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Sample records for acetate etoac extract

  1. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, R.M.

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  2. Bioactivity studies on Cassia alata Linn. leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Villaseñor, Irene M; Canlas, Arlyn P; Pascua, Marcy Paul I; Sabando, May N; Soliven, Leen Aloha P

    2002-03-01

    The hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of the leaves of Cussia alata Linn. were tested for their antimutagenic, antifungal, analgesic, antiinflammatory and hypoglycaemic activities. At a dosage of 5 mg/20 g mouse, the hexane extract was analgesic as it reduced the number of squirms induced by acetic acid by 59.5%. Both the hexane and EtOAc extracts exhibited antiinflammatory activity at a dosage of 5 mg/20 g mouse with a 65.5% and 68.2% decrease in carrageenan-induced inflammation, respectively. The chloroform extract was antimutagenic, at a dosage of 2 mg/20 g mouse, with a 65.8% inhibition in the mutagenicity of tetracycline. It was also the most active against Trichophyton mentagrophytes, at a concentration of 50 mg/mL but it had no activity against Candida albicans. The hexane and EtOAc extracts showed some activity against both organisms, with the EtOAc extract being more active against C. albicans. The EtOAc extract was hypoglycaemic. At a dosage of 5 mg/20 g mouse, it decreased the blood sugar level of mice by 58.3%. Pharmacological studies showed that all extracts caused an immediate decrease in motor activity, enophthalmus, hyperemia, micturition and diarrhoea. At a dosage of 150 mg/20 g mouse, the EtOAc extract caused paralysis, screen grip loss and enophthalmus accompanied by drooping and closure of the eyelids. PMID:11933153

  3. Assessment of Phenolic Compounds and Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Ethyl Acetate Phase of Anacardium occidentale L. Bark.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Marina Suênia de Araújo; de Souza, Graziene Lopes; Vilar, Daniela de Araújo; Leite, Jacqueline Alves; Raffin, Fernanda Nervo; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Nogueira, Fernando Henrique Andrade; Rodrigues-Mascarenhas, Sandra; Moura, Túlio Flávio Accioly de Lima

    2016-01-01

    The bark of A. occidentale L. is rich in tannins. Studies have described various biological activities of the plant, including antimicrobial, antioxidant, antiulcerogenic and antiinflammatory actions. The objective of this study was to assess the activity of the ethyl acetate phase (EtOAc) of A. occidentale on acute inflammation and to identify and quantify its phenolic compounds by HPLC. The method was validated and shown to be linear, precise and accurate for catechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin and gallic acid. Swiss albino mice (Mus musculus) were treated with saline, Carrageenan (2.5%), Indomethacin (10 mg/kg), Bradykinin (6 nmol) and Prostaglandine E2 (5 µg) at different concentrations of EtOAc - A. occidentale (12.5; 25; 50; and 100 mg/kg/weight p.o.) for the paw edema test. Challenge was performed with carrageenan (500 µg/mL i.p.) for the doses 50 and 100 mg/kg of EtOAc. Levels of cytokines IL-1, TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-10 were also measured. All EtOAc - A. occidentale concentrations reduced the edema. At 50 and 100 mg/kg, an anti-inflammatory response of the EtOAc was observed. Carrageenan stimulus produced a neutrophil count of 28.6% while 50 and 100 mg/kg of the phase reduced this to 14.5% and 9.1%, respectively. The EtOAc extract reduced levels of IL-1 and TNF-α. These results suggest that the EtOAc plays a modulatory role in the inflammatory response. The chromatographic method can be used for the analysis of the phenolic compounds of the EtOAc phase. PMID:27548136

  4. Genistein mediates the anti-adipogenic actions of Sophora japonica L. extracts.

    PubMed

    Jung, So-Ra; Kim, Young-Jun; Gwon, A-Ryeong; Lee, Jina; Jo, Dong-Gyu; Jeon, Tae-Joon; Hong, Joung-Woo; Park, Ki-Moon; Park, Kye Won

    2011-04-01

    Previous studies showed that feeding diets containing the mature fruits of Sophora japonica L. prevented body weight gain and reduced fat mass in high-fat diet-induced obese mice. This observation has led to the hypothesis that extracts from S. japonica L. may inhibit adipocyte differentiation of preadipocytes. To elucidate the possible mechanisms for the anti-obesity action of S. japonica L., its effects on adipocyte differentiation were investigated in C3H10T1/2 mesenchymal stem cells and 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cells. The mature fruit of S. japonica L. was partitioned with ethanol, hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and butanol to identify the active fractions. The EtOAc fraction extracts inhibited morphological differentiation and lipid accumulation in the C3H10T1/2 and 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Molecular studies indicated that the EtOAc fraction extracts also reduced the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ and other adipocyte markers. Furthermore, among the fractions, the EtOAc fraction extracts had the highest total phenolic contents, suggesting that the polyphenols in the EtOAc fractions mediated the anti-adipogenic effects. Finally, high-performance liquid chromatography identified genistein, a known anti-adipogenic compound, as the probable mediator of the anti-adipogenic effects of the EtOAc fractions. This work validates the beneficial roles of S. japonica L. in controlling body weight and obesity-related metabolic diseases. PMID:21303259

  5. Lipid extraction and iontophoretic transport of leuprolide acetate through porcine epidermis.

    PubMed

    Rastogi, S K; Singh, J

    2001-03-14

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of lipid extraction by the simple alkyl acetates of increasing carbon chain lengths (e.g. methyl, ethyl, propyl, butyl, pentyl, hexyl, and octyl acetates) and iontophoresis on the in-vitro transport of leuprolide acetate through porcine epidermis. The extent of lipid extraction from the stratum corneum (SC) by alkyl acetates was studied by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Ethyl, propyl, pentyl, hexyl, and octyl acetates significantly increased (P < 0.05) the permeability of leuprolide acetate through the epidermis in comparison to the control (epidermis without alkyl acetate treatment). Iontophoresis further increased (P < 0.05) the permeability of leuprolide acetate for all the alkyl acetates studied, when compared to their corresponding passive permeability. Ethyl acetate produced the maximum passive (13.47 microg/cm(2)/h) and iontophoretic (89.79 microg/cm(2)/h) flux among all the alkyl acetates studied. The SC treated with alkyl acetates showed a decrease in peak heights and areas of asymmetric and symmetric C--H stretching absorbances in comparison to untreated SC. A greater percentage decrease in peak heights and areas was obtained by ethyl acetate. Chloroform:methanol(2:1) [C:M(2:1)] was used as a positive control for lipid extraction. Our findings provide evidence that alkyl acetates cause lipid extraction, which leads to an enhancement in the passive and iontophoretic permeability of leuprolide acetate. PMID:11250109

  6. Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of Six Algerian Propolis Extracts: Ethyl Acetate Extracts Inhibit Myeloperoxidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Boufadi, Yasmina Mokhtaria; Soubhye, Jalal; Riazi, Ali; Rousseau, Alexandre; Vanhaeverbeek, Michel; Nève, Jean; Boudjeltia, Karim Zouaoui; Van Antwerpen, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Because propolis contains many types of antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids, it can be useful in preventing oxidative damages. Ethyl acetate extracts of propolis from several Algerian regions show high activity by scavenging free radicals, preventing lipid peroxidation and inhibiting myeloperoxidase (MPO). By fractioning and assaying ethyl acetate extracts, it was observed that both polyphenols and flavonoids contribute to these activities. A correlation was observed between the polyphenol content and the MPO inhibition. However, it seems that kaempferol, a flavonoid, contributes mainly to the MPO inhibition. This molecule is in a high amount in the ethyl acetate extract and demonstrates the best efficiency towards the enzyme with an inhibiting concentration at 50% of 4 ± 2 μM. PMID:24514562

  7. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2007-03-27

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  8. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2004-06-22

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  9. Improved Butanol-Methanol (BUME) Method by Replacing Acetic Acid for Lipid Extraction of Biological Samples.

    PubMed

    Cruz, Mutya; Wang, Miao; Frisch-Daiello, Jessica; Han, Xianlin

    2016-07-01

    Extraction of lipids from biological samples is a critical step in lipidomics, especially for shotgun lipidomics where lipid extracts are directly infused into a mass spectrometer. The butanol-methanol (BUME) extraction method was originally developed to extract lipids from plasma samples with 1 % acetic acid. Considering some lipids are sensitive to acidic environments, we modified this protocol by replacing acetic acid with lithium chloride solution and extended the modified extraction to tissue samples. Although no significant reduction of plasmalogen levels in the acidic BUME extracts of rat heart samples was found, the modified method was established to extract various tissue samples, including rat liver, heart, and plasma. Essentially identical profiles of the majority of lipid classes were obtained from the extracts of the modified BUME and traditional Bligh-Dyer methods. However, it was found that neither the original, nor the modified BUME method was suitable for 4-hydroxyalkenal species measurement in biological samples. PMID:27245345

  10. Development of Biocomposites with Antioxidant Activity Based on Red Onion Extract and Acetate Cellulose

    PubMed Central

    López de Dicastillo, Carol; Navarro, Rosa; Guarda, Abel; Galotto, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant biocomposites have been successfully developed from cellulose acetate, eco-friendly triethyl citrate plasticizer and onion extract as a source of natural antioxidants. First, an onion extraction process was optimized to obtain the extract with highest antioxidant power. Extracts under absolute ethanol and ethanol 85% were the extracts with the highest antioxidant activity, which were the characterized through different methods, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2ʹ-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate)), that measure radical scavenger activity, and polyphenolic and flavonoid content. Afterwards, the extract was incorporated in cellulose acetate as polymer matrix owing to develop an active material intended to oxidative sensitive food products packaging. Different concentrations of onion extract and plasticizer were statistically studied by using response surface methodology in order to analyze the influence of both factors on the release of active compounds and therefore the antioxidant activity of these materials. PMID:26783842

  11. Development of Biocomposites with Antioxidant Activity Based on Red Onion Extract and Acetate Cellulose.

    PubMed

    de Dicastillo, Carol López; Navarro, Rosa; Guarda, Abel; Galotto, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant biocomposites have been successfully developed from cellulose acetate, eco-friendly triethyl citrate plasticizer and onion extract as a source of natural antioxidants. First, an onion extraction process was optimized to obtain the extract with highest antioxidant power. Extracts under absolute ethanol and ethanol 85% were the extracts with the highest antioxidant activity, which were the characterized through different methods, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate)), that measure radical scavenger activity, and polyphenolic and flavonoid content. Afterwards, the extract was incorporated in cellulose acetate as polymer matrix owing to develop an active material intended to oxidative sensitive food products packaging. Different concentrations of onion extract and plasticizer were statistically studied by using response surface methodology in order to analyze the influence of both factors on the release of active compounds and therefore the antioxidant activity of these materials. PMID:26783842

  12. Removal of acetic acid from simulated hemicellulosic hydrolysates by emulsion liquid membrane with organophosphorus extractants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Cheol

    2015-09-01

    Selective removal of acetic acid from simulated hemicellulosic hydrolysates containing xylose and sulfuric acid was attempted in a batch emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) system with organophosphorus extractants. Various experimental variables were used to develop a more energy-efficient ELM process. Total operation time of an ELM run with a very small quantity of trioctylphosphine oxide as the extractant was reduced to about a third of those required to attain almost the same extraction efficiency as obtained in previous ELM works without any extractant. Under specific conditions, acetic acid was selectively separated with a high degree of extraction and insignificant loss of xylose, and its purity and enrichment ratio in the stripping phase were higher than 92% and 6, respectively. Also, reused organic membrane solutions exhibited the extraction efficiency as high as fresh organic solutions did. These results showed that the current ELM process would be quite practical.

  13. In vitro anti-oxidative activities of the various parts of Parkia biglobosa and GC-MS analysis of extracts with high activity.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, M A; Koorbanally, N A; Islam, M S

    2013-01-01

    The anti-oxidative activities of sequentially extracted solvent fractions of different parts of P. biglobosa were evaluated in a series of in vitro assays. Our findings indicated that all extracts had electron donating and free radical scavenging activities. But the ethanol (EtOH) extracts from all the parts demonstrated more promising anti-oxidative effects in these experimental models. Apart from the aqueous extracts of the stem bark and leaves, all other extracts exhibited hydroxyl radical scavenging (HRS) activity but the ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extract of the stem bark and EtOH extracts of the root and leaves possessed more powerful HRS activity than other corresponding extracts in the parts. Further, nitric oxide (NO) inhibition activities were observed in all the extracts except the EtOAc extract of the stem bark which showed pro-oxidative activity. However, the EtOH extract of the stem bark and root as well as the EtOAc extract of the leaves displayed more potent anti-NO activity than other extracts in the parts. The GC-MS analysis of the EtOH extracts revealed that the most abundant phytochemicals are pyrogallol derivatives. Data from this study suggest that the EtOH extracts from different parts of P. biglobosa contained potent anti-oxidative agents and pyrogallol could be the main bioactive constituent.

  14. Bioactivity of Diterpens from the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams

    PubMed Central

    Javarappa, Komal Kumar; Prasad, Attemode Girijanna Devi; Mahadesh Prasad, AJ; Mane, Chetana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams. is an endangered medicinal plant used in gonorrhoe, catarrhal conditions of genito-urinary and respiratory tracts. The scientific and pharmacological formulation of K. pinnatum has not been established so far though it is being traditionally used by tribes of the region. Objective: P hytochemical screening and identification of the bioactive compounds from the ethyl acetate extract of Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic separation was carried out by thin layer chromatography and column chromatography. Bio-autography of the column fractioned extract and TLC chromatogram were evaluated in vitro for antibacterial activity. The PTLC, HP TLC were used for crude extract and HPLC, LCMS, FTIR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR were employed for the isolated compound in the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum. Results: Evaluation of solvent system for chromatographic separation revealed that ethyl acetate: petroleum ether in the ratio of 7:2.5 ml was the most appropriate one for the separation of diterpene compounds. The antibacterial bio-autography screening of TLC separated compound showed positive activity with Staphylococcus aureus and negative activity with Escherichia coli. Spectroscopic analysis of the isolated compound from the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum revealed the presence of diterpene compound. Conclusion: It is evident from the present study that the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum is rich in diterpene compounds and having potential antibacterial activity. SUMMARY Novel extraction method for phytochemicls from Kingidendron pinnatum at RTAntibacterial property of diterpens extracted from Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams aganist S. aureus Abbreviations Used: TLC: Thin Layer Chromatography, PTLC: Preparatory Thin Layer Chromatography, HPTLC: High perormence Thin Layer chromatography, HPLC: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, LC-MS: Liquid chromatography Mass Spectra, FTIR

  15. Bioactivity of Diterpens from the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams

    PubMed Central

    Javarappa, Komal Kumar; Prasad, Attemode Girijanna Devi; Mahadesh Prasad, AJ; Mane, Chetana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams. is an endangered medicinal plant used in gonorrhoe, catarrhal conditions of genito-urinary and respiratory tracts. The scientific and pharmacological formulation of K. pinnatum has not been established so far though it is being traditionally used by tribes of the region. Objective: P hytochemical screening and identification of the bioactive compounds from the ethyl acetate extract of Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic separation was carried out by thin layer chromatography and column chromatography. Bio-autography of the column fractioned extract and TLC chromatogram were evaluated in vitro for antibacterial activity. The PTLC, HP TLC were used for crude extract and HPLC, LCMS, FTIR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR were employed for the isolated compound in the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum. Results: Evaluation of solvent system for chromatographic separation revealed that ethyl acetate: petroleum ether in the ratio of 7:2.5 ml was the most appropriate one for the separation of diterpene compounds. The antibacterial bio-autography screening of TLC separated compound showed positive activity with Staphylococcus aureus and negative activity with Escherichia coli. Spectroscopic analysis of the isolated compound from the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum revealed the presence of diterpene compound. Conclusion: It is evident from the present study that the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum is rich in diterpene compounds and having potential antibacterial activity. SUMMARY Novel extraction method for phytochemicls from Kingidendron pinnatum at RTAntibacterial property of diterpens extracted from Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams aganist S. aureus Abbreviations Used: TLC: Thin Layer Chromatography, PTLC: Preparatory Thin Layer Chromatography, HPTLC: High perormence Thin Layer chromatography, HPLC: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, LC-MS: Liquid chromatography Mass Spectra, FTIR

  16. Two new cucurbitane-type triterpenoid saponins isolated from ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit.

    PubMed

    Song, Fei; Dai, Bin; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Xie, Jian-Wei; Gu, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Two new cucurbitacins I (1 and 2), together with eight known compounds (3-10), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the fruit of Citrullus colocynthis. Compounds 3, 5-9 were isolated from C. colocynthis for the first time. The structures of new compounds were determined primarily from IR, HR-MS, 1D-, and 2D-NMR analysis.

  17. Determination of inorganic anions in ethyl acetate by ion chromatography with an electromembrane extraction method.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhenzhen; Chen, Huadong; Yao, Chaoying; Zhu, Yan

    2011-09-01

    In this work, the determination of inorganic anions in slightly water-soluble organic solvents (ethyl acetate) was realized by ion chromatography (IC) with a novel-efficient electromembrane extraction method. From an 8 mL ethyl acetate sample, three inorganic anions migrated through the pores of a polypropylene hollow fiber membrane, and into deionized water inside the lumen of the hollow fiber by the application of 600 V. The transport was forced by an electrical potential difference sustained over the liquid membrane, resulting in electrokinetic migration of inorganic anions from the donor compartment to the acceptor solution. After the electromembrane extraction, the acceptor solution was analyzed by IC with a sodium carbonate-sodium bicarbonate eluent. The applied voltage, stirring speed, and extraction time for controlling the extraction efficiency were optimized. Within 10 min of operation at 600 V, chloride, bromide, and sulfate were extracted with recoveries in the range 76-110%, which corresponded to a linear range of 0.01-1 mg/L. The procedure was applied to the analysis of inorganic anions in a real ethyl acetate sample and expands onto other slightly water-soluble organic solvents. PMID:21859536

  18. Electromembrane extraction and HPLC analysis of haloacetic acids and aromatic acetic acids in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Alhooshani, Khalid; Basheer, Chanbasha; Kaur, Jagjit; Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut E; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Lee, Hian Kee

    2011-10-30

    For the first time, haloacetic acids and aromatic acetic acids were extracted from wastewater samples using electromembrane extraction (EME). A thin layer of toluene immobilized on the walls of a polypropylene membrane envelope served as an artificial supported liquid membrane (SLM). The haloacetic acids (HAAs) (chloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, and trifluoroacetic acid) and aromatic acetic acids (phenylacetic acid and p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) were extracted through the SLM and into an alkalized aqueous buffer solution. The buffer solution was located inside the membrane envelope. The electrical potential difference sustained over the membrane acted as the driving force for the transport of haloacetic acids into the membrane by electrokinetic migration. After extraction, the extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. The detection limits were between 0.072 and 40.3 ng L(-1). The calibration plot linearity was in the range of 5 and 200 μg L(-1) while the correlation coefficients for the analytes ranged from 0.9932 to 0.9967. Relative recoveries were in the range of 87-106%. The extraction efficiency was found to be comparable to that of solid-phase extraction.

  19. Anti-fish nodaviral activity of furan-2-yl acetate extracted from marine Streptomyces spp.

    PubMed

    Suthindhiran, K; Sarath Babu, V; Kannabiran, K; Ishaq Ahmed, V P; Sahul Hameed, A S

    2011-04-01

    The antiviral activity of furan-2-yl acetate (C₆H₆O₃) extracted from Streptomyces VITSDK1 spp. was studied in cultured Sahul Indian Grouper Eye (SIGE) cells infected with fish nodavirus (FNV). The nodavirus infection in the SIGE cells was confirmed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and the antiviral activity of furan-2-yl acetate was assessed by cytopathic effect, as well as reduction in nodaviral titre (TCID₅₀ mL⁻¹, where TCID₅₀) is the 50% tissue culture infective dose) in the cultured SIGE cells under in vitro conditions. Furan-2-yl acetate (20 µg mL⁻¹) effectively inhibited the replication of the FNV-infected SIGE cell lines and the viral titre was reduced from 4.3 to 2.45 log TCID₅₀ mL⁻¹ on treatments. Furan-2-yl acetate (20 µg mL⁻¹)- treated SIGE cell survival was found to be 90%, as determined by methyl thiazol tetrazolium assay. The results of an immunofluorescent assay revealed a strong association between the viral capsid protein inhibition and a decline in viral replication. The results suggest that furan-2-yl acetate suppressed FNV replication in cultured fish cells, providing a potential approach for the control of nodaviral diseases in marine fishes. PMID:21462077

  20. Extraction and sorption of acetic acid at pH above pK{sub a} to form calcium magnesium acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Reisinger, H.; King, C.J.

    1995-03-01

    The use of rock salt for deicing roads has many negative effects on automobiles, highway systems, and the environment. Calcium magnesium acetate, hence-forth denoted CMA, has been identified as a more desirable, environmentally benign solid deicer for high-ways, airport runaways, and similar applications. CMA is also of interest as an additive for scavenging sulfur in combustion processes so as to reduce emissions of sulfur oxides and as a catalyst for coal gasification. Different extractants (trioctylphosphine oxide and secondary, tertiary, and quaternary amines) and solid sorbents (tertiary and quaternary amines) were investigated as agents for recovery of acetic acid as part of a process for production of CMA from fermentation acetic acid. The pH and temperature dependencies for uptake of acetic acid by these extractants and sorbents were measured, along with the degrees of regeneration by aqueous suspensions of slaked dolomitic lime. These results enable identification of agents having optimal basicity. Among the extractants, the secondary amine Amberlite LA-2 gave the best combined performance for extraction and regeneration. Among the sorbents, a tertiary amine, Amberlite IRA-35, gave the best performance. Trioctylphosphine oxide does not maintain capacity in the pH range (about 6) most attractive for acetic acid fermentation. Slurred crushed dolomite is not sufficiently basic to accomplish regeneration.

  1. Study of extraction of cyclohexanone and ethyl acetate from aqueous solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Vozin, V.G.; Diyarov, I.N.; Gainullin, I.F.; Gur'yanov, A.I.

    1986-01-10

    For evaluation of their extractive properties, the authors studied liquid-liquid equilibria in water-cyclohexanone (CH), ethyl acetate (EA) extraction systems. With the use of toluene as the extractant, the CH and EA contents in both coexisting phases, extract (C /SUB e/ ) and aqueous (C /SUB w/ ), were determined chromatographically. In systems with diesel fuel, the CH and EA contents in the extract phase were calculated from thier concentrations in the aqueous phase, determined chromatographically. Technical and economic calculations show that the energy costs for purification of water and recovery of CH and EA by the proposed method are lower by a factor of 1.8-2.0 than by the use of azeotropic distillation.

  2. Insecticidal Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Culture Filtrates of Mangrove Fungal Endophytes.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Silva; Basukriadi, Adi; Pawiroharsono, Suyanto; Sjamsuridzal, Wellyzar

    2015-06-01

    In the search for novel potent fungi-derived bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications, crude ethyl acetate culture filtrate extracts from 110 mangrove fungal endophytes were screened for their toxicity. Toxicity tests of all extracts against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae were performed. The extracts with the highest toxicity were further examined for insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura larvae and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity. The results showed that the extracts of five isolates exhibited the highest toxicity to brine shrimp at 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of 7.45 to 10.24 ppm. These five fungal isolates that obtained from Rhizophora mucronata were identified based on sequence data analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA as Aspergillus oryzae (strain BPPTCC 6036), Emericella nidulans (strains BPPTCC 6035 and BPPTCC 6038), A. tamarii (strain BPPTCC 6037), and A. versicolor (strain BPPTCC 6039). The mean percentage of S. litura larval mortality following topical application of the five extracts ranged from 16.7% to 43.3%. In the AChE inhibition assay, the inhibition rates of the five extracts ranged from 40.7% to 48.9%, while eserine (positive control) had an inhibition rate of 96.8%, at a concentration of 100 ppm. The extracts used were crude extracts, so their potential as sources of AChE inhibition compounds makes them likely candidates as neurotoxins. The high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of the five extracts differed, indicating variations in their chemical constituents. This study highlights the potential of culture filtrate ethyl acetate extracts of mangrove fungal endophytes as a source of new potential bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications. PMID:26190921

  3. Insecticidal Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Culture Filtrates of Mangrove Fungal Endophytes

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Silva; Basukriadi, Adi; Pawiroharsono, Suyanto

    2015-01-01

    In the search for novel potent fungi-derived bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications, crude ethyl acetate culture filtrate extracts from 110 mangrove fungal endophytes were screened for their toxicity. Toxicity tests of all extracts against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae were performed. The extracts with the highest toxicity were further examined for insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura larvae and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity. The results showed that the extracts of five isolates exhibited the highest toxicity to brine shrimp at 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of 7.45 to 10.24 ppm. These five fungal isolates that obtained from Rhizophora mucronata were identified based on sequence data analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA as Aspergillus oryzae (strain BPPTCC 6036), Emericella nidulans (strains BPPTCC 6035 and BPPTCC 6038), A. tamarii (strain BPPTCC 6037), and A. versicolor (strain BPPTCC 6039). The mean percentage of S. litura larval mortality following topical application of the five extracts ranged from 16.7% to 43.3%. In the AChE inhibition assay, the inhibition rates of the five extracts ranged from 40.7% to 48.9%, while eserine (positive control) had an inhibition rate of 96.8%, at a concentration of 100 ppm. The extracts used were crude extracts, so their potential as sources of AChE inhibition compounds makes them likely candidates as neurotoxins. The high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of the five extracts differed, indicating variations in their chemical constituents. This study highlights the potential of culture filtrate ethyl acetate extracts of mangrove fungal endophytes as a source of new potential bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications. PMID:26190921

  4. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2002-01-01

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  5. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2006-07-11

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  6. High-affinity nasal extraction of vinyl acetate vapor is carboxylesterase dependent.

    PubMed

    Bogdanffy, M S; Manning, L A; Sarangapani, R

    1999-10-01

    Vinyl acetate induces nasal tumors in rats, but not mice. Species differences in airflow patterns, physiology, and biochemistry complicate extrapolation of nasal dosimetry from rats to humans. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of vinyl acetate dosimetry in rats suggested the presence of a saturable metabolic removal pathway in rat nasal mucus. We explored the possibility that this pathway is either a cytochrome P-450 2E1 (CYP2E1) or high-affinity carboxylesterase. Nasal extraction of vinyl acetate vapor (150 ppm) was measured in the surgically isolated nasal cavity of anesthetized rats. Vinyl acetate (150 ppm) was extracted with 73% efficiency in controls. Pretreatment of rats with the CYP2E1 inhibitor diallyl sulfide (DAS) had no effect on extraction, despite significantly reducing CYP2E1 activity. Pretreatment with bis(p-nitrophenyl) phosphate (BNPP), a carboxylesterase inhibitor, reduced extraction to approximately 41%. Acetaldehyde production was similarly unaffected by DAS but was reduced to 55% of control by BNPP. Rat nasal mucus carboxylesterase activity had a K(m) value (32 microM) similar, within a factor of 2, to the value predicted by the physiologically based model, although V(max) was significantly lower than the model prediction. Histochemical observations support the inference that the high-affinity carboxylesterase is bound to the luminal plasma membrane of nasal tissue and is not readily released by nasal lavage, providing an explanation for the low V(max) of the lavage enzyme. This high-affinity isoenzyme could be important in the removal of odorants from the sensory cell-rich nasal olfactory epithelium.

  7. Two new cucurbitane-type triterpenoid saponins isolated from ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit.

    PubMed

    Song, Fei; Dai, Bin; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Xie, Jian-Wei; Gu, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Two new cucurbitacins I (1 and 2), together with eight known compounds (3-10), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the fruit of Citrullus colocynthis. Compounds 3, 5-9 were isolated from C. colocynthis for the first time. The structures of new compounds were determined primarily from IR, HR-MS, 1D-, and 2D-NMR analysis. PMID:25761128

  8. The effect of ethyl acetate extract of pomelo mix on systemic exposure of verapamil in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Aqel, Suad M; Irshaid, Yacoub M; Gharaibeh, Munir N; Arafat, Tawfiq A

    2011-04-01

    The effect of ethyl acetate extract of pomelo fruit on systemic exposure of verapamil was explored in rabbits. Two groups each of 8 locally-inbred New Zealand male rabbits were used. The first group was used for single-dose treatment (both verapamil and pomelo extract). The second group was used for multiple-dose treatment, pomelo extract (once daily for 14 days) and verapamil single doses (at days 7 and 14). A verapamil dose of 30 mg/kg and a pomelo extract dose of 45 mg/kg were used. Single-dose treatment with pomelo extract resulted in a minor change in mean C(max) of verapamil in plasma, while a decrease of 37.8% in AUC(0-24) and 28.3% in AUC(0-∞) was observed but did not reach statistical significance. After the first period of multiple dose treatment (pomelo extract for 7 days), the combination increased the concentration of verapamil in plasma with a significant increase in mean C(max), AUC(0-24) and AUC(0-∞) by 461.9%, 299.7%, and 261.1%, respectively (p values were 0.005, 0.002, and 0.006, respectively). In contrast, after the second period (day 14 of pomelo extract use), the combination decreased the concentration of verapamil in the plasma with a substantial decrease in mean C(max), AUC(0-24), and AUC(0-∞), by 68.2%, 69.7% and 58.3%, respectively. This decrease did not reach statistical significance (p values were 0.073, 0.081 and 0.083, respectively). The T(max) was not affected significantly in both studies. The study illustrates a complex time-dependent interaction between verapamil and the ethyl acetate extract of pomelo mix. More intensive studies are needed to further understand the nature of the interaction. PMID:21457137

  9. Protective effect of Etlingera elatior (torch ginger) extract on lead acetate--induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Haleagrahara, Nagaraja; Jackie, Tan; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Rao, Mallikarjuna; Kulur, Anupama

    2010-10-01

    Lead is known to disrupt the biological systems by altering the molecular interactions, cell signaling, and cellular function. Exposure to even low levels of lead may have potential hazardous effects on brain, liver, kidneys and testes. The efficacy of Etlingera elatior (torch ginger) to protect hepatotoxicity induced by lead acetate was evaluated experimentally in male Sprague - Dawley rats. Rats were exposed to lead acetate in drinking water (500 ppm) for 21 days and the effects of concurrent treatment with extract of E. elatior on hepatic lipid hydroperoxides (LPO), protein carbonyl content (PCC), total antioxidants (TA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione S- Transferase (GST) levels and histopathological changes in liver were evaluated. There was a significant decrease in TA and other antioxidant enzymes (p < 0.05) and increase in LPO and PCC (p < 0.05) with lead acetate ingestion. Concurrent treatment with E. elatior extract significantly reduced the LPO and PCC (p < 0.05) in serum and increased the antioxidant enzyme levels (p < 0.05) in the liver. Significant histopathological changes were seen in hepatic tissue with chronic lead ingestion. Treatment with E. elatior significantly reduced these lead-induced changes in hepatic architecture. E. elatior has also reduced the blood lead levels (BLL). Thus, there has been extensive biochemical and structural alterations indicative of liver toxicity with exposure to lead and E. elatior treatment significantly reduced these oxidative damage. Our results suggest that E. elatior has a powerful antioxidant effect against lead-induced hepatotoxicity.

  10. Antifungal and antioxidant activity of Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch.) Milne-Redh ethyl acetate extract and fractions (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Crassocephalum bauchiense is a flowering plant, found in the West Region of Cameroon. Previous studied has highlighted the antibacterial and the dermal toxicological safety as well as the immunomodulatory activities of the ethyl acetate extract of its dry leaves. As an extension of the previous researches, the current work has been undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activities of C. bauchiense dried leaves ethyl acetate extract and fractions. Methods The extract was obtained by maceration in ethyl acetate and further fractionated into six fractions labeled F1 to F6 by flash chromatography. The antifungal activity of the extract and fractions against yeasts and dermatophytes was evaluated using broth microdilution method. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) and β-carotene - linoleic acid assays. Results The extract (MIC = 0.125 - 4 mg/ml) was found to be more active on dermatophytes and yeasts compared to the fractions. The ethyl acetate extract and fractions exhibited strong scavenging activity on DPPH (CI50 = 28.57 - 389.38 μg/ml). The fractions F3 and F6 expressed best antioxidant activity on DPPH radicals compared to the crude extract. Conclusion The results of these findings clearly showed that C. bauchiense ethyl acetate extract has a significant antifungal and antioxidant activity. It is therefore a source of active compounds that might be used as antifungal and antioxidant agents. PMID:24742210

  11. Antioxidant, antimicrobial activity and inhibition of α-glucosidase activity by Betula alnoides Buch. bark extract and their relationship with polyphenolic compounds concentration.

    PubMed

    Ghimire, Bimal Kumar; Tamang, Jyoti Prakash; Yu, Chang Yeon; Jung, Suk Jun; Chung, Ill Min

    2012-10-01

    Betula alnoides has been widely used in local traditional medicinal treatment for a variety of diseases, wounds and to cure diabetes. The air-dried, powdered (200 g) bark was extracted with 80% methanol at room temperature. The combined 80% methanolic extract was partitioned with organic solvents to yield n-hexane, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol (BuOH; water saturated), and aqueous fractions for the investigation of antioxidant and antimicrobiology and α-glucosidase activity effects (GAE) of B. alnoides. Antioxidant activity was studied by using antioxidant tests, including electron donation ability test, reducing power, and metal-chelating activity assay. Antioxidant, antimicrobial activity and α-glucosidase inhibitory effect of 80% methanolic extracts and fractions derived from the bark of B. alnoides were evaluated and determined. The results showed that 80% methanolic extracts exhibited high 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging activity (80.68%). In addition, both the 80% methanolic extract and EtOAc fraction exhibited more potent reducing activity than did butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and trolox. The aqueous fraction had higher metal-chelating activity than other fractions. The EtOAc fraction had the highest phenolic and flavonoid content (217.73 ± 1.02 mg GAE/g extract, and 38.42 ± 1.87 mg QE/g extract, respectively). The 80% methanolic extract and EtOAc fraction showed higher levels of antimicrobial activity than did other fractions. The 80% methanolic extract had the most powerful α-glucosidase inhibitory effect (98.46%) at a concentration of 40 µg/mL. The results suggest that bark extracts of B. alnoides could be a potential source of natural antioxidants and for treating pathogenic diseases.

  12. Assay of vitamin A palmitate and vitamin E acetate in cosmetic creams and lotions by supercritical fluid extraction and HPLC.

    PubMed

    Scalia, S; Renda, A; Ruberto, G; Bonina, F; Menegatti, E

    1995-03-01

    The use of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) as an alternative to liquid extraction was examined for the isolation of vitamin A palmitate and vitamin E acetate from cream and lotion preparations. Investigation of the factors controlling the extraction efficiency in SFE indicated that vitamin recoveries were affected mainly by the extraction pressure and by the degree of sample dispersion. The vitamins were analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography after a 30-min extraction of the cosmetic product with supercritical carbon dioxide at 40 degrees C and at a pressure of 250 atm. Compared with conventional liquid extraction SFE produced slightly lower recoveries (> 91.6%) but afforded a more effective purification of the cosmetic matrices. Moreover, SFE minimized sample handling and the use of harmful solvents and provided mild extraction conditions for the analysis of the labile vitamins. Vitamin E acetate and vitamin A palmitate were assayed in commercial cream and lotion formulations using the proposed SFE technique.

  13. Acetone-soluble cellulose acetate extracted from waste blended fabrics via ionic liquid catalyzed acetylation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xunwen; Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Wei; Tian, Dong; Zhang, Xinxing

    2013-10-15

    Isolation of cellulose from waste polyester/cotton blended fabrics (WBFs) is a bottleneck for recycling and exploiting waste textiles. The objective of this study was to provide a new environmental-friendly and efficient approach for extracting cellulose derivatives and polyester from WBFs. A Bronsted acidic ionic liquid (IL) N-methyl-imidazolium bisulfate, [Hmim]HSO4, was used as a novel catalyst for acetylation of cellulose rather than a solvent with the aim to overcome low isolation efficiency associated with the very high viscosity and relatively high costs of ILs. The extraction yield of acetone-soluble cellulose acetate (CA) was 49.3%, which corresponded to a conversion of 84.5% of the cellulose in the original WBFs; meanwhile, 96.2% of the original poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was recovered. The extracted CA was characterized by (1)H NMR, FTIR, XRD and TGA analysis, and the results indicated that high purity acetone-soluble CA and carbohydrate-free PET could be isolated in this manner from WBFs.

  14. Ethyl acetate extracts of Fructus Ligustri Lucide induce cell apoptosis in human neuroglioma cell

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yun-Bao; Shao, Yi-Meng; Chen, Jing; Xu, Song-Bai; Zhang, Xing-Dong; Liu, Hai-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Previous studies have shown that Fructus Ligustri Lucide (FLL) can be used to improve the tumor cells sensitivity to chemotherapeutics and promote cell death. However, the mechanism by which FLL mediate this effect is unclear. In the present study, ethyl acetate extracts of FLL induced cell apoptosis in human neuroglioma cell was investigated. Methods: The cell viability was detected by the CCK8 assay. The cell apoptosis was assessed by annexin V-PI double-labeling staining and hoechst 33342 staining. The protein expression of cell cycle regulators and tumor suppressors were analyzed by western blotting. Results: Treatment of human neuroglioma cell with FLL induced cell death in a dose-and time-dependent manner by using CCK8 assay. Consistent with the CCK8 assay, the flow cytometry results showed that the proportion of the early and terminal phase of apoptosis cells had gained after FLL treatment as compared to untreatment group. Moreover, human neuroglioma cells were exposed to the ethyl acetate extracts of FLL for 48 h, which resulted in an accumulation of cells in G2/Mphase. Apoptotic bodies were clearly observed in human neuroglioma cells that had been treated with FLL for 48 h and then stained with Hochest 33342. The expression of Cyclin B1, CDC2 and cdc25C were downregulated upon FLL treatment in human neuroglioma cells. The expression level of Cyclin B1, CDC2 and cdc25C was negatively correlated with the time of treatment by FLL. In contrast, p53, p21 and p16 were obviously upregulated by FLL treatment in a time-dependent manner. Conclusions: These results confirmed that FLL could induce apoptosis in human neuroglioma cells, the underlying molecular mechanisms, at least partially, through activation p21/p53 and suppression CDC2/cdc25C signaling in vitro. PMID:26064281

  15. Protective effect of Agave americana Linn. leaf extract in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mannasaheb, Basheerahmed A.A.; Kulkarni, Preeti V.; Sangreskopp, Mashood Ahmed; Savant, Chetan; Mohan, Anjana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Natural plants always provide core compounds for new drug development. In the present life and food style, inflammatory bowel disease has become common and needs a lead compound for its drug development. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Agave americana Linn. leaf extract in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats based on its traditional anti-inflammatory use. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were pretreated with A. americana leaf extract in the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. daily for 7 days. On 8th day, 2 ml of 4% v/v acetic acid in saline was instilled into rats’ rectum. Prednisolone was used as standard drug and it was administered on the day of acetic acid instillation and continued for 3 days. Extract treatment was continued till 11th day. Body weight, ulcer score, colonic muscle contraction, antioxidant activity and histopathology were studied. Statistical analysis was performed using Parametric one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's posttest. Results: A. americana have retained total body weight significantly (P < 0.01) and decreased colon weight/length ratio. Extract have shown a significant decrease (P < 0.001) in ulcer scores, myeloperoxidase, lipid peroxidase activity. Further, extract have shown significant improvement in colonic muscle contraction, histopathology of colon etc., which is comparable with standard drug. Conclusion: A. americana possess protective effect against acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. PMID:26730148

  16. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate extract, fractions and compounds from stem bark of Albizia adianthifolia (Mimosoideae)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Albizia adianthifolia is used traditionally in Cameroon to treat several ailments, including infectious and associated diseases. This work was therefore designed to investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of ethyl acetate extract, fractions and compounds isolated from the stem bark of this plant. Methods The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate. Its fractionation was done by column chromatography and the structures of isolated compounds were elucidated using spectroscopic data in conjunction with literature data. The 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) assays were used to detect the antioxidant activity. Broth micro-dilution method was used for antimicrobial test. Total phenol content was determined spectrophotometrically in the extracts by using Folin–Ciocalteu method. Results The fractionation of the extract afforded two known compounds: lupeol (1) and aurantiamide acetate (2) together with two mixtures of fatty acids: oleic acid and n-hexadecanoic acid (B1); n-hexadecanoic acid, octadecanoic acid and docosanoic acid (B2). Aurantiamide acetate was the most active compound. The total phenol concentration expressed as gallic acid equivalents (GAE) was found to vary from 1.50 to 13.49 μg/ml in the extracts. The antioxidant activities were well correlated with the total phenol content (R2 = 0.946 for the TEAC method and R2 = 0.980 for the DPPH free-radical scavenging assay). Conclusions Our results clearly reveal that the ethyl acetate extract from the stem bark of A. adianthifolia possesses antioxidant and antimicrobial principles. The antioxidant activity of this extract as well as that of compound 2 are being reported herein for the first time. These results provide promising baseline information for the potential use of this plant as well as compound 2 in the treatment of oxidative damage and infections associated with the studied microorganisms. PMID

  17. Antioxidant and protective effect of ethyl acetate extract of podophyllum hexandrum rhizome on carbon tetrachloride induced rat liver injury.

    PubMed

    Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Haq, Ehtishamul; Masood, Akbar; Hamid, Abid; Zargar, Mohmmad Afzal

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of ethyl acetate extract was carefully investigated by the methods of DPPH radical scavenging activity, Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, Superoxide radical scavenging activity, Hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity and its Reducing power ability. All these in vitro antioxidant activities were concentration dependent which were compared with standard antioxidants such as BHT, α-tocopherol. The hepatoprotective potential of Podophyllum hexandrum extract was also evaluated in male Wistar rats against carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4))-induced liver damage. Pre-treated rats were given ethyl acetate extract at 20, 30 and 50 mg/kg dose prior to CCl(4) administration (1 ml/kg, 1:1 in olive oil). Rats pre-treated with Podophyllum hexandrum extract remarkably prevented the elevation of serum AST, ALT, LDH and liver lipid peroxides in CCl(4)-treated rats. Hepatic glutathione levels were significantly increased by the treatment with the extract in all the experimental groups. The extract at the tested doses also restored the levels of liver homogenate enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S- transferase) significantly. This study suggests that ethyl acetate extract of P. hexandrum has a liver protective effect against CCl(4)-induced hepatotoxicity and possess in vitro antioxidant activities.

  18. Antioxidant and Protective Effect of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Podophyllum Hexandrum Rhizome on Carbon Tetrachloride Induced Rat Liver Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ganie, Showkat Ahmad; Haq, Ehtishamul; Masood, Akbar; Hamid, Abid; Zargar, Mohmmad Afzal

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant and hepatoprotective activities of ethyl acetate extract was carefully investigated by the methods of DPPH radical scavenging activity, Hydroxyl radical scavenging activity, Superoxide radical scavenging activity, Hydrogen peroxide radical scavenging activity and its Reducing power ability. All these in vitro antioxidant activities were concentration dependent which were compared with standard antioxidants such as BHT, α-tocopherol. The hepatoprotective potential of Podophyllum hexandrum extract was also evaluated in male Wistar rats against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced liver damage. Pre-treated rats were given ethyl acetate extract at 20, 30 and 50 mg/kg dose prior to CCl4 administration (1 ml/kg, 1:1 in olive oil). Rats pre-treated with Podophyllum hexandrum extract remarkably prevented the elevation of serum AST, ALT, LDH and liver lipid peroxides in CCl4-treated rats. Hepatic glutathione levels were significantly increased by the treatment with the extract in all the experimental groups. The extract at the tested doses also restored the levels of liver homogenate enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and glutathione-S- transferase) significantly. This study suggests that ethyl acetate extract of P. hexandrum has a liver protective effect against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity and possess in vitro antioxidant activities. PMID:21394192

  19. LC-MS²-Based dereplication of Euphorbia extracts with anti-Chikungunya virus activity.

    PubMed

    Nothias-Scaglia, Louis-Félix; Dumontet, Vincent; Neyts, Johan; Roussi, Fanny; Costa, Jean; Leyssen, Pieter; Litaudon, Marc; Paolini, Julien

    2015-09-01

    Recently, phorbol esters from Euphorbiaceae have been shown to elicit potent and selective antiviral activity on the replication of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) in cell culture. With the objective to found new compounds with anti-CHIKV activities, 45 extracts from various plant parts of 11 Mediterranean Euphorbia and one Mercurialis species were evaluated for selective inhibition of CHIKV replication. All EtOAc extracts, especially those prepared from latex, exhibited significant and selective antiviral activity in a Chikungunya virus-cell-based assay. An LC-MS(2) dereplication method was then developed to investigate whether known diterpenoids with anti-CHIKV activity, such as the potent anti-CHIKV 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA), phorbol-12,13-didecanoate, and prostratin as well as 24 other commercially available diterpenoids of tigliane-, ingenane-, and daphnane-type for which the anti-CHIKV activity have been established in advance (Nothias-Scaglia et al. 2015), were present in the Euphorbia extracts. Only ingenol-3-mebutate, 13-O-isobutyryl-12-deoxyphorbol-20-acetate, and ingenol-3,20-dibenzoate, all exhibiting weak anti-CHIKV activities, were detected in the EtOAc extracts of Euphorbia peplus, Euphorbia segetalis ssp. pinea, and Euphorbia pithyusa ssp. pithyusa. Given the potent anti-CHIKV activities of these Euphorbia extracts, the present study suggested that their antiviral activities are probably due to untargeted diterpenoids.

  20. Antibacterial and dermal toxicological profiles of ethyl acetate extract from Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch.) Milne-Redh (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The emergence in recent years of numerous resistant strains of pathogenic bacteria to a range of formerly efficient antibiotics constitutes a serious threat to public health. Crassocephalum bauchiense, a medicinal herb found in the West Region of Cameroon is used to treat gastrointestinal infections as well as liver disorders. The ethyl acetate extract from the leaves of C. bauchiense was evaluated for its antibacterial activity as well as acute and sub-acute toxicities. Methods The plant extract was prepared by maceration in ethyl acetate. Its phytochemical screening was done by standard methods. The broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity. The in vivo antibacterial activity of a gel formulation (0.05, 1 and 2% w/v) of this extract was evaluated using a Staphylococcus aureus-induced dermatitis in a murine model. Selected haematological and biochemical parameters were used to evaluate the dermal sub-acute toxicity of the extract in rats. Results Phytochemical screening of the C. bauchiense extract revealed the presence of alkaloids, phenols, tannins and sterols. In vitro antibacterial activities were observed against all the tested microorganisms (MIC = 0.04-6.25 mg/ml). Formulated extract-gel (2% w/v) and gentamycin (reference drug) eradicated the microbial infection after five days of treatment. A single dermal dose of this extract up to 32 g/kg body weight (bw) did not produce any visible sign of toxicity. Also, daily dermal application of the C. bauchiense extract gel formulation for 28 days did not show any negative effect, instead some biochemical parameters such as alanine aminotransferase (ALT and AST), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL) and triglycerides were significantly (p < 0.05) affected positively. Conclusion These results indicate that the C. bauchiense ethyl acetate extract can be used safely for the treatment of some bacterial infections. PMID:21615960

  1. Protective Effect of the Methanolic Extract of Malva parviflora L. leaves on Acetic Acid-induced Ulcerative Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dugani, Aisha; Dakhil, Bushra; Treesh, Soad

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a general term describing chronic, idiopathic relapsing, inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract of unknown etiology. Previous studies have indicated that Malva parviflora leaf extract possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiulcerogenic activity. activity. This work aimed to investigatee the anti-inflammatory effect of the methanolic (MEMP) and aqueous (AEMP) extracts of M. parviflora leaves on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods: 42 male Wistar albino rats were divided into seven groups (n = 6). Group I: Normal saline control group with no colitis; Group II: Acetic acid colitis group; Group III: 100 mg/kg/5 d MEMP; Group IV: 200 mg/kg/5 d.MEMP; Group V: 100 mg/kg/5 d AEMP; Group VI: 200 mg/kg/5 d AEMP; Group VII: Prednisolone group (2 mg/kg/5 d). Treatments were followed by induction of colitis using intrarectal instillation of 2 mL of 4% acetic acid. Colon damage was evaluated macroscopically (spleen weight/body weight, colon weight/length ratio) and the histological changes were also recorded. Results: The results of this study showed that acetic acid caused severe inflammation of the colon and a significant increase in spleen weight/body weight, and an increase in colon weight/length ratio compared with normal control group. Pretreatment with MEMP and AEMP for 5 days followed by induction of colitis resulted in a significant attenuation of spleen weight and colon weight/length ratio compared with acetic acid control group. Methanolic extract provided better anticolitic effect than aqueous extract; the effect was prominent at the dose of 200 mg/kg. Histopathological findings confirmed the protective effect of the MEMP. Conclusion: In conclusion, MEMP could ameliorate mucosal damage in experimentally induced colitis when given orally. PMID:27184642

  2. [Determination of soil exchangeable base cations by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer and extraction with ammonium acetate].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-ge; Xiao, Min; Dong, Yi-hua; Jiang, Yong

    2012-08-01

    A method to determine soil exchangeable calcium (Ca), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), and sodium (Na) by using atomic absorption spectrophotometer (AAS) and extraction with ammonium acetate was developed. Results showed that the accuracy of exchangeable base cation data with AAS method fits well with the national standard referential soil data. The relative errors for parallel samples of exchangeable Ca and Mg with 66 pair samples ranged from 0.02%-3.14% and 0.06%-4.06%, and averaged to be 1.22% and 1.25%, respectively. The relative errors for exchangeable K and Na with AAS and flame photometer (FP) ranged from 0.06%-8.39% and 0.06-1.54, and averaged to be 3.72% and 0.56%, respectively. A case study showed that the determination method for exchangeable base cations by using AAS was proven to be reliable and trustable, which could reflect the real situation of soil cation exchange properties in farmlands. PMID:23156790

  3. A solvent extraction approach to recover acetic acid from mixed waste acids produced during semiconductor wafer process.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Ju-Yup; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Hyun-Sang; Lee, Hyang-Sook; Mohapatra, Debasish; Ahn, Jae-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Gwan; Bae, Wookeun

    2009-03-15

    Recovery of acetic acid (HAc) from the waste etching solution discharged from silicon wafer manufacturing process has been attempted by using solvent extraction process. For this purpose 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (EHA) was used as organic solvent. In the pre-treatment stage >99% silicon and hydrofluoric acid was removed from the solution by precipitation. The synthesized product, Na(2)SiF(6) having 98.2% purity was considered of commercial grade having good market value. The waste solution containing 279 g/L acetic acid, 513 g/L nitric acid, 0.9 g/L hydrofluoric acid and 0.030 g/L silicon was used for solvent extraction study. From the batch test results equilibrium conditions for HAc recovery were optimized and found to be 4 stages of extraction at an organic:aqueous (O:A) ratio of 3, 4 stages of scrubbing and 4 stages of stripping at an O:A ratio of 1. Deionized water (DW) was used as stripping agent to elute HAc from organic phase. In the whole batch process 96.3% acetic acid recovery was achieved. Continuous operations were successfully conducted for 100 h using a mixer-settler to examine the feasibility of the extraction system for its possible commercial application. Finally, a complete process flowsheet with material balance for the separation and recovery of HAc has been proposed.

  4. Survey of the detoxification effect of green tea extract on the reproductive system in rats exposed to lead acetate

    PubMed Central

    Sha’bani, Najmeh; Miraj, Sepideh; Rafieian-kohpayei, Mahmoud; Namjoo, Abdul Rasool

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lead poisoning has been an old but perpetual public health problem in developing countries. Lead has an adverse effect on fertility, and this study aimed to examine the effect of consuming green tea extract (GTE) on fertility parameters in rats exposed to lead. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, 70 rats have been classified, as it is described later, into 4 groups of 10 and were studied over 2 months. Group 1: Normal diet and tap water; Group 2: 10 mg/kg intraperitoneal lead acetate weekly over 8 weeks; Group 3: Lead acetate + 100 mg/kg green tea, Group 4: Extract green tea. Distal epididymal sperm samples were collected to assess the sperm counts, motility, and morphology. Testicular tissue and blood level of testosterone were also studies. Data were analyzed by SPSS-17 software using ANOVA and independent t-test with a significant level of 0.05. Results: The rats exposed to lead acetate had the lowest weight, and green tea had the highest weight. Green tea consumption in rats exposed to lead, reduced the effect of lead and the difference in mean body weight in these rats, compared to other groups, was minimized (P < 0.05). The group exposed to lead acetate had the highest sperm abnormalities, and the lowest sperm abnormalities were observed in groups taking green tea. Conclusion: Consumption of green tea can reduce the adverse effects of lead, and also can effectively prevent fertility reduction. PMID:26380240

  5. Nephroprotective effects of Zingiber zerumbet Smith ethyl acetate extract against paracetamol-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative stress in rats

    PubMed Central

    Abdul Hamid, Zariyantey; Budin, Siti Balkis; Wen Jie, Ng; Hamid, Asmah; Husain, Khairana; Mohamed, Jamaludin

    2012-01-01

    Paracetamol (PCM) overdose can cause nephrotoxicity with oxidative stress as one of the possible mechanisms mediating the event. In this study, the effects of ethyl acetate extract of Zingiber zerumbet rhizome [200 mg per kg of body weight (mg/kg) and 400 mg/kg] on PCM-induced nephrotoxicity were examined. Rats were divided into five groups containing 10 rats each. The control group received distilled water while other groups were treated with extract alone (400 mg/kg), PCM alone (750 mg/kg), 750 mg/kg PCM+200 mg/kg extract (PCM+ 200-extract), and 750 mg/kg PCM+400 mg/kg extract (PCM+400-extract), respectively, for seven consecutive days. The Z. zerumbet extract was given intraperitoneally concurrent with oral administration of PCM. Treatment with Z. zerumbet extract at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg prevented the PCM-induced nephrotoxicity and oxidative impairments of the kidney, as evidenced by a significantly reduced (P<0.05) level of plasma creatinine, plasma and renal malondialdehyde (MDA), plasma protein carbonyl, and renal advanced oxidation protein product (AOPP). Furthermore, both doses were also able to induce a significant increment (P<0.05) of plasma and renal levels of glutathione (GSH) and plasma superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. The nephroprotective effects of Z. zerumbet extract were confirmed by a reduced intensity of renal cellular damage, as evidenced by histological findings. Moreover, Z. zerumbet extract administered at 400 mg/kg was found to show greater protective effects than that at 200 mg/kg. In conclusion, ethyl acetate extract of Z. zerumbet rhizome has a protective role against PCM-induced nephrotoxicity and the process is probably mediated through its antioxidant properties. PMID:22374609

  6. Biological activities of extracts from Chenopodium ambrosioides Lineu and Kielmeyera neglecta Saddi

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chenopodium ambrosioides and Kielmeyera neglecta are plants traditionally used in Brazil to treat various infectious diseases. The study of the biological activities of these plants is of great importance for the detection of biologically active compounds. Methods Extracts from these plants were extracted with hexane (Hex), dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and ethanol (EtOH) and assessed for their antimicrobial properties, bioactivity against Artemia salina Leach and antifungal action on the cell wall of Neurospora crassa. Results Extracts from C. ambrosioides (Hex, DCM and EtOH) and K. neglecta (EtOAc and EtOH) showed high bioactivity against A. salina (LD50 < 1000 μg/mL), which might be associated with cytotoxic activity against cancer cells. C. ambrosioides Hex and DCM showed specific activity against yeasts, highlighting the activity of hexanic extract against Candida krusei (MIC = 100 μg/mL). By comparing the inhibitory concentration of 50% growth (IC 50%) with the growth control, extracts from K. neglecta EtOAc and EtOH have shown activities against multidrug-resistant bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 51299 and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 43300), with IC 50% of 12.5 μg/mL The assay carried out on N. crassa allowed defining that extracts with antifungal activity do not have action through inhibition of cell wall synthesis. Conclusions Generally speaking, extracts from C. ambrosioides and K. neglecta showed biological activities that have made the search for bioactive substances in these plants more attractive, illustrating the success of their use in the Brazilian folk medicine. PMID:22839690

  7. Therapeutic effect of ethyl acetate extract from Asparagus cochinchinensis on phthalic anhydride-induced skin inflammation.

    PubMed

    Sung, Ji-Eun; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Ji-Eun; Go, Jun; Seo, Eun-Ji; Yun, Woo-Bin; Kim, Dong-Seob; Son, Hong-Joo; Lee, Chung-Yeoul; Lee, Hee-Seob; Hwang, Dae-Youn

    2016-03-01

    Asparagus cochinchinensis has been used to treat various diseases including fever, cough, kidney disease, breast cancer, inflammatory disease and brain disease, while IL-4 cytokine has been considered as key regulator on the skin homeostasis and the predisposition toward allergic skin inflammation. However, few studies have investigated its effects and IL-4 correlation on skin inflammation to date. To quantitatively evaluate the suppressive effects of ethyl acetate extracts of A. cochinchinensis (EaEAC) on phthalic anhydride (PA)-induced skin inflammation and investigate the role of IL-4 during their action mechanism, alterations in general phenotype biomarkers and luciferase-derived signals were measured in IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 transgenic (Tg) mice with PA-induced skin inflammation after treatment with EaEAC for 2 weeks. Key phenotype markers including lymph node weight, immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentration, epidermis thickness and number of infiltrated mast cells were significantly decreased in the PA+EaEAC treated group compared with the PA+Vehicle treated group. In addition, expression of IL-1β and TNF-α was also decreased in the PA+EaEAC cotreated group, compared to PA+Vehicle treated group. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the luciferase signal derived from IL-4 promoter was detected in the abdominal region, submandibular lymph node and mesenteric lymph node of the PA+EaEAC treated group, compared to PA+Vehicle treated group. Taken together, these results suggest that EaEAC treatment could successfully improve PA-induced skin inflammation of IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 Tg mice, and that IL-4 cytokine plays a key role in the therapeutic process of EaEAC. PMID:27051441

  8. Therapeutic effect of ethyl acetate extract from Asparagus cochinchinensis on phthalic anhydride-induced skin inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Ji-Eun; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Ji-Eun; Go, Jun; Seo, Eun-Ji; Yun, Woo-Bin; Kim, Dong-Seob; Son, Hong-Joo; Lee, Chung-Yeoul; Lee, Hee-Seob

    2016-01-01

    Asparagus cochinchinensis has been used to treat various diseases including fever, cough, kidney disease, breast cancer, inflammatory disease and brain disease, while IL-4 cytokine has been considered as key regulator on the skin homeostasis and the predisposition toward allergic skin inflammation. However, few studies have investigated its effects and IL-4 correlation on skin inflammation to date. To quantitatively evaluate the suppressive effects of ethyl acetate extracts of A. cochinchinensis (EaEAC) on phthalic anhydride (PA)-induced skin inflammation and investigate the role of IL-4 during their action mechanism, alterations in general phenotype biomarkers and luciferase-derived signals were measured in IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 transgenic (Tg) mice with PA-induced skin inflammation after treatment with EaEAC for 2 weeks. Key phenotype markers including lymph node weight, immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentration, epidermis thickness and number of infiltrated mast cells were significantly decreased in the PA+EaEAC treated group compared with the PA+Vehicle treated group. In addition, expression of IL-1β and TNF-α was also decreased in the PA+EaEAC cotreated group, compared to PA+Vehicle treated group. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the luciferase signal derived from IL-4 promoter was detected in the abdominal region, submandibular lymph node and mesenteric lymph node of the PA+EaEAC treated group, compared to PA+Vehicle treated group. Taken together, these results suggest that EaEAC treatment could successfully improve PA-induced skin inflammation of IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 Tg mice, and that IL-4 cytokine plays a key role in the therapeutic process of EaEAC. PMID:27051441

  9. [Chemical constituents from ethyl acetate extract of flower of Albizia julibrissin].

