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Sample records for acetate extract showed

  1. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, R.M.

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  2. Recovery of acetic acid from waste streams by extractive distillation.

    PubMed

    Demiral, H; Yildirim, M Ercengiz

    2003-01-01

    Wastes have been considered to be a serious worldwide environmental problem in recent years. Because of increasing pollution, these wastes should be treated. However, industrial wastes can contain a number of valuable organic components. Recovery of these components is important economically. Using conventional distillation techniques, the separation of acetic acid and water is both impractical and uneconomical, because it often requires large number of trays and a high reflux ratio. In practice special techniques are used depending on the concentration of acetic acid. Between 30 and 70% (w/w) acetic acid contents, extractive distillation was suggested. Extractive distillation is a multicomponent-rectification method similar in purpose to azeotropic distillation. In extractive distillation, to a binary mixture which is difficult or impossible to separate by ordinary means, a third component termed an entrainer is added which alters the relative volatility of the original constituents, thus permitting the separation. In our department acetic acid is used as a solvent during the obtaining of cobalt(III) acetate from cobalt(II) acetate by an electrochemical method. After the operation, the remaining waste contains acetic acid. In thiswork, acetic acid which has been found in this waste was recovered by extractive distillation. Adiponitrile and sulfolane were used as high boiling solvents and the effects of solvent feed rate/solution feed rate ratio and type were investigated. According to the experimental results, it was seem that the recovery of acetic acid from waste streams is possible by extractive distillation.

  3. Characterization and Antioxidant Properties of Six Algerian Propolis Extracts: Ethyl Acetate Extracts Inhibit Myeloperoxidase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Boufadi, Yasmina Mokhtaria; Soubhye, Jalal; Riazi, Ali; Rousseau, Alexandre; Vanhaeverbeek, Michel; Nève, Jean; Boudjeltia, Karim Zouaoui; Van Antwerpen, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Because propolis contains many types of antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols and flavonoids, it can be useful in preventing oxidative damages. Ethyl acetate extracts of propolis from several Algerian regions show high activity by scavenging free radicals, preventing lipid peroxidation and inhibiting myeloperoxidase (MPO). By fractioning and assaying ethyl acetate extracts, it was observed that both polyphenols and flavonoids contribute to these activities. A correlation was observed between the polyphenol content and the MPO inhibition. However, it seems that kaempferol, a flavonoid, contributes mainly to the MPO inhibition. This molecule is in a high amount in the ethyl acetate extract and demonstrates the best efficiency towards the enzyme with an inhibiting concentration at 50% of 4 ± 2 μM. PMID:24514562

  4. Screening of Methanol Extract and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Abies webbiana Lindl. for Neuropharmacological Activities

    PubMed Central

    Parkash, O.; Kumar, D.; Kumar, S.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a long traditional of use of Abies webbiana Lindl. (Talispatra; family-Pinaceae) in the treatment of mental disorders, the plant has not been investigated systematically to validate its traditional claims. Thus, the present investigation was undertaken with an objective to investigate neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of Abies webbiana aerial parts and its ethyl acetate fraction. Properly identified aerial parts were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet apparatus. Ethyl acetate fraction was prepared by partitioning methanol extract with ethyl acetate using standard procedure. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed in animals after oral administration of 2 g/kg dose of methanol extract. The methanol extract (200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and ethyl acetate fraction (25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o.) were evaluated for antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities using well established models. The methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts exhibited significant antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities with respect to control. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed presence of flavonoids in bioactive ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts. It is finally concluded that flavonoids are the bioactive constituents responsible for most of neuropharmacological activities of Abies webbiana. PMID:26798167

  5. Screening of Methanol Extract and Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Abies webbiana Lindl. for Neuropharmacological Activities.

    PubMed

    Parkash, O; Kumar, D; Kumar, S

    2015-01-01

    Despite a long traditional of use of Abies webbiana Lindl. (Talispatra; family-Pinaceae) in the treatment of mental disorders, the plant has not been investigated systematically to validate its traditional claims. Thus, the present investigation was undertaken with an objective to investigate neuropharmacological activities of methanol extract of Abies webbiana aerial parts and its ethyl acetate fraction. Properly identified aerial parts were defatted with petroleum ether and then extracted with methanol in a Soxhlet apparatus. Ethyl acetate fraction was prepared by partitioning methanol extract with ethyl acetate using standard procedure. In acute toxicity study, no mortality was observed in animals after oral administration of 2 g/kg dose of methanol extract. The methanol extract (200 or 400 mg/kg, p.o.) and ethyl acetate fraction (25 or 50 mg/kg, p.o.) were evaluated for antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities using well established models. The methanol extract and ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts exhibited significant antianxiety, anticonvulsant, antidepressant, sedative, antistress and analgesic activities with respect to control. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed presence of flavonoids in bioactive ethyl acetate fraction of Abies webbiana aerial parts. It is finally concluded that flavonoids are the bioactive constituents responsible for most of neuropharmacological activities of Abies webbiana.

  6. Removal of acetic acid from simulated hemicellulosic hydrolysates by emulsion liquid membrane with organophosphorus extractants.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Cheol

    2015-09-01

    Selective removal of acetic acid from simulated hemicellulosic hydrolysates containing xylose and sulfuric acid was attempted in a batch emulsion liquid membrane (ELM) system with organophosphorus extractants. Various experimental variables were used to develop a more energy-efficient ELM process. Total operation time of an ELM run with a very small quantity of trioctylphosphine oxide as the extractant was reduced to about a third of those required to attain almost the same extraction efficiency as obtained in previous ELM works without any extractant. Under specific conditions, acetic acid was selectively separated with a high degree of extraction and insignificant loss of xylose, and its purity and enrichment ratio in the stripping phase were higher than 92% and 6, respectively. Also, reused organic membrane solutions exhibited the extraction efficiency as high as fresh organic solutions did. These results showed that the current ELM process would be quite practical.

  7. Bioactivity of Diterpens from the Ethyl Acetate Extract of Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams

    PubMed Central

    Javarappa, Komal Kumar; Prasad, Attemode Girijanna Devi; Mahadesh Prasad, AJ; Mane, Chetana

    2016-01-01

    Background: Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams. is an endangered medicinal plant used in gonorrhoe, catarrhal conditions of genito-urinary and respiratory tracts. The scientific and pharmacological formulation of K. pinnatum has not been established so far though it is being traditionally used by tribes of the region. Objective: P hytochemical screening and identification of the bioactive compounds from the ethyl acetate extract of Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams. Materials and Methods: Chromatographic separation was carried out by thin layer chromatography and column chromatography. Bio-autography of the column fractioned extract and TLC chromatogram were evaluated in vitro for antibacterial activity. The PTLC, HP TLC were used for crude extract and HPLC, LCMS, FTIR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR were employed for the isolated compound in the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum. Results: Evaluation of solvent system for chromatographic separation revealed that ethyl acetate: petroleum ether in the ratio of 7:2.5 ml was the most appropriate one for the separation of diterpene compounds. The antibacterial bio-autography screening of TLC separated compound showed positive activity with Staphylococcus aureus and negative activity with Escherichia coli. Spectroscopic analysis of the isolated compound from the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum revealed the presence of diterpene compound. Conclusion: It is evident from the present study that the ethyl acetate extract of K. pinnatum is rich in diterpene compounds and having potential antibacterial activity. SUMMARY Novel extraction method for phytochemicls from Kingidendron pinnatum at RTAntibacterial property of diterpens extracted from Kingiodendron pinnatum Rox. Hams aganist S. aureus Abbreviations Used: TLC: Thin Layer Chromatography, PTLC: Preparatory Thin Layer Chromatography, HPTLC: High perormence Thin Layer chromatography, HPLC: High Performance Liquid Chromatography, LC-MS: Liquid chromatography Mass Spectra, FTIR

  8. Kelp waste extracts combined with acetate enhances the biofuel characteristics of Chlorella sorokiniana.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Shiyan; He, Meilin; Sui, Yangsui; Gebreluel, Temesgen; Zou, Shanmei; Kemuma, Nyabuto Dorothy; Wang, Changhai

    2017-02-01

    To probe the effect of kelp waste extracts (KWE) combined with acetate on biochemical composition of Chlorella sorokiniana, the cultures were performed under independent/combined treatment of KWE and acetate. The results showed that high cell density and biomass were obtained by KWE combined with acetate treatments, whose biomass productivity increased by 79.69-102.57% and 20.04-35.32% compared with 3.0gL(-1) acetate and KWE treatments respectively. The maximal neutral lipid per cell and lipid productivity were gained in KWE combined with 3.0gL(-1) acetate treatment, which increased by 16.32% and 129.03% compared with 3.0gL(-1) acetate, and 253.35% and 70.74% compared with KWE treatment. Meanwhile, C18:3n3 and C18:2n6c contents were reduced to 4.90% and 11.88%, whereas C16:0 and C18:1n9c were improved to 28.71% and 37.76%. Hence, supplementing appropriate acetate in KWE cultures is supposed to be a great potential method for large-scale cultivation of C. sorokiniana to generate biofuel.

  9. Antiplasmodial Properties and Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Carica papaya Leaves.

    PubMed

    Melariri, Paula; Campbell, William; Etusim, Paschal; Smith, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the antiplasmodial properties of crude extracts from Carica papaya leaves to trace the activity through bioassay-guided fractionation. The greatest antiplasmodial activity was observed in the ethyl acetate crude extract. C. papaya showed a high selectivity for P. falciparum against CHO cells with a selectivity index of 249.25 and 185.37 in the chloroquine-sensitive D10 and chloroquine-resistant DD2 strains, respectively. Carica papaya ethyl acetate extract was subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation to ascertain the most active fraction, which was purified and identified using high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and GC-MS (Gas chromatography-Mass spectrometry) methods. Linoleic and linolenic acids identified from the ethyl acetate fraction showed IC(50) of 6.88 μg/ml and 3.58 μg/ml, respectively. The study demonstrated greater antiplasmodial activity of the crude ethyl acetate extract of Carica papaya leaves with an IC(50) of 2.96 ± 0.14 μg/ml when compared to the activity of the fractions and isolated compounds.

  10. Antifungal and antioxidant activity of Crassocephalum bauchiense (Hutch.) Milne-Redh ethyl acetate extract and fractions (Asteraceae)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Crassocephalum bauchiense is a flowering plant, found in the West Region of Cameroon. Previous studied has highlighted the antibacterial and the dermal toxicological safety as well as the immunomodulatory activities of the ethyl acetate extract of its dry leaves. As an extension of the previous researches, the current work has been undertaken to evaluate the in vitro antifungal and antioxidant activities of C. bauchiense dried leaves ethyl acetate extract and fractions. Methods The extract was obtained by maceration in ethyl acetate and further fractionated into six fractions labeled F1 to F6 by flash chromatography. The antifungal activity of the extract and fractions against yeasts and dermatophytes was evaluated using broth microdilution method. Antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), nitric oxide (NO) and β-carotene - linoleic acid assays. Results The extract (MIC = 0.125 - 4 mg/ml) was found to be more active on dermatophytes and yeasts compared to the fractions. The ethyl acetate extract and fractions exhibited strong scavenging activity on DPPH (CI50 = 28.57 - 389.38 μg/ml). The fractions F3 and F6 expressed best antioxidant activity on DPPH radicals compared to the crude extract. Conclusion The results of these findings clearly showed that C. bauchiense ethyl acetate extract has a significant antifungal and antioxidant activity. It is therefore a source of active compounds that might be used as antifungal and antioxidant agents. PMID:24742210

  11. Insecticidal Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Culture Filtrates of Mangrove Fungal Endophytes

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Silva; Basukriadi, Adi; Pawiroharsono, Suyanto

    2015-01-01

    In the search for novel potent fungi-derived bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications, crude ethyl acetate culture filtrate extracts from 110 mangrove fungal endophytes were screened for their toxicity. Toxicity tests of all extracts against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae were performed. The extracts with the highest toxicity were further examined for insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura larvae and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity. The results showed that the extracts of five isolates exhibited the highest toxicity to brine shrimp at 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of 7.45 to 10.24 ppm. These five fungal isolates that obtained from Rhizophora mucronata were identified based on sequence data analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA as Aspergillus oryzae (strain BPPTCC 6036), Emericella nidulans (strains BPPTCC 6035 and BPPTCC 6038), A. tamarii (strain BPPTCC 6037), and A. versicolor (strain BPPTCC 6039). The mean percentage of S. litura larval mortality following topical application of the five extracts ranged from 16.7% to 43.3%. In the AChE inhibition assay, the inhibition rates of the five extracts ranged from 40.7% to 48.9%, while eserine (positive control) had an inhibition rate of 96.8%, at a concentration of 100 ppm. The extracts used were crude extracts, so their potential as sources of AChE inhibition compounds makes them likely candidates as neurotoxins. The high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of the five extracts differed, indicating variations in their chemical constituents. This study highlights the potential of culture filtrate ethyl acetate extracts of mangrove fungal endophytes as a source of new potential bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications. PMID:26190921

  12. Insecticidal Activity of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Culture Filtrates of Mangrove Fungal Endophytes.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Silva; Basukriadi, Adi; Pawiroharsono, Suyanto; Sjamsuridzal, Wellyzar

    2015-06-01

    In the search for novel potent fungi-derived bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications, crude ethyl acetate culture filtrate extracts from 110 mangrove fungal endophytes were screened for their toxicity. Toxicity tests of all extracts against brine shrimp (Artemia salina) larvae were performed. The extracts with the highest toxicity were further examined for insecticidal activity against Spodoptera litura larvae and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition activity. The results showed that the extracts of five isolates exhibited the highest toxicity to brine shrimp at 50% lethal concentration (LC50) values of 7.45 to 10.24 ppm. These five fungal isolates that obtained from Rhizophora mucronata were identified based on sequence data analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of rDNA as Aspergillus oryzae (strain BPPTCC 6036), Emericella nidulans (strains BPPTCC 6035 and BPPTCC 6038), A. tamarii (strain BPPTCC 6037), and A. versicolor (strain BPPTCC 6039). The mean percentage of S. litura larval mortality following topical application of the five extracts ranged from 16.7% to 43.3%. In the AChE inhibition assay, the inhibition rates of the five extracts ranged from 40.7% to 48.9%, while eserine (positive control) had an inhibition rate of 96.8%, at a concentration of 100 ppm. The extracts used were crude extracts, so their potential as sources of AChE inhibition compounds makes them likely candidates as neurotoxins. The high-performance liquid chromatography profiles of the five extracts differed, indicating variations in their chemical constituents. This study highlights the potential of culture filtrate ethyl acetate extracts of mangrove fungal endophytes as a source of new potential bioactive compounds for bioinsecticide applications.

  13. Escherichia coli W shows fast, highly oxidative sucrose metabolism and low acetate formation.

    PubMed

    Arifin, Yalun; Archer, Colin; Lim, SooA; Quek, Lake-Ee; Sugiarto, Haryadi; Marcellin, Esteban; Vickers, Claudia E; Krömer, Jens O; Nielsen, Lars K

    2014-11-01

    Sugarcane is the most efficient large-scale crop capable of supplying sufficient carbon substrate, in the form of sucrose, needed during fermentative feedstock production. However, sucrose metabolism in Escherichia coli is not well understood because the two most common strains, E. coli K-12 and B, do not grow on sucrose. Here, using a sucrose utilizing strain, E. coli W, we undertake an in-depth comparison of sucrose and glucose metabolism including growth kinetics, metabolite profiling, microarray-based transcriptome analysis, labelling-based proteomic analysis and (13)C-fluxomics. While E. coli W grew comparably well on sucrose and glucose integration of the omics, datasets showed that during growth on each carbon source, metabolism was distinct. The metabolism was generally derepressed on sucrose, and significant flux rearrangements were observed in central carbon metabolism. These included a reduction in the flux of the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway branch, an increase in the tricarboxylic acid cycle flux and a reduction in the glyoxylate shunt flux due to the dephosphorylation of isocitrate dehydrogenase. But unlike growth on other sugars that induce cAMP-dependent Crp regulation, the phosphoenol-pyruvate-glyoxylate cycle was not active on sucrose. Lower acetate accumulation was also observed in sucrose compared to glucose cultures. This was linked to induction of the acetate catabolic genes actP and acs and independent of the glyoxylic shunt. Overall, the cells stayed highly oxidative. In summary, sucrose metabolism was fast, efficient and led to low acetate accumulation making it an ideal carbon source for industrial fermentation with E. coli W.

  14. Ethyl Acetate Extract of Artemisia anomala S. Moore Displays Potent Anti-Inflammatory Effect.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xi; Wang, Yuan-Lai; Yang, Xiao-Lu; Zhang, Dan-Dan

    2014-01-01

    Artemisia anomala S. Moore has been widely used in China to treat inflammatory diseases for hundreds of years. However, mechanisms associated with its anti-inflammatory effect are not clear. In this study, we prepared ethyl acetate, petroleum ether, n-BuOH, and aqueous extracts from ethanol extract of Artemisia anomala S. Moore. Comparing anti-inflammatory effects of these extracts, we found that ethyl acetate extract of this herb (EAFA) exhibited the strongest inhibitory effect on nitric oxide (NO) production in LPS/IFN γ -stimulated RAW264.7 cells. EAFA suppressed the production of NO in a time- and dose-dependent manner without eliciting cytotoxicity to RAW264.7 cells. To understand the molecular mechanism underlying EAFA's anti-inflammatory effect, we showed that EAFA increased total cellular anti-oxidant capacity while reducing the amount of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in stimulated RAW264.7 cells. EAFA also suppressed the expression of IL-1 β and IL-6, whereas it elevates the level of heme oxygenase-1. These EAFA-induced events were apparently associated with NF- κ B and MAPK signaling pathways because the DNA binding activity of p50/p65 was impaired and the activities of both ERK and JNK were decreased in EFEA-treated cells comparing to untreated cells. Our findings suggest that EAFA exerts its anti-inflammatory effect by inhibiting the expression of iNOS.

  15. Comparison of hematite-facilitated anaerobic digestion of acetate and beef extract.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Dan; Wang, Jin; Chen, Tian-Hu; Tan, Juan; Yao, Dun-Fan

    2015-01-01

    The effect of hematite with different specific surface areas (SSA) on anaerobic methanogenic process was investigated in this study using two different carbon sources (acetate or beef extract). Comparative analyses showed that methane generation rate, microbial growth and the starting-up duration were all significantly enhanced by hematite. The reduction rate of high SSA hematite was 2.5-3.5 times greater than that of low SSA hematite. This work indicated that low SSA hematite was superior to high SSA hematite in facilitating methanogenesis which was partially attributed to the lower affinity for the iron-reduction bacteria.

  16. Disc-electrospun cellulose acetate butyrate nanofibers show enhanced cellular growth performances.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chen; Niu, Haitao; Wu, Chunchen; Ke, Qinfei; Mo, Xiumei; Lin, Tong

    2013-01-01

    Cellulose acetate butyrate nanofibers were prepared separately by two electrospinning techniques; a needleless electrospinning using a disc as spinneret and a rotary drum as collector and a conventional needle electrospinning using a rotary drum as collector. Compared to the needle-electrospun nanofibers, the disc-electrospun nanofibers were coarser with a wider diameter distribution. Both fibers had a similar surface morphology and they showed no difference in chemical components, but the disc-electrospun nanofibers were slightly higher in crystallinity. The productivity of disc electrospinning was 150 times larger than that of needle electrospinning. The disc-electrospun nanofiber mats were found to have a three dimensional fibrous structure with an average pore size of 9.1 μm, while the needle-electrospun nanofibers looked more like a two-dimensional sheet with a much smaller average pore size (3.2 μm). Fibroblasts and Schwann cells were cultured on the fibrous matrices to assess the biocompatibility. The disc-electrospun nanofiber webs showed enhanced cellular growth for both fibroblasts and Schwann cells, especially in a long culture period.

  17. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2004-06-22

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  18. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid, as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2007-03-27

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired co-solvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon, are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  19. Development of Biocomposites with Antioxidant Activity Based on Red Onion Extract and Acetate Cellulose

    PubMed Central

    López de Dicastillo, Carol; Navarro, Rosa; Guarda, Abel; Galotto, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant biocomposites have been successfully developed from cellulose acetate, eco-friendly triethyl citrate plasticizer and onion extract as a source of natural antioxidants. First, an onion extraction process was optimized to obtain the extract with highest antioxidant power. Extracts under absolute ethanol and ethanol 85% were the extracts with the highest antioxidant activity, which were the characterized through different methods, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2ʹ-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate)), that measure radical scavenger activity, and polyphenolic and flavonoid content. Afterwards, the extract was incorporated in cellulose acetate as polymer matrix owing to develop an active material intended to oxidative sensitive food products packaging. Different concentrations of onion extract and plasticizer were statistically studied by using response surface methodology in order to analyze the influence of both factors on the release of active compounds and therefore the antioxidant activity of these materials. PMID:26783842

  20. The antihypertensive effect of ethyl acetate extract of radish leaves in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Da-Hee; Kim, Sun-Hee; Myung, Nahye; Cho, Kang Jin

    2012-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) is a cruciferous vegetable, and its leaves have antioxidant and anticancer properties. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of ethyl acetate extracts from radish leaves on hypertension in 11-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). The SHRs were randomly divided into 3 groups of 6 rats each on the basis of initial systolic blood pressure (SBP) and were treated with oral administration of radish leaf extract (0, 30, or 90 mg/kg body weight [bw], respectively) for 5 weeks. Six Wistar rats were used as normotensive controls. The amount of the radish leaf extract had no effect on body weight. The SBP of the SHRs showed a decreasing trend with the consumption of the radish leaf extract. In the third week, the SBP of the group fed 90 mg extract/kg bw reduced from 214 mmHg to 166 mmHg and was significantly lower than that of the normotensive and hypertensive controls. The extract did not show a significant effect on the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity in the serum, kidney, and lung. The extract increased the concentration of NO in serum and the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as glutathione peroxidase and catalase in red blood cells (RBCs). The serum concentrations of Na+ and K+ were not significantly different between all groups. However, the fecal concentrations of Na+ and K+ increased; the fecal concentrations of Na+ and K+ for the normotensive and hypertensive controls were not different. Urinary excretion of Na+ was higher in the normotensive Wistar rats than in the SHRs, while that of K+ was not significantly different. These findings indicate that consumption of radish leaves might have had antihypertensive effects in SHRs by increasing the serum concentration of NO and fecal concentration of Na+ and enhancing antioxidant activities. PMID:22977684

  1. Sequential extracts of human bone show differing collagen synthetic rates.

    PubMed

    Babraj, J; Cuthbertson, D J; Rickhuss, P; Meier-Augenstein, W; Smith, K; Bohé, J; Wolfe, R R; Gibson, J N A; Adams, C; Rennie, M J

    2002-04-01

    Type I collagen is the major bone protein. Little is known quantitatively about human bone collagen synthesis in vivo, despite its importance for the understanding of bone formation and turnover. Our aim was to develop a method that could be used for the physiological and pathophysiological investigation of human bone collagen synthesis. We have carried out preliminary studies in patients undergoing hip replacement and in pigs to validate the use of the flooding dose method using (13)C- or (15)N-labelled proline and we have now refined our techniques to allow them to be used in a normal clinical or physiological setting. The results show that the application of a flooding dose causes bone free-proline labelling to equilibrate with that of blood in pigs and human beings, so that only 150 mg of bone will provide enough sample to prepare and measure the labelling of three fractions of bone collagen (dissolved in NaCl, acetic acid and pepsin/acetic acid) which have the same relative labelling (1.0:0.43:0.1) as measured by GC-combustion-isotope ratio MS. The rates of incorporation were substantially faster than in skeletal muscle samples taken at the same time. The results suggest that different fractions of human bone collagen turnover at markedly higher rates than had been previously considered. This approach should allow us to discover how growth and development, food, activity and drugs affect bone collagen turnover and to measure the effects on it of ageing and bone disease.

  2. Protective Effect of the Methanolic Extract of Malva parviflora L. leaves on Acetic Acid-induced Ulcerative Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dugani, Aisha; Dakhil, Bushra; Treesh, Soad

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a general term describing chronic, idiopathic relapsing, inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract of unknown etiology. Previous studies have indicated that Malva parviflora leaf extract possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiulcerogenic activity. activity. This work aimed to investigatee the anti-inflammatory effect of the methanolic (MEMP) and aqueous (AEMP) extracts of M. parviflora leaves on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods: 42 male Wistar albino rats were divided into seven groups (n = 6). Group I: Normal saline control group with no colitis; Group II: Acetic acid colitis group; Group III: 100 mg/kg/5 d MEMP; Group IV: 200 mg/kg/5 d.MEMP; Group V: 100 mg/kg/5 d AEMP; Group VI: 200 mg/kg/5 d AEMP; Group VII: Prednisolone group (2 mg/kg/5 d). Treatments were followed by induction of colitis using intrarectal instillation of 2 mL of 4% acetic acid. Colon damage was evaluated macroscopically (spleen weight/body weight, colon weight/length ratio) and the histological changes were also recorded. Results: The results of this study showed that acetic acid caused severe inflammation of the colon and a significant increase in spleen weight/body weight, and an increase in colon weight/length ratio compared with normal control group. Pretreatment with MEMP and AEMP for 5 days followed by induction of colitis resulted in a significant attenuation of spleen weight and colon weight/length ratio compared with acetic acid control group. Methanolic extract provided better anticolitic effect than aqueous extract; the effect was prominent at the dose of 200 mg/kg. Histopathological findings confirmed the protective effect of the MEMP. Conclusion: In conclusion, MEMP could ameliorate mucosal damage in experimentally induced colitis when given orally. PMID:27184642

  3. Inhibition effects on fermentation of hardwood extracted hemicelluloses by acetic acid and sodium.

    PubMed

    Walton, Sara; van Heiningen, Adriaan; van Walsum, Peter

    2010-03-01

    Extraction of hemicellulose from hardwood chips prior to pulping is a possible method for producing ethanol and acetic acid in an integrated forest bio-refinery, adding value to wood components normally relegated to boiler fuel. Hemicellulose was extracted from hardwood chips using green liquor, a pulping liquor intermediate consisting of aqueous NaOH, Na(2)CO(3), and Na(2)S, at 160 degrees C, held for 110 min in a 20 L rocking digester. The extracted liquor contained 3.7% solids and had a pH of 5.6. The organic content of the extracts was mainly xylo-oligosaccharides and acetic acid. Because it was dilute, the hemicellulose extract was concentrated by evaporation in a thin film evaporator. Concentrates from the evaporator reached levels of up to 10% solids. Inhibitors such as acetic acid and sodium were also concentrated by this method, presenting a challenge for the fermentation organisms. Fermentation experiments were conducted with Escherichia coli K011. The un-concentrated extract supported approximately 70% conversion of the initial sugars in 14 h. An extract evaporated down to 6% solids was also fermentable while a 10% solids extract was not initially fermentable. Strain conditioning was later found to enable fermentation at this level of concentration. Alternative processing schemes or inhibitor removal prior to fermentation are necessary to produce ethanol economically.

