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Sample records for acetate doca-salt hypertension

  1. Effects of chronic crocin treatment on desoxycorticosterone acetate (doca)-salt hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Faal, Ayyoob; Gholampoor, Ali; Mousavi, Seyed Mehran; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): In this study, the effects of chronic administration of crocin, an active constituent of saffron, on blood pressures of normotensive and desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) - salt induced hypertensive rats, were investigated. Materials and Methods: Five week administration of three doses of crocin (50, 100 and 200 mg/kg/day) and spironolactone (50 mg/kg/day) in different groups of normotensive and hypertensive rats (at the end of 4 weeks treatment by DOCA-salt) was carried out and their effects on mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP) and heart rate (HR) were evaluated using tail cuff method. The duration of effect of crocin on SBP, was also evaluated. Results: Our results indicated that chronic administration of crocin could reduce the MSBP in DOCA salt treated rats in a dose dependent manner. Crocin did not decrease the MSBP in normotensive rats. The data also showed that antihypertensive effects of crocin did not persist. Conclusion: It is concluded that crocin possesses antihypertensive and normalizing effect on BP in chronic administration. PMID:24592301

  2. Long-term inhibition of xanthine oxidase by febuxostat does not decrease blood pressure in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Szasz, Theodora; Davis, Robert Patrick; Garver, Hannah S; Burnett, Robert J; Fink, Gregory D; Watts, Stephanie W

    2013-01-01

    Xanthine oxidase and its products, uric acid and ROS, have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease, such as hypertension. We have previously reported that allopurinol inhibition of XO does not alter the progression of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension in rats. However other researchers have observed a reduction in blood pressure after allopurinol treatment in the same model. To resolve this controversy, in this study we used the newer and more effective XO inhibitor febuxostat, and hypothesized that a more complete XO blockade might impair hypertension development and its end-organ consequences. We used DOCA-salt hypertensive rats and administered vehicle (salt water) or febuxostat (orally, 5 mg/kg/day in salt water) in a short-term "reversal" experiment (2 weeks of treatment 3 weeks after DOCA-salt beginning) and a long-term "prevention" experiment (treatment throughout 4 weeks of DOCA-salt). We confirmed XO inhibition by febuxostat by measuring circulating and tissue levels of XO metabolites. We found an overall increase in hypoxanthine (XO substrate) and decrease in uric acid (XO product) levels following febuxostat treatment. However, despite a trend for reduced blood pressure in the last week of long-term febuxostat treatment, no statistically significant difference in hemodynamic parameters was observed in either study. Additionally, no change was observed in relative heart and kidney weight. Aortic media/lumen ratio was minimally improved by long-term febuxostat treatment. Additionally, febuxostat incubation in vitro did not modify contraction of aorta or vena cava to norepinephrine, angiotensin II or endothelin-1. We conclude that XO inhibition is insufficient to attenuate hypertension in the rat DOCA-salt model, although beneficial vascular effects are possible.

  3. Cardiac content of brain natriuretic peptide in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Yokota, Naoto; Aburaya, Masahito; Yamamoto, Yoshitaka; Kato, Johji; Kitamura, Kazuo; Kida, Osamu; Eto, Tanenao; Kangawa, Kenji; Tanaka, Kenjiro ); Minamino, Naoto; Matsuo, Hisayuki )

    1991-01-01

    The cardiac content of immunoreactive rat brain natriuretic peptide (ir-rBNP) in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats was measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The atrial content of ir-rBNP was significantly lower in the DOCA-salt group than in the control group. However, the ventricular content of ir-rBNP was markedly increased in the DOCA-salt group as compared to the other groups. Ir-rBNP level in the atria was negatively correlated with blood pressure, while that in the ventricle was positively correlated with blood pressure. A significant correlation was observed between tissue levels of ir-rBNP and ir-rat atrial natriuretic peptide (rANP) both in atrium and ventricle. These results raise the possibility that rBNP as well as rANP functions as a cardiac hormone, the production of which probably changes in response to increased of body fluid and blood pressure.

  4. Collecting Duct Renin Does Not Mediate DOCA-Salt Hypertension or Renal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Song, Kai; Stuart, Deborah; Abraham, Nikita; Wang, Fei; Wang, Shuping; Yang, Tianxin; Sigmund, Curt D.; Kohan, Donald E.; Ramkumar, Nirupama

    2016-01-01

    Collecting duct (CD)-derived renin is involved in the hypertensive response to chronic angiotensin-II (Ang-II) administration. However, whether CD renin is involved in Ang-II independent hypertension is currently unknown. To begin to examine this, 12 week old male and female CD-specific renin knock out (KO) mice and their littermate controls were subjected to uni-nephrectomy followed by 2 weeks of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) infusion combined with a high salt diet. Radiotelemetric blood pressure (BP) was similar between KO and control mice at baseline; BP increased in both groups to a similar degree throughout the 2 weeks of DOCA-salt treatment. Urinary albumin excretion and plasma blood urea nitrogen were comparable between the two groups after DOCA-salt treatment. Fibrosis as assessed by Masson’s Trichrome stain/Sirius Red stain and collagen-1 mRNA expression was similar between control and KO mice. Compared to baseline, DOCA-salt treatment decreased plasma renin concentration (PRC), urinary renin excretion and medullary renin mRNA expression in both floxed and CD renin KO mice with no detectable differences between the two groups. Further, in primary culture of rat inner medullary CD, aldosterone treatment did not change renin activity or total renin content. Taken together, these data suggest that CD derived renin does not play a role in DOCA-salt hypertension. PMID:27467376

  5. Collecting Duct Renin Does Not Mediate DOCA-Salt Hypertension or Renal Injury.

    PubMed

    Song, Kai; Stuart, Deborah; Abraham, Nikita; Wang, Fei; Wang, Shuping; Yang, Tianxin; Sigmund, Curt D; Kohan, Donald E; Ramkumar, Nirupama

    2016-01-01

    Collecting duct (CD)-derived renin is involved in the hypertensive response to chronic angiotensin-II (Ang-II) administration. However, whether CD renin is involved in Ang-II independent hypertension is currently unknown. To begin to examine this, 12 week old male and female CD-specific renin knock out (KO) mice and their littermate controls were subjected to uni-nephrectomy followed by 2 weeks of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) infusion combined with a high salt diet. Radiotelemetric blood pressure (BP) was similar between KO and control mice at baseline; BP increased in both groups to a similar degree throughout the 2 weeks of DOCA-salt treatment. Urinary albumin excretion and plasma blood urea nitrogen were comparable between the two groups after DOCA-salt treatment. Fibrosis as assessed by Masson's Trichrome stain/Sirius Red stain and collagen-1 mRNA expression was similar between control and KO mice. Compared to baseline, DOCA-salt treatment decreased plasma renin concentration (PRC), urinary renin excretion and medullary renin mRNA expression in both floxed and CD renin KO mice with no detectable differences between the two groups. Further, in primary culture of rat inner medullary CD, aldosterone treatment did not change renin activity or total renin content. Taken together, these data suggest that CD derived renin does not play a role in DOCA-salt hypertension. PMID:27467376

  6. Red blood cell catecholamine levels in normotensive and DOCA-salt hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Bouvier, M.; Farley, L.; de Champlain, J.

    1987-08-01

    Under basal conditions in anesthetized rats, significant concentrations of free norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E), and dopamine (DA) were detected in red blood cell (RBC) lysate. These concentrations were not proportional to their respective plasma concentrations and thus RBC-to-plasma concentration ratios were different for each catecholamine (CA). DA was by far the most concentrated amine inside the RBC. An acute increase in plasma NE and E levels, induced by hemorrhagic hypotension in normotensive (NT) rats, did not result in any modification of the RBC CA content. However, chronic elevation of the NE plasma levels in bilaterally adrenalectomized rats and in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats (DOCA-salt HT) were associated with increased NE levels in the RBC. In addition, the large elevation in plasma E concentrations following hemorrhagic hypotension in DOCA-salt HT rats, as well as the greater plasma NE response to hypotension in adrenalectomized animals, were accompanied by increases in the respective RBC amine concentrations. During a steady-state intravenous infusion of tritiated NE, we observed a slow accumulation of radioactivity inside the RBC, indicating that CA can enter the RBC from the plasma. Moreover, catechol methyltransferase activity was measured in the cytosolic fraction of the RBC of both NT and DOCA-salt HT rats suggesting that, once inside the RBC, the catecholamines can be metabolized.

  7. Inhibition of inflammation and fibrosis by a complement C5a receptor antagonist in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Abishek; Woodruff, Trent M; Wu, Mike C L; Stylianou, Con; Reid, Robert C; Fairlie, David P; Taylor, Stephen M; Brown, Lindsay

    2011-11-01

    The anaphylatoxin C5a generated by activation of the innate immunity complement system is a potent inflammatory peptide mediator through the G-protein-coupled receptor C5aR (CD88) present in immune-inflammatory cells, including monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils, T cells, and mast cells. Inflammatory cells infiltrate and initiate the development of fibrosis in the chronically hypertensive heart. In this study, we have investigated whether treatment with a selective C5aR antagonist prevents cardiovascular remodeling in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. Control and DOCA-salt rats were treated with PMX53 (AcF-[OPdChaWR], 1 mg·kg·d oral gavage) for 32 days; structural and functional changes in cardiovascular system were determined. DOCA-salt hypertension increased leukocyte extravasation into ventricular tissue, increasing collagen deposition and ventricular stiffness; PMX53 treatment attenuated these changes, thereby improving cardiac function. Further, treatment with PMX53 suppressed an increased expression of C5aR in the left ventricle from DOCA-salt rats, consistent with the reduced infiltration of inflammatory cells. Vascular endothelial dysfunction in thoracic aortic rings was attenuated by PMX53 treatment, but systolic blood pressure was unchanged in DOCA-salt rats. In the heart, PMX53 treatment attenuated inflammatory cell infiltration, fibrosis, and ventricular stiffness, indicating that C5aR is critically involved in ventricular remodeling by regulating inflammatory responses in the hypertensive heart. PMID:21753735

  8. PGC-1α overexpression suppresses blood pressure elevation in DOCA-salt hypertensive mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qingbin; Zhang, Junfang; Wang, Huifang

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidences have accumulated that endothelial dysfunction is involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) coactivator-1α (PGC-1α) has been identified as an essential factor that protects against endothelial dysfunction in vascular pathologies. However, the functional role of PGC-1α in hypertension is not well understood. Using an adenovirus infection model, we tested the hypothesis that PGC-1α overexpression retards the progression of hypertension in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt mice model through preservation of the function of endothelium. We first demonstrated that PGC-1α expression not only in conductance and resistance arteries but also in endothelial cells was decreased after DOCA-salt treatment. In PGC-1α adenovirus-infected mice, the elevation of blood pressure in DOCA-salt mice was attenuated, as determined using tail-cuff measurement. Furthermore, PGC-1α overexpression inhibited the decrease in nitric oxide (NO) generation and the increase in superoxide anion (O2−) production in DOCA-salt-treated mice, in parallel with improved endothelium-dependent relaxation. Rather than affecting endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) total expression and phosphorylation, PGC-1α significantly inhibited eNOS uncoupling, as evidenced by increased eNOS homodimerization, BH4 levels, GTP-cyclohydrolase 1 (GTPCH1) and dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) expression and heat-shock protein (Hsp)90–eNOS interaction. Our findings demonstrate that PGC-1α overexpression preserves eNOS coupling, enhances NO generation, improves endothelium-dependent relaxation and thus lowers blood pressure, suggesting that up-regulation of PGC-1α may be a novel strategy to prevent and treat hypertension. PMID:26182379

  9. Resveratrol affects histone 3 lysine 27 methylation of vessels and blood biomarkers in DOCA salt-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Han, Sevtap; Uludag, Mecit Orhan; Usanmaz, Suzan Emel; Ayaloglu-Butun, Fatma; Akcali, Kamil Can; Demirel-Yilmaz, Emine

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is a risk factor for the cardiovascular diseases. Although, several drugs are used to treat hypertension, the success of the antihypertensive therapy is limited. Resveratrol decreases blood pressure in animal models of hypertension. This study researched the mechanisms behind the effects of resveratrol on hypertension. Hypertension was induced by using the deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-induced (15 mg/kg twice per week, subcutaneously) salt-sensitive hypertension model of Wistar rats. Hypertension caused a decrease in endothelium-dependent relaxations of the isolated thoracic aorta. Resveratrol treatment (50 mg/l in drinking water) prevented DOCA salt-induced hypertension, but did not improve endothelial dysfunction. Plasma nitric oxide (NO), asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) levels were not changed by DOCA salt application. However, treatment of resveratrol significantly decreased ADMA and increased TAC and H2S levels. NO level in circulation was not significantly changed by resveratrol. DOCA salt application and resveratrol treatment also caused an alteration in the epigenetic modification of vessels. Staining pattern of histone 3 lysine 27 methylation (H3K27me3) in the aorta and renal artery sections was changed. These results show that preventive effect of resveratrol on DOCA salt-induced hypertension might due to its action on the production of some blood biomarkers and the epigenetic modification of vessels that would focus upon new aspect of hypertension prevention and treatment.

  10. Grape seed proanthocyanidins prevent DOCA-salt hypertension-induced renal injury and its mechanisms in rats.

    PubMed

    Lan, Chao-Zong; Ding, Ling; Su, Yi-Lin; Guo, Kun; Wang, Li; Kan, Hong-Wei; Ou, Yu-Rong; Gao, Shan

    2015-07-01

    Renal dysfunction is one of the major effects of DOCA (deoxycorticosterone acetate)-salt hypertension and there is an increasing amount of evidence that oxidative stress damages the function of the kidney. Grape seed proanthocyanidins (GSPE) have been reported to be potent anti-oxidants and free radical scavengers. The present study sought to investigate the ability of GSPE to prevent renal injury in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats and to explore the molecular mechanisms underlying its protective effects. A total of 54 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 7 groups: Sham group (n = 7), UnX-sham group (n = 8), DOCA-salt group (n = 8), GSPE150 group (150 mg kg(-1), n = 7), GSPE240 group (240 mg kg(-1), n = 8), GSPE384 group (384 mg kg(-1), n = 8) and ALM (amlodipine besylate tablets) group (5 mg kg(-1), n = 8), and treated for 4 weeks. Compared to sham group rats, renal injury was observed in DOCA-salt hypertensive group rats as the urine protein, KW/BW (kidney weight/body weight), degree of renal fibrosis, renal MDA (malondialdehyde) and Hyp (hydroxyproline) contents significantly increased (P < 0.01). Moreover, SOD (Superoxide Dismutase) activities decreased in the model group (P < 0.01). In contrast, DOCA-salt hypertensive rats treated with different dose of GSPE or ALM showed a significant improvement of renal injury with decreased urine protein, KW/BW, degree of renal fibrosis, renal total MDA and Hyp contents compared to the untreated group. In addition, SOD activities increased in the treatment group. Since the experimental modeling time was short, kidney damage occurs to a lesser extent. BUN (Blood Urea Nitrogen), Scr (Serum Creatinine) and UA (Uric Acid) contents did not appear significantly changed in all groups. Finally, the activation of JNK and p38 kinases in the kidney was suppressed in rats treated with GSPEs or ALM compared to the untreated group, suggesting that the inhibition of these kinase pathways by GSPE contributes to the improvement

  11. Pentosan polysulfate preserves renal microvascular P2X1 receptor reactivity and autoregulatory behavior in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Guan, Zhengrong; Singletary, Sean T; Cha, Haword; Van Beusecum, Justin P; Cook, Anthony K; Pollock, Jennifer S; Pollock, David M; Inscho, Edward W

    2016-03-15

    Inflammation contributes to ANG II-associated impairment of renal autoregulation and microvascular P2X1 receptor signaling, but its role in renal autoregulation in mineralocorticoid-induced hypertension is unknown. Autoregulatory behavior was assessed using the blood-perfused juxtamedullary nephron preparation. Hypertension was induced in uninephrectomized control rats (UNx) by subcutaneous implantation of a DOCA pellet plus administration of 1% NaCl in the drinking water (DOCA-salt) for 3 wk. DOCA-salt rats developed hypertension that was unaltered by anti-inflammatory treatment with pentosan polysulfate (DOCA-salt+PPS) but was suppressed with "triple therapy" (hydrochlorothiazide, hydralazine, and reserpine; DOCA-salt+TTx). Baseline arteriolar diameters were similar across all groups. UNx rats exhibited pressure-dependent vasoconstriction with diameters declining to 69 ± 2% of control at 170 mmHg, indicating intact autoregulation. DOCA-salt treatment significantly blunted this pressure-mediated vasoconstriction. Diameters remained between 91 ± 4 and 98 ± 3% of control over 65-170 mmHg, indicating impaired autoregulation. In contrast, pressure-mediated vasoconstriction was preserved in DOCA-salt+PPS and DOCA-salt+TTx rats, reaching 77 ± 7 and 75 ± 3% of control at 170 mmHg, respectively. ATP is required for autoregulation via P2X1 receptor activation. ATP- and β,γ-methylene ATP (P2X1 receptor agonist)-mediated vasoconstriction were markedly attenuated in DOCA-salt rats compared with UNx (P < 0.05), but significantly improved by PPS or TTx (P < 0.05 vs. DOCA-salt) treatment. Arteriolar responses to adenosine and UTP (P2Y2 receptor agonist) were unaffected by DOCA-salt treatment. PPS and TTx significantly reduced MCP-1 and protein excretion in DOCA-salt rats. These results support the hypothesis that hypertension triggers inflammatory cascades but anti-inflammatory treatment preserves renal autoregulation in DOCA-salt rats, most likely by normalizing renal

  12. Cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Croton zehntneri leaves in DOCA-salt hypertensive, conscious rats.

    PubMed

    de Siqueira, Rodrigo José Bezerra; Duarte, Gloria Pinto; Magalhães, Pedro Jorge Caldas; Lahlou, Saad

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the cardiovascular effects of the essential oil of Croton zehntneri (EOCZ) in deoxycorticosterone-acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. Furthermore, in vitro experiments using isolated thoracic aortic rings were performed to assess the vascular effects of the EOCZ. In conscious hypertensive rats, intravenous (i.v.) injections of EOCZ (1-20 mg/kg) induced rapid (2-4 s) and dose-dependent hypotension and bradycardia (phase 1). The hypotension was followed by a significant pressor effect that was more evident at the higher doses (10 and 20 mg/kg) of EOCZ. Hypotension and bradycardia of EOCZ (phase 1) were abolished and respectively reversed into pressor and tachycardiac effects by methylatropine (1 mg/kg, i.v.) pretreatment. In isolated endothelium-intact aortic preparations, increasing concentrations (1-1000 microg/mL) of EOCZ relaxed the potassium-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner with an IC50 (geometric mean [95% confidence interval]) value of 202.0 [92.0-443.7] microg/mL. This vasorelaxant effect remained unaffected by either mechanical removal of functional vascular endothelium (IC50 = 189.0 [159.4-224.7] microg/mL) or the addition of atropine (1 microM) (IC50 = 158.6 [79.8-316.2] microg/mL) in the perfusion medium. These data show that i.v. administration of EOCZ in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats induces a vago-vagal reflex decreases in heart rate and blood pressure (phase 1). EOCZ may induce a second and delayed hypotension due to its direct endothelium-independent vasorelaxant effects, but it seems to be buffered by the pressor component (subsequent to phase 1) of EOCZ. This pattern of blood pressure and heart rate responses to EOCZ seems unaltered by DOCA-salt hypertension, as was similar to that previously reported in conscious normotensive rats.

  13. Consistent antioxidant and antihypertensive effects of oral sodium nitrite in DOCA-salt hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Amaral, Jefferson H.; Ferreira, Graziele C.; Pinheiro, Lucas C.; Montenegro, Marcelo F.; Tanus-Santos, Jose E.

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is a common disease that includes oxidative stress as a major feature, and oxidative stress impairs physiological nitric oxide (NO) activity promoting cardiovascular pathophysiological mechanisms. While inorganic nitrite and nitrate are now recognized as relevant sources of NO after their bioactivation by enzymatic and non-enzymatic pathways, thus lowering blood pressure, mounting evidence suggests that sodium nitrite also exerts antioxidant effects. Here we show for the first time that sodium nitrite exerts consistent systemic and vascular antioxidant and antihypertensive effects in the deoxycorticosterone-salt (DOCA-salt) hypertension model. This is particularly important because increased oxidative stress plays a major role in the DOCA-salt hypertension model, which is less dependent on activation of the renin-angiotensin system than other hypertension models. Indeed, antihypertensive effects of oral nitrite were associated with increased plasma nitrite and nitrate concentrations, and completely blunted hypertension-induced increases in plasma 8-isoprostane and lipid peroxide levels, in vascular reactive oxygen species, in vascular NADPH oxidase activity, and in vascular xanthine oxidoreductase activity. Together, these findings provide evidence that the oral administration of sodium nitrite consistently decreases the blood pressure in association with major antioxidant effects in experimental hypertension. PMID:26119848

  14. The effect of ozone on blood pressure in DOCA-salt-induced hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Akcılar, Raziye; Akçer, Sezer; Şimşek, Hasan; Akcılar, Aydın; Bayat, Zeynep; Genç, Osman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is a risk factor for the cardiovascular diseases. Ozone as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of several disorders. We aimed to observe the effects of ozone on the blood pressure in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. Methods: Twenty three young Sprague Dawley male rats were divided into three groups; Control (C), Hypertension (H) and Hypertension + Ozone (HO). Hypertension was induced by injection of DOCA-salt (25 mg/kg, s.c.) twice weekly, 4 weeks, whereas intraperitoneal ozone was administered (1.1 mg/kg) for 10 days. Serum endothelin-1, nitric oxide and renin levels were measured with ELISA. Blood pressures were monitored using a tail cuff system. Endothelin-1, ET receptor A and ET receptor B mRNA expression in heart and vascular tissue were assessed by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Results: Blood pressure, serum endothelin-1 and ET receptor A mRNA expression levels were increased in H group, whereas serum renin, nitric oxide and ET receptor B mRNA expression levels in the heart and vascular tissue decreased compared with C and HO groups, which were counteracted by ozone treatment. Conclusion: Ozone treatment decreases blood pressure and is effective in preventing the progression of hypertensive disease, the mechanisms of which are associated with anti-vasoconstrictor effects through reducing the levels of serum endothelin-1 and ET receptor A mRNA expression in the heart and vascular tissue. PMID:26550192

  15. Coronary vascular and aortic endothelial permeability during estrogen therapy: a study in DOCA-salt hypertensive ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Khazaei, M; Nematbakhsh, M

    2004-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major source of morbidity and mortality in the Western World. Premenopausal and estrogen-treated postmenopausal women have a lower incidence of CVD. It has been suggested that circulating endogenous estrogens are probably responsible for this protection. This study investigated the hypothesis that the reduction of endothelial permeability is responsible for cardioprotective effects of estrogen in hypertensive animals. Fourty-four rats were ovariectomized and divided into five groups: groups 1, 2 and 4 received DOCA-salt and groups 3 and 5 received normal saline (N/S) injection for four weeks. Then, in groups 4 and 5 the blood pressure was measured. Group 1 received estradiol valerate and in groups 2 and 3 continued with DOCA-salt and N/S injection for six weeks, respectively. Endothelial permeability was measured by Evans Blue extraction method. There was no significant difference in endothelial permeability in coronary circulation in estrogen-treated group and controls (12.97+/-2.32 vs. 9.96+/-1.01, respectively). Also, aortic endothelial permeability in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats did not change significantly after estrogen treatment (28.34+/-3.65 vs. 41.60+/-5.98). This study showed that the cardioprotective effects of estrogen in DOCA-salt hypertensive animals are not mediated by a reduction of endothelial permeability.

  16. Increased Catecholamine Secretion from Single Adrenal Chromaffin Cells in DOCA-Salt Hypertension Is Associated with Potassium Channel Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The mechanism of catecholamine release from single adrenal chromaffin cells isolated from normotensive and DOCA-salt hypertensive rats was investigated. These cells were used as a model for sympathetic nerves to better understand how exocytotic release of catecholamines is altered in this model of hypertension. Catecholamine secretion was evoked by local application of acetylcholine (1 mM) or high K+ (70 mM), and continuous amperometry was used to monitor catecholamine secretion as an oxidative current. The total number of catecholamine molecules secreted from a vesicle, the total number of vesicles fusing and secreting, and the duration of secretion in response to a stimulus were all significantly greater for chromaffin cells from hypertensive rats as compared to normotensive controls. The greater catecholamine secretion from DOCA-salt cells results, at least in part, from functionally impaired large conductance, Ca2+-activated (BK) and ATP-sensitive K+ channels. This work reveals that there is altered vesicular release of catecholamines from these cells (and possibly from perivascular sympathetic nerves) and this may contribute to increased vasomotor tone in DOCA-salt hypertension. PMID:23937098

  17. Macrophage depletion lowers blood pressure and restores sympathetic nerve α2-adrenergic receptor function in mesenteric arteries of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Thang, Loc V; Demel, Stacie L; Crawford, Robert; Kaminski, Norbert E; Swain, Greg M; Van Rooijen, Nico; Galligan, James J

    2015-10-01

    We tested the hypothesis that vascular macrophage infiltration and O2 (-) release impairs sympathetic nerve α2-adrenergic autoreceptor (α2AR) function in mesenteric arteries (MAs) of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats. Male rats were uninephrectomized or sham operated (sham). DOCA pellets were implanted subcutaneously in uninephrectomized rats who were provided high-salt drinking water or high-salt water with apocynin. Sham rats received tap water. Blood pressure was measured using radiotelemetry. Treatment of sham and DOCA-salt rats with liposome-encapsulated clodronate was used to deplete macrophages. After 3-5, 10-13, and 18-21 days of DOCA-salt treatment, MAs and peritoneal fluid were harvested from euthanized rats. Norepinephrine (NE) release from periarterial sympathetic nerves was measured in vitro using amperometry with microelectrodes. Macrophage infiltration into MAs as well as TNF-α and p22(phox) were measured using immunohistochemistry. Peritoneal macrophage activation was measured by flow cytometry. O2 (-) was measured using dihydroethidium staining. Hypertension developed over 28 days, and apocynin reduced blood pressure on days 18-21. O2 (-) and macrophage infiltration were greater in DOCA-salt MAs compared with sham MAs after day 10. Peritoneal macrophage activation occurred after day 10 in DOCA-salt rats. Macrophages expressing TNF-α and p22(phox) were localized near sympathetic nerves. Impaired α2AR function and increased NE release from sympathetic nerves occurred in MAs from DOCA-salt rats after day 18. Macrophage depletion reduced blood pressure and vascular O2 (-) while restoring α2AR function in DOCA-salt rats. Macrophage infiltration into the vascular adventitia contributes to increased blood pressure in DOCA-salt rats by releasing O2 (-), which disrupts α2AR function, causing enhanced NE release from sympathetic nerves.

  18. Ovarian hormones modulate endothelin-1 vascular reactivity and mRNA expression in DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    David, F L; Carvalho, M H; Cobra, A L; Nigro, D; Fortes, Z B; Rebouças, N A; Tostes, R C

    2001-09-01

    We previously demonstrated a differential activation of the endothelin-1 (ET-1) pathway in male and female deoxycorticosterone (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats, with the male rats exhibiting marked alterations in vascular and pressor responses to ET-1 and Suc-[Glu,(9)Ala(11,15)]-ET-1(8-21) (IRL-1620), an ET(B) agonist. Mechanisms underlying these gender differences are unclear, and we hypothesized that the ovarian hormones attenuate vascular ET(B) responses in female DOCA-salt rats. Female Wistar rats were randomized in 3 groups: sham-operated, ovariectomized (OVX), and OVX plus hormone replacement with estradiol (E) or estradiol/progesterone (EP). Two weeks later, rats were uninephrectomized and further randomized in DOCA-salt (subcutaneous injections of desoxycorticosterone and drinking water containing NaCl/KCl) and control normotensive (subcutaneous injections of vehicle and tap water). Blood pressure was evaluated both by direct and standard tail-cuff methods. Responses to IRL-1620 were evaluated in vivo/in situ in the mesenteric microcirculation. mRNA expression of ET-1 and ET(A/B) receptors was evaluated in mesenteric arteries by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and expressed relative to GAPDH. OVX-DOCA rats developed a more severe form of hypertension than did DOCA rats. Treatment with E or EP restored blood pressure to levels observed in DOCA rats. In the mesentery, IRL-1620 induced vasodilatation in control rats, a mild vasoconstriction in DOCA rats, and marked vasoconstriction in OVX-DOCA rats. Both E and EP decreased IRL-1620-induced vasoconstriction in the DOCA group. In the normotensive group, OVX did not change blood pressure or IRL-1620-induced vasodilation. Removal of the ovaries increased ET-1 mRNA in arteries from DOCA and control rats, although treatment with E or EP reversed these changes. Vascular ET(B) receptor mRNA levels were greatly enhanced in OVX-DOCA but not OVX-control rats. Hormone replacement with E or EP restored ET

  19. The effect of hypertension on serum nitric oxide and vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations. A study in DOCA-Salt hypertensive ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Khazaei, M; Nematbakhsh, M

    2006-07-15

    CardioVascular Disease (CVD) accounts for considerable mortality and morbidity in developed countries. Most of the common forms of CVD, such as hypertension, are caused by functional and structural changes in endothelial function. This study was designed to study the effect of hypertension on serum Nitric Oxide (NO) and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF) concentrations in DOCA-Salt hypertensive ovariectomized rats. Thirty female rats were ovariectomized. Blood samples were taken and the animals were divided into hypertensive and control groups. Hypertension was induced by DOCA-Salt method. DOCA was injected 30 mg/kg of body weight subcutaneously, twice a week with NaCl 1% instead of tap water for drinking throughout the experiment. The control group received normal saline injection with usual drinking water. Results showed that serum NO concentration in DOCA-Salt hypertensive rats was lower than the control group (18.35 +/- 5.31, 45.01 +/- 12.54 micromol/l, respectively) (p < 0.05). Also, the mean serum VEGF concentration was raised after induced hypertension (120.55 +/- 8.11 vs. 88.58 +/- 2.24 pg/ml) (p < 0.05). In conclusion, reduced serum NO and increased serum VEGF concentrations in hypertensive animals support the concept of endothelial dysfunction in hypertensive subjects.

  20. Composition of connective tissues and morphometry of vascular smooth muscle in arterial wall of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats - In relation with arterial remodeling.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kozaburo; Shimizu, Emiko

    2016-05-01

    Hypertension (HT) was induced in Wistar rats aged 16 and 48 weeks by a deoxycortico-sterone acetate (DOCA)-salt procedure. Common carotid arteries were resected 16 weeks after, and their histological specimens were selectively stained for observations of collagen, elastin, and vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells. Then, the fractions of collagen and elastin and their radial distributions, and the size and number of VSM cells were determined with an image analyzer. These results were compared with the results from age-matched, non-treated, normotensive (NT) animals and also with those from our previous biomechanical studies. In both age groups, there were no significant differences in the fractions of collagen and elastin, and the ratio of collagen to elastin content between HT and NT arteries. These results correspond well with our previous biomechanical results, which showed no significant difference in wall elasticity between HT and NT vessels. Moreover, in the innermost layer out of 4 layers bordered with thick elastic lamellae, the fraction of collagen was significantly greater in HT arteries than in NT ones, which is attributable to HT-related stress concentration in the layer. VSM cells were significantly hypertrophied and their content was increased by HT, although their total number in the media remained unchanged. The increased size and content of cells correspond to the enhancement of vascular tone and contractility in HT arteries. PMID:26987272

  1. Composition of connective tissues and morphometry of vascular smooth muscle in arterial wall of DOCA-salt hypertensive rats - In relation with arterial remodeling.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Kozaburo; Shimizu, Emiko

    2016-05-01

    Hypertension (HT) was induced in Wistar rats aged 16 and 48 weeks by a deoxycortico-sterone acetate (DOCA)-salt procedure. Common carotid arteries were resected 16 weeks after, and their histological specimens were selectively stained for observations of collagen, elastin, and vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells. Then, the fractions of collagen and elastin and their radial distributions, and the size and number of VSM cells were determined with an image analyzer. These results were compared with the results from age-matched, non-treated, normotensive (NT) animals and also with those from our previous biomechanical studies. In both age groups, there were no significant differences in the fractions of collagen and elastin, and the ratio of collagen to elastin content between HT and NT arteries. These results correspond well with our previous biomechanical results, which showed no significant difference in wall elasticity between HT and NT vessels. Moreover, in the innermost layer out of 4 layers bordered with thick elastic lamellae, the fraction of collagen was significantly greater in HT arteries than in NT ones, which is attributable to HT-related stress concentration in the layer. VSM cells were significantly hypertrophied and their content was increased by HT, although their total number in the media remained unchanged. The increased size and content of cells correspond to the enhancement of vascular tone and contractility in HT arteries.

  2. Brain endoplasmic reticulum stress mechanistically distinguishes the saline-intake and hypertensive response to deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt.

    PubMed

    Jo, Fusakazu; Jo, Hiromi; Hilzendeger, Aline M; Thompson, Anthony P; Cassell, Martin D; Rutkowski, D Thomas; Davisson, Robin L; Grobe, Justin L; Sigmund, Curt D

    2015-06-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress has become an important mechanism in hypertension. We examined the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in mediating the increased saline-intake and hypertensive effects in response to deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt. Intracerebroventricular delivery of the endoplasmic reticulum stress-reducing chemical chaperone tauroursodeoxycholic acid did not affect the magnitude of hypertension, but markedly decreased saline-intake in response to DOCA-salt. Increased saline-intake returned after tauroursodeoxycholic acid was terminated. Decreased saline-intake was also observed after intracerebroventricular infusion of 4-phenylbutyrate, another chemical chaperone. Immunoreactivity to CCAAT homologous binding protein, a marker of irremediable endoplasmic reticulum stress, was increased in the subfornical organ and supraoptic nucleus of DOCA-salt mice, but the signal was absent in control and CCAAT homologous binding protein-deficient mice. Electron microscopy revealed abnormalities in endoplasmic reticulum structure (decrease in membrane length, swollen membranes, and decreased ribosome numbers) in the subfornical organ consistent with endoplasmic reticulum stress. Subfornical organ-targeted adenoviral delivery of GRP78, a resident endoplasmic reticulum chaperone, decreased DOCA-salt-induced saline-intake. The increase in saline-intake in response to DOCA-salt was blunted in CCAAT homologous binding protein-deficient mice, but these mice exhibited a normal hypertensive response. We conclude that (1) brain endoplasmic reticulum stress mediates the saline-intake, but not blood pressure response to DOCA-salt, (2) DOCA-salt causes endoplasmic reticulum stress in the subfornical organ, which when attenuated by GRP78 blunts saline-intake, and (3) CCAAT homologous binding protein may play a functional role in DOCA-salt-induced saline-intake. The results suggest a mechanistic distinction between the importance of endoplasmic reticulum stress in

  3. A review of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertension and its relevance for cardiovascular physiotherapy research.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lim-Kyu; Kim, Mee-Young; Kim, Ju-Hyun; Lee, Jeong-Uk; Park, Byoung-Sun; Yang, Seung-Min; Jeon, Hye-Joo; Lee, Won-Deok; Noh, Ji-Woong; Kwak, Taek-Yong; Lee, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ju-Young; Kim, Hye-Young; Hwang, Byong-Yong; Kim, Bokyung; Kim, Junghwan

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this review was to elucidate the deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-related hypertensive mechanism and to contribute to future studies of cardiovascular physiotherapy. [Methods] This paper focuses on the signal transductions that control hypertension and its mechanisms. We include results reported by our laboratory in a literature review. [Results] Our results and the literature show the various mechanisms of DOCA-salt hypertension. [Conclusion] In this review paper, we carefully discuss the signal transduction in hypertension based on our studies and with reference to cardiovascular physiotherapy research. PMID:25642096

  4. Interaction of central Angiotensin II and estrogen on systolic blood pressure in female DOCA-salt treated rats

    PubMed Central

    Kafami, Marzieh; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Niazmand, Saeed; Hadjzadeh, Mousa Alreza; Farrokhi, Esmaeil; Mazloum, Tahereh; Shafei, Mohammad Naser

    2016-01-01

    Background: There is a probable interaction of central angiotensin II (Ang II) and estrogen (Est) on blood pressure in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats. Therefore, in the present study, the interaction between Ang II and Est in ovariectomized (Ovx) and Sham rats that were treated with DOCA- salt was evaluated. Materials and Methods: The female rats were divided into 10 groups as follows: Sham, Ovx, Sham-DOCA, Ovx-DOCA, Sham-DOCA-estrogen (E), Ovx DOCA-E, Sham-DOCA-losartan (L), Ovx-DOCA-L, Sham–DOCA-L-E, and Ovx-DOCA-L-E. The Est groups received estradiol valerate (2 mg/kg; daily; subcutaneously (s.c)) for four weeks. Following that, several doses of Ang II (0.5, 5, 50, 500, 5000 ng/5 μl) were injected via the intracerebroventricular (i.c.v) route and the changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP) were evaluated. In the losartan groups, 200 μg losartan was injected (i.c.v) 15 minutes after the Ang II injection and the blood pressure was recorded. Treatment by DOCA was performed by removal of one kidney, injection of DOCA (45 mg/kg i.p), and adding of sodium chloride (NaCl) (1%) and potassium chloride (KCl) (0.1%) in the drinking water. Results: The SBP was increased by Ang II and this effect in DOCA-salt treated rat was higher than in the untreated groups. The effect of Ang II on SBP in groups that were treated with Est and L was lower than that in the DOCA-salt groups. Increase in SBP was strongly attenuated by Ang II in groups that were co-treated with both Est and L compared to the DOCA-treated rats. These results showed that Est significantly attenuated the effect of central Ang II on SBP in the DOCA-salt treated rats. Conclusion: We suggest that there are interactions between E and Ang II in the control of blood pressure in DOCA-salt treated rats. PMID:27195251

  5. Angiotensin type 1a receptors in the subfornical organ are required for deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hilzendeger, Aline M; Cassell, Martin D; Davis, Deborah R; Stauss, Harald M; Mark, Allyn L; Grobe, Justin L; Sigmund, Curt D

    2013-03-01

    Although elevated renin-angiotensin system activity and angiotensinergic signaling within the brain are required for hypertension, polydipsia, and increased metabolic rate induced by deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt, the contribution of specific receptor subtypes and brain nuclei mediating these responses remains poorly defined. We hypothesized that angiotensin type 1a receptors (AT(1a)R) within the subfornical organ (SFO) mediate these responses. Transgenic mice carrying a conditional allele of the endogenous AT(1a)R (AT(1a)R(flox)) were administered an adenovirus encoding Cre-recombinase and enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) or adenovirus encoding eGFP alone into the lateral cerebral ventricle. Adenovirus encoding Cre-recombinase reduced AT(1a)R mRNA and induced recombination in AT(1a)R(flox) genomic DNA specifically in the SFO, without significant effect in the paraventricular or arcuate nuclei, and also induced SFO-specific recombination in ROSA(TdTomato) reporter mice. The effect of SFO-targeted ablation of endogenous AT(1a)R was evaluated in AT(1a)R(flox) mice at 3 time points: (1) baseline, (2) 1 week after virus injection but before DOCA-salt, and (3) after 3 weeks of DOCA-salt. DOCA-salt-treated mice with deletion of AT(1a)R in SFO exhibited a blunted increase in arterial pressure. Increased sympathetic cardiac modulation and urine copeptin, a marker of vasopressin release, were both significantly reduced in DOCA-salt mice when AT(1a)R was deleted in the SFO. Additionally, deletion of AT(1a)R in the SFO significantly attenuated the polydipsia, polyuria, and sodium intake in response to DOCA-salt. Together, these data highlight the contribution of AT(1a)R in the SFO to arterial pressure regulation potentially through changes on sympathetic cardiac modulation, vasopressin release, and hydromineral balance in the DOCA-salt model of hypertension.

  6. Intracerebroventricular infusion of the (Pro)renin receptor antagonist PRO20 attenuates deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Li, Wencheng; Sullivan, Michelle N; Zhang, Sheng; Worker, Caleb J; Xiong, Zhenggang; Speth, Robert C; Feng, Yumei

    2015-02-01

    We previously reported that binding of prorenin to the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) plays a major role in brain angiotensin II formation and the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Here, we designed and developed an antagonistic peptide, PRO20, to block prorenin binding to the PRR. Fluorescently labeled PRO20 bound to both mouse and human brain tissues with dissociation constants of 4.4 and 1.8 nmol/L, respectively. This binding was blocked by coincubation with prorenin and was diminished in brains of neuron-specific PRR-knockout mice, indicating specificity of PRO20 for PRR. In cultured human neuroblastoma cells, PRO20 blocked prorenin-induced calcium influx in a concentration- and AT(1) receptor-dependent manner. Intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 dose-dependently inhibited prorenin-induced hypertension in C57Bl6/J mice. Furthermore, acute intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 reduced blood pressure in both DOCA-salt and genetically hypertensive mice. Chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 attenuated the development of hypertension and the increase in brain hypothalamic angiotensin II levels induced by DOCA-salt. In addition, chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 improved autonomic function and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity in mice treated with DOCA-salt. In summary, PRO20 binds to both mouse and human PRRs and decreases angiotensin II formation and hypertension induced by either prorenin or DOCA-salt. Our findings highlight the value of the novel PRR antagonist, PRO20, as a lead compound for a novel class of antihypertensive agents and as a research tool to establish the validity of brain PRR antagonism as a strategy for treating hypertension.

  7. Intracerebroventricular infusion of the (Pro)renin receptor antagonist PRO20 attenuates deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Li, Wencheng; Sullivan, Michelle N; Zhang, Sheng; Worker, Caleb J; Xiong, Zhenggang; Speth, Robert C; Feng, Yumei

    2015-02-01

    We previously reported that binding of prorenin to the (pro)renin receptor (PRR) plays a major role in brain angiotensin II formation and the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Here, we designed and developed an antagonistic peptide, PRO20, to block prorenin binding to the PRR. Fluorescently labeled PRO20 bound to both mouse and human brain tissues with dissociation constants of 4.4 and 1.8 nmol/L, respectively. This binding was blocked by coincubation with prorenin and was diminished in brains of neuron-specific PRR-knockout mice, indicating specificity of PRO20 for PRR. In cultured human neuroblastoma cells, PRO20 blocked prorenin-induced calcium influx in a concentration- and AT(1) receptor-dependent manner. Intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 dose-dependently inhibited prorenin-induced hypertension in C57Bl6/J mice. Furthermore, acute intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 reduced blood pressure in both DOCA-salt and genetically hypertensive mice. Chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 attenuated the development of hypertension and the increase in brain hypothalamic angiotensin II levels induced by DOCA-salt. In addition, chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of PRO20 improved autonomic function and spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity in mice treated with DOCA-salt. In summary, PRO20 binds to both mouse and human PRRs and decreases angiotensin II formation and hypertension induced by either prorenin or DOCA-salt. Our findings highlight the value of the novel PRR antagonist, PRO20, as a lead compound for a novel class of antihypertensive agents and as a research tool to establish the validity of brain PRR antagonism as a strategy for treating hypertension. PMID:25421983

  8. CXCL16 Deficiency Attenuates Renal Injury and Fibrosis in Salt-Sensitive Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Liang, Hua; Ma, Zhiheng; Peng, Hui; He, Liqun; Hu, Zhaoyong; Wang, Yanlin

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation plays an important role in the pathogenesis of hypertensive kidney disease. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the induction of inflammation are not completely understood. We have found that CXCL16 is induced in the kidney in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. Here we examined whether CXCL16 is involved in DOCA-salt-induced renal inflammation and fibrosis. Wild-type and CXCL16 knockout mice were subjected to uninephrectomy and DOCA-salt treatment for 3 weeks. There was no difference in blood pressure at baseline between wild-type and CXCL16 knockout mice. DOCA-salt treatment resulted in significant elevation in blood pressure that was comparable between wild-type and CXCL16 knockout mice. CXCL16 knockout mice exhibited less severe renal dysfunction, proteinuria, and fibrosis after DOCA-salt treatment compared with wild-type mice. CXCL16 deficiency attenuated extracellular matrix protein production and suppressed bone marrow–derived fibroblast accumulation and myofibroblast formation in the kidneys following DOCA-salt treatment. Furthermore, CXCL16 deficiency reduced macrophage and T cell infiltration into the kidneys in response to DOCA-salt hypertension. Taken together, our results indicate that CXCL16 plays a key role in the pathogenesis of renal injury and fibrosis in salt-sensitive hypertension through regulation of bone marrow–derived fibroblast accumulation and macrophage and T cell infiltration. PMID:27353044

  9. Sodium pump activity and calcium relaxation in vascular smooth muscle of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt rats

    SciTech Connect

    Soltis, E.E.; Field, F.P.

    1986-11-01

    The Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ pump activity was determined in femoral arterial smooth muscle from deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats using potassium relaxation and ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb uptake as indices. The membrane-stabilizing effect of calcium and its relation to Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ pump activity also were examined. Femoral arteries from DOCA-salt rats exhibited a greater relaxation in response to potassium addition after contraction with norepinephrine in a low potassium (0.6 mM) Krebs solution. The concentration of potassium required to produce a 50% relaxation was significantly less in DOCA-salt rats. Ouabain-sensitive /sup 86/Rb uptake was significantly greater at 3, 10, and 20 minutes of /sup 86/Rb incubation in femoral arteries from DOCA-salt rats. Linear regression analysis revealed a significant correlation between the uptake of /sup 86/Rb and time of incubation in both control and DOCA-salt rats. A significant difference in the slopes of the regression lines showed that the rate of uptake was greater in DOCA-salt rats. No difference was observed in ouabain-insensitive /sup 86/Rb uptake. A dose-dependent relaxation in response to increasing concentrations of calcium following contraction to norepinephrine was observed in femoral arteries from control and DOCA-salt rats. The relaxation was directly dependent on the level of extracellular potassium and was blocked by ouabain. Femoral arteries from DOCA-salt rats relaxed to a significantly greater extent in response to calcium at each level of potassium when compared with controls. These results provide further evidence for an increase in Na/sup +/-K/sup +/ pump activity in vascular smooth muscle from DOCA-salt hypertensive rats.

  10. Effects of Lactobacillus plantarum TWK10-Fermented Soymilk on Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-Salt-Induced Hypertension and Associated Dementia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Te-Hua; Chiou, Jiachi; Tsai, Tsung-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress resulting from excessive production of reactive oxygen species is the major mediator of neuronal cell degeneration observed in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD). Additionally, hypertension has been shown to be a positive risk factor for VaD. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus plantarum strain TWK10 (TWK10)-fermented soymilk on the protection of PC-12 cells in H2O2-, oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)- and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-induced rat models of VaD. Notably, the viabilities of H2O2-treated PC-12 cells and OGD model were significantly increased by treatment with TWK10-fermented soymilk ethanol extract (p < 0.05). In addition, oral administration of TWK10-fermented soymilk extract in DOCA-salt hypertension-induced VaD rats resulted in a significant decrease in blood pressure (p < 0.05), which was regulated by inhibiting ACE activity and promoting NO production, in addition to decreased escape latency and increased target crossing (p < 0.05). In conclusion, these results demonstrated that TWK10-fermented soymilk extract could improve learning and memory in DOCA-salt hypertension-induced VaD rats by acting as a blood pressure-lowering and neuroprotective agent. PMID:27144579

  11. Effect of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension on diabetic peripheral neuropathy in alloxan-induced diabetic WBN/Kob rats.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Kiyokazu; Hamano, Hiroko; Matsuura, Tetsuro; Narama, Isao

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between hypertension and diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN) has recently been reported in clinical research, but it remains unclear whether hypertension is a risk factor for DPN. To investigate the effects of hypertension on DPN, we analyzed morphological features of peripheral nerves in diabetic rats with hypertension. Male WBN/Kob rats were divided into 2 groups: alloxan-induced diabetic rats with deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt (DOCA-salt) treatment (ADN group) and nondiabetic rats with DOCA-salt treatment (DN group). Sciatic, tibial (motor) and sural (sensory) nerves were subjected to qualitative and quantitative histomorphological analysis. Systolic blood pressure in the two groups exhibited a higher value (>140 mmHg), but there was no significant difference between the two groups. Endoneurial blood vessels in both groups presented endothelial hypertrophy and narrowing of the vascular lumen. Electron microscopically, duplication of basal lamina surrounding the endothelium and pericyte of the endoneurial vessels was observed, and this lesion appeared to be more frequent and severe in the ADN group than the DN group. Many nerve fibers of the ADN and DN groups showed an almost normal appearance, whereas morphometrical analysis of the tibial nerve showed a significant shift to smaller fiber and myelin sizes in the ADN group compared with DN group. In sural nerve, the fiber and axon-size significantly shifted to a smaller size in ADN group compared with the DN group. These results suggest that combined diabetes and hypertension could induce mild peripheral nerve lesions with vascular changes.

  12. CS-3150, a Novel Nonsteroidal Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonist, Shows Preventive and Therapeutic Effects On Renal Injury in Deoxycorticosterone Acetate/Salt-Induced Hypertensive Rats.

    PubMed

    Arai, Kiyoshi; Morikawa, Yuka; Ubukata, Naoko; Tsuruoka, Hiroyuki; Homma, Tsuyoshi

    2016-09-01

    The present study was designed to assess both preventive and therapeutic effects of (S)-1-(2-Hydroxyethyl)-4-methyl-N-[4-(methylsulfonyl) phenyl]-5-[2-(trifluoromethyl) phenyl]-1H-pyrrole-3-carboxamide (CS-3150), a novel nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, on renal injury in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)/salt-induced hypertensive rats (DOCA rats). From 7 weeks of age, DOCA was subcutaneously administered once a week for 4 weeks to uninephrectomized rats fed a high-salt diet. In experiment 1, CS-3150 (0.3-3 mg/kg) was orally administered once a day for 4 weeks coincident with DOCA administration. In experiment 2, after establishment of renal injury by 4 weeks of DOCA/salt loading, CS-3150 (3 mg/kg) was orally administered once a day for 4 weeks with or without continuous DOCA administration. In experiment 1, DOCA/salt loading significantly increased systolic blood pressure (SBP), which was prevented by CS-3150 in a dose-dependent manner. Development of renal injury (proteinuria, renal hypertrophy, and histopathological changes in glomeruli and tubule) was also suppressed by CS-3150 with inhibition of mRNA expression of fibrosis, inflammation, and oxidative stress markers. In experiment 2, under continuous DOCA treatment, CS-3150 clearly ameliorated existing renal injury without lowering SBP, indicating that CS-3150 regressed renal injury independent of its antihypertensive action. Moreover, CS-3150 treatment in combination with withdrawal of DOCA showed further therapeutic effect on renal injury accompanied by reduction in SBP. These results demonstrate that CS-3150 not only prevents but also ameliorates hypertension and renal injury in DOCA rats. Therefore, CS-3150 could be a promising agent for the treatment of hypertension and renal disorders, and may have potential to promote regression of renal injury. PMID:27384074

  13. DOCA-salts induce heart failure in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Tiritilli, A

    2001-10-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a common clinical problem confronting physicians and is often the final manifestation of many cardiovascular disorders. Despite recent advances in the pharmacological management of HF, it remains a highly lethal and disabling disorder. A number of animal models have been developed to study both the pathophysiology of HF and new therapeutic approaches to this complex syndrome. Only through an improved understanding of the basic biology of the early stages of the syndrome can HF be prevented or at least anticipated. With this in view, we have developed an easily realisable and inexpensive model in the guinea pig, which presents numerous structural, metabolic and biochemical similarities compared with the human heart. Thirty guinea pigs, aged 5 weeks and weighing 300 g were used. After anaesthesia, left nephrectomy was performed. After 1 week the guinea pigs were divided into: (a) control group (n=15), which received an injection of vehicle as well as tap water for 10 weeks; (b) DOCA-salts group (n=15), where the animals were treated with an IM injection of 10 mg DOCA 5 days a week for 10 weeks and with drinking water containing 9 g/l(-1) NaCl and 2 g/l(-1) KCl. Our results demonstrate that the administration of DOCA-salts to guinea pigs for 10 weeks caused a significant increase in blood pressure (BP+30%) associated with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH), evaluated by LV weight (+37%), LV wall (+36%), by the ratio LV weight/Body weight (+23%) and by an increase in LV volume (+51%). Concerning HF, the latter was clinically evident through an increase in body weight, heart rate and dyspnoea. Indeed, guinea pigs presented pleural and/or pericardial effusion often associated with ascite. This model, which combines pressure and volume overload, results in a slow evolution towards HF. This allows a better understanding of the mechanisms in early LV remodelling which has the potential to develop into HF. Some recent studies have emphasised the value

  14. Role of the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/C-C chemokine receptor 2 signaling pathway in transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 ablation-induced renal injury in salt-sensitive hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Mingjun; Xu, Hui; Cui, Lin; Liu, Weihong; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Shen, Si; Wang, Donna H

    2015-01-01

    Our recent studies indicate that the transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) channel may act as a potential regulator of monocyte/macrophage recruitment to reduce renal injury in salt-sensitive hypertension. This study tests the hypothesis that deletion of TRPV1 exaggerates salt-sensitive hypertension-induced renal injury due to enhanced inflammatory responses via monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1)/C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2)-dependent pathways. Wild type (WT) and TRPV1-null mutant (TRPV1−/−) mice were subjected to uninephrectomy and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt treatment for four weeks with or without the selective CCR2 antagonist, RS504393. DOCA-salt treatment increased systolic blood pressure (SBP) to the same degree in both strains, but increased urinary excretion of albumin and 8-isoprostane and decreased creatinine clearance with greater magnitude in TRPV1−/− mice compared to WT mice. DOCA-salt treatment also caused renal glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial injury, collagen deposition, monocyte/macrophage infiltration, proinflammatory cytokine and chemokine production, and NF-κB activation in greater degree in TRPV1−/− mice compared to WT mice. Blockade of the CCR2 with RS504393 (4 mg/kg/day) had no effect on SBP in DOCA-salt-treated WT or TRPV1−/− mice compared to their respective controls. However, treatment with RS504393 ameliorated renal dysfunction and morphological damage, and prevented the increase in monocyte/macrophage infiltration, cytokine/chemokine production, and NF-κB activity in both DOCA-salt hypertensive strains with a greater effect in DOCA-salt-treated TRPV1−/− mice compared to DOCA-salt-treated WT mice. No differences in CCR2 protein expression in kidney were found between DOCA-salt-treated WT and TRPV1−/− mice with or without RS504393 treatment. Our studies for the first time indicate that deletion of TRPV1 aggravated renal injury in salt-sensitive hypertension via

  15. Sustained elevation of NF-κB activity sensitizes offspring of maternal inflammation to hypertension via impairing PGC-1α recovery.