    PubMed

    Rong, Guang-Qing; Geng, Chang-An; Ma, Yun-Bao; Huang, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Hong-Ling; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Chen, Ji-Jun

    2014-05-01

    The ethyl acetate extract of the flower of Albizia julibrissin was isolated and purified by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20 and MCI GEL CHP-20P column chromatography to yield 29 compounds. Their structures were elucidated as 8-hydroxy-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6Z-octadienoic acid (1), 8-O-formyl-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6Z-octadienoic acid (la), 8-hydroxy-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6E-octadienoic acid (2), 8-O-formyl-2, 6-dimethyl-2E, 6E-octadienoic acid (2a), (2E, 6S)-2, 6-dimethyl-6-O-beta-D-xylpyranosyloxy-2, 7-menthia-folic acid (3), clovan-2beta, 9alpha-diol (4), 2beta-O-formyl-clovan-9alpha-ol (4a), 2beta, 9alpha-O-diformyl-clovan (4b), vomifoliol (5), (6S, 9R)-roseoside (6), vanillin (7), 4-O-ethylgallic acid (8), 3-ethoxy4-hydroxy-benzoic acid (9), p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (10), gallic acid (11), protocatechoic acid (12), stearic acid (13), palmitic acid (14), 2, 3-dihydroxypropyl hexadecanoate (15), linoleic acid (16), scopoletin (17), indole-3-carboxaldehyde (18), 2-furoic acid (19), 5-(hydroxymethyl)-2-furaldehyde (20), (22E, 24R)-5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxy-ergosta-6, 22-dien-3beta-ol (21), (22E, 24R)-5alpha, 8alpha-epidioxy-ergosta-6, 9, 22-trien-3beta-ol (22), (+)-lariciresinol 9'-stearate (23), formononetin (24) and uridine (25). Compounds 1a, 2a, 4a and 4b were new artifacts from the separation process, and others were obtained from A. julibrissin for the first time. PMID:25282893

  10. Scavenging of reactive oxygen species by Eriobotrya japonica seed extract.

    PubMed

    Yokota, Junko; Takuma, Daisuke; Hamada, Atsuhide; Onogawa, Masahide; Yoshioka, Saburo; Kusunose, Masahiko; Miyamura, Mitsuhiko; Kyotani, Shojiro; Nishioka, Yutaka

    2006-03-01

    We have clarified that Eriobotrya japonica seed extract has strong antioxidative activity, and is effective for the prevention and treatment of various diseases, such as hepatopathy and nephropathy. In this study, to investigate the influences of components of Eriobotrya japonica seed extract on its antioxidative activity, extracts were prepared using various solvents (n-hexane (Hex), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol (n-BuOH), methanol (MeOH) and H2O) and the antioxidative activity of the solvent fractions and components was evaluated based on the scavenging of various radicals (DPPH and O2(-)) measured by the ESR method and the inhibition of Fe3+-ADP induced NADPH dependent lipid peroxidation in rat liver microsomes. The radical scavenging activities and inhibitory activities on lipid peroxidation differed among the solvent fractions and components. In the n-BuOH, MeOH and H2O fractions, radical scavenging activity and inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation were high. In addition, these fractions contained abundant polyphenols, and the radical scavenging activity increased with the polyphenol content. In the low-polar Hex and EtOAc fractions, the radical scavenging activity was low, but the lipid peroxidation inhibition activity was high. These fractions contained beta-sitosterol, and the inhibitory activity on lipid peroxidation was high. Based on these findings, the antioxidative activity of Eriobotrya japonica seed extract may be derived from many components involved in a complex mechanism, resulting in high activity.

  11. Quantitative Screening of Agrochemical Residues in Fruits and Vegetables by Buffered Ethyl Acetate Extraction and LC-MS/MS Analysis.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Manjusha R; Oulkar, Dasharath P; Shabeer T P, Ahammed; Banerjee, Kaushik

    2015-05-13

    A buffered ethyl acetate extraction method is proposed for the simultaneous analysis of 296 agrochemicals in a wide range of fruit and vegetable matrices by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The optimized quantity of acetate buffer (1% acetic acid + 0.5 g of sodium acetate per 10 g of sample) adjusted the pH of each test matrix to 5-6, which in turn significantly improved recoveries of acidic and basic compounds. The role of diethylene glycol (used in the evaporation step) on signal suppression of certain compounds was evaluated, and its quantity was optimized to minimize such an effect. The method was validated in grape, mango, drumstick, bitter gourd, capsicum, curry leaf, and okra as per the DG-SANCO/12571/2013 guidelines. Recoveries in the fortification range of 1-40 μg/kg were within 70-120% with associated relative standard deviations below 20% for most of the compounds. The method has potential for regulatory and commercial applications with a generic approach. PMID:25639652

  12. Phytochemical analysis and antibacterial evaluation of the ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of Bridelia micrantha

    PubMed Central

    Adefuye, Anthonio O.; Ndip, Roland N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Plant cells fundamentally are chemical factories containing a rich supply of therapeutically useful phytocompounds that have the potential of being developed into potent antimicrobial agents. Aim of the Study: To investigate the antibacterial activity of fractionated extracts of the ethyl acetate extract of the stem bark of Bridelia micrantha (Hochst., Baill., Euphorbiaceae). Materials and Methods: Thin-layer chromatography and column chromatography were used to purify the extracts and antimicrobial activity performed on reference and clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Shigella sonnei, Salmonella Typhimurium, and Helicobacter pylori using direct and indirect bioautographic methods respectively. Furthermore, the eluted compound fractions were then assayed for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) using the 96-well micro dilution technique. Results: Better separation of phytocompounds was obtained from the non-polar Benzene/Ethanol/Ammonia (BEA) and intermediate-polar Chloroform/Ethyl acetate/Formic acid (CEF) eluents compared to the polar Ethanol/Methanol/Water (EMW). Bioautography revealed the presence of three bioactive compounds (Rf values; 0.12, 0.20, and 0.42) on the BEA plates, designated fractions 3, 7, and 8 with MIC50 values; 0.0048mg/mL to 1.25mg/mL (fraction 3), 0.0024mg/mL to 5 mg/mL (fraction 7), and 0.0024mg/mL to 2.5mg/mL (fraction 8). Conclusion: Our findings demonstrate that ethyl acetate extract of the stem-bark of B. micrantha possess potent bioactive phytocompounds that may be developed into new antimicrobials. PMID:23661993

  13. Analysis of Veterinary Drug and Pesticide Residues Using the Ethyl Acetate Multiclass/Multiresidue Method in Milk by Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Imamoglu, Husniye; Oktem Olgun, Elmas

    2016-01-01

    A rapid and simple multiclass, ethyl acetate (EtOAc) multiresidue method based on liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) detection was developed for the determination and quantification of 26 veterinary drugs and 187 total pesticide residues in milk. Sample preparation was a simple procedure based on liquid–liquid extraction with ethyl acetate containing 0.1% acetic acid, followed by centrifugation and evaporation of the supernatant. The residue was dissolved in ethyl acetate with 0.1% acetic acid and centrifuged prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. Chromatographic separation of analytes was performed on an Inertsil X-Terra C18 column with acetic acid in methanol and water gradient. The repeatability and reproducibility were in the range of 2 to 13% and 6 to 16%, respectively. The average recoveries ranged from 75 to 120% with the RSD (n = 18). The developed method was validated according to the criteria set in Commission Decision 2002/657/EC and SANTE/11945/2015. The validated methodology represents a fast and cheap alternative for the simultaneous analysis of veterinary drug and pesticide residues which can be easily extended to other compounds and matrices. PMID:27293962

  14. Toxicological study of Wedelia trilobata (Asteraceae) extracts as alternative control strategies for Plutella xylostella (Lepidoptera: Plutellidae).

    PubMed

    Junhirun, P; Pluempanupat, W; Bullangpoti, V

    2012-01-01

    The Diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella (L)) is an economically important pest in Thailand and the indiscriminant use of chemical pesticides against this pest has been responsible for environmental hazards. Present research, therefore, is trying to develop alternative strategies by using plant based-products for the control of this pest. Wedelia trilobata (L) Hitchc extracts prepared in hexane, dichloroethane, ethyl acetate and ethanol were used initially against the second instars of P. xylostella by topical application to determine the dose dependent toxicity. The highest yield of the extracts was obtained with EtOH extract followed by hexane, EtOAc and dichloroethane. However, the EtOAc extract exhibited the highest toxicity (24h-LC50 = 442.8 ppm) that became more prominent after 48 h (LC50 = 376.71 ppm). This suggests there was an increase in toxicity with the duration of exposure to the treatment. With the exception of the hexane extract, all other treatments were significantly correlated, which suggests that W. trolobata contains a varied profile of anti-insect allelochemicals that can be exploited in any integrated pest management strategy. The identification of the active ingredients is in progress. PMID:23885442

  15. Effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Paederia foetida Linn. on acetic acid induced colitis in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Das, Swarnamoni; Kanodia, Lalit; Mukherjee, Apurba; Hakim, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Paederia foetida on acetic acid induced colitis in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of Paederia foetida (EEPF) was prepared by percolation method. Acute toxicity test was done by using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guidelines. Albino rats were divided into four groups of five animals each. Groups A and B received 3% gum acacia. Groups C and D received EEPF 500 mg/kg body weight (BW) and 5-aminosalisylic acid 100 mg/kg BW respectively. Colitis was induced by transrectal administration of 4% acetic acid on 5th day. All animals were sacrificed after 48 h of colitis induction and distal 10 cm of the colon was dissected. Colon was weighed for disease activity index (DAI) and scored macroscopically and microscopically. Biochemical assessment of tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was done in colonic tissue homogenate and malondialdehyde (MDA) was estimated in serum. Results: P. foetida showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction in DAI, macroscopic and microscopic lesion score as well as significant (P < 0.05) improvement in MPO, MDA, CAT, and SOD level as compared to Group B. Conclusions: The ethanolic extract of leaves of P. foetida showed significant amelioration of experimentally induced colitis, which may be attributed to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant property. PMID:24130378

  16. Inhibitory effect of ethyl acetate extract of the shaggy inc cap medicinal mushroom, Coprinus comatus (Higher Basidiomycetes) fruit bodies on cell growth of human ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Rouhana-Toubi, Amal; Wasser, Solomon P; Agbarya, Abed; Fares, Fuad

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we screened organic extracts of different mushroom mycelia and picked ethyl acetate extract of Coprinus comatus as one of the most active extracts against human ovarian cancer cells. In the current study, we extracted a dry powder of C. comatus fruit bodies using ethyl acetate and examined its effect on the viability of three cell lines originated from human ovarian cancer (ES-2, SKOV-3, and SW-626). This extract was active against all tested cell lines, in a dose-dependent manner (concentrations 50-200 µg/mL, P<0.01). In an attempt to segregate the active fraction, we subjected the extract to chromatography on a silica gel column. The effect of six different fractions and of the crude extract on the viability of ES-2 cells was examined after exposure time of 24 h. Fraction F (last eluted) was significantly more effective than crude extract in the reduction of cell viability (P<0.01). Fraction F was also significantly more active than crude extract in the reduction of viability of SKOV-3 cells. We next identified some of the compounds of fraction F (mainly fatty acids) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In summary, ethyl acetate extract of C. comatus reduced viability of three lines of human ovarian cancer. Fractionation of this extract by a silica gel column enabled the selection of a fraction significantly more active than the original extract. PMID:24266371

  17. Chemical Evidence for Potent Xanthine Oxidase Inhibitory Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extract of Citrus aurantium L. Dried Immature Fruits.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun; Wang, Wei; Guo, Bing-Hua; Gao, Hua; Liu, Yang; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Yao, Hui-Li; Cheng, Kun

    2016-03-02

    Xanthine oxidase is a key enzyme which can catalyze hypoxanthine and xanthine to uric acid causing hyperuricemia in humans. Xanthine oxidase inhibitory activities of 24 organic extracts of four species belonging to Citrus genus of the family Rutaceae were assayed in vitro. Since the ethyl acetate extract of C. aurantium dried immature fruits showed the highest xanthine oxidase inhibitory activity, chemical evidence for the potent inhibitory activity was clarified on the basis of structure identification of the active constituents. Five flavanones and two polymethoxyflavones were isolated and evaluated for inhibitory activity against xanthine oxidase in vitro. Of the compounds, hesperetin showed more potent inhibitory activity with an IC50 value of 16.48 μM. For the first time, this study provides a rational basis for the use of C. aurantium dried immature fruits against hyperuricemia.

  18. Daboia russellii and Naja kaouthia venom neutralization by lupeol acetate isolated from the root extract of Indian sarsaparilla Hemidesmus indicus R.Br.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Ipshita; Chakravarty, A K; Gomes, A

    2006-06-15

    The present study reports the isolation and purification of lupeol acetate from the methanolic root extract of Indian medicinal plant Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R.Br. (family: Asclepiadaceae) which could neutralize venom induced action of Daboia russellii and Naja kaouthia on experimental animals. Lupeol acetate could significantly neutralize lethality, haemorrhage, defibrinogenation, edema, PLA(2) activity induced by Daboia russellii venom. It also neutralized Naja kaouthia venom induced lethality, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity and respiratory changes in experimental animals. Lupeol acetate potentiated the protection by snake venom antiserum action against Daboia russellii venom induced lethality in male albino mice. Venom induced changes in lipid peroxidation and super oxide dismutase activity was antagonized by lupeol acetate. Snake venom neutralization by lupeol acetate and its possible mechanism of action has been discussed.

  19. In vitro antitumor activity of the ethyl acetate extract of Potentilla chinensis in osteosarcoma cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Guang; Tao, Jin-Gang; Wang, Guo-Dong; Liu, Shen-Peng; Zhao, Hong-Xing; Liang, Qiu-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the anticancer effect of the ethanol extract of Potentilla chinensis, a Chinese medicinal plant. An MTT assay was used to evaluate the cell viability of MG-63 human osteosarcoma cancer cells and fR-2 cells. Furthermore, the effect of the extract on apoptosis induction, cell cycle phase distribution and inhibition of cell migration in the MG63 human osteosarcoma cancer cell line was evaluated. The effect of the extract on cell cycle phase distribution was assessed by flow cytometry using propidium iodide (PI). Phase contrast microscopy detected the morphological changes in MG63 cancer cells following extract treatment. The results of the study demonstrated that the extract was cytotoxic to MG63 cancer cells, while the normal cell line (epithelial cell line) showed lower susceptibility. Phase contrast microscopy showed distinguishing morphological features, such as cell shrinkage and blebbing induced by the extract treatment in osteosarcoma cancer cells. The average proportion of Annexin V-positive cells (total apoptotic cells) significantly increased from 5.6% in the control to 24.2, 38.8 and 55.7% in the 40, 80 and 150 µg/ml groups, respectively. The extract induced early and late apoptosis in the cancer cells. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the extract induced G0/G1-cell cycle arrest, which also showed significant dose-dependence. The extract induced a significant and concentration-dependent reduction in cell migration. Moreover, DNA fragmentation was also examined by observation of the formation of DNA ladders. It was demonstrated that DNA fragmentation was increased with extract concentration compared with that in the control. Taken together, EEPC may serve as potential therapeutic agent against osteosarcoma, provided that the toxicity profile and in vivo investigations demonstrate that it is safe. PMID:27573158

  20. Effect of Coriandrum sativum hydroalcoholic extract and its essential oil on acetic acid- induced acute colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Bahareh; Sajjadi, Seyed Ebrahim; Minaiyan, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the protective effects of Coriandrum sativum on acetic acid-inducedcolitis in rats. C. sativum (Coriander) has long been used in Iranian traditional medicine and its use as an anti-inflammatory agent is still common in some herbal formulations. Materials and Methods: Colitis was induced by intra-rectal administration of 2ml acetic acid 4% in fasted male Wistar rats. Treatment was carried out using three increasing doses of extract (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg) and essential oil (0.25, 0.5, 1 ml/kg) of coriander started 2 h before colitis induction and continued for a five-day period. Colon biopsies were taken for weighting, macroscopic scoring of injured tissue, histopathological examination and measuring myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Results: Colon weight was decreased in the groups treated with extract (500 and 1000 mg/kg) and essential oil (0.5 ml/kg) compared to the control group. Regarding MPO levels, ulcer severity and area as well as the total colitis index, same results indicating meaningful alleviation of colitis was achieved after treatment with oral extract and essential oil. Conclusion: Since the present experiment was made by oral fractions of coriander thus the resulting effects could be due to both the absorption of the active ingredients and/or the effect of non-absorbable materials on colitis after reaching the colon. In this regard, we propose more toxicological and clinical experiments to warranty its beneficial application in human inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:27222834

  1. [Tracking analysis of three extraction processes of Arenaria Polytrichoides by Fourier transform infrared spectrocopy].

    PubMed

    Ma, Jing; Wu, Xian-Xue; Tai, Xi; Xu, Liu-Xian; Zhu, Jin-Lan; Qin, Yao; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Su-Qin

    2014-10-01

    In order to develop a process analysis method to guide extraction process of Arenaria polytrichoides (AP) based on tracking analysis by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), IR spectra of petroleum ether extracts (PE-E), ethyl acetate extracts (EtOAc-E), n-butanol extracts (n-BuOH-E) and water extracts (H2O-E) of AP from three extraction methods were recorded. The FTIR and corresponding second derivative infrared (SDIR) spectra were analyzed comparatively from two aspects, namely, different extracts from a same extraction process and the same extracts from different methods. The spectral analysis results show that different extracts obtained from a same extraction process have distinctly different spectral absorbance character. Although the IR spectral absorption characteristics of the same extracts from different methods are rather similar in holistic, some explicit spectral differences still could be found among each other. In extraction process one (M1), main flavonoids and their glycosides of AP migrated to EtOAc-E and the rest part of them shift to n-BuOH-E according to FTIR peaks such as 1,603 and 1,123 cm(-1). However, the circumstances in method two (M2) and method three (M3) were just the reverse. Moreover, a few flavonoid glycosides got into H2O-E. The relative content of all kinds of aglycones and higher saturated alkyl are much higher in EtOAc-E of M2 than that of M1 and M3 according to the relative absorption intensive of peak at 2,850 cm(-1). Similarly, n-BuOH-E of M3 has relative rich contents of glycosides: and polysaccharides than those of M1 and M2 by peaks, such as 1,066 and 2,927 cm(-1). These results demonstrate that the migration rules of AP components are not always same in different extrac- tion process. The substance migration information during the extraction process could be recorded and disclosed in an intuitive way by FTIR tracking analysis of corresponding extracts. Consequently, FTIR tracking analysis is a fast, efficient, low-carbon and

  2. The effects of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Brassica rapa L. on cell-mediated immune response in mice.

    PubMed

    Jafarian-Dehkordi, A; Zolfaghari, B; Mirdamadi, M

    2013-07-01

    Turnips with a long history of usage, are helpful in preventing breast and prostate cancer, inflammation and body`s immune system dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the effects of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Brassica rapa L. on cell-mediated immune response in mice. Chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of B. rapa glands were prepared by maceration method. To study the effects of B. rapa on acquired immunity, groups of Balb/c mice (n=8) were used. Sheep red blood cell (SRBC) was injected (s.c., 1×10(8)cells/ml, 0.02 ml) and 5 days later, different extracts (10, 100 and 500 mg/kg), betamethasone (4 mg/kg) and Levamisol (4 mg/kg) as a positive control and normal saline as a negative control were given i.p. After 1 h SRBC was injected to footpad (s.c., 1×10(8)cells/ml, 0.02 ml) and footpad swelling was measured up to 72 h. To investigate the effects of B. rapa on innate immunity the same procedure was used, but animals only received one injection of SRBC 1 h after i.p. injection of test compounds. Our findings showed that SRBC induced an increase in paw swelling with maximum response at 6-8 and 2-4 h for innate and acquired immunity, respectively. Betamethasone inhibited and levamisol increased paw thickness in both models. In both innate and acquired immunity models, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of B. rapa glands significantly and dose-dependently reduced paw thickness. Ethyl acetate extract showed better effect. As glucosinolates are better extracted by ethyl acetate, it may be concluded that they are contributed in the more pronounced effects of ethyl acetate extract.

  3. The effects of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Brassica rapa L. on cell-mediated immune response in mice

    PubMed Central

    Jafarian-Dehkordi, A.; Zolfaghari, B.; Mirdamadi, M.

    2013-01-01

    Turnips with a long history of usage, are helpful in preventing breast and prostate cancer, inflammation and body`s immune system dysfunction. In this study, we investigated the effects of chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of Brassica rapa L. on cell-mediated immune response in mice. Chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of B. rapa glands were prepared by maceration method. To study the effects of B. rapa on acquired immunity, groups of Balb/c mice (n=8) were used. Sheep red blood cell (SRBC) was injected (s.c., 1×108cells/ml, 0.02 ml) and 5 days later, different extracts (10, 100 and 500 mg/kg), betamethasone (4 mg/kg) and Levamisol (4 mg/kg) as a positive control and normal saline as a negative control were given i.p. After 1 h SRBC was injected to footpad (s.c., 1×108cells/ml, 0.02 ml) and footpad swelling was measured up to 72 h. To investigate the effects of B. rapa on innate immunity the same procedure was used, but animals only received one injection of SRBC 1 h after i.p. injection of test compounds. Our findings showed that SRBC induced an increase in paw swelling with maximum response at 6-8 and 2-4 h for innate and acquired immunity, respectively. Betamethasone inhibited and levamisol increased paw thickness in both models. In both innate and acquired immunity models, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of B. rapa glands significantly and dose-dependently reduced paw thickness. Ethyl acetate extract showed better effect. As glucosinolates are better extracted by ethyl acetate, it may be concluded that they are contributed in the more pronounced effects of ethyl acetate extract. PMID:24019825

  4. Ethyl acetate Salix alba leaves extract-loaded chitosan-based hydrogel film for wound dressing applications.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Mohammad A; Khatoon, Fehmeeda; Rizvi, Moshahid A; Zafaryab, Md

    2015-01-01

    High toxicity and multidrug resistance associated with various standard antimicrobial drugs have necessitated search for safer alternatives in plant-derived materials. In this study, we performed biological examination of chitosan-based hydrogel film loaded with ethyl acetate Salix alba leaves extract against 11 standard laboratory strains. FTIR showed regeneration of saccharide peak in CP1A at 1047 cm(-1) and increased in height of other peaks. DSC exothermic decomposition peaks at 112 °C, 175 °C and 251 °C reveal the effect of extract on hydrogel film. From FESEM images, three-dimensional cross-linking and extract easily seen in the globular form from the surface. MTT assay on HEK 293 cells showed that CP1A was non-toxic. Minimum inhibitory concentration ranges from 4000 μg/ml to 125 μg/ml. Enterococcus faecium, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis were the most resistant, while Salmonella typhi and Candida guilliermondii were the most susceptible micro-organisms.

  5. Ethyl acetate Salix alba leaves extract-loaded chitosan-based hydrogel film for wound dressing applications.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Mohammad A; Khatoon, Fehmeeda; Rizvi, Moshahid A; Zafaryab, Md

    2015-01-01

    High toxicity and multidrug resistance associated with various standard antimicrobial drugs have necessitated search for safer alternatives in plant-derived materials. In this study, we performed biological examination of chitosan-based hydrogel film loaded with ethyl acetate Salix alba leaves extract against 11 standard laboratory strains. FTIR showed regeneration of saccharide peak in CP1A at 1047 cm(-1) and increased in height of other peaks. DSC exothermic decomposition peaks at 112 °C, 175 °C and 251 °C reveal the effect of extract on hydrogel film. From FESEM images, three-dimensional cross-linking and extract easily seen in the globular form from the surface. MTT assay on HEK 293 cells showed that CP1A was non-toxic. Minimum inhibitory concentration ranges from 4000 μg/ml to 125 μg/ml. Enterococcus faecium, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis were the most resistant, while Salmonella typhi and Candida guilliermondii were the most susceptible micro-organisms. PMID:26525493

  6. Enterococcus faecium LKE12 Cell-Free Extract Accelerates Host Plant Growth via Gibberellin and Indole-3-Acetic Acid Secretion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ko-Eun; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kang, Sang-Mo; You, Young-Hyun; Joo, Gil-Jae; Lee, In-Jung; Ko, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2015-09-01

    The use of microbial extracts containing plant hormones is a promising technique to improve crop growth. Little is known about the effect of bacterial cell-free extracts on plant growth promotion. This study, based on phytohormonal analyses, aimed at exploring the potential mechanisms by which Enterococcus faecium LKE12 enhances plant growth in oriental melon. A bacterial strain, LKE12, was isolated from soil, and further identified as E. faecium by 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The plant growth-promoting ability of an LKE12 bacterial culture was tested in a gibberellin (GA)-deficient rice dwarf mutant (waito-C) and a normal GA biosynthesis rice cultivar (Hwayongbyeo). E. faecium LKE12 significantly improved the length and biomass of rice shoots in both normal and dwarf cultivars through the secretion of an array of gibberellins (GA1, GA3, GA7, GA8, GA9, GA12, GA19, GA20, GA24, and GA53), as well as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study indicating that E. faecium can produce GAs. Increases in shoot and root lengths, plant fresh weight, and chlorophyll content promoted by E. faecium LKE12 and its cell-free extract inoculated in oriental melon plants revealed a favorable interaction of E. faecium LKE12 with plants. Higher plant growth rates and nutrient contents of magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, manganese, silicon, zinc, and nitrogen were found in cell-free extract-treated plants than in control plants. The results of the current study suggest that E. faecium LKE12 promotes plant growth by producing GAs and IAA; interestingly, the exogenous application of its cell-free culture extract can be a potential strategy to accelerate plant growth.

  7. Cellular Anti-Melanogenic Effects of a Euryale ferox Seed Extract Ethyl Acetate Fraction via the Lysosomal Degradation Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seung-Hwa; Nam, In-Jeong; Kwak, Hyeong Seob; Kim, Ki-Chan; Lee, Sang-Han

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Euryale ferox seed extracts (Efse-EA) on melanogenesis in immortalized mouse melanocyte cell line, melan-a. Efse-EA showed strong dose-dependent mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Treatment of melan-a cells with 30 μg/mL Efse-EA produced strong inhibition of cellular tyrosinase and melanin synthesis. Efse-EA significantly reduced the levels of melanogenesis-related proteins, such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related proteins 1 and 2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. Because Efse-EA treatment reduced tyrosinase protein levels without changing its mRNA expression, we investigated whether this decrease was related to proteasomal or lysosomal degradation of tyrosinase. We found that chloroquine, a lysosomal proteolysis inhibitor, almost completely abolished both the down-regulation of tyrosinase and the inhibition of melanin synthesis induced by Efse-EA. These results suggested that Efse-EA may contribute to the inhibition of melanogenesis by altering lysosomal degradation of tyrosinase, and that this extract may provide a new cosmetic skin-whitening agent. PMID:25915032

  8. [Comparison of protective effects of eight ethyl acetate extracts from Eclipta prostrate on NHBE cells based on component structure theory].

    PubMed

    Ding, Shu-Min; Liu, Dan; Feng, Liang; Zhu, Fen-Xia; Tan, Xiao-Bin; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2014-08-01

    To analyze and compare the protective effects of active components in different ethyl acetate extracts (EAEEPs) from Eclipta prostrate, in order to study the comparison of materials bases protecting normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. The MTT assay was taken to compare the protective effect of different EAEEPs on cigarette smoke extracts (CSE) -induced NHBE cells. The ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) was applied to analyze the content of phenolic acid, coumaric grass ether and flavonoid in EAEEPs. According to the results, all of the eight EAEEPs (0-200 mg x L(-1)) showed certain protective effect on NHBE cells, with statistical difference. Specifically, the total mass of EAEEP VII (89.15 mg x L(-1)) and EAEEP VIII (57.44 mg x L(-1)), which showed the strongest activity, was not the highest, while EAEEP III (132.25 mg x L(-1)) displayed the highest total mass. In the combination with the "component structure" theory, the analysis showed a significant difference in the mass structure among phenolic acid, coumaric grass ether and flavonoid in EAEEP VIII and EAEEP VIII, which were 1.0: 1. 0: 0.5 and 1.0: 1.9: 0.8, respectively. The results suggested a specific optimal "component structure" relationship may exist in EAEEP, which could provide reference for the material base study and quality control.

  9. Antinociceptive Effect of Tephrosia sinapou Extract in the Acetic Acid, Phenyl-p-benzoquinone, Formalin, and Complete Freund's Adjuvant Models of Overt Pain-Like Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Renata M.; Zarpelon, Ana C.; Domiciano, Talita P.; Georgetti, Sandra R.; Baracat, Marcela M.; Moreira, Isabel C.; Andrei, Cesar C.; Verri, Waldiceu A.; Casagrande, Rubia

    2016-01-01

    Tephrosia toxicaria, which is currently known as Tephrosia sinapou (Buc'hoz) A. Chev. (Fabaceae), is a source of compounds such as flavonoids. T. sinapou has been used in Amazonian countries traditional medicine to alleviate pain and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effects of T. sinapou ethyl acetate extract in overt pain-like behavior models in mice by using writhing response and flinching/licking tests. We demonstrated in this study that T. sinapou extract inhibited, in a dose (1–100 mg/kg) dependent manner, acetic acid- and phenyl-p-benzoquinone- (PBQ-) induced writhing response. Furthermore, it was active via intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, and peroral routes of administration. T. sinapou extract also inhibited formalin- and complete Freund's adjuvant- (CFA-) induced flinching/licking at 100 mg/kg dose. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that T. sinapou ethyl acetate extract reduces inflammatory pain in the acetic acid, PBQ, formalin, and CFA models of overt pain-like behavior. Therefore, the potential of analgesic activity of T. sinapou indicates that it deserves further investigation. PMID:27293981

  10. Ethyl Acetate Extract of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum Prevents Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Vujicic, Milica; Nikolic, Ivana; Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Saksida, Tamara; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Vasic, Bobana; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Tzakos, Andreas G; Stojanovic, Ivana

    2016-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that develops as a consequence of pancreatic β-cell death induced by proinflammatory mediators. Because Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (Greek oregano) contains antiinflammatory molecules, we hypothesized that it might be beneficial for the treatment of T1D. An ethyl acetate extract of oregano (EAO) was prepared from the leaves by a polar extraction method. Phytochemical composition was determined by liquid chromatography-UV diode array coupled to ion-trap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization interface (LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n) ). In vitro immunomodulatory effect of EAO was estimated by measuring proliferation (MTT) or cytokine secretion (ELISA) from immune cells. Diabetes was induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MLDS) in male C57BL/6 mice and EAO was administered intraperitoneally for 10 d. Determination of cellular composition (flow cytometry) and cytokine production (ELISA) was performed on 12th d after diabetes induction. EAO suppressed the function of both macrophages and lymphocytes in vitro. In vivo, EAO treatment significantly preserved pancreatic islets and reduced diabetes incidence in MLDS-challenged mice. Besides down-modulatory effect on macrophages, EAO reduced the number of total CD4(+) and activated CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells. Furthermore, EAO affected the number of T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 17 (Th17) cells through downregulation of their key transcription factors T-bet and RORγT. Because EAO treatment protects mice from development of hyperglycemia by reducing proinflammatory macrophage/Th1/Th17 response, this plant extract could represent a basis for future diabetes therapy. PMID:27219840

  11. Ethyl Acetate Extract of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum Prevents Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Vujicic, Milica; Nikolic, Ivana; Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Saksida, Tamara; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Vasic, Bobana; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Tzakos, Andreas G; Stojanovic, Ivana

    2016-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that develops as a consequence of pancreatic β-cell death induced by proinflammatory mediators. Because Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (Greek oregano) contains antiinflammatory molecules, we hypothesized that it might be beneficial for the treatment of T1D. An ethyl acetate extract of oregano (EAO) was prepared from the leaves by a polar extraction method. Phytochemical composition was determined by liquid chromatography-UV diode array coupled to ion-trap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization interface (LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n) ). In vitro immunomodulatory effect of EAO was estimated by measuring proliferation (MTT) or cytokine secretion (ELISA) from immune cells. Diabetes was induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MLDS) in male C57BL/6 mice and EAO was administered intraperitoneally for 10 d. Determination of cellular composition (flow cytometry) and cytokine production (ELISA) was performed on 12th d after diabetes induction. EAO suppressed the function of both macrophages and lymphocytes in vitro. In vivo, EAO treatment significantly preserved pancreatic islets and reduced diabetes incidence in MLDS-challenged mice. Besides down-modulatory effect on macrophages, EAO reduced the number of total CD4(+) and activated CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells. Furthermore, EAO affected the number of T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 17 (Th17) cells through downregulation of their key transcription factors T-bet and RORγT. Because EAO treatment protects mice from development of hyperglycemia by reducing proinflammatory macrophage/Th1/Th17 response, this plant extract could represent a basis for future diabetes therapy.

  12. Healing mechanisms of the hydroalcoholic extract and ethyl acetate fraction of green tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze) on chronic gastric ulcers.

    PubMed

    Borato, Débora Gasparin; Scoparo, Camila Toledo; Maria-Ferreira, Daniele; da Silva, Luísa Mota; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Iacomini, Marcello; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko

    2016-03-01

    Green tea is an infusion of unfermented leaves of Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (Theaceae), traditionally used for the treatment of obesity, hypercholesterolemia, and gastric complaints. This study evaluated the mechanisms involved in the gastric ulcer healing of the hydroalcoholic extract from green tea (GEt), its ethyl acetate fraction, (GEAc) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) using the model of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer in rats. The chronic gastric ulcer was induced by application of 80 % acetic acid on serosal mucosa of rats. After 7 days of oral treatment with GEt and GEAc, the ulcer area, mucin content, inflammatory parameters (MPO and NAG), and antioxidant system (GSH and LOOH levels, SOD and GST activities) were evaluated. In vitro, the scavenging activity of GEt and GEAc were also measured. The antisecretory action was studied on the pylorus ligature method in rats. Oral treatment with GEt and GEAc reduced significantly the gastric ulcer area induced by acetic acid. The gastric ulcer healing was accompanied by increasing of mucin content, restoration of GSH levels and SOD activity, and reduction of MPO and LOOH levels. In addition, GEt and GEAc reduced the DPPH free radicals in vitro. Furthermore, the oral treatment of animals with GEt and GEAc did not alter the gastric acid secretion or cause signs of toxicity. Collectively, these results showed that GEt had a pronounced antiulcer effect, possibly through maintenance of mucin content and reduction of inflammation and oxidative stress. In addition, the compounds present in its ethyl acetate fraction could be responsible for the extract activity.

  13. Simultaneous extraction and HPLC determination of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid in pea plant by using ionic liquid-modified silica as sorbent.

    PubMed

    Sheikhian, Leila; Bina, Sedigheh

    2016-01-15

    In this study, ionic liquid-modified silica was used as sorbent for simultaneous extraction and preconcentration of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid in pea plants. The effect of some parameters such as pH and ionic strength of sample solution, amount of sorbent, flow rate of aqueous sample solution and eluent solution, concentration of eluent solution, and temperature were studied for each hormone solution. Percent extraction of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid was strongly affected by pH of aqueous sample solution. Ionic strength of aqueous phase and temperature showed no serious effects on extraction efficiency of studied plant hormones. Obtained breakthrough volume was 200mL for each of studied hormones. Preconcentration factor for spectroscopic and chromatographic determination of studied hormones was 100 and 4.0×10(3) respectively. Each solid sorbent phase was reusable for almost 10 times of extraction/stripping procedure. Relative standard deviations of extraction/stripping processes of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid were 2.79% and 3.66% respectively. The calculated limit of detections for IBA and IAA were 9.1×10(-2)mgL(-1) and 1.6×10(-1)mgL(-1) respectively. PMID:26701202

  14. Simultaneous extraction and HPLC determination of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid in pea plant by using ionic liquid-modified silica as sorbent.

    PubMed

    Sheikhian, Leila; Bina, Sedigheh

    2016-01-15

    In this study, ionic liquid-modified silica was used as sorbent for simultaneous extraction and preconcentration of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid in pea plants. The effect of some parameters such as pH and ionic strength of sample solution, amount of sorbent, flow rate of aqueous sample solution and eluent solution, concentration of eluent solution, and temperature were studied for each hormone solution. Percent extraction of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid was strongly affected by pH of aqueous sample solution. Ionic strength of aqueous phase and temperature showed no serious effects on extraction efficiency of studied plant hormones. Obtained breakthrough volume was 200mL for each of studied hormones. Preconcentration factor for spectroscopic and chromatographic determination of studied hormones was 100 and 4.0×10(3) respectively. Each solid sorbent phase was reusable for almost 10 times of extraction/stripping procedure. Relative standard deviations of extraction/stripping processes of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid were 2.79% and 3.66% respectively. The calculated limit of detections for IBA and IAA were 9.1×10(-2)mgL(-1) and 1.6×10(-1)mgL(-1) respectively.

  15. Effect of total hydroalcholic extract of Nigella sativa and its n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions on ACHN and GP-293 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, Samira; Khajavirad, Abolfazl; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Tabasi, Nafisa Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants are noted for their many advantages including the ability to treat diseases such as cancer. In this study, we examined the antitumor effect of the medicinal plant Nigella sativa on the morphology, survival, and apoptosis of ACHN (human renal adenocarcinoma) and GP-293 (normal renal epithelial) cell lines. From a hydroalcoholic extract of N. sativa, n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions were extracted. Cells were treated with various concentrations of total hydroalcholic extract and n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions; cell viability, morphological changes, and apoptosis were then determined. Results were presented as mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied for the statistical analysis of the data. The total extract and the fractions in a dose- and time-dependent manner reduced the cell viability in ACHN with no effect on the GP-293 cell line. In addition, the total extract resulted in more morphological changes in the ACHN cells compared to the GP-293 cells. The effect of the total extract in inducing apoptosis after 48 hours in the ACHN cell line was greater than in GP-293. In addition, the effect of the two fractions was lower than the total extract at all used concentrations. Therefore, the effect of total extract and n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of N. sativa on cell viability and apoptosis in the ACHN cell line is greater than in the GP-293 cell line. However, the effect of the total extract is higher than either of the two fractions on their own. PMID:26870685

  16. Effect of total hydroalcholic extract of Nigella sativa and its n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions on ACHN and GP-293 cell lines

    PubMed Central

    Shahraki, Samira; Khajavirad, Abolfazl; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Tabasi, Nafisa Sadat

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are noted for their many advantages including the ability to treat diseases such as cancer. In this study, we examined the antitumor effect of the medicinal plant Nigella sativa on the morphology, survival, and apoptosis of ACHN (human renal adenocarcinoma) and GP-293 (normal renal epithelial) cell lines. From a hydroalcoholic extract of N. sativa, n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions were extracted. Cells were treated with various concentrations of total hydroalcholic extract and n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions; cell viability, morphological changes, and apoptosis were then determined. Results were presented as mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied for the statistical analysis of the data. The total extract and the fractions in a dose- and time-dependent manner reduced the cell viability in ACHN with no effect on the GP-293 cell line. In addition, the total extract resulted in more morphological changes in the ACHN cells compared to the GP-293 cells. The effect of the total extract in inducing apoptosis after 48 hours in the ACHN cell line was greater than in GP-293. In addition, the effect of the two fractions was lower than the total extract at all used concentrations. Therefore, the effect of total extract and n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of N. sativa on cell viability and apoptosis in the ACHN cell line is greater than in the GP-293 cell line. However, the effect of the total extract is higher than either of the two fractions on their own. PMID:26870685

  17. Glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-pi) inhibition and anti-inflammation activity of the ethyl acetate extract of Streptomyces sp. strain MJM 8637.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sung-Kwon; Lee, Dong-Ryung; Choi, Bong-Keun; Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Won

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the anti-cancer properties of soil-borne actinobacteria, MJM 8637, the glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-pi) assay, anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α assay, the level of antioxidant potential by DPPH radical scavenging activity, NO scavenging activity, and ABTS radical scavenging activity in ethyl acetate extract were determined. The 16S rDNA sequencing analysis revealed that Streptomyces sp. strain MJM 8637, which was isolated from Hambak Mountain, Korea, has 99.5% similarity to Streptomyces atratus strain NBRC 3897. The physiological and the morphological characteristics of the strain MJM 8637 were also identified. The ethyl acetate extract of MJM 8637 inhibited TNF-α production approximately 61.8% at concentration 100 μg/ml. The IC50 value of the strain MJM 8637 extract on GST-pi was identified to be 120.2 ± 1.6 μg/ml. In DPPH, NO, and ABTS radical scavenging assays, the IC50 values of the strain MJM 8637 extract were found to be 977.2 μg/ml, 1143.7 μg/ml, and 454.4 μg/ml, respectively. The ethyl acetate extract of the strain MJM 8637 showed 97.2 ± 1.3% of cell viability at 100 μg/ml in RAW 264.7 cell viability assay. The results obtained from this study suggest that the ethyl acetate extract of Streptomyces sp. strain MJM 8637 could be considered as a potential source of drug for the cancers that have multidrug resistance with its GST-pi inhibition and anti-inflammation activities, and low cytotoxicity.

  18. Glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-pi) inhibition and anti-inflammation activity of the ethyl acetate extract of Streptomyces sp. strain MJM 8637

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Kwon; Lee, Dong-Ryung; Choi, Bong-Keun; Palaniyandi, Sasikumar Arunachalam; Yang, Seung Hwan; Suh, Joo-Won

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the anti-cancer properties of soil-borne actinobacteria, MJM 8637, the glutathione S-transferase pi (GST-pi) assay, anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α assay, the level of antioxidant potential by DPPH radical scavenging activity, NO scavenging activity, and ABTS radical scavenging activity in ethyl acetate extract were determined. The 16S rDNA sequencing analysis revealed that Streptomyces sp. strain MJM 8637, which was isolated from Hambak Mountain, Korea, has 99.5% similarity to Streptomyces atratus strain NBRC 3897. The physiological and the morphological characteristics of the strain MJM 8637 were also identified. The ethyl acetate extract of MJM 8637 inhibited TNF-α production approximately 61.8% at concentration 100 μg/ml. The IC50 value of the strain MJM 8637 extract on GST-pi was identified to be 120.2 ± 1.6 μg/ml. In DPPH, NO, and ABTS radical scavenging assays, the IC50 values of the strain MJM 8637 extract were found to be 977.2 μg/ml, 1143.7 μg/ml, and 454.4 μg/ml, respectively. The ethyl acetate extract of the strain MJM 8637 showed 97.2 ± 1.3% of cell viability at 100 μg/ml in RAW 264.7 cell viability assay. The results obtained from this study suggest that the ethyl acetate extract of Streptomyces sp. strain MJM 8637 could be considered as a potential source of drug for the cancers that have multidrug resistance with its GST-pi inhibition and anti-inflammation activities, and low cytotoxicity. PMID:26587003

  19. Anti-inflammatory effect of Helichrysum oligocephalum DC extract on acetic acid — Induced acute colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Minaiyan, Mohsen; Ghassemi-Dehkordi, Nasrollah; Mahzouni, Parvin; Ahmadi, Najme-Sadat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Helichrysum oligocephalum DC. from Asteraceae family is an endemic plant growing wild in Iran. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of H. oligocephalum hydroalcoholic extract (HOHE) on ulcerative colitis (UC) induced by acetic acid (AA) in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were grouped (n = 6) and fasted for 24 h before colitis induction. Treatments were started 2 h before the induction of colitis and continued for two consecutive days with different doses of HOHE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) orally (p.o.) and intraperitoneally (i.p.). The colon tissue was removed and tissue damages were scored after macroscopic and histopathologic assessments. Results: Among the examined doses of HOHE, 100 mg/kg was the most effective dose that reduced the extent of UC lesions and resulted in significant alleviation. Weight/length ratio as an index of tissue inflammation and extravasation was also diminished in the treatment group administered HOHE at a dose of 100 mg/kg, and the results showed correlation with macroscopic and histopathologic evaluations. These data suggest that HOHE (100 mg/kg) administered either p.o. or i.p. was effective in diminishing inflammation and ulcer indices in this murine model of acute colitis in a non–dose-related manner. Conclusions: H. oligocephalum could be considered as a suitable anticolitis alternative; however, further studies are needed to support this hypothesis for clinical setting. PMID:24761395

  20. Characteristics of lipid extraction from Chlorella sp. cultivated in outdoor raceway ponds with mixture of ethyl acetate and ethanol for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weidong; Wang, Zhongming; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2015-09-01

    In this work, neutral lipids (NLs) extraction capacity and selectivity of six solvents were firstly compared. In addition, an eco-friendly solvent combination of ethyl acetate and ethanol (EA/E) was proposed and tested for lipid extraction from Chlorella sp. cultivated in outdoor raceway ponds and effect of extraction variables on lipid yield were intensively studied. Results indicated that lipid extraction yield was increased with solvent to biomass ratio but did not vary significantly when the value exceeded 20:1. Lipid yield was found to be strongly dependent on extraction temperature and time. Finally, fatty acid profiles of lipid were determined and results indicated that the major components were octadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, demonstrating that the lipid extracted from the Chlorella sp. cultivated in outdoor raceway ponds by EA/E was suitable feedstock for biodiesel production.

  1. Bioefficacy of hydromethanolic extract of tuber of Chlorophytum borivilianum (Safed Musli) for the management of male infertility in cyproterone acetate-treated albino rats.

    PubMed

    Ray, S; Chatterjee, K; De, D; Ghosh, D

    2014-08-01

    Increase in male sexual dysfunction, and its treatment with conventional aphrodisiac drugs with side effects lead to investigate the spermatogenesis and androgenesis augmentative efficacy of hydromethanolic (40 : 60) extract of root of Chlorophytum borivilianum (family - Liliaceae) against cyproterone acetate-induced subfertility in Wistar strain male albino rat. For this purpose, experimental rats were divided into three treatment groups: vehicle (received distilled water), cyproterone acetate (gastric intubation at 250 mg kg(-1) twice daily for 35 days) and cyproterone acetate plus root extract of C. borivilianum (gastric intubation at 250 mg kg(-1) plus 400 mg kg(-1) with an interval of 20 min twice daily for 35 days). After 35-day treatment, all rats were euthanised. Reproductive deviations towards negative side were investigated by screening the spermatogenic and steroidogenic biosensors. Oxidative stress profile in reproductive organs and sperm pellet was evaluated by biochemical assessment of antioxidative enzyme activities and level of end products of the lipid peroxidation. Apoptosis profile was evaluated by Western blot study, TUNEL assay and DNA fragmentation study of testicular tissues. Evaluation of toxicity profile was included for experimental investigation. After cyproterone acetate treatment, the pituitary-testicular axis was deviated towards the negative side and its tuning system was affected by oxidative stress and apoptosis-mediated process, which reduced the quality of semen and finally led to subfertility. Co-administration of C. borivilianum root extract enhanced male reproductive potentiality and prevented the negative deviations after the treatment with cyproterone acetate by means of increasing oxidative defence and maintaining homeostasis in testicular apoptosis process.

  2. Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom ethyl acetate extract protects against high-fat diet-induced non-alcoholic steatohepatitis by regulating kinase phosphorylation in mouse

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Dong Hoon; Kim, Ji-Su; Chang, Kyu-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Aristolochia manshuriensis Kom (AMK) is an herb used as a traditional medicine; however, it causes side effects such as nephrotoxicity and carcinogenicity. Nevertheless, AMK can be applied in specific ways medicinally, including via ingestion of low doses for short periods of time. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) induced the hepatocyte injury and inflammation. The protective effects of AMK against NASH are unclear; therefore, in this study, the protective effects of AMK ethyl acetate extract were investigated in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NASH model. We found decreased hepatic steatosis and inflammation, as well as increased levels of lipoproteins during AMK extract treatment. We also observed decreased hepatic lipid peroxidation and triglycerides, as well as suppressed hepatic expression of lipogenic genes in extract-treated livers. Treatment with extract decreased the activation of c-jun N-terminal kinase 1/2 (JNK1/2) and increased the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2). These results demonstrate that the protective effect of the extract against HFD-induced NASH occurred via reductions in reactive oxygen species production, inflammation suppression, and apoptosis related to the suppression of JNK1/2 activation and increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation. Taken together, these results indicate that that ethyl acetate extract of AMK has potential therapeutic effects in the HFD-induced NASH mouse model. PMID:26726030

  3. Effects of Etlingera elatior extracts on lead acetate-induced testicular damage: A morphological and biochemical study

    PubMed Central

    HAW, KHOR YEN; CHAKRAVARTHI, SRIKUMAR; HALEAGRAHARA, NAGARAJA; RAO, MALLIKARJUNA

    2012-01-01

    Lead causes damage to the whole body by inducing oxidative stress. This includes the testis, in which spermatogenesis is affected. Etlingera elatior, a consumable plant that is being extensively studied for its high anti-oxidant properties, was tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. Rats were divided into groups consisting of a control, lead acetate only, Etlingera elatior treatment only, concurrent treatment of lead acetate and Etlingera elatior, post-treatment of lead acetate followed by Etlingera elatior and preventive group of Etlingera elatior followed by lead acetate. The substances were administered for 14 days and the effects were measured by protein carbonyl content (PCC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the testis, as well as the testosterone level in the serum. Histological changes in the testis were also observed. Results showed that Etlingera elatior induced a significant reduction in the testis PCC activity, while at the same time it significantly increased the activities of SOD and GPx in the testis, and the testosterone level in the serum. Etlingera elatior also improved the histology of the testis when compared to the lead acetate-treated group. On the whole, Etlingera elatior is effective against oxidative damage caused by lead acetate in the testis. PMID:22969852

  4. Effects of Etlingera elatior extracts on lead acetate-induced testicular damage: A morphological and biochemical study.

    PubMed

    Haw, Khor Yen; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Haleagrahara, Nagaraja; Rao, Mallikarjuna

    2012-01-01

    Lead causes damage to the whole body by inducing oxidative stress. This includes the testis, in which spermatogenesis is affected. Etlingera elatior, a consumable plant that is being extensively studied for its high anti-oxidant properties, was tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. Rats were divided into groups consisting of a control, lead acetate only, Etlingera elatior treatment only, concurrent treatment of lead acetate and Etlingera elatior, post-treatment of lead acetate followed by Etlingera elatior and preventive group of Etlingera elatior followed by lead acetate. The substances were administered for 14 days and the effects were measured by protein carbonyl content (PCC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the testis, as well as the testosterone level in the serum. Histological changes in the testis were also observed. Results showed that Etlingera elatior induced a significant reduction in the testis PCC activity, while at the same time it significantly increased the activities of SOD and GPx in the testis, and the testosterone level in the serum. Etlingera elatior also improved the histology of the testis when compared to the lead acetate-treated group. On the whole, Etlingera elatior is effective against oxidative damage caused by lead acetate in the testis.

  5. Activation of apoptosis by ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract of Dianthus superbus in HepG2 cell line.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian-Qing; Yin, Yan; Lei, Jia-Chuan; Zhang, Xiu-Qiao; Chen, Wei; Ding, Cheng-Li; Wu, Shan; He, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Yan-Wen; Zou, Guo-Lin

    2012-02-01

    Dianthus superbus L. is commonly used as a traditional Chinese medicine. We recently showed that ethyl acetate fraction (EE-DS) from ethanol extract of D. superbus exhibited the strongest antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. In this study, we examined apoptosis of HepG2 cells induced by EE-DS, and the mechanism underlying apoptosis was also investigated. Treatment of HepG2 cells with EE-DS (20-80 μg/ml) for 48 h led to a significant dose-dependent increase in the percentage of cells in sub-G1 phase by analysis of the content of DNA in cells, and a large number of apoptotic bodies containing nuclear fragments were observed in cells treated with 80 μg/ml of EE-DS for 24 h by using Hoechst 33258 staining. These data show that EE-DS can induce apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Immunoblot analysis showed that EE-DS significantly suppressed the expressions of Bcl-2 and NF-κB. Treatment of cells with EE-DS (80 μg/ml) for 48 h resulted in significant increase of cytochrome c in the cytosol, which indicated cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Activation of caspase-9 and -3 were also determined when the cells treated with EE-DS. The results suggest that apoptosis of HepG2 cells induced by EE-DS could be through the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) data showed that the composition of EE-DS is complicated. Further studies are needed to find the effective constituents of EE-DS.

  6. Ethyl acetate extracts of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) sprouts inhibit lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hong, Yong-Han; Chao, Wen-Wan; Chen, Miaw-Ling; Lin, Bi-Fong

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate if food components that exert anti-inflammatory effects may be used for inflammatory disorders by examining alfalfa sprout ethyl acetate extract (ASEA). The cytokine profile and life span of BALB/c mice with acute inflammation after intra-peritoneal (ip) injection of 15 mg/kg BW lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were determined. The results showed that the life span of LPS-induced inflammatory mice were negatively correlated with serum levels of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1beta at 9 hr after LPS-injection, which indicated that suppressing these cytokines in the late phase of inflammation may be beneficial for survival. The in vitro experiment then showed that ASEA significantly reduced IL-6 and IL-1beta production and the NF-kappaB trans-activation activity of mitogen-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. To further evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of ASEA in vivo, BALB/c mice were tube-fed with 25 mg ASEA/kg BW/day in 50 microl sunflower oil, while the control and PDTC (pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate, an anti-inflammatory agent) groups were tube-fed with 50 microl sunflower oil/day only. After one week of tube-feeding, the PDTC group was injected with 50 mg/kg BW PDTC and one hour later, all of the mice were injected with 15 mg/kg BW LPS. The results showed that the ASEA and PDTC groups had significantly lower serum TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-1beta levels at 9 hr after LPS challenge, and significantly higher survival rates than the control group. This study suggests that ASEA supplementation can suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and alleviate acute inflammatory hazards. PMID:19594948

  7. Antibacterial efficacy of ethyl acetate fraction of Psidium guajava leaf aqueous extract on experimental Escherichia coli (O78) infection in chickens

    PubMed Central

    Geidam, Y. A.; Ambali, A. G.; Onyeyili, P. A.; Tijjani, M. B.; Gambo, H. I.; Gulani, I. A.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was desingned to examine the efficacy of ethyl acetate fraction of aqueous extracted Psidium guajava leaves on chicks experimentally-infected with diarrheagenic strain of Escherichia coli O78. Methods: A total of 60 ISA brown male chicks were randomly divided into 6 Groups of ten chicks each in separate cages. Group A was not infected and not treated. Groups B, C and D were infected and treated with extracts at a dose of 25, 50 and 100 mg/kg respectively for 10 days. Group E was infected and treated with oxytetracycline while Group F was infected, but left untreated. Chicks from all groups were closely monitored for clinical signs, body weight change and fecal bacterial shedding load during the course of the experiment. Results: Diarrhea, vents pasted with feces, drop in feed intake accompanied by slow weight gain and decreased activity was observed in infected untreated groups. Groups treated with graded doses of the extract experienced a dose-dependent decreased in severity of the clinical signs shown compared to the infected untreated group. Bacterial shedding load was found to be lower in groups treated with the extract and oxytetracycline than those without intervention. Conclusion: Ethyl acetate soluble fraction of leaf extract of Psidium guajava effectively controlled diarrhea and decreased the severity of other clinical signs caused by experimental E. coli infections in chicks. PMID:27047097

  8. The implementation of high fermentative 2,3-butanediol production from xylose by simultaneous additions of yeast extract, Na2EDTA, and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Hu, Hong-Ying; Liu, De-Hua; Song, Yuan-Quan

    2016-01-25

    The effective use of xylose may significantly enhance the feasibility of using lignocellulosic hydrolysate to produce 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD). Previous difficulties in 2,3-BD production include that the high-concentration xylose cannot be converted completely and the fermentation rate is slow. This study investigated the effects of yeast extract, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (Na2EDTA), and acetic acid on 2,3-BD production from xylose. The central composite design approach was used to optimize the concentrations of these components. It was found that simultaneous addition of yeast extract, Na2EDTA, and acetic acid could significantly improve 2,3-BD production. The optimal concentrations of yeast extract, Na2EDTA, and acetic acid were 35.2, 1.2, and 4.5 g/L, respectively. The 2,3-BD concentration in the optimized medium reached 39.7 g/L after 48 hours of shake flask fermentation, the highest value ever reported in such a short period. The xylose utilization ratio and the 2,3-BD concentration increased to 99.0% and 42.7 g/L, respectively, after 48 hours of stirred batch fermentation. Furthermore, the 2,3-BD yield was 0.475 g/g, 95.0% of the theoretical maximum value. As the major components of lignocellulosic hydrolysate are glucose, xylose, and acetic acid, the results of this study indicate the possibility of directly using the hydrolysate to effectively produce 2,3-BD.

  9. Optimization of the Acetic Acid method for microfossil extraction from lithified carbonate rocks: Examples from the Jurassic and Miocene of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Septriandi; Malik, Muhammad; Kaminski, Michael; Babalola, Lamidi

    2016-04-01

    We report the first ever use of the acetic acid processing method for the extraction of microfossils from indurated limestones in Saudi Arabia. Two different limestone samples from Middle Jurassic and Middle Miocene formation in Saudi Arabia were tested under different concentrations of acid from 50% to 100% and with processing times from 2 hours to 10 hours, in an attempt to optimize the processing methodology. The recovery of acid residues shows a similar trend for both Jurassic and Miocene samples. The weight percentage of residue particle size > 1 mm decreases as acid concentration increases, especially in the 50 to 80% acid concentration range, and the weight percentage of the smallest size particles >0.063 mm increases as acid concentration increases. The small fraction of residue between 0.50 - 0.063 mm was split into 3 g subsamples and picked for microfossils in order to assess their preservation. All concentrations of acetic acid tested show promising results for both the Jurassic Dhruma and Miocene Dam formation carbonates. Higher acid concentrations with longer reaction times yield better recovery than higher concentrations with less reaction time. Based on our experiment, we recommended a 60% concentration of acetic acid to be the optimal concentration for use on routine micropaleontological samples of Saudi Arabian carbonate rocks. By lowering the concentration of acetic acid from 80% to 60%, the consumption of acid is reduced without compromising the recovery of microfossils, and the sample can be processed in a more environmentally friendly manner.

  10. Analysis of several methods for the extraction of high quality DNA from acetic acid bacteria in wine and vinegar for characterization by PCR-based methods.

    PubMed

    Jara, C; Mateo, E; Guillamón, J M; Torija, M J; Mas, A

    2008-12-10

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are fastidious microorganisms with poor recovery in culture. Culture-independent methods are currently under examination. Good DNA extraction is a strict requirement of these methods. We compared five methods for extracting the DNA of AAB directly from wine and vinegar samples. Four matrices (white wine, red wine, superficial vinegar and submerged vinegar) contaminated with two AAB strains belonging to Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconacetobacter hansenii were assayed. To improve the yield and quality of the extracted DNA, a sample treatment (washing with polyvinyl pyrrolidone or NaCl) was also tested. DNA quality was measured by amplification of the 16S rRNA gene with conventional PCR. DNA recovery rate was assessed by real-time PCR. DNA amplification was always successful with the Wizard method though DNA recovery was poor. A CTAB-based method and NucleoSpin protocol extracted the highest DNA recoveries from wine and vinegar samples. Both of these methods require treatment to recover suitable DNA for amplification with maximum recovery. Both may therefore be good solutions for DNA extraction in wine and vinegar samples. DNA extraction of Ga hansenii was more effective than that of A. pasteurianus. The fastest and cheapest method we evaluated (the Thermal shock protocol) produced the worst results both for DNA amplification and DNA recovery.

  11. THE LIBERATION OF ARSENOSUGARS FROM MATRIX COMPONENTS IN DIFFICULT TO EXTRACT SEAFOOD SAMPLES UTILIZING TMAOH/ACETIC ACID SEQUENTIALLY IN A TWO-STAGE EXTRACTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sample extraction is one of the most important steps in arsenic speciation analysis of solid dietary samples. One of the problem areas in this analysis is the partial extraction of arsenicals from seafood samples. The partial extraction allows the toxicity of the extracted arse...