  4. Hypoglycemic Effect of Ethanol and Ethyl Acetate Extract of Phellinus baumii Fruiting Body in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Han; Wu, Fei-Hua; Yang, Yan; Wu, Na; Zhang, Jing-Song; Feng, Na; Tang, Chuan-Hong

    2015-01-01

    We investigated hypoglycemic effect of ethanol (EtOH) and ethyl acetate extract acetate (AcOEt) extracts in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic mice. Our data showed the maximum inhibitory effect on the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level was detected in STZ-induced diabetic mice administered with 400 mg/kg AcOEt extract of P. baumii. A lower glycated albumin (GA) level and a higher insulin level were observed in 400 mg/kg AcOEt and EtOH extract groups. Moreover, 400 mg/kg AcOEt and EtOH extract exhibited a stronger effect on increasing size and cell number of islets. The insulin expression level of β-cells and integrated optical density (IOD) value were significantly increased by the administration of 400 mg/kg AcOEt and EtOH extracts. Taken together, AcOEt and EtOH extracts of P. baumii fruiting body exhibited considerable hypoglycemic effect on STZ-induced diabetic mice. PMID:26221177

  5. Extracts of marine algae show inhibitory activity against osteoclast differentiation.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Tomoyuki

    2011-01-01

    Osteoclasts are multinucleated cells that play a crucial role in bone resorption. The imbalance between bone resorption and bone formation results in osteoporosis. Therefore, substances that can suppress osteoclast formation are potential candidate materials for drug development or functional foods. There have been reports that extracts or purified compounds from marine micro- and macroalgae can suppress osteoclast differentiation. Symbioimine, isolated from the cultured dinoflagellate Symbiodinium sp., had suppressive effects against osteoclast differentiation in osteoclast-like cells. Norzoanthamine, isolated from the colonial zoanthid Zoanthas sp., has been shown to have antiosteoporosis activity in ovariectomized mice. With regard to marine extracts, the fucoxanthin-rich component from brown algae has been shown to have suppressive effects against osteoclast differentiation. An extract of Sargassum fusiforme has recently been shown to have antiosteoporosis activity. This extract suppressed both osteoclast differentiation and accelerated osteoblast formation in separate in vitro experiments. It also showed antiosteoporosis activity in ovariectomized mice by regulating the balance between bone resorption and bone formation. These marine algae and their extracts may be sources of marine medicinal foods for the prevention of osteoporosis.

  6. Two new cucurbitane-type triterpenoid saponins isolated from ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus colocynthis fruit.

    PubMed

    Song, Fei; Dai, Bin; Zhang, Hai-Yan; Xie, Jian-Wei; Gu, Cheng-Zhi; Zhang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Two new cucurbitacins I (1 and 2), together with eight known compounds (3-10), were isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of the fruit of Citrullus colocynthis. Compounds 3, 5-9 were isolated from C. colocynthis for the first time. The structures of new compounds were determined primarily from IR, HR-MS, 1D-, and 2D-NMR analysis.

  7. Anti-hepatoma activities of ethyl acetate extract from Ampelopsis sinica root.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia-Zhi; Huang, Bi-Sheng; Cao, Yan; Chen, Ke-Li; Li, Juan

    2017-03-13

    Ampelopsis sinica root (ASR) is a known hepatoprotective folk traditional Chinese medicine. The anti‑hepatoma activity of ethyl acetate extract from A. sinica root (ASRE) in vitro and in vivo and its possible mechanism were explored. This study was designed to investigate cytotoxicity by MTT assay, induction of apoptosis via Hoechst 33258 staining, scanning electron microscopy and bivariate flow cytometric analysis (Annexin V-FITC/PI), inflammation and apoptosis related genes expression by RT-PCR and p53 protein expression by immunofluorescence assay in HepG2 cells. Then, the antitumor activity in vivo was detected by hepatoma H22 xenograft tumor in mice. The results showed that ASRE had powerful anti‑hepatoma activity in vitro without obvious toxicity on normal cells and could induce HepG2 cell apoptosis. The mechanism may be associated with downregulation of inflammatory cytokines including cyclooxygenase-2, 5-lipoxygenase and FLAP, increase of the ratio of bax/bcl-2, activation caspase-3 and inhibition of survivin, and increased expression of p53 protein. Furthermore, the HPLC assay showed the main compounds of ASRE were gallic acid, catechin and gallic acid ethyl ester. In animal experiments, ASR ethanol extract decreased the tumor weights of hepatoma H22 tumor-bearing mice. Therefore, ASR may be a potential therapeutic agent in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma.

  8. As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb pressurized liquid extraction with acetic acid from marine sediment and soil samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreda-Piñeiro, Jorge; Alonso-Rodríguez, Elia; López-Mahía, Purificación; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Adela; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2006-12-01

    Rapid leaching procedures by Pressurized Liquid Extraction (PLE) have been developed for As, Cd, Cr, Ni and Pb leaching from environmental matrices (marine sediment and soil samples). The Pressurized Liquid Extraction is completed after 16 min. The released elements by acetic acid Pressurized Liquid Extraction have been evaluated by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry. The optimum multi-element leaching conditions when using 5.0 ml stainless steel extraction cells, were: acetic acid concentration 8.0 M, extraction temperature 100 °C, pressure 1500 psi, static time 5 min, flush solvent 60%, two extraction steps and 0.50 g of diatomaceous earth as dispersing agent (diatomaceous earth mass/sample mass ratio of 2). Results have showed that high acetic acid concentrations and high extraction temperatures increase the metal leaching efficiency. Limits of detection (between 0.12 and 0.5 μg g - 1 ) and repeatability of the over-all procedure (around 6.0%) were assessed. Finally, accuracy was studied by analyzing PACS-2 (marine sediment), GBW-07409 (soil), IRANT-12-1-07 (cambisol soil) and IRANT-12-1-08 (luvisol soil) certified reference materials (CRMs). These certified reference materials offer certified concentrations ranges between 2.9 and 26.2 μg g - 1 for As, from 0.068 to 2.85 μg g - 1 for Cd, between 26.4 and 90.7 μg g - 1 for Cr, from 9.3 to 40.0 μg g - 1 for Ni and between 16.3 and 183.0 μg g - 1 for Pb. Recoveries after analysis were between 95.7 and 105.1% for As, 96.2% for Cd, 95.2 and 100.6% for Cr, 95.7 and 103% for Ni and 94.2 and 105.5% for Pb.

  9. Ethyl Acetate Extracts of Semen Impatientis Inhibit Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis of Human Prostate Cancer Cell Lines through AKT/ERK Pathways.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tao; Cai, Yang; Song, Wen; Chen, Ruibao; Hu, Dunmei; Ye, Jianhan; Liu, Lu; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Junfeng; Wang, Shaogang; Yang, Weiming; Liu, Jihong; Ding, Yufeng

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the inhibitory effect of ethyl acetate extracts of Impatiens balsamina L. on prostate cancer cells. Methods. Impatiens balsamina L. was extracted to get water, ethanol, oil ether, ethyl acetate, and butanol extracts. CCK-8 assay was used to detect the inhibitory effect. Apoptosis rates and cell cycle distribution were detected by flow cytometry. Transwell assay was performed to test the ability of migration. The expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, cleaved-caspase-3, p-ERK, ERK, p-AKT, AKT, cyclin D1, cyclin E, and MMP2 were detected by Western blot. Results. Ethyl acetate extracts had the strongest inhibitory effect. After being treated with different concentrations of ethyl acetate extracts, the percentage of G0/G1 phase increased significantly, cyclin D1 and cyclin E expression decreased, apoptosis rate was significantly higher, and the ability of migration of PC-3 and RV1 was inhibited significantly. Western blot showed that the expressions of Bcl-2, p-ERK, and p-AKT were significantly decreased, but the expressions of Bax and caspase-3 cleavage were increased. Conclusions. Impatiens balsamina L. inhibited the proliferation of human prostate cancer cells; ethyl acetate extracts have the strongest effect. It could inhibit cell proliferation and migration, cause G1 phase arrest, and induce apoptosis probably through inhibition of the AKT and ERK pathways.

  10. Ethyl Acetate Extracts of Semen Impatientis Inhibit Proliferation and Induce Apoptosis of Human Prostate Cancer Cell Lines through AKT/ERK Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tao; Cai, Yang; Song, Wen; Chen, Ruibao; Hu, Dunmei; Ye, Jianhan; Liu, Lu; Peng, Wei; Zhang, Junfeng; Yang, Weiming; Liu, Jihong

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the inhibitory effect of ethyl acetate extracts of Impatiens balsamina L. on prostate cancer cells. Methods. Impatiens balsamina L. was extracted to get water, ethanol, oil ether, ethyl acetate, and butanol extracts. CCK-8 assay was used to detect the inhibitory effect. Apoptosis rates and cell cycle distribution were detected by flow cytometry. Transwell assay was performed to test the ability of migration. The expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, cleaved-caspase-3, p-ERK, ERK, p-AKT, AKT, cyclin D1, cyclin E, and MMP2 were detected by Western blot. Results. Ethyl acetate extracts had the strongest inhibitory effect. After being treated with different concentrations of ethyl acetate extracts, the percentage of G0/G1 phase increased significantly, cyclin D1 and cyclin E expression decreased, apoptosis rate was significantly higher, and the ability of migration of PC-3 and RV1 was inhibited significantly. Western blot showed that the expressions of Bcl-2, p-ERK, and p-AKT were significantly decreased, but the expressions of Bax and caspase-3 cleavage were increased. Conclusions. Impatiens balsamina L. inhibited the proliferation of human prostate cancer cells; ethyl acetate extracts have the strongest effect. It could inhibit cell proliferation and migration, cause G1 phase arrest, and induce apoptosis probably through inhibition of the AKT and ERK pathways. PMID:28386546

  11. Electromembrane extraction and HPLC analysis of haloacetic acids and aromatic acetic acids in wastewater.

    PubMed

    Alhooshani, Khalid; Basheer, Chanbasha; Kaur, Jagjit; Gjelstad, Astrid; Rasmussen, Knut E; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Lee, Hian Kee

    2011-10-30

    For the first time, haloacetic acids and aromatic acetic acids were extracted from wastewater samples using electromembrane extraction (EME). A thin layer of toluene immobilized on the walls of a polypropylene membrane envelope served as an artificial supported liquid membrane (SLM). The haloacetic acids (HAAs) (chloroacetic acid, dichloroacetic acid, and trifluoroacetic acid) and aromatic acetic acids (phenylacetic acid and p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid) were extracted through the SLM and into an alkalized aqueous buffer solution. The buffer solution was located inside the membrane envelope. The electrical potential difference sustained over the membrane acted as the driving force for the transport of haloacetic acids into the membrane by electrokinetic migration. After extraction, the extracts were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-ultraviolet detection. The detection limits were between 0.072 and 40.3 ng L(-1). The calibration plot linearity was in the range of 5 and 200 μg L(-1) while the correlation coefficients for the analytes ranged from 0.9932 to 0.9967. Relative recoveries were in the range of 87-106%. The extraction efficiency was found to be comparable to that of solid-phase extraction.

  12. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2006-07-11

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  13. Microbial process for the preparation of acetic acid as well as solvent for its extraction from the fermentation broth

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Wade, Leslie E.; Wikstrom, Carl V.

    2002-01-01

    A modified water-immiscible solvent useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous streams is a substantially pure mixture of isomers of highly branched di-alkyl amines. This solvent is substantially devoid of mono-alkyl amines and alcohols. Solvent mixtures formed of such a modified solvent with a desired cosolvent, preferably a low boiling hydrocarbon which forms an azeotrope with water are useful in the extraction of acetic acid from aqueous gaseous streams. An anaerobic microbial fermentation process for the production of acetic acid employs such solvents, under conditions which limit amide formation by the solvent and thus increase the efficiency of acetic acid recovery. Methods for the direct extraction of acetic acid and the extractive fermentation of acetic acid also employ the modified solvents and increase efficiency of acetic acid production. Such increases in efficiency are also obtained where the energy source for the microbial fermentation contains carbon dioxide and the method includes a carbon dioxide stripping step prior to extraction of acetic acid in solvent.

  14. Antitumor Activities of Ethyl Acetate Extracts from Selaginella doederleinii Hieron In Vitro and In Vivo and Its Possible Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Li, Juan; Zhao, Ping; Ma, Wen-tao; Feng, Xie-he; Chen, Ke-li

    2015-01-01

    The antitumor activities of ethyl acetate extracts from Selaginella doederleinii Hieron (SD extracts) in vitro and in vivo and its possible mechanism were investigated. HPLC method was developed for chemical analysis. SD extracts were submitted to 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay on different cells, flow cytometry, and RT-PCR analysis using HepG2 cell and antitumor activity in vivo using H-22 xenograft tumor mice. Six biflavonoids from SD extracts were submitted to molecular docking assay. The results showed that SD extracts had considerable antitumor activity in vitro and in vivo without obvious toxicity on normal cells and could induce cell apoptosis. The mechanisms of tumorigenesis and cell apoptosis induced by SD extracts may be associated with decreasing the ratio of bcl-2 and bax mRNA level, activating caspase-3, suppressing survivin, and decreasing the gene expression of COX-2, 5-LOX, FLAP, and 12-LOX mRNA. The main active component in SD extracts is biflavonoids and some exhibited strong interactions with COX-2, 5-LOX, 12-LOX, and 15-LOX. These results offering evidence of possible mechanisms of SD extracts suppress cell proliferation and promote apoptosis and provide the molecular theoretical basis of clinical application of S. doederleinii for cancer therapy. PMID:25866543

  15. Oolong tea extract as a substitute for uranyl acetate in staining of ultrathin sections.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Adachi, A; Sasaki, Y; Ghazizadeh, M

    2008-01-01

    In conventional transmission electron microscopy, uranyl acetate staining is used to enhance the cellular components. However, uranyl acetate is considered a radioactive material that is very toxic if ingested or inhaled and subject to restrictions in many countries. In an attempt to introduce a substitute for uranyl acetate, we evaluated oolong tea extract (OTE) for staining of ultrathin sections. Tissue sections from normal rat liver representing an ideal model organ were processed according to a routine electron microscopic fixation and embedding procedure. Serial ultrathin sections were cut and processed with either routine double electron staining or 0.2% OTE staining for 30-40 min at room temperature followed by lead citrate staining (OTE staining method). Transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that all sub-cellular structures in hepatocytes were clearly visible with OTE staining and the quality of staining was highly compatible with those of routine double staining methods. It is suggested that OTE could be used as a non-radioactive and hazard-free substitute for uranyl acetate in transmission electron microscopy staining.

  16. Healing Effect of Pistacia Atlantica Fruit Oil Extract in Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tanideh, Nader; Masoumi, Samira; Hosseinzadeh, Massood; Safarpour, Ali Reza; Erjaee, Hoda; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Rahimikazerooni, Salar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Considering the anti-oxidant properties of Pistacia atlantica and lack of data regarding its efficacy in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, this study aims at investigating the effect of the Pistacia atlantica fruit extract in treating experimentally induced colitis in a rat model. Methods: Seventy male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 220±20 g) were used. All rats fasted 24 hours before the experimental procedure. The rats were randomly divided into 7 groups, each containing 10 induced colitis with 2ml acetic acid (3%). Group 1 (Asacol), group 2 (base gel) and group 7 (without treatment) were assigned as control groups. Group 3 (300 mg/ml) and group 4 (600 mg/ml) received Pistacia atlantica fruit orally. Group 5 (10% gel) and group 6 (20% gel) received Pistacia atlantica in the form of gel as enema. Macroscopic, histopathological examination and MDA measurement were carried out. Results: All groups revealed significant macroscopic healing in comparison with group 7 (P<0.001). Regarding microscopic findings in the treatment groups compared with group 7, the latter group differed significantly with groups 1, 2, 4 and 6 (P<0.001). There was a significant statistical difference in MDA scores of the seven treatment groups (F(5,54)=76.61, P<0.001). Post-hoc comparisons indicated that the mean±SD score of Asacol treated group (1.57±0.045) was not significantly different from groups 4 (1.62±0.024) and 6 (1.58±0.028). Conclusion: Our study showed that a high dose of Pistacia atlantica fruit oil extract, administered orally and rectally can improve colitis physiologically and pathologically in a rat model, and may be efficient for ulcerative colitis. PMID:25429174

  17. Silver nanoparticles synthesised using plant extracts show strong antibacterial activity.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Avnesh; Guliani, Anika; Singla, Rubbel; Yadav, Ramdhan; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar

    2015-06-01

    In this study, three plants Populus alba, Hibiscus arboreus and Lantana camara were explored for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles (SNPs). The effect of reaction temperature and leaf extract (LE) concentration of P. alba, H. arboreus and L. camara was evaluated on the synthesis and size of SNPs. The SNPs were characterised by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The synthesis rate of SNPs was highest with LE of L. camara followed by H. arboreus and P. alba under similar conditions. L. camara LE showed maximum potential of smaller size SNPs synthesis, whereas bigger particles were formed by H. arboreous LE. The size and shape of L. camara LE synthesised SNPs were analysed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). TEM analysis revealed the formation of SNPs of average size 17±9.5 nm with 5% LE of L. camara. The SNPs synthesised by LE of L. camara showed strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli. The results document that desired size SNPs can be synthesised using these plant LEs at a particular temperature for applications in the biomedical field.

  18. Protective effect of Etlingera elatior (torch ginger) extract on lead acetate--induced hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Haleagrahara, Nagaraja; Jackie, Tan; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Rao, Mallikarjuna; Kulur, Anupama

    2010-10-01

    Lead is known to disrupt the biological systems by altering the molecular interactions, cell signaling, and cellular function. Exposure to even low levels of lead may have potential hazardous effects on brain, liver, kidneys and testes. The efficacy of Etlingera elatior (torch ginger) to protect hepatotoxicity induced by lead acetate was evaluated experimentally in male Sprague - Dawley rats. Rats were exposed to lead acetate in drinking water (500 ppm) for 21 days and the effects of concurrent treatment with extract of E. elatior on hepatic lipid hydroperoxides (LPO), protein carbonyl content (PCC), total antioxidants (TA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione S- Transferase (GST) levels and histopathological changes in liver were evaluated. There was a significant decrease in TA and other antioxidant enzymes (p < 0.05) and increase in LPO and PCC (p < 0.05) with lead acetate ingestion. Concurrent treatment with E. elatior extract significantly reduced the LPO and PCC (p < 0.05) in serum and increased the antioxidant enzyme levels (p < 0.05) in the liver. Significant histopathological changes were seen in hepatic tissue with chronic lead ingestion. Treatment with E. elatior significantly reduced these lead-induced changes in hepatic architecture. E. elatior has also reduced the blood lead levels (BLL). Thus, there has been extensive biochemical and structural alterations indicative of liver toxicity with exposure to lead and E. elatior treatment significantly reduced these oxidative damage. Our results suggest that E. elatior has a powerful antioxidant effect against lead-induced hepatotoxicity.

  19. Plant crude extracts could be the solution: extracts showing in vivo antitumorigenic activity.

    PubMed

    Amara, A A; El-Masry, M H; Bogdady, H H

    2008-04-01

    Screening active compounds from plants lead to discover new medicinal drugs which have efficient protection and treatment roles against various diseases including cancer. In our study, extracts from different plants represent seeds of: Gossypium barbadense, Ricinus communis, Sesamum indicum, Nigella sativa, Vinca rosea and Melia azedarah; fruits of: Xanthium occidental; flowers of: Atriplex nummularia; barks of: Cinnamomum zeylanicum; latex of: Ficus carica and rhizomes of: Curcuma longa and Zingiber officinale were tested in vivo using three subsequent bioassays: the BST (Brine Shrimp Toxicity bioassay), AWD (Agar well diffusion antimicrobial bioassay) and AtPDT (Agrobacterium tumefaciens Potato Disc Tumor bioassay). AWD technique omitted any extracts have antimicrobial activities while BST omitted any extract did not has physiological activity and determined the various LC(50) of each plant extract. For the first time, using a range of concentrations in the AtPDT modified protocol allowed the detection of tumor promotion caused by extract represented by A. nummularia. Using cluster analysis leads to classifying the different plant extracts activities to six groups regarding to their toxicity, antitumor activities and both of them. The extracts from edible plants represent 50% of the first and the second group which have the highest antitumor activities represented in F. caraica (group 1) and C. longa (group 2) as well as the non-edible plant extracts of Gossypium barbadense and Ricinus communis. A comparison study between the edible and herbaceous plants different extracts for their antitumor activities was performed. We recommended using the modified protocols used in this study for investigating more plants and using crude plant extracts which have antitumor activities in cancer treatment. Edible plants, which show in vivo antitumor activities, are recommended as save sources for antitumor compounds.

  20. Identification and quantitation of extractables from cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and estimation of their in vivo exposure levels.

    PubMed

    Ma, Decheng; Wasylaschuk, Walter R; Beasley, Christopher; Zhao, Zhongxi Zack; Harmon, Paul A; Ballard, John M; Pitzenberger, Steven M; Varga, Sandor L; Reed, Robert A

    2004-06-29

    The purpose of this study was to qualitatively and quantitatively determine potential cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) extractables in a way to meaningfully predict the in vivo exposure resulting from clinical administration. Extractions of CAB-381-20 were performed in several solvent systems, consistently resulting in the detection of three extractables. The extractables have been identified as acetic acid, butyric acid, and E-2-ethyl-2-hexenoic acid (E-EHA) by LC/UV, LC/MS and NMR. Extraction studies of CAB powders in acetonitrile/phosphate buffer demonstrated quantitative extraction in 1 h for acetic acid (approximately 150 microg/g), butyric acid (approximately 200 microg/g), and EHA (approximately 20 microg/g). Subsequently, extraction studies for CAB powders and coated tablets in USP simulated gastric and intestinal fluids were performed to evaluate potential in vivo exposure. Similarly, acetic and butyric acids were quantitatively extracted from CAB-381-20 powder after 24 h exposure in both USP simulated fluids. The amounts of EHA extracted from CAB powder after 24 h were determined to be 2 and 16 microg/g in USP simulated gastric and intestinal fluids, respectively. After 24 h exposure in USP simulated fluids, the maximum amount of EHA extracted corresponds to < 0.3 microg of EHA per tablet. Pepsin and pancreatin in USP simulated fluids had no effect on EHA extraction and quantitation.

  1. Antibacterial Activity of the Isolation Ethyl Acetate-Soluble Extract Noni Fruit (Morindra citrifolia L.) against Meat Bacterial Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nugraheni, E. R.; Nurrakhman, M. B. E.; Munawaroh, H.; Saputri, L.

    2017-02-01

    Noni (Morindra citrifolia L.) is native to Indonesia which have medicinal properties. One of them as an antibacterial. This study aims to determine the antibacterial activity of isolates from the ethanol extract noni fruit to bacterial decay meat is Bacillus licheniformis, Klebsiella pneumonia, Bacillus alvei, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, and Staphylococcus saprophyticus. The extraction process using the maceration method, and then made a partition by centrifugation ethyl acetate. Soluble part partition showed bacterial growth inhibition activity of the strong to very strong. Furthermore, the ethyl acetate soluble partition on preparative thin layer chromatography produced 5 isolates. Isolates obtained antibacterial activity test performed with a concentration of 20% and 30%. The results of antibacterial test against bacteria test isolates, showing isolates A can not inhibit the growth of bacteria, isolates B and C have medium activity and strong, isolates D and E isolates have activity against bacteria that were tested. MIC and MBC test results showed that the isolates B gives an inhibitory effect (bacteriostatic) against all bacteria. Content analysis of compounds by TLC using the reagents cerium (IV) sulfate indicates a phenol group. Isolates B contains a major compound which can be used as an antibacterial candidate in food preservation replace chemical preservatives.

  2. Effects of ethyl acetate extract of Kaempferia parviflora on brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Hiroko; Horiguchi-Babamoto, Emi; Suzuki, Mio; Makihara, Hiroko; Tomozawa, Hiroshi; Tsubata, Masahito; Shimada, Tsutomu; Sugiyama, Kiyoshi; Aburada, Masaki

    2016-01-01

    We have previously reported the effects of Kaempferia parviflora (KP), including anti-obesity, preventing various metabolic diseases, and regulating differentiation of white adipose cells. In this study we used Tsumura, Suzuki, Obese Diabetes (TSOD) mice--an animal model of spontaneous obese type II diabetes--and primary brown preadipocytes to examine the effects of the ethyl acetate extract of KP (KPE) on brown adipose tissue, which is one of the energy expenditure organs. TSOD mice were fed with MF mixed with either KPE 0.3 or 1% for 8 weeks. Computed tomography images showed that whitening of brown adipocytes was suppressed in the interscapular tissue of the KPE group. We also examined mRNA expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP-1) and β3-adrenalin receptor (β3AR) in brown adipose tissue. As a result, mRNA expression of UCP-1 significantly increased in the KPE 1% treatment group, indicating that KPE activated brown adipose tissue. We then evaluated the direct effects of KPE on brown adipocytes using primary brown preadipocytes isolated from interscapular brown adipocytes in ICR mice. Triacylglycerol (TG) accumulation in primary brown preadipocytes was increased by KPE in a dose-dependent manner. Each mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), UCP-1, and β3AR exhibited an upward trend compared with the control group. Moreover, some polymethoxyflavonoids (PMFs), the main compound in KP, also increased TG accumulation. This study therefore showed that KPE enhanced the thermogenesis effect of brown adipocytes as well as promoted the differentiation of brown adipocyte cells.

  3. Neuroprotective potential of Indigofera oblongifolia leaf methanolic extract against lead acetate-induced neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Dkhil, Mohamed A.; Ibrahim, Shaimaa R.; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E.

    2016-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is one of the most common environmental toxicants, exposure to which can cause significant neurotoxicity and an associated decline in brain function. This study investigated the possible neuroprotective role of Indigofera oblongifolia leaf methanolic extract (IOLME) against lead-induced neurotoxicity. Rats were intraperitoneally injected with lead acetate, with or without IOLME (intragastric administration for 5 days), and the neuroprotective effect of IOLME was assessed by measuring the lead concentration, redox status (lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide and glutathione), enzymatic antioxidant activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and reductase), PCR assays of apoptosis markers (Bax and Bcl-2) and histopathology of the brain. The increases in the lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, and apoptosis, the decreases in the glutathione level and the activity of antioxidant enzymes, and the altered histology of the brain induced by lead acetate were mitigated in the brain of rats pre-treated with IOLME. These findings indicate that IOLME has beneficial effects and it mitigates lead acetate-induced neurotoxicity via its antioxidant and anti-apoptotic activities. PMID:28123424

  4. Simultaneous extraction and HPLC determination of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid in pea plant by using ionic liquid-modified silica as sorbent.

    PubMed

    Sheikhian, Leila; Bina, Sedigheh

    2016-01-15

    In this study, ionic liquid-modified silica was used as sorbent for simultaneous extraction and preconcentration of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid in pea plants. The effect of some parameters such as pH and ionic strength of sample solution, amount of sorbent, flow rate of aqueous sample solution and eluent solution, concentration of eluent solution, and temperature were studied for each hormone solution. Percent extraction of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid was strongly affected by pH of aqueous sample solution. Ionic strength of aqueous phase and temperature showed no serious effects on extraction efficiency of studied plant hormones. Obtained breakthrough volume was 200mL for each of studied hormones. Preconcentration factor for spectroscopic and chromatographic determination of studied hormones was 100 and 4.0×10(3) respectively. Each solid sorbent phase was reusable for almost 10 times of extraction/stripping procedure. Relative standard deviations of extraction/stripping processes of 3-indole butyric acid and 3-indole acetic acid were 2.79% and 3.66% respectively. The calculated limit of detections for IBA and IAA were 9.1×10(-2)mgL(-1) and 1.6×10(-1)mgL(-1) respectively.