    PubMed

    Deng, Yafei; Zhang, Qi; Luo, Hongqin; Chen, Xianhua; Han, Qi; Wang, Fangjie; Huang, Pei; Lai, Wenjing; Guan, Xiao; Pan, Xiaodong; Ji, Yan; Guo, Wei; Che, Ling; Tang, Yuan; Gu, Liangqi; Yu, Jianhua; Namaka, Michael; Deng, Youcai; Li, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence has demonstrated that maternal detrimental factors, including inflammation, contribute to the development of hypertension in the offspring. The current study found that offspring subjected to prenatal exposure of inflammation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge during the second semester showed significantly increased systolic blood pressure. In addition, these offspring also displayed augmented vascular damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in thoracic aortas when challenged with deoxycorticosterone acetate and high-salt diet (DOCA-salt). Interestingly, the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine markedly reversed these changes. Mechanistically, prenatal LPS exposure led to pre-existing elevated peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ co-activator (PGC)-1α, a critical master of ROS metabolism, which up-regulated the ROS defense capacity and maintained the balance of ROS generation and elimination under resting state. However, continued elevation of NF-κB activity significantly suppressed the rapid recovery of PGC-1α expression response to DOCA-salt challenge in offspring that underwent prenatal inflammatory stimulation. This was further confirmed by using a NF-κB inhibitor (N-p-Tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone) that restored PGC-1α recovery and prevented blood pressure elevation induced by DOCA-salt. Our results suggest that maternal inflammation programmed proneness to NF-κB over-activation which impaired PGC-1α-mediated anti-oxidant capacity resulting in the increased sensitivity of offspring to hypertensive damage. PMID:27616627

  16. Sustained elevation of NF-κB activity sensitizes offspring of maternal inflammation to hypertension via impairing PGC-1α recovery

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Yafei; Zhang, Qi; Luo, Hongqin; Chen, Xianhua; Han, Qi; Wang, Fangjie; Huang, Pei; Lai, Wenjing; Guan, Xiao; Pan, Xiaodong; Ji, Yan; Guo, Wei; Che, Ling; Tang, Yuan; Gu, Liangqi; Yu, Jianhua; Namaka, Michael; Deng, Youcai; Li, Xiaohui

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence has demonstrated that maternal detrimental factors, including inflammation, contribute to the development of hypertension in the offspring. The current study found that offspring subjected to prenatal exposure of inflammation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge during the second semester showed significantly increased systolic blood pressure. In addition, these offspring also displayed augmented vascular damage and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels in thoracic aortas when challenged with deoxycorticosterone acetate and high-salt diet (DOCA-salt). Interestingly, the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine markedly reversed these changes. Mechanistically, prenatal LPS exposure led to pre-existing elevated peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-γ co-activator (PGC)-1α, a critical master of ROS metabolism, which up-regulated the ROS defense capacity and maintained the balance of ROS generation and elimination under resting state. However, continued elevation of NF-κB activity significantly suppressed the rapid recovery of PGC-1α expression response to DOCA-salt challenge in offspring that underwent prenatal inflammatory stimulation. This was further confirmed by using a NF-κB inhibitor (N-p-Tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone) that restored PGC-1α recovery and prevented blood pressure elevation induced by DOCA-salt. Our results suggest that maternal inflammation programmed proneness to NF-κB over-activation which impaired PGC-1α-mediated anti-oxidant capacity resulting in the increased sensitivity of offspring to hypertensive damage. PMID:27616627

  17. Effects of equol on deoxycorticosterone acetate salt-induced hypertension and associated vascular dementia in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Te-Hua; Tsai, Tsung-Yu

    2016-08-10

    Oxidative stress is the major cause of neuronal cell degeneration observed in neurodegenerative diseases including vascular dementia (VaD), and hypertension has been found to increase the probability of VaD. Here, we investigated the effects of equol in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-induced hypertensive rats (DHRs) and the associated VaD. The systolic blood pressure of rats treated with low- (10 mg per kg body weight) and high-dose (20 mg per kg body weight) equol for 4 weeks was lower than that of the control group by 12.18 and 17.48% in a dose-dependent manner, respectively (p < 0.05), which was regulated by inhibiting angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and increasing the nitric oxide (NO) production. Equol-treated DHRs showed a significant decrease in both the swimming distance and time required to reach the escape platform (78.20 to 82.56%, p < 0.05). In addition, the probe trial session and working memory test indicated that equol improved the long- and short-term memory of the rats. Moreover, the brain antioxidant activity was increased by elevating the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) levels, and the malondialdehyde (MDA) content and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity were decreased, indicating that equol suppressed oxidative stress. In conclusion, we demonstrated that equol exhibited comparable blood pressure (BP)-lowering and VaD-improving effects with the clinically used drug, lisinopril in DHRs while there was a positive correlation between the doses. Therefore, this bioactive compound may be useful for developing functional foods, thereby extending the application of equol-containing crops. PMID:27435368

  18. Effect of dietary tyrosine supplementation on development of deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-induced hypertension in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Henley, W.N.; Fregly, M.J.; Mihally, M.A.; Wilson, K.M.; Hathaway, S.

    1986-03-01

    Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were unilaterally nephrectomized, given 0.15M NaCl to drink, and assigned to 1 or 4 groups: (a) control diet (CD); (b) CD plus DOCA (39 ..mu..g/rat/day); (c) CD supplemented with 2.5% 1-tyrosine (Tyr); and (d) Tyr plus DOCA. DOCA significantly elevated systolic blood pressure (SBP) within 2 weeks (P < 0.05); however, Tyr for 8 weeks failed to affect SBP. Direct measurement of BP confirmed these findings. Tyrosine also failed to affect the enhanced vascular reactivity (change in MBP to phenylephrine) noted in DOCA-treated rats. Although ineffective in these regards, Tyr alone induced both significant elevations in urinary excretion of free dopamine (week 1, 3, 5, 7) and a significant decrease in urinary free norepinephrine excretion (week 1). Tyr induced significant prolongations in the time-courses of metabolic and cardiovascular responses to the beta-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol. The binding (B/sub max/) of /sup 3/H-yohimbine in cerebral cortical membranes was also reduced. Thus, chronic excess of precursor can affect the function of the adrenergic system, but these effects do not include mitigation of DOCA-salt hypertension.

  19. Transglutaminase activity is decreased in large arteries from hypertensive rats compared with normotensive controls

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Kyle B.; Hitomi, Kiyotaka; Tykocki, Nathan R.; Thompson, Janice M.; Watts, Stephanie W.

    2015-01-01

    Transglutaminases (TGs) catalyze the formation of covalent cross-links between glutamine residues and amine groups. This cross-linking activity has been implicated in arterial remodeling. Because hypertension is characterized by arterial remodeling, we hypothesized that TG activity, expression, and functionality would be increased in the aorta, but not in the vena cava (which does not undergo remodeling), from hypertensive rats relative to normotensive rats. Spontaneously hypertensive stroke-prone rats (SHRSP) and DOCA-salt rats as well as their respective normotensive Wistar-Kyoto or Sprague-Dawley counterparts were used. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis measured the presence and expression of TG1 and TG2, in situ activity assays quantified active TGs, and isometric contractility was used to measure TG functionality. Contrary to our hypothesis, the activity (52% DOCA-salt vs. control rats and 56% SHRSP vs. control rats, P < 0.05), expression (TG1: 54% DOCA-salt vs. control rats, P > 0.05, and TG2: 77% DOCA-salt vs. control rats, P < 0.05), and functionality of TG1 and TG2 were decreased in the aorta, but not in the vena cava, from hypertensive rats. Mass spectrometry identified proteins uniquely amidated by TGs in the aorta that play roles in cytoskeletal regulation, redox regulation, and DNA/RNA/protein synthesis and regulation and in the vena cava that play roles in cytoskeletal regulation, coagulation regulation, and cell metabolism. Consistent with the idea that growing cells lose TG2 expression, vascular smooth muscle cells placed in culture lost TG2 expression. We conclude that the expression, activity, and functionality of TG1 and TG2 are decreased in the aorta, but not in the vena cava, from hypertensive rats compared with control rats. PMID:25599570

  20. Potent and Selective Inhibitors of Long Chain l-2-Hydroxy Acid Oxidase Reduced Blood Pressure in DOCA Salt-Treated Rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    l-2-Hydroxy acid oxidase (Hao2) is a peroxisomal enzyme with predominant expression in the liver and kidney. Hao2 was recently identified as a candidate gene for blood pressure quantitative trait locus in rats. To investigate a pharmacological role of Hao2 in the management of blood pressure, selective Hao2 inhibitors were developed. Optimization of screening hits 1 and 2 led to the discovery of compounds 3 and 4 as potent and selective rat Hao2 inhibitors with pharmacokinetic properties suitable for in vivo studies in rats. Treatment with compound 3 or 4 resulted in a significant reduction or attenuation of blood pressure in an established or developing model of hypertension, deoxycorticosterone acetate-treated rats. This is the first report demonstrating a pharmacological benefit of selective Hao2 inhibitors in a relevant model of hypertension. PMID:24900281

  1. Genetic isolation of a chromosome 1 region affecting susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal damage in the spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    St Lezin, E; Griffin, K A; Picken, M; Churchill, M C; Churchill, P C; Kurtz, T W; Liu, W; Wang, N; Kren, V; Zidek, V; Pravenec, M; Bidani, A K

    1999-08-01

    Linkage studies in the fawn-hooded hypertensive rat have suggested that genes influencing susceptibility to hypertension-associated renal failure may exist on rat chromosome 1q. To investigate this possibility in a widely used model of hypertension, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), we compared susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal damage between an SHR progenitor strain and an SHR congenic strain that is genetically identical except for a defined region of chromosome 1q. Backcross breeding with selection for the markers D1Mit3 and Igf2 on chromosome 1 was used to create the congenic strain (designated SHR.BN-D1Mit3/Igf2) that carries a 22 cM segment of chromosome 1 transferred from the normotensive Brown Norway rat onto the SHR background. Systolic blood pressure (by radiotelemetry) and urine protein excretion were measured in the SHR progenitor and congenic strains before and after the induction of accelerated hypertension by administration of DOCA-salt. At the same level of DOCA-salt hypertension, the SHR.BN-D1Mit3/Igf2 congenic strain showed significantly greater proteinuria and histologically assessed renal vascular and glomerular injury than the SHR progenitor strain. These findings demonstrate that a gene or genes that influence susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal damage have been trapped in the differential chromosome segment of the SHR.BN-D1Mit3/Igf2 congenic strain. This congenic strain represents an important new model for the fine mapping of gene(s) on chromosome 1 that affect susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal injury in the rat.

  2. Inflammation, Immunity, and Hypertensive End-Organ Damage

    PubMed Central

    McMaster, William G.; Kirabo, Annet; Madhur, Meena S.; Harrison, David G.

    2015-01-01

    For more than 50 years, it has been recognized that immunity contributes to hypertension. Recent data have defined an important role of T cells and various T cell-derived cytokines in several models of experimental hypertension. These studies have shown that stimuli like angiotensin II, DOCA-salt and excessive catecholamines lead to formation of effector like T cells that infiltrate the kidney and perivascular regions of both large arteries and arterioles. There is also accumulation of monocyte/macrophages in these regions. Cytokines released from these cells, including IL-17, IFN-γ, TNFα and IL-6 promote both renal and vascular dysfunction and damage, leading to enhanced sodium retention and increased systemic vascular resistance. The renal effects of these cytokines remain to be fully defined, but include enhanced formation of angiotensinogen, increased sodium reabsorption and increased renal fibrosis. Very recent experiments have defined a link between oxidative stress and immune activation in hypertension. These have shown that hypertension is associated with formation of reactive oxygen species in dendritic cells that lead to formation of gamma ketoaldehydes, or isoketals. These rapidly adduct to protein lysines and are presented by dendritic cells as neoantigens that activate T cells and promote hypertension. Thus, cells of both the innate and adaptive immune system contribute to end-organ damage and dysfunction in hypertension. Therapeutic interventions to reduce activation of these cells may prove beneficial in reducing end-organ damage and preventing consequences of hypertension including myocardial infarction, heart failure, renal failure and stroke. PMID:25767287

  3. Increased Klk9 Urinary Excretion Is Associated to Hypertension-Induced Cardiovascular Damage and Renal Alterations

    PubMed Central

    Blázquez-Medela, Ana M.; García-Sánchez, Omar; Quirós, Yaremi; Blanco-Gozalo, Victor; Prieto-García, Laura; Sancho-Martínez, Sandra M.; Romero, Miguel; Duarte, Juan M.; López-Hernández, Francisco J.; López-Novoa, José M.; Martínez-Salgado, Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Early detection of hypertensive end-organ damage and secondary diseases are key determinants of cardiovascular prognosis in patients suffering from arterial hypertension. Presently, there are no biomarkers for the detection of hypertensive target organ damage, most outstandingly including blood vessels, the heart, and the kidneys. We aimed to validate the usefulness of the urinary excretion of the serine protease kallikrein-related peptidase 9 (KLK9) as a biomarker of hypertension-induced target organ damage. Urinary, plasma, and renal tissue levels of KLK9 were measured by the Western blot in different rat models of hypertension, including angiotensin-II infusion, DOCA-salt, L-NAME administration, and spontaneous hypertension. Urinary levels were associated to cardiovascular and renal injury, assessed by histopathology. The origin of urinary KLK9 was investigated through in situ renal perfusion experiments. The urinary excretion of KLK9 is increased in different experimental models of hypertension in rats. The ACE inhibitor trandolapril significantly reduced arterial pressure and the urinary level of KLK9. Hypertension did not increase kidney, heart, liver, lung, or plasma KLK9 levels. Hypertension-induced increased urinary excretion of KLK9 results from specific alterations in its tubular reabsorption, even in the absence of overt nephropathy. KLK9 urinary excretion strongly correlates with cardiac hypertrophy and aortic wall thickening. KLK9 appears in the urine in the presence of hypertension as a result of subtle renal handling alterations. Urinary KLK9 might be potentially used as an indicator of hypertensive cardiac and vascular damage. PMID:26469898

  4. Protective Role for Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-4, a Novel Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-γ Target Gene, in Smooth Muscle in Deoxycorticosterone Acetate-Salt Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ketsawatsomkron, Pimonrat; Keen, Henry L; Davis, Deborah R; Lu, Ko-Ting; Stump, Madeliene; De Silva, T Michael; Hilzendeger, Aline M; Grobe, Justin L; Faraci, Frank M; Sigmund, Curt D

    2016-01-01

    Loss of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) function causes hypertension, whereas its activation lowers blood pressure. Evidence suggests that these effects may be attributable to PPARγ activity in the vasculature. However, the specific transcriptional targets of PPARγ in vessels remain largely unidentified. In this study, we examined the role of smooth muscle PPARγ during salt-sensitive hypertension and investigated its transcriptional targets and functional effect. Transgenic mice expressing dominant-negative PPARγ (S-P467L) in smooth muscle cells were more prone to deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced hypertension and mesenteric arterial dysfunction compared with nontransgenic controls. Despite similar morphometry at baseline, vascular remodeling in conduit and small arteries was enhanced in S-P467L after deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt treatment. Gene expression profiling in aorta and mesenteric arteries revealed significantly decreased expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-4 (TIMP-4) in S-P467L. Expression of TIMP-4 was increased by deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt treatment, but this increase was ablated in S-P467L. Interference with PPARγ activity either by treatment with a PPARγ inhibitor, GW9662, or by expressing P467L PPARγ markedly suppressed TIMP-4 in primary smooth muscle cells. PPARγ binds to a PPAR response element (PPRE) in chromatin close to the TIMP-4 gene in smooth muscle cells, suggesting that TIMP-4 is a novel target of PPARγ. The interference with PPARγ and decrease in TIMP-4 were accompanied by an increase in total matrix metalloproteinase activity. PPARγ-mediated loss of TIMP-4 increased, whereas overexpression of TIMP-4 decreased smooth muscle cell migration in a scratch assay. Our findings highlight a protective mechanism induced by PPARγ in deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt treatment, establishing a novel mechanistic link between PPARγ and TIMP-4.

  5. Effect of aminoguanidine on cardiovascular responses and survival time during blood loss: A study in normotensive and deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Barmaki, Babak; Khazaei, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Hemorrhagic shock causes more circulatory disturbances and mortality in hypertensive than normotensive subjects. In the late phase of hemorrhagic shock, nitric oxide (NO) overproduction leads to vascular decompensation. In this study, we evaluated the effect of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) inhibitor, aminoguanidine (AG), on hemodynamic parameters and serum nitrite concentration in decompensated hemorrhagic shock model in normotensive and hypertensive male rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty-four male rats were divided into hypertensive and normotensive groups (n = 12 each). Hypertension was induced by subcutaneous injection of deoxycorticoesterone acetate (DOCA), 30 mg/kg in uninephrectomized rats. Decompensated hemorrhagic shock was induced by withdrawing blood until the mean arterial pressure (MAP) reached 40 mmHg. After 120 min, each group was assigned to aminguanidine (100 mg/kg) and control group. Hemodynamic parameters were monitored for next 60 min. Blood samples were taken before and after shock period and 60 min after treatment. Survival rate was monitored for 72 h. Results: Infusion of AG in normotensive animals caused a transient increase in MAP and increase of heart rate, whereas it did not affect those parameters in hypertensive animals. Hemorrhagic shock caused a significant rise in serum nitrite concentration in normotensive and hypertensive rats and infusion of AG did not significantly change it in both groups. No significant differences observed in survival rate between AG-treated and not treated groups. Conclusion: It seems that inhibition of iNOS with AG does not have beneficial effects on hemodynamatic parameters and survival rate during decompensated hemorrhagic shock in normotensive and hypertensive animals. PMID:25664261

  6. Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    LePine, Todd

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension is responsible for roughly one-in-six adult deaths annually in the United States and is associated with five of the top nine causes of death.1 Ten trillion dollars is the estimated annual cost worldwide of the direct and indirect effects of hypertension.2,3 In the U.S. alone, costs estimated at almost $74 billion in 2009 placed a huge economic burden on the health care system.4 The prevalence of hypertension increases with advancing age to the point where more than half of people 60 to 69 years of age and at least three-fourths of those 70 years of age and older are affected.5 Most individuals with hypertension do not have it adequately controlled.1,6 Medication noncompliance due to avoidance of side effects is suggested to be a primary factor.6 The epidemic incidence of hypertension and its significant cost to society indicate that a well-tolerated, cost-effective approach to treatment is urgently needed. PMID:24278815

  7. Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, Kara; Lepine, Todd

    2012-05-01

    Hypertension is responsible for roughly one-in-six adult deaths annually in the United States and is associated with five of the top nine causes of death.(1) Ten trillion dollars is the estimated annual cost worldwide of the direct and indirect effects of hypertension.(2,3) In the U.S. alone, costs estimated at almost $74 billion in 2009 placed a huge economic burden on the health care system.(4) The prevalence of hypertension increases with advancing age to the point where more than half of people 60 to 69 years of age and at least three-fourths of those 70 years of age and older are affected.(5) Most individuals with hypertension do not have it adequately controlled.(1,6) Medication noncompliance due to avoidance of side effects is suggested to be a primary factor.(6) The epidemic incidence of hypertension and its significant cost to society indicate that a well-tolerated, cost-effective approach to treatment is urgently needed.

  8. SY 15-1 MECHANISM OF ENDOTHELIN-1 REGULATION IN HYPERTENSION: THE ROLE OF ENDOTHELIN TYPE A RECEPTORS.

    PubMed

    Schiffrin, Ernesto

    2016-09-01

    For many years we have studied models of hypertension in which endothelin-1 (ET-1) is overexpressed. These include DOCA-salt hypertensive rats, Dahl-salt sensitive rats, and stroke prone SHR, in all of which ET-1-mediated mechanisms play a role in blood pressure elevation and vascular injury. In humans we demonstrated overexpression of ET-1 in the endothelium of small arteries from stage 2 hypertensive patients. We have also produced a mouse that overexpresses human ET-1 in the endothelium using a Tie-2 promoter, which exhibited increased oxidative stress and inflammation, hypertrophic remodeling and endothelial dysfunction of small arteries but only slight blood pressure elevation. More recently, using Cre/loxP technology we generated a transgenic mouse with tamoxifen-inducible endothelium-restricted human ET-1 overexpression (ieET-1). ieET-1 mice exhibited BP rise after three weeks of induction in an ET type A receptor (ETAR)-dependent manner, in absence of vascular and kidney injury. Long-term exposure to endothelial ET-1 overexpression, however, caused sustained BP elevation, endothelial dysfunction and vascular stiffening and oxidative stress that was ETAR-dependent. In conclusion, ETA receptors mediate blood pressure elevation and vascular injury induced by ET-1. PMID:27643132

  9. The Effect of Chronic Administration of Saffron (Crocus sativus) Stigma Aqueous Extract on Systolic Blood Pressure in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Faal, Ayyoob; Gholampoor, Ali; Mousavi, Seyed Mehran; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2013-01-01

    Background Crocus sativus L. (saffron), which belongs to the Iridaceae family, is widely cultivated in Iran. Cardiovascular effects of saffron has been established in some studies but the effects of chronic administration of saffron (C. sativus) stigma aqueous extract on blood pressure has not been investigated. Objectives In this study the effects of saffron (C. sativus) stigma aqueous extract on blood pressure of normotensive and desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt induced hypertensive rats, in chronic exposure was evaluated. Materials and Methods Five weeks administration of three doses saffron aqueous extract (10, 20 and 40 mg/Kg/day) and spironolactone (50 mg/Kg/day) in different groups of normotensive and hypertensive rats (at the end of 4 weeks treatment by DOCA-salt) was carried out and their effects on mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP) and heart rate (HR) were evaluated using tail cuff method. The duration of the effect of saffron on systolic blood pressure (SBP), was also evaluated. Results Our results indicated that chronic administration of saffron aqueous extract could reduce the MSBP in DOCA salt treated rats in a dose dependent manner. This compound did not decrease the MSBP in normotensive rats. The data also showed that antihypertensive effects of saffron did not persist. Conclusions It is concluded that saffron aqueous extract possesses antihypertensive and normalizing effect on BP in chronic administration. PMID:24624210

  10. The Effect of Chronic Administration of Safranal on Systolic Blood Pressure in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Faal, Ayyoob; Gholampoor, Ali; Mousavi, Seyed Mehran; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2015-01-01

    Safranal, the main component of Crocus sativus essential oil, exhibits different pharmacological activities. In this study, the effects of safranal, on blood pressure of normotensive and desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) - salt induced hypertensive rats in chronic administration were investigated. Three doses of safranal (1, 2 and 4 mg/Kg/day) and spironolactone (50 mg/Kg/day) were administrated to the different groups of normotensive and hypertensive rats (at the end of 4 weeks treatment by DOCA-salt) for Five weeks. Then the effects of safranal on mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP) and heart rate (HR) were evaluated using tail cuff method. The duration of effect of safranal on SBP, was also evaluated. Our results indicated that chronic administration of safranal could reduce the MSBP in DOCA salt treated rats in a dose dependent manner. Safranal did not decrease the MSBP in normotensive rats. The data also showed that antihypertensive effects of safranal did not persist. In summary, our results showed that safranal exhibits antihypertensive and normalizing effect on BP in chronic administration. PMID:25901167

  11. SY 17-2 INFLAMMATION, IMMUNITY AND HYPERTENSION.

    PubMed

    Harrison, David

    2016-09-01

    Hypertension remains an enormous health care burden that affects one third of the population. Despite its prevalence the cause of most cases of hypertension remains unknown. Our laboratory has defined a novel mechanism for hypertension involving adaptive immunity. We found that mice lacking lymphocytes (RAG-1 mice) develop blunted hypertensive responses to a variety of stimuli including chronic angiotensin II infusion, DOCA-salt challenge and norepinephrine infusion. Adoptive transfer of T cells, but not B cells, restores the hypertensive responses to these stimuli. Hypertension is associated with the infiltration of T cells into the kidney and vasculature, where they release cytokines, including IFN-g, IL-17A, and TNFa, which promote sodium retention, vasoconstriction and oxidative injury. Recently, we have found that angiotensin II has striking effects on dendritic cells (DCs), promoting their propensity to activate T cells. Our data indicate that angiotensin II infusion increases DC superoxide production by 5-fold and causes a striking accumulation isoketals, oxidized products of arachidonic acid in these cells. These form covalent bonds to lysines of proteins and these modified proteins become immunogenic. Several isoketal scavengers, including 2-hydroxybenzylamine (2-HOBA) prevent DC activation, the ability of DCs to stimulate T cell proliferation and prevent hypertension. This is most prevalent in monocyte-derived DCs that are CD11c/CD11b/MHCII positive. The precise mechanism for formation of these cells is under investigation. A major impetus for immune cell activation seems to be increased sympathetic outflow, stimulated by the central actions of angiotensin II. By lesioning the AV3 V region of the forebrain of mice or inactivating the NADPH oxidase in the subfornical organ using Cre Lox technology, we have prevented the central actions of angiotensin II and found that this inhibits both T cell activation and hypertension. Renal denervation likewise

  12. SY 17-2 INFLAMMATION, IMMUNITY AND HYPERTENSION.

    PubMed

    Harrison, David

    2016-09-01

    Hypertension remains an enormous health care burden that affects one third of the population. Despite its prevalence the cause of most cases of hypertension remains unknown. Our laboratory has defined a novel mechanism for hypertension involving adaptive immunity. We found that mice lacking lymphocytes (RAG-1 mice) develop blunted hypertensive responses to a variety of stimuli including chronic angiotensin II infusion, DOCA-salt challenge and norepinephrine infusion. Adoptive transfer of T cells, but not B cells, restores the hypertensive responses to these stimuli. Hypertension is associated with the infiltration of T cells into the kidney and vasculature, where they release cytokines, including IFN-g, IL-17A, and TNFa, which promote sodium retention, vasoconstriction and oxidative injury. Recently, we have found that angiotensin II has striking effects on dendritic cells (DCs), promoting their propensity to activate T cells. Our data indicate that angiotensin II infusion increases DC superoxide production by 5-fold and causes a striking accumulation isoketals, oxidized products of arachidonic acid in these cells. These form covalent bonds to lysines of proteins and these modified proteins become immunogenic. Several isoketal scavengers, including 2-hydroxybenzylamine (2-HOBA) prevent DC activation, the ability of DCs to stimulate T cell proliferation and prevent hypertension. This is most prevalent in monocyte-derived DCs that are CD11c/CD11b/MHCII positive. The precise mechanism for formation of these cells is under investigation. A major impetus for immune cell activation seems to be increased sympathetic outflow, stimulated by the central actions of angiotensin II. By lesioning the AV3 V region of the forebrain of mice or inactivating the NADPH oxidase in the subfornical organ using Cre Lox technology, we have prevented the central actions of angiotensin II and found that this inhibits both T cell activation and hypertension. Renal denervation likewise

  13. [The comparative evaluation of the efficacy of tocopherol acetate in the combined treatment of patients with hypertension and diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, N S; Abulela, A M; Neskromnyĭ, V N

    1994-01-01

    Time course was studied of indices for lipid peroxidation (LPO) and total lipids count in erythrocytic membranes (EM) and blood plasma (BP) of patients with essential hypertension (EH) associated with diabetes mellitus (DM), under the effect of alpha-tocopherol. EH patients demonstrated intensification of LPO in cellular membranes and BP. Association of EH with DM is responsible for a more significant increase of the levels of accumulation of LPO products in EM and rise in total lipids content both in cellular membranes and BP. The use of alpha-tocopheroli acetas in combination therapy of both EH- and EH+ DM patients promoted normalization of LPO processes in EM and reduction of BP content of the LPO products.

  14. Antihypertensive effect of auraptene, a monoterpene coumarin from the genus Citrus, upon chronic administration

    PubMed Central

    Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Arasteh, Ebrahim; Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Auraptene, a monoterpene coumarin from Citrus species, exhibits cardioprotective effects. In this study, the effects of auraptene administration were investigated on blood pressure of normotensive and desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) salt induced hypertensive rats. Materials and Methods: Five weeks administration of auraptene (2, 4, 8 and 16 mg/kg/day) and nifedipine (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/kg/day) in different groups of normotensive and hypertensive rats (at the end of 3 weeks treatment by DOCA salt) was carried out and their effects on mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP) and mean heart rate (MHR) were evaluated using tail cuff method. Results: Our results indicated that chronic administration of auraptene (2, 4, 8 and 16 mg/kg/day) significantly reduced the MSBP in DOCA salt treated rats in a dose and time dependent manner. The percent of decreases in MSBP levels by the highest dose of auraptene (16 mg/kg) at the end of 4 th to 8 th weeks, were 7.00%, 10.78%, 16.07%, 21.28% and 27.54% respectively (P<0.001). Moreover the antihypertensive effect of auraptene was less than nifedipine (ED50 value of nifedipine = 0.7 mg/kg at 8th week and ED50 value of auraptene = 5.64 mg/kg at 8 week). Conclusion: Auraptene considerably reduced MSBP in hypertensive rats, but not in normotensive (normal saline treated) rats. The results of MHR measurement showed that the increase in MHR was not significant in comparison with DOCA treated rats. PMID:25810889

  15. Ocular Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Ocular Hypertension Sections What Is Ocular Hypertension? Ocular Hypertension Causes ... Hypertension Diagnosis Ocular Hypertension Treatment What Is Ocular Hypertension? Written by: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed by: J Kevin ...

  16. Mesoxalaldehyde acetals

    SciTech Connect

    Gordeeva, G.N.; Kalashnikov, S.M.; Popov, Yu.N.; Kruglov, E.A.; Imashev, U.B.

    1987-11-10

    The treatment of methylglyoxal acetals by alkyl nitrites in the presence of the corresponding aliphatic alcohols and hydrochloric acid leads to the formation of linear mesoxalaldehyde acetals, whose structure was established by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The major pathways for the decomposition of these molecules upon electron impact were established.

  17. Excretion of artifactual endogenous digitalis-like factors

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, R.A.

    1986-07-01

    Radioimmunoassays have been used to detect digoxin-like immunoreactive factors (DLF) in the plasma and urine of hypertensive patients and rats with deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertension. DLF, partially purified from DOCA-HS urine by antidigoxin antibody immunoaffinity chromatography, was found to have a molecular weight <2000. When DOCA-HS rats were switched to the low-sodium chow, DLF excretion dropped precipitously. No measurable DLF was detected in the plasma of rats eating either chow. However, >95% of the urinary DLF could be attributed to a contaminant in the standard laboratory chow. These data document the importance of excluding nonspecific compounds and exogenous sources of DLF when sensitive radioligand and biologic assays are used to detect endogenous inhibitors of the sodium pump.

  18. Evaluation of polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03) for antihypertensive activity in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Ghelani, Hardik S.; Patel, Bipin M.; Gokani, Rina H.; Rachchh, Manish A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypertension is an incurable pathological condition and lifelong therapy is required. Long term use of conventional synthetic anti-hypertensive drugs is associated with a spectrum of toxic effects. However, therapeutic interventions using herbal drugs for hypertension have gained considerable attention worldwide. Aim: To evaluate the anti-hypertensive activity of polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03). Materials and Methods: The polyherbal formulation (SJT-HT-03) comprises of leaves of Aegle marmelos L., fruits of Benincasa hispida Thunb., Garcinia indica Thouars, and flowers of Musa paradiasica L., Rosa indica L., Hibiscus rosa sinensis L. Selected plants as mentioned above were collected, dried and extracted with different solvents. Formulation SJT-HT-03 (250 mg/kg, p.o.), was evaluated using two kidney one clip (2K1C) model and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt-induced hypertension model using the enalapril (10 mg/kg, p.o.) and hydrochlorothiazide (5 mg/kg, p.o.) as a reference standard drug in respective models. Results: SJT-HT-03 significantly reduced (P < 0.001, one-way analysis of variance followed by Turkey's multiple comparison tests) systolic as well as diastolic blood pressure (BP) in 2K1C and DOCA-salt model. Further, SJT-HT-03 has shown a significant reduction (P < 0.01) in angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity in serum, clipped kidney as well as in lungs in 2K1C model, whereas significant reduction (P < 0.05) in serum Na+ and increase in serum K+ level in DOCA model. Conclusion: Polyherbal formulation SJT-HT-03 possess significant anti-hypertensive activity by producing direct depressant effect on heart, inhibition of ACE, aldosterone antagonistic as well as diuretic effect and thereby act on multiple targets to achieve optimal effect. PMID:26195912

  19. Hypertension and hypertensive encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Price, Raymond S; Kasner, Scott E

    2014-01-01

    The definition of hypertension has continuously evolved over the last 50 years. Hypertension is currently defined as a blood pressure greater than 140/90mmHg. One in every four people in the US has been diagnosed with hypertension. The prevalence of hypertension increases further with age, affecting 75% of people over the age of 70. Hypertension is by far the most common risk factor identified in stroke patients. Hypertension causes pathologic changes in the walls of small (diameter<300 microns) arteries and arterioles usually at short branches of major arteries, which may result in either ischemic stroke or intracerebral hemorrhage. Reduction of blood pressure with diuretics, β-blockers, calcium channel blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors have all been shown to markedly reduce the incidence of stroke. Hypertensive emergency is defined as a blood pressure greater than 180/120mmHg with end organ dysfunction, such as chest pain, shortness of breath, encephalopathy, or focal neurologic deficits. Hypertensive encephalopathy is believed to be caused by acute failure of cerebrovascular autoregulation. Hypertensive emergency is treated with intravenous antihypertensive agents to reduce blood pressure by 25% within the first hour. Selective inhibition of cerebrovascular blood vessel permeability for the treatment of hypertensive emergency is beginning early clinical trials.

  20. Ethyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl acetate ; CASRN 141 - 78 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  1. Phenylmercuric acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phenylmercuric acetate ; CASRN 62 - 38 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  2. Vinyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Vinyl acetate ; CASRN 108 - 05 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  3. Ammonium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium acetate ; CASRN 631 - 61 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  4. Thallium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 30 , 2009 , the assessment summary for Thallium acetate is included in t

  5. Portal Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Chronic Hepatitis C Additional Content Medical News Portal Hypertension By Steven K. Herrine, MD NOTE: This is ... Hepatic Encephalopathy Jaundice in Adults Liver Failure Portal Hypertension Portal hypertension is abnormally high blood pressure in ...

  6. [Secondary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Yuichi; Shibata, Hirotaka

    2015-11-01

    Hypertension is a common disease and a crucial predisposing factor of cardiovascular diseases. Approximately 10% of hypertensive patients are secondary hypertension, a pathogenetic factor of which can be identified. Secondary hypertension consists of endocrine, renal, and other diseases. Primary aldosteronism, Cushing's syndrome, pheochromocytoma, hyperthyroidism, and hypothyroidism result in endocrine hypertension. Renal parenchymal hypertension and renovascular hypertension result in renal hypertension. Other diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea syndrome are also very prevalent in secondary hypertension. It is very crucial to find and treat secondary hypertension at earlier stages since most secondary hypertension is curable or can be dramatically improved by specific treatment. One should keep in mind that screening of secondary hypertension should be done at least once in a daily clinical practice. PMID:26619670

  7. Hypertension - overview

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    If left untreated, hypertension can lead to the thickening of arterial walls causing its lumen, or blood passage way, to narrow in diameter. ... the narrowed arterial openings. In addition, people with hypertension may be more susceptible to stroke.

  8. Malignant hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... NY: McGraw Hill; 2008:chap 280. Linas SL. Hypertensive crisis: emergency and urgency. In: Vincent J-L, Abraham ... Saunders; 2011:chap 88. Shayne P, Lynch CA. Hypertensive crisis. In: Adams JG, ed. Emergency Medicine: Clinical Essentials . ...

  9. [Childhood hypertension].

    PubMed

    Takemura, Tsukasa

    2015-11-01

    For accurate diagnosis of childhood hypertension, selection of appropriate manchette size according to the child age and the circumstantial size of upper limb is essentially important. In addition, except for the emergency case of hypertension, repeated measurement of blood pressure would be desirable in several weeks interval. Recently, childhood hypertension might be closely related to the abnormality of maternal gestational period caused by the strict diet and the maternal smoking. Developmental Origins of Health and Disease(DOHaD) theory is now highlighted in the pathogenesis of adulthood hypertension. To prevent hypertension of small-for-date baby in later phase of life, maternal education for child nursing should be conducted. In children, secondary hypertension caused by renal, endocrinologic, or malignant disease is predominant rather than idiopathic hypertension. PMID:26619664

  10. Resistant Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Doroszko, Adrian; Janus, Agnieszka; Szahidewicz-Krupska, Ewa; Mazur, Grzegorz; Derkacz, Arkadiusz

    2016-01-01

    Resistant hypertension is a severe medical condition which is estimated to appear in 9-18% of hypertensive patients. Due to higher cardiovascular risk, this disorder requires special diagnosis and treatment. The heterogeneous etiology, risk factors and comorbidities of resistant hypertension stand in need of sophisticated evaluation to confirm the diagnosis and select the best therapeutic options, which should consider lifestyle modifications as well as pharmacological and interventional treatment. After having excluded pseudohypertension, inappropriate blood pressure measurement and control as well as the white coat effect, suspicion of resistant hypertension requires an analysis of drugs which the hypertensive patient is treated with. According to one definition - ineffective treatment with 3 or more antihypertensive drugs including diuretics makes it possible to diagnose resistant hypertension. A multidrug therapy including angiotensin - converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, diuretics, long-acting calcium channel blockers and mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists has been demonstrated to be effective in resistant hypertension treatment. Nevertheless, optional, innovative therapies, e.g. a renal denervation or baroreflex activation, may create a novel pathway of blood pressure lowering procedures. The right diagnosis of this disease needs to eliminate the secondary causes of resistant hypertension e.g. obstructive sleep apnea, atherosclerosis and renal or hormonal disorders. This paper briefly summarizes the identification of the causes of resistant hypertension and therapeutic strategies, which may contribute to the proper diagnosis and an improvement of the long term management of resistant hypertension.

  11. [Endocrine hypertension].

    PubMed

    Takeda, R

    1993-03-01

    Endocrine Hypertension, is, in a narrow sense, defined as adrenal hypertension, including mainly pheochromocytoma, Cushing's syndrome, a syndrome of primary aldosteronism and it's related mineralocorticoid excess disorders. In memory of a great contribution to hypertensiology by the late Prof. Murakami, who was the first author to write on pheochromocytoma in Japan, this paper is dedicated to reviewing the current status of adrenal hypertension in Japan from the epidemiological viewpoint, putting emphasis upon the clinical characteristics of aged patients with adrenal hypertension. Secondly, some topics in the research field of each adrenal hypertension are briefly introduced. Thirdly, our recent data are presented, showing 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11 beta-HSD) mRNA expression in resistance vessels and decreased 11 beta-HSD activities in vessels in SHR which supports the hypothesis that there might exist a subtype identified as partial impairment of 11 beta-HSD in patients with essential hypertension. PMID:8331819

  12. Mineralocorticoid hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Vishal

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension affects about 10 – 25% of the population and is an important risk factor for cardiovascular and renal disease. The renin-angiotensin system is frequently implicated in the pathophysiology of hypertension, be it primary or secondary. The prevalence of primary aldosteronism increases with the severity of hypertension, from 2% in patients with grade 1 hypertension to 20% among resistant hypertensives. Mineralcorticoid hypertension includes a spectrum of disorders ranging from renin-producing pathologies (renin-secreting tumors, malignant hypertension, coarctation of aorta), aldosterone-producing pathologies (primary aldosteronism – Conns syndrome, familial hyperaldosteronism 1, 2, and 3), non-aldosterone mineralocorticoid producing pathologies (apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome, Liddle syndrome, deoxycorticosterone-secreting tumors, ectopic adrenocorticotropic hormones (ACTH) syndrome, congenitalvadrenal hyperplasia), and drugs with mineraocorticoid activity (locorice, carbenoxole therapy) to glucocorticoid receptor resistance syndromes. Clinical presentation includes hypertension with varying severity, hypokalemia, and alkalosis. Ratio of plasma aldosterone concentraion to plasma renin activity remains the best screening tool. Bilateral adrenal venous sampling is the best diagnostic test coupled with a CT scan. Treatment is either surgical (adrenelectomy) for unilateral adrenal disease versus medical therapy for idiopathic, ambiguous, or bilateral disease. Medical therapy focuses on blood pressure control and correction of hypokalemia using a combination of anti-hypertensives (calcium channel blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, or angiotensin receptor blockers) and potassium-raising therapies (mineralcorticoid receptor antagonist or potassium sparing diuretics). Direct aldosterone synthetase antagonists represent a promising future therapy. PMID:22145132

  13. Hypertensive emergencies.

    PubMed

    Feitosa-Filho, Gilson Soares; Lopes, Renato Delascio; Poppi, Nilson Tavares; Guimarães, Hélio Penna

    2008-09-01

    Emergencies and hypertensive crises are clinical situations which may represent more than 25% of all medical emergency care. Considering such high prevalence, physicians should be prepared to correctly identify these crises and differentiate between urgent and emergent hypertension. Approximately 3% of all visits to emergency rooms are due to significant elevation of blood pressure. Across the spectrum of blood systemic arterial pressure, hypertensive emergency is the most critical clinical situation, thus requiring special attention and care. Such patients present with high blood pressure and signs of acute specific target organ damage (such as acute myocardial infarction, unstable angina, acute pulmonary edema, eclampsia, and stroke). Key elements of diagnosis and specific treatment for the different presentations of hypertensive emergency will be reviewed in this article. The MedLine and PubMed databases were searched for pertinent abstracts, using the key words "hypertensive crises" and "hypertensive emergencies". Additional references were obtained from review articles. Available English language clinical trials, retrospective studies and review articles were identified, reviewed and summarized in a simple and practical way. The hypertensive crisis is a clinical situation characterized by acute elevation of blood pressure followed by clinical signs and symptoms. These signs and symptoms may be mild (headache, dizziness, tinnitus) or severe (dyspnea, chest pain, coma or death). If the patient presents with mild symptoms, but without acute specific target organ damage, diagnosis is hypertensive urgency. However, if severe signs and symptoms and acute specific target organ damage are present, then the patient is experiencing a hypertensive emergency. Some patients arrive at the emergency rooms with high blood pressure, but without any other sign or symptom. In these cases, they usually are not taking their medications correctly. Therefore, this is not a

  14. Hypertensive Vasculopathy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jeong Bae

    2014-01-01

    An exclusive interview by Prof. Jeong Bae Park conducted with Dr. Rhian M. Touyz in Seoul while she was visiting for the Korean Society of Hypertension, May 10, 2014. In this interview, Dr. Touyz explains and describes hypertensive vasculopathy. PMID:26587442

  15. [Resistant hypertension].

    PubMed

    Feldstein, Carlos A

    2008-04-01

    Resistant hypertension, defined as a persistent blood pressure over 140/90 mmHg despite the use of three antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic, is unusual. The diagnosis requires ruling out initially pseudoresistance and a lack of compliance with treatment. Ambulatory blood pressure recording allow the recognition of white coat hypertension. When there is a clinical or laboratory suspicion, secondary causes of hypertension should be discarded. Excessive salt intake, the presence of concomitant diseases such as diabetes mellitus, chronic renal disease, obesity, and psychiatric conditions such as panic attacks, anxiety and depression, should also be sought. The presence of target organ damage requires a more aggressive treatment of hypertension. Recent clinical studies indicate that the administration of aldosterone antagonists as a fourth therapeutic line provides significant additional blood pressure reduction, when added to previous antihypertensive regimens in subjects with resistant hypertension. The possible blood pressure lowering effects of prolonged electrical activation of carotid baroreceptors is under investigation. PMID:18769797

  16. [Resistant hypertension].

    PubMed

    Feldstein, Carlos A

    2008-04-01

    Resistant hypertension, defined as a persistent blood pressure over 140/90 mmHg despite the use of three antihypertensive drugs including a diuretic, is unusual. The diagnosis requires ruling out initially pseudoresistance and a lack of compliance with treatment. Ambulatory blood pressure recording allow the recognition of white coat hypertension. When there is a clinical or laboratory suspicion, secondary causes of hypertension should be discarded. Excessive salt intake, the presence of concomitant diseases such as diabetes mellitus, chronic renal disease, obesity, and psychiatric conditions such as panic attacks, anxiety and depression, should also be sought. The presence of target organ damage requires a more aggressive treatment of hypertension. Recent clinical studies indicate that the administration of aldosterone antagonists as a fourth therapeutic line provides significant additional blood pressure reduction, when added to previous antihypertensive regimens in subjects with resistant hypertension. The possible blood pressure lowering effects of prolonged electrical activation of carotid baroreceptors is under investigation.

  17. Evaluation of the long-lasting antihypertensive action of 7-O-ethylfangchinoline.

    PubMed

    Kato, T; Noguchi, K; Sakanashi, M

    1994-09-01

    The antihypertensive effect of 7-O-ethylfangchinoline (TJN-220) was analyzed in an experimental model of hypertensive rats under the conscious condition. Single oral administration of TJN-220 (25 and 50 mg/kg) produced a progressive and long-lasting fall of mean blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt hypertensive rats and renal hypertensive rats until 72 hr after the drug administration, but affected neither the heart rate in these hypertensive rats nor the hemodynamic parameters in normotensive rats. In SHRs implanted with a telemetry transmitter, TJN-220 (50 mg/kg, p.o.) produced falls of systolic and diastolic blood pressures and diminished the difference in blood pressure between the dark period and the light period for 3 days, particularly by suppressing the increasing phase of blood pressure during the dark period without influencing heart rate or locomotor activity. On the other hand, nicardipine (10 mg/kg, p.o.) produced a transient fall of blood pressure associated with a tachycardia during the light period on the first day alone. Clonidine (0.3 mg/kg, p.o.) diminished the increasing phases of blood pressure and heart rate during the dark period on the first day alone. Thus, the antihypertensive action of TJN-220 was much longer than those of nicardipine and clonidine. The present results suggest that TJN-220 may have potential for use as a beneficial antihypertensive drug. PMID:7861666

  18. Hypertension screening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foulke, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    An attempt was made to measure the response to an announcement of hypertension screening at the Goddard Space Center, to compare the results to those of previous statistics. Education and patient awareness of the problem were stressed.

  19. Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is high blood pressure in the arteries to your lungs. It is a serious condition. If you have ... and you can develop heart failure. Symptoms of PH include Shortness of breath during routine activity, such ...

  20. [Hypertensive retinopathy].

    PubMed

    Genevois, Olivier; Paques, Michel

    2010-01-20

    Acute hypertensive retinopathy should be distinguished from retinal arteriolosclerosis. The presence of microvascular abnormalities in the ocular fundus increases the risk of heart and/or brain attack. At the clinical level, the current classification of chronic hypertensive retinopathy is based on the long-term risk of stroke. In research, a great number of studies are focused on the predictive value of retinal vascular diameters related to the general micro- and macrovascular disease. PMID:20222306

  1. [Hypertensive retinopathy].

    PubMed

    Genevois, Olivier; Paques, Michel

    2010-01-20

    Acute hypertensive retinopathy should be distinguished from retinal arteriolosclerosis. The presence of microvascular abnormalities in the ocular fundus increases the risk of heart and/or brain attack. At the clinical level, the current classification of chronic hypertensive retinopathy is based on the long-term risk of stroke. In research, a great number of studies are focused on the predictive value of retinal vascular diameters related to the general micro- and macrovascular disease.

  2. Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Newman, John H.

    2005-01-01

    The modern era in cardiopulmonary medicine began in the 1940s, when Cournand and Richards pioneered right-heart catheterization. Until that time, no direct measurement of central vascular pressure had been performed in humans. Right-heart catheterization ignited an explosion of insights into function and dysfunction of the pulmonary circulation, cardiac performance, ventilation–perfusion relationships, lung–heart interactions, valvular function, and congenital heart disease. It marked the beginnings of angiocardiography with its diagnostic implications for diseases of the left heart and peripheral circulation. Pulmonary hypertension was discovered to be the consequence of a large variety of diseases that either raised pressure downstream of the pulmonary capillaries, induced vasoconstriction, increased blood flow to the lung, or obstructed the pulmonary vessels, either by embolism or in situ fibrosis. Hypoxic vasoconstriction was found to be a major cause of acute and chronic pulmonary hypertension, and surprising vasoreactivity of the pulmonary vascular bed was discovered to be present in many cases of severe pulmonary hypertension, initially in mitral stenosis. Diseases as disparate as scleroderma, cystic fibrosis, kyphoscoliosis, sleep apnea, and sickle cell disease were found to have shared consequences in the pulmonary circulation. Some of the achievements of Cournand and Richards and their scientific descendents are discussed in this article, including success in the diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension, and management of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension. PMID:15994464

  3. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, Gerald Charles; Zoeller, Joseph Robert; Depew, Leslie Sharon

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  4. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-03-24

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  5. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. Types of Pulmonary Hypertension The World Health Organization divides pulmonary hypertension (PH) ... are called pulmonary hypertension.) Group 1 Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Group 1 PAH includes: PAH that has no ...

  6. Portopulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lv, Yong; Han, Guohong; Fan, Daiming

    2016-07-01

    Portopulmonary hypertension (PoPH) refers to the condition that pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) occur in the stetting of portal hypertension. The development of PoPH is thought to be independent of the severity of portal hypertension or the etiology or severity of liver disease. PoPH results from excessive vasoconstriction, vascular remodeling, and proliferative and thrombotic events within the pulmonary circulation that lead to progressive right ventricular failure and ultimately to death. Untreated PoPH is associated with a poor prognosis. As PoPH is frequently asymptomatic or symptoms are generally non-specific, patients should be actively screened for the presence of PoPH. Two-dimensional transthoracic echocardiography is a useful non-invasive screening tool, but a definitive diagnosis requires invasive hemodynamic confirmation by right heart catheterization. Despite a dearth of randomized, prospective data, an ever-expanding clinical experience shows that patients with PoPH benefit from therapy with PAH-specific medications including with endothelin receptor antagonists, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, and/or prostanoids. Due to high perioperative mortality, transplantation should be avoided in those patients who have severe PoPH that is refractory to medical therapy. PMID:27002212

  7. Hypertensive leucocytosis.

    PubMed

    Rajkumari, Rolinda; Laishram, Deben; Thiyam, Joshna; Javan, Ng

    2013-04-01

    There are studies showing association of high WBC count with the higher incidence of hypertension though a few are done in the Indian population. The present study was conducted with the view to find any significant increase in total leucocyte count and differential leucocyte count in hypertensive patient Twenty-seven hypertensives with 12 males and 15 females and 27 age and sex matched control subjects (normotensive) were studied. Hypertension was defined when the systolic BP > or = 140 mmHg or diastolic BP > or = 90 mmHg or history of taking antihypertensive medicine. Three blood pressure recordings at an interval of 2 minutes were taken after the patient was made to sit for 30 minutes with a standard mercury sphygmomanometer in the left arm. The disappearance of sound was used for diastolic blood pressure. Blood was drawn into EDTA containing vials. Two separate counts were performed: First for total leucocyte count (TLC) and second for determination of percentage of polymorphonuclear cells. For the TLC, 0.5 part of blood mixed with 10 part of Turk's fluid followed by counting of leucocyte in a counting chamber under light microscope. The percentage of polymorphonuclear leucocyte was performed on a slide after making the slide and staining it with Leishman's stain. The erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) was performed using Wintrobe's methods. The first 1 hour reading on the Wintrobe's tube was taken for analysis. The total leucocyte count (TLC) for the study group as compared to the controls were 7413.70 +/- 735.45 cells/cmm and 5236.30 +/- 528.77 cells/ cmm which was statistically significant. The mean percentage neutrophils were 62.04 +/- 4.99 for study group and 53.00 +/- 3.44 for the controls; the mean percentage lymphocytes for the study group and the controls were 34.37 +/- 4.55 and 39.11 +/- 4.40 respectively. Both the mean percentage neutrophils and lymphocytes showed significant differences. The mean erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) also showed

  8. Gut dysbiosis is linked to hypertension.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tao; Santisteban, Monica M; Rodriguez, Vermali; Li, Eric; Ahmari, Niousha; Carvajal, Jessica Marulanda; Zadeh, Mojgan; Gong, Minghao; Qi, Yanfei; Zubcevic, Jasenka; Sahay, Bikash; Pepine, Carl J; Raizada, Mohan K; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

    2015-06-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that gut microbiota is critical in the maintenance of physiological homeostasis. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that dysbiosis in gut microbiota is associated with hypertension because genetic, environmental, and dietary factors profoundly influence both gut microbiota and blood pressure. Bacterial DNA from fecal samples of 2 rat models of hypertension and a small cohort of patients was used for bacterial genomic analysis. We observed a significant decrease in microbial richness, diversity, and evenness in the spontaneously hypertensive rat, in addition to an increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. These changes were accompanied by decreases in acetate- and butyrate-producing bacteria. In addition, the microbiota of a small cohort of human hypertensive patients was found to follow a similar dysbiotic pattern, as it was less rich and diverse than that of control subjects. Similar changes in gut microbiota were observed in the chronic angiotensin II infusion rat model, most notably decreased microbial richness and an increased Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. In this model, we evaluated the efficacy of oral minocycline in restoring gut microbiota. In addition to attenuating high blood pressure, minocycline was able to rebalance the dysbiotic hypertension gut microbiota by reducing the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. These observations demonstrate that high blood pressure is associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis, both in animal and human hypertension. They suggest that dietary intervention to correct gut microbiota could be an innovative nutritional therapeutic strategy for hypertension.

  9. GUT MICROBIOTA DYSBIOSIS IS LINKED TO HYPERTENSION

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tao; Santisteban, Monica M.; Rodriguez, Vermali; Li, Eric; Ahmari, Niousha; Carvajal, Jessica Marulanda; Zadeh, Mojgan; Gong, Minghao; Qi, Yanfei; Zubcevic, Jasenka; Sahay, Bikash; Pepine, Carl J.; Raizada, Mohan K.; Mohamadzadeh, Mansour

    2015-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that gut microbiota is critical in the maintenance of physiological homeostasis. The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that dysbiosis in gut microbiota is associated with hypertension since genetic, environmental, and dietary factors profoundly influence both gut microbiota and blood pressure. Bacterial DNA from fecal samples of two rat models of hypertension and a small cohort of patients was used for bacterial genomic analysis. We observed a significant decrease in microbial richness, diversity, and evenness in the spontaneously hypertensive rat, in addition to an increased Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio. These changes were accompanied with decreases in acetate- and butyrate-producing bacteria. Additionally, the microbiota of a small cohort of human hypertension patients was found to follow a similar dysbiotic pattern, as it was less rich and diverse than that of control subjects. Similar changes in gut microbiota were observed in the chronic angiotensin II infusion rat model, most notably decreased microbial richness and an increased Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio. In this model, we evaluated the efficacy of oral minocycline in restoring gut microbiota. In addition to attenuating high blood pressure, minocycline was able to rebalance the dysbiotic hypertension gut microbiota by reducing the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio. These observations demonstrate that high BP is associated with gut microbiota dysbiosis, both in animal and human hypertension. They suggest that dietary intervention to correct gut microbiota could be an innovative nutritional therapeutic strategy for hypertension. PMID:25870193

  10. Methane from acetate.

    PubMed

    Ferry, J G

    1992-09-01

    The general features are known for the pathway by which most methane is produced in nature. All acetate-utilizing methanogenic microorganisms contain CODH which catalyzes the cleavage of acetyl-CoA; however, the pathway differs from all other acetate-utilizing anaerobes in that the methyl group is reduced to methane with electrons derived from oxidation of the carbonyl group of acetyl-CoA to CO2. The current understanding of the methanogenic fermentation of acetate provides impressions of nature's novel solutions to problems of methyl transfer, electron transport, and energy conservation. The pathway is now at a level of understanding that will permit productive investigations of these and other interesting questions in the near future. PMID:1512186

  11. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... What Is Pulmonary Hypertension? To understand pulmonary hypertension (PH) it helps to understand how blood ows throughout ... is too high, it is called pulmonary hypertension (PH). How the pressure in the right side of ...

  12. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Causes Pulmonary Hypertension? Pulmonary hypertension (PH) begins with inflammation and changes in the ... different types of PH. Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) may have no known cause, or the ...