  12. Techno-economic analysis for incorporating a liquid-liquid extraction system to remove acetic acid into a proposed commercial scale biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    Mitigating the effect of fermentation inhibitors in bioethanol plants can have a great positive impact on the economy of this industry. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using ethyl acetate is able to remove fermentation inhibitors-chiefly, acetic acid-from an aqueous solution used to produce bioethanol. The fermentation broth resulting from LLE has higher performance for ethanol yield and its production rate. Previous techno-economic analyses focused on second-generation biofuel production did not address the impact of removing the fermentation inhibitors on the economic performance of the biorefinery. A comprehensive analysis of applying a separation system to mitigate the fermentation inhibition effect and to provide an analysis on the economic impact of removal of acetic acid from corn stover hydrolysate on the overall revenue of the biorefinery is necessary. This study examines the pros and cons associated with implementing LLE column along with the solvent recovery system into a commercial scale bioethanol plant. Using details from the NREL-developed model of corn stover biorefinery, the capital costs associated with the equipment and the operating cost for the use of solvent were estimated and the results were compared with the profit gain due to higher ethanol production. Results indicate that the additional capital will add 1% to the total capital and manufacturing cost will increase by 5.9%. The benefit arises from the higher ethanol production rate and yield as a consequence of inhibitor extraction and results in a $0.35 per gallon reduction in the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:971-977, 2016.

  13. Techno-economic analysis for incorporating a liquid-liquid extraction system to remove acetic acid into a proposed commercial scale biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    Mitigating the effect of fermentation inhibitors in bioethanol plants can have a great positive impact on the economy of this industry. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using ethyl acetate is able to remove fermentation inhibitors-chiefly, acetic acid-from an aqueous solution used to produce bioethanol. The fermentation broth resulting from LLE has higher performance for ethanol yield and its production rate. Previous techno-economic analyses focused on second-generation biofuel production did not address the impact of removing the fermentation inhibitors on the economic performance of the biorefinery. A comprehensive analysis of applying a separation system to mitigate the fermentation inhibition effect and to provide an analysis on the economic impact of removal of acetic acid from corn stover hydrolysate on the overall revenue of the biorefinery is necessary. This study examines the pros and cons associated with implementing LLE column along with the solvent recovery system into a commercial scale bioethanol plant. Using details from the NREL-developed model of corn stover biorefinery, the capital costs associated with the equipment and the operating cost for the use of solvent were estimated and the results were compared with the profit gain due to higher ethanol production. Results indicate that the additional capital will add 1% to the total capital and manufacturing cost will increase by 5.9%. The benefit arises from the higher ethanol production rate and yield as a consequence of inhibitor extraction and results in a $0.35 per gallon reduction in the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:971-977, 2016. PMID:27390294

  14. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Caryocar coriaceum Wittm fruit pulp fixed ethyl acetate extract on zymosan-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Francisco Fábio Bezerra; de Araújo, Joana Cláudia Bezerra; Pereira, Anamaria Falcão; Brito, Gerly Anne Castro; Gondim, Delane Viana; Ribeiro, Ronaldo de Albuquerque; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Vale, Mariana Lima

    2015-11-01

    The ethyl acetate extract from the fruit pulp of Caryocar coriaceum Wittm (Caryocaraceae), popularly known as pequi, has wide applications in popular medicine. Preclinical tests have demonstrated the therapeutic properties of the oil. We investigated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Pequi C. coriaceum Wittm ethyl acetate extract (PCCO) on zymosan-induced arthritis in rat knee joint. The animals were pretreated with PCCO for 7 consecutive days or with a single dose. Paw elevation time (PET), leukocyte infiltration, myeloperoxidase activity (MPO) and cytokine levels were assessed 4h after zymosan injection. Synovial tissue was harvested for immunohistochemical analysis, edema and vascular permeability. We observed a significant decrease in PET with PCCO pretreatment. PCCO showed a significant reduction of leukocyte migration and a decrease in MPO. Decreases were observed in cytokine release in the synovial fluid and TNF-α and cyclooxygenase-1 immunostaining in synovial tissue. Edema was inhibited by treatment with all doses of PCCO. The data suggest that PCCO exerts antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects on arthritis in rats.

  15. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Caryocar coriaceum Wittm fruit pulp fixed ethyl acetate extract on zymosan-induced arthritis in rats.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Francisco Fábio Bezerra; de Araújo, Joana Cláudia Bezerra; Pereira, Anamaria Falcão; Brito, Gerly Anne Castro; Gondim, Delane Viana; Ribeiro, Ronaldo de Albuquerque; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Vale, Mariana Lima

    2015-11-01

    The ethyl acetate extract from the fruit pulp of Caryocar coriaceum Wittm (Caryocaraceae), popularly known as pequi, has wide applications in popular medicine. Preclinical tests have demonstrated the therapeutic properties of the oil. We investigated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of Pequi C. coriaceum Wittm ethyl acetate extract (PCCO) on zymosan-induced arthritis in rat knee joint. The animals were pretreated with PCCO for 7 consecutive days or with a single dose. Paw elevation time (PET), leukocyte infiltration, myeloperoxidase activity (MPO) and cytokine levels were assessed 4h after zymosan injection. Synovial tissue was harvested for immunohistochemical analysis, edema and vascular permeability. We observed a significant decrease in PET with PCCO pretreatment. PCCO showed a significant reduction of leukocyte migration and a decrease in MPO. Decreases were observed in cytokine release in the synovial fluid and TNF-α and cyclooxygenase-1 immunostaining in synovial tissue. Edema was inhibited by treatment with all doses of PCCO. The data suggest that PCCO exerts antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects on arthritis in rats. PMID:26341615

  16. Phytochemicals characterization of solvent extracts from taro-scented japonica rice bran.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua Han; Chiu, Tsai Hsin

    2011-05-01

    The major phytochemicals and antioxidant properties of taro-scented rice bran (TaiNung 71; TN71) extracts using 3 different solvents are characterized. Some progress is realized in creating an economic value for rice bran that has long been considered an agricultural waste. Various solvent extracts reveal the presence of phenolic compounds, oryzanols, tocopherols, and tocotrienols. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc) can extract more oryzanols (1.55 ± 0.20 g/kg rice bran). Meanwhile, the methanol (MeOH) extract possesses a higher yield in total contents (15.42 ± 1.41 g/kg bran), which includes phenolic compounds (2.69 ± 0.29 g gallic acid equivalent/kg bran), tocopherols (251 ± 26 mg/kg bran) and tocotrienols (111 ± 4 mg/kg bran). The MeOH extract exhibits more effective antioxidant activity against various oxidative systems in vitro, including the inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation (33.89%), scavenging of DPPH radicals (83.88%), and reducing power. It is found that the yield, total content in phenolic compounds and tocols of the extracts increase with increasing Synder's polarity value and viscosity, which can then be used as the indices in isolation of the desired rice bran phytochemicals extracts.

  17. Antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase activities of extracts and secondary metabolites from Acacia cyanophylla

    PubMed Central

    Ghribia, Lotfi; Ghouilaa, Hatem; Omrib, Amel; Besbesb, Malek; Janneta, Hichem Ben

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antioxidant potential and anti-acetycholinesterase activity of compounds and extracts from Acacia cyanophylla (A. cyanophylla). Methods Three polyphenolic compounds were isolated from ethyl acetate extract of A. cyanophylla flowers. They have been identified as isosalipurposide 1, quercetin 2 and naringenin 3. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR experiments as well as ES-MS. The prepared extracts and the isolated compounds 1-3 were tested for their antioxidant activity using 1′-1′-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and 2,2′-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) scavenging assays and reducing power. They have been also investigated for inhibitory effect against acetylcholinesterase using the microplate assay. Results In the DPPH test, the EtOAc extract of flowers exhibited the highest antioxidant effect (67.26 µg/mL). Isosalipurposide 1 showed a significant antiradical power against DPPH (81.9 µg/mL). All extracts showed a dose-dependent acetylcholinesterase inhibition. In terms of the IC50 value, the butanolic extract (16.03 µg/mL) was the most potent sample. Isosalipurposide 1 was found to be active against AChE with an IC50 value of 52.04 µg/mL. Conclusions The results demonstrated the important antioxidant and anti-acetylcholinesterase activity of pure compounds and extracts from A. cyanophylla. PMID:25183120

  18. In vitro antitumor activity of the ethyl acetate extract of Potentilla chinensis in osteosarcoma cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wan, Guang; Tao, Jin-Gang; Wang, Guo-Dong; Liu, Shen-Peng; Zhao, Hong-Xing; Liang, Qiu-Dong

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the anticancer effect of the ethanol extract of Potentilla chinensis, a Chinese medicinal plant. An MTT assay was used to evaluate the cell viability of MG‑63 human osteosarcoma cancer cells and fR‑2 cells. Furthermore, the effect of the extract on apoptosis induction, cell cycle phase distribution and inhibition of cell migration in the MG63 human osteosarcoma cancer cell line was evaluated. The effect of the extract on cell cycle phase distribution was assessed by flow cytometry using propidium iodide (PI). Phase contrast microscopy detected the morphological changes in MG63 cancer cells following extract treatment. The results of the study demonstrated that the extract was cytotoxic to MG63 cancer cells, while the normal cell line (epithelial cell line) showed lower susceptibility. Phase contrast microscopy showed distinguishing morphological features, such as cell shrinkage and blebbing induced by the extract treatment in osteosarcoma cancer cells. The average proportion of Annexin V‑positive cells (total apoptotic cells) significantly increased from 5.6% in the control to 24.2, 38.8 and 55.7% in the 40, 80 and 150 µg/ml groups, respectively. The extract induced early and late apoptosis in the cancer cells. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the extract induced G0/G1‑cell cycle arrest, which also showed significant dose‑dependence. The extract induced a significant and concentration‑dependent reduction in cell migration. Moreover, DNA fragmentation was also examined by observation of the formation of DNA ladders. It was demonstrated that DNA fragmentation was increased with extract concentration compared with that in the control. Taken together, EEPC may serve as potential therapeutic agent against osteosarcoma, provided that the toxicity profile and in vivo investigations demonstrate that it is safe. PMID:27573158

  19. Mesoxalaldehyde acetals

    SciTech Connect

    Gordeeva, G.N.; Kalashnikov, S.M.; Popov, Yu.N.; Kruglov, E.A.; Imashev, U.B.

    1987-11-10

    The treatment of methylglyoxal acetals by alkyl nitrites in the presence of the corresponding aliphatic alcohols and hydrochloric acid leads to the formation of linear mesoxalaldehyde acetals, whose structure was established by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The major pathways for the decomposition of these molecules upon electron impact were established.

  20. Cognitive enhancing and antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis in scopolamine-induced amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Nade, Vandana S.; Kanhere, Sampat V.; Kawale, Laxman A.; Yadav, Adhikrao V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cognitive enhancing and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Materials and Methods: The learning and memory was impaired by administration of scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice which is associated with altered brain oxidative status. The object recognition test (ORT) and passive avoidance test (PAT) were used to assess cognitive enhancing activity. Animals were treated with an ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of H. sinensis (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o). Results: The ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of H. sinensis (EASF) attenuated amnesia induced by scopolamine and aging. The discrimination index (DI) was significantly decreased in the aged and scopolamine group in ORT. Pretreatment with EASF significantly increased the DI. In PAT, scopolamine-treated mice exhibited significantly shorter step-down latencies (SDL). EASF treatment showed a significant increase in SDL in young, aged as well as in scopolamine-treated animals. The biochemical analysis of brain revealed that scopolamine treatment increased lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GSH). Administration of extract significantly reduced LPO and reversed the decrease in brain SOD and GSH levels. The administration of H. sinensis improved memory in amnesic mice and prevented the oxidative stress associated with scopolamine. The mechanism of such protection of H. sinensis may be due to augmentation of cellular antioxidants. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggested that H. sinensis had a protective role against age and scopolamine-induced amnesia, indicating its utility in management of cognitive disorders. PMID:21572646

  1. Neuroprotective effects of the Phellinus linteus ethyl acetate extract against H2O2-induced apoptotic cell death of SK-N-MC cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Doo Jin; Cho, Sarang; Seo, Jeong Yeon; Lee, Hyang Burm; Park, Yong Il

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have suggested that neuronal cells are protected against oxidative stress-induced cell damage by antioxidants, such as polyphenolic compounds. Phellinus linteus (PL) has traditionally been used to treat various symptoms in East Asian countries. In the present study, we prepared an ethyl acetate extract from the fruiting bodies of PL (PLEA) using hot water extraction, ethanol precipitation, and ethyl acetate extraction. The PLEA contained polyphenols as its major chemical component, and thus, we predicted that it may exhibit antioxidant and neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress. The results showed that the pretreatment of human brain neuroblastoma SK-N-MC cells with the PLEA (0.1-5 μg/mL) significantly and dose-dependently reduced the cytotoxicity of H2O2 and the intracellular ROS levels and enhanced the expression of HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1) and antioxidant enzymes, such as CAT (catalase), GPx-1 (glutathione peroxidase-1), and SOD-1 and -2 (superoxide dismutase-1 and -2). The PLEA also directly scavenged free radicals. PLEA pretreatment also significantly attenuated DNA fragmentation and suppressed the mRNA expression and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases extracellular signal-regulated kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and p38 kinase, which are induced by oxidative stress and lead to cell death. PLEA pretreatment inhibited the activation of the apoptosis-related proteins caspase-3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. These results demonstrate that the PLEA has neuroprotective effects against oxidative stress (H2O2)-induced neuronal cell death via its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. PLEA should be investigated in an in vivo model on its potential to prevent or ameliorate neurodegenerative disease. PMID:26773779

  2. Phenolic profile and antioxidant evaluation of Mentha x piperita L. (peppermint) extracts.

    PubMed

    Dorman, H J Damien; Koşar, Müberra; Başer, K Hüsnü C; Hiltunen, Raimo

    2009-04-01

    Seven extracts were prepared from Mentha x piperita (peppermint) leaves in sequence using a Soxhlet apparatus, viz. (40-60 degrees) light petroleum (PE), dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), acetonitrile (ACN), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), methanol (MeOH), n-butanol and water (H2O) extracts. The phenolic and flavonoid content of each extract were estimated using spectrophotometric methods whilst a qualitative-quantitative analysis was made by reverse-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detection (HPLC-PDA). Each extract was assessed in a battery of six antioxidant-related assays so as to determine their iron(III) reductive, iron(II) chelating and free radical scavenging abilities. The MeOH-soluble extract contained the greatest content of total phenols and flavonoids based upon the Folin-Ciocalteu and 2-aminoethyl diphenylborate reagent data and HPLC-PDA analysis. Based upon the chromatographic and UV-spectral data, the leaves principally contained the cinnamic acid caffeic acid, the depside rosmarinic acid and flavonoids (flavones and flavanones). Eriocitrin (383.3 +/- 2.2 mg/g extract) and rosmarinic acid (381.2 +/- 1.9 mg/g extract) were the most abundant components identified within the leaves, whilst naringenin-7-O-glucoside (0.8 +/- 0.01 mg/g extract) was the least abundant component identified being found only in the EtOAc-soluble extract. The EtOAc, ACN and H2O-soluble extracts demonstrated the most potent iron(III) reductive and 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrayl, 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) and hydroxyl free radical scavenging properties; however, the H2O and CH2Cl2-soluble extracts were the most potent extracts in the beta-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching inhibition assay. In terms of iron(II) chelation--an important antioxidant property--the PE, MeOH and H2O extracts demonstrated moderate iron(II) chelating activity.

  3. Toxicity of Barringtonia racemosa (L.) Kernel Extract on Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae)

    PubMed Central

    Musman, Musri

    2010-01-01

    A number of tropical plant species have been recognised as molluscicidal plants, and Barringtonia racemosa (L.) is one of these. The toxicity effects of B. racemosa seed kernel extracts on Pomacea canaliculata were evaluated. The lethal concentration at 50% [LC50 (lower-upper limits)] values, in ppm/48 hours, were 70.71 (41.33–120.97), 94.39 (62.48–142.59), 186.84 (129.21–270.17), and 672.72 (366.57–1234.53) for the extracts withdrawn using dichloromethane (DCM), methanol (MeOH), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), heptane (hp) solvents, respectively at 95% confidence interval (C. I.). All analyses were conducted using Trimmed Spearman-Karber (TSK) program version 1.5. It is assumed that the observed biological effects of the extracts may be due to the saponins and flavonoids present in the seed. The dichloromethanic and methanolic extracts contain saponin and flavonoid substances. Therefore these extracts have shown more potent molluscicidal activity towards the tested organism compared to the remaining extracts. This observed biological activity suggests a promising role for B. racemosa in the control of P. canaliculata. PMID:24575198

  4. Toxicity of Barringtonia racemosa (L.) Kernel Extract on Pomacea canaliculata (Ampullariidae).

    PubMed

    Musman, Musri

    2010-12-01

    A number of tropical plant species have been recognised as molluscicidal plants, and Barringtonia racemosa (L.) is one of these. The toxicity effects of B. racemosa seed kernel extracts on Pomacea canaliculata were evaluated. The lethal concentration at 50% [LC50 (lower-upper limits)] values, in ppm/48 hours, were 70.71 (41.33-120.97), 94.39 (62.48-142.59), 186.84 (129.21-270.17), and 672.72 (366.57-1234.53) for the extracts withdrawn using dichloromethane (DCM), methanol (MeOH), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), heptane (hp) solvents, respectively at 95% confidence interval (C. I.). All analyses were conducted using Trimmed Spearman-Karber (TSK) program version 1.5. It is assumed that the observed biological effects of the extracts may be due to the saponins and flavonoids present in the seed. The dichloromethanic and methanolic extracts contain saponin and flavonoid substances. Therefore these extracts have shown more potent molluscicidal activity towards the tested organism compared to the remaining extracts. This observed biological activity suggests a promising role for B. racemosa in the control of P. canaliculata.

  5. Determination of imidacloprid and benzimidazole residues in fruits and vegetables by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry after ethyl acetate multiresidue extraction.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Alba, A R; Tejedor, A; Agüera, A; Contreras, M; Garrido, J

    2000-01-01

    A simple and sensitive method based on liquid chromatography-atmospheric pressure ionization-mass spectrometry is described for the determination of 4 benzimidazole pesticides (carbendazim, thiabendazole, benomyl, and thiophanate-methyl) and imidacloprid in vegetables and fruits. Food samples were typically extracted with ethyl acetate to draw the analytes into the organic phase. No cleanup step was necessary before injection into the liquid chromatographic (LC) system with electrospray mass spectrometric detection. The analytes were separated on a reversed-phase C8LC column. Limits of detection for the compounds were in the microg/L range. Results are reported for validation studies with fortified pear and tomato samples and for residues of the target compounds found in the pesticide residue monitoring program during 1998. PMID:10868600

  6. Isolation and Bioactivity Analysis of Ethyl Acetate Extract from Acer tegmentosum Using In Vitro Assay and On-Line Screening HPLC-ABTS+ System

    PubMed Central

    Song, Na-Young; Oh, You Chang; Cho, Won-Kyung; Ma, Jin Yeul

    2014-01-01

    The Acer tegmentosum (3 kg) was extracted using hot water, and the freeze-dried extract powder was partitioned successively using dichloromethane (DCM), ethyl acetate (EA), butyl alcohol (n-BuOH), and water. From the EA extract fraction (1.24 g), five phenolic compounds were isolated by the silica gel, octadecyl silica gel, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Based on spectroscopic methods such as 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR, and LC/MS the chemical structures of the compounds were confirmed as feniculin (1), avicularin (2), (+)-catechin (3), (−)-epicatechin (4), and 6′-O-galloyl salidroside (5). Moreover, a rapid on-line screening HPLC-ABTS+ system for individual bioactivity of the EA-soluble fraction (five phenolic compounds) was developed. The results indicated that compounds 1 and 2 were first isolated from the A. tegmentosum. The anti-inflammatory activities and on-line screening HPLC-ABTS+ assay method of these compounds in LPS-stimulated murine macrophages were rapid and efficient for the investigation of bioactivity of A. tegmentosum. PMID:25386382

  7. Design and Performance Testing of a DNA Extraction Assay for Sensitive and Reliable Quantification of Acetic Acid Bacteria Directly in Red Wine Using Real Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Longin, Cédric; Guilloux-Benatier, Michèle; Alexandre, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Although strategies exist to prevent AAB contamination, the increased interest for wines with low sulfite addition leads to greater AAB spoilage. Hence, there is a real need for a rapid, specific, sensitive, and reliable method for detecting these spoilage bacteria. All these requirements are met by real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (or quantitative PCR; qPCR). Here, we compare existing methods of isolating DNA and their adaptation to a red wine matrix. Two different protocols for isolating DNA and three PCR mix compositions were tested to select the best method. The addition of insoluble polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) at 1% (v/v) during DNA extraction using a protocol succeeded in eliminating PCR inhibitors from red wine. We developed a bacterial internal control which was efficient in avoiding false negative results due to decreases in the efficiency of DNA isolation and/or amplification. The specificity, linearity, repeatability, and reproducibility of the method were evaluated. A standard curve was established for the enumeration of AAB inoculated into red wines. The limit of quantification in red wine was 3.7 log AAB/mL and about 2.8 log AAB/mL when the volume of the samples was increased from 1 to 10 mL. Thus, the DNA extraction method developed in this paper allows sensitive and reliable AAB quantification without underestimation thanks to the presence of an internal control. Moreover, monitoring of both the AAB population and the amount of acetic acid in ethanol medium and red wine highlighted that a minimum about 6.0 log cells/mL of AAB is needed to significantly increase the production of acetic acid leading to spoilage. PMID:27313572

  8. Evaluation of the cytotoxic effects of Cyperus longus extract, fractions and its essential oil on the PC3 and MCF7 cancer cell lines

    PubMed Central

    MEMARIANI, TOKTAM; HOSSEINI, TOKTAM; KAMALI, HOSSEIN; MOHAMMADI, AMENEH; GHORBANI, MARYAM; SHAKERI, ABDOREZA; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; TSATSAKIS, ARISTIDIS M.; SHAHSAVAND, SHABNAM

    2016-01-01

    Cyperus longus is one of the Iranian endemic species. However, to date, and to the best of our knowledge, there are no availale academic reports on the cytotoxicity of this plant. Thus, this study was carried out to examine the in vitro anti-proliferative and anti-apoptotic effects of Cyperus longus extract, fractions and essential oil (EO) on MCF7 and PC3 cell lines. The chemical constituents of EO were identified using gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. The cells were cultured in RPMI-1640 medium and incubated with various concentrations of the plant extract and fractions. Cell viability was quantified by MTT assay following 24, 48 and 72 h of exposure to (12.5–200 µg/ml) of the methanol extract, the dichloromethane (CH2Cl2), ethyl acetate (EtOAc) and water fractions, as well as the EO of the plant. The percentage of apoptotic cells was determined using propidium iodide staining of DNA fragments by flow cytometry (sub-G1 peak). The most effective fraction in the MCF7 cell line was the CH2Cl2 fraction (IC50 after 48 h, 25.34±2.01). The EtOAc fraction (IC50 after 48 h, 35.2±2.69) and the methanol extract (IC50 after 48 h, 64.64±1.64) were also found to be effective. The IC50 values obtained for the PC3 cell line were 37.97±3.87, 51.57±3.87 and 70.33±2.36 for the CH2Cl2 fraction, the EtOAc fraction and the methanol extract, respectively. Based on these data and due to the partial polarity of the most effective fraction (the CH2Cl2 fraction), we also examined the cytotoxicity of the plant EO. The IC50 values after 48 h were 22.25±4.25 and 12.55±3.65 in the PC3 and MCF7 cell lines, respectively. DNA fragmentation assay also confirmed these data. Performing GC-MS analysis for the plant EO revealed that β-himachalene (10.81%), α-caryophyllene oxide (7.6%), irisone (4.78%), β-caryophyllene oxide (4.36%), humulene oxide (12%), viridiflorol (4.73%), aristolone (6.39%) and longiverbenone (6.04%) were the main constituents. Our results

  9. Antidepressant-like effects of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the root bark of Morus alba on the immobility behavior of rats in the forced swim test.

    PubMed

    Lim, Dong Wook; Kim, Yun Tai; Park, Ji-Hae; Baek, Nam-In; Han, Daeseok

    2014-06-12

    In this study, the antidepressant-like effects of Morus alba fractions in rats were investigated in the forced swim test (FST). Male Wistar rats (9-week-old) were administered orally the M. alba ethyl acetate (EtOAc 30 and 100 mg/kg) and M. alba n-butanol fractions (n-BuOH 30 and 100 mg/kg) every day for 7 consecutive days. On day 7, 1 h after the final administration of the fractions, the rats were exposed to the FST. M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg induced a decrease in immobility behavior (p < 0.01) with a concomitant increase in both climbing (p < 0.05) and swimming (p < 0.05) behaviors when compared with the control group, and M. alba EtOAc fraction at the dose of 100 mg/kg decreased the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis response to the stress, as indicated by an attenuated corticosterone response and decreased c-fos immunoreactivity in the hippocampal and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) region. These findings demonstrated that M. alba EtOAc fraction have beneficial effects on depressive behaviors and restore both altered c-fos expression and HPA activity.

  10. Eupafolin and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Kalanchoe gracilis Stem Extract Show Potent Antiviral Activities against Enterovirus 71 and Coxsackievirus A16

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Shun-Chueh; Lai, Zhen-Rung; Ho, Yu-Ling; Jou, Yu-Jen; Kung, Szu-Hao; Zhang, Yongjun; Chang, Yuan-Shiun; Lin, Cheng-Wen

    2013-01-01

    Enterovirus 71 (EV71) and coxsackievirus A16 (CoxA16) are main pathogens of hand-foot-and-mouth disease, occasionally causing aseptic meningitis and encephalitis in tropical and subtropical regions. Kalanchoe gracilis, Da-Huan-Hun, is a Chinese folk medicine for treating pain and inflammation, exhibiting antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. Our prior report (2012) cited K. gracilis leaf extract as moderately active against EV71 and CoxA16. This study further rates antienteroviral potential of K. gracilis stem (KGS) extract to identify potent antiviral fractions and components. The extract moderately inhibits viral cytopathicity and virus yield, as well as in vitro replication of EV71 (IC50 = 75.18 μg/mL) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 81.41 μg/mL). Ethyl acetate (EA) fraction of KGS extract showed greater antiviral activity than that of n-butanol or aqueous fraction: IC50 values of 4.21 μg/mL against EV71 and 9.08 μg/mL against CoxA16. HPLC analysis, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, and plaque reduction assay indicate that eupafolin is a vital component of EA fraction showing potent activity against EV71 (IC50 = 1.39 μM) and CoxA16 (IC50 = 5.24 μM). Eupafolin specifically lessened virus-induced upregulation of IL-6 and RANTES by inhibiting virus-induced ERK1/2, AP-1, and STAT3 signals. Anti-enteroviral potency of KGS EA fraction and eupafolin shows the clinical potential against EV71 and CoxA16 infection. PMID:24078828

  11. Phytochemical Screening, Physicochemical Properties, Acute Toxicity Testing and Screening of Hypoglycaemic Activity of Extracts of Eremurus himalaicus Baker in Normoglycaemic Wistar Strain Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Ahlam; Akbar, Seema; Zargar, Mohammad A.; Wali, Adil F.; Malik, Akhtar H.; Dar, Mohammad Y.; Hamid, Rabia; Ganai, Bashir A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present study EtOAc, MeOH, and aqueous extracts of Eremurus himalaicus were evaluated for hypoglycaemic effect in normal rats using both oral glucose tolerance test and 14-day oral administration study. Phytochemical and physicochemical screening was also done. In oral glucose tolerance test the aqueous and MeOH extracts of Eremurus himalaicus at a dose level of 500 mg/kg body weight prior to glucose load resulted in a significant fall in blood glucose level within 150 min. of glucose administration. The aqueous extract at a dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight also showed good hypoglycaemic response (P < 0.001); this was followed by MeOH extract at a dose level of 500 mg/kg body weight (P < 0.05), while MeOH extract at dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and ethyl acetate extract at dose level of 250 mg/kg body weight and 500 mg/kg body weight exhibited insignificant effect. Phytochemical screening of extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, terpenoids, phenolics, tannins, saponins, cardiac glycosides, and flavonoids. The results indicate that aqueous extract possess significant hypoglycaemic activity in normoglycaemic rats which may be attributed to the above-mentioned chemical constituents. PMID:24864262

  12. Determination of tocopherol acetate in emulsified nutritional supplements by solid-phase extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Iwase, H

    2000-06-01

    The present paper deals with a method of solid-phase extraction of tocopherol acetate (TA, 49.6 microg/g) from emulsified nutritional supplements, which contains 50 kinds of compounds, followed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorescence detection The TA concentration is 5 to approximately 100,000 times lower than that of other compounds in the samples. Measuring the loading capacity of the larger amounts of vegetable oil onto the Bond Elut C18 cartridge was examined for the complete retention of smaller level of TA. A sample solution was applied to a solid-phase extraction cartridge and then TA was eluted by acetonitrile followed by HPLC. This method was suitable for the determination of TA in emulsified nutritional supplements. The proposed method was simple, rapid (analysis time: ca. 15 min), sensitive [detection limit: ca. 0.1 ng per injection (100 microl) at a signal-to-noise ratio of 3:1], and reproducible (relative standard deviation: ca. 2.5% (n=5)). The calibration graph of TA was linear in the range of 0.1 to 100 ng per injection (100 microl). Recovery of TA was over 90% by the standard addition method.

  13. Anti-inflammatory effect of volatile oil and hydroalcoholic extract of Rosa damascena Mill. on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Latifi, Ghazal; Ghannadi, Alireza; Minaiyan, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Rosa damascena is a small plant belonging to Rosaceae family which has been used for the treatment of some inflammatory diseases and digestive disorders in the Iranian folk medicine. This study was performed to investigate the effect of R. damascena hydroalcoholic extract (RDHE) and R. damascena volatile oil (RDVO) on ulcerative colitis induced by acetic acid in rats. Different doses of RDHE (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg) and RDVO (100, 200, 400 µl/kg) were given orally (p.o.) and doses of RDHE (125, 250, 500 mg/kg) were administrated intraperitoneally (i.p.) to the male Wistar rats (n=6) 2 h before induction of colitis which continued daily for 4 successive days. Prednisolone (4 mg/kg p.o.) and dexamethasone (1 mg/kg i.p.) were used in the reference groups. Weight/length ratios of wet colon were measured and the tissues were assessed macroscopically, histopathologically, and biochemically via measuring the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Oral RDHE at all doses examined, and the lowest dose of RDVO given p.o. or RDHE administered i.p. reduced all indices of colitis measured in different assays as well as the MPO activity. These results provide encouraging support for the use of hydroalcoholic extract of R. damascena in relieving alimentary inflammatory conditions and reinforce the use of this plant to develop new agents for treating ulcerative colitis. PMID:26779271

  14. In vitro antiplasmodial activity and cytotoxicity of crude extracts and compounds from the stem bark of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth (Bignoniaceae).

    PubMed

    Zofou, Denis; Kengne, Archile Bernabe Ouambo; Tene, Mathieu; Ngemenya, Moses N; Tane, Pierre; Titanji, Vincent P K

    2011-06-01

    In order to assess the potential of the stem bark of Kigelia africana (Lam.) Benth as source of new anti-malarial leads, n-hexane and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) extracts and four compounds isolated from the stem bark were screened in vitro against the chloroquine-resistant W-2 and two field isolates of Plasmodium falciparum using lactate dehydrogenase assay. The products were also tested for their cytotoxicity on LLC/MK2 monkey kidney cells. The EtOAc extract exhibited a significant antiplasmodial activity (IC(50) = 11.15 μg/mL on W-2; 3.91 and 4.74 μg/mL on field CAM10 and SHF4 isolates, respectively), whereas the n-hexane fraction showed a weak activity (IC(50) = 73.78 μg/mL on W-2 and 21.85 μg/mL on SHF4). Three out of the four compounds showed good activity against all the three different parasite strains (IC(50) <5 μM). Specicoside exhibited the highest activity on W-2 (IC(50) = 1.54 μM) followed by 2β, 3β, 19α-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid (IC(50) = 1.60 μM) and atranorin (IC(50) = 4.41 μM), while p-hydroxycinnamic acid was the least active (IC(50) =53.84 μM). The EtOAc extract and its isolated compounds (specicoside and p-hydroxycinnamic acid) were non-cytotoxic (CC(50) > 30 μg/mL), whereas the n-hexane extract and two of its products, atranorin and 2β, 3β, 19α-trihydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid showed cytotoxicity at high concentrations, with the last one being the most toxic (CC(50) = 9.37 μg/mL). These findings justify the use of K. africana stem bark as antimalaria by traditional healers of Western Cameroon, and could constitute a good basis for further studies towards development of new leads or natural drugs for malaria. PMID:21487780

  15. Hydroethanolic extract of Baccharis trimera promotes gastroprotection and healing of acute and chronic gastric ulcers induced by ethanol and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Dos Reis Lívero, Francislaine Aparecida; da Silva, Luisa Mota; Ferreira, Daniele Maria; Galuppo, Larissa Favaretto; Borato, Debora Gasparin; Prando, Thiago Bruno Lima; Lourenço, Emerson Luiz Botelho; Strapasson, Regiane Lauriano Batista; Stefanello, Maria Élida Alves; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula; Acco, Alexandra

    2016-09-01

    Ethanol is a psychoactive substance highly consumed around the world whose health problems include gastric lesions. Baccharis trimera is used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. However, few studies have evaluated its biological and toxic effects. To validate the popular use of B. trimera and elucidate its possible antiulcerogenic and cytotoxic mechanisms, a hydroethanolic extract of B. trimera (HEBT) was evaluated in models of gastric lesions. Rats and mice were used to evaluate the protective and antiulcerogenic effects of HEBT on gastric lesions induced by ethanol, acetic acid, and chronic ethanol consumption. The effects of HEBT were also evaluated in a pylorus ligature model and on gastrointestinal motility. The LD50 of HEBT in mice was additionally estimated. HEBT was analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance, and a high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint analysis was performed. Oral HEBT administration significantly reduced the lesion area and the oxidative stress induced by acute and chronic ethanol consumption. However, HEBT did not protect against gastric wall mucus depletion and did not alter gastric secretory volume, pH, or total acidity in the pylorus ligature model. Histologically, HEBT accelerated the healing of chronic gastric ulcers in rats, reflected by contractions of the ulcer base. Flavonoids and caffeoylquinic acids were detected in HEBT, which likely contributed to the therapeutic efficacy of HEBT, preventing or reversing ethanol- and acetic acid-induced ulcers, respectively. HEBT antiulcerogenic activity may be partially attributable to the inhibition of free radical generation and subsequent prevention of lipid peroxidation. Our results indicate that HEBT has both gastroprotective and curative activity in animal models, with no toxicity. PMID:27314669

  16. Ethyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl acetate ; CASRN 141 - 78 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  17. Phenylmercuric acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phenylmercuric acetate ; CASRN 62 - 38 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  18. Vinyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Vinyl acetate ; CASRN 108 - 05 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  19. Ammonium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium acetate ; CASRN 631 - 61 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  20. Thallium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 30 , 2009 , the assessment summary for Thallium acetate is included in t

  1. Preparation and characterization of magnetic allylamine modified graphene oxide-poly(vinyl acetate-co-divinylbenzene) nanocomposite for vortex assisted magnetic solid phase extraction of some metal ions.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mansoor; Yilmaz, Erkan; Sevinc, Basak; Sahmetlioglu, Ertugrul; Shah, Jasmin; Jan, Muhammad Rasul; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic allylamine modified graphene oxide-poly(vinyl acetate-co-divinylbenzene) (MGO-DVB-VA) was synthesized and used for magnetic solid phase extraction of Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) prior to their determination by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The adsorbent surface functional group was characterized by using FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. XRD pattern was used to determine the layers of GO. Surface morphology and elemental composition of the adsorbent were evaluated by using SEM and EDX analysis. Various parameters, effecting adsorption efficiency like initial solution pH, adsorbent dose, type and volume of eluent, volume of sample and diverse ions effects were optimized. The preconcentration factor (PF) is 40 for all the metals and the limits of detection for Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni and Co are in the range of 0.37-2.39 µg L(-1) and relative standard deviation below 3.1%. The method was validated by using the method for certified reference materials (Tobacco Leaves (INCT-OBTL-5), Tomato Leaves (1573a), Certified Water (SPS-ww2) and Certified Water (TMDA 64-2)). The method was successfully applied for natural water and food samples.

  2. Ethanolic extract of roots from Arctium lappa L. accelerates the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer in rats: Involvement of the antioxidant system.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Luisa Mota; Allemand, Alexandra; Mendes, Daniel Augusto G B; Dos Santos, Ana Cristina; André, Eunice; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Cipriani, Thales Ricardo; Dartora, Nessana; Marques, Maria Consuelo Andrade; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko; Werner, Maria Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the curative efficacy of the ethanolic extract (EET) of roots from Arctium lappa (bardana) in healing of chronic gastric ulcers induced by 80% acetic acid in rats and additionally studies the possible mechanisms underlying this action. Oral administration of EET (1, 3, 10 and 30mg/kg) reduced the gastric lesion area in 29.2%, 41.4%, 59.3% and 38.5%, respectively, and at 10mg/kg promoted significant regeneration of the gastric mucosa, which was confirmed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry. EET (10mg/kg) treatment did not increase the gastric mucus content but restored the superoxide dismutase activity, prevented the reduction of glutathione levels, reduced lipid hydroperoxides levels, inhibited the myeloperoxidase activity and reduced the microvascular permeability. In addition, EET reduced the free radical generation and increased scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals in vitro. Furthermore, intraduodenal EET (10 and 30mg/kg) decreased volume and acidity of gastric secretion. Total phenolic compounds were high in EET (Folin-Ciocalteau assay) and the analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that the main compounds present in EET were a serie of hydroxycinnamoylquinic acid isomers. In conclusion, these data reveal that EET promotes regeneration of damaged gastric mucosa, probably through its antisecretory and antioxidative mechanisms.

  3. Ethanolic extract of roots from Arctium lappa L. accelerates the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer in rats: Involvement of the antioxidant system.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Luisa Mota; Allemand, Alexandra; Mendes, Daniel Augusto G B; Dos Santos, Ana Cristina; André, Eunice; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Cipriani, Thales Ricardo; Dartora, Nessana; Marques, Maria Consuelo Andrade; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko; Werner, Maria Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the curative efficacy of the ethanolic extract (EET) of roots from Arctium lappa (bardana) in healing of chronic gastric ulcers induced by 80% acetic acid in rats and additionally studies the possible mechanisms underlying this action. Oral administration of EET (1, 3, 10 and 30mg/kg) reduced the gastric lesion area in 29.2%, 41.4%, 59.3% and 38.5%, respectively, and at 10mg/kg promoted significant regeneration of the gastric mucosa, which was confirmed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry. EET (10mg/kg) treatment did not increase the gastric mucus content but restored the superoxide dismutase activity, prevented the reduction of glutathione levels, reduced lipid hydroperoxides levels, inhibited the myeloperoxidase activity and reduced the microvascular permeability. In addition, EET reduced the free radical generation and increased scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals in vitro. Furthermore, intraduodenal EET (10 and 30mg/kg) decreased volume and acidity of gastric secretion. Total phenolic compounds were high in EET (Folin-Ciocalteau assay) and the analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that the main compounds present in EET were a serie of hydroxycinnamoylquinic acid isomers. In conclusion, these data reveal that EET promotes regeneration of damaged gastric mucosa, probably through its antisecretory and antioxidative mechanisms. PMID:23036453

  4. Anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extracts of spent Pleurotus ostreatus substrates in mouse ears treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate

    PubMed Central

    Rivero-Pérez, Nallely; Ayala-Martínez, Maricela; Zepeda-Bastida, Armando; Meneses-Mayo, Marcos; Ojeda-Ramírez, Deyanira

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the application of spent Pleurotus ostreatus substrates, enriched or not with medicinal herbs, as a source of anti-inflammatory compounds. Subjects and Methods: P. ostreatus was cultivated on five different substrates: Barley straw (BS) and BS combined 80:20 with medicinal herbs (Chenopodium ambrosioides L. [BS/CA], Rosmarinus officinalis L. [BS/RO], Litsea glaucescens Kunth [BS/LG], and Tagetes lucida Cav. [BS/TL]). The anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extracts of spent mushroom substrates (SMSs) (4 mg/ear) was studied using an acute inflammation model in the mouse ear induced with 2.5 μg/ear 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol13-acetate (TPA). Results: Groups treated with BS/CA, BS/RO, and BS/LG aqueous extracts exhibited the best anti-inflammatory activity (94.0% ± 5.5%, 92.9% ± 0.6%, and 90.4% ± 5.0% inhibition of auricular edema [IAO], respectively), and these effects were significantly different (P < 0.05) from that of the positive control indomethacin (0.5 mg/ear). BS/TL and BS were also able to reduce TPA-induced inflammation but to a lesser extent (70.0% ± 6.7% and 43.5% ± 6.6% IAO, respectively). Conclusions: Spent P. ostreatus substrate of BS possesses a slight anti-inflammatory effect. The addition of CA L. to mushroom substrate showed a slightly synergistic effect while RO L. had an additive effect. In addition, LG Kunth and TL Cav. enhanced the anti-inflammatory effect of SMS. However, to determine whether there is a synergistic or additive effect, it is necessary to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of each medicinal herb. PMID:27127316

  5. Determination of organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables by an enzyme inhibition method using α-naphthyl acetate esterase extracted from wheat flour*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun-liang; Xia, Qing; Zhang, An-ping; Hu, Xiao-yan; Lin, Chun-mian

    2012-01-01

    The widespread use of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) poses a great threat to human health and has made the detection of OP residues in food an important task, especially in view of the fact that easy and rapid detection methods are needed. Because OPs have inhibitory effects on the activity of α-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) in plants, in this work we evaluated the possibility of detecting OPs in vegetables with ANAE extracted from commercial flour. The limits of detection (LODs) obtained for methamidophos, dichlorvos, phoxim, dimethoate, and malathion in lettuce samples with crude ANAE were 0.17, 0.11, 0.11, 0.96, and 1.70 mg/kg, respectively. Based on the maximum residue limits (MRLs) for OPs in food stipulated by Chinese laws which are 0.05, 0.20, 0.05, 1.00, and 8.00 mg/kg for methamidophos, dichlorvos, phoxim, dimethoate, and malathion, respectively, the esterase inhibition method with crude ANAE had sufficient sensitivity to detect the residues of dichlorvos, dimethoate, and malathion in lettuce, but it could not be used to guarantee the safety of the same samples if methamidophos or phoxim residue was present. The sensitivity of the method was improved by the use of esterase purified by ammonium sulfate salting-out. The LODs obtained for methamidophos and phoxim with purified esterase were lower than the MRLs for these OPs in food. This is a very promising method for the detection of OP residues in vegetables using crude or purified esterase because of its cheapness, sensitivity, and convenience. PMID:22467368

  6. Effect of Three-spot Seahorse Petroleum Ether Extract on Lipopolysaccharide Induced Macrophage RAW264.7 Inflammatory Cytokine Nitric Oxide and Composition Analysis.

    PubMed

    Chen, LiPing; Shen, XuanRi; Chen, GuoHua; Cao, XianYing; Yang, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Three-Spot seahorse is a traditional medicine in Asian countries. However, the alcohol extract is largely unknown for its anti-inflammatory activity. This study aimed at elucidating fraction of potent anti-inflammatory activity of seahorse. A systematic solvent extraction method of liquid-liquid fractionation of ethanol crude extract gave four fractions petroleum ether (PE), and ethyl acetate (EtOAc), water saturated butanol (n-BuOH), water (H2O). In this study, PE extract was selected for further study after preliminary screening test, and was connected to silica column chromatography and eluted with different polarity of mobile phases, and obtained four active fractions (Fr I, Fr II, Fr III, Fr IV). Effect of separated fractions on inflammation was investigated in lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated murine RAW264.7 cells in vitro. The result shows that seahorse extract was capable of inhibiting the production of nitric oxide (NO) significantly in a dose dependent manner and exhibited no notable cytotoxicity on cell viability. IC50 of fraction IV was 36.31 μg/mL, indicating that separated fraction possessed potent NO inhibitory activity against LPS-induced inflammatory response, thus, demonstrated its in vitro anti-inflammatory potentiality, it may be at least partially explained by the presence of anti-inflammation active substances, phenolic compounds, phospholipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially phospholipids and polyunsaturated fatty acids. It could be suggested that seahorse lipid-soluble components could be used in functional food and anti-inflammatory drug preparations.

  7. Morphological study of bone marrow to assess the effects of lead acetate on haemopoiesis and aplasia and the ameliorating role of Carica papaya extract.

    PubMed

    Tham, Ching S; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Haleagrahara, Nagaraja; DE Alwis, Ranjit

    2013-02-01

    Lead causes damage to the body by inducing oxidative stress. The sites of damage include the bone marrow, where marrow hypoplasia and osteosclerosis may be observed. Leaves of Carica papaya, which have antioxidant and haemopoietic properties, were tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups; control, lead acetate only, Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg), post-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) following lead acetate administration and pre-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) followed by lead acetate administration. The substances were administered for 14 days. The effects were evaluated by measuring protein carbonyl content (PCC) and glutathione content (GC) in the bone marrow. Histological changes in the bone marrow were also observed. The results showed that Carica papaya induced a significant reduction in the PCC activity and significantly increased the GC in the bone marrow. Carica papaya also improved the histology of the bone marrow compared with that of the lead acetate-treated group. In summary, Carica papaya was effective against the oxidative damage caused by lead acetate in the bone marrow and had a stimulatory effect on haemopoiesis.

  8. Morphological study of bone marrow to assess the effects of lead acetate on haemopoiesis and aplasia and the ameliorating role of Carica papaya extract

    PubMed Central

    THAM, CHING S.; CHAKRAVARTHI, SRIKUMAR; HALEAGRAHARA, NAGARAJA; DE ALWIS, RANJIT

    2013-01-01

    Lead causes damage to the body by inducing oxidative stress. The sites of damage include the bone marrow, where marrow hypoplasia and osteosclerosis may be observed. Leaves of Carica papaya, which have antioxidant and haemopoietic properties, were tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups; control, lead acetate only, Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg), post-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) following lead acetate administration and pre-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) followed by lead acetate administration. The substances were administered for 14 days. The effects were evaluated by measuring protein carbonyl content (PCC) and glutathione content (GC) in the bone marrow. Histological changes in the bone marrow were also observed. The results showed that Carica papaya induced a significant reduction in the PCC activity and significantly increased the GC in the bone marrow. Carica papaya also improved the histology of the bone marrow compared with that of the lead acetate-treated group. In summary, Carica papaya was effective against the oxidative damage caused by lead acetate in the bone marrow and had a stimulatory effect on haemopoiesis. PMID:23403524

  9. Chemical constituents and in vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Cistanche violacea Desf. (Orobanchaceae) extract.

    PubMed

    Bougandoura, Amina; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Ameddah, Souad; Scognamiglio, Monica; Mekkiou, Ratiba; Fiorentino, Antonio; Benayache, Samir; Benayache, Fadila

    2016-03-01

    A new iridoid (1) and a new phenylethanoid glycoside (4), together with five known compounds (2, 3, 5, 6 and 7), were isolated for the first time from the ethyl acetate soluble part of the hydroalcoholic extract of the aerial parts of Cistanche violacea Desf. (Orobanchaceae), an endemic species of the North of the Sahara. The structures of these compounds have been elucidated on the basis of extensive 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis, including COSY, TOCSY, NOESY, HSQC, CIGAR-HMBC, H2BC and HSQC-TOCSY. All compounds were isolated from C. violacea for the first time. The anti-inflammatory activity of the EtOAc extract of C. violacea, was investigated by using human red blood cell (HRBC) membrane stabilization and inhibition of the albumin denaturation method. This study demonstrates, for the first time the effectiveness of C. violacea in combating inflammation, this might be believed to be influenced by the synergistic action of the above isolated compounds. The present study suggests that C. violacea would serve as a source for the discovery of novel anti-inflammatory agents.

  10. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  11. Ethyl Acetate Abatement on Copper Catalysts Supported on Ceria Doped with Rare Earth Oxides.

    PubMed

    Carabineiro, Sónia Alexandra Correia; Konsolakis, Michalis; Marnellos, George Emmanouil-Nontas; Asad, Muhammad Faizan; Soares, Olívia Salomé Gonçalves Pinto; Tavares, Pedro Bandeira; Pereira, Manuel Fernando Ribeiro; Órfão, José Joaquim de Melo; Figueiredo, José Luís

    2016-01-01

    Different lanthanide (Ln)-doped cerium oxides (Ce0.5Ln0.5O1.75, where Ln: Gd, La, Pr, Nd, Sm) were loaded with Cu (20 wt. %) and used as catalysts for the oxidation of ethyl acetate (EtOAc), a common volatile organic compound (VOC). For comparison, both Cu-free (Ce-Ln) and supported Cu (Cu/Ce-Ln) samples were characterized by N₂ adsorption at -196 °C, scanning/transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature programmed reduction in H₂. The following activity sequence, in terms of EtOAc conversion, was found for bare supports: CeO₂ ≈ Ce0.5Pr0.5O1.75 > Ce0.5Sm0.5O1.75 > Ce0.5Gd0.5O1.75 > Ce0.5Nd0.5O1.75 > Ce0.5La0.5O1.75. Cu addition improved the catalytic performance, without affecting the activity order. The best catalytic performance was obtained for Cu/CeO₂ and Cu/Ce0.5Pr0.5O1.75 samples, both achieving complete EtOAc conversion below ca. 290 °C. A strong correlation was revealed between the catalytic performance and the redox properties of the samples, in terms of reducibility and lattice oxygen availability. Νo particular correlation between the VOC oxidation performance and textural characteristics was found. The obtained results can be explained in terms of a Mars-van Krevelen type redox mechanism involving the participation of weakly bound (easily reduced) lattice oxygen and its consequent replenishment by gas phase oxygen.

  12. Ethyl Acetate Abatement on Copper Catalysts Supported on Ceria Doped with Rare Earth Oxides.

    PubMed

    Carabineiro, Sónia Alexandra Correia; Konsolakis, Michalis; Marnellos, George Emmanouil-Nontas; Asad, Muhammad Faizan; Soares, Olívia Salomé Gonçalves Pinto; Tavares, Pedro Bandeira; Pereira, Manuel Fernando Ribeiro; Órfão, José Joaquim de Melo; Figueiredo, José Luís

    2016-01-01

    Different lanthanide (Ln)-doped cerium oxides (Ce0.5Ln0.5O1.75, where Ln: Gd, La, Pr, Nd, Sm) were loaded with Cu (20 wt. %) and used as catalysts for the oxidation of ethyl acetate (EtOAc), a common volatile organic compound (VOC). For comparison, both Cu-free (Ce-Ln) and supported Cu (Cu/Ce-Ln) samples were characterized by N₂ adsorption at -196 °C, scanning/transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature programmed reduction in H₂. The following activity sequence, in terms of EtOAc conversion, was found for bare supports: CeO₂ ≈ Ce0.5Pr0.5O1.75 > Ce0.5Sm0.5O1.75 > Ce0.5Gd0.5O1.75 > Ce0.5Nd0.5O1.75 > Ce0.5La0.5O1.75. Cu addition improved the catalytic performance, without affecting the activity order. The best catalytic performance was obtained for Cu/CeO₂ and Cu/Ce0.5Pr0.5O1.75 samples, both achieving complete EtOAc conversion below ca. 290 °C. A strong correlation was revealed between the catalytic performance and the redox properties of the samples, in terms of reducibility and lattice oxygen availability. Νo particular correlation between the VOC oxidation performance and textural characteristics was found. The obtained results can be explained in terms of a Mars-van Krevelen type redox mechanism involving the participation of weakly bound (easily reduced) lattice oxygen and its consequent replenishment by gas phase oxygen. PMID:27196886

  13. Dual stimulus-dependent effect of Oenothera paradoxa extract on the respiratory burst in human leukocytes: suppressing for Escherichia coli and phorbol myristate acetate and stimulating for formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Burzynska-Pedziwiatr, Izabela; Bukowiecka-Matusiak, Malgorzata; Wojcik, Marzena; Machala, Waldemar; Bienkiewicz, Malgorzata; Spolnik, Grzegorz; Danikiewicz, Witold; Wozniak, Lucyna Alicja

    2014-01-01

    Although a growing body of evidence suggests that plant polyphenols can modulate human immune responses, their simultaneous action on monocyte and neutrophil oxidative burst is currently poorly understood. Based on the hypothesis that various polyphenols contained in plant extracts might affect the oxidative burst of phagocytes, we evaluated the effects of ethanolic O. paradoxa extract polyphenols on monocyte and neutrophil oxidative burst in vitro activated by different stimuli, including opsonized bacteria E. coli, phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA), and formyl-methionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (fMLP). Samples were analyzed by the dihydrorhodamine flow cytometry assay. Our results showed that the extract repressed significantly and dose-dependently reactive oxygen species production in both cell types stimulated with E. coli and PMA (P < 0.05) and its inhibitory efficiency was stimulus- and cell-type-dependent. Interestingly, there was significant stimulatory effect of the extract on bursting phagocytes induced by fMLP (P < 0.05). Additionally, several flavonoids and phenolic compounds as well as penta-galloyl-β-(D)-glucose (PGG), the representative of hydrolyzable tannins, were identified in the 60% extract by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled to electrospray ionization in negative ion mode. In summary, the ethanolic O. paradoxa extract, rich in flavonoids and phenolic compounds, exhibits dual stimulus-dependent effect on the respiratory burst in human leukocytes; hence, it might affect immune responses in humans. PMID:25298860

  14. Identification of tanshinones and their metabolites in rat bile after oral administration of TTE-50, a standardized extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza by HPLC-ESI-DAD-MSn.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jiang-Hao; Yang, Min; Wang, Xiao-Ming; Xu, Man; Liu, Ai-Hua; Guo, De-An

    2007-06-28

    TTE-50 is a standardized extract of Salvia miltiorrhiza which mainly consisted of tanshinones. A sensitive and specific method using liquid chromatography-diode array detection-electrospray ionization (ESI) ion trap mass spectrometry was established for the study of the constituents and metabolites of TTE-50 in rat bile sample after oral administration. The bile samples were extracted with ethyl acetate (EtOAc) of three-fold volume for three times. The chromatographic separation was carried out on a Zorbax Extend-C18 column with a gradient elution program whereas acetonitrile-water was used as mobile phase. Mass spectra were acquired in positive ionization mode and data-dependant scan was used for the identification of the tanshinones and metabolites in the bile samples. Identification and structural elucidation of the tanshinones and their metabolites in bile samples were performed by comparing their retention-times and full scan MS(n) spectra with those of reference compounds and data in the literatures. Sixteen tanshinones in TTE-50 along with seventeen phase I metabolites were identified simultaneously. The metabolic modification could take place in the C-4 side chain of tanshinone IIA, from methyl to primary alcohol, then to aldehyde group was proposed for the first time. The established method was valuable for the study of the metabolism of complex system such as herbal extracts or traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) formula. PMID:17174509

  15. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016.

  16. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016. PMID:27090191

  17. 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate as an inhibitor of phagocytosis of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, N; Kataoka, T; Tajika, T; Uramoto, M; Magae, J; Nagai, K

    1995-08-01

    We screened extracts of edible plants for inhibitors of phagocytosis by peritoneal exudate macrophages. 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate was isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Languas galanga, and this compound strongly inhibited phagocytosis at an IC50 value of 1.2 microM with negligible effects on pinocytosis and cell viability. Target(s) of 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate was suggested to be downstream of the signal transduction pathway that is mediated by protein kinase C.

  18. Ethyl acetate extract from marine sponge Hyattella cribriformis exhibit potent anticancer activity by promoting tubulin polymerization as evidenced mitotic arrest and induction of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Annamalai, Pazhanimuthu; Thayman, Malini; Rajan, Sowmiya; Raman, Lakshmi Sundaram; Ramasubbu, Sankar; Perumal, Pachiappan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Marine sponges are important sources of bioactive compounds. Objective: This study investigated the anticancer properties of Hyattella cribriformis ethyl acetate (EA) fraction in various cancer and normal cell lines. Materials and Methods: anticancer assay was carried out in 15 cell lines to evaluate the anticancer potential of the EA fraction. Impact on cell cycle distribution was determined using flow cytometry. The fraction was investigated for interfering microtubules assembly in both in vitro and cellular assay. Further studies were conducted to determine the fraction induced cell death (apoptosis) using calcein/propidium iodide dual staining, activated caspase-3 and phosphorylation of Bcl-2 protein at Ser70. DNA fragmentation assay was performed to confirm the apoptosis. Results: EA fraction exhibited potent inhibition of cancer cell growth and resulted in 50% growth inhibition (GI50) of 0.27 μg/mL in A673 cell line. Sarcoma (MG-63, Saos-2) and ovarian (SK-OV-3 and OVCAR-3) cancer cell lines also showed superior anticancer activity GI50 of 1.0 μg/mL. Colon and breast cancer cell lines exhibited moderate GI compare other cancer cell lines and normal human lung fibroblast showed GI50 of 15.6 μg/mL. EA fraction showed potent G2/M phase arrest in A673 cell line and induced apoptosis at 48 h exposure. EA fraction promoted microtubule polymerization in tubulin polymerization assay and increased level of polymerized tubulin in the HeLa cells. Fraction induced the activation of caspase-3 and phosphorylation of Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic protein. Fraction induced DNA fragmentation in HeLa cells as evidence of apoptosis. Conclusion: Marine sponge H. cribriformis EA fraction exhibited potent anticancer activity through tubulin polymerization and induction of apoptosis. PMID:25829774

  19. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

  20. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, Gerald Charles; Zoeller, Joseph Robert; Depew, Leslie Sharon

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  1. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-03-24

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  2. Acetate concentrations and oxidation in salt marsh sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Acetate concentrations and rates of acetate oxidation and sulfate reduction were measured in S. alterniflora sediments in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Pore water extracted from cores by squeezing or centrifugation contained in greater than 0.1 mM acetate and, in some instances, greater than 1.0 mM. Pore water sampled nondestructively contained much less acetate, often less than 0.01 mM. Acetate was associated with roots, and concentrations varied with changes in plant physiology. Acetate turnover was very low whether whole core or slurry incubations were used. Radiotracers injected directly into soils yielded rates of sulfate reduction and acetate oxidation not significantly different from core incubation techniques. Regardless of incubation method, acetate oxidation did not account for a substantial percentage of sulfate reduction. These results differ markedly from data for unvegetated coastal sediments where acetate levels are low, oxidation rate constants are high, and acetate oxication rates greatly exceed rates of sulfate reduction. The discrepancy between rates of acetate oxidation and sulfate reduction in these marsh soils may be due either to the utilization of substrates other than acetate by sulfate reducers or artifacts associated with measurements of organic utilization by rhizosphere bacteria. Care must be taken when interpreting data from salt marsh sediments since the release of material from roots during coring may affect the concentrations of certain compounds as well as influencing results obtained when sediment incubations are employed.

  3. Experimental evidence of an acetate transporter protein and characterization of acetate activation in aceticlastic methanogenesis of Methanosarcina mazei.

    PubMed

    Welte, Cornelia; Kröninger, Lena; Deppenmeier, Uwe

    2014-10-01

    Aceticlastic methanogens metabolize acetate to methane and carbon dioxide. The central metabolism and the electron transport chains of these organisms have already been investigated. However, no particular attention has been paid to the mechanism by which acetate enters the archaeal cell. In our study we investigated Methanosarcina mazei acetate kinase (Ack) and the acetate uptake reaction. At a concentration of 2 mM acetate, the Ack activity in cell extract of M. mazei was not limiting for the methane formation rate. Instead, the methanogenesis rate was controlled by the substrate concentration and increased 10-fold at 10 mM acetate. Subsequently, we analyzed the involvement of the putative acetate permease MM_0903 using a corresponding deletion mutant. At 2 mM acetate, only 25% of the wild-type methane formation rate was measured in the mutant. This indicated that the supply of acetate to Ack was limiting the rate of methane formation. Moreover, the mutant revealed an increased acetate kinase activity compared with the wild type. These results show for the first time that an acetate transporter is involved in aceticlastic methanogenesis and may be an important factor in the acetate threshold concentration for methanogenesis of Methanosarcina spp. PMID:25088360

  4. Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-05-01

    In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid.

