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Sample records for acetate butyrate cab

  1. Morphological development of polypropylene in immiscible blends with cellulose acetate butyrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Isotactic polypropylenes (iPP) with different melt flow indexes were melt blended with cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and then prepared into microspheres or nanofibers following a novel process of producing well dispersed CAB/iPP immiscible blends and subsequent removal of the CAB matrix. The morp...

  2. Fabrication of Tunable Submicro- or Nano-structured Polyethylene Materials form Immiscible Blends with Cellulose Acetate Butyrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low density polyethylene (LDPE) was prepared into micro- or submicro-spheres or nanofibers via melt blending or extrusion of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB)/LDPE immiscible blends and subsequent removal of the CAB matrix. The sizes of the PE spheres or fibers can be successfully controlled by varyi...

  3. Performance of cellulose acetate butyrate membranes in hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wydeven, T.; Leban, M.

    1973-01-01

    Cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) membranes are shown to give high salt and urea rejection with water flux of about 3 gallons/sq ft per day at 600 psig. Membranes prepared from a formulation containing glyoxal show a significant increase in flux and decrease in salt and urea rejection with drying time. Zero drying time gives maximum urea and salt rejection and is therefore most suitable for hyperfiltration of sodium chloride and urea feed solution.

  4. Kinetics and species of flash pyrolysis of cellulose acetate butyrate: The binder of LOVA

    SciTech Connect

    Gongwer, P.E.; Arisawa, H.; Brill, T.B.

    1996-07-01

    The principal binder of many LOVA propellants is cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB). By the use of T-Jump/FTIR spectroscopy, CAB was flash-pyrolyzed to set temperatures in the 465--600 C range, while rapid-scan IR spectra were used to identify the main decomposition products and to measure the rate of formation of each product as a function of temperature. Eleven specific products, which include oligomers of CAB, acids, aldehydes, ketenes, esters, CO{sub 2} and CO, were quantified by chemometric procedures. The ketenes are the most novel products. The Arrhenius parameters reveal that below 510 {+-} 20 C, the rate of product evolution is controlled mainly by condensed phase reactions. Above 510 {+-} 20 C, the rate of product evolution is controlled by desorption/evaporation of the volatile products.

  5. Polyethylene-supported polyvinylidene fluoride-cellulose acetate butyrate blended polymer electrolyte for lithium ion battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jiansheng; Li, Weishan; Zuo, Xiaoxi; Liu, Shengqi; Li, Zhao

    2013-03-01

    The polyethylene (PE)-supported polymer membranes based on the blended polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) are prepared for gel polymer electrolyte (GPE) of lithium ion battery. The performances of the prepared membranes and the resulting GPEs are investigated by scanning electron microscopy, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, linear potential sweep, and charge-discharge test. The effect of the ratio of PVDF to CAB on the performance of the prepared membranes is considered. It is found that the GPE based on the blended polymer with PVDF:CAB = 2:1 (in weight) has the largest ionic conductivity (2.48 × 10-3 S cm-1) and shows good compatibility with anode and cathode of lithium ion battery. The LiCoO2/graphite battery using this GPE exhibits superior cyclic stability at room temperature, storage performance at elevated temperature, and rate performance.

  6. FTIR Imaging Coupled with Multivariate Analysis for Study of Initial Diffusion of Different Solvents in Cellulose Acetate Butyrate Films

    SciTech Connect

    Lindblad, M.S.; Keyes, B.; Gedvilas, L.; Kelley, S.S.

    2008-01-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic imaging was used to study the initial diffusion of different solvents in cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) films containing different amounts of acetyl and butyryl substituents. Different solvents and solvent/non-solvent mixtures were also studied. The FTIR imaging system allowed acquisition of sequential images of the CAB films as solvent penetration proceeded without disturbing the system. The interface between the non-swollen polymer and the initial swelling front could be identified using multivariate data analysis tools. For a series of ketone solvents the initial diffusion coefficients and diffusion rates could be quantified and were found to be related to the polar and hydrogen interaction parameters in the Hansen solubility parameters of the solvents. For the solvent/non-solvent system the initial diffusion rate decreased less than linearly with the weight-percent of non-solvent present in the solution, which probably was due to the swelling characteristic of the non-solvent. For a given solvent, increasing the butyryl content of the CAB increased the initial diffusion rate. Increasing the butyryl content from 17 wt.% butyryl to 37 wt.% butyryl produced a considerably larger increase in initial diffusion rate compared to an increase in butyryl content from 37 wt.% to 50 wt.% butyryl.

  7. Cellulose acetate butyrate/poly(caprolactonetriol) blends: Miscibility, mechanical properties, and in vivo inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Kanis, Luiz A; Marques, Ellen L; Zepon, Karine M; Pereira, Jefferson R; Pamato, Saulo; de Oliveira, Marcelo T; Danielski, Lucinéia G; Petronilho, Fabricia C

    2014-11-01

    This study reports the results of the characterization of cellulose acetate butyrate and polycaprolactone-triol blends in terms of miscibility, swelling capacity, mechanical properties, and inflammatory response in vivo. The cellulose acetate butyrate film was opaque and rigid, with glass transition (T g ) at 134℃ and melting temperature of 156℃. The cellulose acetate butyrate/polycaprolactone-triol films were transparent up to a polycaprolactone-triol content of 60%. T g of the cellulose acetate butyrate films decreased monotonically as polycaprolactone-triol was added to the blend, thus indicating miscibility. FTIR spectroscopy revealed a decrease in intramolecular hydrogen bonding in polycaprolactone-triol, whereas no hydrogen bonding was observed between cellulose acetate butyrate and -OH from polycaprolactone-triol. The increase in polycaprolactone-triol content in the blend decreased the water uptake. An increase in polycaprolactone-triol content decreased the modulus of elasticity and increased the elongation at break. A cellulose acetate butyrate/polycaprolactone-triol 70/30 blend implanted in rats showed only an acute inflammatory response 7 days after surgery. No change in inflammation mediators was observed.

  8. Models construction for acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentations with acetate/butyrate consecutively feeding by graph theory.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhigang; Shi, Zhongping; Li, Xin

    2014-05-01

    Several fermentations with consecutively feeding of acetate/butyrate were conducted in a 7 L fermentor and the results indicated that exogenous acetate/butyrate enhanced solvents productivities by 47.1% and 39.2% respectively, and changed butyrate/acetate ratios greatly. Then extracellular butyrate/acetate ratios were utilized for calculation of acids rates and the results revealed that acetate and butyrate formation pathways were almost blocked by corresponding acids feeding. In addition, models for acetate/butyrate feeding fermentations were constructed by graph theory based on calculation results and relevant reports. Solvents concentrations and butanol/acetone ratios of these fermentations were also calculated and the results of models calculation matched fermentation data accurately which demonstrated that models were constructed in a reasonable way.

  9. Intraperitoneal administration of butyrate prevents the severity of acetic acid colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Malago, Joshua J.; Sangu, Catherine L.

    2015-01-01

    Intrarectal infusion of butyrate improves colorectal disorders including ulcerative colitis (UC). However, it is not established whether systemically administered butyrate benefits such patients. The current study aimed at exploring and comparing the potential of intraperitoneally, intrarectally, and orally administered butyrate against acetic acid (AA)-induced UC in rats. Intrarectal administration of 2 ml of 50% AA was done after or without prior treatment of rats for 7 consecutive days with 100 mg/kg sodium butyrate (SB) intraperitoneally, intrarectally, or orally. Rats were sacrificed after 48 h of AA-treatment. Subsequently, colon sections were processed routinely for histopathological examination. We clinically observed diarrhea, loose stools, and hemoccult-positive stools, and histologically, epithelial loss and ulceration, crypt damage, goblet cell depletion, hemorrhage, and mucosal infiltration of inflammatory cells. The changes were significantly reduced by intraperitoneal, intrarectal, or oral butyrate, with intraperitoneal butyrate exhibiting the highest potency. It is concluded that intraperitoneal administration of butyrate abrogates the lesions of AA-induced UC and its potency surpasses that of intrarectal or oral butyrate. PMID:25743124

  10. Isolation of acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria from biogas plants.

    PubMed

    Cibis, Katharina Gabriela; Gneipel, Armin; König, Helmut

    2016-02-20

    In this study, acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria were isolated from thermophilic and mesophilic biogas plants (BGP) located in Germany. The fermenters were fed with maize silage and cattle or swine manure. Furthermore, pressurized laboratory fermenters digesting maize silage were sampled. Enrichment cultures for the isolation of acid-forming bacteria were grown in minimal medium supplemented with one of the following carbon sources: Na(+)-dl-lactate, succinate, ethanol, glycerol, glucose or a mixture of amino acids. These substrates could be converted by the isolates to acetic, propionic or butyric acid. In total, 49 isolates were obtained, which belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Tenericutes or Thermotogae. According to 16S rRNA gene sequences, most isolates were related to Clostridium sporosphaeroides, Defluviitoga tunisiensis and Dendrosporobacter quercicolus. Acetic, propionic or butyric acid were produced in cultures of isolates affiliated to Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Clostridium aminovalericum, Clostridium cochlearium/Clostridium tetani, C. sporosphaeroides, D. quercicolus, Proteiniborus ethanoligenes, Selenomonas bovis and Tepidanaerobacter sp. Isolates related to Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum produced acetic, butyric and lactic acid, and isolates related to D. tunisiensis formed acetic acid. Specific primer sets targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences were designed and used for real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The isolates were physiologically characterized and their role in BGP discussed.

  11. Intermediary metabolism in Clostridium acetobutylicum: levels of enzymes involved in the formation of acetate and butyrate

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmanis, M.G.N.; Gatenbeck, S.

    1984-06-01

    The levels of seven intermediary enzymes involved in acetate and butyrate formation from acetyl coenzyme A in the saccharolytic anaerobe Clostridium acetobutylicum were investigated as a function of time in solvent-producing batch fermentations. Phosphate acetyltransferase and acetate kinase, which are known to form acetate from acetyl coenzyme A, both showed a decrease in specific activity when the organism reached the solvent formation stage. The three consecutive enzymes thiolase, beta-hydroxybutyryl-coenzyme A dehydrogenase, and crotonase exhibited a coordinate expression and a maximal activity after growth had ceased. Only low levels of butyryl coenzyme A dehydrogenase activity were found. Phosphate butyryltransferase activity rapidly decreased after 20 h from 5 to 11 U/mg of protein to below the detection limit (1 mU/mg). Butyrate no longer can be formed, and the metabolic flux may be diverted to butanol. Butyrate kinase showed a 2.5- to 10-fold increase in specific activity after phosphate butyryltransferase activity no longer could be detected. These results suggest that the uptake of acetate and butyrate during solvent formation can not proceed via a complete reversal of the phosphate transferase and kinase reactions. The activities of all enzymes investigated as a function of time in vitro are much higher than the metabolic fluxes through them in vivo. This indicates that none of the maximal activities of the enzymes assayed is rate limiting in C. acetobutylicum. (Refs. 46).

  12. Butyric acid production from softwood hydrolysate by acetate-consuming Clostridium sp. S1 with high butyric acid yield and selectivity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minsun; Kim, Ki-Yeon; Lee, Kyung Min; Youn, Sung Hun; Lee, Sun-Mi; Woo, Han Min; Oh, Min-Kyu; Um, Youngsoon

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this work was to study the butyric acid production from softwood hydrolysate by acetate-consuming Clostridium sp. S1. Results showed that Clostridium sp. S1 produced butyric acid by simultaneously utilizing glucose and mannose in softwood hydrolysate and, more remarkably, it consumed acetic acid in hydrolysate. Clostridium sp. S1 utilized each of glucose, mannose, and xylose as well as mixed sugars simultaneously with partially repressed xylose utilization. When softwood (Japanese larch) hydrolysate containing glucose and mannose as the main sugars was used, Clostridium sp. S1 produced 21.17g/L butyric acid with the yield of 0.47g/g sugar and the selectivity of 1 (g butyric acid/g total acids) owing to the consumption of acetic acid in hydrolysate. The results demonstrate potential of Clostridium sp. S1 to produce butyric acid selectively and effectively from hydrolysate not only by utilizing mixed sugars simultaneously but also by converting acetic acid to butyric acid. PMID:27474955

  13. Carboxymethyl Cellulose Acetate Butyrate: A Review of the Preparations, Properties, and Applications

    PubMed Central

    Kamel, Samir; Salama, Ahmed; Sarhan, Hebat-Allah

    2014-01-01

    Carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate (CMCAB) has gained increasing importance in several fields, particularly in coating technologies and pharmaceutical research. CMCAB is synthesized by esterification of CMC sodium salt with acetic and butyric anhydrides. CMCAB mixed esters are relatively high molecular weight (MW) thermoplastic polymers with high glass transition temperatures (Tg). CMCAB ester is dispersible in water and soluble in a wide range of organic solvents, allowing varied opportunity to the solvent choice. It makes application of coatings more consistent and defect-free. Its ability to slow down the release rate of highly water-soluble compounds and to increase the dissolution of poorly soluble compounds makes CMCAB a unique and potentially valuable tool in pharmaceutical and amorphous solid dispersions (ASD) formulations. PMID:25548679

  14. Analysis of the key enzymes of butyric and acetic acid fermentation in biogas reactors

    PubMed Central

    Gabris, Christina; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Dürre, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of the mechanisms of acidogenesis, which is a key process during anaerobic digestion. To expose possible bottlenecks, specific activities of the key enzymes of acidification, such as acetate kinase (Ack, 0.23–0.99 U mg−1 protein), butyrate kinase (Buk, < 0.03 U mg−1 protein) and butyryl-CoA:acetate-CoA transferase (But, 3.24–7.64 U mg−1 protein), were determined in cell free extracts of biogas reactor content from three different biogas reactors. Furthermore, the detection of Ack was successful via Western blot analysis. Quantification of corresponding functional genes encoding Buk (buk) and But (but) was not feasible, although an amplification was possible. Thus, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on respective gene fragments. Four new clades of possible butyrate-producing bacteria were postulated, as well as bacteria of the genera Roseburia or Clostridium identified. The low Buk activity was in contrast to the high specific But activity in the analysed samples. Butyrate formation via Buk activity does barely occur in the investigated biogas reactor. Specific enzyme activities (Ack, Buk and But) in samples drawn from three different biogas reactors correlated with ammonia and ammonium concentrations (NH3 and NH4+-N), and a negative dependency can be postulated. Thus, high concentrations of NH3 and NH4+-N may lead to a bottleneck in acidogenesis due to decreased specific acidogenic enzyme activities. PMID:26086956

  15. Analysis of the key enzymes of butyric and acetic acid fermentation in biogas reactors.

    PubMed

    Gabris, Christina; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Dürre, Peter

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of the mechanisms of acidogenesis, which is a key process during anaerobic digestion. To expose possible bottlenecks, specific activities of the key enzymes of acidification, such as acetate kinase (Ack, 0.23-0.99 U mg(-1) protein), butyrate kinase (Buk, < 0.03 U mg(-1) protein) and butyryl-CoA:acetate-CoA transferase (But, 3.24-7.64 U mg(-1) protein), were determined in cell free extracts of biogas reactor content from three different biogas reactors. Furthermore, the detection of Ack was successful via Western blot analysis. Quantification of corresponding functional genes encoding Buk (buk) and But (but) was not feasible, although an amplification was possible. Thus, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on respective gene fragments. Four new clades of possible butyrate-producing bacteria were postulated, as well as bacteria of the genera Roseburia or Clostridium identified. The low Buk activity was in contrast to the high specific But activity in the analysed samples. Butyrate formation via Buk activity does barely occur in the investigated biogas reactor. Specific enzyme activities (Ack, Buk and But) in samples drawn from three different biogas reactors correlated with ammonia and ammonium concentrations (NH₃ and NH₄(+)-N), and a negative dependency can be postulated. Thus, high concentrations of NH₃ and NH₄(+)-N may lead to a bottleneck in acidogenesis due to decreased specific acidogenic enzyme activities.

  16. Characterization and modeling the dynamic response of butyrate, acetate, and hydrogen utilization in anaerobic fluidized-bed reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Labib, F.

    1989-01-01

    Two continuous flow anaerobic fluidized-bed reactors were utilized to study the characteristics of an acetate-fed and a butyrate-fed microbial culture at steady state and under transient loadings. A mathematical model of the butyrate-fed reactor was developed and calibrated using the experimental results obtained from this reactor. The model could simulate the reactor response to various transient loadings of butyrate, acetate, and hydrogen and was used to predict its response to loadings with potential to cause process failure. At steady state, the specific COD removal rate in the butyrate-fed reactor was about 7 to 9 gCOD/gVS-d and COD removal was greater than 95%. About 95% of the COD removed was converted to methane. The estimated solids retention time (SRT) in the butyrate-fed reactor was under 10 days. At steady state, methanogenesis from acetate was almost saturated (about 80% of the maximum capacity), the butyrate oxidizing capacity was about three times its utilization rate at steady state, and the methanogenic capacity of the H{sub 2}-utilizers was more than ten times its rate at steady state. Formate was used by this culture, and during its metabolism P{sub CO} increased by over 150 fold, and P{sub H2} increased by 10 fold. The methanogenic culture in the acetate-fed reactor was unable to utilize H{sub 2} or formate, and increases in P{sub H2} inhibited methanogenesis from acetate. Application of the butyrate reactor model to various reactor over-loads showed that the pH drop associated with the VFA accumulation to be a major factor in process failure. The model showed higher SRTs could significantly reduce the VFA accumulation and enhance stability of the process. Acetate overloadings, but not H{sub 2} overloadings, predicted potential washout of acetogens and process failure.

  17. Mechanical Behavior of TNAZ/CAB Explosives during High Acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzerotti, Y.; Capellos, C.; Travers, B.; Sharma, J.

    2004-07-01

    The mechanical behavior of melt-cast TNAZ/CAB (1,3,3-trinitroazetidine/cellulose acetate butyrate) explosives subjected to high acceleration has been studied in an ultracentrifuge at -10°C and 25°C. Melt-cast TNAZ/CAB was studied as a function of the percentage of the composition of CAB at -10°C and 25°C. The percentage of CAB in the samples varied from 0.5% to 3%. Failure occurs when the shear or tensile strength of the explosive is exceeded. The fracture acceleration of melt-cast TNAZ/CAB increases with the percentage of CAB in the explosive at both temperatures studied, -10°C and 25°C. While there is some variation among samples, it is found that the fracture acceleration of melt-cast 99%/1% TNAZ/CAB and melt-cast 99.5%/0.5% TNAZ/CAB at -10°C is less than that at 25°C.

  18. Pervaporation of water and ethanol using a cellulose acetate butyrate membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, W.S.; Lau, W.W.Y.; Rangaiah, G.P.; Sourirajan, S. . Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1993-10-15

    Okada and Matsuura's transport equations for pervaporation give rise to three fundamental parameters, namely, interfacial saturation vapor pressure P*, liquid transport parameter A/[delta], and vapor transport parameter B/[delta]. The effects of the chemical nature of the membrane material and the upstream operating pressures of 101.3 and 303.9 kPa on the above parameters were investigated from the pervaporation data at laboratory temperature (24 C) for water and ethanol using a cellulose acetate butyrate membrane. The results show that the P. values are essentially unaffected by the upstream pressure, and that they are generally higher than the literature values of saturation vapor pressure at 24 C. Further, the values for A/[delta] and B/[delta] tend to increase with increased upstream pressure for both systems studied. These results are discussed.

  19. Effects of acetate, propionate, and butyrate on the thermophilic anaerobic degradation of propionate by methanogenic sludge and defined cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Lier, J.B. van; Grolle, K.C.F.; Frijters, C.T.M.J.; Stams, A.J.M.; Lettinga, G. )

    1993-04-01

    Acetate, propionate, and butyrate are intermediate products in the anaerobic bioconversion of organic matter to methane and carbon dioxide. This study examines the effects of acetate, propionate, and butyrate on the thermophilic oxidation of propionate in continuous-flow methanogenic sludge bed systems and in defined propionate-oxidizing cultures. Volatile fatty acids (VFA) in sludge inhibit thermophilic anaerobic oxidation of propionate, dependent on the concentration and on the pH. Addition of butyrate-oxidizing acetogens to the media eliminate the inhibitory effect of butyrate and stimulated propionate conversion. In the propionate-oxidizing enrichment, and to a lesser extent in the UASB reactor, culture growth was affected by acetate. However, the relationship between acetate concentrations and propionate degradation was not clear. Hydrogen is an important intermediate of thermophilic propionate conversion. This study found that propionate oxidation was severely inhibited with no increase in the hydrogen partial pressure in the biogas. As a result, the authors conclude the suitability of hydrogen as a n overall control parameter for anaerobic digestion has to be reconsidered. 29 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Local uptake of (14)C-labeled acetate and butyrate in rat brain in vivo during spreading cortical depression.

    PubMed

    Dienel, G A; Liu, K; Cruz, N F

    2001-12-01

    Spreading depression severely disrupts ion homeostasis, causes sensory neglect and motor impairment, and is associated with stroke and migraine. Glucose utilization (CMR(glc)) and lactate production rise during spreading depression, but the metabolic changes in different brain cell types are unknown. Uptake of (14)C-labeled compounds known to be preferentially metabolized by the glial tricarboxylic acid cycle was, therefore, examined during unilateral KCl-induced spreading cortical depression in conscious, normoxic rats. [(14)C]Metabolites derived from [(14)C]butyrate in K+ -treated tissue rose 21% compared to that of untreated contralateral control cortex, whereas incorporation of H(14)CO(3) into metabolites in K+ -treated tissue was reduced to 86% of control. Autoradiographic analysis showed that laminar labeling of cerebral cortex by both (14)C-labeled acetate and butyrate was elevated heterogeneously throughout cortex by an average of 23%; the increase was greatest (approximately 40%) in tissue adjacent to the K+ application site. Local uptake of acetate, butyrate, and deoxyglucose showed similar patterns, and monocarboxylic acid uptake was highest in the structures in which apparent loss of labeled metabolites of [6-(14)C]glucose was greatest. Enhancement of net uptake of acetate and butyrate in cerebral cortex during spreading depression is tentatively ascribed to increased astrocyte metabolism.

  1. The synergistic effect of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate and sodium butyrate on the death of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Kato, Rie; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao; Azuma, Hideki; Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko

    2014-04-01

    It has been suggested that the combined effect of natural products may improve the effect of treatment against the proliferation of cancer cells. In this study, we evaluated the combination of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), obtained from Alpinia galangal, and sodium butyrate, a major short chain fatty acid, on the growth of HepG2 human hepatocellular carcinoma cells and found that treatment had a synergistic inhibitory effect. The number of HepG2 cells was synergistically decreased via apoptosis induction when cells were treated with both ACA and sodium butyrate. In ACA- and sodium butyrate-treated cells, intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels and NADPH oxidase activities were increased significantly. The decrease in cell number after combined treatment of ACA and sodium butyrate was diminished when cells were pretreated with catalase. These results suggest that an increase in intracellular ROS levels is involved in cancer cell death. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a cellular energy sensor, plays an essential role in controlling processes related to tumor development. In ACA- and sodium butyrate-treated cells, AMPK phosphorylation was induced significantly, and this induction improved when cells were pretreated with catalase. These results suggest that the increase in intracellular ROS is involved in the increase of AMPK phosphorylation. In normal hepatocyte cells, treatment with ACA and sodium butyrate did not decrease cell numbers or increase ROS levels. In conclusion, combined treatment with ACA and sodium butyrate synergistically induced apoptotic cell death via an increase in intracellular ROS and phosphorylation of AMPK. Our findings may provide new insight into the development of novel combination therapies against hepatocellular carcinoma.

  2. Preparation and characterization of nanoparticles of carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate containing acyclovir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vedula, Venkata Bharadwaz; Chopra, Maulick; Joseph, Emil; Mazumder, Sonal

    2016-02-01

    Nanoparticles of carboxymethyl cellulose acetate butyrate complexed with the poorly soluble antiviral drug acyclovir (ACV) were produced by precipitation process and the formulation process and properties of nanoparticles were investigated. Two different particle synthesis methods were explored—a conventional precipitation method and a rapid precipitation in a multi-inlet vortex mixer. The particles were processed by rotavap followed by freeze-drying. Particle diameters as measured by dynamic light scattering were dependent on the synthesis method used. The conventional precipitation method did not show desired particle size distribution, whereas particles prepared by the mixer showed well-defined particle size ~125-450 nm before and after freeze-drying, respectively, with narrow polydispersity indices. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy showed chemical stability and intactness of entrapped drug in the nanoparticles. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the drug was in amorphous state in the polymer matrix. ACV drug loading was around 10 wt%. The release studies showed increase in solution concentration of drug from the nanoparticles compared to the as-received crystalline drug.

  3. Effects of propionate and methylmalonate on conversions of acetate, butyrate, and D(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate to fatty acids and carbon dioxide by mammary tissue slices of goats

    SciTech Connect

    Emmanuel, B.; Kennelly, J.J.

    1985-03-01

    Incorporations of (1-carbon-14) acetate, (1-carbon-14) propionate, n-(1-carbon-14) butyrate, and D(-)-3-hydroxy(3-carbon-14) butyrate into individual milk fatty acids and their conversion to carbon dioxide were studied in vitro with caprine mammary tissue slices in the presence and absence of propionate and methylmalonate. Neither propionate nor methylmalonate affected incorporation of these substances into fatty acids. In a decreasing order butyrate, acetate, propionate, and D(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate were converted to carbon dioxide. Acetate had the highest incorporation rate into fatty acids followed by D(-)-3-hydroxybutyrate, butyrate, and propionate. Labeled propionate was incorporated mainly into odd-numbered fatty acids. Results do not support the theory that either propionate or its metabolite, methylmalonate, inhibit de novo synthesis of fatty acids in the mammary gland in relation to the etiology of low milk fat syndrome.

  4. A PHYSIOLOGICALLY-BASED PHARMACOKINETIC MODEL FOR INTRAVENOUS AND INHALATION-ROUTE PHARMACOKINETICS OF BUTYL ACETATE AND METABOLITES N-BUTANOL AND N-BUTYRIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk assessment for n-butyl acetate and metabolites n-butanol and n-butyric acid (the butyl series) can be accomplished with limited toxicity data and pharmacokinetic data for each compound through application of the "family approach" (Barton et al., 2000). The necessary quantita...

  5. First European Report of Social Wasps Trapped in Response to Acetic acid, Isobutanol, 2-Methyl-2-propanol, and Heptyl butyrate in Tests Conducted in Hungary

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Five species of social wasps were captured in trapping tests in Hungary that evaluated the attractiveness of acetic acid, isobutanol, 2-methyl-2-propanol, and heptyl butyrate to social wasps. Both Vespula vulgaris (L.) and Vespula germanica (Fabr.), were captured in traps baited with isobutanol, t...

  6. Quantification of butyryl CoA:acetate CoA-transferase genes reveals different butyrate production capacity in individuals according to diet and age.

    PubMed

    Hippe, Berit; Zwielehner, Jutta; Liszt, Kathrin; Lassl, Cornelia; Unger, Frank; Haslberger, Alexander G

    2011-03-01

    The gastrointestinal microbiota produces short-chain fatty acids, especially butyrate, which affect colonic health, immune function and epigenetic regulation. To assess the effects of nutrition and aging on the production of butyrate, the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene and population shifts of Clostridium clusters lV and XlVa, the main butyrate producers, were analysed. Faecal samples of young healthy omnivores (24 ± 2.5 years), vegetarians (26 ± 5 years) and elderly (86 ± 8 years) omnivores were evaluated. Diet and lifestyle were assessed in questionnaire-based interviews. The elderly had significantly fewer copies of the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene than young omnivores (P=0.014), while vegetarians showed the highest number of copies (P=0.048). The thermal denaturation of the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene variant melting curve related to Roseburia/Eubacterium rectale spp. was significantly more variable in the vegetarians than in the elderly. The Clostridium cluster XIVa was more abundant in vegetarians (P=0.049) and in omnivores (P<0.01) than in the elderly group. Gastrointestinal microbiota of the elderly is characterized by decreased butyrate production capacity, reflecting increased risk of degenerative diseases. These results suggest that the butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase gene is a valuable marker for gastrointestinal microbiota function.

  7. Uniaxial drawing of poly[(R)-3-hydroxybutyrate]/cellulose acetate butyrate blends and their orientation behavior.

    PubMed

    Park, Jun Wuk; Tanaka, Toshihisa; Doi, Yoshiharu; Iwata, Tadahisa

    2005-09-16

    Miscible blends of PHB and CAB were prepared by the solvent-casting method with various blend compositions, and their orientation behavior was investigated during uniaxial drawing. X-ray analysis revealed that the orientation of the crystallizable PHB component in the drawn PHB/CAB blends was changed from c-axis-orientation to a-axis-orientation with increasing CAB content. The a-axis-orientation was a result from the a-axis-oriented crystal growth caused by the intramolecular nucleation and the confined crystal growth. For quantitative assessment of the chain orientation, the Hermans orientation functions of the two respective components were obtained from the polarized FT-IR measurements. The orientation function of pure PHB stretched to 5 times of its initial length was approximately 0.8. However the value decreased rapidly with increasing CAB content, and it turned to a negative value from 30 wt.-% CAB content. This indicates that the PHB chains were aligned perpendicular to the drawing direction. On the contrary, the value of the CAB component remained almost unchanged at about 0.1 regardless of the blend composition and the annealing time, indicating that the CAB chains were constantly oriented parallel to the drawing direction without any chain relaxation. In addition, SAXS analysis suggested that the lamellar stacking direction also changed from parallel to perpendicular in the stretching direction with increasing CAB content.

  8. Effect of iron on the sensitivity of hydrogen, acetate, and butyrate metabolism to inhibition by long-chain fatty acids in vegetable-oil-enriched freshwater sediments.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhengkai; Wrenn, Brian A; Venosa, Albert D

    2005-08-01

    Freshwater sediment microbial communities enriched by growth on vegetable oil in the presence of a substoichiometric amount of ferric hydroxide (sufficient to accept about 12% of the vegetable-oil-derived electrons) degrade vegetable oil to methane faster than similar microbial communities that develop when sediments are enriched by growth on vegetable oil in the absence of ferric hydroxide. This study examined the effects of enrichment in the presence of Fe(III) on the fatty-acid sensitivity of several important members of anaerobic triglyceride-degrading microbial communities in freshwater sediments. The fatty-acid sensitivity of three groups of microorganisms-hydrogenotrophic methanogens, acetate consumers, and hydrogen-producing acetogens-were investigated by comparing the rates of hydrogen, acetate, or butyrate consumption in the presence and absence of oleic acid. Methanogenesis from hydrogen was not affected by sediment enrichment conditions or by the presence of oleic acid, suggesting that hydrogenotrophic methanogens were insensitive to fatty acid inhibition in these sediments. Oleic acid inhibited the anaerobic degradation rates of acetate and butyrate by 38% and 63%, respectively, but enrichment in the presence of Fe(III) eliminated the fatty-acid sensitivity of acetate degradation and reduced the sensitivity of butyrate degradation by about half. These results suggest that iron-reducing bacteria may provide an alternative pathway through which vegetable oil can be converted to methane in anaerobic freshwater sediments.

  9. Driving carbon flux through exogenous butyryl-CoA: Acetate CoA-transferase to produce butyric acid at high titer in Thermobifida fusca.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yu; Mao, Yin; Zhang, Xiaojuan

    2015-12-20

    Butyric acid, a 4-carbon short chain fatty acid, is widely used in chemical, food, and pharmaceutical industries. The low activity of butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase in Thermobifida fusca muS, a thermophilic actinobacterium whose optimal temperature was 55°C, was found to hinder the accumulation of high yield of butyric acid. In order to solve this problem, an exogenous butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase gene (actA) from Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum DSM571 was integrated into the chromosome of T. fusca muS by replacing celR gene, forming T. fusca muS-1. We demonstrated that on 5g/L cellulose, the yield of butyric acid by the engineered muS-1 strain was increased by 42.9 % compared to the muS strain. On 100g/L of cellulose, the muS-1 strain could consume 90.5% of total cellulose in 144h, with 33.2g/L butyric acid produced. Furthermore, on the mix substrates including the major components of biomass: cellulose, xylose, mannose and galactose, 70.4g/L butyric acid was produced in 168h by fed-batch fermentation. To validate the ability of fermenting biomass, the muS-1 strain was grown on the milled corn stover ranging from 200 to 250μm. The muS-1 strain had the highest butyrate titer 17.1g/L on 90g/L corn stover. PMID:26535965

  10. A simple fiber-optic humidity sensor based on extrinsic Fabry-Perot cavity constructed by cellulose acetate butyrate film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Huang, Wo-Bin; Huang, Xu-Guang; Yu, Chang-yuan

    2013-12-01

    A fiber-optic relative humidity sensor with an extrinsic micro Fabry-Perot cavity constructed with a thin layer of cellulose acetate butyrate coated on a fiber end is presented. Its operational principle is based on the relative-humidity-dependent wavelength shift of the interference fringes formed by Fresnel reflections from both interfaces of the thin film. Both the experimental and theoretical analyses are investigated in detail. The experimental data for relative humidity ranging from 8.8% to 88.1% are measured in the both humidification and dehumidification processes, which fits the linear equation very well with a value of R2 = 0.9946. As observed, it shows a high sensitivity of 0.307 nm/%RH with a high resolution of 0.06%. The time-dependent response of the sensor is estimated. The long term stability of the sensor is also addressed with high precision of ±0.03% over 100 min. The proposed relative humidity sensor has a simple, solid, and compact structure.

  11. Transport of the two natural auxins, indole-3-butyric acid and indole-3-acetic acid, in Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rashotte, Aaron M.; Poupart, Julie; Waddell, Candace S.; Muday, Gloria K.; Brown, C. S. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    Polar transport of the natural auxin indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is important in a number of plant developmental processes. However, few studies have investigated the polar transport of other endogenous auxins, such as indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), in Arabidopsis. This study details the similarities and differences between IBA and IAA transport in several tissues of Arabidopsis. In the inflorescence axis, no significant IBA movement was detected, whereas IAA is transported in a basipetal direction from the meristem tip. In young seedlings, both IBA and IAA were transported only in a basipetal direction in the hypocotyl. In roots, both auxins moved in two distinct polarities and in specific tissues. The kinetics of IBA and IAA transport appear similar, with transport rates of 8 to 10 mm per hour. In addition, IBA transport, like IAA transport, is saturable at high concentrations of auxin, suggesting that IBA transport is protein mediated. Interestingly, IAA efflux inhibitors and mutations in genes encoding putative IAA transport proteins reduce IAA transport but do not alter IBA movement, suggesting that different auxin transport protein complexes are likely to mediate IBA and IAA transport. Finally, the physiological effects of IBA and IAA on hypocotyl elongation under several light conditions were examined and analyzed in the context of the differences in IBA and IAA transport. Together, these results present a detailed picture of IBA transport and provide the basis for a better understanding of the transport of these two endogenous auxins.

  12. Simultaneous extraction and HPLC determination of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid in pea plant by using ionic liquid-modified silica as sorbent.

    PubMed

    Sheikhian, Leila; Bina, Sedigheh

    2016-01-15

    In this study, ionic liquid-modified silica was used as sorbent for simultaneous extraction and preconcentration of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid in pea plants. The effect of some parameters such as pH and ionic strength of sample solution, amount of sorbent, flow rate of aqueous sample solution and eluent solution, concentration of eluent solution, and temperature were studied for each hormone solution. Percent extraction of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid was strongly affected by pH of aqueous sample solution. Ionic strength of aqueous phase and temperature showed no serious effects on extraction efficiency of studied plant hormones. Obtained breakthrough volume was 200mL for each of studied hormones. Preconcentration factor for spectroscopic and chromatographic determination of studied hormones was 100 and 4.0×10(3) respectively. Each solid sorbent phase was reusable for almost 10 times of extraction/stripping procedure. Relative standard deviations of extraction/stripping processes of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid were 2.79% and 3.66% respectively. The calculated limit of detections for IBA and IAA were 9.1×10(-2)mgL(-1) and 1.6×10(-1)mgL(-1) respectively. PMID:26701202

  13. Simultaneous extraction and HPLC determination of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid in pea plant by using ionic liquid-modified silica as sorbent.

    PubMed

    Sheikhian, Leila; Bina, Sedigheh

    2016-01-15

    In this study, ionic liquid-modified silica was used as sorbent for simultaneous extraction and preconcentration of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid in pea plants. The effect of some parameters such as pH and ionic strength of sample solution, amount of sorbent, flow rate of aqueous sample solution and eluent solution, concentration of eluent solution, and temperature were studied for each hormone solution. Percent extraction of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid was strongly affected by pH of aqueous sample solution. Ionic strength of aqueous phase and temperature showed no serious effects on extraction efficiency of studied plant hormones. Obtained breakthrough volume was 200mL for each of studied hormones. Preconcentration factor for spectroscopic and chromatographic determination of studied hormones was 100 and 4.0×10(3) respectively. Each solid sorbent phase was reusable for almost 10 times of extraction/stripping procedure. Relative standard deviations of extraction/stripping processes of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid were 2.79% and 3.66% respectively. The calculated limit of detections for IBA and IAA were 9.1×10(-2)mgL(-1) and 1.6×10(-1)mgL(-1) respectively.

  14. Plasmonic-based colorimetric and spectroscopic discrimination of acetic and butyric acids produced by different types of Escherichia coli through the different assembly structures formation of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    La, Ju A; Lim, Sora; Park, Hyo Jeong; Heo, Min-Ji; Sang, Byoung-In; Oh, Min-Kyu; Cho, Eun Chul

    2016-08-24

    We present a plasmonic-based strategy for the colourimetric and spectroscopic differentiation of various organic acids produced by bacteria. The strategy is based on our discovery that particular concentrations of dl-lactic, acetic, and butyric acids induce different assembly structures, colours, and optical spectra of gold nanoparticles. We selected wild-type (K-12 W3110) and genetically-engineered (JHL61) Escherichia coli (E. coli) that are known to primarily produce acetic and butyric acid, respectively. Different assembly structures and optical properties of gold nanoparticles were observed when different organic acids, obtained after the removal of acid-producing bacteria, were mixed with gold nanoparticles. Moreover, at moderate cell concentrations of K-12 W3110 E. coli, which produce sufficient amounts of acetic acid to induce the assembly of gold nanoparticles, a direct estimate of the number of bacteria was possible based on time-course colour change observations of gold nanoparticle aqueous suspensions. The plasmonic-based colourimetric and spectroscopic methods described here may enable onsite testing for the identification of organic acids produced by bacteria and the estimation of bacterial numbers, which have applications in health and environmental sciences.

  15. Plasmonic-based colorimetric and spectroscopic discrimination of acetic and butyric acids produced by different types of Escherichia coli through the different assembly structures formation of gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    La, Ju A; Lim, Sora; Park, Hyo Jeong; Heo, Min-Ji; Sang, Byoung-In; Oh, Min-Kyu; Cho, Eun Chul

    2016-08-24

    We present a plasmonic-based strategy for the colourimetric and spectroscopic differentiation of various organic acids produced by bacteria. The strategy is based on our discovery that particular concentrations of dl-lactic, acetic, and butyric acids induce different assembly structures, colours, and optical spectra of gold nanoparticles. We selected wild-type (K-12 W3110) and genetically-engineered (JHL61) Escherichia coli (E. coli) that are known to primarily produce acetic and butyric acid, respectively. Different assembly structures and optical properties of gold nanoparticles were observed when different organic acids, obtained after the removal of acid-producing bacteria, were mixed with gold nanoparticles. Moreover, at moderate cell concentrations of K-12 W3110 E. coli, which produce sufficient amounts of acetic acid to induce the assembly of gold nanoparticles, a direct estimate of the number of bacteria was possible based on time-course colour change observations of gold nanoparticle aqueous suspensions. The plasmonic-based colourimetric and spectroscopic methods described here may enable onsite testing for the identification of organic acids produced by bacteria and the estimation of bacterial numbers, which have applications in health and environmental sciences. PMID:27497013

  16. Empirical prediction of net splanchnic release of ketogenic nutrients, acetate, butyrate and β-hydroxybutyrate in ruminants: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Loncke, C; Nozière, P; Bahloul, L; Vernet, J; Lapierre, H; Sauvant, D; Ortigues-Marty, I

    2015-03-01

    For energy feeding systems for ruminants to evolve towards a nutrient-based system, dietary energy supply has to be determined in terms of amount and nature of nutrients. The objective of this study was to establish response equations of the net hepatic flux and net splanchnic release of acetate, butyrate and β-hydroxybutyrate to changes in diet and animal profiles. A meta-analysis was applied on published data compiled from the FLuxes of nutrients across Organs and tissues in Ruminant Animals database, which pools the results from international publications on net splanchnic nutrient fluxes measured in multi-catheterized ruminants. Prediction variables were identified from current knowledge on digestion, hepatic and other tissue metabolism. Subsequently, physiological and other, more integrative, predictors were obtained. Models were established for intakes up to 41 g dry matter per kg BW per day and diets containing up to 70 g concentrate per 100 g dry matter. Models predicted the net hepatic fluxes or net splanchnic release of each nutrient from its net portal appearance and the animal profile. Corrections were applied to account for incomplete hepatic recovery of the blood flow marker, para-aminohippuric acid. Changes in net splanchnic release (mmol/kg BW per hour) could then be predicted by combining the previously published net portal appearance models and the present net hepatic fluxes models. The net splanchnic release of acetate and butyrate were thus predicted from the intake of ruminally fermented organic matter (RfOM) and the nature of RfOM (acetate: residual mean square error (RMSE)=0.18; butyrate: RMSE=0.01). The net splanchnic release of β-hydroxybutyrate was predicted from RfOM intake and the energy balance of the animals (RMSE=0.035), or from the net portal appearance of butyrate and the energy balance of the animals (RMSE=0.050). Models obtained were independent of ruminant species, and presented low interfering factors on the residuals, least

  17. Cloning and expression of clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 acetoacetyl-coenzyme A:acetate/butyrate:coenzyme A-transferase in Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Cary, J.W.; Petersen, D.J.; Bennett, G.N. ); Papoutsakis, E.T. )

    1990-06-01

    Coenzyme A (CoA)-transferase (acetoacetyl-CoA:acetate/butyrate:CoA-transferase (butyrate-acetoacetate CoA-transferase) (EC 2.8.3.9)) of Clostridium acetobutylicum ATCC 824 is an important enzyme in the metabolic shift between the acid-producing and solvent-forming states of this organism. The genes encoding the two subunits of this enzyme have been cloned and subsequent subcloning experiments established the position of the structural genes for CoA-transferase. Complementation of Escherichia coli ato mutants with the recombinant plasmid pCoAT4 (pUC19 carrying a 1.8-kilobase insert of C. acetobutylicum DNA encoding CoA-transferase activity) enabled the transformants to grow on butyrate as a sole carbon source. Despite the ability of CoA-transferase to complement the ato defect in E. coli mutants, Southern blot and Western blot (immunoblot) analyses showed showed that neither the C. acetobutylicum genes encoding CoA-transferase nor the enzyme itself shared any apparent homology with its E. coli counterpart. Polypeptides of M{sub r} of the purified CoA-transferase subunits were observed by Western blot and maxicell analysis of whole-cell extracts of E.coli harboring pCoAT4. The proximity and orientation of the genes suggest that the genes encoding the two subunits of CoA-transferase may form an operon similar to that found in E. coli. In the plasmid, however, transcription appears to be primarily from the lac promoter of the vector.

  18. Cross-feeding between Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and acetate-converting, butyrate-producing colon bacteria during growth on oligofructose.

    PubMed

    Falony, Gwen; Vlachou, Angeliki; Verbrugghe, Kristof; De Vuyst, Luc

    2006-12-01

    In vitro coculture fermentations of Bifidobacterium longum BB536 and two acetate-converting, butyrate-producing colon bacteria, Anaerostipes caccae DSM 14662 and Roseburia intestinalis DSM 14610, with oligofructose as the sole energy source, were performed to study interspecies interactions. Two clearly distinct types of cross-feeding were identified. A. caccae DSM 14662 was not able to degrade oligofructose but could grow on the fructose released by B. longum BB536 during oligofructose breakdown. R. intestinalis DSM 14610 could degrade oligofructose, but only after acetate was added to the medium. Detailed kinetic analyses of oligofructose breakdown by the last strain revealed simultaneous degradation of the different chain length fractions, in contrast with the preferential degradation of shorter fractions by B. longum BB536. In a coculture of both strains, initial oligofructose degradation and acetate production by B. longum BB536 took place, which in turn also allowed oligofructose breakdown by R. intestinalis DSM 14610. These and similar cross-feeding mechanisms could play a role in the colon ecosystem and contribute to the combined bifidogenic/butyrogenic effect observed after addition of inulin-type fructans to the diet.

  19. Butyrate as preferred substrate for polyhydroxybutyrate production.

    PubMed

    Marang, Leonie; Jiang, Yang; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Kleerebezem, Robbert

    2013-08-01

    In this study, the suitability of butyrate as substrate for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production by microbial enrichment cultures was assessed. Two sequencing batch reactors were operated under feast-famine conditions: one fed with butyrate, and another with mixed acetate and butyrate. The obtained results were compared to previous results with acetate as sole substrate. In all three reactors Plasticicumulans acidivorans dominated the enrichment culture. The carbon uptake rate and PHA yield were significantly higher on butyrate than on acetate, resulting in a higher PHA production rate. When both substrates were available the bacteria strongly preferred the uptake of butyrate. Only after butyrate depletion acetate was taken up at a high rate. The molar substrate uptake rate remained the same, suggesting that substrate uptake is the rate-limiting step. The results show that for optimized waste-based PHA production the pre-fermentation process should be directed towards butyrate production.

  20. A simple fiber optic humidity sensor based on water-absorption characteristic of CAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Guang; Xu, Wei; Huang, Xuguang

    2015-02-01

    A simple fiber-optic relative humidity sensor based on cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and Fresnel reflection is proposed and investigated theoretically and experimentally. The sensing system is only composed of one light source, three optical couplers, two photo-detectors and two fiber sensing ends. The operation principle is based on relative Fresnel reflection and water-absorption characteristic of the CAB which simultaneously contains hydrophilic and hydrophobic groups. The water absorption process will lead to variation of the CAB's refractive index or permittivity. It has to be noted that the double-channel system can effectively eliminate the intensity fluctuation of the light source and the influence of the environment. In this paper, the relative humidity environments approximately ranging from 10 % to 100% are generated and measured both in the humidification and dehumidification processes, which shows a good repeatability and reveals a very good fitting feature with a high value of R2 above 0.99. It is of reflection type and can be simply extend to be a multi-point-monitoring system. The sensing system is of cost- effective, simple operation and high precision.

  1. Effect of cellulose acetate butyrate microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate on the flame retardancy, mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties of intumescent flame-retardant ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer/microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate/polyamide-6 blends.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bibo; Tang, Qinbo; Hong, Ningning; Song, Lei; Wang, Lei; Shi, Yongqian; Hu, Yuan

    2011-09-01

    Ammonium polyphosphate (APP), a widely used intumescent flame retardant, has been microencapsulated by cellulose acetate butyrate with the aim of enhancing the water resistance of APP and the compatibility between the ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) matrix and APP. The structure of microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate (MCAPP) was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and water contact angle (WCA). The flame retadancy and thermal stability were investigated by a limiting oxygen index (LOI) test, UL-94 test, cone calorimeter, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The WCA results indicated that MCAPP has excellent water resistance and hydrophobicity. The results demonstrated that MCAPP enhanced interfacial adhesion, mechanical, electrical, and thermal stability of the EVA/MCAPP/polyamide-6 (PA-6) system. The microencapsulation not only imparted EVA/MCAPP/PA-6 with a higher LOI value and UL-94 rating but also could significantly improve the fire safety. Furthermore, the microencapsulated EVA/MCAPP/PA-6 composites can still pass the UL-94 V-0 rating after treatment with water for 3 days at 70 °C, indicating excellent water resistance. This investigation provides a promising formulation for the intumescent flame retardant EVA with excellent properties. PMID:21859130

  2. Effect of cellulose acetate butyrate microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate on the flame retardancy, mechanical, electrical, and thermal properties of intumescent flame-retardant ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer/microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate/polyamide-6 blends.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bibo; Tang, Qinbo; Hong, Ningning; Song, Lei; Wang, Lei; Shi, Yongqian; Hu, Yuan

    2011-09-01

    Ammonium polyphosphate (APP), a widely used intumescent flame retardant, has been microencapsulated by cellulose acetate butyrate with the aim of enhancing the water resistance of APP and the compatibility between the ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) matrix and APP. The structure of microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate (MCAPP) was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and water contact angle (WCA). The flame retadancy and thermal stability were investigated by a limiting oxygen index (LOI) test, UL-94 test, cone calorimeter, and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The WCA results indicated that MCAPP has excellent water resistance and hydrophobicity. The results demonstrated that MCAPP enhanced interfacial adhesion, mechanical, electrical, and thermal stability of the EVA/MCAPP/polyamide-6 (PA-6) system. The microencapsulation not only imparted EVA/MCAPP/PA-6 with a higher LOI value and UL-94 rating but also could significantly improve the fire safety. Furthermore, the microencapsulated EVA/MCAPP/PA-6 composites can still pass the UL-94 V-0 rating after treatment with water for 3 days at 70 °C, indicating excellent water resistance. This investigation provides a promising formulation for the intumescent flame retardant EVA with excellent properties.

  3. Transport of Indole-3-Butyric Acid and Indole-3-Acetic Acid in Arabidopsis Hypocotyls Using Stable Isotope Labeling1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xing; Barkawi, Lana; Gardner, Gary; Cohen, Jerry D.

    2012-01-01

    The polar transport of the natural auxins indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) has been described in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) hypocotyls using radioactive tracers. Because radioactive assays alone cannot distinguish IBA from its metabolites, the detected transport from applied [3H]IBA may have resulted from the transport of IBA metabolites, including IAA. To test this hypothesis, we used a mass spectrometry-based method to quantify the transport of IBA in Arabidopsis hypocotyls by following the movement of [13C1]IBA and the [13C1]IAA derived from [13C1]IBA. We also assayed [13C6]IAA transport in a parallel control experiment. We found that the amount of transported [13C1]IBA was dramatically lower than [13C6]IAA, and the IBA transport was not reduced by the auxin transport inhibitor N-1-naphthylphthalamic acid. Significant amounts of the applied [13C1]IBA were converted to [13C1]IAA during transport, but [13C1]IBA transport was independent of IBA-to-IAA conversion. We also found that most of the [13C1]IBA was converted to ester-linked [13C1]IBA at the apical end of hypocotyls, and ester-linked [13C1]IBA was also found in the basal end at a level higher than free [13C1]IBA. In contrast, most of the [13C6]IAA was converted to amide-linked [13C6]IAA at the apical end of hypocotyls, but very little conjugated [13C6]IAA was found in the basal end. Our results demonstrate that the polar transport of IBA is much lower than IAA in Arabidopsis hypocotyls, and the transport mechanism is distinct from IAA transport. These experiments also establish a method for quantifying the movement of small molecules in plants using stable isotope labeling. PMID:22323783

  4. Transcriptome characterization by deep-RNA-sequencing underlies the mechanisms of butyrate-induced epigenomic regulation in bovine cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Volatile short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs, acetate, propionate, and butyrate), especially butyrate, alter cell differentiation, proliferation, motility, and in particular, induce cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through its histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition activity. Butyrate is a great inducer of ...

  5. Cab Heating and Cooling

    SciTech Connect

    Damman, Dennis

    2005-10-31

    Schneider National, Inc., SNI, has concluded the Cab Heating and Cooling evaluation of onboard, engine off idling solutions. During the evaluation period three technologies were tested, a Webasto Airtronic diesel fired heater for cold weather operation, and two different approaches to cab cooling in warm weather, a Webasto Parking Cooler, phase change storage system and a Bergstrom Nite System, a 12 volt electrical air conditioning approach to cooling. Diesel fired cab heaters were concluded to provide adequate heat in winter environments down to 10 F. With a targeted idle reduction of 17%, the payback period is under 2 years. The Webasto Parking Cooler demonstrated the viability of this type of technology, but required significant driver involvement to achieve maximum performance. Drivers rated the technology as ''acceptable'', however, in individual discussions it became apparent they were not satisfied with the system limitations in hot weather, (over 85 F). The Bergstrom Nite system was recognized as an improvement by drivers and required less direct driver input to operate. While slightly improved over the Parking Cooler, the hot temperature limitations were only slightly better. Neither the Parking Cooler or the Nite System showed any payback potential at the targeted 17% idle reduction. Fleets who are starting at a higher idle baseline may have a more favorable payback.

  6. Derivation of a human equivalent concentration for n-butanol using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for n-butyl acetate and metabolites n-butanol and n-butyric acid

    SciTech Connect

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Deisinger, P. J.; Poet, Torka S.; English, J C.; Faber, W D.; Barton, H. A.; Corley, Rick A.; Clewell, III, H. J.

    2005-05-01

    The metabolic series (family) approach for risk assessment uses a dosimetry-based analysis to develop toxicity information for a group of metabolically linked compounds using pharmacokinetic (PK) data for each compound and toxicity data for the parent compound. An initial physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed to support the implementation of the metabolic series approach for n-butyl acetate and its subsequent metabolites, n-butanol, and n-butyric acid (the butyl series) (Barton et al. 2000). In conjunction with pilot pharmacokinetic studies, the model was used to design the definitive intravenous (i.v.) PK studies. Rats were implanted with dual indwelling cannulae and administered test compounds by i.v. bolus dose, i.v. infusion, or by inhalation in a recirculating closed chamber. Hepatic, vascular and extravascular metabolic constants for metabolism were estimated by fitting the model to the blood time course data from these experiments. The respiratory bioavailability of n-butyl acetate and n-butanol was estimated from closed chamber inhalation studies and measured ventilation rates. The resulting butyl series PBPK model successfully reproduces the blood time course of these compounds following i.v. administration, and inhalation exposure to n-butyl acetate and n-butanol. A fully scaled human version of the model successfully reproduces arterial blood n-butanol kinetics following inhalation exposure to n-butanol. These validated i.v (rat) and inhalation route models (rat, butyl acetate, n-butanol; human, butanol only) can be used to support species and dose-route extrapolations required for risk assessment of butyl series family of compounds. Further, this work demonstrates the usefulness of i.v. kinetic data for parameterization of systemic metabolism and the value of collaboration between experimentalists and kineticists in the development of PBPK models. The product of this effort, validated rat and human PBPK models for the butyl

  7. 49 CFR 230.87 - Cab lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cab lights. 230.87 Section 230.87 Transportation... Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.87 Cab lights. Each steam locomotive shall have cab lights that... readings from their usual and proper positions in the cab. These lights shall be so located and...

  8. 49 CFR 230.87 - Cab lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cab lights. 230.87 Section 230.87 Transportation... Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.87 Cab lights. Each steam locomotive shall have cab lights that... readings from their usual and proper positions in the cab. These lights shall be so located and...

  9. Fragrance material review on phenethyl butyrate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of phenethyl butyrate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Phenethyl butyrate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for phenethyl butyrate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  10. Fragrance material review on benzyl butyrate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of benzyl butyrate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Benzyl butyrate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for benzyl butyrate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, and repeated dose data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  11. Effect of Exogenous Indole-3-Acetic Acid and Indole-3-Butyric Acid on Internal Levels of the Respective Auxins and Their Conjugation with Aspartic Acid during Adventitious Root Formation in Pea Cuttings.

    PubMed

    Nordström, A C; Jacobs, F A; Eliasson, L

    1991-07-01

    The influence of exogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) on the internal levels of these auxins was studied during the first 4 days of adventitious root formation in cuttings of Pisum sativum L. The quantitations were done by high performance liquid chromatography with spectrofluorometric detection. IBA, identified by combined gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), was found to naturally occur in this plant material. The root inducing ability of exogenous IBA was superior to that of IAA. The IAA level in the tissue increased considerably on the first day after application of IAA, but rapidly decreased again, returning to a level twice the control by day 3. The predominant metabolic route was conjugation with aspartic acid, as reflected by the increase in the level of indole-3-acetylaspartic acid. The IBA treatment resulted in increases in the levels of IBA, IAA, and indole-3-acetylaspartic acid. The IAA content rapidly returned to control levels, whereas the IBA level remained high throughout the experimental period. High amounts of indole-3-butyrylaspartic acid were found in the tissue after feeding with IBA. The identity of the conjugate was confirmed by (1)H-nuclear magnetic resonance and GC-MS. IBA was much more stable in solution than IAA. No IAA was detected after 48 hours, whereas 70% IBA was still recovered after this time. The relatively higher root inducing ability of IBA is ascribed to the fact that its level remained elevated longer than that of IAA, even though IBA was metabolized in the tissue. Adventitious root formation is discussed on the basis of these findings. PMID:16668265

  12. Comparative study on the effect of electron beam irradiation on the physical properties of ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bibo; Hong, Ningning; Shi, Yongqian; Wang, Biao; Sheng, Haibo; Song, Lei; Tang, Qinbo; Hu, Yuan

    2014-04-01

    Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer (EVA) flame retarded by a combination of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) microencapsulated ammonium polyphosphate (MCAPP) and polyamide-6 (PA-6) have been crosslinked by high energy electron beam irradiation. The effect of high energy electron beam irradiation on the crosslinking degree, mechanical, electrical and thermal properties of EVA/MCAPP/PA-6 cable material was studied by gel content, heat extention test, mechanical test, dynamic mechanical analysis, high-insulation resistance meter and thermogravimetric analysis. The gel content and heat extention test results showed that the EVA/MCAPP/PA-6 composites can be easily crosslinked by electron beam irradiation. The tensile strength of EVA composites was drastically increased from 16.2 to maximum 26.2 MPa as the electron beam irradiation dose increases from 0 to 160 kGy. The volatilized products of EVA/MCAPP/PA-6 composites were analyzed and compared by thermogravimetric analysis/infrared spectrometry (TG-FTIR).