  13. Hormones and Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Hormones and Hypertension What is hypertension? Hypertension, or chronic (long-term) high blood pressure, is a main cause of ... tobacco, alcohol, and certain medications play a part. Hormones made in the kidneys and in blood vessels ...

  14. Cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies.

    PubMed

    Papadopoulos, D P; Sanidas, E A; Viniou, N A; Gennimata, V; Chantziara, V; Barbetseas, I; Makris, T K

    2015-02-01

    Inevitably, a small proportion of patients with systematic hypertension will develop hypertensive crisis at some point. Hypertensive crises can be divided into hypertensive emergency or hypertensive urgency according to the presence or lack of acute target organ damage. In this review, we discuss cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies, including acute coronary syndrome, aortic dissection, congestive heart failure, and sympathomimetic hypertensive crises, including those caused by cocaine use. Each presents in a unique fashion, although some hypertensive emergency patients report nonspecific symptoms. Treatment includes several effective and rapid-acting medications to safely reduce the blood pressure, protect remaining end-organ function, relieve symptoms, minimize the risk of complications, and thereby improve patient outcomes.

  15. Essential Hypertension vs. Secondary Hypertension Among Children

    PubMed Central

    Banker, Ashish; Shete, Sanjay; Hashmi, Syed Sharukh; Tyson, John E.; Barratt, Michelle S.; Hecht, Jacqueline T.; Milewicz, Diane M.; Boerwinkle, Eric

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND The aim was to determine the proportions and correlates of essential hypertension among children in a tertiary pediatric hypertension clinic. METHODS We evaluated 423 consecutive children and collected demographic and clinical history by retrospective chart review. RESULTS We identified 275 (65%) hypertensive children (blood pressure >95th percentile per the “Fourth Report on the Diagnosis, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure in Children and Adolescents”) from 423 children referred to the clinic for history of elevated blood pressure. The remainder of the patients had normotension (11%), white coat hypertension (11%), prehypertension (10%), and pending diagnosis (3%). Among the 275 hypertensive children, 43% (n = 119; boys = 56%; median age = 12 years; range = 3–17 years) had essential hypertension and 57% (n = 156; boys = 66%; median age = 9 years; range = 0.08–19 years) had secondary hypertension. When compared with those with secondary hypertension, those with essential hypertension had a significantly older age at diagnosis (P = 0.0002), stronger family history of hypertension (94% vs. 68%; P < 0.0001), and lower prevalence of preterm birth (20% vs. 46%; P < 0.001). There was a bimodal distribution of age of diagnosis in those with secondary hypertension. CONCLUSIONS The phenotype of essential hypertension can present as early as 3 years of age and is the predominant form of hypertension in children after age of 6 years. Among children with hypertension, those with essential hypertension present at an older age, have a stronger family history of hypertension, and have lower prevalence of preterm birth. PMID:24842390

  16. Acetate Production by Methanogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Westermann, Peter; Ahring, Birgitte K.; Mah, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Methanosarcina barkeri MS and 227 and Methanosarcina mazei S-6 produced acetate when grown on H2-CO2, methanol, or trimethylamine. Marked differences in acetate production by the two bacterial species were found, even though methane and cell yields were nearly the same. M. barkeri produced 30 to 75 μmol of acetate per mmol of CH4 formed, but M. mazei produced only 8 to 9 μmol of acetate per mmol of CH4. PMID:16348006

  17. Acetate dependence of tumors.

    PubMed

    Comerford, Sarah A; Huang, Zhiguang; Du, Xinlin; Wang, Yun; Cai, Ling; Witkiewicz, Agnes K; Walters, Holly; Tantawy, Mohammed N; Fu, Allie; Manning, H Charles; Horton, Jay D; Hammer, Robert E; McKnight, Steven L; Tu, Benjamin P

    2014-12-18

    Acetyl-CoA represents a central node of carbon metabolism that plays a key role in bioenergetics, cell proliferation, and the regulation of gene expression. Highly glycolytic or hypoxic tumors must produce sufficient quantities of this metabolite to support cell growth and survival under nutrient-limiting conditions. Here, we show that the nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA synthetase enzyme, ACSS2, supplies a key source of acetyl-CoA for tumors by capturing acetate as a carbon source. Despite exhibiting no gross deficits in growth or development, adult mice lacking ACSS2 exhibit a significant reduction in tumor burden in two different models of hepatocellular carcinoma. ACSS2 is expressed in a large proportion of human tumors, and its activity is responsible for the majority of cellular acetate uptake into both lipids and histones. These observations may qualify ACSS2 as a targetable metabolic vulnerability of a wide spectrum of tumors.

  18. Hypertensive Emergencies in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Olson-Chen, Courtney; Seligman, Neil S

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy is increasing. The etiology and pathophysiology of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy remain poorly understood. Hypertensive disorders are a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Treatment of hypertension decreases the incidence of severe hypertension, but it does not impact rates of preeclampsia or other pregnancy complications. Several antihypertensive medications are commonly used in pregnancy, although there is a lack of randomized controlled trials. Severe hypertension should be treated immediately to prevent maternal end-organ damage. Appropriate antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum management is important in caring for patients with hypertensive disorders. PMID:26600442

  19. Hypertensive Emergencies in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Olson-Chen, Courtney; Seligman, Neil S

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy is increasing. The etiology and pathophysiology of hypertensive disorders in pregnancy remain poorly understood. Hypertensive disorders are a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Treatment of hypertension decreases the incidence of severe hypertension, but it does not impact rates of preeclampsia or other pregnancy complications. Several antihypertensive medications are commonly used in pregnancy, although there is a lack of randomized controlled trials. Severe hypertension should be treated immediately to prevent maternal end-organ damage. Appropriate antepartum, intrapartum, and postpartum management is important in caring for patients with hypertensive disorders.

  20. [Hypertensive emergencies and urgencies].

    PubMed

    Phan, David Giang; Dreyfuss-Tubiana, Céline; Blacher, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is a common disease, the most common chronic disease. Hypertensive emergency is much less frequent and only affects 1 to 2 % of all hypertensive patients. The true hypertensive emergency is characterized by the serious damage of one hypertensive target organ and requires an urgent intravenous treatment. Isolated blood pressure elevation should not be regarded as a hypertensive emergency if there is no target organ damage, even if the blood pressure is very high. These situations of "false hypertensive emergency", or hypertensive urgencies, often requires an immediate treatment, but oral. Signs of visceral pain of true hypertensive emergency often are a poor general condition, severe headache, decreased visual acuity, neurological deficit of ischemic or hemorrhagic cause, confusion, dyspnea with orthopnoea revealing heart failure, angina, chest pain revealing an aortic dissection, proteinuria, acute renal failure or eclampsia. True hypertensive emergencies include several entities, namely: severe hypertension, malignant hypertension and accelerated hypertension. If malignant hypertension is not treated, the prognosis is poor with 50 % death risk in the following year.

  1. [Hypertension in the elderly].

    PubMed

    Handschin, Anja; Henny-Fullin, Katja; Buess, Daniel; Leuppi, Jörg; Dieterle, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    Arterial hypertension remains the most important risk factor for cardiovascular and renal diseases. In view of an increasing prevalence with older age and an increasingly aging population, the treatment of elderly patients with arterial hypertension will become increasingly important in daily practice. Arterial hypertension in the elderly differs in many aspects from arterial hypertension in younger patients. For example, isolated systolic hypertension is the predominant form of arterial hypertension in the elderly. In comparison to younger patients, treatment of hypertension in the elderly is less well investigated. However, available data suggest that lowering of blood pressure in the elderly and very elderly reduces the risk of heart failure, stroke, and even mortality. The best evidence for the treatment of hypertension in the elderly exists for diuretics and calcium antagonists. However, the primary choice of antihypertensive therapy should be guided by the presence of existing cardiovascular and/or renal comorbidities.

  2. Cirrhosis and Portal Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Cirrhosis and Portal Hypertension Overview What is cirrhosis? In people who have ... lead to coma and death. What is portal hypertension? Normally, blood is carried to the liver by ...

  3. [Hypertensive urgency and emergency].

    PubMed

    Henny-Fullin, Katja; Buess, Daniel; Handschin, Anja; Leuppi, Jörg; Dieterle, Thomas

    2015-06-01

    European and North-American guidelines for the diagnosis and therapy of arterial hypertension refer to hypertensive crisis as an acute and critical increase of blood pressure>180/120 mmHg. Presence of acute hypertensive target organ damage, such as stroke, myocardial infarction or heart failure, in this situation defines a “hypertensive emergency”. In these patients, immediate lowering of blood pressure (about 25% within one to two hours) in an intensive care setting is mandatory to prevent further progression of target organ damage. In contrast to hypertensive emergencies, hypertensive urgencies are characterized by an acute and critical increase in blood pressure without signs or symptoms of acute hypertensive target organ damage. In these patients, blood pressure should be lowered within 24 to 48 hours in order to avoid hypertensive target organ damage. In general, hospitalization is not required, and oral antihypertensive therapy usually is sufficient. However, further and continuing outpatient care has to be ensured.

  4. Depression in hypertensive subjects.

    PubMed

    Ramachandran, V; Parikh, G J; Srinivasan, V

    1983-10-01

    168 patients attending hypertension clinic were randomly selected for the study. They were thoroughly investigated using E.C.G., X-ray chest, Urine analysis, Blood sugar, Blood urea, Serum cholesterol, Serum K, Serum Na, Scrum creatinine and Uric acid level. Detailed psychiatric case history and mental examination was carried out. Beck Rating Scale was used to measure the depression. 25% of hypertensive subjects exhibited depressive features and their mean score in Beck Rating scale is 21.76. The mean score of non-depressives is 4.46. All patients were receiving methyl dopa.25 mg. twice or thrice daily with thiazide diuretic. No significant difference in the incidence of depression with the duration of medication was observed.The hypertension was classified into mild, moderate and severe depending on the diastolic pressure. Depression was more frequent in severe hypertensives but not to the statistically significant level.Further hypertensives were classified into:1. Hypertension without organ involvement2. Hypertension with LVH only3. Hypertension with additional organ involvement4. Malignant hypertensionDepression was significantly more frequent in hypertensives with complications and also hypertensives in whom the B.P. remained uncontrolled. As all the patients were on the same drug, the drug effect is common to all; hence, the higher incidence of depression in hypertensives with complications is due to the limitation and distress caused by the illness. PMID:21847301

  5. Quantum magnetic deflagration in acetate.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Mínguez, A; Hernandez, J M; Macià, F; García-Santiago, A; Tejada, J; Santos, P V

    2005-11-18

    We report controlled ignition of magnetization reversal avalanches by surface acoustic waves in a single crystal of acetate. Our data show that the speed of the avalanche exhibits maxima on the magnetic field at the tunneling resonances of Mn(12). Combined with the evidence of magnetic deflagration in Mn(12) acetate, this suggests a novel physical phenomenon: deflagration assisted by quantum tunneling. PMID:16384178

  6. Quantum magnetic deflagration in acetate.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Mínguez, A; Hernandez, J M; Macià, F; García-Santiago, A; Tejada, J; Santos, P V

    2005-11-18

    We report controlled ignition of magnetization reversal avalanches by surface acoustic waves in a single crystal of acetate. Our data show that the speed of the avalanche exhibits maxima on the magnetic field at the tunneling resonances of Mn(12). Combined with the evidence of magnetic deflagration in Mn(12) acetate, this suggests a novel physical phenomenon: deflagration assisted by quantum tunneling.

  7. Serial Measurements of Splanchnic Vein Diameters in Rats Using High-Frequency Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Seitz, Bridget M.; Krieger-Burke, Teresa; Fink, Gregory D.; Watts, Stephanie W.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate serial ultrasound imaging in rats as a fully non-invasive method to (1) quantify the diameters of splanchnic veins in real time as an indirect surrogate for the capacitance function of those veins, and (2) assess the effects of drugs on venous dimensions. A 21 MHz probe was used on anesthetized male Sprague–Dawley rats to collect images containing the portal vein (PV), superior mesenteric vein (SMV), abdominal inferior vena cava (IVC), and splenic vein (SpV; used as a landmark in timed studies) and the abdominal aorta (AA). Stable landmarks were established that allowed reproducible quantification of cross-sectional diameters within an animal. The average diameters of vessels measured every 5 min over 45 min remained within 0.75 ± 0.15% (PV), 0.2 ± 0.09% (SMV), 0.5 ± 0.12% (IVC), and 0.38 ± 0.06% (AA) of baseline (PV: 2.0 ± 0.12 mm; SMV: 1.7 ± 0.04 mm; IVC: 3.2 ± 0.1 mm; AA: 2.3 ± 0.14 mm). The maximal effects of the vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP; 2 mg/kg, i.v. bolus) on venous diameters were determined 5 min post SNP bolus; the diameters of all noted veins were significantly increased by SNP, while mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased 29 ± 4 mmHg. By contrast, administration of the venoconstrictor sarafotoxin (S6c; 5 ng/kg, i.v. bolus) significantly decreased PV and SpV, but not IVC, SMV, or AA, diameters 5 min post S6c bolus; MAP increased by 6 ± 2 mmHg. In order to determine if resting splanchnic vein diameters were stable over much longer periods of time, vessel diameters were measured every 2 weeks for 8 weeks. Measurements were found to be highly reproducible within animals over this time period. Finally, to evaluate the utility of vein imaging in a chronic condition, images were acquired from 4-week deoxycorticosterone acetate salt (DOCA-salt) hypertensive and normotensive (SHAM) control rats. All vessel diameters increased from baseline while MAP increased (67 ± 4 mmHg) in DOCA-salt rats

  8. 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) reduces total peripheral resistance during chronic infusion: direct arterial mesenteric relaxation is not involved

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) delivered over 1 week results in a sustained fall in blood pressure in the sham and deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-salt rat. We hypothesized 5-HT lowers blood pressure through direct receptor-mediated vascular relaxation. In vivo, 5-HT reduced mean arterial pressure (MAP), increased heart rate, stroke volume, cardiac index, and reduced total peripheral resistance during a 1 week infusion of 5-HT (25 µg/kg/min) in the normotensive Sprague Dawley rat. The mesenteric vasculature was chosen as an ideal candidate for the site of 5-HT receptor mediated vascular relaxation given the high percentage of cardiac output the site receives. Real-time RT-PCR demonstrated that mRNA transcripts for the 5-HT2B, 5-HT1B, and 5-HT7 receptors are present in sham and DOCA-salt superior mesenteric arteries. Immunohistochemistry and Western blot validated the presence of the 5-HT2B, 5- HT1B and 5-HT7 receptor protein in sham and DOCA-salt superior mesenteric artery. Isometric contractile force was measured in endothelium-intact superior mesenteric artery and mesenteric resistance arteries in which the contractile 5- HT2A receptor was antagonized. Maximum concentrations of BW-723C86 (5- HT2B agonist), CP 93129 (5-HT1B agonist) or LP-44 (5-HT7 agonist) did not relax the superior mesenteric artery from DOCA-salt rats vs. vehicle. Additionally, 5-HT (10–9 M to 10–5 M) did not cause relaxation in either contracted mesenteric resistance arteries or superior mesenteric arteries from normotensive Sprague- Dawley rats. Thus, although 5-HT receptors known to mediate vascular relaxation are present in the superior mesenteric artery, they are not functional, and are therefore not likely involved in a 5-HT-induced fall in total peripheral resistance and MAP. PMID:22559843

  9. Hyperuricemia and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Feig, Daniel I

    2012-11-01

    Over the past century, uric acid has been considered a possible risk factor for hypertension and cardiovascular disease. However, only in the past decade, animal models and clinical trials have supported a more mechanistic link. Results from animal models suggest a 2-phase mechanism for the development of hyperuricemic hypertension in which uric acid induces acute vasoconstriction by activation of renin-angiotensin system, followed by uric acid uptake into vascular smooth muscle cells leading to cellular proliferation and secondary arteriolosclerosis that impairs pressure natriuresis. This acute hypertension remains uric acid dependent and sodium independent, whereas the chronic hypertension becomes uric acid independent and sodium dependent. Small clinical trials, performed in adolescents with newly diagnosed essential hypertension, demonstrate that reduction of serum uric acid can reduce blood pressure. Although more research is clearly necessary, the available data suggest that uric acid is likely causative in some cases of early onset hypertension.

  10. Hypertension in young adults.

    PubMed

    De Venecia, Toni; Lu, Marvin; Figueredo, Vincent M

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension remains a major societal problem affecting 76 million, or approximately one third, of US adults. While more prevalent in the older population, an increasing incidence in the younger population, including athletes, is being observed. Active individuals, like the young and athletes, are viewed as free of diseases such as hypertension. However, the increased prevalence of traditional risk factors in the young, including obesity, diabetes mellitus, and renal disease, increase the risk of developing hypertension in younger adults. Psychosocial factors may also be contributing factors to the increasing incidence of hypertension in the younger population. Increased left ventricular wall thickness and mass are increasingly found in young adults on routine echocardiograms and predict future cardiovascular events. This increasing incidence of hypertension in the young calls for early surveillance and prompt treatment to prevent future cardiac events. In this review we present the current epidemiological data, potential mechanisms, clinical implications, and treatment of hypertension in young patients and athletes.

  11. Hypertensive crisis in children.

    PubMed

    Chandar, Jayanthi; Zilleruelo, Gastón

    2012-05-01

    Hypertensive crisis is rare in children and is usually secondary to an underlying disease. There is strong evidence that the renin-angiotensin system plays an important role in the genesis of hypertensive crisis. An important principle in the management of children with hypertensive crisis is to determine if severe hypertension is chronic, acute, or acute-on-chronic. When it is associated with signs of end-organ damage such as encephalopathy, congestive cardiac failure or renal failure, there is an emergent need to lower blood pressures to 25-30% of the original value and then accomplish a gradual reduction in blood pressure. Precipitous drops in blood pressure can result in impairment of perfusion of vital organs. Medications commonly used to treat hypertensive crisis in children are nicardipine, labetalol and sodium nitroprusside. In this review, we discuss the pathophysiology, differential diagnosis and recent developments in management of hypertensive crisis in children.

  12. Valproate Induced Hypertensive Urgency

    PubMed Central

    Sivananthan, Mauran

    2016-01-01

    Valproate is a medication used in the treatment of seizures, bipolar disorder, migraines, and behavioral problems. Here we present a case of an 8-year-old boy who presented with hypertensive urgency after initiation of valproate. Primary treatment of his hypertension was ineffective. Blood pressure stabilization was achieved following discontinuation of valproate. Clinicians should be aware of the risk of developing hypertensive urgency with administration of valproate. PMID:27403366

  13. [Hungarian Hypertension Registry].

    PubMed

    Kiss, István; Kékes, Ede

    2014-05-11

    Today, hypertension is considered endemic throughout the world. The number of individuals with high blood pressure and the increasing risk, morbidity and mortality caused by hypertension despite modern therapy do not decrease sufficiently. Hypertension has become a public health issue. Prevention and effective care require integrated datasets about many features, clinical presentation and therapy of patients with hypertension. The lack of this database in Hungary prompted the development of the registry which could help to provide population-based data for analysis. Data collection and processing was initiated by the Hungarian Society of Hypertension in 2002. Data recording into the Hungarian Hypertension Registry was performed four times (2002, 2005, 2007, 2011) and the registry currently contains data obtained from 108,473 patients. Analysis of these data indicates that 80% of the patients belong to the high or very high cardiovascular risk group. The registry provides data on cardiovascular risk of the hypertensive populations and the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy in Hungary. Based on international experience and preliminary analysis of data from the Hungarian Hypertension Registry, establishment of hypertension registry may support the effectiveness of public health programs. A further step would be needed for proper data management control and the application of professional principles of evidence-based guidelines in the everyday practice.

  14. [Hypertension and diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Janka, H U

    1993-03-01

    Numerous surveys have shown that in industrial countries diabetic subjects develop hypertension more frequently than non-diabetic persons. In fact, three typical hypertension forms in these patients can be discerned: essential, renal, and isolated systolic hypertension. In type 2-diabetes (NIDDM) hypertension can be seen in close association with obesity, glucose intolerance, lipid changes, and insulin resistance within the framework of the metabolic syndrome. The increased incidence of hypertension in type 1-diabetes (IDDM) is a result of development of diabetic nephropathy. In the elderly type 2-diabetics particularly frequently isolated systolic hypertension is present which reflects increased arterial stiffness and loss of vascular distensibility. In hypertension progression of both macrovascular disease and microangiopathy is increased whereby interaction of hyperglycemia and hypertension seems to be the main risk factor. In most hypertensive diabetic patients drugs will be necessary to lower blood pressure in a therapeutical range. There are several effective substances available which should be prescribed individually according to the needs and accompanying conditions in these patients. PMID:8475640

  15. How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosed?

    MedlinePlus

    ... from the NHLBI on Twitter. How Is Pulmonary Hypertension Diagnosed? Your doctor will diagnose pulmonary hypertension (PH) ... To Look for the Underlying Cause of Pulmonary Hypertension PH has many causes, so many tests may ...

  16. Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (Pseudotumor Cerebri)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Idiopathic Intracranial Hypertension (Pseudotumor Cerebri) En Español Read in Chinese What is idiopathic intracranial hypertension? Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a disorder that ...

  17. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.228 Ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate (CAS Reg. No....

  18. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.228 Ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate (CAS Reg. No....

  19. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  20. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  1. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  2. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  3. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  4. Stress and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, S; O'Farrell, I; Erasi, M; Kochar, M S

    1998-12-01

    Stress can cause hypertension through repeated blood pressure elevations as well as by stimulation of the nervous system to produce large amounts of vasoconstricting hormones that increase blood pressure. Factors affecting blood pressure through stress include white coat hypertension, job strain, race, social environment, and emotional distress. Furthermore, when one risk factor is coupled with other stress producing factors, the effect on blood pressure is multiplied. Overall, studies show that stress does not directly cause hypertension, but can have an effect on its development. A variety of non-pharmacologic treatments to manage stress have been found effective in reducing blood pressure and development of hypertension, examples of which are meditation, acupressure, biofeedback and music therapy. Recent results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey indicate that 50 million American adults have hypertension (defined to be a systolic blood pressure of greater than 139 mm Hg or a diastolic blood pressure of greater than 89 mm Hg). In 95% of these cases, the cause of hypertension is unknown and they are categorized as "essential" hypertension. Although a single cause may not be identified, the general consensus is that various factors contribute to blood pressure elevation in essential hypertension. In these days of 70 hour work weeks, pagers, fax machines, and endless committee meetings, stress has become a prevalent part of people's lives; therefore the effect of stress on blood pressure is of increasing relevance and importance. Although stress may not directly cause hypertension, it can lead to repeated blood pressure elevations, which eventually may lead to hypertension. In this article we explore how stress can cause hypertension and what can be done about it.

  5. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food... GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid....

  8. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid....

  9. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid....

  10. Noncirrhotic Portal Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Rajekar, Harshal; Vasishta, Rakesh K; Chawla, Yogesh K; Dhiman, Radha K

    2011-01-01

    Portal hypertension is characterized by an increase in portal pressure (> 10 mmHg) and could be a result of cirrhosis of the liver or of noncirrhotic diseases. When portal hypertension occurs in the absence of liver cirrhosis, noncirrhotic portal hypertension (NCPH) must be considered. The prognosis of this disease is much better than that of cirrhosis. Noncirrhotic diseases are the common cause of portal hypertension in developing countries, especially in Asia. NCPH is a heterogeneous group of diseases that is due to intrahepatic or extrahepatic etiologies. In general, the lesions in NCPH are vascular in nature and can be classified based on the site of resistance to blood flow. In most cases, these disorders can be explained by endothelial cell lesions, intimal thickening, thrombotic obliterations, or scarring of the intrahepatic portal or hepatic venous circulation. Many different conditions can determine NCPH through the association of these various lesions in various degrees. Many clinical manifestations of NCPH result from the secondary effects of portal hypertension. Patients with NCPH present with upper gastrointestinal bleeding, splenomegaly, ascites after gastrointestinal bleeding, features of hypersplenism, growth retardation, and jaundice due to portal hypertensive biliopathy. Other sequelae include hyperdynamic circulation, pulmonary complications, and other effects of portosystemic collateral circulation like portosystemic encephalopathy. At present, pharmacologic and endoscopic treatments are the treatments of choice for portal hypertension. The therapy of all disorders causing NCPH involves the reduction of portal pressure by pharmacotherapy or portosystemic shunting, apart from prevention and treatment of complications of portal hypertension. PMID:25755321

  11. What Is Pulmonary Hypertension?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pressure Tools & Resources Stroke More What is Pulmonary Hypertension? Updated:Aug 12,2014 Is pulmonary hypertension different ... content was last reviewed on 08/04/2014. High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) Introduction What ...

  12. Hypertension after clonidine withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Husserl, F E; deCarvalho, J G; Batson, H M; Frohlich, E D

    1978-05-01

    Rebound hypertension occurred in two patients upon clonidine withdrawal. Treatment of the hypertensive crisis consists of both alpha- and beta-adrenergic receptor blockade, reserpine, or the reintroduction of clonidine. With effective control of pressure during the crisis, long-term antihypertensive therapy must be resumed.

  13. 40 CFR 721.10001 - 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate. 721.10001 Section 721.10001 Protection of...-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate. (a) Chemical substances and significant...-80-5), 2-ethoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 111-15-9), 2-methoxyethanol (CAS No. 109-86-4), and...

  14. Hypertension in women.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Eduardo

    2012-02-01

    Hypertension is an important modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality, and a highly prevalent condition in both men and women. However, the prevalence of hypertension is predicted to increase more among women than men. Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) can induce hypertension in a small group of women and, increase CV risk especially among those with hypertension. Both COC-related increased CV risk and blood pressure (BP) returns to pretreatment levels by 3 months of its discontinuation. The effects of menopause and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) on BP are controversial, and COCs and HRT containing the new generation progestin drospirenone are preferred in women with established hypertension. Despite the high incidence of cancer in women, CV disease remains the major cause of death in women and comparable benefit of antihypertensive treatment have been demonstrated in both women and men.

  15. Epigenomics of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Liang, Mingyu; Cowley, Allen W; Mattson, David L; Kotchen, Theodore A; Liu, Yong

    2013-07-01

    Multiple genes and pathways are involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Epigenomic studies of hypertension are beginning to emerge and hold great promise of providing novel insights into the mechanisms underlying hypertension. Epigenetic marks or mediators including DNA methylation, histone modifications, and noncoding RNA can be studied at a genome or near-genome scale using epigenomic approaches. At the single gene level, several studies have identified changes in epigenetic modifications in genes expressed in the kidney that correlate with the development of hypertension. Systematic analysis and integration of epigenetic marks at the genome-wide scale, demonstration of cellular and physiological roles of specific epigenetic modifications, and investigation of inheritance are among the major challenges and opportunities for future epigenomic and epigenetic studies of hypertension.

  16. Arterial hypertension and cancer.

    PubMed

    Milan, Alberto; Puglisi, Elisabetta; Ferrari, Laura; Bruno, Giulia; Losano, Isabel; Veglio, Franco

    2014-05-15

    Arterial hypertension and cancer are two of the most important causes of mortality in the world; correlations between these two clinical entities are complex and various. Cancer therapy using old (e.g., mitotic spindle poisons) as well as new (e.g., monoclonal antibody) drugs may cause arterial hypertension through different mechanisms; sometimes the increase of blood pressure levels may be responsible for chemotherapy withdrawal. Among newer cancer therapies, drugs interacting with the VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factors) pathways are the most frequently involved in hypertension development. However, many retrospective studies have suggested a relationship between antihypertensive treatment and risk of cancer, raising vast public concern. The purposes of this brief review have then been to analyse the role of chemotherapy in the pathogenesis of hypertension, to summarize the general rules of arterial hypertension management in this field and finally to evaluate the effects of antihypertensive therapy on cancer disease.

  17. Hypertension in the Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Gil-Extremera, Blas; Cía-Gómez, Pedro

    2012-01-01

    Background. The incidence of hypertension in the Western countries is continuously increasing in the elderly population and remains the leading cause of cardiovascular and morbidity. Methods. we analysed some significant clinical trials in order to present the relevant findings on those hypertensive population. Results. Several studies (SYST-EUR, HYVET, CONVINCE, VALUE, etc.) have demonstrated the benefits of treatment (nitrendipine, hydrochrotiazyde, perindopril, indapamide, verapamil, or valsartan) in aged hypertensive patients not only concerning blood pressure values but also the other important risk factors. Conclusion. Hypertension is the most prevalent cardiovascular disorder in the Western countries, and the relevance of receiving pharmacological treatment of hypertension in aged patients is crucial; in addition, the results suggest that combination therapy—nitrendipine plus enalapril—could have more benefits than those observed with the use of nitrendipine alone. PMID:21876789

  18. Hypertension in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lindheimer, Marshall D; Taler, Sandra J; Cunningham, F Gary

    2008-01-01

    Hypertension complicates 5% to 7% of all pregnancies. A subset of preeclampsia, characterized by new-onset hypertension, proteinuria, and multisystem involvement, is responsible for substantial maternal and fetal morbidity and is a marker for future cardiac and metabolic disease. This American Society of Hypertension (ASH) position paper summarizes the clinical spectrum of hypertension in pregnancy, focusing on preeclampsia. Recent research breakthroughs relating to etiology are briefly reviewed. Topics include classification of the different forms of hypertension during pregnancy, and status of the tests available to predict preeclampsia, and strategies to prevent preeclampsia and to manage this serious disease. The use of antihypertensive drugs in pregnancy, and the prevention and treatment of the convulsive phase of preeclampsia, eclampsia, with intravenous MgSO(4) is also highlighted. Of special note, this guideline article, specifically requested, reviewed, and accepted by ASH, includes solicited review advice from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

  19. Hypertension in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Lindheimer, Marshall D; Taler, Sandra J; Cunningham, F Gary

    2010-01-01

    Hypertension complicates 5% to 7% of all pregnancies. A subset of preeclampsia, characterized by new-onset hypertension, proteinuria, and multisystem involvement, is responsible for substantial maternal and fetal morbidity and is a marker for future cardiac and metabolic disease. This American Society of Hypertension (ASH) position paper summarizes the clinical spectrum of hypertension in pregnancy, focusing on preeclampsia. Recent research breakthroughs relating to etiology are briefly reviewed. Topics include classification of the different forms of hypertension during pregnancy, and status of the tests available to predict preeclampsia, and strategies to prevent preeclampsia and to manage this serious disease. The use of antihypertensive drugs in pregnancy, and the prevention and treatment of the convulsive phase of preeclampsia, eclampsia, with intravenous MgSO(4) is also highlighted. Of special note, this guideline article, specifically requested, reviewed, and accepted by ASH, includes solicited review advice from the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists.

  20. Truly resistant hypertension?

    PubMed

    Goodlad, Cate; Unwin, Robert; Reaich, David; Cross, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    A young man presented with severe hypertension with evidence of both neurological and cardiovascular end-organ damage. Investigation revealed a small right kidney and a left renal artery aneurysm. Significant hypertension persisted even after right nephrectomy. Despite extensive investigation, no evidence was found to implicate the aneurysm in the causation of his high blood pressure. No alternative cause for hypertension was found, yet blood pressure was high even during hospital admission and observed medication dosing with eight antihypertensive agents. Sustained hypertension resulted in worsening left ventricular hypertrophy and he died suddenly at a tragically young age several years after presentation. This gentleman had truly resistant hypertension, a clinical problem which can be very difficult to manage. PMID:23169928

  1. Hypertension in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Vest, Amanda R; Cho, Leslie S

    2014-03-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy represent the second commonest cause of direct maternal death and complicate an estimated 5-10 % of pregnancies. Classification systems aim to separate hypertension similar to that seen outside pregnancy (chronic and gestational hypertension) from the potentially fatal pregnancy-specific conditions. Preeclampsia, HELLP syndrome, and eclampsia represent increasing severities of this disease spectrum. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' 2013 guidelines no longer require proteinuria as a diagnostic criterion, because of its variable appearance in the disease spectrum. The cause involves inadequate cytotrophoblastic invasion of the myometrium, resulting in placental hypoperfusion and diffuse maternal endothelial dysfunction. Changes in angiogenic and antiangiogentic peptide profiles precede the onset of clinical preeclampsia. Women with preeclampsia should be closely monitored and receive magnesium sulfate intravenously if severe features, HELLP syndrome, or eclampsia occur. Definitive therapy is delivery of the fetus. Hypertension in pregnancy increases future maternal risk of hypertension and cardiovascular disorders.

  2. [Hypertension and arteriosclerosis].

    PubMed

    Sasamura, Hiroyuki; Itoh, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension is a known risk factor for arteriosclerosis, and causes both atherosclero= sis of medium-large arteries and arteriolosclerosis of the arterioles. Elevated blood pressure causes damage to the endothelium and vascular wall through both mechanical and humoral factors. We and others have shown that inhibition of the renin-angiotensin system at a 'critical period' during the development of hypertension results in a permanent suppression of hypertension in animal models. We have also reported that high-dose renin-angiotensin inhibition results in regression of hypertension, possibly by regression of renal arteriolar hypertrophy. These results suggest that understanding the process of arterial remodeling may play a key role in the development of new strategies for prevention and regression of hypertension and arteriosclerosis.

  3. Analysis of proteins responsive to acetic acid in Acetobacter: molecular mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Shigeru; Fukaya, Masahiro

    2008-06-30

    Acetic acid bacteria are used for industrial vinegar production because of their remarkable ability to oxidize ethanol and high resistance to acetic acid. Although several molecular machineries responsible for acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria have been reported, the entire mechanism that confers acetic acid resistance has not been completely understood. One of the promising methods to elucidate the entire mechanism is global analysis of proteins responsive to acetic acid by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Recently, two proteins whose production was greatly enhanced by acetic acid in Acetobacter aceti were identified to be aconitase and a putative ABC-transporter, respectively; furthermore, overexpression or disruption of the genes encoding these proteins affected acetic acid resistance in A. aceti, indicating that these proteins are involved in acetic acid resistance. Overexpression of each gene increased acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter, which resulted in an improvement in the productivity of acetic acid fermentation. Taken together, the results of the proteomic analysis and those of previous studies indicate that acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria is conferred by several mechanisms. These findings also provide a clue to breed a strain having high resistance to acetic acid for vinegar fermentation.

  4. Hypertension burden in Luxembourg

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Castell, Maria; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Kuemmerle, Andrea; Schritz, Anna; Barré, Jessica; Delagardelle, Charles; Krippler, Serge; Schmit, Jean-Claude; Stranges, Saverio

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hypertension is a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but it remains the main cause of death in Luxembourg. We aimed to estimate the current prevalence of hypertension, associated risk factors, and its geographic variation in Luxembourg. Cross-sectional, population-based data on 1497 randomly selected Luxembourg residents aged 25 to 64 years were collected as part of the European Health Examination Survey from 2013 to 2015. Hypertension was defined as systolic/diastolic blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg, self-report of a physician diagnosis or on antihypertensive medication. Standard and Bayesian regressions were used to examine associations between hypertension and covariates, and also geographic distribution of hypertension across the country. Nearly 31% of Luxembourg residents were hypertensive, and over 70% of those were either unaware of their condition or not adequately controlled. The likelihood of hypertension was lower in men more physically active (odds ratio [95% credible region] 0.6 [0.4, 0.9]) and consuming alcohol daily (0.3 [0.1, 0.8]), and higher in men with a poor health perception (1.6 [1.0, 2.7]) and in women experiencing depressive symptoms (1.8 [1.3, 2.7]). There were geographic variations in hypertension prevalence across cantons and municipalities. The highest odds ratio was observed in the most industrialized region (South-West) (1.2 [0.9, 1.6]) with a positive effect at 90% credible region. In Luxembourg, the vast majority of people with hypertension are either unaware of their condition or not adequately controlled, which constitutes a major, neglected public health challenge. There are geographic variations in hypertension prevalence in Luxembourg, hence the role of individual and regional risk factors along with public health initiatives to reduce disease burden should be considered. PMID:27603374

  5. Hypertension in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Naing, Cho; Yeoh, Peng Nam; Wai, Victor Nyunt; Win, Ni Ni; Kuan, Lai Pei; Aung, Kyan

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aimed to determine trends in prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension in Malaysia and to assess the relationship between socioeconomic determinants and prevalence of hypertension in Malaysia. The distribution of hypertension in Malaysia was assessed based on available data in 3 National Health and Morbidity Surveys (NHMSs) and 1 large scale non-NHMS during the period of 1996 to 2011. Summary statistics was used to characterize the included surveys. Differences in prevalence, awareness, and control of hypertension between any 2 surveys were expressed as ratios. To assess the independent associations between the predictors and the outcome variables, regression analyses were employed with prevalence of hypertension as an outcome variable. Overall, there was a rising trend in the prevalence of hypertension in adults ≥30 years: 32.9% (30%–35.8%) in 1996, 42.6% (37.5%–43.5%) in 2006, and 43.5% (40.4%–46.6%) in 2011. There were significant increase of 32% from 1996 to 2011 (P < 0.001) and of 29% from 1996 to 2006 (P < 0.05), but only a small change of 1% from 2006 to 2011 (P = 0.6). For population ≥18 years, only a 1% increase in prevalence of hypertension occurred from the 2006 NHMS (32.2%) to the 2011 NHMS (32.7%) (P = 0.25). A relative increase of 13% occurred in those with primary education (P < 0.001) and a 15% increase was seen in those with secondary education (P < 0.001). The rate of increase in the prevalence of hypertension in the population with income level RM 3000–3999 was the highest (18%) during this period. In general, the older age group had higher prevalence of hypertension in the 2006 and 2011 NHMSs. The prevalence peaked at 74.1% among population aged 65 to 69 years in the 2011 NHMS. Both the proportion of awareness and the control of hypertension in Malaysia improved from 1996 to 2006. A change in the control of hypertension was 13% higher in women than in men. The findings suggest that

  6. Masked hypertension: A common but insidious presentation of hypertension

    PubMed Central

    McKay, Donald W; Myers, Martin G; Bolli, Peter; Chockalingam, Arun

    2006-01-01

    A patient has masked hypertension when his office blood pressure is less than 140/90 mmHg but his ambulatory or home blood pressure readings are in the hypertensive range. Several recent studies have demonstrated that cardiovascular risk is similar between those with masked hypertension and those with sustained hypertension. The prevalence of masked hypertension in Canada is not known, but data from other countries suggest rates greater than 8%. Physicians need to use careful clinical judgment to identify and treat subjects with masked hypertension. The present review discusses masked hypertension, its importance to clinical practice and some aspects of patient management. PMID:16755318

  7. [Hypertensive retinopathy--assessment].

    PubMed

    Barar, A; Apatachioaie, Ioana Daniela; Apatachioaie, C; Marceanu, L

    2008-01-01

    The authors intend to make a synthesis of several recent studies available on the Internet regarding hypertensive retinopathy. From the physiopathologic point of view, it is considered that the blood circulation at the level of the retina, choroid and optical nerve has distinct anatomo-physiological properties. It has a different response to the changes in the blood pressure, the result consisting of distinct individual types of the hypertensive disease which can be rendered evident during the optical fundus examination. The retina is considered to be one of the target organs in the hypertensive disease. Ascertaining the retinal changes has advanced from ophthalmoscopy to digital photography studied with appropriate software. The assessment of the hypertensive microangiopathy is subjected to a wide intra- and interobserver variability an accurate assessment requiring specialized software and standardized protocols. There is also a lack of consensus regarding the classification of hypertensive retinopathy and the usefulness of retinal examination in the assessment of cardiovascular risk. The Keith and Scheie staging scales are still in use, but they do not allow the clinician to differentiate slight or even moderate changes at the level of the retina of hypertensive patients. Furthermore, they do not correlate enough with the severity of the high blood pressure and they are not supported by the angiofluorography studies. There are not enough motives for the recommendation of a routine ophthalmoscopic examination for all hypertensive patients. It is required for patients with stage-3 hypertension. It is also recommended when the initial clinical signs are equivocal, as in borderline or fluctuating high blood pressure without any other obvious signs from the target organs, for diabetic patients, or in the presence of visual symptoms. The clinical implications of hypertensive retinopathy being unclear, many of the authors do not recommend ophthalmoscopic examination as

  8. Reductive opening of carbohydrate phenylsulfonylethylidene (PSE) acetals.

    PubMed

    Chéry, Florence; Cabianca, Elena; Tatibouët, Arnaud; De Lucchi, Ottorino; Lindhorst, Thisbe K; Rollin, Patrick

    2015-11-19

    The phenylsulfonylethylidene (PSE) acetal is a relatively new protecting group in carbohydrate chemistry. However, carbohydrate-derived phenylsulfonylethylidene (PSE) acetals show a different behavior in reductive desulfonylation than simple symmetrical acetals. Here we have investigated various SET-type reaction conditions in order to open PSE acetals regioselectively and to produce chiral ω-hydroxyethenyl ethers. Whereas sodium amalgam leads to a mixture of regioisomeric vinyl ethers besides the ethylidene acetal, samarium iodide is suited for regioselective ring opening. This is shown with seven different carbohydrate PSE acetals, both of the 1,3-dioxane and the 1,3-dioxolane type. PMID:26469209

  9. Clinical Manifestations of Portal Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Al-Busafi, Said A.; McNabb-Baltar, Julia; Farag, Amanda; Hilzenrat, Nir

    2012-01-01

    The portal hypertension is responsible for many of the manifestations of liver cirrhosis. Some of these complications are the direct consequences of portal hypertension, such as gastrointestinal bleeding from ruptured gastroesophageal varices and from portal hypertensive gastropathy and colopathy, ascites and hepatorenal syndrome, and hypersplenism. In other complications, portal hypertension plays a key role, although it is not the only pathophysiological factor in their development. These include spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, hepatic encephalopathy, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, hepatopulmonary syndrome, and portopulmonary hypertension. PMID:23024865

  10. Hypertensive heart disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... failure: pathophysiology and diagnosis. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ... Victor RG. Arterial hypertension. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  11. White-coat hypertension.

    PubMed

    Martin, Catherine A; McGrath, Barry P

    2014-01-01

    1. Numerous studies have examined whether white-coat hypertension (WCHT) is associated with increased cardiovascular risk, but with definitions of WCHT that were not sufficiently robust, results have been inconsistent. The aim of the present review was to standardize the evidence by only including studies that used a definition of WCHT consistent with international guidelines. 2. Published studies were reviewed for data on vascular dysfunction, target organ damage, risk of future sustained hypertension and cardiovascular events. 3. White-coat hypertension has a population prevalence of approximately 15% and is associated with non-smoking and slightly elevated clinic blood pressure. Compared with normotensives, subjects with WCHT are at increased cardiovascular risk due to a higher prevalence of glucose dysregulation, increased left ventricular mass index and increased risk of future diabetes and hypertension. 4. In conclusion, management of a patient with WCHT should focus on cardiovascular risk factors, particularly glucose intolerance, not blood pressure alone.

  12. Secondary hypertension in adults

    PubMed Central

    Puar, Troy Hai Kiat; Mok, Yingjuan; Debajyoti, Roy; Khoo, Joan; How, Choon How; Ng, Alvin Kok Heong

    2016-01-01

    Secondary hypertension occurs in a significant proportion of adult patients (~10%). In young patients, renal causes (glomerulonephritis) and coarctation of the aorta should be considered. In older patients, primary aldosteronism, obstructive sleep apnoea and renal artery stenosis are more prevalent than previously thought. Primary aldosteronism can be screened by taking morning aldosterone and renin levels, and should be considered in patients with severe, resistant or hypokalaemia-associated hypertension. Symptoms of obstructive sleep apnoea should be sought. Worsening of renal function after starting an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor suggests the possibility of renal artery stenosis. Recognition, diagnosis and treatment of secondary causes of hypertension lead to good clinical outcomes and the possible reversal of end-organ damage, in addition to blood pressure control. As most patients with hypertension are managed at the primary care level, it is important for primary care physicians to recognise these conditions and refer patients appropriately. PMID:27211205

  13. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    MedlinePlus

    ... pressure to live. Without it, blood can't flow through our bodies and carry oxygen to our vital organs. But when blood pressure gets too high — a condition called hypertension — it can lead to ...

  14. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has high ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  15. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood pressure with the development of a practical method to measure it. Physicians began to note associations between hypertension and risk of heart failure, stroke, and kidney failure. Although scientists had yet to prove that lowering blood pressure ...

  16. Carbon-isotopic analysis of dissolved acetate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelwicks, J. T.; Hayes, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Heating of dried, acetate-containing solids together with oxalic acid dihydrate conveniently releases acetic acid for purification by gas chromatography. For determination of the carbon-isotopic composition of total acetate, the acetate-containing zone of the chromatographic effluent can be routed directly to a combustion furnace coupled to a vacuum system allowing recovery, purification, and packaging of CO2 for mass-spectrometric analysis. For analysis of methyl carbon, acetic acid can be cryogenically trapped from the chromatographic effluent, then transferred to a tube containing excess NaOH. The tube is evacuated, sealed, and heated to 500 degrees C to produce methane by pyrolysis of sodium acetate. Subsequent combustion of the methane allows determination of the 13C content at the methyl position in the parent acetate. With typical blanks, the standard deviation of single analyses is less than 0.4% for acetate samples larger than 5 micromoles. A full treatment of uncertainties is outlined.

  17. Ozone decomposition in aqueous acetate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sehested, K.; Holcman, J.; Bjergbakke, E.; Hart, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    The acetate radical ion reacts with ozone with a rate constant of k = (1.5 +/- 0.5) x 10Z dmT mol s . The products from this reaction are CO2, HCHO, and O2 . By subsequent reaction of the peroxy radical with ozone the acetate radical ion is regenerated through the OH radical. A chain decomposition of ozone takes place. It terminates when the acetate radical ion reacts with oxygen forming the unreactive peroxy acetate radical. The chain is rather short as oxygen is developed, as a result of the ozone consumption. The inhibiting effect of acetate on the ozone decay is rationalized by OH scavenging by acetate and successive reaction of the acetate radical ion with oxygen. Some products from the bimolecular disappearance of the peroxy acetate radicals, however, react further with ozone, reducing the effectiveness of the stabilization.

  18. Masked hypertension and hidden uncontrolled hypertension after renal transplantation.

    PubMed

    Paripovic, Dusan; Kostic, Mirjana; Spasojevic, Brankica; Kruscic, Divna; Peco-Antic, Amira

    2010-09-01

    Arterial hypertension is a risk factor affecting graft function in pediatric kidney transplants. Recent pediatric studies reported a high prevalence of hypertension, especially nocturnal hypertension in this population. Data regarding the prevalence of masked hypertension in pediatric patients with kidney transplants are still scarce. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to assess the prevalence of masked and hidden uncontrolled hypertension after renal transplantation. A total of 41 patients (25 males) with stable functioning renal graft were included in the study. Their median age was 14.5 years with the median interval since transplantation of 2.5 years (range 0.3 to 20.6). Spacelabs 90207 was used to measure ambulatory blood pressure (BP) during a 24-h period. Ambulatory hypertension was defined as mean systolic and/or diastolic BP index at day-time or nighttime >or=1. Masked hypertension was defined as normal office BP but daytime ambulatory hypertension in patients without antihypertensive medications. Hidden uncontrolled hypertension was defined as daytime ambulatory hypertension undetected by office BP measurements in treated patients. Antihypertensive medications were prescribed to 58%. Prevalence of nocturnal hypertension was 68%. On the basis of combination of office and ABPM masked hypertension and hidden uncontrolled hypertension was detected in 24% and 21% of the study population, respectively. Regular use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in transplanted patients enables detection of masked and hidden uncontrolled hypertension. PMID:20467790

  19. Management of Renovascular Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Smith, Aaron; Gaba, Ron C; Bui, James T; Minocha, Jeet

    2016-09-01

    Renal artery stenosis is a potentially reversible cause of hypertension, and transcatheter techniques are essential to its treatment. Angioplasty remains a first-line treatment for stenosis secondary to fibromuscular dysplasia. Renal artery stenting is commonly used in atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis, although recent trials have cast doubts upon its efficacy. Renal denervation is a promising procedure for the treatment of resistant hypertension, and in the future, its indications may expand. PMID:27641455

  20. [Hypertension and diabetes].

    PubMed

    Navalesi, R; Rizzo, L; Nannipieri, M; Rapuano, A; Bandinelli, S; Pucci, L; Bertacca, A; Penno, G

    1995-10-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in diabetes is significantly higher than in non-diabetics, perhaps twice as common. The excess is related to diabetic nephropathy, mainly in type 1 diabetes, to obesity, mainly in type 2 diabetes, but also to increased sympathetic activity. Furthermore, the increased prevalence of hypertension may relate to insulin resistance and its sequelae. Insulin resistance leads to hyperinsulinemia, relates to increased LDL and reduced HDL levels, causes the development of impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes and might also be causally related to the onset of hypertension. Syndrome X has relevant therapeutic implications in the management of hypertension. Hypertension is a major risk factor for large vessel disease in diabetics and also a risk factor for microangiopathy, particularly nephropathy. The incidence of atherosclerotic disease is dramatically increased in both type 1 and type 2 diabetics and is the major cause of morbidity and premature death mainly in patients with raised urinary albumin excretion. Thus, diabetics show a two-fold increased risk of coronary heart disease, 2-6 fold increased risk of stroke and a several-fold increased risk of peripheral vessel disease. Some evidence suggests that hypertension may be a risk factor for retinopathy, particularly its progression, but surely hypertension is a significant risk factor for nephropathy, accelerating its progression and perhaps even causing the onset of the glomerulopathy. The mechanisms by which hypertension might contribute to the evolution of both large vessel as well as small vessel disease is still unknown, although increased capillary leakage and vascular endothelium alterations might be important factors.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8562258

  1. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3 or C2H3O2Na·3H2O, CAS Reg. No. 6131-90-4) is the sodium salt of acetic acid and occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues....

  2. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 556.380 - Melengestrol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Melengestrol acetate. 556.380 Section 556.380 Food... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.380 Melengestrol acetate. A tolerance of 25 parts per billion is established for residues of the parent compound, melengestrol acetate, in fat of cattle....

  8. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. Photochemistry of 2-nitrobenzylidene acetals.

    PubMed

    Sebej, Peter; Solomek, Tomás; Hroudná, L'ubica; Brancová, Pavla; Klán, Petr

    2009-11-20

    Photolysis of dihydroxy compounds (diols) protected as 2-nitrobenzylidene acetals (ONBA) and subsequent acid- or base-catalyzed hydrolysis of the 2-nitrosobenzoic acid ester intermediates result in an efficient and high-yielding release of the substrates. We investigated the scope and limitations of ONBA photochemistry and expanded upon earlier described two-step procedures to show that the protected diols of many structural varieties can also be liberated in a one-pot procedure. In view of the fact that the acetals of nonsymmetrically substituted diols are converted into one of the corresponding 2-nitrosobenzoic acid ester isomers with moderate to high regioselectivity, the mechanism of their formation was studied using various experimental techniques. The experimental data were found to be in agreement with DFT-based quantum chemical calculations that showed the preferential cleavage occurs on the acetal C-O bond in the vicinity of more electron-withdrawing (or less electron-donating) groups. The study also revealed considerable complexity in the cleavage mechanism and that the structural variations in the substrate can significantly alter the reaction pathway. This deprotection strategy was found to be also applicable for 2-thioethanol when released from the corresponding monothioacetal in the presence of a reducing agent, such as ascorbic acid.

  19. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate contraception in women with medical problems.

    PubMed

    Frederiksen, M C

    1996-05-01

    Since few clinical trials of contraceptive agents are conducted on women with medical problems, use of these agents in these populations is often based more upon theoretical considerations than clinical data. Clinicians must distinguish the risk of estrogen in the combined oral contraceptive from the risk of the progestin-only contraceptive methods. This review compares the risks of pregnancy with the risks of contraceptive methods for patients with chronic hypertension, cardiac disease, thrombotic disorders, diabetes, epilepsy, lupus erythematosus and other medical disorders. For women with certain medical problems, estrogen, but not progestogen, may be contraindicated. For these women, a long-acting progestogen, such as depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), may offer distinct advantages.

  20. Antiphospholipid antibodies and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Rollino, C; Boero, R; Elia, F; Montaruli, B; Massara, C; Beltrame, G; Ferro, M; Quattrocchio, G; Quarello, F

    2004-01-01

    Hypertension is a common manifestation of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL) have been described in patients with hypertension secondary to renal artery stenosis (RAS). Twenty-six patients with RAS and 25 patients with severe essential hypertension (diastolic blood pressure > 110 mmHg or > or = 3 hypertensive drugs) were studied and compared to 61 age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Serum samples were tested for lupus anticoagulant (LA), anticardiolipin (aCL) IgG and IgM, antiprothrombin (aPT) IgG and IgM, anti-beta2glycoprotein 1 (abeta2GP1) IgG and IgM. aPL were negative in all patients with RAS. Two patients with essential hypertension had positive aPL (8%) (LA in one patient confirmed in a second assay and abeta2GP1-IgG in the other patient confirmed one year later together with aCL IgG positivity). Among healthy subjects, one case (1.6%) was found to be positive for LA, aCL IgM, abeta2GP1 IgM, aPT IgG, aPT IgM. In conclusion, the association between RAS and aPL seems to be casual rather than an expression of an elective thrombotic localization ofAPS. The positive finding of aPL in 8% of patients with essential hypertension, a frequency higher than that of the control population, deserves further studies in larger series to better explore the relationship between aPL and hypertension. PMID:15540508

  1. Endocrine hypertension in small animals.

    PubMed

    Reusch, Claudia E; Schellenberg, Stefan; Wenger, Monique

    2010-03-01

    Hypertension is classified as idiopathic or secondary. In animals with idiopathic hypertension, persistently elevated blood pressure is not caused by an identifiable underlying or predisposing disease. Until recently, more than 95% of cases of hypertension in humans were diagnosed as idiopathic. New studies have shown, however, a much higher prevalence of secondary causes, such as primary hyperaldosteronism. In dogs and cats, secondary hypertension is the most prevalent form and is subclassified into renal and endocrine hypertension. This review focuses on the most common causes of endocrine hypertension in dogs and cats.

  2. Pulmonary hypertension imitating HELLP syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A case of undiagnosed pulmonary hypertension in a woman with mixed connective tissue disease presenting with microangiopathic haemolysis, thrombocytopenia and elevated liver enzymes imitating severe preeclampsia (HELLP syndrome) is described. Connective tissue disorders are associated with an increased prevalence of pulmonary hypertension. Maternal mortality rates with pulmonary hypertension in pregnancy are extremely high. All women with connective tissue disorders should have pulmonary hypertension excluded by echocardiography before attempting conception. End-stage pulmonary hypertension may be associated with haemolysis and thrombocytopenia and thus may imitate severe preeclampsia in pregnant women. There may be a role for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the peripartum management of women with severe pulmonary hypertension. PMID:27656251

  3. Pulmonary hypertension imitating HELLP syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A case of undiagnosed pulmonary hypertension in a woman with mixed connective tissue disease presenting with microangiopathic haemolysis, thrombocytopenia and elevated liver enzymes imitating severe preeclampsia (HELLP syndrome) is described. Connective tissue disorders are associated with an increased prevalence of pulmonary hypertension. Maternal mortality rates with pulmonary hypertension in pregnancy are extremely high. All women with connective tissue disorders should have pulmonary hypertension excluded by echocardiography before attempting conception. End-stage pulmonary hypertension may be associated with haemolysis and thrombocytopenia and thus may imitate severe preeclampsia in pregnant women. There may be a role for extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in the peripartum management of women with severe pulmonary hypertension.