  5. The Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Addition of Rosemary Extract, Sodium Acetate and Calcium Lactate Mixture on the Quality of Pre-cooked Hamburger Patties during Refrigerated Storage

    PubMed Central

    Muhlisin; Kang, Sun Moon; Choi, Won Hee; Lee, Keun Taik; Cheong, Sung Hee; Lee, Sung Ki

    2013-01-01

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP; 30% CO2+70% N2 or 100% N2) and an additive mixture (500 ppm rosemary extract, 3,000 ppm sodium acetate and 1,500 ppm calcium lactate) on the quality of pre-cooked hamburger patties during storage at 5°C for 14 d was evaluated. The addition of the additive mixture reduced aerobic and anaerobic bacteria counts in both 30% CO2-MAP (30% CO2+70% N2) and 100% N2-MAP (p<0.05). The 30% CO2-MAP was more effective to suppress the microbial growth than 100% N2-MAP, moreover the 30% CO2-MAP combined with additive mixture resulted in the lowest bacterial counts. The hamburger patties with additive mixture showed lower CIE L* and CIE a*, and higher CIE b* than those with no additive mixture. The 30% CO2-MAP tended to decrease the TBARS during storage regardless of the addition of additives. The use of 30% CO2-MAP in combination with additives mixture was effective for maintaining the quality and extending the shelf-life of pre-cooked hamburger patties. PMID:25049716

  6. Chrysin, Abundant in Morinda citrifolia Fruit Water-EtOAc Extracts, Combined with Apigenin Synergistically Induced Apoptosis and Inhibited Migration in Human Breast and Liver Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Huang, Cheng; Wei, Yu-Xuan; Shen, Ma-Ching; Tu, Yu-Hsuan; Wang, Chia-Chi; Huang, Hsiu-Chen

    2016-06-01

    The composition of Morinda citrifolia (M. citrifolia) was determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and the anticancer effects of M. citrifolia extract evaluated in HepG2, Huh7, and MDA-MB-231 cancer cells. M. citrifolia fruit extracts were obtained by using five different organic solvents, including hexane (Hex), methanol (MeOH), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), chloroform (CHCl3), and ethanol (EtOH). The water-EtOAc extracts from M. citrifolia fruits was found to have the highest anticancer activity. HPLC data revealed the predominance of chrysin in water-EtOAc extracts of M. citrifolia fruit. Furthermore, the combined effects of cotreatment with apigenin and chrysin on liver and breast cancer were investigated. Treatment with apigenin plus chrysin for 72-96 h reduced HepG2 and MDA-MB-231 cell viability and induced apoptosis through down-regulation of S-phase kinase-associated protein-2 (Skp2) and low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 6 (LRP6) expression. However, the combination treatment for 36 h synergistically decreased MDA-MB-231 cell motility but not cell viability through down-regulation of MMP2, MMP9, fibronectin, and snail in MDA-MB-231 cells. Additionally, chrysin combined with apigenin also suppressed tumor growth in human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells xenograft through down-regulation of ki-67 and Skp2 protein. The experimental results showed that chrysin combined with apigenin can reduce HepG2 and MDA-MB-231 proliferation and cell motility and induce apoptosis. It also offers opportunities for exploring new drug targets, and further investigations are underway in this regard.

  7. Induction of Apoptosis in MCF-7 Cells via Oxidative Stress Generation, Mitochondria-Dependent and Caspase-Independent Pathway by Ethyl Acetate Extract of Dillenia suffruticosa and Its Chemical Profile

    PubMed Central

    Tor, Yin Sim; Yazan, Latifah Saiful; Foo, Jhi Biau; Wibowo, Agustono; Ismail, Norsharina; Cheah, Yoke Kqueen; Abdullah, Rasedee; Ismail, Maznah; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Yeap, Swee Keong

    2015-01-01

    Dillenia suffruticosa, which is locally known as Simpoh air, has been traditionally used to treat cancerous growth. The ethyl acetate extract of D. suffruticosa (EADs) has been shown to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells in our previous study. The present study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in EADs-induced apoptosis and to identify the major compounds in the extract. EADs was found to promote oxidative stress in MCF-7 cells that led to cell death because the pre-treatment with antioxidants α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of the extract (P<0.05). DCFH-DA assay revealed that treatment with EADs attenuated the generation of intracellular ROS. Apoptosis induced by EADs was not inhibited by the use of caspase-inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK, suggesting that the cell death is caspase-independent. The use of JC-1 dye reflected that EADs caused disruption in the mitochondrial membrane potential. The related molecular pathways involved in EADs-induced apoptosis were determined by GeXP multiplex system and Western blot analysis. EADs is postulated to induce cell cycle arrest that is p53- and p21-dependent based on the upregulated expression of p53 and p21 (P<0.05). The expression of Bax was upregulated with downregulation of Bcl-2 following treatment with EADs. The elevated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential suggest that EADs-induced apoptosis is mitochondria-dependent. The expression of oxidative stress-related AKT, p-AKT, ERK, and p-ERK was downregulated with upregulation of JNK and p-JNK. The data indicate that induction of oxidative-stress related apoptosis by EADs was mediated by inhibition of AKT and ERK, and activation of JNK. The isolation of compounds in EADs was carried out using column chromatography and elucidated using the nuclear resonance magnetic analysis producing a total of six compounds including 3-epimaslinic acid, kaempferol, kaempferide, protocatechuic

  8. Induction of Apoptosis in MCF-7 Cells via Oxidative Stress Generation, Mitochondria-Dependent and Caspase-Independent Pathway by Ethyl Acetate Extract of Dillenia suffruticosa and Its Chemical Profile.

    PubMed

    Tor, Yin Sim; Yazan, Latifah Saiful; Foo, Jhi Biau; Wibowo, Agustono; Ismail, Norsharina; Cheah, Yoke Kqueen; Abdullah, Rasedee; Ismail, Maznah; Ismail, Intan Safinar; Yeap, Swee Keong

    2015-01-01

    Dillenia suffruticosa, which is locally known as Simpoh air, has been traditionally used to treat cancerous growth. The ethyl acetate extract of D. suffruticosa (EADs) has been shown to induce apoptosis in MCF-7 breast cancer cells in our previous study. The present study aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in EADs-induced apoptosis and to identify the major compounds in the extract. EADs was found to promote oxidative stress in MCF-7 cells that led to cell death because the pre-treatment with antioxidants α-tocopherol and ascorbic acid significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of the extract (P<0.05). DCFH-DA assay revealed that treatment with EADs attenuated the generation of intracellular ROS. Apoptosis induced by EADs was not inhibited by the use of caspase-inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK, suggesting that the cell death is caspase-independent. The use of JC-1 dye reflected that EADs caused disruption in the mitochondrial membrane potential. The related molecular pathways involved in EADs-induced apoptosis were determined by GeXP multiplex system and Western blot analysis. EADs is postulated to induce cell cycle arrest that is p53- and p21-dependent based on the upregulated expression of p53 and p21 (P<0.05). The expression of Bax was upregulated with downregulation of Bcl-2 following treatment with EADs. The elevated Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and the depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential suggest that EADs-induced apoptosis is mitochondria-dependent. The expression of oxidative stress-related AKT, p-AKT, ERK, and p-ERK was downregulated with upregulation of JNK and p-JNK. The data indicate that induction of oxidative-stress related apoptosis by EADs was mediated by inhibition of AKT and ERK, and activation of JNK. The isolation of compounds in EADs was carried out using column chromatography and elucidated using the nuclear resonance magnetic analysis producing a total of six compounds including 3-epimaslinic acid, kaempferol, kaempferide, protocatechuic

  9. An ethyl acetate fraction derived from Houttuynia cordata extract inhibits the production of inflammatory markers by suppressing NF-кB and MAPK activation in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Houttuynia cordata Thunb. (Saururaceae) has been used in traditional medicine for treatment of inflammatory diseases. This study evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of an ethyl acetate fraction derived from a Houttuynia cordata extract (HCE-EA) on the production of inflammatory mediators and the activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages. Methods To measure the effects of HCE-EA on pro-inflammatory cytokine and inflammatory mediator’s expression in RAW 264.7 cells, we used the following methods: cell viability assay, Griess reagent assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting analysis. Results HCE-EA downregulated nitric oxide (NO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin (IL-6) production in the cells, as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression. Furthermore, HCE-EA suppressed nuclear translocation of the NF-κB p65 subunit, which correlated with an inhibitory effect on IκBα (nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells inhibitor, alpha) phosphorylation. HCE-EA also attenuated the activation of MAPKs (p38 and JNK). Conclusions Our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory properties of HCE-EA may stem from the inhibition of pro-inflammatory mediators via suppression of NF-κB and MAPK signaling pathways. PMID:25012519

  10. Methane from acetate.

    PubMed

    Ferry, J G

    1992-09-01

    The general features are known for the pathway by which most methane is produced in nature. All acetate-utilizing methanogenic microorganisms contain CODH which catalyzes the cleavage of acetyl-CoA; however, the pathway differs from all other acetate-utilizing anaerobes in that the methyl group is reduced to methane with electrons derived from oxidation of the carbonyl group of acetyl-CoA to CO2. The current understanding of the methanogenic fermentation of acetate provides impressions of nature's novel solutions to problems of methyl transfer, electron transport, and energy conservation. The pathway is now at a level of understanding that will permit productive investigations of these and other interesting questions in the near future. PMID:1512186

  11. Toxic effects of neem cake extracts on Aedes albopictus (Skuse) larvae.

    PubMed

    Nicoletti, Marcello; Serafini, Mauro; Aliboni, Andrea; D'Andrea, Armando; Mariani, Susanna

    2010-06-01

    In order to investigate its insecticide potential, the neem cake methanol extract was first analyzed and then separated by different solvents. The high-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the neem cake methanol extract still contained relevant quantities of nortriterpenes. Fractions of increasing polarity were obtained from the separation process: hexane fraction (Hp), EtOAc fraction (Ep), n-BuOH fraction (Bp), and aqueous fraction (Wp). The activity of the fractions on Aedes albopictus (Skuse) eggs and larvae was tested, and the Ep fraction exhibits the most relevant larvicide effect. The nuclear magnetic resonance fingerprint analysis of this phytocomplex isolated on EtOAc fraction was performed. The larvicidal effectiveness of the phytocomplex isolated on EtOAc, compared to that of pure and commercial azadirachtin solutions of different concentrations, was checked. The results showed that the activity of the phytocomplex, as a whole, was significantly higher than those of isolated compound solutions. As a consequence, the neem cake is a promising low-cost, easily available on the market, and natural resource to develop a new bioinsecticide, mainly in developing countries.

  12. Antioxidant activities of Lampaya medicinalis extracts and their main chemical constituents

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Lampaya medicinalis Phil. (Verbenaceae) is a plant used by Aymara and Quechua ethnic groups from Northern Chile as folk medicine in the treatment and cure of various diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vitro antioxidant activity, total phenols content, total flavonoids content, total antioxidant activity, reducing power, brine shrimp cytotoxicity and identify the principal chemical constituents. Methods The crude hydroethanolic extract (HEE) and its partitioned fraction: hexane (HF), dichloromethane (DF), ethyl acetate (EAF), n-butanol (BF) and soluble residual aqueous fraction (RWF) were evaluated for their antioxidant activity using different assays namely, DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, β-carotene bleaching assay. The content of total phenolics and total flavonoids were measured by Folin-Ciocalteau and by the AlCl3 colorimetric method, respectively. Reducing power was determined by phosphomolybdate and hexacyanoferrate (III) methods. Biotoxicity assays were performed on shrimps of Artemia salina. The EAF was fractionated using chromatographic methods. Results Considerable amount of phenolic and flavonoid contents were recorded in the hydroethanolic extract (HEE) and its derived fractions. Although HEE and all its derived fractions exhibited good antioxidant activities, the most distinguished radical scavenging potential was observed for ethyl acetate fraction (EAF). EAF showed the higher radical scavenging activity by DPPH (95%) and by ABTS (98%), antioxidant activity by FRAP (158.18 ± 5.79 mg equivalent Trolox/g fraction), β-carotene bleaching assay (86.8%), the highest total phenols content (101.26 ± 1.07 mg GAE/g fraction), the highest total flavonoids content (66.26 ± 3.31 μg quercetin/g fraction). The EAF extract showed an reducing power of 78% and 65% using the phosphomolybdate and hexacyanoferrate (III) assays, respectively. Four flavonoids, two p-hydroxyacetophenone derivatives and one iridoid were isolated from Lampaya

  13. Estrogenic activities of extracts of Chinese licorice (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) root in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chunyan; Liu, Huaqing; Du, Juan; Mo, Baoqing; Qi, Hong; Wang, Xinru; Ye, Shengai; Li, Zhong

    2009-02-01

    Despite the wide use of Chinese licorice root (Glycyrrhiza uralensis) for the treatment of menopausal complaints, little is known on its potential estrogenic properties, and available information relative to its effects on cell proliferation is contradictory. In this study, the estrogenic properties of licorice root were evaluated in vitro by use of several assays. The effects of increasing concentrations of a DMSO extract of licorice root on the growth of MCF-7 breast cancer cells were biphasic. The extract showed an ER-dependent growth-promoting effect at low concentrations and an ER-independent anti-proliferative activity at high concentrations. In further experiments, licorice root was sequentially extracted to yield four fractions: hexane, EtOAc, methanol and H(2)O. Only the EtOAc extract had effects on cell proliferation similar to the DMSO extract. The hexane extract had no effect on cell growth. In contrast, the methanol and water extracts showed an ER-independent, growth-promoting effect. Similar to its effects on cell proliferation, the EtOAc extract had a biphasic effect on S phase cell cycle distribution and the level of PCNA protein. This extract-induced transactivation of endogenous ERalpha in MCF-7 cells, supported by inducing down-regulation of ERalpha protein and mRNA levels, and up-regulation of ERalpha target genes pS2 and GREB1. These results suggest that the activity of licorice root and the balance between increased risk for cancer and prevention of estrogen-dependent breast cancer may depend on the amount of dietary intake.

  14. Acetate Production by Methanogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Westermann, Peter; Ahring, Birgitte K.; Mah, Robert A.

    1989-01-01

    Methanosarcina barkeri MS and 227 and Methanosarcina mazei S-6 produced acetate when grown on H2-CO2, methanol, or trimethylamine. Marked differences in acetate production by the two bacterial species were found, even though methane and cell yields were nearly the same. M. barkeri produced 30 to 75 μmol of acetate per mmol of CH4 formed, but M. mazei produced only 8 to 9 μmol of acetate per mmol of CH4. PMID:16348006

  15. Acetate dependence of tumors.

    PubMed

    Comerford, Sarah A; Huang, Zhiguang; Du, Xinlin; Wang, Yun; Cai, Ling; Witkiewicz, Agnes K; Walters, Holly; Tantawy, Mohammed N; Fu, Allie; Manning, H Charles; Horton, Jay D; Hammer, Robert E; McKnight, Steven L; Tu, Benjamin P

    2014-12-18

    Acetyl-CoA represents a central node of carbon metabolism that plays a key role in bioenergetics, cell proliferation, and the regulation of gene expression. Highly glycolytic or hypoxic tumors must produce sufficient quantities of this metabolite to support cell growth and survival under nutrient-limiting conditions. Here, we show that the nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA synthetase enzyme, ACSS2, supplies a key source of acetyl-CoA for tumors by capturing acetate as a carbon source. Despite exhibiting no gross deficits in growth or development, adult mice lacking ACSS2 exhibit a significant reduction in tumor burden in two different models of hepatocellular carcinoma. ACSS2 is expressed in a large proportion of human tumors, and its activity is responsible for the majority of cellular acetate uptake into both lipids and histones. These observations may qualify ACSS2 as a targetable metabolic vulnerability of a wide spectrum of tumors.

  16. Studies on antimicrobial activity of Poncirus trifoliata ethyl extract fraction against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and to elucidate its antibacterial mechanism.

    PubMed

    Eom, Sung-Hwan; Jung, Yeoun-Joong; Lee, Dae-Sung; Yim, Mi-Jin; Kim, Hye Seon; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Myeong, Jeong-In; Lee, Jinhwan; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Kim, Kyoung-Ho; Lee, Myung-Suk; Kim, Young-Mog

    2016-01-01

    Traditional medicinal plants contain a wide variety of chemicals that have potent antibacterial activity. To find an alternative agent of overcoming the problems of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), the antibacterial mechanism of Ponciruss trifoliata against MRSA was investigated. Ethyl acetate (EtOAc)-soluble extract of P. trifoliata methanolic extract was evaluated for antibacterial activity using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). An EtOAc sub-fraction 08 (EA08) from silica-gel open column chromatography exhibited strong anti-MRSA activity. Apart from the study to isolate single compound from EA08, a synergistic antibacterial effect between the sub-fraction and β-lactam antibiotics against MRSA was determined. In order to elucidate the antibacterial restoring mechanism of EA08 on MRSA, mRNA expression of mecA gene and production penicillin-binding protein 2a (PBP2a) encoded by mecA gene were monitored. EA 08 showed the strongest antibacterial activity with MIC value of 256 μg ml(-1). MIC of oxacillin against MRSA was dramatically reduced from 512 to 16 μg ml(-1) in combination with 256 μg ml(-1) of EA08. The fractional inhibitory concentration index of oxacillin was measured at 0.53 in combination with EA08 against MRSA, suggesting that EA08-oxacillin combinations exert synergetic effect against MRSA. The analysis of RT-PCR and Western blotting profiles revealed that EA08 inhibited mRNA expression of mecA gene and production PBP2a, which is a key determinant for β-lactam antibiotic resistance, in a dose-dependent manner. These results indicated that EA08 eventually led to the reduction or inhibition of PBP2a production through translational inhibition in MRSA.

  17. Computerized image analysis for acetic acid induced intraepithelial lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjing; Ferris, Daron G.; Lieberman, Rich W.

    2008-03-01

    Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) exhibits certain morphologic features that can be identified during a visual inspection exam. Immature and dysphasic cervical squamous epithelium turns white after application of acetic acid during the exam. The whitening process occurs visually over several minutes and subjectively discriminates between dysphasic and normal tissue. Digital imaging technologies allow us to assist the physician analyzing the acetic acid induced lesions (acetowhite region) in a fully automatic way. This paper reports a study designed to measure multiple parameters of the acetowhitening process from two images captured with a digital colposcope. One image is captured before the acetic acid application, and the other is captured after the acetic acid application. The spatial change of the acetowhitening is extracted using color and texture information in the post acetic acid image; the temporal change is extracted from the intensity and color changes between the post acetic acid and pre acetic acid images with an automatic alignment. The imaging and data analysis system has been evaluated with a total of 99 human subjects and demonstrate its potential to screening underserved women where access to skilled colposcopists is limited.

  18. Gas-Phase Structures of Ketene and Acetic Acid from Acetic Anhydride Using Very-High-Temperature Gas Electron Diffraction.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Sandra J; Noble-Eddy, Robert; Masters, Sarah L

    2016-03-31

    The gas-phase molecular structure of ketene has been determined using samples generated by the pyrolysis of acetic anhydride (giving acetic acid and ketene), using one permutation of the very-high-temperature (VHT) inlet nozzle system designed and constructed for the gas electron diffraction (GED) apparatus based at the University of Canterbury. The gas-phase structures of acetic anhydride, acetic acid, and ketene are presented and compared to previous electron diffraction and microwave spectroscopy data to show improvements in data extraction and manipulation with current methods. Acetic anhydride was modeled with two conformers, rather than a complex dynamic model as in the previous study, to allow for inclusion of multiple pyrolysis products. The redetermined gas-phase structure of acetic anhydride (obtained using the structure analysis restrained by ab initio calculations for electron diffraction method) was compared to that from the original study, providing an improvement on the description of the low vibrational torsions compared to the dynamic model. Parameters for ketene and acetic acid (both generated by the pyrolysis of acetic anhydride) were also refined with higher accuracy than previously reported in GED studies, with structural parameter comparisons being made to prior experimental and theoretical studies. PMID:26916368

  19. Gas-Phase Structures of Ketene and Acetic Acid from Acetic Anhydride Using Very-High-Temperature Gas Electron Diffraction.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Sandra J; Noble-Eddy, Robert; Masters, Sarah L

    2016-03-31

    The gas-phase molecular structure of ketene has been determined using samples generated by the pyrolysis of acetic anhydride (giving acetic acid and ketene), using one permutation of the very-high-temperature (VHT) inlet nozzle system designed and constructed for the gas electron diffraction (GED) apparatus based at the University of Canterbury. The gas-phase structures of acetic anhydride, acetic acid, and ketene are presented and compared to previous electron diffraction and microwave spectroscopy data to show improvements in data extraction and manipulation with current methods. Acetic anhydride was modeled with two conformers, rather than a complex dynamic model as in the previous study, to allow for inclusion of multiple pyrolysis products. The redetermined gas-phase structure of acetic anhydride (obtained using the structure analysis restrained by ab initio calculations for electron diffraction method) was compared to that from the original study, providing an improvement on the description of the low vibrational torsions compared to the dynamic model. Parameters for ketene and acetic acid (both generated by the pyrolysis of acetic anhydride) were also refined with higher accuracy than previously reported in GED studies, with structural parameter comparisons being made to prior experimental and theoretical studies.

  20. Acetal phosphatidic acids: novel platelet aggregating agents.

    PubMed

    Brammer, J P; Maguire, M H; Walaszek, E J; Wiley, R A

    1983-05-01

    induce platelet aggregation per se by direct action at the platelet membrane, and that the acetal function is of primary importance in their potent platelet-stimulating activity. Moreover, as the acetal phosphatidic acids are the major components of the smooth muscle-contracting acidic phospholipid tissue extract ;Darmstoff' (Vogt, 1949), their potent platelet-aggregating properties may be of physiological or pathological significance.

  1. Fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues from sheep amd calves implanted with tritium-labeled trenbolone acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Evrard, P.; Maghuin-Rogister, G.; Rico, A.G. )

    1989-06-01

    In order to study the fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues, two groups of six animals from two ruminant species (ewes and calves) were implanted with (3H)trenbolone acetate. The distribution of extractable radioactive residues was measured in liver, kidney and muscle. We found that the largest proportion of residues was not extractable and thus was considered as covalently bound residues. The proportion of the main extractable metabolites (17 alpha-trenbolone, trendione, 17 beta-trenbolone) was measured. The evaluation of the distribution of trenbolone acetate metabolites directly soluble in water showed that unknown metabolite(s) were predominant. The covalent binding to nucleic acids was measured. It was so low that it was not detectable. The results are discussed in light of the data presented in the scientific report on anabolic agents in animal production from the European scientific working group.

  2. Delineation of myocardial oxygen utilization with carbon-11-labeled acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.; Marshall, D.R.; Sobel, B.E.; Bergmann, S.R.

    1987-09-01

    Although positron-emission tomography (PET) with labeled fatty acid delineates infarct size and permits qualitative assessment of fatty acid utilization, quantification of oxidative metabolism is limited by complex alterations in the pattern of utilization of fatty acid during ischemia and reperfusion. Because metabolism of acetate by myocardium is less complex than that of glucose or palmitate, we characterized kinetics of utilization of radiolabeled acetate in 37 isolated rabbit hearts perfused with modified Krebs-Henseleit buffer and performed a pilot tomographic study in man. Results of initial experiments with carbon-14-labeled acetate (/sup 14/C-acetate) indicated that the steady-state extraction fraction of acetate averaged 61.5 +/- 4.0% in control hearts (n = 4), 93.6 +/- 0.9% in hearts rendered ischemic (n = 4), and 54.8 +/- 4.0% in hearts reperfused after 60 min of ischemia (n = 3). Oxidation of /sup 14/C-acetate, assessed from the rate of efflux of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ in the venous effluent, correlated closely with the rate of oxygen consumption under diverse metabolic conditions (r = .97, p less than .001). In addition, no significant differences were observed between rates of efflux of total /sup 14/C in all chemical species (reflecting total clearance of tracer from myocardium) and efflux of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/. Clearance of /sup 11/C-acetate, measured externally with gamma probes in normal and ischemic myocardium, correlated closely with clearance of /sup 14/C-acetate measured directly in the effluent (r = .99, p less than .001) and with overall myocardial oxygen consumption (r = .95, p less than .001). Accumulation and clearance of /sup 11/C-acetate from human myocardium with PET demonstrated kinetics comparable to those seen with radiolabeled acetate in vitro.

  3. Acetoxychavicol Acetate, an Antifungal Component of Alpinia galanga1.

    PubMed

    Janssen, A M; Scheffer, J J

    1985-12-01

    The essential oils from fresh and dried rhizomes of ALPINIA GALANGA showed an antimicrobial activity against gram-positive bacteria, a yeast and some dermatophytes, using the agar overlay technique. The main components of the oils were also tested and terpinen-4-ol was found most active. An N-pentane/diethyl ether extract of dried rhizomes was active against TRICHOPHYTON MENTAGROPHYTES. 1'-Acetoxychavicol acetate, 1'-acetoxyeugenol acetate and 1'-hydroxychavicol acetate identified by MS and NMR were found in the antifungally active fractions obtained by LSC. Acetoxychavicol acetate was active against the seven fungi tested and its MIC value for dermatophytes ranged from 50 to 250 microg/ml. Dried sliced rhizomes contained 1.5% of this compound. The compound was not found in rhizomes of ALPINIA OFFICINARUM, ZINGIBER OFFICINALE and KAEMPFERIA GALANGA.

  4. Quantum magnetic deflagration in acetate.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Mínguez, A; Hernandez, J M; Macià, F; García-Santiago, A; Tejada, J; Santos, P V

    2005-11-18

    We report controlled ignition of magnetization reversal avalanches by surface acoustic waves in a single crystal of acetate. Our data show that the speed of the avalanche exhibits maxima on the magnetic field at the tunneling resonances of Mn(12). Combined with the evidence of magnetic deflagration in Mn(12) acetate, this suggests a novel physical phenomenon: deflagration assisted by quantum tunneling. PMID:16384178

  5. Quantum magnetic deflagration in acetate.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Mínguez, A; Hernandez, J M; Macià, F; García-Santiago, A; Tejada, J; Santos, P V

    2005-11-18

    We report controlled ignition of magnetization reversal avalanches by surface acoustic waves in a single crystal of acetate. Our data show that the speed of the avalanche exhibits maxima on the magnetic field at the tunneling resonances of Mn(12). Combined with the evidence of magnetic deflagration in Mn(12) acetate, this suggests a novel physical phenomenon: deflagration assisted by quantum tunneling.

  6. Neuroprotective Properties of Compounds Extracted from Dianthus superbus L. against Glutamate-induced Cell Death in HT22 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Bo-Ra; Yang, Hye Jin; Weon, Jin Bae; Lee, Jiwoo; Eom, Min Rye; Ma, Choong Je

    2016-01-01

    -methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethanol (8), hydroferulic acid (9), and methyl hydroferulate (10) were isolated from D. superbus extract4-hydroxy-benzeneacetic acid and 4-methoxybenzeneacetic acid showed significant protective activity against glutamate-induced toxicity in HT22 cells. Abbreviations used: CNS: Central nervous system, ROS: Reactive oxygen species, CHCl3: Chloroform, EtOAc: Ethyl acetate, BuOH: Butanol, HPLC: High performance liquid chromatography, TLC: Thin layer chromatography, MPLC: Middle performance liquid chromatography, MeOH: Methanol, OD: Optical density, COSY: Correlation spectroscopy, HMQC: Heteronuclear multiple-quantum correlation, HMBC: Heteronuclear multiple-bond correlation, HR-MS: High-resolution molecular spectroscopy, MTT: 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. PMID:27076746

  7. Protein content and enzyme activities in methanol- and acetate-grown Methanosarcina thermophila.

    PubMed Central

    Jablonski, P E; DiMarco, A A; Bobik, T A; Cabell, M C; Ferry, J G

    1990-01-01

    The cell extract protein content of acetate- and methanol-grown Methanosarcina thermophila TM-1 was examined by two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. More than 100 mutually exclusive spots were present in acetate- and methanol-grown cells. Spots corresponding to acetate kinase, phosphotransacetylase, and the five subunits of the carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complex were identified in acetate-grown cells. Activities of formylmethanofuran dehydrogenase, formylmethanofuran:tetrahydromethanopterin formyltransferase, 5,10-methenyltetrahydromethanopterin cyclohydrolase, methylene tetrahydromethanopterin:coenzyme F420 oxidoreductase, formate dehydrogenase, and carbonic anhydrase were examined in acetate- and methanol-grown Methanosarcina thermophila. Levels of formyltransferase in either acetate- or methanol-grown Methanosarcina thermophila were approximately half the levels detected in H2-CO2-grown Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum. All other enzyme activities were significantly lower in acetate- and methanol-grown Methanosarcina thermophila. Images FIG. 1 FIG. 2 PMID:2307649

  8. Pressurized liquid extraction of phenolic compounds from rice (Oryza sativa) grains.

    PubMed

    Setyaningsih, W; Saputro, I E; Palma, M; Barroso, C G

    2016-02-01

    An analytical pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) process has been studied for the extraction of phenolic compounds from rice grains. A fractional factorial design (2(7-2)) with a centre point was used to optimize PLE parameters such as solvent composition (EtOAc in MeOH), extraction temperature, pressure, flushing, static extraction time, solvent-purge and sample weight. Extraction temperature, solvent and static extraction time were found to have a significant effect on the response value. The optimized method was validated for selectivity, linearity, limits of detection and quantification, recovery and precision. The validated method was successfully applied for the analysis of a wide variety of rice grains. Seventeen phenolic compounds were detected in the sample and guaiacol, ellagic acid, vanillic acid and protocatechuic acid were identified as the most abundant compounds. Nonetheless, different species of rice show very varied compound diversity and levels of compounds in their grain compositions.

  9. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles]. Annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Zinder, S.H.

    1994-02-01

    Acetate is the precursor of approximately two-thirds of the methane produced by anaerobic bioreactors and many other methanogenic habitats. Besides their intrinsic interest, thermophilic acetotrophic methanogenic cultures usually grow at least twice as fast as their mesophilic counterparts, making them more amenable to study. In recent years, attention has been mainly focused on the thermophilic acetate utilizing methanogen Methanothrix strain CALS-1. Methanothrix, also called Methanosaeta, is one of only two methanogenic genera known to convert acetate to methane, the other being Methanosarcina. The faster-growing more versatile Methanosarcina has been better studied. However, when one examines anaerobic digestor contents, Methanothrix is often the dominant acetate-utilizing methanogen. As described in previous progress reports, the authors have achieved methanogenesis from acetate in cell-free extracts of Methanothrix strain CALS-1 grown in a pH auxostat. Using these cell extracts, specific activities for methanogenesis from acetate and ATP of 100--300 nmol/min were routinely obtained, levels comparable to the rate in whole cells, which is not usually the case in methanogenic extracts. Recently obtained results are given and discussed for the following: Methanogenesis in crude extracts; Role of the cell membrane in methanogenesis from acetate; Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase; Novel thermophilic cultures converting acetate to methane; and Methanol-utilizing methanogen.

  10. Degradation of vinyl acetate by soil, sewage, sludge, and the newly isolated aerobic bacterium V2.

    PubMed Central

    Nieder, M; Sunarko, B; Meyer, O

    1990-01-01

    Vinyl acetate is subject to microbial degradation in the environment and by pure cultures. It was hydrolyzed by samples of soil, sludge, and sewage at rates of up to 6.38 and 1 mmol/h per g (dry weight) under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. Four yeasts and thirteen bacteria that feed aerobically on vinyl acetate were isolated. The pathway of vinyl acetate degradation was studied in bacterium V2. Vinyl acetate was degraded to acetate as follows: vinyl acetate + NAD(P)+----2 acetate + NAD(P)H + H+. The acetate was then converted to acetyl coenzyme A and oxidized through the tricarboxylic acid cycle and the glyoxylate bypass. The key enzyme of the pathway is vinyl acetate esterase, which hydrolyzed the ester to acetate and vinyl alcohol. The latter isomerized spontaneously to acetaldehyde and was then converted to acetate. The acetaldehyde was disproportionated into ethanol and acetate. The enzymes involved in the metabolism of vinyl acetate were studied in extracts. Vinyl acetate esterase (Km = 6.13 mM) was also active with indoxyl acetate (Km = 0.98 mM), providing the basis for a convenient spectrophotometric test. Substrates of aldehyde dehydrogenase were formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, propionaldehyde, and butyraldehyde. The enzyme was equally active with NAD+ or NADP+. Alcohol dehydrogenase was active with ethanol (Km = 0.24 mM), 1-propanol (Km = 0.34 mM), and 1-butanol (Km = 0.16 mM) and was linked to NAD+. The molecular sizes of aldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase were 145 and 215 kilodaltons, respectively. PMID:2285314

  11. (Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles: Progress report)

    SciTech Connect

    Zinder, S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to provide an understanding of thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms capable of breaking down acetic acid, the precursor of two-thirds of the methane produced by anaerobic bioreactors. Recent results include: (1) the isolation of Methanothrix strain CALLS-1, which grows much more rapidly than mesophilic strains; (2) the demonstration that thermophilic cultures of Methanosarcina and Methanothrix show minimum thresholds for acetate utilization of 1--2.5 mM and 10--20{mu}m respectively, in agreement with ecological data indicating that Methanothrix is favored by low acetate concentration; (3) the demonstration of high levels of thermostable acetyl-coA synthetase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in cell-free extracts of Methanothrix strains CALS-1; (4) the demonstration of methanogenesis from acetate and ATP in cell free extracts of strain CALS-1. (5) the demonstration that methanogenesis from acetate required 2 ATP/methane, and, in contrast to Methanosarcina, was independent of hydrogen and other electron donors; (6) the finding that entropy effects must be considered when predicting the level of hydrogen in thermophilic syntrophic cultures. (7) the isolation and characterization of the Desulfotomaculum thermoacetoxidans. Current research is centered on factors which allow thermophilic Methanothrix to compete with Methanosarcina.

  12. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Zinder, S.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this project is to provide an understanding of thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms capable of breaking down acetic acid, the precursor of two-thirds of the methane produced by anaerobic bioreactors. Recent results include: (1) the isolation of Methanothrix strain CALLS-1, which grows much more rapidly than mesophilic strains; (2) the demonstration that thermophilic cultures of Methanosarcina and Methanothrix show minimum thresholds for acetate utilization of 1--2.5 mM and 10--20{mu}m respectively, in agreement with ecological data indicating that Methanothrix is favored by low acetate concentration; (3) the demonstration of high levels of thermostable acetyl-coA synthetase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in cell-free extracts of Methanothrix strains CALS-1; (4) the demonstration of methanogenesis from acetate and ATP in cell free extracts of strain CALS-1. (5) the demonstration that methanogenesis from acetate required 2 ATP/methane, and, in contrast to Methanosarcina, was independent of hydrogen and other electron donors; (6) the finding that entropy effects must be considered when predicting the level of hydrogen in thermophilic syntrophic cultures. (7) the isolation and characterization of the Desulfotomaculum thermoacetoxidans. Current research is centered on factors which allow thermophilic Methanothrix to compete with Methanosarcina.

  13. Viola tricolor Induces Apoptosis in Cancer Cells and Exhibits Antiangiogenic Activity on Chicken Chorioallantoic Membrane

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Ghorbani Hesari, Taghi; Mortazavian, Seyed Mohsen; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of hydroalcoholic extract and ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol, and water fractions (0–800 μg/mL) of Viola tricolor were investigated in Neuro2a mouse neuroblastoma and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. In addition, antiangiogenic effect of EtOAc fraction was evaluated on chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). The quality of EtOAc fraction was also characterized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint. Cytotoxicity assay revealed that EtOAc fraction was the most potent among all fractions with maximal effect on MCF-7 and minimal toxicity against normal murine fibroblast L929 cells. Apoptosis induction by EtOAc fraction was confirmed by increased sub-G1 peak of propidium iodide (PI) stained cells. This fraction triggered the apoptotic pathway by increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved caspase-3 level. Moreover, treatment with EtOAc fraction significantly decreased the diameter of vessels on CAM, while the number of newly formed blood vessels was not suppressed significantly. Analysis of quality of EtOAc fraction using HPLC fingerprint showed six major peaks with different retention times. The results of the present study suggest that V. tricolor has potential anticancer property by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis. PMID:25243166

  14. Viola tricolor induces apoptosis in cancer cells and exhibits antiangiogenic activity on chicken chorioallantoic membrane.

    PubMed

    Sadeghnia, Hamid Reza; Ghorbani Hesari, Taghi; Mortazavian, Seyed Mohsen; Mousavi, Seyed Hadi; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra; Ghorbani, Ahmad

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the cytotoxic and apoptogenic properties of hydroalcoholic extract and ethyl acetate (EtOAc), n-butanol, and water fractions (0-800 μg/mL) of Viola tricolor were investigated in Neuro2a mouse neuroblastoma and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. In addition, antiangiogenic effect of EtOAc fraction was evaluated on chicken chorioallantoic membrane (CAM). The quality of EtOAc fraction was also characterized using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint. Cytotoxicity assay revealed that EtOAc fraction was the most potent among all fractions with maximal effect on MCF-7 and minimal toxicity against normal murine fibroblast L929 cells. Apoptosis induction by EtOAc fraction was confirmed by increased sub-G1 peak of propidium iodide (PI) stained cells. This fraction triggered the apoptotic pathway by increased Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and cleaved caspase-3 level. Moreover, treatment with EtOAc fraction significantly decreased the diameter of vessels on CAM, while the number of newly formed blood vessels was not suppressed significantly. Analysis of quality of EtOAc fraction using HPLC fingerprint showed six major peaks with different retention times. The results of the present study suggest that V. tricolor has potential anticancer property by inducing apoptosis and inhibiting angiogenesis.

  15. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.228 Ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate (CAS Reg. No....

  16. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and..., Lubricants, Release Agents and Related Substances § 173.228 Ethyl acetate. Ethyl acetate (CAS Reg. No....

  17. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  18. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  19. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  20. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  1. 21 CFR 73.2396 - Lead acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Lead acetate. 73.2396 Section 73.2396 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2396 Lead acetate. (a) Identity. The color additive lead acetate is the trihydrate of lead (2+) salt of acetic acid. The color additive has the chemical formula...

  2. In vivo sedative and gastroprotective activities of Salvia plebeia extract and its composition of polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Nugroho, Agung; Kim, Myung-Hoe; Choi, Jongwon; Baek, Nam-In; Park, Hee-Juhn

    2012-08-01

    Animal experiments were performed to develop Salvia plebeia (Labiatae) as a medicinal herb with sedative and gastroprotective activities; the former activity was measured using a pentobarbital-induced assay and the latter activity was measured in two gastric lesion-induced assays (HCl/EtOH-induced and indomethacin/bethanechol-induced assays) in mice. The MeOH extract and its EtOAc fraction were effective, although the former was less active than the latter. Rosmarinic acid (RA) isolated from S. plebeia was active in the same method at 10 and 20 mg/kg (p.o.). HPLC quantification demonstrated that RA comprised the largest proportion (28.5% of the MeOH extract, 33.0% of EtOAc extract; 4.46% of dry weight) of S. plebeia. The contents of five other compounds were much less than that of RA, although the contents of the three glycosides, 6-hydroxyluteolin 7-O-glucoside (0.28% of dry weight), cynaroside (0.35%) and nepitrin (0.43%) were higher than those of the two aglycones, quercetin (0.024%) and eupatilin (0.058%). The HPLC method was validated in terms of linearity, precision, accuracy and reproducibility. These results suggest that the main polyphenol, RA, plays a major role in the sedative and gastroprotective effects of S. plebeia. PMID:22941483

  3. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food... GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid....

  6. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid....

  7. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid....

  8. Mushroom tyrosinase inhibitors from mung bean (Vigna radiatae L.) extracts.

    PubMed

    Yao, Yang; Cheng, Xuzhen; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Suhua; Ren, Guixing

    2012-05-01

    A seventy percent ethanol from mung bean (Vigna radiatae L.) was extracted further with CH(2)Cl(2), EtOAc and n-BuOH to afford four fractions: CH(2)Cl(2)-soluble, EtOAc-soluble, n-BuOH-soluble and residual extract fractions. When using l-3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as the substrate for mushroom tyrosinase, the EtOAc-soluble fractions showed the highest inhibitory activity. Two pure flavonoid compounds, vitexin and isovitexin, were isolated (using the enzyme assay-guided fractionation method) from the EtOAc-soluble fractions. Vitexin and isovitexin showed high inhibitory activities, with IC(50) values of 6.3 and 5.6 mg/ml, respectively. This is the first study on the active compositions of azuki beans against mushroom tyrosinase.

  9. 40 CFR 721.10001 - 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate. 721.10001 Section 721.10001 Protection of...-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate. (a) Chemical substances and significant...-80-5), 2-ethoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 111-15-9), 2-methoxyethanol (CAS No. 109-86-4), and...

  10. Analysis of proteins responsive to acetic acid in Acetobacter: molecular mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Shigeru; Fukaya, Masahiro

    2008-06-30

    Acetic acid bacteria are used for industrial vinegar production because of their remarkable ability to oxidize ethanol and high resistance to acetic acid. Although several molecular machineries responsible for acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria have been reported, the entire mechanism that confers acetic acid resistance has not been completely understood. One of the promising methods to elucidate the entire mechanism is global analysis of proteins responsive to acetic acid by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Recently, two proteins whose production was greatly enhanced by acetic acid in Acetobacter aceti were identified to be aconitase and a putative ABC-transporter, respectively; furthermore, overexpression or disruption of the genes encoding these proteins affected acetic acid resistance in A. aceti, indicating that these proteins are involved in acetic acid resistance. Overexpression of each gene increased acetic acid resistance in Acetobacter, which resulted in an improvement in the productivity of acetic acid fermentation. Taken together, the results of the proteomic analysis and those of previous studies indicate that acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria is conferred by several mechanisms. These findings also provide a clue to breed a strain having high resistance to acetic acid for vinegar fermentation.

  11. Acetate as Sole Carbon and Energy Source for Growth of Methanosarcina Strain 227

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael R.; Mah, Robert A.

    1980-01-01

    Methanosarcina strain 227 grew rapidly and produced methane on a mineral medium containing acetate as the sole added organic substrate. Cell yields but not doubling times were affected by the presence or absence of yeast extract. Greater cell yields occurred in yeast extract medium than in mineral medium. Radioactive labeling studies showed that acetate was decarboxylated in mineral medium, as was shown previously in complex medium. The specific radioactivity of methane produced per specific acitvity of acetate added was not significantly different in yeast extract medium compared with mineral medium. Unequivocal evidence indicates that the cleavage of acetate to methane and carbon dioxide provided the energy for growth in the presence or absence of other organic compounds; these latter compounds do not serve as energy sources, electron donors, or significant sources of methane during this aceticlastic reaction. PMID:16345576

  12. Reductive opening of carbohydrate phenylsulfonylethylidene (PSE) acetals.

    PubMed

    Chéry, Florence; Cabianca, Elena; Tatibouët, Arnaud; De Lucchi, Ottorino; Lindhorst, Thisbe K; Rollin, Patrick

    2015-11-19

    The phenylsulfonylethylidene (PSE) acetal is a relatively new protecting group in carbohydrate chemistry. However, carbohydrate-derived phenylsulfonylethylidene (PSE) acetals show a different behavior in reductive desulfonylation than simple symmetrical acetals. Here we have investigated various SET-type reaction conditions in order to open PSE acetals regioselectively and to produce chiral ω-hydroxyethenyl ethers. Whereas sodium amalgam leads to a mixture of regioisomeric vinyl ethers besides the ethylidene acetal, samarium iodide is suited for regioselective ring opening. This is shown with seven different carbohydrate PSE acetals, both of the 1,3-dioxane and the 1,3-dioxolane type. PMID:26469209

  13. Carbon-isotopic analysis of dissolved acetate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelwicks, J. T.; Hayes, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Heating of dried, acetate-containing solids together with oxalic acid dihydrate conveniently releases acetic acid for purification by gas chromatography. For determination of the carbon-isotopic composition of total acetate, the acetate-containing zone of the chromatographic effluent can be routed directly to a combustion furnace coupled to a vacuum system allowing recovery, purification, and packaging of CO2 for mass-spectrometric analysis. For analysis of methyl carbon, acetic acid can be cryogenically trapped from the chromatographic effluent, then transferred to a tube containing excess NaOH. The tube is evacuated, sealed, and heated to 500 degrees C to produce methane by pyrolysis of sodium acetate. Subsequent combustion of the methane allows determination of the 13C content at the methyl position in the parent acetate. With typical blanks, the standard deviation of single analyses is less than 0.4% for acetate samples larger than 5 micromoles. A full treatment of uncertainties is outlined.

  14. Ozone decomposition in aqueous acetate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sehested, K.; Holcman, J.; Bjergbakke, E.; Hart, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    The acetate radical ion reacts with ozone with a rate constant of k = (1.5 +/- 0.5) x 10Z dmT mol s . The products from this reaction are CO2, HCHO, and O2 . By subsequent reaction of the peroxy radical with ozone the acetate radical ion is regenerated through the OH radical. A chain decomposition of ozone takes place. It terminates when the acetate radical ion reacts with oxygen forming the unreactive peroxy acetate radical. The chain is rather short as oxygen is developed, as a result of the ozone consumption. The inhibiting effect of acetate on the ozone decay is rationalized by OH scavenging by acetate and successive reaction of the acetate radical ion with oxygen. Some products from the bimolecular disappearance of the peroxy acetate radicals, however, react further with ozone, reducing the effectiveness of the stabilization.

  15. Validation of Human Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Vinyl Acetate Against Human Nasal Dosimetry Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hinderliter, Paul M.; Thrall, Karla D.; Corley, Rick A.; Bloemen, Louis J.; Bogdanffy, M S.

    2005-05-01

    Vinyl acetate has been shown to induce nasal lesions in rodents in inhalation bioassays. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for vinyl acetate has been used in human risk assessment, but previous in vivo validation was conducted only in rats. Controlled human exposures to vinyl acetate were conducted to provide validation data for the application of the model in humans. Five volunteers were exposed to 1, 5, and 10 ppm 13 C1 , 13 C2 vinyl acetate via inhalation. A probe inserted into thenasopharyngeal region sampled both 13 C1 , 13 C2 vinyl acetate and the major metabolite 13 C1 , 13 C2 acetaldehyde during rest and light exercise. Nasopharyngeal air concentrations were analyzed in real time by ion trap mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Experimental concentrations of both vinyl acetate and acetaldehyde were then compared to predicted concentrations calculated from the previously published human model. Model predictions of vinyl acetate nasal extraction compared favorably with measured values of vinyl acetate, as did predictions of nasopharyngeal acetaldehyde when compared to measured acetaldehyde. The results showed that the current PBPK model structure and parameterization are appropriate for vinyl acetate. These analyses were conducted from 1 to 10 ppm vinyl acetate, a range relevant to workplace exposure standards but which would not be expected to saturate vinyl acetate metabolism. Risk assessment based on this model further concluded that 24 h per day exposures up to 1 ppm do not present concern regarding cancer or non-cancer toxicity. Validation of the vinyl acetate human PBPK model provides support for these conclusions.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3 or C2H3O2Na·3H2O, CAS Reg. No. 6131-90-4) is the sodium salt of acetic acid and occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues....

  17. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 556.380 - Melengestrol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Melengestrol acetate. 556.380 Section 556.380 Food... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.380 Melengestrol acetate. A tolerance of 25 parts per billion is established for residues of the parent compound, melengestrol acetate, in fat of cattle....

  3. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  5. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. Photochemistry of 2-nitrobenzylidene acetals.

    PubMed

    Sebej, Peter; Solomek, Tomás; Hroudná, L'ubica; Brancová, Pavla; Klán, Petr

    2009-11-20

    Photolysis of dihydroxy compounds (diols) protected as 2-nitrobenzylidene acetals (ONBA) and subsequent acid- or base-catalyzed hydrolysis of the 2-nitrosobenzoic acid ester intermediates result in an efficient and high-yielding release of the substrates. We investigated the scope and limitations of ONBA photochemistry and expanded upon earlier described two-step procedures to show that the protected diols of many structural varieties can also be liberated in a one-pot procedure. In view of the fact that the acetals of nonsymmetrically substituted diols are converted into one of the corresponding 2-nitrosobenzoic acid ester isomers with moderate to high regioselectivity, the mechanism of their formation was studied using various experimental techniques. The experimental data were found to be in agreement with DFT-based quantum chemical calculations that showed the preferential cleavage occurs on the acetal C-O bond in the vicinity of more electron-withdrawing (or less electron-donating) groups. The study also revealed considerable complexity in the cleavage mechanism and that the structural variations in the substrate can significantly alter the reaction pathway. This deprotection strategy was found to be also applicable for 2-thioethanol when released from the corresponding monothioacetal in the presence of a reducing agent, such as ascorbic acid.

  14. Hydrogen fluoride capture by imidazolium acetate ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaban, Vitaly

    2015-04-01

    Extraction of hydrofluoric acid (HF) from oils is a drastically important problem in petroleum industry, since HF causes quick corrosion of pipe lines and brings severe health problems to humanity. Some ionic liquids (ILs) constitute promising scavenger agents thanks to strong binding to polar compounds and tunability. PM7-MD simulations and hybrid density functional theory are employed here to consider HF capture ability of ILs. Discussing the effects and impacts of the cation and the anion separately and together, we evaluate performance of imidazolium acetate and outline systematic search guidelines for efficient adsorption and extraction of HF.

  15. Development of Acetic Acid Removal Technology for the UREX+Process

    SciTech Connect

    Robert M. Counce; Jack S. Watson

    2009-06-30

    It is imperative that acetic acid is removed from a waste stream in the UREX+process so that nitric acid can be recycled and possible interference with downstreatm steps can be avoidec. Acetic acid arises from acetohydrozamic acid (AHA), and is used to suppress plutonium in the first step of the UREX+process. Later, it is hydrolyzed into hydroxyl amine nitrate and acetic acid. Many common separation technologies were examined, and solvent extraction was determined to be the best choice under process conditions. Solvents already used in the UREX+ process were then tested to determine if they would be sufficient for the removal of acetic acid. The tributyl phosphage (TBP)-dodecane diluent, used in both UREX and NPEX, was determined to be a solvent system that gave sufficient distribution coefficients for acetic acid in addition to a high separation factor from nitric acid.

  16. Synergistic and salting out effects in extraction of phenols

    SciTech Connect

    Korenman, Ya.I.; Minasyants, V.A.; Ermolaeva, T.N.; Sel'manshchuk, N.N.; Aleksyuk, M.P.

    1988-01-10

    The extraction of phenols from dilute aqueous solutions was studied; the extracting agents were n-butyl acetate, C/sub 5/-C/sub 10/ alcohols, nitrobenzene, and tributyl phosphate. Isotherms of extraction of phenol by isomolar mixtures of n-butyl acetate and nitrobenzene, n-hexyl alcohol and tributyl phosphate are shown. The synergistic and salting out effects in extraction of phenol with mixtures of solvents are represented based on n-butyl acetate. The effect of dialkyl phthalates on extraction of pyrocatechol with C/sub 5/-C/sub 10/ alcohols was studied; in extraction of pyrocatechol with solutions of dialkyl phthalates in alcohols, synergism was observed.

  17. Biodegradation of cellulose acetate by Neisseria sicca.

    PubMed

    Sakai, K; Yamauchi, T; Nakasu, F; Ohe, T

    1996-10-01

    Bacteria capable of assimilating cellulose acetate, strains SB and SC, were isolated from soil on a medium containing cellulose acetate as a carbon source, and identified as Neisseria sicca. Both strains degraded cellulose acetate membrane filters (degree of substitution, DS, mixture of 2.8 and 2.0) and textiles (DS, 2.34) in a medium containing cellulose acetate (DS, 2.34) or its oligomer, but were not able to degrade these materials in a medium containing cellobiose octaacetate. Biodegradation of cellulose acetate (DS, 1.81 and 2.34) on the basis of biochemical oxygen demand reached 51 and 40% in the culture of N. sicca SB and 60 and 45% in the culture of N. sicca SC within 20 days. A decrease in the acetyl content of degraded cellulose acetate films and powder was confirmed by infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance analyses. After 10-day cultivation of N. sicca SB and SC, the number-average molecular weight of residual cellulose acetate decreased by 9 and 5%, respectively. Activities of enzymes that released acetic acid and produced reducing sugars from cellulose acetate were mainly present in the culture supernatant. Reactivity of enzymes for cellulose acetate (DS, 1.81) was higher than that for cellulose acetate (DS, 2.34).

  18. Isolation and characterization of esters of indole-3-acetic acid from the liquid endosperm of the horse chestnut (Aesculus species)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domagalski, W.; Schulze, A.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    Esters of indole-3-acetic acid were extracted and purified from the liquid endosperm of immature fruits of various species of the horse chestnut (Aesculus parviflora, A. baumanni, A. pavia rubra, and A. pavia humulis). The liquid endosperm contained, at least 12 chromatographically distinct esters. One of these compounds was purified and characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and myo-inositol. A second compound was found to be an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and the disaccharide rutinose (glucosyl-rhamnose). A third compound was partially characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and a desoxyaminohexose.

  19. Distribution coefficients of purine alkaloids in water-ammonium sulfate-alkyl acetate-dialkyl phthalate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenman, Ya. I.; Krivosheeva, O. A.; Mokshina, N. Ya.

    2012-12-01

    The distribution of purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine, theophylline) was studied in the systems: alkyl acetates-dialkyl phtalate-salting-out agent (ammonium sulfate). The quantitative characteristics of the extraction-distribution coefficients ( D) and the degree of extraction ( R, %) are calculated. The relationships between the distribution coefficients of alkaloids and the length of the hydrocarbon radical in the molecule of alkyl acetate (dialkyl phtalate) are determined. The possibility of predicting the distribution coefficients is demonstrated.

  20. Medroxyprogesterone acetate exacerbates glutamate excitotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Jon; Morales, Alison; Brinton, Roberta Diaz

    2006-07-01

    We previously demonstrated that progesterone functions as a neuroprotective agent whereas medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA; Provera) does not. Moreover, MPA antagonized the neuroprotective and neurotrophic outcomes induced by 17beta-estradiol (E2). Towards developing effective hormone therapies for protection against neurodegeneration, we sought to determine whether formulation, chemical features or prevention versus treatment mode of exposure affected the outcome of MPA treatment in survival of primary hippocampal neurons. Results of these analyses indicated that both crystalline MPA and a pharmaceutical formulation (Depo-Provera) lacked neuroprotective efficacy, indicating that the effects were not dependent upon MPA formulation. Likewise, MPA in the prevention and treatment paradigms were equally ineffective at promoting neuronal survival, indicating that timing of MPA administration was not a factor. Further, the detrimental effects of MPA were not due to the presence of the acetate group, as medroxyprogesterone was as ineffective as MPA in promoting neuronal survival. Moreover, MPA pretreatment exacerbated neuron death induced by glutamate excitotoxicity as indicated by a 40% increase in neuron death determined by direct live/dead cell count and a commensurate increase in the number of positive cells by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated nick end-labeling. Collectively these results predict that the progestin formulation of hormone therapy will affect the vulnerability of the central nervous system to degenerative insults.

  1. Ethyl acetate-n-butanol gradient solvent system for high-speed countercurrent chromatography to screen bioactive substances in okra.

    PubMed

    Ying, Hao; Jiang, Heyuan; Liu, Huan; Chen, Fangjuan; Du, Qizhen

    2014-09-12

    High-speed countercurrent chromatographic separation (HSCCC) possesses the property of zero-loss of sample, which is very useful for the screening of bioactive components. In the present study, the ethyl acetate-n-butanol gradient HSCCC solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water was investigated for the screening of bioactive substances. To screen the antiproliferative compounds in okra extract, we used the stationary phase ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (1:1:10) as the stationary phase, and eluted the antiproliferative components by 6-steps of gradient using mobile phases n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:2), n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:4), n-hexane-ethyl acetate (0:4), n-butanol-ethyl acetate (1:4) n-butanol-ethyl acetate (1:2), n-butanol-ethyl acetate (2:2), and n-butanol-ethyl acetate (2:1). The fractions collected from HSCCC separation with the gradient solvent system were assayed for antiproliferative activity against cancer cells. Bioactive components were identified: a major anti-cancer compound, 4'-hydroxy phenethyl trans-ferulate, with middle activity, and a minor anti-cancer compound, carolignan, with strong activity. The result shows that the gradient solvent system is potential for the screening of bioactive compounds from natural products.

  2. Ethyl acetate-n-butanol gradient solvent system for high-speed countercurrent chromatography to screen bioactive substances in okra.

    PubMed

    Ying, Hao; Jiang, Heyuan; Liu, Huan; Chen, Fangjuan; Du, Qizhen

    2014-09-12

    High-speed countercurrent chromatographic separation (HSCCC) possesses the property of zero-loss of sample, which is very useful for the screening of bioactive components. In the present study, the ethyl acetate-n-butanol gradient HSCCC solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water was investigated for the screening of bioactive substances. To screen the antiproliferative compounds in okra extract, we used the stationary phase ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (1:1:10) as the stationary phase, and eluted the antiproliferative components by 6-steps of gradient using mobile phases n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:2), n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:4), n-hexane-ethyl acetate (0:4), n-butanol-ethyl acetate (1:4) n-butanol-ethyl acetate (1:2), n-butanol-ethyl acetate (2:2), and n-butanol-ethyl acetate (2:1). The fractions collected from HSCCC separation with the gradient solvent system were assayed for antiproliferative activity against cancer cells. Bioactive components were identified: a major anti-cancer compound, 4'-hydroxy phenethyl trans-ferulate, with middle activity, and a minor anti-cancer compound, carolignan, with strong activity. The result shows that the gradient solvent system is potential for the screening of bioactive compounds from natural products. PMID:25069743

  3. Understanding Palladium Acetate from a User Perspective.

    PubMed

    Carole, William A; Colacot, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    The behavior of palladium acetate is reviewed with respect to its synthesis, characterization, structure (in both solution and solid state), and activation pathways. In addition, comparisons of catalytic activities between pure palladium acetate and two common byproducts, Pd3 (OAc)5 (NO2 ) and polymeric [Pd(OAc)2 ]n , typically present in commercially available material are reviewed. Hence, this minireview serves as a concise guide for the users of palladium acetate from both academia and industry. PMID:27125630

  4. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  8. Thermodynamic characteristics of cyclohexanone distribution between extractants and water

    SciTech Connect

    Vozin, V.G.; Diyarov, I.N.; Gainullin, I.F.

    1986-01-10

    The authors have determined the thermodynamic characteristics of cyclohexanone distribution between extractants and water, making it possible to estimate the effectiveness of its separation by the extraction method. The extractants studied were hexane, heptane, octane, benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, ethyl acetate, and butyl acetate. Analysis of the results shows that the partition ratio increases with increase of the equilibrium concentrations of cyclohexanone in the coexisting phases, indicating association of the molecules of the distributed substance in the extractant phase. The foregoing leads to the conclusion that aromatic hydrocarbons and acetate esters are superior to paraffins in extractive properties.

  9. Antioxidant, α-glucosidase inhibitory and anti-inflammatory effects of aerial parts extract from Korean crowberry (Empetrum nigrum var. japonicum)

    PubMed Central

    Hyun, Tae Kyung; Kim, Hyoun-Chol; Ko, Yeong-Jong; Kim, Ju-Sung

    2015-01-01

    Crowberry (Empetrum nigrum L.) is a wild berry commonly found in the northern hemisphere. Crowberry fruits have been suggested as good resources for functional applications in the cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries, but the high polyphenolic content in crowberry leaves also indicates crowberry aerial parts as potential dietary health supplements. In this study, therefore, the biological activities of the aerial parts of Korean crowberry (E. nigrum var. japonicum) were investigated. Antioxidant activity was measured by three different assays on DPPH free radical scavenging, reducing power, and total antioxidant capacities. Dose-dependent antioxidant activities were exhibited by crude methanol extract and its fractions, suggesting that the crude methanol extract and EtOAc fraction possessed strong antioxidant activities and capacities. In addition, the crude methanol extract and EtOAc strongly inhibited α-glucosidase activity and suppressed the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediator and nitrite oxide from LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells. These findings provide valuable evidence for the potential of such parts as good dietary sources of natural antioxidant, α-glucosidase inhibitory, and anti-inflammatory components, suggesting that using the non-edible parts (e.g., leaves and stems) of crowberry can be a potential natural avenue for improving human health. PMID:26980998

  10. Positron scattering from vinyl acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiari, L.; Zecca, A.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Brunger, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    Using a Beer-Lambert attenuation approach, we report measured total cross sections (TCSs) for positron scattering from vinyl acetate (C4H6O2) in the incident positron energy range 0.15-50 eV. In addition, we also report an independent atom model with screening corrected additivity rule computation results for the TCSs, differential and integral elastic cross sections, the positronium formation cross section and inelastic integral cross sections. The energy range of these calculations is 1-1000 eV. While there is a reasonable qualitative correspondence between measurement and calculation for the TCSs, in terms of the energy dependence of those cross sections, the theory was found to be a factor of ˜2 larger in magnitude at the lower energies, even after the measured data were corrected for the forward angle scattering effect.