  5. Acetone-soluble cellulose acetate extracted from waste blended fabrics via ionic liquid catalyzed acetylation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xunwen; Lu, Canhui; Zhang, Wei; Tian, Dong; Zhang, Xinxing

    2013-10-15

    Isolation of cellulose from waste polyester/cotton blended fabrics (WBFs) is a bottleneck for recycling and exploiting waste textiles. The objective of this study was to provide a new environmental-friendly and efficient approach for extracting cellulose derivatives and polyester from WBFs. A Bronsted acidic ionic liquid (IL) N-methyl-imidazolium bisulfate, [Hmim]HSO4, was used as a novel catalyst for acetylation of cellulose rather than a solvent with the aim to overcome low isolation efficiency associated with the very high viscosity and relatively high costs of ILs. The extraction yield of acetone-soluble cellulose acetate (CA) was 49.3%, which corresponded to a conversion of 84.5% of the cellulose in the original WBFs; meanwhile, 96.2% of the original poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) was recovered. The extracted CA was characterized by (1)H NMR, FTIR, XRD and TGA analysis, and the results indicated that high purity acetone-soluble CA and carbohydrate-free PET could be isolated in this manner from WBFs.

  6. Ethyl acetate Salix alba leaves extract-loaded chitosan-based hydrogel film for wound dressing applications.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Mohammad A; Khatoon, Fehmeeda; Rizvi, Moshahid A; Zafaryab, Md

    2015-01-01

    High toxicity and multidrug resistance associated with various standard antimicrobial drugs have necessitated search for safer alternatives in plant-derived materials. In this study, we performed biological examination of chitosan-based hydrogel film loaded with ethyl acetate Salix alba leaves extract against 11 standard laboratory strains. FTIR showed regeneration of saccharide peak in CP1A at 1047 cm(-1) and increased in height of other peaks. DSC exothermic decomposition peaks at 112 °C, 175 °C and 251 °C reveal the effect of extract on hydrogel film. From FESEM images, three-dimensional cross-linking and extract easily seen in the globular form from the surface. MTT assay on HEK 293 cells showed that CP1A was non-toxic. Minimum inhibitory concentration ranges from 4000 μg/ml to 125 μg/ml. Enterococcus faecium, Candida glabrata and Candida tropicalis were the most resistant, while Salmonella typhi and Candida guilliermondii were the most susceptible micro-organisms.

  7. Protective effect of Agave americana Linn. leaf extract in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mannasaheb, Basheerahmed A.A.; Kulkarni, Preeti V.; Sangreskopp, Mashood Ahmed; Savant, Chetan; Mohan, Anjana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Natural plants always provide core compounds for new drug development. In the present life and food style, inflammatory bowel disease has become common and needs a lead compound for its drug development. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Agave americana Linn. leaf extract in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats based on its traditional anti-inflammatory use. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were pretreated with A. americana leaf extract in the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. daily for 7 days. On 8th day, 2 ml of 4% v/v acetic acid in saline was instilled into rats’ rectum. Prednisolone was used as standard drug and it was administered on the day of acetic acid instillation and continued for 3 days. Extract treatment was continued till 11th day. Body weight, ulcer score, colonic muscle contraction, antioxidant activity and histopathology were studied. Statistical analysis was performed using Parametric one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's posttest. Results: A. americana have retained total body weight significantly (P < 0.01) and decreased colon weight/length ratio. Extract have shown a significant decrease (P < 0.001) in ulcer scores, myeloperoxidase, lipid peroxidase activity. Further, extract have shown significant improvement in colonic muscle contraction, histopathology of colon etc., which is comparable with standard drug. Conclusion: A. americana possess protective effect against acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. PMID:26730148

  8. Identification of dihydrogalangal acetate in galangal [Alpinia galangal (L.) Swartz] extracts.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaogen; Rohr, Martin; Jordan, Jason

    2009-04-22

    Dihydrogalangal acetate has been discovered for the first time in galangal roots [Alpinia galangal (L.) Swartz]. The compound has a taste sensation similar to galangal acetatethe pungent principle of galangalbut it is more stable in food and beverage applications. Therefore, dihydrogalangal acetate provides many advantages as a flavor ingredient for alcohol enhancement and taste modification. Dihydrogalangal acetate is present in approximately 0.0005% of fresh roots and in about 0.004% of dried roots. (S)-Dihydrogalangal acetate is found as the main optical isomer in galangal roots (98%), while its minor (R)-isomer is less abundant (2%). Enantiomers of galangal acetate and dihydrogalangal acetate were separated and evaluated by sensory analysis. (R)-Galangal acetate has a very faint woody and sweet aroma, and (R)-dihydrogalangal acetate is almost odorless, while (S)-galangal acetate has strong and (S)-dihydrogalangal acetate has weak pungent and woody notes. Although the aroma characters of these optical isomers are different, taste sensations were found to have no significant differences among galangal acetate, dihydrogalangal acetate, and their optical isomers.

  9. [Comparison of protective effects of eight ethyl acetate extracts from Eclipta prostrate on NHBE cells based on component structure theory].

    PubMed

    Ding, Shu-Min; Liu, Dan; Feng, Liang; Zhu, Fen-Xia; Tan, Xiao-Bin; Jia, Xiao-Bin

    2014-08-01

    To analyze and compare the protective effects of active components in different ethyl acetate extracts (EAEEPs) from Eclipta prostrate, in order to study the comparison of materials bases protecting normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells. The MTT assay was taken to compare the protective effect of different EAEEPs on cigarette smoke extracts (CSE) -induced NHBE cells. The ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC) was applied to analyze the content of phenolic acid, coumaric grass ether and flavonoid in EAEEPs. According to the results, all of the eight EAEEPs (0-200 mg x L(-1)) showed certain protective effect on NHBE cells, with statistical difference. Specifically, the total mass of EAEEP VII (89.15 mg x L(-1)) and EAEEP VIII (57.44 mg x L(-1)), which showed the strongest activity, was not the highest, while EAEEP III (132.25 mg x L(-1)) displayed the highest total mass. In the combination with the "component structure" theory, the analysis showed a significant difference in the mass structure among phenolic acid, coumaric grass ether and flavonoid in EAEEP VIII and EAEEP VIII, which were 1.0: 1. 0: 0.5 and 1.0: 1.9: 0.8, respectively. The results suggested a specific optimal "component structure" relationship may exist in EAEEP, which could provide reference for the material base study and quality control.

  10. Validation of an Efficient Method for the Determination of Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables Using Ethyl Acetate for Extraction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this study, a version of the “quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe” (QuEChERS) method was modified to use ethyl acetate (EtOAc) rather than acetonitrile (MeCN) for extraction in the determination of multiple pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. EtOAc is better suited than MeCN...

  11. Optimization of Extraction Condition for Alisol B and Alisol B Acetate in Alismatis Rhizoma using Response Surface Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Lee, A Yeong; Park, Jun Yeon; Chun, Jin Mi; Moon, Byeong Cheol; Kang, Byoung Kab; Seo, Young Bae; Shin, Hyeun-Kyoo; Kim, Ho Kyoung

    2012-01-01

    Alismatis Rhizoma is a perennial herb originating from the rhizomes of Alisma orientalis (Sam) Juzep and the same species which have been used to treat seborrheic dermatitis, eczema, polydipsia, and pedal edema. We aimed to determine the concentrations of the compounds alisol B and alisol B acetate present in a sample of the herb using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with a photodiode array detector. We selected methanol as the optimal solvent considering the structures of alisol B and alisol B acetate. We estimated the proportion of alisol B and alisol B acetate in a standard extract to be 0.0434% and 0.2365% in methanol, respectively. To optimize extraction, we employed response surface methodology to determine the yields of alisol B and alisol B acetate, which mapped out a central composite design consisting of 15 experimental points. The extraction parameters were time, concentration, and sample weight. The predicted concentration of alisol B derivatives was estimated to be 0.2388% under the following conditions: 81 min of extraction time, 76% of methanol concentration, and 1.52g of sample weight. PMID:23335845

  12. In vitro antitumor activity of the ethyl acetate extract of Potentilla chinensis in osteosarcoma cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Wan, Guang; Tao, Jin-Gang; Wang, Guo-Dong; Liu, Shen-Peng; Zhao, Hong-Xing; Liang, Qiu-Dong

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to evaluate the anticancer effect of the ethanol extract of Potentilla chinensis, a Chinese medicinal plant. An MTT assay was used to evaluate the cell viability of MG-63 human osteosarcoma cancer cells and fR-2 cells. Furthermore, the effect of the extract on apoptosis induction, cell cycle phase distribution and inhibition of cell migration in the MG63 human osteosarcoma cancer cell line was evaluated. The effect of the extract on cell cycle phase distribution was assessed by flow cytometry using propidium iodide (PI). Phase contrast microscopy detected the morphological changes in MG63 cancer cells following extract treatment. The results of the study demonstrated that the extract was cytotoxic to MG63 cancer cells, while the normal cell line (epithelial cell line) showed lower susceptibility. Phase contrast microscopy showed distinguishing morphological features, such as cell shrinkage and blebbing induced by the extract treatment in osteosarcoma cancer cells. The average proportion of Annexin V-positive cells (total apoptotic cells) significantly increased from 5.6% in the control to 24.2, 38.8 and 55.7% in the 40, 80 and 150 µg/ml groups, respectively. The extract induced early and late apoptosis in the cancer cells. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that the extract induced G0/G1-cell cycle arrest, which also showed significant dose-dependence. The extract induced a significant and concentration-dependent reduction in cell migration. Moreover, DNA fragmentation was also examined by observation of the formation of DNA ladders. It was demonstrated that DNA fragmentation was increased with extract concentration compared with that in the control. Taken together, EEPC may serve as potential therapeutic agent against osteosarcoma, provided that the toxicity profile and in vivo investigations demonstrate that it is safe. PMID:27573158

  13. Antidiarrhoeal activity of the ethyl acetate extract of Baphia nitida (Papilionaceae).

    PubMed

    Adeyemi, O O; Akindele, A J

    2008-03-28

    In our search for plants useful in the treatment of diarrhoea, we investigated the ethyl acetate extract of Baphia nitida (BN) using intestinal transit, enteropooling and gastric emptying tests in mice and rats. In the castor oil intestinal transit test, BN produced a significant (P<0.05) dose dependent decrease in propulsion with peristaltic index (PI) values of 56.85+/-6.76, 36.84+/-3.04 and 31.98+/-2.60%, respectively at doses of 100, 200 and 400mg/kg vs. 89.33+/-6.28% for control. The effect at 400mg/kg was significantly lower than that of morphine, 10mg/kg, s.c. (20.29+/-3.78%), and was antagonized by isosorbide dinitrate, IDN (150mg/kg, p.o.) but not by yohimbine (1mg/kg, s.c.). This effect was not potentiated by atropine (1mg/kg, s.c.). In the castor oil-induced diarrhoea test, BN produced a significant increase in onset of diarrhoea (103.40+/-8.74, 138.80+/-17.04 and 174.8+/-29.04min, 100 to 400mg/kg, vs. 47.60+/-8.76min for control and 226.10+/-12.57min for morphine). The severity of diarrhoea (diarrhoea score) was dose dependently reduced (19.00+/-2.26, 17.04+/-1.89, 15.00+/-2.05, 100 to 400mg/kg, vs. 31.40+/-2.11 for control and 7.7+/-2.2 for morphine). This effect was not antagonized by IDN or yohimbine. The effect on severity was, however, potentiated by atropine. BN also reduced the number and weight of wet stools but did not have any significant effect on intestinal fluid accumulation and gastric emptying. Results obtained suggest that the ethyl acetate extract of Baphia nitida is endowed with antidiarrhoeal activity possibly mediated by interference with the l-arginine nitric oxide pathway and synergistic with antagonistic action on muscarinic receptors.

  14. Integrated photografted molecularly imprinted polymers with a cellulose acetate membrane for the extraction of melamine from dry milk before HPLC analysis.

    PubMed

    Akbari-Adergani, Behrouz; Sadeghian, Gholam-Hossein; Alimohammadi, Alireza; Esfandiari, Zahra

    2017-03-01

    In this study, a new separation technique based on membrane extraction is described for the determination of melamine in dry milk. The water-compatible cellulose acetate membrane, which is photografted by melamine imprinted nanospheres, was prepared by placing the membrane into the polymerization solution containing methacrylic acid as a functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as cross-linker, acetonitrile as porogen, and melamine as the template molecule. The characterization of the polymeric membrane was performed by Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. This integrated composite membrane was used as a solid-phase extraction medium for the extraction of melamine from dry milk samples. Various parameters affecting the extraction efficiency of the membrane were evaluated. The results showed higher binding capacity for melamine imprinted membranes in comparison with the nonimprinted membranes. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the extraction of melamine from dry milk by the photografted cellulose acetate membrane had a linear calibration curve in the range of 0.02-11.80 μg/mL with an excellent precision of 2.73%. The limit of detection and quantification of melamine was 0.007 and 0.020 μg/mL, respectively. The recoveries of melamine were in the range of 88.7-94.8%.

  15. Cellular Anti-Melanogenic Effects of a Euryale ferox Seed Extract Ethyl Acetate Fraction via the Lysosomal Degradation Machinery

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seung-Hwa; Nam, In-Jeong; Kwak, Hyeong Seob; Kim, Ki-Chan; Lee, Sang-Han

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Euryale ferox seed extracts (Efse-EA) on melanogenesis in immortalized mouse melanocyte cell line, melan-a. Efse-EA showed strong dose-dependent mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Treatment of melan-a cells with 30 μg/mL Efse-EA produced strong inhibition of cellular tyrosinase and melanin synthesis. Efse-EA significantly reduced the levels of melanogenesis-related proteins, such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related proteins 1 and 2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. Because Efse-EA treatment reduced tyrosinase protein levels without changing its mRNA expression, we investigated whether this decrease was related to proteasomal or lysosomal degradation of tyrosinase. We found that chloroquine, a lysosomal proteolysis inhibitor, almost completely abolished both the down-regulation of tyrosinase and the inhibition of melanin synthesis induced by Efse-EA. These results suggested that Efse-EA may contribute to the inhibition of melanogenesis by altering lysosomal degradation of tyrosinase, and that this extract may provide a new cosmetic skin-whitening agent. PMID:25915032

  16. Cellular Anti-Melanogenic Effects of a Euryale ferox Seed Extract Ethyl Acetate Fraction via the Lysosomal Degradation Machinery.

    PubMed

    Baek, Seung-Hwa; Nam, In-Jeong; Kwak, Hyeong Seob; Kim, Ki-Chan; Lee, Sang-Han

    2015-04-23

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ethyl acetate fraction of Euryale ferox seed extracts (Efse-EA) on melanogenesis in immortalized mouse melanocyte cell line, melan-a. Efse-EA showed strong dose-dependent mushroom tyrosinase inhibitory activity. Treatment of melan-a cells with 30 μg/mL Efse-EA produced strong inhibition of cellular tyrosinase and melanin synthesis. Efse-EA significantly reduced the levels of melanogenesis-related proteins, such as tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related proteins 1 and 2, and microphthalmia-associated transcription factor. Because Efse-EA treatment reduced tyrosinase protein levels without changing its mRNA expression, we investigated whether this decrease was related to proteasomal or lysosomal degradation of tyrosinase. We found that chloroquine, a lysosomal proteolysis inhibitor, almost completely abolished both the down-regulation of tyrosinase and the inhibition of melanin synthesis induced by Efse-EA. These results suggested that Efse-EA may contribute to the inhibition of melanogenesis by altering lysosomal degradation of tyrosinase, and that this extract may provide a new cosmetic skin-whitening agent.

  17. Optimization of the Acetic Acid method for microfossil extraction from lithified carbonate rocks: Examples from the Jurassic and Miocene of Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Septriandi; Malik, Muhammad; Kaminski, Michael; Babalola, Lamidi

    2016-04-01

    We report the first ever use of the acetic acid processing method for the extraction of microfossils from indurated limestones in Saudi Arabia. Two different limestone samples from Middle Jurassic and Middle Miocene formation in Saudi Arabia were tested under different concentrations of acid from 50% to 100% and with processing times from 2 hours to 10 hours, in an attempt to optimize the processing methodology. The recovery of acid residues shows a similar trend for both Jurassic and Miocene samples. The weight percentage of residue particle size > 1 mm decreases as acid concentration increases, especially in the 50 to 80% acid concentration range, and the weight percentage of the smallest size particles >0.063 mm increases as acid concentration increases. The small fraction of residue between 0.50 - 0.063 mm was split into 3 g subsamples and picked for microfossils in order to assess their preservation. All concentrations of acetic acid tested show promising results for both the Jurassic Dhruma and Miocene Dam formation carbonates. Higher acid concentrations with longer reaction times yield better recovery than higher concentrations with less reaction time. Based on our experiment, we recommended a 60% concentration of acetic acid to be the optimal concentration for use on routine micropaleontological samples of Saudi Arabian carbonate rocks. By lowering the concentration of acetic acid from 80% to 60%, the consumption of acid is reduced without compromising the recovery of microfossils, and the sample can be processed in a more environmentally friendly manner.

  18. A solvent extraction approach to recover acetic acid from mixed waste acids produced during semiconductor wafer process.

    PubMed

    Shin, Chang-Hoon; Kim, Ju-Yup; Kim, Jun-Young; Kim, Hyun-Sang; Lee, Hyang-Sook; Mohapatra, Debasish; Ahn, Jae-Woo; Ahn, Jong-Gwan; Bae, Wookeun

    2009-03-15

    Recovery of acetic acid (HAc) from the waste etching solution discharged from silicon wafer manufacturing process has been attempted by using solvent extraction process. For this purpose 2-ethylhexyl alcohol (EHA) was used as organic solvent. In the pre-treatment stage >99% silicon and hydrofluoric acid was removed from the solution by precipitation. The synthesized product, Na(2)SiF(6) having 98.2% purity was considered of commercial grade having good market value. The waste solution containing 279 g/L acetic acid, 513 g/L nitric acid, 0.9 g/L hydrofluoric acid and 0.030 g/L silicon was used for solvent extraction study. From the batch test results equilibrium conditions for HAc recovery were optimized and found to be 4 stages of extraction at an organic:aqueous (O:A) ratio of 3, 4 stages of scrubbing and 4 stages of stripping at an O:A ratio of 1. Deionized water (DW) was used as stripping agent to elute HAc from organic phase. In the whole batch process 96.3% acetic acid recovery was achieved. Continuous operations were successfully conducted for 100 h using a mixer-settler to examine the feasibility of the extraction system for its possible commercial application. Finally, a complete process flowsheet with material balance for the separation and recovery of HAc has been proposed.

  19. Recovery of acetic acid from pre-hydrolysis liquor of hardwood kraft-based dissolving pulp production process by reactive extraction with triisooctylamine.

    PubMed

    Yang, G; Jahan, M Sarwar; Ahsan, Laboni; Zheng, Linqiang; Ni, Yonghao

    2013-06-01

    Acetic acid was one of the main compositions of the pre-hydrolysis liquor (PHL), which was recovered by reactive extraction with triisooctylamine (TIOA) diluted with decanol. Dilution of TIOA played an important role in extracting acetic acid from the PHL. The recovery of acetic acid from the PHL by TIOA was increased from 10.34% to 66.60% with the dilution of TIOA to 20% by decanol at the HAc to TIOA molar ratio of 1, consequently, the equilibrium distribution coefficient KD increased. The effects of time, temperature and pH on the extraction process were also studied. The extraction process was very fast. The acetic acid extraction decreased from 65.13% to 57.34% with the rise of temperature to 50°C from 20°C. A higher pH increased the dissociation of acetic acid, as a result, decreased acetic acid extraction. The hemicelluloses in the PHL were unaffected on the extraction process of acetic acid.

  20. Therapeutic effect of ethyl acetate extract from Asparagus cochinchinensis on phthalic anhydride-induced skin inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Ji-Eun; Lee, Hyun-Ah; Kim, Ji-Eun; Go, Jun; Seo, Eun-Ji; Yun, Woo-Bin; Kim, Dong-Seob; Son, Hong-Joo; Lee, Chung-Yeoul; Lee, Hee-Seob

    2016-01-01

    Asparagus cochinchinensis has been used to treat various diseases including fever, cough, kidney disease, breast cancer, inflammatory disease and brain disease, while IL-4 cytokine has been considered as key regulator on the skin homeostasis and the predisposition toward allergic skin inflammation. However, few studies have investigated its effects and IL-4 correlation on skin inflammation to date. To quantitatively evaluate the suppressive effects of ethyl acetate extracts of A. cochinchinensis (EaEAC) on phthalic anhydride (PA)-induced skin inflammation and investigate the role of IL-4 during their action mechanism, alterations in general phenotype biomarkers and luciferase-derived signals were measured in IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 transgenic (Tg) mice with PA-induced skin inflammation after treatment with EaEAC for 2 weeks. Key phenotype markers including lymph node weight, immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentration, epidermis thickness and number of infiltrated mast cells were significantly decreased in the PA+EaEAC treated group compared with the PA+Vehicle treated group. In addition, expression of IL-1β and TNF-α was also decreased in the PA+EaEAC cotreated group, compared to PA+Vehicle treated group. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the luciferase signal derived from IL-4 promoter was detected in the abdominal region, submandibular lymph node and mesenteric lymph node of the PA+EaEAC treated group, compared to PA+Vehicle treated group. Taken together, these results suggest that EaEAC treatment could successfully improve PA-induced skin inflammation of IL-4/Luc/CNS-1 Tg mice, and that IL-4 cytokine plays a key role in the therapeutic process of EaEAC. PMID:27051441

  1. Stable isotope probing of acetate fed anaerobic batch incubations shows a partial resistance of acetoclastic methanogenesis catalyzed by Methanosarcina to sudden increase of ammonia level.

    PubMed

    Hao, Liping; Lü, Fan; Mazéas, Laurent; Desmond-Le Quéméner, Elie; Madigou, Céline; Guenne, Angéline; Shao, Liming; Bouchez, Théodore; He, Pinjing

    2015-02-01

    Ammonia inhibition represents a major operational issue for anaerobic digestion. In order to refine our understanding of the terminal catabolic steps in thermophilic anaerobic digestion under ammonia stress, we studied batch thermophilic acetate fed experiments at low (0.26 g L(-1)) and high (7.00 g L(-1)) Total Ammonia Nitrogen concentrations (TAN). Although methane production started immediately for all incubations and resulted in methane yields close to stoichiometric expectations, a 62-72% decrease of methanogenic rate was observed throughout the incubation at 7.00 g L(-1) of TAN compared to 0.26 g L(-1). Stable Isotope Probing analysis of active microbial communities in (13)C-acetate fed experiments coupled to automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis and 16S rDNA pyrotag sequencing confirmed that microbial communities were similar for both TAN conditions. At both TAN levels, the (13)C-labeled bacterial community was mainly affiliated to Clostridia-relatives, with OPB54 bacteria being the most abundant sequence in the heavy DNA 16S rDNA pyrotag library. Sequences closely related to Methanosarcina thermophila were also abundantly retrieved in the heavy DNA fractions, showing that this methanogen was still actively assimilating labeled carbon from acetate at free ammonia nitrogen concentrations up to 916 mg L(-1). Stable isotopic signature analysis of biogas, measured in unlabeled acetate fed experiments that were conducted in parallel, confirmed that acetoclastic methanogenic pathway was dominant at both ammonia concentrations. Our work demonstrates that, besides the syntrophic acetate oxidation pathway, acetoclastic methanogenesis catalyzed by Methanosarcina can also play a major role in methane production at high ammonia levels.

  2. Evaluation of Antibacterial, Antineoplastic, and Immunomodulatory Activity of Paullinia cupana Seeds Crude Extract and Ethyl-Acetate Fraction.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Lidiane Vasconcelos do Nascimento; Cordeiro, Marina Ferraz; E Lins, Thiago Ubiratan Lins; Sampaio, Maria Clara Pinheiro Duarte; de Mello, Gabriela Souto Vieira; da Costa, Valécia de Cassia Mendonça; Marques, Leila Larisa Medeiros; Klein, Traudi; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Cavalcanti, Isabella Macário Ferro; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha; Galdino da Rocha Pitta, Maira; Rêgo, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo

    2016-01-01

    Paullinia cupana (Guarana) is a native plant of Amazon region that has very traditional importance. Its seeds are rich in bioactive compounds, including tannins, which exhibit relevant properties. Objective. This study aimed to evaluate antibacterial, antineoplastic, and immunomodulatory activity of P. cupana seeds crude extract (CE) and ethyl-acetate fraction (EAF). Methods. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC). Antineoplastic activity was evaluated by MTT assays in hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), ductal carcinoma (T47-D), non-Hodgkin's B cell lymphoma (Toledo), T cell leukemia (Jukart), and Acute Leukemia (HL-60) cell lines. BALB/c mice splenocytes were treated to assess IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-10 levels by sandwich ELISA. Results. CE and EAF were not toxic to peripheral blood cells and splenocytes. CE and EAF fractions showed a bacteriostatic activity (MIC = 250 μg/mL) and presented IC50 values of 70.25 μg/mL and 61.18 μg/mL in HL-60 leukemia cell line. All cytokines evaluated had their levels reduced after treatment, following dose-response model. Discussion and Conclusion. Different biological activities were observed for both CE and EAF, suggesting P. cupana as a source of bioactive substances, especially tannins that may be used for several diseases treatments.