  4. Biodegradation of cellulose acetate by Neisseria sicca.

    PubMed

    Sakai, K; Yamauchi, T; Nakasu, F; Ohe, T

    1996-10-01

    Bacteria capable of assimilating cellulose acetate, strains SB and SC, were isolated from soil on a medium containing cellulose acetate as a carbon source, and identified as Neisseria sicca. Both strains degraded cellulose acetate membrane filters (degree of substitution, DS, mixture of 2.8 and 2.0) and textiles (DS, 2.34) in a medium containing cellulose acetate (DS, 2.34) or its oligomer, but were not able to degrade these materials in a medium containing cellobiose octaacetate. Biodegradation of cellulose acetate (DS, 1.81 and 2.34) on the basis of biochemical oxygen demand reached 51 and 40% in the culture of N. sicca SB and 60 and 45% in the culture of N. sicca SC within 20 days. A decrease in the acetyl content of degraded cellulose acetate films and powder was confirmed by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. After 10-day cultivation of N. sicca SB and SC, the number-average molecular weight of residual cellulose acetate decreased by 9 and 5%, respectively. Activities of enzymes that released acetic acid and produced reducing sugars from cellulose acetate were mainly present in the culture supernatant. Reactivity of enzymes for cellulose acetate (DS, 1.81) was higher than that for cellulose acetate (DS, 2.34).

  5. Nonnarcotic analgesics and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gaziano, J Michael

    2006-05-01

    In 2004, individuals in the United States spent >$2.5 billion on over-the-counter (OTC) nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and filled >100 million NSAID prescriptions. The most commonly used OTC analgesics include aspirin, acetaminophen, and nonaspirin NSAIDs. Nonnarcotic analgesics are generally considered safe when used as directed but do have the potential to increase blood pressure in patients with hypertension treated with antihypertensives. This is important because hypertension alone has been correlated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease or stroke. Small increases in blood pressure in patients with hypertension also have been shown to increase cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Therefore, when nonnarcotic analgesics are taken by patients with hypertension, there may be important implications. This review explores the potential connection among analgesic agents, blood pressure, and hypertension, and discusses possible mechanisms by which analgesics might cause increases in blood pressure. This is followed by a summary of data on the relation between analgesics and blood pressure from both observational and randomized trials.

  6. Pregnancy with Portal Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Neelam; Negi, Neha; Aggarwal, Aakash; Bodh, Vijay; Dhiman, Radha K.

    2014-01-01

    Even though pregnancy is rare with cirrhosis and advanced liver disease, but it may co-exist in the setting of non-cirrhotic portal hypertension as liver function is preserved but whenever encountered together is a complex clinical dilemma. Pregnancy in a patient with portal hypertension presents a special challenge to the obstetrician as so-called physiological hemodynamic changes associated with pregnancy, needed for meeting demands of the growing fetus, worsen the portal hypertension thereby putting mother at risk of potentially life-threatening complications like variceal hemorrhage. Risks of variceal bleed and hepatic decompensation increase many fold during pregnancy. Optimal management revolves round managing the portal hypertension and its complications. Thus management of such cases requires multi-speciality approach involving obstetricians experienced in dealing with high risk cases, hepatologists, anesthetists and neonatologists. With advancement in medical field, pregnancy is not contra-indicated in these women, as was previously believed. This article focuses on the different aspects of pregnancy with portal hypertension with special emphasis on specific cause wise treatment options to decrease the variceal bleed and hepatic decompensation. Based on extensive review of literature, management from pre-conceptional period to postpartum is outlined in order to have optimal maternal and perinatal outcomes. PMID:25755552

  7. Sleep and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Calhoun, David A; Harding, Susan M

    2010-08-01

    Ambulatory BP studies indicate that even small increases in BP, particularly nighttime BP levels, are associated with significant increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Accordingly, sleep-related diseases that induce increases in BP would be anticipated to substantially affect cardiovascular risk. Both sleep deprivation and insomnia have been linked to increases in incidence and prevalence of hypertension. Likewise, sleep disruption attributable to restless legs syndrome increases the likelihood of having hypertension. Observational studies demonstrate a strong correlation between the severity of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and the risk and severity of hypertension, whereas prospective studies of patients with OSA demonstrate a positive relationship between OSA and risk of incident hypertension. Intervention trials with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) indicate a modest, but inconsistent effect on BP in patients with severe OSA and a greater likelihood of benefit in patients with most CPAP adherence. Additional prospective studies are needed to reconcile observational studies suggesting that OSA is a strong risk factor for hypertension with the modest antihypertensive effects of CPAP observed in intervention studies.

  8. Brain-targeted angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 overexpression attenuates neurogenic hypertension by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-mediated inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sriramula, Srinivas; Xia, Huijing; Xu, Ping; Lazartigues, Eric

    2015-03-01

    Overactivity of the renin-angiotensin system, oxidative stress, and cyclooxygenases (COX) in the brain are implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We previously reported that angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) overexpression in the brain attenuates the development of deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertension, a neurogenic hypertension model with enhanced brain renin-angiotensin system and sympathetic activity. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, we investigated whether oxidative stress, mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling and cyclooxygenase (COX) activation in the brain are modulated by ACE2 in neurogenic hypertension. Deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertension significantly increased expression of Nox-2 (+61±5%), Nox-4 (+50±13%), and nitrotyrosine (+89±32%) and reduced activity of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (-29±4%) and superoxide dismutase (-31±7%), indicating increased oxidative stress in the brain of nontransgenic mice. This increased oxidative stress was attenuated in transgenic mice overexpressing ACE2 in the brain. Deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt-induced reduction of neuronal nitric oxide synthase expression (-26±7%) and phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase/total endothelial nitric oxide synthase (-30±3%), and enhanced phosphorylation of protein kinase B and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 in the paraventricular nucleus, were reversed by ACE2 overexpression. In addition, ACE2 overexpression blunted the hypertension-mediated increase in gene and protein expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in the paraventricular nucleus. Furthermore, gene silencing of either COX-1 or COX-2 in the brain, reduced microglial activation and accompanied neuroinflammation, ultimately attenuating Deoxycorticosterone acetate-salt hypertension. Together, these data provide evidence that brain ACE2 overexpression reduces oxidative stress and COX-mediated neuroinflammation, improves antioxidant and nitric oxide signaling, and

  9. [Cardiovascular complications of hypertensive crisis].

    PubMed

    Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Borrayo-Sánchez, Gabriela; Madrid-Miller, Alejandra; Ramírez-Arias, Erick; Pérez-Rodríguez, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    It is inexorable that a proportion of patients with systemic arterial hypertension will develop a hypertensive crisis at some point in their lives. The hypertensive crises can be divided in hypertensive patients with emergency or hypertensive emergency, according to the presence or absence of acute end-organ damage. In this review, we discuss the cardiovascular hypertensive emergencies, including acute coronary syndrome, congestive heart failure, aortic dissection and sympathomimetic hypertensive crises (those caused by cocaine use included). Each is presented in a unique way, although some patients with hypertensive emergency report non-specific symptoms. Treatment includes multiple medications for quick and effective action with security to reduce blood pressure, protect the function of organs remaining, relieve symptoms, minimize the risk of complications and improve patient outcomes.

  10. Uric acid and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Feig, Daniel I

    2011-09-01

    A link between serum uric acid and the development of hypertension was first hypothesized in the 1870s. Although numerous epidemiologic studies in the 1980s and 1990s suggested an association, relatively little attention was paid to it until recently. Animal models have suggested a two-step pathogenesis by which uric acid initially activates the renin angiotensin system and suppresses nitric oxide, leading to uric acid-dependent increase in systemic vascular resistance, followed by a uric acid-mediated vasculopathy, involving renal afferent arterioles, resulting in a late sodium-sensitive hypertension. Initial clinical trials in young patients have supported these mechanisms in young patients but do not yet support pharmacologic reduction of serum uric acid as first-line therapy for hypertension.

  11. [Obesity and hypertension].

    PubMed

    Simonyi, Gábor; Kollár, Réka

    2013-11-01

    The frequency of hypertension and obesity is gradually growing in Hungary. At present 68.5% of men and 78% of women are obese. Hypertension and obesity are the most important risk factors of morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. The relationship between increased sympathetic activity and hypertension is well known. Waist circumference and body fat mass correlate significantly with sympathetic activity, in which hyperlipidemia plays also a role. The increased activity of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system via its vascular and renal effects also contributes to an increase of blood pressure. Increased sympathetic activity with decreasing vagal tone accompanying the imbalance of the autonomous nervous system is independent and significant risk factor of cardiovascular events including sudden cardiac death.

  12. DESOXYCORTICOSTERONE ACETATE : THE POTENTIATION OF ITS ACTIVITY BY SODIUM CHLORIDE.

    PubMed

    Knowlton, A I; Loeb, E N; Stoerk, H C; Seegal, B C

    1947-01-31

    1. Desoxycorticosterone acetate (DCA) and NaCl, in the dosage employed in normal rats, caused renal and cardiac hypertrophy, characteristic changes in the renal tubular epithelium, atrophic changes in the subcapsular zone of the adrenal cortex, and serum electrolyte changes characterized by a rise in sodium and fall in potassium. 2. In rats rendered nephritic with a rabbit anti-rat-kidney serum, the same regimen caused similar changes. In addition, DCA given concurrently with NaCl greatly intensified the nephritic process and gave rise to striking arterial hypertension. 3. A diet, virtually sodium-free, administered to normal and nephritic rats receiving daily injections of DCA abolished or reduced to a minimum the effects of this steroid; i.e., a liberal ingestion of NaCl was essential for the potentiation of the action of DCA. 4. The addition of KCl to the drinking water of rats receiving DCA and NaCl tended to correct the depression of the level of potassium in the serum, but had no effect upon the hypertension in nephritic animals nor upon the anatomical lesions. 5. The mechanism by which the sodium ion potentiates the activity of DCA has not been established.

  13. Malignant hypertension: a preventable emergency.

    PubMed

    van der Merwe, Walter; van der Merwe, Veronica

    2013-08-16

    The Waitemata Hypertension Clinic Database 2009-2012 (Auckland, New Zealand) was searched for patients meeting the definition of Malignant Hypertension. Eighteen of 565 patients met the criteria. All patients had essential hypertension which was either undiagnosed, untreated or undertreated. Most cases responded satisfactorily to standard drug therapy, but a number were left with significant chronic kidney disease. Malignant hypertension is a life-threatening disease which should be entirely preventable with regular blood pressure checks in primary care.

  14. Perspectives on research in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Seedat, Y K

    2009-01-01

    This is a review of my published research on hypertension over 45 years on the three main racial groups residing in KwaZulu-Natal and its main city Durban. These three groups are blacks - mainly Zulu, whites and Indians. The research focused mainly on epidemiology, determinants of the aetiology of hypertension, clinical features, varying responses to hypotensive agents among the racial groups, complications that result from hypertension and the control of hypertension. PMID:19287815

  15. Association between pregnancy-related hypertension and severity of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Moreira, L B; Gus, M; Nunes, G; Gonçalves, C B C; Martins, J; Wiehe, M; Fuchs, F D

    2009-06-01

    Hypertension in pregnancy is an emerging sex-specific risk factor for cardiovascular disease and may lead to more severe hypertension after pregnancy. The objectives of this study were to investigate the frequency of pregnancy-related hypertension among patients referred to a hypertension clinic and its association with the severity of hypertension and evidence of end-organ damage. In this cross-sectional study, women with hypertension were submitted to a systematic clinical evaluation. The occurrence of pregnancy-related hypertension was investigated by questionnaire. The association between pregnancy-related hypertension and severity of hypertension (stage 2 according to Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC VII)) and end-organ damage was assessed in a logistic regression model. The mean age, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and body mass index (BMI) of the 768 women examined were 51.6+/-12.7 years, 158.2+/-26.6 mm Hg, 93.8+/-14.3 mm Hg and 29.4+/-5.6 kg/m(2), respectively. The proportion of women with pregnancy-related hypertension was 32.9%. It was significantly associated with hypertension at stage 2 (OR: 1.60, 95% CI: 1.14-2.24; P=0.01) after controlling for confounders. The occurrence of a pregnancy-related hypertension was not associated with evidence of optic fundi abnormalities, left ventricular hypertrophy or abnormalities in kidney function. In conclusion, pregnancy-related hypertension is frequent in women referred to a hypertension clinic, and is associated with severe hypertension but not with evidence of end-organ damage. PMID:19020534

  16. The prevention of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Tibblin, G; Eriksson, C G

    1977-01-01

    Our way to prevention is to find a list of traits known to be predictors of elevated blood pressure. This list of predictors offers means for the early identification of susceptibile persons. Years of experience in preventive work indicate that such identification is always useful for developing preventive programmes, since it gives a focus for action (5). Most of the predictors show possible ways in which action could be directed towards prevention of hypertension and reduction of elevated blood pressure. We will focus on salt, control of obesity, physical exercise, and meditation. We would like to discuss preventive aspects of hypertension and the possibility of treating with other methods than drugs.

  17. Neurological theory of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Eggers, A E

    2003-06-01

    Review of the older literature on the relationship between migraine and hypertension, written in the era before either condition could be treated, discloses a high rate of co-morbidity. A neurological theory of essential hypertension is proposed in which the two diseases are brought together into one entity. It is hypothesized that abnormally functioning serotonergic pacemaker cells in the dorsal raphe nucleus, as part of a chronic stress response, inappropriately activate and inhibit parts of the central and autonomic nervous systems, so as to cause the two conditions. This theory builds on a previously published neural theory of migraine.

  18. Medroxyprogesterone acetate exacerbates glutamate excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Jon; Morales, Alison; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2006-07-01

    We previously demonstrated that progesterone functions as a neuroprotective agent whereas medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; Provera) does not. Moreover, MPA antagonized the neuroprotective and neurotrophic outcomes induced by 17beta-estradiol (E2). Towards developing effective hormone therapies for protection against neurodegeneration, we sought to determine whether formulation, chemical features or prevention versus treatment mode of exposure affected the outcome of MPA treatment in survival of primary hippocampal neurons. Results of these analyses indicated that both crystalline MPA and a pharmaceutical formulation (Depo-Provera) lacked neuroprotective efficacy, indicating that the effects were not dependent upon MPA formulation. Likewise, MPA in the prevention and treatment paradigms were equally ineffective at promoting neuronal survival, indicating that timing of MPA administration was not a factor. Further, the detrimental effects of MPA were not due to the presence of the acetate group, as medroxyprogesterone was as ineffective as MPA in promoting neuronal survival. Moreover, MPA pretreatment exacerbated neuron death induced by glutamate excitotoxicity as indicated by a 40% increase in neuron death determined by direct live/dead cell count and a commensurate increase in the number of positive cells by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end-labeling. Collectively these results predict that the progestin formulation of hormone therapy will affect the vulnerability of the central nervous system to degenerative insults.

  19. Expression of parathyroid hypertensive factor in hypertensive primary hyperparathyroid patients.

    PubMed

    Lewanczuk, R Z; Pang, P K

    1993-03-01

    Hypertension is frequently associated with primary hyperparathyroidism, yet the mechanism of such hypertension is unknown. Parathyroid hypertensive factor (PHF) is a circulating hypertensive factor found in a proportion of human essential hypertensive patients as well as in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). In the latter case, PHF has been shown to be secreted by the parathyroid gland. The purpose of this study was to determine if PHF expression might be responsible for the hypertension seen in primary hyperparathyroidism. Ten hypertensive and 10 normotensive primary hyperparathyroid patients underwent measurement of blood pressure and PHF pre- and post-parathyroidectomy. Cases reported are those of parathyroid adenomas. There were no significant differences between the hypertensive and normotensive groups preoperatively except that 9 out of 10 of the hypertensive group had significant PHF levels (mean 11 +/- 2 mm Hg vs 0.6 +/- 2 mm Hg, respectively, p = 0.003). Post-operative change in mean arterial pressure could be predicted by pre-operative PHF level, with all PHF-positive patients showing a fall in blood pressure (r = -0.73, p < 0.01). Post-operatively, PHF was undetectable in PHF-positive patients. These results suggest that the parathyroid gland can express PHF in humans and that such expression may be responsible for a proportion of the high reported incidence of hypertension in primary hyperparathyroidism.

  20. Oxidative stress and hypertension: Possibility of hypertension therapy with antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Baradaran, Azar; Nasri, Hamid; Rafieian-Kopaei, Mahmoud

    2014-01-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for myocardial infarction, heart failure, stroke, peripheral arterial disease, and aortic aneurysm, and is a cause of chronic kidney disease. Hypertension is often associated with metabolic abnormalities such as diabetes and dyslipidemia, and the rate of these diseases is increasing nowadays. Recently it has been hypothesized that oxidative stress is a key player in the pathogenesis of hypertension. A reduction in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity has been observed in newly diagnosed and untreated hypertensive subjects, which are inversely correlated with blood pressure. Hydrogen peroxide production is also higher in hypertensive subjects. Furthermore, hypertensive patients have higher lipid hydroperoxide production. Oxidative stress is also markedly increased in hypertensive patients with renovascular disease. If oxidative stress is indeed a cause of hypertension, then, antioxidants should have beneficial effects on hypertension control and reduction of oxidative damage should result in a reduction in blood pressure. Although dietary antioxidants may have beneficial effects on hypertension and cardiovascular risk factors, however, antioxidant supplementation has not been shown consistently to be effective and improvement is not usually seen in blood pressure after treatment with single or combination antioxidant therapy in subjects thought to be at high risk of cardiovascular disease. This matter is the main focus of this paper. A list of medicinal plants that have been reported to be effective in hypertension is also presented. PMID:25097610

  1. [Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Kim, Nick H; Delcroix, Marion; Jenkins, David P; Channick, Richard; Dartevelle, Philippe; Jansa, Pavel; Lang, Irene; Madani, Michael M; Ogino, Hitoshi; Pengo, Vittorio; Mayer, Eckhard

    2014-10-01

    Since the last World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension in 2008, we have witnessed numerous and exciting developments in chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). Emerging clinical data and advances in technology have led to reinforcing and updated guidance on diagnostic approaches to pulmonary hypertension, guidelines that we hope will lead to better recognition and more timely diagnosis of CTEPH. We have new data on treatment practices across international boundaries as well as long-term outcomes for CTEPH patients treated with or without pulmonary endarterectomy. Furthermore, we have expanded data on alternative treatment options for select CTEPH patients, including data from multiple clinical trials of medical therapy, including 1 recent pivotal trial, and compelling case series of percutaneous pulmonary angioplasty. Lastly, we have garnered more experience, and on a larger international scale, with pulmonary endarterectomy, which is the treatment of choice for operable CTEPH. This report overviews and highlights these important interval developments as deliberated among our task force of CTEPH experts and presented at the 2013 World Symposium on Pulmonary Hypertension in Nice, France. (J Am Coil Cardiol 2013;62:D92-9) ©2013 by the American College of Cardiology Foundation.

  2. Project "Hypertension Alert."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sailors, Emma Lou

    1983-01-01

    "Hypertension Alert," a 1979-80 blood pressure screening-awareness project of the Yonkers, New York Public Schools, is described. Data is analyzed in tables for ethnic composition, and range of blood pressure readings for the high school, junior high school, and elementary school students tested. (Author/JMK)

  3. Children and Hypertension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Denise

    1983-01-01

    Since children as young as seven years old can suffer from hypertension, all children should have blood pressure checked during physical examinations. Guidelines for testing children's blood pressure are presented along with suggestions about what schools and parents can do to help deal with the problem. (PP)

  4. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    MedlinePlus

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... En Español Who is at risk? How is high blood pressure treated? Understanding your blood pressure: What do the ...

  5. Understanding Palladium Acetate from a User Perspective.

    PubMed

    Carole, William A; Colacot, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    The behavior of palladium acetate is reviewed with respect to its synthesis, characterization, structure (in both solution and solid state), and activation pathways. In addition, comparisons of catalytic activities between pure palladium acetate and two common byproducts, Pd3 (OAc)5 (NO2 ) and polymeric [Pd(OAc)2 ]n , typically present in commercially available material are reviewed. Hence, this minireview serves as a concise guide for the users of palladium acetate from both academia and industry. PMID:27125630

  6. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  10. Hypertension, a health economics perspective.

    PubMed

    Alcocer, Luis; Cueto, Liliana

    2008-06-01

    The economic aspects of hypertension are critical to modern medicine. The medical, economic, and human costs of untreated and inadequately controlled hypertension are enormous. Hypertension is distributed unequally and with iniquity in different countries and regions of the world. Treatment of hypertension requires an investment over many years to prolong disease-free quality years of life. The high prevalence and high cost of the disease impacts on the microeconomics and macroeconomics of countries and regions. The criteria used for inclusion in clinical guidelines for hypertension impact on the cost and cost/utility of diagnosis or treatment. PMID:19124418

  11. Pharmacologic Management of Pediatric Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Misurac, Jason; Nichols, Kristen R; Wilson, Amy C

    2016-02-01

    Hypertension in children is common, and the prevalence of primary hypertension is increasing with the obesity epidemic and changing dietary choices. Careful measurement of blood pressure is important to correctly diagnose hypertension, as many factors can lead to inaccurate blood pressure measurement. Hypertension is diagnosed based on comparison of age-, sex-, and height-based norms with the average systolic and diastolic blood pressures on three separate occasions. In the absence of hypertensive target organ damage (TOD), stage I hypertension is managed first by diet and exercise, with the addition of drug therapy if this fails. First-line treatment of stage I hypertension with TOD and stage II hypertension includes both lifestyle changes and medications. First-line agents include angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, thiazide diuretics, and calcium-channel blockers. Hypertensive emergency with end-organ effects requires immediate modest blood pressure reduction to alleviate symptoms. This is usually accomplished with IV medications. Long-term reduction in blood pressure to normal levels is accomplished gradually. Specific medication choice for outpatient hypertension management is determined by the underlying cause of hypertension and the comparative adverse effect profiles, along with practical considerations such as cost and frequency of administration. Antihypertensive medication is initiated at a starting dose and can be gradually increased to effect. If ineffective at the recommended maximum dose, an additional medication with a complementary mechanism of action can be added. PMID:26597490

  12. Contemporary management of refractory hypertension.

    PubMed

    Alper, A B; Calhoun, D A

    1999-10-01

    Refractory or resistant hypertension is conventionally defined as systolic or diastolic blood pressure that remains uncontrolled despite sustained therapy with at least three different classes of antihypertensive agents. Refractory hypertension is estimated to affect less than 5% of the general population with hypertension; however, its prevalence increases with increasing severity of blood pressure. Patients presenting with refractory hypertension usually have progressed from mild, to moderate, to severe hypertension because of lack of or inadequate treatment. Other common contributing factors include obesity, medical nonadherence, suboptimal medical regimens, excessive dietary salt ingestion, secondary forms of hypertension, sleep apnea, and ingestion of substances that interfere with treatment. Combination therapy that includes appropriate doses of a diuretic is recommended for treatment of refractory hypertension. Use of fixed-dose combinations enhances compliance through cost savings, more convenient dosing, and reduced pill burdens. PMID:10981097

  13. Positron scattering from vinyl acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiari, L.; Zecca, A.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Brunger, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    Using a Beer-Lambert attenuation approach, we report measured total cross sections (TCSs) for positron scattering from vinyl acetate (C4H6O2) in the incident positron energy range 0.15-50 eV. In addition, we also report an independent atom model with screening corrected additivity rule computation results for the TCSs, differential and integral elastic cross sections, the positronium formation cross section and inelastic integral cross sections. The energy range of these calculations is 1-1000 eV. While there is a reasonable qualitative correspondence between measurement and calculation for the TCSs, in terms of the energy dependence of those cross sections, the theory was found to be a factor of ˜2 larger in magnitude at the lower energies, even after the measured data were corrected for the forward angle scattering effect.

  14. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, R.M.

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  15. The evolving definition of systemic arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ram, C Venkata S; Giles, Thomas D

    2010-05-01

    Systemic hypertension is an important risk factor for premature cardiovascular disease. Hypertension also contributes to excessive morbidity and mortality. Whereas excellent therapeutic options are available to treat hypertension, there is an unsettled issue about the very definition of hypertension. At what level of blood pressure should we treat hypertension? Does the definition of hypertension change in the presence of co-morbid conditions? This article covers in detail the evolving concepts in the diagnosis and management of hypertension.

  16. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  17. An update on hypertensive emergencies and urgencies.

    PubMed

    Muiesan, Maria Lorenza; Salvetti, Massimo; Amadoro, Valentina; di Somma, Salvatore; Perlini, Stefano; Semplicini, Andrea; Borghi, Claudio; Volpe, Massimo; Saba, Pier Sergio; Cameli, Matteo; Ciccone, Marco Matteo; Maiello, Maria; Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Novo, Salvatore; Palmiero, Pasquale; Scicchitano, Pietro; Rosei, Enrico Agabiti; Pedrinelli, Roberto

    2015-05-01

    Severe acute arterial hypertension is usually defined as 'hypertensive crisis', although 'hypertensive emergencies' or 'hypertensive urgencies', as suggested by the Joint National Committee and the European Society of Hypertension, have completely different diagnostic and therapeutic approaches.The prevalence and demographics of hypertensive emergencies and urgencies have changed over the last four decades, but hypertensive emergencies and urgencies are still associated with significant morbidity and mortality.Different scientific societies have repeatedly produced up-to-date guidelines; however, the treatment of hypertensive emergencies and urgencies is still inappropriate, with potential clinical implications.This review focuses on hypertensive emergencies and urgencies management and treatment, as suggested by recent data.

  18. [Pulmonary hypertension: current aspects].

    PubMed

    Tello de Meneses, R; Gómez Sánchez, M A; Delgado Jiménez, J; Gómez Pajuelo, C; Sáenz de la Calzada, C; Zarco Gutiérrez, P

    1996-08-01

    Primary pulmonary hypertension, although less frequent than secondary forms, represents the true paradigm of this disease. The recent investigations on pulmonary vascular response mechanisms to different stimuli has increased our knowledge about the mechanism of high pulmonary pressure. Molecular biology of the endothelial cell has provided evidence that endothelial injury plus a genetic individual predisposition may be the pathogenic mainstream of this disease. The histologic findings of pulmonary hypertension are still a matter of controversy, although the clinical, epidemiological and prognostic features are better defined. Therapeutically, there has been important advances, specially with various vasodilators, like calciumantagonists, prostacyclin, adenosine and nitric oxide, as well as new routes of administration. In more advance stages of the disease, atrial septostomy (only paliative) and pulmonary or cardio-pulmonary transplantation, are other therapeutic options to consider, after an adequate selection of patients.

  19. [Hyperuricemia, diabetes and hypertension].

    PubMed

    Viazzi, Francesca; Bonino, Barbara; Ratto, Elena; Desideri, Giovambattista; Pontremoli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Hyperuricemia is frequently found in association with several condition predisposing to cardiovascular events such as arterial hypertension and diabetes mellitus. This has led researchers to investigate possible pathogenetic mechanisms underlying this association. Several experimental studies and some indirect clinical evidence support a causal link between mild hyperuricemia and the developement of hypertension as well as new onset diabetes. At the tissue level, chronic exposure to increased uric acid has been shown to promote vascular changes leading to renal ischemia as well as stimulation of the renin angiotensin system. Furthermore, uric acid has been shown to promote the development of insulin resistance, hypertrglyceridemia and haepatic steatosis through pro-oxidative mechanisms. These experimental pathophysiological changes may be partly preventable by hypouricemic treatments. Whether clinical implications of these findings are confirmed by solid clinical intervention trials, mild hyperuricemia may soon change its status from risk predictor to treatment target for patients at high cardiovascular and renal risk.

  20. [Hypertensive Disorders in Pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Middeke, Martin

    2016-09-01

    In pregnancy, both mother and fetus benefit from blood pressure in normal ranges. There is discrepancy in the normenclature and thresholds for classification of hypertension in pregnancy and for initiation of antihypertensive treatment in different international guidelines. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure values that are associated with normal outcome are notably lower than any recommended treatment threshold in pregnancy. Tight blood pressure control under 85 mmHg diastolic is save and significantly prevents severe maternal hypertension as could be demonstrated in CHIPS. Close blood pressure monitoring comprising modern methods and devices including telemonitoring allows early recognition of risk developments and optimal guidance of antihypertensive therapy starting early in pregnancy. Only a few pharmacological substances are suitable for antihypertensive treatment in pregnancy. PMID:27598915

  1. Hypertension in perspective

    PubMed Central

    Terpstra, W.F.; Zijlstra, F.

    2005-01-01

    Decisions about the management of hypertensive patients should not be based on the level of blood pressure alone, but also on the presence of other risk factors, target organ damage and cardiovascular and renal disease. The results of echocardiography and carotid ultrasonography aids in the stratification of absolute cardiovascular risk as recently advocated by the guidelines of the European Society of Hypertension 2003. Therefore, the detection of target organ damage by ultrasound techniques allows an accurate identification of high-risk patients. Cardiovascular risk stratification only based on a simple routine work-up can often underestimate overall risk, thus leading to a potentially inadequate therapeutic management especially of low-medium risk patients. PMID:25696486

  2. Primary hypertension in childhood.

    PubMed

    Bucher, Barbara S; Ferrarini, Alessandra; Weber, Nico; Bullo, Marina; Bianchetti, Mario G; Simonetti, Giacomo D

    2013-10-01

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure in children and adolescents, because of its association with the obesity epidemic. Moreover, cardiovascular function and blood pressure level are determined in childhood and track into adulthood. Primary hypertension in childhood is defined by persistent blood pressure values ≥ the 95th percentile and without a secondary cause. Preventable risk factors for elevated blood pressure in childhood are overweight, dietary habits, salt intake, sedentary lifestyle, poor sleep quality and passive smoking, whereas non-preventable risk factors include race, gender, genetic background, low birth weight, prematurity, and socioeconomic inequalities. Several different pathways are implicated in the development of primary hypertension, including obesity, insulin resistance, activation of the sympathetic nervous system, alterations in sodium homeostasis, renin-angiotensin system and altered vascular function. Prevention of adult cardiovascular disease should begin in childhood by regularly screening for high blood pressure, counseling for healthy lifestyle and avoiding preventable risk factors.

  3. [Hypertension and diabetes mellitus].

    PubMed

    Araki, Shin-ichi; Maegawa, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    The goal of diabetes treatment is to maintain a quality of life. Hypertension is a common diabetes comorbidity and is a risk factor for mortality. Epidemiological studies show that blood pressure (BP) lowering is associated with improving prognosis in this population. However, recent clinical trials and meta-analyses report no benefit of an intensive BP lowering of < 130/80 mmHg on mortality and cardiovascular complications, except stroke. Furthermore, the excess BP lowering should be avoided not to increase the risk of adverse effects such as hypotension, especially in elderly patients or those with adverse vascular complications. In Japanese diabetes guidelines, a BP target of < 130/80 mmHg is still recommended in diabetic patients with hypertension because of the high incidence of stroke in Japanese.

  4. Renal denervation and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Schlaich, Markus P; Krum, Henry; Sobotka, Paul A; Esler, Murray D

    2011-06-01

    Essential hypertension remains one of the biggest challenges in medicine with an enormous impact on both individual and society levels. With the exception of relatively rare monogenetic forms of hypertension, there is now general agreement that the condition is multifactorial in nature and hence requires therapeutic approaches targeting several aspects of the underlying pathophysiology. Accordingly, all major guidelines promote a combination of lifestyle interventions and combination pharmacotherapy to reach target blood pressure (BP) levels in order to reduce overall cardiovascular risk in affected patients. Although this approach works for many, it fails in a considerable number of patients for various reasons including drug-intolerance, noncompliance, physician inertia, and others, leaving them at unacceptably high cardiovascular risk. The quest for additional therapeutic approaches to safely and effectively manage hypertension continues and expands to the reappraisal of older concepts such as renal denervation. Based on the robust preclinical and clinical data surrounding the role of renal sympathetic nerves in various aspects of BP control very recent efforts have led to the development of a novel catheter-based approach using radiofrequency (RF) energy to selectively target and disrupt the renal nerves. The available evidence from the limited number of uncontrolled hypertensive patients in whom renal denervation has been performed are auspicious and indicate that the procedure has a favorable safety profile and is associated with a substantial and presumably sustained BP reduction. Although promising, a myriad of questions are far from being conclusively answered and require our concerted research efforts to explore the full potential and possible risks of this approach. Here we briefly review the science surrounding renal denervation, summarize the current data on safety and efficacy of renal nerve ablation, and discuss some of the open questions that need

  5. [Hypertension and stress tests].

    PubMed

    Mallion, J M; Siché, J P; de Gaudemaris, R

    1989-09-15

    Stress tests have been performed for a long time in patients with coronary disease. The study of blood pressure variations, under these circumstances, is also interesting in hypertension. Several types of stress tests, dynamic and static, may be performed. Dynamic tests on ergometric bicycles are the most frequently performed. The evolution of the BP during stress increases regularly and there is a linear correlation between the BP values and the level of work as well as the heart rate (HR). It is therefore possible to individualize a reference blood pressure profile, according to age and sex. The stress may find applications from a diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic standpoint. First of all, in borderline HT, the stress test enables to confirm the HT and better differentiate between hyperemotional and hyperkinetic patients. In severe hypertension, the stress test permits to better define the magnitude of the haemodynamic disorder. In true hypertensive patients, undergoing major physical stress (work, sports...) the stress test permits to evaluate the tolerance to stress and the faculties of myocardial adaptation. From a prognostic standpoint, the incidence of permanent hypertension is 2 to 3 times higher in patients presenting an abnormal blood pressure profile. There is a significant correlation between the BP at maximum stress and the left ventricular mass index at all stages of the HT. The stress test makes it possible to better define the mode of action of antihypertensive medications, prescribe a personalized treatment according to these patients reactivity to stress and guarantee the correction of blood pressure abnormalities, since normalisation at rest does not necessarily imply a normalisation during stress. PMID:2686518

  6. [Dietary modification in hypertensives].

    PubMed

    Berg, A; Kloock, B; König, D

    2006-11-23

    Successful treatment of hypertension requires a holistic approach. In this connection, focusing on a healthy lifestyle, eating, drinking and consumption behavior and, finally, the quality of foodstuffs and the exercise habits of the patient represents an essential supplement to the classical forms of pharmaceutical treatment. The major dietary-physiological factors have been shown to be weight reduction, the monitoring of salt consumption, appropriate intake of fiber, a preference for vegetables, and a reduction of immoderate alcohol consumption.

  7. Treatment Resistant Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Egan, Brent M

    2015-11-05

    Treatment resistant hypertension (TRH) is defined by office blood pressure (BP) uncontrolled on ≥ 3 or controlled on ≥ 4 antihypertensive medications, preferably at optimal doses and including a diuretic. Apparent (a)TRH is used when optimal therapy, adherence, and measurement artifacts are unknown. Among treated hypertensives, ~30% of uncontrolled and 10% of controlled individuals have aTRH, with a higher prevalence in Blacks than other race-ethnicity groups. In ≥ 50% of aTRH patients, BP measurement artifacts ('office' TRH), suboptimal regimens, or suboptimal adherence are present, ie, pseudo-resistance. While patients with 'office' TRH have fewer cardiovascular events than those with 'true' TRH, no evidence confirms that patients with suboptimal regimens or adherence are spared. Averaging several office BPs obtained with an automated monitor can reduce 'office' TRH. Home or ambulatory BP monitoring can identify office resistance. Prescribing ≥ 3 different antihypertensive medication classes, eg, thiazide-type diuretic, renin-angiotensin blocker and calcium antagonist at ≥ 50% of maximum recommended doses reasonably defines optimal therapy. Intensifying diuretic therapy, eg, adding an aldosterone antagonist, is effective for many TRH patients who are volume expanded. Clinical information, hemodynamic and renin-guided therapeutics can inform other treatment options. Attention to adverse effects, medication costs, and pill burden can improve adherence and control. Patients with aTRH and suspected secondary hypertension should be evaluated. Interfering substances or medications should be discontinued. These approaches will identify or correct the problem in ~80% of aTRH patients. Referral to a hypertension specialist and newer therapeutic approaches are options for TRH patients who cannot take or do not respond to optimal therapy.

  8. The Misdiagnosis of Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Pickering, Thomas G.; Clemow, Lynn; Chaplin, William; Spruill, Tanya M.; Albanese, Gabrielle M.; Eguchi, Kazuo; Burg, Matthew; Gerin, William

    2016-01-01

    Background The white coat effect (defined as the difference between blood pressure [BP] measurements taken at the physician’s office and those taken outside the office) is an important determinant of misdiagnosis of hypertension, but little is known about the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. We tested the hypothesis that the white coat effect may be a conditioned response as opposed to a manifestation of general anxiety. Methods A total of 238 patients in a hypertension clinic wore ambulatory blood pressure monitors on 3 separate days 1 month apart. At each clinic visit, BP readings were manually triggered in the waiting area and the examination room (in the presence and absence of the physician) and were compared with the mercury sphygmomanometer readings taken by the physician in the examination room. Patients completed trait and state anxiety measures before and after each BP assessment. Results A total of 35% of the sample was normotensive, and 9%, 37%, and 19% had white coat, sustained, and masked hypertension, respectively. The diagnostic category was associated with the state anxiety measure (F3,237 = 6.4, P < .001) but not with the trait anxiety measure. Patients with white coat hypertension had significantly higher state anxiety scores (t = 2.67, P < .01), with the greatest difference reported during the physician measurement. The same pattern was observed for BP changes, which generally paralleled the changes in state anxiety (t = 4.86, P < .002 for systolic BP; t = 3.51, P < .002 for diastolic BP). Conclusions These findings support our hypothesis that the white coat effect is a conditioned response. The BP measurements taken by physicians appear to exacerbate the white coat effect more than other means. This problem could be addressed with uniform use of automated BP devices in office settings. PMID:19064830

  9. Definition and classification of hypertension: an update.

    PubMed

    Giles, Thomas D; Materson, Barry J; Cohn, Jay N; Kostis, John B

    2009-11-01

    Since the publication of a paper by the American Society of Hypertension, Inc. Writing Group in 2003, some refinements have occurred in the definition of hypertension. Blood pressure is now recognized as a biomarker for hypertension, and a distinction is made between the various stages of hypertension and global cardiovascular risk. This paper discusses the logic underlying the refinements in the definition of hypertension.

  10. Hypertension in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Robles, Nicolas R; Macias, Juan F

    2015-01-01

    Data collected over a 30-year period have demonstrated the increasing prevalence of hypertension with age. Aging is an inevitable part of life and brings along two inconvenient events: physiologic decline and disease state. High blood pressure (HBP) is an important risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, particularly in the elderly. It is a significant and often asymptomatic chronic disease, which requires optimal control and persistent adherence to prescribed medication to reduce the risks of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal disease. Hypertension in the elderly patients represents a management dilemma to geriatric and cardiovascular specialists and other practitioners. Furthermore, with the wide adoption of multiple drug strategies targeting subgroups of hypertensive patients with specific risk conditions to lower blood pressure (BP), difficult questions arise about how aggressive treatment of elderly patients should be. The purpose of the following chapter article is to review the pathophysiology of aging as well as the epidemiology and the clinical assessment of high blood pressure (HBP) in older people.

  11. Obesity and hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Shu-Zhong; Lu, Wen; Zong, Xue-Feng; Ruan, Hong-Yun; Liu, Yi

    2016-01-01

    The imbalance between energy intake and expenditure is the main cause of excessive overweight and obesity. Technically, obesity is defined as the abnormal accumulation of ≥20% of body fat, over the individual's ideal body weight. The latter constitutes the maximal healthful value for an individual that is calculated based chiefly on the height, age, build and degree of muscular development. However, obesity is diagnosed by measuring the weight in relation to the height of an individual, thereby determining or calculating the body mass index. The National Institutes of Health have defined 30 kg/m2 as the limit over which an individual is qualified as obese. Accordingly, the prevalence of obesity in on the increase in children and adults worldwide, despite World Health Organization warnings. The growth of obesity and the scale of associated health issues induce serious consequences for individuals and governmental health systems. Excessive overweight remains among the most neglected public health issues worldwide, while obesity is associated with increasing risks of disability, illness and death. Cardiovascular diseases, the leading cause of mortality worldwide, particularly hypertension and diabetes, are the main illnesses associated with obesity. Nevertheless, the mechanisms underlying obesity-associated hypertension or other associated metabolic diseases remains to be adequately investigated. In the present review, we addressed the association between obesity and cardiovascular disease, particularly the biological mechanisms linking obesity and hypertension. PMID:27703502

  12. [Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension].

    PubMed

    Zonzin, Pietro; Vizza, Carmine Dario; Favretto, Giuseppe

    2003-10-01

    Chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension is due to unresolved or recurrent pulmonary embolism. In the United States the estimated prevalence is 0.1-0.5% among survived patients with pulmonary embolism. The survival rate at 5 years was 30% among patients with a mean pulmonary artery pressure > 40 mmHg at the time of diagnosis and only 10% among those with a value > 50 mmHg. The interval between the onset of disturbances and the diagnosis may be as long as 3 years. Doppler echocardiography permits to establish the diagnosis of pulmonary hypertension. Radionuclide scanning determines whether pulmonary hypertension has a thromboembolic basis. Right heart catheterization and pulmonary angiography are performed in order to establish the extension and the accessibility to surgery of thrombi and to rule out other causes. The surgical treatment is thromboendarterectomy. A dramatic reduction in the pulmonary vascular resistance can be achieved; corresponding improvements in the NYHA class--from class III or IV before surgery to class I-II after surgery--are usually observed. Patients who are not considered candidates for thromboendarterectomy may be considered candidates for lung transplantation. PMID:14664293

  13. [Arterial hypertension in children].

    PubMed

    Mota-Hernández, F

    1993-07-01

    It is considered hypertension in children, the persistent increase of the blood pressure values above percentile 95 for age and sex, in no less than three determinations, with adequate register techniques. Blood pressure is maintained mainly by the regulation of metabolism of sodium and water in the intravascular space, through the adequate balance of intake, filtration, reabsorption and renal throughout. It is also regulated by hormonal factors. Weight gain control in teen-agers could be useful to prevent high blood pressure in adults. In children, it is generally secondary to renal, reno-vascular, endocrinological or tumoral diseases. Clinical manifestations and the recommended diagnostic procedures are analysed to detect the most frequent causes of hypertension at different ages. Most cases response with antihypertensive drugs in combination with hyposodic diet. For the hypertensive crisis, asa diuretics and powerful antihypertensive drugs may be employed. Patients with chronic renal insufficiency could also need dialytic treatments. Renovascular diseases require almost always invasive treatments. Better prognosis in children with severe high blood pressure is related with recent diagnostic procedures, surgical techniques and antihypertensive drugs improvements.

  14. Hypertension in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Coope, J

    1987-08-01

    Hypertension is a common finding in patients aged over 60 years, but the following questions need answering. How dangerous is it? Will lowering the blood pressure reduce the attendant risks? What is the 'cost' of such treatment in terms of side effects, drug-induced disease and health service finance? Two recently completed trials throw light on these problems: EWPHE (European Working Party on Hypertension in the Elderly), a European study based on hospital-clinic attenders, using a diuretic backed up with methyldopa; and HEP (randomized trial of treatment of Hypertension in Elderly Patients in Primary Care), based on general-practice screening in England and Wales using atenolol and bendrofluazide. The results of these trials were compared and the findings were broadly similar in the two studies. Some of the differences may be due to the different selection of patients. It is concluded that elderly patients with sustained blood pressures greater or equal to 170/90 mmHg would benefit from treatment by substantial reduction of stroke. Diuretics or beta-blockers, alone or together, are acceptable treatments in elderly subjects. PMID:3312529

  15. Hypertensive diseases of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    1991-01-01

    A meeting in Singapore of principal investigators from 7 countries in a WHO collaborative study on hypertensive disease of pregnancy, also called pre-eclampsia or eclampsia, pointed out women at risk, suggested management guidelines, and summarized operations research projects involving administration of aspirin or calcium supplements. Hypertensive disease of pregnancy may ultimately end in fatal seizures. It is often marked by warning signs of severe headaches and facial and peripheral edema. A survey in Jamaica found that 0.72% of a group of 10,000 pregnant women had eclamptic seizures. These were the cause of almost one-third of all obstetric deaths in the period 1981-1983. 10.4% of the pregnant women had hypertension, and half of these had proteinuria. Associated risk factors were primigravida, age 30, abnormal weight gain, edema, 1+ proteinuria. A phased program of management guidelines for identifying and treating affected women is being instituted in half of Jamaica's parishes. An operations research project involves administration of low-dose aspirin vs. placebo. Another controlled trial, in Peru, is testing calcium supplements. A third trial in Argentina will compare 2 drug regimens.

  16. Hypertension in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, M Mohsen; Damasceno, Albertino

    2012-08-11

    Data from different national and regional surveys show that hypertension is common in developing countries, particularly in urban areas, and that rates of awareness, treatment, and control are low. Several hypertension risk factors seem to be more common in developing countries than in developed regions. Findings from serial surveys show an increasing prevalence of hypertension in developing countries, possibly caused by urbanisation, ageing of population, changes to dietary habits, and social stress. High illiteracy rates, poor access to health facilities, bad dietary habits, poverty, and high costs of drugs contribute to poor blood pressure control. The health system in many developing countries is inadequate because of low funds, poor infrastructure, and inexperience. Priority is given to acute disorders, child and maternal health care, and control of communicable diseases. Governments, together with medical societies and non-governmental organisations, should support and promote preventive programmes aiming to increase public awareness, educate physicians, and reduce salt intake. Regulations for the food industry and the production and availability of generic drugs should be reinforced. PMID:22883510

  17. Physiological mechanisms of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    MacIver, David H; Adeniran, Ismail; MacIver, Iain R; Revell, Alistair; Zhang, Henggui

    2016-10-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is usually related to obstruction of pulmonary blood flow at the level of the pulmonary arteries (eg, pulmonary embolus), pulmonary arterioles (idiopathic pulmonary hypertension), pulmonary veins (pulmonary venoocclusive disease) or mitral valve (mitral stenosis and regurgitation). Pulmonary hypertension is also observed in heart failure due to left ventricle myocardial diseases regardless of the ejection fraction. Pulmonary hypertension is often regarded as a passive response to the obstruction to pulmonary flow. We review established fluid dynamics and physiology and discuss the mechanisms underlying pulmonary hypertension. The important role that the right ventricle plays in the development and maintenance of pulmonary hypertension is discussed. We use principles of thermodynamics and discuss a potential common mechanism for a number of disease states, including pulmonary edema, through adding pressure energy to the pulmonary circulation. PMID:27659877

  18. Renal implications of arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ruilope, L M

    1997-03-01

    Renal vascular damage caused by arterial hypertension participates in alterations of the systemic vascular function and structure. Nephrosclerosis seems to run in parallel with the systemic atherosclerosis that accounts for the increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality seen in hypertensive patients. Parameters indicating the existence of an alteration in renal function (increased serum creatinine, proteinuria and microalbuminuria) are independent predictors for an increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Hence, parameters of renal function must be considered in any stratification of cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients.

  19. Vascular Inflammatory Cells in Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, David G.; Marvar, Paul J.; Titze, Jens M.

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension is a common disorder with uncertain etiology. In the last several years, it has become evident that components of both the innate and adaptive immune system play an essential role in hypertension. Macrophages and T cells accumulate in the perivascular fat, the heart and the kidney of hypertensive patients, and in animals with experimental hypertension. Various immunosuppressive agents lower blood pressure and prevent end-organ damage. Mice lacking lymphocytes are protected against hypertension, and adoptive transfer of T cells, but not B cells in the animals restores their blood pressure response to stimuli such as angiotensin II or high salt. Recent studies have shown that mice lacking macrophages have blunted hypertension in response to angiotensin II and that genetic deletion of macrophages markedly reduces experimental hypertension. Dendritic cells have also been implicated in this disease. Many hypertensive stimuli have triggering effects on the central nervous system and signals arising from the circumventricular organ seem to promote inflammation. Studies have suggested that central signals activate macrophages and T cells, which home to the kidney and vasculature and release cytokines, including IL-6 and IL-17, which in turn cause renal and vascular dysfunction and lead to blood pressure elevation. These recent discoveries provide a new understanding of hypertension and provide novel therapeutic opportunities for treatment of this serious disease. PMID:22586409

  20. The kidney and arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ruilope, L M; Campo, C; Lahera, V

    1993-01-01

    It has been known for some time that a relationship exists between the kidney and blood pressure. The renal origin of arterial hypertension has been demonstrated in different animal models resembling human hypertension, with data from humans seeming to confirm this hypothesis. On the other hand, the renal vasculature also suffers the consequences of arterial hypertension, and renal insufficiency can develop as a result of elevated blood pressure levels. Antihypertensive therapy can prevent the development of renal damage secondary to hypertension. For example, calcium antagonists possess specific renal effects that not only facilitate their antihypertensive capacity but also protect the kidney from the development of renal failure.

  1. Renal denervation for resistant hypertension.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Manuel de Sousa; Gonçalves, Pedro de Araújo; Oliveira, Eduardo Infante de; Carvalho, Henrique Cyrne de

    2015-02-01

    There is a marked contrast between the high prevalence of hypertension and the low rates of adequate control. A subset of patients with suboptimal blood pressure control have drug-resistant hypertension, in the pathophysiology of which chronic sympathetic hyperactivation is significantly involved. Sympathetic renal denervation has recently emerged as a device-based treatment for resistant hypertension. In this review, the pathophysiological mechanisms linking the sympathetic nervous system and cardiovascular disease are reviewed, focusing on resistant hypertension and the role of sympathetic renal denervation. An update on experimental and clinical results is provided, along with potential future indications for this device-based technique in other cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Epidemiology and Genetics of Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Taposh; Singh, Narinder Pal

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of hypertension is increasing in India as well as in the world. The average prevalence of hypertension in India is 25-30%. The median prevalence of total hypertension in 2009 was 37.6% in men and 40.1% in women in U.S. Hypertension is a major risk factor for majority of patients with cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal morbidity and mortality. Environmental factors as well as genetic factors account for regulation of blood pressure and its control. Understanding of genetic factor may not only help in recognising those at risk but also help in treatment. Discovering hypertension susceptibility genes would help recognizing those at risk for developing the disease before the expression of clinical symptoms. Genetic and epidemiological studies have suggested that essential hypertension is a polygenic and multifactorial disorder that results from genetic and/or environmental factors. In India awareness, treatment and control status of hypertension is low, with only half of the urban and a quarter of the rural hypertensive individuals being aware of its presence. In this review we have discussed epidemiology and genetics of hypertension, both the monogenic and polygenic forms. PMID:27608868

  3. [Masked hypertension: myth or reality?].

    PubMed

    Mallion, Jean-Michel; Ormezzano, Olivier; Barone-Rochette, Gilles; Neuder, Yannick; Salvat, Muriel; Baguet, Jean-Philippe

    2008-06-01

    Masked hypertension is also referred as reverse white coat hypertension. Masked hypertension is diagnosed in subjects who have normal clinic blood pressure (BP) <140/90 mmHg and elevated ambulatory BP or home BP, with daytime systolic BP> or = 135 mmHg or daytime diastolic BP > or = 85 mmHg. Its prevalence varies between 10 to at least 47% and differs substantially according to the reference population and the specific criteria.Subjects with masked hypertension have been shown to have more extensive target organ damage, specifically, a higher prevalence of carotid atherosclerosis and of left ventricular cardiac hypertrophy. Longitudinal studies of patients with masked hypertension show higher levels of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality than in reference populations. These studies show that ambulatory or home BP measurements predict risk much better than the usual clinical measurements and that those who are found to be hypertensive by ambulatory or home measurements have greater risks than those who are not. Who should be tested for masked hypertension? Our reference study shows that 3 characteristics are most likely to predict masked hypertension: male sex, age over 60 years, and office systolic BP of more than 130 mmHg. Masked hypertension is indeed a reality. Individual patients should be tested and treated, based on the physician's clinical judgment.

  4. Hyperuricemia and uncontrolled hypertension in treated hypertensive patients

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Jaelim; Kim, Changsoo; Kang, Dae Ryong; Park, Jeong Bae

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Previous epidemiological studies have suggested that uric acid is an independent risk factor for incident hypertension, whereas few studies have evaluated the effect of hyperuricemia on blood pressure control in hypertensive patients. We investigated whether hyperuricemia predicts uncontrolled hypertension through a large-scale prospective cohort study with hypertensive patients treated with fimasartan in the Republic of Korea (the Kanarb–Metabolic Syndrome study). Of the 10,601 hypertensive patients who were recruited from 582 private clinics and 11 university hospitals at baseline, 7725 completed the follow-up after 3 months of fimasartan medication, and 6506 were included in the analysis after excluding those with missing values. We estimated the risk of uncontrolled hypertension after 3 months (≥130/80 mm Hg in those with diabetes or chronic renal failure and ≥140/90 mm Hg in the remaining patients) related with baseline hyperuricemia (serum uric acid ≥7 mg/dL in males ≥6 mg/dL in females) using multiple logistic regression models. Hyperuricemia increased the risk of uncontrolled hypertension after 3 months of fimasartan medication (odds ratio, 1.247; 95% confidence interval, 1.063–1.462). Males in the highest quartile of uric acid level were at a 1.322 (95% confidence interval, 1.053–1.660) times higher risk of uncontrolled hypertension in reference to the lowest quartile; the same analyses in females were not significant. Patients without metabolic syndrome had significantly higher odds of uncontrolled hypertension with hyperuricemia (odds ratio, 1.328; 95% confidence interval, 1.007–1.751). Hyperuricemia predicted uncontrolled hypertension even after 3 months of fimasartan treatment in hypertensive patients. PMID:27428212

  5. [Abiraterone acetate: a novel therapeutic option in hormone-refractory prostate cancer].

    PubMed

    Turitto, Giacinto; Di Bisceglie, Maurizio; Moraca, Lucia; Sasso, Nicola; Sepede, Carmela; Suriano, Angela; Romito, Sante

    2012-02-01

    Until recently, only therapy with docetaxel and prednisone has been shown to prolong survival in men with hormonorefractory metastatic prostate cancer. With approvals of sipuleucel-T, cabazitaxel, and abiraterone acetate, all based on improvement in overall survival, the scenary for management of men with metastatic prostate cancer has dramatically changed. Abiraterone acetate was developed to specifically inhibit cytochrome P450 (CYP)17A1, which is an essential enzyme in the biosynthesis of testosterone. In the phase III, the trial treatment with abiraterone acetate plus prednisone prolongs overall survival relative to prednisone alone in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer who have disease progression after treatment with docetaxel and associated with an acceptable tolerability profile, which was generally similar to that of the placebo plus prednisone group. However, adverse events resulting from elevated mineralocorticoid levels because of CYP17A1 inhibition, fluid retention and oedema, hypokalaemia, hypertension occurred in significantly more in abiraterone acetate plus prednisone than in placebo plus prednisone.

  6. Genetics Home Reference: pulmonary arterial hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... Primary pulmonary hypertension 2 Primary pulmonary hypertension 3 Primary pulmonary hypertension 4 ClinicalTrials.gov (1 link) ClinicalTrials.gov Scientific articles on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (4 links) ...