  11. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate and Anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate Isolated from Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) Flower.

    PubMed

    Habib, M Rowshanul; Karim, M Rezaul

    2009-03-01

    A phytochemical study on the flowe r of Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) using silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, led to the first time isolation of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (compound 1) and anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate (compound 2). The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic analyses (IR, HRTOFMS and NMR). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of ethyl acetate extract, compound 1 and compound 2 were measured using the disc diffusion method. Ethyl acetate extract and compound 1 presented better results than compound 2. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extract and compounds were found to be in the range of 16~128 µg/ml. The cytotoxicity (LC50) against brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina) were also evaluated and found to be 14.61 µg/ml for ethyl acetate, 9.19 µg/ml for compound 1 and 15.55 µg/ml for compound 2.

  12. Antimicrobial and Cytotoxic Activity of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) Phthalate and Anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate Isolated from Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) Flower

    PubMed Central

    Habib, M. Rowshanul

    2009-01-01

    A phytochemical study on the flowe r of Calotropis gigantea (Linn.) using silica gel column chromatography and preparative thin layer chromatography, led to the first time isolation of Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (compound 1) and anhydrosophoradiol-3-acetate (compound 2). The structures of these compounds were confirmed by spectroscopic analyses (IR, HRTOFMS and NMR). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of ethyl acetate extract, compound 1 and compound 2 were measured using the disc diffusion method. Ethyl acetate extract and compound 1 presented better results than compound 2. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the extract and compounds were found to be in the range of 16~128 µg/ml. The cytotoxicity (LC50) against brine shrimp nauplii (Artemia salina) were also evaluated and found to be 14.61 µg/ml for ethyl acetate, 9.19 µg/ml for compound 1 and 15.55 µg/ml for compound 2. PMID:23983504

  13. Thermodynamic modeling of neptunium(V)-acetate complexation in concentrated NaCl media

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, C.F.; Borkowski, M.; Choppin, G.R.

    1995-09-01

    The complexation of neptunium(V), Np(V), with the acetate anion, Ac{sup -}, was measured in sodium chloride media to high concentration using an extraction technique. The data were interpreted using the thermodynamic formalism of Pitzer, which is valid to high electrolyte concentrations. A consistent model for the deprotonation constants of acetic acid in NaCl and NaClO{sub 4} media was developed. For the concentrations of acetate expected in a waste repository, only the neutral complex NpO{sub 2}Ac(aq) was important in describing the interactions between the neptunyl ion and acetate. The thermodynamic stability constant log {beta}{sup 0}{sub 101} for the reaction NpO{sub 2}{sup +} + Ac{sup -} {leftrightarrow} NpO{sub 2}Ac was calculated to be 1.46{plus_minus}0.11. This weak complexing behavior between the neptunyl ion and acetate indicates that acetate will not significantly enhance dissolved Np(V) concentrations in ground waters associated with nuclear waste repositories that may contain acetate.

  14. Antifungal activity of Cynara scolymus L. extracts.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X F; Zhang, H X; Lo, R

    2005-01-01

    Chloroform, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Cynara scolymus L. leaves, heads and stems were tested for their antifungal activity using the agar-well diffusion assay technique. The leaves extracts and the ethanol fractions were found to be the most effective extract against all the tested organisms.

  15. Synthesis of cellulose acetate and carboxymethylcellulose from sugarcane straw.

    PubMed

    Candido, R G; Gonçalves, A R

    2016-11-01

    Sugarcane straw (SCS) is a raw material with high potential for production of cellulose derivatives due to its morphology and structure. The proposal of this work was to synthesize cellulose acetate (CA) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) from sugarcane straw cellulose, and applied the CA in the preparation of a membrane. The cellulose extraction was carried out in four steps. Firstly, SCS was treated with H2SO4 (10% v/v) followed by NaOH (5% w/v) treatment. Subsequently, a chelating process was performed before ending the extraction process with chemical bleaching using H2O2 (5% v/v). The extracted cellulose was employed in the obtainment of CA and CMC. The CA presented a degree of substitution (DS) of 2.72. Its FTIR spectrum showed that practically all hydroxyl groups were replaced by acetate groups. The membrane synthesized from CA was dense and homogeneous. The presence of small particles on the top and bottom surfaces decreased the mechanical resistance of the membrane. The CMC presented a low DS (0.4) demonstrating the carboxymethylation reaction was not very effective due to the presence of lignin. These results proved that SCS can be utilized in the synthesis of CA and CMC. PMID:27516319

  16. Synthesis of cellulose acetate and carboxymethylcellulose from sugarcane straw.

    PubMed

    Candido, R G; Gonçalves, A R

    2016-11-01

    Sugarcane straw (SCS) is a raw material with high potential for production of cellulose derivatives due to its morphology and structure. The proposal of this work was to synthesize cellulose acetate (CA) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) from sugarcane straw cellulose, and applied the CA in the preparation of a membrane. The cellulose extraction was carried out in four steps. Firstly, SCS was treated with H2SO4 (10% v/v) followed by NaOH (5% w/v) treatment. Subsequently, a chelating process was performed before ending the extraction process with chemical bleaching using H2O2 (5% v/v). The extracted cellulose was employed in the obtainment of CA and CMC. The CA presented a degree of substitution (DS) of 2.72. Its FTIR spectrum showed that practically all hydroxyl groups were replaced by acetate groups. The membrane synthesized from CA was dense and homogeneous. The presence of small particles on the top and bottom surfaces decreased the mechanical resistance of the membrane. The CMC presented a low DS (0.4) demonstrating the carboxymethylation reaction was not very effective due to the presence of lignin. These results proved that SCS can be utilized in the synthesis of CA and CMC.

  17. Recovery of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions using catalytic dehydrative esterification with ethanol.

    PubMed

    Yagyu, Daisuke; Ohishi, Tetsuo; Igarashi, Takeshi; Okumura, Yoshikuni; Nakajo, Tetsuo; Mori, Yuichiro; Kobayashi, Shū

    2013-03-01

    We have developed a direct esterification of aqueous acetic acid with ethanol (molar ratio=1:1) catalyzed by polystyrene-supported or homogeneous sulfonic acids toward the recovery of acetic acid from wastewater in chemical plants. The equilibrium yield was significantly increased by the addition of toluene, which had a high ability to extract ethyl acetate from the aqueous phase. It was shown that low-loading and alkylated polystyrene-supported sulfonic acid efficiently accelerated the reaction. These results suggest that the construction of hydrophobic reaction environments in water was critical in improving the chemical yield. Addition of inorganic salts was also effective for the reaction under not only biphasic conditions (toluene-water) but also toluene-free conditions, because the mutual solubility of ethyl acetate and water was suppressed by the salting-out effect. Among the tested salts, CaCl(2) was found to be the most suitable for this reaction system. PMID:23290939

  18. Online Measurement of the Intramolecular Isotopic Composition of Acetate in Natural Porewater Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, R. B.; Arthur, M. A.; Freeman, K. H.

    2006-12-01

    Carbon dioxide and methane are traditionally considered to be the dominant end products of anaerobic metabolism while acetate is thought to be a rapidly consumed intermediate. However, in some settings, recent evidence has grown to suggest that, at least transiently, acetate can be a major metabolic end product. In natural systems, isotopic mass balances can be used to partition the flow of carbon to methane, CO2, and acetate. However, these isotopic estimates require intramolecular measurements of acetate in addition to isotopic measurements of the gaseous species, CO2 and CH4. In practice, the intramolecular isotopic composition of acetate is rarely measured because the analysis is technically challenging and traditionally requires prior separation and offline pyrolysis of purified acetate. As a result of these technical challenges, acetate methyl carbon is usually assumed to be a few permil depleted relative to the carbon isotopic composition of bulk organic matter. In environments where acetate may be produced by autotrophic acetogens this assumption can be devastatingly false. This work describes the use of an online method for the analysis of the intramolecular carbon isotopic composition of dissolved acetate from dilute surface water samples with a detection limit of injected sample down to 500uM. Preconcentration of samples via lyophilization has resulted in detection limits as low as 30uM. In 2002, at Penn State, Dias et al. (Organic Geochemistry Vol. 33, p161-168) reported a technique to examine the intramolecular isotopic composition of acetate from oil-prone source rocks using SPME extraction with an online GC-pyrolysis-IRMS. We have adapted the Dias method to be used with direct injection of dilute natural water samples. Briefly, this procedure protonates acetate with a .1M addition of oxalic acid and vaporizes the sample in the GC inlet at low temperatures. This prevents oxalic acid decomposition and provides sufficient separation of acetate from

  19. Conversion to eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy

    PubMed Central

    French, Jacqueline; Jacobson, Mercedes P.; Pazdera, Ladislav; Gough, Mallory; Cheng, Hailong; Grinnell, Todd; Blum, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) monotherapy. Methods: This post hoc pooled analysis of 2 randomized double-blind studies (093-045 and -046) included adults with partial-onset seizures medically uncontrolled by 1 or 2 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Following the baseline period (8 weeks), eligible patients were randomized 2:1 to receive ESL 1,600 mg or 1,200 mg once daily for 18 weeks; the primary endpoint was study exit by meeting predefined exit criteria (signifying worsening seizure control). In each study, treatment was considered effective if the upper 95% confidence limit for exit rate was lower than the historical control threshold (65.3%). Results: Pooled exit rates were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 20.6% (95% confidence interval: 15.6%–26.8%); ESL 1,200 mg = 30.8% (23.0%–40.5%). Use of 2 baseline AEDs or rescue medication, US location, epilepsy duration ≥20 years, and higher maximum baseline seizure frequency were associated with higher exit risks. Median percent reductions in standardized seizure frequency between baseline and the 18-week double-blind period were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 43.2%; ESL 1,200 mg = 35.7%; baseline carbamazepine use was associated with smaller reductions. Safety profiles were similar between ESL doses. Conclusions: Exit rates for ESL monotherapy (1,600 mg and 1,200 mg once daily) were lower than the historical control threshold, irrespective of baseline AED use and region, with no additional safety concerns identified. Clinical factors and location clearly influence treatment responses in conversion-to-monotherapy trials. Classification of evidence: This pooled analysis provides Class IV evidence that for adults with medically uncontrolled partial-onset seizures, ESL monotherapy is well tolerated and effective. PMID:26911639

  20. Intravitreal injection of octreotide acetate.

    PubMed

    Robertson, J E; Westra, I; Woltering, E A; Winthrop, K L; Barrie, R; O'Dorisio, T M; Holmes, D

    1997-04-01

    This study was conducted to determine the feasibility of injecting the somatostatin analogue, octreotide acetate (OA), into the vitreous cavity. Previous work suggests that octreotide effectively inhibits angiogenesis in vitro, thus its use in vivo may slow the progression of proliferative eye disease. Fifty micrograms of aqueous OA in 50 microliters aqueous solution was injected into the mid-vitreous of kitten eyes (n = 6), and OA levels were monitored over 4 days. A long-acting release form of octreotide (OA-LAR) was also injected into the mid-vitreous of rabbit eyes at doses of 0.36 (n = 16), 1.1 (n = 1), 2.1 (n = 1), 4.05 (n = 1), 8.2 (n = 1), and 36 mg (n = 3) in solution; and octreotide concentrations were measured at various time points over 42 days. OA concentrations were determined by a highly specific radioimmunoassay. Aqueous octreotide was eliminated rapidly (t1/2 = 16 hours) from the vitreous of the kitten eye, with only negligible amounts recoverable 4 days post-injection. In the long-acting form, OA in the rabbit eye reached peak levels at 28 days. By 42 days, OA levels had declined to the 14-day level. Doses of OA-LAR of 1.1 mg or less produced no gross evidence of clinical toxicity and elicited no grossly visible ocular side effects. Doses greater than 1.1 mg produced significant toxicity, including cataracts and rubeosis. The 28-day peak release for long-acting OA implies that monthly intravitreal injections could provide continual high levels of OA. Intravitreal injection of long-acting OA provides sustained, high concentrations of drug, and deserves further study as a potential treatment of proliferative eye diseases.

  1. Extraction of carboxylic acids by amine extractants

    SciTech Connect

    Tamada, Janet Ayako; King, C.J.

    1989-01-01

    This work examines the chemistry of solvent extraction by long-chain amines for recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solution. Long-chain amines act as complexing agents with the acid, which facilitates distribution of the acid into the organic phase. The complexation is reversible, allowing for recovery of the acid from the organic phase and regeneration of the extractant. Batch extraction experiments were performed to study the complexation of acetic, lactic, succinic, malonic, fumaric, and maleic acids with Alamine 336, an aliphatic, tertiary amine extractant, dissolved in various diluents. Results were interpreted by a ''chemical'' model, in which stoichiometric ratios of acid and amine molecules are assumed to form complexes in the solvent phase. From fitting of the extraction data, the stoichiometry of complexes formed and the corresponding equilibrium constants were obtained. The results of the model were combined with infrared spectroscopic experiments and results of past studies to analyze the chemical interactions that are responsible for extraction behavior. The information from the equilibrium studies was used to develop guidelines for large-scale staged extraction and regeneration schemes. A novel scheme, in which the diluent composition is shifted between extraction and regeneration, was developed which could achieve both high solute recovery and high product concentration. 169 refs., 57 figs., 15 tabs.

  2. Fragrance material review on 3-phenylpropyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 3-phenylpropyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 3-Phenylpropyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 3-phenylpropyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and toxicokinetics data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al., 2012 for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  3. Fragrance material review on anisyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of anisyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Anisyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for anisyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, skin irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, and phototoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al., 2012 for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  4. Fragrance material review on piperonyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of piperonyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Piperonyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for piperonyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, toxicokinetics, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  5. Fragrance material review on 2-phenylpropyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-phenylpropyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Phenylpropyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-phenylpropyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  6. Fragrance material review on 4-methylbenzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 4-methylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 4-Methylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 4-methylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and elicitation data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  7. Novel Pyrophosphate-Forming Acetate Kinase from the Protist Entamoeba histolytica

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, Matthew L.; Ingram-Smith, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Acetate kinase (ACK) catalyzes the reversible synthesis of acetyl phosphate by transfer of the γ-phosphate of ATP to acetate. Here we report the first biochemical and kinetic characterization of a eukaryotic ACK, that from the protist Entamoeba histolytica. Our characterization revealed that this protist ACK is the only known member of the ASKHA structural superfamily, which includes acetate kinase, hexokinase, and other sugar kinases, to utilize inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi)/inorganic phosphate (Pi) as the sole phosphoryl donor/acceptor. Detection of ACK activity in E. histolytica cell extracts in the direction of acetate/PPi formation but not in the direction of acetyl phosphate/Pi formation suggests that the physiological direction of the reaction is toward acetate/PPi production. Kinetic parameters determined for each direction of the reaction are consistent with this observation. The E. histolytica PPi-forming ACK follows a sequential mechanism, supporting a direct in-line phosphoryl transfer mechanism as previously reported for the well-characterized Methanosarcina thermophila ATP-dependent ACK. Characterizations of enzyme variants altered in the putative acetate/acetyl phosphate binding pocket suggested that acetyl phosphate binding is not mediated solely through a hydrophobic interaction but also through the phosphoryl group, as for the M. thermophila ACK. However, there are key differences in the roles of certain active site residues between the two enzymes. The absence of known ACK partner enzymes raises the possibility that ACK is part of a novel pathway in Entamoeba. PMID:22903977

  8. Antimicrobial, Antioxidant, and Cytotoxic Properties of Vasicine Acetate Synthesized from Vasicine Isolated from Adhatoda vasica L.

    PubMed Central

    Duraipandiyan, V.; Al-Dhabi, N. A.; Balachandran, C.; Ignacimuthu, S.; Sankar, C.; Balakrishna, K.

    2015-01-01

    Adhatoda vasica (L.) (Acanthaceae) is used in the indigenous system of medicine in India. The alkaloid Vasicine was isolated from ethanolic extract of the leaves of A. vasica using column chromatography. Vasicine acetate was obtained by acetylation of Vasicine. Vasicine acetate exhibited good zone of inhibition against bacteria: 10 mm against E. aerogenes, 10 mm against S. epidermidis, and 10 mm against P. aeruginosa. Vasicine acetate showed minimum inhibitory concentration values against bacteria: M. luteus (125 μg/mL), E. aerogenes (125 μg/mL), S. epidermidis (125 μg/mL), and P. aeruginosa (125 μg/mL). The radical scavenging activity of Vasicine acetate was the maximum at 1000 μg/mL (66.15%). The compound showed prominent cytotoxic activity in vitro against A549 lung adenocarcinoma cancer cell line. Quantification of Vasicine and Vasicine acetate by HPLC-DAD analysis showed their contents to be 0.2293% and 0.0156%, respectively, on dry weight basis of the leaves. Vasicine acetate could be probed further in drug discovery programme. PMID:25632399

  9. Acetate limitation and nitrite accumulation during denitrification

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, J.; Silverstein, J.

    1999-03-01

    Nitrite accumulated in denitrifying activated sludge mixed liquor when the carbon and electron source, acetate, was limited. If acetate was added to obtain a carbon-to-nitrogen (C:N) ratio in the range of 2:1 to 3:1, nitrate was completely consumed at the same rate with no nitrite accumulation, indicating that nitrate concentration controlled the respiration rate as long as sufficient substrate was present. However, when acetate was reduced to a C:N ratio of 1:1, while nitrate continued to be consumed, > 50% of the initial nitrate-nitrogen accumulated as nitrite and 29% persisted as nitrite throughout an endogenous denitrification period of 8--9 h. While nitrite accumulated during acetate-limited denitrification, the specific nitrate reduction rate increased significantly compared with the rate when excess acetate was provided as follows: 0.034 mg-NO{sub 3}-N/mg-mixed liquid volatile suspended solids/h versus 0.023 mg-NO{sub 3}-N/mg-mixed liquid volatile suspended solids/h, respective. This may be explained by nitrate respiration out-competing nitrite respiration for limited acetate electrons. Complete restoration of balanced denitrification and elimination of nitrite accumulation during denitrification required several weeks after the C:N ratio was increased back to 2:1.

  10. Antioxidant properties of sour cherries (Prunus cerasus L.): role of colorless phytochemicals from the methanolic extract of ripe fruits.

    PubMed

    Piccolella, Simona; Fiorentino, Antonio; Pacifico, Severina; D'Abrosca, Brigida; Uzzo, Piera; Monaco, Pietro

    2008-03-26

    Many edible plant metabolites are known to be useful as cellular antioxidants. In the search for antioxidative chemicals from native fruits of the Campania region of Italy, Prunus cerasus L., an acidic cherry widely used for culinary purposes, has been studied. Fruit crude extracts (MeOH, EtOAc, and hexane) were submitted to an antioxidative screening using specific assay media characterized from the presence of highly reactive radical species (DPPH*, ABTS*+, O2*-, NO) or lipoperoxidation markers. The reducing power of the samples was also determined. It was observed that the most polar extracts in MeOH and EtOAc were able to exercise a massive and dose-increasing antioxidative capacity. The peculiar efficacy of the same extracts was revealed by investigating their protein and deoxyribose oxidation capacity. A preliminary analysis of total phenol, flavonoid, and anthocyanin contents together with biological screening data put the basis on P. cerasus fruit phytochemical investigation of methanolic extract. Twenty secondary metabolites were isolated and characterized by spectroscopic (especially 1D and 2D NMR) and spectrometric techniques. 1-(4-Hydroxyphenyl)-1,2-ethanediol-1,2-bis-1-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3), (4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)methanol-1-O-beta-D-gentiobioside (4), epicatechin-3-malate (14), and epicatechin-3-(1''-methyl)malate (15) were isolated for the first time. All of the compounds were evaluated for their radical scavenging activity on DPPH*, O2*-, and NO. Flavonoids and quinic acid derivatives were found to be the more antioxidative substances. PMID:18303821

  11. The Ratio of Acetate-to-Glucose Oxidation in Astrocytes from a Single 13C NMR Spectrum of Cerebral Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Marin-Valencia, Isaac; Hooshyar, M. Ali; Pichumani, Kumar; Sherry, A. Dean; Malloy, Craig R.

    2014-01-01

    The 13C labeling patterns in glutamate and glutamine from brain tissue are quite different after infusion of a mixture of 13C-enriched glucose and acetate. Two processes contribute to this observation, oxidation of acetate by astrocytes but not neurons, and preferential incorporation of α-ketoglutarate into glutamate in neurons, and incorporation of α-ketoglutarate into glutamine in astrocytes. The acetate:glucose ratio, introduced previously for analysis of a single 13C NMR spectrum, provides a useful index of acetate and glucose oxidation in the brain tissue. However, quantitation of relative substrate oxidation at the cell compartment level has not been reported. A simple mathematical method is presented to quantify the ratio of acetate to glucose oxidation in astrocytes, based on the standard assumption that neurons do not oxidize acetate. Mice were infused with [1,2-13C]acetate and [1,6-13C]glucose, and proton decoupled 13C NMR spectra of cortex extracts were acquired. A fit of those spectra to the model indicated that 13C-labeled acetate and glucose contributed approximately equally to acetyl-CoA (0.96) in astrocytes. Since this method relies on a single 13C NMR spectrum, it can be readily applied to multiple physiologic and pathologic conditions. PMID:25231025

  12. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PROTACTINIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, E.K.; Katzin, L.I.; Wolf, M.J.

    1961-04-01

    A process is described for separating protactinium from thorium present together as the nitrates in a 0.1 to 10 N nitric acid solution. The separation is carried out by extraction with an aliphatic alcohol, ketone, and/or ester having at least six carbon atoms, such as n-amyl acetate, 2-ethyl hexanol, and diisopropyl ketone.

  13. Antioxidant and nitrite-scavenging capacities of phenolic compounds from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L.) tops.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jian; He, Xue-Mei; Zhao, Mou-Ming; Li, Li; Li, Chang-Bao; Dong, Yi

    2014-08-26

    Sugarcane tops were extracted with 50% ethanol and fractionated by petroleum ether, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butyl alcohol successively. Eight phenolic compounds in EtOAc extracts were purified through silica gel and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies, and then identified by nuclear magnetic resonance and electrospray ionization mass spectra. The results showed that eight phenolic compounds from EtOAc extracts were identified as caffeic acid, cis-p-hydroxycinnamic acid, quercetin, apigenin, albanin A, australone A, moracin M, and 5'-geranyl-5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxyflavone. The antioxidant and nitrite-scavenging capacities of different solvent extracts correlated positively with their total phenolic (TP) contents. Amongst various extracts, EtOAc extracts possessed the highest TP content and presented the strongest oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), 1,1'-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity, 2,2'-azobis-3-ethylbenthiaazoline-6-sulfonic acid (ABTS) radical-scavenging capacity, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and nitrite-scavenging capacity. Thus, sugarcane tops could be promoted as a source of natural antioxidant.

  14. Optimisation and validation of the microwave-assisted extraction of phenolic compounds from rice grains.

    PubMed

    Setyaningsih, W; Saputro, I E; Palma, M; Barroso, C G

    2015-02-15

    A new microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) method has been investigated for the extraction of phenolic compounds from rice grains. The experimental conditions studied included temperature (125-175°C), microwave power (500-1000W), time (5-15min), solvent (10-90% EtOAc in MeOH) and solvent-to-sample ratio (10:1 to 20:1). The extraction variables were optimised by the response surface methodology. Extraction temperature and solvent were found to have a highly significant effect on the response value (p<0.0005) and the extraction time also had a significant effect (p<0.05). The optimised MAE conditions were as follows: extraction temperature 185°C, microwave power 1000W, extraction time 20min, solvent 100% MeOH, and solvent-to-sample ratio 10:1. The developed method had a high precision (in terms of CV: 5.3% for repeatability and 5.5% for intermediate precision). Finally, the new method was applied to real samples in order to investigate the presence of phenolic compounds in a wide variety of rice grains.

  15. Acetylation of Starch with Vinyl Acetate in Imidazolium Ionic Liquids and Characterization of Acetate Distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch was acetylated with vinyl acetate in different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) salts as solvent in effort to produce starches with different acetylation patterns. Overall degree of substitution was much higher for basic anions such as acetate and dicyanimide (dca) than for neutral anions ...

  16. 40 CFR 721.10001 - 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as 2-ethoxyethanol (CAS No. 110-80-5), 2-ethoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 111-15-9), 2-methoxyethanol (CAS No. 109-86-4), and 2-methoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 110-49-6) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  17. 40 CFR 721.10001 - 2-Ethoxyethanol, 2-ethoxyethanol acetate, 2-methoxyethanol, and 2-methoxyethanol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified as 2-ethoxyethanol (CAS No. 110-80-5), 2-ethoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 111-15-9), 2-methoxyethanol (CAS No. 109-86-4), and 2-methoxyethanol acetate (CAS No. 110-49-6) are subject to reporting under this section for the significant new...

  18. Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

  19. Biological effects of Myristica fragrans (nutmeg) extract.

    PubMed

    Olajide, O A; Ajayi, F F; Ekhelar, A I; Awe, S O; Makinde, J M; Alada, A R

    1999-06-01

    The chloroform extract of nutmeg has been evaluated for antiinflammatory, analgesic and antithrombotic activities in rodents. The extract inhibited the carrageenan-induced rat paw oedema, produced a reduction in writhings induced by acetic acid in mice and offered protection against thrombosis induced by ADP/adrenaline mixture in mice.

  20. Dynamic Protonation Equilibrium of Solvated Acetic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Wei; Frigato, Tomaso; Straatsma, TP; Helms, Volkhard H.

    2007-04-13

    For the first time, the dynamic protonation equilibrium between an amino acid side chain analogue and bulk water as well as the diffusion properties of the excess proton were successfully reproduced through unbiased computer simulations. During a 50 ns Q-HOP MD simulation, two different regimes of proton transfer were observed. Extended phases of frequent proton swapping between acetic acid and nearby water were separated by phases where the proton freely diffuses in the simulation box until it is captured again by acetic acid. The pKa of acetic acid was calculated around 3.0 based on the relative population of protonated and deprotonated states and the diffusion coefficient of excess proton was computed from the average mean squared displacement in the simulation. Both calculated values agree well with the experimental measurements.

  1. Choleretic Activity of Turmeric and its Active Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yonglu; Wang, Liyao; Zhu, Xinyi; Wang, Dong; Li, Xueming

    2016-07-01

    Turmeric, a rhizome of Curcumin longa L. is widely used as both a spice and an herbal medicine. The traditional use of turmeric in gastroenterology is mainly based on its choleretic activity. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of turmeric on bile flow (BF) and total bile acids (TBAs) excretion in a bile fistula rat model after acute duodenal administration. A significant dose-dependent enhancement in both BF and TBAs was detected after treatment with the turmeric decoctions which suggested the choleretic activity was bile acid-dependent secretion. In order to direct the active group of compounds, aqueous (AE), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and petroleum ether (PE) extracts were investigated. The EtOAc and PE extracts showing high effects were purified to locate the active ingredients. Three curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin) and 2 sesquiterpenes (bisacurone B and ar-turmerone) were isolated. It was found Bisacurone B was the most potent choleretic ingredient followed by ar-turmerone, bisdemethoxycurcumin demethoxycurcumin, and then curcumin. The amounts of the active ingredients were quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The EtOAc and PE extracts had high sesquiterpenes and curcuminoids content, while the AE extract had poor content of sesquiterpenes and curcuminoids which affected neither BF nor TBAs. Based on the results of multiple linear regression analysis, the content of BIS and TUR were dominant factors (P < 0.01) of controlling BL and TBAs in EtOAC and PE extracts.

  2. Choleretic Activity of Turmeric and its Active Ingredients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yonglu; Wang, Liyao; Zhu, Xinyi; Wang, Dong; Li, Xueming

    2016-07-01

    Turmeric, a rhizome of Curcumin longa L. is widely used as both a spice and an herbal medicine. The traditional use of turmeric in gastroenterology is mainly based on its choleretic activity. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of turmeric on bile flow (BF) and total bile acids (TBAs) excretion in a bile fistula rat model after acute duodenal administration. A significant dose-dependent enhancement in both BF and TBAs was detected after treatment with the turmeric decoctions which suggested the choleretic activity was bile acid-dependent secretion. In order to direct the active group of compounds, aqueous (AE), ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and petroleum ether (PE) extracts were investigated. The EtOAc and PE extracts showing high effects were purified to locate the active ingredients. Three curcuminoids (curcumin, demethoxycurcumin, and bisdemethoxycurcumin) and 2 sesquiterpenes (bisacurone B and ar-turmerone) were isolated. It was found Bisacurone B was the most potent choleretic ingredient followed by ar-turmerone, bisdemethoxycurcumin demethoxycurcumin, and then curcumin. The amounts of the active ingredients were quantitatively analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The EtOAc and PE extracts had high sesquiterpenes and curcuminoids content, while the AE extract had poor content of sesquiterpenes and curcuminoids which affected neither BF nor TBAs. Based on the results of multiple linear regression analysis, the content of BIS and TUR were dominant factors (P < 0.01) of controlling BL and TBAs in EtOAC and PE extracts. PMID:27228476

  3. Leuprolide acetate-induced generalized papular eruption.

    PubMed

    Burris, Katy; Ding, Catherine Y; Lim, Geoffrey F S

    2014-06-01

    Leuprolide acetate, a gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonist, is used in the treatment of prostate cancer. We report a unique case of a disseminated papular rash following leuprolide acetate injections in a 65-year-old man that shares clinical and histopathological features of papuloerythroderma of Ofuji. Leuprolide-induced papuloerythroderma, as well as a limited number of other disseminated cutaneous eruptions caused by this drug, is extremely rare, with only one case previously reported. Our case calls attention to this uncommon side effect in a commonly used hormonal therapy.

  4. Comparative study of chromatographic medium-associated mass and potential antitumor activity loss with bioactive extracts.

    PubMed

    Datta, Sandipan; Zhou, Yu-Dong; Nagle, Dale G

    2013-04-26

    Natural product drug discovery programs often rely on the use of silica (Si) gel, reversed-phase media, or size-exclusion resins (e.g., RP-C18, Sephadex LH-20) for compound purification. The synthetic polymer-based sorbent Diaion HP20SS (cross-linked polystyrene matrix) is used as an alternative to prepare purified natural product libraries. To evaluate the impact of chromatographic media on the isolation of biologically active, yet chromatographically unstable natural products, Diaion HP20SS was evaluated side-by-side with normal-phase sorbents for irreversible binding of extract constituents and their effects on bioactivity. An array of chemically diverse natural product-rich extracts was selected as a test panel, and a cell-based reporter assay for hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) was employed to monitor potential change(s) in bioactivity. Silica gel caused significant irreversible binding of three out of 10 extracts. Curcuma longa, Saururus cernuus, and Citrus reticulata extracts showed decreased HIF-1 inhibitory activity after elution through Si gel. An additional nonpolar column wash of HP20SS with EtOAc retained considerable bioactivities of active extracts. In general, Si gel produced the greatest loss of bioactivity. However, HP20SS elution reduced significantly HIF-1 inhibitory activity of certain extracts (e.g., Asimina triloba). PMID:23441686

  5. Molecular biology and genetics of the acetate-utilizing methanogenic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Gunsalus, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    Acetate conversion to methane and C0{sub 2} by the methanogenic archaebacteria is a primary rate limiting step in anaerobic biodegradative processes in nature. However, the genetic study of these organisms has not been experimentally tractable due to the inability to grow and plate the organisms as single cells, and to extract high molecular weight DNA and RNA without shearing. The acetate-utilizing species, Methanosarcina thermolphila TM-1, is being used for the proposed genetic and molecular studies because, unlike previously described acetotrophic methanosarcina that have a thick heteropolysaccharide cell wall, this species can be cultured in a unicellular form that has a protein cell wall lacking the heteropolysaccharide layer. These cells can be gently disrupted to obtain protoplasts or lysed to yield intact genomic DNA and RNA. Experiments are in progress to develop a gene transfer system in this bacterial species. Methods are being developed and refined for the efficient plating of M. thermophila on defined media, for chemical mutagenesis, and for the isolation of mutants defective in acetate utilization. Chromosomal DNA libraries have been constructed from M. thermophila and are being used to clone genes involved in the acetate utilization pathway (e.g. carbon monoxide dehydrogenase). Once cloned, analysis of the molecular mechanisms responsible for their regulatory control will be performed. These studies should aid our understanding of the pathway for acetate utilization in M. thermophila and serve as a model for elucidating regulatory mechanisms in the acetotrophic methanogens.

  6. Trypanosomatidae produce acetate via a mitochondrial acetate:succinate CoA transferase.

    PubMed

    Van Hellemond, J J; Opperdoes, F R; Tielens, A G

    1998-03-17

    Hydrogenosome-containing anaerobic protists, such as the trichomonads, produce large amounts of acetate by an acetate:succinate CoA transferase (ASCT)/succinyl CoA synthetase cycle. The notion that mitochondria and hydrogenosomes may have originated from the same alpha-proteobacterial endosymbiont has led us to look for the presence of a similar metabolic pathway in trypanosomatids because these are the earliest-branching mitochondriate eukaryotes and because they also are known to produce acetate. The mechanism of acetate production in these organisms, however, has remained unknown. Four different members of the trypanosomatid family: promastigotes of Leishmania mexicana mexicana, L. infantum and Phytomonas sp., and procyclics of Trypanosoma brucei were analyzed as well as the parasitic helminth Fasciola hepatica. They all use a mitochondrial ASCT for the production of acetate from acetyl CoA. The succinyl CoA that is produced during acetate formation by ASCT is recycled presumably to succinate by a mitochondrial succinyl CoA synthetase, concomitantly producing ATP from ADP. The ASCT of L. mexicana mexicana promastigotes was further characterized after partial purification of the enzyme. It has a high affinity for acetyl CoA (Km 0.26 mM) and a low affinity for succinate (Km 6.9 mM), which shows that significant acetate production can occur only when high mitochondrial succinate concentrations prevail. This study identifies a metabolic pathway common to mitochondria and hydrogenosomes, which strongly supports a common origin for these two organelles.

  7. Effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-09-01

    An integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was proposed to solve the problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid fermentation process. Extraction wastewater was treated by anaerobic digestion and then recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation to eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Acetic acid as an intermediate product of methane fermentation was present in anaerobic digestion effluent. In this study, the effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated and results showed that lower concentration of acetic acid could promote Aspergillus niger growth and citric acid production. 5-Cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) staining was used to quantify the activity of A. niger cells, and the results suggested that when acetic acid concentration was above 8 mM at initial pH 4.5, the morphology of A. niger became uneven and the part of the cells' activity was significantly reduced, thereby resulting in deceasing of citric acid production. Effects of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation, as influenced by initial pH and cell number in inocula, were also examined. The result indicated that inhibition by acetic acid increased as initial pH declined and was rarely influenced by cell number in inocula.

  8. Acetylation of barnyardgrass starch with acetic anhydride under iodine catalysis.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Josiane; Goebel, Jorge Tiago; Giovanaz, Marcos Antônio; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Schirmer, Manoel Artigas; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra

    2015-07-01

    Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) is an invasive plant that is difficult to control and is found in abundance as part of the waste of the paddy industry. In this study, barnyardgrass starch was extracted and studied to obtain a novel starch with potential food and non-food applications. We report some of the physicochemical, functional and morphological properties as well as the effect of modifying this starch with acetic anhydride by catalysis with 1, 5 or 10mM of iodine. The extent of the introduction of acetyl groups increased with increasing iodine levels as catalyst. The shape of the granules remained unaltered, but there were low levels of surface corrosion and the overall relative crystallinity decreased. The pasting temperature, enthalpy and other gelatinisation temperatures were reduced by the modification. There was an increase in the viscosity of the pastes, except for the peak viscosity, which was strongly reduced in 10mM iodine.

  9. Viability of Cabralea canjerana Extracts to Control the South American Fruit Fly, Anastrepha fraterculus

    PubMed Central

    Magrini, Flaviane Eva; Specht, Alexandre; Gaio, Juliano; Girelli, Cristiane Priscila; Migues, Ignacio; Heinzen, Horacio; Sartori, Valdirene Camatti; Cesio, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Several representatives of Meliaceae contain biologically active compounds that are toxic to insects with few negative effects on the environment and humans. Our study evaluated the activity of ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts from the fruit and seeds of Cabralea canjerana (Vellozo) Mart (Sapindales: Meliaceae) on Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Limonoids and triterpenes were detected in fruit and seed extracts. Each extract was added to an artificial diet at three concentrations and tested after 24, 48, and 72 hr of extract application. Ethyl acetate extracts were the most active ones and showed the effect of both dose and time elapses after application on the insects. The highest toxic effect on A. fraterculus adults was from ethyl acetate extracts from fruit, followed by extracts from seeds. These extracts showed antifeedant activities. Extract solutions sprinkled on fruits of Carica papaya (L.) (Brassicales: Caricaceae) caused oviposition repellency and negatively affected the biological development of A. fraterculus. Ethyl acetate extracts highly hampered oviposition, but seed extracts showed lesser oviposition deterrence. The fruit and seed extracts diminished pupal viability. Particularly, the ethyl acetate fruit extract caused malformed adults. The sex ratio was also affected, resulting in female predominance for the fruit extract, while the seed extract showed a dose-dependent effect. Low doses caused male abundance, but at higher concentrations the effect was reversed. These encouraging results showed that the C. canjerana extracts have great potential as new tools to be used in integrated pest management programs to protect fruits against A. fraterculus. PMID:25373194

  10. Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-02-17

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85 and 200 C and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

  11. Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, Gerald Charles; Zoeller, Joseph Robert; Depew, Leslie Sharon

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85.degree. and 200.degree. C. and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

  12. Heat Bonding of Irradiated Ethylene Vinyl Acetate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Reliable method now available for joining parts of this difficult-tobond material. Heating fixture encircles ethylene vinyl acetate multiplesocket part, providing heat to it and to tubes inserted in it. Fixtures specially designed to match parts to be bonded. Tube-and-socket bonds made with this technique subjected to tensile tests. Bond strengths of 50 percent that of base material obtained consistently.

  13. Fragrance material review on phenethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of phenethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Phenethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for phenethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, genotoxicity, and carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  14. Fragrance material review on benzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Vitale, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of benzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Benzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for benzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, phototoxicity, toxicokinetics, repeated dose, reproductive toxicity, genotoxicity, or carcinogenicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Refer Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  15. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Brown, Dan; Eustace, John

    2015-01-01

    Increment 45 - 46 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  16. Corrosion of stainless steel during acetate production

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, J.S.; Lester, G.C.

    1996-07-01

    Corrosion of types 304, 304L, 316, and 316L stainless steel (SS) during the esterification of acetic acid and alcohol or glycol ether was investigated. The catalyst for this reaction, sulfuric acid or para-toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA), was shown to cause more corrosion on reactor equipment than CH{sub 3}COOH under the process conditions commonly practiced in industry. The corrosive action of the catalyst occurred only in the presence of water. Thus, for the batch processes, corrosion occurred mostly during the initial stage of esterification, where water produced by the reaction created an aqueous environment. After water was distilled off, the corrosion rate declined to a negligible value. The corrosion inhibitor copper sulfate, often used in industrial acetate processes, was found to work well for a low-temperature process (< 95 C) such as in production of butyl acetate, but it accelerated corrosion in the glycol ether acetate processes where temperatures were > 108 C. Process conditions that imparted low corrosion rates were determined.

  17. Cellulose Acetate Membranes: Electron Microscopy of Structure.

    PubMed

    Riley, R; Gardner, J O; Merten, U

    1964-02-21

    Electron photomicrographs of cellulose acetate membranes used in the reverse osmosis processof water desalination reveal a dense surface layer with a porous substructure. The high rate oftransmission for water can be correlated with the thickness of the dense layer on the air-driedsurface of the membrane.

  18. Synthesis of Cellulose Acetate from Cotton Byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton burr and cottonseed hull are relatively inexpensive cotton byproducts. In an effort to derive greater value out of these natural renewable materials, we have succeeded in converting part of them into cellulose acetate without prior chemical breakdown or physical separation of cellulose, ligni...

  19. Phenyl Acetate Preparation from Phenol and Acetic Acid: Reassessment of a Common Textbook Misconception.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hocking, M. B.

    1980-01-01

    Reassesses a common textbook misconception that "...phenols cannot be esterified directly." Results of experiments are discussed and data tables provided of an effective method for the direct preparation of phenyl acetate. (CS)

  20. The microwave spectrum of n-hexyl acetate and structural aspects of n-alkyl acetates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Attig, T.; Kannengießer, R.; Kleiner, I.; Stahl, W.

    2014-04-01

    The microwave spectrum of n-hexyl acetate was recorded in the range of 10-13.5 GHz using the Aachen MB-FTMW spectrometer. The rotational constants of the most abundant conformer were determined to be A = 3.3591100(32) GHz, B = 0.39596553(53) GHz, and C = 0.36999804(31) GHz. Quantum chemical calculations for specific conformers were carried out at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level. The programs XIAM and BELGI were used to analyze the internal rotation of the acetyl methyl group. The observed conformer of n-hexyl acetate was compared to the lowest energy conformers of n-butyl acetate and n-pentyl acetate.

  1. Recovery of DNA from latent fingerprint tape lifts archived against matte acetate.

    PubMed

    Steadman, Shelly A; Hoofer, Steven R; Geering, Sarah C; King, Stephanie; Bennett, Marc A

    2015-05-01

    This study was driven by court order to examine methods to remove, extract, and STR-type potential DNA entrapped between latent fingerprint lifting tape and matte acetate that was collected from a 1977 crime scene. Results indicate that recovery of appreciable quantities of DNA is more challenging once adhesive is attached to matte acetate cards and even more difficult when fixed following black powder enhancement. STR amplification of extracts from entrapped fingermarks collected following the dusting/lifting procedure did not produce robust profiles, and extraneous peaks not expressed by print donors were detected for some samples. A hearing was set to argue whether there was DNA remaining to be tested, and if so, whether that DNA could be exculpatory in this postconviction matter. The studies herein provided the basis for the court's decision to not require the testing.

  2. Viscometric study of chitosan solutions in acetic acid/sodium acetate and acetic acid/sodium chloride.

    PubMed

    Costa, Cristiane N; Teixeira, Viviane G; Delpech, Marcia C; Souza, Josefa Virginia S; Costa, Marcos A S

    2015-11-20

    A viscometric study was carried out at 25°C to assess the physical-chemical behavior in solution and the mean viscometric molar mass (M¯v) of chitosan solutions with different deacetylation degrees, in two solvent mixtures: medium 1-acetic acid 0.3mol/L and sodium acetate 0.2mol/L; and medium 2-acetic acid 0.1mol/L and sodium chloride 0.2mol/L. Different equations were employed, by graphical extrapolation, to calculate the intrinsic viscosities [η] and the viscometric constants, to reveal the solvent's quality: Huggins (H), Kraemer (K) and Schulz-Blaschke (SB). For single-point determination, the equations used were SB, Solomon-Ciuta (SC) and Deb-Chanterjee (DC), resulting in a faster form of analysis. The values of ̄M¯v were calculated by applying the equation of Mark-Houwink-Sakurada. The SB and SC equations were most suitable for single-point determination of [η] and ̄M¯v and the Schulz-Blachke constant (kSB), equal to 0.28, already utilized for various systems, can also be employed to analyze chitosan solutions under the conditions studied.

  3. Low-temperature liquid-liquid extraction of phenols from aqueous solutions with hydrophilic mixtures of extractants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rudakov, O. B.; Khorokhordina, E. A.; Preobrazhenskii, M. A.; Rudakova, L. V.

    2016-08-01

    The volume ratios in acetonitrile-ethyl acetate (90 : 10, 95 : 5), acetonitrile-isopropanol-ethyl acetate (70 : 15 : 15, 80 : 5 : 15), and isopropanol-1-butanol (50 : 50) mixtures were determined. Their mixing with water (1 : 1) and storage at-10°C led to partitioning into two immiscible liquid phases without formation of the ice phase. The mixtures were shown to be useful as hydrophilic extractants in low-temperature liquidliquid extraction of phenol from aqueous solutions.

  4. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  6. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  7. Anaerobic degradation of lactate by syntrophic associations of methanosarcina barkeri and desulfovibrio species and effect of H2 on acetate degradation

    SciTech Connect

    McInerney, M.J.; Bryant, M.P.

    1981-02-01

    When grown in the absence of added sulfate, cocultures of Desulfovibrio desulfuricans or Desulfovibrio vulgaris with Methanobrevibacter smithii (Methanobacterium ruminantium), which uses H2 and CO2 for methanogenesis, degraded lactate, with the production of acetate and CH4. When D. desulfuricans or D. vulgaris was grown in the absence of added sulfate in coculture with Methanosarcina barkeri (type strain), which uses both H2-CO2 and acetate for methanogenesis, lactate was stoichiometrically degraded to CH4 and presumably to CO2. During the first 12 days of incubation of the D. desulfuricans-M. barkeri coculture, lactate was completely degraded, with almost stoichiometric production of acetate and CH4. Later, acetate was degraded to CH4 and presumably to CO2. In experiments in which 20 mM acetate and 0 to 20 mM lactate were added to D. desulfuricans-M. barkeri cocultures, no detectable degradation of acetate occurred until the lactate was catabolized. The ultimate rate of acetate utilization for methanogenesis was greater for those cocultures receiving the highest levels of lactate. A small amount of H2 was detected in cocultures which contained D. desulfuricans and M. barkeri until after all lactate was degraded. The addition of H2, but not of lactate, to the growth medium inhibited acetate degradation by pure cultures of M. barkeri. Pure cultures of M. barkeri produced CH4 from acetate at a rate equivalent to that observed for cocultures containing M. barkeri. Inocula of M. barkeri grown with H2-CO2 as the methanogenic substrate produced CH4 from acetate at a rate equivalent to that observed for acetate-grown inocula when grown in a rumen fluid-vitamin-based medium but not when grown in a yeast extract-based medium. The results suggest that H2 produced by the Desulfovibrio species during growth with lactate inhibited acetate degradation by M. barkeri. (Refs. 26).

  8. Expression of Acetate Permease-like (apl) Genes in Subsurface Communities of Geobacter Species Under Fluctuating Acetate Concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Elifantz, H; N'Guessan, A L; Mouser, Paula; Williams, Kenneth H; Wilkins, Michael J; Risso, Carla; Holmes, Dawn; Long, Philip E; Lovley, Derek R

    2010-09-01

    The addition of acetate to uranium-contaminated aquifers in order to stimulate the growth and activity of Geobacter species that reduce uranium is a promising in situ bioremediation option. Optimizing this bioremediation strategy requires that sufficient acetate be added to promote Geobacter species growth. We hypothesized that under acetate-limiting conditions, subsurface Geobacter species would increase the expression of either putative acetate symporters genes (aplI and aplII). Acetate was added to a uranium-contaminated aquifer (Rifle, CO) in two continuous amendments separated by 5 days of groundwater flush to create changing acetate concentrations. While the expression of aplI in monitoring well D04 (high acetate) weakly correlated with the acetate concentration over time, the transcript levels for this gene were relatively constant in well D08 (low acetate). At the lowest acetate concentrations during the groundwater flush, the transcript levels of aplII were the highest. The expression of aplII decreased 2–10-fold upon acetate reintroduction. However, the overall instability of acetate concentrations throughout the experiment could not support a robust conclusion regarding the role of apl genes in response to acetate limitation under field conditions, in contrast to previous chemostat studies, suggesting that the function of a microbial community cannot be inferred based on lab experiments alone.

  9. Expression of acetate permease-like (apl) genes in subsurface communities of Geobacter species under fluctuating acetate concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Elifantz, H.; N'Guessan, L.A.; Mouser, P.J.; Williams, K H.; Wilkins, M J.; Risso, C.; Holmes, D.E.; Long, P.E.; Lovley, D.R.

    2010-03-01

    The addition of acetate to uranium-contaminated aquifers in order to stimulate the growth and activity of Geobacter species that reduce uranium is a promising in situ bioremediation option. Optimizing this bioremediation strategy requires that sufficient acetate be added to promote Geobacter species growth. We hypothesized that under acetate-limiting conditions, subsurface Geobacter species would increase the expression of either putative acetate symporters genes (aplI and aplII). Acetate was added to a uranium-contaminated aquifer (Rifle, CO) in two continuous amendments separated by 5 days of groundwater flush to create changing acetate concentrations. While the expression of aplI in monitoring well D04 (high acetate) weakly correlated with the acetate concentration over time, the transcript levels for this gene were relatively constant in well D08 (low acetate). At the lowest acetate concentrations during the groundwater flush, the transcript levels of aplII were the highest. The expression of aplII decreased 2-10-fold upon acetate reintroduction. However, the overall instability of acetate concentrations throughout the experiment could not support a robust conclusion regarding the role of apl genes in response to acetate limitation under field conditions, in contrast to previous chemostat studies, suggesting that the function of a microbial community cannot be inferred based on lab experiments alone.

  10. Phytochemical screening and anticonvulsant studies of ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii on laboratory animals

    PubMed Central

    Aliyu, Musa Mumammad; Musa, Abdullahi Isma'il; Kamal, Muhammad Ja'afar; Mohammed, Magaji Garba

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the phytochemical properties and the anticonvulsant potential of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of ethanol leaf extract of Globimetula braunii, a plant used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of epilepsy. Methods The phytochemical screening was carried out using standard protocol while the anticonvulsant activity was studied using maximal electroshock test in chicks, pentylenetetrazole and 4-aminopyridine-induced seizures in mice. Results The preliminary phytochemical screening carried out on the crude ethanol extract revealed the presence of saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, anthraquinones and steroids. Similarly, tannins, flavonoids and steroids/terpenes were found to be present in the ethyl acetate fraction. In the pharmacological screening, 150 mg/kg of the fraction protected 83.33% of animals against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in mice whereas sodium valproate a standard anti-epileptic drug offered 100% protection. In the 4-aminopyridine-induced seizure model, the fraction produced a significant (P<0.05) increase in the mean onset of seizure in unprotected animals. The fraction did not exhibit a significant activity against maximal electroshock convulsion. The median lethal dose of the fraction was found to be 1 261.91 mg/kg. Conclusions These results suggest that the ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii leaves extract possesses psychoactive compound that may be useful in the management of petit mal epilepsy and lend credence to the ethnomedical use of the plant in the management of epilepsy. PMID:25182552

  11. Improving the environmental profile of wood panels via co-production of ethanol and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Earles, J Mason; Halog, Anthony; Shaler, Stephen

    2011-11-15

    The oriented strand board (OSB) biorefinery is an emerging technology that could improve the building, transportation, and chemical sectors' environmental profiles. By adding a hot water extraction stage to conventional OSB panel manufacturing, hemicellulose polysaccharides can be extracted from wood strands and converted to renewably sourced ethanol and acetic acid. Replacing fossil-based gasoline and acetic acid has the potential to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, among other possible impacts. At the same time, hemicellulose extraction could improve the environmental profile of OSB panels by reducing the level of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted during manufacturing. In this study, the life cycle significance of such GHG, VOC, and other emission reductions was investigated. A process model was developed based on a mix of laboratory and industrial-level mass and energy flow data. Using these data a life cycle assessment (LCA) model was built. Sensitive process parameters were identified and used to develop a target production scenario for the OSB biorefinery. The findings suggest that the OSB biorefinery's deployment could substantially improve human and ecosystem health via reduction of select VOCs compared to conventionally produced OSB, gasoline, and acetic acid. Technological advancements are needed, however, to achieve desirable GHG reductions. PMID:21967719

  12. Separating acetic acid from furol (furfural) by electrodialysis method

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, S.F.; Li, C.S. Ye, S.T.; Shen, S.Y.; Wang, Y.T.; Yu, S.H.

    1981-01-01

    Furfural production by hydrolysis of fibrous plant materials is accompanied by formation of acetic acid in amounts depending on the material used. The amount of acetic formed in the hydrolysis of the fruit shell of oil-tea camellia (Camellia oleosa) (an oilseed-bearing tree) is equal to the amount of furfural. The acetic acid can be separated from the furfural and concentrated to 10% by electrodialysis. A smaller amount of furfural is separated with acetic acid.

  13. Gold-catalyzed cyclization of allenyl acetal derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Vasu, Dhananjayan; Pawar, Samir Kundlik

    2013-01-01

    Summary The gold-catalyzed transformation of allenyl acetals into 5-alkylidenecyclopent-2-en-1-ones is described. The outcome of our deuterium labeling experiments supports a 1,4-hydride shift of the resulting allyl cationic intermediates because a complete deuterium transfer is observed. We tested the reaction on various acetal substrates bearing a propargyl acetate, giving 4-methoxy-5-alkylidenecyclopent-2-en-1-ones 4 via a degradation of the acetate group at the allyl cation intermediate. PMID:24062838

  14. Hepatoprotective constituents of Firmiana simplex stem bark against ethanol insult to primary rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jung Wha; Yang, Heejung; Cho, Namki; Kim, Bitnarae; Kim, Young Choong; Sung, Sang Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ethanol causes hepatic cellular damage by alterations in biological functions. This study evaluated the hepatoprotective potential of the methanolic extract originating from Firmiana simplex (Sterculiaceae) stem bark against the ethanol-induced hepatotoxicity in rat primary hepatocytes. Materials and Methods: The extract of F. simplex stem bark was successively fractionated into n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate (EtOAc), and n-butanol. Column chromatography with silica gel and sephadex LH-20 was used to isolate the EtOAc fraction. Rat primary hepatocytes were cultured to study the hepatoprotective activity of isolated substances against ethanol-induced toxicity. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, the antioxidant activities of glutathione reductase (GR) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) enzymes, and the GSH content were measured to examine the antioxidative property of the isolated compounds. Results: Two flavonoid glycosides, quercitrin (1) and tamarixetin 3-O-rhamnopyranoside (2), were isolated from the active EtOAc fraction. Compound 1 significantly protected rat primary hepatocytes against ethanol-induced oxidative stress by reducing the intracellular ROS level and preserving antioxidative defense systems such as GR, GSH-PX, and total GSH. Conclusion: This is the first report on the hepatoprotective activities of the extract of F. simplex. The EtOAc fraction of F. simplex stem bark and its major constituent quercitrin (1) could function as hepatoprotective agents to attenuate the development of alcoholic liver disease. PMID:25709211

  15. Cyproterone acetate in treatment of precocious puberty.

    PubMed Central

    Kauli, R; Pertzelan, A; Prager-Lewin, R; Grünebaum, M; Laron, Z

    1976-01-01

    Twenty-nine children (23 girls, 6 boys) with precocious puberty were treated with cyproterone acetate for various periods of time ranging from 6 months to 3 years 4 months. They received an oral dose ranging from 70-150 mg/m2 per day, or an intramuscular depot injection once a fortnight or once a month at a dose ranging from 107-230 mg/m2. Both forms of therapy were found to suppress the signs of sexual maturation, but the oral form proved to be superior. Only the younger patients with a bone age under 11 years showed a beneficial effect upon linear growth and bone maturation. No side effects were noted, but additional advantageous effects upon behaviour and sociability were. It is concluded that at present cyproterone acetate by mouth is the drug of choice in the treatment of precocious puberty. The treatment should be initiated as early as possible to attain maximum benefit. PMID:952553

  16. 21 CFR 182.8892 - α-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false α-Tocopherol acetate. 182.8892 Section 182.8892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. α-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  18. 21 CFR 182.8892 - α-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true α-Tocopherol acetate. 182.8892 Section 182.8892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. α-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 182.8892 - α-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false α-Tocopherol acetate. 182.8892 Section 182.8892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD...-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. α-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false a-Tocopherol acetate. 582.5892 Section 582.5892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  1. 21 CFR 582.5892 - a-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false a-Tocopherol acetate. 582.5892 Section 582.5892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5892 a-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. a-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  2. 21 CFR 182.8892 - α-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false α-Tocopherol acetate. 182.8892 Section 182.8892...) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8892 α-Tocopherol acetate. (a) Product. α-Tocopherol acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized as safe when used in...

  3. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  4. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  5. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  6. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  7. 21 CFR 584.200 - Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate. The feed additive ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate meets the requirement of 27 CFR 21.62, being not less than 92.5 percent ethyl alcohol, each 100 gallons... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethyl alcohol containing ethyl acetate....

  8. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  9. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  12. 21 CFR 582.5933 - Vitamin A acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Vitamin A acetate. 582.5933 Section 582.5933 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5933 Vitamin A acetate. (a) Product. Vitamin A acetate. (b) Conditions of use....

  13. Analysis of mutational lesions of acetate metabolism in Neurospora crassa by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, G H; Baxter, R L

    1987-01-01

    The adaptation of Neurospora crassa mycelium to growth on acetate as the sole carbon source was examined by using 13C nuclear magnetic resonance. Extracts were examined by nuclear magnetic resonance at various times after transfer of the mycelium from medium containing sucrose to medium containing [2-13C]acetate as the sole carbon source. The label was initially seen to enter the alanine, glutamate, and glutamine pools, and after 6 h 13C-enriched trehalose was evident, indicating that gluconeogenesis was occurring. Analysis of the isotopomer ratios in the alanine and glutamate-glutamine pools indicated that substantial glyoxylate cycle activity became evident between 2 and 4 h after transfer. Immediately after transfer of the mycelium to acetate medium, the alanine pool increased to about four times its previous level, only a small fraction of which was enriched with 13C. The quantity of 13C-enriched alanine remained almost constant between 2 and 7.5 h after the transfer, whereas the overall alanine pool decreased to its original level. The selective catabolism of the unenriched alanine leads us to suggest that the alanine pool is partitioned into two compartments during adaptation. Two acetate-nonutilizing mutants were also studied by this technique. An acu-3 strain, deficient for isocitrate lyase (EC 4.1.3.1) activity, showed metabolic changes consistent with this lesion. An acp strain, previously thought to be deficient in an inducible acetate permease, took up [2-13C]acetate but showed no evidence of glyoxylate cycle activity despite synthesizing the necessary enzymes; the lesion was therefore reinterpreted. PMID:2947898

  14. Calcium magnesium acetate production and cost reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Leuschner, A.P.

    1988-02-01

    The New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Energy Authority), Consolidated Edison Company of New York, Inc. (ConEd), the New York State Department of Transportation (NYSDOT), the New York State Thruway Authority (NYSTA), Chevron Chemical Company, the National Corn Growers Association (NCGA), and the Massachusetts Department of Public Works (MDPW) sponsored a research program to develop technology capable of producing Calcium Magnesium Acetate (CMA), an alternative road deicer, at a quality and cost which will allow its increased use. The objectives of this program were to determine the feasibility of: (1) producing CMA from regionally available waste and low grade organic feedstocks via biochemical engineering technologies; (2) operating the fermentation at concentrated product levels to reduce energy requirements and minimize drying process costs; (3) using this production approach to produce an environmentally acceptable CMA product; and (4) using and adapting an existing facility for a CMA commercial demonstration plant. The experimental program included:(1) selection of microorganisms for their ability to grow in the absence of sodium chloride and to tolerate high concentrations of calcium, magnesium, and acetate ions; (2) analysis of waste feedstocks for their potential conversion to acetate; (3) analysis of waste organic material for impurities in CMA that could carry over into the environment; (4) batch experiments to determine pH tolerance, growth in the absence of sodium chloride (NaCl), tolerance to magnesium, calcium and acetate ions, effect of substrate concentration, acid distribution, and acid production; and (5) semi-continuous laboratory scale anaerobic digestion experiments to determine loading rates, conversion efficiencies, and other design data. 67 refs., 33 figs., 66 tabs.