  13. Acarbose enhances human colonic butyrate production.

    PubMed

    Weaver, G A; Tangel, C T; Krause, J A; Parfitt, M M; Jenkins, P L; Rader, J M; Lewis, B A; Miller, T L; Wolin, M J

    1997-05-01

    Earlier studies suggest that butyrate has colonic differentiating and nutritional effects and that acarbose increases butyrate production. To determine the effects of acarbose on colonic fermentation, subjects were given 50-200 mg acarbose or placebo (cornstarch), three times per day, with meals in a double-blind crossover study. Fecal concentrations of starch and starch-fermenting bacteria were measured and fecal fermentation products determined after incubation of fecal suspensions with and without added substrate for 6 and 24 h. Substrate additions were cornstarch, cornstarch plus acarbose and potato starch. Dietary starch consumption was similar during acarbose and placebo treatment periods, but fecal starch concentrations were found to be significantly greater with acarbose treatment. Ratios of starch-fermenting to total anaerobic bacteria were also significantly greater with acarbose treatment. Butyrate in feces, measured either as concentration or as percentage of total short-chain fatty acids, was significantly greater with acarbose treatment than with placebo treatment. Butyrate ranged from 22.3 to 27.5 mol/100 mol for the 50-200 mg, three times per day doses of acarbose compared with 18.3-19.3 mol/100 mol for the comparable placebo periods. The propionate in fecal total short-chain fatty acids was significantly less with acarbose treatment (10.7-12.1 mol/100 mol) than with placebo treatment (13.7-14.2 mol/100 mol). Butyrate production was significantly greater in fermentations in samples collected during acarbose treatment, whereas production of acetate and propionate was significantly less. Fermentation decreased when acarbose was added directly to cornstarch fermentations. Acarbose effectively augmented colonic butyrate production by several mechanisms; it reduced starch absorption, expanded concentrations of starch-fermenting and butyrate-producing bacteria and inhibited starch use by acetate- and propionate-producing bacteria.

  14. 49 CFR 229.127 - Cab lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cab lights. 229.127 Section 229.127 Transportation... lights. (a) Each locomotive shall have cab lights which will provide sufficient illumination for the... normal positions in the cab. These lights shall be located, constructed, and maintained so that...

  15. 49 CFR 229.127 - Cab lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cab lights. 229.127 Section 229.127 Transportation... lights. (a) Each locomotive shall have cab lights which will provide sufficient illumination for the... normal positions in the cab. These lights shall be located, constructed, and maintained so that...

  16. 49 CFR 230.87 - Cab lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... engine crew's vision of the track and signals. Each steam locomotive shall also have a conveniently... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.87 Cab lights. Each steam locomotive shall have cab lights...

  17. 49 CFR 230.87 - Cab lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... engine crew's vision of the track and signals. Each steam locomotive shall also have a conveniently... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.87 Cab lights. Each steam locomotive shall have cab lights...

  18. 49 CFR 230.87 - Cab lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... engine crew's vision of the track and signals. Each steam locomotive shall also have a conveniently... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.87 Cab lights. Each steam locomotive shall have cab lights...

  19. 49 CFR 229.127 - Cab lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cab lights. 229.127 Section 229.127 Transportation... lights. (a) Each locomotive shall have cab lights which will provide sufficient illumination for the... normal positions in the cab. These lights shall be located, constructed, and maintained so that...

  20. 49 CFR 229.127 - Cab lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cab lights. 229.127 Section 229.127 Transportation... lights. (a) Each locomotive shall have cab lights which will provide sufficient illumination for the... normal positions in the cab. These lights shall be located, constructed, and maintained so that...

  1. 49 CFR 229.127 - Cab lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cab lights. 229.127 Section 229.127 Transportation... lights. (a) Each locomotive shall have cab lights which will provide sufficient illumination for the... normal positions in the cab. These lights shall be located, constructed, and maintained so that...

  2. 49 CFR 230.81 - Cab aprons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.81 Cab aprons. (a) General provisions. Cab aprons shall be of proper... safety chains or the safety bars are taut, the apron from dropping between the steam locomotive...

  3. 49 CFR 230.81 - Cab aprons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.81 Cab aprons. (a) General provisions. Cab aprons shall be of proper... safety chains or the safety bars are taut, the apron from dropping between the steam locomotive...

  4. 49 CFR 230.81 - Cab aprons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.81 Cab aprons. (a) General provisions. Cab aprons shall be of proper... safety chains or the safety bars are taut, the apron from dropping between the steam locomotive...

  5. 49 CFR 230.81 - Cab aprons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.81 Cab aprons. (a) General provisions. Cab aprons shall be of proper... safety chains or the safety bars are taut, the apron from dropping between the steam locomotive...

  6. 49 CFR 230.81 - Cab aprons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Cabs, Warning Signals, Sanders and Lights § 230.81 Cab aprons. (a) General provisions. Cab aprons shall be of proper... safety chains or the safety bars are taut, the apron from dropping between the steam locomotive...

  7. Effects of ptb knockout on butyric acid fermentation by Clostridium tyrobutyricum.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yali; Yu, Mingrui; Yang, Shang-Tian

    2012-01-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 is an anaerobic, rod-shaped, gram-positive bacterium that produces butyrate, acetate, hydrogen, and carbon dioxide from various saccharides, including glucose and xylose. Phosphotransbutyrylase (PTB) is a key enzyme in the butyric acid synthesis pathway. In this work, effects of ptb knockout by homologous recombination on metabolic flux and product distribution were investigated. When compared with the wild type, the activities of PTB and butyrate kinase in ptb knockout mutant decreased 76 and 42%, respectively; meanwhile, phosphotransacetylase and acetate kinase increased 7 and 29%, respectively. However, ptb knockout did not significantly reduce butyric acid production from glucose or xylose in batch fermentations. Instead, it increased acetic acid and hydrogen production 33.3-53.8% and ≈ 11%, respectively. Thus, the ptb knockout did increase the carbon flux toward acetate synthesis, resulting in a significant decrease (28-35% reduction) in the butyrate/acetate ratio in ptb mutant fermentations. In addition, the mutant displayed a higher specific growth rate (0.20 h(-1) vs. 0.15 h(-1) on glucose and 0.14 h(-1) vs. 0.10 h(-1) on xylose) and tolerance to butyric acid. Consequently, batch fermentation with the mutant gave higher fermentation rate and productivities (26-48% increase for butyrate, 81-100% increase for acetate, and 38-46% increase for hydrogen). This mutant thus can be used more efficiently than the parental strain in fermentations to produce butyrate, acetate, and hydrogen from glucose and xylose.

  8. 49 CFR 229.119 - Cabs, floors, and passageways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... position in the cab. (See also, Safety Glazing Standards, 49 CFR part 223, 44 FR 77348, Dec. 31, 1979.) (c... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cabs, floors, and passageways. 229.119 Section 229... Cab Equipment § 229.119 Cabs, floors, and passageways. (a) Cab seats shall be securely mounted...

  9. 49 CFR 230.80 - Cabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Cabs, Warning... braced and maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Cab windows of steam locomotives... maintained to provide an environment that does not unreasonably interfere with the engine crew's...

  10. 49 CFR 230.80 - Cabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Cabs, Warning... braced and maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Cab windows of steam locomotives... maintained to provide an environment that does not unreasonably interfere with the engine crew's...

  11. 49 CFR 230.80 - Cabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Cabs, Warning... braced and maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Cab windows of steam locomotives... of their duties under ordinary conditions of service. (b) Steam pipes. Steam pipes shall not...

  12. 49 CFR 230.80 - Cabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Cabs, Warning... braced and maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Cab windows of steam locomotives... of their duties under ordinary conditions of service. (b) Steam pipes. Steam pipes shall not...

  13. 49 CFR 230.80 - Cabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION STEAM LOCOMOTIVE INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE STANDARDS Steam Locomotives and Tenders Cabs, Warning... braced and maintained in a safe and suitable condition for service. Cab windows of steam locomotives... of their duties under ordinary conditions of service. (b) Steam pipes. Steam pipes shall not...

  14. Increasing butanol/acetone ratio and solvent productivity in ABE fermentation by consecutively feeding butyrate to weaken metabolic strength of butyrate loop.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Shi, Zhongping; Li, Zhigang

    2014-08-01

    In this study, we attempted to increase butanol/acetone ratio and total solvent productivity in ABE fermentations with corn- and cassava-based media, by consecutively feeding a small amount of butyrate/acetate during solventogenic phase to weaken the metabolic strengths in butyrate/acetate closed-loops. Consecutively feeding a small amount of butyrate (a total of 3.0 g/L-broth) is most effective in improving performance of corn-based ABE fermentations, as it simultaneously increased average butanol/acetone ratio by 23 % (1.92-2.36) and total solvent productivity by 16 % (0.355-0.410 g/L/h) as compared with those of control. However, the butyrate feeding strategy could not improve butanol/acetone ratio and total solvent productivity in cassava-based ABE fermentations, where the metabolic strength of butyrate closed-loop had already been very low.

  15. 49 CFR 229.119 - Cabs, floors, and passageways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cabs, floors, and passageways. 229.119 Section 229... braced. Cab doors shall be equipped with a secure and operable latching device. (b) Cab windows of the... position in the cab. (See also, Safety Glazing Standards, 49 CFR part 223, 44 FR 77348, Dec. 31, 1979.)...

  16. 49 CFR 393.203 - Cab and body components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cab and body components. 393.203 Section 393.203... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.203 Cab and body components. (a) The cab compartment doors or door parts used as an entrance or...

  17. 49 CFR 393.203 - Cab and body components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cab and body components. 393.203 Section 393.203... NECESSARY FOR SAFE OPERATION Frames, Cab and Body Components, Wheels, Steering, and Suspension Systems § 393.203 Cab and body components. (a) The cab compartment doors or door parts used as an entrance or...

  18. Isolation of butyrate-utilizing bacteria from thermophilic and mesophilic methane-producing ecosystems

    SciTech Connect

    Henson, J.M.

    1983-01-01

    The ability of various ecosystems to convert butyrate to methane was studied in order to isolate the bacteria responsible for the conversion. When thermophilic digester sludge was enriched with butyrate, methane was produced without a lag period. Marine sediments enriched with butyrate required a 2-week incubation period before methanogenesis began. A thermophilic digester was studied in more detail and found by most-probable-number enumeration to have ca. 5 x 10/sup 6/ butyrate-utilizing bactera/ml of sludge. A thermophilic butyrate-utilizing bacterium was isolated in coculture with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum and a Methanosarcina sp. This bacterium was a gram-negative, slightly curved rod that occurred singly, was nonmotile, and did not appear to produce spores. The thermophilic digester was infused with butyrate at the rate of 10 ..mu..moles/ml of sludge per day. Biogas production increased by 150%, with the percentage of methane increasing from 58% to 68%. Acetate, propionate, and butyrate did not accumulate. Butyrate-utilizing enrichments from mesophilic ecosystems were used in obtaining cocultures of butyrate-utilizing bacteria. These cocultures served as inocula for attempts to isolate pure cultures of butyrate-utilizing bacteria by use of hydrogenase-containing membrane fragments of Escherichia coli. After a 3-week incubation period, colonies appeared only in inoculated tubes that contained membrane fragments and butyrate.

  19. 49 CFR 229.121 - Locomotive cab noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...) If a railroad receives an excessive noise report, and if the condition giving rise to the noise is... include, but are not limited to: defective cab window seals; defective cab door seals; broken...

  20. 49 CFR 229.121 - Locomotive cab noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...) If a railroad receives an excessive noise report, and if the condition giving rise to the noise is... include, but are not limited to: defective cab window seals; defective cab door seals; broken...

  1. 21 CFR 26.36 - Listing of CAB's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... conformity assessment bodies (CAB's) to participate in confidence building activities by transmitting to the... CAB's will be listed in appendix D of this subpart for participation in the confidence...

  2. 49 CFR 229.119 - Cabs, floors, and passageways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... position in the cab. (See also, Safety Glazing Standards, 49 CFR part 223, 44 FR 77348, Dec. 31, 1979.) (c) Floors of cabs, passageways, and compartments shall be kept free from oil, water, waste or...

  3. 49 CFR 229.121 - Locomotive cab noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Locomotive cab noise. 229.121 Section 229.121... include, but are not limited to: defective cab window seals; defective cab door seals; broken or inoperative windows; deteriorated insulation or insulation that has been removed for other reasons; broken...

  4. 49 CFR 393.203 - Cab and body components.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cab and body components. 393.203 Section 393.203 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY....203 Cab and body components. (a) The cab compartment doors or door parts used as an entrance or...

  5. 49 CFR 229.119 - Cabs, floors, and passageways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... braced. Cab doors shall be equipped with a secure and operable latching device. (b) Cab windows of the... position in the cab. (See also, Safety Glazing Standards, 49 CFR part 223, 44 FR 77348, Dec. 31, 1979.) (c... obstruction that creates a slipping, tripping or fire hazard. Floors shall be properly treated to...

  6. The CNET Automated Budget System (CABS) II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Morris G.; And Others

    The Chief of Naval Education and Training (CNET) Automated Budget System II (CABS II) is an improved and expanded version of an earlier system which was developed by the Training Analysis and Evaluation Group (TAEG) to provide an efficient, easy means of handling the large volume of data necessary to produce budget documents. Intended as a guide…

  7. Butyrate and propionate protect against diet-induced obesity and regulate gut hormones via free fatty acid receptor 3-independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hua V; Frassetto, Andrea; Kowalik, Edward J; Nawrocki, Andrea R; Lu, Mofei M; Kosinski, Jennifer R; Hubert, James A; Szeto, Daphne; Yao, Xiaorui; Forrest, Gail; Marsh, Donald J

    2012-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), primarily acetate, propionate, and butyrate, are metabolites formed by gut microbiota from complex dietary carbohydrates. Butyrate and acetate were reported to protect against diet-induced obesity without causing hypophagia, while propionate was shown to reduce food intake. However, the underlying mechanisms for these effects are unclear. It was suggested that SCFAs may regulate gut hormones via their endogenous receptors Free fatty acid receptors 2 (FFAR2) and 3 (FFAR3), but direct evidence is lacking. We examined the effects of SCFA administration in mice, and show that butyrate, propionate, and acetate all protected against diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance. Butyrate and propionate, but not acetate, induce gut hormones and reduce food intake. As FFAR3 is the common receptor activated by butyrate and propionate, we examined these effects in FFAR3-deficient mice. The effects of butyrate and propionate on body weight and food intake are independent of FFAR3. In addition, FFAR3 plays a minor role in butyrate stimulation of Glucagon-like peptide-1, and is not required for butyrate- and propionate-dependent induction of Glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide. Finally, FFAR3-deficient mice show normal body weight and glucose homeostasis. Stimulation of gut hormones and food intake inhibition by butyrate and propionate may represent a novel mechanism by which gut microbiota regulates host metabolism. These effects are largely intact in FFAR3-deficient mice, indicating additional mediators are required for these beneficial effects.

  8. Function and phylogeny of bacterial butyryl-CoA:acetate transferases and their diversity in the proximal colon of swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studying the host-associated butyrate-producing bacterial community is important because butyrate is essential for colonic homeostasis and gut health. Previous research has identified the butyryl-coA:acetate transferase (2.3.8.3) as a the main gene for butyrate production in intestinal ecosystems; h...

  9. Cellular Metabolism and Dose Reveal Carnitine-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms of Butyrate Oxidation in Colorectal Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Han, Anna; Bennett, Natalie; MacDonald, Amber; Johnstone, Megan; Whelan, Jay; Donohoe, Dallas R

    2016-08-01

    Dietary fiber has been suggested to suppress colorectal cancer development, although the mechanisms contributing to this beneficial effect remain elusive. Butyrate, a fermentation product of fiber, has been shown to have anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on colorectal cancer cells. The metabolic fate of butyrate in the cell is important in determining whether, it acts as an HDAC inhibitor or is consumed as a short-chain fatty acid. Non-cancerous colonocytes utilize butyrate as the primary energy source whereas cancerous colonocytes increase glucose utilization through the Warburg effect. In this study, we show that butyrate oxidation is decreased in cancerous colonocytes compared to non-cancerous colonocytes. We demonstrate that colorectal cancer cells utilize both a carnitine-dependent and carnitine-independent mechanism that contributes to butyrate oxidation. The carnitine-dependent mechanism is contingent on butyrate concentration. Knockdown of CPT1A in colorectal cancer cells abolishes butyrate oxidation. In terms of selectivity, the carnitine-dependent mechanism only regulated butyrate oxidation, as acetate and propionate oxidation were carnitine-independent. Carnitine decreased the action of butyrate as an HDAC inhibitor and suppressed induction of H3 acetylation by butyrate in colorectal cancer cells. Thus, diminished oxidation of butyrate is associated with decreased HDAC inhibition and histone acetylation. In relation to the mechanism, we find that dichloroacetate, which decreases phosphorylation of pyruvate dehydrogenase, increased butyrate oxidation and that this effect was carnitine-dependent. In conclusion, these data suggest that colorectal cancer cells decrease butyrate oxidation through inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase, which is carnitine-dependent, and provide insight into why butyrate shows selective effects toward colorectal cancer cells. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1804-1813, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Iron Modulates Butyrate Production by a Child Gut Microbiota In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Dostal, Alexandra; Bircher, Lea; Pham, Van Thanh; Follador, Rainer; Zimmermann, Michael Bruce; Chassard, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of iron (Fe) availability on butyrate production in the complex bacterial ecosystem of the human gut. Hence, different Fe availabilities were mimicked in an in vitro colonic fermentation model (the polyfermenter intestinal model called PolyFermS) inoculated with immobilized gut microbiota from a child and in batch cultures of the butyrate producer Roseburia intestinalis. Shifts in the microbial community (16S rRNA sequencing and quantitative PCR), metabolic activity (high-performance liquid chromatography), and expression of genes involved in butyrate production were assessed. In the PolyFermS, moderate Fe deficiency resulted in a 1.4-fold increase in butyrate production and a 5-fold increase in butyryl-coenzyme A (CoA):acetate CoA-transferase gene expression, while very strong Fe deficiency significantly decreased butyrate concentrations and butyrate-producing bacteria compared with the results under normal Fe conditions. Batch cultures of R. intestinalis grown in a low-Fe environment preferentially produced lactate and had reduced butyrate and hydrogen production, in parallel with upregulation of the lactate dehydrogenase gene and downregulation of the pyruvate:ferredoxin-oxidoreductase gene. In contrast, under high-Fe conditions, R. intestinalis cultures showed enhanced butyrate and hydrogen production, along with increased expression of the corresponding genes, compared with the results under normal-Fe conditions. Our data reveal the strong regulatory effect of Fe on gut microbiota butyrate producers and on the concentrations of butyrate, which contributes to the maintenance of host gut health. PMID:26578675

  11. Test for the integrity of environmental tractor cab filtration systems.

    PubMed

    Moyer, Ernest S; Heitbrink, William A; Jensen, Paul A

    2005-10-01

    Cab filtration systems can be used to protect vehicle operators from hazardous air contaminants. In a cab filtration system, a fan draws air through filters and pressurizes the cab with this filtered air. This article describes the application of a low-cost, optical particle counter to evaluate the performance of tractor cab filtration systems. The tractors were equipped with environmental enclosures to protect the operators from pesticide exposures that occur during air blast spraying in orchards. Prior to testing, all environmental tractor cabs underwent a complete maintenance overhaul followed by a careful inspection by the manufacturer's field representative. As part of this maintenance effort, 13 tractors with cab filtration systems were tested in an enclosure. A Met One model 227B two-channel optical particle counter was used to measure the aerosol concentration outside and inside the cab. Ambient aerosol and/or aerosol generated by burning incense sticks were used to challenge the stationary cab filtration system in an enclosure. The ratio of the outside to inside concentration (Co/Ci) is the exposure reduction attained by the cab system. Alternatively, the inside concentration divided by the outside concentration times 100 (Ci/Co x 100) gives the percent penetration. All 13 tractors were tested for leak sites. Leak sites were identified and sealed. This process was repeated until each cab showed an exposure reduction ratio Co/Ci of at least 50 (aerosol penetration into the cab Ci/Co x 100 was less than 2%) at the 0.3-0.5 microm particle size interval.

  12. 49 CFR 229.121 - Locomotive cab noise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locomotive cab noise. 229.121 Section 229.121... § 229.121 Locomotive cab noise. (a) Performance standards for locomotives. (1) When tested for static noise in accordance with paragraph (a)(3) of this section, all locomotives of each design or model...

  13. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...)butanoic acid, and its metabolite MCPA, (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid, in or on the following food... acid; tolerance for residues. 180.318 Section 180.318 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.318 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for...

  14. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...)butanoic acid, and its metabolite MCPA, (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid, in or on the following food... acid; tolerance for residues. 180.318 Section 180.318 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.318 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for...

  15. 40 CFR 180.318 - 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for residues.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...)butanoic acid, and its metabolite MCPA, (4-chloro-2-methylphenoxy)acetic acid, in or on the following food... acid; tolerance for residues. 180.318 Section 180.318 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... FOOD Specific Tolerances § 180.318 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid; tolerance for...

  16. Butyrate: A dietary inhibitor of histone deacetylases and an epigenetic regulator

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) acetate, propionate and butyrate, also known as volatile fatty acids (VFA), are produced in the gastrointestinal tract by microbial fermentation. Consumption of dietary fibers has been shown to have positive metabolic health effects, such as increasing satiety, an...

  17. Sodium butyrate mitigates in vitro ammonia generation in cecal content of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anping; Wang, Yan; Di Liao, Xin; Wu, Yinbao; Liang, Juan Boo; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2016-08-01

    One of the environmental challenges that modern poultry industry faced is odor pollution caused by ammonia emission. The objectives of the study were to determine the effect of sodium butyrate on the production of ammonia in the cecal contents of laying hens using in vitro gas production study and to elucidate the mechanism behind it. The study consisted of a control (without sodium butyrate), and three experimental groups added with 10, 15, and 20 mg of sodium butyrate, respectively. Results showed that ammonia production in headspace of the syringe decreased by 8.2, 23, and 23 %, respectively, while ammonium production from the fermentation broth decreased by 6.3, 14.4, and 13.7 %, respectively. Sodium butyrate had no significant effect on the contents of uric acid and urea, nitrate-N, or total N in all treatments. However, sodium butyrate decreased the urease and uricase activities (P < 0.05) in the fermentation broth. Sodium butyrate also altered volatile fatty acids profile of the fermentation broth by decreasing the production of isovalerate (P < 0.05) and increasing those of acetate, butyrate, and isobutyrate (P < 0.05). The MiSeq System Sequencing results showed that sodium butyrate increased the relative abundance of Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium (P < 0.05) and decreased the relative abundance of Desulfovibrio, Helicobacter, and Campylobacter (P < 0.05).Our results concluded that sodium butyrate changes the diversity and relative abundance of the microbes which altered the fermentation characteristics leading to reduction in ammonia production. PMID:27154844

  18. Sodium butyrate mitigates in vitro ammonia generation in cecal content of laying hens.

    PubMed

    Wang, Anping; Wang, Yan; Di Liao, Xin; Wu, Yinbao; Liang, Juan Boo; Laudadio, Vito; Tufarelli, Vincenzo

    2016-08-01

    One of the environmental challenges that modern poultry industry faced is odor pollution caused by ammonia emission. The objectives of the study were to determine the effect of sodium butyrate on the production of ammonia in the cecal contents of laying hens using in vitro gas production study and to elucidate the mechanism behind it. The study consisted of a control (without sodium butyrate), and three experimental groups added with 10, 15, and 20 mg of sodium butyrate, respectively. Results showed that ammonia production in headspace of the syringe decreased by 8.2, 23, and 23 %, respectively, while ammonium production from the fermentation broth decreased by 6.3, 14.4, and 13.7 %, respectively. Sodium butyrate had no significant effect on the contents of uric acid and urea, nitrate-N, or total N in all treatments. However, sodium butyrate decreased the urease and uricase activities (P < 0.05) in the fermentation broth. Sodium butyrate also altered volatile fatty acids profile of the fermentation broth by decreasing the production of isovalerate (P < 0.05) and increasing those of acetate, butyrate, and isobutyrate (P < 0.05). The MiSeq System Sequencing results showed that sodium butyrate increased the relative abundance of Bacteroides and Faecalibacterium (P < 0.05) and decreased the relative abundance of Desulfovibrio, Helicobacter, and Campylobacter (P < 0.05).Our results concluded that sodium butyrate changes the diversity and relative abundance of the microbes which altered the fermentation characteristics leading to reduction in ammonia production.

  19. The neuropharmacology of butyrate: The bread and butter of the microbiota-gut-brain axis?

    PubMed

    Stilling, Roman M; van de Wouw, Marcel; Clarke, Gerard; Stanton, Catherine; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2016-10-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that brain function and behaviour are influenced by microbial metabolites. Key products of the microbiota are short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including butyric acid. Butyrate is a functionally versatile molecule that is produced in the mammalian gut by fermentation of dietary fibre and is enriched in butter and other dairy products. Butyrate along with other fermentation-derived SCFAs (e.g. acetate, propionate) and the structurally related ketone bodies (e.g. acetoacetate and d-β-hydroxybutyrate) show promising effects in various diseases including obesity, diabetes, inflammatory (bowel) diseases, and colorectal cancer as well as neurological disorders. Indeed, it is clear that host energy metabolism and immune functions critically depend on butyrate as a potent regulator, highlighting butyrate as a key mediator of host-microbe crosstalk. In addition to specific receptors (GPR43/FFAR2; GPR41/FFAR3; GPR109a/HCAR2) and transporters (MCT1/SLC16A1; SMCT1/SLC5A8), its effects are mediated by utilisation as an energy source via the β-oxidation pathway and as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), promoting histone acetylation and stimulation of gene expression in host cells. The latter has also led to the use of butyrate as an experimental drug in models for neurological disorders ranging from depression to neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive impairment. Here we provide a critical review of the literature on butyrate and its effects on multiple aspects of host physiology with a focus on brain function and behaviour. We find fundamental differences in natural butyrate at physiological concentrations and its use as a neuropharmacological agent at rather high, supraphysiological doses in brain research. Finally, we hypothesise that butyrate and other volatile SCFAs produced by microbes may be involved in regulating the impact of the microbiome on behaviour including social communication.

  20. The neuropharmacology of butyrate: The bread and butter of the microbiota-gut-brain axis?

    PubMed

    Stilling, Roman M; van de Wouw, Marcel; Clarke, Gerard; Stanton, Catherine; Dinan, Timothy G; Cryan, John F

    2016-10-01

    Several lines of evidence suggest that brain function and behaviour are influenced by microbial metabolites. Key products of the microbiota are short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), including butyric acid. Butyrate is a functionally versatile molecule that is produced in the mammalian gut by fermentation of dietary fibre and is enriched in butter and other dairy products. Butyrate along with other fermentation-derived SCFAs (e.g. acetate, propionate) and the structurally related ketone bodies (e.g. acetoacetate and d-β-hydroxybutyrate) show promising effects in various diseases including obesity, diabetes, inflammatory (bowel) diseases, and colorectal cancer as well as neurological disorders. Indeed, it is clear that host energy metabolism and immune functions critically depend on butyrate as a potent regulator, highlighting butyrate as a key mediator of host-microbe crosstalk. In addition to specific receptors (GPR43/FFAR2; GPR41/FFAR3; GPR109a/HCAR2) and transporters (MCT1/SLC16A1; SMCT1/SLC5A8), its effects are mediated by utilisation as an energy source via the β-oxidation pathway and as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), promoting histone acetylation and stimulation of gene expression in host cells. The latter has also led to the use of butyrate as an experimental drug in models for neurological disorders ranging from depression to neurodegenerative diseases and cognitive impairment. Here we provide a critical review of the literature on butyrate and its effects on multiple aspects of host physiology with a focus on brain function and behaviour. We find fundamental differences in natural butyrate at physiological concentrations and its use as a neuropharmacological agent at rather high, supraphysiological doses in brain research. Finally, we hypothesise that butyrate and other volatile SCFAs produced by microbes may be involved in regulating the impact of the microbiome on behaviour including social communication. PMID:27346602

  1. Characterization of butyrate transport across the luminal membranes of equine large intestine.

    PubMed

    Nedjadi, Taoufik; Moran, Andrew W; Al-Rammahi, Miran A; Shirazi-Beechey, Soraya P

    2014-10-01

    The diet of the horse, pasture forage (grass), is fermented by the equine colonic microbiota to short-chain fatty acids, notably acetate, propionate and butyrate. Short-chain fatty acids provide a major source of energy for the horse and contribute to many vital physiological processes. We aimed to determine both the mechanism of butyrate uptake across the luminal membrane of equine colon and the nature of the protein involved. To this end, we isolated equine colonic luminal membrane vesicles. The abundance and activity of cysteine-sensitive alkaline phosphatase and villin, intestinal luminal membrane markers, were significantly enriched in membrane vesicles compared with the original homogenates. In contrast, the abundance of GLUT2 protein and the activity of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, known markers of the intestinal basolateral membrane, were hardly detectable. We demonstrated, by immunohistochemistry, that monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) protein is expressed on the luminal membrane of equine colonocytes. We showed that butyrate transport into luminal membrane vesicles is energized by a pH gradient (out < in) and is not Na(+) dependent. Moreover, butyrate uptake is time and concentration dependent, with a Michaelis-Menten constant of 5.6 ± 0.45 mm and maximal velocity of 614 ± 55 pmol s(-1) (mg protein)(-1). Butyrate transport is significantly inhibited by p-chloromercuribenzoate, phloretin and α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid, all potent inhibitors of MCT1. Moreover, acetate and propionate, as well as the monocarboxylates pyruvate and lactate, also inhibit butyrate uptake. Data presented here support the conclusion that transport of butyrate across the equine colonic luminal membrane is predominantly accomplished by MCT1.

  2. Butyrate-producing Clostridium cluster XIVa species specifically colonize mucins in an in vitro gut model

    PubMed Central

    Van den Abbeele, Pieter; Belzer, Clara; Goossens, Margot; Kleerebezem, Michiel; De Vos, Willem M; Thas, Olivier; De Weirdt, Rosemarie; Kerckhof, Frederiek-Maarten; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2013-01-01

    The human gut is colonized by a complex microbiota with multiple benefits. Although the surface-attached, mucosal microbiota has a unique composition and potential to influence human health, it remains difficult to study in vivo. Therefore, we performed an in-depth microbial characterization (human intestinal tract chip (HITChip)) of a recently developed dynamic in vitro gut model, which simulates both luminal and mucosal gut microbes (mucosal-simulator of human intestinal microbial ecosystem (M-SHIME)). Inter-individual differences among human subjects were confirmed and microbial patterns unique for each individual were preserved in vitro. Furthermore, in correspondence with in vivo studies, Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria were enriched in the luminal content while Firmicutes rather colonized the mucin layer, with Clostridium cluster XIVa accounting for almost 60% of the mucin-adhered microbiota. Of the many acetate and/or lactate-converting butyrate producers within this cluster, Roseburia intestinalis and Eubacterium rectale most specifically colonized mucins. These 16S rRNA gene-based results were confirmed at a functional level as butyryl-CoA:acetate-CoA transferase gene sequences belonged to different species in the luminal as opposed to the mucin-adhered microbiota, with Roseburia species governing the mucosal butyrate production. Correspondingly, the simulated mucosal environment induced a shift from acetate towards butyrate. As not only inter-individual differences were preserved but also because compared with conventional models, washout of relevant mucin-adhered microbes was avoided, simulating the mucosal gut microbiota represents a breakthrough in modeling and mechanistically studying the human intestinal microbiome in health and disease. Finally, as mucosal butyrate producers produce butyrate close to the epithelium, they may enhance butyrate bioavailability, which could be useful in treating diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease. PMID

  3. Enhanced butyrate formation by cross-feeding between Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Bifidobacterium adolescentis.

    PubMed

    Rios-Covian, David; Gueimonde, Miguel; Duncan, Sylvia H; Flint, Harry J; de los Reyes-Gavilan, Clara G

    2015-11-01

    Cross-feeding is an important metabolic interaction mechanism of bacterial groups inhabiting the human colon and includes features such as the utilization of acetate by butyrate-producing bacteria as may occur between Bifidobacterium and Faecalibacterium genera. In this study, we assessed the utilization of different carbon sources (glucose, starch, inulin and fructooligosaccharides) by strains of both genera and selected the best suited combinations for evidencing this cross-feeding phenomenon. Co-cultures of Bifidobacterium adolescentis L2-32 with Faecalibacterium prausnitzii S3/L3 with fructooligosaccharides as carbon source, as well as with F. prausnitzii A2-165 in starch, were carried out and the production of short-chain fatty acids was determined. In both co-cultures, acetate levels decreased between 8 and 24 h of incubation and were lower than in the corresponding B. adolescentis monocultures. In contrast, butyrate concentrations were higher in co-cultures as compared to the respective F. prausnitzii monocultures, indicating enhanced formation of butyrate by F. prausnitzii in the presence of the bifidobacteria. Variations in the levels of acetate and butyrate were more pronounced in the co-culture with fructooligosaccharides than with starch. Our results provide a clear demonstration of cross-feeding between B. adolescentis and F. prausnitzii.

  4. Stimulation of butyrate production by gluconic acid in batch culture of pig cecal digesta and identification of butyrate-producing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Koyama, Hironari; Okada, Masaaki; Ushida, Kazunari

    2002-08-01

    Gluconic acid reaches the large intestine to stimulate lactic acid bacteria. However, the fermentation pattern of gluconic acid has yet to be elucidated. Accordingly, we examined the fermentation properties induced by gluconic acid in the pig cecal digesta in vitro. We also tested sorbitol and glucose, substrates for which the fermentation rate and patterns are known. The gluconic acid-utilizing bacteria were further isolated from pig cecal digesta and identified to examine the effect of gluconic acid on hind gut fermentation. Gluconic acid was fermented more slowly than were the other two substrates. Gluconic acid stimulated butyrate production; the butyrate molar percentage reached 26%, which is considered a high butyrate production. The majority of gluconic acid fermenters were identified as lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus reuteri and L. mucosae, and acid-utilizing bacteria, such as Megasphaera elsdenii and Mitsuokella multiacida. The gluconic acid fermented by lactic acid bacteria, and the lactate and acetate that were produced were used to form butyrate by acid-utilizing bacteria, such as M. elsdenii. Gluconic acid may be useful as a prebiotic to stimulate butyrate production in the large intestine.

  5. Antenna cab interior showing waveguide from external parabolic antenna (later ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Antenna cab interior showing waveguide from external parabolic antenna (later addition), looking north. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

  6. Antenna cab interior showing equipment rack and fiberglass antenna panels, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Antenna cab interior showing equipment rack and fiberglass antenna panels, looking west. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

  7. Antenna cab interior showing equipment rack and fiberglass antenna panels, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Antenna cab interior showing equipment rack and fiberglass antenna panels, looking southeast. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

  8. View of 175 ton hoisthouse from northeast. Hoist operator's cab ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of 175 ton hoist-house from northeast. Hoist operator's cab is in foreground center. - Marshall Space Flight Center, Saturn V Dynamic Test Facility, East Test Area, Huntsville, Madison County, AL

  9. 12. ELEVATOR DOORS AND CAB. Hot Springs National Park, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. ELEVATOR DOORS AND CAB. - Hot Springs National Park, Bathhouse Row, Fordyce Bathhouse: Mechanical & Piping Systems, State Highway 7, 1 mile north of U.S. Highway 70, Hot Springs, Garland County, AR

  10. 49 CFR 236.515 - Visibility of cab signals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ..., MAINTENANCE, AND REPAIR OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop... shall be plainly visible to member or members of the locomotive crew from their stations in the cab....

  11. 49 CFR 229.119 - Cabs, floors, and passageways.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... position in the cab. (See also, Safety Glazing Standards, 49 CFR part 223, 44 FR 77348, Dec. 31, 1979.) (c... single container may be used if it has a partition to separate fusees from torpedoes. Torpedoes shall...

  12. Crane counterweight, view north from operator cab level; note pipe ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Crane counterweight, view north from operator cab level; note pipe Coppersmithshop (Haer no. PA-387-T) in background to right. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, 350-Ton Hammerhead Crane, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  13. 21 CFR 26.46 - Listing of additional CAB's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... operational period, additional conformity assessment bodies (CAB's) will be considered for equivalence...

  14. 21 CFR 26.36 - Listing of CAB's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... conformity assessment bodies (CAB's) to participate in confidence building activities by transmitting to...

  15. 21 CFR 26.36 - Listing of CAB's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... conformity assessment bodies (CAB's) to participate in confidence building activities by transmitting to...

  16. 21 CFR 26.46 - Listing of additional CAB's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT REPORTS... operational period, additional conformity assessment bodies (CAB's) will be considered for equivalence...

  17. Direct hydrogenation of biomass-derived butyric acid to n-butanol over a ruthenium-tin bimetallic catalyst.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Min; Upare, Pravin P; Chang, Jong-San; Hwang, Young Kyu; Lee, Jeong Ho; Hwang, Dong Won; Hong, Do-Young; Lee, Seung Hwan; Jeong, Myung-Geun; Kim, Young Dok; Kwon, Young-Uk

    2014-11-01

    Catalytic hydrogenation of organic carboxylic acids and their esters, for example, cellulosic ethanol from fermentation of acetic acid and hydrogenation of ethyl acetate is a promising possibility for future biorefinery concepts. A hybrid conversion process based on selective hydrogenation of butyric acid combined with fermentation of glucose has been developed for producing biobutanol. ZnO-supported Ru-Sn bimetallic catalysts exhibits unprecedentedly superior performance in the vapor-phase hydrogenation of biomass-derived butyric acid to n-butanol (>98% yield) for 3500 h without deactivation. PMID:25123894

  18. Direct hydrogenation of biomass-derived butyric acid to n-butanol over a ruthenium-tin bimetallic catalyst.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jong-Min; Upare, Pravin P; Chang, Jong-San; Hwang, Young Kyu; Lee, Jeong Ho; Hwang, Dong Won; Hong, Do-Young; Lee, Seung Hwan; Jeong, Myung-Geun; Kim, Young Dok; Kwon, Young-Uk

    2014-11-01

    Catalytic hydrogenation of organic carboxylic acids and their esters, for example, cellulosic ethanol from fermentation of acetic acid and hydrogenation of ethyl acetate is a promising possibility for future biorefinery concepts. A hybrid conversion process based on selective hydrogenation of butyric acid combined with fermentation of glucose has been developed for producing biobutanol. ZnO-supported Ru-Sn bimetallic catalysts exhibits unprecedentedly superior performance in the vapor-phase hydrogenation of biomass-derived butyric acid to n-butanol (>98% yield) for 3500 h without deactivation.

  19. Effect of butyrate on immune response of a chicken macrophage cell line.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Z Y; Packialakshmi, B; Makkar, S K; Dridi, S; Rath, N C

    2014-11-15

    Butyric acid is a major short chain fatty acid (SCFA), produced in the gastrointestinal tract by anaerobic bacterial fermentation, that has beneficial health effects in many species including poultry. To understand the immunomodulating effects of butyrate on avian macrophage, we treated a naturally transformed line of chicken macrophage cells named HTC with Na-butyrate in the absence or presence of Salmonella typhimurium lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate (PMA), a metabolic activator, evaluating its various functional parameters. The results demonstrate that, butyrate by itself had no significant effect on variables such as nitric oxide (NO) production and the expression of genes associated with various inflammatory cytokines but it inhibited NO production, and reduced the expression of cytokines such as IL-1β, IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-10 in LPS-stimulated cells. Butyrate decreased the expression of TGF-β3 in the presence or absence of LPS, while it had no effect on IL-4, Tβ4, and MMP2 gene expression. In addition, butyrate augmented PMA induced oxidative burst indicated by DCF-DA oxidation and restored LPS induced attenuation of tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity. Although butyrate had no significant effect on phagocytosis or matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activities of resting macrophages, it significantly suppressed the effects induced by their respective stimulants such as LPS induced phagocytosis and PMA induced MMP expression. These results suggest that butyrate has immunomodulatory property in the presence of agents that incite the cells thus, has potential to control inflammation and restore immune homeostasis.

  20. Melatonin promotes adventitious root regeneration in in vitro shoot tip explants of the commercial sweet cherry rootstocks CAB-6P (Prunus cerasus L.), Gisela 6 (P. cerasus × P. canescens), and MxM 60 (P. avium × P. mahaleb).

    PubMed

    Sarropoulou, Virginia N; Therios, Ioannis N; Dimassi-Theriou, Kortessa N

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to test the effects of melatonin (N-acetyl-5-methoxytryptamine), a natural compound of edible plants on the rooting of certain commercial sweet cherry rootstocks. Shoot tip explants from previous in vitro cultures of the cherry rootstocks CAB-6P (Prunus cerasus L.), Gisela 6 (P. cerasus × P. canescens), and M × M 60 (P. avium × P. mahaleb) were included in the experiment. The effect of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) alone or in combination with melatonin was tested concerning their rooting potential. Seven concentrations of melatonin (0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1, 5, and 10 μM) alone or in combination with 5.71 μM of IAA or 4.92 μM of IBA were tested. For each rootstock, 21 treatments were included. The explants were grown in glass tubes containing 10 mL of substrate. The parameters measured include rooting percentage, number of roots per rooted explant, root length, and callus formation. The data presented in this study show that melatonin has a rooting promoting effect at a low concentration but a growth inhibitory effect at high concentrations. In the absence of auxin, 1 μM melatonin had auxinic response concerning the number and length of roots, but 10 μM melatonin was inhibitory to rooting in all the tested rootstocks. The final conclusion of this experiment is that exogenously applied melatonin acted as a rooting promoter and its action was similar to that of IAA. PMID:21749439

  1. New improvements in robotic telescopes at CAB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, L.; Eibe, M. T.; Ullán, A.

    The Robotic Telescopes at the Centro de Astrobiología (CAB, CSIC-INTA) are scientific installations dedicated mainly to observe and characterize exoplanets through the analysis of their transits. Over the last year, we have improved several characteristics of these telescopes. We have put great efforts into improving the accuracy of the observations through improved observation techniques and methods of analysis and data reduction. A new CCD with better QE and linearity has been installed. Also, a new Ströngrem filter has been set to provide enhanced capacities to the telescope. Finally, the primary and secondary mirror have been re-coated. In the case of the methodology to analyze the data, we have improved the tables of focus versus temperature and the procedures to compensate for the deviations on the image focusing. Although the main use of these telescopes is scientific, a significant amount of observation time is dedicated to outreach programs. We have developed an educative program based on simple scientific projects that students can carry out. In this paper we will go over these improvements and the new projects of Public Outreach.

  2. Enrichment of amino acid-oxidizing, acetate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ato, Makoto; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2014-08-01

    In anaerobic condition, amino acids are oxidatively deaminated, and decarboxylated, resulting in the production of volatile fatty acids. In this process, excess electrons are produced and their consumption is necessary for the accomplishment of amino acid degradation. In this study, we anaerobically constructed leucine-degrading enrichment cultures from three different environmental samples (compost, excess sludge, and rice field soil) in order to investigate the diversity of electron-consuming reaction coupled to amino acid oxidation. Constructed enrichment cultures oxidized leucine to isovalerate and their activities were strongly dependent on acetate. Analysis of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) profiles and community structure analysis during batch culture of each enrichment indicated that Clostridium cluster I coupled leucine oxidation to acetate reduction in the enrichment from the compost and the rice field soil. In these cases, acetate was reduced to butyrate. On the other hand, Clostridium cluster XIVb coupled leucine oxidation to acetate reduction in the enrichment from the excess sludge. In this case, acetate was reduced to propionate. To our surprise, the enrichment from rice field soil oxidized leucine even in the absence of acetate and produced butyrate. The enrichment would couple leucine oxidation to reductive butyrate synthesis from CO2. The coupling reaction would be achieved based on trophic link between hydrogenotrophic acetogenic bacteria and acetate-reducing bacteria by sequential reduction of CO2 and acetate. Our study suggests anaerobic degradation of amino acids is achieved yet-to-be described reactions. PMID:24630616

  3. The Future of Butyric Acid in Industry

    PubMed Central

    Dwidar, Mohammed; Park, Jae-Yeon; Mitchell, Robert J.; Sang, Byoung-In

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, the different applications of butyric acid and its current and future production status are highlighted, with a particular emphasis on the biofuels industry. As such, this paper discusses different issues regarding butyric acid fermentations and provides suggestions for future improvements and their approaches. PMID:22593687

  4. The cabABC Operon Essential for Biofilm and Rugose Colony Development in Vibrio vulnificus

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jin Hwan; Jo, Youmi; Jang, Song Yee; Kwon, Haenaem; Irie, Yasuhiko; Parsek, Matthew R.; Kim, Myung Hee; Choi, Sang Ho

    2015-01-01

    A transcriptome analysis identified Vibrio vulnificus cabABC genes which were preferentially expressed in biofilms. The cabABC genes were transcribed as a single operon. The cabA gene was induced by elevated 3′,5′-cyclic diguanylic acid (c-di-GMP) and encoded a calcium-binding protein CabA. Comparison of the biofilms produced by the cabA mutant and its parent strain JN111 in microtiter plates using crystal-violet staining demonstrated that CabA contributed to biofilm formation in a calcium-dependent manner under elevated c-di-GMP conditions. Genetic and biochemical analyses revealed that CabA was secreted to the cell exterior through functional CabB and CabC, distributed throughout the biofilm matrix, and produced as the biofilm matured. These results, together with the observation that CabA also contributes to the development of rugose colony morphology, indicated that CabA is a matrix-associated protein required for maturation, rather than adhesion involved in the initial attachment, of biofilms. Microscopic comparison of the structure of biofilms produced by JN111 and the cabA mutant demonstrated that CabA is an extracellular matrix component essential for the development of the mature biofilm structures in flow cells and on oyster shells. Exogenously providing purified CabA restored the biofilm- and rugose colony-forming abilities of the cabA mutant when calcium was available. Circular dichroism and size exclusion analyses revealed that calcium binding induces CabA conformational changes which may lead to multimerization. Extracellular complementation experiments revealed that CabA can assemble a functional matrix only when exopolysaccharides coexist. Consequently, the combined results suggested that CabA is a structural protein of the extracellular matrix and multimerizes to a conformation functional in building robust biofilms, which may render V. vulnificus to survive in hostile environments and reach a concentrated infective dose. PMID:26406498

  5. Mesoxalaldehyde acetals

    SciTech Connect

    Gordeeva, G.N.; Kalashnikov, S.M.; Popov, Yu.N.; Kruglov, E.A.; Imashev, U.B.

    1987-11-10

    The treatment of methylglyoxal acetals by alkyl nitrites in the presence of the corresponding aliphatic alcohols and hydrochloric acid leads to the formation of linear mesoxalaldehyde acetals, whose structure was established by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The major pathways for the decomposition of these molecules upon electron impact were established.

  6. Physiological and Genetic Description of Dissimilatory Perchlorate Reduction by the Novel Marine Bacterium Arcobacter sp. Strain CAB

    PubMed Central

    Carlström, Charlotte I.; Wang, Ouwei; Melnyk, Ryan A.; Bauer, Stefan; Lee, Joyce; Engelbrektson, Anna; Coates, John D.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT A novel dissimilatory perchlorate-reducing bacterium (DPRB), Arcobacter sp. strain CAB, was isolated from a marina in Berkeley, CA. Phylogenetically, this halophile was most closely related to Arcobacter defluvii strain SW30-2 and Arcobacter ellisii. With acetate as the electron donor, strain CAB completely reduced perchlorate (ClO4−) or chlorate (ClO3−) [collectively designated (per)chlorate] to innocuous chloride (Cl−), likely using the perchlorate reductase (Pcr) and chlorite dismutase (Cld) enzymes. When grown with perchlorate, optimum growth was observed at 25 to 30°C, pH 7, and 3% NaCl. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) preparations were dominated by free-swimming straight rods with 1 to 2 polar flagella per cell. Strain CAB utilized a variety of organic acids, fructose, and hydrogen as electron donors coupled to (per)chlorate reduction. Further, under anoxic growth conditions strain CAB utilized the biogenic oxygen produced as a result of chlorite dismutation to oxidize catechol via the meta-cleavage pathway of aerobic catechol degradation and the catechol 2,3-dioxygenase enzyme. In addition to (per)chlorate, oxygen and nitrate were alternatively used as electron acceptors. The 3.48-Mb draft genome encoded a distinct perchlorate reduction island (PRI) containing several transposases. The genome lacks the pcrC gene, which was previously thought to be essential for (per)chlorate reduction, and appears to use an unrelated Arcobacter c-type cytochrome to perform the same function. PMID:23695836

  7. Butyrate production in phylogenetically diverse Firmicutes isolated from the chicken caecum

    PubMed Central

    Eeckhaut, Venessa; Van Immerseel, Filip; Croubels, Siska; De Baere, Siegrid; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Ducatelle, Richard; Louis, Petra; Vandamme, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Summary Sixteen butyrate‐producing bacteria were isolated from the caecal content of chickens and analysed phylogenetically. They did not represent a coherent phylogenetic group, but were allied to four different lineages in the Firmicutes phylum. Fourteen strains appeared to represent novel species, based on a level of ≤ 98.5% 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity towards their nearest validly named neighbours. The highest butyrate concentrations were produced by the strains belonging to clostridial clusters IV and XIVa, clusters which are predominant in the chicken caecal microbiota. In only one of the 16 strains tested, the butyrate kinase operon could be amplified, while the butyryl‐CoA : acetate CoA‐transferase gene was detected in eight strains belonging to clostridial clusters IV, XIVa and XIVb. None of the clostridial cluster XVI isolates carried this gene based on degenerate PCR analyses. However, another CoA‐transferase gene more similar to propionate CoA‐transferase was detected in the majority of the clostridial cluster XVI isolates. Since this gene is located directly downstream of the remaining butyrate pathway genes in several human cluster XVI bacteria, it may be involved in butyrate formation in these bacteria. The present study indicates that butyrate producers related to cluster XVI may play a more important role in the chicken gut than in the human gut. PMID:21375722

  8. Consortium for Algal Biofuel Commercialization (CAB-COMM) Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Mayfield, Stephen P.

    2015-12-04

    The Consortium for Algal Biofuel Commercialization (CAB-Comm) was established in 2010 to conduct research to enable commercial viability of alternative liquid fuels produced from algal biomass. The main objective of CAB-Comm was to dramatically improve the viability of algae as a source of liquid fuels to meet US energy needs, by addressing several significant barriers to economic viability. To achieve this goal, CAB-Comm took a diverse set of approaches on three key aspects of the algal biofuels value chain: crop protection; nutrient utilization and recycling; and the development of genetic tools. These projects have been undertaken as collaboration between six academic institutions and two industrial partners: University of California, San Diego; Scripps Institution of Oceanography; University of Nebraska, Lincoln; Rutgers University; University of California, Davis; Johns Hopkins University; Sapphire Energy; and Life Technologies.

  9. 49 CFR 238.209 - Forward end structure of locomotives, including cab cars and MU locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... locomotives, including cab cars and MU locomotives. (a)(1) The skin covering the forward-facing end of each... “skin” does not include forward-facing windows and doors. (b) The forward end structure of a cab car...

  10. Fragrance material review on 3-phenylpropyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 3-phenylpropyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 3-Phenylpropyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 3-phenylpropyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and toxicokinetics data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al., 2012 for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  11. Fragrance material review on anisyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of anisyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Anisyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for anisyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, skin irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, and phototoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al., 2012 for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  12. Fragrance material review on piperonyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of piperonyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Piperonyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for piperonyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  13. Fragrance material review on 2-phenylpropyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-phenylpropyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Phenylpropyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-phenylpropyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  14. Fragrance material review on 4-methylbenzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 4-methylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 4-Methylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 4-methylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and elicitation data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  15. Kinetics of syntrophic cultures: a theoretical treatise on butyrate fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kleerebezem, R; Stams, A J

    2000-03-01

    Numerous microbial conversions in methanogenic environments proceed at (Gibbs) free energy changes close to thermodynamic equilibrium. In this paper we attempt to describe the consequences of this thermodynamic boundary condition on the kinetics of anaerobic conversions in methanogenic environments. The anaerobic fermentation of butyrate is used as an example. Based on a simple metabolic network stoichiometry, the free energy change based balances in the cell, and the flux of substrates and products in the catabolic and anabolic reactions are coupled. In butyrate oxidation, a mechanism of ATP-dependent reversed electron transfer has been proposed to drive the unfavorable oxidation of butyryl-CoA to crotonyl-CoA. A major assumption in our model is that ATP-consumption and electron translocation across the cytoplasmic membrane do not proceed according to a fixed stoichiometry, but depend on the cellular concentration ratio of ATP and ADP. The energetic and kinetic impact of product inhibition by acetate and hydrogen are described. A major consequence of the derived model is that Monod-based kinetic description of this type of conversions is not feasible, because substrate conversion and biomass growth are proposed to be uncoupled. It furthermore suggests that the specific substrate conversion rate cannot be described as a single function of the driving force of the catabolic reaction but depends on the actual substrate and product concentrations. By using nonfixed stoichiometries for the membrane associated processes, the required flexibility of anaerobic bacteria to adapt to varying environmental conditions can be described.

  16. 49 CFR 238.411 - Rear end structures of power car cabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Rear end structures of power car cabs. 238.411... II Passenger Equipment § 238.411 Rear end structures of power car cabs. The rear end structure of the cab of a power car shall be designed to include the following elements, or their structural...

  17. 49 CFR 238.409 - Forward end structures of power car cabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Forward end structures of power car cabs. 238.409... II Passenger Equipment § 238.409 Forward end structures of power car cabs. This section contains requirements for the forward end structure of the cab of a power car. (A conceptual implementation of this...

  18. 49 CFR 238.411 - Rear end structures of power car cabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Rear end structures of power car cabs. 238.411... II Passenger Equipment § 238.411 Rear end structures of power car cabs. The rear end structure of the cab of a power car shall be designed to include the following elements, or their structural...

  19. 49 CFR 238.447 - Train operator's controls and power car cab layout.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Train operator's controls and power car cab layout... Specific Requirements for Tier II Passenger Equipment § 238.447 Train operator's controls and power car cab layout. (a) Train operator controls in the power car cab shall be arranged so as to minimize the...

  20. 49 CFR 238.411 - Rear end structures of power car cabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Rear end structures of power car cabs. 238.411... II Passenger Equipment § 238.411 Rear end structures of power car cabs. The rear end structure of the cab of a power car shall be designed to include the following elements, or their structural...

  1. 49 CFR 238.411 - Rear end structures of power car cabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Rear end structures of power car cabs. 238.411... II Passenger Equipment § 238.411 Rear end structures of power car cabs. The rear end structure of the cab of a power car shall be designed to include the following elements, or their structural...

  2. 49 CFR 238.409 - Forward end structures of power car cabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forward end structures of power car cabs. 238.409... II Passenger Equipment § 238.409 Forward end structures of power car cabs. This section contains requirements for the forward end structure of the cab of a power car. (A conceptual implementation of this...

  3. 49 CFR 236.512 - Cab signal indication when locomotive enters block where restrictive conditions obtain.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cab signal indication when locomotive enters block... TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.512 Cab signal indication when locomotive enters block where...

  4. 49 CFR 236.514 - Interconnection of cab signal system with roadway signal system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interconnection of cab signal system with roadway signal system. 236.514 Section 236.514 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Interconnection of cab signal system with roadway signal system. The automatic cab signal system shall...

  5. 49 CFR 238.409 - Forward end structures of power car cabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Forward end structures of power car cabs. 238.409... II Passenger Equipment § 238.409 Forward end structures of power car cabs. This section contains requirements for the forward end structure of the cab of a power car. (A conceptual implementation of this...

  6. 49 CFR 238.411 - Rear end structures of power car cabs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Rear end structures of power car cabs. 238.411... II Passenger Equipment § 238.411 Rear end structures of power car cabs. The rear end structure of the cab of a power car shall be designed to include the following elements, or their structural...

  7. Role of rumen butyrate in regulation of nitrogen utilization and urea nitrogen kinetics in growing sheep.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, U; Hu, Q; Baldwin, R L; Bequette, B J

    2015-05-01

    Butyrate, a major rumen VFA, has been indirectly linked to enhancement of urea recycling on the basis of increased expression of urea transporter in the rumen epithelia of steers fed a rumen butyrate-enhancing diet. Two studies were conducted to quantify the effect of elevated rumen butyrate concentrations on N balance, urea kinetics and rumen epithelial proliferation. Wether sheep (n= 4), fitted with a rumen cannula, were fed a pelleted ration (∼165 g CP/kg DM, 10.3 MJ ME/kg DM) at 1.8 × ME requirement. In Exp. 1, sheep were infused intraruminally with either an electrolyte buffer solution (Con-Buf) or butyrate dissolved in the buffer solution (But-Buf) during 8-d periods in a balanced crossover design. In Exp. 2, sheep were infused intraruminally with either sodium acetate (Na-Ac) or sodium butyrate (Na-But) for 9 d. All solutions were adjusted to pH 6.8 and 8.0 in Exp. 1 and 2, respectively, and VFA were infused at 10% of ME intake. [15N2] urea was continuously infused intravenously for the last 5 d of each period, and total urine and feces were collected. In Exp. 1, 2H5-phenylalanine was continuously infused intravenously over the last 12 h, after which a biopsy from the rumen papillae was taken for measurement of fractional protein synthesis rate (FSR). Butyrate infusion treatments increased (P = 0.1 in Exp. 1; P < 0.05 in Exp. 2) the proportion of rumen butyrate, and acetate infusion increased (P < 0.05) rumen acetate. All animals were in positive N balance (4.2 g N/d in Exp. 1; 7.0 g N/d in Exp. 2), but no difference in N retention was observed between treatments. In Exp. 2, urea entry (synthesis) rate was reduced ( < 0.05) by Na-But compared with the Na-Ac control. In Exp. 1, although But-Buf infusion increased the FSR of rumen papillae (35.3% ± 1.08%/d vs. 28.7% ± 1.08%/d; P < 0.05), urea kinetics were not altered by But-Buf compared with Con-Buf. These studies are the first to directly assess the role of butyrate in urea recycling and its effects on

  8. Mergers and Anti-trust Issues in Recent CAB Cases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andrews, A. M.

    1972-01-01

    The airline industry is surveyed-particularly domestic trunklines-in relation to collective approaches to industry concerns. These actions are classified by the apparent degree of anti-trust issue present. Recent route merger cases are considered from the CAB staff viewpoint.

