Lachenmeier, Dirk W.

    2011-01-01

    Acetaldehyde (ethanal) is a genotoxic carcinogen, which may occur naturally or as an added flavour in foods. We have developed an efficient method to analyze the compound in a wide variety of food matrices. The analysis is conducted using headspace (HS) gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detector. Using a robot autosampler, the samples are digested in full automation with simulated gastric fluid (1 h at 37°C) under shaking, which frees acetaldehyde loosely bound to matrix compounds. Afterwards, an aliquot of the HS is injected into the GC system. Standard addition was applied for quantification to compensate for matrix effects. The precision of the method was sufficient (<3% coefficient of variation). The limit of detection was 0.01 mg/L and the limit of quantification was 0.04 mg/L. 140 authentic samples were analyzed. The acetaldehyde content in apples was 0.97 ± 0.80 mg/kg, orange juice contained 3.86 ± 2.88 mg/kg. The highest concentration was determined in a yoghurt (17 mg/kg). A first-exposure estimation resulted in a daily acetaldehyde intake of less than 0.1 mg/kg bodyweight from food, which is considerably lower than the exposures from alcohol consumption or tobacco smoking. PMID:21747735

  15. Effect of oxygen on the conversion of acetaldehyde in homogeneous plasmas of N2/O2/CH3CHO mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faider, W.; Pasquiers, S.; Blin-Simiand, N.; Magne, L.

    2013-12-01

    A photo-triggered discharge producing a homogeneous plasma was used to investigate, experimentally and with the help of a self-consistent 0D model, the decomposition processes of acetaldehyde (concentration up to 0.5%) in N2/O2/CH3CHO mixtures containing up to 20% oxygen, at a total pressure of 460 mbar. This work follows a previous one about N2/CH3CHO, having provided the necessary data about the quenching of the N2 metastable states by the acetaldehyde molecule. For the condition of the experiment, it was shown that oxygen has a weak influence on the acetaldehyde removal. Nevertheless, the kinetic reactions involved drastically change when the oxygen percentage is increased. Quenching reactions gradually give way to oxidation reactions by O(3P) and OH. Oxidation by OH dominates for a high acetaldehyde concentration or a high oxygen percentage. Moreover, CH3 is an important primary compound for the formation of CH4 and C2H6. Ethane is less populated than methane in the whole range of oxygen percentage values studied, and there are still hydrocarbon molecules in the gas mixture at 20% oxygen. This is well explained by the adopted kinetic scheme.

  16. Replacement of the initial steps of ethanol metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by ATP-independent acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Kozak, Barbara U; van Rossum, Harmen M; Niemeijer, Matthijs S; van Dijk, Marlous; Benjamin, Kirsten; Wu, Liang; Daran, Jean-Marc G; Pronk, Jack T; van Maris, Antonius J A

    2016-03-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae ethanol dissimilation is initiated by its oxidation and activation to cytosolic acetyl-CoA. The associated consumption of ATP strongly limits yields of biomass and acetyl-CoA-derived products. Here, we explore the implementation of an ATP-independent pathway for acetyl-CoA synthesis from ethanol that, in theory, enables biomass yield on ethanol that is up to 40% higher. To this end, all native yeast acetaldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDs) were replaced by heterologous acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (A-ALD). Engineered Ald(-) strains expressing different A-ALDs did not immediately grow on ethanol, but serial transfer in ethanol-grown batch cultures yielded growth rates of up to 70% of the wild-type value. Mutations in ACS1 were identified in all independently evolved strains and deletion of ACS1 enabled slow growth of non-evolved Ald(-) A-ALD strains on ethanol. Acquired mutations in A-ALD genes improved affinity-Vmax/Km for acetaldehyde. One of five evolved strains showed a significant 5% increase of its biomass yield in ethanol-limited chemostat cultures. Increased production of acetaldehyde and other by-products was identified as possible cause for lower than theoretically predicted biomass yields. This study proves that the native yeast pathway for conversion of ethanol to acetyl-CoA can be replaced by an engineered pathway with the potential to improve biomass and product yields. PMID:26818854

  17. Airborne tunable diode laser measurements of formaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Alan; Wert, Bryan P.; Henry, Bruce; Drummond, James R.

    1999-09-01

    Accurate measurements of formaldehyde (CH 2O) in the atmosphere are essential to further our understanding of various atmospheric cycles involving hydrogen and carbon-containing species. Comparisons among independent measurements of this gas and between measurements and model calculations have raised numerous questions regarding the veracity of both endeavors. The present paper describes a long-term effort by our group to develop and employ tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) for highly accurate measurements of this gas on both ground-based and aircraft platforms. A highly sensitive and selective TDLAS system, which has successfully flown on three different aircraft campaigns, will be described. Many new hardware and software features, which have been implemented, now make it possible to detect ambient CH 2O concentrations as low as 55 parts-per-trillion employing a 20-s integration time. This paper will also discuss the many aspects associated with high accuracy and its verification, including a brief discussion of our aircraft sampling system and inlet surface effects.

  18. Resorcinol-formaldehyde and carbon aerogel microspheres

    SciTech Connect

    Alviso, C.T.; Pekela, R.W.; Gross, J.; Lu, X.; Caps, R.; Fricke, J

    1996-04-01

    Aerogels are a unique class of materials possessing an open-cell structure with ultrafine cells/pores (<100nm), high surface area (400--1100 m{sup 2}/g), and a solid matrix composed of interconnected particles, fibers, or platelets with characteristic dimensions of 10nm. Although monolithic aerogels are ideal candidates for many applications (e.g. transparent window insulation), current processing methods have limited their introduction into the commercial marketplace. Our research focuses on the formation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogel microspheres which offer an attractive alternative to monolith production. An inverse emulsion polymerization is used to produce these spherical gel particles which undergo solvent exchange followed by supercritical drying with carbon dioxide. This process yields aerogel microspheres (10--80{mu} diameter) which can be used as loosely packed powders, compression molded into near-net shapes using a polymer binder, or used as additives in conventional foaming operations to produce new aerogel composites with superior thermal properties. The emulsification procedure, thermal characterization, mechanical properties, and potential applications of RF aerogel microspheres will be discussed.

  19. Chronic respiratory effects of indoor formaldehyde exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Krzyzanowski, M.; Quackenboss, J.J.; Lebowitz, M.D. )

    1990-08-01

    The relation of chronic respiratory symptoms and pulmonary function to formaldehyde (HCHO) in homes was studied in a sample of 298 children (6-15 years of age) and 613 adults. HCHO measurements were made with passive samplers during two 1-week periods. Data on chronic cough and phlegm, wheeze, attacks of breathlessness, and doctor diagnoses of chronic bronchitis and asthma were collected with self-completed questionnaires. Peak expiratory flow rates (PEFR) were obtained during the evenings and mornings for up to 14 consecutive days for each individual. Significantly greater prevalence rates of asthma and chronic bronchitis were found in children from houses with HCHO levels 60-120 ppb than in those less exposed, especially in children also exposed to environmental tobacco smoke. In children, levels of PEFR decreased linearly with HCHO exposure, with the estimated decrease due to 60 ppb of HCHO equivalent to 22% of PEFR level in nonexposed children. The effects in asthmatic children exposed to HCHO below 50 ppb were greater than in healthy ones. The effects in adults were less evident: decrements in PEFR due to HCHO over 40 ppb were seen only in the morning, and mainly in smokers.