  15. Co-fermentation of acetate and sugars facilitating microbial lipid production on acetate-rich biomass hydrolysates.

    PubMed

    Gong, Zhiwei; Zhou, Wenting; Shen, Hongwei; Yang, Zhonghua; Wang, Guanghui; Zuo, Zhenyu; Hou, Yali; Zhao, Zongbao K

    2016-05-01

    The process of lignocellulosic biomass routinely produces a stream that contains sugars plus various amounts of acetic acid. As acetate is known to inhibit the culture of microorganisms including oleaginous yeasts, little attention has been paid to explore lipid production on mixtures of acetate and sugars. Here we demonstrated that the yeast Cryptococcus curvatus can effectively co-ferment acetate and sugars for lipid production. When mixtures of acetate and glucose were applied, C. curvatus consumed both substrates simultaneously. Similar phenomena were also observed for acetate and xylose mixtures, as well as acetate-rich corn stover hydrolysates. More interestingly, the replacement of sugar with equal amount of acetate as carbon source afforded higher lipid titre and lipid content. The lipid products had fatty acid compositional profiles similar to those of cocoa butter, suggesting their potential for high value-added fats and biodiesel production. This co-fermentation strategy should facilitate lipid production technology from lignocelluloses. PMID:26874438

  16. Membrane Extraction for Detoxification of Biomass Hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect

    Grzenia, D. L.; Schell, D. J.; Wickramasinghe, S. R.

    2012-05-01

    Membrane extraction was used for the removal of sulfuric acid, acetic acid, 5-hydroxymethyl furfural and furfural from corn stover hydrolyzed with dilute sulfuric acid. Microporous polypropylene hollow fiber membranes were used. The organic extractant consisted of 15% Alamine 336 in: octanol, a 50:50 mixture of oleyl alcohol:octanol or oleyl alcohol. Rapid removal of sulfuric acid, 5-hydroxymethyl and furfural was observed. The rate of acetic acid removal decreased as the pH of the hydrolysate increased. Regeneration of the organic extractant was achieved by back extraction into an aqueous phase containing NaOH and ethanol. A cleaning protocol consisting of flushing the hydrolysate compartment with NaOH and the organic phase compartment with pure organic phase enabled regeneration and reuse of the module. Ethanol yields from hydrolysates detoxified by membrane extraction using 15% Alamine 336 in oleyl alcohol were about 10% higher than those from hydrolysates detoxified using ammonium hydroxide treatment.

  17. Stability of octreotide acetate in polypropylene syringes.

    PubMed

    Stiles, M L; Allen, L V; Resztak, K E; Prince, S J

    1993-11-01

    The stability of octreotide acetate in polypropylene syringes was studied. Polypropylene syringes were aseptically filled with 1 mL of octreotide acetate 0.2 mg/mL and stored at 3 or 23 degrees C under light protection or light exposure. Three syringes were prepared for each condition and each sampling time. Unopened 5-mL glass vials of the drug served as controls. Samples were removed immediately and at 8, 15, 22, and 29 days and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. At 3 degrees C, octreotide stored in light-protected syringes maintained more than 90% of its initial concentration for up to 29 days. However, at 22 days the concentration in the syringes stored at that temperature and exposed to light was less than 90% when the standard deviation is considered. At 23 degrees C, the drug was stable for only up to 15 days (light protection) and 22 days (light exposure) when the standard deviation is considered. Octreotide acetate in polypropylene syringes was stable for up to 29 days when stored at 3 degrees C and protected from light and for up to 22 days when stored at 23 degrees C and exposed to light.

  18. Ultrasound-assisted dyeing of cellulose acetate.

    PubMed

    Udrescu, C; Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M

    2014-07-01

    The possibility of reducing the use of auxiliaries in conventional cellulose acetate dyeing with Disperse Red 50 using ultrasound technique was studied as an alternative to the standard procedure. Dyeing of cellulose acetate yarn was carried out by using either mechanical agitation alone, with and without auxiliaries, or coupling mechanical and ultrasound agitation in the bath where the temperature range was maintained between 60 and 80 °C. The best results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical agitation without auxiliaries (90% of bath exhaustion value at 80 °C). Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasound efficiency were calculated confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound added to mechanical agitation was evidenced by the lower value (48 kJ/mol) in comparison with 112 and 169 kJ/mol for mechanical stirring alone with auxiliaries and without, respectively. Finally, the fastness tests gave good values for samples dyed with ultrasound technique even without auxiliaries. Moreover color measurements on dyed yarns showed that the color yield obtained by ultrasound-assisted dyeing at 80 °C of cellulose acetate without using additional chemicals into the dye bath reached the same value yielded by mechanical agitation, but with remarkably shorter time.

  19. Overview on mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-02-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of gram-negative or gram-variable bacteria which possess an obligate aerobic property with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, meanwhile transform ethanol and sugar to corresponding aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Since the first genus Acetobacter of AAB was established in 1898, 16 AAB genera have been recorded so far. As the main producer of a world-wide condiment, vinegar, AAB have evolved an elegant adaptive system that enables them to survive and produce a high concentration of acetic acid. Some researches and reviews focused on mechanisms of acid resistance in enteric bacteria and made the mechanisms thoroughly understood, while a few investigations did in AAB. As the related technologies with proteome, transcriptome and genome were rapidly developed and applied to AAB research, some plausible mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in some AAB strains have been published. In this review, the related mechanisms of AAB against acetic acid with acetic acid assimilation, transportation systems, cell morphology and membrane compositions, adaptation response, and fermentation conditions will be described. Finally, a framework for future research for anti-acid AAB will be provided.

  20. Isolation of an enzyme complex with carbon monoxide dehydrogenase activity containing corrinoid and nickel from acetate-grown Methanosarcina thermophila.

    PubMed Central

    Terlesky, K C; Nelson, M J; Ferry, J G

    1986-01-01

    Fast protein liquid chromatography of cell extract from methanol- or acetate-grown Methanosarcina thermophila resolved two peaks of CO dehydrogenase activity. The activity of one of the CO dehydrogenases was sixfold greater in acetate-grown compared with methanol-grown cells. This CO dehydrogenase was purified to apparent homogeneity (70 mumol of methyl viologen reduced per min per mg of protein) and made up greater than 10% of the cellular protein of acetate-grown cells. The native enzyme (Mr 250,000) formed aggregates with an Mr of approximately 1,000,000. The enzyme contained five subunits (Mrs 89,000, 71,000, 60,000, 58,000, and 19,000), suggesting a multifunctional enzyme complex. Nickel, iron, cobalt, zinc, inorganic sulfide, and a corrinoid were present in the complex. The UV-visible spectrum suggested the presence of iron-sulfur centers. The electron paramagnetic resonance spectrum contained g values of 2.073, 2.049, and 2.028; these features were broadened in enzyme that was purified from cells grown in the presence of medium enriched with 61Ni, indicating the involvement of this metal in the spectrum. The pattern of potassium cyanide inhibition indicated that cyanide binds at or near the CO binding site. The properties of the enzyme imply an involvement in the dissimilation of acetate to methane, possibly by cleavage of acetate or activated acetate. Images PMID:3023296

  1. Protective Effect of Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Stereospermum Suaveolens Against Hepatic Oxidative Stress in STZ Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Balasubramanian, Thirumalaiswamy; Senthilkumar, G. P; Karthikeyan, M.; Chatterjee, Tapan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Stereospermum suaveolens is a folk remedy for the treatment of diabetes and liver disorders in southern parts of India. In the present study, the protective effect of the ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract from S. suaveolens against hepatic oxidative stress was evaluated in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats for 14 days. The ethyl acetate fraction was administered orally to the STZ diabetic rats at the doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg. Blood glucose level was measured according to glucose oxidase method. In order to determine hepatoprotective activity, changes in the levels of serum biomarker enzymes such as aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), and serum alkaline phosphatase (SALP) were assessed in the ethyl acetate fraction treated diabetic rats and were compared with the levels in diabetic control rats. In addition, the antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate fraction was evaluated using various hepatic parameters such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), reduced glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT). It was found that administration of ethyl acetate fraction (200 and 400 mg/kg) produced a significant (P < 0.001) fall in fasting blood glucose level, TBARS, bilirubin, AST, ALT, and SALP, while elevating the GSH levels, and SOD and CAT activities in diabetic rats. Histopathologic studies also revealed the protective effect of ethyl acetate fraction on the liver tissues of diabetic rats. It was concluded from this study that the ethyl acetate fraction from ethanol extract of S. suaveolens modulates the activity of enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants and enhances the defense against hepatic oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats. PMID:24716175

  2. Differential titration of bases in glacial acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Castellano, T; Medwick, T; Shinkai, J H; Bailey, L

    1981-01-01

    A study of bases in acetic acid and their differential titration was carried out. The overall basicity constants for 20 bases were measured in acetic acid, and the differential titration of five binary mixtures of variable delta pKb values in acetic acid was followed using a glass electrode-modified calomel electrode system. Agreement with literature values was good. A leveling diagram was constructed that indicated that bases stronger than aqueous pKb 10 are leveled to an acetous pKb 5.69, whereas weaker bases are not leveled but instead exhibit their own intrinsic basicity, with the acetous pKb to aqueous pKb values being linearly related (slope 1.18, correlation coefficient 0.962). A minimum acetous delta pKb of four units is required for the satisfactory differential titration of two bases in acetic acid.

  3. [Degradation of oxytetracycline with ozonation in acetic acid solvent].

    PubMed

    Li, Shi-Yin; Li, Xiao-Rong; Zhu, Yi-Ping; Zhu, Jiang-Peng; Wang, Guo-Xiang

    2012-12-01

    Use acetic acid as the media of ozone degradation of oxytetracycline (OTC), and effects of the initial dosing ratio of ozone/OTC, ozone flow, free radical scavenger, metal ions on the removal rate of OTC were investigated respectively. The results showed that acetic acid had a high ozone stability and solubility. OTC had a high removal rate and degradation rate in acetic acid solution. With the increase of OTC dosage, the removal rate of OTC decreased in acetic acid. Removal rate of OTC was increased distinctly when ozone flow increased properly. It was also observed that free radical scavenger had a significantly negative effect on OTC ozonation degradation in acetic acid. Furthermore the main reactions of OTC ozone oxidation were direct oxidation and indirect oxidation in acetic acid. When Fe3+ and Co2+ were existent in acetic acid, the degradation of OTC was inhibited significantly.

  4. Wound healing properties of ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera in normal human dermal fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Gothai, Sivapragasam; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Tan, Woan Sean; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Wounds are the outcome of injuries to the skin that interrupt the soft tissue. Healing of a wound is a complex and long-drawn-out process of tissue repair and remodeling in response to injury. A large number of plants are used by folklore traditions for the treatment of cuts, wounds and burns. Moringa oleifera (MO) is an herb used as a traditional folk medicine for the treatment of various skin wounds and associated diseases. The underlying mechanisms of wound healing activity of ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves extract are completely unknown. Materials and Methods: In the current study, ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves was investigated for its efficacy on cell viability, proliferation and migration (wound closure rate) in human normal dermal fibroblast cells. Results: Results revealed that lower concentration (12.5 µg/ml, 25 µg/ml, and 50 µg/ml) of ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves showed remarkable proliferative and migratory effect on normal human dermal fibroblasts. Conclusion: This study suggested that ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves might be a potential therapeutic agent for skin wound healing by promoting fibroblast proliferation and migration through increasing the wound closure rate corroborating its traditional use. PMID:27069722

  5. Quantitative determination of steroid acetates in pharmaceutical preparations by high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    van Dame, H C

    1980-11-01

    A high performance liquid chromatographic method is described for the rapid, quantitative determination of corticosteroid acetates in a variety of pharmaceutical preparations. The method not only separates the steroids from other ingredients in tablets, creams, ointments, lotions, or suspensions, but also from their probable degradation products. The steroid acetate is extracted from a tablet matrix or from a suspension with water and acetonitrile (50 + 50), or from a hexane suspension of a cream, ointment, or lotion with acetonitrile. A liquid chromatograph equipped with an accurate flow controller, a variable wavelength detector capable of measurement at 240 nm, and a 10 microL loop injector was used. Components were separated on a microBondpak C18 column with acetonitrile-water as the mobile phase. K' values of 10 commonly used steroid acetates are shown and compared with Rf values from thin layer chromatographic systems. Results were equivalent for cortisone acetate tablets assayed by both the proposed and the official USP methods. Other pharmaceutical preparations were assayed to test the method, with satisfactory results.

  6. Identification of methyl coenzyme M as an intermediate in methanogenesis from acetate in Methanosarcina spp.

    PubMed Central

    Lovley, D R; White, R H; Ferry, J G

    1984-01-01

    The transfer of the methyl group of acetate to coenzyme M (2-mercaptoethanesulfonic acid; HS-CoM) during the metabolism of acetate to methane was investigated in cultures of Methanosarcina strain TM-1. The organism metabolized CD3COO- to 83% CD3H and 17% CD2H2 and produced no CDH3 or CH4. The isotopic composition of coenzyme M in cells grown on CD3COO- was analyzed with a novel gas chromatography-mass spectrometry technique. The cells contained CD3-D-CoM and CD2H-S-CoM) in a proportion similar to that of CD3H to CD2H2. These results, in conjunction with a report (J.K. Nelson and J.G. Ferry, J. Bacteriol. 160:526-532, 1984) that extracts of acetate-grown strain TM-1 contain high levels of CH3-S-CoM methylreductase, indicate that CH3-S-CoM is an intermediate in the metabolism of acetate to methane in this organism. PMID:6438056

  7. The influence of Calendulae officinalis flos extracts on cell cultures, and the chromatographic analysis of extracts.

    PubMed

    Matysik, G; Wójciak-Kosior, M; Paduch, R

    2005-06-15

    Three extracts of Calendulae officinalis flos (Asteraceae): heptane, ethyl acetate and methanol were introduced to a human skin fibroblast (HSF) cells culture and a culture of human breast cancer cells (T47D), cell culture collection ECACC number 85102201. The ethyl acetate but not the heptane and methanol extracts in concentrations above 25 microg/mL, can stimulate cell proliferation and cellular metabolism by increase of mitochondrial dehydrogenase activity. However, concentrations exceeding 75 microg/mL are toxic for cells. The second part of the study concerned elaborating of optimal chromatographic systems for quantitative analysis of these extracts by the use of HPTLC with densitometry. Oleanolic acid, beta-amyrin, beta-amyrin acetate, rutin, narcissin, 3-glucoside of isorhamnetin, quercetin, isoquercitrin, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, protokatechuic acid, p-coumaric acid and syringic acid were all identified.

  8. Adaptation and tolerance of bacteria against acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Trček, Janja; Mira, Nuno Pereira; Jarboe, Laura R

    2015-08-01

    Acetic acid is a weak organic acid exerting a toxic effect to most microorganisms at concentrations as low as 0.5 wt%. This toxic effect results mostly from acetic acid dissociation inside microbial cells, causing a decrease of intracellular pH and metabolic disturbance by the anion, among other deleterious effects. These microbial inhibition mechanisms enable acetic acid to be used as a preservative, although its usefulness is limited by the emergence of highly tolerant spoilage strains. Several biotechnological processes are also inhibited by the accumulation of acetic acid in the growth medium including production of bioethanol from lignocellulosics, wine making, and microbe-based production of acetic acid itself. To design better preservation strategies based on acetic acid and to improve the robustness of industrial biotechnological processes limited by this acid's toxicity, it is essential to deepen the understanding of the underlying toxicity mechanisms. In this sense, adaptive responses that improve tolerance to acetic acid have been well studied in Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Strains highly tolerant to acetic acid, either isolated from natural environments or specifically engineered for this effect, represent a unique reservoir of information that could increase our understanding of acetic acid tolerance and contribute to the design of additional tolerance mechanisms. In this article, the mechanisms underlying the acetic acid tolerance exhibited by several bacterial strains are reviewed, with emphasis on the knowledge gathered in acetic acid bacteria and E. coli. A comparison of how these bacterial adaptive responses to acetic acid stress fit to those described in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is also performed. A systematic comparison of the similarities and dissimilarities of the ways by which different microbial systems surpass the deleterious effects of acetic acid toxicity has not been performed so far, although such exchange

  9. 21 CFR 73.585 - Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene concentrate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tomato lycopene extract; tomato lycopene... extract; tomato lycopene concentrate. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive tomato lycopene extract is a red to dark brown viscous oleoresin extracted with ethyl acetate from tomato pulp followed by...

  10. Temperature dependence of ion transport in dilute tetrabutylammonium triflate-acetate solutions and self-diffusion in pure acetate liquids.

    PubMed

    Bopege, Dharshani N; Petrowsky, Matt; Fleshman, Allison M; Frech, Roger; Johnson, Matthew B

    2012-01-12

    Conductivities and static dielectric constants for 0.0055 M tetrabutylammonium trifluoromethanesulfonate in n-butyl acetate, n-pentyl acetate, n-hexyl acetate, n-octyl acetate, and n-decyl acetate have been collected over the temperature range of 0-80 °C. Self-diffusion coefficients and static dielectric constants of pure acetates were obtained over the same temperature range. Both temperature-dependent diffusion coefficients and ionic conductivities of these pure acetates and dilute acetate solutions can be accurately described by the compensated Arrhenius formalism. Activation energies were calculated from compensated Arrhenius plots for both conductivity and diffusion data. Activation energies are higher for conductivity data of 0.0055 M TbaTf-acetates compared to diffusion data of pure acetates. The plot of the exponential prefactor versus the dielectric constant yields a single master curve for both conductivity and diffusion data. These data support the argument that mass and charge transport are thermally activated processes in the acetates, as previously observed in alcohol-based electrolytes. PMID:22145961

  11. Acetate supplementation attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Reisenauer, Chris J; Bhatt, Dhaval P; Mitteness, Dane J; Slanczka, Evan R; Gienger, Heidi M; Watt, John A; Rosenberger, Thad A

    2011-04-01

    Glyceryl triacetate (GTA), a compound effective at increasing circulating and tissue levels of acetate was used to treat rats subjected to a continual 28 day intra-ventricular infusion of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS). This model produces a neuroinflammatory injury characterized by global neuroglial activation and a decrease in choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity in the basal forebrain. During the LPS infusion, rats were given a daily treatment of either water or GTA at a dose of 6 g/kg by oral gavage. In parallel experiments, free-CoA and acetyl-CoA levels were measured in microwave fixed brains and flash frozen heart, liver, kidney and muscle following a single oral dose of GTA. We found that a single oral dose of GTA significantly increased plasma acetate levels by 15 min and remained elevated for up to 4 h. At 30 min the acetyl-CoA levels in microwave-fixed brain and flash frozen heart and liver were increased at least 2.2-fold. The concentrations of brain acetyl-CoA was significantly increased between 30 and 45 min following treatment and remained elevated for up to 4 h. The concentration of free-CoA in brain was significantly decreased compared to controls at 240 min. Immunohistochemical and morphological analysis demonstrated that a daily treatment with GTA significantly reduced the percentage of reactive glial fibrillary acidic protein-positive astrocytes and activated CD11b-positive microglia by 40-50% in rats subjected to LPS-induced neuroinflammation. Further, in rats subjected to neuroinflammation, GTA significantly increased the number of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT)-positive cells by 40% in the basal forebrain compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that acetate supplementation increases intermediary short chain acetyl-CoA metabolism and that treatment is potentially anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective with regards to attenuating neuroglial activation and increasing ChAT immunoreactivity in this model. PMID:21272004

  12. High-flux cellulose acetate membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Boeddeker, K.W.; Finken, H.; Wenzlaff, A.

    1981-01-01

    Three routes to increase the permeate flux of asymmetric cellulose diacetate membranes of the Loeb-Sourirajan type were investigated: increasing the hydrophilicity of the membranes; increasing their compaction stability, and employing a swelling agent which allows for higher solvent-to-polymer ratio in the casting solution. The effect of casting solution composition on flux and rejection of formamide-modified cellulose acetate membrane is included, illustrating the general capability of this membrane type as function of solvent concentration. Membranes of casting solution composition cellulose diacetate/acetone/formamide 23/52/25 were used as reference membranes in the work. 6 figures. (DP)

  13. Long-term continuous evolution of acetate resistant Acetobacter aceti.

    PubMed

    Steiner, Peter; Sauer, Uwe

    2003-10-01

    Elevated concentrations of cytotoxic acetate are found in many environmental niches, and few species are relatively resistant to acetate. In particular the high-level acetate resistance of so-called acetic acid bacteria that occurs in industrial settings must be constantly selected for. To investigate the nature of such high-level resistance, we grew the moderately acetate-resistant Acetobacter aceti wild-type and acetate-sensitive Escherichia coli in long-term continuous cultures with increasing acetate concentrations at near neutral pH. While E. coli did not acquire any significant resistance after 125 generations of selection, A. aceti evolved the capability to grow at acetate concentrations exceeding 50 g/L within 240 generations. This phenotype was found to be stable for several generations in the absence of selective pressure, hence must be genetically determined. Intracellular acetate concentrations were significantly lower in evolved A. aceti, when compared to wild-type A. aceti and E. coli, indicating that cytoplasmatic anion accumulation is an important component of acetate toxicity.

  14. Sphingolipids contribute to acetic acid resistance in Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Eriksson, Leif A; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Lignocellulosic raw material plays a crucial role in the development of sustainable processes for the production of fuels and chemicals. Weak acids such as acetic acid and formic acid are troublesome inhibitors restricting efficient microbial conversion of the biomass to desired products. To improve our understanding of weak acid inhibition and to identify engineering strategies to reduce acetic acid toxicity, the highly acetic-acid-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was studied. The impact of acetic acid membrane permeability on acetic acid tolerance in Z. bailii was investigated with particular focus on how the previously demonstrated high sphingolipid content in the plasma membrane influences acetic acid tolerance and membrane permeability. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we concluded that membranes with a high content of sphingolipids are thicker and more dense, increasing the free energy barrier for the permeation of acetic acid through the membrane. Z. bailii cultured with the drug myriocin, known to decrease cellular sphingo-lipid levels, exhibited significant growth inhibition in the presence of acetic acid, while growth in medium without acetic acid was unaffected by the myriocin addition. Furthermore, following an acetic acid pulse, the intracellular pH decreased more in myriocin-treated cells than in control cells. This indicates a higher inflow rate of acetic acid and confirms that the reduction in growth of cells cultured with myriocin in the medium with acetic acid was due to an increase in membrane permeability, thereby demonstrating the importance of a high fraction of sphingolipids in the membrane of Z. bailii to facilitate acetic acid resistance; a property potentially transferable to desired production organisms suffering from weak acid stress. PMID:26416641

  15. Sphingolipids contribute to acetic acid resistance in Zygosaccharomyces bailii.

    PubMed

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Eriksson, Leif A; Olsson, Lisbeth; Bettiga, Maurizio

    2016-04-01

    Lignocellulosic raw material plays a crucial role in the development of sustainable processes for the production of fuels and chemicals. Weak acids such as acetic acid and formic acid are troublesome inhibitors restricting efficient microbial conversion of the biomass to desired products. To improve our understanding of weak acid inhibition and to identify engineering strategies to reduce acetic acid toxicity, the highly acetic-acid-tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was studied. The impact of acetic acid membrane permeability on acetic acid tolerance in Z. bailii was investigated with particular focus on how the previously demonstrated high sphingolipid content in the plasma membrane influences acetic acid tolerance and membrane permeability. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we concluded that membranes with a high content of sphingolipids are thicker and more dense, increasing the free energy barrier for the permeation of acetic acid through the membrane. Z. bailii cultured with the drug myriocin, known to decrease cellular sphingo-lipid levels, exhibited significant growth inhibition in the presence of acetic acid, while growth in medium without acetic acid was unaffected by the myriocin addition. Furthermore, following an acetic acid pulse, the intracellular pH decreased more in myriocin-treated cells than in control cells. This indicates a higher inflow rate of acetic acid and confirms that the reduction in growth of cells cultured with myriocin in the medium with acetic acid was due to an increase in membrane permeability, thereby demonstrating the importance of a high fraction of sphingolipids in the membrane of Z. bailii to facilitate acetic acid resistance; a property potentially transferable to desired production organisms suffering from weak acid stress.

  16. Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

  17. Flavonoids and Methoxy-galloylquinic Acid Derivatives from the Leaf Extract of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Mauro S; Furtado, Ricardo A; Bastos, Jairo K

    2015-08-12

    Despite reports on the pharmacological potential of Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae) leaf extract, little is known about its chemical composition. In this work, a phytochemical study from the C. langsdorffii ethanol/H2O 7:3 (v/v) extract was undertaken. Separation was performed by high-speed counter-current (HSCCC) and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatographies, followed by preparative HPLC. The EtOAc- and H2O-soluble fractions of the extract furnished the flavonoids quercitrin (1) and afzelin (2) and 3-O-(3-O-methyl-galloyl)quinic acid (3), respectively. The H2O-soluble fraction furnished 3,4-di-O-(3-O-methyl-galloyl)quinic acid (4), 3,5-di-O-(galloyl)-4-O-(3-O-methyl-galloyl)quinic acid (5), and 3,5-di-O-(3-O-methyl-galloyl)-4-O-(galloyl)quinic acid (6). Their chemical structures were elucidated by NMR means.

  18. Optimization of Extraction Condition of Bee Pollen Using Response Surface Methodology: Correlation between Anti-Melanogenesis, Antioxidant Activity, and Phenolic Content.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seon Beom; Jo, Yang Hee; Liu, Qing; Ahn, Jong Hoon; Hong, In Pyo; Han, Sang Mi; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Lee, Mi Kyeong

    2015-11-02

    Bee pollen is flower pollen with nectar and salivary substances of bees and rich in essential components. Bee pollen showed antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activity in our assay system. To maximize the antioxidant and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of bee pollen, extraction conditions, such as extraction solvent, extraction time, and extraction temperature, were optimized using response surface methodology. Regression analysis showed a good fit of this model and yielded the second-order polynomial regression for tyrosinase inhibition and antioxidant activity. Among the extraction variables, extraction solvent greatly affected the activity. The optimal condition was determined as EtOAc concentration in MeOH, 69.6%; temperature, 10.0 °C; and extraction time, 24.2 h, and the tyrosinase inhibitory and antioxidant activity under optimal condition were found to be 57.9% and 49.3%, respectively. Further analysis showed the close correlation between activities and phenolic content, which suggested phenolic compounds are active constituents of bee pollen for tyrosinase inhibition and antioxidant activity. Taken together, these results provide useful information about bee pollen as cosmetic therapeutics to reduce oxidative stress and hyperpigmentation.

  19. Genetic dissection of acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Geng, Peng; Xiao, Yin; Hu, Yun; Sun, Haiye; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Gui-Yang

    2016-09-01

    Dissection of the hereditary architecture underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for ethanol fermentation. In this work, a genomics approach was used to dissect hereditary variations in acetic acid tolerance between two phenotypically different strains. A total of 160 segregants derived from these two strains were obtained. Phenotypic analysis indicated that the acetic acid tolerance displayed a normal distribution in these segregants, and suggested that the acetic acid tolerant traits were controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Thus, 220 SSR markers covering the whole genome were used to detect QTLs of acetic acid tolerant traits. As a result, three QTLs were located on chromosomes 9, 12, and 16, respectively, which explained 38.8-65.9 % of the range of phenotypic variation. Furthermore, twelve genes of the candidates fell into the three QTL regions by integrating the QTL analysis with candidates of acetic acid tolerant genes. These results provided a novel avenue to obtain more robust strains.

  20. Removal of dicyclohexyl acetic acid from aqueous solution using ultrasound, ozone and their combination.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pardeep; Headley, John; Peru, Kerry; Bailey, Jon; Dalai, Ajay

    2014-01-01

    Naphthenic acids are a complex mixture of organic components, some of which include saturated alkyl-substituted cycloaliphatic carboxylic acids and acyclic aliphatic acids. They are naturally found in hydrocarbon deposits like oil sand, petroleum, bitumen and crude oil. In this study, the oxidation of a relatively high molecular weight naphthenic acid (Dicyclohexyl acetic acid) was investigated using ozonation, ultrasonication and hydrogen peroxide alone and their combinations. Effects on oxidation of dicyclohexyl acetic acid (DAA) were measured for different concentrations of ozone ranging between 0.7 to 3.3 mg L(-1) and pH in the range 6 to 10. Ultrasonication and hydrogen peroxide alone were not effective to oxidize dicyclohexyl acetic acid, but combining ultrasonication with H2O2 had a significant effect on oxidation of dicyclohexyl acetic acid with maximum removal reaching to 84 ± 2.2% with 81 ± 2.1% reduction in chemical oxygen demand (COD). Synergistic effects were observed for combining ultrasonication with ozonation and resulted in 100% DAA removal with 98 ± 0.8% reduction in COD within 15 min at 3.3 mg L(-1) ozone concentration and 130 Watts ultrasonication power. The reaction conditions obtained for the maximum oxidation of DAA and COD removal were used for the degradation of naphthenic acids mixture extracted from oil sands process water (OSPW). The percentage oxidation of NAs mixture extracted from OSPW was 89.3 ± 1.1% in ozonation and combined ozonation and ultrasonication, but COD removal observed was 65 ± 1.2% and 78 ± 1.4% for ozonation and combined ozonation and ultrasonication treatments, respectively.

  1. Peach (Prunus persica) extract inhibits angiotensin II-induced signal transduction in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Kono, Ryohei; Okuno, Yoshiharu; Nakamura, Misa; Inada, Ken-ichi; Tokuda, Akihiko; Yamashita, Miki; Hidaka, Ryu; Utsunomiya, Hirotoshi

    2013-08-15

    Angiotensin II (Ang II) is a vasoactive hormone that has been implicated in cardiovascular diseases. Here, the effect of peach, Prunus persica L. Batsch, pulp extract on Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and signal transduction events in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was investigated. Pretreatment of peach ethyl acetate extract inhibited Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) elevation in VSMCs. Furthermore, Ang II-induced ROS generation, essential for signal transduction events, was diminished by the peach ethyl acetate extract. The peach ethyl acetate extract also attenuated the Ang II-induced phosphorylation of epidermal growth factor receptor and myosin phosphatase target subunit 1, both of which are associated with atherosclerosis and hypertension. These results suggest that peach ethyl acetate extract may have clinical potential for preventing cardiovascular diseases by interfering with Ang II-induced intracellular Ca(2+) elevation, the generation of ROS, and then blocking signal transduction events.

  2. Sphingolipids contribute to acetic acid resistance in Zygosaccharomyces bailii

    PubMed Central

    Lindahl, Lina; Genheden, Samuel; Eriksson, Leif A.; Olsson, Lisbeth

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Lignocellulosic raw material plays a crucial role in the development of sustainable processes for the production of fuels and chemicals. Weak acids such as acetic acid and formic acid are troublesome inhibitors restricting efficient microbial conversion of the biomass to desired products. To improve our understanding of weak acid inhibition and to identify engineering strategies to reduce acetic acid toxicity, the highly acetic‐acid‐tolerant yeast Zygosaccharomyces bailii was studied. The impact of acetic acid membrane permeability on acetic acid tolerance in Z. bailii was investigated with particular focus on how the previously demonstrated high sphingolipid content in the plasma membrane influences acetic acid tolerance and membrane permeability. Through molecular dynamics simulations, we concluded that membranes with a high content of sphingolipids are thicker and more dense, increasing the free energy barrier for the permeation of acetic acid through the membrane. Z. bailii cultured with the drug myriocin, known to decrease cellular sphingo­lipid levels, exhibited significant growth inhibition in the presence of acetic acid, while growth in medium without acetic acid was unaffected by the myriocin addition. Furthermore, following an acetic acid pulse, the intracellular pH decreased more in myriocin‐treated cells than in control cells. This indicates a higher inflow rate of acetic acid and confirms that the reduction in growth of cells cultured with myriocin in the medium with acetic acid was due to an increase in membrane permeability, thereby demonstrating the importance of a high fraction of sphingolipids in the membrane of Z. bailii to facilitate acetic acid resistance; a property potentially transferable to desired production organisms suffering from weak acid stress. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 744–753. © 2015 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26416641

  3. Fuel grade ethanol by solvent extraction: Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect

    Tedder, D.W.

    1987-04-01

    This report summarizes final results for ethanol recovery by solvent extraction and extractive distillation. At conclusion this work can be summarized as ethanol dehydration and recovery dilute fermentates is feasible using liquid/liquid extraction and extractive distillation. Compared to distillation, the economics are more attractive for less than 5 wt % ethanol. However, an economic bias in favor of SEED appears to exist even for 10 wt % feeds. It is of particular interest to consider the group extraction of ethanol and acetic acid followed by conversion to a mixture of ethanol and ethyl acetate. The latter species is a more valuable commodity and group extraction of inhibitory species is one feature of liquid/liquid extraction that is not easily accomodated using distillation. Upflow immobilized reactors offer the possibility of achieving high substrate conversion while also maintaining low metabolite concentrations. However, many questions remain to be answered with such a concept. 135 refs., 42 figs., 61 tabs.

  4. [Growth inhibition of the four species of red tide microalgae by extracts from Enteromorpha prolifera extracted with the five solvents].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying-Ying; Liu, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Chang-Hai

    2010-06-01

    To study the effects of extracts of Enteromorpha prolifera on the growth of the four species of red tide microalgae (Amphidinium hoefleri, Karenia mikimitoi, Alexandrium tamarense and Skeletonema costatum), the extracts were extracted with five solvents (methanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and petroleum ether), respectively. Based on the observation of algal morphology and the measurement of algal density, cell size and the contents of physiological indicators (chlorophyll, protein and polysaccharide), the results showed methanol extracts of E. prolifera had the strongest action. The inhibitory effects of A. hoefleri, K. mikimitoi, A. tamarense and S. costatum by the methanol extracts were 54.0%, 48.1%, 44.0% and 37.5% in day 10, respectively. The extracts of E. prolifera extracted with methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate caused cavities, pieces and pigment reduction in cells, and those with chloroform and petroleum ether caused goffers on cells. The extracts of E. prolifera extracted with all the five solvents decreased athletic ability of the cells, among which those extracted with ethyl acetate, chloroform and petroleum ether decreased cell size of test microalgae. The further investigation found that the methanol extracts significantly decreased contents of chlorophyll, protein and polysaccharide in the cells of those microalgae. The inhibitory effect of chlorophyll, protein and polysaccharide contents of four species of microalgae by the methanol extracts was about 51%. On the basis of the above experiments, dry powder of E. prolifera were extracts with methanol, and extracts were obtained. The methanol extracts were partitioned to petroleum ether phase, ethyl acetate phase, n-butanol phase and distilled water phase by liquid-liquid fractionation, and those with petroleum ether and ethyl acetate significantly inhibited the growth of all test microalgae, and the inhibitory effect of four species of microalgae by those two extracts was above 25% in day

  5. [Growth inhibition of the four species of red tide microalgae by extracts from Enteromorpha prolifera extracted with the five solvents].

    PubMed

    Sun, Ying-Ying; Liu, Xiao-Xiao; Wang, Chang-Hai

    2010-06-01

    To study the effects of extracts of Enteromorpha prolifera on the growth of the four species of red tide microalgae (Amphidinium hoefleri, Karenia mikimitoi, Alexandrium tamarense and Skeletonema costatum), the extracts were extracted with five solvents (methanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and petroleum ether), respectively. Based on the observation of algal morphology and the measurement of algal density, cell size and the contents of physiological indicators (chlorophyll, protein and polysaccharide), the results showed methanol extracts of E. prolifera had the strongest action. The inhibitory effects of A. hoefleri, K. mikimitoi, A. tamarense and S. costatum by the methanol extracts were 54.0%, 48.1%, 44.0% and 37.5% in day 10, respectively. The extracts of E. prolifera extracted with methanol, acetone and ethyl acetate caused cavities, pieces and pigment reduction in cells, and those with chloroform and petroleum ether caused goffers on cells. The extracts of E. prolifera extracted with all the five solvents decreased athletic ability of the cells, among which those extracted with ethyl acetate, chloroform and petroleum ether decreased cell size of test microalgae. The further investigation found that the methanol extracts significantly decreased contents of chlorophyll, protein and polysaccharide in the cells of those microalgae. The inhibitory effect of chlorophyll, protein and polysaccharide contents of four species of microalgae by the methanol extracts was about 51%. On the basis of the above experiments, dry powder of E. prolifera were extracts with methanol, and extracts were obtained. The methanol extracts were partitioned to petroleum ether phase, ethyl acetate phase, n-butanol phase and distilled water phase by liquid-liquid fractionation, and those with petroleum ether and ethyl acetate significantly inhibited the growth of all test microalgae, and the inhibitory effect of four species of microalgae by those two extracts was above 25% in day

  6. Grape contribution to wine aroma: production of hexyl acetate, octyl acetate, and benzyl acetate during yeast fermentation is dependent upon precursors in the must.

    PubMed

    Dennis, Eric G; Keyzers, Robert A; Kalua, Curtis M; Maffei, Suzanne M; Nicholson, Emily L; Boss, Paul K

    2012-03-14

    Wine is a complex consumer product produced predominately by the action of yeast upon grape juice musts. Model must systems have proven ideal for studies of the effects of fermentation conditions on the production of certain wine volatiles. To identify grape-derived precursors to acetate esters, model fermentation systems were developed by spiking precursors into model must at different concentrations. Solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatgraphy mass spectrometry analysis of the fermented wines showed that a variety of grape-derived aliphatic alcohols and aldehydes are precursors to acetate esters. The C6 compounds hexan-1-ol, hexenal, (E)-2-hexen-1-ol, and (E)-2-hexenal are all precursors to hexyl acetate, and octanol and benzyl alcohol are precursors to octyl acetate and benzyl acetate, respectively. In these cases, the postfermentation concentration of an acetate ester increased proportionally with the prefermentation concentration of the respective precursor in the model must. Determining viticultural or winemaking methods to alter the prefermentation concentration of precursor compounds or change the precursor-to-acetate ester ratio will have implications upon the final flavor and aroma of wines. PMID:22332880

  7. Antioxidant activity of papaya seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Kaibing; Wang, Hui; Mei, Wenli; Li, Xiaona; Luo, Ying; Dai, Haofu

    2011-01-01

    The antioxidant activities of the ethanol, petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water extract fractions from the seeds of papaya were evaluated in this study. The ethyl acetate fraction showed the strongest DPPH and hydroxyl free radical-scavenging activities, and its activities were stronger than those of ascorbic acid and sodium benzoate, respectively. The n-butanol fraction demonstrated the greatest ABTS⁺ radicals scavenging activity. The ethyl acetate fraction and the n-butanol fraction not only showed higher antioxidant activities than the petroleum ether fraction, water fraction and ethanol fraction, but also showed higher superoxide anion and hydrogen peroxide radicals scavenging activities than those of the other extract fractions. The high amount of total phenolics and total flavonoids in the ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions contributed to their antioxidant activities. The ethyl acetate fraction was subjected to column chromatography, to yield two phenolic compounds, p-hydroxybenzoic acid and vanillic acid, which possessed significant antioxidant activities. Therefore, the seeds of papaya and these compounds might be used as natural antioxidants. PMID:21788927

  8. Synthesis and regeneration of lead (IV) acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Boyle, T.J.; Al-Shareef, H.N.; Moore, G.J.

    1996-11-01

    Lead acetate [Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4}] was easily synthesized from a warm solution of Pb{sub 3}O{sub 4}, HO{sub 2}CMe and O(OCMe){sub 2} following literature preparations when the appropriate measures to minimize water contamination were followed. Furthermore, Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} which has been decomposed (evidenced by the appearance of a purple color due to oxidation) can be regenerated using a similar preparatory route. Introduction of Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} from the two routes outlined above into the IMO process for production of PZT thin films gave films with comparable ferroelectric properties to commercially available Pb(O{sub 2}CMe){sub 4} precursors. However, the freshly synthesized material yields PZT films with better properties compared to the recycled material.

  9. N-(2-Chloro-acet-yl)glycine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Cheng; Zhang, Xiu-Qin; Wang, Kai; Chen, Qiang

    2013-10-26

    The title compound, C4H6ClNO3, crystallizes with two independent mol-ecules (A and B) in the asymmetric unit. In each mol-ecule, there are N-H⋯O and N-H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds. Both mol-ecules are relatively planar, with the mean plane of the acetamide [N-C(=O)C] group being inclined to the mean plane of the acetate group [C-C(=O)O] by 9.23 (13)° in mol-ecule A and 6.23 (12)° in mol-ecule B. In the crystal, adjacent mol-ecules are linked by O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and weak C-H⋯O contacts forming -A-A-A- and -B-B-B- parallel chains propagating along the a-axis direction. PMID:24454136

  10. Unsuccessful treatment of acromegaly with medroxyprogesterone acetate.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, R L; Dimond, R C; Howard, W J; Earll, J M

    1974-09-01

    6 patients with active acromegaly were treated with 10 mg of medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) every 6 hours daily for 2 weeks to 6 months. Oral glucose tolerance tests, growth hormone (GH) levels, and insulin tolerance tests (ITT) were done before and during MPA treatment. Basal GH levels varied widely during control and therapy periods; no significant lowering of GH levels occurred during treatment. Carbohydrate tolerance was not significantly affected by MPA therapy, although 5 out of 6 patients had deterioration at least once during treatment. Blood glucose response to ITT was unchanged by MPA. MPA did not affect the clinical features of acromegaly. There was no consistent effect of MPA on insulin-induced or arginine-induced GH secretion. It is concluded that MPA is not an effective agent for treating acromegaly.

  11. Isolation of ethyl acetic based AGF bio-nutrient and its application on the growth of Capsicum annum L. plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrawan, Sonjaya, Yaya; Khoerunnisa, Fitri; Musthapa, Iqbal; Nurmala, Astri Rizki

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to obtain the bionutrient derived from extraction of AGF leafs in ethyl acetic solvents and to explore its application on the plant growth of capsicum annum L. (curly red chili). Particularly, the fraction of secondary metabolites groups composed bionutrient was intensively elucidated by liquid vacuum chromatography technique. The characterization of secondary metabolites groups was conducted through several methods, i.e. thin layer chromatography, phytochemical screening, and FTIR spectroscopy. The AGF extracts based bionutrient then was applied on capsicum annum L. plants with dosage of 2 and 10 mL/L. The ethyl acetic solvent and commercial nutrient of Phonska and pesticide of curacron (EC 500) were selected as a blank and a positive control to evaluate the growth pattern of capsicum annum L., respectively. The result showed that the CF 1 dan CF2 of AGF extract contained alkaloid and terpenoid of secondary metabolite group, the CF 3, and CF 4 of AGF extracts were dominated by alkaloid, flavonoid, and terpenoid, while the CF 5 of AGF extract contained alkaloid, tannin and terpenoid groups. The CF 2 of AGF extract has the highest growth rate constant of 0.1702 week-1 with the number and heaviest mass of the yield of 82 pieces and 186.60, respectively. It was also showed the significant bio-pesticide activity that should be useful to support plant growth, indicating that AGF extract can be applied as both bio-nutrient and bio-pesticide.

  12. Molecular biology and genetics of the acetate-utilizing methanogenic bacteria. Progress report, [July 1, 1988--June 30, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Gunsalus, R.P.

    1991-12-31

    Acetate conversion to methane and C0{sub 2} by the methanogenic archaebacteria is a primary rate limiting step in anaerobic biodegradative processes in nature. However, the genetic study of these organisms has not been experimentally tractable due to the inability to grow and plate the organisms as single cells, and to extract high molecular weight DNA and RNA without shearing. The acetate-utilizing species, Methanosarcina thermolphila TM-1, is being used for the proposed genetic and molecular studies because, unlike previously described acetotrophic methanosarcina that have a thick heteropolysaccharide cell wall, this species can be cultured in a unicellular form that has a protein cell wall lacking the heteropolysaccharide layer. These cells can be gently disrupted to obtain protoplasts or lysed to yield intact genomic DNA and RNA. Experiments are in progress to develop a gene transfer system in this bacterial species. Methods are being developed and refined for the efficient plating of M. thermophila on defined media, for chemical mutagenesis, and for the isolation of mutants defective in acetate utilization. Chromosomal DNA libraries have been constructed from M. thermophila and are being used to clone genes involved in the acetate utilization pathway (e.g. carbon monoxide dehydrogenase). Once cloned, analysis of the molecular mechanisms responsible for their regulatory control will be performed. These studies should aid our understanding of the pathway for acetate utilization in M. thermophila and serve as a model for elucidating regulatory mechanisms in the acetotrophic methanogens.

  13. A double-blind placebo controlled trial of medroxyprogesterone acetate and cyproterone acetate with seven pedophiles.

    PubMed

    Cooper, A J; Sandhu, S; Losztyn, S; Cernovsky, Z

    1992-12-01

    Seven of ten pedophiles in hospital completed a double-blind, placebo-controlled two-dose comparison of medroxyprogesterone acetate and cyproterone acetate. Sequential measures during the 28 week study were: patient self-reports, nurses' observations, phallometry, hormone levels and side-effects. The drugs, which performed equivalently, reduced sexual thoughts and fantasies, the frequency of early morning erections on awakening, the frequency and pleasure of masturbation, and level of sexual frustration. Penile responses were also reduced but to a lesser degree and were more variable. Serum testosterone FSH and LH all declined during drug administration, but by the end of the final placebo phase had essentially returned to (or exceeded) pre-drug values. Our experience suggests that only a minority of pedophiles are likely to accept libido-reducing drugs.

  14. Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Ramprasad, Dorai; Waller, Francis Joseph

    1999-01-01

    This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

  15. Heterogeneous catalyst for the production of acetic anhydride from methyl acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Ramprasad, D.; Waller, F.J.

    1999-04-06

    This invention relates to a process for producing acetic anhydride by the reaction of methyl acetate, carbon monoxide, and hydrogen at elevated temperatures and pressures in the presence of an alkyl halide and a heterogeneous, bifunctional catalyst that contains an insoluble polymer having pendant quaternized phosphine groups, some of which phosphine groups are ionically bonded to anionic Group VIII metal complexes, the remainder of the phosphine groups being bonded to iodide. In contrast to prior art processes, no accelerator (promoter) is necessary to achieve the catalytic reaction and the products are easily separated from the catalyst by filtration. The catalyst can be recycled for consecutive runs without loss in activity. Bifunctional catalysts for use in carbonylating dimethyl ether are also provided.

  16. Anti-oxidant properties and polyphenolic profile screening of Vitis vinifera stems and leaves crude extracts grown in Perlis, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Nursyahda; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Akhir, Fazrena Nadia Md; Basar, Norazah

    2014-03-01

    Grape has become a fast growing agricultural sector in Malaysia producing between 0.62 kg to 2.03 kg waste per vinestock. This study aims to generate useful information on anti-oxidative properties as well as polyphenolic composition of grapevine waste. Stems and leaves of Vitis vinifera cultivated in Perlis, Malaysia were extracted using methanol, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether. Ethyl acetate stems extract exhibited highest total phenolic content. While in DPPH assay, methanolic stems extract show the highest antioxidant activities. This result indicates that total phenolic content in the extracts may not contribute directly to the antioxidant activities. Thin Layer Chromatograms of all crude extracts exhibited good separation under solvent system petroleum ether-ethyl acetate (2:3) resulted in detection of resveratrol in ethyl acetate stems crude extract.

  17. Chemistry of Ketene N,S-Acetals: An Overview.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin; Dong, Jinhuan; Xu, Xianxiu; Liu, Qun

    2016-01-27

    Push-pull alkenes, which bear electron-donating and -accepting group(s) at both termini of a C═C double bond, respectively, are of interest not only for their unique electronic properties but also for their importance as versatile building blocks in organic synthesis. In the world of ketene acetals having the push-pull alkene skeleton, ketene N,S-acetal is most likely the biggest family according to the number and types of these compounds. The first ketene N,S-acetal compound was reported in 1956. As a cyclic ketene N,S-acetal compound, nithiazine, the first lead structure of neonicotinoid insecticides, was reported in 1978. The characteristics of ketene N,S-acetals, which have the structural feature of ketene S,S-acetals and enaminones, make them versatile and easy to use, especially in cyclization and multicomponent reactions for the synthesis of various heterocyclic systems and related natural products. There has been an increasing wealth of information about the synthesis and synthetic applications of ketene N,S-acetals, especially, in recent years. This review provides comprehensive knowledge on the chemistry of ketene N,S-acetals. PMID:26760899

  18. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Flumethasone acetate injection. 522.960b Section 522.960b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 522.960b Flumethasone acetate injection....

  19. Trehalose accumulation enhances tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Yoshiyama, Yoko; Tanaka, Koichi; Yoshiyama, Kohei; Hibi, Makoto; Ogawa, Jun; Shima, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Trehalose confers protection against various environmental stresses on yeast cells. In this study, trehalase gene deletion mutants that accumulate trehalose at high levels showed significant stress tolerance to acetic acid. The enhancement of trehalose accumulation can thus be considered a target in the breeding of acetic acid-tolerant yeast strains.

  20. Transition-Metal-Catalyzed Carbonylation of Methyl Acetate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polichnowski, S. W.

    1986-01-01

    Presents a study of the rhodium-catalyzed, ioding-promoted carbonylation of methyl acetate. This study provides an interesting contrast between the carbonylation of methyl acetate and the carbonylation of methanol when similar rhodium/iodine catalyst systems are used. (JN)

  1. Treatment of a malignant enterocutaneous fistula with octreotide acetate.

    PubMed

    Ayache, S; Wadleigh, R G

    1999-01-01

    An enterocutaneous malignant fistula developed in a patient who had a retroperitoneal angiosarcoma. He was treated with octreotide acetate subcutaneously. Drainage decreased and ceased after 2 weeks of therapy. The closure of this malignant fistula suggests that palliative therapy with octreotide acetate merits further study in view of the grave prognosis of this complication.

  2. Enrichment of amino acid-oxidizing, acetate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ato, Makoto; Ishii, Masaharu; Igarashi, Yasuo

    2014-08-01

    In anaerobic condition, amino acids are oxidatively deaminated, and decarboxylated, resulting in the production of volatile fatty acids. In this process, excess electrons are produced and their consumption is necessary for the accomplishment of amino acid degradation. In this study, we anaerobically constructed leucine-degrading enrichment cultures from three different environmental samples (compost, excess sludge, and rice field soil) in order to investigate the diversity of electron-consuming reaction coupled to amino acid oxidation. Constructed enrichment cultures oxidized leucine to isovalerate and their activities were strongly dependent on acetate. Analysis of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) profiles and community structure analysis during batch culture of each enrichment indicated that Clostridium cluster I coupled leucine oxidation to acetate reduction in the enrichment from the compost and the rice field soil. In these cases, acetate was reduced to butyrate. On the other hand, Clostridium cluster XIVb coupled leucine oxidation to acetate reduction in the enrichment from the excess sludge. In this case, acetate was reduced to propionate. To our surprise, the enrichment from rice field soil oxidized leucine even in the absence of acetate and produced butyrate. The enrichment would couple leucine oxidation to reductive butyrate synthesis from CO2. The coupling reaction would be achieved based on trophic link between hydrogenotrophic acetogenic bacteria and acetate-reducing bacteria by sequential reduction of CO2 and acetate. Our study suggests anaerobic degradation of amino acids is achieved yet-to-be described reactions. PMID:24630616

  3. 40 CFR 721.303 - Substituted acetate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.303 Substituted acetate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted acetate (PMN...

  4. 40 CFR 721.303 - Substituted acetate (generic).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... CONTROL ACT SIGNIFICANT NEW USES OF CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.303 Substituted acetate (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a substituted acetate (PMN...

  5. Antibacterial activity of Thai herbal extracts on acne involved microorganism.

    PubMed

    Niyomkam, P; Kaewbumrung, S; Kaewnpparat, S; Panichayupakaranant, P

    2010-04-01

    Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of 18 Thai medicinal plants were investigated for their antibacterial activity against Propionibacterium acnes, Stapylococcus aureus, and S. epidermidis. Thirteen plant extracts were capable of inhibiting the growth of P. acnes and S. epidermidis, while 14 plant extracts exhibited an inhibitory effect on S. aureus. Based on the broth dilution method, the ethyl acetate extract of Alpinia galanga (L.) Wild. (Zingiberaceae) rhizome showed the strongest antibacterial effect against P. acnes, with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of 156.0 and 312.0 microg/mL, respectively. On the basis of bioassay-guided purification, the ethyl acetate extract was isolated to afford the antibacterial active compound, which was identified as 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (1'-ACA). 1'-ACA had a strong inhibitory effect on P. acnes with MIC and MBC values of 62.0 and 250.0 microg/mL, respectively. Thus, 1'-ACA was used as an indicative marker for standardization of A. galanga extract using high performance liquid chromatography. These results suggest that A. galanga extract could be an interesting agent for further studies on an alternative treatment of acne.

  6. Hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid-soluble and -insoluble fractions of pelagic sediment: Readsorption revisited

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Piper, D.Z.; Wandless, G.A.

    1992-01-01

    The extraction of the rare earth elements (REE) from deep-ocean pelagic sediment, using hydroxylamine hydrochloride-acetic acid, leads to the separation of approximately 70% of the bulk REE content into the soluble fraction and 30% into the insoluble fraction. The REE pattern of the soluble fraction, i.e., the content of REE normalized to average shale on an element-by-element basis and plotted against atomic number, resembles the pattern for seawater, whereas the pattern, as well as the absolute concentrations, in the insoluble fraction resembles the North American shale composite. These results preclude significant readsorption of the REE by the insoluble phases during the leaching procedure.

  7. Enzymes involved in vinyl acetate decomposition by Pseudomonas fluorescens PCM 2123 strain.

    PubMed

    Szczyrba, Elżbieta; Greń, Izabela; Bartelmus, Grażyna

    2014-03-01

    Esterases are widely used in food processing industry, but there is little information concerning enzymes involved in decompositions of esters contributing to pollution of environment. Vinyl acetate (an ester of vinyl alcohol and acetic acid) is a representative of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in decomposition, of which hydrolyses and oxidoreductases are mainly involved. Their activities under periodically changing conditions of environment are essential for the removal of dangerous VOCs. Esterase and alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase activities were determined in crude cell extract from Pseudomonas fluorescens PMC 2123 after vinyl acetate induction. All examined enzymes exhibit their highest activity at 30-35 °C and pH 7.0-7.5. Esterase preferably hydrolyzed ester bonds with short fatty chains without plain differences for C2 or C4. Comparison of Km values for alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases for acetaldehyde suggested that this metabolite was preferentially oxidized than reduced. Activity of alcohol dehydrogenase reducing acetaldehyde to ethanol suggested that one mechanism of defense against the elevated concentration of toxic acetaldehyde could be its temporary reduction to ethanol. Esterase activity was inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride, while β-mercaptoethanol, dithiothreitol, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid had no inhibitor effect. From among metal ions, only Mg(2+) and Fe(2+) stimulated the cleavage of ester bond.

  8. Transformation kinetics of trenbolone acetate metabolites and estrogens in urine and feces of implanted steers.

    PubMed

    Blackwell, Brett R; Johnson, Bradley J; Buser, Michael D; Cobb, George P; Smith, Philip N

    2015-11-01

    Biotransformation of trenbolone acetate metabolites and estrogens derived from animal feeding operations in soils, waste storage systems, and in land applied manure has been well characterized. Yet recent data demonstrate potential for steroid transport into the environment directly from feedyard pens via runoff or airborne particulate matter. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine steroid transformation rates in beef cattle excreta. Feces and urine were collected from steers recently treated with steroidal implants. Excreta were stored and periodically extracted over 112 d then analyzed for trenbolone acetate metabolites and estrogens by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Conjugated steroids were present primarily in urine, and conjugates quickly degraded to free steroid with a half-life of 0.6-1.0 d. The primary trenbolone acetate metabolite, 17α-trenbolone, had a half-life of 5.1-9.5 d. Likewise, 17α-estradiol was the predominant estrogen, with a half-life of 8.6-53 d. Secondary trenbolone metabolites formed from 17α-trenbolone biotransformation were observed at low concentrations less than 10% initial 17α-trenbolone concentrations. Estrone was the primary metabolite of 17α-estradiol and concentrations of estrone exceeded initial 17α-estradiol concentration in all sample types. These results suggest manure-borne steroids are more stable in excreta than in soil microcosms.

  9. Fermentation of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica.

    PubMed

    Ehsanipour, Mandana; Suko, Azra Vajzovic; Bura, Renata

    2016-06-01

    A systematic study of bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica (strain ATCC 39073) was conducted. Four different water-soluble fractions (hydrolysates) obtained after steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were selected and fermented to acetic acid in batch fermentations. M. thermoacetica can effectively ferment xylose and glucose in hydrolysates from wheat straw, forest residues, switchgrass, and sugarcane straw to acetic acid. Xylose and glucose were completely utilized, with xylose being consumed first. M. thermoacetica consumed up to 62 % of arabinose, 49 % galactose and 66 % of mannose within 72 h of fermentation in the mixture of lignocellulosic sugars. The highest acetic acid yield was obtained from sugarcane straw hydrolysate, with 71 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (17 g/L acetic acid from 24 g/L total sugars). The lowest acetic acid yield was observed in forest residues hydrolysate, with 39 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (18 g/L acetic acid from 49 g/L total sugars). Process derived compounds from steam explosion pretreatment, including 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (0.4 g/L), furfural (0.1 g/L) and total phenolics (3 g/L), did not inhibit microbial growth and acetic acid production yield. This research identified two major factors that adversely affected acetic acid yield in all hydrolysates, especially in forest residues: (i) glucose to xylose ratio and (ii) incomplete consumption of arabinose, galactose and mannose. For efficient bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid, it is imperative to have an appropriate balance of sugars in a hydrolysate. Hence, the choice of lignocellulosic biomass and steam pretreatment design are fundamental steps for the industrial application of this process.

  10. Fermentation of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica.

    PubMed

    Ehsanipour, Mandana; Suko, Azra Vajzovic; Bura, Renata

    2016-06-01

    A systematic study of bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid by Moorella thermoacetica (strain ATCC 39073) was conducted. Four different water-soluble fractions (hydrolysates) obtained after steam pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass were selected and fermented to acetic acid in batch fermentations. M. thermoacetica can effectively ferment xylose and glucose in hydrolysates from wheat straw, forest residues, switchgrass, and sugarcane straw to acetic acid. Xylose and glucose were completely utilized, with xylose being consumed first. M. thermoacetica consumed up to 62 % of arabinose, 49 % galactose and 66 % of mannose within 72 h of fermentation in the mixture of lignocellulosic sugars. The highest acetic acid yield was obtained from sugarcane straw hydrolysate, with 71 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (17 g/L acetic acid from 24 g/L total sugars). The lowest acetic acid yield was observed in forest residues hydrolysate, with 39 % of theoretical yield based on total sugars (18 g/L acetic acid from 49 g/L total sugars). Process derived compounds from steam explosion pretreatment, including 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (0.4 g/L), furfural (0.1 g/L) and total phenolics (3 g/L), did not inhibit microbial growth and acetic acid production yield. This research identified two major factors that adversely affected acetic acid yield in all hydrolysates, especially in forest residues: (i) glucose to xylose ratio and (ii) incomplete consumption of arabinose, galactose and mannose. For efficient bioconversion of lignocellulosic sugars to acetic acid, it is imperative to have an appropriate balance of sugars in a hydrolysate. Hence, the choice of lignocellulosic biomass and steam pretreatment design are fundamental steps for the industrial application of this process. PMID:26992903

  11. Effects of the tropical ginger compound,1'-acetoxychavicol acetate, against tumor promotion in K5.Stat3C transgenic mice.