  9. The CNET Automated Budget System (CABS). TAEG Report No. 73.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Middleton, Morris G.; And Others

    This document describes the Chief of Naval Education and Training (CNET) Automated Budget System (CABS), which was developed by the Training Analysis and Evaluation Group (TAEG) to provide an efficient, easy means of handling the large volume of data necessary to produce budget documents. A guide provided for Naval Education and Training Command…

  10. 21 CFR 26.46 - Listing of additional CAB's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Listing of additional CAB's. 26.46 Section 26.46 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  11. 21 CFR 26.46 - Listing of additional CAB's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Listing of additional CAB's. 26.46 Section 26.46 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  12. Signal transduction pathways that regulate CAB gene expression. Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Chory, J.

    1993-12-31

    We have completed the initial genetic and phenotypic characterization of several classes of new mutants that affect CAB gene expression. The doc mutants (for dark overexpression of cab) are characterized by elevated levels of CAB gene expression in the dark; however, unlike the previously isolated de-etiolated mutants (also isolated in my lab), the doc mutants still appear etiolated. The doc alleles define 3 loci, each of which maps to a separate chromosome. The details of the mutant isolation scheme and the genetic and phenotypic description of these new mutants are described. The second class of mutants, the gun mutants (for genomes uncoupled) show accumulation of CAB mRNA in the absence of chloroplast gene expression and development. Thus, the normally tightly coordinated expression between the chloroplast and nuclear genes that encode chloroplast-destined proteins has been uncoupled. We have shown that the Arabidopsis HY3 locus encodes the type B phytochrome apoprotein gene and have characterized the phenotypes of null hy3 alleles to ascertain a role for this phytochrome in Arabidopsis development. We have also isolated and characterized a number of alleles of the phytochrome A gene.

  13. Themes Found in High Performing Schools: The CAB Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the CAB [Cooperativeness, Accountability, and Boundlessness] model of high performing schools by developing case studies of two Portland, Oregon area schools. In pursuing this purpose, this study answers the following three research questions: 1) To what extent is the common correlate cooperativeness demonstrated or absent in…

  14. 21 CFR 26.36 - Listing of CAB's.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Listing of CAB's. 26.36 Section 26.36 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL MUTUAL RECOGNITION OF PHARMACEUTICAL GOOD MANUFACTURING PRACTICE REPORTS, MEDICAL DEVICE QUALITY SYSTEM AUDIT...

  15. [Isolation and identification of a lactate-utilizing, butyrate-producing bacterium and its primary metabolic characteristics].

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Zhu, Wei-yun; Yao, Wen; Mao, Sheng-yong

    2007-06-01

    The distal mammalian gut harbors prodigiously abundant microbes, which provide unique metabolic traits to host. A lactate-utilizing, butyrate-producing bacterium, strain LB01, was isolated from adult swine feces by utilizing modified Hungate technique with rumen liquid-independent YCFA medium supplemented with lactate as the single carbon source. It was an obligate anaerobic, Gram positive bacterium, and could utilize glucose, fructose, maltose and lactate with a large amount of gas products. 16S rRNA sequence analysis revealed that it had the high similarity with members of the genus Megasphaera. The metabolic characteristics of strain LB01 was investigated by using in vitro fermentation system. Lactate at the concentration of 65 mmol/L in YCFA medium was rapidly consumed within 9 hours and was mainly converted to propionate and butyrate after 24h. As the level of acetate declined, the concentration of butyrate rose only in the presence of glucose, suggesting that butyrate could possibly be synthesized by the acetyl CoA: butyryl CoA transferase. When co-cultured with lactic acid bacteria strain K9, strain LB01 evidently reduced the concentration of lactate produced by strain K9 and decelerated the rapid pH drop, finally producing 12.11 mmol/L butyrate and 4.06 mmol/L propionate. The metabolic characteristics that strain LB01 efficiently converts toxic lactate and excessive acetate to butyrate can prevent lactate and acetate accumulation in the large intestine and maintain the slightly acidic environment of the large intestine, consequently revealing that stain LB01 could act as a potential probiotics.

  16. Protective activity of butyrate on hydrogen peroxide-induced DNA damage in isolated human colonocytes and HT29 tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Rosignoli, P; Fabiani, R; De Bartolomeo, A; Spinozzi, F; Agea, E; Pelli, M A; Morozzi, G

    2001-10-01

    Epidemiological studies support the involvement of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) in colon physiology and the protective role of butyrate on colon carcinogenesis. Among the possible mechanisms by which butyrate may exert its anti-carcinogenicity an antioxidant activity has been recently suggested. We investigated the effects of butyrate and mixtures of SCFA (butyrate, propionate and acetate) on DNA damage induced by H(2)O(2) in isolated human colonocytes and in two human colon tumour cell lines (HT29 and HT29 19A). Human colonocytes were isolated from endoscopically obtained samples and the DNA damage was assessed by the comet assay. H(2)O(2) induced DNA damage in normal colonocytes in a dose-dependent manner which was statistically significant at concentrations over 10 microM. At 15 microM H(2)O(2) DNA damage in HT29 and HT29 19A cells was significantly lower than that observed in normal colonocytes (P < 0.01). Pre-incubation of the cells with physiological concentrations of butyrate (6.25 and 12.5 mM) reduced H(2)O(2) (15 microM) induced damage by 33 and 51% in human colonocytes, 45 and 75% in HT29 and 30 and 80% in HT29 19A, respectively. Treatment of cells with a mixture of 25 mM acetate + 10.4 mM propionate + 6.25 mM butyrate did not induce DNA damage, while a mixture of 50 mM acetate + 20.8 mM propionate + 12.5 mM butyrate was weakly genotoxic only towards normal colonocytes. However, both mixtures were able to reduce the H(2)O(2)-induced DNA damage by about 50% in all cell types. The reported protective effect of butyrate might be important in pathogenetic mechanisms mediated by reactive oxygen species, and aids understanding of the apparent protection toward colorectal cancer exerted by dietary fibres, which enhance the butyrate bioavailability in the colonic mucosa. PMID:11577008

  17. Identification, localization, and functional analysis of the homologues of mouse CABS1 protein in porcine testis.

    PubMed

    Shawki, Hossam H; Kigoshi, Takumi; Katoh, Yuki; Matsuda, Manabu; Ugboma, Chioma M; Takahashi, Satoru; Oishi, Hisashi; Kawashima, Akihiro

    2016-07-29

    Previously, we have identified a calcium-binding protein that is specifically expressed in spermatids and localized to the flagella of the mature sperm in mouse, so-called mCABS1. However, the physiological roles of CABS1 in the male reproductive system have not been fully elucidated yet. In the current study, we aimed to localize and clarify the role of CABS1 in porcine (pCABS1). We determined for the first time the full nucleotides sequence of pCABS1 mRNA. pCABS1 protein was detected on SDS-PAGE gel as two bands at 75 kDa and 70 kDa in adult porcine testis, whereas one band at 70 kDa in epididymal sperm. pCABS1 immunoreactivity in seminiferous tubules was detected in the elongated spermatids, and that in the epididymal sperm was found in the acrosome as well as flagellum. The immunoreactivity of pCABS1 in the acrosomai region disappeared during acrosome reaction. We also identified that pCABS1 has a transmembrane domain using computational prediction of the amino acids sequence. The treatment of porcine capacitated sperm with anti-pCABS1 antiserum significantly decreased acrosome reactions. These results suggest that pCABS1 plays an important role in controlling calcium ion signaling during the acrosome reaction. PMID:26960363

  18. A Novel Role of Cab45-G in Mediating Cell Migration in Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Judong; Li, Zengpeng; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Chenying; Zheng, Weibin; He, Yan; Song, Jianyuan; Wang, Wenjie; Zhou, Xifa; Lu, Xujing; Zhang, Shuyu; Chen, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Ca2+-binding protein of 45 kDa (Cab45), a CREC family member, is reported to be associated with Ca2+-dependent secretory pathways and involved in multiple diseases including cancers. Cab45-G, a Cab45 isoform protein, plays an important role in protein sorting and secretion at Golgi complex. However, its role in cancer cell migration remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that Cab45-G exhibited an increased expression in cell lines with higher metastatic potential and promoted cell migration in multiple types of cancer cells. Overexpression of Cab45-G resulted in an altered expression of the molecular mediators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is a critical step in the tumor metastasis. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that overexpression of Cab45-G increased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -7 (MMP-2 and MMP-7). Conversely, knock-down of Cab45-G reduced the expression of the above MMPs. Moreover, forced expression of Cab45-G upregulated the level of phosphorylated ERK and modulated the secretion of extracellular proteins fibronectin and fibulin. Furthermore, in human cervical and esophageal cancer tissues, the expression of Cab45-G was found to be significantly correlated with that of MMP-2, further supporting the importance of Cab45-G on regulating cancer metastasis. Taken together, these results suggest that Cab45-G could regulate cancer cell migration through various molecular mechanisms, which may serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of cancers. PMID:27194945

  19. A Novel Role of Cab45-G in Mediating Cell Migration in Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Luo, Judong; Li, Zengpeng; Zhu, Hong; Wang, Chenying; Zheng, Weibin; He, Yan; Song, Jianyuan; Wang, Wenjie; Zhou, Xifa; Lu, Xujing; Zhang, Shuyu; Chen, Jianming

    2016-01-01

    Ca(2+)-binding protein of 45 kDa (Cab45), a CREC family member, is reported to be associated with Ca(2+)-dependent secretory pathways and involved in multiple diseases including cancers. Cab45-G, a Cab45 isoform protein, plays an important role in protein sorting and secretion at Golgi complex. However, its role in cancer cell migration remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate that Cab45-G exhibited an increased expression in cell lines with higher metastatic potential and promoted cell migration in multiple types of cancer cells. Overexpression of Cab45-G resulted in an altered expression of the molecular mediators of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is a critical step in the tumor metastasis. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that overexpression of Cab45-G increased the expression of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -7 (MMP-2 and MMP-7). Conversely, knock-down of Cab45-G reduced the expression of the above MMPs. Moreover, forced expression of Cab45-G upregulated the level of phosphorylated ERK and modulated the secretion of extracellular proteins fibronectin and fibulin. Furthermore, in human cervical and esophageal cancer tissues, the expression of Cab45-G was found to be significantly correlated with that of MMP-2, further supporting the importance of Cab45-G on regulating cancer metastasis. Taken together, these results suggest that Cab45-G could regulate cancer cell migration through various molecular mechanisms, which may serve as a therapeutic target for the treatment of cancers. PMID:27194945

  20. Identification, localization, and functional analysis of the homologues of mouse CABS1 protein in porcine testis

    PubMed Central

    Shawki, Hossam H.; Kigoshi, Takumi; Katoh, Yuki; Matsuda, Manabu; Ugboma, Chioma M.; Takahashi, Satoru; Oishi, Hisashi; Kawashima, Akihiro

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we have identified a calcium-binding protein that is specifically expressed in spermatids and localized to the flagella of the mature sperm in mouse, so-called mCABS1. However, the physiological roles of CABS1 in the male reproductive system have not been fully elucidated yet. In the current study, we aimed to localize and clarify the role of CABS1 in porcine (pCABS1). We determined for the first time the full nucleotides sequence of pCABS1 mRNA. pCABS1 protein was detected on SDS-PAGE gel as two bands at 75 kDa and 70 kDa in adult porcine testis, whereas one band at 70 kDa in epididymal sperm. pCABS1 immunoreactivity in seminiferous tubules was detected in the elongated spermatids, and that in the epididymal sperm was found in the acrosome as well as flagellum. The immunoreactivity of pCABS1 in the acrosomai region disappeared during acrosome reaction. We also identified that pCABS1 has a transmembrane domain using computational prediction of the amino acids sequence. The treatment of porcine capacitated sperm with anti-pCABS1 antiserum significantly decreased acrosome reactions. These results suggest that pCABS1 plays an important role in controlling calcium ion signaling during the acrosome reaction. PMID:26960363

  1. Ethyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl acetate ; CASRN 141 - 78 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  2. Phenylmercuric acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phenylmercuric acetate ; CASRN 62 - 38 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  3. Vinyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Vinyl acetate ; CASRN 108 - 05 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  4. Ammonium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium acetate ; CASRN 631 - 61 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  5. Thallium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 30 , 2009 , the assessment summary for Thallium acetate is included in t

  6. Fluctuations in butyrate-producing bacteria in ulcerative colitis patients of North India

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Reena; Ahuja, Vineet; Paul, Jaishree

    2013-01-01

    AIM: To study the interplay between butyrate concentration and butyrate-producing bacteria in fecal samples of ulcerative colitis (UC) patients vs control individuals. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 14 control individuals (hemorrhoid patients only) and 26 UC patients (severe: n = 12, moderate: n = 6, remission: n = 8), recruited by the gastroenterologist at the Department of Gastroenterology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India. Disease activity in UC patients was determined by clinical colitis activity index. We employed fluorescent in situ hybridization in combination with flow cytometry to enumerate the clostridium cluster population targeted by 16S rRNA gene probe. Major butyrate-producing species within this cluster were quantified to see if any change existed in control vs UC patients with different disease activity. This observed change was further validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition to this, we carried out gas chromatography to evaluate the changes in concentration of major short chain fatty acids (SCFAs), namely acetate, n-butyrate, iso-butyrate, in the above samples. Student t test and Graph pad prism-6 were used to compare the data statistically. RESULTS: There was a significant decrease of Clostridium coccoides (control, 25.69% ± 1.62% vs severe, 9.8% ± 2.4%, P = 0.0001) and Clostridium leptum clusters (control, 13.74% ± 1.05% vs severe, 6.2% ± 1.8%, P = 0.0001) in fecal samples of UC patients. Furthermore, we demonstrated that some butyrate-producing members of the clostridial cluster, like Fecalibacterium prausnitzii (control, 11.66% ± 1.55% vs severe, 6.01% ± 1.6%, P = 0.0001) and Roseburia intestinalis (control, 14.48% ± 1.52% vs severe, 9% ± 1.83%, P = 0.02) were differentially present in patients with different disease activity. In addition, we also demonstrated decreased concentrations of fecal SCFAs, especially of n-butyrate (control, 24.32 ± 1.86 mmol/μL vs severe, 12.74

  7. Production of butyrate from lysine and the Amadori product fructoselysine by a human gut commensal.

    PubMed

    Bui, Thi Phuong Nam; Ritari, Jarmo; Boeren, Sjef; de Waard, Pieter; Plugge, Caroline M; de Vos, Willem M

    2015-12-01

    Human intestinal bacteria produce butyrate, which has signalling properties and can be used as energy source by enterocytes thus influencing colonic health. However, the pathways and the identity of bacteria involved in this process remain unclear. Here we describe the isolation from the human intestine of Intestinimonas strain AF211, a bacterium that can convert lysine stoichiometrically into butyrate and acetate when grown in a synthetic medium. Intestinimonas AF211 also converts the Amadori product fructoselysine, which is abundantly formed in heated foods via the Maillard reaction, into butyrate. The butyrogenic pathway includes a specific CoA transferase that is overproduced during growth on lysine. Bacteria related to Intestinimonas AF211 as well as the genetic coding capacity for fructoselysine conversion are abundantly present in colonic samples from some healthy human subjects. Our results indicate that protein can serve as a source of butyrate in the human colon, and its conversion by Intestinimonas AF211 and related butyrogens may protect the host from the undesired side effects of Amadori reaction products.

  8. Fragrance material review on 1,1-dimethyl-2-phenylethyl butyrate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1,1-dimethyl-2-phenylethyl butyrate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1,1-Dimethyl-2-phenylethyl butyrate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1,1-dimethyl-2-phenylethyl butyrate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  9. Production of butyrate from lysine and the Amadori product fructoselysine by a human gut commensal

    PubMed Central

    Bui, Thi Phuong Nam; Ritari, Jarmo; Boeren, Sjef; de Waard, Pieter; Plugge, Caroline M.; de Vos, Willem M.

    2015-01-01

    Human intestinal bacteria produce butyrate, which has signalling properties and can be used as energy source by enterocytes thus influencing colonic health. However, the pathways and the identity of bacteria involved in this process remain unclear. Here we describe the isolation from the human intestine of Intestinimonas strain AF211, a bacterium that can convert lysine stoichiometrically into butyrate and acetate when grown in a synthetic medium. Intestinimonas AF211 also converts the Amadori product fructoselysine, which is abundantly formed in heated foods via the Maillard reaction, into butyrate. The butyrogenic pathway includes a specific CoA transferase that is overproduced during growth on lysine. Bacteria related to Intestinimonas AF211 as well as the genetic coding capacity for fructoselysine conversion are abundantly present in colonic samples from some healthy human subjects. Our results indicate that protein can serve as a source of butyrate in the human colon, and its conversion by Intestinimonas AF211 and related butyrogens may protect the host from the undesired side effects of Amadori reaction products. PMID:26620920

  10. Noise exposed of the operators of combine harvesters with and without a cab.

    PubMed

    Sümer, Sarp Korkut; Say, Sait M; Ege, Fikri; Sabanci, Alaettin

    2006-11-01

    A considerable number of the combine harvesters in Turkey are rather old and used without cabs resulting in unhealthy working conditions for their operators. Noise is one of the detrimental factors. This study deals with determining and comparing the noise exposed on the operators of the combines with and without a cab used for wheat harvesting in Turkey. The sound pressure levels (dB) at octave band center frequencies (31.5-8000Hz) and the sound levels (dBA) at the ear level of the operators were measured on 37 different combine harvesters with four different makes and different years from 1976 to 2001. Fifteen of the combines were without a cab, another 15 had original cabs while remaining seven combines had cabs mounted on them after manufacturing. The sound pressure levels were in a decreasing trend from the lower frequencies to higher frequencies. This trend was more noticeable for the combines with original cab and with the cab mounted after manufacturing compared to the ones without cab. The use of a cab was more effective in the insulation of the noise at the medium and higher frequencies, which have more bothersome effect compared to the lower frequencies. The sound pressure levels were 75-102dB and 46-89dB at low (31.5-500Hz) and high (500-8000Hz) frequencies for all combines, respectively. The sound pressure levels at the frequency of 4000Hz at which the human ear is most sensitive were 6-17dB lower for the combines with the cabs mounted after manufacturing and 9-28dB lower for the ones with the original cabs compared to the combines without cab. The sound levels were 85-90, 81-83, and 76-81dBA for the combines without cab, with cab mounted after manufacturing, and with original cab, respectively. The study showed that the use of a cab was useful in the insulation of the noise, particularly at higher frequencies. In addition, it protects the operator from the factors having detrimental effects on the working efficiency such as high temperature and dusty

  11. Short communication: Interrelationship between butyrate and glucose supply on butyrate and glucose oxidation by ruminal epithelial preparations.

    PubMed

    Wiese, B I; Górka, P; Mutsvangwa, T; Okine, E; Penner, G B

    2013-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether dietary Na-butyrate supplementation affects butyrate and glucose oxidation by ruminal epithelial preparations and whether this effect can be acutely modulated by substrate (glucose and butyrate) supply. Eighteen Suffolk wether lambs (6 lambs/treatment) were blocked by body weight and, within block, randomly assigned to the control treatment (CON) or to diets containing differing Na-butyrate inclusion rates (1.58 or 3.16%) equating to 1.25 (B1.25), and 2.50% (B2.50) butyrate on a dry matter basis, respectively. All lambs received their diet for a period of 14 d. After dietary adaptation, lambs were killed and the ruminal epithelium was harvested from the ventral sac, minced finely, and used for in vitro incubations. Incubation medium contained either a constant concentration of glucose (4 mM) with increasing butyrate concentrations (0, 5, 15, 25, or 40 mM) or a constant butyrate concentration (15 mM) with increasing glucose concentrations (0, 1, 2, 4, or 8 mM) to allow for the evaluation of whether acute changes in the concentration of metabolic substrates affect the oxidation of glucose and butyrate. We observed no interactions between the in vivo and in vitro treatments. Increasing dietary butyrate supplementation linearly decreased glucose oxidation by ruminal epithelial preparations, but had no effect on butyrate oxidation. Increasing butyrate concentration in vitro decreased (cubic effect) glucose oxidation when butyrate concentration ranged between 5 and 15 mM; however, glucose oxidation was increased with a butyrate concentration of 40 mM. Butyrate oxidation decreased (cubic effect) as glucose concentration increased from 1 to 4 mM; however, butyrate oxidation increased when glucose was included at 8mM. The results of this study demonstrate that dietary butyrate supplementation can decrease glucose oxidation by the ruminal epithelium, but the relative supply of glucose and butyrate has a pronounced effect on

  12. Catalytic upgrading of butyric acid towards fine chemicals and biofuels

    PubMed Central

    Sjöblom, Magnus; Matsakas, Leonidas; Christakopoulos, Paul; Rova, Ulrika

    2016-01-01

    Fermentation-based production of butyric acid is robust and efficient. Modern catalytic technologies make it possible to convert butyric acid to important fine chemicals and biofuels. Here, current chemocatalytic and biocatalytic conversion methods are reviewed with a focus on upgrading butyric acid to 1-butanol or butyl-butyrate. Supported Ruthenium- and Platinum-based catalyst and lipase exhibit important activities which can pave the way for more sustainable process concepts for the production of green fuels and chemicals. PMID:26994015

  13. The enhancement of phase 2 enzyme activities by sodium butyrate in normal intestinal epithelial cells is associated with Nrf2 and p53.

    PubMed

    Yaku, Keisuke; Enami, Yuka; Kurajyo, Chika; Matsui-Yuasa, Isao; Konishi, Yotaro; Kojima-Yuasa, Akiko

    2012-11-01

    Dietary fiber fermentation by the colonic bacterial flora produces short-chain fatty acids, acetate, propionate and butyrate. Among them, butyrate is considered to be the major energy substrate for colonocytes and, at least in rats, seems to protect against colonic carcinogenesis. In this study, we examined the effect and the mechanisms of short-chain fatty acids on the activity of phase 2 enzymes. Sodium butyrate increased phase 2 enzyme activities in normal rat small intestine epithelial cells, Glutathione S-transferase and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) in a dose-dependent manner(;) however, other short-chain fatty acids did not increase them. The mechanism of the induction of phase 2 enzymes with sodium butyrate sodium butyrate, but not other short-chain fatty acids was related to the increase of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) nuclear translocation and the decrease in the levels of nuclear fraction p53. Sodium butyrate also caused enhancement of Nrf2 mRNA levels and suppression of p53 mRNA levels. Sodium butyrate enhances the activities of phase 2 enzymes via an increase in the Nrf2 protein levels in the nucleus and a decrease in the mRNA and protein levels of p53.

  14. Enzymology of butyrate formation by Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens.

    PubMed

    Miller, T L; Jenesel, S E

    1979-04-01

    Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens is a major butyrate-forming species in the bovine and ovine rumen. The enzymology of butyrate formation from pyruvate was investigated in cell-free extracts of B. fibrisolvens D1. Pyruvate owas oxidized to acetylcoenzyme A (CoA) in the presence of CoA.SH and benzyl viologen or flavin nucleotides. The bacterium uses thiolase, beta-hydroxybutyryl-CoA dehydrogenase, crotonase, and crotonyl-CoA reductase to form butyryl-CoA from acetyl-CoA. Reduction of acetoacetyl-CoA to beta-hydroxybutyryl-CoA was faster with NADH than with NADPH. Crotonyl-CoA was reduced to butyryl-CoA by NADH, but not by NADPH, only in the presence of flavin nucleotides. Reduction of flavin nucleotides by NADH was much slower than the flavin-dependent reduction of crotonyl-CoA. This indicates that flavoproteins rather than free flavin participated in the reduction of crotonyl-CoA. Butyryl-CoA was converted to butyrate by phosphate butyryl transferase and butyrate kinase.

  15. Searching for Synbiotics to increase Colonic Butyrate Concentration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butyrate is produced by microbial fermentation of plant fiber in the gut and a preferred substrate for gut epithelial cells. In ruminants, butyrate contributes to 70% of energy metabolism. In monogastric species, butyrate also plays an important role in energy metabolism in the hindgut. Moreover, bu...

  16. Diet is a major factor governing the fecal butyrate-producing community structure across Mammalia, Aves and Reptilia.

    PubMed

    Vital, Marius; Gao, Jiarong; Rizzo, Mike; Harrison, Tara; Tiedje, James M

    2015-03-17

    Butyrate-producing bacteria have an important role in maintaining host health. They are well studied in human and medically associated animal models; however, much less is known for other Vertebrata. We investigated the butyrate-producing community in hindgut-fermenting Mammalia (n = 38), Aves (n = 8) and Reptilia (n = 8) using a gene-targeted pyrosequencing approach of the terminal genes of the main butyrate-synthesis pathways, namely butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (but) and butyrate kinase (buk). Most animals exhibit high gene abundances, and clear diet-specific signatures were detected with but genes significantly enriched in omnivores and herbivores compared with carnivores. But dominated the butyrate-producing community in these two groups, whereas buk was more abundant in many carnivorous animals. Clustering of protein sequences (5% cutoff) of the combined communities (but and buk) placed carnivores apart from other diet groups, except for noncarnivorous Carnivora, which clustered together with carnivores. The majority of clusters (but: 5141 and buk: 2924) did not show close relation to any reference sequences from public databases (identity <90%) demonstrating a large 'unknown diversity'. Each diet group had abundant signature taxa, where buk genes linked to Clostridium perfringens dominated in carnivores and but genes associated with Ruminococcaceae bacterium D16 were specific for herbivores and omnivores. Whereas 16S rRNA gene analysis showed similar overall patterns, it was unable to reveal communities at the same depth and resolution as the functional gene-targeted approach. This study demonstrates that butyrate producers are abundant across vertebrates exhibiting great functional redundancy and that diet is the primary determinant governing the composition of the butyrate-producing guild.

  17. Diet is a major factor governing the fecal butyrate-producing community structure across Mammalia, Aves and Reptilia.

    PubMed

    Vital, Marius; Gao, Jiarong; Rizzo, Mike; Harrison, Tara; Tiedje, James M

    2015-04-01

    Butyrate-producing bacteria have an important role in maintaining host health. They are well studied in human and medically associated animal models; however, much less is known for other Vertebrata. We investigated the butyrate-producing community in hindgut-fermenting Mammalia (n = 38), Aves (n = 8) and Reptilia (n = 8) using a gene-targeted pyrosequencing approach of the terminal genes of the main butyrate-synthesis pathways, namely butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (but) and butyrate kinase (buk). Most animals exhibit high gene abundances, and clear diet-specific signatures were detected with but genes significantly enriched in omnivores and herbivores compared with carnivores. But dominated the butyrate-producing community in these two groups, whereas buk was more abundant in many carnivorous animals. Clustering of protein sequences (5% cutoff) of the combined communities (but and buk) placed carnivores apart from other diet groups, except for noncarnivorous Carnivora, which clustered together with carnivores. The majority of clusters (but: 5141 and buk: 2924) did not show close relation to any reference sequences from public databases (identity <90%) demonstrating a large 'unknown diversity'. Each diet group had abundant signature taxa, where buk genes linked to Clostridium perfringens dominated in carnivores and but genes associated with Ruminococcaceae bacterium D16 were specific for herbivores and omnivores. Whereas 16S rRNA gene analysis showed similar overall patterns, it was unable to reveal communities at the same depth and resolution as the functional gene-targeted approach. This study demonstrates that butyrate producers are abundant across vertebrates exhibiting great functional redundancy and that diet is the primary determinant governing the composition of the butyrate-producing guild. PMID:25343515

  18. Diet is a major factor governing the fecal butyrate-producing community structure across Mammalia, Aves and Reptilia

    PubMed Central

    Vital, Marius; Gao, Jiarong; Rizzo, Mike; Harrison, Tara; Tiedje, James M

    2015-01-01

    Butyrate-producing bacteria have an important role in maintaining host health. They are well studied in human and medically associated animal models; however, much less is known for other Vertebrata. We investigated the butyrate-producing community in hindgut-fermenting Mammalia (n=38), Aves (n=8) and Reptilia (n=8) using a gene-targeted pyrosequencing approach of the terminal genes of the main butyrate-synthesis pathways, namely butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA-transferase (but) and butyrate kinase (buk). Most animals exhibit high gene abundances, and clear diet-specific signatures were detected with but genes significantly enriched in omnivores and herbivores compared with carnivores. But dominated the butyrate-producing community in these two groups, whereas buk was more abundant in many carnivorous animals. Clustering of protein sequences (5% cutoff) of the combined communities (but and buk) placed carnivores apart from other diet groups, except for noncarnivorous Carnivora, which clustered together with carnivores. The majority of clusters (but: 5141 and buk: 2924) did not show close relation to any reference sequences from public databases (identity <90%) demonstrating a large ‘unknown diversity'. Each diet group had abundant signature taxa, where buk genes linked to Clostridium perfringens dominated in carnivores and but genes associated with Ruminococcaceae bacterium D16 were specific for herbivores and omnivores. Whereas 16S rRNA gene analysis showed similar overall patterns, it was unable to reveal communities at the same depth and resolution as the functional gene-targeted approach. This study demonstrates that butyrate producers are abundant across vertebrates exhibiting great functional redundancy and that diet is the primary determinant governing the composition of the butyrate-producing guild. PMID:25343515

  19. Field assessment of enclosed cab filtration system performance using particle counting measurements.

    PubMed

    Organiscak, John A; Cecala, Andrew B; Noll, James D

    2013-01-01

    Enclosed cab filtration systems are typically used on mobile mining equipment to reduce miners' exposure to airborne dust generated during mining operations. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Office of Mine Safety and Health Research (OMSHR) has recently worked with a mining equipment manufacturer to examine a new cab filtration system design for underground industrial minerals equipment. This cab filtration system uses a combination of three particulate filters to reduce equipment operators' exposure to dust and diesel particulates present in underground industrial mineral mines. NIOSH initially examined this cab filtration system using a two-instrument particle counting method at the equipment company's manufacturing shop facility to assess several alternative filters. This cab filtration system design was further studied on several pieces of equipment during a two- to seven-month period at two underground limestone mines. The two-instrument particle counting method was used outside the underground mine at the end of the production shifts to regularly test the cabs' long-term protection factor performance with particulates present in the ambient air. This particle counting method showed that three of the four cabs achieved protection factors greater than 1,000 during the field studies. The fourth cab did not perform at this level because it had a damaged filter in the system. The particle counting measurements of submicron particles present in the ambient air were shown to be a timely and useful quantification method in assessing cab performance during these field studies.

  20. Biogas Production on Demand Regulated by Butyric Acid Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasper, K.; Schiffels, J.; Krafft, S.; Kuperjans, I.; Elbers, G.; Selmer, T.

    2016-03-01

    Investigating effects of volatile fatty acids on the biogas process it was observed that butyric acid can be used for transient stimulation of the methane production in biogas plants operating with low energy substrates like cattle manure. Upon addition of butyrate the methane output of the reactors doubled within 24 h and reached almost 3-times higher methane yields within 3-4 days. Butyrate was quantitatively eliminated and the reactors returned to the original productivity state within 3 days when application of butyrate was stopped. The opportunity to use butyrate feeding for increased biogas production on demand is discussed.

  1. Combination of 5α-reductase inhibitor with combined androgen blockade (CAB) as a novel cytoreductive regimen before prostate brachytherapy: Ultra-CAB

    PubMed Central

    Muro, Yusuke; Kosaka, Takeo; Mizuno, Ryuichi; Ohashi, Toshio; Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Oya, Mototsugu

    2015-01-01

    We report a first case of using a 5α-reductase inhibitor (5ARI) and combined androgen blockade (CAB) as a cytoreductive regimen before prostate brachytherapy. Prostate volume reduction with CAB is limited to approximately 40% in most cases, making it difficult to meet anatomical constraints to perform these procedures in cases with large prostate volume. With the added administration of 5ARI, further volume reduction can be expected. Here, we describe this cytoreductive regimen used in a 63 year-old prostate cancer patient who became eligible to receive brachytherapy after dutasteride (0.5 mg daily) was added to CAB and prostate volume reduction of 57% was achieved. PMID:26069888

  2. Combination of 5α-reductase inhibitor with combined androgen blockade (CAB) as a novel cytoreductive regimen before prostate brachytherapy: Ultra-CAB.

    PubMed

    Muro, Yusuke; Kosaka, Takeo; Mizuno, Ryuichi; Ohashi, Toshio; Shigematsu, Naoyuki; Oya, Mototsugu

    2015-01-01

    We report a first case of using a 5α-reductase inhibitor (5ARI) and combined androgen blockade (CAB) as a cytoreductive regimen before prostate brachytherapy. Prostate volume reduction with CAB is limited to approximately 40% in most cases, making it difficult to meet anatomical constraints to perform these procedures in cases with large prostate volume. With the added administration of 5ARI, further volume reduction can be expected. Here, we describe this cytoreductive regimen used in a 63 year-old prostate cancer patient who became eligible to receive brachytherapy after dutasteride (0.5 mg daily) was added to CAB and prostate volume reduction of 57% was achieved. PMID:26069888

  3. Operators' perception of comfort in two tractor cabs.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, E; Cavallo, E

    2013-01-01

    Workspace characteristics affect the perceived comfort level of the operator and uncomfortable working conditions have been found to have a negative impact on productivity and safety. The comfort of the operator is increasingly recognized by manufacturers as a product's added value. Comfort can positively distinguish a product and increase its competitiveness. The concept of comfort is controversial, and a clear operational definition is missing. Nevertheless, it is widely accepted that comfort is a subjective phenomenon that can be evaluated by the final users. In this study, comfort aspects of the tractor workspace interior (i.e., the cab) were investigated. Users with various levels of expertise and two medium-power utility tractors of different brands were used in a 2 x 2 mixed-factorial experimental design. Participants were involved in a dynamic assessment of the cabs, and their opinions about the different workspaces were collected through a questionnaire. Additionally, objective measurements were taken on both tractors, and subjective data were compared with objective data. Results indicate significant differences in terms of the ease of locating and operating the controls (i.e., rear-mounted three-point linkage, hydraulic system, and power take-off), the ease of starting the tractor, the ease exiting the cab, the required level of concentration in executing the tasks, the adequacy of lateral visibility from the driving station, and the level of noise at the operator's position. This article provides guidance for improving the comfort of tractor workspace interiors. Agricultural machinery manufactures would benefit from research results, differentiating themselves from competitors. PMID:23600166

  4. Operators' perception of comfort in two tractor cabs.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, E; Cavallo, E

    2013-01-01

    Workspace characteristics affect the perceived comfort level of the operator and uncomfortable working conditions have been found to have a negative impact on productivity and safety. The comfort of the operator is increasingly recognized by manufacturers as a product's added value. Comfort can positively distinguish a product and increase its competitiveness. The concept of comfort is controversial, and a clear operational definition is missing. Nevertheless, it is widely accepted that comfort is a subjective phenomenon that can be evaluated by the final users. In this study, comfort aspects of the tractor workspace interior (i.e., the cab) were investigated. Users with various levels of expertise and two medium-power utility tractors of different brands were used in a 2 x 2 mixed-factorial experimental design. Participants were involved in a dynamic assessment of the cabs, and their opinions about the different workspaces were collected through a questionnaire. Additionally, objective measurements were taken on both tractors, and subjective data were compared with objective data. Results indicate significant differences in terms of the ease of locating and operating the controls (i.e., rear-mounted three-point linkage, hydraulic system, and power take-off), the ease of starting the tractor, the ease exiting the cab, the required level of concentration in executing the tasks, the adequacy of lateral visibility from the driving station, and the level of noise at the operator's position. This article provides guidance for improving the comfort of tractor workspace interiors. Agricultural machinery manufactures would benefit from research results, differentiating themselves from competitors.

  5. Evaluation of a tractor cab using real-time aerosol counting instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Hall, Ronald M; Heitbrink, William A; Reed, Laurence D

    2002-01-01

    Aerosol instrumentation was used to evaluate air infiltration into tractor cabs that are used to protect the agricultural worker during pesticide applications. Preliminary surveys were conducted on three different manufactured agriculture enclosures. The results of these preliminary surveys indicated that aerosols are entering the cab through leak sources or are being generated inside the cab. These results identified the need for in-depth field evaluations of tractor cabs to identify any leak sources. To evaluate the ability of tractor cabs to reduce operator air contaminant exposure, field evaluations were conducted on two tractor cabs. Specifically, we evaluated: 1) the particle size distribution and the effectiveness of the filter system; and 2) air infiltration into the cab. These evaluations were also conducted to demonstrate the ease and practicality of using optical particle counters to evaluate the ability of cabin filtration systems. Pesticide particle size distribution during an air blast spray operation was also evaluated during the study. The field tests were conducted on a John Deere 7000 series tractor cab (tractor manufacturer's cab) and a Nelson spraycab (retrofit cab). Both cabs were equipped with high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter media which were assumed to be 99.97 percent efficient at removing the test aerosol, atmospheric condensation nuclei. Thus, the major source of aerosols inside the cab was assumed to be leakage around filters at the seals. Using a portable dust monitor (PDM), the ratio of the outside to inside aerosol measurements was used to calculate a cab protection factor. During the evaluations, one PDM was placed inside the tractor cab (near the tractor operator) and one PDM was placed outside (near the air intake) to count particles. During the evaluations, the instruments were switched to prevent instrument bias from affecting the findings. The ratio of the two measurements (i.e., protection factor = outside

  6. Field Assessment of Enclosed Cab Filtration System Performance Using Particle Counting Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Organiscak, John A.; Cecala, Andrew B.; Noll, James D.

    2015-01-01

    Enclosed cab filtration systems are typically used on mobile mining equipment to reduce miners’ exposure to airborne dust generated during mining operations. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Office of Mine Safety and Health Research (OMSHR) has recently worked with a mining equipment manufacturer to examine a new cab filtration system design for underground industrial minerals equipment. This cab filtration system uses a combination of three particulate filters to reduce equipment operators’ exposure to dust and diesel particulates present in underground industrial mineral mines. NIOSH initially examined this cab filtration system using a two-instrument particle counting method at the equipment company’s manufacturing shop facility to assess several alternative filters. This cab filtration system design was further studied on several pieces of equipment during a two- to seven-month period at two underground limestone mines. The two-instrument particle counting method was used outside the underground mine at the end of the production shifts to regularly test the cabs’ long-term protection factor performance with particulates present in the ambient air. This particle counting method showed that three of the four cabs achieved protection factors greater than 1,000 during the field studies. The fourth cab did not perform at this level because it had a damaged filter in the system. The particle counting measurements of submicron particles present in the ambient air were shown to be a timely and useful quantification method in assessing cab performance during these field studies. PMID:23915268

  7. 49 CFR Figure 1 to Subpart E of... - Power Car Cab Forward End Structure Conceptual Implementation

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Power Car Cab Forward End Structure Conceptual Implementation 1 Figure 1 to Subpart E of Part 238 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... Subpart E of Part 238—Power Car Cab Forward End Structure Conceptual Implementation ER12MY99.000...

  8. 30 CFR 75.1710 - Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric face equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-powered and electric face equipment, including shuttle cars, be provided with substantially constructed... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric... Miscellaneous § 75.1710 Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric face equipment. In any coal mine where...

  9. Conceptual design study for an advanced cab and visual system, volume 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rue, R. J.; Cyrus, M. L.; Garnett, T. A.; Nachbor, J. W.; Seery, J. A.; Starr, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    The performance, design, construction and testing requirements are defined for developing an advanced cab and visual system. The rotorcraft system integration simulator is composed of the advanced cab and visual system and the rotorcraft system motion generator, and is part of an existing simulation facility. User's applications for the simulator include rotorcraft design development, product improvement, threat assessment, and accident investigation.

  10. 30 CFR 75.1710 - Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric face equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-powered and electric face equipment, including shuttle cars, be provided with substantially constructed... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric... Miscellaneous § 75.1710 Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric face equipment. In any coal mine where...

  11. 30 CFR 75.1710 - Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric face equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-powered and electric face equipment, including shuttle cars, be provided with substantially constructed... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric... Miscellaneous § 75.1710 Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric face equipment. In any coal mine where...

  12. 30 CFR 75.1710 - Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric face equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-powered and electric face equipment, including shuttle cars, be provided with substantially constructed... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric... Miscellaneous § 75.1710 Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric face equipment. In any coal mine where...

  13. 30 CFR 75.1710 - Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric face equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-powered and electric face equipment, including shuttle cars, be provided with substantially constructed... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric... Miscellaneous § 75.1710 Canopies or cabs; diesel-powered and electric face equipment. In any coal mine where...

  14. CoolCab: Reducing Thermal Loads in Long-Haul Trucks (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2010-02-01

    This fact sheet describes how the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCab project tested and modeled the effects of several thermal-load reduction strategies applied to long-haul truck cabs. NREL partnered with two major truck manufacturers to evaluate three long-haul trucks at NREL's outdoor test facility in Golden, Colorado.

  15. Alternative splicing regulated by butyrate in bovine epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sitao; Li, Congjun; Huang, Wen; Li, Weizhong; Li, Robert W

    2012-01-01

    As a signaling molecule and an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), butyrate exerts its impact on a broad range of biological processes, such as apoptosis and cell proliferation, in addition to its critical role in energy metabolism in ruminants. This study examined the effect of butyrate on alternative splicing in bovine epithelial cells using RNA-seq technology. Junction reads account for 11.28 and 12.32% of total mapped reads between the butyrate-treated (BT) and control (CT) groups. 201,326 potential splicing junctions detected were supported by ≥ 3 junction reads. Approximately 94% of these junctions conformed to the consensus sequence (GT/AG) while ~3% were GC/AG junctions. No AT/AC junctions were observed. A total of 2,834 exon skipping events, supported by a minimum of 3 junction reads, were detected. At least 7 genes, their mRNA expression significantly affected by butyrate, also had exon skipping events differentially regulated by butyrate. Furthermore, COL5A3, which was induced 310-fold by butyrate (FDR <0.001) at the gene level, had a significantly higher number of junction reads mapped to Exon#8 (Donor) and Exon#11 (Acceptor) in BT. This event had the potential to result in the formation of a COL5A3 mRNA isoform with 2 of the 69 exons missing. In addition, 216 differentially expressed transcript isoforms regulated by butyrate were detected. For example, Isoform 1 of ORC1 was strongly repressed by butyrate while Isoform 2 remained unchanged. Butyrate physically binds to and inhibits all zinc-dependent HDACs except HDAC6 and HDAC10. Our results provided evidence that butyrate also regulated deacetylase activities of classical HDACs via its transcriptional control. Moreover, thirteen gene fusion events differentially affected by butyrate were identified. Our results provided a snapshot into complex transcriptome dynamics regulated by butyrate, which will facilitate our understanding of the biological effects of butyrate and other HDAC inhibitors.

  16. Radiation induces acid tolerance of Clostridium tyrobutyricum and enhances bioproduction of butyric acid through a metabolic switch

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Butyric acid as a renewable resource has become an increasingly attractive alternative to petroleum-based fuels. Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755T is well documented as a fermentation strain for the production of acids. However, it has been reported that butyrate inhibits its growth, and the accumulation of acetate also inhibits biomass synthesis, making production of butyric acid from conventional fermentation processes economically challenging. The present study aimed to identify whether irradiation of C. tyrobutyricum cells makes them more tolerant to butyric acid inhibition and increases the production of butyrate compared with wild type. Results In this work, the fermentation kinetics of C. tyrobutyricum cultures after being classically adapted for growth at 3.6, 7.2 and 10.8 g·L-1 equivalents were studied. The results showed that, regardless of the irradiation used, there was a gradual inhibition of cell growth at butyric acid concentrations above 10.8 g·L-1, with no growth observed at butyric acid concentrations above 3.6 g·L-1 for the wild-type strain during the first 54 h of fermentation. The sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis also showed significantly different expression levels of proteins with molecular mass around the wild-type and irradiated strains. The results showed that the proportion of proteins with molecular weights of 85 and 106 kDa was much higher for the irradiated strains. The specific growth rate decreased by 50% (from 0.42 to 0.21 h-1) and the final concentration of butyrate increased by 68% (from 22.7 to 33.4 g·L-1) for the strain irradiated at 114 AMeV and 40 Gy compared with the wild-type strains. Conclusions This study demonstrates that butyric acid production from glucose can be significantly improved and enhanced by using 12C6+ heavy ion-irradiated C. tyrobutyricum. The approach is economical, making it competitive compared with similar fermentation processes. It may prove useful as

  17. Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum, a butyrate producer with probiotic potential, is intrinsically tolerant to stomach and small intestine conditions.

    PubMed

    Geirnaert, Annelies; Steyaert, Alix; Eeckhaut, Venessa; Debruyne, Bo; Arends, Jan B A; Van Immerseel, Filip; Boon, Nico; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2014-12-01

    Butyrate has several beneficial properties that are essential to maintain gastrointestinal health. Therefore butyrate-producing bacteria are seen as the next generation of probiotics. The butyrate-producing bacterium Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum (a clostridial cluster IV strain) is such a promising probiotic candidate for people suffering from inflammatory bowel disease. To exert its beneficial properties, it is crucial that B. pullicaecorum survives the harsh conditions of the upper gastrointestinal tract to arrive in the colon in a viable and metabolically active state. Before developing a stable formulation of B. pullicaecorum for oral administration, it is important to know its intrinsic acid and bile tolerance. We monitored the survival during and short chain fatty acid production after incubation in conditions simulating the stomach and small intestine using in vitro batch experiments. In case of acid conditions (pH 2 and pH 3), B. pullicaecorum was viable and active but not cultivable. Cultivability was restored during subsequent small intestine conditions. Importantly, bile and pancreatic juice had no lethal effect. Milk, as a suspension medium, only had a protective effect on the cultivability during the first hour at pH 2. B. pullicaecorum was still metabolically active after upper gastrointestinal conditions and produced short chain fatty acids, but a shift from butyrate to acetate production was observed. Although the butyrate-producing anaerobe B. pullicaecorum showed good intrinsic acid and bile tolerance in terms of viability and metabolic activity, colonization efficiency and butyrate production under colon conditions is needed to further evaluate its probiotic potential.

  18. Isobaric vapor liquid equilibria data for the binary system (glycidyl butyrate + acetone, glycidyl butyrate + carbon tetrachloride, glycidyl butyrate + chloroform) at atmospheric pressure 101 kPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qiang; Meng, Qingyi; Ban, Chunlan; Zhang, Rui; Gao, Yingyu

    2016-09-01

    Isobaric vapor liquid equilibria (VLE) for the binary mixtures of glycidyl butyrate(1) + acetone(2), glycidyl butyrate(1) + carbon tetrachloride(2) and glycidyl butyrate(1) + chloroform(2) at 101 kPa were studied. The experimental data were satisfactorily correlated with the models of Wilson, NRTL and UNIQUAC activity coefficients. The activity coefficients for the equilibrium data were obtained by the nonlinear least square method. The average relative deviations between experimental temperatures and calculated temperatures by the Wilson, NRTL and UNIQUAC models were 0.16, 0.16, 0.23% for glycidyl butyrate(1) + chloroform( 2), 0.38, 0.12, 0.27% for glycidylbutyrate(1) + carbon tetrachloride(2), and 0.67, 0.13, 0.54% for glycidyl butyrate(1) + acetone(2). Azeotrope behavior was not found for these systems. The thermodynamic consistency of the correlations was checked by the Herrington's area test.

  19. Butyrate production in engineered Escherichia coli with synthetic scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Baek, Jang-Mi; Mazumdar, Suman; Lee, Sang-Woo; Jung, Moo-Young; Lim, Jae-Hyung; Seo, Sang-Woo; Jung, Gyoo-Yeol; Oh, Min-Kyu

    2013-10-01

    Butyrate pathway was constructed in recombinant Escherichia coli using the genes from Clostridium acetobutylicum and Treponema denticola. However, the pathway constructed from exogenous enzymes did not efficiently convert carbon flux to butyrate. Three steps of the productivity enhancement were attempted in this study. First, pathway engineering to delete metabolic pathways to by-products successfully improved the butyrate production. Second, synthetic scaffold protein that spatially co-localizes enzymes was introduced to improve the efficiency of the heterologous pathway enzymes, resulting in threefold improvement in butyrate production. Finally, further optimizations of inducer concentrations and pH adjustment were tried. The final titer of butyrate was 4.3 and 7.2 g/L under batch and fed-batch cultivation, respectively. This study demonstrated the importance of synthetic scaffold protein as a useful tool for optimization of heterologous butyrate pathway in E. coli.

  20. Converting Carbon Dioxide to Butyrate with an Engineered Strain of Clostridium ljungdahlii

    SciTech Connect

    Ueki, T; Nevin, KP; Woodard, TL; Lovley, DR

    2014-08-26

    Microbial conversion of carbon dioxide to organic commodities via syngas metabolism or microbial electrosynthesis is an attractive option for production of renewable biocommodities. The recent development of an initial genetic toolbox for the acetogen Clostridium ljungdahlii has suggested that C. ljungdahlii may be an effective chassis for such conversions. This possibility was evaluated by engineering a strain to produce butyrate, a valuable commodity that is not a natural product of C. ljungdahlii metabolism. Heterologous genes required for butyrate production from acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) were identified and introduced initially on plasmids and in subsequent strain designs integrated into the C. ljungdahlii chromosome. Iterative strain designs involved increasing translation of a key enzyme by modifying a ribosome binding site, inactivating the gene encoding the first step in the conversion of acetyl-CoA to acetate, disrupting the gene which encodes the primary bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase for ethanol production, and interrupting the gene for a CoA transferase that potentially represented an alternative route for the production of acetate. These modifications yielded a strain in which ca. 50 or 70% of the carbon and electron flow was diverted to the production of butyrate with H-2 or CO as the electron donor, respectively. These results demonstrate the possibility of producing high-value commodities from carbon dioxide with C. ljungdahlii as the catalyst. IMPORTANCE The development of a microbial chassis for efficient conversion of carbon dioxide directly to desired organic products would greatly advance the environmentally sustainable production of biofuels and other commodities. Clostridium ljungdahlii is an effective catalyst for microbial electrosynthesis, a technology in which electricity generated with renewable technologies, such as solar or wind, powers the conversion of carbon dioxide and water to organic products. Other electron donors

  1. Converting carbon dioxide to butyrate with an engineered strain of Clostridium ljungdahlii.

    PubMed

    Ueki, Toshiyuki; Nevin, Kelly P; Woodard, Trevor L; Lovley, Derek R

    2014-10-21

    Microbial conversion of carbon dioxide to organic commodities via syngas metabolism or microbial electrosynthesis is an attractive option for production of renewable biocommodities. The recent development of an initial genetic toolbox for the acetogen Clostridium ljungdahlii has suggested that C. ljungdahlii may be an effective chassis for such conversions. This possibility was evaluated by engineering a strain to produce butyrate, a valuable commodity that is not a natural product of C. ljungdahlii metabolism. Heterologous genes required for butyrate production from acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) were identified and introduced initially on plasmids and in subsequent strain designs integrated into the C. ljungdahlii chromosome. Iterative strain designs involved increasing translation of a key enzyme by modifying a ribosome binding site, inactivating the gene encoding the first step in the conversion of acetyl-CoA to acetate, disrupting the gene which encodes the primary bifunctional aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase for ethanol production, and interrupting the gene for a CoA transferase that potentially represented an alternative route for the production of acetate. These modifications yielded a strain in which ca. 50 or 70% of the carbon and electron flow was diverted to the production of butyrate with H2 or CO as the electron donor, respectively. These results demonstrate the possibility of producing high-value commodities from carbon dioxide with C. ljungdahlii as the catalyst. Importance: The development of a microbial chassis for efficient conversion of carbon dioxide directly to desired organic products would greatly advance the environmentally sustainable production of biofuels and other commodities. Clostridium ljungdahlii is an effective catalyst for microbial electrosynthesis, a technology in which electricity generated with renewable technologies, such as solar or wind, powers the conversion of carbon dioxide and water to organic products. Other electron donors

  2. Fragrance material review on p-isopropylbenzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-isopropylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Isopropylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1 to 4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-isopropylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  3. Fragrance material review on 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Hydroxy-2-phenylethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl acetate was evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  4. Fragrance material review on ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  5. Fragrance material review on 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  6. Fragrance material review on 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414652

  7. Cab45, a novel (Ca2+)-binding protein localized to the Golgi lumen

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    We have identified and characterized Cab45, a novel 45-kD protein from mouse 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Cab45 is ubiquitously expressed, contains an NH2-terminal signal sequence but no membrane-anchor sequences, and binds Ca2+ due to the presence of six EF-hand motifs. Within the superfamily of calcium-binding proteins, it belongs to a recently identified group of proteins consisting of Reticulocalbin (Ozawa, M., and T. Muramatsu. 1993. J. Biol. Chem. 268:699-705) and ERC 55 (Weis, K., G. Griffiths, and A.I. Lamond. 1994. J. Biol Chem. 269:19142- 19150), both of which share significant sequence homology with Cab45 outside the EF-hand motifs. In contrast to reticulocalbin and ERC-55 which are soluble components of the endoplasmic reticulum, Cab45 is a soluble protein localized to the Golgi. Cab45 is the first calcium- binding protein localized to the lumenal portion of a post-ER compartment; Cab45 is also the first known soluble protein resident in the Golgi lumen. Cab45 can serve as a model protein to determine the mechanism of retention of soluble proteins in the Golgi compartment. PMID:8609160

  8. Damping collaborative optimization of five-suspensions for driver-seat-cab coupled system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Leilei; Zhou, Changcheng; Yu, Yuewei

    2016-07-01

    Both the seat and cab system of truck play a vital role in ride comfort. The damping matching methods of the two systems are studied separately at present. However, the driver, seat, and cab system are one inseparable whole. In order to further improve ride comfort, the seat suspension is regarded as the fifth suspension of the cab, a new idea of "Five-suspensions" is proposed. Based on this idea, a 4 degree-of-freedom driver-seat-cab coupled system model is presented. Using the tested cab suspensions excitations as inputs and seat acceleration response as compared output, the simulation model is built. Taking optimal ride comfort as target, a new method of damping collaborative optimization for Five-suspensions is proposed. With a practical example of seat and cab system, the damping parameters are optimized and validated by simulation and bench test. The results show the seat vertical frequency-weighted RMS acceleration values tested for the un-optimized and optimized Five-suspensions are 0.50 m/s2 and 0.39 m/s2, respectively, with a decrease by 22.0%, which proves the model and method proposed are correct and reliable. The idea of "Five-suspensions" and the method proposed provide a reference for achieving global optimal damping matching of seat suspension and cab suspensions.

  9. Fragrance material review on phenethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of phenethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Phenethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for phenethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  10. Fragrance material review on benzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of benzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Benzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for benzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, or carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Refer Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  11. Peat: home to novel syntrophic species that feed acetate- and hydrogen-scavenging methanogens.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Oliver; Hink, Linda; Horn, Marcus A; Drake, Harold L

    2016-08-01

    Syntrophic bacteria drive the anaerobic degradation of certain fermentation products (e.g., butyrate, ethanol, propionate) to intermediary substrates (e.g., H2, formate, acetate) that yield methane at the ecosystem level. However, little is known about the in situ activities and identities of these syntrophs in peatlands, ecosystems that produce significant quantities of methane. The consumption of butyrate, ethanol or propionate by anoxic peat slurries at 5 and 15 °C yielded methane and CO2 as the sole accumulating products, indicating that the intermediates H2, formate and acetate were scavenged effectively by syntrophic methanogenic consortia. 16S rRNA stable isotope probing identified novel species/strains of Pelobacter and Syntrophomonas that syntrophically oxidized ethanol and butyrate, respectively. Propionate was syntrophically oxidized by novel species of Syntrophobacter and Smithella, genera that use different propionate-oxidizing pathways. Taxa not known for a syntrophic metabolism may have been involved in the oxidation of butyrate (Telmatospirillum-related) and propionate (unclassified Bacteroidetes and unclassified Fibrobacteres). Gibbs free energies (ΔGs) for syntrophic oxidations of ethanol and butyrate were more favorable than ΔGs for syntrophic oxidation of propionate. As a result of the thermodynamic constraints, acetate transiently accumulated in ethanol and butyrate treatments but not in propionate treatments. Aceticlastic methanogens (Methanosarcina, Methanosaeta) appeared to outnumber hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanocella, Methanoregula), reinforcing the likely importance of aceticlastic methanogenesis to the overall production of methane. ΔGs for acetogenesis from H2 to CO2 approximated to -20 kJ mol(-1) when acetate concentrations were low, indicating that acetogens may have contributed to the flow of carbon and reductant towards methane. PMID:26771931

  12. Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems (CABS) Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kutchan, Toni M.