  20. Formaldehyde as hypothetical primer of biohomochirality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldanskii, Vitalii I.

    1996-07-01

    One of the most intriguing and crucial problems of the prebiotic evolution and the origin of life is the explanation of the origin of biohomochirality. A scheme of conversions originated by formaldehyde (FA) as hypothetical primer of biohomochirality is proposed. The merit of FA as executor of this function is based -inter alia - on the distinguished role of FA as one of the earliest and simplest molecules in both warm, terrestrial and cold, extraterrestrial scenarios of the origin of life. The confirmation of the role of FA as primer of biohomochirality would support the option of an RNA world as an alternative to the protein world. The suggested hypothesis puts forward for the first time a concrete sequence of chemical reactions which can lead to biohomochirality. The spontaneous breaking of the mirror symmetry is secured by the application of the well-known Frank scheme (combination of autocatalysis and ``annihilation'' of L and D enantiomers) to the series of interactions of FA ``trimers'' (i.e. C3H6O3 compounds) of (aaa), (apa) and (app) types, where the monomeric groups (a) means ``achirons'' (a=CHn, n>=2 and C=M, M=C,O) and (p) mean ``prochirons'' (p=HC*OM, M=H,C).

  1. Theoretical study on the mechanism and kinetics of acetaldehyde and hydroperoxyl radical: An important atmospheric reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farnia, Solaleh; Vahedpour, Morteza; Abedi, Mostafa; Farrokhpour, Hossein

    2013-09-01

    A systematic theoretical study was performed on the mechanism and kinetics of the atmospheric reaction of acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) and hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) in the gas phase. The DFT-B3LYP/6-311++G(3df,3pd) and CCSD(T)/6-311++G(d,p) methods were employed for calculations. Based on the calculations, this reaction leads to four different products through radical addition and hydrogen abstraction mechanisms which are very important in atmospheric and combustion chemistry. The favorable reaction paths begin with α-hydroxyethylperoxy radical, CH3CH(OO)OH, in a exothermic process and finally leads to the product P1 (CH3COOH + OH). The overall rate constants for favorite reaction paths have been calculated at different temperatures (200-2500 K).

  2. Preparation and photocatalytic properties of TiO2/mica composite for acetaldehyde degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozawa, Masakuni; Matui, Hidetomo; Suzuki, Suguru

    2016-01-01

    TiO2/mica composite was prepared by mixing mica and acidic solution of hydrolyzed titanium tetraisopropoxide, and characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetry and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), and N2 adsorption measurement. The results of experiments showed that the material had a catalytic composite powder structure containing pillared fragments with TiO2 after calcination at 300-800 °C. The resulting TiO2/mica exhibited good thermal stability, as indicated by its porosity and surface area, and interlayer stability of powders after calcination at 800 °C. The photocatalytic performances of these porous mica/TiO2 composites were evaluated by gaseous acetaldehyde degradation. The superior photocatalyic property was demonstrated and the maximum removal efficiency was up to 99% within 90 min, and the reaction kinetics was discussed.

  3. The laboratory spectrum of acetaldehyde at 1 millimeter (230-325 GHz)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, W. L., Jr.; Anderson, M. A.; Ziurys, L. M.; Kleiner, I.; Hougen, J. T.

    1993-01-01

    The rotational spectrum of acetaldehyde (CH3CHO) in the frequency range 230-325 GHz has been measured in the laboratory using millimeter/submillimeter direct absorption spectroscopy. Over 250 transition frequencies are presented for this molecule for both A and E symmetry species in its ground (upsilon(sub t) = 0) and first excited (upsilon(sub t) = 1) torsional state, with experimental uncertainties of +/- 50 kHz. The data were fitted with a model involving an internal rotation potential function, which typically reproduces the measured frequencies to nu(sub obs) - nu(sub calc) less than or approximately 50 kHz for both ground and upsilon(sub t) = 1 state. These newly measured rest frequencies should aid in the identification of interstellar CH3CHO and in spectral line assignments for millimeter-band scans.

  4. Passive flux sampler for measurement of formaldehyde emission rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinohara, Naohide; Fujii, Minoru; Yamasaki, Akihiro; Yanagisawa, Yukio

    A new passive flux sampler (PFS) was developed to measure emission rates of formaldehyde and to determine emission sources in indoor environments. The sampler consisted of a glass Petri dish containing a 2,4-dinitrophenyl hydrazine (DNPH)-impregnated sheet. At the start of sampling, the PFS was placed with the open face of the dish on each of the indoor materials under investigation, such as flooring, walls, doors, closets, desks, beds, etc. Formaldehyde emitted from a source material diffused through the inside of the PFS and was adsorbed onto the DNPH sheet. The formaldehyde emission rates could be determined from the quantities adsorbed. The lower determination limits were 9.2 and 2.3 μg m -2 h -1 for 2- and 8-h sampling periods. The recovery rate and the precision of the PFS were 82.9% and 8.26%, respectively. The emission rates measured by PFS were in good agreement with the emission rates measured by the chamber method ( R2=0.963). This shows that it is possible to take measurements of the formaldehyde emission rates from sources in a room and to compare them. In addition, the sampler can be used to elucidate the emission characteristics of a source by carrying out emission measurements with different air-layer thicknesses inside the PFS and at different temperatures. The dependency of the emission rate on the thickness of the air layer inside the PFS indicated whether the internal mass transfer inside the source material or the diffusion in the gas-phase boundary layer controlled the formaldehyde emission rate from a material. In addition, as a pilot study, the formaldehyde emission rates were measured, and the largest emission source of formaldehyde could be identified from among several suspected materials in a model house by using the PFS.

  5. Quality Characteristics and Quantification of Acetaldehyde and Methanol in Apple Wine Fermentation by Various Pre-Treatments of Mash.

    PubMed

    Won, Seon Yi; Seo, Jae Soon; Kwak, Han Sub; Lee, Youngseung; Kim, Misook; Shim, Hyoung-Seok; Jeong, Yoonhwa

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of adding lactic acid and pectinase, and chaptalization for the quality of apple wine and the production of hazardous compounds (methanol and acetaldehyde). The pH of all of the samples was below 4; therefore, mash seemed to be fermented without any issue. Total acidity was the highest in sample A due to lactic acid addition. Pre-treated groups (samples B, C, and D) showed higher total acidities than that of the control (P<0.05). Pre-treatments might influence the production of organic acids in apple wines. The control and pectinase added sample (sample B) had the lowest alcohol contents. Adding lactic acid produced more alcohol, and chaptalized samples produced more alcohol due to the addition of sugar. Adding pectinase with and without chaptalization was not effective for producing more alcohol. The control sample had significantly higher acetaldehyde content (2.39 mg/L) than the other samples (1.00~2.07 mg/L); therefore, pre-treatments for apple wine fermentation produced a lower amount of acetaldehyde. Among the pre-treated samples, samples C and D showed the lowest acetaldehyde content of 1.00 mg/L and 1.16 mg/L, respectively. On the other hand, a significantly higher amount of methanol was generated for sample A (1.03 mg/L) and sample D (1.22 mg/L) than that of the control (0.82 mg/L) (P<0.05). Adding lactic acid or chaptalization was effective in reducing methanol and acetaldehyde in apple wines. PMID:26770917

  6. Quality Characteristics and Quantification of Acetaldehyde and Methanol in Apple Wine Fermentation by Various Pre-Treatments of Mash