    PubMed

    Batra, Vinita; Syed, Zanobia; Gill, Jennifer N; Coburn, Malari A; Adegboyega, Patrick; DiGiovanni, John; Mathis, J Michael; Shi, Runhua; Clifford, John L; Kleiner-Hancock, Heather E

    2012-06-15

    The purpose of the current study was to determine whether a tropical ginger derived compound 1'-acetoxychavicol acetate (ACA), suppresses skin tumor promotion in K5.Stat3C mice. In a two-week study in which wild-type (WT) and K5.Stat3C mice were co-treated with either vehicle, ACA, galanga extract, or fluocinolone acetonide (FA) and tetradecanoyl phorbol acetate (TPA), only the galanga extract and FA suppressed TPA-induced skin hyperproliferation and wet weight. None of these agents were effective at suppressing p-Tyr705Stat3 expression. However, ACA and FA showed promising inhibitory effects against skin tumorigenesis in K5.Stat3C mice. ACA also suppressed phospho-p65 NF-κB activation, suggesting a potential mechanism for its action.

  12. Morphological diversity of Blastocystis hominis in sodium acetate-acetic acid-formalin-preserved stool samples stained with iron hematoxylin.

    PubMed

    MacPherson, D W; MacQueen, W M

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this investigation was to study the morphological characteristics of Blastocystis hominis in sodium acetate-acetic acid-Formalin-preserved stool samples. Routinely processed samples were examined for morphological detail, including size, shape, nuclear detail, and central body characteristics. Morphological findings revealing the importance of recognizing B. hominis in the diagnostic laboratory are described. PMID:7510311

  13. Measurement of the rates of oxindole-3-acetic acid turnover, and indole-3-acetic acid oxidation in Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    Oxindole-3-acetic acid is the principal catabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Zea mays seedlings. In this paper measurements of the turnover of oxindole-3-acetic acid are presented and used to calculate the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation. [3H]Oxindole-3-acetic acid was applied to the endosperm of Zea mays seedlings and allowed to equilibrate for 24 h before the start of the experiment. The subsequent decrease in its specific activity was used to calculate the turnover rate. The average half-life of oxindole-3-acetic acid in the shoots was found to be 30 h while that in the kernels had an average half-life of 35h. Using previously published values of the pool sizes of oxindole-3-acetic acid in shoots and kernels from seedlings of the same age and variety, and grown under the same conditions, the rate of indole-3-acetic acid oxidation was calculated to be 1.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the shoots and 7.1 pmol plant-1 h-1 in the kernels.

  14. Biological Function of Acetic Acid-Improvement in Obesity and Glucose Tolerance by Acetic Acid in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Hiromi

    2016-07-29

    Fatty acids derived from adipose tissue are oxidized by β-oxidation to form ketone bodies as final products under the starving condition. Previously, we found that free acetic acid was formed concomitantly with the production of ketone bodies in isolated rat liver perfusion, and mitochondrial acetyl CoA hydrolase was appeared to be involved with the acetic acid production. It was revealed that acetic acid was formed as a final product of enhanced β-oxidation of fatty acids and utilized as a fuel in extrahepatic tissues under the starving condition. Under the fed condition, β-oxidation is suppressed and acetic acid production is decreased. When acetic acid was taken daily by obesity-linked type 2 diabetic Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats under the fed condition, it protected OLETF rats against obesity. Furthermore, acetic acid contributed to protect from the accumulation of lipid in the liver as well as abdominal fat in OLETF rats. Transcripts of lipogenic genes in the liver were decreased, while transcripts of myoglobin and Glut4 genes in abdominal muscles were increased in the acetic acid-administered OLETF rats. It is indicated that exogenously administered acetic acid would have effects on lipid metabolism in both the liver and the skeletal muscles, and have function that works against obesity and obesity-linked type 2 diabetes.

  15. New secondary metabolites from bioactive extracts of the fungus Armillaria tabescens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethyl acetate extracts of Armillaria tabescens (strain JNB-OZ344) mycelium showed significant fungistatic and bacteristatic activities against several major human pathogens including Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium intracellulare. Chemical analysis of th...

  16. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid and oxindole-3-acetic acid to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside in Zea mays seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nonhebel, H. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1984-01-01

    Radiolabeled oxindole-3-acetic acid was metabolized by roots, shoots, and caryopses of dark grown Zea mays seedlings to 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2-oxo-1H indole-3-acetic acid-7'-O-beta-D-glycopyranoside with the simpler name of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside. This compound was also formed from labeled indole-3-acetic acid supplied to intact seedlings and root segments. The glucoside of 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid was also isolated as an endogenous compound in the caryopses and shoots of 4-day-old seedlings. It accumulates to a level of 4.8 nanomoles per plant in the kernel, more than 10 times the amount of oxindole-3-acetic acid. In the shoot it is present at levels comparable to that of oxindole-3-acetic acid and indole-3-acetic acid (62 picomoles per shoot). We conclude that 7-hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside is a natural metabolite of indole-3-acetic acid in Z. mays seedlings. From the data presented in this paper and in previous work, we propose the following route as the principal catabolic pathway for indole-3-acetic acid in Zea seedlings: Indole-3-acetic acid --> Oxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid --> 7-Hydroxyoxindole-3-acetic acid-glucoside.

  17. Quantitative Structure of an Acetate Dye Molecule Analogue at the TiO2–Acetic Acid Interface

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The positions of atoms in and around acetate molecules at the rutile TiO2(110) interface with 0.1 M acetic acid have been determined with a precision of ±0.05 Å. Acetate is used as a surrogate for the carboxylate groups typically employed to anchor monocarboxylate dye molecules to TiO2 in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSC). Structural analysis reveals small domains of ordered (2 × 1) acetate molecules, with substrate atoms closer to their bulk terminated positions compared to the clean UHV surface. Acetate is found in a bidentate bridge position, binding through both oxygen atoms to two 5-fold titanium atoms such that the molecular plane is along the [001] azimuth. Density functional theory calculations provide adsorption geometries in excellent agreement with experiment. The availability of these structural data will improve the accuracy of charge transport models for DSSC. PMID:27110318

  18. [Studies on the chemical constituents of the alga Sargassum carpophyllum J. Agardh].

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Yan, S; Zeng, L; Su, J

    1997-09-01

    The alga Sargassum carpophyllum J. Agardh collected from the South China Sea was immersed in 95% ethyl alcohol. The combined extract was partitioned between ethyl acetate and water. The ethyl acetate phase was subjected to pressure-reduced chromatography over Silica H, eluted with a step gradient of EtOAc in petroleum ether. Two main fractions of sterols (I) and fatty acids (II) were obtained. The composition of I and II were identified by GC/MS. The fraction Ia was obtained, as a main composition of I, by repeated flash chromatography. On the basis of spectroscopic analysis, Ia was identified to be fucosterol.

  19. Simultaneous production of acetic and gluconic acids by a thermotolerant Acetobacter strain during acetous fermentation in a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Mounir, Majid; Shafiei, Rasoul; Zarmehrkhorshid, Raziyeh; Hamouda, Allal; Ismaili Alaoui, Mustapha; Thonart, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    The activity of bacterial strains significantly influences the quality and the taste of vinegar. Previous studies of acetic acid bacteria have primarily focused on the ability of bacterial strains to produce high amounts of acetic acid. However, few studies have examined the production of gluconic acid during acetous fermentation at high temperatures. The production of vinegar at high temperatures by two strains of acetic acid bacteria isolated from apple and cactus fruits, namely AF01 and CV01, respectively, was evaluated in this study. The simultaneous production of gluconic and acetic acids was also examined in this study. Biochemical and molecular identification based on a 16s rDNA sequence analysis confirmed that these strains can be classified as Acetobacter pasteurianus. To assess the ability of the isolated strains to grow and produce acetic acid and gluconic acid at high temperatures, a semi-continuous fermentation was performed in a 20-L bioreactor. The two strains abundantly grew at a high temperature (41°C). At the end of the fermentation, the AF01 and CV01 strains yielded acetic acid concentrations of 7.64% (w/v) and 10.08% (w/v), respectively. Interestingly, CV01 was able to simultaneously produce acetic and gluconic acids during acetic fermentation, whereas AF01 mainly produced acetic acid. In addition, CV01 was less sensitive to ethanol depletion during semi-continuous fermentation. Finally, the enzymatic study showed that the two strains exhibited high ADH and ALDH enzyme activity at 38°C compared with the mesophilic reference strain LMG 1632, which was significantly susceptible to thermal inactivation. PMID:26253254

  20. Simultaneous production of acetic and gluconic acids by a thermotolerant Acetobacter strain during acetous fermentation in a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Mounir, Majid; Shafiei, Rasoul; Zarmehrkhorshid, Raziyeh; Hamouda, Allal; Ismaili Alaoui, Mustapha; Thonart, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    The activity of bacterial strains significantly influences the quality and the taste of vinegar. Previous studies of acetic acid bacteria have primarily focused on the ability of bacterial strains to produce high amounts of acetic acid. However, few studies have examined the production of gluconic acid during acetous fermentation at high temperatures. The production of vinegar at high temperatures by two strains of acetic acid bacteria isolated from apple and cactus fruits, namely AF01 and CV01, respectively, was evaluated in this study. The simultaneous production of gluconic and acetic acids was also examined in this study. Biochemical and molecular identification based on a 16s rDNA sequence analysis confirmed that these strains can be classified as Acetobacter pasteurianus. To assess the ability of the isolated strains to grow and produce acetic acid and gluconic acid at high temperatures, a semi-continuous fermentation was performed in a 20-L bioreactor. The two strains abundantly grew at a high temperature (41°C). At the end of the fermentation, the AF01 and CV01 strains yielded acetic acid concentrations of 7.64% (w/v) and 10.08% (w/v), respectively. Interestingly, CV01 was able to simultaneously produce acetic and gluconic acids during acetic fermentation, whereas AF01 mainly produced acetic acid. In addition, CV01 was less sensitive to ethanol depletion during semi-continuous fermentation. Finally, the enzymatic study showed that the two strains exhibited high ADH and ALDH enzyme activity at 38°C compared with the mesophilic reference strain LMG 1632, which was significantly susceptible to thermal inactivation.

  1. The Effects of Acetate Buffer Concentration on Lysozyme Solubility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forsythe, Elizabeth L.; Pusey, Marc L.

    1996-01-01

    The micro-solubility column technique was employed to systematically investigate the effects of buffer concentration on tetragonal lysozyme solubility. While keeping the NaCl concentrations constant at 2%, 3%, 4%, 5% and 7%, and the pH at 4.0, we have studied the solubility of tetragonal lysozyme over an acetate buffer concentration range of 0.01M to 0.5M as a function of temperature. The lysozyme solubility decreased with increasing acetate concentration from 0.01M to 0.1M. This decrease may simply be due to the net increase in solvent ionic strength. Increasing the acetate concentration beyond 0.1M resulted in an increase in the lysozyme solubility, which reached a peak at - 0.3M acetate concentration. This increase was believed to be due to the increased binding of acetate to the anionic binding sites of lysozyme, preventing their occupation by chloride. In keeping with the previously observed reversal of the Hoffmeister series for effectiveness of anions in crystallizing lysozyme, acetate would be a less effective precipitant than chloride. Further increasing the acetate concentration beyond 0.3M resulted in a subsequent gradual decrease in the lysozyme solubility at all NaCl concentrations.

  2. Crystal structure of a mixed solvated form of amoxapine acetate.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Rajni M; Raval, Vishal; Oswald, Iain D H; Florence, Alastair J

    2015-02-01

    The mixed solvated salt 4-(2-chloro-dibenzo[b,f][1,4]oxazepin-11-yl)piperazin-1-ium acetate-acetic acid-cyclo-hexane (2/2/1), C17H17ClN3O(+)·C2H3O2 (-)·C2H4O2·0.5C6H12, crystallizes with one mol-ecule of protonated amoxapine (AXPN), an acetate anion and a mol-ecule of acetic acid together with half a mol-ecule of cyclo-hexane. In the centrosymmetric crystal, both enanti-omers of the protonated AXPN mol-ecule stack alternatively along [001]. Acetate anions connect the AXPN cations through N-H⋯O hydrogen bonding in the [010] direction, creating a sheet lying parallel to (100). The acetic acid mol-ecules are linked to the acetate anions via O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds within the sheets. Within the sheets there are also a number of C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds present. The cyclo-hexane solvent mol-ecules occupy the space between the sheets.

  3. Increased brain uptake and oxidation of acetate in heavy drinkers.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Lihong; Gulanski, Barbara Irene; De Feyter, Henk M; Weinzimer, Stuart A; Pittman, Brian; Guidone, Elizabeth; Koretski, Julia; Harman, Susan; Petrakis, Ismene L; Krystal, John H; Mason, Graeme F

    2013-04-01

    When a person consumes ethanol, the body quickly begins to convert it to acetic acid, which circulates in the blood and can serve as a source of energy for the brain and other organs. This study used 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy to test whether chronic heavy drinking is associated with greater brain uptake and oxidation of acetic acid, providing a potential metabolic reward or adenosinergic effect as a consequence of drinking. Seven heavy drinkers, who regularly consumed at least 8 drinks per week and at least 4 drinks per day at least once per week, and 7 light drinkers, who consumed fewer than 2 drinks per week were recruited. The subjects were administered [2-13C]acetate for 2 hours and scanned throughout that time with magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the brain to observe natural 13C abundance of N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and the appearance of 13C-labeled glutamate, glutamine, and acetate. Heavy drinkers had approximately 2-fold more brain acetate relative to blood and twice as much labeled glutamate and glutamine. The results show that acetate transport and oxidation are faster in heavy drinkers compared with that in light drinkers. Our finding suggests that a new therapeutic approach to supply acetate during alcohol detoxification may be beneficial. PMID:23478412

  4. Synergistic antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Stefanović, Olgica D; Stanojević, Dragana D; Comić, Ljiljana R

    2012-01-01

    Synergistic activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and commonly used antibiotics, amoxicillin and chloramphenicol, were evaluated. Interactions between plant extracts and antibiotics were tested by checkerboard method and interpreted as FIC index. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and clinical isolates Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis were used. Salvia officinalis showed better synergistic capacity than Cichorium intybus. Synergistic interactions were observed between amoxicillin and acetone or ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis and between chloramphenicol and ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis. In the presence of sub-inhibitory concentration (1/4 MIC to 1/32 MIC) of sage extracts, the MIC values of antibiotics were decreased by 2- to 10-fold. Synergism was observed against all test bacteria, except Escherichia coli. The combinations of acetone and ethyl acetate extract from Cichorium intybus and antibiotics resulted in additive and indifferent effects against tested bacteria.

  5. SAGA complex components and acetate repression in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Georgakopoulos, Paraskevi; Lockington, Robin A; Kelly, Joan M

    2012-11-01

    Alongside the well-established carbon catabolite repression by glucose and other sugars, acetate causes repression in Aspergillus nidulans. Mutations in creA, encoding the transcriptional repressor involved in glucose repression, also affect acetate repression, but mutations in creB or creC, encoding components of a deubiquitination system, do not. To understand the effects of acetate, we used a mutational screen that was similar to screens that uncovered mutations in creA, creB, and creC, except that glucose was replaced by acetate to identify mutations that were affected for repression by acetate but not by glucose. We uncovered mutations in acdX, homologous to the yeast SAGA component gene SPT8, which in growth tests showed derepression for acetate repression but not for glucose repression. We also made mutations in sptC, homologous to the yeast SAGA component gene SPT3, which showed a similar phenotype. We found that acetate repression is complex, and analysis of facA mutations (lacking acetyl CoA synthetase) indicates that acetate metabolism is required for repression of some systems (proline metabolism) but not for others (acetamide metabolism). Although plate tests indicated that acdX- and sptC-null mutations led to derepressed alcohol dehydrogenase activity, reverse-transcription quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction showed no derepression of alcA or aldA but rather elevated induced levels. Our results indicate that acetate repression is due to repression via CreA together with metabolic changes rather than due to an independent regulatory control mechanism.

  6. Stable carbon isotope discrimination in rice field soil during acetate turnover by syntrophic acetate oxidation or acetoclastic methanogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Ralf; Klose, Melanie

    2011-03-01

    Rice fields are an important source for the greenhouse gas methane. In Italian rice field soil CH 4 is produced either by hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogenesis, or by hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and syntrophic acetate oxidation when temperatures are below and above about 40-45 °C, respectively. In order to see whether these acetate consumption pathways differently discriminate the stable carbon isotopes of acetate, we measured the δ 13C of total acetate and acetate-methyl as well as the δ 13C of CO 2 and CH 4 in rice field soil that had been pre-incubated at 45 °C and then shifted to different temperatures between 25 and 50 °C. Acetate transiently accumulated to about 6 mM, which is about one-third of the amount of CH 4 produced, irrespective of the incubation temperature and the CH 4 production pathway involved. However, the patterns of δ 13C of the CH 4 and CO 2 produced were different at low (25, 30, 35 °C) versus high (40, 45, 50 °C) temperatures. These patterns were consistent with CH 4 being exclusively formed by hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis at high temperatures, and by a combination of acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis at low temperatures. The patterns of δ 13C of total acetate and acetate-methyl were also different at high versus low temperatures, indicating the involvement of different pathways of production and consumption of acetate at the two temperature regimes. Isotope fractionation during consumption of the methyl group of acetate was more pronounced at low ( α = 1.010-1.025) than at high ( α = 1.0-1.01) temperatures indicating that acetoclastic methanogenesis exhibits a stronger isotope effect than syntrophic acetate oxidation. Small amounts of propionate also transiently accumulated and were analyzed for δ 13C. The δ 13C values slightly increased (by about 10‰) during production and consumption of propionate, but were not affected by incubation temperature. Collectively, our results showed distinct

  7. Production of low-cost calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) as an environmentally friendly deicer from cheese whey

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, S.T.; Zhu, H.; Li, Y.; Tang, I.C.

    1993-12-31

    About 28 billion lbs of cheese whey are being wasted in the US because of the high biological oxygen demand (BOD) of whey, disposing of surplus whey is a pollution problem. An innovative, wide-scale solution to the whey disposal problem is to use whey as a zero- or low-cost feedstock for the production of an environmentally safe, noncorrosive, road deicer-calcium magnesium acetate (CMA). CMA can be used to replace some of the 10 to 14 million tons road salt used in the North America for deicing. A novel anaerobic fermentation process is developed to produce calcium magnesium acetate (CMA) from whey permeate. A co-culture consisting of homolactic (S. lactis) and homoacetic (C. formicoaceticum) bacteria was used to convert whey lactose to lactate and then to acetate in continuous, immobilized cell bioreactors. The acetate yield from lactose was {approximately}95% (wt/wt), and the final concentration of acetic acid was 4%. The acetic acid present in the fermentation broth can be recovered by solvent-extraction with a tertiary amine and reacted with dolomitic lime (Ca/MgO) to form a concentrated (>25%) CMA solution. About 25 tons CMA can be produced from a plant processing 1 million lbs whey permeate (4.5% lactose) per day. The production costs are estimated at {approximately}$220/ton CMA, which is only about one third of the present market price for CMA deicer. Therefore, about 0.8 million tons/yr CMA deicer can be produced from the currently unused whey. This will partially fulfill market demand for economically and environmentally sound chemicals for roadway deicing. This also will provide a viable solution to the whey disposal problem currently facing many dairies in the North America.

  8. Viscosity of Mixtures of α-Tocopherol Acetate + Mesitylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwajczaka, Elżbieta; Stagraczyński, Ryszard; Herba, Henryk; Świergielb, Jolanta; Jadżyn, Jan

    2009-08-01

    The paper presents results of the share viscosity measurements performed as a function of temperature and concentration for mixtures of α-tocopherol acetate (vitamine E acetate) and mesitylene, two liquids of essentially different viscosity (four order of magnitude difference at 280 K). The viscosity/ temperature dependence for pure α-tocopherol acetate as well as for the mixtures studied can be well described with the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation. The viscosities of the mixtures exhibit a strong negative deviation from the rule of additive dependence on concentration and for increasing temperature the maximum value of the deviation shows an exponential decreasing.

  9. [Octreotide acetate for persistent cylothorax after descending aorta replacement].

    PubMed

    Naganuma, Hirokuni; Kawahito, Koji; Matsumura, Yoko; Nakamura, Ken; Haijima, Norimasa

    2010-12-01

    Cylothorax is one of a hazardous complication after thoracic aorta replacement. In this paper, we report effectiveness of octreotide acetate for postoperative persistent cylothorax. A 59-year-old female was referred to our hospital for chest pain. Previously she underwent arch reconstruction following aortic root replacement due to aortic dissection. Computed tomography (CT) revealed acute dissection on dissected descending aorta. Urgent descending aorta replacement was performed. After surgery, massive chylothoracic pleural fluid was drainaged. Although conventional medical treatment was not effective, drainage of chylothoracic pleural fluid significantly decreased after administration of octreotide acetate. Although mechanism has not been fully investigated, octreotide acetate was effective for persistent cylothorax after descending aorta replacement.

  10. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, J.L.; Clausen, E.C.

    1992-12-22

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H[sub 2]O and/or CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate. 3 figs.

  11. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.

    1992-01-01

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate.

  12. Leuprolide acetate suppresses pedophilic urges and arousability.

    PubMed

    Schober, Justine M; Kuhn, Phyllis J; Kovacs, Paul G; Earle, James H; Byrne, Peter M; Fries, Ruth A

    2005-12-01

    Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy was compared with cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy augmented by leuprolide acetate (LA) for suppression of pedophilic behavior. Five male pedophiles (M age, 50 years; range, 36-58) were administered LA by Depo injection for 12 months, followed by saline placebo for 12 months. Testosterone levels, sexual interest preference by visual reaction time (Abel Assessment), penile tumescence (Monarch Penile Plethysmography, PPG), as well as strong sexual urges toward children and masturbatory frequency involving thoughts of children (polygraph), were measured every 3 months. On LA, testosterone decreased to castrate levels. Penile tumescence was significantly suppressed compared with baseline, but sufficient response remained to detect pedophilic interest. Pedophilic interest was also detected by visual reaction times. When asked about having pedophilic urges and masturbating to thoughts of children, all subjects self-reported a decrease. Polygraph responses indicated subjects were not deceptive. On placebo, testosterone and physiologic arousal eventually rose to baseline. As noted by polygraph, at baseline and on placebo, subjects were deceptive regarding increased pedophilic urges and masturbatory frequency. Interest preference, as measured by Abel Assessment and Monarch PPG, was generally unchanged throughout the study. Cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy augmented with LA significantly reduced pedophilic fantasies, urges, and masturbation; however, pedophilic interest did not change during 1 year of therapy. Deceptive responses by polygraph suggested that self-report was unreliable. Follow-up utilizing objective measures is essential for monitoring efficacy of treatment in pedophilia. Our study supports the premise that suppression of pedophilic behavior is possible. LA may augment cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy and help break the sequence leading to a re-offense.

  13. Comparison of Ketorolac Tromethamine and Prednisolone Acetate in Preventing Surgically Induced Miosis during Cataract Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Suleiman, Yusuf M; Krdoghli, Najwa F; Ahmad, Aksam J

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of topical prednisolone acetate 1% and topical ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% in the maintenance of pupillary mydriasis during cataract surgery. Methods Fifty patients were enrolled in this prospective, partially masked and randomised study. They were assigned to receive topical treatment with either prednisolone acetate (n = 25) or ketorolac tromethamine (n = 25), starting 24 hours before cataract extraction (either routine extracapsular cataract extraction or phacoemulsification). One drop of the study medication was instilled every 6 hours for a total of 4 drops. No epinephrine was used in the intraoperative irrigation solution. Pupil diameter was measured three different times during surgery. To ensure participant safety, biomicroscopy, ophthalmoscopy, intraocular pressure, adverse events and visual acuity were also monitored. Results The mean pupil diameter change from the time of the pre-incision until after cortical irrigation and aspiration and lens implantation was significantly less with ketorolac than with prednisolone (P = 0.003). Consequently, mean pupil diameter after cortical irrigation and aspiration and lens implantation was significantly greater with ketorolac than with prednisolone (P <0.0001). No significant differences between groups were observed in the pupil diameter before the first incision (P = 0.244), nor after administration of a miotic agent (P = 0.505). Safety variables were comparable and no drug-related adverse events were reported. Conclusion Ketorolac tromethamine 0.5% and prednisolone acetate 1% solutions were equally well tolerated without related adverse events, but ketorolac was better in preventing surgically induced miosis. PMID:21509082

  14. Robotic preparation of Sodium Acetate C 11 Injection for use in clinical PET.

    PubMed

    Moerlein, Stephen M; Gaehle, Gregory G; Welch, Michael J

    2002-07-01

    Sodium Acetate C 11 Injection is a radiopharmaceutical commonly used for clinical studies with positron emission tomography (PET). We have designed a fully-automated robotic system for the compounding of this 20-minute half-lived tracer in the clinical setting. The system is comprised of five modular workstations that are configured in a flexible manner to accommodate all of the steps in the production of the labeled drug. The Trapping Station isolates cyclotron-produced [11C]CO(2) gas from the target and directs carbonation of methylmagnesium Grignard in diethyl ether. The Heating Station hydrolyzes the intermediate, and removes ether and unreacted [11C]CO(2) from the mixture. The Extraction Station removes ionic and organic contaminants from the drug using solid-phase extraction (AG 11A8 and C18 resin). The Filtration Station sterilizes the radiopharmaceutical, and tests membrane patency post filtration. The Assay Station measures the weight and radioactivity content of the Final Product Container, facilitating calculation of activity concentration in a remote manner. Rapid quality control methodology has also been developed that is suitable for pre-release analysis of the drug product. For a 7.5 min irradiation with a 40 microA proton beam, 223-300 mCi of Acetate C 11 Injection with purity meeting USP standards is produced within 23 min. This robotic system is a reliable method for producing Sodium Acetate C 11 Injection, USP in the clinical setting with minimal personnel exposure. Moreover, its design flexibility permits synthesis of additional (11)C- or (18)F-labeled PET tracers within the same shielded hot cell.

  15. Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus & Culex tritaeniorhynchus

    PubMed Central

    Kamaraj, C.; Bagavan, A.; Elango, G.; Zahir, A. Abduz; Rajakumar, G.; Marimuthu, S.; Santhoshkumar, T.; Rahuman, A. Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year and the development of resistance to chemical insecticides resulting in rebounding vectorial capacity. Plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the role of larvicidal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and bark extracts of Annona squamosa L., Chrysanthemum indicum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against the fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activities of three medicinal plant extracts were studied in the range of 4.69 to 1000 mg/l in the laboratory bioassays against early 4th instar larvae of An. subpictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The mortality data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) to kill 50 and 90 per cent of the treated larvae of the respective species. Results: All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest toxic effect of bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate extract of C. indicum and leaf acetone extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of An. subpictus (LC50 = 93.80, 39.98 and 51.57 mg/l) and bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf methanol extract of C. indicum and leaf ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 =104.94, 42.29 and 69.16 mg/l) respectively. Interpretation & Conclusions: Our data suggest that the bark ethyl acetate and methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. indicum, acetone and ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens have the potential to be used as an ecofriendly approach for the control of the An. subpictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. PMID:21808141

  16. Fermentation of phenoxyethanol to phenol and acetate by a homoacetogenic bacterium.

    PubMed

    Frings, J; Schink, B

    1994-01-01

    A strictly anaerobic gram-positive, rod-shaped bacterium, strain LuPhet1, was isolated from sewage sludge with phenoxyethanol as sole carbon and energy source, and was assigned to the genus Acetobacterium. The new isolate fermented the alkylaryl ether compound phenoxyethanol stoichiometrically to phenol and acetate, whereas phenoxyacetic acid was not degraded. In cell-free extracts of strain LuPhet1, cleavage of the ether linkage was shown, and acetaldehyde was detected as reaction product. Coenzyme A-dependent acetaldehyde: acceptor oxidoreductase, phosphate acetyltransferase, acetate kinase, and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase were measured in cell-free extracts of this strain. Our results indicate that the ether linkage of phenoxyethanol is cleaved by a shift of the hydroxyl group to the subterminal carbon atom, analogous to a corrinoid-dependent diol dehydratase reaction, to form an unstable hemiacetal that releases phenol and acetaldehyde. Obviously, phenoxyethanol is degraded by the same strategy as in anaerobic degradation of the alkyl ether polyethylene glycol.

  17. Automated extraction of acetylgestagens from kidney fat by matrix solid phase dispersion.

    PubMed

    Rosén, J; Hellenäs, K E; Törnqvist, P; Shearan, P

    1994-12-01

    A new extraction method for the acetylgestagens medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), chloromadinone acetate and megestrol acetate, from kidney fat, has been developed. The method is a combination of matrix solid phase dispersion and solid phase extraction and is simpler and safer than previous methods, especially as it can be automated. The recovery was estimated as 59 +/- 5% (mean +/- standard deviation) for MPA. For screening purposes detection can be achieved using a commercially available enzyme immunoassay kit giving detection limits in the range of 1.0-2.0 ng g-1.

  18. Comparison of growth, acetate production, and acetate inhibition of Escherichia coli strains in batch and fed-batch fermentations.

    PubMed Central

    Luli, G W; Strohl, W R

    1990-01-01

    The growth characteristics and acetate production of several Escherichia coli strains were compared by using shake flasks, batch fermentations, and glucose-feedback-controlled fed-batch fermentations to assess the potential of each strain to grow at high cell densities. Of the E. coli strains tested, including JM105, B, W3110, W3100, HB101, DH1, CSH50, MC1060, JRG1046, and JRG1061, strains JM105 and B were found to have the greatest relative biomass accumulation, strain MC1060 accumulated the highest concentrations of acetic acid, and strain B had the highest growth rates under the conditions tested. In glucose-feedback-controlled fed-batch fermentations, strains B and JM105 produced only 2 g of acetate.liter-1 while accumulating up to 30 g of biomass.liter-1. Under identical conditions, strains HB101 and MC1060 accumulated less than 10 g of biomass.liter-1 and strain MC1060 produced 8 g of acetate.liter-1. The addition of various concentrations of sodium acetate to the growth medium resulted in a logarithmic decrease, with respect to acetate concentration, in the growth rates of E. coli JM105, JM105(pOS4201), and JRG1061. These data indicated that the growth of the E. coli strains was likely to be inhibited by the acetate they produced when grown on media containing glucose. A model for the inhibition of growth of E. coli by acetate was derived from these experiments to explain the inhibition of acetate on E. coli strains at neutral pH. PMID:2187400

  19. Comparison of growth, acetate production, and acetate inhibition of Escherichia coli strains in batch and fed-batch fermentations.

    PubMed

    Luli, G W; Strohl, W R

    1990-04-01

    The growth characteristics and acetate production of several Escherichia coli strains were compared by using shake flasks, batch fermentations, and glucose-feedback-controlled fed-batch fermentations to assess the potential of each strain to grow at high cell densities. Of the E. coli strains tested, including JM105, B, W3110, W3100, HB101, DH1, CSH50, MC1060, JRG1046, and JRG1061, strains JM105 and B were found to have the greatest relative biomass accumulation, strain MC1060 accumulated the highest concentrations of acetic acid, and strain B had the highest growth rates under the conditions tested. In glucose-feedback-controlled fed-batch fermentations, strains B and JM105 produced only 2 g of acetate.liter-1 while accumulating up to 30 g of biomass.liter-1. Under identical conditions, strains HB101 and MC1060 accumulated less than 10 g of biomass.liter-1 and strain MC1060 produced 8 g of acetate.liter-1. The addition of various concentrations of sodium acetate to the growth medium resulted in a logarithmic decrease, with respect to acetate concentration, in the growth rates of E. coli JM105, JM105(pOS4201), and JRG1061. These data indicated that the growth of the E. coli strains was likely to be inhibited by the acetate they produced when grown on media containing glucose. A model for the inhibition of growth of E. coli by acetate was derived from these experiments to explain the inhibition of acetate on E. coli strains at neutral pH. PMID:2187400

  20. Inhibition of ice growth and recrystallization by zirconium acetate and zirconium acetate hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Mizrahy, Ortal; Bar-Dolev, Maya; Guy, Shlomit; Braslavsky, Ido

    2013-01-01

    The control over ice crystal growth, melting, and shaping is important in a variety of fields, including cell and food preservation and ice templating for the production of composite materials. Control over ice growth remains a challenge in industry, and the demand for new cryoprotectants is high. Naturally occurring cryoprotectants, such as antifreeze proteins (AFPs), present one solution for modulating ice crystal growth; however, the production of AFPs is expensive and inefficient. These obstacles can be overcome by identifying synthetic substitutes with similar AFP properties. Zirconium acetate (ZRA) was recently found to induce the formation of hexagonal cavities in materials prepared by ice templating. Here, we continue this line of study and examine the effects of ZRA and a related compound, zirconium acetate hydroxide (ZRAH), on ice growth, shaping, and recrystallization. We found that the growth rate of ice crystals was significantly reduced in the presence of ZRA and ZRAH, and that solutions containing these compounds display a small degree of thermal hysteresis, depending on the solution pH. The compounds were found to inhibit recrystallization in a manner similar to that observed in the presence of AFPs. The favorable properties of ZRA and ZRAH suggest tremendous potential utility in industrial applications.

  1. Cosolvent gel-like materials from partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl acetate)s and borax.

    PubMed

    Angelova, Lora V; Terech, Pierre; Natali, Irene; Dei, Luigi; Carretti, Emiliano; Weiss, Richard G

    2011-09-20

    A gel-like, high-viscosity polymeric dispersion (HVPD) based on cross-linked borate, partially hydrolyzed poly(vinyl acetate) (xPVAc, where x is the percent hydrolysis) is described. Unlike hydro-HVPDs prepared from poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and borate, the liquid portion of these materials can be composed of up to 75% of an organic cosolvent because of the influence of residual acetate groups on the polymer backbone. The effects of the degree of hydrolysis, molecular weight, polymer and cross-linker concentrations, and type and amount of organic cosolvent on the rheological and structural properties of the materials are investigated. The stability of the systems is explored through rheological and melting-range studies. (11)B NMR and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) are used to probe the structure of the dispersions. The addition of an organic liquid to the xPVAc-borate HVPDs results in a drastic increase in the number of cross-linked borate species as well as the agglomeration of the polymer into bundles. These effects result in an increase in the relaxation time and thermal stability of the networks. The ability to make xPVAc-borate HVPDs with very large amounts of and rather different organic liquids, with very different rheological properties that can be controlled easily, opens new possibilities for applications of PVAc-based dispersions.

  2. Ruta graveolens Extracts and Metabolites against Spodoptera frugiperda.

    PubMed

    Ayil-Gutiérrez, Benjamin A; Villegas-Mendoza, Jesús M; Santes-Hernndez, Zuridai; Paz-González, Alma D; Mireles-Martínez, Maribel; Rosas-García, Ninfa M; Rivera, Gildardo

    2015-11-01

    The biological activity of Ruta graveolens leaf tissue extracts obtained with different solvents (ethyl acetate, ethanol, and water) and metabolites (psoralen, 2- undecanone and rutin) against Spodoptera frugiperda was evaluated. Metabolites levels in extracts were quantified by HPLC and GC. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts showed 94% and 78% mortality, respectively. Additionally, psoralen metabolite showed a high mortality as cypermethrin. Metabolite quantification in extracts shows the presence of 2-undecanone (87.9 µmoles mg(-1) DW), psoralen (3.6 µmoles mg(-1) DW) and rutin (0.001 pmoles mg(-1) DW). We suggest that these concentrations of 2-undecanone and psoralen in R. graveolens leaf tissue extracts could be responsible for S. frugiperda mortality.

  3. 21 CFR 522.2478 - Trenbolone acetate and estradiol benzoate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....240 and 556.739 of this chapter. (d) Conditions of use—(1) Steers fed in confinement for slaughter. (i...) Heifers fed in confinement for slaughter—(i) Amount. 200 mg trenbolone acetate and 28 mg...

  4. Extruding foams from corn starch acetate and native corn starch.

    PubMed

    Guan, Junjie; Hanna, Milford A

    2004-01-01

    Because of the hydrophilic characteristics of native starch foams and the cost of modifying starch, the uses of starch and modified starch foams are hindered. To decrease hydrophilicity and cost of starch foams, native corn starch was blended with starch acetate and extruded. A twin-screw mixing extruder was used to produce the foams. Native starch content, screw speed, and barrel temperature had significant effects on molecular degradation of starches during extrusion. The melting temperature of extruded starch acetate/native starch foam was higher (216 degrees C) than that for starch acetate (193.4 degrees C). Strong peaks in the X-ray diffractograms of extruded starch acetate/native starch foam suggested new crystalline regions were formed. Optimum conditions for high radial expansion ratio, high compressibility, low specific mechanical energy requirement, and low water absorption index were 46.0% native starch content, 163 rpm screw speed, and 148 degrees C barrel temperature.

  5. Ice-melting characteristics of calcium magnesium acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenk, R. U.

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the study are to determine the pertinent properties of Calcium/Magnesium Acetate and to determine the pH and ratio of calcium to magnesium that provide optimum road deicing characteristics.

  6. Fragrance material review on p-isopropylbenzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-isopropylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Isopropylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1 to 4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-isopropylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  7. Fragrance material review on 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-Hydroxy-2-phenylethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-hydroxy-2-phenylethyl acetate was evaluated then summarized and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  8. Fragrance material review on ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. Ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for ethyl phenyl carbinyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties; acute toxicity; skin irritation; and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document; please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  9. Fragrance material review on 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  10. Biosynthesis of the halogenated auxin, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Tivendale, Nathan D; Davidson, Sandra E; Davies, Noel W; Smith, Jason A; Dalmais, Marion; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid I; Quittenden, Laura J; Sutton, Lily; Bala, Raj K; Le Signor, Christine; Thompson, Richard; Horne, James; Reid, James B; Ross, John J

    2012-07-01

    Seeds of several agriculturally important legumes are rich sources of the only halogenated plant hormone, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid. However, the biosynthesis of this auxin is poorly understood. Here, we show that in pea (Pisum sativum) seeds, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid is synthesized via the novel intermediate 4-chloroindole-3-pyruvic acid, which is produced from 4-chlorotryptophan by two aminotransferases, TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED1 and TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED2. We characterize a tar2 mutant, obtained by Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes, the seeds of which contain dramatically reduced 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid levels as they mature. We also show that the widespread auxin, indole-3-acetic acid, is synthesized by a parallel pathway in pea. PMID:22573801

  11. Acetate utilization and macromolecular synthesis during sporulation of yeast.

    PubMed

    Esposito, M S; Esposito, R E; Arnaud, M; Halvorson, H O

    1969-10-01

    Acetate utilization and macromolecule synthesis during sporulation (meiosis) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were studied. When diploid cells are transferred from glucose nutrient medium to acetate sporulation medium at early stationary phase, respiration of the exogenously supplied acetate proceeds without any apparent lag. At the completion of ascospore development, 62% of the acetate carbon consumed has been respired, 22% remains in the soluble pool, and 16% is incorporated into lipids, protein, nucleic acids, and other cell components. Measurements of the rate of protein synthesis during sporulation reveal two periods of maximal synthetic activity: an early phase coincidental with increases in deoxyribonucleic acid, ribonucleic acid, and protein cellular content and a later phase during ascospore formation. Experiments in which protein synthesis was inhibited at intervals during sporulation indicate that protein synthesis is required both for the initiation and completion of ascus development.

  12. Fragrance material review on 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2-(p-tolyloxy)ethyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes physical properties data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances. PMID:22414652

  13. Microorganisms having enhanced resistance to acetate and methods of use

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, Steven D; Yang, Shihui

    2014-10-21

    The present invention provides isolated or genetically modified strains of microorganisms that display enhanced resistance to acetate as a result of increased expression of a sodium proton antiporter. The present invention also provides methods for producing such microbial strains, as well as related promoter sequences and expression vectors. Further, the present invention provides methods of producing alcohol from biomass materials by using microorganisms with enhanced resistance to acetate.

  14. Water dispersible microbicidal cellulose acetate phthalate film

    PubMed Central

    Neurath, A Robert; Strick, Nathan; Li, Yun-Yao

    2003-01-01

    Background Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) has been used for several decades in the pharmaceutical industry for enteric film coating of oral tablets and capsules. Micronized CAP, available commercially as "Aquateric" and containing additional ingredients required for micronization, used for tablet coating from water dispersions, was shown to adsorb and inactivate the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), herpesviruses (HSV) and other sexually transmitted disease (STD) pathogens. Earlier studies indicate that a gel formulation of micronized CAP has a potential as a topical microbicide for prevention of STDs including the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The objective of endeavors described here was to develop a water dispersible CAP film amenable to inexpensive industrial mass production. Methods CAP and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) were dissolved in different organic solvent mixtures, poured into dishes, and the solvents evaporated. Graded quantities of a resulting selected film were mixed for 5 min at 37°C with HIV-1, HSV and other STD pathogens, respectively. Residual infectivity of the treated viruses and bacteria was determined. Results The prerequisites for producing CAP films which are soft, flexible and dispersible in water, resulting in smooth gels, are combining CAP with HPC (other cellulose derivatives are unsuitable), and casting from organic solvent mixtures containing ≈50 to ≈65% ethanol (EtOH). The films are ≈100 µ thick and have a textured surface with alternating protrusions and depressions revealed by scanning electron microscopy. The films, before complete conversion into a gel, rapidly inactivated HIV-1 and HSV and reduced the infectivity of non-viral STD pathogens >1,000-fold. Conclusions Soft pliable CAP-HPC composite films can be generated by casting from organic solvent mixtures containing EtOH. The films rapidly reduce the infectivity of several STD pathogens, including HIV-1. They are converted into gels and thus do not

  15. Genetic organization of Acetobacter for acetic acid fermentation.

    PubMed

    Beppu, T

    Plasmid vectors for the acetic acid-producing strains of Acetobacter and Gluconobacter were constructed from their cryptic plasmids and the efficient transformation conditions were established. The systems allowed to reveal the genetic background of the strains used in the acetic acid fermentation. Genes encoding indispensable components in the acetic acid fermentation, such as alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and terminal oxidase, were cloned and characterized. Spontaneous mutations at high frequencies in the acetic acid bacteria to cause the deficiency in ethanol oxidation were analyzed. A new insertion sequence element, IS1380, was identified as a major factor of the genetic instability, which causes insertional inactivation of the gene encoding cytochrome c, an essential component of the functional alcohol dehydrogenase complex. Several genes including the citrate synthase gene of A. aceti were identified to confer acetic acid resistance, and the histidinolphosphate aminotransferase gene was cloned as a multicopy suppressor of an ethanol sensitive mutant. Improvement of the acetic acid productivity of an A. aceti strain was achieved through amplification of the aldehyde dehydrogenase gene with a multicopy vector. In addition, spheroplast fusion of the Acetobacter strains was developed and applied to improve their properties.

  16. Genetic dissection of acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Geng, Peng; Xiao, Yin; Hu, Yun; Sun, Haiye; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Gui-Yang

    2016-09-01

    Dissection of the hereditary architecture underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for ethanol fermentation. In this work, a genomics approach was used to dissect hereditary variations in acetic acid tolerance between two phenotypically different strains. A total of 160 segregants derived from these two strains were obtained. Phenotypic analysis indicated that the acetic acid tolerance displayed a normal distribution in these segregants, and suggested that the acetic acid tolerant traits were controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Thus, 220 SSR markers covering the whole genome were used to detect QTLs of acetic acid tolerant traits. As a result, three QTLs were located on chromosomes 9, 12, and 16, respectively, which explained 38.8-65.9 % of the range of phenotypic variation. Furthermore, twelve genes of the candidates fell into the three QTL regions by integrating the QTL analysis with candidates of acetic acid tolerant genes. These results provided a novel avenue to obtain more robust strains. PMID:27430512

  17. Effects of UV-ozone irradiation on copper doped nickel acetate and its applicability to perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongmo; Lee, Hee Ryung; Kim, Hyeong Pil; Lin, Tengda; Kanwat, Anil; Mohd Yusoff, Abd Rashid Bin; Jang, Jin

    2016-04-28

    The effects of UV-ozone (UVO) irradiation on copper-doped nickel acetate and its applicability to perovskite solar cells were investigated. UVO irradiation of copper-doped nickel acetate significantly increased the electrical conductivity (from 4.28 × 10(-4) S cm(-1) to 5.66 × 10(-2) S cm(-1)), which is due to the increased carrier concentration (from 3.53 × 10(13) cm(-3) to 2.41 × 10(16) cm(-3)), and the charge extraction efficiency was enhanced, leading to better compatibility with the hole transport layer. By UVO irradiation, the work function was increased from 4.95 eV to 5.33 eV by the surface dipole formation, which effectively reduced the interface barrier between the hole transport layer and the MAPbI3 light absorbing layer. UVO Irradiation of the underlying layer also allows the MAPbI3 precursors to form better morphology with highly arranged crystallinity. Compared to the cells using non-irradiated copper doped nickel acetate, UVO-irradiated copper-doped nickel acetate devices showed an enhanced open-circuit voltage (3% increase), short circuit current (16% increase), fill factor (5% increase), showing an enhanced power conversion efficiency of 12.2% (21% increase). PMID:27088187

  18. Effects of UV-ozone irradiation on copper doped nickel acetate and its applicability to perovskite solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeongmo; Lee, Hee Ryung; Kim, Hyeong Pil; Lin, Tengda; Kanwat, Anil; Mohd Yusoff, Abd Rashid Bin; Jang, Jin

    2016-04-28

    The effects of UV-ozone (UVO) irradiation on copper-doped nickel acetate and its applicability to perovskite solar cells were investigated. UVO irradiation of copper-doped nickel acetate significantly increased the electrical conductivity (from 4.28 × 10(-4) S cm(-1) to 5.66 × 10(-2) S cm(-1)), which is due to the increased carrier concentration (from 3.53 × 10(13) cm(-3) to 2.41 × 10(16) cm(-3)), and the charge extraction efficiency was enhanced, leading to better compatibility with the hole transport layer. By UVO irradiation, the work function was increased from 4.95 eV to 5.33 eV by the surface dipole formation, which effectively reduced the interface barrier between the hole transport layer and the MAPbI3 light absorbing layer. UVO Irradiation of the underlying layer also allows the MAPbI3 precursors to form better morphology with highly arranged crystallinity. Compared to the cells using non-irradiated copper doped nickel acetate, UVO-irradiated copper-doped nickel acetate devices showed an enhanced open-circuit voltage (3% increase), short circuit current (16% increase), fill factor (5% increase), showing an enhanced power conversion efficiency of 12.2% (21% increase).

  19. Synthesis of cubic Ia-3d mesoporous silica in anionic surfactant templating system with the aid of acetate.

    PubMed

    Deng, Shao-Xin; Xu, Xue-Yan; He, Wen-Chao; Wang, Jin-Gui; Chen, Tie-Hong

    2014-08-01

    Mesoporous silica with three-dimensional (3D) bicontinuous cubic Ia-3d structure and fascinating caterpillar-like morphology was synthesized by using anionic surfactant N-lauroylsarcosine sodium (Sar-Na) as the template and 3-amionpropyltrimethoxysilane (APS) as the co-structure-directing agent (CSDA) with the aid of acetate. A phase transformation from high interfacial curvature 2D hexagonal to low interfacial curvature 3D cubic Ia-3d occurred in the presence of a proper amount of acetate. Other species of salts (excluding acetate) had the ability to induce the caterpillar-like morphology, but failed to induce the cubic Ia-3d mesostructure. Furthermore, [3-(2-aminoethyl)-aminopropyl]trimethoxysilane (DAPS) was also used as the CSDA to synthesize Ia-3d mesostructured silica under the aid of sodium acetate. After extraction of the anionic surfactants, amino and di-amine functionalized 3D bicontinuous cubic Ia-3d mesoporous silicas were obtained and used as supports to immobilize Pd nanoparticles for supported catalysts. The catalytic activity of the catalysts was tested by catalytic hydrogenation of allyl alcohol.

  20. Cytoprotective and Antioxidant Effects of an Edible Herb, Enhydra fluctuans Lour. (Asteraceae), against Experimentally Induced Lead Acetate Intoxication

    PubMed Central

    Dua, Tarun K.; Dewanjee, Saikat; Khanra, Ritu; Joardar, Swarnalata; Barma, Sujata; Das, Shilpa; Zia-Ul-Haq, M.; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2016-01-01

    Background Enhydra fluctuans Lour. (Asteraceae), an edible aquatic herb, is traditionally employed against toxic effects of heavy metals in India. The present study was planned to discover the protective effect of edible extract of E. fluctuans (AEEF) against Pb toxicity. Methods The cytoprotective role of AEEF was determined on murine hepatocytes employing MTT assay and Hoechst staining. The effects on lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, endogenous redox systems and the transcription levels of apoptotic proteins were studied after incubating the hepatocytes with AEEF (400 μg/ml) + Pb-acetate (6.8 μM). The defensive role of AEEF (100 mg/kg) against Pb-acetate (5 mg/kg) intoxication was measured in mice by in vivo assays. Biochemical, haematological and histological parameters, intracellular Pb burden and redox status were measured. Results AEEF exhibited a concentration dependent cytoprotective effect against Pb-induced cytotoxicity in vitro. Pb-acetate incubation significantly (p < 0.01) altered the extents of ROS production ↑, protein carbonylation ↑, lipid peroxidation ↑, endogenous antioxidant enzymes ↓ and GSH ↓ in vitro. Besides, Pb-acetate significantly (p < 0.01) induced apoptosis in the hepatocytes apparent from the altered expressions of apoptotic proteins viz. Apaf-1 ↑, Bad ↑, Bcl-2 ↓, Cyt C ↑, cleaved caspases↑, Bid ↑ and Fas ↑. However, AEEF (400 μg/ml) could significantly (p < 0.05–0.01) attenuate the Pb-acetate mediated toxic manifestation in vitro. In in vivo assay, Pb-acetate (5 mg/kg) treated mice exhibited significantly (p < 0.01) high intracellular Pb content. A high Pb-burden within the tissues caused significant (p < 0.05–0.01) patho-physiological alterations viz. ROS production ↑, protein carbonylation↑, lipid peroxidation ↑, DNA fragmentation ↑, ATP formation ↑, mitochondrial co-enzymes Q ↓, endogenous antioxidant enzymes ↓ and GSH ↓ within the selected tissues. The haematological and

  1. Antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Park, Anna; Ku, Taekyu; Yoo, Ilsou

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of mango (Mangifera indica) leaves were evaluated. Hydroalcoholic leaf extracts that were lyophilized were subsequently fermented with either Lactobacillus casei or effective microorganisms (EM) such as probiotic bacteria and/or other anaerobic organisms. Antioxidant properties were measured as a function of the mango leaf extract concentration in the fermentation broth. Tests for radical scavenging using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical showed higher antioxidant activity for Lactobacillus- and EM-fermented mango leaf extracts than for the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene. Antioxidant activity generally increased with increasing fermented extract concentration as did the fermented extracts' polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Fermented extracts reduced reactive oxygen species generation by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cells when measured via fluorescence of dichlorodihydrofluorescein acetate treated cells using flow cytometry. RAW 264.7 cells also showed a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of the fermented extracts using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthialol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity as well as nitrite scavenging by the fermented extracts increased as fermented extract concentrations increased. Tyrosinase activity was assayed with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrate. Nitrite scavenging was assessed via measurement of inhibition of chromophore production from nitrite-naphthylamine-sulfanilic acid mixtures. The antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts suggest the fermented extracts may be useful in developing health food and fermentation-based beauty products.

  2. Antidiarrhoeal activity of the methanol extract of the barks of Xylocarpus moluccensis in castor oil- and magnesium sulphate-induced diarrhoea models in mice.

    PubMed

    Uddin, S J; Shilpi, J A; Alam, S M S; Alamgir, M; Rahman, M T; Sarker, S D

    2005-10-01

    The methanol (MeOH) extract of the barks of Xylocarpus moluccensis, and different fractions of this extract were studied for antidiarrhoeal activity using castor oil- and magnesium sulphate-induced diarrhoea models in mice. At the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, the MeOH extract showed significant antidiarrhoeal activity in both models. The EtOAc fraction (EAF) and the residual MeOH fraction (RMF) exhibited similar activity using a dose of 250 mg/kg in both models. No antidiarrhoeal activity was observed with the chloroform fraction (CHF) at the test doses. When tested for antibacterial effect, the MeOH extract displayed moderate inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholera, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermis, Shigella dysentery, Staphylococcus pyogenes, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogenes. While the CHF inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcus epidermis, Staphylococcus pyogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the EAF was active against all test organisms except Vibrio cholera and Staphylococcus epidermis. The RMF inhibited the growth of all the test organisms with moderate zone of inhibition. On the basis of these findings, it can be assumed that Xylocarpus moluccensis could be a potential source for novel 'lead' discovery for antidiarrhoeal drug development. PMID:15905054

  3. Pulsed electric field (PEF) as an intensification pretreatment for greener solvent lipid extraction from microalgae.

    PubMed

    Zbinden, Mauricio D Antezana; Sturm, Belinda S M; Nord, Ryan D; Carey, William J; Moore, David; Shinogle, Heather; Stagg-Williams, Susan M

    2013-06-01

    Microalgae, with their high lipid content, are a promising feedstock for renewable fuels. Traditionally, human and environmentally toxic solvents have been used to extract these lipids, diminishing the sustainability of this process. Herein, pulsed electric field technology was utilized as a process intensification strategy to enhance lipid extraction from Ankistrodesmus falcatus wet biomass using the green solvent, ethyl acetate. The extraction efficiency for ethyl acetate without PEF was lower (83-88%) than chloroform. In addition, the ethyl acetate exhibited a 2-h induction period, while the chloroform showed no time dependence. Utilizing PEF technology resulted in 90% of the cells being lysed and a significant enhancement in the rate of lipid recovery using ethyl acetate. The increase in lipid recovery was due to the presence of the electric field and not due to temperature effects. The PEF technology uses less energy than other PEF systems reported in the literature.

  4. Extractability and bioavailability of Pb and As in historically contaminated orchard soil: effects of compost amendments.

    PubMed

    Fleming, Margaret; Tai, Yiping; Zhuang, Ping; McBride, Murray B

    2013-06-01

    The availability of Pb and As in an historically contaminated orchard soil, after amendment with compost and aging in the field, was determined by single-step chemical extraction with 1.0 M ammonium acetate at pH 4.8, sequential extraction using the modified BCR test, and a redworm bioassay in the laboratory. The efficiency of soil Pb extraction by ammonium acetate was greater at higher total soil Pb but was reduced by compost amendment. Conversely, the extraction efficiency of total soil As increased with compost amendment, but was not sensitive to total soil As. The redworm bioassay indicated Pb (but not As) bioavailability to be reduced by soil amendment with compost, a result consistent with the ammonium acetate extraction test but not reflected in modified BCR test. Electron microprobe studies of the orchard soil revealed Pb and As to be spatially associated in discrete particles along with phosphorus and iron.

  5. Extractability and Bioavailability of Pb and As in Historically Contaminated Orchard Soil: Effects of Compost Amendments

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, Margaret; Yiping, Tai; Ping, Zhuang; McBride, Murray B.

    2015-01-01

    The availability of Pb and As in an historically contaminated orchard soil, after amendment with compost and aging in the field, was determined by single-step chemical extraction with 1.0 M ammonium acetate at pH 4.8, sequential extraction using the modified BCR test, and a redworm bioassay in the laboratory. The efficiency of soil Pb extraction by ammonium acetate was greater at higher total soil Pb but was reduced by compost amendment. Conversely, the extraction efficiency of total soil As increased with compost amendment, but was not sensitive to total soil As. The redworm bioassay indicated Pb (but not As) bioavailability to be reduced by soil amendment with compost, a result consistent with the ammonium acetate extraction test but not reflected in modified BCR test. Electron microprobe studies of the orchard soil revealed Pb and As to be spatially associated in discrete particles along with phosphorus and iron. PMID:23474982

  6. Tetrazole acetic acid: tautomers, conformers, and isomerization.

    PubMed

    Araujo-Andrade, C; Reva, I; Fausto, R

    2014-02-14

    Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0-8 kJ mol(-1) energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (∼330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol(-1)) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol(-1)). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm(-1), where the first OH stretching overtone vibrations of 1ccc and 2pcc occur

  7. Tetrazole acetic acid: Tautomers, conformers, and isomerization

    SciTech Connect

    Araujo-Andrade, C.; Reva, I. Fausto, R.

    2014-02-14

    Monomers of (tetrazol-5-yl)-acetic acid (TAA) were obtained by sublimation of the crystalline compound and the resulting vapors were isolated in cryogenic nitrogen matrices at 13 K. The conformational and tautomeric composition of TAA in the matrix was characterized by infrared spectroscopy and vibrational calculations carried out at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. TAA may adopt two tautomeric modifications, 1H- and 2H-, depending on the position of the annular hydrogen atom. Two-dimensional potential energy surfaces (PESs) of TAA were theoretically calculated at the MP2/6-311++G(d,p) level, for each tautomer. Four and six symmetry-unique minima were located on these PESs, for 1H- and 2H-TAA, respectively. The energetics of the detected minima was subsequently refined by calculations at the QCISD level. Two 1H- and three 2H-conformers fall within the 0–8 kJ mol{sup −1} energy range and should be appreciably populated at the sublimation temperature (∼330 K). Observation of only one conformer for each tautomer (1ccc and 2pcc) is explained in terms of calculated barriers to conformational rearrangements. All conformers with the cis O=COH moiety are separated by low barriers (less than 10 kJ mol{sup −1}) and collapse to the most stable 1ccc (1H-) and 2pcc (2H-) forms during deposition of the matrix. On the trans O=COH surfaces, the relative energies are very high (between 12 and 27 kJ mol{sup −1}). The trans forms are not thermally populated at the sublimation conditions and were not detected in matrices. One high-energy form in each tautomer, 1cct (1H-) and 2pct (2H-), was found to differ from the most stable form only by rotation of the OH group and separated from other forms by high barriers. This opened a perspective for their stabilization in a matrix. 1cct and 2pct were generated in the matrices selectively by means of narrow-band near-infrared (NIR) irradiations of the samples at 6920 and 6937 cm{sup −1}, where the first OH stretching overtone

  8. Physical and reactive extraction equilibria of penicillin G in a hydrogen-bond acceptor solvent system.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Cheol

    2006-01-01

    Physical and reactive extraction equilibria of penicillin G were investigated experimentally and theoretically in the existence of n-butyl acetate as a hydrogen-bond acceptor solvent. Physical extraction equilibrium experiments were carried out varying the pH of aqueous phase and overall penicillin concentration. We compared the experimental data with the calculated results from four physical extraction equilibrium models suggested here and obtained the most reasonable model. Also, penicillin G was reactively extracted using Amberlite LA-2 in n-butyl acetate. The experimental variables were pH of the aqueous phase, overall amine concentration, and overall penicillin concentration. A combined equilibrium model including our physical extraction equilibrium expression and the reactive extraction equilibrium expression suggested by Reschke and Schügerl was used so as to analyze the current reactive extraction equilibrium system. The calculated results from the reactive extraction equilibrium model were in good agreement with the experimental data.

  9. Determination of melengestrol acetate in feedstuffs with liquid chromatographic preparatory column cleanup and quantitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Weigand, J L; Dille, D S

    1988-01-01

    Melengestrol acetate (MGA) is determined by liquid chromatography using a fraction from preparatory LC as a means of sample cleanup for feedstuffs, both dry and liquid. Dry ground feed is Soxhlet extracted with hexane and passed through a 2% deactivated alumina column for initial cleanup. The eluate is evaporated, redissolved in methanol, filtered, and injected onto a preparatory LC column. The fraction containing MGA is separated from the remaining matrix, evaporated to dryness, dissolved in methanol, and quantitated by LC analysis. Liquid supplements are extracted in methanol, and the extract is evaporated to near dryness. The residue is diluted with water, extracted with chloroform, passed through sodium sulfate, and evaporated to dryness. The remaining sample is dissolved in methanol prior to preparative LC and quantitative LC. Recoveries for 2 laboratory-fortified commercial feeds, one dry and one liquid, containing 0.39 and 0.40 mg/lb, were 98.3% +/- 4.4 and 95.8% +/- 4.3, respectively. Results compare favorably with existing methods. Up to a 4-fold time savings was realized by this method without automation.