    2015-12-02

    One of the great challenges facing current and future generations is how to meet growing energy demands in an environmentally sustainable manner. Renewable energy sources, including wind, geothermal, solar, hydroelectric, and biofuel energy systems, are rapidly being developed as sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels. Biofuels are particularly attractive to the U.S., given its vast agricultural resources. The first generation of biofuel systems was based on fermentation of sugars to produce ethanol, typically from food crops. Subsequent generations of biofuel systems, including those included in the CABS project, will build upon the experiences learned from those early research results and will have improved production efficiencies, reduced environmental impacts and decreased reliance on food crops. Thermodynamic models predict that the next generations of biofuel systems will yield three- to five-fold more recoverable energy products. To address the technological challenges necessary to develop enhanced biofuel systems, greater understanding of the non-equilibrium processes involved in solar energy conversion and the channeling of reduced carbon into biofuel products must be developed. The objective of the proposed Center for Advanced Biofuel Systems (CABS) was to increase the thermodynamic and kinetic efficiency of select plant- and algal-based fuel production systems using rational metabolic engineering approaches grounded in modern systems biology. The overall strategy was to increase the efficiency of solar energy conversion into oils and other specialty biofuel components by channeling metabolic flux toward products using advanced catalysts and sensible design:1) employing novel protein catalysts that increase the thermodynamic and kinetic efficiencies of photosynthesis and oil biosynthesis; 2) engineering metabolic networks to enhance acetyl-CoA production and its channeling towards lipid synthesis; and 3) engineering new metabolic networks for the

  13. Role of extracellular matrix protein CabA in resistance of Vibrio vulnificus biofilms to decontamination strategies.

    PubMed

    Park, Jin Hwan; Lee, Byungho; Jo, Youmi; Choi, Sang Ho

    2016-11-01

    Biofilms are recalcitrant and raise safety problems in the food industry. In this study, the role of CabA, an extracellular matrix protein, in the resistance of the biofilms of Vibrio vulnificus, a foodborne pathogen, to decontamination strategies was investigated. Biofilms of the cabA mutant revealed reduced resistance to detachment by vibration and disinfection by sodium hypochlorite compared to the biofilms of the parental wild type in vitro. The reduced resistance of the cabA mutant biofilms was complemented by introducing a recombinant cabA, indicating that the reduced resistance of the cabA mutant biofilms is caused by the inactivation of cabA. The expression of cabA was induced in cells bound to oyster, the primary vehicle of the pathogen. The cabA mutant biofilms on oyster are defective in biomass and resistance to detachment and disinfection. The bacterial cells in the wild-type biofilms are clustered by filaments which are not apparent in the cabA mutant biofilms. The combined results indicated that CabA contributes to the structural integrity of V. vulnificus biofilms possibly by forming filaments in the matrix and thus rendering the biofilms robust, suggesting that CabA could be a target to control V. vulnificus biofilms on oyster. PMID:27485973

  14. Isolation of unique butyrate-producing bacteria from swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butyrate-producing bacteria in humans contribute to a healthy gastrointestinal tract and are known to be species from clostridial clusters IV, IX, XIVa, and XVI - with the community dominated by clusters XIVa and IV. However, the composition of the butyrate-producing bacterial community in swine is...

  15. Potential enhancement of direct interspecies electron transfer for syntrophic metabolism of propionate and butyrate with biochar in up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket reactors.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yaobin; Holmes, Dawn E; Dang, Yan; Woodard, Trevor L; Nevin, Kelly P; Lovley, Derek R

    2016-06-01

    Promoting direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) to enhance syntrophic metabolism may be a strategy for accelerating the conversion of organic wastes to methane, but microorganisms capable of metabolizing propionate and butyrate via DIET under methanogenic conditions have yet to be identified. In an attempt to establish methanogenic communities metabolizing propionate or butyrate with DIET, enrichments were initiated with up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB), similar to those that were previously reported to support communities that metabolized ethanol with DIET that relied on direct biological electrical connections. In the absence of any amendments, microbial communities enriched were dominated by microorganisms closely related to pure cultures that are known to metabolize propionate or butyrate to acetate with production of H2. When biochar was added to the reactors there was a substantial enrichment on the biochar surface of 16S rRNA gene sequences closely related to Geobacter and Methanosaeta species known to participate in DIET. PMID:26967338

  16. Gamma amino butyric acid accumulation in medicinal plants without stress

    PubMed Central

    Anju, P.; Moothedath, Ismail; Rema Shree, Azhimala Bhaskaranpillai

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Gamma amino butyric acid (GABA) is an important ubiquitous four carbon nonprotein amino acid with an amino group attached to gamma carbon instead of beta carbon. It exists in different organisms including bacteria, plants, and animals and plays a crucial role in humans by regulating neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. It is directly responsible for the regulation of muscle tone and also effective in lowering stress, blood pressure, and hypertension. Aim and Objective: The aim of the study was to develop the fingerprint profile of selected medicinally and economically important plants having central nervous system (CNS) activity and to determine the quantity of GABA in the selected plants grown under natural conditions without any added stress. Materials and Methods: The high-performance thin layer chromatography analysis was performed on precoated silica gel plate 60F–254 plate (20 cm × 10 cm) in the form of bands with width 8 mm using Hamilton syringe (100 μl) using n-butanol, acetic acid, and water in the proportion 5:2:2 as mobile phase in a CAMAG chamber which was previously saturated for 30 min. CAMAG TLC scanner 3 was used for the densitometric scanning at 550 nm. Specific marker compounds were used for the quantification. Results and Conclusion: Among the screened medicinal plants, Zingiber officinale and Solanum torvum were found to have GABA. The percentage of GABA present in Z. officinale and S. torvum were found to be 0.0114% and 0.0119%, respectively. The present work confirmed that among the selected CNS active medicinal plants, only two plants contain GABA. We found a negative correlation with plant having CNS activity and accumulation of GABA. The GABA shunt is a conserved pathway in eukaryotes and prokaryotes but, although the role of GABA as a neurotransmitter in mammals is clearly established, its role in plants is still vague. PMID:25861139

  17. Butyrate increases IL-23 production by stimulated dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Berndt, Bradford E; Zhang, Min; Owyang, Stephanie Y; Cole, Tyler S; Wang, Teresa W; Luther, Jay; Veniaminova, Natalia A; Merchant, Juanita L; Chen, Chun-Chia; Huffnagle, Gary B; Kao, John Y

    2012-12-15

    The gut microbiota is essential for the maintenance of intestinal immune homeostasis and is responsible for breaking down dietary fiber into short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Butyrate, the most abundant bioactive SCFA in the gut, is a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi), a class of drug that has potent immunomodulatory properties. This characteristic of butyrate, along with our previous discovery that conventional dendritic cells (DCs) are required for the development of experimental colitis, led us to speculate that butyrate may modulate DC function to regulate gut mucosal homeostasis. We found that butyrate, in addition to suppressing LPS-induced bone marrow-derived DC maturation and inhibiting DC IL-12 production, significantly induced IL-23 expression. The upregulation of mRNA subunit IL-23p19 at the pretranslational level was consistent with the role of HDACi on the epigenetic modification of gene expression. Furthermore, the mechanism of IL-23p19 upregulation was independent of Stat3 and ZBP89. Coculture of splenocytes with LPS-stimulated DCs pretreated with or without butyrate was performed and showed a significant induction of IL-17 and IL-10. We demonstrated further the effect of butyrate in vivo using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis and found that the addition of butyrate in the drinking water of mice worsened DSS-colitis. This is in contrast to the daily intraperitoneal butyrate injection of DSS-treated mice, which mildly improved disease severity. Our study highlights a novel effect of butyrate in upregulating IL-23 production of activated DCs and demonstrates a difference in the host response to the oral vs. systemic route of butyrate administration.

  18. A Comparison of the Coverage of Agricultural and Forestry Literature on AGRICOLA, BIOSIS, CAB, and SCISEARCH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Kristina

    1980-01-01

    Reports the results of a study that examined four databases, AGRICOLA, BIOSIS, CAB, and SCISEARCH, to determine their overlap with regard to agricultural and forestry literature. Relative strengths and weaknesses were assessed concerning subject coverage, timeliness, and searching capabilities. (Author)

  19. CABS-flex: server for fast simulation of protein structure fluctuations

    PubMed Central

    Jamroz, Michal; Kolinski, Andrzej; Kmiecik, Sebastian

    2013-01-01

    The CABS-flex server (http://biocomp.chem.uw.edu.pl/CABSflex) implements CABS-model–based protocol for the fast simulations of near-native dynamics of globular proteins. In this application, the CABS model was shown to be a computationally efficient alternative to all-atom molecular dynamics—a classical simulation approach. The simulation method has been validated on a large set of molecular dynamics simulation data. Using a single input (user-provided file in PDB format), the CABS-flex server outputs an ensemble of protein models (in all-atom PDB format) reflecting the flexibility of the input structure, together with the accompanying analysis (residue mean-square-fluctuation profile and others). The ensemble of predicted models can be used in structure-based studies of protein functions and interactions. PMID:23658222

  20. Fragrance material review on 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2,4-Dimethylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, iso-butyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  1. A Proteomic View at the Biochemistry of Syntrophic Butyrate Oxidation in Syntrophomonas wolfei

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Alexander; Müller, Nicolai; Schink, Bernhard; Schleheck, David

    2013-01-01

    In syntrophic conversion of butyrate to methane and CO2, butyrate is oxidized to acetate by secondary fermenting bacteria such as Syntrophomonas wolfei in close cooperation with methanogenic partner organisms, e.g., Methanospirillum hungatei. This process involves an energetically unfavourable shift of electrons from the level of butyryl-CoA oxidation to the substantially lower redox potential of proton and/or CO2 reduction, in order to transfer these electrons to the methanogenic partner via hydrogen and/or formate. In the present study, all prominent membrane-bound and soluble proteins expressed in S. wolfei specifically during syntrophic growth with butyrate, in comparison to pure-culture growth with crotonate, were examined by one- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and identified by peptide fingerprinting-mass spectrometry. A membrane-bound, externally oriented, quinone-linked formate dehydrogenase complex was expressed at high level specifically during syntrophic butyrate oxidation, comprising a selenocystein-linked catalytic subunit with a membrane-translocation pathway signal (TAT), a membrane-bound iron-sulfur subunit, and a membrane-bound cytochrome. Soluble hydrogenases were expressed at high levels specifically during growth with crotonate. The results were confirmed by native protein gel electrophoresis, by formate dehydrogenase and hydrogenase-activity staining, and by analysis of formate dehydrogenase and hydrogenase activities in intact cells and cell extracts. Furthermore, constitutive expression of a membrane-bound, internally oriented iron-sulfur oxidoreductase (DUF224) was confirmed, together with expression of soluble electron-transfer flavoproteins (EtfAB) and two previously identified butyryl-CoA dehydrogenases. Our findings allow to depict an electron flow scheme for syntrophic butyrate oxidation in S. wolfei. Electrons derived from butyryl-CoA are transferred through a membrane-bound EtfAB:quinone oxidoreductase (DUF224) to a

  2. A Cytosolic Splice Variant of Cab45 Interacts with Munc18b and Impacts on Amylase Secretion by Pancreatic Acini

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Patrick P.L.; Hyvärinen, Kati; Kauppi, Maria; Cosen-Binker, Laura; Laitinen, Saara; Keränen, Sirkka

    2007-01-01

    We identified in a yeast two-hybrid screen the EF-hand Ca2+-binding protein Cab45 as an interaction partner of Munc18b. Although the full-length Cab45 resides in Golgi lumen, we characterize a cytosolic splice variant, Cab45b, expressed in pancreatic acini. Cab45b is shown to bind 45Ca2+, and, of its three EF-hand motifs, EF-hand 2 is demonstrated to be crucial for the ion binding. Cab45b is shown to interact with Munc18b in an in vitro assay, and this interaction is enhanced in the presence of Ca2+. In this assay, Cab45b also binds the Munc18a isoform in a Ca2+-dependent manner. The endogenous Cab45b in rat acini coimmunoprecipitates with Munc18b, syntaxin 2, and syntaxin 3, soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptors with key roles in the Ca2+-triggered zymogen secretion. Furthermore, we show that Munc18b bound to syntaxin 3 recruits Cab45b onto the plasma membrane. Importantly, antibodies against Cab45b are shown to inhibit in a specific and dose-dependent manner the Ca2+-induced amylase release from streptolysin-O–permeabilized acini. The present study identifies Cab45b as a novel protein factor involved in the exocytosis of zymogens by pancreatic acini. PMID:17442889

  3. Controlled and high throughput fabrication of poly(trimethylene terphthalate) nanofibers via melt extrusion of immiscible blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immiscible blends of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT) were melt extruded through a two strand rod die. The extrudates were hot-drawn at the die exit at different draw ratios. PTT fibers were obtained by removal of the CAB matrix from the drawn extrudates, a...

  4. Controlled and high throughput fabrication of poly(trimethylene terephthalate) nanofibers via melt extrusion of immiscible blends

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immiscible blends of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and poly(trimethylene terephthalate) (PTT) were melt extruded through a two strand rod die. The extrudates were hot-drawn at the die exit at different draw ratios. PTT fibers were obtained by removal of the CAB matrix from the drawn extrudates, a...

  5. Methods for measuring performance of vehicle cab air cleaning systems against aerosols and vapours.

    PubMed

    Bémer, D; Subra, I; Régnier, R

    2009-06-01

    Vehicle cabs equipped with an effective air cleaning and pressurization system, fitted to agricultural and off-road machineries, isolate drivers from the polluted environment, in which they are likely to work. These cabs provide protection against particulate and gaseous pollutants generated by these types of work activities. Two laboratory methods have been applied to determining the performance characteristics of two cabs of different design, namely, optical counting-based measurement of a potassium chloride (KCl) aerosol and fluorescein aerosol-based tracing. Results of cab confinement efficiency measurements agreed closely for these two methods implemented in the study. Measurements showed that high confinement efficiencies can be achieved with cabs, which are properly designed in ventilation/cleaning/airtightness terms. We also noted the importance of filter mounting airtightness, in which the smallest defect is reflected by significant degradation in cab performance. Determination of clean airflow rate by monitoring the decrease in test aerosol concentration in the test chamber gave excellent results. This method could represent an attractive alternative to methods involving gas tracing or air velocity measurement at blowing inlets.

  6. Measuring and modeling air exchange rates inside taxi cabs in Los Angeles, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shu, Shi; Yu, Nu; Wang, Yueyan; Zhu, Yifang

    2015-12-01

    Air exchange rates (AERs) have a direct impact on traffic-related air pollutant (TRAP) levels inside vehicles. Taxi drivers are occupationally exposed to TRAP on a daily basis, yet there is limited measurement of AERs in taxi cabs. To fill this gap, AERs were quantified in 22 representative Los Angeles taxi cabs including 10 Prius, 5 Crown Victoria, 3 Camry, 3 Caravan, and 1 Uplander under realistic driving (RD) conditions. To further study the impacts of window position and ventilation settings on taxi AERs, additional tests were conducted on 14 taxis with windows closed (WC) and on the other 8 taxis with not only windows closed but also medium fan speed (WC-MFS) under outdoor air mode. Under RD conditions, the AERs in all 22 cabs had a mean of 63 h-1 with a median of 38 h-1. Similar AERs were observed under WC condition when compared to those measured under RD condition. Under WC-MFS condition, AERs were significantly increased in all taxi cabs, when compared with those measured under RD condition. A General Estimating Equation (GEE) model was developed and the modeling results showed that vehicle model was a significant factor in determining the AERs in taxi cabs under RD condition. Driving speed and car age were positively associated with AERs but not statistically significant. Overall, AERs measured in taxi cabs were much higher than typical AERs people usually encounter in indoor environments such as homes, offices, and even regular passenger vehicles.

  7. Methods for measuring performance of vehicle cab air cleaning systems against aerosols and vapours.

    PubMed

    Bémer, D; Subra, I; Régnier, R

    2009-06-01

    Vehicle cabs equipped with an effective air cleaning and pressurization system, fitted to agricultural and off-road machineries, isolate drivers from the polluted environment, in which they are likely to work. These cabs provide protection against particulate and gaseous pollutants generated by these types of work activities. Two laboratory methods have been applied to determining the performance characteristics of two cabs of different design, namely, optical counting-based measurement of a potassium chloride (KCl) aerosol and fluorescein aerosol-based tracing. Results of cab confinement efficiency measurements agreed closely for these two methods implemented in the study. Measurements showed that high confinement efficiencies can be achieved with cabs, which are properly designed in ventilation/cleaning/airtightness terms. We also noted the importance of filter mounting airtightness, in which the smallest defect is reflected by significant degradation in cab performance. Determination of clean airflow rate by monitoring the decrease in test aerosol concentration in the test chamber gave excellent results. This method could represent an attractive alternative to methods involving gas tracing or air velocity measurement at blowing inlets. PMID:19406910

  8. Specific cell cycle synchronization with butyrate and cell cycle analysis.

    PubMed

    Li, Congjun

    2011-01-01

    Synchronized cells have been invaluable in many kinds of cell cycle and cell proliferation studies. Butyrate induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in Madin Darby Bovine Kidney (MDBK) cells. We explore the possibility of using butyrate-blocked cells to obtain synchronized cells and we characterize the properties of butyrate-induced cell cycle arrest. The site of growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest was analyzed using 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation and flow cytometry analyses. Exposure of MDBK cells to 10 mM butyrate caused growth inhibition and cell cycle arrest in a reversible manner. Butyrate affected the cell cycle at a specific point both immediately after mitosis and at a very early stage of the G1 phase. After release from butyrate arrest, MDBK cells underwent synchronous cycles of DNA synthesis and transited through the S phase. It takes at least 8 h for butyrate-induced G1-synchronized cells to begin the progression into the S phase. One cycle of cell division for MDBK cells is about 20 h. By combining BrdU incorporation and DNA content analysis, not only can the overlapping of different cell populations be eliminated, but the frequency and nature of individual cells that have synthesized DNA can also be determined.

  9. Effect of abomasal butyrate infusion on net nutrient flux across the portal-drained viscera and liver of growing lambs.

    PubMed

    Foote, A P; Freetly, H C

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine if supplying butyrate to the postruminal gastrointestinal tract of growing lambs alters blood flow and nutrient flux across the portal-drained viscera (PDV) and hepatic tissues. Polled Dorset wether lambs ( = 10; initial BW = 55 ± 3.3 kg) had catheters surgically implanted into the portal vein, a branch of the hepatic vein, a mesenteric vein, and the abdominal aorta. A cannula was placed in the abomasum to deliver the treatment. Lambs were fed a pelleted ration once daily consisting of 69.7% dehydrated alfalfa, 30.0% ground corn, and 0.3% salt at 1.3 × NE requirement. The experimental design was a crossover balanced in time, so that each lamb received both treatments. Treatments consisted of either a pulse dose infusion of butyrate (buffered solution) to supply butyrate (10 mg/kg BW) or a buffered saline solution (1 mL/kg BW) once daily at the time of feeding. On d 14 of the treatment period, nutrient fluxes were measured using para-aminohippuric acid as a blood flow marker. Blood samples were collected from the aorta, portal vein, and hepatic vein every hour for 9 h beginning at 30 min prior to treatment/feeding. There was a tendency for a treatment × time interaction ( = 0.05) for portal vein blood flow, indicating that blood flow began to decrease earlier postprandial in lambs receiving butyrate. The butyrate treatment tended to increase the uptake of O ( = 0.07) and increased the uptake of glucose ( = 0.002), glutamate ( = 0.04), and glutamine ( = 0.02) by the PDV. There was a treatment × time interaction ( < 0.01) for flux of acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate, and valerate across the PDV. The interaction was mainly due to an earlier postprandial peak and associated decrease in the flux rate of the VFA. The alteration in timing of the postprandial peak of VFA flux was also observed in hepatic fluxes of VFA. It appears that supplying butyrate to the postruminal tissues through an abomasal cannula

  10. Effect of abomasal butyrate infusion on net nutrient flux across the portal-drained viscera and liver of growing lambs.

    PubMed

    Foote, A P; Freetly, H C

    2016-07-01

    The purpose of this experiment was to determine if supplying butyrate to the postruminal gastrointestinal tract of growing lambs alters blood flow and nutrient flux across the portal-drained viscera (PDV) and hepatic tissues. Polled Dorset wether lambs ( = 10; initial BW = 55 ± 3.3 kg) had catheters surgically implanted into the portal vein, a branch of the hepatic vein, a mesenteric vein, and the abdominal aorta. A cannula was placed in the abomasum to deliver the treatment. Lambs were fed a pelleted ration once daily consisting of 69.7% dehydrated alfalfa, 30.0% ground corn, and 0.3% salt at 1.3 × NE requirement. The experimental design was a crossover balanced in time, so that each lamb received both treatments. Treatments consisted of either a pulse dose infusion of butyrate (buffered solution) to supply butyrate (10 mg/kg BW) or a buffered saline solution (1 mL/kg BW) once daily at the time of feeding. On d 14 of the treatment period, nutrient fluxes were measured using para-aminohippuric acid as a blood flow marker. Blood samples were collected from the aorta, portal vein, and hepatic vein every hour for 9 h beginning at 30 min prior to treatment/feeding. There was a tendency for a treatment × time interaction ( = 0.05) for portal vein blood flow, indicating that blood flow began to decrease earlier postprandial in lambs receiving butyrate. The butyrate treatment tended to increase the uptake of O ( = 0.07) and increased the uptake of glucose ( = 0.002), glutamate ( = 0.04), and glutamine ( = 0.02) by the PDV. There was a treatment × time interaction ( < 0.01) for flux of acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate, and valerate across the PDV. The interaction was mainly due to an earlier postprandial peak and associated decrease in the flux rate of the VFA. The alteration in timing of the postprandial peak of VFA flux was also observed in hepatic fluxes of VFA. It appears that supplying butyrate to the postruminal tissues through an abomasal cannula

  11. California Basin Studies (CaBS). Final contract report

    SciTech Connect

    Gorsline, D.S.

    1991-12-31

    The California Continental Borderland`s present configuration dates from about 4 to 5 X 10{sup 6} years Before Present (B.P.) and is the most recent of several configurations of the southern California margin that have evolved after the North America Plate over-rode the East Pacific Rise about 30 X 10{sup 6} years ago. The present morphology is a series of two to three northwest-southeast trending rows of depressions separated by banks and insular ridges. Two inner basins, Santa Monica and San Pedro, have been the site for the Department of Energy-funded California Basin Study (CaBS) Santa Monica and San Pedro Basins contain post-Miocene sediment thicknesses of about 2.5 and 1.5 km respectively. During the Holocene (past 10,000 years) about 10-12 m have accumulated. The sediment entered the basin by one or a combination of processes including particle infall (mainly as bioaggregates) from surface waters, from nepheloid plumes (surface, mid-depths and near-bottom), from turbidity currents, mass movements, and to a very minor degree direct precipitation. In Santa Monica Basin, during the last century, particle infall and nepheloid plume transport have been the most common processes. The former dominates in the central basin floor in water depths from 900 to 945 m. where a characteristic silt-clay with a typical mean diameter of about 0.006 mm, phi standard deviation.

  12. Direct interspecies electron transfer accelerates syntrophic oxidation of butyrate in paddy soil enrichments.

    PubMed

    Li, Huijuan; Chang, Jiali; Liu, Pengfei; Fu, Li; Ding, Dewen; Lu, Yahai

    2015-05-01

    Syntrophic interaction occurs during anaerobic fermentation of organic substances forming methane as the final product. H2 and formate are known to serve as the electron carriers in this process. Recently, it has been shown that direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) occurs for syntrophic CH4 production from ethanol and acetate. Here, we constructed paddy soil enrichments to determine the involvement of DIET in syntrophic butyrate oxidation and CH4 production. The results showed that CH4 production was significantly accelerated in the presence of nanoFe3 O4 in all continuous transfers. This acceleration increased with the increase of nanoFe3 O4 concentration but was dismissed when Fe3 O4 was coated with silica that insulated the mineral from electrical conduction. NanoFe3 O4 particles were found closely attached to the cell surfaces of different morphology, thus bridging cell connections. Molecular approaches, including DNA-based stable isotope probing, revealed that the bacterial Syntrophomonadaceae and Geobacteraceae, and the archaeal Methanosarcinaceae, Methanocellales and Methanobacteriales, were involved in the syntrophic butyrate oxidation and CH4 production. Among them, the growth of Geobacteraceae strictly relied on the presence of nanoFe3 O4 and its electrical conductivity in particular. Other organisms, except Methanobacteriales, were present in enrichments regardless of nanoFe3 O4 amendment. Collectively, our study demonstrated that the nanoFe3 O4 -facilitated DIET occurred in syntrophic CH4 production from butyrate, and Geobacter species played the key role in this process in the paddy soil enrichments.

  13. Liquid Crystals and Glasses in Binary Systems from Sodium and Alkali-Earth Metal Butyrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirnaya, T. A.; Bereznitski, Y. V.; Volkov, S. V.

    1996-07-01

    The temperature and composition ranges of liquid crystal and glass formation have been established for the binary mixtures of mesogenic sodium butyrate with non-mesogenic magnesium, calcium and strontium butyrates by means of differential thermal analysis and hot stage polarization microscopy. The formation of a vitreous optically anisotropic mesophase has been found for binaries of sodium butyrate with calcium and strontium butyrates.

  14. pVT data of cellulose acetate butyrate in N,N-dimethylformamide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfarth, Ch.

    This document is part of Subvolume D2 'Polymer Solutions - Physical Properties and their Relations I (Thermodynamic Properties: PVT -Data and miscellaneous Properties of polymer Solutions) of Volume 6 `Polymers' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group VIII `Advanced Materials and Technologies'.

  15. Transcriptional attenuation in colon carcinoma cells in response to butyrate.

    PubMed

    Daroqui, Maria C; Augenlicht, Leonard H

    2010-10-01

    The short-chain fatty acid sodium butyrate (NaB), produced in the colonic lumen, induces cell cycle arrest, differentiation, and/or apoptosis in colorectal carcinoma cells in vitro, establishing a potential role for NaB in colon cancer prevention. We have previously shown that butyrate decreases cyclin D1 and c-myc expression, each essential for intestinal tumor development, by transcriptional attenuation. Here, we determined that butyrate-induced transcriptional attenuation of the cyclin D1 and c-myc genes in SW837 human colorectal adenocarcinoma cells occurs at ∼100 nucleotides downstream of the transcription start site, with a similar positioning in Caco-2 cells. A concomitant decrease in RNA polymerase II occupancy at the 5' end of each gene was observed. Because transcriptional regulation is associated with chromatin remodeling, we investigated by chromatin immunoprecipitation whether the histone deacetylase inhibitory activity of butyrate altered chromatin structure at the attenuated loci. Although the distributions of histone H3 trimethylated on K4 and K36 along the cyclin D1 and c-myc genes were consistent with current models, butyrate induced only modest decreases in these modifications, with a similar effect on acetylated H3 and a modest increase in histone H3 trimethylated on K27. Finally, transcriptome analysis using novel microarrays showed that butyrate-induced attenuation is widespread throughout the genome, likely independent of transcriptional initiation. We identified 42 loci potentially paused by butyrate and showed that the transcription patterns are gene specific. The biological functions of these loci encompass a number of effects of butyrate on the physiology of intestinal epithelial cells.

  16. Colonic mucin synthesis is increased by sodium butyrate.

    PubMed

    Finnie, I A; Dwarakanath, A D; Taylor, B A; Rhodes, J M

    1995-01-01

    The effects of sodium butyrate and sodium bromo-octanoate (an inhibitor of beta oxidation) on colonic mucus glycoprotein (mucin) synthesis have been assessed using tissue from colonic resection samples. Epithelial biopsy specimens were incubated for 16 hours in RPMI 1640 with glutamine, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and N-acetyl-[3H]-glucosamine ([3H]-Glc NAc), and differing concentrations of sodium butyrate. Incorporation of [3H] Glc NAc into mucin by normal epithelium at least 10 cm distant from colonic cancer was increased in the presence of sodium butyrate in a dose dependent manner, with maximum effect (476%) at a concentration of 0.1 mM (number of specimens = 24 from six patients, p < 0.001). The increase in response to butyrate was not seen when specimens were incubated in the presence of the beta oxidation inhibitor sodium bromo-octanoate 0.05 M. The striking increase in mucin synthesis that results when butyrate is added to standard nutrient medium suggests that this may be an important mechanism affecting the rate of mucin synthesis in vivo and may also explain the therapeutic effect of butyrate in colitis. PMID:7890244

  17. Colonic mucin synthesis is increased by sodium butyrate.

    PubMed

    Finnie, I A; Dwarakanath, A D; Taylor, B A; Rhodes, J M

    1995-01-01

    The effects of sodium butyrate and sodium bromo-octanoate (an inhibitor of beta oxidation) on colonic mucus glycoprotein (mucin) synthesis have been assessed using tissue from colonic resection samples. Epithelial biopsy specimens were incubated for 16 hours in RPMI 1640 with glutamine, supplemented with 10% fetal calf serum and N-acetyl-[3H]-glucosamine ([3H]-Glc NAc), and differing concentrations of sodium butyrate. Incorporation of [3H] Glc NAc into mucin by normal epithelium at least 10 cm distant from colonic cancer was increased in the presence of sodium butyrate in a dose dependent manner, with maximum effect (476%) at a concentration of 0.1 mM (number of specimens = 24 from six patients, p < 0.001). The increase in response to butyrate was not seen when specimens were incubated in the presence of the beta oxidation inhibitor sodium bromo-octanoate 0.05 M. The striking increase in mucin synthesis that results when butyrate is added to standard nutrient medium suggests that this may be an important mechanism affecting the rate of mucin synthesis in vivo and may also explain the therapeutic effect of butyrate in colitis.

  18. Requirement for store-operated calcium entry in sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis in human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Suxia; Li, Wenjun; Zhang, He; Zha, Longying; Xue, Yong; Wu, Xianbo; Zou, Fei

    2012-02-01

    The SOCE (store-operated Ca2+ entry) pathway plays a key role in both normal cells and cancerous cells. However, its molecular mechanism remains a long-lasting puzzle of Ca2+ signalling. In this paper, we provide evidence that butyric acid, a dietary fibre-derived short-chain fatty acid, induces apoptosis of colon cancer cells via SOCE signalling networks. We found that sodium butyrate (NaB) induces Ca2+ release from endoplasmic reticulum, which in turn causes extracellular Ca2+ influx in HCT-116 cells. The Ca2+ release and influx are important, because the addition of chelators, EGTA or BAPTA/AM [1,2-bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid tetrakis(acetoxymethyl ester)] respectively blocked NaB-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, down-regulation of STIM1 (stromal interaction molecule 1) by RNA interference or pharmacological blockade of the SOCC (store-operated Ca2+ channel) by 2-APB (2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate) or SKF-96365 inhibited NaB-induced extracellular Ca2+ influx and apoptosis in HCT-116 cells. Thus we conclude that NaB triggers colon cancer cell apoptosis in an SOCE-dependent manner. This finding provides new insights into how butyric acid suppresses colon carcinogenesis.

  19. Crystal Structure of Butyrate Kinase 2 from Thermotoga maritima, a Member of the ASKHA Superfamily of Phosphotransferases

    SciTech Connect

    Diao, Jiasheng; Hasson, Miriam S.

    2009-04-01

    The enzymatic transfer of phosphoryl groups is central to the control of many cellular processes. One of the phosphoryl transfer mechanisms, that of acetate kinase, is not completely understood. Besides better understanding of the mechanism of acetate kinase, knowledge of the structure of butyrate kinase 2 (Buk2) will aid in the interpretation of active-site structure and provide information on the structural basis of substrate specificity. The gene buk2 from Thermotoga maritima encodes a member of the ASKHA (acetate and sugar kinases/heat shock cognate/actin) superfamily of phosphotransferases. The encoded protein Buk2 catalyzes the phosphorylation of butyrate and isobutyrate. We have determined the 2.5-{angstrom} crystal structure of Buk2 complexed with ({beta},{gamma}-methylene) adenosine 5'-triphosphate. Buk2 folds like an open-shelled clam, with each of the two domains representing one of the two shells. In the open active-site cleft between the N- and C-terminal domains, the active-site residues consist of two histidines, two arginines, and a cluster of hydrophobic residues. The ATP binding region of Buk2 in the C-terminal domain consists of abundant glycines for nucleotide binding, and the ATP binding motif is similar to those of other members of the ASKHA superfamily. The enzyme exists as an octamer, in which four disulfide bonds form between intermolecular cysteines. Sequence alignment and structure superposition identify the simplicity of the monomeric Buk2 structure, a probable substrate binding site, the key residues in catalyzing phosphoryl transfer, and the substrate specificity differences among Buk2, acetate, and propionate kinases. The possible enzyme mechanisms are discussed.

  20. Crystal structure of butyrate kinase 2 from Thermotoga maritima, a member of the ASKHA superfamily of phosphotransferases.

    PubMed

    Diao, Jiasheng; Hasson, Miriam S

    2009-04-01

    The enzymatic transfer of phosphoryl groups is central to the control of many cellular processes. One of the phosphoryl transfer mechanisms, that of acetate kinase, is not completely understood. Besides better understanding of the mechanism of acetate kinase, knowledge of the structure of butyrate kinase 2 (Buk2) will aid in the interpretation of active-site structure and provide information on the structural basis of substrate specificity. The gene buk2 from Thermotoga maritima encodes a member of the ASKHA (acetate and sugar kinases/heat shock cognate/actin) superfamily of phosphotransferases. The encoded protein Buk2 catalyzes the phosphorylation of butyrate and isobutyrate. We have determined the 2.5-A crystal structure of Buk2 complexed with (beta,gamma-methylene) adenosine 5'-triphosphate. Buk2 folds like an open-shelled clam, with each of the two domains representing one of the two shells. In the open active-site cleft between the N- and C-terminal domains, the active-site residues consist of two histidines, two arginines, and a cluster of hydrophobic residues. The ATP binding region of Buk2 in the C-terminal domain consists of abundant glycines for nucleotide binding, and the ATP binding motif is similar to those of other members of the ASKHA superfamily. The enzyme exists as an octamer, in which four disulfide bonds form between intermolecular cysteines. Sequence alignment and structure superposition identify the simplicity of the monomeric Buk2 structure, a probable substrate binding site, the key residues in catalyzing phosphoryl transfer, and the substrate specificity differences among Buk2, acetate, and propionate kinases. The possible enzyme mechanisms are discussed.

  1. 49 CFR 236.511 - Cab signals controlled in accordance with block conditions stopping distance in advance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... conditions stopping distance in advance. 236.511 Section 236.511 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.511 Cab signals controlled in accordance with block conditions stopping distance in advance....

  2. 49 CFR 236.511 - Cab signals controlled in accordance with block conditions stopping distance in advance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... conditions stopping distance in advance. 236.511 Section 236.511 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.511 Cab signals controlled in accordance with block conditions stopping distance in advance....

  3. 49 CFR 236.511 - Cab signals controlled in accordance with block conditions stopping distance in advance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... conditions stopping distance in advance. 236.511 Section 236.511 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.511 Cab signals controlled in accordance with block conditions stopping distance in advance....

  4. 49 CFR 236.511 - Cab signals controlled in accordance with block conditions stopping distance in advance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... conditions stopping distance in advance. 236.511 Section 236.511 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.511 Cab signals controlled in accordance with block conditions stopping distance in advance....

  5. 49 CFR 236.511 - Cab signals controlled in accordance with block conditions stopping distance in advance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... conditions stopping distance in advance. 236.511 Section 236.511 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Standards § 236.511 Cab signals controlled in accordance with block conditions stopping distance in advance....

  6. 49 CFR 236.568 - Difference between speeds authorized by roadway signal and cab signal; action required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Difference between speeds authorized by roadway... Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.568 Difference between speeds authorized by roadway signal and cab signal; action required. If for any reason a cab signal authorizes a speed different...

  7. 49 CFR 236.568 - Difference between speeds authorized by roadway signal and cab signal; action required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Difference between speeds authorized by roadway... Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.568 Difference between speeds authorized by roadway signal and cab signal; action required. If for any reason a cab signal authorizes a speed different...

  8. 49 CFR 236.568 - Difference between speeds authorized by roadway signal and cab signal; action required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Difference between speeds authorized by roadway... Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.568 Difference between speeds authorized by roadway signal and cab signal; action required. If for any reason a cab signal authorizes a speed different...

  9. 49 CFR 236.568 - Difference between speeds authorized by roadway signal and cab signal; action required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Difference between speeds authorized by roadway... Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.568 Difference between speeds authorized by roadway signal and cab signal; action required. If for any reason a cab signal authorizes a speed different...

  10. 49 CFR 236.568 - Difference between speeds authorized by roadway signal and cab signal; action required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Difference between speeds authorized by roadway... Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.568 Difference between speeds authorized by roadway signal and cab signal; action required. If for any reason a cab signal authorizes a speed different...

  11. A distinct alleles and genetic recombination of pmrCAB operon in species of Acinetobacter baumannii complex isolates.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dae Hun; Ko, Kwan Soo

    2015-07-01

    To investigate pmrCAB sequence divergence in 5 species of Acinetobacter baumannii complex, a total of 80 isolates from a Korean hospital were explored. We evaluated nucleotide and amino acid polymorphisms of pmrCAB operon, and phylogenetic trees were constructed for each gene of prmCAB operon. Colistin and polymyxin B susceptibility was determined for all isolates, and multilocus sequence typing was also performed for A. baumannii isolates. Our results showed that each species of A. baumannii complex has divergent pmrCAB operon sequences. We identified a distinct pmrCAB allele allied with Acinetobacter nosocomialis in gene trees. Different grouping in each gene tree suggests sporadic recombination or emergence of pmrCAB genes among Acinetobacter species. Sequence polymorphisms among Acinetobacter species might not be associated with colistin resistance. We revealed that a distinct pmrCAB allele may be widespread across the continents such as North America and Asia and that sporadic genetic recombination or emergence of pmrCAB genes might occur.

  12. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, Gerald Charles; Zoeller, Joseph Robert; Depew, Leslie Sharon

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  13. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-03-24

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  14. Butyrate and propionate: important components of toxic dental plaque extracts.

    PubMed Central

    Singer, R E; Buckner, B A

    1981-01-01

    Extracts of in vitro-cultured human dental plaque contain factors toxic to mammalian cells. Previous studies demonstrated that those toxic factors most readily released from cultured plaque had very low molecular weights and were heat stable. Studies reported here demonstrate that metabolic end products including short-chain fatty acids were present in fractions containing the low-molecular-weight, heat-stable factors. The salts of two of these acids, butyrate and propionate, inhibited proliferation of both mouse L929 cells and human gingival fibroblasts. Furthermore, when tested at concentrations present in plaque extracts, the inhibitory effects of butyrate and propionate accounted for essentially all the inhibitory potential of the extracts. These findings, taken together with those of other groups, suggest that butyrate and propionate, end products of dental plaque metabolism, may have an etiological role in periodontal disease. PMID:7251132

  15. Acetic Acid Increases Stability of Silage under Aerobic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Danner, H.; Holzer, M.; Mayrhuber, E.; Braun, R.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of various compounds on the aerobic stability of silages were evaluated. It has been observed that inoculation of whole-crop maize with homofermentative lactic acid bacteria leads to silages which have low stability against aerobic deterioration, while inoculation with heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria, such as Lactobacillus brevis or Lactobacillus buchneri, increases stability. Acetic acid has been proven to be the sole substance responsible for the increased aerobic stability, and this acid acts as an inhibitor of spoilage organisms. Therefore, stability increases exponentially with acetic acid concentration. Only butyric acid has a similar effect. Other compounds, like lactic acid, 1,2-propanediol, and 1-propanol, have been shown to have no effect, while fructose and mannitol reduce stability. PMID:12514042

  16. N-Butyrate alters chromatin accessibility to DNA repair enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, P.J.

    1986-03-01

    Current evidence suggests that the complex nature of mammalian chromatin can result in the concealment of DNA damage from repair enzymes and their co-factors. Recently it has been proposed that the acetylation of histone proteins in chromatin may provide a surveillance system whereby damaged regions of DNA become exposed due to changes in chromatin accessibility. This hypothesis has been tested by: (i) using n-butyrate to induce hyperacetylation in human adenocarcinoma (HT29) cells; (ii) monitoring the enzymatic accessibility of chromatin in permeabilised cells; (iii) measuring u.v. repair-associated nicking of DNA in intact cells and (iv) determining the effects of n-butyrate on cellular sensitivity to DNA damaging agents. The results indicate that the accessibility of chromatin to Micrococcus luteus u.v. endonuclease is enhanced by greater than 2-fold in n-butyrate-treated cells and that there is a corresponding increase in u.v. repair incision rates in intact cells exposed to the drug. Non-toxic levels of n-butyrate induce a block to G1 phase transit and there is a significant growth delay on removal of the drug. Resistance of HT29 cells to u.v.-radiation and adriamycin is enhanced in n-butyrate-treated cells whereas X-ray sensitivity is increased. Although changes in the responses of cells to DNA damaging agents must be considered in relation to the effects of n-butyrate on growth rate and cell-cycle distribution, the results are not inconsistent with the proposal that increased enzymatic-accessibility/repair is biologically favourable for the resistance of cells to u.v.-radiation damage. Overall the results support the suggested operation of a histone acetylation-based chromatin surveillance system in human cells.

  17. Waste Workers’ Exposure to Airborne Fungal and Bacterial Species in the Truck Cab and During Waste Collection

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Alwan, Taif; Ørberg, Anders; Uhrbrand, Katrine; Jørgensen, Marie Birk

    2016-01-01

    A large number of people work with garbage collection, and exposure to microorganisms is considered an occupational health problem. However, knowledge on microbial exposure at species level is limited. The aim of the study was to achieve knowledge on waste collectors’ exposure to airborne inhalable fungal and bacterial species during waste collection with focus on the transport of airborne microorganisms into the truck cab. Airborne microorganisms were collected with samplers mounted in the truck cab, on the workers’ clothes, and outdoors. Fungal and bacterial species were quantified and identified. The study showed that the workers were exposed to between 112 and 4.8×104 bacteria m−3 air and 326 and 4.6×104 fungi m−3 air. The personal exposures to bacteria and fungi were significantly higher than the concentrations measured in the truck cabs and in the outdoor references. On average, the fungal and bacterial concentrations in truck cabs were 111 and 7.7 times higher than outdoor reference measurements. In total, 23 fungal and 38 bacterial species were found and identified. Most fungal species belonged to the genus Penicillium and in total 11 Penicillium species were found. Identical fungal species were often found both in a personal sample and in the same person’s truck cab, but concentrations were on average 27 times higher in personal samples. Concentrations of fungal and bacterial species found only in the personal samples were lower than concentrations of species also found in truck cabs. Skin-related bacteria constituted a large fraction of bacterial isolates found in personal and truck cab samples. In total, six Staphylococcus species were found. In outdoor samples, no skin-related bacteria were found. On average, concentrations of bacterial species found both in the truck cab and personal samples were 77 times higher in personal samples than in truck cab samples. In conclusion, high concentrations of fungi were found in truck cabs, but the

  18. Evaluation of EA-934NA with 2.5 percent Cab-O-Sil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, Gordon A.

    1990-01-01

    Currently, Hysol adhesive EA-934NA is used to bond the Field Joint Protection System on the Shuttle rocket motors at Kennedy Space Center. However, due to processing problems, an adhesive with a higher viscosity is needed to alleviate these difficulties. One possible solution is to add Cab-O-Sil to the current adhesive. The adhesive strength and bond strengths that can be obtained when 2.5 percent Cab-O-Sil is added to adhesive EA-934NA are examined and tested over a range of test temperatures from -20 to 300 F. Tensile adhesion button and lap shear specimens were bonded to D6AC steel and uniaxial tensile specimens (testing for strength, initial tangent modulus, elongation and Poisson's ratio) were prepared using Hysol adhesive EA-934NA with 2.5 percent Cab-O-Sil added. These specimens were tested at -20, 20, 75, 100, 125, 150, 200, 250, and 300 F, respectively. Additional tensile adhesion button specimens bonding Rust-Oleum primed and painted D6AC steel to itself and to cork using adhesive EA-934NA with 2.5 percent Cab-O-Sil added were tested at 20, 75, 125, 200, and 300 F, respectively. Results generally show decreasing strength values with increasing test temperatures. The bond strengths obtained using cork as a substrate were totally dependent on the cohesive strength of the cork.

  19. 49 CFR 238.209 - Forward end structure of locomotives, including cab cars and MU locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Forward end structure of locomotives, including... SAFETY STANDARDS Specific Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.209 Forward end structure of... locomotive, including a cab car and an MU locomotive, shall be: (i) Equivalent to a 1/2-inch steel plate...

  20. 49 CFR 238.209 - Forward end structure of locomotives, including cab cars and MU locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Forward end structure of locomotives, including... SAFETY STANDARDS Specific Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.209 Forward end structure of... locomotive, including a cab car and an MU locomotive, shall be: (i) Equivalent to a 1/2-inch steel plate...

  1. 49 CFR 238.209 - Forward end structure of locomotives, including cab cars and MU locomotives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Forward end structure of locomotives, including... SAFETY STANDARDS Specific Requirements for Tier I Passenger Equipment § 238.209 Forward end structure of... locomotive, including a cab car and an MU locomotive, shall be: (i) Equivalent to a 1/2-inch steel plate...

  2. 76. ARAII. After SL1 explosion, operators shielded crane cab try ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    76. ARA-II. After SL-1 explosion, operators shielded crane cab try to open door of SL-1 tank building. January 6, 1961. Ineel photo no. 61-80. Photographer: Holmes. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Army Reactors Experimental Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  3. The essential mycobacterial amidotransferase GatCAB is a modulator of specific translational fidelity.

    PubMed

    Su, Hong-Wei; Zhu, Jun-Hao; Li, Hao; Cai, Rong-Jun; Ealand, Christopher; Wang, Xun; Chen, Yu-Xiang; Kayani, Masood Ur Rehman; Zhu, Ting F; Moradigaravand, Danesh; Huang, Hairong; Kana, Bavesh D; Javid, Babak

    2016-01-01

    Although regulation of translation fidelity is an essential process(1-7), diverse organisms and organelles have differing requirements of translational accuracy(8-15), and errors in gene translation serve an adaptive function under certain conditions(16-20). Therefore, optimal levels of fidelity may vary according to context. Most bacteria utilize a two-step pathway for the specific synthesis of aminoacylated glutamine and/or asparagine tRNAs, involving the glutamine amidotransferase GatCAB(21-25), but it had not been appreciated that GatCAB may play a role in modulating mistranslation rates. Here, by using a forward genetic screen, we show that the mycobacterial GatCAB enzyme complex mediates the translational fidelity of glutamine and asparagine codons. We identify mutations in gatA that cause partial loss of function in the holoenzyme, with a consequent increase in rates of mistranslation. By monitoring single-cell transcription dynamics, we demonstrate that reduced gatCAB expression leads to increased mistranslation rates, which result in enhanced rifampicin-specific phenotypic resistance. Consistent with this, strains with mutations in gatA from clinical isolates of Mycobacterium tuberculosis show increased mistranslation, with associated antibiotic tolerance, suggesting a role for mistranslation as an adaptive strategy in tuberculosis. Together, our findings demonstrate a potential role for the indirect tRNA aminoacylation pathway in regulating translational fidelity and adaptive mistranslation. PMID:27564922

  4. Transport of butyrate across the isolated bovine rumen epithelium--interaction with sodium, chloride and bicarbonate.

    PubMed

    Sehested, J; Diernaes, L; Møller, P D; Skadhauge, E

    1999-08-01

    The Ussing chamber technique was used for studying unidirectional fluxes of 14C-butyrate across the bovine rumen epithelium in vitro. Significant amounts of butyrate were absorbed across the bovine rumen epithelium in vitro, without any external driving force. The paracellular pathway was quantitatively insignificant. The transcellular pathway was predominately voltage-insensitive. The serosal to mucosal (SM) pathway was regulated by mass action, whereas the mucosal to serosal (MS) pathway further includes a saturable process, which accounted for 30 to 55% of the MS flux. The studied transport process for 14C-butyrate across the epithelium could include metabolic processes and transport of 14C-labelled butyrate metabolites. The transport of butyrate interacted with Na+, Cl- and HCO3-, and there was a linear relationship between butyrate and sodium net transport. Lowering the sodium concentration from 140 to 10 mmol l-1 decreased the butyrate MS flux significantly. Amiloride (1 mmol l-1) did, however, not reduce the butyrate flux significantly. Chloride concentration in itself did not seem to influence the transport of butyrate, but chloride-free conditions tended to increase the MS and SM flux of butyrate by a DIDS-sensitive pathway. DIDS (bilateral 0.5 mmol l-1) did further decrease the butyrate SM flux significantly at all chloride concentrations. Removing bicarbonate from the experimental solutions decreased the MS and increased the SM flux of butyrate significantly, and abolished net butyrate flux. There were no significant effects of the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor Acetazolamide (bilateral 1.0 mmol l-1). The results can be explained by a model where butyrate and butyrate metabolites are transported both by passive diffusion and by an electroneutral anion-exchange with bicarbonate. The model couples sodium and butyrate via CO2 from metabolism of butyrate, and intracellular pH.

  5. Protection of the vehicle cab environment against bacteria, fungi and endotoxins in composting facilities.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, O; Huyard, A; Rybacki, D; Do Quang, Z

    2012-06-01

    Microbial quality of air inside vehicle cabs is a major occupational health risk management issue in composting facilities. Large differences and discrepancies in protection factors between vehicles and between biological agents have been reported. This study aimed at estimating the mean protection efficiency of the vehicle cab environment against bioaerosols with higher precision. In-cab measurement results were also analysed to ascertain whether or not these protection systems reduce workers' exposure to tolerable levels. Five front-end loaders, one mobile mixer and two agricultural tractors pulling windrow turners were investigated. Four vehicles were fitted with a pressurisation and high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration system. The four others were only equipped with pleated paper filter without pressurisation. Bacteria, fungi and endotoxins were measured in 72 pairs of air samples, simultaneously collected inside the cab and on the outside of the cab with a CIP 10-M sampler. A front-end loader, purchased a few weeks previously, fitted with a pressurisation and high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filtration system, and with a clean cab, exhibited a mean protection efficiency of between 99.47% CI 95% [98.58-99.97%] and 99.91% [99.78-99.98%] depending on the biological agent. It is likely that the lower protection efficiency demonstrated in other vehicles was caused by penetration through the only moderately efficient filters, by the absence of pressurisation, by leakage in the filter-sealing system, and by re-suspension of particles which accumulated in dirty cabs. Mean protection efficiency in regards to bacteria and endotoxins ranged between 92.64% [81.87-97.89%] and 98.61% [97.41-99.38%], and between 92.68% [88.11-96.08%] and 98.43% [97.44-99.22%], respectively. The mean protection efficiency was the lowest when confronted with fungal spores, from 59.76% [4.19-90.75%] to 94.71% [91.07-97.37%]. The probability that in-cab exposure to fungi

  6. U.S. Truck Driver Anthropometric Study and Multivariate Anthropometric Models for Cab Designs

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Jinhua; Hsiao, Hongwei; Bradtmiller, Bruce; Kau, Tsui-Ying; Reed, Matthew R.; Jahns, Steven K.; Loczi, Josef; Hardee, H. Lenora; Piamonte, Dominic Paul T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study presents data from a large-scale anthropometric study of U.S. truck drivers and the multivariate anthropometric models developed for the design of next-generation truck cabs. Background Up-to-date anthropometric information of the U.S. truck driver population is needed for the design of safe and ergonomically efficient truck cabs. Method We collected 35 anthropometric dimensions for 1,950 truck drivers (1,779 males and 171 females) across the continental United States using a sampling plan designed to capture the appropriate ethnic, gender, and age distributions of the truck driver population. Results Truck drivers are heavier than the U.S. general population, with a difference in mean body weight of 13.5 kg for males and 15.4 kg for females. They are also different in physique from the U.S. general population. In addition, the current truck drivers are heavier and different in physique compared to their counterparts of 25 to 30 years ago. Conclusion The data obtained in this study provide more accurate anthropometric information for cab designs than do the current U.S. general population data or truck driver data collected 25 to 30 years ago. Multivariate anthropometric models, spanning 95% of the current truck driver population on the basis of a set of 12 anthropometric measurements, have been developed to facilitate future cab designs. Application The up-to-date truck driver anthropometric data and multivariate anthropometric models will benefit the design of future truck cabs which, in turn, will help promote the safety and health of the U.S. truck drivers. PMID:23156628

  7. Modeling of protein-peptide interactions using the CABS-dock web server for binding site search and flexible docking.

    PubMed

    Blaszczyk, Maciej; Kurcinski, Mateusz; Kouza, Maksim; Wieteska, Lukasz; Debinski, Aleksander; Kolinski, Andrzej; Kmiecik, Sebastian

    2016-01-15

    Protein-peptide interactions play essential functional roles in living organisms and their structural characterization is a hot subject of current experimental and theoretical research. Computational modeling of the structure of protein-peptide interactions is usually divided into two stages: prediction of the binding site at a protein receptor surface, and then docking (and modeling) the peptide structure into the known binding site. This paper presents a comprehensive CABS-dock method for the simultaneous search of binding sites and flexible protein-peptide docking, available as a user's friendly web server. We present example CABS-dock results obtained in the default CABS-dock mode and using its advanced options that enable the user to increase the range of flexibility for chosen receptor fragments or to exclude user-selected binding modes from docking search. Furthermore, we demonstrate a strategy to improve CABS-dock performance by assessing the quality of models with classical molecular dynamics. Finally, we discuss the promising extensions and applications of the CABS-dock method and provide a tutorial appendix for the convenient analysis and visualization of CABS-dock results. The CABS-dock web server is freely available at http://biocomp.chem.uw.edu.pl/CABSdock/.

  8. [A new butyric acid-producing bacteroides species: B. splanchnicus n. sp. (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Werner, H; Rintelen, G; Kunstek-Santos, H

    1975-01-01

    Three butyric acid-producing saccharolytic Bacteroides cultures (1651/6, BM 158, and IPP 3751) were described by WERNER and REICHERTZ in 1971 (Zbl.Bakt.Hyg., I. Abt. Orig. A 217,206-216). Since then, 6 strains closely resembling 1651/6 were isolated from stool specimens and surgically removed appendices. In the present communication, strains 1651/6, S2/34, S3/38, S4/28, S6/6, A5/2 are described as members of a new species, Bacteroides splanchnicus n.sp. The strains were morphologically very similar (Gram negative non-sporing non-motile rods, 1-2.5 mu in length and 0.7 mu in width) and fermented glucose, fructose, galactose, mannose, lactose, and arabinose (pH values of 4.6-5.4, moderate gas formation). Negative reactions (pH values of 5.8-7.2) were observed with 20 other carbohydrates. The strains were positive in the glutamic acid decarboxylase test and formed indole and H2S. In peptone-yeast extract broth and peptone-yeast extract-glucose broth acetic, propionic, isobutyric, butyric, and isovaleric acids were produced. Washed cells of strains 1651/6 and S4/28 incubated anaerobically in sterile solutions of single amino acids produced butyrate from lysine only. Abundant butyric acid was also produced from glucose. The in vitro activity of 15 antibiotics on 5 strains was studied by broth dilution tests. Uniformly, the strains showed resistance to aminoglycosides and polymyxins (MIC values, 60-500 mug/ml) and susceptibility to tetracyclines, lincomycin, clindamycin, rifampicin, and erythromycin (MIC values, 0.05-0.5 mug/ml). Chloramphenicol, penicillins, and cephalosporins showed bacteriostatic activity at concentrations of 5-40 mug/ml. The serological behaviour of 5 strains was studied in cross-agglutination and gel-diffusion experiments. Cross-reactivity was pronounced in gel-diffusion tests using rabbit antisera and autoclaved extracts and extracts prepared by repeated deep-freezing and thawing of whole cell suspensions as antigens. However, antisera against the

  9. Fermentative effluents from hydrogen producing bioreactor as substrate for poly(beta-OH) butyrate production with simultaneous treatment: an integrated approach.

    PubMed

    Venkata Mohan, S; Reddy, M Venkateswar; Subhash, G Venkata; Sarma, P N

    2010-12-01

    The feasibility of bioplastics production as poly(beta-OH)butyrate (PHB) was studied with individual volatile fatty acids (VFA) and acid-rich effluents from a biohydrogen producing reactor (HBR) as primary substrates employing aerobic consortia as biocatalyst under anoxic microenvironment. Butyrate as substrate showed higher PHB productivity (33%) followed by acetate (32%), acids mixture (16%) and propionate (11%) among synthetic VFA studied. Acid-rich effluents from HBR yielded higher PHB productivity (25%) especially at lower substrate loading conditions. Decrement observed in PHB production (from 25% to 6%) with increase in substrate load might be due to the presence of high concentration of residual carbon along with acid metabolites. Neutral redox operation showed effective PHB production compared to acidic and basic conditions due to associated higher metabolic activity of the biocatalyst. The integrated approach helped to treat additional COD from acid-rich HBR effluents apart from by-product recovery. PMID:20667721

  10. Development of a specific radioimmunoassay for cortisol 17-butyrate

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, G.N.; Lee, Y.F.; Bu'Lock, D.E.; August, P.; Anderson, D.C.

    1983-07-01

    We describe the development and validation of an assay for cortisol 17-butyrate in blood in which there is no significant cross reaction with endogenous corticosteroids at levels encountered normally in man. Preliminary data on blood levels of the drug in absorption studies are presented.

  11. Optimized butyl butyrate synthesis catalyzed by Thermomyces lanuginosus lipase.

    PubMed

    Martins, Andréa B; Friedrich, John L R; Rodrigues, Rafael C; Garcia-Galan, Cristina; Fernandez-Lafuente, Roberto; Ayub, Marco A Z

    2013-01-01

    Butyl butyrate is an ester present in pineapple flavor, which is very important for the food and beverages industries. In this work, the optimization of the reaction of butyl butyrate synthesis catalyzed by the immobilized lipase Lipozyme TL-IM was performed. n-Hexane was selected as the most appropriate solvent. Other reaction parameters such as temperature, substrate molar ratio, biocatalyst content and added water, and their responses measured as yield, were evaluated using a fractional factorial design, followed by a central composite design (CCD) and response surface methodology. In the fractional design 2(4-1) , the four variables were tested and temperature and biocatalyst content were statistically significant and then used for optimization on CCD. The optimal conditions for butyl butyrate synthesis were found to be 48°C; substrate molar ratio 3:1 (butanol:butyric acid); biocatalyst content of 40% of acid mass. Under these conditions, over 90% of yield was obtained in 2 h. Enzyme reuse was tested by washing the biocatalyst with n-hexane or by direct reuse. The direct reuse produced a rapid decrease on enzyme activity, while washing with n-hexane allowed reusing the enzyme for five reactions cycles keeping approximately 85% of its activity.