    PubMed Central

    Won, Seon Yi; Seo, Jae Soon; Kwak, Han Sub; Lee, Youngseung; Kim, Misook; Shim, Hyoung-Seok; Jeong, Yoonhwa

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the effects of adding lactic acid and pectinase, and chaptalization for the quality of apple wine and the production of hazardous compounds (methanol and acetaldehyde). The pH of all of the samples was below 4; therefore, mash seemed to be fermented without any issue. Total acidity was the highest in sample A due to lactic acid addition. Pre-treated groups (samples B, C, and D) showed higher total acidities than that of the control (P<0.05). Pre-treatments might influence the production of organic acids in apple wines. The control and pectinase added sample (sample B) had the lowest alcohol contents. Adding lactic acid produced more alcohol, and chaptalized samples produced more alcohol due to the addition of sugar. Adding pectinase with and without chaptalization was not effective for producing more alcohol. The control sample had significantly higher acetaldehyde content (2.39 mg/L) than the other samples (1.00~2.07 mg/L); therefore, pre-treatments for apple wine fermentation produced a lower amount of acetaldehyde. Among the pre-treated samples, samples C and D showed the lowest acetaldehyde content of 1.00 mg/L and 1.16 mg/L, respectively. On the other hand, a significantly higher amount of methanol was generated for sample A (1.03 mg/L) and sample D (1.22 mg/L) than that of the control (0.82 mg/L) (P<0.05). Adding lactic acid or chaptalization was effective in reducing methanol and acetaldehyde in apple wines. PMID:26770917

  7. Biotransformation of acrolein in rat: excretion of mercapturic acids after inhalation and intraperitoneal injection.

    PubMed

    Linhart, I; Frantík, E; Vodicková, L; Vosmanská, M; Smejkal, J; Mitera, J

    1996-01-01

    Biotransformation of acrolein (ACR) was studied in vivo in the rat following inhalation and ip administration. The major and minor urinary metabolites were 3-hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (HPMA) and 2-carboxyethylmercapturic acid (CEMA), respectively. Male Wistar rats were exposed to ACR, 23, 42, 77 and 126 mg/m3, for 1 hr. The sum of mercapturic acids HPMA and CEMA excreted within 24 hr after the exposure amounted to 0.87 +/- 0.12, 1.34 +/- 0.5, 2.81 +/- 1.15, and 7.13 +/- 1.56 mumol/kg, i.e., 10.9 +/- 1.5, 13.3 +/- 5.0, 16.7 +/- 6.9, and 21.5 +/- 4.8% of the estimated absorbed dose, respectively. The dose estimate was based on reported values of minute respiratory volume and respiratory tract retention and was corrected for the ACR-induced changes in minute respiratory volume. In the relevant dose range (8.9 to 35.7 mumol/kg) the portion of mercapturic acids excreted was nearly constant for ip exposed rats. The sum of HPMA and CEMA amounted to 29.1 +/- 6.5% of the dose. These results indicate that the deficiency in rat lung metabolism of ACR to acrylic acid previously observed is not compensated by the other detoxication pathway in vivo, mercapturic acid formation. The health hazard arising from inhalation of ACR is likely to be higher than that from other routes of exposure. PMID:8560469

  8. Diffusion behaviour of the acetaldehyde scavenger 2-aminobenzamide in polyethylene terephthalate for beverage bottles.

    PubMed

    Franz, Roland; Gmeiner, Margit; Gruner, Anita; Kemmer, Diana; Welle, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles are widely used as packaging material for natural mineral water. However, trace levels of acetaldehyde can migrate into natural mineral water during the shelf life and might influence the taste of the PET bottled water. 2-Aminobenzamide is widely used during PET bottle production as a scavenging agent for acetaldehyde. The aim of this study was the determination of the migration kinetics of 2-aminobenzamide into natural mineral water as well as into 20% ethanol. From the migration kinetics, the diffusion coefficients of 2-aminobenzamide in PET at 23 and 40°C were determined to be 4.2 × 10(-)(16) and 4.2 × 10(-)(15) cm(2) s(-1), respectively. The diffusion coefficient for 20% ethanol at 40°C was determined to be 7.7 × 10(-)(15) cm(2) s(-1), which indicates that 20% ethanol is causing swelling of the PET polymer. From a comparison of migration values between 23 and 40°C, acceleration factors of 9.7 when using water as contact medium and 18.1 for 20% ethanol as simulant can be derived for definition of appropriate accelerated test conditions at 40°C. The European Union regulatory acceleration test based on 80 kJ mol(-1) as conservative activation energy overestimates the experimentally determined acceleration rates by a factor of 1.6 and 3.1, respectively. PMID:26666986

  9. Diffusion behaviour of the acetaldehyde scavenger 2-aminobenzamide in polyethylene terephthalate for beverage bottles

    PubMed Central

    Franz, Roland; Gmeiner, Margit; Gruner, Anita; Kemmer, Diana; Welle, Frank

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles are widely used as packaging material for natural mineral water. However, trace levels of acetaldehyde can migrate into natural mineral water during the shelf life and might influence the taste of the PET bottled water. 2-Aminobenzamide is widely used during PET bottle production as a scavenging agent for acetaldehyde. The aim of this study was the determination of the migration kinetics of 2-aminobenzamide into natural mineral water as well as into 20% ethanol. From the migration kinetics, the diffusion coefficients of 2-aminobenzamide in PET at 23 and 40°C were determined to be 4.2 × 10− 16 and 4.2 × 10− 15 cm2 s–1, respectively. The diffusion coefficient for 20% ethanol at 40°C was determined to be 7.7 × 10− 15 cm2 s–1, which indicates that 20% ethanol is causing swelling of the PET polymer. From a comparison of migration values between 23 and 40°C, acceleration factors of 9.7 when using water as contact medium and 18.1 for 20% ethanol as simulant can be derived for definition of appropriate accelerated test conditions at 40°C. The European Union regulatory acceleration test based on 80 kJ mol–1 as conservative activation energy overestimates the experimentally determined acceleration rates by a factor of 1.6 and 3.1, respectively. PMID:26666986

  10. Acetaldehyde as an underestimated risk factor for cancer development: role of genetics in ethanol metabolism.

    PubMed

    Seitz, Helmut K; Stickel, Felix

    2010-06-01

    Chronic ethanol consumption is a strong risk factor for the development of certain types of cancer including those of the upper aerodigestive tract, the liver, the large intestine and the female breast. Multiple mechanisms are involved in alcohol-mediated carcinogenesis. Among those the action of acetaldehyde (AA), the first metabolite of ethanol oxidation is of particular interest. AA is toxic, mutagenic and carcinogenic in animal experiments. AA binds to DNA and forms carcinogenic adducts. Direct evidence of the role of AA in alcohol-associated carcinogenesis derived from genetic linkage studies in alcoholics. Polymorphisms or mutations of genes coding for AA generation or detoxifying enzymes resulting in elevated AA concentrations are associated with increased cancer risk. Approximately 40% of Japanese, Koreans or Chinese carry the AA dehydrogenase 2*2 (ALDH2*2) allele in its heterozygous form. This allele codes for an ALDH2 enzyme with little activity leading to high AA concentrations after the consumption of even small amounts of alcohol. When individuals with this allele consume ethanol chronically, a significant increased risk for upper alimentary tract and colorectal cancer is noted. In Caucasians, alcohol dehydrogenase 1C*1 (ADH1C*1) allele encodes for an ADH isoenzyme which produces 2.5 times more AA than the corresponding allele ADH1C*2. In studies with moderate to high alcohol intake, ADH1C*1 allele frequency and rate of homozygosity was found to be significantly associated with an increased risk for cancer of the upper aerodigestive tract, the liver, the colon and the female breast. These studies underline the important role of acetaldehyde in ethanol-mediated carcinogenesis. PMID:19847467