  7. Conversion to eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy

    PubMed Central

    French, Jacqueline; Jacobson, Mercedes P.; Pazdera, Ladislav; Gough, Mallory; Cheng, Hailong; Grinnell, Todd; Blum, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) monotherapy. Methods: This post hoc pooled analysis of 2 randomized double-blind studies (093-045 and -046) included adults with partial-onset seizures medically uncontrolled by 1 or 2 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Following the baseline period (8 weeks), eligible patients were randomized 2:1 to receive ESL 1,600 mg or 1,200 mg once daily for 18 weeks; the primary endpoint was study exit by meeting predefined exit criteria (signifying worsening seizure control). In each study, treatment was considered effective if the upper 95% confidence limit for exit rate was lower than the historical control threshold (65.3%). Results: Pooled exit rates were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 20.6% (95% confidence interval: 15.6%–26.8%); ESL 1,200 mg = 30.8% (23.0%–40.5%). Use of 2 baseline AEDs or rescue medication, US location, epilepsy duration ≥20 years, and higher maximum baseline seizure frequency were associated with higher exit risks. Median percent reductions in standardized seizure frequency between baseline and the 18-week double-blind period were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 43.2%; ESL 1,200 mg = 35.7%; baseline carbamazepine use was associated with smaller reductions. Safety profiles were similar between ESL doses. Conclusions: Exit rates for ESL monotherapy (1,600 mg and 1,200 mg once daily) were lower than the historical control threshold, irrespective of baseline AED use and region, with no additional safety concerns identified. Clinical factors and location clearly influence treatment responses in conversion-to-monotherapy trials. Classification of evidence: This pooled analysis provides Class IV evidence that for adults with medically uncontrolled partial-onset seizures, ESL monotherapy is well tolerated and effective. PMID:26911639

  8. Intravitreal injection of octreotide acetate.

    PubMed

    Robertson, J E; Westra, I; Woltering, E A; Winthrop, K L; Barrie, R; O'Dorisio, T M; Holmes, D

    1997-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the feasibility of injecting the somatostatin analogue, octreotide acetate (OA), into the vitreous cavity. Previous work suggests that octreotide effectively inhibits angiogenesis in vitro, thus its use in vivo may slow the progression of proliferative eye disease. Fifty micrograms of aqueous OA in 50 microliters aqueous solution was injected into the mid-vitreous of kitten eyes (n = 6), and OA levels were monitored over 4 days. A long-acting release form of octreotide (OA-LAR) was also injected into the mid-vitreous of rabbit eyes at doses of 0.36 (n = 16), 1.1 (n = 1), 2.1 (n = 1), 4.05 (n = 1), 8.2 (n = 1), and 36 mg (n = 3) in solution; and octreotide concentrations were measured at various time points over 42 days. OA concentrations were determined by a highly specific radioimmunoassay. Aqueous octreotide was eliminated rapidly (t1/2 = 16 hours) from the vitreous of the kitten eye, with only negligible amounts recoverable 4 days post-injection. In the long-acting form, OA in the rabbit eye reached peak levels at 28 days. By 42 days, OA levels had declined to the 14-day level. Doses of OA-LAR of 1.1 mg or less produced no gross evidence of clinical toxicity and elicited no grossly visible ocular side effects. Doses greater than 1.1 mg produced significant toxicity, including cataracts and rubeosis. The 28-day peak release for long-acting OA implies that monthly intravitreal injections could provide continual high levels of OA. Intravitreal injection of long-acting OA provides sustained, high concentrations of drug, and deserves further study as a potential treatment of proliferative eye diseases.

  9. Pheochromocytoma induced hypertension.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Deborah

    2010-12-01

    Pheochromocytoma (Pheo) is a rare tumor that develops in the core of a chromaffin cell. This article will focus on pheochromocytoma and its affect on the heart. Because the signs and symptoms of a pheochromocytoma are those of the sympathetic nervous system, this tumor is hard to detect and might not be considered early on. In addition, there are many common deferential diagnoses that may lead to a delay of the correct diagnosis of a pheochromocytoma. Uncontrollable hypertension is one of the primary effects of pheochromocytoma. A severe increase in blood pressure (hypertensive crisis) may occur and this can be a life threatening condition that leads to stroke or arrhythmias. African-Americans are disproportionately affected by hypertension and they often go undiagnosed because of a lack of resources or access to care. This tumor is difficult to detect and its effects often mimic many other diagnoses, which often leads to this tumor being a late consideration. The long-term effects of a pheochromocytoma can lead to damage to the heart muscle, congestive heart failure (CHF), increased risk of diabetes, and even death. Nurses need to be aware of the key signs and symptoms of a pheochromocytoma, and to know when testing for this tumor what symptoms should be considered. Patients who suffer from a diagnosis of this tumor need a lot of emotional support and they must follow a strict diet and medication regimen. Nurses can play a vital role in raising awareness in our community about this tumor as well as being a patient advocate. PMID:21516925

  10. Fragrance material review on 3-phenylpropyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 3-phenylpropyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 3-Phenylpropyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 3-phenylpropyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and toxicokinetics data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al., 2012 for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  11. Fragrance material review on anisyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of anisyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Anisyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for anisyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, skin irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, and phototoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al., 2012 for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  12. Fragrance material review on piperonyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of piperonyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Piperonyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for piperonyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  13. Fragrance material review on 2-phenylpropyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-phenylpropyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Phenylpropyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-phenylpropyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  14. Fragrance material review on 4-methylbenzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 4-methylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 4-Methylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 4-methylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and elicitation data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  15. Exercise hypertension: an adverse prognosis?

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan G; Rubin, Stanley A; Ellestad, Myrvin H

    2009-01-01

    We sought to clarify the prognostic importance of an "exaggerated" or "hypertensive" systolic blood pressure response to exercise during an exercise test. Studies evaluating the prognosis for cardiovascular events and cardiovascular mortality in those with hypertension during exercise testing were systematically reviewed. Fourteen studies were identified. Six studies were of healthy volunteers or hypertensives. Eight studies were in subjects with known or suspected heart disease. Without established heart disease, exercise hypertension predicted cardiovascular events and cardiovascular death. However, two of the six studies included a multivariate analysis; both demonstrated no independent association. Studies in subjects with known or suspected heart disease demonstrated that exercise hypertension predicted fewer cardiac events and lesser mortality or, after multivariate adjustment, no associated risk. In a healthy population, a higher exercise blood pressure may indicate hypertension or prehypertension, instead of normal vascular function, and an associated long-term adverse prognosis. In a population with a high burden of heart disease, the highest risk subjects with the most extensive cardiac disease may not be capable of generating pressure or workload to allow the manifestation of exercise systolic hypertension. By comparison, therefore, those with exercise hypertension have a better prognosis. PMID:20409979

  16. Endocrine hypertension – Cushing's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Yashpal; Kotwal, Narendra; Menon, A. S.

    2011-01-01

    Hypertension is a major and frequent comorbid finding of Cushing's syndrome. This review discusses the etiology and pathophysiology of hypertension in Cushing's syndrome, while suggesting methods of management of this condition. It also provides an overview of diagnosis and management strategies in this disease. PMID:22145133

  17. The Immune System in Hypertension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trott, Daniel W.; Harrison, David G.

    2014-01-01

    While hypertension has predominantly been attributed to perturbations of the vasculature, kidney, and central nervous system, research for almost 50 yr has shown that the immune system also contributes to this disease. Inflammatory cells accumulate in the kidneys and vasculature of humans and experimental animals with hypertension and likely…

  18. [Resistant hypertension: evaluation and treatment].

    PubMed

    Girerd, Xavier; Rosenbaum, David; Villeneuve, Frédéric

    2009-04-01

    Treatment resistant hypertension is defined as a blood pressure not achieving a goal blood pressure (< 140/90 mm Hg). The diagnosis of resistant hypertension requires use of good blood pressure technique to confirm persistently elevated blood pressure levels. Pseudoresistance, including lack of blood pressure control secondary to poor medication adherence or white coat hypertension, must be excluded. The evaluation of patients with resistant hypertension is focused on identifying contributing and secondary causes of hypertension which are guided by the clinical feature of hypertension: metabolic (obstructive sleep apnea, kidney disease), vascular (renal artery atheroma stenosis), endocrine (hyperaldosteronism), familial (renal artery fibrodyspalsia, adrenal causes). Treatment includes removal of contributing factors, appropriate management of secondary causes, and use of effective multidrug regimens. Three antihypertensive medications including ARB or ACEI in addition to calcium channel blocker and to thiazide diuretics is able to control 75% of hypertensive subjects when prescribed in effective doses. The addition of low dose spironolactone to this triple treatment induces significant BP reduction in most patients with resistant hypertension. PMID:19297124

  19. Hypertension, Anti-Hypertensive Medication Use, and Risk of Psoriasis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shaowei; Han, Jiali; Li, Wen-Qing; Qureshi, Abrar A.

    2014-01-01

    Importance Individuals with psoriasis are shown to have an elevated risk of hypertension, and anti-hypertensive medications, especially beta-blockers, have been linked to psoriasis development. However, the association of prior existing hypertension and anti-hypertensive medications with risk of incident psoriasis has not been accessed using prospective data. Objective To evaluate the association of hypertension and anti-hypertensive medications with risk of psoriasis based on data from the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS). Design Prospective cohort study (1996–2008). Setting Nurses’ Health Study. Participants A total of 77,728 U.S. women who provided biennially updated data on hypertension and anti-hypertensive medications. Main Outcome and Measure Physician-diagnosed psoriasis. Results We documented a total of 843 incident psoriasis cases during 1,066,339 person-years of follow-up. Compared to normotensive women, women with hypertension duration more than 6 years were at a higher risk of developing psoriasis [HR=1.27, 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.03–1.57]. In stratified analysis, the risk of psoriasis was higher among hypertensive women without medication [HR=1.49, 95% CI, 1.15–1.92] and among hypertensive women with current medication [HR=1.31, 95% CI, 1.10–1.55] when compared to normotensive participants without medication. Compared to women who never used beta-blockers, the multivariate HRs for psoriasis were 1.11 (95% CI, 0.82–1.51) for women who regularly used 1–2 years, 1.06 (95% CI, 0.79–1.40) for 3–5 years, and 1.39 (95% CI, 1.11–1.73) for 6 or more years (P for trend=0.009). There was no association between other individual anti-hypertensive drugs and risk of psoriasis. Conclusions Long-term hypertensive status is associated with an increased risk of psoriasis. Long-term regular use of beta-blockers may also increase the risk of psoriasis. PMID:24990147

  20. Exercise, the Brain, and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Peri-Okonny, Poghni; Fu, Qi; Zhang, Rong; Vongpatanasin, Wanpen

    2015-10-01

    Exercise training is the cornerstone in the prevention and management of hypertension and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, blood pressure (BP) response to exercise is exaggerated in hypertension often to the range that raises the safety concern, which may prohibit patients from regular exercise. This augmented pressor response is shown to be related to excessive sympathetic stimulation caused by overactive muscle reflex. Exaggerated sympathetic-mediated vasoconstriction further contributes to the rise in BP during exercise in hypertension. Exercise training has been shown to reduce both exercise pressor reflex and attenuate the abnormal vasoconstriction. Hypertension also contributes to cognitive impairment, and exercise training has been shown to improve cognitive function through both BP-dependent and BP-independent pathways. Additional studies are still needed to determine if newer modes of exercise training such as high-intensity interval training may offer advantages over traditional continuous moderate training in improving BP and brain health in hypertensive patients.

  1. Acetate limitation and nitrite accumulation during denitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, J.; Silverstein, J.

    1999-03-01

    Nitrite accumulated in denitrifying activated sludge mixed liquor when the carbon and electron source, acetate, was limited. If acetate was added to obtain a carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratio in the range of 2:1 to 3:1, nitrate was completely consumed at the same rate with no nitrite accumulation, indicating that nitrate concentration controlled the respiration rate as long as sufficient substrate was present. However, when acetate was reduced to a C:N ratio of 1:1, while nitrate continued to be consumed, > 50% of the initial nitrate-nitrogen accumulated as nitrite and 29% persisted as nitrite throughout an endogenous denitrification period of 8--9 h. While nitrite accumulated during acetate-limited denitrification, the specific nitrate reduction rate increased significantly compared with the rate when excess acetate was provided as follows: 0.034 mg-NO{sub 3}-N/mg-mixed liquid volatile suspended solids/h versus 0.023 mg-NO{sub 3}-N/mg-mixed liquid volatile suspended solids/h, respective. This may be explained by nitrate respiration out-competing nitrite respiration for limited acetate electrons. Complete restoration of balanced denitrification and elimination of nitrite accumulation during denitrification required several weeks after the C:N ratio was increased back to 2:1.

  2. Segmental portal hypertension.

    PubMed Central

    Madsen, M S; Petersen, T H; Sommer, H

    1986-01-01

    Isolated obstruction of the splenic vein leads to segmental portal hypertension, which is a rare form of extrahepatic portal hypertension, but it is important to diagnose, since it can be cured by splenectomy. In a review of the English literature, 209 patients with isolated splenic vein obstruction were found. Pancreatitis caused 65% of the cases and pancreatic neoplasms 18%, whereas the rest was caused by various other diseases. Seventy-two per cent of the patients bled from gastroesophageal varices, and most often the bleeding came from isolated gastric varices. The spleen was enlarged in 71% of the patients. A correct diagnosis in connection with the first episode of bleeding was made in only 49%; 22% were operated on because of gastrointestinal bleeding, but the cause of bleeding was not found. The diagnosis should be suspected in patients with gastroesophageal varices, but without signs of a liver disease, especially if isolated gastric varices are found. The diagnosis is confirmed by portography. Images FIG. 1. FIG. 2. PMID:3729585

  3. Hypertension in blacks: clinical overview.

    PubMed

    Hildreth, C; Saunders, E

    1991-01-01

    Although the decline in stroke and other cardiovascular morbid and mortal events has been occurring since the 1940s, the steeper decline since 1968 has been attributed to improved hypertension awareness, treatment, and control. However, in spite of this encouraging trend from the population in general, surveys from the 1970s and our more recent survey from the Maryland Hypertension Program indicate that hypertension control among blacks remains unacceptably poor, particularly in view of the high prevalence. Of special concern are black men, who have the highest prevalence of any group and the poorest control rate (see Tables 6-1 through 6-4). According to Gillum and Gillum, "High rates of non-compliance with follow-up and drug therapy seriously compromised the efforts of community-wide programs. Indeed, non-compliance with therapeutic or preventive health advice is now the major barrier to effective hypertension control in the United States." Impediments to ideal hypertension control in black communities can be divided into three categories 1. Severity of hypertension in blacks. 2. Barriers related to the medical care system, including inadequate financial resources (see also Chapter 5), inconveniently located health care facilities, long waiting times, and inaccessibility to health education, specifically as it relates to hypertension. 3. Barriers related to the social, psychosocial, and sociopolitical environment, which include problems of underemployment, unemployment, racism, and strained racial relationships. In summary, one could say that, in spite of generally improved hypertension control in the United States, the group that has the worse problems (blacks, especially males) is not benefiting as much as the general population. The strategy for treating black patients with hypertension is little different from that applied to all other patients. However, consideration must be given to the patients' lifestyle. The cultural differences in diet especially must

  4. The hypertension-diabetes continuum.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Bernard M Y

    2010-04-01

    Hypertension and type 2 diabetes are both common chronic conditions that affect a major proportion of the general population. They tend to occur in the same individual, suggesting common predisposing factors, which can be genetic or environmental. Although the genes causing hypertension or diabetes await elucidation, the environmental causes of these diseases are well known. Obesity and physical activity are the 2 leading factors that predispose to both diseases. Individuals with abdominal obesity are likely to develop lipid abnormalities and elevation of blood pressure and glucose. In time, hypertension and diabetes ensue. Because of the shared etiology, there is substantial overlap between hypertension and diabetes. In the Hong Kong Cardiovascular Risk Factor Prevalence Study, 40% of the subjects in the community had either raised blood pressure or raised blood glucose. Only 42% of people with diabetes had normal blood pressure and only 56% of people with hypertension had normal glucose tolerance. The presence of hypertension or diabetes should alert the clinician to the possibility of the other condition. Obesity, lipid abnormalities, raised blood pressure, and glucose are all components of the metabolic syndrome. The syndrome therefore implies a pathologic process, which is potentially reversible in the early stages. Previous efforts targeting smoking, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia have started to bear fruit. However, obesity is on the increase in developed and developing countries. It is now time to focus on obesity and the metabolic syndrome, which require more a public health than a pharmacologic approach. PMID:20422737

  5. Hypertension in Patients with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Vinicius Barbosa; Silva, Eduardo Nani; Ribeiro, Mario Luiz; Martins, Wolney de Andrade

    2015-01-01

    There is a known association between chemotherapy and radiotherapy for treatment of cancer patients and development or worsening of hypertension. The aim of this article is to review this association. A literature search was conducted for articles reporting this association on the databases PubMed, SciELO and LILACS between 1993 and 2013. There was a high coprevalence of hypertension and cancer, since both diseases share the same risk factors, such as sedentary lifestyle, obesity, smoking, unhealthy diet and alcohol abuse. The use of chemotherapy and adjuvant drugs effective in the treatment of cancer increased the survival rate of these patients and, consequently, increased the incidence of hypertension. We described the association between the use of angiogenesis inhibitors (bevacizumab, sorafenib and sunitinib), corticosteroids, erythropoietin and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs with the development of hypertension. We also described the relationship between hypertension and carotid baroreceptor injury secondary to cervical radiotherapy. Morbidity and mortality increased in patients with cancer and hypertension without proper antihypertensive treatment. We concluded that there is need for early diagnosis, effective monitoring and treatment strategies for hypertension in cancer patients in order to reduce cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. PMID:25742420

  6. Dermatoglyphics in hypertension: a review.

    PubMed

    Wijerathne, Buddhika T B; Meier, Robert J; Agampodi, Thilini C; Agampodi, Suneth B

    2015-08-12

    Hypertension is a major contributor to the global burden of disease and mortality. A major medical advancement would be a better means to ascertain which persons are at higher risk for becoming hypertensive beforehand. To that end, there have been a number of studies showing that certain dermatoglyphic markers are associated with hypertension. This association could be explained if the risk toward developing hypertension later on in life is somehow connected with fetal development of dermatoglyphics. It would be highly valuable from a clinical standpoint if this conjecture could be substantiated since dermatoglyphic markers could then be used for screening out individuals who might be at an elevated risk of becoming hypertensive. The aim of this review was to search for and appraise available studies that pertain to the association between hypertension and dermatoglyphics.A systematic literature search conducted using articles from MEDLINE (PubMed), Trip, Cochran, Google scholar, and gray literature until December 2014. Of the 37 relevant publications, 17 were included in the review. The review performed according to the preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement.This review showed a fairly consistent finding of an increased frequency of whorl patterns along with a higher mean total ridge count in digital dermatoglyphic results in hypertensive samples compared to controls. However, it was imperative to discuss several limitations found in the studies that could make this association as yet unsettled.

  7. Effects of intrathecal kynurenate on arterial pressure during chronic osmotic stress in conscious rats

    PubMed Central

    Veitenheimer, Britta

    2013-01-01

    Increased plasma osmolality elevates mean arterial pressure (MAP) through activation of the sympathetic nervous system, but the neurotransmitters released in the spinal cord to regulate MAP during osmotic stress remain unresolved. Glutamatergic neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla project to sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord and are likely activated during conditions of osmotic stress; however, this has not been examined in conscious rats. This study investigated whether increased MAP during chronic osmotic stress depends on activation of spinal glutamate receptors. Rats were chronically instrumented with an indwelling intrathecal (i.t.) catheter for antagonist delivery to the spinal cord and a radiotelemetry transmitter for continuous monitoring of MAP and heart rate. Osmotic stress induced by 48 h of water deprivation (WD) increased MAP by ∼15 mmHg. Intrathecal kynurenic acid, a nonspecific antagonist of ionotropic glutamate receptors, decreased MAP significantly more after 48 h of WD compared with the water-replete state. Water-deprived rats also showed a greater fall in MAP in response to i.t. 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate. Finally, i.t. kynurenic acid also decreased MAP more in an osmotically driven model of neurogenic hypertension, the DOCA-salt rat, compared with normotensive controls. Our results suggest that spinally released glutamate mediates increased MAP during 48-h WD and DOCA-salt hypertension. PMID:23161878

  8. The immune system in hypertension.

    PubMed

    Trott, Daniel W; Harrison, David G

    2014-03-01

    While hypertension has predominantly been attributed to perturbations of the vasculature, kidney, and central nervous system, research for almost 50 yr has shown that the immune system also contributes to this disease. Inflammatory cells accumulate in the kidneys and vasculature of humans and experimental animals with hypertension and likely contribute to end-organ damage. We and others have shown that mice lacking adaptive immune cells, including recombinase-activating gene-deficient mice and rats and mice with severe combined immunodeficiency have blunted hypertension to stimuli such as ANG II, high salt, and norepinephrine. Adoptive transfer of T cells restores the blood pressure response to these stimuli. Agonistic antibodies to the ANG II receptor, produced by B cells, contribute to hypertension in experimental models of preeclampsia. The central nervous system seems important in immune cell activation, because lesions in the anteroventral third ventricle block hypertension and T cell activation in response to ANG II. Likewise, genetic manipulation of reactive oxygen species in the subfornical organ modulates both hypertension and immune cell activation. Current evidence indicates that the production of cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-17, and interleukin-6, contribute to hypertension, likely via effects on both the kidney and vasculature. In addition, the innate immune system also appears to contribute to hypertension. We propose a working hypothesis linking the sympathetic nervous system, immune cells, production of cytokines, and, ultimately, vascular and renal dysfunction, leading to the augmentation of hypertension. Studies of immune cell activation will clearly be useful in understanding this common yet complex disease.

  9. [Update arterial hypertension 2015].

    PubMed

    Rickenbacher, Peter

    2015-04-22

    Hypertension, defined as office blood pressure of ≥140 mmHg systolic and/or ≥90 mmHg diastolic, is prevalent and one of the most important risk factors for disease and premature death. Diagnostic evaluation includes risk stratification regarding other cardiovascular risk factors, cardiovascular disease and asymptomatic organ damage. Currently, treatment is generally recommended with blood pressure ≥140/90 mmHg with the goal of reducing values below these limits also in high risk patients. Exceptions concern patients with advanced age or diabetes. Treatment involves lifestyle changes, anthypertensive drugs and in the future probably interventional techniques. This mini-review summarizes selected and practically relevant diagnostic and therapeutic aspects from recent international guidelines.

  10. Pulmonary arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ≥ 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ≤ 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role

  11. Treatment of pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Rajendrakumar; Aronow, Wilbert S.; Patel, Laxeshkumar; Gandhi, Kaushang; Desai, Harit; Kaul, Dhiraj; Sahgal, Sumir P.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic progressive disease of the pulmonary vasculature characterized by elevated pulmonary arterial pressure and secondary right ventricular failure. PAH is considered a life-threatening condition unless treated. This article provides a comprehensive review of controlled and uncontrolled trials to define the risk-benefit for different therapeutic options of this clinical disorder. Relevant published articles were identified through searches of the National Center for Biotechnology PubMed database. All therapeutic measures for PAH were discussed. Six drugs have been approved in the United States for the treatment of PAH. Extensive medical advancement has been achieved in treatment of PAH. However, none of the approved therapies have shown ability to cure the disease. New research should be performed to develop promising new therapies. PMID:22460104

  12. Pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Montani, David; Günther, Sven; Dorfmüller, Peter; Perros, Frédéric; Girerd, Barbara; Garcia, Gilles; Jaïs, Xavier; Savale, Laurent; Artaud-Macari, Elise; Price, Laura C; Humbert, Marc; Simonneau, Gérald; Sitbon, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a chronic and progressive disease leading to right heart failure and ultimately death if untreated. The first classification of PH was proposed in 1973. In 2008, the fourth World Symposium on PH held in Dana Point (California, USA) revised previous classifications. Currently, PH is devided into five subgroups. Group 1 includes patients suffering from idiopathic or familial PAH with or without germline mutations. Patients with a diagnosis of PAH should systematically been screened regarding to underlying mutations of BMPR2 gene (bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2) or more rarely of ACVRL1 (activine receptor-like kinase type 1), ENG (endogline) or Smad8 genes. Pulmonary veno occusive disease and pulmonary capillary hemagiomatosis are individualized and designated as clinical group 1'. Group 2 'Pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases' is divided into three sub-groups: systolic dysfonction, diastolic dysfonction and valvular dysfonction. Group 3 'Pulmonary hypertension due to respiratory diseases' includes a heterogenous subgroup of respiratory diseases like PH due to pulmonary fibrosis, COPD, lung emphysema or interstitial lung disease for exemple. Group 4 includes chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension without any distinction of proximal or distal forms. Group 5 regroup PH patients with unclear multifactorial mechanisms. Invasive hemodynamic assessment with right heart catheterization is requested to confirm the definite diagnosis of PH showing a resting mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) of ≥ 25 mmHg and a normal pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) of ≤ 15 mmHg. The assessment of PCWP may allow the distinction between pre-capillary and post-capillary PH (PCWP > 15 mmHg). Echocardiography is an important tool in the management of patients with underlying suspicion of PH. The European Society of Cardiology and the European Respiratory Society (ESC-ERS) guidelines specify its role

  13. [Idiopathic intracranial hypertension].

    PubMed

    Sergeev, A V

    2016-01-01

    Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a condition due to high intracranial pressure in the absence of an intracranial mass lesion, venous thrombosis or brain infection. It mostly occurs in young obese females. Currently, the incidence of IIH in obese women is estimated to be 12 per 100,000 people per year. Epidemiological data demonstrate the increase in incidence in this group: 323 cases per 100,000. IIH can cause visual loss in 1-2% of the patients during the year before the diagnosis and beginning of treatment. IIH treatment is a complex multidisciplinary problem that includes a body-mass reduction program, conservative pharmacological treatment, prolonged ophthalmological study and, if necessary, timely neurosurgical treatment.

  14. Hyperuricemia, Cardiovascular Disease, and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kuwabara, Masanari

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, there has been an increase in the prevalence of hyperuricemia, and the latter has attracted attention as an adult lifestyle-associated disease, together with hypertension, diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Although hyperuricemia is known to be an independent risk factor for hypertension, whether it is an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease remains controversial. Recently, some small-scale interventional studies on antihyperuricemic medications showed that the latter improved angina symptoms and prevented cardiovascular disease. Here, we will mainly explain the cause of hyperuricemia and the associations between hyperuricemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease based on the latest published evidence. PMID:27195245

  15. Collateral Pathways in Portal Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Malay; Rameshbabu, Chittapuram S.

    2012-01-01

    Presence of portosystemic collateral veins (PSCV) is common in portal hypertension due to cirrhosis. Physiologically, normal portosystemic anastomoses exist which exhibit hepatofugal flow. With the development of portal hypertension, transmission of backpressure leads to increased flow in these patent normal portosystemic anastomoses. In extrahepatic portal vein obstruction collateral circulation develops in a hepatopetal direction and portoportal pathways are frequently found. The objective of this review is to illustrate the various PSCV and portoportal collateral vein pathways pertinent to portal hypertension in liver cirrhosis and EHPVO. PMID:25755456

  16. Animal models of portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Abraldes, Juan G; Pasarín, Marcos; García-Pagán, Juan Carlos

    2006-01-01

    Animal models have allowed detailed study of hemodynamic alterations typical of portal hypertension and the molecular mechanisms involved in abnormalities in splanchnic and systemic circulation associated with this syndrome. Models of prehepatic portal hypertension can be used to study alterations in the splanchnic circulation and the pathophysiology of the hyperdynamic circulation. Models of cirrhosis allow study of the alterations in intrahepatic microcirculation that lead to increased resistance to portal flow. This review summarizes the currently available literature on animal models of portal hypertension and analyzes their relative utility. The criteria for choosing a particular model, depending on the specific objectives of the study, are also discussed. PMID:17075968

  17. Pulmonary hypertension and hepatic cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Téllez Villajos, L; Martínez González, J; Moreira Vicente, V; Albillos Martínez, A

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a relatively common phenomenon in patients with hepatic cirrhosis and can appear through various mechanisms. The most characteristic scenario that binds portal and pulmonary hypertension is portopulmonary syndrome. However, hyperdynamic circulation, TIPS placement and heart failure can raise the mean pulmonary artery pressure without increasing the resistances. These conditions are not candidates for treatment with pulmonary vasodilators and require a specific therapy. A correct assessment of hemodynamic, ultrasound and clinical variables enables the differential diagnosis of each situation that produces pulmonary hypertension in patients with cirrhosis.

  18. Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-05-01

    In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid.

  19. Acetylation of Starch with Vinyl Acetate in Imidazolium Ionic Liquids and Characterization of Acetate Distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch was acetylated with vinyl acetate in different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) salts as solvent in effort to produce starches with different acetylation patterns. Overall degree of substitution was much higher for basic anions such as acetate and dicyanimide (dca) than for neutral anions ...

  20. 40 CFR 721.10001 - 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as 2-ethoxyethanol (CAS No. 110-80-5), 2-ethoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 111-15-9), 2-methoxyethanol (CAS No. 109-86-4), and 2-methoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 110-49-6) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  1. 40 CFR 721.10001 - 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as 2-ethoxyethanol (CAS No. 110-80-5), 2-ethoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 111-15-9), 2-methoxyethanol (CAS No. 109-86-4), and 2-methoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 110-49-6) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  2. Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

  3. Definition and classification of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Humbert, Marc; Montani, David; Evgenov, Oleg V; Simonneau, Gérald

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is defined as an increase of mean pulmonary arterial pressure ≥25 mmHg at rest as assessed by right heart catheterization. According to different combinations of values of pulmonary wedge pressure, pulmonary vascular resistance and cardiac output, a hemodynamic classification of pulmonary hypertension has been proposed. Of major importance is the pulmonary wedge pressure which allows to distinguish pre-capillary (pulmonary wedge pressure ≤15 mmHg) and post-capillary (pulmonary wedge pressure >15 mmHg) pulmonary hypertension. Pre-capillary pulmonary hypertension includes the clinical groups 1 (pulmonary arterial hypertension), 3 (pulmonary hypertension due to lung diseases and/or hypoxia), 4 (chronic thrombo-embolic pulmonary hypertension) and 5 (pulmonary hypertension with unclear and/or multifactorial mechanisms). Post-capillary pulmonary hypertension corresponds to the clinical group 2 (pulmonary hypertension due to left heart diseases).

  4. Hypertensive emergencies: a new clinical approach.

    PubMed

    Lagi, Alfonso; Cencetti, Simone

    2015-01-01

    The expression 'hypertensive urgencies' includes many diseases. The unifying features of these diseases are a high level of arterial pressure and acute distress of one or more organs. The aim of the review was to define the idea of the 'acute hypertension' as a new concept, different from 'chronic hypertension'. Acute hypertension might be related to 'organ damage' because it is the cause, the consequence or an effect of the acute stress. We compounded a narrative review which has included analyses of 373 articles. The structure of the search strategy included a literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, Cochrane Library and Google Scholar databases. We applied the following inclusion criteria: prospective double-blind randomised controlled trials, experimental animal work studies, case-control studies and recruiting patients representative of the general sick population. In this review, the diseases included in the term 'hypertensive emergencies' share 'acute' hypertension. This is a new idea that emphasises the suddenly increased arterial pressure, irrespective of the initial arterial pressure and independent of the goals of hypertension control. The 'hypertensive emergencies' have been grouped together in three subsets: (1) diseases that result from acute hypertension that is caused by faulty regulation of the peripheral circulation (acute primary hypertension), (2) diseases that produce hypertension (acute secondary hypertension) and 3) diseases that have hypertension as an effect of the acute stress caused by the principle disease (acute associated hypertension). This review highlights a novel idea: acute hypertension is a common sign of different diseases characterised by the sudden surge of arterial pressure, so overwhelming the difference between hypertensive emergencies and urgencies. The judgment of acute hypertension is independent of the initial arterial pressure, normotension or hypertension and is linked with the transient failure of the baroreflex

  5. Clinical overview of hypertensive crisis in children.

    PubMed

    Yang, Wen-Chieh; Lin, Mao-Jen; Chen, Chun-Yu; Wu, Han-Ping

    2015-06-16

    Hypertensive emergencies and hypertensive urgencies in children are uncommonly encountered in the pediatric emergency department and intensive care units, but the diseases are potentially a life-threatening medical emergency. In comparison with adults, hypertension in children is mostly asymptomatic and most have no history of hypertension. Additionally, measuring accurate blood pressure values in younger children is not easy. This article reviews current concepts in pediatric patients with severe hypertension.

  6. Dynamic Protonation Equilibrium of Solvated Acetic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Wei; Frigato, Tomaso; Straatsma, TP; Helms, Volkhard H.

    2007-04-13

    For the first time, the dynamic protonation equilibrium between an amino acid side chain analogue and bulk water as well as the diffusion properties of the excess proton were successfully reproduced through unbiased computer simulations. During a 50 ns Q-HOP MD simulation, two different regimes of proton transfer were observed. Extended phases of frequent proton swapping between acetic acid and nearby water were separated by phases where the proton freely diffuses in the simulation box until it is captured again by acetic acid. The pKa of acetic acid was calculated around 3.0 based on the relative population of protonated and deprotonated states and the diffusion coefficient of excess proton was computed from the average mean squared displacement in the simulation. Both calculated values agree well with the experimental measurements.

  7. Intracranial Hypertension: Medication and Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... http://www.ihrfoundation.org/hypertension/info/C172 Surgery Optic Nerve Fenestration When sight is at risk and drug therapy has been unsuccessful, an optic nerve fenestration (also called an optic nerve sheath ...

  8. Sex differences in primary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Men have higher blood pressure than women through much of life regardless of race and ethnicity. This is a robust and highly conserved sex difference that it is also observed across species including dogs, rats, mice and chickens and it is found in induced, genetic and transgenic animal models of hypertension. Not only do the differences between the ovarian and testicular hormonal milieu contribute to this sexual dimorphism in blood pressure, the sex chromosomes also play a role in and of themselves. This review primarily focuses on epidemiological studies of blood pressure in men and women and experimental models of hypertension in both sexes. Gaps in current knowledge regarding what underlie male-female differences in blood pressure control are discussed. Elucidating the mechanisms underlying sex differences in hypertension may lead to the development of anti-hypertensives tailored to one's sex and ultimately to improved therapeutic strategies for treating this disease and preventing its devastating consequences. PMID:22417477

  9. [Resistant hypertension : What is it?].

    PubMed

    Luft, F C

    2015-03-01

    When blood pressure is poorly controlled despite treatment with a diuretic and two antihypertensive drugs at adequate doses, the hypertension is termed resistant. The prevalence of resistant hypertension is increasing. Once pseudo-resistance due to poor compliance, secondary forms of hypertension, and massive salt consumption have been excluded, some authorities maintain that blood pressure can be invariably lowered using minoxidil or mineralocorticoid receptor blockade. I also adhered to this belief until we encountered a patient who despite treatment with seven antihypertensive agents, electrical carotid sinus stimulation, and catheter-based renal denervation continued to exhibit extraordinarily high blood pressure values. I am now convinced that resistant hypertension does indeed exist. The prevalence of such patients can be substantially reduced by means of a thorough history and physical examination, determining drug serum concentrations, and excluding secondary causes. PMID:25668441

  10. A case of hypertensive urgency.

    PubMed

    Baum, Laurence

    2016-08-01

    A 41-year-old male Nepalese soldier presented to the primary care medical centre with a 1-week history of fatigue and muscle aches following a trip to Nepal. His BP was 164/98 but was otherwise normal. Four days later he presented with new symptoms of sweating and palpitations and a BP of 200/127 whereupon he was admitted to hospital with the diagnosis of hypertensive crisis. Appropriate investigation and initial management were undertaken, and he was discharged after 12 h on antihypertensive treatment. This case highlights the risk of hypertensive crisis in both diagnosed and silent hypertensive disease, and the review highlights the presentations, initial investigation and different management of hypertensive crisis.

  11. Leuprolide acetate-induced generalized papular eruption.

    PubMed

    Burris, Katy; Ding, Catherine Y; Lim, Geoffrey F S

    2014-06-01

    Leuprolide acetate, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, is used in the treatment of prostate cancer. We report a unique case of a disseminated papular rash following leuprolide acetate injections in a 65-year-old man that shares clinical and histopathological features of papuloerythroderma of Ofuji. Leuprolide-induced papuloerythroderma, as well as a limited number of other disseminated cutaneous eruptions caused by this drug, is extremely rare, with only one case previously reported. Our case calls attention to this uncommon side effect in a commonly used hormonal therapy.

  12. [Hypertension during pregnancy: Epidemiology, definition].

    PubMed

    Fauvel, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension in pregnancy has several forms that differ by their mechanisms and their consequences for mothers and fetus. Chronic hypertension is defined by SBP≥140mm Hg or DBP≥90mm Hg before pregnancy or before the 20th week of amenorrhea. Gestational hypertension is defined by SBP≥140mm Hg or DBP≥90mm Hg during or after the 20th week of amenorrhea. Preeclampsia is the occurrence of hypertension and proteinuria after 20weeks of amenorrhea. Severe preeclampsia is accompanied by clinical signs and symptoms indicating visceral pain. The HELLP syndrome is a severe preeclampsia accompanied by intravascular hemolysis and hepatic cytolysis. Eclampsia is characterized by seizures of the tonic-clonic type. A chronic hypertension is observed in 1-5% of pregnancies. Gestational hypertension without proteinuria appears in 5-6% of pregnancies. A preeclampsia develops in 1-2% of pregnancies, but much more frequently (up 34%) in the presence of risk factors. High blood pressure during pregnancy remains, by its complications, the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. PMID:27476778

  13. Immune Mechanisms in Arterial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Ulrich; Turner, Jan Eric; Krebs, Christian; Kurts, Christian; Harrison, David G; Ehmke, Heimo

    2016-03-01

    Traditionally, arterial hypertension and subsequent end-organ damage have been attributed to hemodynamic factors, but increasing evidence indicates that inflammation also contributes to the deleterious consequences of this disease. The immune system has evolved to prevent invasion of foreign organisms and to promote tissue healing after injury. However, this beneficial activity comes at a cost of collateral damage when the immune system overreacts to internal injury, such as prehypertension. Renal inflammation results in injury and impaired urinary sodium excretion, and vascular inflammation leads to endothelial dysfunction, increased vascular resistance, and arterial remodeling and stiffening. Notably, modulation of the immune response can reduce the severity of BP elevation and hypertensive end-organ damage in several animal models. Indeed, recent studies have improved our understanding of how the immune response affects the pathogenesis of arterial hypertension, but the remarkable advances in basic immunology made during the last few years still await translation to the field of hypertension. This review briefly summarizes recent advances in immunity and hypertension as well as hypertensive end-organ damage.

  14. [Hypertension during pregnancy: Epidemiology, definition].

    PubMed

    Fauvel, Jean-Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension in pregnancy has several forms that differ by their mechanisms and their consequences for mothers and fetus. Chronic hypertension is defined by SBP≥140mm Hg or DBP≥90mm Hg before pregnancy or before the 20th week of amenorrhea. Gestational hypertension is defined by SBP≥140mm Hg or DBP≥90mm Hg during or after the 20th week of amenorrhea. Preeclampsia is the occurrence of hypertension and proteinuria after 20weeks of amenorrhea. Severe preeclampsia is accompanied by clinical signs and symptoms indicating visceral pain. The HELLP syndrome is a severe preeclampsia accompanied by intravascular hemolysis and hepatic cytolysis. Eclampsia is characterized by seizures of the tonic-clonic type. A chronic hypertension is observed in 1-5% of pregnancies. Gestational hypertension without proteinuria appears in 5-6% of pregnancies. A preeclampsia develops in 1-2% of pregnancies, but much more frequently (up 34%) in the presence of risk factors. High blood pressure during pregnancy remains, by its complications, the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality.

  15. The hidden epidemic of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Grenfell, Robert; Lee, Rebecca; Stavreski, Bill; Page, Karen

    2014-04-01

    The majority of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is caused by risk factors that can be controlled, treated or modified. In terms of attributable deaths, the leading cardiovascular disease risk factor is hypertension. The Australian Health Survey results showed some startling figures-4.6 million adult Australians are hypertensive (>140/90 mmHg). Further, a fifth of the adult population experience hypertension, with more than two out of three not attaining blood pressure target levels. This is despite an estimated cost of $1 billion per annum spent on managing hypertension. It is now well recognised that the level of risk for coronary heart disease is linked to an individual's risk profile. Results indicate that many Australians have multiple risk factors, including hypertension. It could be considered that these numbers provide a proxy indicator of secondary prevention failure. Considerable attention needs to be given to the assessment of the combined risk of those with hypertension enabling effective management of identified, modifiable risk factors. We look forward to presenting the absolute risk profiles when the Australian Health Survey biometric results are released. PMID:24468162

  16. Vascular Remodeling in Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Shimoda, Larissa A; Laurie, Steven S.

    2013-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a complex, progressive condition arising from a variety of genetic and pathogenic causes. Patients present with a spectrum of histologic and pathophysiological features, likely reflecting the diversity in underlying pathogenesis. It is widely recognized that structural alterations in the vascular wall contribute to all forms of pulmonary hypertension. Features characteristic of the remodeled vasculature in patients with pulmonary hypertension include increased stiffening of the elastic proximal pulmonary arteries, thickening of the intimal and/or medial layer of muscular arteries, development of vaso-occlusive lesions and the appearance of cells expressing smooth muscle specific markers in normally non-muscular small diameter vessels, resulting from proliferation and migration of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells and cellular trans-differentiation. The development of several animal models of pulmonary hypertension has provided the means to explore the mechanistic underpinnings of pulmonary vascular remodeling, although none of the experimental models currently used entirely replicates the pulmonary arterial hypertension observed in patients. Herein, we provide an overview of the histological abnormalities observed in humans with pulmonary hypertension and in preclinical models and discuss insights gained regarding several key signaling pathways contributing to the remodeling process. In particular, we will focus on the roles of ion homeostasis, endothelin-1, serotonin, bone morphogenetic proteins, Rho kinase and hypoxia-inducible factor 1 in pulmonary arterial smooth muscle and endothelial cells, highlighting areas of cross-talk between these pathways and potentials for therapeutic targeting. PMID:23334338

  17. Pulmonary Hypertension: Diagnosis and Treatment.

    PubMed

    Dunlap, Beth; Weyer, George

    2016-09-15

    Pulmonary hypertension is a common, complex group of disorders that result from different pathophysiologic mechanisms but are all defined by a mean pulmonary arterial pressure of 25 mm Hg or greater. Patients often initially present to family physicians; however, because the symptoms are typically nonspecific or easily attributable to comorbid conditions, diagnosis can be challenging and requires a stepwise evaluation. There is limited evidence to support screening of asymptomatic individuals. Echocardiography is recommended as the initial step in the evaluation of patients with suspected pulmonary hypertension. A definitive diagnosis cannot be made on echocardiographic abnormalities alone, and some patients require invasive evaluation by right heart catheterization. For certain categories of pulmonary hypertension, particularly pulmonary arterial hypertension, treatment options are rapidly evolving, and early diagnosis and prompt referral to an expert center are critical to ensure the best prognosis. There are no directed therapies for many other categories of pulmonary hypertension; therefore, family physicians have a central role in managing contributing comorbidities. Other important considerations for patients with pulmonary hypertension include influenza and pneumonia immunizations, contraception counseling, preoperative assessment, and mental health. PMID:27637122

  18. Primary prevention of essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Krousel-Wood, Marie A; Muntner, Paul; He, Jiang; Whelton, Paul K

    2004-01-01

    The best approach to the primary prevention of hypertension is a combination of lifestyle changes: weight loss in overweight persons; increased physical activity; moderation of alcohol intake; and consumption of a diet that is higher in fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products and lower in sodium content than the average American diet (Table 3). Recent randomized controlled trials have demonstrated that these lifestyle changes can be sustained over long periods of time (more than 3 years) and can have blood pressure-lowering effects as large as those seen in drug studies. Hypertension is an important preventable risk factor for cardiovascular disease, the leading cause of mortality in the United States. To achieve the Healthy People 2010 goal of reducing the proportion of adults with hypertension from 28% to 16%, concerted efforts must be directed toward primary prevention strategies. Lifestyle modifications including weight loss, increased physical activity, and dietary changes in individuals have been shown to reduce the incidence of hypertension and should be recommended for all persons and especially those with prehypertension. In addition, timely adoption of prevention strategies to reduce the incidence of hypertension and its subsequent complications in the general population may interrupt the costly cycle of hypertension and prevent the reductions in quality of life associated with this chronic disease.

  19. Trypanosomatidae produce acetate via a mitochondrial acetate:succinate CoA transferase.

    PubMed

    Van Hellemond, J J; Opperdoes, F R; Tielens, A G

    1998-03-17

    Hydrogenosome-containing anaerobic protists, such as the trichomonads, produce large amounts of acetate by an acetate:succinate CoA transferase (ASCT)/succinyl CoA synthetase cycle. The notion that mitochondria and hydrogenosomes may have originated from the same alpha-proteobacterial endosymbiont has led us to look for the presence of a similar metabolic pathway in trypanosomatids because these are the earliest-branching mitochondriate eukaryotes and because they also are known to produce acetate. The mechanism of acetate production in these organisms, however, has remained unknown. Four different members of the trypanosomatid family: promastigotes of Leishmania mexicana mexicana, L. infantum and Phytomonas sp., and procyclics of Trypanosoma brucei were analyzed as well as the parasitic helminth Fasciola hepatica. They all use a mitochondrial ASCT for the production of acetate from acetyl CoA. The succinyl CoA that is produced during acetate formation by ASCT is recycled presumably to succinate by a mitochondrial succinyl CoA synthetase, concomitantly producing ATP from ADP. The ASCT of L. mexicana mexicana promastigotes was further characterized after partial purification of the enzyme. It has a high affinity for acetyl CoA (Km 0.26 mM) and a low affinity for succinate (Km 6.9 mM), which shows that significant acetate production can occur only when high mitochondrial succinate concentrations prevail. This study identifies a metabolic pathway common to mitochondria and hydrogenosomes, which strongly supports a common origin for these two organelles.

  20. [Systemic arterial hypertension in child and adolescent].

    PubMed

    Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Medina-Concebida, Luz Elena; Borrayo-Sánchez, Gabriela; Madrid-Miller, Alejandra; Ramírez-Arias, Erick; Pérez-Rodríguez, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    The epidemic of childhood obesity, the risk of developing left ventricular hypertrophy, and evidence of the early development of atherosclerosis in children would make the detection of and intervention in childhood hypertension important to reduce long-term health risks; however, supporting data are lacking. Secondary hypertension is more common in preadolescent children, with most cases caused by renal disease. Primary or essential hypertension is more common in adolescents and has multiple risk factors, including obesity and a family history of hypertension. Evaluation involves a through history and physical examination, laboratory tests, and specialized studies. Management is multifaceted. Nonpharmacologic treatments include weight reduction, exercise, and dietary modifications. Although the evidence of first line therapy for hypertension is still controversial, the recommendations for pharmacologic treatment are based on symptomatic hypertension, evidence of end-organ damage, stage 2 of hypertension, or stage 1 of hypertension unresponsive to lifestyle modifications, and hypertension with diabetes mellitus where is the search for microalbuminuria justified. PMID:27284843

  1. [Systemic arterial hypertension in child and adolescent].

    PubMed

    Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Medina-Concebida, Luz Elena; Borrayo-Sánchez, Gabriela; Madrid-Miller, Alejandra; Ramírez-Arias, Erick; Pérez-Rodríguez, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    The epidemic of childhood obesity, the risk of developing left ventricular hypertrophy, and evidence of the early development of atherosclerosis in children would make the detection of and intervention in childhood hypertension important to reduce long-term health risks; however, supporting data are lacking. Secondary hypertension is more common in preadolescent children, with most cases caused by renal disease. Primary or essential hypertension is more common in adolescents and has multiple risk factors, including obesity and a family history of hypertension. Evaluation involves a through history and physical examination, laboratory tests, and specialized studies. Management is multifaceted. Nonpharmacologic treatments include weight reduction, exercise, and dietary modifications. Although the evidence of first line therapy for hypertension is still controversial, the recommendations for pharmacologic treatment are based on symptomatic hypertension, evidence of end-organ damage, stage 2 of hypertension, or stage 1 of hypertension unresponsive to lifestyle modifications, and hypertension with diabetes mellitus where is the search for microalbuminuria justified.

  2. Developmental programming and hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Nuyt, Anne Monique; Alexander, Barbara T.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose of review There is a growing body of evidence linking adverse events or exposures during early life and adult-onset diseases. After important epidemiological studies from many parts of the world, research now focuses on mechanisms of organ dysfunction and on refining the understanding of the interaction between common elements of adverse perinatal conditions, such as nutrition, oxidants, and toxins exposures. This review will focus on advances in our comprehension of developmental programming of hypertension. Recent findings Recent studies have unraveled important mechanisms of oligonephronia and impaired renal function, altered vascular function and structure as well as sympathetic regulation of the cardiovascular system. Furthermore, interactions between prenatal insults and postnatal conditions are the subject of intensive research. Prematurity vs. intrauterine growth restriction modulate differently programming of high blood pressure. Along with antenatal exposure to glucocorticoids and imbalanced nutrition, a critical role for perinatal oxidative stress is emerging. Summary While the complexity of the interactions between antenatal and postnatal influences on adult blood pressure is increasingly recognized, the importance of postnatal life in (positively) modulating developmental programming offers the hope of a critical window of opportunity to reverse programming and prevent or reduce related adult-onset diseases. PMID:19434052

  3. Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-02-17

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85 and 200 C and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

  4. Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, Gerald Charles; Zoeller, Joseph Robert; Depew, Leslie Sharon

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85.degree. and 200.degree. C. and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

  5. Heat Bonding of Irradiated Ethylene Vinyl Acetate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Reliable method now available for joining parts of this difficult-tobond material. Heating fixture encircles ethylene vinyl acetate multiplesocket part, providing heat to it and to tubes inserted in it. Fixtures specially designed to match parts to be bonded. Tube-and-socket bonds made with this technique subjected to tensile tests. Bond strengths of 50 percent that of base material obtained consistently.

  6. Fragrance material review on phenethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of phenethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Phenethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for phenethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  7. Fragrance material review on benzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of benzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Benzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for benzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, or carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Refer Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  8. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Brown, Dan; Eustace, John

    2015-01-01

    Increment 45 - 46 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  9. Corrosion of stainless steel during acetate production

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, J.S.; Lester, G.C.

    1996-07-01

    Corrosion of types 304, 304L, 316, and 316L stainless steel (SS) during the esterification of acetic acid and alcohol or glycol ether was investigated. The catalyst for this reaction, sulfuric acid or para-toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA), was shown to cause more corrosion on reactor equipment than CH{sub 3}COOH under the process conditions commonly practiced in industry. The corrosive action of the catalyst occurred only in the presence of water. Thus, for the batch processes, corrosion occurred mostly during the initial stage of esterification, where water produced by the reaction created an aqueous environment. After water was distilled off, the corrosion rate declined to a negligible value. The corrosion inhibitor copper sulfate, often used in industrial acetate processes, was found to work well for a low-temperature process (< 95 C) such as in production of butyl acetate, but it accelerated corrosion in the glycol ether acetate processes where temperatures were > 108 C. Process conditions that imparted low corrosion rates were determined.

  10. Cellulose Acetate Membranes: Electron Microscopy of Structure.

    PubMed

    Riley, R; Gardner, J O; Merten, U

    1964-02-21

    Electron photomicrographs of cellulose acetate membranes used in the reverse osmosis processof water desalination reveal a dense surface layer with a porous substructure. The high rate oftransmission for water can be correlated with the thickness of the dense layer on the air-driedsurface of the membrane.

  11. Synthesis of Cellulose Acetate from Cotton Byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton burr and cottonseed hull are relatively inexpensive cotton byproducts. In an effort to derive greater value out of these natural renewable materials, we have succeeded in converting part of them into cellulose acetate without prior chemical breakdown or physical separation of cellulose, ligni...

  12. Acetal phosphatidic acids: novel platelet aggregating agents.

    PubMed

    Brammer, J P; Maguire, M H; Walaszek, E J; Wiley, R A

    1983-05-01

    1 Palmitaldehyde, olealdehyde and linolealdehyde acetal phosphatidic acids induced rapid shape change and dose-dependent biphasic aggregation of human platelets in platelet-rich plasma; aggregation was reversible at low doses and irreversible at high doses of the acetal phosphatidic acids. The palmitaldehyde congener elicited monophasic dose-dependent aggregation of sheep platelets in platelet-rich plasma.2 The threshold concentration for palmitaldehyde acetal phosphatidic acid (PGAP)-induced platelet aggregation was 2.5-5 muM for human platelets and 0.25-0.5 muM for sheep platelets. PGAP was 4-5 times as potent versus human platelets as the olealdehyde and linolealdehyde acetal phosphatidic acids, which were equipotent.3 PGAP-induced irreversible aggregation of [(14)C]-5-hydroxytryptamine ([(14)C]-5-HT)-labelled human platelets in platelet-rich plasma was accompanied by release of 44.0+/-2.4% (s.e.) of the platelet [(14)C]-5-HT; reversible aggregation was not associated with release. In contrast, PGAP-induced release of [(14)C]-5-HT-labelled sheep platelets was dose-dependent.4 The adenosine diphosphate (ADP) antagonist, 2-methylthio-AMP, and the cyclo-oxygenase inhibitor, aspirin, abolished PGAP-induced second phase aggregation and release in human platelets but did not affect the first, reversible, phase of aggregation. Both the first and second phases of PGAP-induced aggregation were abolished by chlorpromazine, by the phospholipase A(2) inhibitor, mepacrine, and by nmolar concentrations of prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1)); these agents abolished the second, but not the first phase of ADP-induced aggregation.5 The related phospholipids, lecithin, lysolecithin and phosphatidic acid, at <100 muM, neither induced aggregation of human platelets in platelet-rich plasma, nor modified PGAP-induced aggregation; 1-palmityl lysophosphatidic acid elicited aggregation of human platelets at a threshold concentration of 100 muM.6 It is concluded that the acetal phosphatidic acids

  13. Hypertension induces tissue-specific gene suppression of a fatty acid binding protein in rat aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Sarzani, R; Claffey, K P; Chobanian, A V; Brecher, P

    1988-01-01

    The effect of hypertension on the expression of a fatty acid binding protein localized in the rat aorta was studied. The presence of rat heart fatty acid binding protein (hFABP) was documented in aortic tissue by using a cDNA probe and polyclonal antibodies. Hypertension was induced in groups of rats by implantation of deoxycorticosterone acetate in conjunction with 1% salt in the drinking water (deoxycorticosterone/salt). By the third week of this treatment a marked reduction (by a factor of 20) in the expression of hFABP mRNA in aorta was found, concomitant with a reduction in immunologically detectable protein, suggesting transcriptional regulation. This effect was tissue specific, since no change in the normal amounts of hFABP mRNA in heart, skeletal muscle, or kidney was found. This reduction in aortic hFABP mRNA was also found in mildly hypertensive uninephrectomized rats given salt but no deoxycorticosterone and in normotensive rats given deoxycorticosterone but no excess salt intake. A marked decrease in aortic hFABP mRNA also was observed in the Goldblatt two kidney-one clip hypertensive model, and administration of angiotensin II for 6 days by osmotic minipump also caused a reduction. These findings suggest that hFABP is under complex regulation in aortic tissue and is suppressed by arterial hypertension. Images PMID:3174661

  14. New therapies for arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pagliaro, Beniamino; Santolamazza, Caterina; Rubattu, Speranza; Volpe, Massimo

    2016-03-01

    Arterial hypertension is the most common chronic disease in developed countries and it is the leading risk factor for stroke, ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, chronic renal failure and peripheral artery disease. Its prevalence appears to be about 30-45% of the general population. Recent European guidelines estimate that up to 15-20% of the hypertensive patients are not controlled on a dual antihypertensive combination and they require three or more different antihypertensive drug classes to achieve adequate blood pressure control. The guidelines confirmed that diuretics, beta-blockers, calcium-channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are suitable for the initiation and maintenance of antihypertensive treatment, either as monotherapy or in combination therapy. Very few antihypertensive agents have reached the market over the last few years, but no new therapeutic class has really emerged. The long-term adherence to cardiovascular drugs is still low in both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In particular, the issue of compliance is persistently high in hypertension, despite the fixed-dose combination therapy. As a consequence, a cohort of high-risk hypertensive population, represented by patients affected by refractory and resistant hypertension, can be identified. Therefore, the need of controlling BP in high-risk patients may be addressed, in part, by the development of new drugs, devices and procedures that are designed to treat hypertension and comorbidities. In this review we will comprehensively discuss the current literature on recent therapeutic advances in hypertension, including both medical therapy and interventional procedures. PMID:26730462

  15. New therapies for arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pagliaro, Beniamino; Santolamazza, Caterina; Rubattu, Speranza; Volpe, Massimo

    2016-03-01

    Arterial hypertension is the most common chronic disease in developed countries and it is the leading risk factor for stroke, ischemic heart disease, congestive heart failure, chronic renal failure and peripheral artery disease. Its prevalence appears to be about 30-45% of the general population. Recent European guidelines estimate that up to 15-20% of the hypertensive patients are not controlled on a dual antihypertensive combination and they require three or more different antihypertensive drug classes to achieve adequate blood pressure control. The guidelines confirmed that diuretics, beta-blockers, calcium-channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers are suitable for the initiation and maintenance of antihypertensive treatment, either as monotherapy or in combination therapy. Very few antihypertensive agents have reached the market over the last few years, but no new therapeutic class has really emerged. The long-term adherence to cardiovascular drugs is still low in both primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In particular, the issue of compliance is persistently high in hypertension, despite the fixed-dose combination therapy. As a consequence, a cohort of high-risk hypertensive population, represented by patients affected by refractory and resistant hypertension, can be identified. Therefore, the need of controlling BP in high-risk patients may be addressed, in part, by the development of new drugs, devices and procedures that are designed to treat hypertension and comorbidities. In this review we will comprehensively discuss the current literature on recent therapeutic advances in hypertension, including both medical therapy and interventional procedures.