  12. 4-(2-Methyl-4-chlorophenoxy) butyric acid (MCPB)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    4 - ( 2 - Methyl - 4 - chlorophenoxy ) butyric acid ( MCPB ) ; CASRN 94 - 81 - 5 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Hea

  13. Alternate splicing regulated by butyrate in the bovine epithelial cell

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As a signaling molecule and a potent inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HADCs), butyrate exerts its impacts on a broad range of biological processes, such as apoptosis and cell proliferation, in addition to its critical role in energy metabolism in ruminants. In this study, we examined the effect of...

  14. Flow cytometry analysis of cell cycle and specific cell synchronization with butyrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Synchronized cells have been invaluable in many kinds of cell cycle and cell proliferation studies. Butyrate induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in MDBK cells. The possibility of using butyrate-blocked cells to obtain synchronized cells was explored and the properties of butyrate-induced cell ...

  15. Butyrate-producing bacteria, including mucin degraders, from the swine intestinal tract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butyrate-producing microbes promote gastrointestinal health in the human gut, and similar benefits are likely derived from butyrate-producing microbes in other animal hosts. Consequently, there is considerable potential for butyrate-producing microbes to be utilized in health-promoting application...

  16. Quantification of transcriptome responses of the rumen epithelium to butyrate infusion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, produced by gut microorganisms play an important role in energy metabolism and physiology in ruminants as well as in human health. Butyrate is a preferred substrate in the rumen epithelium where approximately 90% of butyrate is metabolized. Additi...

  17. Role of rumen butyrate in regulation of nitrogen utilization and urea nitrogen kinetics in growing sheep

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butyrate, a major rumen VFA, has been indirectly linked to enhancement of urea recycling based on increased expression of urea transporter (UT-B) in the rumen epithelia of steers fed a rumen butyrate-enhancing diet. Two studies were conducted to quantify the effect of elevated rumen butyrate concent...

  18. Phase Diagrams of Binary Systems of Some Alkali Iso-Butyrates with One Mesogenic Component

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirnaya, T. A.; Yaremchuk, G. G.; Volkov, S. V.

    1995-09-01

    The phase diagrams of the binary mixtures of mesogenic potassium iso-butyrate with non-mesogenic lithium-, sodium-, and caesium iso-butyrate have been investigated by differential thermal analysis and hot stage polarization microscopy. The temperature and concentration ranges of liquid crystal formation have been established. Sodium and caesium iso-butyrate have been found to possess latent mesogenic properties.

  19. Oral administration of sodium butyrate attenuates inflammation and mucosal lesion in experimental acute ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Erica L M; Leonel, Alda J; Sad, Alexandre P; Beltrão, Nathália R M; Costa, Thaís F; Ferreira, Talita M R; Gomes-Santos, Ana C; Faria, Ana M C; Peluzio, Maria C G; Cara, Denise C; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline I

    2012-05-01

    Butyrate is a four-carbon short-chain fatty acid that improves colonic trophism. Although several studies have shown the benefits of butyrate enemas in ulcerative colitis (UC), studies using the oral route are rare in the literature. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of butyrate intake in the immune response associated to UC. For that, mice were fed control or butyrate (0.5% sodium butyrate) diets for 14 days. Acute UC was induced by dextran sulphate sodium (DSS, 2.5%), replacing drinking water. The results showed that, in UC animals, oral butyrate significantly improved trophism and reduced leukocyte (eosinophil and neutrophil) infiltration in the colon mucosa and improved the inflammatory profile (activated macrophage, B and T lymphocytes) in cecal lymph nodes. In the small intestine, although mucosa histology was similar among groups, DSS treatment reduced duodenal transforming growth factor-β, increased interleukin-10 concentrations and increased memory T lymphocytes and dendritic cells in Peyer's patches. Butyrate supplementation was able to revert these alterations. When cecal butyrate concentration was analyzed in cecal content, it was still higher in the healthy animals receiving butyrate than in the UC+butyrate and control groups. In conclusion, our results show that oral administration of sodium butyrate improves mucosa lesion and attenuates the inflammatory profile of intestinal mucosa, local draining lymph nodes and Peyer's patches of DSS-induced UC. Our results also highlight the potential use of butyrate supplements as adjuvant in UC treatment.

  20. Induction of peroxisomes by butyrate-producing probiotics.

    PubMed

    Weng, Huachun; Endo, Kosuke; Li, Jiawei; Kito, Naoko; Iwai, Naoharu

    2015-01-01

    We previously found that peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11a (Pex11a) deficiency is associated with a reduction in peroxisome abundance and impaired fatty acid metabolism in hepatocytes, and results in steatosis. In the present study, we investigated whether butyrate induces Pex11a expression and peroxisome proliferation, and studied its effect on lipid metabolism. C57BL/6 mice fed standard chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with tributyrin, 4-phelybutyrate acid (4-PBA), or the butyrate-producing probiotics (Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI 588 [CBM]) plus inulin (dietary fiber), and the body weight, white adipose tissue, serum triglycerides, mRNA expression, and peroxisome abundance were evaluated. Tributyrin or 4-PBA treatment significantly decreased body weight and increased hepatic mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α (PPARα) and Pex11a. In addition, 4-PBA treatment increased peroxisome abundance and the expression of genes involved in peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation (acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 and hydroxysteroid [17-beta] dehydrogenase 4). CBM and inulin administration reduced adipose tissue mass and serum triglycerides, induced Pex11a, acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1, and hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 4 genes, and increased peroxisome abundance in mice fed standard chow or an HFD. In conclusion, elevation of butyrate availability (directly through administration of butyrate or indirectly via administration of butyrate-producing probiotics plus fiber) induces PPARα and Pex11a and the genes involved in peroxisomal fatty acid β-oxidation, increases peroxisome abundance, and improves lipid metabolism. These results may provide a new therapeutic strategy against hyperlipidemia and obesity.

  1. Fragrance material review on α-methylbenzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α-methylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α-Methylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α-methylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, and repeated dose data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  2. Fragrance material review on p-anisyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-anisyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Anisyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-anisyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  3. Fragrance material review on ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22433983

  4. Acetate transport across the intestinal epithelium of an herbivorous teleost. [Oreochromis mossambicus

    SciTech Connect

    Titus, E.; Ahearn, G.A. )

    1990-02-26

    {sup 3}H-acetate transport across the upper intestine of the tilapia, Oreochromis mossabicus, using brush border and basolateral membrane vesicles, and intestinal sheets mounted in modified Ussing chambers was investigated. Brush border and basolateral vesicles demonstrated qualitatively similar anion antiport activity where, in the presence of a full profile of organic and inorganic anions, volatile fatty acids (VFA; acetate, propionate, butyrate) and bicarbonate showed reciprocal trans-stimulation and cis-inhibition of {sup 3}H-acetate influx, suggesting both membranes had the same VFA/bicarbonate exchange mechanism. Kinetic analysis of {sup 3}H-acetate influx into brush border and basolateral vesicles revealed different half-saturation constants (Km) as a function of external acetate concentrations (6.43 mM and 11.91 mM, respectively) and as a function of internal bicarbonate (5.89 mM and 0.41 mM, respectively). Intestinal sheets supported net absorptive fluxes when serosal acetate concentrations were held steady at 1.0 mM and mucosal acetate was varied from 1.60 to 10.0 mM. Unidirectional fluxes were significantly diminished by the addition of acetazolamide. This study postulates a transcellular transport pathway for VFA whereby qualitatively similar antiporters in series lead to a downhill flow of luminal acetate to the blood, which is driven by intracellular carbonic anhydrase and a transmural VFA concentration gradient.

  5. CAB-DWTM for 5 μm trace-width deposition of solar cell metallization top-contacts

    SciTech Connect

    Justin Hoey; Drew Thompson; Matt Robinson; Zakaria Mahmud; Orven F. Swenson; Iskander S. Akhatov; Douglas L. Schulz

    2009-06-08

    This paper reviews methods for creating solar cell grid contacts and explores how cell efficiency can be increased using CAB-DW{trademark}. Specifically, the efficiency of p-i-n structure solar cells built in-house with 90 {micro}m sputtered lines and 5 {micro}m CAB-DW lines were compared. Preliminary results of the comparison show a marked improvement in solar cell efficiency using CAB-DW. In addition to this, a theoretical and experimental analysis of the dynamics of particle impaction on a substrate (i.e. whether particle stick or bounce) will be discussed including how this analysis may lead to further improvement of CAB-DW.

  6. Conversion of cotton byproducts to mixed cellulose esters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton byproducts, such as cotton burr and cottonseed hull, can be used as low-cost feedstock for the production of specialty chemicals. The conversion of these cellulosic byproducts into mixed cellulose esters, e.g., cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB), was stud...

  7. Methane from acetate.

    PubMed

    Ferry, J G

    1992-09-01

    The general features are known for the pathway by which most methane is produced in nature. All acetate-utilizing methanogenic microorganisms contain CODH which catalyzes the cleavage of acetyl-CoA; however, the pathway differs from all other acetate-utilizing anaerobes in that the methyl group is reduced to methane with electrons derived from oxidation of the carbonyl group of acetyl-CoA to CO2. The current understanding of the methanogenic fermentation of acetate provides impressions of nature's novel solutions to problems of methyl transfer, electron transport, and energy conservation. The pathway is now at a level of understanding that will permit productive investigations of these and other interesting questions in the near future. PMID:1512186

  8. Expression and Functional Roles of the Pepper Pathogen-Induced bZIP Transcription Factor CabZIP2 in Enhanced Disease Resistance to Bacterial Pathogen Infection.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae Woo; Baek, Woonhee; Lim, Sohee; Han, Sang-Wook; Lee, Sung Chul

    2015-07-01

    A pepper bZIP transcription factor gene, CabZIP2, was isolated from pepper leaves infected with a virulent strain of Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria. Transient expression analysis of the CabZIP2-GFP fusion protein in Nicotiana benthamiana revealed that the CabZIP2 protein is localized in the cytoplasm as well as the nucleus. The acidic domain in the N-terminal region of CabZIP2 that is fused to the GAL4 DNA-binding domain is required to activate the transcription of reporter genes in yeast. Transcription of CabZIP2 is induced in pepper plants inoculated with virulent or avirulent strains of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria. The CabZIP2 gene is also induced by defense-related hormones such as salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, and ethylene. To elucidate the in vivo function of the CabZIP2 gene in plant defense, virus-induced gene silencing in pepper and overexpression in Arabidopsis were used. CabZIP2-silenced pepper plants were susceptible to infection by the virulent strain of X. campestris pv. vesicatoria, which was accompanied by reduced expression of defense-related genes such as CaBPR1 and CaAMP1. CabZIP2 overexpression in transgenic Arabidopsis plants conferred enhanced resistance to Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato DC3000. Together, these results suggest that CabZIP2 is involved in bacterial disease resistance.

  9. The daily life of a medium-size Data Centre. The CAB astronomical data center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, Enrique

    2015-12-01

    The Centro de Astrobiología (CAB) Data Centre is the most important astronomical data centre managed by a Spanish institution. Among others, it contains the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC) and the Calar Alto (CAHA) scientific archives. Nevertheless, our activities go well beyond data curation. Generation of high level data products (reduced datasets, catalogues,...), knowledge transfer to other Spanish data centres, development of tools to publish astronomical data in VO-compliant archives and services, development of data mining and analysis tools for an optimum scientific exploitation of our data collections and collaboration with scientific groups with research lines using CAB archive data are some of the topics that will be described in this presentation.

  10. Vehicle design influences whole body vibration exposures: effect of the location of the front axle relative to the cab.

    PubMed

    Blood, Ryan P; Rynell, Patrik W; Johnson, Peter W

    2011-06-01

    Using a repeated measure design, this study compared differences in whole body vibration (WBV) exposures among 13 drivers who drove a truck with the cab over the front axle (cab-over design) and a truck with the cab situated behind the front axle (non-cab-over design). The drivers drove both trucks over a standardized route that comprised three distinct segments: a freeway segment, a city street segment with stop-and-go driving (traffic lights), and a city street segment without traffic lights. A portable WBV data acquisition system collected tri-axial time-weighted and raw WBV data per ISO 2631-1 and 2631-5 standards. Simultaneous global positioning system (GPS) data were also collected to compare vehicle speeds. The GPS data indicated that there were no speed differences between the two vehicles. However, average and impulsive z-axis vibration levels were significantly higher for the cab-over design than for the non-cab-over design. In addition, significant WBV exposure differences between road types were found, with the freeway segments having the lowest exposures and the city street segments without traffic lights having the highest exposures. Vehicle type and the associated WBV exposures should be considered when purchasing vehicles to be used by full-time professional vehicle operators.

  11. Hybrid modelling and damping collaborative optimisation of Five-suspensions for coupling driver-seat-cab system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Leilei; Zhou, Changcheng; Yu, Yuewei; Yang, Fuxing

    2016-05-01

    For the complex structure and vibration characteristics of coupling driver-seat-cab system of trucks, there is no damping optimisation theory for its suspensions at present, which seriously restricts the improvement of vehicle ride comfort. Thus, in this paper, the seat suspension was regarded as 'the fifth suspension' of cab, the 'Five-suspensions' for this system was proposed. Based on this, using the mechanism modelling method, a 4 degree-of-freedom coupling driver-seat-cab system model was presented; then, by the tested cab suspensions excitation and seat acceleration response, its parameters identification mathematical model was established. Based on this, taking optimal ride comfort as target, its damping collaborative optimisation mathematical model was built. Combining the tested signals and a simulation model with the mathematical models of parameters identification and damping collaborative optimisation, a complete flow of hybrid modelling and damping collaborative optimisation of Five-suspensions was presented. With a practical example of seat and cab system, the damping parameters were optimised and validated by simulation and bench test. The results show that the model and method proposed are correct and reliable, providing a valuable reference for the design of seat suspension and cab suspensions.

  12. Tailoring the properties of asymmetric cellulose acetate membranes by gas plasma etching.

    PubMed

    Olde Riekerink, M B; Engbers, G H M; Wessling, M; Feijen, J

    2002-01-15

    Cellulose triacetate (CTA) ultrafilters and cellulose acetate blend (CAB) desalination membranes were treated with a radiofrequency gas plasma (tetrafluoromethane (CF(4)) or carbon dioxide (CO(2)), 47-49 W, 0.04-0.08 mbar). Treatment times were varied between 15 s and 120 min. The plasma-treated top layer of the membranes was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements to obtain information about surface structure, chemistry, and wettability, respectively. The membrane properties (e.g., permeability, selectivity, fouling) were studied by waterflux measurements, molecular weight cutoff measurements, and fouling experiments with bovine serum albumin. CO(2) plasma treatment resulted in gradual etching of the membrane's dense top layer. Permeation and selectivity changed significantly for treatment times of 0-15 min for CTA and 5-60 min for CAB membranes. Moreover, CTA membranes were hydrophilized during CO(2) plasma treatment whereas CF(4) plasma treatment led to hydrophobic surfaces due to strong fluorination of the top layer. This study shows that gas plasma etching can tailor the properties of asymmetric cellulose acetate membranes by simultaneously modifying the chemistry and structure of the top layer. The low fouling properties of CTA membranes were thereby largely maintained.

  13. Sleeper Cab Climate Control Load Reduction for Long-Haul Truck Rest Period Idling

    SciTech Connect

    Lustbader, J. A.; Kreutzer, C.; Adelman, S.; Yeakel, S.; Zehme, J.

    2015-04-29

    Annual fuel use for long-haul truck rest period idling is estimated at 667 million gallons in the United States. The U.S. Department of Energy’s National Renewable Energy Laboratory’s CoolCab project aims to reduce heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC) loads and resulting fuel use from rest period idling by working closely with industry to design efficient long-haul truck climate control systems while maintaining occupant comfort. Enhancing the thermal performance of cab/sleepers will enable smaller, lighter, and more cost-effective idle reduction solutions. In order for candidate idle reduction technologies to be implemented at the original equipment manufacturer and fleet level, their effectiveness must be quantified. To address this need, a number of promising candidate technologies were evaluated through experimentation and modeling to determine their effectiveness in reducing rest period HVAC loads. For this study, load reduction strategies were grouped into the focus areas of solar envelope, occupant environment, and conductive pathways. The technologies selected for a complete-cab package of technologies were “ultra-white” paint, advanced insulation, and advanced curtains. To measure the impact of these technologies, a nationally-averaged solar-weighted reflectivity long-haul truck paint color was determined and applied to the baseline test vehicle. Using the complete-cab package of technologies, electrical energy consumption for long-haul truck daytime rest period air conditioning was reduced by at least 35% for summer weather conditions in Colorado. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory's CoolCalc model was then used to extrapolate the performance of the thermal load reduction technologies nationally for 161 major U.S. cities using typical weather conditions for each location over an entire year.

  14. PBF Reactor Building (PER620). Camera is in cab of electricpowered ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PBF Reactor Building (PER-620). Camera is in cab of electric-powered rail crane and facing east. Reactor pit and storage canal have been shaped. Floors for wings on east and west side are above and below reactor in view. Photographer: Larry Page. Date: August 23, 1967. INEEL negative no. 67-4403 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, SPERT-I & Power Burst Facility Area, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  15. Tcf3 and cell cycle factors contribute to butyrate resistance in colorectal cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chiaro, Christopher; Lazarova, Darina L.; Bordonaro, Michael

    2012-11-09

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We investigate mechanisms responsible for butyrate resistance in colon cancer cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tcf3 modulates butyrate's effects on Wnt activity and cell growth in resistant cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tcf3 modulation of butyrate's effects differ by cell context. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell cycle factors are overexpressed in the resistant cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Reversal of altered gene expression can enhance the anti-cancer effects of butyrate. -- Abstract: Butyrate, a fermentation product of dietary fiber, inhibits clonal growth in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells dependent upon the fold induction of Wnt activity. We have developed a CRC cell line (HCT-R) that, unlike its parental cell line, HCT-116, does not respond to butyrate exposure with hyperactivation of Wnt signaling and suppressed clonal growth. PCR array analyses revealed Wnt pathway-related genes, the expression of which differs between butyrate-sensitive HCT-116 CRC cells and their butyrate-resistant HCT-R cell counterparts. We identified overexpression of Tcf3 as being partially responsible for the butyrate-resistant phenotype, as this DNA-binding protein suppresses the hyperinduction of Wnt activity by butyrate. Consequently, Tcf3 knockdown in HCT-R cells restores their sensitivity to the effects of butyrate on Wnt activity and clonal cell growth. Interestingly, the effects of overexpressed Tcf3 differ between HCT-116 and HCT-R cells; thus, in HCT-116 cells Tcf3 suppresses proliferation without rendering the cells resistant to butyrate. In HCT-R cells, however, the overexpression of Tcf3 inhibits Wnt activity, and the cells are still able to proliferate due to the higher expression levels of cell cycle factors, particularly those driving the G{sub 1} to S transition. Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms determining the variable sensitivity of CRC cells to butyrate may assist in developing approaches that prevent or

  16. Pesticide aerosol characteristics in the vicinity of an agricultural vehicle cab during application.

    PubMed

    Bémer, Denis; Fismes, Joelle; Subra, Isabelle; Blachère, Veronique; Protois, Jean-Claude

    2007-07-01

    Pesticide spraying for crop protection leads to the formation of a mist of droplets, part of which is dispersed into the atmosphere. The characteristics of this aerosol, namely its particle size distribution and concentration, were measured during five campaigns involving cereal crop growing, wine grape culture, and orcharding. The measurement method incorporated a tracer product (fluorescein) with the treatment product; the pesticide aerosol concentration was then deduced from the tracer concentration. This method was validated by comparing the pesticide concentration determined by tracing with the concentration determined by direct measurement of the active substance of the pesticide. Concentration was measured using sampling filters, and particle size distribution was measured using cascade impactors. Instruments were mounted on an agricultural vehicle cab to optimize aerosol characterization, and then the cab's confinement efficiency was determined. Aerosols analyzed were fine, featuring mass median diameters between 4 microm and 15 microm; they are therefore highly dispersive. Their concentration is sufficiently high to justify operator protection by an efficient, filtered-air, pressurized cab, especially in wine grape culture and orcharding, which are the sectors where the highest pesticide transfers have been observed.

  17. Anthropometric criteria for the design of tractor cabs and protection frames.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, H; Whitestone, J; Bradtmiller, B; Whisler, R; Zwiener, J; Lafferty, C; Kau, T-Y; Gross, M

    2005-03-15

    Improved human-tractor interface designs, such as well-accommodated operator enclosures (i.e. cabs and protection frames) can enhance operator productivity, comfort and safety. This study investigated farm-worker anthropometry and determined the critical anthropometric measures and 3-D feature envelopes of body landmarks for the design of tractor operator enclosures. One hundred agriculture workers participated in the study. Their body size and shape information was registered, using a 3-D full-body laser scanner. Knee height (sitting) and another eight parameters were found to affect the cab-enclosure accommodation rating and multiple anthropometric dimensions interactively affected the steering wheel and gear-handle impediment. A principal component analysis has identified 15 representative human body models for digitally assessing tractor-cab accommodation. A set of centroid coordinates of 34 body landmarks and the 95% confidence semi-axis-length for each landmark location were developed to guide tractor designers in their placement of tractor control components in order to best accommodate the user population. Finally, the vertical clearance (90 cm) for agriculture tractor enclosure in the current SAE International J2194 standard appeared to be too short as compared to the 99th percentile sitting height of male farm workers in this study (100.6 cm) and in the 1994 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III database (99.9 cm) and of the male civilian population in the 2002 Civilian American and European Surface Anthropometric Resource database (100.4 cm). PMID:15804844

  18. Conceptual design study for an advanced cab and visual system, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rue, R. J.; Cyrus, M. L.; Garnett, T. A.; Nachbor, J. W.; Seery, J. A.; Starr, R. L.

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to define requirements for an advanced cab and visual system. The rotorcraft system integration simulator is for engineering studies in the area of mission associated vehicle handling qualities. Principally a technology survey and assessment of existing and proposed simulator visual display systems, image generation systems, modular cab designs, and simulator control station designs were performed and are discussed. State of the art survey data were used to synthesize a set of preliminary visual display system concepts of which five candidate display configurations were selected for further evaluation. Basic display concepts incorporated in these configurations included: real image projection, using either periscopes, fiber optic bundles, or scanned laser optics; and virtual imaging with helmet mounted displays. These display concepts were integrated in the study with a simulator cab concept employing a modular base for aircraft controls, crew seating, and instrumentation (or other) displays. A simple concept to induce vibration in the various modules was developed and is described. Results of evaluations and trade offs related to the candidate system concepts are given, along with a suggested weighting scheme for numerically comparing visual system performance characteristics.

  19. In-Cab Air Quality of Trucks Air Conditioned and Kept in Electrified Truck Stop

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Doh-Won; Zietsman, Josias; Farzaneh, Mohamadreza; Li, Wen-Whai; Olvera, Hector; Storey, John Morse; Kranendonk, Laura

    2009-01-01

    At night, long-haul truck drivers rest inside the cabins of their vehicles. Therefore, the in-cab air quality while air conditioning (A/C) is being provided can be a great concern to the drivers health. The effect of using different A/C methods [truck's A/C, auxiliary power unit (APU), and truck stop electrification (TSE) unit] on in-cab air quality of a heavy-duty diesel vehicle was investigated at an electrified truck stop in the El Paso, Texas, area. The research team measured the in-cabin and the ambient air quality adjacent to the parked diesel truck as well as emissions from the truck and an APU while it was providing A/C. The measured results were compared and analyzed. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that the TSE unit provided better in-cab air quality while supplying A/C. Furthermore, the truck and APU exhaust emissions were measured, and fuel consumption of the truck (while idling) and the APU (during operation) were compared. The results led to the finding that emissions from the APU were less than those from the truck's engine idling, but the APU consumed more fuel than the engine while providing A/C under given conditions.

  20. Pesticide aerosol characteristics in the vicinity of an agricultural vehicle cab during application.

    PubMed

    Bémer, Denis; Fismes, Joelle; Subra, Isabelle; Blachère, Veronique; Protois, Jean-Claude

    2007-07-01

    Pesticide spraying for crop protection leads to the formation of a mist of droplets, part of which is dispersed into the atmosphere. The characteristics of this aerosol, namely its particle size distribution and concentration, were measured during five campaigns involving cereal crop growing, wine grape culture, and orcharding. The measurement method incorporated a tracer product (fluorescein) with the treatment product; the pesticide aerosol concentration was then deduced from the tracer concentration. This method was validated by comparing the pesticide concentration determined by tracing with the concentration determined by direct measurement of the active substance of the pesticide. Concentration was measured using sampling filters, and particle size distribution was measured using cascade impactors. Instruments were mounted on an agricultural vehicle cab to optimize aerosol characterization, and then the cab's confinement efficiency was determined. Aerosols analyzed were fine, featuring mass median diameters between 4 microm and 15 microm; they are therefore highly dispersive. Their concentration is sufficiently high to justify operator protection by an efficient, filtered-air, pressurized cab, especially in wine grape culture and orcharding, which are the sectors where the highest pesticide transfers have been observed. PMID:17487720

  1. Pretreatment of corn stover with diluted acetic acid for enhancement of acidogenic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Wang, Lijuan; Lu, Xuebin; Zhang, Shuting

    2014-04-01

    A Box-Behnken design of response surface method was used to optimize acetic acid-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment of corn stover, in respect to acid concentration (0.05-0.25%), treatment time (5-15 min) and reaction temperature (180-210°C). Acidogenic fermentations with different initial pH and hydrolyzates were also measured to evaluate the optimal pretreatment conditions for maximizing acid production. The results showed that pretreatment with 0.25% acetic acid at 191°C for 7.74 min was found to be the most optimal condition for pretreatment of corn stover under which the production of acids can reach the highest level. Acidogenic fermentation with the hydrolyzate of pretreatment at the optimal condition at the initial pH=5 was shown to be butyric acid type fermentation, producing 21.84 g acetic acid, 7.246 g propionic acid, 9.170 butyric acid and 1.035 g isovaleric acid from 100g of corn stover in 900 g of water containing 2.25 g acetic acid.

  2. Unusual aggregation of bis(2-quinuclidinium-butyrate) hydrobromides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dega-Szafran, Z.; Katrusiak, A.; Szafran, M.

    2010-12-01

    The molecular structure of di-[bis(2-quinuclidinium-butyrate) hydrobromide], [(QNBu) 2HBr] 2 ( 1), has been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and DFT calculations. The crystals ( 1) are monoclinic, space group P2 1/c with [(QNBu) 2HBr] 2 symmetry-independent units. The complex 1 consists of two independent homoconjugated cations, in which two ( S) QNBu semications, and ( S) and ( R) QNBu semications are joined by short, symmetrical O⋯H⋯O hydrogen bonds of 2.418(12) and 2.411(13) Å, respectively. The bromide anions interact electrostatically with the one positively charged nitrogen atom of each cation. The presence of short OHO hydrogen bonds is confirmed by the broad absorption in the 1500-400 cm -1 region, with the center of gravity, νH, at ca. 900 cm -1, in the solid-state FTIR spectrum. In the structure of [(QNBu) 2HBr] 2 ( 2) optimized at the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory, the 2-quinuclidinium-butyrate units are non-equivalent. In each homoconjugated cation the 2-quinuclidinium-butyric acid interacts with the QNBu inner salt by the short, asymmetric O-H···O hydrogen bonds of 2.440 and 2.446 Å, respectively. Each bromide anion interacts electrostatically with the positively charged nitrogen atoms from both homoconjugated cations, which fold into a globular supramolecular aggregate.

  3. Tcf3 and cell cycle factors contribute to butyrate resistance in colorectal cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Chiaro, Christopher; Lazarova, Darina L; Bordonaro, Michael

    2012-11-01

    Butyrate, a fermentation product of dietary fiber, inhibits clonal growth in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells dependent upon the fold induction of Wnt activity. We have developed a CRC cell line (HCT-R) that, unlike its parental cell line, HCT-116, does not respond to butyrate exposure with hyperactivation of Wnt signaling and suppressed clonal growth. PCR array analyses revealed Wnt pathway-related genes, the expression of which differs between butyrate-sensitive HCT-116 CRC cells and their butyrate-resistant HCT-R cell counterparts. We identified overexpression of Tcf3 as being partially responsible for the butyrate-resistant phenotype, as this DNA-binding protein suppresses the hyperinduction of Wnt activity by butyrate. Consequently, Tcf3 knockdown in HCT-R cells restores their sensitivity to the effects of butyrate on Wnt activity and clonal cell growth. Interestingly, the effects of overexpressed Tcf3 differ between HCT-116 and HCT-R cells; thus, in HCT-116 cells Tcf3 suppresses proliferation without rendering the cells resistant to butyrate. In HCT-R cells, however, the overexpression of Tcf3 inhibits Wnt activity, and the cells are still able to proliferate due to the higher expression levels of cell cycle factors, particularly those driving the G(1) to S transition. Knowledge of the molecular mechanisms determining the variable sensitivity of CRC cells to butyrate may assist in developing approaches that prevent or reverse butyrate resistance.

  4. Clostridium butyricum reduce lipogenesis through bacterial wall components and butyrate.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu; Guo, Yuming; Liu, Hongbin; Gao, Jing; Nie, Wei

    2014-09-01

    Intervention strategies for obesity are global issues that require immediate attention. The objective of this study was to assess the possibility that Clostridium butyricum and its potential components could reduce lipogenesis. Co-culture experiments of Caco-2 cells and 1 × 10(6), 1 × 10(7), and 1 × 10(8) CFU/ml of C. butyricum were set up to monitor the cytotoxicity of C. butyricum and the changes of angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) mRNA expression. It was found that cell viability was not affected by C. butyricum, and ANGPTL4 mRNA expression in Caco-2 cells was highly induced by 1 × 10(7) CFU/ml of C. butyricum. Co-culture experiment of Caco-2 cells and potential components of C. butyricum were set up to monitor any ensuing alteration in ANGPTL4. It was observed that bacterial wall components and potentially secreted factors from C. butyricum could induce ANGPTL4 mRNA expression and protein secretion. To determine whether butyrate could affect the ANGPTL4 production in Caco-2 cells, the role of monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in mediating potentially secreted factors from C. butyricum-induced ANGPTL4 production in Caco-2 cells and the effect of 0.1 mM of butyrate on ANGPTL4 production in Caco-2 cells were investigated. It is confirmed that butyrate was the factor secreted by C. butyricum to stimulate ANGPTL4 production. Besides, the soluble factors secreted by live C. butyricum-Caco-2 cells interaction, bacterial wall components-Caco-2 cells interaction, and the main metabolites butyrate-Caco-2 cells interaction reduced lipogenic gene expression in HepG2 cells. In conclusion, 1 × 10(7) CFU/ml of C. butyricum could reduce lipogenesis through the bacterial wall components and the metabolites such as butyrate.

  5. Hydrogen bonding and molecular association in 2-(quinuclidinium)-butyric acid bromide hydrate studied by X-ray diffraction, DFT calculations, FTIR and NMR spectroscopy, and potentiometric titration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dega-Szafran, Z.; Katrusiak, A.; Szafran, M.; Barczyński, P.

    2010-06-01

    The structure of 2-(quinuclidinium)-butyric acid bromide hydrate (QNBu·H 2O·HBr, 3) has been determined by X-ray diffraction, DFT calculations and characterized by FTIR and NMR spectroscopy. Crystals of 3 are monoclinic, space group P2 1. The water molecule interacts with the carboxylic group of 2-(quinuclidinium)-butyric acid and with the bromide anion by the COOH⋯OH 2 and HOH⋯Br hydrogen bonds of 2.575(3) and 3.293(2) Å, respectively. The structures of monomer ( 4) and dimeric cation ( 5) of the title complex have been optimized by the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) approach, yielding conformations consistent with this in the crystal. The solid-state FTIR spectra of 3 and its deuterated analogue have been measured and compared with the theoretical spectrum of 4. The assignments of the observed and predicted bands have been proposed. The molecule of 3 has a chiral center at the C(9) atom, which is responsible for the non-magnetically equivalence of the α-ring and C(11)H 2 methylene protons in 1H NMR spectrum. The values of p Ka of quinuclidinium-acetate (quinuclidine betaine), 2-(quinuclidinium)-propionate and 2-(quinuclidinium)-butyrate have been determined by the potentiometric titration of their hydrohalides.

  6. Acetate Production by Methanogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Westermann, Peter; Ahring, Birgitte K.; Mah, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Methanosarcina barkeri MS and 227 and Methanosarcina mazei S-6 produced acetate when grown on H2-CO2, methanol, or trimethylamine. Marked differences in acetate production by the two bacterial species were found, even though methane and cell yields were nearly the same. M. barkeri produced 30 to 75 μmol of acetate per mmol of CH4 formed, but M. mazei produced only 8 to 9 μmol of acetate per mmol of CH4. PMID:16348006

  7. Acetate dependence of tumors.

    PubMed

    Comerford, Sarah A; Huang, Zhiguang; Du, Xinlin; Wang, Yun; Cai, Ling; Witkiewicz, Agnes K; Walters, Holly; Tantawy, Mohammed N; Fu, Allie; Manning, H Charles; Horton, Jay D; Hammer, Robert E; McKnight, Steven L; Tu, Benjamin P

    2014-12-18

    Acetyl-CoA represents a central node of carbon metabolism that plays a key role in bioenergetics, cell proliferation, and the regulation of gene expression. Highly glycolytic or hypoxic tumors must produce sufficient quantities of this metabolite to support cell growth and survival under nutrient-limiting conditions. Here, we show that the nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA synthetase enzyme, ACSS2, supplies a key source of acetyl-CoA for tumors by capturing acetate as a carbon source. Despite exhibiting no gross deficits in growth or development, adult mice lacking ACSS2 exhibit a significant reduction in tumor burden in two different models of hepatocellular carcinoma. ACSS2 is expressed in a large proportion of human tumors, and its activity is responsible for the majority of cellular acetate uptake into both lipids and histones. These observations may qualify ACSS2 as a targetable metabolic vulnerability of a wide spectrum of tumors.

  8. Effects of ruminal ammonia and butyrate concentrations on reticuloruminal epithelial blood flow and volatile fatty acid absorption kinetics under washed reticulorumen conditions in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Storm, A C; Hanigan, M D; Kristensen, N B

    2011-08-01

    The effect of reticuloruminal epithelial blood flow on the absorption of propionate as a volatile fatty acid (VFA) marker in 8 lactating Holstein cows was studied under washed rumen conditions. The cows were surgically prepared with ruminal cannulas and permanent catheters in an artery and mesenteric, right ruminal, and hepatic portal veins. The experiment was designed with 2 groups of cows: 4 cows adapted to high crude protein (CP) and 4 to low CP. All cows were subjected to 3 buffers: butyric, ammonia, and control in a randomized replicated 3 × 3 incomplete Latin square design. The buffers (30 kg) were maintained in a temporarily emptied and washed rumen for 40 min. The initial concentration of VFA was 84.2 mmol/L. Butyrate was increased from 4 to 36 mmol/L in butyric buffer by replacement of acetate, and ammonia (NH(3)) was increased from 2.5 to 22.5 mmol/L in ammonia buffer by replacement of NaCl. Increasing amounts of deuterium oxide (D(2)O) were added to the buffers as the order of buffer sequence increased (6, 12, and 18 g of D(2)O). Ruminal clearance of D(2)O was used to estimate epithelial blood flow. To increase accuracy of the epithelial blood flow estimates, data of ruminal liquid marker (Cr-EDTA), and initial and final buffer volumes were fitted to a dynamic simulation model. The model was used to estimate ruminal liquid passages, residual liquid, and water influx (saliva and epithelia water) for each combination of cow and buffer (n=24). Epithelial blood flow increased 49±11% for butyric buffer compared with control. The ruminal disappearance of propionate (marker VFA) was affected by buffer and followed the same pattern as for epithelial blood flow. The correlation between ruminal disappearance of propionate and epithelial blood flow (r=0.56) indicates that the removal of propionate can be limited by epithelial blood flow. The ruminal disappearance of propionate increased 30±12% for the butyric compared with ammonia buffer and 12.5±8% when

  9. Effects of ruminal ammonia and butyrate concentrations on reticuloruminal epithelial blood flow and volatile fatty acid absorption kinetics under washed reticulorumen conditions in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Storm, A C; Hanigan, M D; Kristensen, N B

    2011-08-01

    The effect of reticuloruminal epithelial blood flow on the absorption of propionate as a volatile fatty acid (VFA) marker in 8 lactating Holstein cows was studied under washed rumen conditions. The cows were surgically prepared with ruminal cannulas and permanent catheters in an artery and mesenteric, right ruminal, and hepatic portal veins. The experiment was designed with 2 groups of cows: 4 cows adapted to high crude protein (CP) and 4 to low CP. All cows were subjected to 3 buffers: butyric, ammonia, and control in a randomized replicated 3 × 3 incomplete Latin square design. The buffers (30 kg) were maintained in a temporarily emptied and washed rumen for 40 min. The initial concentration of VFA was 84.2 mmol/L. Butyrate was increased from 4 to 36 mmol/L in butyric buffer by replacement of acetate, and ammonia (NH(3)) was increased from 2.5 to 22.5 mmol/L in ammonia buffer by replacement of NaCl. Increasing amounts of deuterium oxide (D(2)O) were added to the buffers as the order of buffer sequence increased (6, 12, and 18 g of D(2)O). Ruminal clearance of D(2)O was used to estimate epithelial blood flow. To increase accuracy of the epithelial blood flow estimates, data of ruminal liquid marker (Cr-EDTA), and initial and final buffer volumes were fitted to a dynamic simulation model. The model was used to estimate ruminal liquid passages, residual liquid, and water influx (saliva and epithelia water) for each combination of cow and buffer (n=24). Epithelial blood flow increased 49±11% for butyric buffer compared with control. The ruminal disappearance of propionate (marker VFA) was affected by buffer and followed the same pattern as for epithelial blood flow. The correlation between ruminal disappearance of propionate and epithelial blood flow (r=0.56) indicates that the removal of propionate can be limited by epithelial blood flow. The ruminal disappearance of propionate increased 30±12% for the butyric compared with ammonia buffer and 12.5±8% when

  10. Down-regulation of protein kinase CKII activity by sodium butyrate.

    PubMed

    Russo, G L; Della Pietra, V; Mercurio, C; Della Ragione, F; Marshak, D R; Oliva, A; Zappia, V

    1997-04-28

    Butyrate, a dietary fiber derivative, is a well-known differentiating agent in cultured cell lines. In addition, its antineoplastic activity toward colon-rectum cancers has been documented both in vivo and in vitro. Despite the large amount of information on the potential clinical efficacy of butyrate, its mechanism of action at the molecular level has only been partially investigated. Here, we show that serine/threonine protein kinase CKII is a target of butyrate activity. In the human adenocarcinoma cell line, HT29, treated with 2 mM sodium butyrate, CKII activity decreases 50% at 24 and 48 hours after drug addition. The enzyme down-regulation is not due to changes in protein amount since the levels of the different CKII subunits remain constant during butyrate treatment. The data reported provide the first evidence that CKII down-regulation is involved in the signal transduction pathway started by butyrate.

  11. Butyric acid fermentation of sodium hydroxide pretreated rice straw with undefined mixed culture.

    PubMed

    Ai, Binling; Li, Jianzheng; Chi, Xue; Meng, Jia; Liu, Chong; Shi, En

    2014-05-01

    This study describes an alternative mixed culture fermentation technology to anaerobically convert lignocellulosic biomass into butyric acid, a valuable product with wide application, without supplementary cellulolytic enzymes. Rice straw was soaked in 1% NaOH solution to increase digestibility. Among the tested pretreatment conditions, soaking rice straw at 50°C for 72 h removed ~66% of the lignin, but retained ~84% of the cellulose and ~71% of the hemicellulose. By using an undefined cellulose-degrading butyrate-producing microbial community as butyric acid producer in batch fermentation, about 6 g/l of butyric acid was produced from the pretreated rice straw, which accounted for ~76% of the total volatile fatty acids. In the repeated-batch operation, the butyric acid production declined batch by batch, which was most possibly caused by the shift of microbial community structure monitored by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. In this study, batch operation was observed to be more suitable for butyric acid production.

  12. Expression and specificity profile of the major acetate transporter AcpA in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Sá-Pessoa, Joana; Amillis, Sotiris; Casal, Margarida; Diallinas, George

    2015-03-01

    AcpA has been previously characterized as a high-affinity transporter essential for the uptake and use of acetate as sole carbon source in Aspergillus nidulans. Here, we follow the expression profile of AcpA and define its substrate specificity. AcpA-mediated acetate transport is detected from the onset of conidiospore germination, peaks at the time of germ tube emergence, and drops to low basal levels in germlings and young mycelia, where a second acetate transporter is also becoming apparent. AcpA activity also responds to acetate presence in the growth medium, but is not subject to either carbon or nitrogen catabolite repression. Short-chain monocarboxylates (benzoate, formate, butyrate and propionate) inhibit AcpA-mediated acetate transport with apparent inhibition constants (Ki) of 16.89±2.12, 9.25±1.01, 12.06±3.29 and 1.44±0.13mM, respectively. AcpA is also shown not to be directly involved in ammonia export, as proposed for its Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologue Ady2p. In the second part of this work, we search for the unknown acetate transporter expressed in mycelia, and for other transporters that might contribute to acetate uptake. In silico analysis, genetic construction of relevant null mutants, and uptake assays, reveal that the closest AcpA homologue (AN1839), named AcpB, is the 'missing' secondary acetate transporter in mycelia. We also identify two major short-chain carboxylate (lactate, succinate, pyruvate and malate) transporters, named JenA (AN6095) and JenB (AN6703), which however are not involved in acetate uptake. This work establishes a framework for further exploiting acetate and carboxylate transport in filamentous ascomycetes. PMID:25708319

  13. CABS-dock web server for the flexible docking of peptides to proteins without prior knowledge of the binding site

    PubMed Central

    Kurcinski, Mateusz; Jamroz, Michal; Blaszczyk, Maciej; Kolinski, Andrzej; Kmiecik, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Protein–peptide interactions play a key role in cell functions. Their structural characterization, though challenging, is important for the discovery of new drugs. The CABS-dock web server provides an interface for modeling protein–peptide interactions using a highly efficient protocol for the flexible docking of peptides to proteins. While other docking algorithms require pre-defined localization of the binding site, CABS-dock does not require such knowledge. Given a protein receptor structure and a peptide sequence (and starting from random conformations and positions of the peptide), CABS-dock performs simulation search for the binding site allowing for full flexibility of the peptide and small fluctuations of the receptor backbone. This protocol was extensively tested over the largest dataset of non-redundant protein–peptide interactions available to date (including bound and unbound docking cases). For over 80% of bound and unbound dataset cases, we obtained models with high or medium accuracy (sufficient for practical applications). Additionally, as optional features, CABS-dock can exclude user-selected binding modes from docking search or to increase the level of flexibility for chosen receptor fragments. CABS-dock is freely available as a web server at http://biocomp.chem.uw.edu.pl/CABSdock. PMID:25943545

  14. Inflammation-Induced Downregulation of Butyrate Uptake and Oxidation Is Not Caused by a Reduced Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Boesmans, Leen; Ramakers, Meine; Arijs, Ingrid; Windey, Karen; Vanhove, Wiebe; Schuit, Frans; Rutgeerts, Paul; Verbeke, Kristin; De Preter, Vicky

    2015-02-01

    In ulcerative colitis (UC) the butyrate metabolism is impaired, leading to energy-deficiency in the colonic cells. The effect of inflammation on the butyrate metabolism was investigated. HT-29 cells were incubated with pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and/or IFN-γ) for 1 and 24 h. Cells were additionally stimulated with butyrate to investigate its anti-inflammatory potential. Butyrate uptake and oxidation were measured using (14)C-labeled butyrate. Gene expression of the butyrate metabolism enzymes, interleukin 8 (IL-8; inflammatory marker) and villin-1 (VIL-1; epithelial cell damage marker) was measured via quantitative RT-PCR. Significantly increased IL-8 expression and decreased VIL-1 expression after 24 h incubation with TNF-α and/or IFN-γ confirmed the presence of inflammation. These conditions induced a decrease of both butyrate uptake and oxidation, whereas the gene expression was not reduced. Simultaneous incubation with butyrate counteracted the reduced butyrate oxidation. In contrast, 1 h incubation with TNF-α induced a significant increased IL-8 expression and decreased butyrate uptake. Incubation with TNF-α and/or IFN-γ for 1 h did not induce cell damage nor influence butyrate oxidation. The inflammation-induced downregulation of the butyrate metabolism was not caused by a reduced gene expression, but appeared consequential to a decreased butyrate uptake. Increasing the luminal butyrate levels might have therapeutic potential in UC.

  15. Biosynthesis of heparin. Effects of n-butyrate on cultured mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Jacobsson, K.G.; Riesenfeld, J.; Lindahl, U.

    1985-10-05

    Murine mastocytoma cells were incubated in vitro with inorganic (TVS)sulfate, in the absence or presence of 2.5 mM n-butyrate, and labeled heparin was isolated. The polysaccharide produced in the presence of butyrate showed a lower charge density on anion exchange chromatography than did the control material and a 3-fold increased proportion of components with high affinity for antithrombin. Structural analysis of heparin labeled with (TH) glucosamine in the presence of butyrate showed that approximately 35% of the glucosamine units were N-acetylated, as compared to approximately 10% in the control material; the nonacetylated glucosamine residues were N-sulfated. The presence of butyrate thus leads to an inhibition of the N-deacetylation/N-sulfation process in heparin biosynthesis, along with an augmented formation of molecules with high affinity for antithrombin. Preincubation of the mastocytoma cells with butyrate was required for manifestation of either effect; when the preincubation period was reduced from 24 to 10 h the effects of butyrate were no longer observed. A polysaccharide formed on incubating mastocytoma microsomal fraction with UDP-(TH)glucuronic acid, UDP-N-acetylglucosamine, and 3'-phosphoadenylylsulfate in the presence of 5 mM butyrate showed the same N-acetyl/N-sulfate ratio as did the corresponding control polysaccharide, produced in the absence of butyrate. These findings suggest that the effect of butyrate on heparin biosynthesis depends on the integrity of the cell.

  16. Butyrate-induced changes in nuclease sensitivity of chromatin cannot be correlated with transcriptional activation

    SciTech Connect

    Birren, B.W.; Taplitz, S.J.; Herschman, H.R.

    1987-11-01

    The authors examined in the H4IIE rat heptoma cell line the relationship between butyrate-induced changes in the nuclease sensitivity of chromatin and changes in transcriptional activity of specific genes. The butyrate-inducible metallothionein I (MT-I) gene underwent a dramatic increase in DNase I sensitivity after 3 h of butyrate treatment. However, genes not transcribed in H4IIE cells underwent the same changes in DNase I sensitivity. Thus, butyrate-induced increases in DNase I sensitivity are not sufficient for the transcriptional activation of a gene. Butyrate treatment has also been reported to alter the sensitivity of sequence to micrococcal nuclease (MNase) in a manner reflecting their tissue-specific expression. Butyrate exposure caused increased digestion of the MT-I gene by MNase. However, butyrate-induced MNase sensitivity also occurred for genes which are neither transcribed in untreated cells nor butyrate inducible. Moreover, cadmium, a potent transcriptional activator of the MT-I gene, does not alter the sensitivity of the MT-I gene to MNase. Thus, the butyrate-induced alterations in MNase sensitivity are neither sufficient for, necessary for, nor indicative of transcriptional activation.

  17. Inhibitory effects of butyrate on biological hydrogen production with mixed anaerobic cultures.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xian-Jun; Yu, Han-Qing

    2005-01-01

    In this study batch experiments were conducted to investigate the inhibitory effects of butyrate addition on hydrogen production from glucose by using anaerobic mixed cultures. Experimental results showed that addition of butyrate at 4.18 and 6.27 g/l only slightly inhibited hydrogen production, and addition of butyrate at 8.36-12.54 g/l imposed a moderate inhibitory effect on hydrogen production. At addition of 25.08 g/l, butyrate had a strong inhibitory influence on substrate degradation and hydrogen production. The distribution of the volatile fatty acids produced from the acidogeneisis of glucose was significantly influenced by the addition of butyrate. The inhibition of butyrate addition on hydrogen production was described well by a non-competitive and non-linear inhibition model, with the maximum hydrogen production rate of 59.3 ml/g-SS/h, critical added butyrate concentration of 25.08 g/l, and inhibition degree of 0.323, respectively. The C(I,50) values (the butyrate concentration at which bioactivity is reduced by 50%) for hydrogen production rate and yield were estimated as 19.39 and 20.78 g/l of added butyrate, respectively.

  18. Transcriptomic Sequencing Reveals a Set of Unique Genes Activated by Butyrate-Induced Histone Modification.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong-Jun; Li, Robert W; Baldwin, Ransom L; Blomberg, Le Ann; Wu, Sitao; Li, Weizhong

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate is a nutritional element with strong epigenetic regulatory activity as a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Based on the analysis of differentially expressed genes in the bovine epithelial cells using RNA sequencing technology, a set of unique genes that are activated only after butyrate treatment were revealed. A complementary bioinformatics analysis of the functional category, pathway, and integrated network, using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis, indicated that these genes activated by butyrate treatment are related to major cellular functions, including cell morphological changes, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Our results offered insight into the butyrate-induced transcriptomic changes and will accelerate our discerning of the molecular fundamentals of epigenomic regulation. PMID:26819550

  19. Butyrate promotes the recovering of intestinal wound healing through its positive effect on the tight junctions.

    PubMed

    Ma, X; Fan, P X; Li, L S; Qiao, S Y; Zhang, G L; Li, D F

    2012-12-01

    Postweaning diarrhea is one of the most common causes of morbidity and mortality in weanling piglets. Feeding sodium butyrate to weanling piglets decreased the incidence of diarrhea, but the mechanism has not been fully elucidated. The present study was to evaluate the effect of sodium butyrate on diarrhea in relation to wound healing of intestinal barrier using IPEC-J2 cell model. Cultured cells were scratched to induce wound and then were treated with 4 mM sodium butyrate. The results showed that supplementation of the cells with sodium butyrate significantly promoted the process of wound healing, indicating the protective effects of butyrate on the intestinal mucosa. Butyrate treatment enhanced mRNA expression of the intestinal mucosal tight junction proteins occludin and zonula occluden protein-1 (P < 0.05), which suggested that the promotion of wound healing by butyrate is related to the maintenance of the function of the intestinal barrier. In addition, in the butyrate-treated group, intestinal total superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase (P < 0.05), two of the main antioxidant enzymes, as well as glutathione (P < 0.05), one of the nonenzymatic antioxidant components, were enhanced whereas the malondialdehyde level, a marker of free radical mediated lipid peroxidation injury, was decreased (P < 0.05) compared with the control group. Collectively, these results indicate that dietary sodium butyrate might, at least partly, play an important role in recovering the intestinal tight junctions having a positive effect on maintaining the gut integrity.

  20. Sodium butyrate activates ERK to regulate differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tain-Hsiung; Chen, Wei-Ming; Hsu, Ke-Hsun; Kuo, Cheng-Deng; Hung, Shih-Chieh

    2007-04-20

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors such as sodium butyrate are known to regulate the differentiation of a variety of cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) differentiate into osteoblasts and adipocytes under transcriptional control of Runx2 and PPARgamma2, respectively. How these two transcription factors are regulated by sodium butyrate in order to specify the alternate cell fates remains a pivotal question. Sodium butyrate stimulated osteogenic differentiation and increased expression of Runx2 and genes regulated by Runx2 when cells were induced to undergo osteogenic differentiation. Sodium butyrate suppressed the adipogenic differentiation and decreased the expression of PPARgamma2 and LPL when MSCs were treated under conditions that promote adipogenic differentiation. Sodium butyrate also decreased the ratio of RANKL/OPG gene expression by MSCs. Analysis of MSCs induced in the presence of sodium butyrate revealed an immediate increase in ERK phosphorylation by sodium butyrate. The MEK-specific inhibitor, PD98059 but not p38- or JNK-specific inhibitor and the transfection with dominant negative ERK expressing plasmids blocked the sodium butyrate-induced regulation of MSC differentiation and increase in the RANKL/OPG ratio. Our results suggest that sodium butyrate modulates MSC differentiation and the RANKL/OPG ratio via activating ERK, and could be applied for in vivo bone growth using MSCs.

  1. Sodium butyrate stimulates monoclonal antibody over-expression in CHO cells by improving gene accessibility.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhou; Sharfstein, Susan T

    2008-05-01

    Sodium butyrate treatment can increase the specific productivity of recombinant proteins in mammalian cells; however, it dramatically decreases cell growth and frequently leads to apoptosis. We have studied the responses of several Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells lines with different specific productivities (qP) to sodium butyrate treatment. Cell clones with lower productivities exhibited greater enhancement from butyrate treatment than cells with higher productivities. As we observed previously in cell clone characterization (Jiang et al., 2006. Biotechnol Prog 22: 313-318), heavy chain (HC) mRNA levels correlate very well with specific productivity and are amplified by butyrate treatment, indicating that sodium butyrate regulates the HC transcription. Sodium butyrate is an inhibitor of histone deacetylation, and possibly, increases gene transcription by enhancing gene accessibility to transcription factors. In this study, we applied DNase I footprinting to probe the HC and LC gene accessibility. We determined that more HC and LC gene copies are accessible by DNase I in sodium butyrate-treated CHO cells than in untreated controls, demonstrating that sodium butyrate regulates gene transcription by improving gene accessibility. However, the increase in accessibility did not correlate with the increase in transcript abundance, suggesting that butyrate enhances transcription by other mechanisms as well.

  2. Sodium butyrate stimulates NHE8 expression via its role on activating NHE8 basal promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, Hua; McCoy, Anthony; Li, Jing; Zhao, Yang; Ghishan, Fayez K

    2015-09-15

    Butyrate is a major metabolite in colonic lumen. It is produced from bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber. Butyrate has been shown to stimulate electroneutral sodium absorption through its regulation on sodium/hydrogen exchanger 3 (NHE3). Although NHE8, the newest addition of intestinal NHE family, is involved in sodium absorption in the intestinal tract, whether butyrate modulates NHE8 expression in the intestinal epithelial cells is not known. In the current study, we showed that butyrate treatment strongly induced NHE8 protein and NHE8 mRNA expression in human intestinal epithelial cells. Transfection with the human NHE8 promoter reporter constructs showed that butyrate treatment stimulated reporter gene expression at an amount comparable with its stimulation of NHE8 mRNA expression. Interestingly, a similar result was also observed in human NHE8 promoter transfected cells after trichostatin (TSA) treatment. Gel mobility shift assay identified an enhanced Sp3 protein binding on the human NHE8 basal promoter region upon butyrate stimulation. Furthermore, Sp3 acetylation modification is involved in butyrate-mediated NHE8 activation in Caco-2 cells. Our findings suggest that the mechanism of butyrate action on NHE8 expression involves enhanced Sp3 interaction at the basal promoter region of the human NHE8 gene promoter to activate NHE8 gene transcription. Thus butyrate is involved in intestinal regulation of NHE8 resulting enhanced sodium absorption.

  3. Sodium butyrate-induced DAPK-mediated apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hyunsoo; Lee, Yeo Song; Lee, Yong Chan

    2012-04-01

    Epigenetic mechanisms of histone acetylation/deacetylation play an important role in the regulation of gene expression associated with the cell cycle and apoptosis. Recently, sodium butyrate, a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, has been shown to exhibit anticancer effects via differentiation and apoptosis of cancer cells. Sodium butyrate may be a potential anticancer chemotherapeutic drug; however, the precise mechanism underlying the anticancer effects of sodium butyrate has not been clearly elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the role of death-associated protein kinase (DAPK) on the apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells induced by sodium butyrate. We observed that sodium butyrate induced apoptosis in human gastric cancer cells. Treatment with the HDAC inhibitor sodium butyrate increased the expression of caspase-3 and DAPK1/2 genes but decreased the expression of Bcl-2 in human gastric cancer cells. The expression of DAPK3, p53 and p21 were not altered by sodium butyrate treatment. Analysis of the general expression patterns revealed that sodium butyrate increased the expression of DAPK1/2 but decreased the expression of FAK and induced changes in the proliferation of apoptosis-related genes in human gastric cancer cells. These data suggest that DAPK expression prompts apoptosis by reducing the FAK protein level in sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis of human gastric cancer cells.

  4. Sodium butyrate inhibits the enhancing effect of high fat diet on mammary tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Yanagi, S; Yamashita, M; Imai, S

    1993-01-01

    We have studied the effect of butyrate on mammary tumorigenesis by 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene. As reported previously, a high incidence of mammary tumors was observed in rats fed a basal diet containing 20% margarine. However, the enhancing effect of margarine was inhibited when sodium butyrate was supplemented in the high margarine diet. Sodium butyrate did not cause any effect when it was supplemented in the basal diet. The result suggests a possibility that a part of the inhibitory effect of butter on mammary tumorigenesis, which we had previously reported, was caused by butyrate milk lipids.

  5. Transcriptomic Sequencing Reveals a Set of Unique Genes Activated by Butyrate-Induced Histone Modification

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cong-Jun; Li, Robert W.; Baldwin, Ransom L.; Blomberg, Le Ann; Wu, Sitao; Li, Weizhong

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate is a nutritional element with strong epigenetic regulatory activity as a histone deacetylase inhibitor. Based on the analysis of differentially expressed genes in the bovine epithelial cells using RNA sequencing technology, a set of unique genes that are activated only after butyrate treatment were revealed. A complementary bioinformatics analysis of the functional category, pathway, and integrated network, using Ingenuity Pathways Analysis, indicated that these genes activated by butyrate treatment are related to major cellular functions, including cell morphological changes, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Our results offered insight into the butyrate-induced transcriptomic changes and will accelerate our discerning of the molecular fundamentals of epigenomic regulation. PMID:26819550

  6. Performance of actively suspended cabs in highway trucks—Evaluation and optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Madany, M. M.; El Razaz, Z. S.