  11. Acetonitrile and N-Chloroacetamide Formation from the Reaction of Acetaldehyde and Monochloramine.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Susana Y; Vu, Trang Nha; Komaki, Yukako; Plewa, Michael J; Mariñas, Benito J

    2015-08-18

    Nitriles and amides are two classes of nitrogenous disinfection byproducts (DBPs) associated with chloramination that are more cytotoxic and genotoxic than regulated DBPs. Monochloramine reacts with acetaldehyde, a common ozone and free chlorine disinfection byproduct, to form 1-(chloroamino)ethanol. Equilibrium (K1) and forward and reverse rate (k1,k-1) constants for the reaction between initial reactants and 1-(chloroamino)ethanol were determined between 2 and 30 °C. Activation energies for k1 and k-1 were 3.04 and 45.2 kJ·mol(-1), respectively, and enthalpy change for K1 was -42.1 kJ·mol(-1). In parallel reactions, 1-(chloroamino)ethanol (1) slowly dehydrated (k2) to (chloroimino)ethane that further decomposed to acetonitrile and (2) was oxidized (k3) by monochloramine to produce N-chloroacetamide. Both reactions were acid/base catalyzed, and rate constants were characterized at 10, 18, and 25 °C. Modeling for drinking water distribution system conditions showed that N-chloroacetamide and acetonitrile concentrations were 5-9 times higher at pH 9.0 compared to 7.8. Furthermore, acetonitrile concentration was found to form 7-10 times higher than N-chloroacetamide under typical monochloramine and acetaldehyde concentrations. N-chloroacetamide cytotoxicity (LC50 = 1.78 × 10(-3) M) was comparable to dichloroacetamide and trichloroacetamide, but less potent than N,2-dichloroacetamide and chloroacetamide. While N-chloroacetamide was not found to be genotoxic, N,2-dichloroacetamide genotoxic potency (5.19 × 10(-3) M) was on the same order of magnitude as chloroacetamide and trichloroacetamide. PMID:26167888

  12. Detection of acetaldehyde derived N(2)-ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine in human leukocyte DNA following alcohol consumption.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rajinder; Gromadzinska, Jolanta; Mistry, Yogita; Cordell, Rebecca; Juren, Tina; Segerbäck, Dan; Farmer, Peter B

    2012-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between alcohol (ethanol) consumption and increased cancer risk. The effect of alcohol consumption on the levels and persistence of N(2)-ethylidene-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-ethylidene-dG) formed by acetaldehyde, the oxidative metabolite of ethanol, in human leukocyte DNA was investigated. DNA was isolated from venous blood samples obtained from 30 male non-smoking individuals before consumption of alcohol (0h) and subsequently at 3-5h following the consumption of 150mL of vodka (containing 42% pure ethanol). Additional samples were collected 24h and 48h post-alcohol consumption. The levels of N(2)-ethyl-2'-deoxyguanosine (N(2)-ethyl-dG) in the DNA were determined following reduction of N(2)-ethylidene-dG with sodium cyanoborohydride using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry selected reaction monitoring method. A slight time-dependent trend showing an increase and decrease in the levels of N(2)-ethyl-dG was observed following consumption of alcohol compared to time 0h, however, the differences were not statistically significant. The average levels of N(2)-ethyl-dG observed at 0h, 3-5h, 24h and 48h time points following ingestion of alcohol were 34.6±21.9, 35.1±21.0, 36.8±20.7 and 35.6±21.1 per 10(8) 2'-deoxynucleosides, respectively. In conclusion, alcohol consumption that could be encountered under social drinking conditions, does not significantly alter the levels of the acetaldehyde derived DNA adduct, N(2)-ethyl-dG in human leukocyte DNA from healthy individuals. PMID:22824164

  13. On apparent quantized transition-state thresholds in the photofragmentation of acetaldehyde

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Rollin A.; Allen, Wesley D.; Schaefer, Henry F.

    2000-04-01

    Recent photofragmentation experiments have observed stepwise increases in the dissociation rate for CH3CHO (T1)→CH3 (X˜ 2A2″)+HCO (X˜ 2A') as a function of excitation energy. In accord with the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus (RRKM) form of transition-state theory, these steps were interpreted as corresponding to vibrational levels of the fragmentation transition state on the triplet surface. We have investigated this acetaldehyde dissociation using coupled cluster (CC) and density functional (DFT) methods with [C,O/H] atomic-orbital basis sets ranging in quality from [4s2p1d/2s1p] to [6s5p4d3f2g1h/5s4p3d2 f1g]. A high-level focal point analysis, along with harmonic force field computations, results in predictions of the dissociation energy, D0=1583 cm-1, and the association barrier height, V0*=3149 cm-1. With a basis set of triple-ζ plus double-polarization plus f(TZ2Pf ) quality, the DFT method UB3LYP and the CC method RCCSD predict barrier frequencies of 355i cm-1 and 516i cm-1, respectively, while the empirical value inferred from RRKM models is only 60i cm-1. The RRKM-derived frequencies for the degrees of freedom orthogonal to the reaction path are more reasonable but still not in convincing agreement with electronic structure theory. Thus, while the experimental steps in the dissociation rate of acetaldehyde (as well as ketene) have yet to be satisfactorily explained, proven ab initio methods provide strong evidence that simple RRKM fits to the k(E) profile provide misleading vibrational frequencies of the transition state on the corresponding triplet potential energy surface.

  14. A Diode Laser Study of the Catalytic Oxidation Dynamics of Acetaldehyde on Polycrystalline Platinum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edington, Sean Coleman

    The catalytic oxidation of acetaldehyde on platinum was studied using a flow reactor equipped with a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer and a quadrupole mass spectrometer. Reaction mixtures containing this molecule in varying proportion with oxygen and with argon as a carrier gas were flowed over a polycrystalline platinum mesh, which was resistively heated to different temperatures between 700 and 1000 K. The products of these reactions were monitored using mass spectrometry and the state-resolved spectra of CO 2 produced were collected using high-resolution tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy. These data were analyzed to yield information about the dynamics of the reaction. Results indicate that production of CO and CO2 by this reaction proceeds via two distinct pathways. Acetaldehyde adsorbed on the surface decomposes to acetyl, which in turn decomposes CO and CHx. The adsorbed CO so prepared desorbs to yield the bulk of CO generated across all reaction conditions and also yields CO2 with a relatively deactivated asymmetric stretching mode under conditions of high temperature and low oxygen coverage. The acetyl-derived CHx dehydrogenates to yield surface carbon and H adatoms. Total oxidation of this surface carbon is the primary source of CO2 produced under all reaction conditions except those mentioned previously and is found to yield products with a preferentially excited asymmetric stretch. Combination of the CHx-derived H adatoms with surface oxygen drives the production of water by this reaction. During the course of the work described here, two notable improvements were made to our experimental apparatus. The first of these was the modification of the data acquisition process to significantly improve the signal-to-noise ratio achievable by our laser spectrometer with no increase in data collection time. The second was the development of data analysis software which significantly improved the efficiency and thoroughness of the process by