  3. Evaluation of Antibacterial, Antineoplastic, and Immunomodulatory Activity of Paullinia cupana Seeds Crude Extract and Ethyl-Acetate Fraction

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Lidiane Vasconcelos do Nascimento; Cordeiro, Marina Ferraz; e Lins, Thiago Ubiratan Lins; Sampaio, Maria Clara Pinheiro Duarte; de Mello, Gabriela Souto Vieira; da Costa, Valécia de Cassia Mendonça; Marques, Leila Larisa Medeiros; Klein, Traudi; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Cavalcanti, Isabella Macário Ferro; Pitta, Ivan da Rocha

    2016-01-01

    Paullinia cupana (Guarana) is a native plant of Amazon region that has very traditional importance. Its seeds are rich in bioactive compounds, including tannins, which exhibit relevant properties. Objective. This study aimed to evaluate antibacterial, antineoplastic, and immunomodulatory activity of P. cupana seeds crude extract (CE) and ethyl-acetate fraction (EAF). Methods. Antibacterial activity was evaluated by determination of minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC). Antineoplastic activity was evaluated by MTT assays in hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), ductal carcinoma (T47-D), non-Hodgkin's B cell lymphoma (Toledo), T cell leukemia (Jukart), and Acute Leukemia (HL-60) cell lines. BALB/c mice splenocytes were treated to assess IFN-γ, IL-6, IL-17, and IL-10 levels by sandwich ELISA. Results. CE and EAF were not toxic to peripheral blood cells and splenocytes. CE and EAF fractions showed a bacteriostatic activity (MIC = 250 μg/mL) and presented IC50 values of 70.25 μg/mL and 61.18 μg/mL in HL-60 leukemia cell line. All cytokines evaluated had their levels reduced after treatment, following dose-response model. Discussion and Conclusion. Different biological activities were observed for both CE and EAF, suggesting P. cupana as a source of bioactive substances, especially tannins that may be used for several diseases treatments. PMID:28053639

  4. Anti-inflammatory effect of Helichrysum oligocephalum DC extract on acetic acid — Induced acute colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Minaiyan, Mohsen; Ghassemi-Dehkordi, Nasrollah; Mahzouni, Parvin; Ahmadi, Najme-Sadat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Helichrysum oligocephalum DC. from Asteraceae family is an endemic plant growing wild in Iran. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of H. oligocephalum hydroalcoholic extract (HOHE) on ulcerative colitis (UC) induced by acetic acid (AA) in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were grouped (n = 6) and fasted for 24 h before colitis induction. Treatments were started 2 h before the induction of colitis and continued for two consecutive days with different doses of HOHE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) orally (p.o.) and intraperitoneally (i.p.). The colon tissue was removed and tissue damages were scored after macroscopic and histopathologic assessments. Results: Among the examined doses of HOHE, 100 mg/kg was the most effective dose that reduced the extent of UC lesions and resulted in significant alleviation. Weight/length ratio as an index of tissue inflammation and extravasation was also diminished in the treatment group administered HOHE at a dose of 100 mg/kg, and the results showed correlation with macroscopic and histopathologic evaluations. These data suggest that HOHE (100 mg/kg) administered either p.o. or i.p. was effective in diminishing inflammation and ulcer indices in this murine model of acute colitis in a non–dose-related manner. Conclusions: H. oligocephalum could be considered as a suitable anticolitis alternative; however, further studies are needed to support this hypothesis for clinical setting. PMID:24761395

  5. Ethyl acetate extract of Hypericum japonicum induces apoptosis via the mitochondria-dependent pathway in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhuang, Qunchuan; Li, Jing; Chen, Youqin; Lin, Jiumao; Lai, Faze; Chen, Xuzheng; Lin, Xindeng; Peng, Jun

    2015-10-01

    The widely-used Chinese medicinal herb Hypericum japonicum, also known as Hypericum japonicum Thunb or Tianjihuang, displays potent anti‑carcinogenic effects against liver cancer. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the therapeutic effects of Hypericum japonicum remains to be elucidated. The present study investigated the in vivo efficacy of ethyl acetate extract of Hypericum japonicum (EAEHJ) against tumor growth in an H22 cell‑bearing liver cancer mouse model. Treatment with EAEHJ significantly reduced tumor weight, but had no effect on murine body weight. The results of the present study also showed that EAEHJ induced H22 cell apoptosis in vivo. In addition, the anti‑carcinogenic effects of EAEHJ were investigated in vitro. The results of the present study demonstrate that both phospholipid asymmetry in the plasma membrane and mitochondrial membrane potential were deregulated in HepG2 human hepatoma cells, following treatment with EAEHJ. Treatment with EAEHJ also increased the ratio of pro‑apoptotic B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2)‑associated X protein (Bax) to anti‑apoptotic Bcl‑2, and activated the caspase‑9 signaling pathway. These results suggest that EAEHJ is able to trigger the apoptosis of liver cancer cells via the mitochondria-dependent pathway.

  6. Ethyl acetate extract of Peperomia tetraphylla induces cytotoxicity, cell cycle arrest, and apoptosis in lymphoma U937 cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dayong; Yang, Xiuxiu; Lu, Xuan; Shi, Liying; Feng, Baomin

    2016-12-01

    The current study evaluated the cytotoxicity and the mechanism of apoptotic induction by Peperomia tetraphylla in U937 lymphoma cells. The results showed that P. tetraphylla ethyl acetate extract (EAEPT) inhibited the cell growth in U937 cells by MTT assay. After the U937 cells were treated with EAEPT, the cells exhibited marked morphological features of apoptosis (Hoechst 33342 staining) and the number of apoptotic cell (Annexin V-FITC/PI staining) increased. The treatment of EAEPT could induce loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and increase the ROS level. Moreover, EAEPT treatment resulted in the accumulation of cells at S phase. We found that EAEPT could induce the cleavage of the caspase 3, caspase 8, caspase 9 and Bid. And the treatment of EAEPT could increase expression of Bax and down-regulate the expression of CCNB1, CCND1 and CDK1. The sub-fraction of EAEPT, namely EASub1 demonstrated the highest cytotoxicity activity on U937 cells. It was confirmed that EAEPT could inhibit the growth of U937 cells by blocking the cell cycle and prompted apoptosis via the ROS-medicated mitochondria pathway in vitro.

  7. Antiangiogenic Activity of Glycyrrhiza Extract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying-Qiu

    The bioactivity of extract of glycyrrhiza was detected by zebrafish antiangiogenic model after 70% ethanol extract of glycyrrhiza was extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, n-butanol. The inhibition of the extracts in antiangiogenic activity showed that the highest active components existed in ethyl acetate extract of glycyrrhiza. The ethyl acetate extract of glycyrrhiza was separated by polyamide column chromatography to obtain 7 fractions (Fr1-Fr7), which Fr5 and Fr6 showed antiangiogenic activity.

  8. Activation of apoptosis by ethyl acetate fraction of ethanol extract of Dianthus superbus in HepG2 cell line.

    PubMed

    Yu, Jian-Qing; Yin, Yan; Lei, Jia-Chuan; Zhang, Xiu-Qiao; Chen, Wei; Ding, Cheng-Li; Wu, Shan; He, Xiao-Yu; Liu, Yan-Wen; Zou, Guo-Lin

    2012-02-01

    Dianthus superbus L. is commonly used as a traditional Chinese medicine. We recently showed that ethyl acetate fraction (EE-DS) from ethanol extract of D. superbus exhibited the strongest antioxidant and cytotoxic activities. In this study, we examined apoptosis of HepG2 cells induced by EE-DS, and the mechanism underlying apoptosis was also investigated. Treatment of HepG2 cells with EE-DS (20-80 μg/ml) for 48 h led to a significant dose-dependent increase in the percentage of cells in sub-G1 phase by analysis of the content of DNA in cells, and a large number of apoptotic bodies containing nuclear fragments were observed in cells treated with 80 μg/ml of EE-DS for 24 h by using Hoechst 33258 staining. These data show that EE-DS can induce apoptosis of HepG2 cells. Immunoblot analysis showed that EE-DS significantly suppressed the expressions of Bcl-2 and NF-κB. Treatment of cells with EE-DS (80 μg/ml) for 48 h resulted in significant increase of cytochrome c in the cytosol, which indicated cytochrome c release from mitochondria. Activation of caspase-9 and -3 were also determined when the cells treated with EE-DS. The results suggest that apoptosis of HepG2 cells induced by EE-DS could be through the mitochondrial intrinsic pathway. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) data showed that the composition of EE-DS is complicated. Further studies are needed to find the effective constituents of EE-DS.

  9. Water-soluble extracts from defatted sesame seed flour show antioxidant activity in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ben Othman, Sana; Katsuno, Nakako; Kanamaru, Yoshihiro; Yabe, Tomio

    2015-05-15

    Defatted white and gold sesame seed flour, recovered as a byproduct after sesame oil extraction, was extracted with 70% ethanol to obtain polar-soluble crude extracts. The in vitro antioxidant activity of the extract was evaluated by DPPH free radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbing capacity (ORAC). The polar-soluble crude extracts of both sesame seed types exhibited good antioxidant capacity, especially by the ORAC method with 34,720 and 21,700 μmol Trolox equivalent/100g of white and gold sesame seed extract, respectively. HPLC, butanol extraction, and UPLC-MS analyses showed that different compounds contributed to the antioxidant activity of the polar-soluble crude extracts. Sesaminol glycosides were identified in the butanol-soluble fractions; whereas, purified water-soluble fraction contained ferulic and vanillic acids. This study shows that hydrophilic antioxidants in the purified water-soluble fraction contributed to the antioxidant activity of white and gold sesame seed polar-soluble crude extracts.

  10. Extraction of formic and acetic acids from aqueous solution by dynamic headspace-needle trap extraction temperature and pH optimization.

    PubMed

    Lou, Da-Wei; Lee, Xinqing; Pawliszyn, Janusz

    2008-08-08

    A combined method of dynamic headspace-needle trap sample preparation and gas chromatography for the determination of formic and acetic acids in aqueous solution was developed in this study. A needle extraction device coupled with a gas aspirating pump was intended to perform sampling and preconcentration of target compounds from aqueous sample before gas chromatographic analysis. The needle trap extraction (NTE) technique allows for the successful sampling of short chain fatty acids under dynamic conditions while keeping the headspace (HS) volume constant. Two important parameters, including extraction temperature and effect of acidification, have been optimized and evaluated using the needle trap device. The method detection limits for the compounds estimated were 87.2microg/L for acetic acid and 234.8microg/L for formic acid in spite of the low flame ionization detection response for formic acid and its low Henry's law constant in aqueous solution. Precision was determined based on the two real samples and ranged between 4.7 and 10.7%. The validated headspace-needle trap extraction method was also successfully applied to several environmental samples.

  11. Determination of amitraz and its transformation products in pears by ethyl acetate extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Tokman, Nilgun; Soler, Carla; Farré, Marinel la; Picó, Yolanda; Barceló, Damià

    2009-04-10

    A method has been developed for identification and quantification of the acaricide amitraz and its transformation products, 2,4-dimethylaniline (DMA), 2,4-dimethylformamidine (DMF) and N-2,4-dimethylphenyl-N-methylformamidine (DMPF) in pears. The analytes were extracted using ethyl acetate and anhydrous sodium sulphate. Analysis was performed by liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) in the positive ion mode using a triple quadrupole (QqQ) instrument. Two precursor-product ion transitions were monitored for each compound in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. The method was validated with pears taken from the orchard before the amitraz treatment and spiked at the limit of quantification (LOQ), 10 times the LOQ and the maximum residue limit (MRL). Recoveries were between 70 and 106% and relative standard deviations were below 19% (n=5 at each spiked level). Excellent sensitivity resulted in limits of detection (LODs) for all the compounds below 10 microg kg(-1). Quantification was carried out using matrix-matched standards calibration, response was a linear function of the concentration from the LOQs to, at least, three orders of magnitude. Recoveries and standard deviations were comparable to those obtained after hydrolysis of amitraz and its metabolites to DMA. Occurrence of amitraz and its metabolites in field-treated pears showed that, seven days after the treatment, DMPF and DMF are the main degradation products. This work reports for the first time the use of a conventional pesticide multiresidue method and LC-ESI-MS/MS for determining amitraz and its metabolites in pears.

  12. Daboia russellii and Naja kaouthia venom neutralization by lupeol acetate isolated from the root extract of Indian sarsaparilla Hemidesmus indicus R.Br.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Ipshita; Chakravarty, A K; Gomes, A

    2006-06-15

    The present study reports the isolation and purification of lupeol acetate from the methanolic root extract of Indian medicinal plant Hemidesmus indicus (L.) R.Br. (family: Asclepiadaceae) which could neutralize venom induced action of Daboia russellii and Naja kaouthia on experimental animals. Lupeol acetate could significantly neutralize lethality, haemorrhage, defibrinogenation, edema, PLA(2) activity induced by Daboia russellii venom. It also neutralized Naja kaouthia venom induced lethality, cardiotoxicity, neurotoxicity and respiratory changes in experimental animals. Lupeol acetate potentiated the protection by snake venom antiserum action against Daboia russellii venom induced lethality in male albino mice. Venom induced changes in lipid peroxidation and super oxide dismutase activity was antagonized by lupeol acetate. Snake venom neutralization by lupeol acetate and its possible mechanism of action has been discussed.

  13. Inhibition of Hepatitis C Virus Replication and Viral Helicase by Ethyl Acetate Extract of the Marine Feather Star Alloeocomatella polycladia

    PubMed Central

    Yamashita, Atsuya; Salam, Kazi Abdus; Furuta, Atsushi; Matsuda, Yasuyoshi; Fujita, Osamu; Tani, Hidenori; Fujita, Yoshihisa; Fujimoto, Yuusuke; Ikeda, Masanori; Kato, Nobuyuki; Sakamoto, Naoya; Maekawa, Shinya; Enomoto, Nobuyuki; Nakakoshi, Masamichi; Tsubuki, Masayoshi; Sekiguchi, Yuji; Tsuneda, Satoshi; Akimitsu, Nobuyoshi; Noda, Naohiro; Tanaka, Junichi; Moriishi, Kohji

    2012-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a causative agent of acute and chronic hepatitis, leading to the development of hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. We prepared extracts from 61 marine organisms and screened them by an in vitro fluorescence assay targeting the viral helicase (NS3), which plays an important role in HCV replication, to identify effective candidates for anti-HCV agents. An ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of the feather star Alloeocomatella polycladia exhibited the strongest inhibition of NS3 helicase activity, with an IC50 of 11.7 µg/mL. The extract of A. polycladia inhibited interaction between NS3 and RNA but not ATPase of NS3. Furthermore, the replication of the replicons derived from three HCV strains of genotype 1b in cultured cells was suppressed by the extract with an EC50 value of 23 to 44 µg/mL, which is similar to the IC50 value of the NS3 helicase assay. The extract did not induce interferon or inhibit cell growth. These results suggest that the unknown compound(s) included in A. polycladia can inhibit HCV replication by suppressing the helicase activity of HCV NS3. This study may present a new approach toward the development of a novel therapy for chronic hepatitis C. PMID:22690141

  14. Effect of Coriandrum sativum hydroalcoholic extract and its essential oil on acetic acid- induced acute colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Bahareh; Sajjadi, Seyed Ebrahim; Minaiyan, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the protective effects of Coriandrum sativum on acetic acid-inducedcolitis in rats. C. sativum (Coriander) has long been used in Iranian traditional medicine and its use as an anti-inflammatory agent is still common in some herbal formulations. Materials and Methods: Colitis was induced by intra-rectal administration of 2ml acetic acid 4% in fasted male Wistar rats. Treatment was carried out using three increasing doses of extract (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg) and essential oil (0.25, 0.5, 1 ml/kg) of coriander started 2 h before colitis induction and continued for a five-day period. Colon biopsies were taken for weighting, macroscopic scoring of injured tissue, histopathological examination and measuring myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Results: Colon weight was decreased in the groups treated with extract (500 and 1000 mg/kg) and essential oil (0.5 ml/kg) compared to the control group. Regarding MPO levels, ulcer severity and area as well as the total colitis index, same results indicating meaningful alleviation of colitis was achieved after treatment with oral extract and essential oil. Conclusion: Since the present experiment was made by oral fractions of coriander thus the resulting effects could be due to both the absorption of the active ingredients and/or the effect of non-absorbable materials on colitis after reaching the colon. In this regard, we propose more toxicological and clinical experiments to warranty its beneficial application in human inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:27222834

  15. Cognitive enhancing and antioxidant activity of ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis in scopolamine-induced amnesia

    PubMed Central

    Nade, Vandana S.; Kanhere, Sampat V.; Kawale, Laxman A.; Yadav, Adhikrao V.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the cognitive enhancing and antioxidant activity of Hibiscus rosa sinensis. Materials and Methods: The learning and memory was impaired by administration of scopolamine (1 mg/kg, i.p.) in mice which is associated with altered brain oxidative status. The object recognition test (ORT) and passive avoidance test (PAT) were used to assess cognitive enhancing activity. Animals were treated with an ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of H. sinensis (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, p.o). Results: The ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the methanol extract of H. sinensis (EASF) attenuated amnesia induced by scopolamine and aging. The discrimination index (DI) was significantly decreased in the aged and scopolamine group in ORT. Pretreatment with EASF significantly increased the DI. In PAT, scopolamine-treated mice exhibited significantly shorter step-down latencies (SDL). EASF treatment showed a significant increase in SDL in young, aged as well as in scopolamine-treated animals. The biochemical analysis of brain revealed that scopolamine treatment increased lipid peroxidation and decreased levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione reductase (GSH). Administration of extract significantly reduced LPO and reversed the decrease in brain SOD and GSH levels. The administration of H. sinensis improved memory in amnesic mice and prevented the oxidative stress associated with scopolamine. The mechanism of such protection of H. sinensis may be due to augmentation of cellular antioxidants. Conclusion: The results of the present study suggested that H. sinensis had a protective role against age and scopolamine-induced amnesia, indicating its utility in management of cognitive disorders. PMID:21572646

  16. Antibacterial activity of Pyrrosia petiolosa ethyl acetate extract against Staphylococcus aureus by decreasing hla and sea virulence genes.

    PubMed

    Song, Liju; Cao, Mei; Chen, Chong; Qi, Panpan; Li, Ningzhe; Wu, Daoyan; Peng, Jingshan; Wang, Xuege; Zhang, Mao; Hu, Guoku; Zhao, Jian

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the antibacterial activity of Pyrrosia petiolosa ethyl acetate extract (PPEAE) against Staphylococcus aureus in vitro and analyse its chemical components by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry. The results of anti-microbial assay revealed that PPEAE had strong inhibitory activity against S .aureus, with MIC and MBC of 7.8 and 15.6 mg/mL, respectively. The transcriptional levels of hla and sea were reduced to 14.33 and 46.39% at the MIC compared to the control. Analysing test result exhibited that eugenol made a great contribution to antibacterial activity. This experiment indicated that PPEAE had prominent antibacterial activity against S. aureus.

  17. Enterococcus faecium LKE12 Cell-Free Extract Accelerates Host Plant Growth via Gibberellin and Indole-3-Acetic Acid Secretion.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ko-Eun; Radhakrishnan, Ramalingam; Kang, Sang-Mo; You, Young-Hyun; Joo, Gil-Jae; Lee, In-Jung; Ko, Jae-Hwan; Kim, Jin-Ho

    2015-09-01

    The use of microbial extracts containing plant hormones is a promising technique to improve crop growth. Little is known about the effect of bacterial cell-free extracts on plant growth promotion. This study, based on phytohormonal analyses, aimed at exploring the potential mechanisms by which Enterococcus faecium LKE12 enhances plant growth in oriental melon. A bacterial strain, LKE12, was isolated from soil, and further identified as E. faecium by 16S rDNA sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The plant growth-promoting ability of an LKE12 bacterial culture was tested in a gibberellin (GA)-deficient rice dwarf mutant (waito-C) and a normal GA biosynthesis rice cultivar (Hwayongbyeo). E. faecium LKE12 significantly improved the length and biomass of rice shoots in both normal and dwarf cultivars through the secretion of an array of gibberellins (GA1, GA3, GA7, GA8, GA9, GA12, GA19, GA20, GA24, and GA53), as well as indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study indicating that E. faecium can produce GAs. Increases in shoot and root lengths, plant fresh weight, and chlorophyll content promoted by E. faecium LKE12 and its cell-free extract inoculated in oriental melon plants revealed a favorable interaction of E. faecium LKE12 with plants. Higher plant growth rates and nutrient contents of magnesium, calcium, sodium, iron, manganese, silicon, zinc, and nitrogen were found in cell-free extract-treated plants than in control plants. The results of the current study suggest that E. faecium LKE12 promotes plant growth by producing GAs and IAA; interestingly, the exogenous application of its cell-free culture extract can be a potential strategy to accelerate plant growth.

  18. Draft Genome Sequencing of Ascomycetes Yeast Pichia membranifaciens KS47-1, Which Shows High Acetate Resistance in Lignocellulosic Feedstock Hydrolysate

    PubMed Central

    Arakawa, Tomoko; Kato, Yuta; Ishida, Masashi; Horiuchi, Jun-ichi

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pichia membranifaciens KS47-1 is capable of growing on hydrolysate containing high concentrations of acetate and other growth inhibitors. To reveal the acetate-resistant associate genes of strain KS47-1, we present the 11.4-Mb draft genome sequence. PMID:28232447

  19. Off-line coupling of pressurized liquid extraction and LC/ED for the determination of retinyl acetate and tocopherols in infant formulas.

    PubMed

    Delgado-Zamarreño, M M; Bustamante-Rangel, M; García-Jiménez, M; Sánchez-Pérez, A; Carabias-Martínez, R

    2006-12-15

    An analytical methodology including pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) as sample treatment to isolate retinyl acetate and tocopherols from infant formulas has been developed. The milk extracts were kept at -18 degrees C for 30min and after filtration could be injected directly into the chromatographic system. Thus, a rapid and simple routine control method of these products is possible. The parameters affecting both the extraction process and the liquid chromatography (LC) system were optimized. PLE was performed using one cycle of extraction during a static time of 5min. Methanol was chosen as the extraction solvent for a temperature of 50 degrees C. Chromatographic separation was accomplished using a RP-18 column; the mobile phase used was methanol-water (94:6, v/v) containing 2.5mM acetic acid/sodium acetate buffer. Electrochemical detection in amperometric mode with a glassy carbon electrode at +1100mV was applied. The proposed methodology was successfully used for the determination of retinyl acetate, delta-tocopherol, (beta+gamma)-tocopherol and alpha-tocopherol in different infant formulas. The analytes were evaluated in the same chemical form present in the samples. Recoveries were between 92 and 106%. A certified reference material of milk powder was also analyzed.

  20. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-08

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016.

  1. Antinociceptive Effect of Tephrosia sinapou Extract in the Acetic Acid, Phenyl-p-benzoquinone, Formalin, and Complete Freund's Adjuvant Models of Overt Pain-Like Behavior in Mice.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Renata M; Zarpelon, Ana C; Domiciano, Talita P; Georgetti, Sandra R; Baracat, Marcela M; Moreira, Isabel C; Andrei, Cesar C; Verri, Waldiceu A; Casagrande, Rubia

    2016-01-01

    Tephrosia toxicaria, which is currently known as Tephrosia sinapou (Buc'hoz) A. Chev. (Fabaceae), is a source of compounds such as flavonoids. T. sinapou has been used in Amazonian countries traditional medicine to alleviate pain and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effects of T. sinapou ethyl acetate extract in overt pain-like behavior models in mice by using writhing response and flinching/licking tests. We demonstrated in this study that T. sinapou extract inhibited, in a dose (1-100 mg/kg) dependent manner, acetic acid- and phenyl-p-benzoquinone- (PBQ-) induced writhing response. Furthermore, it was active via intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, and peroral routes of administration. T. sinapou extract also inhibited formalin- and complete Freund's adjuvant- (CFA-) induced flinching/licking at 100 mg/kg dose. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that T. sinapou ethyl acetate extract reduces inflammatory pain in the acetic acid, PBQ, formalin, and CFA models of overt pain-like behavior. Therefore, the potential of analgesic activity of T. sinapou indicates that it deserves further investigation.

  2. Antinociceptive Effect of Tephrosia sinapou Extract in the Acetic Acid, Phenyl-p-benzoquinone, Formalin, and Complete Freund's Adjuvant Models of Overt Pain-Like Behavior in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Renata M.; Zarpelon, Ana C.; Domiciano, Talita P.; Georgetti, Sandra R.; Baracat, Marcela M.; Moreira, Isabel C.; Andrei, Cesar C.; Verri, Waldiceu A.; Casagrande, Rubia

    2016-01-01

    Tephrosia toxicaria, which is currently known as Tephrosia sinapou (Buc'hoz) A. Chev. (Fabaceae), is a source of compounds such as flavonoids. T. sinapou has been used in Amazonian countries traditional medicine to alleviate pain and inflammation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the analgesic effects of T. sinapou ethyl acetate extract in overt pain-like behavior models in mice by using writhing response and flinching/licking tests. We demonstrated in this study that T. sinapou extract inhibited, in a dose (1–100 mg/kg) dependent manner, acetic acid- and phenyl-p-benzoquinone- (PBQ-) induced writhing response. Furthermore, it was active via intraperitoneal, subcutaneous, and peroral routes of administration. T. sinapou extract also inhibited formalin- and complete Freund's adjuvant- (CFA-) induced flinching/licking at 100 mg/kg dose. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate that T. sinapou ethyl acetate extract reduces inflammatory pain in the acetic acid, PBQ, formalin, and CFA models of overt pain-like behavior. Therefore, the potential of analgesic activity of T. sinapou indicates that it deserves further investigation. PMID:27293981

  3. Ethyl Acetate Extract of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum Prevents Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Vujicic, Milica; Nikolic, Ivana; Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Saksida, Tamara; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Vasic, Bobana; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Tzakos, Andreas G; Stojanovic, Ivana

    2016-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that develops as a consequence of pancreatic β-cell death induced by proinflammatory mediators. Because Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (Greek oregano) contains antiinflammatory molecules, we hypothesized that it might be beneficial for the treatment of T1D. An ethyl acetate extract of oregano (EAO) was prepared from the leaves by a polar extraction method. Phytochemical composition was determined by liquid chromatography-UV diode array coupled to ion-trap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization interface (LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n) ). In vitro immunomodulatory effect of EAO was estimated by measuring proliferation (MTT) or cytokine secretion (ELISA) from immune cells. Diabetes was induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MLDS) in male C57BL/6 mice and EAO was administered intraperitoneally for 10 d. Determination of cellular composition (flow cytometry) and cytokine production (ELISA) was performed on 12th d after diabetes induction. EAO suppressed the function of both macrophages and lymphocytes in vitro. In vivo, EAO treatment significantly preserved pancreatic islets and reduced diabetes incidence in MLDS-challenged mice. Besides down-modulatory effect on macrophages, EAO reduced the number of total CD4(+) and activated CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells. Furthermore, EAO affected the number of T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 17 (Th17) cells through downregulation of their key transcription factors T-bet and RORγT. Because EAO treatment protects mice from development of hyperglycemia by reducing proinflammatory macrophage/Th1/Th17 response, this plant extract could represent a basis for future diabetes therapy.

  4. Fucosterol, a sterol extracted from Sargassum fusiforme, shows antidepressant and anticonvulsant effects.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Xing-Hua; Quan, Ying-Chun; Jiang, Hai-Ying; Wen, Zheng-Shun; Qu, You-Le; Guan, Li-Ping

    2015-12-05

    We previously showed that extracts of Sargassum fusiforme significantly reduce immobility time in the forced swim test and tail suspension test, suggesting that these extracts possess antidepressant-like effects. Here, fucosterol extracted from S. fusiforme was evaluated for antidepressant and anticonvulsant activities in mice. Fucosterol (10, 20, 30 and 40mg/kg) significantly shortened immobility time in the forced swim test and tail suspension test for30min after treatment but had no effect on locomotor activity in the open field test. Fucosterol significantly increased serotonin, norepinephrine and the metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in mouse brain, suggesting that the effects of fucosterol may be mediated through these neurotransmitters. As assessed using maximal electroshock, fucosterol (20, 40, 100mg/kg) possessed anticonvulsant activity, whereas rotarod toxicity test results indicated that fucosterol did not induce neurotoxicity at the same dose levels in mice. Thus, fucosterol may be a useful antidepressant adjunct candidate for treating depression in patients with epilepsy. A significant increase in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels was found in the fucosterol 20mg/kg group (P<0.05). Our findings suggested that fucosterol may possess an antidepressant-like effect, which may be mediated by increasing central BDNF levels.

  5. Bezafibrate and medroxyprogesterone acetate target resting and CD40L-stimulated primary marginal zone lymphoma and show promise in indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas.

    PubMed

    Hayden, Rachel E; Kussaibati, Racha; Cronin, Laura M; Pratt, Guy; Roberts, Claudia; Drayson, Mark T; Bunce, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHLs) are the most common adult hematological cancers and many remain incurable. Development of chemotherapy regimens is confounded by the prevalence of B-NHL in older, frailer patients and the chemo-protective tumor microenvironment. Although biological therapies such as rituximab have significantly improved outcomes and selective kinase inhibitors are showing promise, the rate of new drug discovery remains disappointing, the treatments expensive and long-term benefits uncertain. An alternative strategy is redeployment of available, inexpensive and non-toxic drugs. Here, we demonstrate the antiproliferative and mitochondrial superoxide (MSO) driven pro-apoptotic activities of bezafibrate (BEZ) and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) against B-NHL cells, with a bias toward MZL, in the presence and absence of the microenvironmental signal CD40L. Our study is the first to confirm the presence of CD40L within the lymph node of B-NHL and its capacity to drive B-NHL proliferation. These findings implicate BEZ + MPA as a potential therapeutic strategy in B-NHL.