    1988-11-01

    This paper describes a study of an active damping system and the effects of such a system on the riding quality and dynamic motions of a tractor-semitrailer truck. The truck, represented by a nine-degree-of-freedom model, is subject to randomly profiled road excitations. Feedback gains are selected on the basis of realistic actuator models with limited bandwidths. The potential improvements in ride comfort are investigated by using closed-loop control in conjunction with a transfer matrix approach. Optimization techniques are employed to design the active suspension system. It is shown that marked improvements in ride quality can be obtained with actively controlled dampers in the cab suspension.

  7. The rib1 Mutant Is Resistant to Indole-3-Butyric Acid, an Endogenous Auxin in Arabidopsis1

    PubMed Central

    Poupart, Julie; Waddell, Candace S.

    2000-01-01

    The presence of indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) as an endogenous auxin in Arabidopsis has been recently demonstrated. However, the in vivo role of IBA remains to be elucidated. We present the characterization of a semi-dominant mutant that is affected in its response to IBA, but shows a wild-type response to indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), the predominant and most studied form of auxin. We have named this mutant rib1 for resistant to IBA. Root elongation assays show that rib1 is specifically resistant to IBA, to the synthetic auxin 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid, and to auxin transport inhibitors. rib1 does not display increased resistance to IAA, to the synthetic auxin naphthalene acetic acid, or to other classes of plant hormones. rib1 individuals also have other root specific phenotypes including a shortened primary root, an increased number of lateral roots, and a more variable response than wild type to a change in gravitational vector. Adult rib1 plants are morphologically indistinguishable from wild-type plants. These phenotypes suggest that rib1 alters IBA activity in the root, thereby affecting root development and response to environmental stimuli. We propose models in which RIB1 has a function in either IBA transport or response. Our experiments also suggest that IBA does not use the same mechanism to exit cells as does IAA and we propose a model for IBA transport. PMID:11115890

  8. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 238 - Alternative Dynamic Performance Requirements for Front End Structures of Cab Cars and MU Locomotives

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Front End Structures of Cab Cars and MU Locomotives F Appendix F to Part 238 Transportation Other... Performance Requirements for Front End Structures of Cab Cars and MU Locomotives As specified in § 238.209(b... Collision Posts (a)(1) In lieu of meeting the requirements of § 238.211, the front end frame acting...

  9. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 238 - Alternative Dynamic Performance Requirements for Front End Structures of Cab Cars and MU Locomotives

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... of cab cars and MU locomotives with shaped-noses or crash energy management designs, or both. In any... nominal weights of the object and the cab car or MU locomotive, as ballasted, and the speed of the object... an MU locomotive having a weight of 100,000 pounds and the impact object having a weight of...

  10. 49 CFR Appendix F to Part 238 - Alternative Dynamic Performance Requirements for Front End Structures of Cab Cars and MU Locomotives

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... of cab cars and MU locomotives with shaped-noses or crash energy management designs, or both. In any... nominal weights of the object and the cab car or MU locomotive, as ballasted, and the speed of the object... an MU locomotive having a weight of 100,000 pounds and the impact object having a weight of...

  11. Acetylcarnitine potentiates the anticarcinogenic effects of butyrate on SW480 colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Elimrani, Ihsan; Dionne, Serge; Saragosti, Dan; Qureshi, Ijaz; Levy, Emile; Delvin, Edgar; Seidman, Ernest G

    2015-08-01

    Butyrate is a potent anticarcinogenic compound against colon cancer cells in vitro. However, its rapid metabolism is hypothesized to limit its anticancer benefits in colonic epithelial cells. Carnitine, a potent antioxidant, is essential to fatty acid oxidation. The aims of this study were to identify a colon cancer cell line capable of transporting carnitine. We evaluated the effect of carnitine and acetylcarnitine (ALCAR) on the response of colon carcinoma cells to butyrate. We explored the mechanisms underlying the anticarcinogenic benefit. SW480 cells were incubated with butyrate ± carnitine or ALCAR. Carnitine uptake was assessed using [3H]-carnitine. Apoptosis and cell viability were assessed using an ELISA kit and flow cytometry, respectively. Modulation of proteins implicated in carnitine transport, cell death and proliferation were assessed by western blotting. SW480 cells were found to transport carnitine primarily via the OCTN2 transporter. Butyrate induced SW480 cell death occurred at concentrations of 2 mM and higher. Cells treated with the combination of butyrate (3 mM) with ALCAR exhibited increased mortality. The addition of carnitine or ALCAR also increased butyrate-induced apoptosis. Butyrate increased levels of cyclin D1, p21 and PARP p86, but decreased Bcl-XL and survivin levels. Butyrate also downregulated dephospho-β-catenin and increased acetylated histone H4 levels. Butyrate and carnitine decreased survivin levels by ≥25%. ALCAR independently induced a 20% decrease in p21. These results demonstrate that butyrate and ALCAR are potentially beneficial anticarcinogenic nutrients that inhibit colon cancer cell survival in vitro. The combination of both agents may have superior anticarcinogenic properties than butyrate alone.

  12. Effect of butyric acid on the performance and carcass yield of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Leeson, S; Namkung, H; Antongiovanni, M; Lee, E H

    2005-09-01

    Short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate are considered potential alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters. The efficacy of butyric acid on performance and carcass characteristics of broiler chickens was tested in two studies. The effect of dietary butyrate on the ability to withstand coccidial oocyte challenge also was investigated. In experiment 1, male broiler chickens were fed diets supplemented with 0 or 11 ppm virginiamycin or 0.2 or 0.4% butyric acid (as mono-, di-, and triglyceride). In experiment 2, broilers were fed bacitracin methylene disalicylate or 0.1 or 0.2% butyric acid. In another trial, birds vaccinated against coccidiosis were challenged with oocytes at 21 d and examined 6 d later. In experiment 1, diet treatments had no effect on body weight gain. Feed intake of the birds fed 0.4% butyric acid was decreased (P < 0.01) compared with birds fed the nonmedicated diet during the starter period, whereas birds fed 0.2% butyric acid had similar feed intake to the control birds. In experiment 2, diet treatments did not affect the performance of broiler chicks while carcass weight and breast meat yield increased (P < 0.01) in birds fed 0.2% butyric acid. With oocyte challenge, birds that had received butyric acid before challenge showed higher growth rate following the challenge compared with birds that received nonmedicated feed. Bacitracin decreased (P < 0.05%) duodenal villi crypt depth, whereas villus length was similar in birds fed butyric acid or the nonmedicated control diet. These results show that 0.2% butyric acid can help to maintain the performance and carcass quality of broilers, especially in vaccinated birds challenged with coccidiosis. PMID:16206563

  13. Effects of dietary sodium butyrate on hepatic biotransformation and pharmacokinetics of erythromycin in chickens.

    PubMed

    Csikó, G; Nagy, G; Mátis, G; Neogrády, Z; Kulcsár, Á; Jerzsele, A; Szekér, K; Gálfi, P

    2014-08-01

    Butyrate, a commonly applied feed additive in poultry nutrition, can modify the expression of certain genes, including those encoding cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. In comparative in vitro and in vivo experiments, the effect of butyrate on hepatic CYP genes was examined in primary cultures of chicken hepatocytes and in liver samples of chickens collected from animals that had been given butyrate as a feed additive. Moreover, the effect of butyrate on the biotransformation of erythromycin, a marker substance for the activity of enzymes of the CYP3A family, was investigated in vitro and in vivo. Butyrate increased the expression of the avian-specific CYP2H1 both in vitro and in vivo. In contrast, the avian CYP3A37 expression was decreased in hepatocytes following butyrate exposure, but not in the in vivo model. CYP1A was suppressed by butyrate in the in vitro experiments, and overexpressed in vivo in butyrate-fed animals. The concomitant incubation of hepatocytes with butyrate and erythromycin led to an increased CYP2H1 expression and a less pronounced inhibition of CYP3A37. In in vivo pharmacokinetic experiments, butyrate-fed animals given a single i.m. injection of erythromycin, a slower absorption phase (longer T(half-abs) and delayed T(max)) but a rapid elimination phase of this marker substrate was observed. Although these measurable differences were detected in the pharmacokinetics of erythromycin, it is unlikely that a concomitant application of sodium butyrate with erythromycin or other CYP substrates will cause clinically significant feed-drug interaction in chickens.

  14. Butyrate enhances antibacterial effects while suppressing other features of alternative activation in IL-4-induced macrophages.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Maria R; Saxena, Alpana; Reyes, José-Luis; McKay, Derek M

    2016-05-15

    The short-chain fatty acid butyrate is produced by fermentation of dietary fiber by the intestinal microbiota; butyrate is the primary energy source of colonocytes and has immunomodulatory effects. Having shown that macrophages differentiated with IL-4 [M(IL-4)s] can suppress colitis, we hypothesized that butyrate would reinforce an M(IL-4) phenotype. Here, we show that in the presence of butyrate M(IL-4)s display reduced expression of their hallmark markers Arg1 and Ym1 and significantly suppressed LPS-induced nitric oxide, IL-12p40, and IL-10 production. Butyrate treatment likely altered the M(IL-4) phenotype via inhibition of histone deacetylation. Functionally, M(IL-4)s treated with butyrate showed increased phagocytosis and killing of bacteria, compared with M(IL-4) and this was not accompanied by enhanced proinflammatory cytokine production. Culture of regulatory T cells with M(IL-4)s and M(IL-4 + butyrate)s revealed that both macrophage subsets suppressed expression of the regulatory T-cell marker Foxp3. However, Tregs cocultured with M(IL-4 + butyrate) produced less IL-17A than Tregs cocultured with M(IL-4). These data illustrate the importance of butyrate, a microbial-derived metabolite, in the regulation of gut immunity: the demonstration that butyrate promotes phagocytosis in M(IL-4)s that can limit T-cell production of IL-17A reveals novel aspects of bacterial-host interaction in the regulation of intestinal homeostasis.

  15. From molecular salt to pseudo CAB cocrystal: Expanding solid-state landscape of carboxylic acids based on charge-assisted COOH⋯COO- hydrogen bonds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lou, Benyong; Perumalla, Sathyanarayana Reddy; Sun, Changquan Calvin

    2015-11-01

    Using three carboxylic acids, we show that the COOH⋯COO- synthon is robust for directing the cocrystallization between a carboxylic acid and a carboxylate of either the same or a chemically different molecule to form a CAB or pseudo CAB cocrystal, respectively. For a given carboxylic acid and a counterion, only one salt could be prepared. However, additional one CAB cocrystals and two pseudo CAB cocrystals could be prepared based on the COOH⋯COO- synthon. The same synthon has the potential to enable the preparation of additional molecular pseudo CAB cocrystals using other chemically distinct carboxylic acids. This significantly increased number of solid forms highlights the values of charge-assisted synthons, such as COOH⋯COO-, in crystal engineering for expanding the range of material properties of a given molecule for optimum performance in product design.

  16. Short-term effect of acetate and ethanol on methane formation in biogas sludge.

    PubMed

    Refai, Sarah; Wassmann, Kati; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2014-08-01

    Biochemical processes in biogas plants are still not fully understood. Especially, the identification of possible bottlenecks in the complex fermentation processes during biogas production might provide potential to increase the performance of biogas plants. To shed light on the question which group of organism constitutes the limiting factor in the anaerobic breakdown of organic material, biogas sludge from different mesophilic biogas plants was examined under various conditions. Therefore, biogas sludge was incubated and analyzed in anaerobic serum flasks under an atmosphere of N2/CO2. The batch reactors mirrored the conditions and the performance of the full-scale biogas plants and were suitable test systems for a period of 24 h. Methane production rates were compared after supplementation with substrates for syntrophic bacteria, such as butyrate, propionate, or ethanol, as well as with acetate and H2+CO2 as substrates for methanogenic archaea. Methane formation rates increased significantly by 35 to 126 % when sludge from different biogas plants was supplemented with acetate or ethanol. The stability of important process parameters such as concentration of volatile fatty acids and pH indicate that ethanol and acetate increase biogas formation without affecting normally occurring fermentation processes. In contrast to ethanol or acetate, other fermentation products such as propionate, butyrate, or H2 did not result in increased methane formation rates. These results provide evidence that aceticlastic methanogenesis and ethanol-oxidizing syntrophic bacteria are not the limiting factor during biogas formation, respectively, and that biogas plant optimization is possible with special focus on methanogenesis from acetate.

  17. Identification of potential target genes of butyrate in dimethylhydrazine-induced colorectal cancer in mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui-Min; Lin, Yan-Wei; Wang, Ji-Lin; Kong, Xuan; Hong, Jie; Fang, Jing-Yuan

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism by which butyrate prevents colorectal cancer (CRC) is unclear. The objective of this study was to identify potential target genes of butyrate in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced CRC in mice. Nontumor colorectal tissues of mice from DMH + butyrate, DMH, and control groups were hybridized on Agilent Mouse Whole Genome 44K Oligo Microarrays. Selected genes were validated by qRT-PCR. Data was further analyzed by KEGG, gene ontology (GO), and pathway studio software. The tumor incidence in the DMH + butyrate and DMH groups was 30% and 90%, respectively (P < 0.05). There were 355 genes downregulated due to DMH treatment while upregulated by butyrate, and 475 genes upregulated by DMH while downregulated by butyrate. The results revealed that most of the tumor-related signaling pathways (e.g., MAPK pathway, Wnt pathway, insulin pathway, and VEGF pathway) were downregulated by butyrate. The GO terms related to cell differentiation, cell cycle, cell proliferation, cell death, cell adhesion, and cell migration were significantly affected. The chemopreventive effects of butyrate were confirmed in the DMH-induced CRC mice model. And mechanisms encompassing multiple pathways and GO terms are involved in the regulation of gene expression.

  18. Transcriptomic sequencing reveals a set of unique genes activated by butyrate-induced histone modification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butyrate is a nutritional element with strong epigenetic regulatory activity as an inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs). Based on the analysis of differentially expressed genes induced by butyrate in the bovine epithelial cell using deep RNA-sequencing technology (RNA-seq), a set of unique gen...

  19. Bioinformatic dissecting of TP53 regulation pathway underlying butyrate-induced histone modification in epigenetic regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butyrate affects cell proliferation, differentiation and motility. Butyrate inhibits histone deacetylase (HDAC) activities and induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. TP53 is one of the most active upstream regulators discovered by IPA in our RNA sequencing data set. The TP53 signaling pathway pl...

  20. Effect of butyrate on immune response of a chicken macrophage cell line

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butyric acid is a major short chain fatty acid (SCFA) produced in the gastrointestinal tract by anaerobic bacterial fermentation which has been demonstrated to have beneficial health effects in many species including poultry. To understand the immunomodulating effects of butyrate on chicken macropha...

  1. Targeting cyclooxygenase-2 with sodium butyrate and NSAIDs on colorectal adenoma/carcinoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Zhi-Hong; Ouyang, Qin; Gan, Hua-Tian

    2004-01-01

    AIM: The protective effects of sodium butyrate and NSAIDs (especially the highly selective COX-2 inhibitors) have attracted considerable interest recently. In this study, primary adenoma cells and HT-29 were used to investigate whether the above drugs would be effective for reducing proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Additionally, it was investigated whether NSAIDs would strengthen the effects of sodium butyrate and its possible mechanisms. METHODS: In vitro primary cell culture of colorectal adenomas and HT-29 were used for this investigation. PGE2 isolated from HT-29 cell culture supernatants was investigated by ELISA. MTT was employed to detect the anti-proliferative effects on both adenoma and HT-29 culture cells. FCM was used for apoptosis rate and cell cycle analysis. The morphology of apoptotic cells was investigated by means of electromicroscopy. RESULTS: Sodium butyrate could stimulate the secretion of PGE2, while NSAIDs inhibited it to below 30 pg/106 cells. Both butyrate and NSAIDs could inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. The effects were time- and dose-dependent (P < 0.05). Aspirin and NS-398 could enhance the effects of sodium butyrate. The effects were stronger while sodium butyrate was used in combination with NS-398 than it was used in combination with Aspirin. CONCLUSION: Butyrate and NSAIDs could inhibit cell proliferation and induce apoptosis respectively. NSAIDs could enhance the effects of sodium butyrate by down-regulating COX-2 expression. Selective COX-2 inhibitor is better than traditional NSAIDs. PMID:15378772

  2. Sodium butyrate regulates androgen receptor expression and cell cycle arrest in human prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeonga; Park, Hyeyoung; Im, Ji Young; Choi, Wahn Soo; Kim, Hyung Sik

    2007-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been shown to modify the expression of a variety of genes related to cell cycle regulation and apoptosis in several cancer cells. However, the precise mode of action of HDAC inhibitors in prostate cancer cells is not completely understood. This study examined whether an HDAC inhibitor affects cell death in human prostate cancer cells through the epigenetic regulation of androgen receptor (AR) expression. The molecular mechanism of the HDAC inhibitor, sodium butyrate, on the epigenetic alterations of cell cycle regulators was evaluated in androgen-dependent human prostate cancer LNCaP cells. The expression levels of acetylated histone H3 and H4 increased significantly after 48 h treatment with sodium butyrate. Sodium butyrate induced the expression of AR after 48 h treatment. In addition, immunofluorescence assay revealed the nuclear localization of the AR after sodium butyrate treatment. Sodium butyrate also significantly decreased the expression of the cell cycle regulatory proteins (cyclin D1/cyclin dependent kinase (CDK)4, CDK6, and cyclin E/CDK2) in the LNCaP cells after 48 h treatment. Furthermore, p21Waf1/Cip1 and p27Kip1 were upregulated as a result of the sodium butyrate treatment. These results suggest that sodium butyrate effectively inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of human prostate cancer cells by altering the expression of cell cycle regulators and AR. This study indicated that sodium butyrate may be a potential agent in prostate cancer treatment.

  3. Butyric acid-based feed additives help protect broiler chickens from Salmonella Enteritidis infection.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Rubio, C; Ordóñez, C; Abad-González, J; Garcia-Gallego, A; Honrubia, M Pilar; Mallo, J Jose; Balaña-Fouce, R

    2009-05-01

    Sodium butyrate is a sodium salt of a volatile short-chain fatty acid (butyric acid) used to prevent Salmonella Enteritidis infection in birds. Three groups of fifty 1-d-old broilers each were fed the following diets: T0 = standard broiler diet (control); T1 = standard broiler diet supplemented with 0.92 g/kg of an additive with free sodium butyrate (Gustor XXI B92); and T2 = standard broiler diet supplemented with 0.92 g/kg of an additive with sodium butyrate partially protected with vegetable fats (Gustor XXI BP70). Twenty percent of the birds were orally infected with Salmonella Enteritidis at d 5 posthatching and fecal Salmonella shedding was assessed at d 6, 9, 13, 20, 27, 34, and 41 of the trial. At d 42, all birds were slaughtered and 20 of them dissected: crop, cecum, liver, and spleen were sampled for bacteriological analyses. Both butyrate-based additives showed a significant reduction (P < 0.05) of Salmonella Enteritidis infection in birds from d 27 onward. However, the partially protected butyrate additive was more effective at the late phase of infection. Partially protected butyrate treatment successfully decreased infection not only in the crop and cecum but also in the liver. There were no differences in the spleen. These results suggest that sodium butyrate partially protected with vegetable fats offers a unique balance of free and protected active substances effective all along the gastrointestinal tract because it is slowly released during digestion.

  4. Butyric acid from anaerobic fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates by Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain RPT-4213

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A newly isolated Clostridium sp. strain RPT-4213 was found to produce butyrate under anaerobic conditions. Fermentations using Lactobacilli MRS Broth produced 9.47 g L-1 butyric acid from glucose (0.48 g/g glucose). However, the strain was not capable of utilizing five carbon sugars. To assess the a...

  5. Butyric acid from anaerobic fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass hydrolysates by Clostridium sp. strain RPT-4213

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A novel Clostridium sp. strain RPT-4213 was found producing butyrate under strict anaerobic conditions. This strain produced 9.47 g L-1 butyric acid from MRS media (0.48 g/g glucose). RPT-4213 was also used to ferment dilute acid pretreated hydrolysates including wheat straw (WSH), corn fiber (CFH...

  6. Effect of Sodium Butyrate on Growth Performance and Response to Lipopolysaccharide in Weanling Pigs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary sodium butyrate on growth performance and response to E. coli. lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in weanling pigs. In the first 28 d experiment, 180 pigs (initial BW 6.3 kg) were fed 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4% sodium butyrate, or 110 mg/kg d...

  7. Is butyrate the link between diet, intestinal microbiota and obesity-related metabolic diseases?

    PubMed

    Brahe, L K; Astrup, A; Larsen, L H

    2013-12-01

    It is increasingly recognized that there is a connection between diet, intestinal microbiota, intestinal barrier function and the low-grade inflammation that characterizes the progression from obesity to metabolic disturbances, making dietary strategies to modulate the intestinal environment relevant. In this context, the ability of some Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria to produce the short-chain fatty acid butyrate is interesting. A lower abundance of butyrate-producing bacteria has been associated with metabolic risk in humans, and recent studies suggest that butyrate might have an anti-inflammatory potential that can alleviate obesity-related metabolic complications, possibly due to its ability to enhance the intestinal barrier function. Here, we review and discuss the potential of butyrate as an anti-inflammatory mediator in metabolic diseases, and the potential for dietary interventions increasing the intestinal availability of butyrate.

  8. Occurrence and in Vivo Biosynthesis of Indole-3-Butyric Acid in Corn (Zea mays L.) 1

    PubMed Central

    Ludwig-Müller, Jutta; Epstein, Ephraim

    1991-01-01

    Indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) was identified as an endogenous compound in leaves and roots of maize (Zea mays L.) var Inrakorn by thin layer chromatography, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Its presence was also confirmed in the variety Hazera 224. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was metabolized to IBA in vivo by seedlings of the two maize varieties. The reaction product was identified by thin layer chromatography, high performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after incubating the corn seedlings with [14C]IAA and [13C6]IAA. The in vivo conversion of IAA to IBA and the characteristics of IBA formation in two different maize varieties of Zea mays L. (Hazera 224 and Inrakorn) were investigated. IBA-forming activity was examined in the roots, leaves, and coleoptiles of both maize varieties. Whereas in the variety Hazera 224, IBA was formed mostly in the leaves, in the variety Inrakorn, IBA synthesis was detected in the roots as well as in the leaves. A time course study of IBA formation showed that maximum activity was reached in Inrakorn after 1 hour and in Hazera after 2 hours. The pH optimum for the uptake of IAA was 6.0, and that for IBA formation was 7.0. The Km value for IBA formation was 17 micromolar for Inrakorn and 25 micromolar for Hazera 224. The results are discussed with respect to the possible functions of IBA in the plant. ImagesFigure 5 PMID:16668464

  9. Intestinimonas butyriciproducens gen. nov., sp. nov., a butyrate-producing bacterium from the mouse intestine.

    PubMed

    Kläring, Karoline; Hanske, Laura; Bui, Nam; Charrier, Cédric; Blaut, Michael; Haller, Dirk; Plugge, Caroline M; Clavel, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    A Gram-positive, spore-forming, non-motile, strictly anaerobic rod-shaped bacterium was isolated from the caecal content of a TNF(deltaARE) mouse. The isolate, referred to as strain SRB-521-5-I(T), was originally cultured on a reduced agar medium containing yeast extract, rumen fluid and lactic acid as main energy and carbon sources. Phylogenetic analysis of partial 16S rRNA genes revealed that the species most closely related to strain SRB-521-5-I(T) were Flavonifractor plautii and Pseudoflavonifractor capillosus (<95 % sequence similarity; 1436 bp). In contrast to F. plautii and P. capillosus, strain SRB-521-5-I(T) contained a substantial amount of C18 : 0 dimethylacetal. Additional major fatty acids were C14 : 0 methyl ester, C16 : 0 dimethylacetal and C18 : 0 aldehyde. Strain SRB-521-5-I(T) differed in its enzyme profile from F. plautii and P. capillosus by being positive for dextrin, maltotriose, turanose, dl-lactic acid and d-lactic acid methyl ester but negative for d-fructose. In reduced Wilkins-Chalgren-Anaerobe broth, strain SRB-521-5-I(T) produced approximately 8 mM butyrate and 4 mM acetate. In contrast to F. plautii, the strain did not metabolize flavonoids. It showed intermediate resistance towards the antibiotics ciprofloxacin, colistin and tetracycline. Based on genotypic and phenotypic characteristics, we propose the name Intestinimonas butyriciproducens gen. nov., sp. nov. to accommodate strain SRB-521-5-I(T) ( = DSM 26588(T) = CCUG 63529(T)) as the type strain. PMID:23918795

  10. Butyrate and deoxycholic acid play common and distinct roles in HCT116 human colon cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huawei; Claycombe, Kate J; Reindl, Katie M

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of a high-fat diet causes an increase in bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in colon lumen and colon cancer risk, while butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, has been shown to exhibit colon cancer-preventive effects. To distinguish these opposing effects of DCA and butyrate (two major metabolites in colon lumen), we examined the effects of physiologically relevant doses of butyrate (0.5-2 mmol/l) and DCA (0.05-0.3 mmol/l) on colon cell proliferation. We hypothesize that butyrate and DCA each modulates the cell cycle and apoptosis via common and distinct cellular signaling targets. In this study, we demonstrated that both butyrate and DCA inhibited cell proliferation by up to 89% and 92% and increased cell apoptosis rate by up to 3.1- and 4.5-fold, respectively. Cell cycle analyses revealed that butyrate led to an increase in G1 and G2 fractions with a concomitant drop in the S-phase fraction, but DCA induced an increase in only G1 fraction with a concomitant drop in the S-phase fraction when compared with the untreated cells. The examination of early cellular signaling revealed that DCA but not butyrate increased intracellular reactive oxygen species, genomic DNA breakage, the activation of ERK1/2, caspase-3 and PARP. In contrast, DCA decreased activated Rb protein level, and butyrate but not DCA increased p21 expression. Collectively, although both butyrate and DCA inhibit colonic cell proliferation, butyrate increases tumor suppressor gene expression, whereas DCA decreases tumor suppressor activation in cell cycle and apoptosis pathways.

  11. The important role of caspase-10 in sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Nohara, Kazunari; Yokoyama, Yoshiko; Kano, Kazutaka

    2007-01-01

    Butyrate, a short chain fatty acid, exhibits a wide variety of biological effects including the inhibition of cell growth, change of cellular morphology and the induction of apoptosis. Sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis has been reported to associate with the up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bax expression, and the down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL expressions. However, in some cases, butyrate has also been shown to cause apoptosis without change in Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and/or Bax. This study investigates the detailed mechanisms of sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis. The effect of sodium butyrate was analyzed in the induction of caspase activities, formation of caspase active forms and mRNA levels in human breast cancer cell line MRK-nu-1. Induction of activities of caspase-3, -10 and, to some extent, -8 and formation of DNA fragmentation were observed with sodium butyrate in a dose- and/or time-dependent manner. The levels of caspase-10 mRNA expression markedly increased in a time-dependent manner by the treatment of sodium butyrate, whereas caspase-8 mRNA expression was not changed. Inhibitors of caspase-8 and caspase-10 reduced caspase-3 activity and subsequent DNA fragmentation induced by sodium butyrate. These caspase inhibitors also inhibited the cleavage of pro-caspase-3 to the active forms indicated by Western blotting analysis. Pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate also inhibited the induction of caspase-10 mRNA expression and caspase-3 activation. Contrary to other reports, levels of Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and Bax mRNA expressions were not distinctly changed by even 5 mM sodium butyrate treatment. Our results suggest that sodium butyrate may trigger apoptosis via the induction of the caspase-10 expression.

  12. Carboplatin and sodium butyrate, separate--yes, but combined--never.

    PubMed

    Gurtowska, Natalia; Kloskowski, Tomasz; Olkowska, Joanna; Bajek, Anna; Debski, Robert; Zielaskowska, Jowita; Drewa, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    With the object of improving the effectiveness of a malignant melanoma's treatment and a patients' quality of life, there is a serious need to identify new anticancer compounds, for example, among naturally derived compounds such as sodium butyrate. The aim of this study was to assess the combined impact of carboplatin (C) and sodium butyrate on the B16 melanoma viability by in vitro. B16 cell line was exposed to various concentrations of carboplatin (0.001-10 micromol/L) and sodium butyrate (1 to 100 mmol/L) for 24 h. LC10, LC50 and LC90 values were calculated. The influence of carboplatin and sodium butyrate on the cell cycle and apoptosis was assessed. Additionally, magnetic stem cell sorting was performed, positive melanoma CD133 cells were isolated and the effects of carboplatin and sodium butyrate on cell viability with heterogeneous population of melanoma cells (CD133+/CD133-) was compared. For carboplatin LC50 and LC90 were 1.2 micromol/L and 4.58 pmol/L, respectively. For sodium butyrate LC50 and LC90 were 65.73 mmol/L and 275.06 mmol/L. The value for LC10 could not be determined. Sodium butyrate at the highest concentration (100.0 mmol/L) resulted in only 57.36% mortality of cells. A synergistic effect of both compounds was observed in low concentrations of sodium butyrate and carboplatin. That synergism disappeared at concentrations corresponding to LC50. At the concentration corresponding to LC50 C and high concentration of sodium butyrate, a decrease of cell numbers in phase G2/M was observed (r = -0.97). Cells were arrested in phase G1/G0 and S. The presented results exclude the possibility of the combined application of sodium butyrate and carboplatin in cancer therapy.

  13. 49 CFR 236.566 - Locomotive of each train operating in train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Locomotive of each train operating in train stop... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and... train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped. The locomotive from which brakes...

  14. 49 CFR 236.566 - Locomotive of each train operating in train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Locomotive of each train operating in train stop... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and... train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped. The locomotive from which brakes...

  15. 49 CFR 236.566 - Locomotive of each train operating in train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Locomotive of each train operating in train stop... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and... train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped. The locomotive from which brakes...

  16. 49 CFR 236.566 - Locomotive of each train operating in train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Locomotive of each train operating in train stop... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and... train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped. The locomotive from which brakes...

  17. Application of Sleeper Cab Thermal Management Technologies to Reduce Idle Climate Control Loads in Long-Haul Trucks

    SciTech Connect

    Lustbader, J. A.; Venson, T.; Adelman, S.; Dehart, C.; Yeakel, S.; Castillo, M. S.

    2012-10-01

    Each intercity long-haul truck in the U.S. idles approximately 1,800 hrs per year, primarily for sleeper cab hotel loads. Including workday idling, over 2 billion gallons of fuel are used annually for truck idling. NREL's CoolCab project works closely with industry to design efficient thermal management systems for long-haul trucks that keep the cab comfortable with minimized engine idling and fuel use. The impact of thermal load reduction technologies on idle reduction systems were characterized by conducting thermal soak tests, overall heat transfer tests, and 10-hour rest period A/C tests. Technologies evaluated include advanced insulation packages, a solar reflective film applied to the vehicle's opaque exterior surfaces, a truck featuring both film and insulation, and a battery-powered A/C system. Opportunities were identified to reduce heating and cooling loads for long-haul truck idling by 36% and 34%, respectively, which yielded a 23% reduction in battery pack capacity of the idle-reduction system. Data were also collected for development and validation of a CoolCalc HVAC truck cab model. CoolCalc is an easy-to-use, simplified, physics-based HVAC load estimation tool that requires no meshing, has flexible geometry, excludes unnecessary detail, and is less time-intensive than more detailed computer-aided engineering modeling approaches.

  18. 49 CFR 236.566 - Locomotive of each train operating in train stop, train control or cab signal territory; equipped.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Locomotive of each train operating in train stop... OF SIGNAL AND TRAIN CONTROL SYSTEMS, DEVICES, AND APPLIANCES Automatic Train Stop, Train Control and Cab Signal Systems Rules and Instructions; Locomotives § 236.566 Locomotive of each train operating...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1710-1 - Canopies or cabs; self-propelled diesel-powered and electric face equipment; installation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the Director of Technical Support, Mine Safety and Health Administration, Department of Labor, 1100... MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1710-1 Canopies or cabs; self-propelled...

  20. Butyrate plays differential roles in cellular signaling in cancerous HCT116 and noncancerous NCM460 colon cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, exhibits chemoprevention effects in colon. However, the mechanistic action of butyrate at the cellular level remains to be determined. We hypothesize that butyrate plays differential roles in cancerous and non-cancerous cells through si...

  1. In vitro and in vivo study of transcriptome alternation induced by butyrate in cattle using deep RNA-seq

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs,), especially butyrate, affect cell differentiation, proliferation, and motility. Furthermore, butyrate induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through its inhibition on histone deacetylases (HDACs). Butyrate is a potent inducer of histone hyper-acetylation in cells a...

  2. Quantum magnetic deflagration in acetate.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Mínguez, A; Hernandez, J M; Macià, F; García-Santiago, A; Tejada, J; Santos, P V

    2005-11-18

    We report controlled ignition of magnetization reversal avalanches by surface acoustic waves in a single crystal of acetate. Our data show that the speed of the avalanche exhibits maxima on the magnetic field at the tunneling resonances of Mn(12). Combined with the evidence of magnetic deflagration in Mn(12) acetate, this suggests a novel physical phenomenon: deflagration assisted by quantum tunneling. PMID:16384178

  3. Quantum magnetic deflagration in acetate.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Mínguez, A; Hernandez, J M; Macià, F; García-Santiago, A; Tejada, J; Santos, P V

    2005-11-18

    We report controlled ignition of magnetization reversal avalanches by surface acoustic waves in a single crystal of acetate. Our data show that the speed of the avalanche exhibits maxima on the magnetic field at the tunneling resonances of Mn(12). Combined with the evidence of magnetic deflagration in Mn(12) acetate, this suggests a novel physical phenomenon: deflagration assisted by quantum tunneling.

  4. Supplemental sodium butyrate stimulates different gastric cells in weaned pigs.

    PubMed

    Mazzoni, Maurizio; Le Gall, Maud; De Filippi, Sara; Minieri, Laura; Trevisi, Paolo; Wolinski, Jaroslaw; Lalatta-Costerbosa, Giovanna; Lallès, Jean-Paul; Guilloteau, Paul; Bosi, Paolo

    2008-08-01

    Sodium butyrate (SB) is used as an acidifier in animal feed. We hypothesized that supplemental SB impacts gastric morphology and function, depending on the period of SB provision. The effect of SB on the oxyntic and pyloric mucosa was studied in 4 groups of 8 pigs, each supplemented with SB either during the suckling period (d 4-28 of age), after weaning (d 29 to 39-40 of age) or both, or never. We assessed the number of parietal cells immunostained for H+/K+-ATPase, gastric endocrine cells immunostained for chromogranin A and somatostatin (SST) in the oxyntic mucosa, and gastrin-secreting cells in the pyloric mucosa. Gastric muscularis and mucosa thickness were measured. Expressions of the H+/K+-ATPase and SST type 2 receptor (SSTR2) genes in the oxyntic mucosa and of the gastrin gene in the pyloric mucosa were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR. SB increased the number of parietal cells per gland regardless of the period of administration (P < 0.05). SB addition after, but not before, weaning increased the number of enteroendocrine and SST-positive cells (P < 0.01) and tended to increase gastrin mRNA (P = 0.09). There was an interaction between the 2 periods of SB treatment for the expression of H/K-ATPase and SSTR2 genes (P < 0.05). Butyrate intake after weaning increased gastric mucosa thickness (P < 0.05) but not muscularis. SB used orally at a low dose affected gastric morphology and function, presumably in relationship with its action on mucosal maturation and differentiation.

  5. Sodium butyrate maintains growth performance by regulating the immune response in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W H; Jiang, Y; Zhu, Q F; Gao, F; Dai, S F; Chen, J; Zhou, G H

    2011-06-01

    1. The experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary sodium butyrate on the growth performance and immune response of broiler chickens. In experiment 1, 240 1-d-old chickens were allocated into 4 dietary groups (0, 0·25, 0·50 or 1·00 g sodium butyrate/kg) with 6 replicates each. In experiment 2, 120 1-d-old chickens were fed a control diet (without sodium butyrate) or 1·00 g sodium butyrate/kg diet. Half of the chickens fed on each diet were injected intra-peritoneally with 0·5 g/kg body weight of Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) at 16, 18 and 20 d of age. 2. There was no effect of dietary sodium butyrate on growth performance. On d 21, serum interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were decreased in chickens given 1·00 g sodium butyrate/kg, serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase activities were significantly increased, and malondialdehyde (MDA) was decreased by dietary sodium butyrate at 0·50 or 1·00 g/kg. On d 42, serum IL-6 was markedly decreased by dietary sodium butyrate, while 1·00 g sodium butyrate/kg greatly reduced MDA and increased catalase. 3. LPS challenge significantly reduced the growth performance of chickens. Serum IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, corticosterone, alpha-1 acid glycoprotein (AGP) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were increased in LPS-challenged chickens. Dietary sodium butyrate supplementation maintained the body weight gain and feed intake. Sodium butyrate supplementation inhibited the increase in IL-6 and AGP in serum at 16 d of age and TNF-α, corticosterone, AGP and PGE(2) at 20 d of age. Similar inhibitory effects of sodium butyrate in serum glucose and total protein concentrations were also found at 20 d of age. 4. The results indicated that dietary sodium butyrate supplementation can improve the growth performance in chickens under stress and that this may be used to moderate the immune response and reduce tissue damage.

  6. Comparison of MERV 16 and HEPA filters for cab filtration of underground mining equipment

    PubMed Central

    Cecala, A.B.; Organiscak, J.A.; Noll, J.D.; Zimmer, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Significant strides have been made in optimizing the design of filtration and pressurization systems used on the enclosed cabs of mobile mining equipment to reduce respirable dust and provide the best air quality to the equipment operators. Considering all of the advances made in this area, one aspect that still needed to be evaluated was a comparison of the efficiencies of the different filters used in these systems. As high-efficiency particulate arrestance (HEPA) filters provide the highest filtering efficiency, the general assumption would be that they would also provide the greatest level of protection to workers. Researchers for the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) speculated, based upon a previous laboratory study, that filters with minimum efficiency reporting value, or MERV rating, of 16 may be a more appropriate choice than HEPA filters in most cases for the mining industry. A study was therefore performed comparing HEPA and MERV 16 filters on two kinds of underground limestone mining equipment, a roof bolter and a face drill, to evaluate this theory. Testing showed that, at the 95-percent confidence level, there was no statistical difference between the efficiencies of the two types of filters on the two kinds of mining equipment. As the MERV 16 filters were less restrictive, provided greater airflow and cab pressurization, cost less and required less-frequent replacement than the HEPA filters, the MERV 16 filters were concluded to be the optimal choice for both the roof bolter and the face drill in this comparative-analysis case study. Another key finding of this study is the substantial improvement in the effectiveness of filtration and pressurization systems when using a final filter design. PMID:27524838

  7. Butyrate protects rat liver against total hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury with bowel congestion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bin; Qian, Jianmin; Wang, Qingbao; Wang, Fangrui; Ma, Zhenyu; Qiao, Yingli

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is an unavoidable consequence of major liver surgery, especially in liver transplantation with bowel congestion, during which endotoxemia is often evident. The inflammatory response aggravated by endotoxin after I/R contributes to liver dysfunction and failure. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the protective effect of butyrate, a naturally occurring four-carbon fatty acid in the body and a dietary component of foods such as cheese and butter, on hepatic injury complicated by enterogenous endotoxin, as well as to examine the underlying mechanisms involved. SD rats were subjected to a total hepatic ischemia for 30 min after pretreatment with either vehicle or butyrate, followed by 6 h and 24 h of reperfusion. Butyrate preconditioning markedly improved hepatic function and histology, as indicated by reduced transaminase levels and ameliorated tissue pathological changes. The inflammatory factors levels, macrophages activation, TLR4 expression, and neutrophil infiltration in live were attenuated by butyrate. Butyrate also maintained the intestinal barrier structures, reversed the aberrant expression of ZO-1, and decreased the endotoxin translocation. We conclude that butyrate inhibition of endotoxin translocation, macrophages activation, inflammatory factors production, and neutrophil infiltration is involved in the alleviation of total hepatic I/R liver injury in rats. This suggests that butyrate should potentially be utilized in liver transplantation.

  8. In vivo measurement of colonic butyrate metabolism in patients with quiescent ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, E; Chapman, M; Dawson, J; Berry, D; Macdonald, I; Cole, A

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Butyrate, a short chain fatty acid produced by bacterial fermentation, is a major fuel source for the colonocyte. In vitro work has shown that ulcerative colitis may be characterised by a metabolic defect in colonocyte butyrate oxidation.
AIMS—To investigate the rate of metabolism of rectally administered butyrate in patients with quiescent colitis.
METHODS—[1-13C]-butyrate enemas were administered to 11 patients with long standing quiescent ulcerative colitis and to 10 control patients. The rate of production of 13CO2 in exhaled breath over four hours was measured by isotope ratio mass spectrometry combined with indirect calorimetry in order to measure CO2 production. This allowed calculation of the patients' resting energy expenditure and respiratory quotient.
RESULTS—Over a four hour period, 325 (SEM 21) µmol 13CO2 was recovered in breath samples from the colitis group compared with 322 (17) µmol from the control group (NS). The respiratory quotient of the colitic group was significantly lower than that of the control group.
CONCLUSION—There was no difference in the rate of metabolism of butyrate between the two groups. It is unlikely that there is a primary metabolic defect of butyrate metabolism in patients with quiescent ulcerative colitis.


Keywords: ulcerative colitis; in vivo butyrate metabolism PMID:10601058

  9. Sodium butyrate and its synthetic amide derivative modulate nociceptive behaviors in mice.

    PubMed

    Russo, Roberto; De Caro, Carmen; Avagliano, Carmen; Cristiano, Claudia; La Rana, Giovanna; Mattace Raso, Giuseppina; Berni Canani, Roberto; Meli, Rosaria; Calignano, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the role of sodium butyrate (butyrate), and its more palatable derivative, the N-(1-carbamoyl-2-phenyl-ethyl) butyramide (FBA), in animal models of acute and chronic pain. We found that oral administrations of butyrate (10-200mg/Kg) or equimolecular FBA (21.2-424mg/Kg) reduced visceral pain in a dose- and time-dependent manner. Both drugs were also effective in the formalin test, showing an antinociceptive effect. This analgesic effect was blocked by glibenclamide, suggesting the involvement of ATP-dependent K(+) channels. Moreover, following repeated administration butyrate (100-200mg/Kg) and FBA (212-424mg/Kg) retained their analgesic properties in a model of neuropathic pain, reducing mechanical and thermal hyperalgesia in the chronic constriction injury (CCI) model. The involvement of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) -α and -γ for the analgesic effect of butyrate was also investigated by using PPAR-α null mice or the PPAR-γ antagonist GW9662. Western blot analysis, confirmed the role of peroxisome receptors in butyrate effects, evidencing the increase of PPAR-α and -γ expression, associated to the reduction of inflammatory markers (COX-2, iNOS, TNF-α and cFOS). In conclusion, we describe the role of butyrate-based drugs in pain, identifying different and converging non-genomic and genomic mechanisms of action, which cooperate in nociception maintenance.

  10. Butyrate upregulates endogenous host defense peptides to enhance disease resistance in piglets via histone deacetylase inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Haitao; Guo, Bingxiu; Gan, Zhenshun; Song, Deguang; Lu, Zeqing; Yi, Hongbo; Wu, Yueming; Wang, Yizhen; Du, Huahua

    2016-01-01

    Butyrate has been used to treat different inflammatory disease with positive outcomes, the mechanisms by which butyrate exerts its anti-inflammatory effects remain largely undefined. Here we proposed a new mechanism that butyrate manipulate endogenous host defense peptides (HDPs) which contributes to the elimination of Escherichia coli O157:H7, and thus affects the alleviation of inflammation. An experiment in piglets treated with butyrate (0.2% of diets) 2 days before E. coli O157:H7 challenge was designed to investigate porcine HDP expression, inflammation and E. coli O157:H7 load in feces. The mechanisms underlying butyrate-induced HDP gene expression and the antibacterial activity and bacterial clearance of macrophage 3D4/2 cells in vitro were examined. Butyrate treatment (i) alleviated the clinical symptoms of E. coli O157:H7-induced hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS) and the severity of intestinal inflammation; (ii) reduced the E. coli O157:H7 load in feces; (iii) significantly upregulated multiple, but not all, HDPs in vitro and in vivo via histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibition; and (iv) enhanced the antibacterial activity and bacterial clearance of 3D4/2 cells. Our findings indicate that butyrate enhances disease resistance, promotes the clearance of E. coli O157:H7, and alleviates the clinical symptoms of HUS and inflammation, partially, by affecting HDP expression via HDAC inhibition. PMID:27230284

  11. Neutrophilic differentiation modulates the apoptotic response of HL-60 cells to sodium butyrate and sodium valproate.

    PubMed

    Vrba, J; Dolezel, P; Ulrichova, J

    2010-01-01

    Differentiation of myeloid leukemic cells may result in less sensitivity to various apoptotic stimuli. We examined whether human leukemia HL-60 cells differentiating by all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) acquired resistance to the apoptogenic activity of two histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors, butyrate and valproate. In undifferentiated cells, the cytotoxicity of both butyrate and valproate was associated with activation of the intrinsic apoptotic pathway since we observed dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential, induction of caspase-9 and caspase-3 activities, appearance of sub-G1 DNA and loss of plasma membrane asymmetry and/or integrity. Both HDAC inhibitors were also able to induce accumulation of undifferentiated cells in the G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle. ATRA was found to enhance the apoptotic effect of both butyrate and valproate in undifferentiated cells. This aside, ATRA appeared to synergize with butyrate in the induction of the G0/G1 cell cycle arrest. In cells pretreated for 72 h with ATRA, butyrate and valproate in combination with ATRA induced lower dissipation of mitochondrial membrane potential and weaker apoptotic and/or necrotic changes in plasma membrane, whereas DNA fragmentation was not diminished compared to undifferentiated cells. Similar results were also obtained when butyrate or valproate were combined with another neutrophilic differentiation inducer, dimethyl sulfoxide. We conclude that neutrophilic differentiation modulates but does not abrogate the apoptotic response of HL-60 cells to butyrate and valproate, and nuclei are preferentially affected during apoptosis in differentiated cells.

  12. Presence of insulin receptors in cultured glial C6 cells. Regulation by butyrate.

    PubMed Central

    Montiel, F; Ortiz-Caro, J; Villa, A; Pascual, A; Aranda, A

    1989-01-01

    The presence of insulin receptor and its regulation by butyrate and other short-chain fatty acids was studied in C6 cells, a rat glioma cell line. Intact C6 cells bind 125I-insulin in a rapid, reversible and specific manner. Scatchard analysis of the binding data gives typical curvilinear plots with apparent affinities of approx. 6 nM and 70 nM for the low-affinity (approx. 90% of total) and high-affinity (approx. 10% of total) sites respectively. Incubation with butyrate results in a time- and dose-dependent decrease of insulin binding to C6 cells. A maximal effect was found with 2 mM-butyrate that decreased the receptor by 40-70% after 48 h. Butyrate decreased numbers of receptors of both classes, but did not significantly alter receptor affinity. Other short-chain fatty acids, as well as keto acids, had a similar effect, but with a lower potency. Cycloheximide caused an accumulation of insulin receptors at the cell surface, since insulin binding increased and receptor affinity did not change after incubation with the inhibitor. Simultaneous addition of butyrate and cycloheximide abolished the loss of receptors produced by the fatty acid. In cells preincubated with butyrate, cycloheximide also produced a large increase in receptor numbers, showing that in the absence of new receptor synthesis a large pool of receptors re-appears at the surface of butyrate-treated cells. PMID:2930502

  13. Lipopolysaccharide Stimulates Butyric Acid-Induced Apoptosis in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Kurita-Ochiai, Tomoko; Fukushima, Kazuo; Ochiai, Kuniyasu

    1999-01-01

    We previously reported that butyric acid, an extracellular metabolite from periodontopathic bacteria, induced apoptosis in murine thymocytes, splenic T cells, and human Jurkat T cells. In this study, we examined the ability of butyric acid to induce apoptosis in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the effect of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on this apoptosis. Butyric acid significantly inhibited the anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody- and concanavalin A-induced proliferative responses in a dose-dependent fashion. This inhibition of PBMC growth by butyric acid depended on apoptosis in vitro. It was characterized by internucleosomal DNA digestion and revealed by gel electrophoresis followed by a colorimetric DNA fragmentation assay to occur in a concentration-dependent fashion. Butyric acid-induced PBMC apoptosis was accompanied by caspase-3 protease activity but not by caspase-1 protease activity. LPS potentiated butyric acid-induced PBMC apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner. Flow-cytometric analysis revealed that LPS increased the proportion of sub-G1 cells and the number of late-stage apoptotic cells induced by butyric acid. Annexin V binding experiments with fractionated subpopulations of PBMC in flow cytometory revealed that LPS accelerated the butyric acid-induced CD3+-T-cell apoptosis followed by similar levels of both CD4+- and CD8+-T-cell apoptosis. The addition of LPS to PBMC cultures did not cause DNA fragmentation, suggesting that LPS was unable to induce PBMC apoptosis directly. These data suggest that LPS, in combination with butyric acid, potentiates CD3+ PBMC T-cell apoptosis and plays a role in the apoptotic depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ cells. PMID:9864191

  14. Lactobacillus acidophilus counteracts enteropathogenic E. coli-induced inhibition of butyrate uptake in intestinal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Anoop; Alrefai, Waddah A; Borthakur, Alip; Dudeja, Pradeep K

    2015-10-01

    Butyrate, a key short-chain fatty acid metabolite of colonic luminal bacterial action on dietary fiber, serves as a primary fuel for the colonocytes, ameliorates mucosal inflammation, and stimulates NaCl absorption. Absorption of butyrate into the colonocytes is essential for these intracellular effects. Monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) plays a major role in colonic luminal butyrate absorption. Previous studies (Tan J, McKenzie C, Potamitis M, Thorburn AN, Mackay CR, Macia L. Adv Immunol 121: 91-119, 2014.) showed decreased MCT1 expression and function in intestinal inflammation. We have previously shown (Borthakur A, Gill RK, Hodges K, Ramaswamy K, Hecht G, Dudeja PK. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol 290: G30-G35, 2006.) impaired butyrate absorption in human intestinal epithelial Caco-2 cells due to decreased MCT1 level at the apical cell surface following enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) infection. Current studies, therefore, examined the potential role of probiotic Lactobacilli in stimulating MCT1-mediated butyrate uptake and counteracting EPEC inhibition of MCT1 function. Of the five species of Lactobacilli, short-term (3 h) treatment with L. acidophilus (LA) significantly increased MCT1-mediated butyrate uptake in Caco-2 cells. Heat-killed LA was ineffective, whereas the conditioned culture supernatant of LA (LA-CS) was equally effective in stimulating MCT1 function, indicating that the effects are mediated by LA-secreted soluble factor(s). Furthermore, LA-CS increased apical membrane levels of MCT1 protein via decreasing its basal endocytosis, suggesting that LA-CS stimulation of butyrate uptake could be secondary to increased levels of MCT1 on the apical cell surface. LA-CS also attenuated EPEC inhibition of butyrate uptake and EPEC-mediated endocytosis of MCT1. Our studies highlight distinct role of specific LA-secreted molecules in modulating colonic butyrate absorption. PMID:26272259

  15. Butyrate affects differentiation, maturation and function of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells and macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Millard, A L; Mertes, P M; Ittelet, D; Villard, F; Jeannesson, P; Bernard, J

    2002-01-01

    We studied the in vitro effects of butyric acid on differentiation, maturation and function of dendritic cells (DC) and macrophages (MΦ) generated from human monocytes. A non-toxic dose of butyrate was shown to alter the phenotypic differentiation process of DC as assessed by a persistence of CD14, and a decreased CD54, CD86 and HLA class II expression. The more immature differentiation stage of treated cells was confirmed further by their increased phagocytic capability, their altered capacity to produce IL-10 and IL-12, and their weak allostimulatory abilities. Butyrate also altered DC terminal maturation, regardless of the maturation inducer, as demonstrated by a strong down-regulation of CD83, a decreased expression of CD40, CD86 and HLA class II. Similarly, butyrate altered MΦ differentiation, down-regulating the expression of the restricted membrane antigens and reducing the phagocytic capacity of treated cells. To investigate further the mechanism by which butyrate hampers the monocyte dual differentiation pathway, we studied the effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 alone or in combination with butyrate on the phenotypic features of DC. Unlike 1,25(OH)2D3, butyrate inhibited DC differentiation without redirecting it towards MΦ. Combined treatment gave rise to a new cell subset (CD14high, CD86 and HLA-DRlow) phenotypically distinct from monocytes. These results reveal an alternative mechanism of inhibition of DC and MΦ differentiation. Altogether, our data demonstrate a novel immune suppression property of butyrate that may modulate both inflammatory and immune responses and support further the interest for butyrate and its derivatives as new immunotherapeutic agents. PMID:12390312

  16. Morphology Evolution of Polypropylene in Immiscible Polymer Blends for Fabrication of Nanofibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Immiscible blends of cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and isotactic polypropylenes (iPPs) with different melting index were extruded through a two-strand rod die. The extrudates were hot-drawn at the die exit at different draw ratios by controlling the drawing speed. The morphologies of iPP fibers e...

  17. Butyrate supplementation to gestating sows and piglets induces muscle and adipose tissue oxidative genes and improves growth performance.

    PubMed

    Lu, H; Su, S; Ajuwon, K M

    2012-12-01

    Weaned pigs often experience growth reduction immediately after weaning due to multiple stress factors associated with weaning. We tested the effect of prenatal and postnatal butyrate supplementation on growth performance of piglets. In study 1, piglets were orally gavaged with 0.3% butyrate from day 4 after birth to weaning (day 21). Butyrate increased ADG by 13% compared to saline treated control. Expression of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) was higher in muscle, adipose tissue, and ileum of butyrate-supplemented animals. Also, peroxisome proliferator activated receptor alpha (PPARα) was induced (P < 0.05) in the subcutaneous adipose tissue (SCAT) and muscle (longissimus dorsi [LD]) of butyrate-supplemented piglets. In vitro, butyrate increased (P < 0.05) fatty acid oxidation in primary adipocytes and suppressed basal lipolysis by 62% compared to untreated cells. Butyrate suppressed (P < 0.05) lipogenesis ((14)C-glucose incorporation into lipids) in adipocytes. This was accompanied by an approximately 30% reduction in the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase (P < 0.05) in butyrate-treated cells vs. controls. Piglets born to sows that were supplemented with 0.3% butyrate during the last trimester of gestation had a 15% higher (P < 0.05) body weight at 12 wk than controls. In summary, butyrate supplementation to gestating sows and piglets enhanced postweaning growth performance, which may be mediated by increased substrate oxidation in butyrate treated animals.

  18. Kinetic analysis of butyrate transport in human colon adenocarcinoma cells reveals two different carrier-mediated mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lecona, Emilio; Olmo, Nieves; Turnay, Javier; Santiago-Gómez, Angélica; López de Silanes, Isabel; Gorospe, Myriam; Lizarbe, M Antonia

    2008-01-01

    Butyrate has antitumorigenic effects on colon cancer cells, inhibits cell growth and promotes differentiation and apoptosis. These effects depend on its intracellular concentration, which is regulated by its transport. We have analysed butyrate uptake kinetics in human colon adenocarcinoma cells sensitive to the apoptotic effects of butyrate (BCS-TC2, Caco-2 and HT-29), in butyrate-resistant cells (BCS-TC2.BR2) and in normal colonic cells (FHC). The properties of transport were analysed with structural analogues, specific inhibitors and different bicarbonate and sodium concentrations. Two carrier-mediated mechanisms were detected: a low-affinity/high-capacity (K(m)=109+/-16 mM in BCS-TC2 cells) anion exchanger and a high-affinity/low-capacity (K(m)=17.9+/-4.0 microM in BCS-TC2 cells) proton-monocarboxylate co-transporter that was energy-dependent and activated via PKCdelta (protein kinase Cdelta). All adenocarcinoma cells analysed express MCT (monocarboxylate transporter) 1, MCT4, ancillary protein CD147 and AE2 (anion exchanger 2). Silencing experiments show that MCT1, whose expression increases with butyrate treatment in butyrate-sensitive cells, plays a key role in high-affinity transport. Low-affinity uptake was mediated by a butyrate/bicarbonate antiporter along with a possible contribution of AE2 and MCT4. Butyrate treatment increased uptake in a time- and dose-dependent manner in butyrate-sensitive but not in butyrate-resistant cells. The two butyrate-uptake activities in human colon adenocarcinoma cells enable butyrate transport at different physiological conditions to maintain cell functionality. The high-affinity/low-capacity transport functions under low butyrate concentrations and may be relevant for the survival of carcinoma cells in tumour regions with low glucose and butyrate availability as well as for the normal physiology of colonocytes.

  19. The role of butyrate, a histone deacetylase inhibitor in diabetes mellitus: experimental evidence for therapeutic intervention.

    PubMed

    Khan, Sabbir; Jena, Gopabandhu

    2015-01-01

    The contribution of epigenetic mechanisms in diabetes mellitus (DM), β-cell reprogramming and its complications is an emerging concept. Recent evidence suggests that there is a link between DM and histone deacetylases (HDACs), because HDAC inhibitors promote β-cell differentiation, proliferation, function and improve insulin resistance. Moreover, gut microbes and diet-derived products can alter the host epigenome. Furthermore, butyrate and butyrate-producing microbes are decreased in DM. Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid produced from the fermentation of dietary fibers by microbiota and has been proven as an HDAC inhibitor. The present review provides a pragmatic interpretation of chromatin-dependent and independent complex signaling/mechanisms of butyrate for the treatment of Type 1 and Type 2 DM, with an emphasis on the promising strategies for its drugability and therapeutic implication.