  10. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers... acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers (CAS Reg. No. 26221-27-2... accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers...

  11. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers... acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers (CAS Reg. No. 26221-27-2... accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers...

  12. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers... acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers (CAS Reg. No. 26221-27-2... accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers...

  13. 21 CFR 177.1360 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers... acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers (CAS Reg. No. 26221-27-2... accordance with the following prescribed conditions: (a) Ethylene-vinyl acetate-vinyl alcohol copolymers...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  17. 21 CFR 862.1390 - 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system... Test Systems § 862.1390 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system. (a) Identification. A 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid/serotonin test system is a device intended to measure 5-hydroxyindole acetic...

  18. The sensitizing potential of primary amyl acetate in the guinea pig.

    PubMed

    Ballantyne, B; Tyler, T R; Auletta, C S

    1986-06-01

    Primary amyl acetate is a liquid mixture of the isomeric forms of pentyl acetate, which is used as a volatile organic solvent. Because of the possibility for skin contact, primary amyl acetate was investigated for its potential to cause allergic contact dermatitis. Using a guinea pig maximization procedure, primary amyl acetate was found to be a possible marginal skin sensitizer. PMID:3727350

  19. Extraction process

    SciTech Connect

    Dente, M.; Porcari, G.; Robinson, L. F.

    1985-08-06

    Hydrocarbon liquids are recovered from oil shale and other solids containing organic matter by passing a liquid organic solvent downwardly through an extraction zone in contact with said solids at an elevated pressure sufficient to maintain said solvent in the liquid phase and at a temperature below about 900/sup 0/ F., preferably between about 650/sup 0/ F. and about 900/sup 0/ F., in order to extract hydrocarbons from the solids into the solvent. The extracted hydrocarbons are then recovered from the solvent by fractionation. Normally, heat is supplied to the extraction zone by passing a hot, nonoxidizing gas, preferably an oxygen-free gas generated within the process, downwardly through the extraction zone in cocurrent flow with the liquid organic solvent.

  20. Characterization and isolation of mutants producing increased amounts of isoamyl acetate derived from hygromycin B-resistant sake yeast.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Toyohisa; Iefuji, Haruyuki; Katsumata, Haruo

    2012-01-01

    Hygromycin B is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that inhibits protein synthesis in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Twenty-four hygromycin B-resistants mutants were isolated from sake yeast, and were divided into three different degrees of strength according to hygromycin B resistance. Three of four hygromycin B strongly resistant mutants produced increased amounts of isoamyl acetate in sake brewing test, although isoamyl alcohol levels remained unchanged. Many hygromycin B-resistants mutants showed higher E/A ratios than K-701 in culture with koji extract medium. Strain HMR-18 produced the largest amount of isoamyl acetate, and its alcohol acetyltransferase (AATFase) activity was 1.3-fold that of K-701. DNA microarray analysis showed that many genes overexpressed in HMR-18 were involved in stress responses (heat shock, low pH, and so on) but HMR-18 showed thermo- and acid-sensitivity. It was strongly resistant to hygromycin B and another aminoglycoside antibiotic, G418. PMID:22232249

  1. Calcium magnesium acetate at lower production cost: Production of CMA deicer from biomass. Final report, April 1993--July 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Basu, R.; Breshears, J.S.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.; Gaines, L.D.

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to demonstrate the technical and economic feasibility of producing Calcium Magnesium Acetate (CMA) from solid waste by gasification/fermentation. Bench-scale fermentation experiments were conducted with synthesis gases typical of those from gasification of various residues. Fast reaction rates and high yields were obtained, and phase contaminants, such as chlorides, metals, and sulfur gases in concentrations expected in syngas, were not found to affect the fermentation. The production of CMA by reacting lime and magnesium oxide with acetic acid extracted from the fermentation broth was optimized in bench-scale experiments. Procedures for using cheap grades of lime and magnesium oxide were developed. Ice melting and penetration tests, as well as analytical results, showed the laboratory CMA to be comparable (or better) quality to the industry product. Process design and economic projections for a commercial-scale facility were developed.

  2. Simultaneous acetic acid separation and monosaccharide concentration by reverse osmosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fanglei; Wang, Cunwen; Wei, Jiang

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the feasibility and efficiency of simultaneous acetic acid separation and sugar concentration in model lignocellulosic hydrolyzates by reverse osmosis. The effects of operation parameters such as pH, temperature, pressure and feed concentration on the solute retentions were examined with a synthetic xylose–glucose–acetic acid model solution. Results showed that the monosaccharides were almost completely rejected at above 20 bar, while the acetic acid retention increased with the increase in pH and pressure, and decreased with the temperature increase. The maximum separation factors of acetic acid over xylose and glucose reached as high as 211.5 and 228.4 at pH 2.93 (the initial pH of model lignocellulosic hydrolyzates), 40 °C and 20 bar. Furthermore, the concentration and diafiltration process were employed at optimal operation conditions. Consequently, a high sugar concentration and a beneficially lower acetic acid concentration were simultaneously achieved by reverse osmosis.

  3. Adiabatic calorimetry (RSST and VSP) tests with sodium acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Kirch, N.W.

    1993-09-01

    As requested in the subject reference, adiabatic calorimetry (RSST and VSP) tests have been performed with sodium acetate covering TOC concentrations from 3 to 7% with the following results: Exothermic activity noted around 200{degrees}C. Propagating reaction initiated at about 300{degrees}C. Required TOC concentration for propagation estimated at about 6 w% (dry mixture) or about 20 w% sodium acetate. Heat of reaction estimated to be 3.7 MJ per kg of sodium acetate (based on VSP test with 3 w% TOC and using a dry mixture specific heat of 1000 J kg{sup {minus}1} K{sup {minus}1}). Based upon the above results we estimate that a moisture content in excess of 14 w% would prevent a propagating reaction of a stoichiometric mixture of fuel and oxidizer ({approximately} 38 w% sodium acetate and {approximately}62 w% sodium nitrate). Assuming that the fuel can be treated as sodium acetate equivalent, and considering that the moisture content in the organic containing waste generally is believed to be in excess of 14 w%, it follows that the possibility of propagating reactions in the Hanford waste tanks can be ruled out.

  4. Photodissociation spectroscopy of the Mg{sup +}-acetic acid complex

    SciTech Connect

    Abate, Yohannes; Kleiber, P. D.

    2006-11-14

    We have studied the structure and photodissociation of Mg{sup +}-acetic acid clusters. Ab initio calculations suggest four relatively strongly bound ground state isomers for the [MgC{sub 2}H{sub 4}O{sub 2}]{sup +} complex. These isomers include the cis and trans forms of the Mg{sup +}-acetic acid association complex with Mg{sup +} bonded to the carbonyl O atom of acetic acid, the Mg{sup +}-acetic acid association complex with Mg{sup +} bonded to the hydroxyl O atom of acetic acid, or to a Mg{sup +}-ethenediol association complex. Photodissociation through the Mg{sup +}-based 3p<-3s absorption bands in the near UV leads to direct (nonreactive) and reactive dissociation products: Mg{sup +}, MgOH{sup +}, Mg(H{sub 2}O){sup +}, CH{sub 3}CO{sup +}, and MgCH{sub 3}{sup +}. At low energies the dominant reactive quenching pathway is through dehydration to Mg(H{sub 2}O){sup +}, but additional reaction channels involving C-H and C-C bond activation are also open at higher energies.

  5. Reduction of aerobic acetate production by Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, W R; Liao, J C

    1997-01-01

    Acetate excretion by Escherichia coli during aerobic growth on glucose is a major obstacle to enhanced recombinant protein production. We report here that the fraction of carbon flux through the anaplerotic pathways is one of the factors influencing acetate excretion. Flux analysis of E. coli central metabolic pathways predicts that increasing the fraction of carbon flux through the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PPC) pathway and the glyoxylate bypass reduces acetate production. We tested this prediction by overexpressing PPC and deregulating the glyoxylate bypass by using a fadR strain. Results show that the acetate yield by the fadR strain with PPC overexpression is decreased more than fourfold compared to the control, while the biomass yield is relatively unaffected. Apparently, the fraction of carbon flux through the anaplerotic pathways is one of the factors that influence acetate excretion. These results confirm the prediction of our flux analysis and further suggest that E. coli is not fully optimized for efficient utilization of glucose. PMID:9251207

  6. Bioactive constituents of wood rot extract of tea, Camellia sinensis L.O. Kuntze against alates of low country live wood termite Glyptotermes dilatatus Bugnion and Popoff (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae).

    PubMed

    Senanayake, P D; Mohotti, K; Paranagama, P A

    2015-01-01

    Low country live wood termite (LCLWT), Glyptotermes dilatatus is attractive to rotted stumps of tea plant, Camellia sinensis. Rotted stumps are formed due to the attack of wood rot fungi in pruned stems. The objective of the present study was to investigate the response of LCLWT to extracts of rotted and healthy stems of susceptible tea cultivars, TRI 2023 and TRI 4042 and tolerant cultivars, TRI 2027 and TRI 4049 and isolate the LCLWT attractive fractions of tea stem extract. Since pieces of rotted stem of both susceptible and tolerant tea cultivars were more attractive to the alates than that of healthy stems, effects of EtOAc extracts of rotted and healthy stems of four tea cultivars were compared on behavior of the alates. The results revealed that the alates positively responded to extracts of rotted tea stems of four tea cultivars than that of healthy tea stems. Therefore hexane, chloroform and aqueous methanol fractions of the extracts of rotted stems were tested against alates using orientation bioassays. Results revealed that the hexane fraction of rotted stem of each cultivar was more attractive than that of the chloroform and methanol fractions. The results of bioassay guided fractionation of the hexane fraction using column chromatography revealed the presence of two bioactive sub-fractions suggesting non-polar compounds in rotted tea wood are more attractive to G. dilatatus than other sub-fractions. These two fractions can be used to develop a trapping mechanism to strengthen present IPM program of LCLWT. PMID:26618100

  7. Pulmonary and percutaneous absorption of 2-propoxyethyl acetate and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate in beagle dogs

    SciTech Connect

    Guest, D.; Hamilton, M.L.; Deisinger, P.J.; DiVincenzo, G.D.

    1984-08-01

    A comparison was made of the absorption and elimination rates of 2-propoxyethyl acetate (PEA) and 2-ethoxyethyl acetate (EEA) following inhalation, dermal application of IV administration. Male beagle dogs were exposed to 50 ppm PEA or EEA for 5 hr, and breath samples were collected during the exposure and a 3-hr recovery period. Both compounds were rapidly absorbed through the lungs. After 10 min of exposure, the concentrations of the parent compounds in the expired breath were 5 to 10 ppm (80-90% absorption) and reached plateau values at about 3 hr of 13 ppm for PEA (74% absorption) and 16 ppm for EEA (68% absorption). Post-exposure breath samples declined exponentially to 0.5 ppm and 2 ppm after 3 hr for PEA and EEA, respectively. Expired concentrations of PEA were slightly, but significantly (p < 0.025), lower than those of EEA at corresponding times during the exposure. After IV dosing with 1 mg/kg (ethyl-1,2-/sup 14/C)PEA, the urine contained 61% and 88% of the dose in 4 and 24 hr, respectively. (/sup 14/C)EEA was eliminated more slowly, with 20% and 61% of the dose appearing in the urine in 4 and 24 hr, respectively. Blood elimination half-lives were 1.6 hr for (/sup 14/C)PEA and 7.9 hr for (/sup 14/C)EEA. Only trace amounts of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ (<1%) or volatile materials (<0.1%) were detected in the expired air with either compound. For studies of percutaneous absorption, (/sup 14/C)PEA or (/sup 14/C)EEA was added to undiluted compounds and applied in a glass cell to a shaved area on a dog's thorax for 30 or 60 min. Blood and expired air were collected for 8 hr and urine for 24 hr. The pattern of urinary elimination for each compound was similar to that seen after IV dosing with (/sup 14/C)PEA being excreted more rapidly than (/sup 14/C)EEA. 15 references, 4 figures, 4 tables.

  8. Extraction and analysis of indole derivatives from fungal biomass.

    PubMed

    Gartz, J

    1994-01-01

    The occurrence and extraction of indole derivatives in six species from four genera of higher fungi were investigated. By using pure methanol for extraction of the mushrooms analysis revealed the highest concentrations of psilocybin and baeocystin. The psilocin content of the species was higher by using aqueous solutions of alcohols than with methanol alone but was an artificial phenomenon caused by enzymatic destruction of psilocybin. The extraction with dilute acetic acid yielded better results than with the water containing alcohols. The simple one-step procedure with methanol for the quantitative extraction is still the safest method to obtain the genuine alkaloids from fungal biomass.

  9. Antioxidant, genotoxic and antigenotoxic activities of daphne gnidium leaf extracts

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Plants play a significant role in maintaining human health and improving the quality of human life. They serve humans well as valuable components of food, as well as in cosmetics, dyes, and medicines. In fact, many plant extracts prepared from plants have been shown to exert biological activity in vitro and in vivo. The present study explored antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects of Daphne gnidium leaf extracts. Methods The genotoxic potential of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and total oligomer flavonoid (TOF) enriched extracts from leaves of Daphne gnidium, was assessed using Escherichia coli PQ37. Likewise, the antigenotoxicity of the same extracts was tested using the “SOS chromotest test”. Antioxidant activities were studied using non enzymatic and enzymatic method: NBT/Riboflavine and xantine oxidase. Results None of the different extracts produced a genotoxic effect, except TOF extract at the lowest tested dose. Our results showed that D. gnidium leaf extracts possess an antigenotoxic effect against the nitrofurantoin a mutagen of reference. Ethyl acetate and TOF extracts were the most effective in inhibiting xanthine oxidase activity. While, methanol extract was the most potent superoxide scavenger when tested with the NBT/Riboflavine assay. Conclusions The present study has demonstrated that D. gnidium leaf extract possess antioxidant and antigenotoxic effects. These activities could be ascribed to compounds like polyphenols and flavonoid. Further studies are required to isolate the active molecules. PMID:22974481

  10. Growth of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii in acetate-free medium when co-cultured with alginate-encapsulated, acetate-producing strains of Synechococcus sp. PCC 7002

    DOE PAGES

    Therien, Jesse B.; Zadvornyy, Oleg A.; Posewitz, Matthew C.; Bryant, Donald A.; Peters, John W.

    2014-10-18

    The model alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii requires acetate as a co-substrate for optimal production of lipids, and the addition of acetate to culture media has practical and economic implications for algal biofuel production. We demonstrate the growth of C. reinhardtii on acetate provided by mutant strains of the cyanobacterium Synechococcus sp. PCC7002.

  11. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles

    SciTech Connect

    Zinder, S.H.

    1993-01-01

    The primary goal of this project is to obtain a better understanding of thermophilic microorganisms which convert acetic acid to CH[sub 4]. The previous funding period represents a departure from earlier research in this laboratory, which was more physiological and ecological. The present work is centered on the biochemistry of the thermophile Methanothrix sp. strain CALS-1. this organism presents a unique opportunity, with its purity and relatively rapid growth, to do comparative biochemical studies with the other major acetotrophic genus Methanosarcina. We previously found that Methanothrix is capable of using acetate at concentrations 100 fold lower than Methanosarcina. This finding suggests that there are significant differences in the pathways of methanogenesis from acetate in the two genera.

  12. Treatment of nonendocrine gastrointestinal disorders with octreotide acetate.

    PubMed

    Woltering, E A; O'Dorisio, T M; Williams, S T; Lebrado, L; Fletcher, W S

    1990-09-01

    Somatostatin and its longer-acting analog, octreotide acetate, can be used effectively for the treatment of nonendocrine gastrointestinal disorders. Octreotide has been shown to decrease pancreatic fistula output by suppressing exocrine pancreatic function. We believe that octreotide acetate may be useful to prophylaxis against the development of pancreatic fistulas following pancreatic resection and may reduce the enzymatic and volume output of established pancreatic fistulas. We also have shown that administration of octreotide acetate 2 hours before a high carbohydrate test meal reduces gut peptide levels, which increase following meal ingestion in patients with the dumping syndrome. Reduction of circulating peptides in these patients may slow gut motility and improve glucose regulation, thus, providing relief of postvagotomy dumping symptoms.

  13. [Postoperative refractory chylothorax which was improved by octreotide acetate].

    PubMed

    Gabe, Atsushi; Seki, Masahiro; Taira, Naohiro; Katsura, Morihiro; Ishida, Tomoki; Kang, Yukijya; Kubota, Tadao; Yamashiro, Toshimitsu; Uehara, Tetsuo; Sunagawa, Tohru; Ohkubo, Kazuaki

    2012-03-01

    A 77-year-old male with chronic hepatitis and liver cirrhosis underwent a right middle-lower lobectomy and lymph node dissection because of non-small cell carcinoma of the lung. On the 1st post-operative day (POD1), a large quantity of chylous pleural effusion was recognized after he initiated oral intake. The diagnosis was postoperative chylothorax. Conservative therapy including a medium chain tryglyceride diet and total parental nutrition were not effective. Considering of the patient's past history, we decided to continue conservative therapy using octreotide acetate on POD7. After administration of the octreotide acetate, the volume of chylous pleural effusion gradually decreased. The chest tube was removed on POD19. Octeotide acetate should be a choice for the conservative treatment of postoperative refractory chylothorax.

  14. Conservative management of pediatric pancreatic pseudocyst using octreotide acetate.

    PubMed

    Mulligan, C; Howell, C; Hatley, R; Martindale, R; Clark, J

    1995-03-01

    Pancreatic pseudocysts in children are rare. A total of 213 cases have been reported in the literature, the majority secondary to trauma (65%). Treatment options range from conservative, non-operative management to operative drainage. Octreotide acetate, a long-acting analog of somatostatin, is a synthetic peptide with a variety of endocrine and gastrointestinal functions. Octreotide has been successfully used following pancreatic surgery to reduce exocrine function and most recently in the management of adult pancreatic pseudocysts. We report the efficacy of octreotide, as an adjunct to treatment, in two children with pancreatic pseudocyst. Each child was treated conservatively with bowel rest, hyperalimentation, and octreotide acetate (2.5 micrograms/kg SQ QD). Complete resolution of the pseudocysts occurred within 5 weeks. We conclude that octreotide acetate is a safe and potentially effective adjunct in the treatment of pediatric pancreatic pseudocyst, and should be added to the management of pseudocyst before drainage procedures.

  15. Syntrophic acetate oxidation in industrial CSTR biogas digesters.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Müller, Bettina; Westerholm, Maria; Schnürer, Anna

    2014-02-10

    The extent of syntrophic acetate oxidation (SAO) and the levels of known SAO bacteria and acetate- and hydrogen-consuming methanogens were determined in sludge from 13 commercial biogas production plants. Results from these measurements were statistically related to the prevailing operating conditions, through partial least squares (PLS) analysis. This revealed that high abundance of microorganisms involved in SAO was positively correlated with relatively low abundance of aceticlastic methanogens and high concentrations of free ammonia (>160 mg/L) and volatile fatty acids (VFA). Temperature was identified as another influencing factor for the population structure of the syntrophic acetate oxidising bacteria (SAOB). Overall, there was a high abundance of SAOB in the different digesters despite differences in their operating parameters, indicating that SAOB are an enduring and important component of biogas-producing consortia.

  16. Acetate Metabolism in Anaerobes from the Domain Archaea

    PubMed Central

    Ferry, James G.

    2015-01-01

    Acetate and acetyl-CoA play fundamental roles in all of biology, including anaerobic prokaryotes from the domains Bacteria and Archaea, which compose an estimated quarter of all living protoplasm in Earth’s biosphere. Anaerobes from the domain Archaea contribute to the global carbon cycle by metabolizing acetate as a growth substrate or product. They are components of anaerobic microbial food chains converting complex organic matter to methane, and many fix CO2 into cell material via synthesis of acetyl-CoA. They are found in a diversity of ecological habitats ranging from the digestive tracts of insects to deep-sea hydrothermal vents, and synthesize a plethora of novel enzymes with biotechnological potential. Ecological investigations suggest that still more acetate-metabolizing species with novel properties await discovery. PMID:26068860

  17. A quantitative method for blood lipoproteins using cellulose acetate electrophoresis

    PubMed Central

    Magnani, H. N.; Howard, A. N.

    1971-01-01

    A rapid, inexpensive, and quantitative method is described for obtaining the levels of plasma very low, low, and high density lipoproteins using cellulose acetate electrophoresis and lipid assays without prior separation by ultracentrifuge or other techniques. It involves separation of the lipoproteins by cellulose acetate electrophoresis, followed by their identification with the ozone-Schiff reaction. The total lipoprotein concentration is estimated from the total plasma phospholipid, and the percentage of each component obtained by densitometric analysis of the stained electrophoretograms, using reflected light. For samples with a raised level of very low density lipoprotein, plasma triglyceride analysis is also required. The results obtained by the cellulose acetate electrophoresis method are in good agreement with those by the analytical ultracentrifuge and the preparative ultracentrifuge with refractometry. The theoretical assumptions on which the method is based have been shown to be valid. Images PMID:4110791

  18. Acidic solvent extraction of gossypol from cottonseed meal

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to expand the use of cottonseed meal in animal feeding, extraction of the meal gossypol was studied with acetic acetone- and ethanol-based solutions. Phosphoric acid was added to hydrolyze and release gossypol bound within the meal. Both solvent systems were effective at reducing gossypo...

  19. Larvicidal efficacy of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Kamaraj, C; Abdul Rahman, A; Bagavan, A; Abduz Zahir, A; Elango, G; Kandan, P; Rajakumar, G; Marimuthu, S; Santhoshkumar, T

    2010-08-01

    Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year. Natural products of plant origin with insecticidal properties have been used in recent years for control of a variety of pest insects and vectors. The present study was based on assessments of the larvicidal activity to determine the efficacies of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of ten medicinal plants tested against fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles stephensi Liston and lymphatic filariasis vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae). The larvicidal activity was assessed by the procedure of WHO with some modification. The highest larval mortality was found in leaf acetone of Adhatoda vasica, bark ethyl acetate of Annona squamosa, methanol leaf and flower of Cassia auriculata, leaf ethyl acetate of Hydrocotyle javanica, methanol leaf and seed of Solanum torvum and leaf hexane extracts of Vitex negundo against the fourth instar larvae of An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus. The calculated LC90 for acetone, ethyl acetate, methanol and hexane extracts of dried leaf and bark of A. vasica, A. squamosa, S. torvum, and V. negundo were in the range of 70.38-210.68 ppm. Our results suggest that the leaf methanol extract of S.torvum and bark ethyl acetate extract of A. squamosa from Southern India have the potential for use to control mosquitoes. Therefore, this study provides the larvicidal activity against An. stephensi and Cx. quinquefasciatus of plant extracts. PMID:20962718

  20. Acetal-linked polymeric prodrug micelles for enhanced curcumin delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Gao, Min; Fu, Yunlan; Chen, Chao; Meng, Xuan; Fan, Aiping; Kong, Deling; Wang, Zheng; Zhao, Yanjun

    2016-04-01

    On-demand curcumin delivery via stimuli-responsive micellar nanocarriers holds promise for addressing its solubility and stability problem. Polymer-curcumin prodrug conjugate micelle is one of such nanosystems. The diversity of linker and conjugation chemistry enabled the generation and optimization of different curcumin micelles with tunable stimuli-responsiveness and delivery efficiency. The aim of the current work was to generate and assess acetal-linked polymeric micelles to enrich the pH-responsive curcumin delivery platforms. Curcumin was slightly modified prior to conjugating to amphiphilic methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) (mPEG-PLA) copolymer via an acetal bond, whereas an ester bond-linked conjugate was used as the control. The acetal-containing micelles showed a hydrodynamic diameter of 91.1 ± 2.9(nm) and the accompanying core size of 63.5 ± 7.1 (nm) with a zeta potential of -10.9 ± 0.7(mV). Both control and pH-labile micelles displayed similar critical micelle concentration at 1.6 μM. The acetal-containing nanocarriers exhibited a pH-dependent drug release behavior, which was faster at lower pH values. The cytotoxicity study in HepG2 cells revealed a significantly lower IC50 at 51.7 ± 9.0(μM) for acetal-linked micelles in contrast to the control at 103.0 ± 17.8(μM), but the polymer residue showed no cytotoxicity upon drug release. The acetal-linked micellar nanocarrier could be a useful addition to the spectrum of currently available stimuli-responsive curcumin nano-formulations. PMID:26731193

  1. Search for Deuterated methyl acetate in the ISM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorai, Prasanta; Chakrabarti, Sandip Kumar; Das, Ankan; Majumdar, Liton; Sahu, Dipen; Sivaraman, Bhalamurugan

    2016-07-01

    Methyl acetate (CH_3COOCH_3 ) has been recently observed by IRAM 30 m radio telescope in Orion. But the existence of its deuterated form are yet to be confirmed. Here, we study the properties of methyl acetate and its singly deuterated forms (CH_3COOCH_3, CH_2DCOOCH_3 and CH_3COOCH_2D). Our simulation results reveal that deuterated forms of methyl acetate could efficiently be produced both in gas as well as in ice phase. Production of methyl acetate could follow radical-radical reaction between acetyl (CH_3CO) and methoxy (CH_3O) radicals. To predict abundances of CH_3COOCH_3 along with its two singly deuterated isotopomers and its two isomers (ethyl formate and hydroxy acetone), we prepare a large gas-grain chemical network to study chemical evolution of these molecules. Since gas phase rate coefficients of our newly adopted network for methyl acetate and its related species were unknown, in our simulation, either we consider similar rate coefficients for similar types of reactions (by following existing data bases) or we carry out quantum chemical calculations to estimate the unknown rate coefficients. For the surface reactions, we use adsorption energies of reactants from some earlier studies. Moreover, we perform quantum chemical calculations to find out various spectral properties of various forms of methyl acetate in infrared, ultraviolet and sub-millimeter regions. We prepare two catalog files for the rotational transitions of CH_2DCOOCH_3 and CH_3COOCH_2D in JPL format, which might be useful for its detection in regions of interstellar media where CH_3COOCH_3 has already been observed.

  2. Analysis of the key enzymes of butyric and acetic acid fermentation in biogas reactors

    PubMed Central

    Gabris, Christina; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Dürre, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of the mechanisms of acidogenesis, which is a key process during anaerobic digestion. To expose possible bottlenecks, specific activities of the key enzymes of acidification, such as acetate kinase (Ack, 0.23–0.99 U mg−1 protein), butyrate kinase (Buk, < 0.03 U mg−1 protein) and butyryl-CoA:acetate-CoA transferase (But, 3.24–7.64 U mg−1 protein), were determined in cell free extracts of biogas reactor content from three different biogas reactors. Furthermore, the detection of Ack was successful via Western blot analysis. Quantification of corresponding functional genes encoding Buk (buk) and But (but) was not feasible, although an amplification was possible. Thus, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on respective gene fragments. Four new clades of possible butyrate-producing bacteria were postulated, as well as bacteria of the genera Roseburia or Clostridium identified. The low Buk activity was in contrast to the high specific But activity in the analysed samples. Butyrate formation via Buk activity does barely occur in the investigated biogas reactor. Specific enzyme activities (Ack, Buk and But) in samples drawn from three different biogas reactors correlated with ammonia and ammonium concentrations (NH3 and NH4+-N), and a negative dependency can be postulated. Thus, high concentrations of NH3 and NH4+-N may lead to a bottleneck in acidogenesis due to decreased specific acidogenic enzyme activities. PMID:26086956

  3. Cobalt (II) chloride promoted formation of honeycomb patterned cellulose acetate films.

    PubMed

    Naboka, Olga; Sanz-Velasco, Anke; Lundgren, Per; Enoksson, Peter; Gatenholm, Paul

    2012-02-01

    CoCl(2) containing honeycomb patterned films were prepared from cellulose acetate (CA)/CoCl(2)/acetone solutions by the breath figure method in a wide range of humidities. Size and pore regularity depend on the CA/CoCl(2) molar ratio and humidity. When replacing CoCl(2) with Co(NO(3))(2) or CoBr(2), no formation of ordered porosity in the cellulose acetate films is observed. According to data from scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive X-ray Microanalysis (EDX), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, the key role in the formation of honeycomb structures can be attributed to the physical and chemical properties of CoCl(2) - hygroscopicity, low interaction with CA, and extraction from CA/CoCl(2)/acetone solution by water droplets condensed on the surface of the CA/CoCl(2) solution. Obtained films are prospective for using in catalysis, hydrogen fuel cells, and optical sensing materials.

  4. Thermochemical properties of cellulose acetate blends with acetosolv and sawdust lignin: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Peredo, Karol; Escobar, Danilo; Vega-Lara, Johana; Berg, Alex; Pereira, Miguel

    2016-02-01

    Sawdust (SD) and cotton-lignin blends (CLB) were acetylated and the effect of lignin type and content on thermoplastic properties of the acetate produced was studied. The lignin in samples did not significantly affect the degree of acetylation. An increase in acetyl groups of 1-3% was observed in acetylated SD (ASD) unlike acetylated CLB (ACLB). Thermogravimetric analysis showed two thermal degradation zones; one at 190-200°C and the other at 330-370°C. The early degradation in ASD corresponds to galactoglucomannans while that in ACLB corresponds to the low-molecular-weight lignin. The second degradation is due to decomposition of cellulose acetate and high-molecular-weight lignin. DSC analysis showed homogeneous behaviour in ASD with only one glass transition temperature (Tg) at 170-180°C, unlike ACLB that showed two Tgs at 170-180°C. Sawdust acetylation, taking advantage of its residual lignin, showed higher reactivity and miscibility as compared to the same material produced by adding previously extracted lignin on cotton.

  5. Analysis of the key enzymes of butyric and acetic acid fermentation in biogas reactors.

    PubMed

    Gabris, Christina; Bengelsdorf, Frank R; Dürre, Peter

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed at the investigation of the mechanisms of acidogenesis, which is a key process during anaerobic digestion. To expose possible bottlenecks, specific activities of the key enzymes of acidification, such as acetate kinase (Ack, 0.23-0.99 U mg(-1) protein), butyrate kinase (Buk, < 0.03 U mg(-1) protein) and butyryl-CoA:acetate-CoA transferase (But, 3.24-7.64 U mg(-1) protein), were determined in cell free extracts of biogas reactor content from three different biogas reactors. Furthermore, the detection of Ack was successful via Western blot analysis. Quantification of corresponding functional genes encoding Buk (buk) and But (but) was not feasible, although an amplification was possible. Thus, phylogenetic trees were constructed based on respective gene fragments. Four new clades of possible butyrate-producing bacteria were postulated, as well as bacteria of the genera Roseburia or Clostridium identified. The low Buk activity was in contrast to the high specific But activity in the analysed samples. Butyrate formation via Buk activity does barely occur in the investigated biogas reactor. Specific enzyme activities (Ack, Buk and But) in samples drawn from three different biogas reactors correlated with ammonia and ammonium concentrations (NH₃ and NH₄(+)-N), and a negative dependency can be postulated. Thus, high concentrations of NH₃ and NH₄(+)-N may lead to a bottleneck in acidogenesis due to decreased specific acidogenic enzyme activities.

  6. Indigofera oblongifolia Ameliorates Lead Acetate-Induced Testicular Oxidative Damage and Apoptosis in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Dkhil, Mohamed A; Moneim, Ahmed E Abdel; Al-Quraishy, Saleh

    2016-10-01

    Lead (Pb) enhances the production of reactive oxygen species and depletes the antioxidant molecules that cause tissue damage. In the current study, we investigated the protective effect of Indigofera oblongifolia (hasr in Arabic) against lead acetate-induced reproductive toxicity in rats. Exposure of rats to lead acetate (PbAc; 20 mg/kg body weight; intraperitoneal injection) induced a significant change in both of body weight loss and the relative testis weight. Furthermore, a significant increase in lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide and a marked depletion of glutathione were evident in the testis of the PbAc group compared to the control group. Also, PbAc significantly reduced the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Pre-administration of I. oblongifolia leaves extract (IOLE; 100 mg/kg body weight) to the PbAc-treated rats restored most of the parameters mentioned above to near-normal levels. Additionally, pretreatment of animals with IOLE accompanied with a significant decrease in the toxic effects of PbAc as shown by caspase-3 and Bax expressions and prevented the histological injury in the testis. On the basis of the above results, I. oblongifolia appeared to be a promising agent for protection against lead-induced oxidative damage and apoptosis in the testis of rat.

  7. Formation of Amino Acids from Reactor Irradiated Ammonium Acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akaboshi, M.; Kawai, K.; Maki, H.; Kawamoto, K.; Honda, Y.

    1982-12-01

    Ammonium acetate in various conditions was irradiated in a reactor to examine the contributions of both the reactor radiations and recoiled14C nucleis to form the biologically interesting molecules. Present investigations demonstrated that several amino acids, glycine, alanine, β-alanine and GABA, and may-be aspartic acid, serine and valine by prolonged irradiation, were formed in the aqueous solutions of ammonium acetate.14C-radioactivities were also found distributed in these amino acids. However, no special relationship between14C-radioactivity and these amino acids formed was observed.

  8. Iron-Catalyzed Cross-Coupling of Alkenyl Acetates.

    PubMed

    Gärtner, Dominik; Stein, André Luiz; Grupe, Sabine; Arp, Johannes; Jacobi von Wangelin, Axel

    2015-09-01

    Stable C-O linkages are generally unreactive in cross-coupling reactions which mostly employ more electrophilic halides or activated esters (triflates, tosylates). Acetates are cheap and easily accessible electrophiles but have not been used in cross-couplings because the strong C-O bond and high propensity to engage in unwanted acetylation and deprotonation. Reported herein is a selective iron-catalyzed cross-coupling of diverse alkenyl acetates, and it operates under mild reaction conditions (0 °C, 2 h) with a ligand-free catalyst (1-2 mol%). PMID:26184455

  9. [Ice application for reducing pain associated with goserelin acetate injection].

    PubMed

    Ishii, Kaname; Nagata, Chika; Koshizaki, Eiko; Nishiuchi, Satoko

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the effectiveness of using an ice pack for reducing the pain associated with goserelin acetate injection. In this study, 39 patients with prostate cancer and 1 patient with breast cancer receiving hormonal therapy with goserelin acetate were enrolled. All patients completed a questionnaire regarding the use of ice application. We used the numerical rating scale (NRS) to assess the pain associated with injection. The NRS scores indicated that the pain was significantly less with ice application than with the usual method (p < 0.001). Further, ice application could decrease the duration of pain sensation. Ice application at the injection site is safe and effective for reducing pain.

  10. Integrated Process for Production of Galangal Acetate, the "Wasabi-Like" Spicy Compound, and Analysis of Essential Oils of Rhizoma Alpinia officinarum (Hance) Farw.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Yun; Shen, Kun-Hung; Yeh, Xiang-Yü; Huang, Bou-Yü; Wang, Hui-Er; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Peng, Robert Y

    2016-06-01

    Rhizoma Alpinia officinarum (Hance) Farw, Zingiberaceae (AO), a ginger family herb exhibiting stimulant and a carminative bioactivity, is widely used in European and Asian countries as spicy condiment and medicinal uses. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is the main pungent taste of native Wasabi (Wasabia japonica). The cytotoxicity of AITC has been implicated in thymus, adrenals, and white blood cells. Considering food safety, apparently a safer substitute for wasabi is worthy commercialized. Previously, we found AO crude paste to be rather feasible for use as a "Wasabi-substitute" in fresh meat and cold salads. A process linking cold ethyl acetate (EtAc) extraction with silica gel adsorption and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) (mobile phase, 75% methanol) was used to isolate galangal acetate, the Wasabi-like taste constituent. AO contained abundant galangal acetate (3.84 ± 0.07%) compared to A. galangal (0.57 ± 0.16%), and as already confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS)/MS and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR), galangal acetate was particularly thermally labile. The steam distilled essential oil (SDEO) of AO (0.14% on wet basis) contained 80 compounds (number of component, %): monoterpene hydrocarbon (21, 13.83%); oxygenated monoterpene (17, 27.08%); sesquiterpene hydrocarbon (20, 31.03%), and oxygenated sesquiterpene (20, 21.85%), respectively. However, no spicy wasabi-like constituent remained in SDEO. Alternatively, n-hexane, EtAc, and methanol extracts of AO all showed potent DPPH- and superoxide anion-scavenging activity. Conclusively, SDEO although contains 80 volatiles, galangal acetate is absent due to thermal instability. Galangal acetate exhibits pleasant "Wasabi-like taste" for which we have successively developed an integrated process for mass production. PMID:27166764

  11. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis of bioactive petalostigma extracts: Toxicity, antibacterial and antiviral activities

    PubMed Central

    Kalt, F. R.; Cock, I. E.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Petalostigma pubescens and Petalostigma triloculare were common components of pharmacopeia's of multiple Australian Aboriginal tribal groupings which traditionally inhabited the areas in which they grow. Among these groups, they had a myriad of medicinal uses in treating a wide variety of bacterial, fungal and viral infections. This study was undertaken to test P. pubescens and P. triloculare leaf and fruit extracts for the ability to inhibit bacterial and viral growth and thus validate Australian Aboriginal usage of these plants in treating bacterial and fungal diseases. Materials and Methods: P. pubescens, and P. triloculare leaves and fruit were extracted and tested for antimicrobial, antiviral activity and toxicity. The bioactive extracts were further examined by RP-HPLC and GC-MS to identify the component compounds. Results: The methanol, water and ethyl acetate leaf and fruit extracts of displayed potent antibacterial activity. The methanol and ethyl acetate extracts displayed the broadest specificity, inhibiting the growth of 10 of the 14 bacteria tested (71%) for the leaf extract and 9 of the 14 bacteria tested (64%) for the fruit extracts. The water extracts also had broad spectrum antibacterial activity, inhibiting the growth of 8 (57%) and 7 (50%) of the 14 bacteria tested, respectively. All antibacterial extracts were approximately equally effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, inhibiting the growth of 50-75% of the bacteria tested. The methanol, water and ethyl acetate extracts also displayed antiviral activity in the MS2 plaque reduction assay. The methanol and water extracts inhibited 26.6-49.0% and 85.4-97.2% of MS2 plaque formation, respectively, with the fruit extracts being more potent inhibitors. All ethyl acetate extracts inhibited 100% of MS2 plaque formation. All extracts were also non-toxic or of low toxicity. Analysis of these extracts by RP-HPLC showed that the P. triloculare ethyl acetate fruit extract was

  12. Near-critical carbon dioxide extraction and liquid chromatography determination of UV filters in solid cosmetic samples: a green analytical procedure.

    PubMed

    Salvador, Amparo; Chisvert, Alberto; Jaime, Maria-Angeles

    2005-11-01

    Near-critical carbon dioxide extraction of four UV filters used as sunscreens in lipsticks and makeup formulations is reported. Extraction parameters were optimized. Efficient recoveries were obtained after 15 min of dynamic extraction with a 80:20 CO2/ethanol mixture at 300 atm and 54 degrees C, using a 1.8 mL/min flow rate. Extracts were collected in ethanol, and appropriately diluted with ethanol and 1% acetic acid to obtain a 70:30 v/v ethanol/1% acetic acid solution. The four UV filters were determined by LC with gradient elution using ethanol/1% acetic acid as mobile phase. The accuracy of the analytical procedure was estimated by comparing the results with those obtained by methods based on classical extraction. The proposed method only requires the use of CO2, ethanol and acetic acid avoiding the use of more toxic organic solvents, thus it could be considered as both operator and environment friendly.

  13. Antibacterial activity of bark extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam. against some selected bacteria.

    PubMed

    Zaffer, Mudasser; Ahmad, Showkat; Sharma, Rajendra; Mahajan, Surabhi; Gupta, Ankur; Agnihotri, Rajneesh Kumar

    2014-11-01

    The methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous bark extracts of Moringa oleifera were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against four bacteria viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Citrobacter freundii, Bacillus megaterium and Pseudomonas fluorescens using erythromycin as positive control. The activity was analyzed using paper disc diffusion method at different concentration of the extract. The study revealed that all the bark extracts irrespective of their types, in different concentrations inhibited growth of the test pathogens to varying degrees. Ethyl acetate extract showed maximum activity against all the bacterial strains followed in descending order by chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts. The activity decreased with decrease in concentration of the extract. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the most sensitive test organism to different extracts of Moringa oleifera. Looking to these results it may be concluded that M. oleifera may be a potential source for the treatment of different infections caused by the resistant microbes.

  14. Inhibition of human low-density lipoprotein oxidation in vitro by ginger extracts.

    PubMed

    Gunathilake, K D Prasanna P; Rupasinghe, H P Vasantha

    2014-04-01

    Oxidative modification of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is thought to play a key role in atherosclerotic plaque formation. Currently, there is a renewed interest in ginger because of its antioxidants and cardioprotective properties. The effects of ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane solvent extracts of ginger and pure major ginger constituents on Cu(2+)-induced oxidation of human LDL in vitro were examined. The LDL oxidation inhibition by ethanol, methanol, ethyl acetate, and hexane extracts of ginger was 71%, 76%, 67%, and 67%, respectively, at their optimum extraction conditions. Inhibition of LDL oxidation by water extracts of ginger, which was prepared by ultrasonic-assisted extraction conditions of 52°C for 15 min, was about 43%. Phenolic bioactives of ginger-6-gingerols, 8-gingerols, 10-gingerols, and 6-shogaol-seem to be strong inhibitors of Cu(+2)-induced LDL oxidation. Overall, ginger extracts, including the water extract possess the antioxidant activities to inhibit human LDL oxidation in vitro.

  15. Mild extractability and bioavailability of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, J.; Alexander, M.

    1999-12-01

    A study was conducted to determine the relationship between bioavailability of unaged and aged polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in soil and the amounts detected by mild solvent extraction. More aged than unaged anthracene remained in Lima loam following introduction of earthworms (Eisenia foetida), a mixed culture containing anthracene-degrading microorganisms, or earthworms or wheat after bacterial biodegradation of the compound. Aging decreased the percentage of anthracene recovered by mild extraction with n-butanol from soil following introduction of earthworms, growth of wheat, biodegradation by bacteria, or when maintained sterile. Biodegradation resulted in a marked decrease in the percentage of aged and unaged anthracene recovered from soil by mild extraction with n-butanol or ethyl acetate. Aging of fluoranthene and pyrene decreased the amount removed by mild extraction with n-butanol, ethyl acetate, and propanol. The uptake of aged and unaged anthracene, fluoranthene, and pyrene by earthworms was correlated with the amounts recovered from soil by mild extraction with n-butanol, propanol, and ethyl acetate. The retention of aged and unaged anthracene by wheat and barley was correlated with the amounts recovered from soil by the same procedure. The authors suggest that mild extraction with organic solvents can be used to predict the bioavailability of PAHs in soil.

  16. Laboratory and field evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, chemical extracts of Jatropha curcas, Hyptis suaveolens, Abutilon indicum, and Leucas aspera were tested for toxicity to larvae of the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Respective median lethal concentrations (LC50) for hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts...

  17. Comparison of phosphorus forms in three extracts of dairy feces by solution 31P NMR analysis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Using solution 31P NMR spectroscopy, we compared three extractants, deionized water, sodium acetate buffer (pH 5.0) with fresh sodium dithionite (NaAc-SD), and 0.25 M NaOH-0.05 M EDTA (NaOH-EDTA), for the profile of P compounds in two dairy fecal samples. Phosphorus extracted was 35% for water, and...

  18. Antifungal activity of extracts and select compounds in heartwood of seven western conifers toward Phytophthora ramorum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Individual compounds and ethyl acetate extracts from heartwood of seven conifer species were tested for fungicidal activity against Phytophthora ramorum. Extracts from incense and western red cedar exhibited the strongest activity (EC50 589 and 646 ppm, respectively), yellow-cedar, western juniper,...

  19. Fluid extraction

    DOEpatents

    Wai, Chien M.; Laintz, Kenneth E.

    1999-01-01

    A method of extracting metalloid and metal species from a solid or liquid material by exposing the material to a supercritical fluid solvent containing a chelating agent is described. The chelating agent forms chelates that are soluble in the supercritical fluid to allow removal of the species from the material. In preferred embodiments, the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide and the chelating agent is a fluorinated .beta.-diketone. In especially preferred embodiments the extraction solvent is supercritical carbon dioxide, and the chelating agent comprises a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate, or a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkylphosphine oxide. Although a trialkyl phosphate can extract lanthanides and actinides from acidic solutions, a binary mixture comprising a fluorinated .beta.-diketone and a trialkyl phosphate or a trialkylphosphine oxide tends to enhance the extraction efficiencies for actinides and lanthanides. The method provides an environmentally benign process for removing contaminants from industrial waste without using acids or biologically harmful solvents. The method is particularly useful for extracting actinides and lanthanides from acidic solutions. The chelate and supercritical fluid can be regenerated, and the contaminant species recovered, to provide an economic, efficient process.

  20. Screening antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Urtica dioica.

    PubMed

    Modarresi-Chahardehi, Amir; Ibrahim, Darah; Fariza-Sulaiman, Shaida; Mousavi, Leila

    2012-12-01

    Urtica dioica or stinging nettle is traditionally used as an herbal medicine in Western Asia. The current study represents the investigation of antimicrobial activity of U. dioica from nine crude extracts that were prepared using different organic solvents, obtained from two extraction methods: the Soxhlet extractor (Method I), which included the use of four solvents with ethyl acetate and hexane, or the sequential partitions (Method II) with a five solvent system (butanol). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude extracts were tested against 28 bacteria, three yeast strains and seven fungal isolates by the disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Amoxicillin was used as positive control for bacteria strains, vancomycin for Streptococcus sp., miconazole nitrate (30 microg/mL) as positive control for fungi and yeast, and pure methanol (v/v) as negative control. The disc diffusion assay was used to determine the sensitivity of the samples, whilst the broth dilution method was used for the determination of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC). The ethyl acetate and hexane extract from extraction method I (EA I and HE I) exhibited highest inhibition against some pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, MRSA and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A selection of extracts that showed some activity was further tested for the MIC and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC). MIC values of Bacillus subtilis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using butanol extract of extraction method II (BE II) were 8.33 and 16.33mg/mL, respectively; while the MIC value using ethyl acetate extract of extraction method II (EAE II) for Vibrio parahaemolyticus was 0.13mg/mL. Our study showed that 47.06% of extracts inhibited Gram-negative (8 out of 17), and 63.63% of extracts also inhibited Gram-positive bacteria (7 out of 11); besides, statistically the frequency of antimicrobial activity was 13.45% (35 out of 342) which in this among 21.71% belongs to

  1. Screening antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Urtica dioica.

    PubMed

    Modarresi-Chahardehi, Amir; Ibrahim, Darah; Fariza-Sulaiman, Shaida; Mousavi, Leila

    2012-12-01

    Urtica dioica or stinging nettle is traditionally used as an herbal medicine in Western Asia. The current study represents the investigation of antimicrobial activity of U. dioica from nine crude extracts that were prepared using different organic solvents, obtained from two extraction methods: the Soxhlet extractor (Method I), which included the use of four solvents with ethyl acetate and hexane, or the sequential partitions (Method II) with a five solvent system (butanol). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude extracts were tested against 28 bacteria, three yeast strains and seven fungal isolates by the disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Amoxicillin was used as positive control for bacteria strains, vancomycin for Streptococcus sp., miconazole nitrate (30 microg/mL) as positive control for fungi and yeast, and pure methanol (v/v) as negative control. The disc diffusion assay was used to determine the sensitivity of the samples, whilst the broth dilution method was used for the determination of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC). The ethyl acetate and hexane extract from extraction method I (EA I and HE I) exhibited highest inhibition against some pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, MRSA and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A selection of extracts that showed some activity was further tested for the MIC and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC). MIC values of Bacillus subtilis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using butanol extract of extraction method II (BE II) were 8.33 and 16.33mg/mL, respectively; while the MIC value using ethyl acetate extract of extraction method II (EAE II) for Vibrio parahaemolyticus was 0.13mg/mL. Our study showed that 47.06% of extracts inhibited Gram-negative (8 out of 17), and 63.63% of extracts also inhibited Gram-positive bacteria (7 out of 11); besides, statistically the frequency of antimicrobial activity was 13.45% (35 out of 342) which in this among 21.71% belongs to

  2. Indigofera oblongifolia mitigates lead-acetate-induced kidney damage and apoptosis in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Dkhil, Mohamed A; Al-Khalifa, Mohamed S; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Zrieq, Rafat; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed Esmat

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to appraise the protective effect of Indigofera oblongifolia leaf extract on lead acetate (PbAc)-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. PbAc was intraperitoneally injected at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight for 5 days, either alone or together with the methanol extract of I. oblongifolia (100 mg/kg). Kidney lead (Pb) concentration; oxidative stress markers including lipid peroxidation, nitrite/nitrate, and glutathione (GSH); and antioxidant enzyme activities, namely superoxide dismutase, catalase, GSH peroxidase, and GSH reductase were all determined. The PbAc injection elicited a marked elevation in Pb concentration, lipid peroxidation, and nitrite/nitrate, with a concomitant depletion in GSH content compared with the control and a remarkable decrease in antioxidant enzymes. Oxidant/antioxidant imbalance, Pb accumulation, and histological changes in the kidneys were successfully prevented by the pre-administration of I. oblongifolia extract. In addition, the elevated expression of proapoptotic protein, Bax, in the kidneys of the PbAc-injected rats was reduced as a result of I. oblongifolia pre-administration, while the hitherto reduced expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 was elevated. Based on the current findings, it can be concluded that I. oblongifolia successfully minimizes the deleterious effects in kidney function and histological coherence associated with nephrotoxicity by strengthening the antioxidant defense system, suppressing oxidative stress, and mitigating apoptosis. PMID:27330278

  3. Healing Acceleration of Acetic Acid-induced Colitis by Marigold (Calendula officinalis) in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tanideh, Nader; Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Hosseinzadeh, Masood; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Najibi, Asma; Raam, Mozhdeh; Daneshi, Sajad; Asadi-Yousefabad, Seyedeh-Leili

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease with unknown etiology. Several therapeutic strategies such as consumption of medicinal plants have been used for its treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate healing effects of Calendula officinalis hydroalcoholic extract in experimentally induced UC in rat. Materials and Methods: Ninety-six rats, weighing 200 ± 20 g, were randomly divided into eight equal groups. UC induced by 3% acetic acid and oral doses of C. officinalis extract, 1500 and 3000 mg/kg, and enema (gel 10% and 20%) were given. Two groups as positive controls were given asacol (enema) and oral mesalamine. Negative control groups were given normal saline and base gel. On days 3 and 7, intestinal histopathology and weight changes, plus oxidative stress indices including malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assayed. Results: A significant increase in the body weight of rats was seen in the group given C. officinalis extract 3000 mg/kg orally, oral mesalamine, and 20% intracolonic gel form of marigold extract compared with negative control and base gel groups during the experimental period. Acute inflammation and granular atrophy after UC induction were resolved completely completely by both 20% intracolonic gel and 3000 mg/kg orally. An increase in MPO activity and a decrease in MDA level in response to oral and intracolonic gel form of C. officinalis were observed 3 and and 7 days after treatment (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results indicate that oral and enema forms of hydroalcoholic extract of C. officinalis can be offered as are potential therapeutic agents for UC induced in rats. PMID:26831607

  4. Mechanism of inhibition and decoupling of oxygen evolution from electron transfer in photosystem II by fluoride, ammonia and acetate.

    PubMed

    Lovyagina, E R; Semin, B K

    2016-05-01

    Ca(2+) extraction from oxygen-evolving complex (OEC) of photosystem II (PSII) is accompanied by decoupling of oxygen evolution/electron transfer processes [Semin et al. Photosynth. Res. 98 (2008) 235] and appearance of a broad EPR signal at g=2 (split "S3" signal) what can imply the relationship between these effects. Split signal have been observed not only in Ca-depleted PSII but also in PSII membranes treated by fluoride anions, sodium acetate, and NH4Cl. Here we investigated the question: can such compounds induce the decoupling effect during treatment of PSII like Ca(2+) extraction does? We found that F(-), sodium acetate, and NH4Cl inhibit O2 evolution in PSII membranes more effectively than the reduction of artificial electron acceptor 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol, i.e. the action of these compounds is accompanied by decoupling of these processes in OEC. Similarity of effects observed after Ca(2+) extraction and F(-), CH3COO(-) or NH4Cl treatments suggests that these compounds can inactivate function of Ca(2+). Such inactivation could originate from disturbance of the network of functionally active hydrogen bonds around OEC formed with participation of Ca(2+). This inhibition effect is observed in the region of low concentration of inhibitors. Increasing of inhibitor concentration is accompanied by appearance of other sites of inhibition. PMID:26971280

  5. Treatment of obsessive homosexual pedophilic fantasies with medroxyprogesterone acetate.

    PubMed

    Pinta, E R

    1978-06-01

    The author describes a male patient with obsessive homosexual pedophilic fantasies treated with psychotherapy and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), a progestin with antiandrogen activity. Long-acting MPA was administered for a 2-month period and caused a prompt and drastic reduction in fantasies and in the anxiety and depression generated by them. MPA was observed to have psychological benefits that outlived its physiologic activity.

  6. Condensation of acetol and acetic acid vapor with sprayed liquid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cellulose-derived fraction of biomass pyrolysis vapor was simulated by evaporating acetol and acetic acid (AA) from flasks on a hot plate. The liquid in the flasks was infused with heated nitrogen. The vapor/nitrogen stream was superheated in a tube oven and condensed by contact with a cloud of ...

  7. 21 CFR 522.1881 - Sterile prednisolone acetate aqueous suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... milliliter of sterile aqueous suspension contains 25 milligrams of prednisolone acetate. (b) Sponsor. See No.... (1) The drug is indicated in the treatment of dogs, cats, and horses for conditions requiring an anti... therapy. The drug is administered to dogs and cats intramuscularly at a dosage level of 10 to...

  8. 21 CFR 522.1881 - Sterile prednisolone acetate aqueous suspension.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... milliliter of sterile aqueous suspension contains 25 milligrams of prednisolone acetate. (b) Sponsor. See No.... (1) The drug is indicated in the treatment of dogs, cats, and horses for conditions requiring an anti... therapy. The drug is administered to dogs and cats intramuscularly at a dosage level of 10 to...

  9. Redox responses in yeast to acetate as the carbon source.

    PubMed

    Minard, Karyl I; McAlister-Henn, L

    2009-03-01

    Following a shift to medium with acetate as the carbon source, a parental yeast strain exhibited a transient moderate 20% reduction in total cellular [NAD(+)+NADH] but showed a approximately 10-fold increase in the ratio of [NAD(+)]:[NADH] after 36h. A mutant strain (idhDelta) lacking the tricarboxylic acid cycle enzyme isocitrate dehydrogenase had 50% higher cellular levels of [NAD(+)+NADH] relative to the parental strain but exhibited similar changes in cofactor concentrations following a shift to acetate medium, despite an inability to grow on that carbon source; essentially all of the cofactor was in the oxidized form within 36h. The salvage pathway for NAD(H) biosynthesis was found to be particularly important for viability during early transition of the parental strain to stationary phase in acetate medium. However, oxygen consumption was not affected, suggesting that the NAD(H) produced during this time may support other cellular functions. The idhDelta mutant exhibited increased flux through the salvage pathway in acetate medium but was dependent on the de novo pathway for viability. Long-term chronological lifespans of the parental and idhDelta strains were similar, but viability of the mutant strain was dependent on both pathways for NAD(H) biosynthesis.

  10. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Flumethasone acetate injection. 522.960b Section 522.960b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.... (d) Conditions of use. (1) It is recommended in certain acute and chronic canine dermatoses...

  11. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Flumethasone acetate injection. 522.960b Section 522.960b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES.... (d) Conditions of use. (1) It is recommended in certain acute and chronic canine dermatoses...

  12. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate solution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Flumethasone acetate solution. 522.960b Section 522.960b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES....25 mg per animal. (2) Indications for use. For use in certain acute and chronic canine dermatoses...

  13. Thermodynamic analysis of acetic acid steam reforming for hydrogen production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goicoechea, Saioa; Ehrich, Heike; Arias, Pedro L.; Kockmann, Norbert

    2015-04-01

    A thermodynamic analysis of hydrogen generation by acetic acid steam reforming has been carried out with respect to applications in solid oxide fuel cells. The effect of operating parameters on equilibrium composition has been examined focusing especially on hydrogen and carbon monoxide production, which are the fuels in this type of fuel cell. The temperature, steam to acetic acid ratio, and to a lesser extent pressure affect significantly the equilibrium product distribution due to their influence on steam reforming, thermal decomposition and water-gas shift reaction. The study shows that steam reforming of acetic acid with a steam to acetic acid ratio of 2 to 1 is thermodynamically feasible with hydrogen, carbon monoxide and water as the main products at the equilibrium at temperatures higher than 700 °C, and achieving CO/CO2 ratios higher than 1. Thus, it can be concluded that within the operation temperature range of solid oxide fuel cells - between 700 °C and 1000 °C - the production of a gas rich in hydrogen and carbon monoxide is promoted.

  14. 21 CFR 522.960b - Flumethasone acetate injection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... alcohol (as preservative); 8 milligrams of sodium chloride; 1 milligram of polysorbate 80; 0.1 milligram... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Flumethasone acetate injection. 522.960b Section 522.960b Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN...

  15. Fragrance material review on 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 2,4-Dimethylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, iso-butyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 2,4-dimethylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, and skin sensitization data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  16. Fragrance material review on α-methylbenzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of α-methylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. α-Methylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for α-methylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, elicitation, and repeated dose data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  17. Fragrance material review on p-anisyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of p-anisyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. p-Anisyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group aryl alkyl alcohol simple acid esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for p-anisyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, acute toxicity, skin irritation, mucous membrane (eye) irritation, skin sensitization, and genotoxicity data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  18. Intramolecular carbon isotope distribution of acetic acid in vinegar.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Ryota; Yamada, Keita; Kikuchi, Makiko; Hirano, Satoshi; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2011-09-14

    Compound-specific carbon isotope analysis of acetic acid is useful for origin discrimination and quality control of vinegar. Intramolecular carbon isotope distributions, which are each carbon isotope ratios of the methyl and carboxyl carbons in the acetic acid molecule, may be required to obtain more detailed information to discriminate such origin. In this study, improved gas chromatography-pyrolysis-gas chromatography-combustion-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-Py-GC-C-IRMS) combined with headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) was used to measure the intramolecular carbon isotope distributions of acetic acid in 14 Japanese vinegars. The results demonstrated that the methyl carbons of acetic acid molecules in vinegars produced from plants were mostly isotopically depleted in (13)C relative to the carboxyl carbon. Moreover, isotopic differences (δ(13)C(carboxyl) - δ(13)C(methyl)) had a wide range from -0.3 to 18.2‰, and these values differed among botanical origins, C3, C4, and CAM plants.

  19. Different Protonation Equilibria of 4-Methylimidazole and Acetic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Wei; Helms, Volkhard H.

    2007-12-03

    The research described in this product was performed in part in the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Dynamic protonation equilibria in water of one 4-methylimidazole molecule as well as for pairs and groups consisting of 4- methylimidazole, acetic acid and bridging water molecules are studied using Q-HOP molecular dynamics simulation. We find a qualitatively different protonation behavior of 4-methylimidazole compared to that of acetic acid. On one hand, deprotonated, neutral 4-methylimidazole cannot as easily attract a freely diffusing extra proton from solution. Once the proton is bound, however, it remains tightly bound on a time scale of tens of nanoseconds. In a linear chain composed of acetic acid, a separating water molecule and 4-methylimidazole, an excess proton is equally shared between 4-methylimidazole and water. When a water molecule is linearly placed between two acetic acid molecules, the excess proton is always found on the central water. On the other hand, an excess proton in a 4-methylimidazole-water- 4-methylimidazole chain is always localized on one of the two 4- methylimidazoles. These findings are of interest to the discussion of proton transfer along chains of amino acids and water molecules in biomolecules.

  20. 21 CFR 182.8892 - α-Tocopherol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false α-Tocopherol acetate. 182.8892 Section 182.8892 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8892...