  6. Clove (Syzygium aromaticum Linn) extract rich in eugenol and eugenol derivatives shows bone-preserving efficacy.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, Subhra; Choudhury, Monalisa; Das, Asankur Sekhar; Maiti, Anasuya; Majumdar, Sangita; Mitra, Chandan

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the efficacy of hydroalcoholic extract of dried clove buds, which is rich in phenolic compounds namely eugenol and eugenol derivatives (precursors of flavones, isoflavones and flavonoids), on different primary and secondary osteoporotic marker changes in an ovariectomised (OVX) rat model of osteoporosis. Female Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: sham-operated control (A), OVX (B) and OVX plus 50% hydroalcoholic extract of dried clove buds for 4 weeks (C). Results indicated that, compared to control, serum alkaline phosphatase (AP; 48.25%, p < 0.01), serum tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP; 63.48%, p < 0.01), urinary calcium (14.70%, p < 0.01), urinary phosphate (50.30%, p < 0.01) and urinary creatinine (122.44%, p < 0.01) were significantly altered in OVX rats. All these altered responses were significantly restored (AP: 27.53%, p < 0.01; TRAP: 33.51%, p < 0.01; calcium: 53.15%, p < 0.01; phosphate: 27.49%, p < 0.01; creatinine: 46.40%, p < 0.01) by supplementation with hydroalcoholic extract of dried clove buds. Results of bone density, bone mineral content, bone tensile strength and histological analysis also showed similar trend of results, which supported initial observations of this study. It is proposed that hydroalcoholic extract of dried clove buds has bone-preserving efficacy against hypogonadal osteoporosis.

  7. Validation and uncertainty analysis of a multi-residue method for pesticides in grapes using ethyl acetate extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Kaushik; Oulkar, Dasharath P; Dasgupta, Soma; Patil, Shubhangi B; Patil, Sangram H; Savant, Rahul; Adsule, Pandurang G

    2007-11-30

    A method was validated for the multi-residue analysis of 82 pesticides in grapes at extracted with ethyl acetate (10 mL); cleaned by dispersive solid phase extraction and the results were obtained by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Reduction in sample size and proportion of ethyl acetate for extraction did not affect accuracy or precision of analysis when compared to the reported methods and was also statistically similar to the QuEChERS technique. The method was rugged (HorRat < 0.5) with <20% measurement uncertainties. Limit of quantification was <10 ng/g with recoveries 70-120% for most pesticides. The method offers cheaper and safer alternative to typical multi-residue analysis methods for grape.

  8. Effect of total hydroalcholic extract of Nigella sativa and its n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions on ACHN and GP-293 cell lines.

    PubMed

    Shahraki, Samira; Khajavirad, Abolfazl; Shafei, Mohammad Naser; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Tabasi, Nafisa Sadat

    2016-01-01

    Medicinal plants are noted for their many advantages including the ability to treat diseases such as cancer. In this study, we examined the antitumor effect of the medicinal plant Nigella sativa on the morphology, survival, and apoptosis of ACHN (human renal adenocarcinoma) and GP-293 (normal renal epithelial) cell lines. From a hydroalcoholic extract of N. sativa, n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions were extracted. Cells were treated with various concentrations of total hydroalcholic extract and n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions; cell viability, morphological changes, and apoptosis were then determined. Results were presented as mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM). One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was applied for the statistical analysis of the data. The total extract and the fractions in a dose- and time-dependent manner reduced the cell viability in ACHN with no effect on the GP-293 cell line. In addition, the total extract resulted in more morphological changes in the ACHN cells compared to the GP-293 cells. The effect of the total extract in inducing apoptosis after 48 hours in the ACHN cell line was greater than in GP-293. In addition, the effect of the two fractions was lower than the total extract at all used concentrations. Therefore, the effect of total extract and n-hexane and ethyl acetate fractions of N. sativa on cell viability and apoptosis in the ACHN cell line is greater than in the GP-293 cell line. However, the effect of the total extract is higher than either of the two fractions on their own.

  9. Hydroalcoholic extract of Brazilian red propolis exerts protective effects on acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in a rodent model.

    PubMed

    Barbosa Bezerra, Gislaine; de Menezes de Souza, Luana; Dos Santos, Adailma Santana; de Almeida, Grace Kelly Melo; Souza, Marília Trindade Santana; Santos, Sandra Lauton; Aparecido Camargo, Enilton; Dos Santos Lima, Bruno; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes; Cardoso, Juliana Cordeiro; Gomes, Silvana Vieira Floresta; Gomes, Margarete Zanardo; de Albuquerque, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti

    2017-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a common intestinal inflammatory disease with an etiology that is not well understood. Although the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Brazilian red propolis (HERP) have been reported in various experimental models, its protective effect in models of UC have not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemopreventive effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Brazilian red propolis (HERP) in acetic acid-induced colitis (AAIC) using a rodent model. The HERP was chemically characterised by HPLC/DAD analyses. Male rats were randomly assigned into four groups: sham, vehicle (with AAIC, treated with vehicle), P10 (with AAIC, treated with 10mg/kg HERP), and P100 (with AAIC, treated with 100mg/kg HERP). Treatments were performed for 7days, and colitis was induced on day seven. Animals were euthanized 24h after colitis induction and body weight, colon length, gross and histological scores, malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentrations in colon tissue, and the immunohistochemical expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were assessed. The major compounds found in HERP were liquiritigenin (68.8mg/g), formononetin (54.29mg/g), biochanin A (30.97mg/g), and daidzein (19.90mg/g). Rats treated with 10mg/kg HERP demonstrated significant decreases in MPO concentrations, gross and histological scores of tissue damage, and iNOS expression (p<0.05). Similarly, rats treated with 100mg/kg HERP demonstrated significant decreases in MPO levels (p<0.05) and histological scores of tissue damage (p<0.05). The results of this study indicate that oral administration of HERP attenuates AAIC in rats, which may be due to anti-inflammatory effects related to iNOS inhibition.

  10. Characteristics of lipid extraction from Chlorella sp. cultivated in outdoor raceway ponds with mixture of ethyl acetate and ethanol for biodiesel production.

    PubMed

    Lu, Weidong; Wang, Zhongming; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2015-09-01

    In this work, neutral lipids (NLs) extraction capacity and selectivity of six solvents were firstly compared. In addition, an eco-friendly solvent combination of ethyl acetate and ethanol (EA/E) was proposed and tested for lipid extraction from Chlorella sp. cultivated in outdoor raceway ponds and effect of extraction variables on lipid yield were intensively studied. Results indicated that lipid extraction yield was increased with solvent to biomass ratio but did not vary significantly when the value exceeded 20:1. Lipid yield was found to be strongly dependent on extraction temperature and time. Finally, fatty acid profiles of lipid were determined and results indicated that the major components were octadecanoic acid, palmitic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, demonstrating that the lipid extracted from the Chlorella sp. cultivated in outdoor raceway ponds by EA/E was suitable feedstock for biodiesel production.

  11. Nano polypyrrole-coated magnetic solid phase extraction followed by dispersive liquid phase microextraction for trace determination of megestrol acetate and levonorgestrel.

    PubMed

    Ebrahimpour, Behnam; Yamini, Yadollah; Seidi, Shahram; Tajik, Mohammad

    2015-07-23

    The aim of the present work is combination of the advantages of magnetic solid phase extraction (MSPE) and dispersive liquid phase microextraction (DLLME) followed by filtration-based phase separation. A new pretreatment method was developed for trace determination of megestrol acetate and levonorgestrel by liquid chromatography/ultraviolet detection in biological and wastewater samples. After magnetic solid phase extraction, the eluent of MSPE was used as the disperser solvent for DLLME. Emulsion resulted from DLLME procedure was passed through the in-line filter for phase separation. Finally the retained analytes in the filter was washed with mobile phase of liquid chromatography and transferred to the column for separation. This approach offers the preconcentration factors of 3680 and 3750 for megestrol acetate and levonorgestrel, respectively. This guarantees determination of the organic compounds at trace levels. The important parameters influencing the extraction efficiency were studied and optimized. Under the optimal extraction conditions, a linear range of 0.05-50ngmL(-1) (R(2)>0.998) and limit of detection of 0.03ngmL(-1) were obtained for megestrol acetate and levonorgestrel. Under optimal conditions, the method was successfully applied for determination of target analytes in urine and wastewater samples and satisfactory results were obtained (RSDs<6.8%).

  12. Analytical evaluation of nebulizers for the introduction of acetic acid extracts aiming at the determination of trace elements by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gois, Jefferson S.; Maranhão, Tatiane de A.; Oliveira, Fernando J. S.; Frescura, Vera L. A.; Curtius, Adilson J.; Borges, Daniel L. G.

    2012-11-01

    Most of the official procedures aiming at classification of solid waste toxicity take into account metal solubility and bioavailability by means of extraction experiments using acetic acid solutions. Hence, the aim of this work was to investigate and optimize conditions to suppress the effect of acetic acid on the determination of trace elements using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The performance of four nebulizers (cross-flow (CFN), ultrasonic (USN), Meinhard (MN) and MicroMist (MMN)) were compared as to their efficiency in minimizing spectral and non-spectral effects on the determination of Ag, As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Hg, Pb and Se, with the ultimate goal to analyze acetic acid extracts obtained from solid waste residues. Operating conditions (desolvation temperatures for USN, RF power and nebulizer gas flow rates) were optimized individually for each nebulizer and for all analytes maintained in 0.14 mol L- 1 HNO3 solutions and in solutions prepared with acetic acid and acetic acid + NaOH, adjusted to pH 2.88 and 4.93, respectively. Pronounced non-spectral interferences for 75As and 82Se were observed in the presence of acetic acid for CF and MN, although to a less extent also for MMN and USN. Signal increase for blank solutions measured at m/z 208 (208Pb) for CFN and MN, 107 (107Ag) for USN and MN coupled to a cyclonic chamber and, m/z 82 (82Se) for USN was observed, indicating an increased risk of spectral interference upon an increase in the concentration of acetic acid. Signal increase at specific m/z ratios, however, was not significant when the MMN was used, with the exception of m/z 52 (52Cr) in acetic acid solutions, arising from the formation of 40Ar12C+. This same effect was noticed for all nebulizers, although at noticeably different intensities. A signal stability study was performed, demonstrating that variations in the analytical signal were within a 20% range for all analytes, with the exception of Hg, after continuous aspiration for 70 min

  13. In Vivo Antioxidant and Anti-Skin-Aging Activities of Ethyl Acetate Extraction from Idesia polycarpa Defatted Fruit Residue in Aging Mice Induced by D-Galactose

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Ran-ran; Chen, Fang

    2014-01-01

    Two different concentrations of D-galactose (D-gal) induced organism and skin aging in Kunming mice were used to examine comprehensively the antioxidant and antiaging activities of ethyl acetate extraction (EAE) from Idesia polycarpa defatted fruit residue for the first time. The oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) of EAE was 13.09 ± 0.11 μmol Trolox equivalents (TE)/mg, which showed EAE had great in vitro free radical scavenging and antioxidant activity. Biochemical indexes and morphological analysis of all tested tissues showed that EAE could effectively improve the total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC) of the antioxidant defense system of the aging mice, enhance the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) of tissues and serum, increase glutathione (GSH) content and decrease the malondialdehyde (MDA) content, and maintain the skin collagen, elastin, and moisture content. Meanwhile, EAE could effectively attenuate the morphological damage in brain, liver, kidney, and skin induced by D-gal and its effect was not less than that of the well-known L-ascorbic acid (VC) and α-tocopherol (VE). Overall, EAE is a potent natural antiaging agent with great antioxidant activity, which can be developed as a new medicine and cosmetic for the treatment of age-related conditions. PMID:24971146

  14. Morphological study of bone marrow to assess the effects of lead acetate on haemopoiesis and aplasia and the ameliorating role of Carica papaya extract.

    PubMed

    Tham, Ching S; Chakravarthi, Srikumar; Haleagrahara, Nagaraja; DE Alwis, Ranjit

    2013-02-01

    Lead causes damage to the body by inducing oxidative stress. The sites of damage include the bone marrow, where marrow hypoplasia and osteosclerosis may be observed. Leaves of Carica papaya, which have antioxidant and haemopoietic properties, were tested against the effect of lead acetate in experimental rats. The rats were divided into 8 groups; control, lead acetate only, Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg), post-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) following lead acetate administration and pre-treatment with Carica papaya (50 mg and 200 mg) followed by lead acetate administration. The substances were administered for 14 days. The effects were evaluated by measuring protein carbonyl content (PCC) and glutathione content (GC) in the bone marrow. Histological changes in the bone marrow were also observed. The results showed that Carica papaya induced a significant reduction in the PCC activity and significantly increased the GC in the bone marrow. Carica papaya also improved the histology of the bone marrow compared with that of the lead acetate-treated group. In summary, Carica papaya was effective against the oxidative damage caused by lead acetate in the bone marrow and had a stimulatory effect on haemopoiesis.

  15. Water Extract of Fructus Hordei Germinatus Shows Antihyperprolactinemia Activity via Dopamine D2 Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiong; Ma, Li; Zhang, En-jing; Zou, Ji-li; Guo, Hao; Peng, Si-wei; Wu, Jin-hu

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Fructus Hordei Germinatus is widely used in treating hyperprolactinemia (hyperPRL) as a kind of Chinese traditional herb in China. In this study, we investigated the anti-hyperPRL activity of water extract of Fructus Hordei Germinatus (WEFHG) and mechanism of action. Methods. Effect of WEFHG on serum prolactin (PRL), estradiol (E2), progesterone (P), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH), and hypothalamus protein kinase A (PKA) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels of hyperPRL rats were investigated. And effect of WEFHG on PRL secretion, D2 receptors, and dopamine transporters (DAT) was studied in MMQ, GH3, and PC12 cells, respectively. Results. WEFHG reduced the secretion of PRL in hyperPRL rats effectively. In MMQ cell, treatment with WEFHG at 1–5 mg/mL significantly suppressed PRL secretion and synthesis. Consistent with a D2-action, WEFHG did not affect PRL in rat pituitary lactotropic tumor-derived GH3 cells that lack the D2 receptor expression but significantly increased the expression of D2 receptors and DAT in PC12 cells. In addition, WEFHG reduced the cAMP and PKA levels of hypothalamus in hyperPRL rats significantly. Conclusions. WEFHG showed anti-hyperPRL activity via dopamine D2 receptor, which was related to the second messenger cAMP and PKA. PMID:25254056

  16. Anti-edema effects of brown seaweed (Undaria pinnatifida) extract on phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate-induced mouse ear inflammation.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohammed Nurul Absar; Yoon, Seung-Je; Choi, Jae-Suk; Park, Nam Gyu; Lee, Hyung-Ho; Cho, Ji-Young; Hong, Yong-Ki

    2009-01-01

    The brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida (Harvey) Suringar is used in traditional medicine to treat fever, urination problems, lumps and swelling, and as a dietary supplement for post-childbirth women. We examined the anti-inflammatory activities of the seaweed. The methanol extract of the seaweed was active against mouse ear edema induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), with an IC(50) of 10.3 mg/ml. The extract reduced the edema to a half-maximal level when applied at the concentration of 40 mg/ml within 3 hours before or 2 hours after application of PMA. Extract taken from the blade section of the seaweed demonstrated the highest activity. The Northern form of U. pinnatifida was more active than the Southern form. In the analgesic test, the methanol extract suppressed the acetic acid-induced writhing response, with an IC(50) of 0.48 g/kg body weight. The extract also demonstrated antipyretic activity in yeast-induced hyperthermic mice. Activity-related constituents were arachidonic, eicosapentaenoic, and stearidonic acids.

  17. Evaluation of hydroxyapatite-bioglass and hydroxyapatite-ethyl vinyl acetate composite extracts on antioxidant defense mechanism and genotoxicity: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Arun, M; Silja, P K; Mohanan, P V

    2011-09-01

    Hydroxyapatite-bioglass (HA BG) and hydroxyapatite-ethyl vinyl acetate (HA EVA) are two composite materials that have been developed for bone substitution. Their activity on antioxidant defense mechanism and genotoxicity has not been investigated before. To further confirm its biocompatibility, the present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of HA BG and HA EVA on mice liver antioxidant mechanism along with chromosomal aberrations in human lymphocytes. Physiological saline extract of HA BG and HA EVA showed no adverse effect on liver antioxidant mechanism compared to the cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced toxicity on mice liver homogenate. The results were judged from the in vitro studies made on reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase and lipid peroxidation. These results were well supported by CP- and mytomycin C (MC)-induced genotoxicity studies on human lymphocytes in the presence and absence of a metabolic activator (S9). Hence, it was suggested that these tests could be considered for preliminary toxicological screening of materials intended for clinical applications ahead of in vivo animal model evaluation.

  18. The implementation of high fermentative 2,3-butanediol production from xylose by simultaneous additions of yeast extract, Na2EDTA, and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Hu, Hong-Ying; Liu, De-Hua; Song, Yuan-Quan

    2016-01-25

    The effective use of xylose may significantly enhance the feasibility of using lignocellulosic hydrolysate to produce 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD). Previous difficulties in 2,3-BD production include that the high-concentration xylose cannot be converted completely and the fermentation rate is slow. This study investigated the effects of yeast extract, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (Na2EDTA), and acetic acid on 2,3-BD production from xylose. The central composite design approach was used to optimize the concentrations of these components. It was found that simultaneous addition of yeast extract, Na2EDTA, and acetic acid could significantly improve 2,3-BD production. The optimal concentrations of yeast extract, Na2EDTA, and acetic acid were 35.2, 1.2, and 4.5 g/L, respectively. The 2,3-BD concentration in the optimized medium reached 39.7 g/L after 48 hours of shake flask fermentation, the highest value ever reported in such a short period. The xylose utilization ratio and the 2,3-BD concentration increased to 99.0% and 42.7 g/L, respectively, after 48 hours of stirred batch fermentation. Furthermore, the 2,3-BD yield was 0.475 g/g, 95.0% of the theoretical maximum value. As the major components of lignocellulosic hydrolysate are glucose, xylose, and acetic acid, the results of this study indicate the possibility of directly using the hydrolysate to effectively produce 2,3-BD.

  19. Anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extracts of spent Pleurotus ostreatus substrates in mouse ears treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate

    PubMed Central

    Rivero-Pérez, Nallely; Ayala-Martínez, Maricela; Zepeda-Bastida, Armando; Meneses-Mayo, Marcos; Ojeda-Ramírez, Deyanira

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the application of spent Pleurotus ostreatus substrates, enriched or not with medicinal herbs, as a source of anti-inflammatory compounds. Subjects and Methods: P. ostreatus was cultivated on five different substrates: Barley straw (BS) and BS combined 80:20 with medicinal herbs (Chenopodium ambrosioides L. [BS/CA], Rosmarinus officinalis L. [BS/RO], Litsea glaucescens Kunth [BS/LG], and Tagetes lucida Cav. [BS/TL]). The anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extracts of spent mushroom substrates (SMSs) (4 mg/ear) was studied using an acute inflammation model in the mouse ear induced with 2.5 μg/ear 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol13-acetate (TPA). Results: Groups treated with BS/CA, BS/RO, and BS/LG aqueous extracts exhibited the best anti-inflammatory activity (94.0% ± 5.5%, 92.9% ± 0.6%, and 90.4% ± 5.0% inhibition of auricular edema [IAO], respectively), and these effects were significantly different (P < 0.05) from that of the positive control indomethacin (0.5 mg/ear). BS/TL and BS were also able to reduce TPA-induced inflammation but to a lesser extent (70.0% ± 6.7% and 43.5% ± 6.6% IAO, respectively). Conclusions: Spent P. ostreatus substrate of BS possesses a slight anti-inflammatory effect. The addition of CA L. to mushroom substrate showed a slightly synergistic effect while RO L. had an additive effect. In addition, LG Kunth and TL Cav. enhanced the anti-inflammatory effect of SMS. However, to determine whether there is a synergistic or additive effect, it is necessary to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of each medicinal herb. PMID:27127316

  20. Simultaneous determination of gibberellic acid, indole-3-acetic acid and abscisic acid in wheat extracts by solid-phase extraction and liquid chromatography-electrospray tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hou, Shengjie; Zhu, Jiang; Ding, Mingyu; Lv, Guohua

    2008-08-15

    A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method was developed for simultaneous determination of three representative phytohormones in plant samples: gibberellic acid (GA(3)), indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA). A solid-phase extraction (SPE) pretreatment method was used to concentrate and purify the three phytohormones of different groups from plant samples. The separation was carried out on a C(18) reversed-phase column, using methanol/water containing 0.2% formic acid (50:50, v/v) as the isocratic mobile phase at the flow-rate of 1.0 mL min(-1), and the three phytohormones were eluted within 7 min. A linear ion trap mass spectrometer equipped with electrospray ionization source was operated in negative ion mode. Selective reaction monitoring (SRM) was employed for quantitative measurement. The SRM transitions monitored were as 345-->239, 301 for GA(3), 174-->130 for IAA and 263-->153, 219 for ABA. Good linearities were found within the ranges of 5-200 microg mL(-1) for IAA and 0.005-10 microg mL(-1) for ABA and GA(3). Their detection limits based on a signal-to-noise ratio of three were 0.005 microg mL(-1), 2.2 microg mL(-1) and 0.003 microg mL(-1) for GA(3), IAA and ABA, respectively. Good recoveries from 95.5% to 102.4% for the three phytohormones were obtained. The results demonstrated that the SPE-LC-MS/MS method developed is highly effective for analyzing trace amounts of the three phytohormones in plant samples.

  1. Syzyguim guineense Extracts Show Antioxidant Activities and Beneficial Activities on Oxidative Stress Induced by Ferric Chloride in the Liver Homogenate.

    PubMed

    Pieme, Constant Anatole; Ngoupayo, Joseph; Nkoulou, Claude Herve Khou-Kouz; Moukette, Bruno Moukette; Nono, Borgia Legrand Njinkio; Moor, Vicky Jocelyne Ama; Minkande, Jacqueline Ze; Ngogang, Jeanne Yonkeu

    2014-09-19

    The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging property and the beneficial effects of extracts of various parts of Syzygium guineense in reducing oxidative stress damage in the liver. The effects of extracts on free radicals were determined on radicals DPPH, ABTS, NO and OH followed by the antioxidant properties using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assay (FRAP) and hosphomolybdenum (PPMB). The phytochemical screening of these extracts was performed by determination of the phenolic content. The oxidative damage inhibition in the liver was determined by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase. Overall, the bark extract of the ethanol/water or methanol showed the highest radical scavenging activities against DPPH, ABTS and OH radicals compared to the other extracts. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content implying the potential contribution of phenolic compounds towards the antioxidant activities. However, the methanol extract of the root demonstrated the highest protective effects of SOD and CAT against ferric chloride while the hydro-ethanol extract of the leaves exhibited the highest inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that antioxidant properties of S. guineense extracts could be attributed to phenolic compounds revealed by phytochemical studies. Thus, the present results indicate clearly that the extracts of S. guineense possess antioxidant properties and could serve as free radical inhibitors or scavengers, acting possibly as primary antioxidants. The antioxidant properties of the bark extract may thus sustain its various biological activities.

  2. Syzyguim guineense Extracts Show Antioxidant Activities and Beneficial Activities on Oxidative Stress Induced by Ferric Chloride in the Liver Homogenate

    PubMed Central

    Pieme, Constant Anatole; Ngoupayo, Joseph; Khou-Kouz Nkoulou, Claude Herve; Moukette Moukette, Bruno; Njinkio Nono, Borgia Legrand; Ama Moor, Vicky Jocelyne; Ze Minkande, Jacqueline; Yonkeu Ngogang, Jeanne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro antioxidant activity, free radical scavenging property and the beneficial effects of extracts of various parts of Syzygium guineense in reducing oxidative stress damage in the liver. The effects of extracts on free radicals were determined on radicals DPPH, ABTS, NO and OH followed by the antioxidant properties using Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power assay (FRAP) and hosphomolybdenum (PPMB). The phytochemical screening of these extracts was performed by determination of the phenolic content. The oxidative damage inhibition in the liver was determined by measuring malondialdehyde (MDA) as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase. Overall, the bark extract of the ethanol/water or methanol showed the highest radical scavenging activities against DPPH, ABTS and OH radicals compared to the other extracts. This extract also contained the highest phenolic content implying the potential contribution of phenolic compounds towards the antioxidant activities. However, the methanol extract of the root demonstrated the highest protective effects of SOD and CAT against ferric chloride while the hydro-ethanol extract of the leaves exhibited the highest inhibitory effects on lipid peroxidation. These findings suggest that antioxidant properties of S. guineense extracts could be attributed to phenolic compounds revealed by phytochemical studies. Thus, the present results indicate clearly that the extracts of S. guineense possess antioxidant properties and could serve as free radical inhibitors or scavengers, acting possibly as primary antioxidants. The antioxidant properties of the bark extract may thus sustain its various biological activities. PMID:26785075

  3. Flecainide acetate acetic acid solvates.

    PubMed

    Veldre, Kaspars; Actiņs, Andris; Eglite, Zane

    2011-02-01

    Flecainide acetate forms acetic acid solvates with 0.5 and 2 acetic acid molecules. Powder X-ray diffraction, differential thermal analysis/thermogravimetric, infrared, and potentiometric titration were used to determine the composition of solvates. Flecainide acetate hemisolvate with acetic acid decomposes to form a new crystalline form of flecainide acetate. This form is less stable than the already known polymorphic form at all temperatures, and it is formed due to kinetic reasons. Both flecainide acetate nonsolvated and flecainide acetate hemisolvate forms crystallize in monoclinic crystals, but flecainide triacetate forms triclinic crystals. Solvate formation was not observed when flecainide base was treated with formic acid, propanoic acid, and butanoic acid. Only nonsolvated flecainide salts were obtained in these experiments.

  4. Alcoholic Extract of Eclipta alba Shows In Vitro Antioxidant and Anticancer Activity without Exhibiting Toxicological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Arya, Rakesh Kumar; Dev, Kapil; Sharma, Chetan; Hossain, Zakir; Meena, Sanjeev; Arya, K. R.; Gayen, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    As per WHO estimates, 80% of people around the world use medicinal plants for the cure and prevention of various diseases including cancer owing to their easy availability and cost effectiveness. Eclipta alba has long been used in Ayurveda to treat liver diseases, eye ailments, and hair related disorders. The promising medicinal value of E. alba prompted us to study the antioxidant, nontoxic, and anticancer potential of its alcoholic extract. In the current study, we evaluated the in vitro cytotoxic and antioxidant effect of the alcoholic extract of Eclipta alba (AEEA) in multiple cancer cell lines along with control. We have also evaluated its effect on different in vivo toxicity parameters. Here, we found that AEEA was found to be most active in most of the cancer cell lines but it significantly induced apoptosis in human breast cancer cell lines by disrupting mitochondrial membrane potential and DNA damage. Moreover, AEEA treatment inhibited migration in both MCF 7 and MDA-MB-231 cells in a dose dependent manner. Further, AEEA possesses robust in vitro antioxidant activity along with high total phenolic and flavonoid contents. In summary, our results indicate that Eclipta alba has enormous potential in complementary and alternative medicine for the treatment of cancer. PMID:28250894

  5. Analysis of several methods for the extraction of high quality DNA from acetic acid bacteria in wine and vinegar for characterization by PCR-based methods.