  15. Kinetics of the unimolecular reaction of CH2OO and the bimolecular reactions with the water monomer, acetaldehyde and acetone under atmospheric conditions.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Torsten; Kaethner, Ralf; Voigtländer, Jens; Stratmann, Frank; Pfeifle, Mark; Reichle, Patrick; Sipilä, Mikko; Kulmala, Markku; Olzmann, Matthias

    2015-08-14

    Stabilized Criegee Intermediates (sCIs) have been identified as oxidants of atmospheric trace gases such as SO2, NO2, carboxylic acids or carbonyls. The atmospheric sCI concentrations, and accordingly their importance for trace gas oxidation, are controlled by the rate of the most important loss processes, very likely the unimolecular reactions and the reaction with water vapour (monomer and dimer) ubiquitously present at high concentrations in the troposphere. In this study, the rate coefficients of the unimolecular reaction of the simplest sCI, formaldehyde oxide, CH2OO, and its bimolecular reaction with the water monomer have been experimentally determined at T = (297 ± 1) K and at atmospheric pressure by using a free-jet flow system. CH2OO was produced by the reaction of ozone with C2H4, and CH2OO concentrations were probed indirectly by detecting H2SO4 after titration with SO2. Time-resolved experiments yield a rate coefficient of the unimolecular reaction of k(uni) = (0.19 ± 0.07) s(-1), a value that is supported by quantum-chemical and statistical rate theory calculations as well as by additional measurements performed under CH2OO steady-state conditions. A rate coefficient of k(CH2OO+H2O) = (3.2 ± 1.2) × 10(-16) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) has been determined for sufficiently low H2O concentrations (<10(15) molecule cm(-3)) that allow separation from the CH2OO reaction with the water dimer. In order to evaluate the accuracy of the experimental approach, the rate coefficients of the reactions with acetaldehyde and acetone were reinvestigated. The obtained rate coefficients k(CH2OO+acetald) = (1.7 ± 0.5) × 10(-12) and k(CH2OO+acetone) = (3.4 ± 0.9) × 10(-13) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) are in good agreement with literature data. PMID:26159709

  16. Development of an LC-MS/MS method for studying migration characteristics of acetaldehyde in polyethylene terephthalate (PET)-packed mineral water.

    PubMed

    Baumjohann, Nina; Harms, Diedrich

    2015-01-01

    During storage, acetaldehyde migration from polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles can affect the quality of mineral water even in the low µg l(-1) range negatively, as it features a fruity or plastic-like off-flavour. For a sensitive and fast analysis of acetaldehyde in mineral water, a new analysis method of 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine (DNPH) derivatisation followed by HPLC-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (ESI-MS/MS) was developed. Acetaldehyde was directly derivatised in the mineral water sample avoiding extraction and/or pre-concentration steps and then analysed by reversed-phase HPLC-ESI-MS/MS using multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). Along with method development, the optimum molar excess of DNPH in contrast to acetaldehyde was studied for the mineral water matrix, because no specific and robust data were yet available for this critical parameter. Best results were obtained by using a calibration via the derivatisation reaction. Without any analyte enrichment or extraction, an LOD of 0.5 µg l(-1) and an LOQ of 1.9 µg l(-1) were achieved. Using the developed method, mineral water samples packed in PET bottles from Germany were analysed and the correlation between the acetaldehyde concentration and other characteristics of the samples was evaluated illustrating the applicability of the method. Besides a relationship between bottle size and CO2 content of the mineral water and acetaldehyde migration, a correlation with acetaldehyde migration and the material composition of the bottle, e.g. recycled PET, was noted. Investigating the light influence on the acetaldehyde migration with a newly developed, reproducible light exposure setup, a significant increase of the acetaldehyde concentration in carbonated mineral water samples was observed. PMID:26258902

  17. Formaldehyde emission—Comparison of different standard methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Risholm-Sundman, Maria; Larsen, Annelise; Vestin, Ewa; Weibull, Anders

    The emission of formaldehyde is an important factor in the evaluation of the environmental and health effects of wood-based board materials. This article gives a comparison between commonly used European test methods: chamber method [EN 717-1, 2004. Wood-based panels—determination of formaldehyde release—Part 1: formaldehyde emission by the chamber method. European Standard, October 2004], gas analysis method [EN 717-2, 1994. Wood-based panels—determination of formaldehyde release—Part 2: formaldehyde release by the gas analysis method, European Standard, November 1994], flask method [EN 717-3, 1996. Wood-based panels—determination of formaldehyde release—Part 3: formaldehyde release by the flask method, European Standard, March 1996], perforator method [EN 120, 1993. Wood based panels—determination of formaldehyde content—extraction method called perforator method, European Standard, September 1993], Japanese test methods: desiccator methods [JIS A 1460, 2001. Building boards. Determination of formaldehyde emission—desiccator method, Japanese Industrial Standard, March 2001 and JAS MAFF 233, 2001] and small chamber method [JIS A 1901, 2003. Determination of the emission of volatile organic compounds and aldehydes for building products—small chamber method, Japanese Industrial Standard, January 2003], for solid wood, particleboard, plywood and medium density fiberboard. The variations between the results from different methods can partly be explained by differences in test conditions. Factors like edge sealing, conditioning of the sample before the test and test temperature have a large effect on the final emission result. The Japanese limit for F **** of 0.3 mg l -1 (in desiccator) for particleboards was found to be equivalent to 0.04 mg m -3 in the European chamber test and 2.8 mg per 100 g in the perforator test. The variations in inter-laboratory tests are much larger than in intra-laboratory tests; the coefficient of variation is 16% and 6

  18. Comparison of ozone and formaldehyde as poultry hatchery disinfectants

    SciTech Connect

    Whistler, P.E.; Sheldon, B.W. )

    1989-10-01

    Ozone and formaldehyde were compared as poultry hatchery disinfectants in a poultry setter, and evaluated for effectiveness. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella typhimurium, and Proteus spp. were inoculated onto open petri plates and exposed to ozone or onto filter paper strips and exposed to ozone or formaldehyde in a poultry setter. Ozone (1.41 to 1.68% by weight) resulted in significant bacterial reductions of greater than 4 log10 on the open plates and greater than 3 log10 on filter paper strips, whereas formaldehyde (triple strength) resulted in greater than 7 log10 reduction on filter paper strips. Ozone was similarly lethal to organisms on filter paper strips at 90% relative humidity (RH) and 13.9 C, and at 50% RH and 37.7 C. Although under the conditions of this study formaldehyde (triple strength) was more lethal than ozone, ozone killed greater than 99.9% of the starting microbial populations. In the event that formaldehyde can no longer be used in the hatchery, an effective alternative may be ozone.

  19. Membrane-Associated Quinoprotein Formaldehyde Dehydrogenase from Methylococcus capsulatus Bath

    PubMed Central

    Zahn, James A.; Bergmann, David J.; Boyd, Jeffery M.; Kunz, Ryan C.; DiSpirito, Alan A.