  20. n-Butyrate inhibits Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase activation and cytokine transcription in mast cells

    SciTech Connect

    Diakos, Christos; Prieschl, Eva E.; Saeemann, Marcus D.; Boehmig, Georg A.; Csonga, Robert; Sobanov, Yury; Baumruker, Thomas; Zlabinger, Gerhard J. . E-mail: gerhard.zlabinger@meduniwien.ac.at

    2006-10-20

    Mast cells are well known to contribute to type I allergic conditions but only recently have been brought in association with chronic relapsing/remitting autoimmune diseases such as celiac disease and ulcerative colitis. Since the bacterial metabolite n-butyrate is considered to counteract intestinal inflammation we investigated the effects of this short chain fatty acid on mast cell activation. Using RNAse protection assays and reporter gene technology we show that n-butyrate downregulates TNF-{alpha} transcription. This correlates with an impaired activation of the Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK) but not other MAP kinases such as ERK and p38 that are largely unaffected by n-butyrate. As a consequence, we observed a decreased nuclear activity of AP-1 and NF-AT transcription factors. These results indicate that n-butyrate inhibits critical inflammatory mediators in mast cells by relatively selectively targeting the JNK signalling.

  1. Combining microbial cultures for efficient production of electricity from butyrate in a microbial electrochemical cell.

    PubMed

    Miceli, Joseph F; Garcia-Peña, Ines; Parameswaran, Prathap; Torres, César I; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2014-10-01

    Butyrate is an important product of anaerobic fermentation; however, it is not directly used by characterized strains of the highly efficient anode respiring bacteria (ARB) Geobacter sulfurreducens in microbial electrochemical cells. By combining a butyrate-oxidizing community with a Geobacter rich culture, we generated a microbial community which outperformed many naturally derived communities found in the literature for current production from butyrate and rivaled the highest performing natural cultures in terms of current density (∼ 11A/m(2)) and Coulombic efficiency (∼ 70%). Microbial community analyses support the shift in the microbial community from one lacking efficient ARB in the marine hydrothermal vent community to a community consisting of ∼ 80% Geobacter in the anode biofilm. This demonstrates the successful production and adaptation of a novel microbial culture for generating electrical current from butyrate with high current density and high Coulombic efficiency, by combining two mixed microbial cultures containing complementing biochemical pathways.

  2. Combining microbial cultures for efficient production of electricity from butyrate in a microbial electrochemical cell

    PubMed Central

    Miceli, Joseph F.; Garcia-Peña, Ines; Parameswaran, Prathap; Torres, César I.; Krajmalnik-Brown, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Butyrate is an important product of anaerobic fermentation; however, it is not directly used by characterized strains of the highly efficient anode respiring bacteria (ARB) Geobacter sulfurreducens in microbial electrochemical cells. By combining a butyrate-oxidizing community with a Geobacter rich culture, we generated a microbial community which outperformed many naturally derived communities found in the literature for current production from butyrate and rivaled the highest performing natural cultures in terms of current density (~11 A/m2) and Coulombic efficiency (~70%). Microbial community analyses support the shift in the microbial community from one lacking efficient ARB in the marine hydrothermal vent community to a community consisting of ~80% Geobacter in the anode biofilm. This demonstrates the successful production and adaptation of a novel microbial culture for generating electrical current from butyrate with high current density and high Coulombic efficiency, by combining two mixed micro bial cultures containing complementing biochemical pathways. PMID:25048958

  3. ALA-Butyrate prodrugs for Photo-Dynamic Therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkovitch, G.; Nudelman, A.; Ehenberg, B.; Rephaeli, A.; Malik, Z.

    2010-05-01

    The use of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) administration has led to many applications of photodynamic therapy (PDT) in cancer. However, the hydrophilic nature of ALA limits its ability to penetrate the cells and tissues, and therefore the need for ALA derivatives became an urgent research target. In this study we investigated the activity of novel multifunctional acyloxyalkyl ester prodrugs of ALA that upon metabolic hydrolysis release active components such as, formaldehyde, and the histone deacetylase inhibitory moiety, butyric acid. Evaluation of these prodrugs under photo-irradiation conditions showed that butyryloxyethyl 5-amino-4-oxopentanoate (ALA-BAC) generated the most efficient photodynamic destruction compared to ALA. ALA-BAC stimulated a rapid biosynthesis of protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) in human glioblastoma U-251 cells which resulted in generation of intracellular ROS, reduction of mitochondrial activity, leading to apoptotic and necrotic death of the cells. The apoptotic cell death induced by ALA / ALA-BAC followed by PDT equally activate intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signals and both pathways may occur simultaneously. The main advantage of ALA-BAC over ALA stems from its ability to induce photo-damage at a significantly lower dose than ALA.

  4. Chitin butyrate coated electrospun nylon-6 fibers for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pant, Hem Raj; Kim, Han Joo; Bhatt, Lok Ranjan; Joshi, Mahesh Kumar; Kim, Eun Kyo; Kim, Jeong In; Abdal-hay, Abdalla; Hui, K. S.; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2013-11-01

    In this study, we describe the preparation and characterizations of chitin butyrate (CB) coated nylon-6 nanofibers using single-spinneret electrospinning of blends solution. The physicochemical properties of nylon-6 composite fibers with different proportions of CB to nylon-6 were determined using FE-SEM, TEM, FT-IR spectroscopy, and water contact angle measurement. FE-SEM and TEM images revealed that the nylon-6 and CB were immiscible in the as-spun nanofibers, and phase separated nanofiber morphology becomes more pronounced with increasing amounts of CB. The bone formation ability of composite fibers was evaluated by incubating in biomimetic simulated body fluid. In order to assay the cytocompatibility and cell behavior on the composite scaffolds, osteoblast cells were seeded on the matrix. Results suggest that the deposition of CB layer on the surface of nylon-6 could increase its cell compatibility and bone formation ability. Therefore, as-synthesized nanocomposite fibrous mat has great potentiality in hard tissue engineering.

  5. Ultrasound assisted synthesis of methyl butyrate using heterogeneous catalyst.

    PubMed

    Dange, P N; Kulkarni, A V; Rathod, V K

    2015-09-01

    Ultrasound assisted esterification of butyric acid with methanol was investigated in an ultrasound irradiated isothermal batch reactor using acid ion-exchange resin (amberlyst-15) as a catalyst. Effect of parameters such as temperature (323-353 K), catalyst loading (0-8.5%w/w), alcohol to acid ratio, M (2-6), ultrasound power (0-145 W), duty cycle (0-85%) and amount of molecular sieves added (0-11%w/w) on the rate of reaction was studied. At optimized parameters, a maximum conversion of 91.64% was obtained in 120 min in presence of ultrasound. Experimental kinetic data were correlated by using Eley-Rideal (ER) and Langmuir-Hinshelwood-Hougen-Watson (LHH W) models taking into account reverse reaction. Studies showed that single site LHHW with reactants and products both adsorbing on catalyst surface was most suited for the obtained experimental data. Activation energy determined based on heterogeneous kinetics was in the range 49.31-57.54 kJ/mol while it was 18.29 kJ/mol using homogeneous model.

  6. Comparative pharmaceutical evaluation of brand and generic clobetasone butyrate ointments.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Yoshihisa; Fukami, Toshiro; Koide, Tatsuo; Onuki, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Toyofumi; Metori, Koichi; Katori, Noriko; Hiyama, Yukio; Tomono, Kazuo

    2014-03-10

    In the present study, we performed comprehensive pharmaceutical evaluation among an original clobetasone butyrate (CLB) ointment product and three generic products. Although spherocrystal images were observed under a polarizing microscope for only Kindavate®, the original product, distribution of active and inactive ingredients was chemically equivalent between the original and generic medicine by the attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy. These results suggest that the spherocrystals observed in Kindavate® are composed of hydrocarbon. On GC/MS, it was revealed that linear alkanes having 25-27 carbon atoms are densely present in Sun White®, the base used in Kindavate®. On the other hand, linear alkanes having 22-31 carbon atoms were broadly distributed in most other white petrolatums. In the CLB ointment products, the distribution equivalent of linear alkane to Sun White® was observed only in Kindavate®. Thus, the GC/MS method is extremely useful for identification of white petrolatum used in the ointment. A similar amount of CLB among the pharmaceutical products was detected in the skin tissue by skin accumulation test, although there were the differences in rheological properties and the quality of white petrolatum. The present results will be very useful for pharmacists in selecting medicine products that match the needs of the patient. Such pharmaceutical information will help spread objective knowledge about products in the future, and will contribute to the appropriate selection of medication.

  7. Anticarcinogenic actions of tributyrin, a butyric acid prodrug.

    PubMed

    Heidor, Renato; Ortega, Juliana Festa; de Conti, Aline; Ong, Thomas Prates; Moreno, Fernando Salvador

    2012-12-01

    Bioactive food compounds (BFCs) exhibit potential anticarcinogenic effects that deserve to be explored. Butyric acid (BA) is considered a promising BFC and has been used in clinical trials; however, its short half-life considerably restricts its therapeutic application. Tributyrin (TB), a BA prodrug present in milk fat and honey, has more favorable pharmacokinetic properties than BA, and its oral administration is also better tolerated. In vitro and in vivo studies have shown that TB acts on multiple anticancer cellular and molecular targets without affecting non-cancerous cells. Among the TB mechanisms of action, the induction of apoptosis and cell differentiation and the modulation of epigenetic mechanisms are notable. Due to its anticarcinogenic potential, strategies as lipid emulsions, nanoparticles, or structured lipids containing TB are currently being developed to improve its organoleptic characteristics and bioavailability. In addition, TB has minimal toxicity, making it an excellent candidate for combination therapy with other agents for the control of cancer. Despite the lack of data available in the literature, TB is a promising molecule for anticancer strategies. Therefore, additional preclinical and clinical studies should be performed using TB to elucidate its molecular targets and anticarcinogenic potential.

  8. Sodium butyrate protects the intestinal barrier function in peritonitic mice

    PubMed Central

    Han, Xiaofeng; Song, Huimin; Wang, Yunlei; Sheng, Yingmo; Chen, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Peritonitis is a commonly seen disease with high morbidity and mortality. It is prevalently considered that the impaired intestinal barrier during peritonitis is the access point of gut microbes into the blood system, and acts as the engine of the following systemic infection. In our previous study, we found that Sodium Butyrate (NaB) was protective on intestinal barrier function. In this study, we aim to evaluate the effects of NaB on overwhelming infection animal models of peritonitis. Methods: Mouse cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) model was used to study the effects of NaB on the intestinal barrier. Experimental animals were fed of NaB by gavage. Post-CLP mortality, gut permeability and intestinal histological alterations were studied. Results: Gastrointestinal NaB pharmacodynamics profiles after medication were studied. Measurements of NaB concentration in chyme showed significantly higher intestinal concentration of NaB in the NaB treated group than that of the control group. CLP-induced mortality was significantly decreased by oral NaB treatments. Gut permeability was largely increased after CLP, which was partially prevented by NaB feeding. Histological study showed that intestinal, especially ileal injury following peritonitis was substantially alleviated by NaB treatments. Moreover, tissue regeneration was also prompted by NaB. Conclusion: NaB has a potential protective effect on intestinal barrier function in peritonitis. PMID:26064302

  9. CREB-binding protein, p300, butyrate, and Wnt signaling in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Bordonaro, Michael; Lazarova, Darina L

    2015-07-21

    This paper reviews the distinctive roles played by the transcriptional coactivators CREB-binding protein (CBP) and p300 in Wnt/β-catenin signaling and cell physiology in colorectal cancer (CRC). Specifically, we focus on the effects of CBP- and p300-mediated Wnt activity on (1) neoplastic progression; (2) the activities of butyrate, a breakdown product of dietary fiber, on cell signaling and colonic cell physiology; (3) the development of resistance to histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACis), including butyrate and synthetic HDACis, in colonic cells; and (4) the physiology and number of cancer stem cells. Mutations of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway initiate the majority of CRC cases, and we have shown that hyperactivation of this pathway by butyrate and other HDACis promotes CRC cell apoptosis. This activity by butyrate may in part explain the preventive action of fiber against CRC. However, individuals with a high-fiber diet may still develop neoplasia; therefore, resistance to the chemopreventive action of butyrate likely contributes to CRC. CBP or p300 may modify the ability of butyrate to influence colonic cell physiology since the two transcriptional coactivators affect Wnt signaling, and likely, its hyperactivation by butyrate. Also, CBP and p300 likely affect colonic tumorigenesis, as well as stem cell pluripotency. Improvement of CRC prevention and therapy requires a better understanding of the alterations in Wnt signaling and gene expression that underlie neoplastic progression, stem cell fate, and the development of resistance to butyrate and clinically relevant HDACis. Detailed knowledge of how CBP- and p300 modulate colonic cell physiology may lead to new approaches for anti-CRC prevention and therapeutics, particularly with respect to combinatorial therapy of CBP/p300 inhibitors with HDACis.

  10. Cyclic AMP synergizes with butyrate in promoting β-defensin 9 expression in chickens.

    PubMed

    Sunkara, Lakshmi T; Zeng, Xiangfang; Curtis, Amanda R; Zhang, Guolong

    2014-02-01

    Host defense peptides (HDP) have both microbicidal and immunomodulatory properties. Specific induction of endogenous HDP synthesis has emerged as a novel approach to antimicrobial therapy. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and butyrate have been implicated in HDP induction in humans. However, the role of cAMP signaling and the possible interactions between cAMP and butyrate in regulating HDP expression in other species remain unknown. Here we report that activation of cAMP signaling induces HDP gene expression in chickens as exemplified by β-defensin 9 (AvBD9). We further showed that, albeit being weak inducers, cAMP agonists synergize strongly with butyrate or butyrate analogs in AvBD9 induction in macrophages and primary jejunal explants. Additionally, oral supplementation of forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase agonist in the form of a Coleus forskohlii extract, was found to induce AvBD9 expression in the crop of chickens. Furthermore, feeding with both forskolin and butyrate showed an obvious synergy in triggering AvBD9 expression in the crop and jejunum of chickens. Surprisingly, inhibition of the MEK-ERK mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway augmented the butyrate-FSK synergy, whereas blocking JNK or p38 MAPK pathway significantly diminished AvBD9 induction in chicken macrophages and jejunal explants in response to butyrate and FSK individually or in combination. Collectively, these results suggest the potential for concomitant use of butyrate and cAMP signaling activators in enhancing HDP expression, innate immunity, and disease resistance in both animals and humans.

  11. Sodium-butyrate as a growth promoter in milk replacer formula for young calves.

    PubMed

    Guilloteau, P; Zabielski, R; David, J C; Blum, J W; Morisset, J A; Biernat, M; Wolinski, J; Laubitz, D; Hamon, Y

    2009-03-01

    In milk-fed calves, the effects of sodium-butyrate (Na-butyrate) to replace flavomycin on growth performance and some mechanisms involved were studied. Pancreatic and intestinal morphology, digestive enzyme activities, plasma gut regulatory peptide concentrations, and expression of their receptors in the gastrointestinal tract were measured. Gastrointestinal tract defense systems were examined by measuring protein levels of 2 heat-shock proteins (HSP27 and HSP70). The calves were randomly allocated into 2 groups fed the same basic diet with flavomycin as an antimicrobial growth promoter or with Na-butyrate (3 g/kg of dry matter). Sodium-butyrate disappeared quickly in the upper gut and was not found in circulating blood. Supplementation with Na-butyrate enhanced growth rate and improved feed conversion into body weight gain compared with the flavomycin group. Supplementation with Na-butyrate was likely associated with an improvement in efficacy of the gastrointestinal tract digestive capacities expressed by enhanced production of digestive enzymes and increased absorptive capacities in the upper small intestine. The effects could have been controlled by insulin-like growth factor-1 but probably not by any of the cholecystokinin/gastrin peptide family. Concentrations of HSP27 and HSP70 were increased in stomach and colon of calves receiving Na-butyrate, thereby assuring protection of cells with intensive metabolism (chaperone function). In conclusion, beneficial effects of Na-butyrate on maturation of gastrointestinal functions were shown in milk-fed calves and may be applied to young mammals of other species.

  12. Butyrate-mediated acquisition of chemoresistance by human colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyang Ri; Choi, Hyeon Gyeom; Jeon, Chae Kyung; Lim, Soo-Jeong; Kim, So Hee

    2016-08-01

    Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid produced by the intestinal microflora and it not only induces apoptosis but also inhibits the proliferation of cancer cells. Recently, it has been reported that butyrate may cause resistance in colon cancer cells. Therefore, we investigated the effects of increased resistance to butyrate in HCT116 colon cancer cells. We established HCT116 cells resistant to butyrate (HCT116/BR) by treating HCT116 parental cells (HCT116/PT) with increasing concentrations of butyrate to a maximum of 1.6 mM for 3 months. The butyrate concentrations that inhibited cell growth by 50% (IC50) were 0.508 and 5.50 mM in HCT116/PT and HCT116/BR cells. The values after treatment with paclitaxel, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), doxorubicin and trichostatin A (TSA) were 2.42, 2.36, 4.31 and 11.3-fold higher, respectively, in HCT116/BR cells compared with HCT116/PT cells. The protein expression of drug efflux pumps, such as P-glycoprotein (P-gp), breast cancer-resistant protein (BCRP) and the multidrug resistance associated protein 1 (MRP1), did not differ between HCT116/PT and HCT116/BR cells. The expression level of the anti-apoptotic Bcl-xL protein was increased while those of pro-apoptotic Bax and Bim proteins were reduced in HCT116/BR cells. There were no significant differences in cell motility and invasion. This study suggests that exposure of colon cancer cells to butyrate results in development of resistance to butyrate, which may play a role in the acquisition of chemoresistance in colon cancer. PMID:27277338

  13. Perturbation dynamics of the rumen microbiota in response to exogenous butyrate.

    PubMed

    Li, Robert W; Wu, Sitao; Baldwin, Ransom L; Li, Weizhong; Li, Congjun

    2012-01-01

    The capacity of the rumen microbiota to produce volatile fatty acids (VFAs) has important implications in animal well-being and production. We investigated temporal changes of the rumen microbiota in response to butyrate infusion using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Twenty one phyla were identified in the rumen microbiota of dairy cows. The rumen microbiota harbored 54.5±6.1 genera (mean ± SD) and 127.3±4.4 operational taxonomic units (OTUs), respectively. However, the core microbiome comprised of 26 genera and 82 OTUs. Butyrate infusion altered molar percentages of 3 major VFAs. Butyrate perturbation had a profound impact on the rumen microbial composition. A 72 h-infusion led to a significant change in the numbers of sequence reads derived from 4 phyla, including 2 most abundant phyla, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes. As many as 19 genera and 43 OTUs were significantly impacted by butyrate infusion. Elevated butyrate levels in the rumen seemingly had a stimulating effect on butyrate-producing bacteria populations. The resilience of the rumen microbial ecosystem was evident as the abundance of the microorganisms returned to their pre-disturbed status after infusion withdrawal. Our findings provide insight into perturbation dynamics of the rumen microbial ecosystem and should guide efforts in formulating optimal uses of probiotic bacteria treating human diseases.

  14. Oral supplementation of butyrate reduces mucositis and intestinal permeability associated with 5-Fluorouracil administration.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Talita Mayra; Leonel, Alda Jusceline; Melo, Marco Antônio; Santos, Rosana R G; Cara, Denise Carmona; Cardoso, Valbert N; Correia, Maria I T D; Alvarez-Leite, Jacqueline I

    2012-07-01

    Mucositis affects about 40 % of patients undergoing chemotherapy. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA), mainly butyrate, are claimed to improve mucosal integrity, reduce intestinal permeability and act as anti-inflammatory agents for the colon mucosa. We evaluated the effects of oral administration of SCFA or butyrate in the 5FU-induced mucositis. Mice received water, SCFA or butyrate during all experiment (10 days) and a single dose of 5FU (200 mg/kg) 3 days before euthanasia. We evaluated inflammatory and histological score by morphometry, and by activity of enzymes specific to neutrophil, eosinophil and macrophage and TLR-4, TNF-alpha and IL6 expressions. Intestinal permeability and tight junction protein ZO-1 expression were evaluated. Mice from the 5FU (5-Fluorouracil) group presented weight loss, ulcerations and inflammatory infiltration of neutrophils and eosinophils, increased expression of IL6 and TNF-alpha and increased intestinal permeability. SCFA minimized intestinal damage, reduced ulcerations without affecting intestinal permeability. Butyrate alone was more efficient at improving those parameters than in SCFA solution and also reduced intestinal permeability. The expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and ZO-1 tended to be higher in the SCFA supplemented but not in the butyrate supplemented group. We showed the beneficial effects of butyrate on intestinal mucositis and its promising function as an adjuvant in the treatment of diseases not only of the colon, but also of the small intestine.

  15. ANGPTL4 expression induced by butyrate and rosiglitazone in human intestinal epithelial cells utilizes independent pathways.

    PubMed

    Korecka, Agata; de Wouters, Tomas; Cultrone, Antonietta; Lapaque, Nicolas; Pettersson, Sven; Doré, Joël; Blottière, Hervé M; Arulampalam, Velmurugesan

    2013-06-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate and propionate, are metabolic products of carbohydrate fermentation by the microbiota and constitute the main source of energy for host colonocytes. SCFAs are also important for gastrointestinal health, immunity, and host metabolism. Intestinally produced angiopoietin-like protein 4 (ANGPTL4) is a secreted protein with metabolism-altering properties and may offer a route by which microbiota can regulate host metabolism. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ has previously been shown to be involved in microbiota-induced expression of intestinal ANGPTL4, but the role of bacterial metabolites in this process has remained elusive. Here, we show that the SCFA butyrate regulates intestinal ANGPTL4 expression in a PPAR-γ-independent manner. Although PPAR-γ is not required for butyrate-driven intestinal ANGPTL4 expression, costimulating with PPAR-γ ligands and SCFAs leads to additive increases in ANGPTL4 levels. We suggest that PPAR-γ and butyrate rely on two separate regulatory sites, a PPAR-responsive element downstream the transcription start site and a butyrate-responsive element(s) within the promoter region, 0.5 kb upstream of the transcription start site. Furthermore, butyrate gavage and colonization with Clostridium tyrobutyricum, a SCFA producer, can independently induce expression of intestinal ANGPTL4 in germ-free mice. Thus, oral administration of SCFA or use of SCFA-producing bacteria may be additional routes to maintain intestinal ANGPTL4 levels for preventive nutrition or therapeutic purposes.

  16. Kinetic and thermodynamic control of butyrate conversion in non-defined methanogenic communities.

    PubMed

    Junicke, H; van Loosdrecht, M C M; Kleerebezem, R

    2016-01-01

    Many anaerobic conversions proceed close to thermodynamic equilibrium and the microbial groups involved need to share their low energy budget to survive at the thermodynamic boundary of life. This study aimed to investigate the kinetic and thermodynamic control mechanisms of the electron transfer during syntrophic butyrate conversion in non-defined methanogenic communities. Despite the rather low energy content of butyrate, results demonstrate unequal energy sharing between the butyrate-utilizing species (17 %), the hydrogenotrophic methanogens (9-10 %), and the acetoclastic methanogens (73-74 %). As a key finding, the energy disproportion resulted in different growth strategies of the syntrophic partners. Compared to the butyrate-utilizing partner, the hydrogenotrophic methanogens compensated their lower biomass yield per mole of electrons transferred with a 2-fold higher biomass-specific electron transfer rate. Apart from these thermodynamic control mechanisms, experiments revealed a ten times lower hydrogen inhibition constant on butyrate conversion than proposed by the Anaerobic Digestion Model No. 1, suggesting a much stronger inhibitory effect of hydrogen on anaerobic butyrate conversion. At hydrogen partial pressures exceeding 40 Pa and at bicarbonate limited conditions, a shift from methanogenesis to reduced product formation was observed which indicates an important role of the hydrogen partial pressure in redirecting electron fluxes towards reduced products such as butanol. The findings of this study demonstrate that a careful consideration of thermodynamics and kinetics is required to advance our current understanding of flux regulation in energy-limited syntrophic ecosystems.

  17. Activation of PPAR{gamma} is not involved in butyrate-induced epithelial cell differentiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrich, S.; Waechtershaeuser, A.; Loitsch, S.; Knethen, A. von; Bruene, B.; Stein, J. . E-mail: j.stein@em.uni-frankfurt.de

    2005-10-15

    Histone deacetylase-inhibitors affect growth and differentiation of intestinal epithelial cells by inducing expression of several transcription factors, e.g. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) or vitamin D receptor (VDR). While activation of VDR by butyrate mainly seems to be responsible for cellular differentiation, the activation of PPAR{gamma} in intestinal cells remains to be elucidated. The aim of this study was to determine the role of PPAR{gamma} in butyrate-induced cell growth inhibition and differentiation induction in Caco-2 cells. Treatment with PPAR{gamma} ligands ciglitazone and BADGE (bisphenol A diglycidyl) enhanced butyrate-induced cell growth inhibition in a dose- and time-dependent manner, whereas cell differentiation was unaffected after treatment with PPAR{gamma} ligands rosiglitazone and MCC-555. Experiments were further performed in dominant-negative PPAR{gamma} mutant cells leading to an increase in cell growth whereas butyrate-induced cell differentiation was again unaffected. The present study clearly demonstrated that PPAR{gamma} is involved in butyrate-induced inhibition of cell growth, but seems not to play an essential role in butyrate-induced cell differentiation.

  18. Antagonistic effects of sodium butyrate and N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-retinamide on prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Kuefer, Rainer; Genze, Felicitas; Zugmaier, Waltraud; Hautmann, Richard E; Rinnab, Ludwig; Gschwend, Juergen E; Angelmeier, Marina; Estrada, Aidee; Buechele, Berthold

    2007-03-01

    Butyrates and retinoids are promising antineoplastic agents. Here we analyzed effects of sodium butyrate and N-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-retinamide (4-HPR) on prostate cancer cells as monotherapy or in combination in vitro and in vivo. Sodium butyrate and 4-HPR induced concentration-dependent growth inhibition in prostate cancer cells in vitro. The isobologram analysis revealed that sodium butyrate and 4-HPR administered together antagonize effects of each other. For the in vivo studies, a water-soluble complex (4-HPR with a cyclodextrin) was created. A single dose of sodium butyrate and 4-HPR showed a peak level in chicken plasma within 30 minutes. Both compounds induced inhibition of proliferation and apoptosis in xenografts of the chicken chorioallantoic membrane. Analysis of the cytotoxic effects of the drugs used in combination demonstrated an antagonistic effect on inhibition of proliferation and on induction of apoptosis. Prolonged jun N-terminal kinase phosphorylation induced by sodium butyrate and 4-HPR was strongly attenuated when both compounds were used in combination. Both compounds induced inhibition of NF-kappaB. This effect was strongly antagonized in LNCaP cells when the compounds were used in combination. These results indicate that combinational therapies have to be carefully investigated due to potential antagonistic effects in the clinical setting despite promising results of a monotherapy.

  19. Biochemical and morphological effects of sodium butyrate on Dictyostelium discoideum development.

    PubMed

    Boto, L; Cano, A; Pestaña, A

    1987-04-01

    Pretreatment of proliferating D. discoideum amoebae with 10 mM butyrate for at least 8 h (one duplicating time) induced a reversible and dose dependent premature expression of several developmental parameters when the cells were starved in the absence of the fatty acid. The aggregative phase of the morphogenetic cycle was reduced in 2 h and the appearance of mature fruiting bodies and spores took place 4 h earlier as a result of butyrate pretreatment. Some developmentally regulated proteins, such as contact-sites A, cell surface lectins and cyclic AMP phosphodiesterase were also expressed 2 h earlier in butyrate pretreated cells than in controls. The level of extracellular cyclic AMP was reduced in butyrate pretreated cells, while other parameters of cyclic AMP metabolism were not affected. Butyrate also caused a partial inhibition of growth and the hyperacetylation of histone H4 in growing amoeba. These results suggest that butyrate acts as an inducer of differentiation in D. discoideum and can therefore be used as an experimental tool in order to explore regulatory mechanisms operating in slime mold differentiation. PMID:3037305

  20. High-Fat Diet Reduces the Formation of Butyrate, but Increases Succinate, Inflammation, Liver Fat and Cholesterol in Rats, while Dietary Fibre Counteracts These Effects

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsdottir, Greta; Xu, Jie; Molin, Göran; Ahrné, Siv; Nyman, Margareta

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Obesity is linked to type 2 diabetes and risk factors associated to the metabolic syndrome. Consumption of dietary fibres has been shown to have positive metabolic health effects, such as by increasing satiety, lowering blood glucose and cholesterol levels. These effects may be associated with short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), particularly propionic and butyric acids, formed by microbial degradation of dietary fibres in colon, and by their capacity to reduce low-grade inflammation. Objective To investigate whether dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFAs, would affect metabolic risk markers in low-fat and high-fat diets using a model with conventional rats for 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Material and Methods Conventional rats were administered low-fat or high-fat diets, for 2, 4 or 6 weeks, supplemented with fermentable dietary fibres, giving rise to different SCFA patterns (pectin – acetic acid; guar gum – propionic acid; or a mixture – butyric acid). At the end of each experimental period, liver fat, cholesterol and triglycerides, serum and caecal SCFAs, plasma cholesterol, and inflammatory cytokines were analysed. The caecal microbiota was analysed after 6 weeks. Results and Discussion Fermentable dietary fibre decreased weight gain, liver fat, cholesterol and triglyceride content, and changed the formation of SCFAs. The high-fat diet primarily reduced formation of SCFAs but, after a longer experimental period, the formation of propionic and acetic acids recovered. The concentration of succinic acid in the rats increased in high-fat diets with time, indicating harmful effect of high-fat consumption. The dietary fibre partly counteracted these harmful effects and reduced inflammation. Furthermore, the number of Bacteroides was higher with guar gum, while noticeably that of Akkermansia was highest with the fibre-free diet. PMID:24236183

  1. Comparative toxicity study of hydrocortisone 17-butyrate 21-propionate (HBP) ointment and other topical corticosteroids in rats.

    PubMed

    Kimura, M; Tarumoto, Y; Nakane, S; Otomo, S

    1986-01-01

    Comparative systemic and topical toxicity in male rats treated on the dorsal skin for 14 consecutive days with a volume of 0.15 g/100 g (body weight) of 0.1% hydrocortisone 17-butyrate 21-propionate (HBP) ointment, 0.05% clobetasol propionate (CP) ointment, 0.1% predonisolone 17-valerate 21-acetate (PVA) ointment and 0.1% diflucortolone valerate (DV) ointment was studied. In all the treated groups body weight gain was suppressed, serum concentration of total cholesterol and triglycerides increased and the lymphatic tissues and skin were atrophic. The DV and CP groups had adrenal atrophy and renal lesions, and the DV group also had gastric and hepatic lesions. The systemic effect of HBP ointment was weaker than that of the other drugs (DV greater than CP much greater than PVA greater than HBP). All the drugs significantly reduced the skin fold thickness in treated areas throughout the application period. The dermal atrophic effect of HBP ointment was also relatively weaker than that of the other drugs. From the above evidence, it was concluded that HBP ointment was less toxic than the other topical corticosteroids. PMID:3757761

  2. Multiple Facets of Arabidopsis Seedling Development Require 
Indole-3-Butyric Acid–Derived Auxin[W

    PubMed Central

    Strader, Lucia C.; Wheeler, Dorthea L.; Christensen, Sarah E.; Berens, John C.; Cohen, Jerry D.; Rampey, Rebekah A.; Bartel, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    Levels of auxin, which regulates both cell division and cell elongation in plant development, are controlled by synthesis, inactivation, transport, and the use of storage forms. However, the specific contributions of various inputs to the active auxin pool are not well understood. One auxin precursor is indole-3-butyric acid (IBA), which undergoes peroxisomal β-oxidation to release free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). We identified ENOYL-COA HYDRATASE2 (ECH2) as an enzyme required for IBA response. Combining the ech2 mutant with previously identified iba response mutants resulted in enhanced IBA resistance, diverse auxin-related developmental defects, decreased auxin-responsive reporter activity in both untreated and auxin-treated seedlings, and decreased free IAA levels. The decreased auxin levels and responsiveness, along with the associated developmental defects, uncover previously unappreciated roles for IBA-derived IAA during seedling development, establish IBA as an important auxin precursor, and suggest that IBA-to-IAA conversion contributes to the positive feedback that maintains root auxin levels. PMID:21406624

  3. In vivo binding of hot pepper bZIP transcription factor CabZIP1 to the G-box region of pathogenesis-related protein 1 promoter

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Boo-Ja; Park, Chang-Jin; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Ki-Jeong; Paek, Kyung-Hee . E-mail: khpaek95@korea.ac.kr

    2006-05-26

    We find that salicylic acid and ethephon treatment in hot pepper increases the expression of a putative basic/leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factor gene, CabZIP1. CabZIP1 mRNA is expressed ubiquitously in various organs. The green fluorescent protein-fused transcription factor, CabZIP1::GFP, can be specifically localized to the nucleus, an action that is consistent with the presence of a nuclear localization signal in its protein sequence. Transient overexpression of the CabZIP1 transcription factor results in an increase in PR-1 transcripts level in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we demonstrate that CabZIP1 binds to the G-box elements in native promoter of the hot pepper pathogenesis-related protein 1 (CaPR-1) gene in vivo. Taken together, our results suggest that CabZIP1 plays a role as a transcriptional regulator of the CaPR-1 gene.

  4. Sodium butyrate stimulates expression of fibroblast growth factor 21 in liver by inhibition of histone deacetylase 3.

    PubMed

    Li, Huating; Gao, Zhanguo; Zhang, Jin; Ye, Xin; Xu, Aimin; Ye, Jianping; Jia, Weiping

    2012-04-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) stimulates fatty acid oxidation and ketone body production in animals. In this study, we investigated the role of FGF21 in the metabolic activity of sodium butyrate, a dietary histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. FGF21 expression was examined in serum and liver after injection of sodium butyrate into dietary obese C57BL/6J mice. The role of FGF21 was determined using antibody neutralization or knockout mice. FGF21 transcription was investigated in liver and HepG2 hepatocytes. Trichostatin A (TSA) was used in the control as an HDAC inhibitor. Butyrate was compared with bezafibrate and fenofibrate in the induction of FGF21 expression. Butyrate induced FGF21 in the serum, enhanced fatty acid oxidation in mice, and stimulated ketone body production in liver. The butyrate activity was significantly reduced by the FGF21 antibody or gene knockout. Butyrate induced FGF21 gene expression in liver and hepatocytes by inhibiting HDAC3, which suppresses peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α function. Butyrate enhanced bezafibrate activity in the induction of FGF21. TSA exhibited a similar set of activities to butyrate. FGF21 mediates the butyrate activity to increase fatty acid use and ketogenesis. Butyrate induces FGF21 transcription by inhibition of HDAC3.

  5. "Dammed Taxi Cab"--How Silent Communication in Questionnaires Can Be Understood and Used to Give Voice to Children's Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alerby, E.; Kostenius, C.

    2011-01-01

    "Dammed taxi cab"--a 12-year-old boy wrote these words in the margins of a questionnaire, and within this paper they will serve as a point of departure for the discussion of the use of questionnaires as a way to voice children's experiences. The overall aim of this paper is to enable understanding of and discuss the use of questionnaires as a way…

  6. Fragrance material review on 1,1-dimethyl-2-phenylethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1,1-dimethyl-2-phenylethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1,1-Dimethyl-2-phenylethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an Aryl Alkyl Alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to 1,1-dimethyl-2-phenylethyl acetate and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; mucous membrane (eye) irritation; skin sensitization; elicitation; and toxicokinetics data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  7. Fragrance material review on 1,3-dimethyl-3-phenylbutyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1,3-dimethyl-3-phenylbutyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1,3-Dimethyl-3-phenylbutyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1 to 4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1,3-dimethyl-3-phenylbutyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, and photoallergy data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  8. Fragrance material review on 1-phenyl-3-methyl-3-pentyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-3-pentyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1-Phenyl-3-methyl-3-pentyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1-phenyl-3-methyl-3-pentyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  9. Fragrance material review on 3-phenyl-3-buten-1-yl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 3-phenyl-3-buten-1-yl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 3-Phenyl-3-buten-1-yl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 3-phenyl-3-buten-1-yl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  10. Fragrance material review on 2-methyl-4-phenyl-2-butyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-methyl-4-phenyl-2-butyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Methyl-4-phenyl-2-butyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-methyl-4-phenyl-2-butyl acetate were evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and elicitation data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  11. Fragrance material review on 1,3-benzodioxole-5-propanol, α-methyl-, 5-acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1,3-benzodioxole-5-propanol, α-methyl-, 5-acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1,3-Benzodioxole-5-propanol, α-methyl-, 5-acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1,3-benzodioxole-5-propanol, α-methyl-, 5-acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes physical properties. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  12. Fragrance material review on 1-phenyl-3-methyl-3-pentyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-3-pentyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 1-Phenyl-3-methyl-3-pentyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 1-phenyl-3-methyl-3-pentyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22406574

  13. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.228 Ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate (CAS Reg. No....

  14. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.228 Ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate (CAS Reg. No....

  15. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  16. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  17. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  18. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  19. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  20. Effects of sodium butyrate on methamphetamine-sensitized locomotor activity.

    PubMed

    Harkness, John H; Hitzemann, Robert J; Edmunds, Stephanie; Phillips, Tamara J

    2013-02-15

    Neuroadaptations associated with behavioral sensitization induced by repeated exposure to methamphetamine (MA) appear to be involved in compulsive drug pursuit and use. Increased histone acetylation, an epigenetic effect resulting in altered gene expression, may promote sensitized responses to psychostimulants. The role of histone acetylation in the expression and acquisition of MA-induced locomotor sensitization was examined by measuring the effect of histone deacetylase inhibition by sodium butyrate (NaB). For the effect on expression, mice were treated repeatedly with MA (10 days of 2mg/kg MA) or saline (10 days), and then vehicle or NaB (630 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) was administered 30 min prior to MA challenge and locomotor response was measured. NaB treatment increased the locomotor response to MA in both acutely MA treated and sensitized animals. For acquisition, NaB was administered 30 min prior to each MA exposure (10 days of 1 or 2mg/kg), but not prior to the MA challenge test. Treatment with NaB during the sensitization acquisition period significantly increased locomotor activation by MA in sensitized mice only. NaB alone did not significantly alter locomotor activity. Acute NaB or MA, but not the combination, increased striatal acetylation at histone H4. Repeated treatment with MA, but not NaB or MA plus NaB, increased striatal acetylation at histone H3. Although increased histone acetylation may alter the expression of genes involved in acute locomotor response to MA and in the acquisition of MA-induced sensitization, results for acetylation at H3 and H4 showed little correspondence with behavior.

  1. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food... GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid....

  4. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid....

  5. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid....

  6. Growth of geobacter sulfurreducens with acetate in syntrophic cooperation with hydrogen-oxidizing anaerobic partners

    PubMed

    Cord-Ruwisch; Lovley; Schink

    1998-06-01

    Pure cultures of Geobacter sulfurreducens and other Fe(III)-reducing bacteria accumulated hydrogen to partial pressures of 5 to 70 Pa with acetate, butyrate, benzoate, ethanol, lactate, or glucose as the electron donor if electron release to an acceptor was limiting. G. sulfurreducens coupled acetate oxidation with electron transfer to an anaerobic partner bacterium in the absence of ferric iron or other electron acceptors. Cocultures of G. sulfurreducens and Wolinella succinogenes with nitrate as the electron acceptor degraded acetate efficiently and grew with doubling times of 6 to 8 h. The hydrogen partial pressures in these acetate-degrading cocultures were considerably lower, in the range of 0.02 to 0.04 Pa. From these values and the concentrations of the other reactants, it was calculated that in this cooperation the free energy change available to G. sulfurreducens should be about -53 kJ per mol of acetate oxidized, assuming complete conversion of acetate to CO2 and H2. However, growth yields (18.5 g of dry mass per mol of acetate for the coculture, about 14 g for G. sulfurreducens) indicated considerably higher energy gains. These yield data, measurement of hydrogen production rates, and calculation of the diffusive hydrogen flux indicated that electron transfer in these cocultures may not proceed exclusively via interspecies hydrogen transfer but may also proceed through an alternative carrier system with higher redox potential, e.g., a c-type cytochrome that was found to be excreted by G. sulfurreducens into the culture fluid. Syntrophic acetate degradation was also possible with G. sulfurreducens and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans CSN but only with nitrate as electron acceptor. These cultures produced cell yields of 4.5 g of dry mass per mol of acetate, to which both partners contributed at about equal rates. These results demonstrate that some Fe(III)-reducing bacteria can oxidize organic compounds under Fe(III) limitation with the production of hydrogen

  7. 40 CFR 721.10001 - 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate. 721.10001 Section 721.10001 Protection of...-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate. (a) Chemical substances and significant...-80-5), 2-ethoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 111-15-9), 2-methoxyethanol (CAS No. 109-86-4), and...

  8. Uptake and metabolism of the short-chain fatty acid butyrate, a critical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Astbury, Stuart M; Corfe, Bernard M

    2012-07-01

    Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) formed by bacterial fermentation of fibre in the colon, and serves as an energy source for colonocytes. The action of butyrate as a histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) has led to a number of clinical trials testing its effectiveness as a potential treatment for cancer. The biology of butyrate transport is therefore relevant to both its physiological and pharmacological benefits. This review of the literature was carried out to assess the evidence for both the uptake and metabolism of butyrate, in an attempt to determine possible mechanism (s) by which butyrate can act as an HDACi. It is noted that although uptake and metabolism are well characterised, there are still significant gaps in the knowledgebase around the intracellular handing of butyrate, where assumptions or dated evidence are relied upon.

  9. Analysis of proteins responsive to acetic acid in Acetobacter: molecular mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Shigeru; Fukaya, Masahiro

    2008-06-30

    Acetic acid bacteria are used for industrial vinegar production because of their remarkable ability to oxidize ethanol and high resistance to acetic acid. Although several molecular machineries responsible for acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria have been reported, the entire mechanism that confers acetic acid resistance has not been completely understood. One of the promising methods to elucidate the entire mechanism is global analysis of proteins responsive to acetic acid by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Recently, two proteins whose production was greatly enhanced by acetic acid in Acetobacter aceti were identified to be aconitase and a putative ABC-transporter, respectively; furthermore, overexpression or disruption of the genes encoding these proteins affected acetic acid resistance in A. aceti, indicating that these proteins are involved in acetic acid resistance. Overexpression of each gene increased acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter, which resulted in an improvement in the productivity of acetic acid fermentation. Taken together, the results of the proteomic analysis and those of previous studies indicate that acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria is conferred by several mechanisms. These findings also provide a clue to breed a strain having high resistance to acetic acid for vinegar fermentation.

  10. Butyrate modulates antioxidant enzyme expression in malignant and non-malignant human colon tissues.

    PubMed

    Jahns, Franziska; Wilhelm, Anne; Jablonowski, Nadja; Mothes, Henning; Greulich, Karl Otto; Glei, Michael

    2015-04-01

    The induction of antioxidant enzymes is an important mechanism in colon cancer chemoprevention, but the response of human colon tissue to butyrate, a gut fermentation product derived from dietary fiber, remains largely unknown. Therefore, our study investigated the effect of a butyrate treatment on catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD2) in matched human colon tissues of different transformation stages (n = 3-15 in each group) ex vivo. By performing quantitative real-time PCR, Western blot, and spectrophotometric measurements, we found an increase in SOD2 at expression and activity level in colonic adenocarcinomas (mRNA: 1.96-fold; protein: 1.41-fold, activity: 1.8-fold; P < 0.05). No difference was detectable for CAT between normal, adenoma, and carcinoma colon tissues. Treatment of normal colon epithelium (12 h) with a physiologically relevant concentration of butyrate (10 mM) resulted in a significant increase (P < 0.05) in CAT mRNA (1.24-fold) and protein (1.39-fold), without affecting the enzymatic activity. Consequently, preliminary experiments failed to show any protective effect of butyrate against H2 O2 -mediated DNA damage. Despite a significantly lowered SOD2 transcript (0.51-fold, P < 0.01) and, to a lesser extent, protein level (0.86-fold) after butyrate exposure of normal colon cells, the catalytic activity was significantly enhanced (1.19-fold, P < 0.05), suggesting an increased protection against tissue superoxide radicals. In malignant tissues, greater variations in response to butyrate were observed. Furthermore, both enzymes showed an age-dependent decrease in activity in normal colon epithelium (CAT: r = -0.49, P = 0.09; SOD2: r = -0.58, P = 0.049). In conclusion, butyrate exhibited potential antioxidant features ex vivo but cellular consequences need to be investigated more in depth.

  11. Eicosanoid modulation by the short-chain fatty acid n-butyrate in human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Kovarik, Johannes J; Hölzl, Markus A; Hofer, Johannes; Waidhofer-Söllner, Petra; Sobanov, Yury; Koeffel, René; Saemann, Marcus D; Mechtcheriakova, Diana; Zlabinger, Gerhard J

    2013-07-01

    n-Butyrate deriving from bacterial fermentation in the mammalian intestine is a key determinant in gastrointestinal homeostasis. We examined the effects of this short-chain fatty acid and Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR) and TLR4 engagement on inflammatory/immunity-associated genes, cyclo-oxygenases (COXs), prostaglandins (PGs) and leukotrienes (LTs) in human monocytes. Before RNA isolation, freshly isolated human monocytes were co-incubated for different time-points with 1 mm n-butyrate alone or in combination with bacterial stimuli. Based on a knowledge-driven approach, a signature of 180 immunity/inflammation-associated genes was picked and real-time PCR analysis was performed. Pathway analysis was carried out using a web-based database analysing program. Based on these gene expression studies the findings were evaluated at the protein/mediator level by Western blot analysis, FACS and ELISA. Following co-incubation with n-butyrate and lipopolysaccharide, key enzymes of the eicosanoid pathway, like PTGS2 (COX-2), TXS, ALOX5, LTA4H and LTC4S, were significantly up-regulated compared with stimulation with lipopolysaccharide alone. Furthermore, release of the lipid mediators PGE(2), 15d-PGJ(2), LTB(4) and thromboxane B(2) was increased by n-butyrate. Regarding signalling, n-butyrate had no additional effect on mitogen-activated protein kinase and interfered differently with early and late phases of nuclear factor-κB signalling. Our results suggest that among many other mediators of eicosanoid signalling n-butyrate massively induces PGE(2) production by increasing the expression of PTGS2 (COX-2) in monocytes following TLR4 and TLR2 activation and induces secretion of LTB(4) and thromboxane B(2). This underscores the role of n-butyrate as a crucial mediator of gut-specific immunity.

  12. Butyrate suppresses murine mast cell proliferation and cytokine production through inhibiting histone deacetylase.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hanying; Du, Min; Yang, Qiyuan; Zhu, Mei-Jun

    2016-01-01

    Beyond their nutritional impact to colonic epithelial cells, the intestinal microbiota metabolite butyrate has pleotropic effects to host cells and is known for its beneficial effects on intestinal homeostasis and metabolism. However, it remains unclear how it modulates mast cell function. Here, we demonstrate that butyrate profoundly inhibited proliferation of mouse mastocytoma P815 cells through inducing cell cycle arrest and apoptosis, as well as decreasing c-Kit activation. In addition, butyrate increased early- and late-stage apoptotic P815 cells. In murine bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMC), butyrate-suppressed FcεRI-dependent tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 6 (IL-6) release without affecting β-Hexosaminidase, but that was associated with decreased mitogen-activated protein kinase extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinases activation. Butyrate treatment substantially enhanced histone 3 acetylation in both P815 and BMMC and decreased FcεRI-dependent mRNA expression of tnf-α and il-6 in BMMC, mimicking the effect of Trichostatin A, a known histone deacetylase inhibitor. Chromatin immunoprecipitation revealed that butyrate enhanced acetylation of the tnf-α and il-6 promoter regions but blocked RNA polymerase II binding to the promoters of tnf-α and il-6 genes, indicating suppressed transcription initiation. These phenotypes mimicked those of Trichostatin A treatment. In conclusion, butyrate inhibits cell proliferation and increases cell apoptosis in mastocytoma P815 cells and suppresses FcεRI-dependent cytokine production in murine primary BMMC, which are likely mediated by HDAC inhibition.

  13. Propolis augments apoptosis induced by butyrate via targeting cell survival pathways.

    PubMed

    Drago, Eric; Bordonaro, Michael; Lee, Seon; Atamna, Wafa; Lazarova, Darina L

    2013-01-01

    Diet is one of the major lifestyle factors affecting incidence of colorectal cancer (CC), and despite accumulating evidence that numerous diet-derived compounds modulate CC incidence, definitive dietary recommendations are not available. We propose a strategy that could facilitate the design of dietary supplements with CC-preventive properties. Thus, nutrient combinations that are a source of apoptosis-inducers and inhibitors of compensatory cell proliferation pathways (e.g., AKT signaling) may produce high levels of programmed death in CC cells. Here we report the combined effect of butyrate, an apoptosis inducer that is produced through fermentation of fiber in the colon, and propolis, a honeybee product, on CC cells. We established that propolis increases the apoptosis of CC cells exposed to butyrate through suppression of cell survival pathways such as the AKT signaling. The programmed death of CC cells by combined exposure to butyrate and propolis is further augmented by inhibition of the JNK signaling pathway. Analyses on the contribution of the downstream targets of JNK signaling, c-JUN and JAK/STAT, to the apoptosis of butyrate/propolis-treated CC cells ascertained that JAK/STAT signaling has an anti-apoptotic role; whereas, the role of cJUN might be dependent upon regulatory cell factors. Thus, our studies ascertained that propolis augments apoptosis of butyrate-sensitive CC cells and re-sensitizes butyrate-resistant CC cells to apoptosis by suppressing AKT signaling and downregulating the JAK/STAT pathway. Future in vivo studies should evaluate the CC-preventive potential of a dietary supplement that produces high levels of colonic butyrate, propolis, and diet-derived JAK/STAT inhibitors.

  14. Butyrate delivered by butyrylated starch increases distal colonic epithelial apoptosis in carcinogen-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Clarke, Julie M; Young, Graeme P; Topping, David L; Bird, Anthony R; Cobiac, Lynne; Scherer, Benjamin L; Winkler, Jessica G; Lockett, Trevor J

    2012-01-01

    Animal studies show that increasing large bowel butyrate concentration through ingestion of butyrylated or resistant starches opposes carcinogen-induced tumorigenesis, which is consistent with population data linking greater fiber consumption with lowered colorectal cancer (CRC) risk. Butyrate has been shown to regulate the apoptotic response to DNA damage. This study examined the impact of increasing large bowel butyrate concentration by dietary butyrylated starch on the colonic epithelium of rats treated with the genotoxic carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM). Four groups of 10 male rats were fed AIN-93G based-diets containing either low amylose maize starch (LAMS), LAMS with 3% tributyrin, 10% high amylose maize starch (HAMS) or 10% butyrylated HAMS (HAMSB). HAMS and HAMSB starches were cooked by heating in water. After 4 weeks, rats were injected once with AOM and killed 6 h later. Rates of apoptosis and proliferation were measured in colonic epithelium. Short-chain fatty acid concentrations in large bowel digesta and hepatic portal venous plasma were higher in HAMSB than all other groups. Apoptotic rates in the distal colon were increased by HAMSB and correlated with luminal butyrate concentrations but cellular proliferation rates were unaffected by diet. The increase in apoptosis was most marked in the base and proliferative zone of the crypt. Regulation of luminal butyrate using HAMSB increases the rates of apoptotic deletion of DNA-damaged colonocytes. We propose this pro-apoptotic function of butyrate plays a major role reducing tumour formation in the AOM-treated rat and that these data support a potential protective role of butyrate in CRC.

  15. In vitro dissolution and in vivo absorption of calcium [1-(14)c]butyrate in free or protected forms.

    PubMed

    Smith, David J; Barri, Adriana; Herges, Grant; Hahn, Joe; Yersin, Andrew G; Jourdan, Alissa

    2012-03-28

    Butyrate is a byproduct of microbial carbohydrate fermentation that occurs primarily in the large intestine. When added to feed, butyrate quickly disappears in the upper digestive tract. Because butyrate is important for epithelial cell development, mucosal integrity, and animal growth, an encapsulation technique has been developed that allows for the slow release of butyrate into the small and large intestines. The purpose of this study was to describe the in vitro release of calcium [1-(14)C]butyrate, formulated into a slow-release (protected) bead, into water and simulated intestinal fluids and to compare the in vivo absorption and disposition of unprotected versus protected calcium [1-(14)C]butyrate in broiler chicks. Formulation of calcium [1-(14)C]butyrate into protected beads allowed release of 5.8 ± 0.2 and 3.4 ± 0.2% of the formulated radiocarbon into water and gastric fluid, respectively, after 2 h of incubation. Beads incubated in gastric fluid for 2 h and subsequently incubated in simulated intestinal fluid released a total of 17.4 ± 0.8% of the formulated radioactivity. Release of respiratory [(14)C]CO(2) after oral dosing of aqueous calcium [1-(14)C]butyrate in broiler chicks peaked at 15.2 ± 5.2% per hour 1.5 h after dosing; in contrast, maximal rates of release in chicks dosed with protected calcium [1-(14)C]butyrate occurred 4 h after dosing at 9.0 ± 3.1% per hour. The data suggested an improved efficacy of protected butyrate delivery to intestinal tissues over nonprotected butyrate. This study confirmed that encapsulation strategies designed to enhance delivery of ingredients to improve intestinal health are effective at prolonging intestinal exposure to butyrate. Encapsulation of such ingredients might benefit the food and feed industries.

  16. Toxic and metabolic effect of sodium butyrate on SAS tongue cancer cells: role of cell cycle deregulation and redox changes.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Jiiang-Huei; Kuo, Mark Yen-Ping; Lee, Po-Hsuen; Wang, Ying-Jan; Lee, Mon-Ying; Lee, Jang-Jaer; Lin, Bor-Ru; Tai, Tseng-Fang; Chang, Mei-Chi

    2006-06-15

    Butyrate is a metabolite produced by oral and colonic microorganism. Butyrate has been shown to reduce colon cancer, whereas its role in oral carcinogenesis is not clear. Butyrate concentration in dental plaque and saliva ranged from 0.2 to 16 mM. In this study, we found that sodium butyrate inhibited the growth of SAS tongue cancer cells by 32% and 53% at concentrations of 1 and 2mM, respectively. Low concentrations of sodium butyrate (1-8mM) induced G0/G1 cell cycle arrest of SAS cells, whereas concentrations of 4-16 mM elicited G2/M arrest and a slight increase in apoptotic cell populations. These events were concomitant with induction of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. An elevation in p21 mRNA and protein level was noted in SAS cells by sodium butyrate. On the contrary, a decline of cyclin Bl, cdc2 and cdc25C mRNA and protein expression in SAS cells was found after exposure to sodium butyrate. In addition, no evident increase in cdc2 inhibitory phosphorylation was found in sodium butyrate-treated SAS cancer cells. Inclusion of N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) (3mM), catalase (1000 U/ml) and dimethylthiourea (DMT, 5mM), and also SOD (500 U/ml) attenuated the sodium butyrate-induced ROS production in SAS cells. However, they were not able to prevent the cell cycle arrest, apoptosis and growth inhibition in SAS cells induced by 1, 2 and 16 mM of sodium butyrate. These results indicate that sodium butyrate is toxic and inhibits the tongue cancer cell growth via induction of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Sodium butyrate mediates these events by mechanisms additional to ROS production.

  17. [Use of sodium acetate in feed rations in ketotic cows].

    PubMed

    Vojtísek, B; Hamrík, J; Hronová, B; Diblíková, I; Minksová, E

    1989-10-01

    On a farm where the ration of cows contained 88.0 g of butyric acid, an experimental group of cows (n = 8), producing milk containing 7.9 mg or more acetone per litre, was studied for 14 days for the effect of a 250 g supplement of sodium acetate to the ration (combined with single i.m. administration of vitamins A, D2 and E) on selected metabolism parameters and on milk production. As distinct from the control group of cows (n = 8) from the same farm which produced milk containing 3.9 mg or less acetone per litre and which were fed without sodium acetone supplements, a tendency of increased alkaemia of the organism was suggested in the experimental cows. This tendency manifested itself during the trial in increased pH values, increased base excess (BE) and standard bicarbonate (SB) in the blood, and in an increase in the pH value and net acido basic secretion in urine. A decrease was recorded in the concentration of the acetone + acetacetic acid sum, the same as beta-hydroxybutyric acid in blood and the sum of acetone and acetacetic acid in milk (P less than 0.01). An insignificant increase of the activity of gammaglutamyl transpeptidase (GMT) was recorded in the blood serum of the experimental cows and a significant increase occurred in the content of potassium (up to P less than 0.01) and urea (up to P less than 0.01) in urine. The supplement of sodium acetate to the feed ration did not influence the degree of ketonuria and the finding of urobilinogen in urine.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Isolation of a Butyrate-Utilizing Bacterium in Coculture with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum from a Thermophilic Digester †

    PubMed Central

    Henson, J. Michael; Smith, P. H.

    1985-01-01

    Sludge from a thermophilic, 55°C digester produced methane without a lag period when enriched with butyrate. The sludge was found by most-probable-number enumeration to have ca. 5 × 106 butyrate-utilizing bacteria per ml. A thermophilic butyrate-utilizing bacterium was isolated in coculture with Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. This bacterium was a gram-negative, slightly curved rod, occurred singly, was nonmotile, and did not appear to produce spores. When this coculture was incubated with Methanospirillum hungatei at 37°C, the quantity of methane produced was less than 5% of the methane produced when the coculture was incubated at 55°C, the routine incubation temperature. The coculture required clarified digester fluid. The addition of yeast extract to medium containing 5% clarified digester fluid stimulated methane production when a Methanosarcina sp. was present. Hydrogen in the gas phase prevented butyrate utilization. However, when the hydrogen was removed, butyrate utilization began. Penicillin G and d-cycloserine caused the complete inhibition of butyrate utilization by the coculture. The ability of various ecosystems to convert butyrate to methane was studied. Marine sediments enriched with butyrate required a 2-week incubation period before methanogenesis began. Hypersaline sediments did not produce methane after 3 months when enriched with butyrate. Images PMID:16346813

  19. Apoptosis of U937 human leukemic cells by sodium butyrate is associated with inhibition of telomerase activity.

    PubMed

    Choi, Yung Hyun

    2006-11-01

    Sodium butyrate as a histone deacetylase inhibitor is known to exhibit anti-cancer effects via the differentiation and apoptosis of various carcinoma cells. However, the mechanism by which sodium butyrate induces apoptosis and the involvement of telomerase activity during apoptosis is not completely understood. To investigate the underlying pathways, sodium butyrate's potential to induce apoptosis in human leukemic U937 cells and its effects on telomerase activity were investigated. Exposure of U937 cells to sodium butyrate resulted in growth inhibition and induction of apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner as measured by hemocytometer counts, fluorescence microscopy, agarose gel electrophoresis and flow cytometry analysis. The increase in apoptosis was associated with the up-regulation in pro-apoptotic Bax expression, and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL. Sodium butyrate treatment also inhibited the levels of cIAP family members and induced the activation of caspase-3. Furthermore, sodium butyrate markedly inhibited the activity of telomerase and the expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), a main determinant of the telomerase enzymatic activity, was progressively down-regulated by sodium butyrate. Taken together, it is suggested that sodium butyrate can be a promising chemopreventive agent for leukemic cells and changes in Bcl-2 family expressions, as well as telomerase activity may, play critical roles in sodium butyrate-induced apoptosis in U937 cells.