    PubMed

    Jara, C; Mateo, E; Guillamón, J M; Torija, M J; Mas, A

    2008-12-10

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are fastidious microorganisms with poor recovery in culture. Culture-independent methods are currently under examination. Good DNA extraction is a strict requirement of these methods. We compared five methods for extracting the DNA of AAB directly from wine and vinegar samples. Four matrices (white wine, red wine, superficial vinegar and submerged vinegar) contaminated with two AAB strains belonging to Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconacetobacter hansenii were assayed. To improve the yield and quality of the extracted DNA, a sample treatment (washing with polyvinyl pyrrolidone or NaCl) was also tested. DNA quality was measured by amplification of the 16S rRNA gene with conventional PCR. DNA recovery rate was assessed by real-time PCR. DNA amplification was always successful with the Wizard method though DNA recovery was poor. A CTAB-based method and NucleoSpin protocol extracted the highest DNA recoveries from wine and vinegar samples. Both of these methods require treatment to recover suitable DNA for amplification with maximum recovery. Both may therefore be good solutions for DNA extraction in wine and vinegar samples. DNA extraction of Ga hansenii was more effective than that of A. pasteurianus. The fastest and cheapest method we evaluated (the Thermal shock protocol) produced the worst results both for DNA amplification and DNA recovery.

  6. Nanoemulsified green tea extract shows improved hypocholesterolemic effects in C57BL/6 mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Jun; Houng, Soung-Jin; Kim, Jae Hoon; Kim, Young-Rok; Ji, Hong Geun; Lee, Sung-Joon

    2012-02-01

    Nanoemulsification of nutrients could improve bioavailability by enhancing intestinal uptake. We investigated the antioxidant and hypolipidemic effects of nanoemulsified green tea extract (NGTE). Antioxidant effect was measured by 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging assay and dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) assay. C57BL/6 mice were fed a control high-fat diet, green tea extract (GTE), or NGTE diet for 4 weeks. In composition analysis, GTE and NGTE contained similar total catechin concentrations. The antioxidative effect of GTE was comparable with that of NGTE. In the ABTS assay, GTE had a marked effect, although NGTE was more effective than GTE in the DCFH-DA assay. In the mouse feeding experiment, total and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol concentrations were significantly reduced after NGTE treatment in comparison with GTE treatment in high-fat-fed C57BL/6J mice over the course of 4 weeks. The hypocholesterolemic effects were greater in the NGTE group compared with the GTE group (24% vs. 15.4% LDL cholesterol reduction compared with the control). Expression of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase was significantly down-regulated. Protein expression of LDL receptor was significantly increased in the livers of both the GTE- and NGTE-treated groups (+234.1%, P<.01 and +274.7%, P<.001), with a greater effect in the NGTE than in the GTE group. Cholesterol 7α-hydroxylase gene expression was similarly increased in both the GTE and NGTE groups. These results suggest that nanoemulsification significantly increased hypocholesterolemic effects of GTE in vivo due to increased bioavailability.

  7. Synergistic Anti-bacterial Effects of Phellinus baumii Ethyl Acetate Extracts and β-Lactam Antimicrobial Agents Against Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Seung Bok; Rhee, Man Hee; Yun, Bong-Sik; Lim, Young Hoon; Song, Hyung Geun

    2016-01-01

    Background The development of new drugs or alternative therapies effective against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is of great importance, and various natural anti-MRSA products are good candidates for combination therapies. We evaluated the antibacterial activities of a Phellinus baumii ethyl acetate extract (PBEAE) and its synergistic effects with β-lactams against MRSA. Methods The broth microdilution method was used to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the PBEAE. The PBEAE synergistic effects were determined by evaluating the MICs of anti-staphylococcal antibiotic mixtures, with or without PBEAE. Anti-MRSA synergistic bactericidal effects of the PBEAE and β-lactams were assessed by time-killing assay. An ELISA was used to determine the effect of the PBEAE on penicillin binding protein (PBP)2a production. Results The MICs and MBCs of PBEAE against MRSA were 256-512 and 1,024-2,048 µg/mL, respectively. The PBEAE significantly reduced MICs of all β-lactams tested, including oxacillin, cefazolin, cefepime, and penicillin. However, the PBEAE had little or no effect on the activity of non-β-lactams. Time-killing assays showed that the synergistic effects of two β-lactams (oxacillin and cefazolin) with the PBEAE were bactericidal in nature (Δlog10 colony forming unit/mL at 24 hr: 2.34-2.87 and 2.10-3.04, respectively). The PBEAE induced a dose-dependent decrease in PBP2a production by MRSA, suggesting that the inhibition of PBP2a production was a major synergistic mechanism between the β-lactams and the PBEAE. Conclusions PBEAE can enhance the efficacy of β-lactams for combined therapy in patients infected with MRSA. PMID:26709257

  8. THE LIBERATION OF ARSENOSUGARS FROM MATRIX COMPONENTS IN DIFFICULT TO EXTRACT SEAFOOD SAMPLES UTILIZING TMAOH/ACETIC ACID SEQUENTIALLY IN A TWO-STAGE EXTRACTION PROCESS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sample extraction is one of the most important steps in arsenic speciation analysis of solid dietary samples. One of the problem areas in this analysis is the partial extraction of arsenicals from seafood samples. The partial extraction allows the toxicity of the extracted arse...

  9. Techno-economic analysis for incorporating a liquid-liquid extraction system to remove acetic acid into a proposed commercial scale biorefinery.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-08

    Mitigating the effect of fermentation inhibitors in bioethanol plants can have a great positive impact on the economy of this industry. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using ethyl acetate is able to remove fermentation inhibitors-chiefly, acetic acid-from an aqueous solution used to produce bioethanol. The fermentation broth resulting from LLE has higher performance for ethanol yield and its production rate. Previous techno-economic analyses focused on second-generation biofuel production did not address the impact of removing the fermentation inhibitors on the economic performance of the biorefinery. A comprehensive analysis of applying a separation system to mitigate the fermentation inhibition effect and to provide an analysis on the economic impact of removal of acetic acid from corn stover hydrolysate on the overall revenue of the biorefinery is necessary. This study examines the pros and cons associated with implementing LLE column along with the solvent recovery system into a commercial scale bioethanol plant. Using details from the NREL-developed model of corn stover biorefinery, the capital costs associated with the equipment and the operating cost for the use of solvent were estimated and the results were compared with the profit gain due to higher ethanol production. Results indicate that the additional capital will add 1% to the total capital and manufacturing cost will increase by 5.9%. The benefit arises from the higher ethanol production rate and yield as a consequence of inhibitor extraction and results in a $0.35 per gallon reduction in the minimum ethanol selling price (MESP). © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:971-977, 2016.

  10. Mesoxalaldehyde acetals

    SciTech Connect

    Gordeeva, G.N.; Kalashnikov, S.M.; Popov, Yu.N.; Kruglov, E.A.; Imashev, U.B.

    1987-11-10

    The treatment of methylglyoxal acetals by alkyl nitrites in the presence of the corresponding aliphatic alcohols and hydrochloric acid leads to the formation of linear mesoxalaldehyde acetals, whose structure was established by NMR spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. The major pathways for the decomposition of these molecules upon electron impact were established.

  11. Oolong tea extract as a substitute for uranyl acetate in staining of ultrathin sections based on examples of animal tissues for transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    He, Xiaohua; Liu, Bin

    2017-03-20

    Oolong tea extract (OTE) was assessed for its potential as an electron stain to substitute for uranyl acetate (UA) in transmission electron microscopy (TEM). A comparative analysis of the ultrastructures of biological specimens (i.e. compound eye and sciatic nerve tissue) stained by different methods (UA and 0.1% OTE) has been performed. Results revealed that there was no significant difference between the OTE double staining method and the traditional double staining method, except the contrast in the OTE method was slightly lower than the UA method. Nevertheless, the OTE method yielded better or equal details in collagen fibres, neurofilaments and basal lamina in the mammalian sciatic nerve samples, as well as in the microvilli between the cornea and crystalline cone of the insect compound eye. On the whole, it was suggested that OTE could potentially be used as a nonradioactive and hazard-free alternative to UA in TEM staining.

  12. Design and Performance Testing of a DNA Extraction Assay for Sensitive and Reliable Quantification of Acetic Acid Bacteria Directly in Red Wine Using Real Time PCR

    PubMed Central

    Longin, Cédric; Guilloux-Benatier, Michèle; Alexandre, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    Although strategies exist to prevent AAB contamination, the increased interest for wines with low sulfite addition leads to greater AAB spoilage. Hence, there is a real need for a rapid, specific, sensitive, and reliable method for detecting these spoilage bacteria. All these requirements are met by real time Polymerase Chain Reaction (or quantitative PCR; qPCR). Here, we compare existing methods of isolating DNA and their adaptation to a red wine matrix. Two different protocols for isolating DNA and three PCR mix compositions were tested to select the best method. The addition of insoluble polyvinylpolypyrrolidone (PVPP) at 1% (v/v) during DNA extraction using a protocol succeeded in eliminating PCR inhibitors from red wine. We developed a bacterial internal control which was efficient in avoiding false negative results due to decreases in the efficiency of DNA isolation and/or amplification. The specificity, linearity, repeatability, and reproducibility of the method were evaluated. A standard curve was established for the enumeration of AAB inoculated into red wines. The limit of quantification in red wine was 3.7 log AAB/mL and about 2.8 log AAB/mL when the volume of the samples was increased from 1 to 10 mL. Thus, the DNA extraction method developed in this paper allows sensitive and reliable AAB quantification without underestimation thanks to the presence of an internal control. Moreover, monitoring of both the AAB population and the amount of acetic acid in ethanol medium and red wine highlighted that a minimum about 6.0 log cells/mL of AAB is needed to significantly increase the production of acetic acid leading to spoilage. PMID:27313572

  13. Semipurified Ethyl Acetate Partition of Methanolic Extract of Melastoma malabathricum Leaves Exerts Gastroprotective Activity Partly via Its Antioxidant-Antisecretory-Anti-Inflammatory Action and Synergistic Action of Several Flavonoid-Based Compounds

    PubMed Central

    Ismail Suhaimy, Noor Wahida; Noor Azmi, Ahmad Khusairi; Mohtarrudin, Norhafizah; Cheema, Manraj Singh

    2017-01-01

    Recent study has demonstrated the gastroprotective activity of crude methanolic extract of M. malabathricum leaves. The present study evaluated the gastroprotective potential of semipurified extracts (partitions): petroleum ether, ethyl acetate (EAMM), and aqueous obtained from the methanolic extract followed by the elucidation of the gastroprotective mechanisms of the most effective partition. Using the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer assay, all partitions exerted significant gastroprotection, with EAMM being the most effective partition. EAMM significantly (i) reduced the volume and acidity (free and total) while increasing the pH of gastric juice and enhanced the gastric wall mucus secretion when assessed using the pylorus ligation assay, (ii) increased the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant activity of the stomach tissue, (iii) lost its gastroprotective activity following pretreatment with N-omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; NO blocker) or carbenoxolone (CBXN; NP-SH blocker), (iv) exerted antioxidant activity against various in vitro oxidation assays, and (v) showed moderate in vitro anti-inflammatory activity via the LOX-modulated pathway. In conclusion, EAMM exerts a remarkable NO/NP-SH-dependent gastroprotective effect that is attributed to its antisecretory and antioxidant activities, ability to stimulate the gastric mucus production and endogenous antioxidant system, and synergistic action of several gastroprotective-induced flavonoids. PMID:28168011

  14. Semipurified Ethyl Acetate Partition of Methanolic Extract of Melastoma malabathricum Leaves Exerts Gastroprotective Activity Partly via Its Antioxidant-Antisecretory-Anti-Inflammatory Action and Synergistic Action of Several Flavonoid-Based Compounds.

    PubMed

    Ismail Suhaimy, Noor Wahida; Noor Azmi, Ahmad Khusairi; Mohtarrudin, Norhafizah; Omar, Maizatul Hasyima; Tohid, Siti Farah Md; Cheema, Manraj Singh; Teh, Lay Kek; Salleh, Mohd Zaki; Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin

    2017-01-01

    Recent study has demonstrated the gastroprotective activity of crude methanolic extract of M. malabathricum leaves. The present study evaluated the gastroprotective potential of semipurified extracts (partitions): petroleum ether, ethyl acetate (EAMM), and aqueous obtained from the methanolic extract followed by the elucidation of the gastroprotective mechanisms of the most effective partition. Using the ethanol-induced gastric ulcer assay, all partitions exerted significant gastroprotection, with EAMM being the most effective partition. EAMM significantly (i) reduced the volume and acidity (free and total) while increasing the pH of gastric juice and enhanced the gastric wall mucus secretion when assessed using the pylorus ligation assay, (ii) increased the enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant activity of the stomach tissue, (iii) lost its gastroprotective activity following pretreatment with N-omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME; NO blocker) or carbenoxolone (CBXN; NP-SH blocker), (iv) exerted antioxidant activity against various in vitro oxidation assays, and (v) showed moderate in vitro anti-inflammatory activity via the LOX-modulated pathway. In conclusion, EAMM exerts a remarkable NO/NP-SH-dependent gastroprotective effect that is attributed to its antisecretory and antioxidant activities, ability to stimulate the gastric mucus production and endogenous antioxidant system, and synergistic action of several gastroprotective-induced flavonoids.

  15. Anti-inflammatory effect of volatile oil and hydroalcoholic extract of Rosa damascena Mill. on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Latifi, Ghazal; Ghannadi, Alireza; Minaiyan, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Rosa damascena is a small plant belonging to Rosaceae family which has been used for the treatment of some inflammatory diseases and digestive disorders in the Iranian folk medicine. This study was performed to investigate the effect of R. damascena hydroalcoholic extract (RDHE) and R. damascena volatile oil (RDVO) on ulcerative colitis induced by acetic acid in rats. Different doses of RDHE (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg) and RDVO (100, 200, 400 µl/kg) were given orally (p.o.) and doses of RDHE (125, 250, 500 mg/kg) were administrated intraperitoneally (i.p.) to the male Wistar rats (n=6) 2 h before induction of colitis which continued daily for 4 successive days. Prednisolone (4 mg/kg p.o.) and dexamethasone (1 mg/kg i.p.) were used in the reference groups. Weight/length ratios of wet colon were measured and the tissues were assessed macroscopically, histopathologically, and biochemically via measuring the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Oral RDHE at all doses examined, and the lowest dose of RDVO given p.o. or RDHE administered i.p. reduced all indices of colitis measured in different assays as well as the MPO activity. These results provide encouraging support for the use of hydroalcoholic extract of R. damascena in relieving alimentary inflammatory conditions and reinforce the use of this plant to develop new agents for treating ulcerative colitis.

  16. Anti-inflammatory effect of volatile oil and hydroalcoholic extract of Rosa damascena Mill. on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Latifi, Ghazal; Ghannadi, Alireza; Minaiyan, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Rosa damascena is a small plant belonging to Rosaceae family which has been used for the treatment of some inflammatory diseases and digestive disorders in the Iranian folk medicine. This study was performed to investigate the effect of R. damascena hydroalcoholic extract (RDHE) and R. damascena volatile oil (RDVO) on ulcerative colitis induced by acetic acid in rats. Different doses of RDHE (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg) and RDVO (100, 200, 400 µl/kg) were given orally (p.o.) and doses of RDHE (125, 250, 500 mg/kg) were administrated intraperitoneally (i.p.) to the male Wistar rats (n=6) 2 h before induction of colitis which continued daily for 4 successive days. Prednisolone (4 mg/kg p.o.) and dexamethasone (1 mg/kg i.p.) were used in the reference groups. Weight/length ratios of wet colon were measured and the tissues were assessed macroscopically, histopathologically, and biochemically via measuring the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Oral RDHE at all doses examined, and the lowest dose of RDVO given p.o. or RDHE administered i.p. reduced all indices of colitis measured in different assays as well as the MPO activity. These results provide encouraging support for the use of hydroalcoholic extract of R. damascena in relieving alimentary inflammatory conditions and reinforce the use of this plant to develop new agents for treating ulcerative colitis. PMID:26779271

  17. Hydroethanolic extract of Baccharis trimera promotes gastroprotection and healing of acute and chronic gastric ulcers induced by ethanol and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Dos Reis Lívero, Francislaine Aparecida; da Silva, Luisa Mota; Ferreira, Daniele Maria; Galuppo, Larissa Favaretto; Borato, Debora Gasparin; Prando, Thiago Bruno Lima; Lourenço, Emerson Luiz Botelho; Strapasson, Regiane Lauriano Batista; Stefanello, Maria Élida Alves; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula; Acco, Alexandra

    2016-09-01

    Ethanol is a psychoactive substance highly consumed around the world whose health problems include gastric lesions. Baccharis trimera is used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. However, few studies have evaluated its biological and toxic effects. To validate the popular use of B. trimera and elucidate its possible antiulcerogenic and cytotoxic mechanisms, a hydroethanolic extract of B. trimera (HEBT) was evaluated in models of gastric lesions. Rats and mice were used to evaluate the protective and antiulcerogenic effects of HEBT on gastric lesions induced by ethanol, acetic acid, and chronic ethanol consumption. The effects of HEBT were also evaluated in a pylorus ligature model and on gastrointestinal motility. The LD50 of HEBT in mice was additionally estimated. HEBT was analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance, and a high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint analysis was performed. Oral HEBT administration significantly reduced the lesion area and the oxidative stress induced by acute and chronic ethanol consumption. However, HEBT did not protect against gastric wall mucus depletion and did not alter gastric secretory volume, pH, or total acidity in the pylorus ligature model. Histologically, HEBT accelerated the healing of chronic gastric ulcers in rats, reflected by contractions of the ulcer base. Flavonoids and caffeoylquinic acids were detected in HEBT, which likely contributed to the therapeutic efficacy of HEBT, preventing or reversing ethanol- and acetic acid-induced ulcers, respectively. HEBT antiulcerogenic activity may be partially attributable to the inhibition of free radical generation and subsequent prevention of lipid peroxidation. Our results indicate that HEBT has both gastroprotective and curative activity in animal models, with no toxicity.

  18. Alkylated lariat ethers as solvent extraction reagents: Surveying the extraction of alkali metals by bis-t-octylbenzo-14-crown-4-acetic acid by use of potentiometric two-phase titration

    SciTech Connect

    Sachleben, R.A.; Moyer, B.A.; Case, F.I.; Garmon, S.A.

    1993-01-01

    Two-phase potentiometric titrimetry was used to survey the extraction of alkali metal cations from aqueous chloride solution by the lipophilic, ionizable lariat ether bis-(t-octylbenzo)-14-crown-4-acetic acid (BOB14C4AA) in o-xylene. Analysis of the data indicates that ion-exchange extraction by the crown-carboxylic acid at low loading (i.e., low conversion of BOB14C4AA to its salt form) is stronger for lithium ion than for the other alkali metals. Little or no selectivity occurs at high loadings. In comparison with the long-chain carboxylic acid 2-methyl-2-heptylnonanoic acid (HMHN), BOB14C4AA extracts lithium and sodium at significantly lower pH; in the loading range of 0.1 to 0.7, the pH shift is 1.4-1.8 pH units for sodium ion and 1.7-2.3 pH units for lithium ion. The titration data are interpreted in terms of aggregated organic-phase species. In the case of lithium extraction, clear evidence was found for a species in which neutral BOB14C4AA participates in the organic-phase complexation of the metal cation.

  19. Polyphenol-rich strawberry extract (PRSE) shows in vitro and in vivo biological activity against invasive breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Amatori, Stefano; Mazzoni, Luca; Alvarez-Suarez, Josè Miguel; Giampieri, Francesca; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Yuliett; Afrin, Sadia; Errico Provenzano, Alfredo; Persico, Giuseppe; Mezzetti, Bruno; Amici, Augusto; Fanelli, Mirco; Battino, Maurizio

    2016-08-08

    We describe the biological effects of a polyphenol-rich strawberry extract (PRSE), obtained from the "Alba" variety, on the highly aggressive and invasive basal-like breast cancer cell line A17. Dose-response and time-course experiments showed that PRSE is able to decrease the cellular viability of A17 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. PRSE effect on cell survival was investigated in other tumor and normal cell lines of both mouse and human origin, demonstrating that PRSE is more active against breast cancer cells. Cytofluorimetric analysis of A17 cells demonstrated that sub-lethal doses of PRSE reduce the number of cells in S phase, inducing the accumulation of cells in G1 phase of cell cycle. In addition, the migration of A17 cells was studied monitoring the ability of PRSE to inhibit cellular mobility. Gene expression analysis revealed the modulation of 12 genes playing different roles in the cellular migration, adhesion and invasion processes. Finally, in vivo experiments showed the growth inhibition of A17 cells orthotopically transplanted into FVB syngeneic mice fed with PRSE. Overall, we demonstrated that PRSE exerts important biological activities against a highly invasive breast cancer cell line both in vitro and in vivo suggesting the strawberry extracts as preventive/curative food strategy.

  20. Polyphenol-rich strawberry extract (PRSE) shows in vitro and in vivo biological activity against invasive breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Amatori, Stefano; Mazzoni, Luca; Alvarez-Suarez, Josè Miguel; Giampieri, Francesca; Gasparrini, Massimiliano; Forbes-Hernandez, Tamara Yuliett; Afrin, Sadia; Errico Provenzano, Alfredo; Persico, Giuseppe; Mezzetti, Bruno; Amici, Augusto; Fanelli, Mirco; Battino, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    We describe the biological effects of a polyphenol-rich strawberry extract (PRSE), obtained from the “Alba” variety, on the highly aggressive and invasive basal-like breast cancer cell line A17. Dose-response and time-course experiments showed that PRSE is able to decrease the cellular viability of A17 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner. PRSE effect on cell survival was investigated in other tumor and normal cell lines of both mouse and human origin, demonstrating that PRSE is more active against breast cancer cells. Cytofluorimetric analysis of A17 cells demonstrated that sub-lethal doses of PRSE reduce the number of cells in S phase, inducing the accumulation of cells in G1 phase of cell cycle. In addition, the migration of A17 cells was studied monitoring the ability of PRSE to inhibit cellular mobility. Gene expression analysis revealed the modulation of 12 genes playing different roles in the cellular migration, adhesion and invasion processes. Finally, in vivo experiments showed the growth inhibition of A17 cells orthotopically transplanted into FVB syngeneic mice fed with PRSE. Overall, we demonstrated that PRSE exerts important biological activities against a highly invasive breast cancer cell line both in vitro and in vivo suggesting the strawberry extracts as preventive/curative food strategy. PMID:27498973

  1. Thallium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 30 , 2009 , the assessment summary for Thallium acetate is included in t

  2. Phenylmercuric acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phenylmercuric acetate ; CASRN 62 - 38 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  3. Ethyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl acetate ; CASRN 141 - 78 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  4. Ammonium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium acetate ; CASRN 631 - 61 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  5. Vinyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Vinyl acetate ; CASRN 108 - 05 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  6. The feed forward neural network model for liquid-liquid extraction and separation of cobalt (II) from sodium acetate media using cyanex 272

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudibyo, Aji, B. B.; Priyanto, S.

    2017-03-01

    Cobalt is one of the precious ferromagnetic metals, which widely used in the preparation of magnetic, wear-resistant and high-strength alloys. This metal was not found naturally in single metal form but is found as impurities in nickel or copper ore. The extraction process is one of the methods to separate cobalt from its impurities. However, this process needs an expensive organic solution. In practice, changing the composition of chemicals composition in extraction process always affect at a high cost. Therefore, the development of the artificial neural network (ANN) model to model the cobalt extraction process can serve as an important tool for predicting and investigating the optimum production for the cobalt extraction without the need to run the actual experiment. Hence, the development of the ANN model of cobalt extraction model is essential to simulate the process, which can lead to high yields of cobalt production. In this work a selected optimum multiple-input-single-output (MISO) model of feed forward neural network (FFNN) was used to predict the percentage of cobalt extraction. MISO FFNN with 20, 30 and 50 hidden nodes were used to simulate cobalt extraction process. The simulation results achieved was compared with data available in the literature. The results show that MISO FFNN with 50 hidden nodes has the best performance. The optimum result of MISO FFNN then exported to Simulink model in Matlab environment, hence make it easy to use in predicting and investigating for the optimum production of the cobalt extraction.

  7. Fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues from sheep amd calves implanted with tritium-labeled trenbolone acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Evrard, P.; Maghuin-Rogister, G.; Rico, A.G. )

    1989-06-01

    In order to study the fate and residues of trenbolone acetate in edible tissues, two groups of six animals from two ruminant species (ewes and calves) were implanted with (3H)trenbolone acetate. The distribution of extractable radioactive residues was measured in liver, kidney and muscle. We found that the largest proportion of residues was not extractable and thus was considered as covalently bound residues. The proportion of the main extractable metabolites (17 alpha-trenbolone, trendione, 17 beta-trenbolone) was measured. The evaluation of the distribution of trenbolone acetate metabolites directly soluble in water showed that unknown metabolite(s) were predominant. The covalent binding to nucleic acids was measured. It was so low that it was not detectable. The results are discussed in light of the data presented in the scientific report on anabolic agents in animal production from the European scientific working group.

  8. Ethanolic extract of roots from Arctium lappa L. accelerates the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer in rats: Involvement of the antioxidant system.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Luisa Mota; Allemand, Alexandra; Mendes, Daniel Augusto G B; Dos Santos, Ana Cristina; André, Eunice; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Cipriani, Thales Ricardo; Dartora, Nessana; Marques, Maria Consuelo Andrade; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko; Werner, Maria Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the curative efficacy of the ethanolic extract (EET) of roots from Arctium lappa (bardana) in healing of chronic gastric ulcers induced by 80% acetic acid in rats and additionally studies the possible mechanisms underlying this action. Oral administration of EET (1, 3, 10 and 30mg/kg) reduced the gastric lesion area in 29.2%, 41.4%, 59.3% and 38.5%, respectively, and at 10mg/kg promoted significant regeneration of the gastric mucosa, which was confirmed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry. EET (10mg/kg) treatment did not increase the gastric mucus content but restored the superoxide dismutase activity, prevented the reduction of glutathione levels, reduced lipid hydroperoxides levels, inhibited the myeloperoxidase activity and reduced the microvascular permeability. In addition, EET reduced the free radical generation and increased scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals in vitro. Furthermore, intraduodenal EET (10 and 30mg/kg) decreased volume and acidity of gastric secretion. Total phenolic compounds were high in EET (Folin-Ciocalteau assay) and the analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that the main compounds present in EET were a serie of hydroxycinnamoylquinic acid isomers. In conclusion, these data reveal that EET promotes regeneration of damaged gastric mucosa, probably through its antisecretory and antioxidative mechanisms.

  9. Preparation and characterization of magnetic allylamine modified graphene oxide-poly(vinyl acetate-co-divinylbenzene) nanocomposite for vortex assisted magnetic solid phase extraction of some metal ions.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mansoor; Yilmaz, Erkan; Sevinc, Basak; Sahmetlioglu, Ertugrul; Shah, Jasmin; Jan, Muhammad Rasul; Soylak, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic allylamine modified graphene oxide-poly(vinyl acetate-co-divinylbenzene) (MGO-DVB-VA) was synthesized and used for magnetic solid phase extraction of Pb(II), Cd(II), Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) prior to their determination by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The adsorbent surface functional group was characterized by using FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy. XRD pattern was used to determine the layers of GO. Surface morphology and elemental composition of the adsorbent were evaluated by using SEM and EDX analysis. Various parameters, effecting adsorption efficiency like initial solution pH, adsorbent dose, type and volume of eluent, volume of sample and diverse ions effects were optimized. The preconcentration factor (PF) is 40 for all the metals and the limits of detection for Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni and Co are in the range of 0.37-2.39 µg L(-1) and relative standard deviation below 3.1%. The method was validated by using the method for certified reference materials (Tobacco Leaves (INCT-OBTL-5), Tomato Leaves (1573a), Certified Water (SPS-ww2) and Certified Water (TMDA 64-2)). The method was successfully applied for natural water and food samples.