  16. NaCl does not affect hypothalamic noradrenergic input in deoxycorticosterone acetate/NaCl and Dahl salt-sensitive rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y F; Meng, Q C; Wyss, J M; Jin, H K; Rogers, C F; Oparil, S

    1990-07-01

    Previous studies from our laboratories demonstrated that dietary NaCl supplementation in NaCl-sensitive spontaneously hypertensive rats elevates blood pressure, increases peripheral sympathetic nervous system activity, and depresses endogenous norepinephrine stores and turnover in the anterior hypothalamus. These findings suggest that reduced noradrenergic input to sympathoinhibitory neurons in anterior hypothalamus contributes to NaCl-sensitive hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats. The current study tested the hypothesis that dietary NaCl supplementation depresses endogenous norepinephrine stores and turnover in anterior hypothalamus of two other NaCl-sensitive models of hypertension, the Dahl salt-sensitive rat and the deoxycorticosterone acetate/NaCl hypertensive rat, thus increasing blood pressure by reducing noradrenergic input to the anterior hypothalamus. Dahl salt-sensitive rats were fed a high (8%) NaCl diet, and deoxycorticosterone acetate/NaCl rats rats drank 1% NaCl solution ad libitum for 2 or 4 weeks. Age-matched Dahl salt-sensitive rats fed a basal 1% NaCl diet and uninephrectomized Sprague-Dawley rats drinking tap water were controls. Regional brain catecholamines were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. Norepinephrine turnover in hypothalamus (anterior, posterior, and ventral regions) and brain stem (pons and medulla) was assessed using the dopamine beta-hydroxylase inhibitor 1-cyclohexyl-2-mercapto-imidazole. High NaCl treatment caused significant elevations in blood pressure in Dahl salt-sensitive and deoxycorticosterone acetate/NaCl rats, but endogenous norepinephrine levels and turnover rates were not significantly different in anterior hypothalamus or any other brain region studied between the NaCl-supplemented and control groups.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  17. Phenyl Acetate Preparation from Phenol and Acetic Acid: Reassessment of a Common Textbook Misconception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    Reassesses a common textbook misconception that "...phenols cannot be esterified directly." Results of experiments are discussed and data tables provided of an effective method for the direct preparation of phenyl acetate. (CS)

  18. The microwave spectrum of n-hexyl acetate and structural aspects of n-alkyl acetates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attig, T.; Kannengießer, R.; Kleiner, I.; Stahl, W.

    2014-04-01

    The microwave spectrum of n-hexyl acetate was recorded in the range of 10-13.5 GHz using the Aachen MB-FTMW spectrometer. The rotational constants of the most abundant conformer were determined to be A = 3.3591100(32) GHz, B = 0.39596553(53) GHz, and C = 0.36999804(31) GHz. Quantum chemical calculations for specific conformers were carried out at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level. The programs XIAM and BELGI were used to analyze the internal rotation of the acetyl methyl group. The observed conformer of n-hexyl acetate was compared to the lowest energy conformers of n-butyl acetate and n-pentyl acetate.

  19. Hypertension in Canada: Past, Present, and Future.

    PubMed

    Schiffrin, Ernesto L; Campbell, Norman R C; Feldman, Ross D; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Lewanczuk, Richard; Padwal, Raj; Tobe, Sheldon W

    2016-01-01

    Canada has an extremely successful hypertension detection and treatment program. The aim of this review was to highlight the historic and current infrastructure and initiatives that have led to this success, and the outlook moving forward into the future. We discuss the evolution of hypertension awareness and control in Canada; contributions made by organizations such as the Canadian Hypertension Society, Blood Pressure Canada, and the Canadian Hypertension Education Program; the amalgamation of these organizations into Hypertension Canada; and the impact that Hypertension Canada has had on hypertension care in Canada. The important contribution that public policy and advocacy can have on prevention and control of blood pressure in Canada is described. We also highlight the importance of population-based strategies, health care access and organization, and accurate blood pressure measurement (including ambulatory, home, and automated office modalities) in optimizing hypertension prevention and management. We end by discussing how Hypertension Canada will move forward in the near and longer term to address the unmet residual risk attributable to hypertension and associated cardiovascular risk factors. Hypertension Canada will continue to strive to enhance hypertension prevention and control rates, thereby improving the quality of life and cardiovascular outcomes of Canadians, while at the same time creating a hypertension care model that can be emulated across the world. PMID:27372532

  20. Hypertension and counter-hypertension mechanisms in giraffes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiong Gus

    2006-03-01

    The giraffe is unique as its head is 2500-3000 millimeters above its heart, thus the giraffe's heart must pump hard enough to overcome the huge hydrostatic pressure generated by the tall column of blood in its neck in order to provide its head with sufficient nutrients and oxygen. Giraffes therefore have exceptionally high blood pressure (hypertension) by human standards. Interestingly, the "unnaturally" high blood pressure in giraffes does not culminate in severe vascular lesions, nor does it lead to heart and kidney failure, whereas in humans, the same blood pressure is exceedingly dangerous and will cause severe vascular damage. Intrinsically, natural selection likely has provided an important protective mechanism, because hypertension develops as soon as the giraffe stands up and erects its neck immediately after birth. Therefore, those individual giraffes who did not tolerate the burden of hypertension presumably developed acute heart failure and renal failure, not surviving to reproductive age. The genes and genotypes of animals that did not survive are thus predicted to have been gradually eliminated from the gene pool by natural selection. By the same process, genes that protect against hypertensive damage would be preserved and inherited from generation to generation. Some unique ingredients of the giraffe's diet may also provide an extrinsic mechanism for the prevention of hypertension and the prevention of fatal end-stage organ damage. The fascinating nature of the protective mechanisms in giraffes may provide a conceptual framework for further experimental investigations into mechanisms as well as prevention and treatment of human hypertension and cardiovascular disease.

  1. Molecular genetics of essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Singh, M; Singh, A K; Pandey, P; Chandra, S; Singh, K A; Gambhir, I S

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major public health problem in the developing as well as in developed countries due to its high prevalence and its association with coronary heart disease, renal disease, stroke, peripheral vascular disease, and related disorders. Essential hypertension (EH) is the most common diagnosis in this disease, suggesting that a monocausal etiology has not been identified. However, a number of risk factors associated with EH have also been identified such as age, sex, demographic, environmental, genetic, and vascular factors. Recent advances in molecular biological research had achieved clarifying the molecular basis of Mendelian hypertensive disorders. Molecular genetic studies have now identified mutations in several genes that cause Mendelian forms of hypertension in humans. However, none of the single genetic variants has emerged from linkage or association analyses as consistently related to the blood pressure level in every sample and in all populations. Besides, a number of polymorphisms in candidate genes have been associated with differences in blood pressure. The most prominent candidate has been the polymorphisms in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. In total, EH is likely to be a polygenic disorder that results from inheritance of a number of susceptibility genes and involves multiple environmental determinants. These determinants complicate the study of blood pressure variations in the general population. The complex nature of the hypertension phenotype makes large-scale studies indispensable, when screening of familial and genetic factors was intended. In this review, recent genetic studies exploring the molecular basis of EH, including different molecular pathways, are highlighted. PMID:27028574

  2. Viscometric study of chitosan solutions in acetic acid/sodium acetate and acetic acid/sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Costa, Cristiane N; Teixeira, Viviane G; Delpech, Marcia C; Souza, Josefa Virginia S; Costa, Marcos A S

    2015-11-20

    A viscometric study was carried out at 25°C to assess the physical-chemical behavior in solution and the mean viscometric molar mass (M¯v) of chitosan solutions with different deacetylation degrees, in two solvent mixtures: medium 1-acetic acid 0.3mol/L and sodium acetate 0.2mol/L; and medium 2-acetic acid 0.1mol/L and sodium chloride 0.2mol/L. Different equations were employed, by graphical extrapolation, to calculate the intrinsic viscosities [η] and the viscometric constants, to reveal the solvent's quality: Huggins (H), Kraemer (K) and Schulz-Blaschke (SB). For single-point determination, the equations used were SB, Solomon-Ciuta (SC) and Deb-Chanterjee (DC), resulting in a faster form of analysis. The values of ̄M¯v were calculated by applying the equation of Mark-Houwink-Sakurada. The SB and SC equations were most suitable for single-point determination of [η] and ̄M¯v and the Schulz-Blachke constant (kSB), equal to 0.28, already utilized for various systems, can also be employed to analyze chitosan solutions under the conditions studied.

  3. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. Difluprednate versus prednisolone acetate for inflammation following cataract surgery in pediatric patients: a randomized safety and efficacy study

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, M E; O'Halloran, H; VanderVeen, D; Roarty, J; Plager, D A; Markwardt, K; Gedif, K; Lambert, S R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate safety and efficacy of difluprednate 0.05% ophthalmic emulsion for treatment of postoperative inflammation after cataract surgery in pediatric patients. Methods This was a phase 3B, multicentre, randomized, double-masked, active-controlled study of patients aged 0–3 years who underwent uncomplicated cataract surgery in one eye, with/without intraocular lens implantation. Patients were randomized to receive difluprednate 0.05% four times daily or prednisolone acetate 1% for 14 days post surgery, followed by tapering for 14 days. Safety included evaluation of adverse events. Primary efficacy was the proportion of patients with an anterior cell grade of 0 (no cells) at day 14; secondary efficacy was a global inflammation score. Results Forty patients were randomized to each treatment group. Adverse drug reactions included corneal oedema (difluprednate 0.5%, n=1; prednisolone acetate 1%, n=0) and increased intraocular pressure or ocular hypertension (n=2/group). Mean intraocular pressure values during treatment were 2–3 mm Hg higher with difluprednate 0.05% compared with prednisolone acetate 1% mean values were similar between groups by the first week after treatment cessation. At 2 weeks post surgery, the incidence of complete clearing of anterior chamber cells was similar between groups (difluprednate 0.05%, n=30 (78.9%); prednisolone acetate 1%, n=31 (77.5%). Compared with prednisolone acetate 1%, approximately twice as many difluprednate 0.05%-treated patients had a global inflammation assessment score indicating no inflammation on day 1 (n=12 (30.8%) vs n=7 (17.5%) and day 8 (n=18 (48.7%) vs n=10 (25.0%). Conclusions Difluprednate 0.05% four times daily showed safety and efficacy profiles similar to prednisolone acetate 1% four times daily in children 0–3 years undergoing cataract surgery. PMID:27367745

  7. Difluprednate versus prednisolone acetate for inflammation following cataract surgery in pediatric patients: a randomized safety and efficacy study.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M E; O'Halloran, H; VanderVeen, D; Roarty, J; Plager, D A; Markwardt, K; Gedif, K; Lambert, S R

    2016-09-01

    PurposeTo evaluate safety and efficacy of difluprednate 0.05% ophthalmic emulsion for treatment of postoperative inflammation after cataract surgery in pediatric patients.MethodsThis was a phase 3B, multicentre, randomized, double-masked, active-controlled study of patients aged 0-3 years who underwent uncomplicated cataract surgery in one eye, with/without intraocular lens implantation. Patients were randomized to receive difluprednate 0.05% four times daily or prednisolone acetate 1% for 14 days post surgery, followed by tapering for 14 days. Safety included evaluation of adverse events. Primary efficacy was the proportion of patients with an anterior cell grade of 0 (no cells) at day 14; secondary efficacy was a global inflammation score.ResultsForty patients were randomized to each treatment group. Adverse drug reactions included corneal oedema (difluprednate 0.5%, n=1; prednisolone acetate 1%, n=0) and increased intraocular pressure or ocular hypertension (n=2/group). Mean intraocular pressure values during treatment were 2-3 mm Hg higher with difluprednate 0.05% compared with prednisolone acetate 1%; mean values were similar between groups by the first week after treatment cessation. At 2 weeks post surgery, the incidence of complete clearing of anterior chamber cells was similar between groups (difluprednate 0.05%, n=30 (78.9%); prednisolone acetate 1%, n=31 (77.5%). Compared with prednisolone acetate 1%, approximately twice as many difluprednate 0.05%-treated patients had a global inflammation assessment score indicating no inflammation on day 1 (n=12 (30.8%) vs n=7 (17.5%) and day 8 (n=18 (48.7%) vs n=10 (25.0%).ConclusionsDifluprednate 0.05% four times daily showed safety and efficacy profiles similar to prednisolone acetate 1% four times daily in children 0-3 years undergoing cataract surgery. PMID:27367745

  8. Who Is at Risk for Pulmonary Hypertension?

    MedlinePlus

    ... exact number of people who have pulmonary hypertension (PH) isn't known. Group 1 pulmonary arterial hypertension ( ... have group 1 PAH tend to be overweight . PH that occurs with another disease or condition is ...

  9. Hypercortisolism in obesity-associated hypertension.

    PubMed

    Varughese, Amy G; Nimkevych, Oksana; Uwaifo, Gabriel I

    2014-07-01

    Obesity is prevalent worldwide and associated with co-morbidities that result in increased cardiovascular risk. Hypertension is the most prevalent obesity comorbidity associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Obesity hypertension is a distinct subtype of essential hypertension. While endogenous Cushing's syndrome is an uncommon cause of both obesity and hypertension, the recent recognition of other hypercortisolemic states has raised the profile of hypercortisolism as an important contributor in obesity hypertension. The high prevalence of exogenous, iatrogenic, pseudo, and subclinical Cushing's syndromes makes hypercortisolism an important diagnostic consideration in the evaluation and management of patients with obesity hypertension who are resistant to conventional management. Available data suggest that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system modulating antihypertensives have the best efficacy in hypercortisolism-mediated obesity hypertension. Strategies aimed at reducing cortisol production and action also have utility. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the epidemiology, etiopathogenesis and management options available for glucocorticoid-mediated obesity hypertension.

  10. An Update on Inpatient Hypertension Management.

    PubMed

    Axon, R Neal; Turner, Mason; Buckley, Ryan

    2015-11-01

    Hypertension is highly prevalent affecting nearly one third of the US adult population. Though generally approached as an outpatient disorder, elevated blood pressure is observed in a majority of hospitalized patients. The spectrum of hypertensive disease ranges from patients with hypertensive emergency including markedly elevated blood pressure and associated end-organ damage to asymptomatic patients with minimally elevated pressures of unclear significance. It is important to note that current evidence-based hypertension guidelines do not specifically address inpatient hypertension. This narrative review focuses primarily on best practices for diagnosing and managing nonemergent hypertension in the inpatient setting. We describe examples of common hypertensive syndromes, provide suggestions for optimal post-acute management, and point to evidence-based or consensus guidelines where available. In addition, we describe a practical approach to managing asymptomatic elevated blood pressure observed in the inpatient setting. Finally, arranging effective care transitions to ensure optimal ongoing hypertension management is appropriate in all cases. PMID:26362300

  11. Expression of Acetate Permease-like (apl) Genes in Subsurface Communities of Geobacter Species Under Fluctuating Acetate Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Elifantz, H; N'Guessan, A L; Mouser, Paula; Williams, Kenneth H; Wilkins, Michael J; Risso, Carla; Holmes, Dawn; Long, Philip E; Lovley, Derek R

    2010-09-01

    The addition of acetate to uranium-contaminated aquifers in order to stimulate the growth and activity of Geobacter species that reduce uranium is a promising in situ bioremediation option. Optimizing this bioremediation strategy requires that sufficient acetate be added to promote Geobacter species growth. We hypothesized that under acetate-limiting conditions, subsurface Geobacter species would increase the expression of either putative acetate symporters genes (aplI and aplII). Acetate was added to a uranium-contaminated aquifer (Rifle, CO) in two continuous amendments separated by 5 days of groundwater flush to create changing acetate concentrations. While the expression of aplI in monitoring well D04 (high acetate) weakly correlated with the acetate concentration over time, the transcript levels for this gene were relatively constant in well D08 (low acetate). At the lowest acetate concentrations during the groundwater flush, the transcript levels of aplII were the highest. The expression of aplII decreased 2–10-fold upon acetate reintroduction. However, the overall instability of acetate concentrations throughout the experiment could not support a robust conclusion regarding the role of apl genes in response to acetate limitation under field conditions, in contrast to previous chemostat studies, suggesting that the function of a microbial community cannot be inferred based on lab experiments alone.

  12. Expression of acetate permease-like (apl) genes in subsurface communities of Geobacter species under fluctuating acetate concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Elifantz, H.; N'Guessan, L.A.; Mouser, P.J.; Williams, K H.; Wilkins, M J.; Risso, C.; Holmes, D.E.; Long, P.E.; Lovley, D.R.

    2010-03-01

    The addition of acetate to uranium-contaminated aquifers in order to stimulate the growth and activity of Geobacter species that reduce uranium is a promising in situ bioremediation option. Optimizing this bioremediation strategy requires that sufficient acetate be added to promote Geobacter species growth. We hypothesized that under acetate-limiting conditions, subsurface Geobacter species would increase the expression of either putative acetate symporters genes (aplI and aplII). Acetate was added to a uranium-contaminated aquifer (Rifle, CO) in two continuous amendments separated by 5 days of groundwater flush to create changing acetate concentrations. While the expression of aplI in monitoring well D04 (high acetate) weakly correlated with the acetate concentration over time, the transcript levels for this gene were relatively constant in well D08 (low acetate). At the lowest acetate concentrations during the groundwater flush, the transcript levels of aplII were the highest. The expression of aplII decreased 2-10-fold upon acetate reintroduction. However, the overall instability of acetate concentrations throughout the experiment could not support a robust conclusion regarding the role of apl genes in response to acetate limitation under field conditions, in contrast to previous chemostat studies, suggesting that the function of a microbial community cannot be inferred based on lab experiments alone.

  13. QT dispersion in adult hypertensives.

    PubMed Central

    Sani, Isa Muhammad; Solomon, Danbauchi Sulei; Imhogene, Oyati Albert; Ahmad, Alhassan Muhammad; Bala, Garko Sani

    2006-01-01

    Increased QT dispersion is associated with sudden cardiac death in congestive cardiac failure, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and following myocardial infarction. Patients with hypertension--in particular, those with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH)--are also at greater risk of sudden cardiac death. We examined whether QT dispersion, which is easily obtained from a routine ECG, correlates with LVH. One-hundred untreated patients with systemic hypertension and 78 normotensives had QT dispersion measured manually from a surface 12-lead electrocardiogram and two-dimensional echocardiography performed to measure interventricular septal thickness, posterior wall thickness and left ventricular internal diameter. Office blood pressure was also recorded. Multivariate analysis demonstrated significant relationships between QT dispersion and office systolic blood pressure, and left ventricular mass index. Manual measurement of QT dispersion might be a simple, noninvasive screening procedure to identify those hypertensives at greatest risk of sudden cardiac death in a third-world country. PMID:16623077

  14. Microarray analysis in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hoffmann, Julia; Wilhelm, Jochen; Olschewski, Andrea; Kwapiszewska, Grazyna

    2016-07-01

    Microarrays are a powerful and effective tool that allows the detection of genome-wide gene expression differences between controls and disease conditions. They have been broadly applied to investigate the pathobiology of diverse forms of pulmonary hypertension, namely group 1, including patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and group 3, including pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. To date, numerous human microarray studies have been conducted to analyse global (lung homogenate samples), compartment-specific (laser capture microdissection), cell type-specific (isolated primary cells) and circulating cell (peripheral blood) expression profiles. Combined, they provide important information on development, progression and the end-stage disease. In the future, system biology approaches, expression of noncoding RNAs that regulate coding RNAs, and direct comparison between animal models and human disease might be of importance. PMID:27076594

  15. Microarray analysis in pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Julia; Wilhelm, Jochen; Olschewski, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Microarrays are a powerful and effective tool that allows the detection of genome-wide gene expression differences between controls and disease conditions. They have been broadly applied to investigate the pathobiology of diverse forms of pulmonary hypertension, namely group 1, including patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension, and group 3, including pulmonary hypertension associated with chronic lung diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. To date, numerous human microarray studies have been conducted to analyse global (lung homogenate samples), compartment-specific (laser capture microdissection), cell type-specific (isolated primary cells) and circulating cell (peripheral blood) expression profiles. Combined, they provide important information on development, progression and the end-stage disease. In the future, system biology approaches, expression of noncoding RNAs that regulate coding RNAs, and direct comparison between animal models and human disease might be of importance. PMID:27076594

  16. Separating acetic acid from furol (furfural) by electrodialysis method

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, S.F.; Li, C.S. Ye, S.T.; Shen, S.Y.; Wang, Y.T.; Yu, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    Furfural production by hydrolysis of fibrous plant materials is accompanied by formation of acetic acid in amounts depending on the material used. The amount of acetic formed in the hydrolysis of the fruit shell of oil-tea camellia (Camellia oleosa) (an oilseed-bearing tree) is equal to the amount of furfural. The acetic acid can be separated from the furfural and concentrated to 10% by electrodialysis. A smaller amount of furfural is separated with acetic acid.

  17. Gold-catalyzed cyclization of allenyl acetal derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Vasu, Dhananjayan; Pawar, Samir Kundlik

    2013-01-01

    Summary The gold-catalyzed transformation of allenyl acetals into 5-alkylidenecyclopent-2-en-1-ones is described. The outcome of our deuterium labeling experiments supports a 1,4-hydride shift of the resulting allyl cationic intermediates because a complete deuterium transfer is observed. We tested the reaction on various acetal substrates bearing a propargyl acetate, giving 4-methoxy-5-alkylidenecyclopent-2-en-1-ones 4 via a degradation of the acetate group at the allyl cation intermediate. PMID:24062838

  18. The immune system and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Singh, Madhu V; Chapleau, Mark W; Harwani, Sailesh C; Abboud, Francois M

    2014-08-01

    A powerful interaction between the autonomic and the immune systems plays a prominent role in the initiation and maintenance of hypertension and significantly contributes to cardiovascular pathology, end-organ damage and mortality. Studies have shown consistent association between hypertension, proinflammatory cytokines and the cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems. The sympathetic nervous system, a major determinant of hypertension, innervates the bone marrow, spleen and peripheral lymphatic system and is proinflammatory, whereas the parasympathetic nerve activity dampens the inflammatory response through α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. The neuro-immune synapse is bidirectional as cytokines may enhance the sympathetic activity through their central nervous system action that in turn increases the mobilization, migration and infiltration of immune cells in the end organs. Kidneys may be infiltrated by immune cells and mesangial cells that may originate in the bone marrow and release inflammatory cytokines that cause renal damage. Hypertension is also accompanied by infiltration of the adventitia and perivascular adipose tissue by inflammatory immune cells including macrophages. Increased cytokine production induces myogenic and structural changes in the resistance vessels, causing elevated blood pressure. Cardiac hypertrophy in hypertension may result from the mechanical afterload and the inflammatory response to resident or migratory immune cells. Toll-like receptors on innate immune cells function as sterile injury detectors and initiate the inflammatory pathway. Finally, abnormalities of innate immune cells and the molecular determinants of their activation that include toll-like receptor, adrenergic, cholinergic and AT1 receptors can define the severity of inflammation in hypertension. These receptors are putative therapeutic targets.

  19. Refeeding hypertension in dietary obesity

    SciTech Connect

    Ernsberger, P.; Nelson, D.O. )

    1988-01-01

    A novel model of nutritionally induced hypertension in the rat is described. Dietary obesity was produced by providing sweet milk in addition to regular chow, which elicited a 52% increase in caloric intake. Despite 54% greater body weight gain and 139% heavier retroperitoneal fat pads, 120 days of overfeeding failed to increase systolic pressure in the conscious state or mean arterial pressure under urethan anesthesia. In contrast, mild hypertension developed in intermittantly fasted obese animals. The first 4-day supplemented fast was initiated 4 wk after the introduction of sweet milk, when the animals were 47 g overweight relative to chow-fed controls. Thereafter, 4 days of starvation were alternated with 2 wk of refeeding for a total of 4 cycles. A rapid fall in systolic blood pressure accompanied the onset of supplemented fasting and was maintained thereafter. With refeeding, blood pressure rose precipitously, despite poststarvation anorexia. Blood pressure tended to rise slightly over the remainder of the realimentation period. After the 4th supplemented fast, hypertension was sustained during 30 days of refeeding. Cumulative caloric intake in starved-refed rats fell within 2% of that in chow-fed controls. Refeeding hypertension appeared to be due to increased sympathetic nervous activity, since (1) cardiac {beta}-adrenergic receptors were downregulated, as indicated by a 40% decrease in the maximum binding of ({sup 3}H)dihydroalpranolol; and (2) the decrease in heart rate as a result of {beta}-blockade was enhanced. Refeeding hypertension in the dietary obese rat may be a potential animal model for some forms of human obesity-related hypertension.

  20. Anatomical and functional imaging in endocrine hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Vikas; Bano, Shahina

    2012-01-01

    In endocrine hypertension, hormonal excess results in clinically significant hypertension. The functional imaging (such as radionuclide imaging) complements anatomy-based imaging (such as ultrasound, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging) to facilitate diagnostic localization of a lesion causing endocrine hypertension. The aim of this review article is to familiarize general radiologists, endocrinologists, and clinicians with various anatomical and functional imaging techniques used in patients with endocrine hypertension. PMID:23087854

  1. Cyproterone acetate in treatment of precocious puberty.

    PubMed Central

    Kauli, R; Pertzelan, A; Prager-Lewin, R; Grünebaum, M; Laron, Z

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-nine children (23 girls, 6 boys) with precocious puberty were treated with cyproterone acetate for various periods of time ranging from 6 months to 3 years 4 months. They received an oral dose ranging from 70-150 mg/m2 per day, or an intramuscular depot injection once a fortnight or once a month at a dose ranging from 107-230 mg/m2. Both forms of therapy were found to suppress the signs of sexual maturation, but the oral form proved to be superior. Only the younger patients with a bone age under 11 years showed a beneficial effect upon linear growth and bone maturation. No side effects were noted, but additional advantageous effects upon behaviour and sociability were. It is concluded that at present cyproterone acetate by mouth is the drug of choice in the treatment of precocious puberty. The treatment should be initiated as early as possible to attain maximum benefit. PMID:952553

  2. Malignant Hypertension with Thrombotic Microangiopathy.

    PubMed

    Mitaka, Hayato; Yamada, Yuji; Hamada, Osamu; Kosaka, Shintaro; Fujiwara, Naoki; Miyakawa, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    A 49-year-old man with malignant hypertension, acute kidney injury and mental deterioration was referred to our hospital. We initially observed microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia and kidney damage, indicating he had thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). We considered TMA was caused by malignant hypertension and therefore did not start plasma therapy. The French TMA reference center reported that platelet counts and serum creatine levels have high values for predicting severe ADAMTS13 deficiency. The patient fully recovered from his illness after treatment with antihypertensive drugs and intermittent hemodialysis. This case might thus be useful to understand the proper differential diagnosis and treatment of TMA. PMID:27523008

  3. Risk Factors in Adolescent Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ewald, D. Rose; Haldeman, Lauren A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a complex and multifaceted disease, with many contributing factors. While diet and nutrition are important influences, the confounding effects of overweight and obesity, metabolic and genetic factors, racial and ethnic predispositions, socioeconomic status, cultural influences, growth rate, and pubertal stage have even more influence and make diagnosis quite challenging. The prevalence of hypertension in adolescents far exceeds the numbers who have been diagnosed; studies have found that 75% or more go undiagnosed. This literature review summarizes the challenges of blood pressure classification in adolescents, discusses the impact of these confounding influences, and identifies actions that will improve diagnosis and treatment outcomes. PMID:27335997

  4. Risk Factors in Adolescent Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Ewald, D Rose; Haldeman PhD, Lauren A

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a complex and multifaceted disease, with many contributing factors. While diet and nutrition are important influences, the confounding effects of overweight and obesity, metabolic and genetic factors, racial and ethnic predispositions, socioeconomic status, cultural influences, growth rate, and pubertal stage have even more influence and make diagnosis quite challenging. The prevalence of hypertension in adolescents far exceeds the numbers who have been diagnosed; studies have found that 75% or more go undiagnosed. This literature review summarizes the challenges of blood pressure classification in adolescents, discusses the impact of these confounding influences, and identifies actions that will improve diagnosis and treatment outcomes. PMID:27335997

  5. 21 CFR 182.8892 - α-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false α-Tocopherol acetate. 182.8892 Section 182.8892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. α-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  7. 21 CFR 182.8892 - α-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true α-Tocopherol acetate. 182.8892 Section 182.8892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. α-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 182.8892 - α-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false α-Tocopherol acetate. 182.8892 Section 182.8892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. α-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false a-Tocopherol acetate. 582.5892 Section 582.5892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false a-Tocopherol acetate. 582.5892 Section 582.5892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 182.8892 - α-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false α-Tocopherol acetate. 182.8892 Section 182.8892...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8892 α-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. α-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  12. Acetate concentrations and oxidation in salt marsh sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Acetate concentrations and rates of acetate oxidation and sulfate reduction were measured in S. alterniflora sediments in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Pore water extracted from cores by squeezing or centrifugation contained in greater than 0.1 mM acetate and, in some instances, greater than 1.0 mM. Pore water sampled nondestructively contained much less acetate, often less than 0.01 mM. Acetate was associated with roots, and concentrations varied with changes in plant physiology. Acetate turnover was very low whether whole core or slurry incubations were used. Radiotracers injected directly into soils yielded rates of sulfate reduction and acetate oxidation not significantly different from core incubation techniques. Regardless of incubation method, acetate oxidation did not account for a substantial percentage of sulfate reduction. These results differ markedly from data for unvegetated coastal sediments where acetate levels are low, oxidation rate constants are high, and acetate oxication rates greatly exceed rates of sulfate reduction. The discrepancy between rates of acetate oxidation and sulfate reduction in these marsh soils may be due either to the utilization of substrates other than acetate by sulfate reducers or artifacts associated with measurements of organic utilization by rhizosphere bacteria. Care must be taken when interpreting data from salt marsh sediments since the release of material from roots during coring may affect the concentrations of certain compounds as well as influencing results obtained when sediment incubations are employed.

  13. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  14. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  15. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  16. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  17. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  18. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  20. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. Calcium magnesium acetate production and cost reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Leuschner, A.P.

    1988-02-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Energy Authority), Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. (ConEd), the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT), the New York State Thruway Authority (NYSTA), Chevron Chemical Company, the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA), and the Massachusetts Department of Public Works (MDPW) sponsored a research program to develop technology capable of producing Calcium Magnesium Acetate (CMA), an alternative road deicer, at a quality and cost which will allow its increased use. The objectives of this program were to determine the feasibility of: (1) producing CMA from regionally available waste and low grade organic feedstocks via biochemical engineering technologies; (2) operating the fermentation at concentrated product levels to reduce energy requirements and minimize drying process costs; (3) using this production approach to produce an environmentally acceptable CMA product; and (4) using and adapting an existing facility for a CMA commercial demonstration plant. The experimental program included:(1) selection of microorganisms for their ability to grow in the absence of sodium chloride and to tolerate high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and acetate ions; (2) analysis of waste feedstocks for their potential conversion to acetate; (3) analysis of waste organic material for impurities in CMA that could carry over into the environment; (4) batch experiments to determine pH tolerance, growth in the absence of sodium chloride (NaCl), tolerance to magnesium, calcium and acetate ions, effect of substrate concentration, acid distribution, and acid production; and (5) semi-continuous laboratory scale anaerobic digestion experiments to determine loading rates, conversion efficiencies, and other design data. 67 refs., 33 figs., 66 tabs.

  4. Co-fermentation of acetate and sugars facilitating microbial lipid production on acetate-rich biomass hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhiwei; Zhou, Wenting; Shen, Hongwei; Yang, Zhonghua; Wang, Guanghui; Zuo, Zhenyu; Hou, Yali; Zhao, Zongbao K

    2016-05-01

    The process of lignocellulosic biomass routinely produces a stream that contains sugars plus various amounts of acetic acid. As acetate is known to inhibit the culture of microorganisms including oleaginous yeasts, little attention has been paid to explore lipid production on mixtures of acetate and sugars. Here we demonstrated that the yeast Cryptococcus curvatus can effectively co-ferment acetate and sugars for lipid production. When mixtures of acetate and glucose were applied, C. curvatus consumed both substrates simultaneously. Similar phenomena were also observed for acetate and xylose mixtures, as well as acetate-rich corn stover hydrolysates. More interestingly, the replacement of sugar with equal amount of acetate as carbon source afforded higher lipid titre and lipid content. The lipid products had fatty acid compositional profiles similar to those of cocoa butter, suggesting their potential for high value-added fats and biodiesel production. This co-fermentation strategy should facilitate lipid production technology from lignocelluloses. PMID:26874438

  5. Secondary arterial hypertension linked to Freon exposure.

    PubMed

    Voge, V M

    1996-05-01

    Freons are generally considered to be minimally toxic. There are no reports in the literature of Freons causing secondary arterial hypertension. We report two cases of acute, massive Freon exposure that preceded secondary arterial hypertension. We hypothesize that the arterial hypertension was precipitated by renal proximal tubular damage, although several other mechanisms are possible.

  6. Renovascular hypertension: Pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Glorioso, N.; Laragh, J.H.; Rappelli, A.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains 42 selections. Some of the titles are: Clinical Pharmacology of Two Synthetic Atrial Natriuretics Peptides; Reflex Control of Renin Release in Normotensive and Hypertensive Humans; Renal Blood flow in Renovascular Hypertension; and Radioisotopic Studies in Renovascular Hypertension Before and After Surgery or Percutaneous Transluminal Renal Angioplasty.

  7. Hypertension: Strengths and limitations of the JNC 8 hypertension guidelines.

    PubMed

    Mancia, Giuseppe

    2014-04-01

    The Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) guidelines on hypertension have generated great interest among physicians. These guidelines differ from those published in 2003 (the JNC 7) - in the document format, blood-pressure cut-off values, and recommendations for antihypertensive drug use. The JNC 8 have some limitations that could affect clinical practice. PMID:24514021

  8. Stability of octreotide acetate in polypropylene syringes.

    PubMed

    Stiles, M L; Allen, L V; Resztak, K E; Prince, S J

    1993-11-01

    The stability of octreotide acetate in polypropylene syringes was studied. Polypropylene syringes were aseptically filled with 1 mL of octreotide acetate 0.2 mg/mL and stored at 3 or 23 degrees C under light protection or light exposure. Three syringes were prepared for each condition and each sampling time. Unopened 5-mL glass vials of the drug served as controls. Samples were removed immediately and at 8, 15, 22, and 29 days and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. At 3 degrees C, octreotide stored in light-protected syringes maintained more than 90% of its initial concentration for up to 29 days. However, at 22 days the concentration in the syringes stored at that temperature and exposed to light was less than 90% when the standard deviation is considered. At 23 degrees C, the drug was stable for only up to 15 days (light protection) and 22 days (light exposure) when the standard deviation is considered. Octreotide acetate in polypropylene syringes was stable for up to 29 days when stored at 3 degrees C and protected from light and for up to 22 days when stored at 23 degrees C and exposed to light.

  9. Ultrasound-assisted dyeing of cellulose acetate.

    PubMed

    Udrescu, C; Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M

    2014-07-01

    The possibility of reducing the use of auxiliaries in conventional cellulose acetate dyeing with Disperse Red 50 using ultrasound technique was studied as an alternative to the standard procedure. Dyeing of cellulose acetate yarn was carried out by using either mechanical agitation alone, with and without auxiliaries, or coupling mechanical and ultrasound agitation in the bath where the temperature range was maintained between 60 and 80 °C. The best results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical agitation without auxiliaries (90% of bath exhaustion value at 80 °C). Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasound efficiency were calculated confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound added to mechanical agitation was evidenced by the lower value (48 kJ/mol) in comparison with 112 and 169 kJ/mol for mechanical stirring alone with auxiliaries and without, respectively. Finally, the fastness tests gave good values for samples dyed with ultrasound technique even without auxiliaries. Moreover color measurements on dyed yarns showed that the color yield obtained by ultrasound-assisted dyeing at 80 °C of cellulose acetate without using additional chemicals into the dye bath reached the same value yielded by mechanical agitation, but with remarkably shorter time.

  10. Synergistic effects of high blood cholesterol and hypertension on leukocyte and platelet recruitment in the cerebral microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Stephen F; Almeida-Paula, Lidiana D; Granger, Daniel N

    2014-04-01

    Hypertension or hypercholesterolemia can induce a proinflammatory and prothrombogenic phenotype in the microcirculation of the brain; however, less is known about how the combination of these risk factors affects the vasculature. We recently reported that a moderate (60%) increase in plasma cholesterol blunts the recruitment of leukocytes and platelets in the cerebral microvessels elicited by hypertension. In this study, we examined whether larger increments in blood cholesterol (4-fold) exerts a similar modulating influence on the vasculature in the presence of hypertension. Apolipoprotein E-knockout mice with deoxycorticosterone acetate salt-induced hypertension were placed on a high-cholesterol diet and exhibited exaggerated leukocyte and platelet adhesion responses in cerebral microvessels. Intermittent feeding (every fourth day) with high-cholesterol diet yielded similar phenotypic changes in the vasculature. Once the mice were placed on high-cholesterol diet, 4 days on normal diet (ND) were needed to revert to a normal vascular phenotype. Angiotensin II type 1 receptors and reactive oxygen species seem to contribute to the vascular responses induced by hypercholesterolemia and hypertension. Our findings indicate that the combination of hypertension and large increases in plasma cholesterol concentration results in a severe, but reversible, inflammatory and thrombogenic phenotype in the cerebral microvasculature.

  11. Genetic susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal damage in the rat. Evidence based on kidney-specific genome transfer.

    PubMed Central

    Churchill, P C; Churchill, M C; Bidani, A K; Griffin, K A; Picken, M; Pravenec, M; Kren, V; St Lezin, E; Wang, J M; Wang, N; Kurtz, T W

    1997-01-01

    To test the hypothesis that genetic factors can determine susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal damage, we derived an experimental animal model in which two genetically different yet histocompatible kidneys are chronically and simultaneously exposed to the same blood pressure profile and metabolic environment within the same host. Kidneys from normotensive Brown Norway rats were transplanted into unilaterally nephrectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-RT1.N strain) that harbor the major histocompatibility complex of the Brown Norway strain. 25 d after the induction of severe hypertension with deoxycorticosterone acetate and salt, proteinuria, impaired glomerular filtration rate, and extensive vascular and glomerular injury were observed in the Brown Norway donor kidneys, but not in the SHR-RT1.N kidneys. Control experiments demonstrated that the strain differences in kidney damage could not be attributed to effects of transplantation-induced renal injury, immunologic rejection phenomena, or preexisting strain differences in blood pressure. These studies (a) demonstrate that the kidney of the normotensive Brown Norway rat is inherently much more susceptible to hypertension-induced damage than is the kidney of the spontaneously hypertensive rat, and (b) establish the feasibility of using organ-specific genome transplants to map genes expressed in the kidney that determine susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal injury in the rat. PMID:9294102

  12. Genetic susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal damage in the rat. Evidence based on kidney-specific genome transfer.

    PubMed

    Churchill, P C; Churchill, M C; Bidani, A K; Griffin, K A; Picken, M; Pravenec, M; Kren, V; St Lezin, E; Wang, J M; Wang, N; Kurtz, T W

    1997-09-15

    To test the hypothesis that genetic factors can determine susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal damage, we derived an experimental animal model in which two genetically different yet histocompatible kidneys are chronically and simultaneously exposed to the same blood pressure profile and metabolic environment within the same host. Kidneys from normotensive Brown Norway rats were transplanted into unilaterally nephrectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR-RT1.N strain) that harbor the major histocompatibility complex of the Brown Norway strain. 25 d after the induction of severe hypertension with deoxycorticosterone acetate and salt, proteinuria, impaired glomerular filtration rate, and extensive vascular and glomerular injury were observed in the Brown Norway donor kidneys, but not in the SHR-RT1.N kidneys. Control experiments demonstrated that the strain differences in kidney damage could not be attributed to effects of transplantation-induced renal injury, immunologic rejection phenomena, or preexisting strain differences in blood pressure. These studies (a) demonstrate that the kidney of the normotensive Brown Norway rat is inherently much more susceptible to hypertension-induced damage than is the kidney of the spontaneously hypertensive rat, and (b) establish the feasibility of using organ-specific genome transplants to map genes expressed in the kidney that determine susceptibility to hypertension-induced renal injury in the rat.

  13. Experimental evidence of an acetate transporter protein and characterization of acetate activation in aceticlastic methanogenesis of Methanosarcina mazei.

    PubMed

    Welte, Cornelia; Kröninger, Lena; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2014-10-01

    Aceticlastic methanogens metabolize acetate to methane and carbon dioxide. The central metabolism and the electron transport chains of these organisms have already been investigated. However, no particular attention has been paid to the mechanism by which acetate enters the archaeal cell. In our study we investigated Methanosarcina mazei acetate kinase (Ack) and the acetate uptake reaction. At a concentration of 2 mM acetate, the Ack activity in cell extract of M. mazei was not limiting for the methane formation rate. Instead, the methanogenesis rate was controlled by the substrate concentration and increased 10-fold at 10 mM acetate. Subsequently, we analyzed the involvement of the putative acetate permease MM_0903 using a corresponding deletion mutant. At 2 mM acetate, only 25% of the wild-type methane formation rate was measured in the mutant. This indicated that the supply of acetate to Ack was limiting the rate of methane formation. Moreover, the mutant revealed an increased acetate kinase activity compared with the wild type. These results show for the first time that an acetate transporter is involved in aceticlastic methanogenesis and may be an important factor in the acetate threshold concentration for methanogenesis of Methanosarcina spp. PMID:25088360

  14. Overview on mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-02-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of gram-negative or gram-variable bacteria which possess an obligate aerobic property with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, meanwhile transform ethanol and sugar to corresponding aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Since the first genus Acetobacter of AAB was established in 1898, 16 AAB genera have been recorded so far. As the main producer of a world-wide condiment, vinegar, AAB have evolved an elegant adaptive system that enables them to survive and produce a high concentration of acetic acid. Some researches and reviews focused on mechanisms of acid resistance in enteric bacteria and made the mechanisms thoroughly understood, while a few investigations did in AAB. As the related technologies with proteome, transcriptome and genome were rapidly developed and applied to AAB research, some plausible mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in some AAB strains have been published. In this review, the related mechanisms of AAB against acetic acid with acetic acid assimilation, transportation systems, cell morphology and membrane compositions, adaptation response, and fermentation conditions will be described. Finally, a framework for future research for anti-acid AAB will be provided.

  15. [PREDICTORS OF RESISTANT ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION].

    PubMed

    Lazutkina, A Y; Gorbunov, V V

    2016-01-01

    The paper reports results of 6 year prospective observation of 7959 members of locomotive crews engaged at the Transbaikal Railways. The study aimed to estimate the probability and time of development of resistant arterial hypertension under effect of predictors of this disease. The data obtained are of value for diagnostic, prophylactic, and therapeutic practice. PMID:27522725

  16. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in systemic hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Systemic hypertension is a highly prevalent potentially modifiable cardiovascular risk factor. Imaging plays an important role in the diagnosis of underlying causes for hypertension, in assessing cardiovascular complications of hypertension, and in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease process. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) provides accurate and reproducible measures of ventricular volumes, mass, function and haemodynamics as well as uniquely allowing tissue characterization of diffuse and focal fibrosis. In addition, CMR is well suited for exclusion of common secondary causes for hypertension. We review the current and emerging clinical and research applications of CMR in hypertension. PMID:22559053

  17. Management of Hypertension in Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Sofia F; Braz, Caio V; Lorenzi-Filho, Geraldo; Drager, Luciano F

    2015-12-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is considered to be a secondary form of hypertension and in clinical practice OSA is frequently associated with hypertension, even if proof of causality cannot be established. Growing evidence suggests that OSA is associated with worse blood pressure control, alterations in night-time blood pressure dipping, increased target organ damage, and arterial stiffness in patients with hypertension. This review summarizes the current evidence for managing hypertension in patients with OSA. Particular focus will be devoted to discuss the impact of lifestyle changes, preferences for anti-hypertensive treatment in patients with OSA, and the effects of OSA treatment with continuous positive airway pressure on blood pressure.

  18. Hypertension in obesity: is leptin the culprit?

    PubMed

    Simonds, Stephanie E; Cowley, Michael A

    2013-02-01

    The number of obese or overweight humans continues to increase worldwide. Hypertension is a serious disease that often develops in obesity, but it is not clear how obesity increases the risk of hypertension. However, both obesity and hypertension increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD). In this review, we examine how obesity may increase the risk of developing hypertension. Specifically, we discuss how the adipose-derived hormone leptin influences the sympathetic nervous system (SNS), through actions in the brain to elevate energy expenditure (EE) while also contributing to hypertension in obesity.

  19. Classification of hypertension in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Brown, M A; de Swiet, M

    1999-03-01

    In many ways there should be no need to classify hypertensive disorders in clinical practice. The very presence of rising blood pressure should alert the clinician to seek evidence for the development of pre-eclampsia and whether there are any emerging abnormalities of fetal growth and/or maternal renal, cerebral, hepatic or coagulation functions which may necessitate specific treatment, including delivery. While such a view may be appropriate for experienced clinicians with an understanding of the pathophysiology of the hypertensive disorders of pregnancy, it is of little help to junior or less experienced medical staff. Moreover, without an agreed international classification system it is impossible to compare truly clinical outcome, intervention or basic research studies from different units as entry criteria to these studies may differ considerably across individual units and certainly across countries. In this chapter we highlight the limitations of the existing classification systems and propose a system that is based on our present understanding of the pathophysiology of pre-eclampsia. The proposed system is not a radical departure from previous classifications, with grouping of hypertensive subjects into gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia and chronic (usually essential) hypertension. Proteinuria, while remaining a hallmark of pre-eclampsia, is no longer considered a 'sine qua non' for this disorder to be diagnosed, reflecting our greater understanding of the maternal and fetal abnormalities in pre-eclampsia since previous classification systems were developed. This classification system has been compared with the traditional system of diagnosing proteinuric pre-eclampsia in a study of 1183 women with hypertension in pregnancy: diagnosing pre-eclampsia in this new manner still stratifies a high-risk group of pregnant women and the proposed diagnosis of gestational hypertension in this system stratifies a group of women at low maternal and fetal risk

  20. Differential titration of bases in glacial acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Castellano, T; Medwick, T; Shinkai, J H; Bailey, L

    1981-01-01

    A study of bases in acetic acid and their differential titration was carried out. The overall basicity constants for 20 bases were measured in acetic acid, and the differential titration of five binary mixtures of variable delta pKb values in acetic acid was followed using a glass electrode-modified calomel electrode system. Agreement with literature values was good. A leveling diagram was constructed that indicated that bases stronger than aqueous pKb 10 are leveled to an acetous pKb 5.69, whereas weaker bases are not leveled but instead exhibit their own intrinsic basicity, with the acetous pKb to aqueous pKb values being linearly related (slope 1.18, correlation coefficient 0.962). A minimum acetous delta pKb of four units is required for the satisfactory differential titration of two bases in acetic acid.

  1. [Degradation of oxytetracycline with ozonation in acetic acid solvent].

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Yin; Li, Xiao-Rong; Zhu, Yi-Ping; Zhu, Jiang-Peng; Wang, Guo-Xiang

    2012-12-01

    Use acetic acid as the media of ozone degradation of oxytetracycline (OTC), and effects of the initial dosing ratio of ozone/OTC, ozone flow, free radical scavenger, metal ions on the removal rate of OTC were investigated respectively. The results showed that acetic acid had a high ozone stability and solubility. OTC had a high removal rate and degradation rate in acetic acid solution. With the increase of OTC dosage, the removal rate of OTC decreased in acetic acid. Removal rate of OTC was increased distinctly when ozone flow increased properly. It was also observed that free radical scavenger had a significantly negative effect on OTC ozonation degradation in acetic acid. Furthermore the main reactions of OTC ozone oxidation were direct oxidation and indirect oxidation in acetic acid. When Fe3+ and Co2+ were existent in acetic acid, the degradation of OTC was inhibited significantly.

  2. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016.

  3. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016. PMID:27090191

  4. Purinergic dysregulation in pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Visovatti, Scott H; Hyman, Matthew C; Goonewardena, Sascha N; Anyanwu, Anuli C; Kanthi, Yogendra; Robichaud, Patrick; Wang, Jintao; Petrovic-Djergovic, Danica; Rattan, Rahul; Burant, Charles F; Pinsky, David J

    2016-07-01

    Despite the fact that nucleotides and adenosine help regulate vascular tone through purinergic signaling pathways, little is known regarding their contributions to the pathobiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension, a condition characterized by elevated pulmonary vascular resistance and remodeling. Even less is known about the potential role that alterations in CD39 (ENTPD1), the ectonucleotidase responsible for the conversion of the nucleotides ATP and ADP to AMP, may play in pulmonary arterial hypertension. In this study we identified decreased CD39 expression on the pulmonary endothelium of patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension. We next determined the effects of CD39 gene deletion in mice exposed to normoxia or normobaric hypoxia (10% oxygen). Compared with controls, hypoxic CD39(-/-) mice were found to have a markedly elevated ATP-to-adenosine ratio, higher pulmonary arterial pressures, more right ventricular hypertrophy, more arterial medial hypertrophy, and a pro-thrombotic phenotype. In addition, hypoxic CD39(-/-) mice exhibited a marked increase in lung P2X1 receptors. Systemic reconstitution of ATPase and ADPase enzymatic activities through continuous administration of apyrase decreased pulmonary arterial pressures in hypoxic CD39(-/-) mice to levels found in hypoxic CD39(+/+) controls. Treatment with NF279, a potent and selective P2X1 receptor antagonist, lowered pulmonary arterial pressures even further. Our study is the first to implicate decreased CD39 and resultant alterations in circulating purinergic signaling ligands and cognate receptors in the pathobiology of pulmonary arterial hypertension. Reconstitution and receptor blocking experiments suggest that phosphohydrolysis of purinergic nucleotide tri- and diphosphates, or blocking of the P2X1 receptor could serve as treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension. PMID:27208163

  5. A global view of pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hoeper, Marius M; Humbert, Marc; Souza, Rogerio; Idrees, Majdy; Kawut, Steven M; Sliwa-Hahnle, Karen; Jing, Zhi-Cheng; Gibbs, J Simon R

    2016-04-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a substantial global health issue. All age groups are affected with rapidly growing importance in elderly people, particularly in countries with ageing populations. Present estimates suggest a pulmonary hypertension prevalence of about 1% of the global population, which increases up to 10% in individuals aged more than 65 years. In almost all parts of the world, left-sided heart and lung diseases have become the most frequent causes of pulmonary hypertension. About 80% of affected patients live in developing countries, where pulmonary hypertension is frequently associated with congenital heart disease and various infectious disorders, including schistosomiasis, HIV, and rheumatic heart disease. These forms of pulmonary hypertension occur predominantly in those younger than 65 years. Independently of the underlying disease, the development of pulmonary hypertension is associated with clinical deterioration and a substantially increased mortality risk. Global research efforts are needed to establish preventive strategies and treatments for the various types of pulmonary hypertension. PMID:26975810

  6. [Isolated Systolic Hypertension in Different Ages].

    PubMed

    Kobalava, Z D; Kotovskaya, Y V

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is the leading risk-factor for cardiovascular disease and death from them. Traditionally, the problem of isolated systolic hypertension is associated with old age in mind the natural dynamics of systolic and diastolic blood pressure throughout life. Isolated systolic hypertension is the most common type of hypertension in elderly men as well as young adults. The pathophysiology of this condition in different age periods have fundamental differences. The adverse prognostic significance of isolated systolic hypertension in the elderly, and the need for its non-drug and drug treatment are well documented. Accumulating epidemiological evidence on the adverse prognostic significance of isolated systolic hypertension. People young and middle-aged isolated systolic hypertension heterogeneous and may be a consequence of excessive pulse pressure amplification from the aorta to the peripheral arteries and the manifestation of an accelerated aging. Evaluation of central blood pressure and arterial stiffness in young may help identify premature vascular aging.

  7. Animal models in obesity and hypertension.

    PubMed

    Segal-Lieberman, Gabriella; Rosenthal, Talma

    2013-06-01

    Although obesity is a well-known risk factor for hypertension, the mechanisms by which hypertension develops in obese patients are not entirely clear. Animal models of obesity and their different susceptibilities to develop hypertension have revealed some of the mechanisms linking obesity and hypertension. Adipose tissue is an endocrine organ secreting hormones that impact blood pressure, such as elements of the renin-angiotensin system whose role in hypertension have been established. In addition, the appetite-suppressing adipokine leptin activates the sympathetic nervous system via the melanocortin system, and this activation, especially in the kidney, increases blood pressure. Leptin secretion from adipocytes is increased in most models of obesity due to leptin resistance, although the resistance is often selective to the anorexigenic effect, while the susceptibility to the hypertensive effect remains intact. Understanding the pathways by which obesity contributes to increased blood pressure will hopefully pave the way to and better define the appropriate treatment for obesity-induced hypertension.