    2001-01-01

    A membrane-associated, dye-linked formaldehyde dehydrogenase (DL-FalDH) was isolated from the obligate methylotroph Methylococcus capsulatus Bath. The enzyme was the major formaldehyde-oxidizing enzyme in cells cultured in high (above 1 μmol of Cu per mg of cell protein) copper medium and expressing the membrane-associated methane monooxygenase. Soluble NAD(P)+-linked formaldehyde oxidation was the major activity in cells cultured in low-copper medium and expressing the soluble methane monooxygenase (Tate and Dalton, Microbiology 145:159–167, 1999; Vorholt et al., J. Bacteriol. 180:5351–5356, 1998). The membrane-associated enzyme is a homotetramer with a subunit molecular mass of 49,500 Da. UV-visible absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance, and electrospray mass spectrometry suggest the redox cofactor of the DL-FalDH is pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), with a PQQ-to-subunit stochiometry of approximately 1:1. The enzyme was specific for formaldehyde, oxidizing formaldehyde to formate, and utilized the cytochrome b559/569 complex as the physiological electron acceptor. PMID:11698372

  20. Membrane-associated quinoprotein formaldehyde dehydrogenase from Methylococcus capsulatus Bath.

    PubMed

    Zahn, J A; Bergmann, D J; Boyd, J M; Kunz, R C; DiSpirito, A A

    2001-12-01

    A membrane-associated, dye-linked formaldehyde dehydrogenase (DL-FalDH) was isolated from the obligate methylotroph Methylococcus capsulatus Bath. The enzyme was the major formaldehyde-oxidizing enzyme in cells cultured in high (above 1 micromol of Cu per mg of cell protein) copper medium and expressing the membrane-associated methane monooxygenase. Soluble NAD(P)(+)-linked formaldehyde oxidation was the major activity in cells cultured in low-copper medium and expressing the soluble methane monooxygenase (Tate and Dalton, Microbiology 145:159-167, 1999; Vorholt et al., J. Bacteriol. 180:5351-5356, 1998). The membrane-associated enzyme is a homotetramer with a subunit molecular mass of 49,500 Da. UV-visible absorption, electron paramagnetic resonance, and electrospray mass spectrometry suggest the redox cofactor of the DL-FalDH is pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), with a PQQ-to-subunit stochiometry of approximately 1:1. The enzyme was specific for formaldehyde, oxidizing formaldehyde to formate, and utilized the cytochrome b(559/569) complex as the physiological electron acceptor. PMID:11698372

  1. Formaldehyde as a basis for residential ventilation rates

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, M.H.; Hodgson, A.T.

    2002-04-28

    Traditionally, houses in the U.S. have been ventilated by passive infiltration in combination with active window opening. However in recent years, the construction quality of residential building envelopes has been improved to reduce infiltration, and the use of windows for ventilation also may have decreased due to a number of factors. Thus, there has been increased interest in engineered ventilation systems for residences. The amount of ventilation provided by an engineered system should be set to protect occupants from unhealthy or objectionable exposures to indoor pollutants, while minimizing energy costs for conditioning incoming air. Determining the correct ventilation rate is a complex task, as there are numerous pollutants of potential concern, each having poorly characterized emission rates, and poorly defined acceptable levels of exposure. One ubiquitous pollutant in residences is formaldehyde. The sources of formaldehyde in new houses are reasonably understood, and there is a large body of literature on human health effects. This report examines the use of formaldehyde as a means of determining ventilation rates and uses existing data on emission rates of formaldehyde in new houses to derive recommended levels. Based on current, widely accepted concentration guidelines for formaldehyde, the minimum and guideline ventilation rates for most new houses are 0.28 and 0.5 air changes per hour, respectively.

  2. [Disinfection and sterilization of thermolabile instruments with gaseous formaldehyde].

    PubMed

    Mecke, P

    1984-12-01

    For several years formaldehyde-gas-underpressure procedures are increasingly used for disinfection and sterilization of medical thermolabile instruments. In many places, however, uncertainty and sceptism, if these methods are sufficient in the medical field, are existing. This is understandable, since no generally test instructions are available. The principal suitability of gaseous formaldehyde for disinfection and sterilization, however, had been demonstrated by several investigators. Precondition for reliable efficacy during routine use is an apparatus which is equipped with feed-back techniques and which guarantees the bactericidal and fungicidal activity required for medical use. Decontamination procedures on the basis of gaseous formaldehyde under normal conditions of temperature and pressure must be regarded as unsafe. St. faecalis and the spores of B. stearothermophilus showed the highest formaldehyde resistance within the group of common biological testorganisms. In order to test the efficacy of corresponding procedures testorganisms have to be placed into testdevices with small lumina. The penetration of these devices to formaldehyde and vapour should be similar to that of the longest instruments with the smallest lumina, which are intended to be decontaminated by the testprocedure. PMID:6442506

  3. Comparison of ozone and formaldehyde as poultry hatchery disinfectants.

    PubMed

    Whistler, P E; Sheldon, B W

    1989-10-01

    Ozone and formaldehyde were compared as poultry hatchery disinfectants in a poultry setter, and evaluated for effectiveness. Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fluorescens, Salmonella typhimurium, and Proteus spp. were inoculated onto open petri plates and exposed to ozone or onto filter paper strips and exposed to ozone or formaldehyde in a poultry setter. Ozone (1.41 to 1.68% by weight) resulted in significant bacterial reductions of greater than 4 log10 on the open plates and greater than 3 log10 on filter paper strips, whereas formaldehyde (triple strength) resulted in greater than 7 log10 reduction on filter paper strips. Ozone was similarly lethal to organisms on filter paper strips at 90% relative humidity (RH) and 13.9 C, and at 50% RH and 37.7 C. Although under the conditions of this study formaldehyde (triple strength) was more lethal than ozone, ozone killed greater than 99.9% of the starting microbial populations. In the event that formaldehyde can no longer be used in the hatchery, an effective alternative may be ozone. PMID:2511564

  4. High-throughput, Quantitative Analysis of Acrolein-derived DNA Adducts in Human Oral Cells by Immunohistochemistry

    PubMed Central

    Greenspan, Emily J.; Lee, Hanjoo; Dyba, Marcin; Pan, Jishen; Mekambi, Kepher; Johnson, Tierra; Blancato, Jan; Mueller, Susette; Berry, Deborah L.

    2012-01-01

    Acrolein (Acr) is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant as well as an endogenous compound. Acrolein-derived 1,N2-propanodeoxyguanosines (Acr-dG) are exocyclic DNA adducts formed following exposure to cigarette smoke or from lipid peroxidation. Acr-dG is mutagenic and potentially carcinogenic and may represent a useful biomarker for the early detection of cancers related to smoking or other oxidative conditions, such as chronic inflammation. In this study, we have developed a high-throughput, automated method using a HistoRx PM-2000 imaging system combined with MetaMorph software for quantifying Acr-dG adducts in human oral cells by immunohistochemical detection using a monoclonal antibody recently developed by our laboratory. This method was validated in a cell culture system using BEAS-2B human bronchial epithelial cells treated with known concentrations of Acr. The results were further verified by quantitative analysis of Acr-dG in DNA of BEAS-2B cells using a liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry/multiple-reaction monitoring method. The automated method is a quicker, more accurate method than manual evaluation of counting cells expressing Acr-dG and quantifying fluorescence intensity. It may be applied to other antibodies that are used for immunohistochemical detection in tissues as well as cell lines, primary cultures, and other cell types. PMID:22899861

  5. High Throughput Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry Assay for Mercapturic Acids of Acrolein and Crotonaldehyde in Cigarette Smokers’ Urine

    PubMed Central

    Carmella, Steven G.; Chen, Menglan; Zarth, Adam; Hecht, Stephen S.