  10. Acetate Kinase Isozymes Confer Robustness in Acetate Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Siu Hung Joshua; Nørregaard, Lasse; Solem, Christian; Jensen, Peter Ruhdal

    2014-01-01

    Acetate kinase (ACK) (EC no: 2.7.2.1) interconverts acetyl-phosphate and acetate to either catabolize or synthesize acetyl-CoA dependent on the metabolic requirement. Among all ACK entries available in UniProt, we found that around 45% are multiple ACKs in some organisms including more than 300 species but surprisingly, little work has been done to clarify whether this has any significance. In an attempt to gain further insight we have studied the two ACKs (AckA1, AckA2) encoded by two neighboring genes conserved in Lactococcus lactis (L. lactis) by analyzing protein sequences, characterizing transcription structure, determining enzyme characteristics and effect on growth physiology. The results show that the two ACKs are most likely individually transcribed. AckA1 has a much higher turnover number and AckA2 has a much higher affinity for acetate in vitro. Consistently, growth experiments of mutant strains reveal that AckA1 has a higher capacity for acetate production which allows faster growth in an environment with high acetate concentration. Meanwhile, AckA2 is important for fast acetate-dependent growth at low concentration of acetate. The results demonstrate that the two ACKs have complementary physiological roles in L. lactis to maintain a robust acetate metabolism for fast growth at different extracellular acetate concentrations. The existence of ACK isozymes may reflect a common evolutionary strategy in bacteria in an environment with varying concentrations of acetate. PMID:24638105

  11. Magnetosomes extracted from Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1 showed enhanced peroxidase-like activity under visible-light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Kefeng; Chen, Chuanfang; Chen, Changyou; Wang, Yuzhan; Wei, Zhao; Pan, Weidong; Song, Tao

    2015-05-01

    Magnetosomes are intracellular structures produced by magnetotactic bacteria and are magnetic nanoparticles surrounded by a lipid bilayer membrane. Magnetosomes reportedly possess intrinsic enzyme mimetic activity similar to that found in horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and can scavenge reactive oxygen species depending on peroxidase activity. Our previous study has demonstrated the phototaxis characteristics of Magnetospirillum magneticum strain AMB-1 cells, but the mechanism is not well understood. Therefore, we studied the relationship between visible-light irradiation and peroxidase-like activity of magnetosomes extracted from M. magneticum strain AMB-1. We then compared this characteristic with that of HRP, iron ions, and naked magnetosomes using 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine as a peroxidase substrate in the presence of H2O2. Results showed that HRP and iron ions had different activities from those of magnetosomes and naked magnetosomes when exposed to visible-light irradiation. Magnetosomes and naked magnetosomes had enhanced peroxidase-like activities under visible-light irradiation, but magnetosomes showed less affinity toward substrates than naked magnetosomes under visible-light irradiation. These results suggested that the peroxidase-like activity of magnetosomes may follow an ordered ternary mechanism rather than a ping-pong mechanism. This finding may provide new insight into the function of magnetosomes in the phototaxis in magnetotactic bacteria.

  12. Effects of dichloroacetate on the metabolism of glucose, pyruvate, acetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate and palmitate in rat diaphragm and heart muscle in vitro and on extraction of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and free fatty acids by dog heart in vivo

    PubMed Central

    McAllister, Anthony; Allison, S. P.; Randle, Philip J.

    1973-01-01

    1. The extractions of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and free fatty acids by dog heart in vivo were calculated from measurements of their arterial and coronary sinus blood concentration. Elevation of plasma free fatty acid concentrations by infusion of intralipid and heparin resulted in increased extraction of free fatty acids and diminished extractions of glucose, lactate and pyruvate by the heart. It is suggested that metabolism of free fatty acids by the heart in vivo, as in vitro, may impair utilization of these substrates. These effects of elevated plasma free fatty acid concentrations on extractions by the heart in vivo were reversed by injection of dichloroacetate, which also improved extraction of lactate and pyruvate by the heart in vivo in alloxan diabetes. 2. Sodium dichloroacetate increased glucose oxidation and pyruvate oxidation in hearts from fed normal or alloxan-diabetic rats perfused with glucose and insulin. Dichloroacetate inhibited oxidation of acetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate and partially reversed inhibitory effects of these substrates on the oxidation of glucose. In rat diaphragm muscle dichloroacetate inhibited oxidation of acetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate and palmitate and increased glucose oxidation and pyruvate oxidation in diaphragms from alloxan-diabetic rats. Dichloroacetate increased the rate of glycolysis in hearts perfused with glucose, insulin and acetate and evidence is given that this results from a lowering of the citrate concentration within the cell, with a consequent activation of phosphofructokinase. 3. In hearts from normal rats perfused with glucose and insulin, dichloroacetate increased cell concentrations of acetyl-CoA, acetylcarnitine and glutamate and lowered those of aspartate and malate. In perfusions with glucose, insulin and acetate, dichloroacetate lowered the cell citrate concentration without lowering the acetyl-CoA or acetylcarnitine concentrations. Measurements of specific radioactivities of acetyl-CoA, acetylcarnitine

  13. Determination of organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables by an enzyme inhibition method using α-naphthyl acetate esterase extracted from wheat flour*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jun-liang; Xia, Qing; Zhang, An-ping; Hu, Xiao-yan; Lin, Chun-mian

    2012-01-01

    The widespread use of organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) poses a great threat to human health and has made the detection of OP residues in food an important task, especially in view of the fact that easy and rapid detection methods are needed. Because OPs have inhibitory effects on the activity of α-naphthyl acetate esterase (ANAE) in plants, in this work we evaluated the possibility of detecting OPs in vegetables with ANAE extracted from commercial flour. The limits of detection (LODs) obtained for methamidophos, dichlorvos, phoxim, dimethoate, and malathion in lettuce samples with crude ANAE were 0.17, 0.11, 0.11, 0.96, and 1.70 mg/kg, respectively. Based on the maximum residue limits (MRLs) for OPs in food stipulated by Chinese laws which are 0.05, 0.20, 0.05, 1.00, and 8.00 mg/kg for methamidophos, dichlorvos, phoxim, dimethoate, and malathion, respectively, the esterase inhibition method with crude ANAE had sufficient sensitivity to detect the residues of dichlorvos, dimethoate, and malathion in lettuce, but it could not be used to guarantee the safety of the same samples if methamidophos or phoxim residue was present. The sensitivity of the method was improved by the use of esterase purified by ammonium sulfate salting-out. The LODs obtained for methamidophos and phoxim with purified esterase were lower than the MRLs for these OPs in food. This is a very promising method for the detection of OP residues in vegetables using crude or purified esterase because of its cheapness, sensitivity, and convenience. PMID:22467368

  14. Biologically active triterpenoids of Syncarpia glomulifera bark extract from Paluma, north Queensland, Australia.

    PubMed

    Setzer, W N; Setzer, M C; Bates, R B; Jackes, B R

    2000-03-01

    The crude chloroform bark extract of Syncarpia glomulifera (Myrtaceae) shows antibacterial and cytotoxic activity. Bioactivity-directed separation led to the isolation of oleanolic acid-3-acetate, ursolic acid-3-acetate and betulinic acid. The relatively large abundance (10% of the crude extract) and high degree of activity of betulinic acid are responsible for the bioactivity of the crude bark extract.

  15. Attachment of 13 Types of Foodborne Bacteria to Jalapeño and Serrano Peppers and Antibacterial Effect of Roselle Calyx Extracts, Sodium Hypochlorite, Colloidal Silver, and Acetic Acid against These Foodborne Bacteria on Peppers.

    PubMed

    Rangel-Vargas, Esmeralda; Gómez-Aldapa, Carlos A; Falfan-Cortes, Reyna N; Rodríguez-Marín, María L; Godínez-Oviedo, Angélica; Acevedo-Sandoval, Otilio A; Castro-Rosas, Javier

    2017-03-01

    Chili peppers are a very important crop in Mexico. However, these peppers have been associated with Salmonella infection outbreaks in the United States, and Salmonella and diarrheagenic Escherichia coli pathotypes have been isolated from jalapeño and serrano peppers in Mexico. To decrease microbial contamination of fruits and vegetables, chemical agents are commonly used; however, chemical agents used to eliminate pathogenic bacteria on vegetables have a limited antimicrobial effect. Roselle ( Hibiscus sabdariffa ) calyces have been reported to have an antimicrobial effect on pathogenic bacteria. In the present study, the antibacterial effect of four roselle calyx extracts (water, methanol, acetone, and ethyl acetate), sodium hypochlorite, colloidal silver, and acetic acid against foodborne bacteria was evaluated on contaminated jalapeño and serrano peppers. The 13 types of foodborne bacteria evaluated were Listeria monocytogenes , Shigella flexneri , Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Montevideo, Staphylococcus aureus , E. coli O157:H7, five E. coli pathotypes (Shiga toxin producing, enteropathogenic, enterotoxigenic, enteroinvasive, and enteroaggregative), and Vibrio cholerae O1. All 13 types attached to both pepper types, with no significant differences in attachment between jalapeño and serrano peppers. Roselle calyx extract treatment resulted in a greater reduction in levels of all foodborne bacteria than did treatment with sodium hypochlorite, colloidal silver, and acetic acid on both pepper types. Roselle calyx extracts may be a useful for disinfection of chili peppers in the field, processing plants, restaurants, and homes.

  16. Sesquiterpene lactone containing extracts from two cultivars of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus) show distinctive chemical profiles and in vitro activity against Ostertagia ostertagi.

    PubMed

    Peña-Espinoza, Miguel; Boas, Ulrik; Williams, Andrew R; Thamsborg, Stig M; Simonsen, Henrik T; Enemark, Heidi L

    2015-12-01

    The study investigated direct anthelmintic effects of sesquiterpene lactones (SL)-containing extracts from forage chicory against free-living and parasitic stages of Ostertagia ostertagi. Freeze-dried leaves from chicory cultivars 'Spadona' and 'Puna II' were extracted using methanol/water. Total SL were further fractionated by solid-phase extraction and resulting extracts were characterised by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). O. ostertagi eggs from faeces of mono-infected calves were hatched and L1 were used in a larval feeding inhibition assay (LFIA), while cultured L3 were used in a larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA). Adult worms were immediately recovered after slaughter and used for motility inhibition assays (AMIA). Electron microscopy (EM) was performed on adult O. ostertagi exposed to 1000 μg extract mL(-1) of both chicory cultivars. In all assays, decreasing concentrations of SL-containing extracts in PBS (1% DMSO) were tested in replicates with 1% DMSO in PBS as negative controls. HPLC demonstrated similar concentrations of most SL in both extracts. However, Spadona-extract contained significantly higher concentrations of 11, 13-dihydro-8-deoxylactucin (P = 0.01), while Puna II-extract had increased levels of 11, 13-dihydrolactucin (P < 0.0001). In the LFIA, both extracts reduced larval feeding at increasing concentrations, but Spadona-extract showed higher potency confirmed by significantly lower EC50 (P < 0.0001). In the LEIA, neither of the two extracts interfered with the exsheathment of L3 (P > 0.05). In the AMIA, both SL-containing extracts induced a dose-dependent effect but Spadona-extract showed greater activity and exerted faster worm paralysis than Puna II-extract with significantly lower EC50 (P < 0.0001). No cuticular damage was observed by EM in worms exposed to any of the extracts. We have demonstrated that SL-containing extracts from forage chicory can inhibit feeding of free-living larvae and exert

  17. Sesquiterpene lactone containing extracts from two cultivars of forage chicory (Cichorium intybus) show distinctive chemical profiles and in vitro activity against Ostertagia ostertagi

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Espinoza, Miguel; Boas, Ulrik; Williams, Andrew R.; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Simonsen, Henrik T.; Enemark, Heidi L.

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated direct anthelmintic effects of sesquiterpene lactones (SL)-containing extracts from forage chicory against free-living and parasitic stages of Ostertagia ostertagi. Freeze-dried leaves from chicory cultivars ‘Spadona’ and ‘Puna II’ were extracted using methanol/water. Total SL were further fractionated by solid-phase extraction and resulting extracts were characterised by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). O. ostertagi eggs from faeces of mono-infected calves were hatched and L1 were used in a larval feeding inhibition assay (LFIA), while cultured L3 were used in a larval exsheathment inhibition assay (LEIA). Adult worms were immediately recovered after slaughter and used for motility inhibition assays (AMIA). Electron microscopy (EM) was performed on adult O. ostertagi exposed to 1000 μg extract mL−1 of both chicory cultivars. In all assays, decreasing concentrations of SL-containing extracts in PBS (1% DMSO) were tested in replicates with 1% DMSO in PBS as negative controls. HPLC demonstrated similar concentrations of most SL in both extracts. However, Spadona-extract contained significantly higher concentrations of 11, 13-dihydro-8-deoxylactucin (P = 0.01), while Puna II-extract had increased levels of 11, 13-dihydrolactucin (P < 0.0001). In the LFIA, both extracts reduced larval feeding at increasing concentrations, but Spadona-extract showed higher potency confirmed by significantly lower EC50 (P < 0.0001). In the LEIA, neither of the two extracts interfered with the exsheathment of L3 (P > 0.05). In the AMIA, both SL-containing extracts induced a dose-dependent effect but Spadona-extract showed greater activity and exerted faster worm paralysis than Puna II-extract with significantly lower EC50 (P < 0.0001). No cuticular damage was observed by EM in worms exposed to any of the extracts. We have demonstrated that SL-containing extracts from forage chicory can inhibit feeding of free-living larvae and

  18. The Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Addition of Rosemary Extract, Sodium Acetate and Calcium Lactate Mixture on the Quality of Pre-cooked Hamburger Patties during Refrigerated Storage.

    PubMed

    Muhlisin; Kang, Sun Moon; Choi, Won Hee; Lee, Keun Taik; Cheong, Sung Hee; Lee, Sung Ki

    2013-01-01

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP; 30% CO2+70% N2 or 100% N2) and an additive mixture (500 ppm rosemary extract, 3,000 ppm sodium acetate and 1,500 ppm calcium lactate) on the quality of pre-cooked hamburger patties during storage at 5°C for 14 d was evaluated. The addition of the additive mixture reduced aerobic and anaerobic bacteria counts in both 30% CO2-MAP (30% CO2+70% N2) and 100% N2-MAP (p<0.05). The 30% CO2-MAP was more effective to suppress the microbial growth than 100% N2-MAP, moreover the 30% CO2-MAP combined with additive mixture resulted in the lowest bacterial counts. The hamburger patties with additive mixture showed lower CIE L* and CIE a*, and higher CIE b* than those with no additive mixture. The 30% CO2-MAP tended to decrease the TBARS during storage regardless of the addition of additives. The use of 30% CO2-MAP in combination with additives mixture was effective for maintaining the quality and extending the shelf-life of pre-cooked hamburger patties.

  19. Agaricus blazei hot water extract shows anti quorum sensing activity in the nosocomial human pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Soković, Marina; Ćirić, Ana; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Nikolić, Miloš; van Griensven, Leo J L D

    2014-04-03

    The edible mushroom Agaricus blazei Murill is known to induce protective immunomodulatory action against a variety of infectious diseases. In the present study we report potential anti-quorum sensing properties of A. blazei hot water extract. Quorum sensing (QS) plays an important role in virulence, biofilm formation and survival of many pathogenic bacteria, including the Gram negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and is considered as a novel and promising target for anti-infectious agents. In this study, the effect of the sub-MICs of Agaricus blazei water extract on QS regulated virulence factors and biofilm formation was evaluated against P. aeruginosa PAO1. Sub-MIC concentrations of the extract which did not kill P. aeruginosa nor inhibited its growth, demonstrated a statistically significant reduction of virulence factors of P. aeruginosa, such as pyocyanin production, twitching and swimming motility. The biofilm forming capability of P. aeruginosa was also reduced in a concentration-dependent manner at sub-MIC values. Water extract of A. blazei is a promising source of antiquorum sensing and antibacterial compounds.

  20. Antimycobacterial activity of two natural alkaloids, vasicine acetate and 2-acetyl benzylamine, isolated from Indian shrub Adhatoda vasica Ness. leaves.

    PubMed

    Ignacimuthu, S; Shanmugam, N

    2010-12-01

    In folk medicine, Adhatoda vasica Ness. (Acanthaceae) is used to treat asthma and cough. The leaves of A. vasica were powdered and extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol. The hexane extract showed 97 percent reduction in colony-forming units (CFU) at 100 microg/ml. The hexane extract was subjected to column chromatography. Two natural compounds, vasicine acetate and 2-acetyl benzylamine, were isolated from it. They were bioassayed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The two compounds showed strong antimycobacterial activity. Vasicine acetate and 2-acetyl benzylamine isolated from hexane extract of A. vasica leaves, significantly inhibited M. tuberculosis and one multi-drug-resistant (MDR) strain and one sensitive strain at 200 and 50 microg/ml, respectively. Our study demonstrated that both the compounds, vasicine acetate and 2-acetyl benzylamine, could be evaluated further for developing a drug to control M. tuberculosis.

  1. Ethyl acetate extract from marine sponge Hyattella cribriformis exhibit potent anticancer activity by promoting tubulin polymerization as evidenced mitotic arrest and induction of apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Annamalai, Pazhanimuthu; Thayman, Malini; Rajan, Sowmiya; Raman, Lakshmi Sundaram; Ramasubbu, Sankar; Perumal, Pachiappan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Marine sponges are important sources of bioactive compounds. Objective: This study investigated the anticancer properties of Hyattella cribriformis ethyl acetate (EA) fraction in various cancer and normal cell lines. Materials and Methods: anticancer assay was carried out in 15 cell lines to evaluate the anticancer potential of the EA fraction. Impact on cell cycle distribution was determined using flow cytometry. The fraction was investigated for interfering microtubules assembly in both in vitro and cellular assay. Further studies were conducted to determine the fraction induced cell death (apoptosis) using calcein/propidium iodide dual staining, activated caspase-3 and phosphorylation of Bcl-2 protein at Ser70. DNA fragmentation assay was performed to confirm the apoptosis. Results: EA fraction exhibited potent inhibition of cancer cell growth and resulted in 50% growth inhibition (GI50) of 0.27 μg/mL in A673 cell line. Sarcoma (MG-63, Saos-2) and ovarian (SK-OV-3 and OVCAR-3) cancer cell lines also showed superior anticancer activity GI50 of 1.0 μg/mL. Colon and breast cancer cell lines exhibited moderate GI compare other cancer cell lines and normal human lung fibroblast showed GI50 of 15.6 μg/mL. EA fraction showed potent G2/M phase arrest in A673 cell line and induced apoptosis at 48 h exposure. EA fraction promoted microtubule polymerization in tubulin polymerization assay and increased level of polymerized tubulin in the HeLa cells. Fraction induced the activation of caspase-3 and phosphorylation of Bcl-2 anti-apoptotic protein. Fraction induced DNA fragmentation in HeLa cells as evidence of apoptosis. Conclusion: Marine sponge H. cribriformis EA fraction exhibited potent anticancer activity through tubulin polymerization and induction of apoptosis. PMID:25829774

  2. Saraca indica Bark Extract Shows In Vitro Antioxidant, Antibreast Cancer Activity and Does Not Exhibit Toxicological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Navneet Kumar; Saini, Karan Singh; Hossain, Zakir; Omer, Ankur; Sharma, Chetan; Gayen, Jiaur R.; Singh, Poonam; Arya, K. R.; Singh, R. K.

    2015-01-01

    Medicinal plants are used as a complementary and alternative medicine in treatment of various diseases including cancer worldwide, because of their ease of accessibility and cost effectiveness. Multicomposed mixture of compounds present in a plant extract has synergistic activity, increases the therapeutic potential many folds, compensates toxicity, and increases bioavailability. Saraca indica (family Caesalpiniaceae) is one of the most ancient sacred plants with medicinal properties, exhibiting a number of pharmacological effects. Antioxidant, antibreast cancer activity and toxicological evaluation of Saraca indica bark extract (SIE) were carried out in the present study. The results of the study indicated that this herbal preparation has antioxidant and antibreast cancer activity. Toxicological studies suggest that SIE is safer to use and may have a potential to be used as complementary and alternative medicine for breast cancer therapy. PMID:25861411

  3. Extremophile extracts and enhancement techniques show promise for the development of a live vaccine against Flavobacterium columnare

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Powell, D.B.; Palm, R.C.; MacKenzie, A.P.; Winton, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of temperature, ionic strength, and new cryopreservatives derived from polar ice bacteria were investigated to help accelerate the development of economical, live attenuated vaccines for aquaculture. Extracts of the extremophile Gelidibacter algens functioned very well as part of a lyophilization cryoprotectant formulation in a 15-week storage trial. The bacterial extract and trehalose additives resulted in significantly higher colony counts of columnaris bacteria (Flavobacterium columnare) compared to nonfat milk or physiological saline at all time points measured. The bacterial extract combined with trehalose appeared to enhance the relative efficiency of recovery and growth potential of columnaris in flask culture compared to saline, nonfat milk, or trehalose-only controls. Pre-lyophilization temperature treatments significantly affected F. columnare survival following rehydration. A 30-min exposure at 0 ??C resulted in a 10-fold increase in bacterial survival following rehydration compared to mid-range temperature treatments. The brief 30 and 35 ??C pre-lyophilization exposures appeared to be detrimental to the rehydration survival of the bacteria. The survival of F. columnare through the lyophilization process was also strongly affected by changes in ionic strength of the bacterial suspension. Changes in rehydration constituents were also found to be important in promoting increased survival and growth. As the sodium chloride concentration increased, the viability of rehydrated F. columnare decreased. ?? 2009 Elsevier Inc.

  4. Enzyme-treated Asparagus officinalis extract shows neuroprotective effects and attenuates cognitive impairment in senescence-accelerated mice.

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Takuya; Ito, Tomohiro; Wakame, Koji; Kitadate, Kentaro; Arai, Takashi; Ogasawara, Junetsu; Kizaki, Takako; Sato, Shogo; Ishibashi, Yoshinaga; Fujiwara, Tomonori; Akagawa, Kimio; Ishida, Hitoshi; Ohno, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Increases in the number of patients with dementia involving Alzheimer's disease (AD) are seen as a grave public health problem. In neurodegenerative disorders involving AD, biological stresses, such as oxidative and inflammatory stress, induce neural cell damage. Asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is a popular vegetable, and an extract prepared from this reportedly possesses various beneficial biological activities. In the present study, we investigated the effects of enzyme-treated asparagus extract (ETAS) on neuronal cells and early cognitive impairment of senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) mice. The expression of mRNAs for factors that exert cytoprotective and anti-apoptotic functions, such as heat-shock protein 70 and heme oxygenase-1, was upregulated in NG108-15 neuronal cells by treatment with ETAS. Moreover, when release of lactate dehydrogenase from damaged NG108-15 cells was increased for cells cultured in medium containing either the nitric oxide donor sodium nitroprusside or the hypoxia mimic reagent cobalt chloride, ETAS significantly attenuated this cell damage. Also, when contextual fear memory, which is considered to be a hippocampus-dependent memory, was significantly impaired in SAMP8 mice, ETAS attenuated the cognitive impairment. These results suggest that ETAS produces cytoprotective effects in neuronal cells and attenuates the effects on the cognitive impairment of SAMP8 mice.

  5. Methanolic Extract of Dill Leaves Inhibits AGEs Formation and Shows Potential Hepatoprotective Effects in CCl4 Induced Liver Toxicity in Rat.

    PubMed

    Oshaghi, Ebrahim Abbasi; Khodadadi, Iraj; Mirzaei, Fatemeh; Khazaei, Mozafar; Tavilani, Heidar; Goodarzi, Mohammad Taghi

    2017-01-01

    The research was aimed at evaluating the antiglycation, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties of methanolic extract of Anethum graveolens (dill). The antioxidant properties, photochemical characteristics, and antiglycation effects of dill extract were measured. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxic rats were used to show the hepatoprotective activity of dill leaves. Different concentration of dill extract (0.032, 0.065, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/mL) showed potential antioxidant ability. The extract of dill leaves significantly reduced AGEs formation and also fructosamine and protein carbonyl levels in rats' liver. Thiol groups' oxidation, amyloid cross-β, and protein fragmentation (P < 0.001) significantly reduced in treated rats. Liver damage markers significantly reduced in dill-treated animals (P < 0.05). Dill with potential antioxidant, antiglycation, and hepatoprotective effects can be suggested for treatment of diabetes complications.

  6. Methanolic Extract of Dill Leaves Inhibits AGEs Formation and Shows Potential Hepatoprotective Effects in CCl4 Induced Liver Toxicity in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Khodadadi, Iraj; Mirzaei, Fatemeh; Khazaei, Mozafar; Tavilani, Heidar

    2017-01-01

    The research was aimed at evaluating the antiglycation, antioxidant, and hepatoprotective properties of methanolic extract of Anethum graveolens (dill). The antioxidant properties, photochemical characteristics, and antiglycation effects of dill extract were measured. Carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxic rats were used to show the hepatoprotective activity of dill leaves. Different concentration of dill extract (0.032, 0.065, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5, and 1 mg/mL) showed potential antioxidant ability. The extract of dill leaves significantly reduced AGEs formation and also fructosamine and protein carbonyl levels in rats' liver. Thiol groups' oxidation, amyloid cross-β, and protein fragmentation (P < 0.001) significantly reduced in treated rats. Liver damage markers significantly reduced in dill-treated animals (P < 0.05). Dill with potential antioxidant, antiglycation, and hepatoprotective effects can be suggested for treatment of diabetes complications. PMID:28182107

  7. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  8. [Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles: Progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Zinder, S.

    1991-12-31

    The objective of this project is to provide an understanding of thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms capable of breaking down acetic acid, the precursor of two-thirds of the methane produced by anaerobic bioreactors. Recent results include: (1) the isolation of Methanothrix strain CALLS-1, which grows much more rapidly than mesophilic strains; (2) the demonstration that thermophilic cultures of Methanosarcina and Methanothrix show minimum thresholds for acetate utilization of 1--2.5 mM and 10--20{mu}m respectively, in agreement with ecological data indicating that Methanothrix is favored by low acetate concentration; (3) the demonstration of high levels of thermostable acetyl-coA synthetase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in cell-free extracts of Methanothrix strains CALS-1; (4) the demonstration of methanogenesis from acetate and ATP in cell free extracts of strain CALS-1. (5) the demonstration that methanogenesis from acetate required 2 ATP/methane, and, in contrast to Methanosarcina, was independent of hydrogen and other electron donors; (6) the finding that entropy effects must be considered when predicting the level of hydrogen in thermophilic syntrophic cultures. (7) the isolation and characterization of the Desulfotomaculum thermoacetoxidans. Current research is centered on factors which allow thermophilic Methanothrix to compete with Methanosarcina.

  9. (Conversion of acetic acid to methane by thermophiles: Progress report)

    SciTech Connect

    Zinder, S.