  8. Adaptation and tolerance of bacteria against acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Trček, Janja; Mira, Nuno Pereira; Jarboe, Laura R

    2015-08-01

    Acetic acid is a weak organic acid exerting a toxic effect to most microorganisms at concentrations as low as 0.5 wt%. This toxic effect results mostly from acetic acid dissociation inside microbial cells, causing a decrease of intracellular pH and metabolic disturbance by the anion, among other deleterious effects. These microbial inhibition mechanisms enable acetic acid to be used as a preservative, although its usefulness is limited by the emergence of highly tolerant spoilage strains. Several biotechnological processes are also inhibited by the accumulation of acetic acid in the growth medium including production of bioethanol from lignocellulosics, wine making, and microbe-based production of acetic acid itself. To design better preservation strategies based on acetic acid and to improve the robustness of industrial biotechnological processes limited by this acid's toxicity, it is essential to deepen the understanding of the underlying toxicity mechanisms. In this sense, adaptive responses that improve tolerance to acetic acid have been well studied in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strains highly tolerant to acetic acid, either isolated from natural environments or specifically engineered for this effect, represent a unique reservoir of information that could increase our understanding of acetic acid tolerance and contribute to the design of additional tolerance mechanisms. In this article, the mechanisms underlying the acetic acid tolerance exhibited by several bacterial strains are reviewed, with emphasis on the knowledge gathered in acetic acid bacteria and E. coli. A comparison of how these bacterial adaptive responses to acetic acid stress fit to those described in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also performed. A systematic comparison of the similarities and dissimilarities of the ways by which different microbial systems surpass the deleterious effects of acetic acid toxicity has not been performed so far, although such exchange

  9. Impedance Cardiographic (ICG) Assessment of Pregnant Women With Severe Hypertension to Assess Impact of Standard Therapy

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2013-12-11

    Pregnancy; Proteinuria, With Hypertension (Severe Pre-eclampsia); Delivery; Proteinuria, With Gestational Hypertension (Pre-eclampsia, Severe); Pregnancy; Hypertension, Gestational Hypertension, With Albuminuria (Severe Pre-eclampsia)

  10. Temperature dependence of ion transport in dilute tetrabutylammonium triflate-acetate solutions and self-diffusion in pure acetate liquids.

    PubMed

    Bopege, Dharshani N; Petrowsky, Matt; Fleshman, Allison M; Frech, Roger; Johnson, Matthew B

    2012-01-12

    Conductivities and static dielectric constants for 0.0055 M tetrabutylammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate in n-butyl acetate, n-pentyl acetate, n-hexyl acetate, n-octyl acetate, and n-decyl acetate have been collected over the temperature range of 0-80 °C. Self-diffusion coefficients and static dielectric constants of pure acetates were obtained over the same temperature range. Both temperature-dependent diffusion coefficients and ionic conductivities of these pure acetates and dilute acetate solutions can be accurately described by the compensated Arrhenius formalism. Activation energies were calculated from compensated Arrhenius plots for both conductivity and diffusion data. Activation energies are higher for conductivity data of 0.0055 M TbaTf-acetates compared to diffusion data of pure acetates. The plot of the exponential prefactor versus the dielectric constant yields a single master curve for both conductivity and diffusion data. These data support the argument that mass and charge transport are thermally activated processes in the acetates, as previously observed in alcohol-based electrolytes. PMID:22145961

  11. Acetate supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Reisenauer, Chris J; Bhatt, Dhaval P; Mitteness, Dane J; Slanczka, Evan R; Gienger, Heidi M; Watt, John A; Rosenberger, Thad A

    2011-04-01

    Glyceryl triacetate (GTA), a compound effective at increasing circulating and tissue levels of acetate was used to treat rats subjected to a continual 28 day intra-ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This model produces a neuroinflammatory injury characterized by global neuroglial activation and a decrease in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the basal forebrain. During the LPS infusion, rats were given a daily treatment of either water or GTA at a dose of 6 g/kg by oral gavage. In parallel experiments, free-CoA and acetyl-CoA levels were measured in microwave fixed brains and flash frozen heart, liver, kidney and muscle following a single oral dose of GTA. We found that a single oral dose of GTA significantly increased plasma acetate levels by 15 min and remained elevated for up to 4 h. At 30 min the acetyl-CoA levels in microwave-fixed brain and flash frozen heart and liver were increased at least 2.2-fold. The concentrations of brain acetyl-CoA was significantly increased between 30 and 45 min following treatment and remained elevated for up to 4 h. The concentration of free-CoA in brain was significantly decreased compared to controls at 240 min. Immunohistochemical and morphological analysis demonstrated that a daily treatment with GTA significantly reduced the percentage of reactive glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes and activated CD11b-positive microglia by 40-50% in rats subjected to LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Further, in rats subjected to neuroinflammation, GTA significantly increased the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive cells by 40% in the basal forebrain compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that acetate supplementation increases intermediary short chain acetyl-CoA metabolism and that treatment is potentially anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective with regards to attenuating neuroglial activation and increasing ChAT immunoreactivity in this model. PMID:21272004

  12. High-flux cellulose acetate membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Boeddeker, K.W.; Finken, H.; Wenzlaff, A.

    1981-01-01

    Three routes to increase the permeate flux of asymmetric cellulose diacetate membranes of the Loeb-Sourirajan type were investigated: increasing the hydrophilicity of the membranes; increasing their compaction stability, and employing a swelling agent which allows for higher solvent-to-polymer ratio in the casting solution. The effect of casting solution composition on flux and rejection of formamide-modified cellulose acetate membrane is included, illustrating the general capability of this membrane type as function of solvent concentration. Membranes of casting solution composition cellulose diacetate/acetone/formamide 23/52/25 were used as reference membranes in the work. 6 figures. (DP)

  13. Hypertensive urgency: an important aetiology of rebound hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Malaty, John; Malaty, Irene A

    2014-01-01

    A 46-year-old African-American man with a history of hypertension, end-stage kidney disease (on haemodialysis) and previous cocaine misuse presented to the emergency room with a sudden onset of severe headache and diaphoresis without other neurological or cardiovascular signs/symptoms. He checked his blood pressure at home and found it to be 230/130. It did not improve despite taking two serial doses of oral clonidine 0.3 mg. Evaluation with head CT and lumbar puncture demonstrated no acute intracranial process, such as subarachnoid haemorrhage. These symptoms started after he took Libido-Max, an over-the-counter supplement for erectile dysfunction. This supplement includes yohimbine, an α-2 antagonist, which counteracts the effects of oral clonidine, one of his routine antihypertensive medications. This led to rebound hypertension and made his hypertensive urgency resistant to oral clonidine. He was successfully treated with intravenous labetalol and his symptoms quickly resolved after lowering of his blood pressure. PMID:25336552

  14. Long-term continuous evolution of acetate resistant Acetobacter aceti.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Peter; Sauer, Uwe

    2003-10-01

    Elevated concentrations of cytotoxic acetate are found in many environmental niches, and few species are relatively resistant to acetate. In particular the high-level acetate resistance of so-called acetic acid bacteria that occurs in industrial settings must be constantly selected for. To investigate the nature of such high-level resistance, we grew the moderately acetate-resistant Acetobacter aceti wild-type and acetate-sensitive Escherichia coli in long-term continuous cultures with increasing acetate concentrations at near neutral pH. While E. coli did not acquire any significant resistance after 125 generations of selection, A. aceti evolved the capability to grow at acetate concentrations exceeding 50 g/L within 240 generations. This phenotype was found to be stable for several generations in the absence of selective pressure, hence must be genetically determined. Intracellular acetate concentrations were significantly lower in evolved A. aceti, when compared to wild-type A. aceti and E. coli, indicating that cytoplasmatic anion accumulation is an important component of acetate toxicity.

  15. Kidney scintigraphy after ACE inhibition in the diagnosis of renovascular hypertension

    SciTech Connect

    Ghione, S.; Fommei, E.; Palombo, C.; Giaconi, S.; Mantovanelli, A.; Ragazzini, A.; Palla, L.

    1986-01-01

    Suppression of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) by angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition may induce renal failure in patients with bilateral renal artery stenosis. Recent scintigraphic studies with the glomerular tracer technetium-99m-diethylenetriaminepenta-acetate (99m-Tc DTPA) indicate that in patients with unilateral renal artery stenosis, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) may be markedly reduced in the affected kidney after inhibition of ACE. This finding reflects the important role of the RAS in maintaining GFR (by increasing postglomerular resistance) in states of low renal perfusion pressure. Preliminary observations suggest that this scintigraphic test might be useful in the detection of renovascular hypertension.

  16. Sphingolipids contribute to acetic acid resistance in Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Eriksson, Leif A; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Lignocellulosic raw material plays a crucial role in the development of sustainable processes for the production of fuels and chemicals. Weak acids such as acetic acid and formic acid are troublesome inhibitors restricting efficient microbial conversion of the biomass to desired products. To improve our understanding of weak acid inhibition and to identify engineering strategies to reduce acetic acid toxicity, the highly acetic-acid-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was studied. The impact of acetic acid membrane permeability on acetic acid tolerance in Z. bailii was investigated with particular focus on how the previously demonstrated high sphingolipid content in the plasma membrane influences acetic acid tolerance and membrane permeability. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we concluded that membranes with a high content of sphingolipids are thicker and more dense, increasing the free energy barrier for the permeation of acetic acid through the membrane. Z. bailii cultured with the drug myriocin, known to decrease cellular sphingo-lipid levels, exhibited significant growth inhibition in the presence of acetic acid, while growth in medium without acetic acid was unaffected by the myriocin addition. Furthermore, following an acetic acid pulse, the intracellular pH decreased more in myriocin-treated cells than in control cells. This indicates a higher inflow rate of acetic acid and confirms that the reduction in growth of cells cultured with myriocin in the medium with acetic acid was due to an increase in membrane permeability, thereby demonstrating the importance of a high fraction of sphingolipids in the membrane of Z. bailii to facilitate acetic acid resistance; a property potentially transferable to desired production organisms suffering from weak acid stress. PMID:26416641

  17. Sphingolipids contribute to acetic acid resistance in Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Eriksson, Leif A; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Lignocellulosic raw material plays a crucial role in the development of sustainable processes for the production of fuels and chemicals. Weak acids such as acetic acid and formic acid are troublesome inhibitors restricting efficient microbial conversion of the biomass to desired products. To improve our understanding of weak acid inhibition and to identify engineering strategies to reduce acetic acid toxicity, the highly acetic-acid-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was studied. The impact of acetic acid membrane permeability on acetic acid tolerance in Z. bailii was investigated with particular focus on how the previously demonstrated high sphingolipid content in the plasma membrane influences acetic acid tolerance and membrane permeability. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we concluded that membranes with a high content of sphingolipids are thicker and more dense, increasing the free energy barrier for the permeation of acetic acid through the membrane. Z. bailii cultured with the drug myriocin, known to decrease cellular sphingo-lipid levels, exhibited significant growth inhibition in the presence of acetic acid, while growth in medium without acetic acid was unaffected by the myriocin addition. Furthermore, following an acetic acid pulse, the intracellular pH decreased more in myriocin-treated cells than in control cells. This indicates a higher inflow rate of acetic acid and confirms that the reduction in growth of cells cultured with myriocin in the medium with acetic acid was due to an increase in membrane permeability, thereby demonstrating the importance of a high fraction of sphingolipids in the membrane of Z. bailii to facilitate acetic acid resistance; a property potentially transferable to desired production organisms suffering from weak acid stress.

  18. [Hypertensive crisis in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Skrzypczyk, Piotr; Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria; Daniel, Maria

    2013-12-01

    Hypertensive crisis is a sudden rise in blood pressure above 99 c. for sex, age and height +5 mm Hg. Depending on patient's symptoms, hypertensive crisis can be divided into hypertensive emergency severe arterial hypertension with target organ insufficiency and/r damage (central nervous system, heart, kidney, eye), and hypertensive urgency - severe arterial hypertension without target organ insufficiency and damage with non-specific symptoms like: headaches, vertigo, nasal bleeding, nausea, and vomiting. The most common causes of hypertensive crisis in neonates and infants are renal artery thrombosis, broncho-pulmonary dysplasia, and coarctation of aorta; in older children - kidney diseases and renal artery stenosis. In neonates and infants symptoms of cardiac failure predominate, whereas in older children symptoms from central nervous system (headaches, nausea, vomiting, changes in level of consciousness, seizures, focal deficits). Hypertensive crisis is treated with fast- and short-acting medications; 25% reduction of blood pressure within first 8 hours is recommended, with complete normalization within 24-48 hours. Hypertensive emergency should be treated with intravenous agents (labetalol, hydralazine, nicardipine, and sodium nitroprusside), hypertensive urgency with intravenous or oral agents like nifedipine, isradipine, clonidine and minoxidil. Nicardipine is a first-choice medication in neonates. PMID:24490470

  19. Emergency Management of Hypertension in Children

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Dinesh; Akingbola, Olugbenga; Yosypiv, Ihor; El-Dahr, Samir

    2012-01-01

    Systemic arterial hypertension in children has traditionally been thought to be secondary in origin. Increased incidence of risk factors like obesity, sedentary life-styles, and faulty dietary habits has led to increased prevalence of the primary arterial hypertension (PAH), particularly in adolescent age children. PAH has become a global epidemic worldwide imposing huge economic constraint on health care. Sudden acute increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure can lead to hypertensive crisis. While it generally pertains to secondary hypertension, occurrence of hypertensive crisis in PAH is however rare in children. Hypertensive crisis has been further subclassified depending on presence or absence of end-organ damage into hypertensive emergency or urgency. Both hypertensive emergencies and urgencies are known to cause significant morbidity and mortality. Increasing awareness among the physicians, targeted at investigation of the pathophysiology of hypertension and its complications, better screening methods, generation, and implementation of novel treatment modalities will impact overall outcomes. In this paper, we discuss the etiology, pathogenesis, and management of hypertensive crisis in children. An extensive database search using keywords was done to obtain the information. PMID:22577545

  20. [Hypertensive crisis in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Skrzypczyk, Piotr; Roszkowska-Blaim, Maria; Daniel, Maria

    2013-12-01

    Hypertensive crisis is a sudden rise in blood pressure above 99 c. for sex, age and height +5 mm Hg. Depending on patient's symptoms, hypertensive crisis can be divided into hypertensive emergency severe arterial hypertension with target organ insufficiency and/r damage (central nervous system, heart, kidney, eye), and hypertensive urgency - severe arterial hypertension without target organ insufficiency and damage with non-specific symptoms like: headaches, vertigo, nasal bleeding, nausea, and vomiting. The most common causes of hypertensive crisis in neonates and infants are renal artery thrombosis, broncho-pulmonary dysplasia, and coarctation of aorta; in older children - kidney diseases and renal artery stenosis. In neonates and infants symptoms of cardiac failure predominate, whereas in older children symptoms from central nervous system (headaches, nausea, vomiting, changes in level of consciousness, seizures, focal deficits). Hypertensive crisis is treated with fast- and short-acting medications; 25% reduction of blood pressure within first 8 hours is recommended, with complete normalization within 24-48 hours. Hypertensive emergency should be treated with intravenous agents (labetalol, hydralazine, nicardipine, and sodium nitroprusside), hypertensive urgency with intravenous or oral agents like nifedipine, isradipine, clonidine and minoxidil. Nicardipine is a first-choice medication in neonates.

  1. Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

  2. Pulmonary Hypertension: Types and Treatments

    PubMed Central

    Rose-Jones, Lisa J; Mclaughlin, Vallerie V

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a panvasculopathy that affects the distal pulmonary arteries and leads to restricted blood flow. This increased afterload leads to adaptive mechanisms of the right ventricle, with eventual failure once it can no longer compensate. Pulmonary hypertension from associated conditions, most importantly left heart disease, i.e. heart failure, can also lead to the same sequela. Patients often experience early vague symptoms of dyspnea and exercise intolerance, and thus PH can elude clinicians until right heart failure symptoms predominate. Evidence-based treatment options with pulmo-nary vasodilators are available for those with PAH and should be employed early. It is essential that patients be accurately categorized by their etiology of PH, as treatment strategies differ, and can potentially be dangerous if employed in the wrong clinical scenario. PMID:24251459

  3. [Psychological approaches in hypertension management].

    PubMed

    Abgrall-Barbry, Gaëlle; Consoli, Silla M

    2006-06-01

    Stress factors, especially high levels of occupational stress, are associated with hypertension. Several so-called psychological techniques have been applied to hypertension: biofeedback, relaxation techniques (Schultz' autogenic training, Jacobson's progressive relaxation), transcendental meditation, and cognitive behavioral techniques for stress management. Randomized studies show that the best results come from cognitive behavioral methods, whether or not they include relaxation techniques. Other forms of psychotherapy (such as psychoanalysis) may be useful, although their benefits for blood pressure have not been tested in controlled trials. Patients should be informed about the personal benefits they may obtain from psychological treatment. Indications are hyperreactivity to stress, high levels of occupational stress, and difficulty in tolerating or complying with antihypertensive drugs.

  4. Is hypertension an autoimmune disease?

    PubMed Central

    Pober, Jordan S.

    2014-01-01

    T cells are required for significant blood pressure elevation in mouse models of hypertension. Recent evidence suggests that the treatments that raise blood pressure in these animal models also cause oxidation within DCs, resulting in formation of isoketal adducts of self-proteins, which activate antigen-presenting functions of these cells and serve as a source of modified self-antigens. T cells specific for these modified self-antigens then produce cytokines that promote blood pressure elevation, consistent with the idea that hypertension is an autoimmune response to altered self. Here, I will review the new evidence for this idea put forth by Kirabo and colleagues in this issue of the JCI, identify a number of as yet unanswered questions, and discuss some of the therapeutic implications. PMID:25244091

  5. [Abdominal bruit associated with hypertension].

    PubMed

    Fontseré, N; Bonet, J; Bonal, J; Romero, R

    2004-01-01

    First cause of secondary hypertension is renovascular hypertension which presents abdominal bruit in 16 to 20% of cases. This clinical sign is also associated with other vascular disease of the abdomen such as celiac trunk stenosis and/or aneurysms located on the pancreaticoduodenal or gastroduodenal arcs level, with little representation among aneurysm. They usually appear on a context of digestive complications like neoplasias, chronic pancreatitis or gastric obstructions possibly with obstructive icterus, hemorrhage and acute abdomen episodes. Its presentation in other contexts is rare and constitutes a diagnostic challenge. Diagnosis is made by abdominal arteriography which is the best method because you can locate the problem as well as intervene therapeutically with embolization of the aneurysme. We would like to emphasize the importance of a quick diagnosis due to the risk of rupture and the high morbi-mortality associated.

  6. [Martorell Hypertensive Ischaemic Leg Ulcer].

    PubMed

    Nobbe, S; Hafner, J

    2015-10-01

    Martorell hypertensive ischaemic leg ulcer (HYTILU) represents an important differential diagnosis of painful leg ulcerations. Stenotic subcutaneous arteriolosclerosis in patients with long-standing arterial hypertension finally leads to skin infarction. The typical histological changes are very similar in Martorell HYTILU and calciphylaxis. This raises the hypothesis that the two entities may have a common pathogenesis. Martorell HYTILU presents as an extremely painful ulcer that is regularly located at the laterodorsal lower leg or at the Achilles tendon. Because of its inflammatory and violaceous wound edges and its tendency to progression, clinicians unaware of the diagnosis Martorell HYTILU might misdiagnose pyoderma gangrenosum or necrotising cutaneous vasculitis start an immunosuppressive treatment and avoid surgical diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Instead, necrosectomy and split skin grafting are the treatment of choice for Martorell HYTILU.

  7. Review of new hypertension guidelines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, P-Y

    2015-01-01

    The Eighth Joint National Committee (JNC 8) released its new guidelines on the management of adult hypertension in Dec 2013. The key departures from JNC 7 include target blood pressures and thresholds for initiation of elderly patients and in patients under age 60 with diabetes and kidney disease. In this review, we analyse the critical questions, basis of new recommendations, major deviations from JNC 7, the strengths and limitations of changes in previous management guidelines. PMID:25683948

  8. Dutch guideline for the management of hypertensive crisis -- 2010 revision.

    PubMed

    van den Born, B J H; Beutler, J J; Gaillard, C A J M; de Gooijer, A; van den Meiracker, A H; Kroon, A A

    2011-05-01

    Hypertensive crises are divided into hypertensive urgencies and emergencies. Together they form a heterogeneous group of acute hypertensive disorders depending on the presence or type of target organs involved. Despite better treatment options for hypertension, hypertensive crisis and its associated complications remain relatively common. In the Netherlands the number of patients starting renal replacement therapy because of 'malignant hypertension' has increased in the past two decades. In 2003, the first Dutch guideline on hypertensive crisis was released to allow a standardised evidence-based approach for patients presenting with a hypertensive crisis. In this paper we give an overview of the current management of hypertensive crisis and discuss several important changes incorporated in the 2010 revision. These changes include a modification in terminology replacing 'malignant hypertension' with 'hypertensive crisis with retinopathy and reclassification of hypertensive crisis with retinopathy under hypertensive emergencies instead of urgencies. With regard to the treatment of hypertensive emergencies, nicardipine instead of nitroprusside or labetalol is favoured for the management of perioperative hypertension, whereas labetalol has become the drug of choice for the treatment of hypertension associated with pre-eclampsia. For the treatment of hypertensive urgencies, oral administration of nifedipine retard instead of captopril is recommended as first-line therapy. In addition, a section on the management of hypertensive emergencies according to the type of target organ involved has been added. Efforts to increase the awareness and treatment of hypertension in the population at large may lower the incidence of hypertensive crisis and its complications.

  9. Epigenetic Modifications in Essential Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wise, Ingrid A.; Charchar, Fadi J.

    2016-01-01

    Essential hypertension (EH) is a complex, polygenic condition with no single causative agent. Despite advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of EH, hypertension remains one of the world’s leading public health problems. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that epigenetic modifications are as important as genetic predisposition in the development of EH. Indeed, a complex and interactive genetic and environmental system exists to determine an individual’s risk of EH. Epigenetics refers to all heritable changes to the regulation of gene expression as well as chromatin remodelling, without involvement of nucleotide sequence changes. Epigenetic modification is recognized as an essential process in biology, but is now being investigated for its role in the development of specific pathologic conditions, including EH. Epigenetic research will provide insights into the pathogenesis of blood pressure regulation that cannot be explained by classic Mendelian inheritance. This review concentrates on epigenetic modifications to DNA structure, including the influence of non-coding RNAs on hypertension development. PMID:27023534

  10. [Occupational noise exposure and hypertension].

    PubMed

    Santana, V S; Barberino, J L

    1995-12-01

    The hypothesis that occupational noise exposure is positively associated with hypertension was examined in a cross-sectional study carried out on a group of patients who were enrolled at the Occupational Health Unit of the Unified Health System, situated in Salvador city, the capital of Bahia state, Brazil. Data were obtained from 276 medical records, corresponding to all patients newly registered during the first six months of 1992. Data on noise exposure come from both reported occupational exposure history and clinical diagnosis of occupational noise-induced hearing loss. Hypertension diagnosis complies with World Health Organization criteria, as well as with the history of antihypertensive treatment. Stratified analysis and unconditional logistic regression modeling show results that do not support the study hypothesis: there are no differences between systolic or diastolic blood pressure or between proportion of hypertension for exposed and non exposed groups. However, statiscally significant (alpha = 0.05) increment of the effect measured was reported among workers who reported low educational level (below elementary). This could be another evidence of socially related inequalities underlying exposure distribution among workers at the workplace, which should be addressed, at greater depth, in future studies.

  11. Posttransplant hypertension: multipathogenic disease process.

    PubMed

    Barbari, Antoine

    2013-04-01

    Arterial hypertension is prevalent among kidney transplant recipients. The multifactorial pathogenesis involves the interaction of the donor and the recipient's genetic backgrounds with several environmental parameters that may precede or follow the transplant procedure (eg, the nature of the renal disease, the duration of the chronic kidney disease phase and maintenance dialytic therapy, the commonly associated cardiovascular disease with atherosclerosis and arteriosclerosis, the renal mass at implantation, the immunosuppressive regimen used, life of the graft, and de novo medical and surgical complications that may occur after a transplant). Among calcineurin inhibitors, tacrolimus seems to have a better cardiovascular profile. Steroid-free protocols and calcineurin inhibitor-free regimens seem to be associated with better blood pressure control. Posttransplant hypertension is a major amplifier of the chronic kidney disease-cardiovascular disease continuum. Despite the adverse effects of hypertension on graft and patient survival, blood pressure control remains poor because of the high cardiovascular risk profile of the donor-recipient pair. Although the optimal blood pressure level remains unknown, it is recommended to maintain the blood pressure at < 130/80 mm Hg and < 125/75 mm Hg in the absence or presence of proteinuria.

  12. Genetic dissection of acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Geng, Peng; Xiao, Yin; Hu, Yun; Sun, Haiye; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Gui-Yang

    2016-09-01

    Dissection of the hereditary architecture underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for ethanol fermentation. In this work, a genomics approach was used to dissect hereditary variations in acetic acid tolerance between two phenotypically different strains. A total of 160 segregants derived from these two strains were obtained. Phenotypic analysis indicated that the acetic acid tolerance displayed a normal distribution in these segregants, and suggested that the acetic acid tolerant traits were controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Thus, 220 SSR markers covering the whole genome were used to detect QTLs of acetic acid tolerant traits. As a result, three QTLs were located on chromosomes 9, 12, and 16, respectively, which explained 38.8-65.9 % of the range of phenotypic variation. Furthermore, twelve genes of the candidates fell into the three QTL regions by integrating the QTL analysis with candidates of acetic acid tolerant genes. These results provided a novel avenue to obtain more robust strains.

  13. Tinnitus and arterial hypertension: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Ricardo Rodrigues; de Azevedo, Andréia Aparecida; Penido, Norma de Oliveira

    2015-11-01

    Tinnitus is considered a multi-factorial symptom. Arterial hypertension has been cited as a tinnitus etiological factor. To assess the scientific evidence on the associations between arterial hypertension and tinnitus. A systematic review was performed using PubMed, ISI Web, Lilacs and SciELO scientific databases. This review included articles published in Portuguese, Spanish, French and English correlating tinnitus with hypertension. Letters to editors and case reports were excluded. A total of 424 articles were identified, of which only 20 met the inclusion criteria. Studies that analyzed the incidence of hypertension in tinnitus patients tended to show an association, while those that evaluated the incidence of tinnitus in hypertensive patients did not. There is evidence of an association between tinnitus and hypertension, although a cause and effect relationship is uncertain. Changes in the cochlear microcirculation, resulting in hearing loss, may be an adjuvant factor in tinnitus pathophysiology.

  14. [Diagnosis and treatment of ocular hypertension].

    PubMed

    Sun, Y Y; Chen, W W; Wang, N L

    2016-07-01

    Ocular hypertension is popular among people, with a prevalence of 3% to 10% in those older than 40 years old. Without proper intervention, over 10% of the patients with ocular hypertension would develop glaucoma in the following 5 to 10 years. Glaucoma has become one of the leading causes of blindness all over the world, which makes it essential for us to pay enough attention to the prevention and treatment of ocular hypertension. However, it is not cost-effective to treat all the patients with ocular hypertension. Certain side effects may also be caused with long-term medical treatment. Therefore, it is of great importance for ophthalmologists to identify the right time and use appropriate therapeutic methods. To introduce the knowledge of ocular hypertension, the definition, epidemiology, diagnosis, risk factors and treatment of ocular hypertension are reviewed in this article. (Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 52: 542-546). PMID:27531115

  15. [Seven core principles for treatment of hypertension].

    PubMed

    Hu, Chun-song; Gao, Run-lin; Liu, Li-sheng

    2006-04-01

    The seven core principles (SeCP) for treatment of hypertension were (1) early identification, early diagnosis, early and life-long treatment; (2) application of long-acting and slow-released anti-hypertension drugs to control blood pressure smoothly; (3) use low dosage and combined therapy; (4) individual and racial therapy; (5) integrated traditional Chinese and Western medicine; (6) life style improvement; (7) enhancing compliance. Being more comprehensive and detailed than the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee (JNC-7), the 2003' European Society of Hypertension/European Society of Cardiology (ESH/ESC2003), the report of the fourth working party of the British Hypertension Society (2004-BHS IV), and the 2004' Chinese Guideline of Hypertension (CGH2004), the programmatic SeCP should be promoted in clinical practice for hypertension patients and doctors to follow and apply.

  16. Sphingolipids contribute to acetic acid resistance in Zygosaccharomyces bailii

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Eriksson, Leif A.; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lignocellulosic raw material plays a crucial role in the development of sustainable processes for the production of fuels and chemicals. Weak acids such as acetic acid and formic acid are troublesome inhibitors restricting efficient microbial conversion of the biomass to desired products. To improve our understanding of weak acid inhibition and to identify engineering strategies to reduce acetic acid toxicity, the highly acetic‐acid‐tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was studied. The impact of acetic acid membrane permeability on acetic acid tolerance in Z. bailii was investigated with particular focus on how the previously demonstrated high sphingolipid content in the plasma membrane influences acetic acid tolerance and membrane permeability. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we concluded that membranes with a high content of sphingolipids are thicker and more dense, increasing the free energy barrier for the permeation of acetic acid through the membrane. Z. bailii cultured with the drug myriocin, known to decrease cellular sphingo­lipid levels, exhibited significant growth inhibition in the presence of acetic acid, while growth in medium without acetic acid was unaffected by the myriocin addition. Furthermore, following an acetic acid pulse, the intracellular pH decreased more in myriocin‐treated cells than in control cells. This indicates a higher inflow rate of acetic acid and confirms that the reduction in growth of cells cultured with myriocin in the medium with acetic acid was due to an increase in membrane permeability, thereby demonstrating the importance of a high fraction of sphingolipids in the membrane of Z. bailii to facilitate acetic acid resistance; a property potentially transferable to desired production organisms suffering from weak acid stress. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 744–753. © 2015 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26416641

  17. 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate as an inhibitor of phagocytosis of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, N; Kataoka, T; Tajika, T; Uramoto, M; Magae, J; Nagai, K

    1995-08-01

    We screened extracts of edible plants for inhibitors of phagocytosis by peritoneal exudate macrophages. 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Languas galanga, and this compound strongly inhibited phagocytosis at an IC50 value of 1.2 microM with negligible effects on pinocytosis and cell viability. Target(s) of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate was suggested to be downstream of the signal transduction pathway that is mediated by protein kinase C.

  18. [Target organ effects in untreated hypertension].

    PubMed

    Babici, D; M'Pio, I; Hadj-Aïssa, A; Ducher, M; Laville, M; Fauvel, J P

    2003-01-01

    The parallel investigation of the renal and cardiac complications of recent and never treated systemic hypertension has only rarely been undertaken. The aim of this study was to define the renal function of never treated hypertensive subjects, separated into white coat hypertensives (HTbb: n = 19, BP at consultation 153/97 mmHg) or permanent hypertensives (HT: n = 49, BP at consultation 169/104 mmHg) as a function of their 24 hour BP. Their renal functions were then compared with those of normotensive subjects (NT: n = 10). The 68 hypertensive subjects seen consecutively underwent renal function investigation (DFG: glomerular filtration rate, DPR: renal plasmatic debit, and muAlb: microalbuminuria over 24 hours), and myocardial echography (measurement of the left ventricular mass index, IMVG). The white coat hypertensives had a normal renal function, while the permanent hypertensives had a significant decrease in DPR and a significantly higher muAlb compared to the normotensives. Compared to the white coat hypertensives, the permanent hypertensives had a significantly lower DFG and DPR, as well as a higher muAlb and IMVG. In all the hypertensives (white coat and permanent) the 24 hour systolic BP was significantly correlated with muAlb (r = 0.51, p < 0.001), filtration fraction (r = 0.30, p < 0.05), and IMVG (r = 0.52, p < 0.001). The renal and myocardial parameters were not significantly correlated. In conclusion, there seems to be a continuum between the level of ambulatory BP and the effect on target organs without a parallel progression of the renal and myocardial effects. From a practical point of view, only ambulatory BP measurement allows differentiation of permanent hypertensives who have a very early renal and/or myocardial effect, while white coat hypertensives are spared.

  19. Renin in differential diagnosis of hypertension.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oparil, S.; Haber, E.

    1971-01-01

    Renin is a proteolytic enzyme secreted by the kidney. Techniques for the direct measurement of renin content of human blood are not available at the present time. Two of the best known causes of remediable hypertension can be diagnosed from abnormalities in renin activity and aldosterone production. In renovascular hypertension, renin secretion is increased because of impaired glomerular perfusion. The renin activity assay, when applied in a carefully controlled fashion, is a useful screening test for treatable causes of hypertension.

  20. Plasma cadmium and zinc in human hypertension.

    PubMed

    Thind, G S; Fischer, G M

    1976-11-01

    1. Plasma cadmium and zinc were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry in inferior venal caval or peripheral venous blood in thrity hypertensive patients and fifteen normal subjects. 2. The mean plasma cadium in hypertensive patients was significantly higher than in normal control subjects. 3. The plasma cadmium/zinc ratio was significantly greater in hypertensive patients. 4. There was a significant positive correlation between the plasma cadmium/zinc ratio and the mean arterial blood pressure.

  1. Radiation induced heart disease in hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lauk, S.; Trott, K.R.

    1988-01-01

    Spontaneously hypertensive Wistar rats were given single doses of X rays to their heart. Irradiation decreased the blood pressure before any myocardial radiation damage was apparent. Male rats, which were more hypertensive than female rats, had a shorter survival time after local heart irradiation than female rats. Antihypertensive treatment with hydralazine did not increase the survival time. It is considered that myocardial hypertrophy is the cause of the increased susceptibility of spontaneously hypertensive rats to local heart irradiation.

  2. Grape contribution to wine aroma: production of hexyl acetate, octyl acetate, and benzyl acetate during yeast fermentation is dependent upon precursors in the must.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Eric G; Keyzers, Robert A; Kalua, Curtis M; Maffei, Suzanne M; Nicholson, Emily L; Boss, Paul K

    2012-03-14

    Wine is a complex consumer product produced predominately by the action of yeast upon grape juice musts. Model must systems have proven ideal for studies of the effects of fermentation conditions on the production of certain wine volatiles. To identify grape-derived precursors to acetate esters, model fermentation systems were developed by spiking precursors into model must at different concentrations. Solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatgraphy mass spectrometry analysis of the fermented wines showed that a variety of grape-derived aliphatic alcohols and aldehydes are precursors to acetate esters. The C6 compounds hexan-1-ol, hexenal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, and (E)-2-hexenal are all precursors to hexyl acetate, and octanol and benzyl alcohol are precursors to octyl acetate and benzyl acetate, respectively. In these cases, the postfermentation concentration of an acetate ester increased proportionally with the prefermentation concentration of the respective precursor in the model must. Determining viticultural or winemaking methods to alter the prefermentation concentration of precursor compounds or change the precursor-to-acetate ester ratio will have implications upon the final flavor and aroma of wines. PMID:22332880

  3. [Hypertension in patients after heart transplantation].

    PubMed

    Matysek, J; Piwowarska, W

    1995-01-01

    Arterial hypertension is a serious and common complication of cyclosporine administration in humans. The prevalence of arterial hypertension in patients following orthotopic heart transplantation ranges from 38% to 92%. There are several characteristic features of this form of hypertension, including very early onset--usually within 4 to 6 weeks after transplantation and persistence with little alteration overtime. Diurnal profile shows the lack of normal nocturnal decline in blood pressure (BP) and appearance of the highest values of BP early in the morning. This phenomenon is caused by altered regulation of BP due to cardiac denervation. There was shown no correlation between the dose of cyclosporine and development of posttransplant arterial hypertension. It develops also independently of many investigated pretransplant and posttransplant cardiovascular risk factors. A great deal of attention has been focused on explantation of cyclosporine influence leading to hypertension occurrence. suggested mechanisms of this action are: elevation of systemic vascular resistance, prostaglandines and tromboxance production imbalance, hypomagnesemia, increased intravascular volume, modulation of sympathetic activity, nephrotoxicity. Reninangiotensin system seems to be not significantly associated with posttransplant hypertension, whereas the role of corticosteroides is still controversal. Hypertension remains the most common complication associated with cyclosporine administration in heart transplant recipients. Mechanisms of cyclosporine action leading to development of hypertension are still unknown. Further investigation is also needed into clinical significance of posttransplant hypertension and its influence on long-term survival after heart transplantation as they remain undefined.

  4. Evidence-Based Chinese Medicine for Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jie; Xiong, Xingjiang

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is an important worldwide public -health challenge with high mortality and disability. Due to the limitations and concerns with current available hypertension treatments, many hypertensive patients, especially in Asia, have turned to Chinese medicine (CM). Although hypertension is not a CM term, physicians who practice CM in China attempt to treat the disease using CM principles. A variety of approaches for treating hypertension have been taken in CM. For seeking the best evidence of CM in making decisions for hypertensive patients, a number of clinical studies have been conducted in China, which has paved the evidence-based way. After literature searching and analyzing, it appeared that CM was effective for hypertension in clinical use, such as Chinese herbal medicine, acupuncture, moxibustion, cupping, qigong, and Tai Chi. However, due to the poor quality of primary studies, clinical evidence is still weak. The potential benefits and safety of CM for hypertension still need to be confirmed in the future with well-designed RCTs of more persuasive primary endpoints and high-quality SRs. Evidence-based Chinese medicine for hypertension still has a long way to go. PMID:23861720

  5. [Definition and clinical characteristics of mild hypertension].

    PubMed

    Saruta, Takao

    2008-08-01

    Mild hypertension is defined as blood pressure level of 140-159 mmHg systolic and/or 90-99 mmHg diastolic. The patients with blood pressure level of mild hypertension occupy about 60% of total hypertensive patients in Japan, and most of them are free of subjective symptoms except elevated blood pressure. However, some of the patients with mild hypertension develop cardiovascular events, since thay have occasionally cardiovascular damages on this level of blood pressure and several risk factors of cardiovascular diseases such as diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia.

  6. Management of severe hypertension in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Moroz, Leslie A; Simpson, Lynn L; Rochelson, Burton

    2016-03-01

    While hemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal death in most of the world, hypertensive disorders of pregnancy are the leading cause of maternal mortality in the United States. The opportunity to improve outcomes lies in timely and appropriate response to severe hypertension. The purpose of this article is to review the diagnostic criteria for severe hypertension, choice of antihypertensive agents, and recommended algorithms for evaluation and management of acute changes in clinical status. Adhering to standard practices ensures that care teams can timely and appropriate care to these high risk patients. With heightened surveillance and prompt evaluation of signs and symptoms of worsening hypertension, maternal morbidity and mortality can be decreased.

  7. [Primary and secondary arterial hypertension - update 2016].

    PubMed

    Sanner, Bernd; Hausberg, Martin

    2016-06-01

    In patients with hypertension without diabetes and with an increased risk of cardiovascular complications a blood pressure of below 130 mmHg should be targeted. Hypertensive patients with an age above 80 years should be treated in the same way as younger hypertensive patients if they are otherwise healthy and functionally independent. On the other hand frail elderly patients could have an increased morbidity and mortality with intensive blood pressure control. In patients with resistant hypertension spironolactone was the most effective drug when given in addition to their baseline drugs (ACE-inhibitor/angiotensin receptor antagonist, calcium channel blocker and thiazide diuretic). PMID:27254628

  8. Synthesis and regeneration of lead (IV) acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, T.J.; Al-Shareef, H.N.; Moore, G.J.

    1996-11-01

    Lead acetate [Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4}] was easily synthesized from a warm solution of Pb{sub 3}O{sub 4}, HO{sub 2}CMe and O(OCMe){sub 2} following literature preparations when the appropriate measures to minimize water contamination were followed. Furthermore, Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} which has been decomposed (evidenced by the appearance of a purple color due to oxidation) can be regenerated using a similar preparatory route. Introduction of Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} from the two routes outlined above into the IMO process for production of PZT thin films gave films with comparable ferroelectric properties to commercially available Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} precursors. However, the freshly synthesized material yields PZT films with better properties compared to the recycled material.

  9. N-(2-Chloro-acet-yl)glycine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Cheng; Zhang, Xiu-Qin; Wang, Kai; Chen, Qiang

    2013-10-26

    The title compound, C4H6ClNO3, crystallizes with two independent mol-ecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit. In each mol-ecule, there are N-H⋯O and N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds. Both mol-ecules are relatively planar, with the mean plane of the acetamide [N-C(=O)C] group being inclined to the mean plane of the acetate group [C-C(=O)O] by 9.23 (13)° in mol-ecule A and 6.23 (12)° in mol-ecule B. In the crystal, adjacent mol-ecules are linked by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and weak C-H⋯O contacts forming -A-A-A- and -B-B-B- parallel chains propagating along the a-axis direction. PMID:24454136

  10. Unsuccessful treatment of acromegaly with medroxyprogesterone acetate.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, R L; Dimond, R C; Howard, W J; Earll, J M

    1974-09-01

    6 patients with active acromegaly were treated with 10 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) every 6 hours daily for 2 weeks to 6 months. Oral glucose tolerance tests, growth hormone (GH) levels, and insulin tolerance tests (ITT) were done before and during MPA treatment. Basal GH levels varied widely during control and therapy periods; no significant lowering of GH levels occurred during treatment. Carbohydrate tolerance was not significantly affected by MPA therapy, although 5 out of 6 patients had deterioration at least once during treatment. Blood glucose response to ITT was unchanged by MPA. MPA did not affect the clinical features of acromegaly. There was no consistent effect of MPA on insulin-induced or arginine-induced GH secretion. It is concluded that MPA is not an effective agent for treating acromegaly.

  11. Resistance Training in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats with Severe Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Neves, Rodrigo Vanerson Passos; Souza, Michel Kendy; Passos, Clévia Santos; Bacurau, Reury Frank Pereira; Simoes, Herbert Gustavo; Prestes, Jonato; Boim, Mirian Aparecida; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Franco, Maria do Carmo Pinho; Moraes, Milton Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Background Resistance training (RT) has been recommended as a non-pharmacological treatment for moderate hypertension. In spite of the important role of exercise intensity on training prescription, there is still no data regarding the effects of RT intensity on severe hypertension (SH). Objective This study examined the effects of two RT protocols (vertical ladder climbing), performed at different overloads of maximal weight carried (MWC), on blood pressure (BP) and muscle strength of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) with SH. Methods Fifteen male SHR [206 ± 10 mmHg of systolic BP (SBP)] and five Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY; 119 ± 10 mmHg of SBP) were divided into 4 groups: sedentary (SED-WKY) and SHR (SED-SHR); RT1-SHR training relative to body weight (~40% of MWC); and RT2-SHR training relative to MWC test (~70% of MWC). Systolic BP and heart rate (HR) were measured weekly using the tail-cuff method. The progression of muscle strength was determined once every fifteen days. The RT consisted of 3 weekly sessions on non-consecutive days for 12-weeks. Results Both RT protocols prevented the increase in SBP (delta - 5 and -7 mmHg, respectively; p > 0.05), whereas SBP of the SED-SHR group increased by 19 mmHg (p < 0.05). There was a decrease in HR only for the RT1 group (p < 0.05). There was a higher increase in strength in the RT2 (140%; p < 0.05) group as compared with RT1 (11%; p > 0.05). Conclusions Our data indicated that both RT protocols were effective in preventing chronic elevation of SBP in SH. Additionally, a higher RT overload induced a greater increase in muscle strength. PMID:26840054

  12. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

  13. A double-blind placebo controlled trial of medroxyprogesterone acetate and cyproterone acetate with seven pedophiles.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A J; Sandhu, S; Losztyn, S; Cernovsky, Z

    1992-12-01

    Seven of ten pedophiles in hospital completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled two-dose comparison of medroxyprogesterone acetate and cyproterone acetate. Sequential measures during the 28 week study were: patient self-reports, nurses' observations, phallometry, hormone levels and side-effects. The drugs, which performed equivalently, reduced sexual thoughts and fantasies, the frequency of early morning erections on awakening, the frequency and pleasure of masturbation, and level of sexual frustration. Penile responses were also reduced but to a lesser degree and were more variable. Serum testosterone FSH and LH all declined during drug administration, but by the end of the final placebo phase had essentially returned to (or exceeded) pre-drug values. Our experience suggests that only a minority of pedophiles are likely to accept libido-reducing drugs.

  14. Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Ramprasad, Dorai; Waller, Francis Joseph

    1999-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

  15. Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Ramprasad, D.; Waller, F.J.

    1999-04-06

    This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

  16. Burden of Diabetes Related Complications Among Hypertensive and Non Hypertensive Diabetics: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kesavamoorthy, Goutham; Singh, Awnish K; Sharma, Shruti; Kasav, Jyoti Bala; Joshi, Ashish

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetes and hypertension are the conditions with overlapping risk factors and complications. Objective of present study was to compare the burden of complications of diabetes among hypertensive and non hypertensive diabetes individuals. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted at Saveetha medical college and hospital, Chennai, India. A total of 100 diabetics having hypertension and 50 non-hypertensive diabetic patients were enrolled on the basis of purposive sampling. Information about sociodemograpic characteristics, general health, health distress, diabetes symptoms, communication with physician, healthcare utilization and lifetime occurrence of diabetes related complications. Mean, standard deviation and median of continuous variables and proportion of categorical variables were recorded. Results Average age of the hypertensive diabetes patients (M=57; SD=11) was higher than non hypertensive diabetes patients (M=52; SD=11) which was statistically significant (p=.009). Diabetic neuropathy was reported by 45% of the hypertensive and 38% of the non-hypertensive diabetics. Mean self reported general health score was higher among hypertensive diabetic participants (M=3.4; SD=1) in comparison to non hypertensive diabetic participants (M=3; SD=1) and it was found statistically significant (p=.03) indicating towards poor self health perception among hypertensive’s. Results of the study have shown that the proportion of participants who have prepared any list of questions before visiting doctor’s clinic (fairly often to always) was significantly higher among hypertensive diabetics (30%) in comparison to non-hypertensive diabetics (14%). Conclusion The proportion of participants reporting diabetes neuropathy and retinopathy was higher among hypertensive diabetics in comparison to non hypertensive diabetics. PMID:26500926

  17. Hypertension Canada's 2016 Canadian Hypertension Education Program Guidelines for Blood Pressure Measurement, Diagnosis, and Assessment of Risk of Pediatric Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kevin C; Benoit, Geneviève; Dionne, Janis; Feber, Janusz; Cloutier, Lyne; Zarnke, Kelly B; Padwal, Raj S; Rabi, Doreen M; Fournier, Anne

    2016-05-01

    We present the inaugural evidence-based Canadian recommendations for the measurement of blood pressure in children and the diagnosis and evaluation of pediatric hypertension. Rates of pediatric hypertension are increasing concomitant with increased rates of childhood obesity. With this, there is growing awareness of the need to measure blood pressure in children. Consequently, the present recommendations have been developed to address an important gap and improve the clinical care of children. For 2016, a total of 15 recommendations are presented. These are categorized in a fashion similar to that of the existing adult recommendations. Specifically, we present recommendations on (1) accurate measurement of blood pressure in children, (2) criteria for diagnosis of hypertension in children, (3) assessment of overall cardiovascular risk in hypertensive children, (4) routine laboratory tests for the investigation of children with hypertension, (5) ambulatory blood pressure measurement in children, and (6) the role of echocardiography. We discuss the rationale for the recommendations and present additional supporting material for the clinician, including tables with standardized techniques for blood pressure measurement and determination of normative blood pressure values for children. Hypertension Canada's Canadian Hypertension Education Program Guidelines Task Force will update the recommendations annually and develop future evidence-based recommendations to guide prevention and treatment of pediatric hypertension.

  18. Hypertensive crisis during pregnancy and postpartum period.

    PubMed

    Too, Gloria T; Hill, James B

    2013-08-01

    Hypertension affects 10% of pregnancies, many with underlying chronic hypertension, and approximately 1-2% will undergo a hypertensive crisis at some point during their lives. Hypertensive crisis includes hypertensive urgency and emergency; the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists describes a hypertensive emergency in pregnancy as persistent (lasting 15 min or more), acute-onset, severe hypertension, defined as systolic BP greater than 160 mmHg or diastolic BP >110 mmHg in the setting of pre-eclampsia or eclampsia. Pregnancy may be complicated by hypertensive crisis, with lower blood pressure threshold for end-organ damage than non-pregnant patients. Maternal assessment should include a thorough history. Fetal assessment should include heart rate tracing, ultrasound for growth and amniotic assessment, and Doppler evaluation if growth restriction is suspected. Initial management of hypertensive emergency (systolic BP >160 mmHg or diastolic BP >110 mmHg in the setting of pre-eclampsia or eclampsia) generally includes the rapid reduction of blood pressure through the use of intravenous antihypertensive medications, with goal systolic blood pressure between 140 mmHg and 150 mmHg and diastolic pressure between 90 mmHg and 100 mmHg. First-line intravenous drugs include labetalol and hydralazine, but other agents may be used, including esmolol, nicardipine, nifedipine, and, as a last resort, sodium nitroprusside. Among patients with hypertensive urgency, slower blood pressure reduction can be provided with oral agents. The objective of this article is to review the current understanding, diagnosis, and management of hypertensive crisis during pregnancy and the postpartum period.

  19. Expanding the definition and classification of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Giles, Thomas D; Berk, Bradford C; Black, Henry R; Cohn, Jay N; Kostis, John B; Izzo, Joseph L; Weber, Michael A

    2005-09-01

    Cardiovascular abnormalities are frequently the cause, as well as the effect, of elevated blood pressure. As such, early cardiovascular disease (CVD) may be established before identifiable blood pressure thresholds are crossed. To identify individuals at risk for CVD at an earlier point in the disease process, as well as to avoid labeling persons as hypertensive who are at low risk for CVD, the Hypertension Writing Group proposes incorporating the presence or absence of cardiovascular risk factors, early disease markers, and target organ damage into the definition and classification scheme of hypertension. To describe both the complexity and progressive nature of hypertension, the following definition is proposed: "Hypertension is a progressive cardiovascular syndrome arising from complex and interrelated etiologies. Early markers of the syndrome are often present before blood pressure elevation is observed; therefore, hypertension cannot be classified solely by discrete blood pressure thresholds. Progression is strongly associated with functional and structural cardiac and vascular abnormalities that damage the heart, kidneys, brain, vasculature, and other organs and lead to premature morbidity and death." Classification of hypertension must involve assessing global cardiovascular risk to situate an individual's risk for CVD and events along a continuum. As knowledge of early CVD continues to evolve, the approach to classifying individuals along that continuum can be expected to evolve accordingly. The four categories currently used to classify hypertension are normal, prehypertension, and stages 1 and 2 hypertension. The population identified with prehypertension includes a subgroup with early CVD. We believe it would be preferable to classify all individuals as either normal or hypertensive, based on their cardiovascular evaluation, using the four categories of normal and stages 1, 2, and 3 hypertension.

  20. LEFT VENTRICULAR HYPERTROPHY AFTER HYPERTENSIVE PREGNANCY DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    Scantlebury, Dawn C.; Kane, Garvan C.; Wiste, Heather J.; Bailey, Kent R.; Turner, Stephen T.; Arnett, Donna K.; Devereux, Richard B.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Hunt, Steven C.; Weder, Alan B.; Rodriguez, Beatriz; Boerwinkle, Eric; Weissgerber, Tracey L.; Garovic, Vesna D.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Cardiac changes of hypertensive pregnancy include left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and diastolic dysfunction. These are thought to regress postpartum. We hypothesized that women with a history of hypertensive pregnancy would have altered left ventricular (LV) geometry and function when compared to women with only normotensive pregnancies. Methods In this cohort study, we analyzed echocardiograms of 2637 women who participated in the Family Blood Pressure Program (FBPP). We compared LV mass and function in women with hypertensive pregnancy compared to those with normotensive pregnancies. Results Women were evaluated at a mean age of 56 years: 427 (16%) had at least one hypertensive pregnancy; 2210 (84%) had normotensive pregnancies. Compared to women with normotensive pregnancies, women with hypertensive pregnancy had a greater risk of LVH (OR: 1.42, 95% CI 1.01-1.99, p=0.05), after adjusting for age, race, research network of the FBPP, education, parity, BMI, hypertension and diabetes. When duration of hypertension was taken into account, this relationship was no longer significant (OR: 1.19, CI 0.08-1.78 p=0.38). Women with hypertensive pregnancies also had greater left atrial size and lower mitral E/A ratio after adjusting for demographic variables. The prevalence of systolic dysfunction was similar between the groups. Conclusions A history of hypertensive pregnancy is associated with LVH after adjusting for risk factors; this might be explained by longer duration of hypertension. This finding supports current guidelines recommending surveillance of women following a hypertensive pregnancy, and sets the stage for longitudinal echocardiographic studies to further elucidate progression of LV geometry and function after pregnancy. PMID:26243788

  1. Erythrocytosis in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Subha; Hoffman, George C.; Stowe, Nicholas T.; Smeby, Robert R.; Bumpus, F. Merlin

    1972-01-01

    During the study of an inbred strain of Wistar rats which spontaneously develop hypertension when they reach a weight of approximately 150 g, it was found that these animals also develop an erythrocytosis. A significant increase in red cell count was observed in spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats (8-11 × 106 RBC/mm3) when compared with normotensive rats (6-7 × 106 RBC/mm3) of the same strain. This increase in red cell count paralleled the increase in body weight and the rise in blood pressure. Since the plasma volume, as measured with labeled albumin was normal, there was an absolute increase in red cells. The hematocrit and hemoglobin content of the blood measured in SH rats were only slightly greater than those found in normotensive rats. However, the mean cell volume (MCV) of the red cells in the SH rats was 45-47 μ3 as compared with 51-53 μ3 in normotensive rats. A fourfold increase in 24 hr 59Fe incorporation into the red cells was found in the SH rats when compared with normotensive controls. The bone marrow of the SH rats showed erythroid hyperplasia. When the SH rats were treated with α-methyldopa (Aldomet 200 mg/kg daily, i.p.) the red cell count fell in parallel with the drop in blood pressure. No change in red cell count or blood pressure was observed in normotensive rats treated in the same manner. The erythropoietin titer was high in SH rats, and was undetectable in normotensive rats. These observations suggest a direct relationship between the hypertension and the erythrocytosis mediated by erythropoietin; both are genetically controlled. PMID:5011107

  2. Clinical Outcome of Hypertensive Uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Lewkowicz, Deborah; Willermain, François; Relvas, Lia Judice; Makhoul, Dorine; Janssens, Sarah; Janssens, Xavier; Caspers, Laure

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To review the clinical outcome of patients with hypertensive uveitis. Methods. Retrospective review of uveitis patients with elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) > 25 mmHg and >1-year follow-up. Data are uveitis type, etiology, viral (VU) and nonviral uveitis (NVU), IOP, and medical and/or surgical treatment. Results. In 61 patients, IOP values are first 32.9 mmHg (SD: 9.0), highest 36.6 mmHg (SD: 9.9), 3 months after the first episode 19.54 mmHg (SD: 9.16), and end of follow-up 15.5 mmHg (SD: 6.24). Patients with VU (n = 25) were older (50.6 y/35.7 y, p = 0.014) and had more unilateral disease (100%/72.22%  p = 0.004) than those with NVU (n = 36). Thirty patients (49.2%) had an elevated IOP before topical corticosteroid treatment. Patients with viral uveitis might have higher first elevated IOP (36.0/27.5 mmHg, p = 0,008) and maximal IOP (40.28/34.06 mmHg, p = 0.0148) but this was not significant when limited to the measurements before the use of topical corticosteroids (p = 0.260 and 0.160). Glaucoma occurred in 15 patients (24.59%) and was suspected in 11 (18.03%) without difference in viral and nonviral groups (p = 0.774). Conclusion. Patients with VU were older and had more unilateral hypertensive uveitis. Glaucoma frequently complicates hypertensive uveitis. Half of the patients had an elevated IOP before topical corticosteroid treatment. PMID:26504598

  3. Chemistry of Ketene N,S-Acetals: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Dong, Jinhuan; Xu, Xianxiu; Liu, Qun

    2016-01-27

    Push-pull alkenes, which bear electron-donating and -accepting group(s) at both termini of a C═C double bond, respectively, are of interest not only for their unique electronic properties but also for their importance as versatile building blocks in organic synthesis. In the world of ketene acetals having the push-pull alkene skeleton, ketene N,S-acetal is most likely the biggest family according to the number and types of these compounds. The first ketene N,S-acetal compound was reported in 1956. As a cyclic ketene N,S-acetal compound, nithiazine, the first lead structure of neonicotinoid insecticides, was reported in 1978. The characteristics of ketene N,S-acetals, which have the structural feature of ketene S,S-acetals and enaminones, make them versatile and easy to use, especially in cyclization and multicomponent reactions for the synthesis of various heterocyclic systems and related natural products. There has been an increasing wealth of information about the synthesis and synthetic applications of ketene N,S-acetals, especially, in recent years. This review provides comprehensive knowledge on the chemistry of ketene N,S-acetals. PMID:26760899

  4. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flumethasone acetate injection. 522.960b Section 522.960b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.960b Flumethasone acetate injection....