    2014-01-01

    3-Hydroxypropylmercapturic acid (3-HPMA) and 3-hydroxy-1-methylpropylmercapturic acid (HMPMA) are urinary metabolites of the toxicants acrolein and crotonaldehyde, respectively. Virtually all human urine samples contain these metabolites, resulting from the action of glutathione-S-transferases on acrolein and crotonaldehyde, which are lipid peroxidation products, environmental and dietary contaminants, and constituents of cigarette smoke. We have developed a high throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method for quantitative analysis of 3-HPMA and HMPMA in large numbers of small urine samples, as would be required in molecular epidemiology and clinical studies relating levels of these metabolites to cancer risk. Solid-phase extraction on mixed mode reverse phase-anion exchange 96-well plates provided sufficient purification for LC-MS/MS analysis, which was performed by auto-injection using a 96-well format, and resulted in clean, readily interpretable chromatograms, with detection limits of 4.5 pmol/mL urine for 3-HPMA and 3.5 pmol/mL urine for HMPMA. Accuracy was 92% for 3-HPMA and 97% for HMPMA while inter-day precision was 9.1% (coefficient of variation) for 3-HPMA and 11.0% for HMPMA. The method was applied to more than 2600 urine samples from smokers; mean levels of 3-HPMA and HMPMA were 4800 ± 5358 (S.D.) pmol/ml and 3302 ± 3341 pmol/ml, respectively. PMID:23934173

  6. Acrolein Exposure Blocks Down-Regulation of Cytokines and IgE Antibody in a Mucosal Tolerance Model but does not Alter Phenotypic Markers of Allergic Lung Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acrolein (ACR) is a highly reactive upper airway toxicant that humans are exposed in a variety of environmental situations. Here we examined the effect of ACR exposure on development of immune tolerance in mice. To induce tolerance, female BALB/C mice were intranasally inoculate...

  7. FORMALDEHYDE GAS INACTIVATION OF BACILLUS ANTHRACIS, BACILLUS SUBTILIS AND GEOBACILLUS STEAROTHERMOPHILUS SPORES ON INDOOR SURFACE MATERIALS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Research evaluated the decontamination of Bacillus anthracis, Bacillus subtilis, and Geobacillus stearothermophilus spores on indoor surface material using formaldehyde gas. Spores were dried on seven types of indoor surfaces and exposed to 1100 ppm formaldehyde gas for 10 hr. Fo...

  8. Systematic review of the epidemiology literature on formaldehyde and cancers of the upper respiratory tract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: EPA is currently drafting a Toxicological Review of formaldehyde. As part of the comprehensive evaluation of potential hazards associated with exposure to formaldehyde, the potential hazards for cancers of the upper respiratory tract are being evaluated. We are aware ...

  9. Systematic review of the epidemiology literature on formaldehyde and lymphohematopoietic cancers

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: EPA is currently drafting a Toxicological Review of formaldehyde. As part of the comprehensive evaluation of potential hazards associated with exposure to formaldehyde, the potential hazards for lymphohematopoietic cancers are being evaluated. We are aware of multiple...

  10. 24 CFR 3280.308 - Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-to-urea ratio is increased; (B) The amount of formaldehyde resin used is increased; or (C) The press... formaldehyde-to-urea ratio is increased; or (ii) In the case of particleboard or plywood, the finishing or...

  11. 24 CFR 3280.308 - Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-to-urea ratio is increased; (B) The amount of formaldehyde resin used is increased; or (C) The press... formaldehyde-to-urea ratio is increased; or (ii) In the case of particleboard or plywood, the finishing or...

  12. 24 CFR 3280.308 - Formaldehyde emission controls for certain wood products.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-to-urea ratio is increased; (B) The amount of formaldehyde resin used is increased; or (C) The press... formaldehyde-to-urea ratio is increased; or (ii) In the case of particleboard or plywood, the finishing or...

  13. Amended safety assessment of formaldehyde and methylene glycol as used in cosmetics.

    PubMed

    Boyer, Ivan J; Heldreth, Bart; Bergfeld, Wilma F; Belsito, Donald V; Hill, Ronald A; Klaassen, Curtis D; Liebler, Daniel C; Marks, James G; Shank, Ronald C; Slaga, Thomas J; Snyder, Paul W; Andersen, F Alan

    2013-01-01

    Formaldehyde and methylene glycol may be used safely in cosmetics if established limits are not exceeded and are safe for use in nail hardeners in the present practices of use and concentration, which include instructions to avoid skin contact. In hair-smoothing products, however, in the present practices of use and concentration, formaldehyde and methylene glycol are unsafe. Methylene glycol is continuously converted to formaldehyde, and vice versa, even at equilibrium, which can be easily shifted by heating, drying, and other conditions to increase the amount of formaldehyde. This rapid, reversible formaldehyde/methylene glycol equilibrium is distinguished from the slow, irreversible release of formaldehyde resulting from the so-called formaldehyde releaser preservatives, which are not addressed in this safety assessment (formaldehyde releasers may continue to be safely used in cosmetics at the levels established in their individual Cosmetic Ingredient Review safety assessments). PMID:24335968

  14. Formaldehyde and hydroperoxides at Mauna Loa Observatory

    SciTech Connect

    Heikes, B.G. )

    1992-11-20

    Hydrogen peroxide, formaldehyde, and a measure of organic hydroperoxides are presented from the Mauna Loa Observatory Photochemistry Experiment (MLOPEX). MLOPEX was conducted from May 1 to June 4, 1988, at the Mauna Loa Observatory on the island of Hawaii. A modified dual-enzyme serial-coil H[sub 2]O[sub 2]/ROOH method was used to quantify these species. A second enzyme method was used to measure CH[sub 2]O. The location and meteorology at the Mauna Loa Observatory site permitted 35 days of measurements to be made in free tropospheric air and in modified marine boundary layer air. Average concentrations of H[sub 2]O[sub 2], ROOH, and CH[sub 2]O were 1050, 140, and 100 pptv in free tropospheric, or down-slope air. In upslope air, or modified marine boundary layer air, average concentrations were 900, 150, and 190 pptv. Maximum concentrations for all three species were experienced during a two day photochemical haze episode and were 3230, 440, and 450 pptv for H[sub 2]O[sub 2], ROOH, and CH[sub 2]O. H[sub 2]O[sub 2] was depleted in air which had recently been processed by cloud or precipitation. The measured concentrations of these three species were comparable to prior measurements in well- aged air, but were lower than previous models have predicted. Part of this discrepancy may be due to the treatment of heterogeneous removal processes, dry and wet deposition, in these models. The measured ratio of ROOH to H[sub 2]O[sub 2] is significantly different than present theory predicts, with ROOH as measured being approximately a factor of 5 too low. 61 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Comparative Risks of Aldehyde Constituents in Cigarette Smoke Using Transient Computational Fluid Dynamics/Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models of the Rat and Human Respiratory Tracts.