  20. Complete Genome Sequence of the Biocontrol Strain Pseudomonas protegens Cab57 Discovered in Japan Reveals Strain-Specific Diversity of This Species

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Kasumi; Noda, Naomi; Someya, Nobutaka

    2014-01-01

    The biocontrol strain Pseudomonas sp. Cab57 was isolated from the rhizosphere of shepherd’s purse growing in a field in Hokkaido by screening the antibiotic producers. The whole genome sequence of this strain was obtained by paired-end and whole-genome shotgun sequencing, and the gaps between the contigs were closed using gap-spanning PCR products. The P. sp. Cab57 genome is organized into a single circular chromosome with 6,827,892 bp, 63.3% G+C content, and 6,186 predicted protein-coding sequences. Based on 16S rRNA gene analysis and whole genome analysis, strain Cab57 was identified as P. protegens. As reported in P. protegens CHA0 and Pf-5, four gene clusters (phl, prn, plt, and hcn) encoding the typical antibiotic metabolites and the reported genes associated with Gac/Rsm signal transduction pathway of these strains are fully conserved in the Cab57 genome. Actually strain Cab57 exhibited typical Gac/Rsm activities and antibiotic production, and these activities were enhanced by knocking out the retS gene (for a sensor kinase acting as an antagonist of GacS). Two large segments (79 and 115 kb) lacking in the Cab57 genome, as compared with the Pf-5 genome, accounted for the majority of the difference (247 kb) between these genomes. One of these segments was the complete rhizoxin analog biosynthesis gene cluster (ca. 79 kb) and another one was the 115-kb mobile genomic island. A whole genome comparison of those relative strains revealed that each strain has unique gene clusters involved in metabolism such as nitrite/nitrate assimilation, which was identified in the Cab57 genome. These findings suggest that P. protegens is a ubiquitous bacterium that controls its biocontrol traits while building up strain-specific genomic repertoires for the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites and niche adaptation. PMID:24695768

  1. Effect of sodium butyrate on growth performance and response to lipopolysaccharide in weanling pigs.

    PubMed

    Weber, T E; Kerr, B J

    2008-02-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of dietary sodium butyrate on growth performance and response to Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in weanling pigs. In a 28-d experiment, 180 pigs (initial BW 6.3 kg) were fed 0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4% sodium butyrate, or 110 mg/kg of dietary tylosin. There was no effect of dietary sodium butyrate or tylosin on overall G:F, but there was a linear trend (P < 0.07) toward decreased ADFI and ADG as levels of sodium butyrate increased. In a second 28-d experiment, 108 pigs (initial BW 6.3 kg) were assigned to 1 of 3 dietary treatments: 1) no antibiotics, 2) 0.2% sodium butyrate, or 3) 55 mg/kg of carbadox. On d 14, a subset of pigs from the no-antibiotic and butyrate treatment groups was challenged with E. coli LPS or injected with sterile saline in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement (+/-LPS challenge; +/-dietary butyrate; n = 6 pigs/treatment group). Four hours after LPS challenge, blood samples were obtained, and samples of LM, liver, and ileum were collected for gene expression analysis. Serum samples were analyzed for IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFalpha), alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein, cortisol, IGF-I, insulin, and metabolites. The relative abundance of tissue cytokine and IGF-I mRNA was measured by real-time PCR. Feeding diets containing sodium butyrate or carbadox did not alter ADG or ADFI compared with pigs fed the control diet. From d 0 to 14, pigs fed diets containing 0.2% sodium butyrate had decreased (P < 0.05) ADG and tended (P < 0.06) to have decreased G:F compared with animals fed diets containing carbadox. Challenge with LPS increased (P < 0.05) serum cytokines and cortisol and decreased (P < 0.05) serum glucose and triglycerides. Injection with LPS increased (P < 0.05) the relative abundance of hepatic IL-6 and TNFalpha mRNA, increased (P < 0.05) LM TNFalpha mRNA content, and decreased (P < 0.05) IGF-I mRNA in LM. For serum cortisol, there was an interaction (P < 0.05) between dietary

  2. Inhibition of histone deacetylase by butyrate protects rat liver from ischemic reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jie; Wu, Qiujv; Sun, Huiling; Qiao, Yingli

    2014-11-14

    We showed previously that pretreatment of butyrate, which is an endogenous histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor normally fermented from undigested fiber by intestinal microflora, seriously alleviated ischemia reperfusion (I/R)-induced liver injury by inhibiting the nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) pathway. The goal of this study was to investigate the effect of butyrate administrated at the onset of ischemia for HDAC inhibition in hepatic I/R injury. Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to warm ischemia for 60 min followed by 6 and 24 h of reperfusion. Butyrate was administrated at the onset of ischemia. Liver injury was evaluated by serum levels of aminotransferase, inflammatory factors, and histopathology. The levels of acetylated histone H3 and expression of heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 were measured by Western blot. After reperfusion, the levels of acetylated histone H3 significantly decreased. Butyrate treatment markedly prevented the reduction of acetylated histone H3 and upregulated the expression of Hsp70, thereby reducing liver injury. Our study demonstrated that I/R resulted in marked reduction of histone acetylation; butyrate exerted a great hepatoprotective effect through HDAC inhibition and Hsp70 induction.

  3. The induction of vimentin gene expression by sodium butyrate in human promonocytic leukemia U937 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Rius, C.; Aller, P. ); Cabanas, C. Universidad Complutense, Madrid )

    1990-05-01

    The administration of 1 mM sodium butyrate induced the phenotypic differentiation of human promonocytic leukemia U937 cells, as judged by the expression of cD11b and cD11c antigens, two differentiation-specific surface markers. At the same time, butyrate greatly induced the expression at the mRNA level of the vimentin gene. The increase in the level of this RNA started at 6 hours of treatment and reached the maximum at Hour 24. Such an increase was caused at least in part by a stimulation in the rate of gene transcription, as suggested by transcription assays in isolated nuclei. Experiments in the presence of cycloheximide suggested that vimentin induction is probably a direct response to the action of butyrate, not mediated by the prior induction of other gene products. Unlike the case the vimentin, the levels of other RNAs, namely {beta}-actin ornithine decarboxylase, and c-myc, were not enhanced, but they decreased at different times of treatment with butyrate. Finally, the authors observed that butyrate induced also the differentiation of HL60 cells, another human myeloid cell type. Nevertheless, the drug failed to stimulate the expression of vimentin in this cell line.

  4. Comparison of Butyric acid concentrations in ordinary and probiotic yogurt samples in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Vaseji, N; Mojgani, N; Amirinia, C; Iranmanesh, M

    2012-01-01

    Background and objectives Butyric acid has many applications in chemical, food and pharmaceutical industries. Applications of butyric acid are as an additive to food, flavorings, varnishes, perfumes, pharmaceuticals and disinfectants. Butyric acid concentrations have positive impact on the quality control of milk, yogurt and other probiotic dairy products. The present investigation was undertaken to determine and compare the concentrations of butyric acid (C4) in the ordinary and probiotic yogurt samples by GC method. Materials and Methods Probiotic yogurt samples were prepared under laboratory scale conditions using two different commercial starters ABY1 and 211, while ordinary yogurt samples lacked the probiotic starter cultures. All samples were analyzed in duplicate, for C4 concentrations by gas chromatography after day 1, 2, 10 and 20 of production, during storage at 4°C. The results were analyzed using ANOVA and Duncan test. Results The level of the mentioned fatty acid in ABY1 yogurt sample was significantly higher (0.2%) than in 211 samples (0.17%). These values were significantly lower in ordinary yogurt samples and only 0.07% was recorded in these samples on first day of storage which decreased gradually during storage. The level of reduction in the yogurt samples tested during different time intervals was not similar in all the examined samples, and some showed enhanced reduction than other samples. Conclusions Compared to ordinary yogurt samples, probiotic yogurt samples used in study showed higher levels of butyric acid with increased shelf life. PMID:22973475

  5. Butyric acid fermentation in a fibrous bed bioreactor with immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum from cane molasses.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ling; Wang, Jufang; Liang, Shizhong; Wang, Xiaoning; Cen, Peilin; Xu, Zhinan

    2009-07-01

    Butyrate fermentation by immobilized Clostridium tyrobutyricum was successfully carried out in a fibrous bed bioreactor using cane molasses. Batch fermentations were conducted to investigate the influence of pH on the metabolism of the strain, and the results showed that the fermentation gave a highest butyrate production of 26.2 g l(-1) with yield of 0.47 g g(-1) and reactor productivity up to 4.13 g l(-1)h(-1) at pH 6.0. When repeated-batch fermentation was carried out, long-term operation with high butyrate yield, volumetric productivity was achieved. Several cane molasses pretreatment techniques were investigated, and it was found that sulfuric acid treatment gave better results regarding butyrate concentration (34.6+/-0.8 g l(-1)), yield (0.58+/-0.01 g g(-1)), and sugar utilization (90.8+/-0.9%). Also, fed-batch fermentation from cane molasses pretreated with sulfuric acid was performed to further increase the concentration of butyrate up to 55.2 g l(-1).

  6. Epigenetic effects of dietary butyrate on hepatic histone acetylation and enzymes of biotransformation in chicken.

    PubMed

    Mátis, Gábor; Neogrády, Zsuzsanna; Csikó, György; Gálfi, Péter; Fébel, Hedvig; Jemnitz, Katalin; Veres, Zsuzsanna; Kulcsár, Anna; Kenéz, Akos; Huber, Korinna

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the in vivo epigenetic influences of dietary butyrate supplementation on the acetylation state of core histones and the activity of drug-metabolising microsomal cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in the liver of broiler chickens in the starter period. One-day-old Ross 308 broilers were fed a starter diet without or with sodium butyrate (1.5 g/kg feed) for 21 days. After slaughtering, nucleus and microsome fractions were isolated from the exsanguinated liver by multi-step differential centrifugation. Histone acetylation level was detected from hepatocyte nuclei by Western blotting, while microsomal CYP activity was examined by specific enzyme assays. Hyperacetylation of hepatic histone H2A at lysine 5 was observed after butyrate supplementation, providing modifications in the epigenetic regulation of cell function. No significant changes could be found in the acetylation state of the other core histones at the acetylation sites examined. Furthermore, butyrate did not cause any changes in the drugmetabolising activity of hepatic microsomal CYP2H and CYP3A37 enzymes, which are mainly involved in the biotransformation of most xenobiotics in chicken. These data indicate that supplementation of the diet with butyrate probably does not have any pharmacokinetic interactions with simultaneously applied xenobiotics.

  7. Upregulation of activin A gene by butyrate in human colon cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Sonoyama, Kei; Pholnukulkit, Pimara; Toyoda, Masahiko; Rutatip, Suriya; Kasai, Takanori

    2003-06-01

    Activin A has been reported to play a role in the progression of colorectal cancer. Because dietary fiber protects against colorectal cancer, we hypothesized that butyrate, a fermentation product of dietary fiber, may affect the expression of activin A in colon cancer cells. Semiquantitative RT-PCR demonstrated that the activin A gene was upregulated by sodium butyrate in the human colon cancer cell lines HT-29 and Caco-2 in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. However, the activin A gene did not respond to sodium butyrate in the human normal colonic cell line FHC, rat normal intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) line IEC-6, and the explant of rat colon. Flow cytometry and agarose gel electrophoresis of genomic DNA revealed that cell cycle arrest and apoptosis were induced by sodium butyrate but not exogenous activin A in HT-29 cells, indicating that activin A could not act as an autocrine factor in colon cancer cells. By assuming that activin A promotes colorectal cancer spread as a paracrine factor, our findings suggest that butyrate could act as a tumor promoter in some circumstances.

  8. Butyric acid fermentation from pretreated and hydrolysed wheat straw by an adapted Clostridium tyrobutyricum strain

    PubMed Central

    Baroi, G N; Baumann, I; Westermann, P; Gavala, H N

    2015-01-01

    Butyric acid is a valuable building-block for the production of chemicals and materials and nowadays it is produced exclusively from petroleum. The aim of this study was to develop a suitable and robust strain of Clostridium tyrobutyricum that produces butyric acid at a high yield and selectivity from lignocellulosic biomasses. Pretreated (by wet explosion) and enzymatically hydrolysed wheat straw (PHWS), rich in C6 and C5 sugars (71.6 and 55.4 g l−1 of glucose and xylose respectively), was used as substrate. After one year of serial selections, an adapted strain of C. tyrobutyricum was developed. The adapted strain was able to grow in 80% (v v−1) PHWS without addition of yeast extract compared with an initial tolerance to less than 10% PHWS and was able to ferment both glucose and xylose. It is noticeable that the adapted C. tyrobutyricum strain was characterized by a high yield and selectivity to butyric acid. Specifically, the butyric acid yield at 60–80% PHWS lie between 0.37 and 0.46 g g−1 of sugar, while the selectivity for butyric acid was as high as 0.9–1.0 g g−1 of acid. Moreover, the strain exhibited a robust response in regards to growth and product profile at pH 6 and 7. PMID:26230610

  9. Reductive opening of carbohydrate phenylsulfonylethylidene (PSE) acetals.

    PubMed

    Chéry, Florence; Cabianca, Elena; Tatibouët, Arnaud; De Lucchi, Ottorino; Lindhorst, Thisbe K; Rollin, Patrick

    2015-11-19

    The phenylsulfonylethylidene (PSE) acetal is a relatively new protecting group in carbohydrate chemistry. However, carbohydrate-derived phenylsulfonylethylidene (PSE) acetals show a different behavior in reductive desulfonylation than simple symmetrical acetals. Here we have investigated various SET-type reaction conditions in order to open PSE acetals regioselectively and to produce chiral ω-hydroxyethenyl ethers. Whereas sodium amalgam leads to a mixture of regioisomeric vinyl ethers besides the ethylidene acetal, samarium iodide is suited for regioselective ring opening. This is shown with seven different carbohydrate PSE acetals, both of the 1,3-dioxane and the 1,3-dioxolane type. PMID:26469209

  10. Revealing the bacterial butyrate synthesis pathways by analyzing (meta)genomic data.

    PubMed

    Vital, Marius; Howe, Adina Chuang; Tiedje, James M

    2014-04-22

    Butyrate-producing bacteria have recently gained attention, since they are important for a healthy colon and when altered contribute to emerging diseases, such as ulcerative colitis and type II diabetes. This guild is polyphyletic and cannot be accurately detected by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Consequently, approaches targeting the terminal genes of the main butyrate-producing pathway have been developed. However, since additional pathways exist and alternative, newly recognized enzymes catalyzing the terminal reaction have been described, previous investigations are often incomplete. We undertook a broad analysis of butyrate-producing pathways and individual genes by screening 3,184 sequenced bacterial genomes from the Integrated Microbial Genome database. Genomes of 225 bacteria with a potential to produce butyrate were identified, including many previously unknown candidates. The majority of candidates belong to distinct families within the Firmicutes, but members of nine other phyla, especially from Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Proteobacteria, Spirochaetes, and Thermotogae, were also identified as potential butyrate producers. The established gene catalogue (3,055 entries) was used to screen for butyrate synthesis pathways in 15 metagenomes derived from stool samples of healthy individuals provided by the HMP (Human Microbiome Project) consortium. A high percentage of total genomes exhibited a butyrate-producing pathway (mean, 19.1%; range, 3.2% to 39.4%), where the acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) pathway was the most prevalent (mean, 79.7% of all pathways), followed by the lysine pathway (mean, 11.2%). Diversity analysis for the acetyl-CoA pathway showed that the same few firmicute groups associated with several Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae were dominating in most individuals, whereas the other pathways were associated primarily with Bacteroidetes. IMPORTANCE Microbiome research has revealed new, important roles of our gut microbiota for

  11. Butyric acid esterification kinetics over Amberlyst solid acid catalysts: the effect of alcohol carbon chain length.

    PubMed

    Pappu, Venkata K S; Kanyi, Victor; Santhanakrishnan, Arati; Lira, Carl T; Miller, Dennis J

    2013-02-01

    The liquid phase esterification of butyric acid with a series of linear and branched alcohols is examined. Four strong cation exchange resins, Amberlyst™ 15, Amberlyst™ 36, Amberlyst™ BD 20, and Amberlyst™ 70, were used along with para-toluenesulfonic acid as a homogeneous catalyst. The effect of increasing alcohol carbon chain length and branching on esterification rate at 60°C is presented. For all catalysts, the decrease in turnover frequency (TOF) with increasing carbon chain length of the alcohol is described in terms of steric hindrance, alcohol polarity, and hydroxyl group concentration. The kinetics of butyric acid esterification with 2-ethylhexanol using Amberlyst™ 70 catalyst is described with an activity-based, pseudo-homogeneous kinetic model that includes autocatalysis by butyric acid.

  12. Butyrate enemas enhance both cholinergic and nitrergic phenotype of myenteric neurons and neuromuscular transmission in newborn rat colon.

    PubMed

    Suply, Etienne; de Vries, Philine; Soret, Rodolphe; Cossais, François; Neunlist, Michel

    2012-06-15

    Postnatal changes in the enteric nervous system (ENS) are involved in the establishment of colonic motility. In adult rats, butyrate induced neuroplastic changes in the ENS, leading to enhanced colonic motility. Whether butyrate can induce similar changes during the postnatal period remains unknown. Enemas (Na-butyrate) were performed daily in rat pups between postnatal day (PND) 7 and PND 17. Effects of butyrate were evaluated on morphological and histological parameters in the distal colon at PND 21. The neurochemical phenotype of colonic submucosal and myenteric neurons was analyzed using antibodies against Hu, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Colonic motility and neuromuscular transmission was assessed in vivo and ex vivo. Butyrate (2.5 mM) enemas had no impact on pup growth and histological parameters compared with control. Butyrate did not modify the number of Hu-immunoreactive (IR) neurons per ganglia. A significant increase in the proportion (per Hu-IR neurons) of nNOS-IR myenteric and submucosal neurons and ChAT-IR myenteric neurons was observed in the distal colon after butyrate enemas compared with control. In addition, butyrate induced a significant increase in both nitrergic and cholinergic components of the neuromuscular transmission compared with control. Finally, butyrate increased distal colonic transit time compared with control. We concluded that butyrate enemas induced neuroplastic changes in myenteric and submucosal neurons, leading to changes in gastrointestinal functions. Our results support exploration of butyrate as potential therapy for motility disorders in preterm infants with delayed maturation of the ENS.

  13. Evaluation of recycling the effluent of hydrogen fermentation for biobutanol production: kinetic study with butyrate and sucrose concentrations.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wen-Hsing; Jian, Zih-Ce

    2013-10-01

    Butyrate in the effluent of hydrogen-producing bioreactor is a potential feed for biobutanol production. For recycling butyrate, this study investigated the kinetics of biobutanol production by Clostridium beijerinckii NRRL B592 from different paired concentrations of butyrate and sucrose in a series of batch reactors. Results show that the lag time of butanol production increased with higher concentration of either sucrose or butyrate. In regression analyses, the maximum specific butanol production potential of 6.49 g g(-1) of dry cell was projected for 31.9 g L(-1) sucrose and 1.3 g L(-1) butyrate, and the maximum specific butanol production rate of 0.87 g d(-1) g(-1) of dry cell was predicted for 25.0 g L(-1) sucrose and 2.6 g L(-1) butyrate. The specific butanol production potential will decrease if more butyrate is added to the reactor. However, both sucrose and butyrate concentrations are weighted equally on the specific butanol production rate. This observation also is true on butanol yield. The maximum butanol yield of 0.49 mol mol(-1) was projected for 25.0 g L(-1) sucrose and 2.3 g L(-1) butyrate. In addition, a confirmation study found butanol yield increased from 0.2 to 0.3 mol mol(-1) when butyrate addition increased from 0 to 1 g L(-1) under low sugar concentration (3.8 g L(-1) sucrose). The existence of butyrate increases the activity of biobutanol production and reduces the fermentable sugar concentration needed for acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation.

  14. The SCFA butyrate stimulates the epithelial production of retinoic acid via inhibition of epithelial HDAC.

    PubMed

    Schilderink, Ronald; Verseijden, Caroline; Seppen, Jurgen; Muncan, Vanesa; van den Brink, Gijs R; Lambers, Tim T; van Tol, Eric A; de Jonge, Wouter J

    2016-06-01

    In the intestinal mucosa, retinoic acid (RA) is a critical signaling molecule. RA is derived from dietary vitamin A (retinol) through conversion by aldehyde dehydrogenases (aldh). Reduced levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) are associated with pathological microbial dysbiosis, inflammatory disease, and allergy. We hypothesized that SCFAs contribute to mucosal homeostasis by enhancing RA production in intestinal epithelia. With the use of human and mouse epithelial cell lines and primary enteroids, we studied the effect of SCFAs on the production of RA. Functional RA conversion was analyzed by Adlefluor activity assays. Butyrate (0-20 mM), in contrast to other SCFAs, dose dependently induced aldh1a1 or aldh1a3 transcript expression and increased RA conversion in human and mouse epithelial cells. Epithelial cell line data were replicated in intestinal organoids. In these organoids, butyrate (2-5 mM) upregulated aldh1a3 expression (36-fold over control), whereas aldh1a1 was not significantly affected. Butyrate enhanced maturation markers (Mucin-2 and villin) but did not consistently affect stemness markers or other Wnt target genes (lgr5, olfm4, ascl2, cdkn1). In enteroids, the stimulation of RA production by SCFA was mimicked by inhibitors of histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) but not by HDAC1/2 inhibitors nor by agonists of butyrate receptors G-protein-coupled receptor (GPR)43 or GPR109A, indicating that butyrate stimulates RA production via HDAC3 inhibition. We conclude that the SCFA butyrate inhibits HDAC3 and thereby supports epithelial RA production. PMID:27151945

  15. Sodium butyrate induces retinoblastoma protein dephosphorylation, p16 expression and growth arrest of colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, B; Avivi-Green, C; Polak-Charcon, S

    1998-11-01

    Sodium butyrate causes alteration of colon cancer cell morphology and biology towards that of a more differentiated phenotype. The retinoblastoma gene encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein (pRb) present in a wide range of human cancer cell lines including colon cancer cell lines. pRB is synthesized throughout the cell cycle and phosphorylated in a phase specific manner: the predominant proteins in G0/G1 are the unphosphorylated species (110 kD) whereas phosphorylated pRb (112-114 kD) are in S and G2. 110 kD pRb binds transcription factors and prevents transcription of responsive genes such as the gene for thymidine kinase, which are expressed in late G1. The precise mechanisms controlling cell arrest are unknown, but recent data suggest that cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors such as p16 may play a role. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of sodium butyrate on cell cycle staging, thymidine kinase activity, phosphorylation of the pRb protein and expression of p16. We show that sodium butyrate treatment induces differentiation of LS174T colon cancer cells, inhibits thymidine kinase activity concomitantly with induction of pRb dephosphorylation, p16 transcription and cell cycle arrest at G0/G1. Initial dephosphorylation was observed 24 h after treatment of LS174T cells with sodium butyrate, whereas complete shift to the dephosphorylated form was observed 3 days after treatment. Induction of pRb dephosphorylation by sodium butyrate preceded inhibition of growth and the specific cell cycle arrest. RNase protection assay with a p16 specific riboprobe showed undetectable levels in proliferating cells to several fold increase in differentiated colonocytes. In conclusion, the results provide evidence for a specific cellular mechanism of butyrate induced growth arrest and differentiation of a colon cancer cell line.

  16. Fluid balance and pulmonary functions during and after coronary artery bypass surgery: Ringer's acetate compared with dextran, polygeline, or albumin.

    PubMed

    Tølløfsrud, S; Svennevig, J L; Breivik, H; Kongsgaard, U; Ozer, M; Hysing, E; Mohr, B; Seem, E; Geiran, O; Abdelnour, M

    1995-07-01

    The effects on fluid balance, pulmonary functions and economics were evaluated in a randomized comparison of one colloid free and three colloid containing fluid regimens, for 48 hours during and after coronary artery bypass (CAB) surgery. A standard regimen for anaesthesia, extracorporeal circulation and monitoring was used. Only Ringer's acetate (RAc) was used as priming solution for extracorporeal circulation. Forty patients were randomized to receive either RAc, polygeline 35 mg.ml-1 (Haemaccel), dextran 70 (Macrodex) 60 mg.ml-1, or albumin 40 mg.ml-1 in saline whenever fluid volume was needed to stabilize haemodynamics. At the end of the operation, fluid retention was significantly lower in patients receiving polygeline and dextran 70, compared with patients receiving RAc. At 48 hours, however, there were no differences in cumulative fluid balance. Patients in the colloid groups postoperatively had a higher serum colloid osmotic pressure (s-COP), but a higher net lung capillary filtration pressure (delta P) only on the second postoperative day than the RAc group. However, this did not adversely affect intrapulmonary venous admixture, arterial oxygen tension, or time on respirator in the RAc group compared with the colloid groups. The most expensive colloid fluid regimen (albumin) cost about 230 US$ more per patient than the RAc fluid regimen. We conclude that Ringer's acetate for volume replacement to stabilize haemodynamics during and after CAB surgery is associated with increased fluid retention only during the intraoperative period, compared with dextran 70 or polygeline, and with a lower serum colloid osmotic pressure and net lung capillary filtration pressure postoperatively, compared with all three colloid groups. This does not affect pulmonary functions adversely.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Carbon-isotopic analysis of dissolved acetate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelwicks, J. T.; Hayes, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Heating of dried, acetate-containing solids together with oxalic acid dihydrate conveniently releases acetic acid for purification by gas chromatography. For determination of the carbon-isotopic composition of total acetate, the acetate-containing zone of the chromatographic effluent can be routed directly to a combustion furnace coupled to a vacuum system allowing recovery, purification, and packaging of CO2 for mass-spectrometric analysis. For analysis of methyl carbon, acetic acid can be cryogenically trapped from the chromatographic effluent, then transferred to a tube containing excess NaOH. The tube is evacuated, sealed, and heated to 500 degrees C to produce methane by pyrolysis of sodium acetate. Subsequent combustion of the methane allows determination of the 13C content at the methyl position in the parent acetate. With typical blanks, the standard deviation of single analyses is less than 0.4% for acetate samples larger than 5 micromoles. A full treatment of uncertainties is outlined.

  18. Ozone decomposition in aqueous acetate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sehested, K.; Holcman, J.; Bjergbakke, E.; Hart, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    The acetate radical ion reacts with ozone with a rate constant of k = (1.5 +/- 0.5) x 10Z dmT mol s . The products from this reaction are CO2, HCHO, and O2 . By subsequent reaction of the peroxy radical with ozone the acetate radical ion is regenerated through the OH radical. A chain decomposition of ozone takes place. It terminates when the acetate radical ion reacts with oxygen forming the unreactive peroxy acetate radical. The chain is rather short as oxygen is developed, as a result of the ozone consumption. The inhibiting effect of acetate on the ozone decay is rationalized by OH scavenging by acetate and successive reaction of the acetate radical ion with oxygen. Some products from the bimolecular disappearance of the peroxy acetate radicals, however, react further with ozone, reducing the effectiveness of the stabilization.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3 or C2H3O2Na·3H2O, CAS Reg. No. 6131-90-4) is the sodium salt of acetic acid and occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues....

  20. Identification of the topological defects of optical indicatrix orientation in CaB4O7 glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasylkiv, Yu; Skab, I.; Vlokh, R.

    2016-08-01

    We develop an experimental method for the identification of the topological defects of optical indicatrix orientation, which appear in glass samples with residual mechanical stresses. The criteria needed to determine the sign of the strength of topological defects are formulated. The method is verified on the example of a non-annealed CaB4O7 glass sample that manifests spatially inhomogeneous residual stresses. We have found that at least seven topological defects of optical indicatrix orientation exist under the condition when a light beam propagates through a parallelepiped-shaped glass sample. The strengths of all the defects detected by us are equal to +1/2.

  1. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 556.380 - Melengestrol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Melengestrol acetate. 556.380 Section 556.380 Food... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.380 Melengestrol acetate. A tolerance of 25 parts per billion is established for residues of the parent compound, melengestrol acetate, in fat of cattle....

  7. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. Transcriptome characterization by RNA-seq unravels the mechanisms of butyrate-induced epigenomic regulation in bovine cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sitao; Li, Robert W; Li, Weizhong; Li, Cong-Jun

    2012-01-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), especially butyrate, affect cell differentiation, proliferation, and motility. Butyrate also induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis through its inhibition of histone deacetylases (HDACs). In addition, butyrate is a potent inducer of histone hyper-acetylation in cells. Therefore, this SCFA provides an excellent in vitro model for studying the epigenomic regulation of gene expression induced by histone acetylation. In this study, we analyzed the differential in vitro expression of genes induced by butyrate in bovine epithelial cells by using deep RNA-sequencing technology (RNA-seq). The number of sequences read, ranging from 57,303,693 to 78,933,744, were generated per sample. Approximately 11,408 genes were significantly impacted by butyrate, with a false discovery rate (FDR) <0.05. The predominant cellular processes affected by butyrate included cell morphological changes, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis. Our results provided insight into the transcriptome alterations induced by butyrate, which will undoubtedly facilitate our understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying butyrate-induced epigenomic regulation in bovine cells.

  18. Butyrate suppresses proliferation and migration of RKO colon cancer cells though regulating endocan expression by MAPK signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Li; Lu, Man; Zhou, Qing; Wei, Wei; Wang, Yuan

    2013-12-01

    Butyrate is a short-chain fatty acid produced by colonic bacterial fermentation. In colon cancer cells butyrate is able to suppress cell growth, induce apoptosis. It also inhibits tumor growth in vivo. However, the underlying mechanism is still not fully understood. We hypothesize that butyrate regulates the growth and migration of colon cancer cells by altering endocan expression. To test this hypothesis, we performed quantitative real time RT–PCR and Western blots, and found that butyrate increased endocan expression of colon cancer cell RKO. Moreover, endocan over-expression inhibited RKO proliferation, migration and colony formation. Functionally, butyrate significantly suppressed RKO proliferation, migration, and colony formation, as well as induced apoptosis. Knocking down endogenous endocan was able to attenuate the inhibitory role of butyrate in RKO migration and proliferation. Since our results showed that butyrate inhibited MAPK/ERK2 phosphorylation. To determine whether ERK2 signaling is associated with endocan expression, we knocked down endogenous ERK2 expression. Our results showed that knocking down ERK2 expression up-regulated endocan expression. Taken together, these results suggested that butyrate suppressed RKO proliferation, colony formation, migration through up-regulating endocan expression via ERK2/MAPK signaling pathway.

  19. Sodium butyrate inhibits Staphylococcus aureus internalization in bovine mammary epithelial cells and induces the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; Villarreal-Fernández, Edith; Cano-Camacho, Horacio; López-Meza, Joel E

    2009-07-01

    A distinctive feature of bovine milk fat is the presence of butyrate, molecule with recognized antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties. Bovine mastitis is a pathology characterized by inflammatory and infectious processes; however, the role of sodium butyrate on Staphylococcus aureus infection in mammary epithelium has not been studied. In this work we assess the role of sodium butyrate on the invasion of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) by S. aureus responsible of mastitis and on the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes. Our data show that sodium butyrate (0.25-0.5mM) reduces approximately 50% the internalization of S. aureus (ATCC 27543) into bMEC. By RT-PCR analysis, we showed that sodium butyrate is able to up-regulate the expression of tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP), beta-defensin and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNAs, as well as nitric oxide production. Also, sodium butyrate and infection increased acetylation of histone H3 in bMEC. These results indicate that sodium butyrate could be effective to modulate innate immune gene expression in mammary gland that leads to a better defense against bacterial infection. To our knowledge, this is the first report that shows a role of sodium butyrate during the internalization of S. aureus into bMEC. PMID:19393738

  20. Communities stimulated with ethanol to perform direct interspecies electron transfer for syntrophic metabolism of propionate and butyrate.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Yaobin; Yu, Qilin; Dang, Yan; Li, Yang; Quan, Xie

    2016-10-01

    Direct interspecies electron transfer (DIET) has been considered as an alternative to interspecies H2 transfer (IHT) for syntrophic metabolism, but the microorganisms capable of metabolizing the key intermediates, such as propionate and butyrate, via DIET have yet to be described. A strategy of culturing the enrichments with ethanol as a DIET substrate to stimulate the communities for the syntrophic metabolism of propionate and/or butyrate was proposed in this study. The results showed that the syntrophic propionate and/or butyrate degradation was significantly improved in the ethanol-stimulated reactor when propionate/butyrate was the sole carbon source. The conductivity of the ethanol-stimulated enrichments was as 5 folds (for propionate)/76 folds (for butyrate) as that of the traditional enrichments (never ethanol fed). Microbial community analysis revealed that Geobacter species known to proceed DIET were only detected in the ethanol-stimulated enrichments. Together with the significant increase of Methanosaeta and Methanosarcina species in these enrichments, the potential DIET between Geobacter and Methanosaeta or Methanosarcina species might be established to improve the syntrophic propionate and/or butyrate degradation. Further experiments demonstrated that granular activated carbon (GAC) could improve the syntrophic metabolism of propionate and/or butyrate of the ethanol-stimulated enrichments, while almost no effects on the traditional enrichments. Also, the high H2 partial pressure could inhibit the syntrophic propionate and/or butyrate degradation of the traditional enrichments, but its effect on that of the ethanol-stimulated enrichments was negligible. PMID:27403870

  1. Sodium butyrate inhibits Staphylococcus aureus internalization in bovine mammary epithelial cells and induces the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes.

    PubMed

    Ochoa-Zarzosa, Alejandra; Villarreal-Fernández, Edith; Cano-Camacho, Horacio; López-Meza, Joel E

    2009-07-01

    A distinctive feature of bovine milk fat is the presence of butyrate, molecule with recognized antimicrobial and antiinflammatory properties. Bovine mastitis is a pathology characterized by inflammatory and infectious processes; however, the role of sodium butyrate on Staphylococcus aureus infection in mammary epithelium has not been studied. In this work we assess the role of sodium butyrate on the invasion of bovine mammary epithelial cells (bMEC) by S. aureus responsible of mastitis and on the expression of antimicrobial peptide genes. Our data show that sodium butyrate (0.25-0.5mM) reduces approximately 50% the internalization of S. aureus (ATCC 27543) into bMEC. By RT-PCR analysis, we showed that sodium butyrate is able to up-regulate the expression of tracheal antimicrobial peptide (TAP), beta-defensin and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNAs, as well as nitric oxide production. Also, sodium butyrate and infection increased acetylation of histone H3 in bMEC. These results indicate that sodium butyrate could be effective to modulate innate immune gene expression in mammary gland that leads to a better defense against bacterial infection. To our knowledge, this is the first report that shows a role of sodium butyrate during the internalization of S. aureus into bMEC.

  2. Feed-drug interaction of orally applied butyrate and phenobarbital on hepatic cytochrome P450 activity in chickens.

    PubMed

    Mátis, G; Kulcsár, A; Petrilla, J; Hermándy-Berencz, K; Neogrády, Zs

    2016-08-01

    The expression of hepatic drug-metabolizing cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes may be affected by several nutrition-derived compounds, such as by the commonly applied feed additive butyrate, possibly leading to feed-drug interactions. The aim of this study was to provide some evidence if butyrate can alter the activity of hepatic CYPs in chickens exposed to CYP-inducing xenobiotics, monitoring for the first time the possibility of such interaction. Ross 308 chickens in the grower phase were treated with daily intracoelomal phenobarbital (PB) injection (80 mg/kg BW), applied as a non-specific CYP-inducer, simultaneously with two different doses of intra-ingluvial sodium butyrate boluses (0.25 and 1.25 g/kg BW) for 5 days. Activity of CYP2H and CYP3A subfamilies was assessed by specific enzyme assays from isolated liver microsomes. According to our results, the lower dose of orally administered butyrate significantly attenuated the PB-triggered elevation of both hepatic CYP2H and CYP3A activities, which might be in association with the partly common signalling pathways of butyrate and CYP-inducing drugs, such as that of PB. Based on these data, butyrate may take part in pharmacoepigenetic interactions with simultaneously applied drugs or other CYP-inducing xenobiotics, with possible consequences for food safety and pharmacotherapy. Butyrate was found to be capable to maintain physiological CYP activity by attenuating CYP induction, underlining the safety of butyrate application in poultry nutrition.

  3. Photochemistry of 2-nitrobenzylidene acetals.

    PubMed

    Sebej, Peter; Solomek, Tomás; Hroudná, L'ubica; Brancová, Pavla; Klán, Petr

    2009-11-20

    Photolysis of dihydroxy compounds (diols) protected as 2-nitrobenzylidene acetals (ONBA) and subsequent acid- or base-catalyzed hydrolysis of the 2-nitrosobenzoic acid ester intermediates result in an efficient and high-yielding release of the substrates. We investigated the scope and limitations of ONBA photochemistry and expanded upon earlier described two-step procedures to show that the protected diols of many structural varieties can also be liberated in a one-pot procedure. In view of the fact that the acetals of nonsymmetrically substituted diols are converted into one of the corresponding 2-nitrosobenzoic acid ester isomers with moderate to high regioselectivity, the mechanism of their formation was studied using various experimental techniques. The experimental data were found to be in agreement with DFT-based quantum chemical calculations that showed the preferential cleavage occurs on the acetal C-O bond in the vicinity of more electron-withdrawing (or less electron-donating) groups. The study also revealed considerable complexity in the cleavage mechanism and that the structural variations in the substrate can significantly alter the reaction pathway. This deprotection strategy was found to be also applicable for 2-thioethanol when released from the corresponding monothioacetal in the presence of a reducing agent, such as ascorbic acid.

  4. Capturing One of the Human Gut Microbiome's Most Wanted: Reconstructing the Genome of a Novel Butyrate-Producing, Clostridial Scavenger from Metagenomic Sequence Data.

    PubMed

    Jeraldo, Patricio; Hernandez, Alvaro; Nielsen, Henrik B; Chen, Xianfeng; White, Bryan A; Goldenfeld, Nigel; Nelson, Heidi; Alhquist, David; Boardman, Lisa; Chia, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    The role of the microbiome in health and disease is attracting great attention, yet we still know little about some of the most prevalent microorganisms inside our bodies. Several years ago, Human Microbiome Project (HMP) researchers generated a list of "most wanted" taxa: bacteria both prevalent among healthy volunteers and distantly related to any sequenced organisms. Unfortunately, the challenge of assembling high-quality genomes from a tangle of metagenomic reads has slowed progress in learning about these uncultured bacteria. Here, we describe how recent advances in sequencing and analysis allowed us to assemble "most wanted" genomes from metagenomic data collected from four stool samples. Using a combination of both de novo and guided assembly methods, we assembled and binned over 100 genomes from an initial data set of over 1,300 Gbp. One of these genome bins, which met HMP's criteria for a "most wanted" taxa, contained three essentially complete genomes belonging to a previously uncultivated species. This species is most closely related to Eubacterium desmolans and the clostridial cluster IV/Clostridium leptum subgroup species Butyricicoccus pullicaecorum (71-76% average nucleotide identity). Gene function analysis indicates that the species is an obligate anaerobe, forms spores, and produces the anti-inflammatory short-chain fatty acids acetate and butyrate. It also appears to take up metabolically costly molecules such as cobalamin, methionine, and branch-chained amino acids from the environment, and to lack virulence genes. Thus, the evidence is consistent with a secondary degrader that occupies a host-dependent, nutrient-scavenging niche within the gut; its ability to produce butyrate, which is thought to play an anti-inflammatory role, makes it intriguing for the study of diseases such as colon cancer and inflammatory bowel disease. In conclusion, we have assembled essentially complete genomes from stool metagenomic data, yielding valuable information

  5. Radioimmunotherapy of human colon cancer xenografts by using {sup 131}I labeled-CAb{sub 1} F(ab'){sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Li Ling; Xu Huiyun; Mi Li; Bian Huijie; Qin Jun; Xiong Hua; Feng Qiang; Wen Ning; Tian Rong; Xu Liqing; Shen Xiaomei; Tang Hao; Chen Zhinan . E-mail: znchen@fmmu.edu.cn

    2006-11-15

    Purpose: Therapeutic efficacy, suitable dose, and administration times of {sup 131}I-CAb{sub 1} F(ab'){sub 2}, a new monoclonal antibody therapeutics specifically directed against a cell surface-associated glycoprotein of colon cancer, were investigated in this article. Methods and Materials: In human colon cancer xenografts, {sup 131}I-CAb{sub 1} F(ab'){sub 2} at the dose of 125 {mu}Ci, 375 {mu}Ci, and 1125 {mu}Ci were administrated intraperitoneally on Days 6 and 18 after implantation of HR8348 cells with CAb{sub 1} high reactivity. Survival time and tumor growth inhibition rate were used to evaluate the efficacy and safety of {sup 131}I-CAb{sub 1} F(ab'){sub 2} in treatment of colon cancer xenografts. Results: Treatment of 125, 375, and 1125 {mu}Ci {sup 131}I-CAb1 F(ab'){sub 2} did not significantly decrease the mean survival time of nude mice when compared with nontreated groups (p = 0.276, 0.865, 0.582, respectively). Moreover, the mean survival times of nude mice receiving 375 {mu}Ci and 1125 {mu}Ci {sup 131}I-CAb1 F(ab'){sub 2} were significantly longer than that of 5-FU-treated groups (p 0.018 and 0.042). Tumor growth inhibition rates of the first therapy were 35.67% and 41.37%, with corresponding {sup 131}I-labeled antibody dosage of 375 {mu}Ci and 1125 {mu}Ci. After single attack dosage, second reinforcement therapy may rise efficacy significantly. Tumor growth inhibition rates of 125 {mu}Ci, 375 {mu}Ci, and 1125 {mu}Ci {sup 131}I-labeled antibody on Day 20 posttherapy were 42.65%, 56.56%, and 84.41%, respectively. Histopathology examination revealed that tissue necrosis of various degrees was found in {sup 131}I-CAb1 F(ab'){sub 2}-treated groups. Conclusion: {sup 131}I-CAb{sub 1} F(ab'){sub 2} is safe and effective for colon cancer. It may be a novel and potentially adjuvant therapeutics for colon cancer.

  6. Biodegradation of cellulose acetate by Neisseria sicca.

    PubMed

    Sakai, K; Yamauchi, T; Nakasu, F; Ohe, T

    1996-10-01

    Bacteria capable of assimilating cellulose acetate, strains SB and SC, were isolated from soil on a medium containing cellulose acetate as a carbon source, and identified as Neisseria sicca. Both strains degraded cellulose acetate membrane filters (degree of substitution, DS, mixture of 2.8 and 2.0) and textiles (DS, 2.34) in a medium containing cellulose acetate (DS, 2.34) or its oligomer, but were not able to degrade these materials in a medium containing cellobiose octaacetate. Biodegradation of cellulose acetate (DS, 1.81 and 2.34) on the basis of biochemical oxygen demand reached 51 and 40% in the culture of N. sicca SB and 60 and 45% in the culture of N. sicca SC within 20 days. A decrease in the acetyl content of degraded cellulose acetate films and powder was confirmed by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. After 10-day cultivation of N. sicca SB and SC, the number-average molecular weight of residual cellulose acetate decreased by 9 and 5%, respectively. Activities of enzymes that released acetic acid and produced reducing sugars from cellulose acetate were mainly present in the culture supernatant. Reactivity of enzymes for cellulose acetate (DS, 1.81) was higher than that for cellulose acetate (DS, 2.34).

  7. Simultaneous Clostridial fermentation, lipase-catalyzed esterification, and ester extraction to enrich diesel with butyl butyrate.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Corjan; Heeres, Arjan S; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2013-01-01

    The recovery of 1-butanol from fermentation broth is energy-intensive since typical concentrations in fermentation broth are below 20 g L(-1). To prevent butanol inhibition and high downstream processing costs, we aimed at producing butyl esters instead of 1-butanol. It is shown that it is possible to perform simultaneously clostridial fermentation, esterification of the formed butanol to butyl butyrate, and extraction of this ester by hexadecane. The very high partition coefficient of butyl butyrate pulls the esterification towards the product side even at fermentation pH and relatively low butanol concentrations. The hexadecane extractant is a model diesel compound and is nontoxic to the cells. If butyl butyrate enriched diesel can directly be used as car fuel, no product recovery is required. A proof-of-principle experiment for the one-pot bio-ester production from glucose led to 5 g L(-1) butyl butyrate in the hexadecane phase. The principle may be extended to a wide range of esters, especially to longer chain ones.

  8. Commensal microbe-derived butyrate induces the differentiation of colonic regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Furusawa, Yukihiro; Obata, Yuuki; Fukuda, Shinji; Endo, Takaho A; Nakato, Gaku; Takahashi, Daisuke; Nakanishi, Yumiko; Uetake, Chikako; Kato, Keiko; Kato, Tamotsu; Takahashi, Masumi; Fukuda, Noriko N; Murakami, Shinnosuke; Miyauchi, Eiji; Hino, Shingo; Atarashi, Koji; Onawa, Satoshi; Fujimura, Yumiko; Lockett, Trevor; Clarke, Julie M; Topping, David L; Tomita, Masaru; Hori, Shohei; Ohara, Osamu; Morita, Tatsuya; Koseki, Haruhiko; Kikuchi, Jun; Honda, Kenya; Hase, Koji; Ohno, Hiroshi

    2013-12-19

    Gut commensal microbes shape the mucosal immune system by regulating the differentiation and expansion of several types of T cell. Clostridia, a dominant class of commensal microbe, can induce colonic regulatory T (Treg) cells, which have a central role in the suppression of inflammatory and allergic responses. However, the molecular mechanisms by which commensal microbes induce colonic Treg cells have been unclear. Here we show that a large bowel microbial fermentation product, butyrate, induces the differentiation of colonic Treg cells in mice. A comparative NMR-based metabolome analysis suggests that the luminal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids positively correlates with the number of Treg cells in the colon. Among short-chain fatty acids, butyrate induced the differentiation of Treg cells in vitro and in vivo, and ameliorated the development of colitis induced by adoptive transfer of CD4(+) CD45RB(hi) T cells in Rag1(-/-) mice. Treatment of naive T cells under the Treg-cell-polarizing conditions with butyrate enhanced histone H3 acetylation in the promoter and conserved non-coding sequence regions of the Foxp3 locus, suggesting a possible mechanism for how microbial-derived butyrate regulates the differentiation of Treg cells. Our findings provide new insight into the mechanisms by which host-microbe interactions establish immunological homeostasis in the gut.

  9. Butyrate and deoxycholic acid play common and distinct roles in HCT116 human colon cell proliferation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of a high fat diet causes an increase in bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in colon lumen and colon cancer risk while butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, has been shown to exhibit colon cancer preventive effects. To distinguish these opposing effects of DCA and...

  10. Butyrate and deoxycholic acid play common and distinct roles in HCT116 human colon cell proliferation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Consumption of a high fat diet causes an increase in bile acid deoxycholic acid (DCA) in colon lumen and colon cancer risk while butyrate, an intestinal microbiota metabolite of dietary fiber, has been shown to exhibit colon cancer preventive effects. To distinguish these opposing effects of D...

  11. 4-(2,4-Dichlorophenoxy)butyric acid (2,4-DB)

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    4 - ( 2,4 - Dichlorophenoxy ) butyric acid ( 2,4 - DB ) ; CASRN 94 - 82 - 6 Health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in IRIS only after a comprehensive review of chronic toxicity data by U.S . EPA health scientists from several Program Offices and the Office of Research and

  12. An Acute Butyr-Fentanyl Fatality: A Case Report with Postmortem Concentrations.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, Iain M; Trochta, Amber; Gary, Ray D; Wright, Jennifer; Mena, Othon

    2016-03-01

    In this case report, we present an evaluation of the distribution of postmortem concentrations of butyr-fentanyl in a fatality attributed principally to the drug. A man who had a history of intravenous drug abuse was found unresponsive on the bathroom floor of his home. Drug paraphernalia was located on the bathroom counter. Toxicology testing, which initially screened positive for fentanyl by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, subsequently confirmed butyr-fentanyl, which was then quantitated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-specific ion monitoring (GC-MS SIM) analysis following liquid-liquid extraction. The butyr-fentanyl peripheral blood concentration was quantitated at 58 ng/mL compared with the central blood concentration of 97 ng/mL. The liver concentration was 320 ng/g, the vitreous was 40 ng/mL, the urine was 670 ng/mL and the gastric contained 170 mg. Acetyl-fentanyl was also detected in all biological specimens tested. Peripheral blood concentration was quantitated at 38 ng/mL compared with the central blood concentration of 32 ng/mL. The liver concentration was 110 ng/g, the vitreous was 38 ng/mL, the urine was 540 ng/mL and the gastric contained <70 mg. The only other drug detected was a relatively low concentration of benzoylecgonine. The cause of death was certified as acute butyr-fentanyl, acetyl-fentanyl and cocaine intoxication, and the manner of death was certified as accident.

  13. Simultaneous Clostridial fermentation, lipase-catalyzed esterification, and ester extraction to enrich diesel with butyl butyrate.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Corjan; Heeres, Arjan S; van der Wielen, Luuk A M; Straathof, Adrie J J

    2013-01-01

    The recovery of 1-butanol from fermentation broth is energy-intensive since typical concentrations in fermentation broth are below 20 g L(-1). To prevent butanol inhibition and high downstream processing costs, we aimed at producing butyl esters instead of 1-butanol. It is shown that it is possible to perform simultaneously clostridial fermentation, esterification of the formed butanol to butyl butyrate, and extraction of this ester by hexadecane. The very high partition coefficient of butyl butyrate pulls the esterification towards the product side even at fermentation pH and relatively low butanol concentrations. The hexadecane extractant is a model diesel compound and is nontoxic to the cells. If butyl butyrate enriched diesel can directly be used as car fuel, no product recovery is required. A proof-of-principle experiment for the one-pot bio-ester production from glucose led to 5 g L(-1) butyl butyrate in the hexadecane phase. The principle may be extended to a wide range of esters, especially to longer chain ones. PMID:22833369

  14. Perturbation dynamics of the rumen microbiota in response to exogenous butyrate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The capacity of the rumen microbiota to produce volatile fatty acids (VFA) has important implications in animal well-being and production. We investigated temporal changes of the rumen microbiota in response to butyrate infusion using pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. Phyla were identified in ...

  15. Draft Genome Sequence of the Butyric Acid Producer Clostridium tyrobutyricum Strain CIP I-776 (IFP923)

    PubMed Central

    Clément, Benjamin; Lopes Ferreira, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Here, we report the draft genome sequence of Clostridium tyrobutyricum CIP I-776 (IFP923), an efficient producer of butyric acid. The genome consists of a single chromosome of 3.19 Mb and provides useful data concerning the metabolic capacities of the strain. PMID:26941139

  16. Evaluation of butyrate-induced production of a mannose-6-phosphorylated therapeutic enzyme using parallel bioreactors.

    PubMed

    Madhavarao, Chikkathur N; Agarabi, Cyrus D; Wong, Lily; Müller-Loennies, Sven; Braulke, Thomas; Khan, Mansoor; Anderson, Howard; Johnson, Gibbes R

    2014-01-01

    Bioreactor process changes can have a profound effect on the yield and quality of biotechnology products. Mannose-6-phosphate (M6P) glycan content and the enzymatic catalytic kinetic parameters are critical quality attributes (CQAs) of many therapeutic enzymes used to treat lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs). Here, we have evaluated the effect of adding butyrate to bioreactor production cultures of human recombinant β-glucuronidase produced from CHO-K1 cells, with an emphasis on CQAs. The β-glucuronidase produced in parallel bioreactors was quantified by capillary electrophoresis, the catalytic kinetic parameters were measured using steady-state analysis, and mannose-6-phosphorylation status was assessed using an M6P-specific single-chain antibody fragment. Using this approach, we found that butyrate treatment increased β-glucuronidase production up to approximately threefold without significantly affecting the catalytic properties of the enzyme. However, M6P content in β-glucuronidase was inversely correlated with the increased enzyme production induced by butyrate treatment. This assessment demonstrated that although butyrate dramatically increased β-glucuronidase production in bioreactors, it adversely impacted the mannose-6-phosphorylation of this LSD therapeutic enzyme. This strategy may have utility in evaluating manufacturing process changes to improve therapeutic enzyme yields and CQAs.

  17. Dietary sodium gluconate protects rats from large bowel cancer by stimulating butyrate production.

    PubMed

    Kameue, Chiyoko; Tsukahara, Takamitsu; Yamada, Kouji; Koyama, Hironari; Iwasaki, Yoshie; Nakayama, Keizo; Ushida, Kazunari

    2004-04-01

    Butyrate has an antitumorigenic effect on colorectal cancer cell lines. Dietary sodium gluconate (GNA) promotes butyrate production in the large intestine. Accordingly, we examined the effect of dietary GNA on tumorigenesis in the large intestine in rats. Male Fisher-344 rats (n = 32) were divided into 4 groups: 2 diets (with or without 50 g GNA/kg basal diet) x 2 treatments (with or without carcinogen administration). Colonic tumors were induced by 3 intraperitoneal injections of azoxymethane (15 mg/kg body wt, 1 time/wk) and dietary deoxycholic acid (2 g/kg basal diet). The experiment was conducted for 33 wk except for a few rats. Ingestion of GNA increased cecal butyrate concentration at the end of experiment (P < 0.01). No tumor development occurred in the untreated groups. Ingestion of GNA decreased the incidence of tumors in rats administered the carcinogen (37.5 vs. 100%, P < 0.05). Ingestion of GNA also decreased the mean number of tumors per rat (0.5 +/- 0.8 vs. 2.8 +/- 1.5, P < 0.01). beta-Catenin accumulation and TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) positive cells in tumors were histochemically examined. The results of this study suggested that the antitumorigenic effect of GNA may involve the stimulation of apoptosis through enhanced butyrate production in the large intestine.

  18. Depletion of glutamine enhances sodium butyrate-induced erythroid differentiation of K562 cells.

    PubMed

    Canh Hiep, Nguyen; Kinohira, Seiko; Furuyama, Kazumichi; Taketani, Shigeru

    2012-12-01

    Human erytholeukemia K562 cells are induced to differentiate along the erythroid lineage by a variety of chemical compounds, including hemin, sodium butyrate and 1-β-d-arabinofuranosylcytosine. We have investigated the induction of erythroid differentiation of K562 cells by glutamine depletion. When K562 cells were cultured in glutamine-minus medium, the induction of hemoglobin synthesis, accompanied by those of heme-biosynthetic enzymes and erythroid transcriptional factors, was observed. This induction was dependent on the temporally marked decrease of intracellular level of glutathione, followed by the marked activation of p38MAPK and SAPK/JNK, but not ERK. Under glutamine-deficient conditions, the treatment of K562 cells with sodium butyrate resulted in the marked enhancement of the induction of heme biosynthesis. Glutamine depletion also accelerated the expressions of erythroid-related factors including α-globin and heme-biosynthetic enzymes, GATA-1 and NF-E2, in sodium butyrate-induced K562 cells. The transcriptional activity of β-globin gene promoter-reporter was markedly enhanced by these treatments, indicating that glutamine deficiency in combination with sodium butyrate treatment gives high efficiency of chemical-induced differentiation in the hematopoiesis process.

  19. Feeding trial in pigs with a diet containing sodium n-butyrate.

    PubMed

    Gálfi, P; Bokori, J

    1990-01-01

    Pigs weighing 7 to 102 kg were fed a diet containing 0.17% sodium n-butyrate. The diet increased the average daily body mass gain of pigs by 23.5%. Due to its dietetic effect, feed consumption increased by 8.9%. However, owing to the higher feed conversion, specific feed utilization was reduced by 11.8%. The experimental diet markedly reduced the percentile proportion of coliform bacteria in the ileum as compared to Lactobacillus ssp.: it decreased the coliform count and increased the counts of Lactobacillus spp. The diet increased the length of ileal microvilli and the depth of caecal crypts. It raised the concentration of immunoreactive insulin in the blood plasma. The feed supplemented with sodium butyrate did not alter adversely the clinical indices tested. It reduced feed costs by 9% and increased the returns from sales by 13%. As the additive is normally produced by microbial fermentation in the large intestine, it is not alien to the body. Sodium butyrate exerted its favourable effect in 3.6- to 24.2-fold lower concentrations than the organic acids (citric acid, fumaric acid, propionic acid) used earlier. With respect to its favourable biological and economic effect, sodium n-butyrate can be recommended for use in pig feeding as a growth promoter.

  20. Exploring the Genome of a Butyric Acid Producer, Clostridium butyricum INCQS635.

    PubMed

    Bruce, Thiago; Leite, Fernanda Gomes; Tschoeke, Diogo Antonio; Miranda, Milene; Pereira, Nei; Valle, Rogério; Thompson, Cristiane C; Thompson, Fabiano L

    2014-11-20

    The draft genome sequence of Clostridium butyricum INCQS635 was obtained by means of ion sequencing. The genome provides further insight into the genetic repertoire involved with metabolic pathways related to the fermentation of different compounds and organic solvents synthesis (i.e., butyric acid) with biofuel applications.