  5. Trehalose accumulation enhances tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Yoshiyama, Yoko; Tanaka, Koichi; Yoshiyama, Kohei; Hibi, Makoto; Ogawa, Jun; Shima, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Trehalose confers protection against various environmental stresses on yeast cells. In this study, trehalase gene deletion mutants that accumulate trehalose at high levels showed significant stress tolerance to acetic acid. The enhancement of trehalose accumulation can thus be considered a target in the breeding of acetic acid-tolerant yeast strains.

  6. Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methyl Acetate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polichnowski, S. W.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a study of the rhodium-catalyzed, ioding-promoted carbonylation of methyl acetate. This study provides an interesting contrast between the carbonylation of methyl acetate and the carbonylation of methanol when similar rhodium/iodine catalyst systems are used. (JN)

  7. Treatment of a malignant enterocutaneous fistula with octreotide acetate.

    PubMed

    Ayache, S; Wadleigh, R G

    1999-01-01

    An enterocutaneous malignant fistula developed in a patient who had a retroperitoneal angiosarcoma. He was treated with octreotide acetate subcutaneously. Drainage decreased and ceased after 2 weeks of therapy. The closure of this malignant fistula suggests that palliative therapy with octreotide acetate merits further study in view of the grave prognosis of this complication.

  8. Enrichment of amino acid-oxidizing, acetate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ato, Makoto; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2014-08-01

    In anaerobic condition, amino acids are oxidatively deaminated, and decarboxylated, resulting in the production of volatile fatty acids. In this process, excess electrons are produced and their consumption is necessary for the accomplishment of amino acid degradation. In this study, we anaerobically constructed leucine-degrading enrichment cultures from three different environmental samples (compost, excess sludge, and rice field soil) in order to investigate the diversity of electron-consuming reaction coupled to amino acid oxidation. Constructed enrichment cultures oxidized leucine to isovalerate and their activities were strongly dependent on acetate. Analysis of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) profiles and community structure analysis during batch culture of each enrichment indicated that Clostridium cluster I coupled leucine oxidation to acetate reduction in the enrichment from the compost and the rice field soil. In these cases, acetate was reduced to butyrate. On the other hand, Clostridium cluster XIVb coupled leucine oxidation to acetate reduction in the enrichment from the excess sludge. In this case, acetate was reduced to propionate. To our surprise, the enrichment from rice field soil oxidized leucine even in the absence of acetate and produced butyrate. The enrichment would couple leucine oxidation to reductive butyrate synthesis from CO2. The coupling reaction would be achieved based on trophic link between hydrogenotrophic acetogenic bacteria and acetate-reducing bacteria by sequential reduction of CO2 and acetate. Our study suggests anaerobic degradation of amino acids is achieved yet-to-be described reactions. PMID:24630616

  9. 40 CFR 721.303 - Substituted acetate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.303 Substituted acetate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted acetate (PMN...

  10. 40 CFR 721.303 - Substituted acetate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.303 Substituted acetate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted acetate (PMN...

  11. Post splenectomy related pulmonary hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Palkar, Atul V; Agrawal, Abhinav; Verma, Sameer; Iftikhar, Asma; Miller, Edmund J; Talwar, Arunabh

    2015-01-01

    Splenectomy predisposes patients to a slew of infectious and non-infectious complications including pulmonary vascular disease. Patients are at increased risk for venous thromboembolic events due to various mechanisms that may lead to chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension (CTEPH). The development of CTEPH and pulmonary vasculopathy after splenectomy involves complex pathophysiologic mechanisms, some of which remain unclear. This review attempts congregate the current evidence behind our understanding about the etio-pathogenesis of pulmonary vascular disease related to splenectomy and highlight the controversies that surround its management. PMID:26949600

  12. Pulmonary Hypertension Secondary to COPD.

    PubMed

    Shujaat, Adil; Bajwa, Abubakr A; Cury, James D

    2012-01-01

    The development of pulmonary hypertension in COPD adversely affects survival and exercise capacity and is associated with an increased risk of severe acute exacerbations. Unfortunately not all patients with COPD who meet criteria for long term oxygen therapy benefit from it. Even in those who benefit from long term oxygen therapy, such therapy may reverse the elevated pulmonary artery pressure but cannot normalize it. Moreover, the recent discovery of the key roles of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation in the pathogenesis of PH provides the rationale for considering specific pulmonary vasodilators that also possess antiproliferative properties and statins.

  13. PRESSOR SUBSTANCES IN ARTERIAL HYPERTENSION

    PubMed Central

    Schroeder, Henry A.; Perry, H. Mitchell; Dennis, Evie G.; Mahoney, Laura E.

    1955-01-01

    Some pharmacological and chemical qualities of pherentasin, a vasoconstrictor substance procured from human hypertensive blood, were studied by a new assay method using the spirally cut rabbit aorta. Of a number of drugs tested, six metal-binding agents including hydralazine inactivated the active principle. The material was stable in acid but not in alkali. It was destroyed by drying. Chemical analysis and inactivation procedures suggested the presence of primary amine and considerable sulfur; a peptide linkage was suspected because of inactivation by manganous ion and papain. The material was remarkably resistant to most pharmacological agents and appeared to act directly on smooth muscle. PMID:13252186

  14. [Hypertension, smoking and life insurance].

    PubMed

    Lund-Johansen, P

    1975-11-01

    The insurance companies' data on blood-pressure and longevity have certainly contributed to the trend among both laymen and doctors to take hypertension more seriously. Smoking is also of special interest, having proved to be a clear risk-factor in coronary disease. It holds a unique position, in that - at least theoretically - it would be possible to eliminate. The insurance companies could undoubtedly contribute to an altered attitude towards the problem of smoking. Non-smokers might be granted a bonus and heavy smokers be charged an additional premium.

  15. [Hypertensive crisis: pathogenesis, clinic, treatment].

    PubMed

    Vertkin, A L; Topolianskiĭ, A V; Abdullaeva, A U; Alekseev, M A; Shakhmanaev, Kh A

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary data on mechanisms of development, types, and clinical picture of hypertensive crisis (HC) are presented. Algorithms of rational therapy of uncomplicated and complicated HC are considered. Appropriateness of the use in HC of antihypertensive drugs with multifactorial action is stressed. These drugs include urapidil - an antihypertensive agent with complex mechanism of action. Blocking mainly the postsynaptic 1-adrenoreceptors urapidil attenuates vasoconstrictor effect of catecholamines and decreases total peripheral resistance. Stimulation of 5HT1-receptors of medullary vasculomotor center promotes lowering of elevated vascular tone and prevents development of reflex tachycardia.

  16. Minority Barbers Screen Customers for Hypertension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pepe, Margaret V.

    1989-01-01

    Offering hypertension screening within the Black community in a convenient, nonthreatening environment can aid in reduction of morbidity and mortality attributable to high blood pressure in Black men. This article describes a successful pilot program which used volunteer barbers to perform on-site hypertension screening for their customers. (IAH)

  17. Hypertension. Part 1: How Exercise Helps.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanji, Jeffrey L.

    1990-01-01

    Reviews possible mechanisms by which exercise lowers blood pressure and discusses research which indicates exercise is an effective therapy for hypertension. The article presents information to help physicians counsel hypertensive patients wanting to start an exercise program and examines the use of exercise testing to predict the onset of…

  18. Illness beliefs in African Americans with hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pickett, Stephanie; Allen, Wilfred; Franklin, Mary; Peters, Rosalind M

    2014-02-01

    Guided by Leventhal's common sense model of illness representations, this study examined the relationship between hypertension beliefs and self-care behaviors necessary for blood pressure (BP) control in a sample of 111 community-dwelling African Americans with hypertension. Participants completed the revised Illness Perception Questionnaire, BP Self-Care Scale, and a demographic data sheet, and had BP measured. Analyses revealed that beliefs about the causes of hypertension differed by gender and educational level. Stress-related causal attributions accounted for 34.7% of the variance in hypertension beliefs. Participants who believed stress or external factors caused hypertension were less likely to engage in healthy self-care behaviors (e.g., keeping doctor visits, eating low-salt, low-fat diets). Results suggest that patients who are nonadherent with hypertension self-care recommendations may hold hypertension beliefs that are not consistent with the medically endorsed views of this disease. To more effectively treat and control BP, providers should assess patients' hypertension beliefs.

  19. Do we over treat mild hypertension?

    PubMed

    Zanchetti, Alberto

    2015-06-01

    The important question whether 'mild' hypertension should or should not be treated by drugs is difficult to answer, because the only randomized controlled trials (RCTs) investigating this question were conducted when the definition of 'mild' hypertension was based on diastolic blood pressure only, whereas the present definition of grade 1 hypertension includes both systolic and diastolic values (SBP/DBP), and the concept of 'mild' hypertension also includes that of low-moderate cardiovascular risk (< 5% cardiovascular death rate in 5 years). Due to the lack of evidence from specific RCTs, guidelines recommend drug treatment of mild hypertension only on the basis of expert opinion. However, recent meta-analyses have provided some support to drug treatment intervention in low-moderate risk grade 1 hypertensives and have shown that, when treatment is deferred until organ damage or cardiovascular disease occur, absolute residual risk (events occurring despite treatment) markedly increases. Although evidence favoring therapeutic intervention in mild hypertension is nowadays stronger than expert opinion, meta-analyses are not substitutes for specific RCTs, and the wide BP spans defining grade 1 hypertension as well as the span defining low-moderate risk leave a wide space for individualized or personalized decisions.

  20. [Severe hypertension: definition and patients profiles].

    PubMed

    Mourad, Jean-Jacques

    2013-05-01

    Severe arterial hypertension gathers relatively different clinical situations explained by the heterogeneity of the definitions of this clinical setting. From a medical point of view, severe hypertension is a short course situation defined by very high values of blood pressure corresponding to grade 3 hypertension. In France, until 2011, the social security also included in the definition of severe HTA chronic situations characterized by moderate blood pressure values requiring at least triple anthihypertensive therapies associated with a clinical or infraclinical target organ damages. These clinical profiles, much more frequent than grade 3 hypertension, allowed the full reimbursement of care costs for these patients. In France, it is estimated that 10% of hypertensive patients present a severe form with an annual incidence of 50,000 patients. The patients with severe hypertension have an increased cardiovascular morbidity justifying a closer clinical monitoring. From an economic point of view, these severe forms of hypertension have a higher cost of care, explained primarily by a more frequent need of specialized referrals, radiological exams and hospitalizations. This excess cost justified the existence of a full coverage of induced costs by the social security, since the incidence of severe hypertension is more frequent in the low social categories, and in patients with economic fragility.

  1. Altered coriolis stress susceptibility in essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lockette, W; Shepard, N; Lyos, A; Boismier, T; Mers, A

    1991-08-01

    Patients with hypertension frequently have vague complaints of dizziness and many other symptoms experienced by healthy individuals with motion sickness. We examined vestibular function in patients with essential hypertension, and we determined whether patients with essential hypertension are more prone to motion sickness using Coriolis stress testing. Vestibular function and Coriolis stress susceptibility were measured in 12 normotensive (NT) and seven asymptomatic patients with mild essential hypertension (HT). The Coriolis stress susceptibility index (CSSI) was calculated from the number of head movements in the four cardinal directions an individual could complete while being rotated in a computerized chair at increasing velocity before they developed motion sickness. The patients with hypertension had normal vestibular function and normal vestibuloocular responses as measured by standard techniques. Subjects with hypertension had significantly decreased Coriolis stress susceptibility scores compared to normotensive subjects (NT, 29.70 +/- 4.8; v HT, 5.48 +/- 2.0, P less than .001) and significantly decreased suppression of postrotatory nystagmus (NT, 44.5% +/- 3.8; v HT, 19.1% +/- 6.9, P less than .05). Medical treatment of hypertension did not result in an increased tolerance to provocative stimuli for motion sickness. It is suggested from our data that an increased susceptibility to motion sickness and abnormal vestibular responses to normal motion may account for many of the vague symptoms of "dizziness" reported by a large number of hypertensive patients.

  2. Portal hypertensive polyps, a new entity?

    PubMed

    Martín Domínguez, Verónica; Díaz Méndez, Ariel; Santander, Cecilio; García-Buey, Luisa

    2016-05-01

    We present a case of a 62 year old woman with history of liver cirrhosis secondary to autoimmune hepatitis, with portal hypertension and coagulopathy. Gastroscopy findings were a polypoid and polylobed lesions in the gastric antrum. These were removed and the pathological study described hyperplastic polyps with edema, vascular congestion and hyperplasia of smooth muscle, corresponding to "portal hypertensive polyps" (PHP). PMID:27188590

  3. Isolated pulmonary hypertension secondary to rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Castro, Glaucio W R; Appenzeller, Simone; Bertolo, Manoel B; Costallat, Lilian T L

    2006-11-01

    The authors report a case of a woman with pulmonary hypertension secondary to rheumatoid arthritis, whose treatment with azathioprine resulted in normalization of pulmonary artery pressure and resolution of clinical symptoms. Different etiologies for pulmonary hypertension are discussed and literature review is presented.

  4. Thallium-201 stress imaging in hypertensive patients

    SciTech Connect

    Schulman, D.S.; Francis, C.K.; Black, H.R.; Wackers, F.J.

    1987-07-01

    To assess the potential effect of hypertension on the results of thallium-201 stress imaging in patients with chest pain, 272 thallium-201 stress tests performed in 133 hypertensive patients and 139 normotensive patients over a 1-year period were reviewed. Normotensive and hypertensive patients were similar in age, gender distribution, prevalence of cardiac risk factors (tobacco smoking, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus), medications, and clinical symptoms of coronary disease. Electrocardiographic criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy were present in 16 hypertensive patients. Stepwise probability analysis was used to determine the likelihood of coronary artery disease for each patient. In patients with mid to high likelihood of coronary disease (greater than 25% probability), abnormal thallium-201 stress images were present in 54 of 60 (90%) hypertensive patients compared with 51 of 64 (80%) normotensive patients. However, in 73 patients with a low likelihood of coronary disease (less than or equal to 25% probability), abnormal thallium-201 stress images were present in 21 patients (29%) of the hypertensive group compared with only 5 of 75 (7%) of the normotensive patients (p less than 0.001). These findings suggest that in patients with a mid to high likelihood of coronary artery disease, coexistent hypertension does not affect the results of thallium-201 exercise stress testing. However, in patients with a low likelihood of coronary artery disease, abnormal thallium-201 stress images are obtained more frequently in hypertensive patients than in normotensive patients.

  5. Observations on sleeping position and essential hypertension.

    PubMed

    FitzGerald, W A

    1997-07-01

    A hypertensive black male, at risk for episodic attacks of pseudo-malignant hypertension and self-induced atrial fibrillation, seeks to discover possible clues to the pathogeneses of these strange disorders through self-study and concludes they might be associated with impaired oxygen intake, secondary to sleeping position in bed. PMID:9247903

  6. How does hypertension affect your eyes?

    PubMed

    Bhargava, M; Ikram, M K; Wong, T Y

    2012-02-01

    Hypertension has profound effects on various parts of the eye. Classically, elevated blood pressure results in a series of retinal microvascular changes called hypertensive retinopathy, comprising of generalized and focal retinal arteriolar narrowing, arteriovenous nicking, retinal hemorrhages, microaneurysms and, in severe cases, optic disc and macular edema. Studies have shown that mild hypertensive retinopathy signs are common and seen in nearly 10% of the general adult non-diabetic population. Hypertensive retinopathy signs are associated with other indicators of end-organ damage (for example, left ventricular hypertrophy, renal impairment) and may be a risk marker of future clinical events, such as stroke, congestive heart failure and cardiovascular mortality. Furthermore, hypertension is one of the major risk factors for development and progression of diabetic retinopathy, and control of blood pressure has been shown in large clinical trials to prevent visual loss from diabetic retinopathy. In addition, several retinal diseases such as retinal vascular occlusion (artery and vein occlusion), retinal arteriolar emboli, macroaneurysm, ischemic optic neuropathy and age-related macular degeneration may also be related to hypertension; however, there is as yet no evidence that treatment of hypertension prevents vision loss from these conditions. In management of patients with hypertension, physicians should be aware of the full spectrum of the relationship of blood pressure and the eye. PMID:21509040

  7. The relationships of sleep apnea, hypertension, and resistant hypertension on chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Ping; Li, Tsai-Chung; Hang, Liang-Wen; Liang, Shinn-Jye; Lin, Jen-Jyn; Chou, Che-Yi; Tsai, Jeffrey J.P.; Ko, Po-Yen; Chang, Chiz-Tzung

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Hypertension, blood pressure variation, and resistant hypertension have close relations to sleep apnea, which lead to target organ damage, including the kidney. The complex relationships between sleep apnea and blood pressure cause their interactions with chronic kidney disease ambiguous. The aim of the study was to elucidate the separate and joint effects of sleep apnea, hypertension, and resistant hypertension on chronic kidney disease. A cross-sectional study was done to see the associations of sleep apnea, hypertension, and resistant hypertension with chronic kidney disease in 998 subjects underwent overnight polysomnography without device-therapy or surgery for their sleep-disordered breathing. Multivariate logistic regression was used to analyze the severity of SA, hypertension stage, resistant hypertension, and their joint effects on CKD. The multivariable relative odds (95% CI) of chronic kidney disease for the aged (age ≥65 years), severe sleep apnea, stage III hypertension, and resistant hypertension were 3.96 (2.57–6.09) (P < 0.001), 2.28 (1.13–4.58) (P < 0.05), 3.55 (1.70–7.42) (P < 0.001), and 9.42 (4.22–21.02) (P < 0.001), respectively. In subgroups analysis, the multivariable relative odds ratio of chronic kidney disease was highest in patients with both resistant hypertension and severe sleep apnea [13.42 (4.74–38.03)] (P < 0.001). Severe sleep apnea, stage III hypertension, and resistant hypertension are independent risk factors for chronic kidney disease. Patients with both severe sleep apnea and resistant hypertension have the highest risks. PMID:27281098

  8. Delineation of myocardial oxygen utilization with carbon-11-labeled acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.; Marshall, D.R.; Sobel, B.E.; Bergmann, S.R.

    1987-09-01

    Although positron-emission tomography (PET) with labeled fatty acid delineates infarct size and permits qualitative assessment of fatty acid utilization, quantification of oxidative metabolism is limited by complex alterations in the pattern of utilization of fatty acid during ischemia and reperfusion. Because metabolism of acetate by myocardium is less complex than that of glucose or palmitate, we characterized kinetics of utilization of radiolabeled acetate in 37 isolated rabbit hearts perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer and performed a pilot tomographic study in man. Results of initial experiments with carbon-14-labeled acetate (/sup 14/C-acetate) indicated that the steady-state extraction fraction of acetate averaged 61.5 +/- 4.0% in control hearts (n = 4), 93.6 +/- 0.9% in hearts rendered ischemic (n = 4), and 54.8 +/- 4.0% in hearts reperfused after 60 min of ischemia (n = 3). Oxidation of /sup 14/C-acetate, assessed from the rate of efflux of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ in the venous effluent, correlated closely with the rate of oxygen consumption under diverse metabolic conditions (r = .97, p less than .001). In addition, no significant differences were observed between rates of efflux of total /sup 14/C in all chemical species (reflecting total clearance of tracer from myocardium) and efflux of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/. Clearance of /sup 11/C-acetate, measured externally with gamma probes in normal and ischemic myocardium, correlated closely with clearance of /sup 14/C-acetate measured directly in the effluent (r = .99, p less than .001) and with overall myocardial oxygen consumption (r = .95, p less than .001). Accumulation and clearance of /sup 11/C-acetate from human myocardium with PET demonstrated kinetics comparable to those seen with radiolabeled acetate in vitro.

  9. Fermentation of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica.

    PubMed

    Ehsanipour, Mandana; Suko, Azra Vajzovic; Bura, Renata

    2016-06-01

    A systematic study of bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica (strain ATCC 39073) was conducted. Four different water-soluble fractions (hydrolysates) obtained after steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were selected and fermented to acetic acid in batch fermentations. M. thermoacetica can effectively ferment xylose and glucose in hydrolysates from wheat straw, forest residues, switchgrass, and sugarcane straw to acetic acid. Xylose and glucose were completely utilized, with xylose being consumed first. M. thermoacetica consumed up to 62 % of arabinose, 49 % galactose and 66 % of mannose within 72 h of fermentation in the mixture of lignocellulosic sugars. The highest acetic acid yield was obtained from sugarcane straw hydrolysate, with 71 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (17 g/L acetic acid from 24 g/L total sugars). The lowest acetic acid yield was observed in forest residues hydrolysate, with 39 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (18 g/L acetic acid from 49 g/L total sugars). Process derived compounds from steam explosion pretreatment, including 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (0.4 g/L), furfural (0.1 g/L) and total phenolics (3 g/L), did not inhibit microbial growth and acetic acid production yield. This research identified two major factors that adversely affected acetic acid yield in all hydrolysates, especially in forest residues: (i) glucose to xylose ratio and (ii) incomplete consumption of arabinose, galactose and mannose. For efficient bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid, it is imperative to have an appropriate balance of sugars in a hydrolysate. Hence, the choice of lignocellulosic biomass and steam pretreatment design are fundamental steps for the industrial application of this process.

  10. Fermentation of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica.

    PubMed

    Ehsanipour, Mandana; Suko, Azra Vajzovic; Bura, Renata

    2016-06-01

    A systematic study of bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica (strain ATCC 39073) was conducted. Four different water-soluble fractions (hydrolysates) obtained after steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were selected and fermented to acetic acid in batch fermentations. M. thermoacetica can effectively ferment xylose and glucose in hydrolysates from wheat straw, forest residues, switchgrass, and sugarcane straw to acetic acid. Xylose and glucose were completely utilized, with xylose being consumed first. M. thermoacetica consumed up to 62 % of arabinose, 49 % galactose and 66 % of mannose within 72 h of fermentation in the mixture of lignocellulosic sugars. The highest acetic acid yield was obtained from sugarcane straw hydrolysate, with 71 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (17 g/L acetic acid from 24 g/L total sugars). The lowest acetic acid yield was observed in forest residues hydrolysate, with 39 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (18 g/L acetic acid from 49 g/L total sugars). Process derived compounds from steam explosion pretreatment, including 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (0.4 g/L), furfural (0.1 g/L) and total phenolics (3 g/L), did not inhibit microbial growth and acetic acid production yield. This research identified two major factors that adversely affected acetic acid yield in all hydrolysates, especially in forest residues: (i) glucose to xylose ratio and (ii) incomplete consumption of arabinose, galactose and mannose. For efficient bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid, it is imperative to have an appropriate balance of sugars in a hydrolysate. Hence, the choice of lignocellulosic biomass and steam pretreatment design are fundamental steps for the industrial application of this process. PMID:26992903

  11. [Screening and management of hypertension in elderly].

    PubMed

    Ferrer Soler, C; Ehret, G; Pechère-Bertschi, A

    2015-09-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in elderly is extremely high. Because of the burden of ageing of population, this condition considered as the most important risk factor for mortality is supposed to increase. There are some specific pitfalls in the diagnosis and management of hypertension in elderly. The definition of hypertension is the same in all age groups, however the phenotype is different in the elderly: white coat effect, non-dipping pattern, orthostatic hypotension, dysautonomia and pseudohypertension. The hallmark of hypertension in the elderly is pure systolic hypertension and an increased variability of blood pressure. The diagnosis is often difficult to establish. The elderly can be overtreated with undesirable effects of falls or hypoperfusion, particularly when there is frailty, or polymedication.

  12. Genetic and molecular aspects of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Caulfield, Mark; Dominiczak, Anna F

    2015-03-13

    Until recently, significant advances in our understanding of the mechanisms of blood pressure regulation arose from studies of monogenic forms of hypertension and hypotension, which identified rare variants that primarily alter renal salt handling. Genome-wide association and exome sequencing studies over the past 6 years have resulted in an unparalleled burst of discovery in the genetics of blood pressure regulation and hypertension. More importantly, genome-wide association studies, while expanding the list of common genetic variants associated with blood pressure and hypertension, are also uncovering novel pathways of blood pressure regulation that augur a new era of novel drug development, repurposing, and stratification in the management of hypertension. In this review, we describe the current state of the art of the genetic and molecular basis of blood pressure and hypertension.

  13. [Arterial hypertension secondary to endocrine disorders].

    PubMed

    Minder, Anna; Zulewski, Henryk

    2015-06-01

    Endocrine hypertension offers a potentially curative therapy if the underlying cause is identified and treated accordingly. In contrast to the high prevalence of arterial hypertension especially in the elderly, the classical endocrine causes remain a rare entity. Among patients with arterial hypertension the prevalence of Cushing's syndrome or pheochromocytoma is less than 1%. Primary hyperaldosteronism is more frequent with a reported prevalence of up to 9%. In order to avoid unnecessary, costly and potentially harmful evaluations and therapies due to the limited sensitivity and specificity of the critical endocrine tests it is mandatory to limit the exploration for endocrine causes to preselected patients with high pretest probability for an endocrine disorder. Younger age at manifestation of arterial hypertension or drug resistant hypertension together with other clinical signs of an endocrine disorder should raise the suspicion and prompt the appropriate evaluation.

  14. [Radiographic assessment of pulmonary hypertension: Methodical aspects].

    PubMed

    Korobkova, I Z; Lazutkina, V K; Nizovtsova, L A; Riden, T V

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a menacing complication of a number of diseases, which is responsible for high mortality rates and considerably poorer quality of life in a patient. The timely detection for pulmonary hypertension allows timely initiation of treatment, thus improvement in prognosis in the patient. Chest X-ray is the most commonly used radiographic technique for various causes. Physicians' awareness about the radiographic manifestations of pulmonary hypertension may contribute to the earlier detection of this severe disease. Owing to the natural contrast of reflected structures, a chest X-ray film gives a unique opportunity to assess pulmonary circulation vessels, to reveal the signs of pulmonary hypertension, and to estimate trends in the course of the disease. The paper details a procedure for analysis and the normal radiographic anatomy of pulmonary circulation vessels, gives the present classification of pulmonary hypertension, and sets forth its X-ray semiotics. PMID:26552229

  15. [Hypertension during pregnancy: the challenge continues].

    PubMed

    Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Borrayo-Sánchez, Gabriela; Madrid-Miller, Alejandra; Ramírez-Arias, Erick; Pérez-Rodríguez, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy affect approximately from 5 to 10 % of all pregnant women, and are the main contributors of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. This group of disorders includes chronic hypertension, as well as the conditions that arise de novo in pregnancy: gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. This last group is believed to be part of the same continuum, but with arbitrary division. Research on the etiology of hypertension in pregnancy largely have focused on preeclampsia, with a majority of studies that explore any factor associated with pregnancy, e.g., the answers derived from the placenta or immunological reactions to tissue from the pregnancy or maternal constitutional factors, such as cardiovascular health and endothelial dysfunction. The basic foundations for the pathophysiology and progression of hypertensive pregnancy disorders, particularly preeclampsia, are reviewed in this paper. Therapeutic options for the treatment of preeclampsia are also explored.

  16. [Hypertension during pregnancy: the challenge continues].

    PubMed

    Rosas-Peralta, Martín; Borrayo-Sánchez, Gabriela; Madrid-Miller, Alejandra; Ramírez-Arias, Erick; Pérez-Rodríguez, Gilberto

    2016-01-01

    Hypertensive disorders of pregnancy affect approximately from 5 to 10 % of all pregnant women, and are the main contributors of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. This group of disorders includes chronic hypertension, as well as the conditions that arise de novo in pregnancy: gestational hypertension and preeclampsia. This last group is believed to be part of the same continuum, but with arbitrary division. Research on the etiology of hypertension in pregnancy largely have focused on preeclampsia, with a majority of studies that explore any factor associated with pregnancy, e.g., the answers derived from the placenta or immunological reactions to tissue from the pregnancy or maternal constitutional factors, such as cardiovascular health and endothelial dysfunction. The basic foundations for the pathophysiology and progression of hypertensive pregnancy disorders, particularly preeclampsia, are reviewed in this paper. Therapeutic options for the treatment of preeclampsia are also explored. PMID:27284848

  17. Hotel Housekeeping Work Influences on Hypertension Management

    PubMed Central

    Sanon, Marie-Anne

    2013-01-01

    Background Characteristics of hotel housekeeping work increase the risk for hypertension development. Little is known about the influences of such work on hypertension management. Methods For this qualitative study, 27 Haitian immigrant hotel housekeepers from Miami-Dade County, FL were interviewed. Interview transcripts were analyzed with the assistance of the Atlas. ti software for code and theme identification. Results Influences of hotel housekeeping work on hypertension management arose both at the individual and system levels. Factors at the individual level included co-worker dynamics and maintenance of transmigrant life. Factors at the system level included supervisory support, workload, work pace, and work hiring practices. No positive influences were reported for workload and hiring practices. Conclusions Workplace interventions may be beneficial for effective hypertension management among hotel housekeepers. These work influences must be considered when determining effective methods for hypertension management among hotel housekeepers. PMID:23775918

  18. Increased aldosterone: mechanism of hypertension in obesity.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Colleen

    2014-05-01

    The prevalence of both obesity and hypertension are increasing worldwide. Hypertension is a common consequence of obesity. Increased central adiposity is associated with increased aldosterone levels and blood pressure in human beings. A number of small studies have shown an association between obesity-mediated hypertension and mechanisms directly linked to increased levels of aldosterone. These studies have shown a trend toward relatively greater blood pressure reduction using aldosterone-receptor blockers compared with other classes of antihypertensive agents. Other than treatment for weight loss, treatment of hypertension with specific antihypertensive medications that block or reduce aldosterone action are appropriate in obese patients. Further research is needed to understand the exact role of the adipocyte in obesity-mediated hypertension.

  19. [Radiographic assessment of pulmonary hypertension: Methodical aspects].

    PubMed

    Korobkova, I Z; Lazutkina, V K; Nizovtsova, L A; Riden, T V

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension is a menacing complication of a number of diseases, which is responsible for high mortality rates and considerably poorer quality of life in a patient. The timely detection for pulmonary hypertension allows timely initiation of treatment, thus improvement in prognosis in the patient. Chest X-ray is the most commonly used radiographic technique for various causes. Physicians' awareness about the radiographic manifestations of pulmonary hypertension may contribute to the earlier detection of this severe disease. Owing to the natural contrast of reflected structures, a chest X-ray film gives a unique opportunity to assess pulmonary circulation vessels, to reveal the signs of pulmonary hypertension, and to estimate trends in the course of the disease. The paper details a procedure for analysis and the normal radiographic anatomy of pulmonary circulation vessels, gives the present classification of pulmonary hypertension, and sets forth its X-ray semiotics.

  20. Morphological diversity of Blastocystis hominis in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-preserved stool samples stained with iron hematoxylin.

    PubMed

    MacPherson, D W; MacQueen, W M

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to study the morphological characteristics of Blastocystis hominis in sodium acetate-acetic acid-Formalin-preserved stool samples. Routinely processed samples were examined for morphological detail, including size, shape, nuclear detail, and central body characteristics. Morphological findings revealing the importance of recognizing B. hominis in the diagnostic laboratory are described. PMID:7510311

  1. Gas-Phase Structures of Ketene and Acetic Acid from Acetic Anhydride Using Very-High-Temperature Gas Electron Diffraction.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Sandra J; Noble-Eddy, Robert; Masters, Sarah L

    2016-03-31

    The gas-phase molecular structure of ketene has been determined using samples generated by the pyrolysis of acetic anhydride (giving acetic acid and ketene), using one permutation of the very-high-temperature (VHT) inlet nozzle system designed and constructed for the gas electron diffraction (GED) apparatus based at the University of Canterbury. The gas-phase structures of acetic anhydride, acetic acid, and ketene are presented and compared to previous electron diffraction and microwave spectroscopy data to show improvements in data extraction and manipulation with current methods. Acetic anhydride was modeled with two conformers, rather than a complex dynamic model as in the previous study, to allow for inclusion of multiple pyrolysis products. The redetermined gas-phase structure of acetic anhydride (obtained using the structure analysis restrained by ab initio calculations for electron diffraction method) was compared to that from the original study, providing an improvement on the description of the low vibrational torsions compared to the dynamic model. Parameters for ketene and acetic acid (both generated by the pyrolysis of acetic anhydride) were also refined with higher accuracy than previously reported in GED studies, with structural parameter comparisons being made to prior experimental and theoretical studies. PMID:26916368

  2. Measurement of the rates of oxindole-3-acetic acid turnover, and indole-3-acetic acid oxidation in Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    Oxindole-3-acetic acid is the principal catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Zea mays seedlings. In this paper measurements of the turnover of oxindole-3-acetic acid are presented and used to calculate the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation. [3H]Oxindole-3-acetic acid was applied to the endosperm of Zea mays seedlings and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h before the start of the experiment. The subsequent decrease in its specific activity was used to calculate the turnover rate. The average half-life of oxindole-3-acetic acid in the shoots was found to be 30 h while that in the kernels had an average half-life of 35h. Using previously published values of the pool sizes of oxindole-3-acetic acid in shoots and kernels from seedlings of the same age and variety, and grown under the same conditions, the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation was calculated to be 1.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the shoots and 7.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the kernels.

  3. Biological Function of Acetic Acid-Improvement in Obesity and Glucose Tolerance by Acetic Acid in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hiromi

    2016-07-29

    Fatty acids derived from adipose tissue are oxidized by β-oxidation to form ketone bodies as final products under the starving condition. Previously, we found that free acetic acid was formed concomitantly with the production of ketone bodies in isolated rat liver perfusion, and mitochondrial acetyl CoA hydrolase was appeared to be involved with the acetic acid production. It was revealed that acetic acid was formed as a final product of enhanced β-oxidation of fatty acids and utilized as a fuel in extrahepatic tissues under the starving condition. Under the fed condition, β-oxidation is suppressed and acetic acid production is decreased. When acetic acid was taken daily by obesity-linked type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats under the fed condition, it protected OLETF rats against obesity. Furthermore, acetic acid contributed to protect from the accumulation of lipid in the liver as well as abdominal fat in OLETF rats. Transcripts of lipogenic genes in the liver were decreased, while transcripts of myoglobin and Glut4 genes in abdominal muscles were increased in the acetic acid-administered OLETF rats. It is indicated that exogenously administered acetic acid would have effects on lipid metabolism in both the liver and the skeletal muscles, and have function that works against obesity and obesity-linked type 2 diabetes.

  4. Gas-Phase Structures of Ketene and Acetic Acid from Acetic Anhydride Using Very-High-Temperature Gas Electron Diffraction.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Sandra J; Noble-Eddy, Robert; Masters, Sarah L

    2016-03-31

    The gas-phase molecular structure of ketene has been determined using samples generated by the pyrolysis of acetic anhydride (giving acetic acid and ketene), using one permutation of the very-high-temperature (VHT) inlet nozzle system designed and constructed for the gas electron diffraction (GED) apparatus based at the University of Canterbury. The gas-phase structures of acetic anhydride, acetic acid, and ketene are presented and compared to previous electron diffraction and microwave spectroscopy data to show improvements in data extraction and manipulation with current methods. Acetic anhydride was modeled with two conformers, rather than a complex dynamic model as in the previous study, to allow for inclusion of multiple pyrolysis products. The redetermined gas-phase structure of acetic anhydride (obtained using the structure analysis restrained by ab initio calculations for electron diffraction method) was compared to that from the original study, providing an improvement on the description of the low vibrational torsions compared to the dynamic model. Parameters for ketene and acetic acid (both generated by the pyrolysis of acetic anhydride) were also refined with higher accuracy than previously reported in GED studies, with structural parameter comparisons being made to prior experimental and theoretical studies.

  5. Virgin Olive Oil and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Sergio; Bermudez, Beatriz; Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Jaramillo, Sara; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco Jg

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of high blood pressure (BP) along with other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors on human health has been studied for many years. These studies have proven a link between unhealthy dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle with the onset of hypertension, which is a hallmark of CV and cerebrovascular diseases. The Mediterranean diet, declared by the UNESCO as an Intangible Cultural Heritage since 2013, is rich in vegetables, legumes, fruits and virgin olive oil. Thanks to its many beneficial effects, including those with regard to lowering BP, the Mediterranean diet may help people from modern countries to achieve a lower occurrence of CV disease. Data from human and animal studies have shown that the consumption of virgin olive oil shares most of the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet. Virgin olive oil is the only edible fat that can be consumed as a natural fruit product with no additives or preservatives, and contains a unique constellation of bioactive entities, namely oleic acid and minor constituents. In this review, we summarize what is known about the effects of virgin olive oil on hypertension.

  6. The Immunological Basis of Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Pons, Héctor; Quiroz, Yasmir; Johnson, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    A large number of investigations have demonstrated the participation of the immune system in the pathogenesis of hypertension. Studies focusing on macrophages and Toll-like receptors have documented involvement of the innate immunity. The requirements of antigen presentation and co-stimulation, the critical importance of T cell–driven inflammation, and the demonstration, in specific conditions, of agonistic antibodies directed to angiotensin II type 1 receptors and adrenergic receptors support the role of acquired immunity. Experimental findings support the concept that the balance between T cell–induced inflammation and T cell suppressor responses is critical for the regulation of blood pressure levels. Expression of neoantigens in response to inflammation, as well as surfacing of intracellular immunogenic proteins, such as heat shock proteins, could be responsible for autoimmune reactivity in the kidney, arteries, and central nervous system. Persisting, low-grade inflammation in these target organs may lead to impaired pressure natriuresis, an increase in sympathetic activity, and vascular endothelial dysfunction that may be the cause of chronic elevation of blood pressure in essential hypertension. PMID:25150828

  7. DNA Damage and Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Ranchoux, Benoît; Meloche, Jolyane; Paulin, Roxane; Boucherat, Olivier; Provencher, Steeve; Bonnet, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is defined by a mean pulmonary arterial pressure over 25 mmHg at rest and is diagnosed by right heart catheterization. Among the different groups of PH, pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by a progressive obstruction of distal pulmonary arteries, related to endothelial cell dysfunction and vascular cell proliferation, which leads to an increased pulmonary vascular resistance, right ventricular hypertrophy, and right heart failure. Although the primary trigger of PAH remains unknown, oxidative stress and inflammation have been shown to play a key role in the development and progression of vascular remodeling. These factors are known to increase DNA damage that might favor the emergence of the proliferative and apoptosis-resistant phenotype observed in PAH vascular cells. High levels of DNA damage were reported to occur in PAH lungs and remodeled arteries as well as in animal models of PH. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated that impaired DNA-response mechanisms may lead to an increased mutagen sensitivity in PAH patients. Finally, PAH was linked with decreased breast cancer 1 protein (BRCA1) and DNA topoisomerase 2-binding protein 1 (TopBP1) expression, both involved in maintaining genome integrity. This review aims to provide an overview of recent evidence of DNA damage and DNA repair deficiency and their implication in PAH pathogenesis. PMID:27338373

  8. Virgin Olive Oil and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Sergio; Bermudez, Beatriz; Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Jaramillo, Sara; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco Jg

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of high blood pressure (BP) along with other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors on human health has been studied for many years. These studies have proven a link between unhealthy dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle with the onset of hypertension, which is a hallmark of CV and cerebrovascular diseases. The Mediterranean diet, declared by the UNESCO as an Intangible Cultural Heritage since 2013, is rich in vegetables, legumes, fruits and virgin olive oil. Thanks to its many beneficial effects, including those with regard to lowering BP, the Mediterranean diet may help people from modern countries to achieve a lower occurrence of CV disease. Data from human and animal studies have shown that the consumption of virgin olive oil shares most of the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet. Virgin olive oil is the only edible fat that can be consumed as a natural fruit product with no additives or preservatives, and contains a unique constellation of bioactive entities, namely oleic acid and minor constituents. In this review, we summarize what is known about the effects of virgin olive oil on hypertension. PMID:26775852

  9. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid and oxindole-3-acetic acid to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside in Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolabeled oxindole-3-acetic acid was metabolized by roots, shoots, and caryopses of dark grown Zea mays seedlings to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glycopyranoside with the simpler name of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. This compound was also formed from labeled indole-3-acetic acid supplied to intact seedlings and root segments. The glucoside of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid was also isolated as an endogenous compound in the caryopses and shoots of 4-day-old seedlings. It accumulates to a level of 4.8 nanomoles per plant in the kernel, more than 10 times the amount of oxindole-3-acetic acid. In the shoot it is present at levels comparable to that of oxindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid (62 picomoles per shoot). We conclude that 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside is a natural metabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Z. mays seedlings. From the data presented in this paper and in previous work, we propose the following route as the principal catabolic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid in Zea seedlings: Indole-3-acetic acid --> Oxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside.

  10. Quantitative Structure of an Acetate Dye Molecule Analogue at the TiO2–Acetic Acid Interface

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The positions of atoms in and around acetate molecules at the rutile TiO2(110) interface with 0.1 M acetic acid have been determined with a precision of ±0.05 Å. Acetate is used as a surrogate for the carboxylate groups typically employed to anchor monocarboxylate dye molecules to TiO2 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Structural analysis reveals small domains of ordered (2 × 1) acetate molecules, with substrate atoms closer to their bulk terminated positions compared to the clean UHV surface. Acetate is found in a bidentate bridge position, binding through both oxygen atoms to two 5-fold titanium atoms such that the molecular plane is along the [001] azimuth. Density functional theory calculations provide adsorption geometries in excellent agreement with experiment. The availability of these structural data will improve the accuracy of charge transport models for DSSC. PMID:27110318

  11. Hypertension

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Women's Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  12. Simultaneous production of acetic and gluconic acids by a thermotolerant Acetobacter strain during acetous fermentation in a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Mounir, Majid; Shafiei, Rasoul; Zarmehrkhorshid, Raziyeh; Hamouda, Allal; Ismaili Alaoui, Mustapha; Thonart, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    The activity of bacterial strains significantly influences the quality and the taste of vinegar. Previous studies of acetic acid bacteria have primarily focused on the ability of bacterial strains to produce high amounts of acetic acid. However, few studies have examined the production of gluconic acid during acetous fermentation at high temperatures. The production of vinegar at high temperatures by two strains of acetic acid bacteria isolated from apple and cactus fruits, namely AF01 and CV01, respectively, was evaluated in this study. The simultaneous production of gluconic and acetic acids was also examined in this study. Biochemical and molecular identification based on a 16s rDNA sequence analysis confirmed that these strains can be classified as Acetobacter pasteurianus. To assess the ability of the isolated strains to grow and produce acetic acid and gluconic acid at high temperatures, a semi-continuous fermentation was performed in a 20-L bioreactor. The two strains abundantly grew at a high temperature (41°C). At the end of the fermentation, the AF01 and CV01 strains yielded acetic acid concentrations of 7.64% (w/v) and 10.08% (w/v), respectively. Interestingly, CV01 was able to simultaneously produce acetic and gluconic acids during acetic fermentation, whereas AF01 mainly produced acetic acid. In addition, CV01 was less sensitive to ethanol depletion during semi-continuous fermentation. Finally, the enzymatic study showed that the two strains exhibited high ADH and ALDH enzyme activity at 38°C compared with the mesophilic reference strain LMG 1632, which was significantly susceptible to thermal inactivation. PMID:26253254

  13. Simultaneous production of acetic and gluconic acids by a thermotolerant Acetobacter strain during acetous fermentation in a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Mounir, Majid; Shafiei, Rasoul; Zarmehrkhorshid, Raziyeh; Hamouda, Allal; Ismaili Alaoui, Mustapha; Thonart, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    The activity of bacterial strains significantly influences the quality and the taste of vinegar. Previous studies of acetic acid bacteria have primarily focused on the ability of bacterial strains to produce high amounts of acetic acid. However, few studies have examined the production of gluconic acid during acetous fermentation at high temperatures. The production of vinegar at high temperatures by two strains of acetic acid bacteria isolated from apple and cactus fruits, namely AF01 and CV01, respectively, was evaluated in this study. The simultaneous production of gluconic and acetic acids was also examined in this study. Biochemical and molecular identification based on a 16s rDNA sequence analysis confirmed that these strains can be classified as Acetobacter pasteurianus. To assess the ability of the isolated strains to grow and produce acetic acid and gluconic acid at high temperatures, a semi-continuous fermentation was performed in a 20-L bioreactor. The two strains abundantly grew at a high temperature (41°C). At the end of the fermentation, the AF01 and CV01 strains yielded acetic acid concentrations of 7.64% (w/v) and 10.08% (w/v), respectively. Interestingly, CV01 was able to simultaneously produce acetic and gluconic acids during acetic fermentation, whereas AF01 mainly produced acetic acid. In addition, CV01 was less sensitive to ethanol depletion during semi-continuous fermentation. Finally, the enzymatic study showed that the two strains exhibited high ADH and ALDH enzyme activity at 38°C compared with the mesophilic reference strain LMG 1632, which was significantly susceptible to thermal inactivation.

  14. Masked Hypertension and Incident Clinic Hypertension Among Blacks in the Jackson Heart Study.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Marwah; Booth, John N; Seals, Samantha R; Spruill, Tanya M; Viera, Anthony J; Diaz, Keith M; Sims, Mario; Muntner, Paul; Shimbo, Daichi

    2016-07-01

    Masked hypertension, defined as nonelevated clinic blood pressure (BP) and elevated out-of-clinic BP may be an intermediary stage in the progression from normotension to hypertension. We examined the associations of out-of-clinic BP and masked hypertension using ambulatory BP monitoring with incident clinic hypertension in the Jackson Heart Study, a prospective cohort of blacks. Analyses included 317 participants with clinic BP <140/90 mm Hg, complete ambulatory BP monitoring, who were not taking antihypertensive medication at baseline in 2000 to 2004. Masked daytime hypertension was defined as mean daytime blood pressure ≥135/85 mm Hg, masked night-time hypertension as mean night-time BP ≥120/70 mm Hg, and masked 24-hour hypertension as mean 24-hour BP ≥130/80 mm Hg. Incident clinic hypertension, assessed at study visits in 2005 to 2008 and 2009 to 2012, was defined as the first visit with clinic systolic/diastolic BP ≥140/90 mm Hg or antihypertensive medication use. During a median follow-up of 8.1 years, there were 187 (59.0%) incident cases of clinic hypertension. Clinic hypertension developed in 79.2% and 42.2% of participants with and without any masked hypertension, 85.7% and 50.4% with and without masked daytime hypertension, 79.9% and 43.7% with and without masked night-time hypertension, and 85.7% and 48.2% with and without masked 24-hour hypertension, respectively. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of incident clinic hypertension for any masked hypertension and masked daytime, night-time, and 24-hour hypertension were 2.13 (1.51-3.02), 1.79 (1.24-2.60), 2.22 (1.58-3.12), and 1.91 (1.32-2.75), respectively. These findings suggest that ambulatory BP monitoring can identify blacks at increased risk for developing clinic hypertension. PMID:27185746

  15. The Effects of Acetate Buffer Concentration on Lysozyme Solubility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1996-01-01

    The micro-solubility column technique was employed to systematically investigate the effects of buffer concentration on tetragonal lysozyme solubility. While keeping the NaCl concentrations constant at 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% and 7%, and the pH at 4.0, we have studied the solubility of tetragonal lysozyme over an acetate buffer concentration range of 0.01M to 0.5M as a function of temperature. The lysozyme solubility decreased with increasing acetate concentration from 0.01M to 0.1M. This decrease may simply be due to the net increase in solvent ionic strength. Increasing the acetate concentration beyond 0.1M resulted in an increase in the lysozyme solubility, which reached a peak at - 0.3M acetate concentration. This increase was believed to be due to the increased binding of acetate to the anionic binding sites of lysozyme, preventing their occupation by chloride. In keeping with the previously observed reversal of the Hoffmeister series for effectiveness of anions in crystallizing lysozyme, acetate would be a less effective precipitant than chloride. Further increasing the acetate concentration beyond 0.3M resulted in a subsequent gradual decrease in the lysozyme solubility at all NaCl concentrations.

  16. Computerized image analysis for acetic acid induced intraepithelial lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjing; Ferris, Daron G.; Lieberman, Rich W.

    2008-03-01

    Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) exhibits certain morphologic features that can be identified during a visual inspection exam. Immature and dysphasic cervical squamous epithelium turns white after application of acetic acid during the exam. The whitening process occurs visually over several minutes and subjectively discriminates between dysphasic and normal tissue. Digital imaging technologies allow us to assist the physician analyzing the acetic acid induced lesions (acetowhite region) in a fully automatic way. This paper reports a study designed to measure multiple parameters of the acetowhitening process from two images captured with a digital colposcope. One image is captured before the acetic acid application, and the other is captured after the acetic acid application. The spatial change of the acetowhitening is extracted using color and texture information in the post acetic acid image; the temporal change is extracted from the intensity and color changes between the post acetic acid and pre acetic acid images with an automatic alignment. The imaging and data analysis system has been evaluated with a total of 99 human subjects and demonstrate its potential to screening underserved women where access to skilled colposcopists is limited.

  17. Crystal structure of a mixed solvated form of amoxapine acetate.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Rajni M; Raval, Vishal; Oswald, Iain D H; Florence, Alastair J

    2015-02-01

    The mixed solvated salt 4-(2-chloro-dibenzo[b,f][1,4]oxazepin-11-yl)piperazin-1-ium acetate-acetic acid-cyclo-hexane (2/2/1), C17H17ClN3O(+)·C2H3O2 (-)·C2H4O2·0.5C6H12, crystallizes with one mol-ecule of protonated amoxapine (AXPN), an acetate anion and a mol-ecule of acetic acid together with half a mol-ecule of cyclo-hexane. In the centrosymmetric crystal, both enanti-omers of the protonated AXPN mol-ecule stack alternatively along [001]. Acetate anions connect the AXPN cations through N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding in the [010] direction, creating a sheet lying parallel to (100). The acetic acid mol-ecules are linked to the acetate anions via O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds within the sheets. Within the sheets there are also a number of C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds present. The cyclo-hexane solvent mol-ecules occupy the space between the sheets.

  18. Increased brain uptake and oxidation of acetate in heavy drinkers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lihong; Gulanski, Barbara Irene; De Feyter, Henk M; Weinzimer, Stuart A; Pittman, Brian; Guidone, Elizabeth; Koretski, Julia; Harman, Susan; Petrakis, Ismene L; Krystal, John H; Mason, Graeme F

    2013-04-01

    When a person consumes ethanol, the body quickly begins to convert it to acetic acid, which circulates in the blood and can serve as a source of energy for the brain and other organs. This study used 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy to test whether chronic heavy drinking is associated with greater brain uptake and oxidation of acetic acid, providing a potential metabolic reward or adenosinergic effect as a consequence of drinking. Seven heavy drinkers, who regularly consumed at least 8 drinks per week and at least 4 drinks per day at least once per week, and 7 light drinkers, who consumed fewer than 2 drinks per week were recruited. The subjects were administered [2-13C]acetate for 2 hours and scanned throughout that time with magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain to observe natural 13C abundance of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and the appearance of 13C-labeled glutamate, glutamine, and acetate. Heavy drinkers had approximately 2-fold more brain acetate relative to blood and twice as much labeled glutamate and glutamine. The results show that acetate transport and oxidation are faster in heavy drinkers compared with that in light drinkers. Our finding suggests that a new therapeutic approach to supply acetate during alcohol detoxification may be beneficial. PMID:23478412

  19. Histone deacetylase inhibitor, CG200745, attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in DOCA-induced hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunjo; Song, Min-ji; Lee, Hae-Ahm; Kang, Seol-Hee; Kim, Mina; Yang, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Do Young; Ro, Seonggu; Cho, Joong Myung

    2016-01-01

    CG200745 is a novel inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), initially developed for treatment of various hematological and solid cancers. Because it is water-soluble, it can be administered orally. We hypothesized that the HDAC inhibitor, CG200745, attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-induced hypertensive rats. For establishment of hypertension, 40 mg/kg of DOCA was subcutaneously injected four times weekly into Sprague-Dawley rats. All the rats used in this study including those in the sham group had been unilaterally nephrectomized and allowed free access to drinking water containing 1% NaCl. Systolic blood pressure was measured by the tail-cuff method. Blood chemistry including sodium, potassium, glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels was analyzed. Sections of the heart were visualized after trichrome and hematoxylin and eosin stain. The expression of hypertrophic genes such as atrial natriuretic peptide A (Nppa) and atrial natriuretic peptide B (Nppb) in addition to fibrotic genes such as Collagen-1, Collagen-3, connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf), and Fibronectin were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Injection of DOCA increased systolic blood pressure, heart weight, and cardiac fibrosis, which was attenuated by CG200745. Neither DOCA nor CG200745 affected body weight, vascular contraction and relaxation responses, and blood chemistry. Injection of DOCA increased expression of both hypertrophic and fibrotic genes, which was abrogated by CG200745. These results indicate that CG200745 attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in DOCA-induced hypertensive rats.

  20. EP1 DISRUPTION ATTENUATES END-ORGAN DAMAGE IN A MOUSE MODEL OF HYPERTENSION

    PubMed Central

    Swan, Christina E.; Boyd, Kelli L.; Harris, Raymond C.; Zent, Roy; Breyer, Richard M.

    2012-01-01

    PGE2 is a major prostanoid found in the kidney and vasculature contributing to the regulation of blood pressure. The PGE2 receptor EP1 has been shown to contribute to hypertension by mediating angiotensin II-dependent vasoconstriction, although its precise role is incompletely characterized. Disruption of the EP1 receptor in C57BL/6J mice reduced the incidence of mortality during severe hypertension induced by uninephrectomy, deoxycorticosterone acetate, and angiotensin II. Mortality was dependent on all components of the model. Death was a result of aortic aneurysm rupture or occurred after development of anasarca, each of which was reduced in EP1−/− mice. Mean arterial pressure was increased in treated EP1+/+ and EP1−/− mice, however this elevation was significantly lower in EP1−/− mice. Blood pressure reduction via administration of hydralazine phenocopied EP1−/− mice. Thus reduction in blood pressure by disruption of EP1 reduced incidence of mortality and decreased organ damage suggesting that EP1 receptor blockade may be a viable target for anti-hypertensive therapy. PMID:23006735