    PubMed

    Corley, Richard A; Kabilan, Senthil; Kuprat, Andrew P; Carson, James P; Jacob, Richard E; Minard, Kevin R; Teeguarden, Justin G; Timchalk, Charles; Pipavath, Sudhakar; Glenny, Robb; Einstein, Daniel R

    2015-07-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling is well suited for addressing species-specific anatomy and physiology in calculating respiratory tissue exposures to inhaled materials. In this study, we overcame prior CFD model limitations to demonstrate the importance of realistic, transient breathing patterns for predicting site-specific tissue dose. Specifically, extended airway CFD models of the rat and human were coupled with airway region-specific physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) tissue models to describe the kinetics of 3 reactive constituents of cigarette smoke: acrolein, acetaldehyde and formaldehyde. Simulations of aldehyde no-observed-adverse-effect levels for nasal toxicity in the rat were conducted until breath-by-breath tissue concentration profiles reached steady state. Human oral breathing simulations were conducted using representative aldehyde yields from cigarette smoke, measured puff ventilation profiles and numbers of cigarettes smoked per day. As with prior steady-state CFD/PBPK simulations, the anterior respiratory nasal epithelial tissues received the greatest initial uptake rates for each aldehyde in the rat. However, integrated time- and tissue depth-dependent area under the curve (AUC) concentrations were typically greater in the anterior dorsal olfactory epithelium using the more realistic transient breathing profiles. For human simulations, oral and laryngeal tissues received the highest local tissue dose with greater penetration to pulmonary tissues than predicted in the rat. Based upon lifetime average daily dose comparisons of tissue hot-spot AUCs (top 2.5% of surface area-normalized AUCs in each region) and numbers of cigarettes smoked/day, the order of concern for human exposures was acrolein > formaldehyde > acetaldehyde even though acetaldehyde yields were 10-fold greater than formaldehyde and acrolein. PMID:25858911

  16. Comparative Risks of Aldehyde Constituents in Cigarette Smoke Using Transient Computational Fluid Dynamics/Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Models of the Rat and Human Respiratory Tracts

    PubMed Central

    Corley, Richard A.; Kabilan, Senthil; Kuprat, Andrew P.; Carson, James P.; Jacob, Richard E.; Minard, Kevin R.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Timchalk, Charles; Pipavath, Sudhakar; Glenny, Robb; Einstein, Daniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling is well suited for addressing species-specific anatomy and physiology in calculating respiratory tissue exposures to inhaled materials. In this study, we overcame prior CFD model limitations to demonstrate the importance of realistic, transient breathing patterns for predicting site-specific tissue dose. Specifically, extended airway CFD models of the rat and human were coupled with airway region-specific physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) tissue models to describe the kinetics of 3 reactive constituents of cigarette smoke: acrolein, acetaldehyde and formaldehyde. Simulations of aldehyde no-observed-adverse-effect levels for nasal toxicity in the rat were conducted until breath-by-breath tissue concentration profiles reached steady state. Human oral breathing simulations were conducted using representative aldehyde yields from cigarette smoke, measured puff ventilation profiles and numbers of cigarettes smoked per day. As with prior steady-state CFD/PBPK simulations, the anterior respiratory nasal epithelial tissues received the greatest initial uptake rates for each aldehyde in the rat. However, integrated time- and tissue depth-dependent area under the curve (AUC) concentrations were typically greater in the anterior dorsal olfactory epithelium using the more realistic transient breathing profiles. For human simulations, oral and laryngeal tissues received the highest local tissue dose with greater penetration to pulmonary tissues than predicted in the rat. Based upon lifetime average daily dose comparisons of tissue hot-spot AUCs (top 2.5% of surface area-normalized AUCs in each region) and numbers of cigarettes smoked/day, the order of concern for human exposures was acrolein > formaldehyde > acetaldehyde even though acetaldehyde yields were 10-fold greater than formaldehyde and acrolein. PMID:25858911

  17. Health effects of low-level exposure to formaldehyde

    SciTech Connect

    Main, D.M.; Hogan, T.J.

    1983-12-01

    Twenty-one subjects exposed to formaldehyde (at levels between 0.12 and 1.6 parts per million (ppm)) in two mobile trailers and the remaining 18 unexposed workers of the same workforce were examined by questionnaire and spirometry. Symptoms of eye and throat irritation and increased headache and fatigue were significantly more common among the exposed group than the comparison group. Irritation of the nose, chest tightness, and shortness of breath were also more common among the exposed. Spirometry revealed no decrease in ventilatory function among the exposed workers. The significant increase in frequency of individuals with symptoms indicated an adverse health effect from exposure to formaldehyde at levels between 0.12 and 1.6 ppm. This may have implications regarding the adequacy of the US permissable exposure limit value and suggest the need for further examination of the health effects of formaldehyde in the nonoccupational environment.

  18. Formaldehyde Concentration Dynamics of the International Space Station Cabin Atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perry, J. L.

    2005-01-01

    Formaldehyde presents a significant challenge to maintaining cabin air quality on board crewed spacecraft. Generation sources include offgassing from a variety of non-metallic materials as well as human metabolism. Because generation sources are pervasive and human health can be affected by continual exposure to low concentrations, toxicology and air quality control engineering experts jointly identified formaldehyde as a key compound to be monitored as part the International Space Station's (ISS) environmental health monitoring and maintenance program. Data acquired from in-flight air quality monitoring methods are the basis for assessing the cabin environment's suitability for long-term habitation and monitoring the performance of passive and active controls that are in place to minimize crew exposure. Formaldehyde concentration trends and dynamics served in the ISS cabin atmosphere are reviewed implications to present and future flight operations discussed.

  19. Evaluation of a low-temperature steam and formaldehyde sterilizer.

    PubMed

    Kanemitsu, K; Kunishima, H; Imasaka, T; Ishikawa, S; Harigae, H; Yamato, S; Hirayama, Y; Kaku, M

    2003-09-01

    We evaluated a low-temperature steam and formaldehyde (LTSF) sterilizer based on the draft European Standard prEN 14180. Microbiological tests were conducted on small and full loads using process challenge devices in five programs (P1-P5). With small loads all tests showed no growth of Bacillus stearothermophilus (ATCC7953) spores. However, positive cultures were observed with full-load tests using P5 (sterilization temperature, 50 degrees C). Our data indicated that the load influenced the efficacy of the LTSF sterilizer. Desorption tests were conducted to determine residual formaldehyde in indicator strips. The mean concentrations of formaldehyde in P1-P5 were 31.9, 56.3, 54.9, 82.2 and 180.6 microg, respectively, which are below the limits allowed by the draft Standard. Our results indicate that the LTSF sterilizer is useful for sterilization because of its excellent efficacy, short handling time, and safety. PMID:14505609

  20. Formaldehyde--study of indoor air pollution in Austria.

    PubMed

    Koeck, M; Pichler-Semmelrock, F P; Schlacher, R

    1997-09-01

    As part of a long-term study of indoor air pollution, formaldehyde concentrations were determined in 792 apartments following complaints by inhabitants. Measurements were carried out using Draeger tubes as well as the acetyl acetone method. In 157 apartments, HCHO concentrations of more than 0.1 ppm, exceeding the recommended standard values for indoor air concentrations, were determined. The concentrations determined tended to decrease over time. As far as they were caused by furnishings, they were limited to the spaces where these furnishings were installed. In older-style prefabricated houses with foam-filled particle-board wall systems, concentrations of more than 1.0 ppm were determined. In spite of legal regulations governing the release of formaldehyde from substances, preparations and products containing formaldehyde which have been in existence in Austria since 1990, this substance must still be considered as a possible factor of indoor pollution in causing feelings of ill-health. PMID:9386898