    1991-01-01

    The objective of this project is to provide an understanding of thermophilic anaerobic microorganisms capable of breaking down acetic acid, the precursor of two-thirds of the methane produced by anaerobic bioreactors. Recent results include: (1) the isolation of Methanothrix strain CALLS-1, which grows much more rapidly than mesophilic strains; (2) the demonstration that thermophilic cultures of Methanosarcina and Methanothrix show minimum thresholds for acetate utilization of 1--2.5 mM and 10--20{mu}m respectively, in agreement with ecological data indicating that Methanothrix is favored by low acetate concentration; (3) the demonstration of high levels of thermostable acetyl-coA synthetase and carbon monoxide dehydrogenase in cell-free extracts of Methanothrix strains CALS-1; (4) the demonstration of methanogenesis from acetate and ATP in cell free extracts of strain CALS-1. (5) the demonstration that methanogenesis from acetate required 2 ATP/methane, and, in contrast to Methanosarcina, was independent of hydrogen and other electron donors; (6) the finding that entropy effects must be considered when predicting the level of hydrogen in thermophilic syntrophic cultures. (7) the isolation and characterization of the Desulfotomaculum thermoacetoxidans. Current research is centered on factors which allow thermophilic Methanothrix to compete with Methanosarcina.

  10. White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei That Have Received Gracilaria tenuistipitata Extract Show Early Recovery of Immune Parameters after Ammonia Stressing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Huang, Chien-Lun

    2015-06-05

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater (35‰) containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE) at 0 (control), 400, and 600 mg/L for 3 h were exposed to 5 mg/L ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen), and immune parameters including hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells), total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lysozyme activity, and hemolymph protein level were examined 24~120 h post-stress. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE returned to original values earlier, at 96~120 h post-stress, whereas in control shrimp they did not. In another experiment, shrimp were immersed in seawater containing GTE at 0 and 600 mg/L for 3 h and examined for transcript levels of immune-related genes at 24 h post-stress. Transcript levels of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and HSP70 were up-regulated at 24 h post-stress in GTE receiving shrimp. We concluded that white shrimp immersed in seawater containing GTE exhibited a capability for maintaining homeostasis by regulating cellular and humoral immunity against ammonia stress as evidenced by up-regulated gene expression and earlier recovery of immune parameters.

  11. White Shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei That Have Received Gracilaria tenuistipitata Extract Show Early Recovery of Immune Parameters after Ammonia Stressing

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Chen, Jiann-Chu; Lin, Yong-Chin; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Huang, Chien-Lun

    2015-01-01

    White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater (35‰) containing Gracilaria tenuistipitata extract (GTE) at 0 (control), 400, and 600 mg/L for 3 h were exposed to 5 mg/L ammonia-N (ammonia as nitrogen), and immune parameters including hyaline cells (HCs), granular cells (GCs, including semi-granular cells), total hemocyte count (THC), phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory bursts (RBs), superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, lysozyme activity, and hemolymph protein level were examined 24~120 h post-stress. The immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 600 mg/L GTE returned to original values earlier, at 96~120 h post-stress, whereas in control shrimp they did not. In another experiment, shrimp were immersed in seawater containing GTE at 0 and 600 mg/L for 3 h and examined for transcript levels of immune-related genes at 24 h post-stress. Transcript levels of lipopolysaccharide and β-1,3-glucan binding protein (LGBP), peroxinectin (PX), cytMnSOD, mtMnSOD, and HSP70 were up-regulated at 24 h post-stress in GTE receiving shrimp. We concluded that white shrimp immersed in seawater containing GTE exhibited a capability for maintaining homeostasis by regulating cellular and humoral immunity against ammonia stress as evidenced by up-regulated gene expression and earlier recovery of immune parameters. PMID:26058012

  12. Validation of Human Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic Model for Vinyl Acetate Against Human Nasal Dosimetry Data

    SciTech Connect

    Hinderliter, Paul M.; Thrall, Karla D.; Corley, Rick A.; Bloemen, Louis J.; Bogdanffy, M S.

    2005-05-01

    Vinyl acetate has been shown to induce nasal lesions in rodents in inhalation bioassays. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for vinyl acetate has been used in human risk assessment, but previous in vivo validation was conducted only in rats. Controlled human exposures to vinyl acetate were conducted to provide validation data for the application of the model in humans. Five volunteers were exposed to 1, 5, and 10 ppm 13 C1 , 13 C2 vinyl acetate via inhalation. A probe inserted into thenasopharyngeal region sampled both 13 C1 , 13 C2 vinyl acetate and the major metabolite 13 C1 , 13 C2 acetaldehyde during rest and light exercise. Nasopharyngeal air concentrations were analyzed in real time by ion trap mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Experimental concentrations of both vinyl acetate and acetaldehyde were then compared to predicted concentrations calculated from the previously published human model. Model predictions of vinyl acetate nasal extraction compared favorably with measured values of vinyl acetate, as did predictions of nasopharyngeal acetaldehyde when compared to measured acetaldehyde. The results showed that the current PBPK model structure and parameterization are appropriate for vinyl acetate. These analyses were conducted from 1 to 10 ppm vinyl acetate, a range relevant to workplace exposure standards but which would not be expected to saturate vinyl acetate metabolism. Risk assessment based on this model further concluded that 24 h per day exposures up to 1 ppm do not present concern regarding cancer or non-cancer toxicity. Validation of the vinyl acetate human PBPK model provides support for these conclusions.

  13. Validation of human physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for vinyl acetate against human nasal dosimetry data.

    PubMed

    Hinderliter, P M; Thrall, K D; Corley, R A; Bloemen, L J; Bogdanffy, M S

    2005-05-01

    Vinyl acetate has been shown to induce nasal lesions in rodents in inhalation bioassays. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for vinyl acetate has been used in human risk assessment, but previous in vivo validation was conducted only in rats. Controlled human exposures to vinyl acetate were conducted to provide validation data for the application of the model in humans. Five volunteers were exposed to 1, 5, and 10 ppm 13C1,13C2 vinyl acetate via inhalation. A probe inserted into the nasopharyngeal region sampled both 13C1,13C2 vinyl acetate and the major metabolite 13C1,13C2 acetaldehyde during rest and light exercise. Nasopharyngeal air concentrations were analyzed in real time by ion trap mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Experimental concentrations of both vinyl acetate and acetaldehyde were then compared to predicted concentrations calculated from the previously published human model. Model predictions of vinyl acetate nasal extraction compared favorably with measured values of vinyl acetate, as did predictions of nasopharyngeal acetaldehyde when compared to measured acetaldehyde. The results showed that the current PBPK model structure and parameterization are appropriate for vinyl acetate. These analyses were conducted from 1 to 10 ppm vinyl acetate, a range relevant to workplace exposure standards but which would not be expected to saturate vinyl acetate metabolism. Risk assessment based on this model further concluded that 24 h per day exposures up to 1 ppm do not present concern regarding cancer or non-cancer toxicity. Validation of the vinyl acetate human PBPK model provides support for these conclusions.

  14. Viability of Cabralea canjerana Extracts to Control the South American Fruit Fly, Anastrepha fraterculus

    PubMed Central

    Magrini, Flaviane Eva; Specht, Alexandre; Gaio, Juliano; Girelli, Cristiane Priscila; Migues, Ignacio; Heinzen, Horacio; Sartori, Valdirene Camatti; Cesio, Veronica

    2014-01-01

    Several representatives of Meliaceae contain biologically active compounds that are toxic to insects with few negative effects on the environment and humans. Our study evaluated the activity of ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts from the fruit and seeds of Cabralea canjerana (Vellozo) Mart (Sapindales: Meliaceae) on Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Limonoids and triterpenes were detected in fruit and seed extracts. Each extract was added to an artificial diet at three concentrations and tested after 24, 48, and 72 hr of extract application. Ethyl acetate extracts were the most active ones and showed the effect of both dose and time elapses after application on the insects. The highest toxic effect on A. fraterculus adults was from ethyl acetate extracts from fruit, followed by extracts from seeds. These extracts showed antifeedant activities. Extract solutions sprinkled on fruits of Carica papaya (L.) (Brassicales: Caricaceae) caused oviposition repellency and negatively affected the biological development of A. fraterculus. Ethyl acetate extracts highly hampered oviposition, but seed extracts showed lesser oviposition deterrence. The fruit and seed extracts diminished pupal viability. Particularly, the ethyl acetate fruit extract caused malformed adults. The sex ratio was also affected, resulting in female predominance for the fruit extract, while the seed extract showed a dose-dependent effect. Low doses caused male abundance, but at higher concentrations the effect was reversed. These encouraging results showed that the C. canjerana extracts have great potential as new tools to be used in integrated pest management programs to protect fruits against A. fraterculus. PMID:25373194

  15. Viability of Cabralea canjerana extracts to control the South American fruit fly, Anastrepha fraterculus.

    PubMed

    Magrini, Flaviane Eva; Specht, Alexandre; Gaio, Juliano; Girelli, Cristiane Priscila; Migues, Ignacio; Heinzen, Horacio; Sartori, Valdirene Camatti; Cesio, Veronica

    2014-04-10

    Several representatives of Meliaceae contain biologically active compounds that are toxic to insects with few negative effects on the environment and humans. Our study evaluated the activity of ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts from the fruit and seeds of Cabralea canjerana (Vellozo) Mart (Sapindales: Meliaceae) on Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae). Limonoids and triterpenes were detected in fruit and seed extracts. Each extract was added to an artificial diet at three concentrations and tested after 24, 48, and 72 hr of extract application. Ethyl acetate extracts were the most active ones and showed the effect of both dose and time elapses after application on the insects. The highest toxic effect on A. fraterculus adults was from ethyl acetate extracts from fruit, followed by extracts from seeds. These extracts showed antifeedant activities. Extract solutions sprinkled on fruits of Carica papaya (L.) (Brassicales: Caricaceae) caused oviposition repellency and negatively affected the biological development of A. fraterculus. Ethyl acetate extracts highly hampered oviposition, but seed extracts showed lesser oviposition deterrence. The fruit and seed extracts diminished pupal viability. Particularly, the ethyl acetate fruit extract caused malformed adults. The sex ratio was also affected, resulting in female predominance for the fruit extract, while the seed extract showed a dose-dependent effect. Low doses caused male abundance, but at higher concentrations the effect was reversed. These encouraging results showed that the C. canjerana extracts have great potential as new tools to be used in integrated pest management programs to protect fruits against A. fraterculus.

  16. Ethyl acetate-n-butanol gradient solvent system for high-speed countercurrent chromatography to screen bioactive substances in okra.

    PubMed

    Ying, Hao; Jiang, Heyuan; Liu, Huan; Chen, Fangjuan; Du, Qizhen

    2014-09-12

    High-speed countercurrent chromatographic separation (HSCCC) possesses the property of zero-loss of sample, which is very useful for the screening of bioactive components. In the present study, the ethyl acetate-n-butanol gradient HSCCC solvent system composed of n-hexane-ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water was investigated for the screening of bioactive substances. To screen the antiproliferative compounds in okra extract, we used the stationary phase ethyl acetate-n-butanol-water (1:1:10) as the stationary phase, and eluted the antiproliferative components by 6-steps of gradient using mobile phases n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:2), n-hexane-ethyl acetate (1:4), n-hexane-ethyl acetate (0:4), n-butanol-ethyl acetate (1:4) n-butanol-ethyl acetate (1:2), n-butanol-ethyl acetate (2:2), and n-butanol-ethyl acetate (2:1). The fractions collected from HSCCC separation with the gradient solvent system were assayed for antiproliferative activity against cancer cells. Bioactive components were identified: a major anti-cancer compound, 4'-hydroxy phenethyl trans-ferulate, with middle activity, and a minor anti-cancer compound, carolignan, with strong activity. The result shows that the gradient solvent system is potential for the screening of bioactive compounds from natural products.

  17. 3,5-Diarylpyrazole Derivatives Obtained by Ammonolysis of the Total Flavonoids from Chrysanthemum indicum Extract Show Potential for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Wu, Taizong; Jiang, Cheng; Wang, Ling; Morris-Natschke, Susan L; Miao, Hui; Gu, Lianquan; Xu, Jun; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung; Gu, Qiong

    2015-07-24

    Four new 3,5-diarylpyrazole analogues (1-4) were isolated from an extract of the flowers of Chrysanthemun indicum using a combination of ammonolysis of the total flavonoid extract and an Aβ aggregation inhibitory activity guided purification procedure. All four compounds (1-4) showed moderate to potent activity against Aβ aggregation with EC50 values of 4.3, 15.8, 1.3, and 2.9 μM, respectively. Moreover, compound 3 showed low cytotoxicity and significant neuroprotective activity against Aβ-induced cytotoxicity in the SH-SY5Y cell line. This report is the first to show that 3,5-diarylpyrazole analogues can inhibit Aβ aggregation and exhibit neuroprotective activity with potential for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease. Taken together, the method presented here offers an alternative approach to yield bioactive compounds.

  18. Simultaneous determination of scopoletin, psoralen, bergapten, xanthotoxin, columbianetin acetate, imperatorin, osthole and isoimperatorin in rat plasma by LC-MS/MS for pharmacokinetic studies following oral administration of Radix Angelicae Pubescentis extract.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yan-xu; Zhang, Qiu-Hong; Li, Jin; Zhang, Ling; Guo, Xin-rong; He, Jun; Zhang, Peng; Ma, Lin; Deng, Yan-ru; Zhang, Bo-li; Gao, Xiu-mei

    2013-04-15

    A rapid and sensitive bioassay based on liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of eight coumarins in rat plasma. The liquid-liquid extraction method with ethyl acetate was used to prepare the plasma samples after addition of warfarin as an internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was performed on an Eclipse plus C18 column (100mm×4.6mm, 1.8μm) using gradient elution when 1mM ammonium acetate aqueous solution - acetonitrile was used as the mobile phase. The lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of each coumarin was lower than 2.16ngmL(-1). Intra-day and inter-day precisions were less than 15%. The accuracies were in the range of 88.9-117%. The mean recoveries of coumarins and IS were higher than 84%. The method was successfully applied to a pharmacokinetic study of eight coumarins in rats after oral administration of radix angelicae pubescentis.

  19. The effects of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaves on the gastric acid secretion and brain and intestinal water content following acetic acid- induced gastric ulcer in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarzi, Zakieh; Rezapour, Taha Mohammad; Vatanchian, Mehran; Zare Hesari, Mohammad; Nabizade Haghighi, Hadi; Izanlu, Mostafa; Sabaghian, Maryam; Shahveisi, Kaveh

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Gut–brain axis (GBA) is very important in creation and modulation of gastrointestinal problems. Aloe vera gel has gastroprotective properties. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Aloe vera leaves on the gastric acid secretion and brain and intestinal water content following acetic acid gastric ulcer induction. Materials and Methods: Gastric ulcer was induced by injection of 20% acetic acid into the subserosal layer in male rats. Rats were randomly assigned into three groups: intact group, gastric ulcer group and Aloe vera group (treatment with Aloe vera following gastric ulcer induction). The acid levels and brain and intestinal water content of each sample were measured eight days after the gastric ulcer induction. Results: Gastric acid levels were significantly decreased in Aloe vera group when compared with gastric ulcer group (p<0.05). However, there were no differences in acid output between gastric ulcer and Aloe vera groups with intact group. After Aloe vera administration, the amount of brain water content had no difference with intact and gastric ulcer groups (p<0.05). The duodenal water content in Aloe vera group was significantly reduced compared with intact group (p<0.05) but gastric ulcer group had no significant difference with intact and Aloe vera group. Conclusions: The administration of Aloe vera has an inhibitory effect on the gastric acid output. PMID:25050311

  20. In Vitro and In Vivo Antimalarial Activity Assays of Seeds from Balanites aegyptiaca: Compounds of the Extract Show Growth Inhibition and Activity against Plasmodial Aminopeptidase

    PubMed Central

    Kusch, Peter; Deininger, Susanne; Specht, Sabine; Maniako, Rudeka; Haubrich, Stefanie; Pommerening, Tanja; Lin, Paul Kong Thoo; Hoerauf, Achim; Kaiser, Annette

    2011-01-01

    Balanites aegyptiaca (Balanitaceae) is a widely grown desert plant with multiuse potential. In the present paper, a crude extract from B. aegyptiaca seeds equivalent to a ratio of 1 : 2000 seeds to the extract was screened for antiplasmodial activity. The determined IC50 value for the chloroquine-susceptible Plasmodium falciparum NF54 strain was 68.26 μg/μL ± 3.5. Analysis of the extract by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected 6-phenyl-2(H)-1,2,4-triazin-5-one oxime, an inhibitor of the parasitic M18 Aspartyl Aminopeptidase as one of the compounds which is responsible for the in vitro antiplasmodial activity. The crude plant extract had a Ki of 2.35 μg/μL and showed a dose-dependent response. After depletion of the compound, a significantly lower inhibition was determined with a Ki of 4.8 μg/μL. Moreover, two phenolic compounds, that is, 2,6-di-tert-butyl-phenol and 2,4-di-tert-butyl-phenol, with determined IC50 values of 50.29 μM ± 3 and 47.82 μM ± 2.5, respectively, were detected. These compounds may contribute to the in vitro antimalarial activity due to their antioxidative properties. In an in vivo experiment, treatment of BALB/c mice with the aqueous Balanite extract did not lead to eradication of the parasites, although a reduced parasitemia at day 12 p.i. was observed. PMID:21687598

  1. High-performance liquid chromatographic determination of beta-alanine, beta-aminoisobutyric acid and gamma-aminobutyric acid in tissue extracts and urine of normal and (aminooxy)acetate-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Abe, T; Kurozumi, Y; Yao, W B; Ubuka, T

    1998-08-07

    A method is described for the simultaneous determination of beta-alanine, beta-aminoisobutyric acid and gamma-aminobutyric acid in biological materials. Amino acids including these beta- and gamma-amino acids were derivatized with 4-dimethylaminoazobenzene-4'-sulfonyl (dabsyl) chloride and dabsyl amino acids formed were separated by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Dabsyl derivatives of these beta- and gamma-amino acids were well separated from other dabsyl-amino acids. The method was applied to the determination of these beta- and gamma-amino acids in trichloroacetic acid extracts of various tissues and to the urine of normal rats and those injected with (aminooxy)acetate (AOA). AOA injection (15 mg per kg of body mass) produced remarkable increase in beta-alanine contents in liver, kidney and urine (10.2, 4.6 and 25.7 times, respectively).

  2. Validation and uncertainty analysis of a multiresidue method for 42 pesticides in made tea, tea infusion and spent leaves using ethyl acetate extraction and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kanrar, Bappaditya; Mandal, Sudeb; Bhattacharyya, Anjan

    2010-03-19

    A rapid, specific and sensitive multiresidue method to determine 42 pesticides in made tea, tea infusion and spent leaves has been developed and validated for the routine analysis by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The method was reproducible (Horwitz ratio (HorRat) <0.5 at 50 ng/g) and validated by the analysis of sample spiked at 50 and 100 ng/g in made tea, tea infusion and spent leaves. The samples were extracted with ethyl acetate+cyclohexane (9:1; v/v), and the extracts were cleaned up by dispersive solid phase extraction with primary secondary amine sorbent+graphitized carbon black+Florisil. The recoveries of all the pesticides were between 70% and 120% with a relative standard deviation of less than 15% and correlation coefficient for each pesticide was R(2) > or =0.99. The matrix effect on signal of respective compounds was measured by comparing matrix-matched calibration standards with those in solvent-only. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) met the requirements of the maximum residue limits (MRLs) for pesticides in tea as recommended by the European Union.

  3. CELLULOSE NITRATE-ACETATE MIXED ESTERS

    DTIC Science & Technology

    cellulose acetate . The degree of polymerization of the products, as estimated from viscosity data, shows the occurrence of chain degradation for both...mixed esters showed tensile strength at least comparable to that of films of cellulose nitrate or cellulose acetate . The impact sensitivity of the

  4. Anti-leukemic activity of Dillenia indica L. fruit extract and quantification of betulinic acid by HPLC.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Deepak; Mallick, Sumana; Vedasiromoni, Joseph R; Pal, Bikas C

    2010-05-01

    The methanolic extract of Dillenia indica L. fruits showed significant anti-leukemic activity in human leukemic cell lines U937, HL60 and K562. This finding led to fractionation of the methanolic extract, on the basis of polarity, in which the ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest anti-leukemic activity. A major compound, betulinic acid, was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction by silica gel column chromatography and was identified and characterized. Betulinic acid could explain the anti-leukemic activity of the methanolic extract and the ethyl acetate fraction. Hence the quantitative estimation of betulinic acid was approached in methanolic extract and fractions using HPLC.

  5. Comparison of different solid-phase-extraction cartridges for a fatty acid cleanup of the ethyl acetate/cyclohexane based multi-pesticide residue method EN 12393.

    PubMed

    Steinbach, Philipp; Schwack, Wolfgang

    2014-01-03

    SPE cartridges of different anion exchange materials and florisil were compared regarding their efficiency to remove free fatty acids from ethylacetate/cyclohexane (1:1) extracts, their elution profiles and recovery rates for 38 representative pesticides, their contribution to an elevated background during gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and on possible matrix effects caused by the cartridge material itself. From the seven tested cartridges, only Varian PSA (PSA) and Silicycle SiliaPrep Diamine (SPD) were very well able to retain fatty acids from ethylacetate/cyclohexane solutions and provided satisfying recoveries and elution profiles for the tested pesticides. Thus, with both cartridges a fast and simple cleanup was developed and tested with 86 pesticides as well as with EN 12393 GPC extracts of oat flour. The SPE cleanup clearly improved the identification of pesticides and reduced false negative findings due to retention time shifts and superimpositions of quantifier and/or qualifier ions. As compared with dispersive SPE it was shown, that depending on the amount of sorbent the cleanup efficiency was comparable, but recoveries were generally better for cartridge SPE procedures.

  6. Antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic properties of vasicine acetate synthesized from vasicine isolated from Adhatoda vasica L.

    PubMed

    Duraipandiyan, V; Al-Dhabi, N A; Balachandran, C; Ignacimuthu, S; Sankar, C; Balakrishna, K

    2015-01-01

    Adhatoda vasica (L.) (Acanthaceae) is used in the indigenous system of medicine in India. The alkaloid Vasicine was isolated from ethanolic extract of the leaves of A. vasica using column chromatography. Vasicine acetate was obtained by acetylation of Vasicine. Vasicine acetate exhibited good zone of inhibition against bacteria: 10 mm against E. aerogenes, 10 mm against S. epidermidis, and 10 mm against P. aeruginosa. Vasicine acetate showed minimum inhibitory concentration values against bacteria: M. luteus (125 μg/mL), E. aerogenes (125 μg/mL), S. epidermidis (125 μg/mL), and P. aeruginosa (125 μg/mL). The radical scavenging activity of Vasicine acetate was the maximum at 1000 μg/mL (66.15%). The compound showed prominent cytotoxic activity in vitro against A549 lung adenocarcinoma cancer cell line. Quantification of Vasicine and Vasicine acetate by HPLC-DAD analysis showed their contents to be 0.2293% and 0.0156%, respectively, on dry weight basis of the leaves. Vasicine acetate could be probed further in drug discovery programme.

  7. Oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid by an enzyme preparation from Zea mays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reinecke, D. M.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1988-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid is oxidized to oxindole-3-acetic acid by Zea mays tissue extracts. Shoot, root, and endosperm tissues have enzyme activities of 1 to 10 picomoles per hour per milligram protein. The enzyme is heat labile, is soluble, and requires oxygen for activity. Cofactors of mixed function oxygenase, peroxidase, and intermolecular dioxygenase are not stimulatory to enzymic activity. A heat-stable, detergent-extractable component from corn enhances enzyme activity 6- to 10-fold. This is the first demonstration of the in vitro enzymic oxidation of indole-3-acetic acid to oxindole-3-acetic acid in higher plants.

  8. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, Gerald Charles; Zoeller, Joseph Robert; Depew, Leslie Sharon

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  9. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-03-24

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  10. Data showing chemical compositions of the essential oils of the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus obtained by varying pH of the extraction medium.

    PubMed

    Ajayi, E O; Sadimenko, A P; Afolayan, A J

    2016-09-01

    This article describes the various chemical components as obtained from the oils in the leaves of Cymbopogon citratus using hydrodistillation and solvent-free microwave extraction methods. Furthermore, extractions of the oils were also carried out with a slight in pH variation and compared, "GC-MS evaluation of C. citratus (DC) Stapf oil obtained using modified hydrodistillation and microwave extraction methods" (Ajayi et al., 2016 [1]). The current article contains one table exhibiting a list of compounds in the four different methods of extraction. Comparative studies amongst the various methods of extraction are highlighted in the table.

  11. Acetate concentrations and oxidation in salt marsh sediments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    Acetate concentrations and rates of acetate oxidation and sulfate reduction were measured in S. alterniflora sediments in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Pore water extracted from cores by squeezing or centrifugation contained in greater than 0.1 mM acetate and, in some instances, greater than 1.0 mM. Pore water sampled nondestructively contained much less acetate, often less than 0.01 mM. Acetate was associated with roots, and concentrations varied with changes in plant physiology. Acetate turnover was very low whether whole core or slurry incubations were used. Radiotracers injected directly into soils yielded rates of sulfate reduction and acetate oxidation not significantly different from core incubation techniques. Regardless of incubation method, acetate oxidation did not account for a substantial percentage of sulfate reduction. These results differ markedly from data for unvegetated coastal sediments where acetate levels are low, oxidation rate constants are high, and acetate oxication rates greatly exceed rates of sulfate reduction. The discrepancy between rates of acetate oxidation and sulfate reduction in these marsh soils may be due either to the utilization of substrates other than acetate by sulfate reducers or artifacts associated with measurements of organic utilization by rhizosphere bacteria. Care must be taken when interpreting data from salt marsh sediments since the release of material from roots during coring may affect the concentrations of certain compounds as well as influencing results obtained when sediment incubations are employed.

  12. White bread enriched with polyphenol extracts shows no effect on glycemic response or satiety, yet may increase postprandial insulin economy in healthy participants.

    PubMed

    Coe, Shelly; Ryan, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    Extracts from different plant sources have been shown to modify starch digestion from carbohydrate-rich foods and lower resulting glycemia. It was hypothesized that extracts rich in polyphenols, added to white bread, would improve the glycemic response and insulin response and increase satiety in healthy participants. An in vitro dose-response analysis was performed to determine the optimal dose of a variety of extracts (baobab fruit extract, green tea extract, grape seed extract, and resveratrol) for reducing rapidly digestible starch in white bread. The 2 extracts with the greatest sugar reducing potential were then used for the human study in which 13 volunteers (9 female and 4 male) were recruited for a crossover trial of 3 different meals. On separate days, participants consumed a control white bread, white bread with green tea extract (0.4%), and white bread with baobab fruit extract (1.88%). Glycemic response, insulin response, and satiety were measured 3 hours postprandially. Although enriched breads did not reduce glycemic response or hunger, white bread with added baobab fruit extract significantly (P < .05) reduced the total (0-180 minutes) and segmental insulin area under the curve at 0 to 90, 0 to 120, and 0 to 150 minutes, and therefore reduced the amount of insulin needed for a given blood glucose response. This preliminary research suggests that there is potential for baobab fruit extract added into white bread to improve insulin economy in healthy adults.

  13. Nanofabrication in cellulose acetate.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Hongjun; Lajos, Robert; Metlushko, Vitali; Elzy, Ed; An, Se Young; Sautner, Joshua

    2009-03-07

    We have demonstrated nanofabrication with commercialized cellulose acetate. Cellulose acetate is used for bulk nanofabrication and surface nanofabrication. In bulk nanofabrication, cellulose acetate reacts with an e-beam and permanent patterns are formed in it instead of being transferred to other substrates. We have studied the nano relief modulation performance of cellulose acetate before and after development. The depth of the nanopatterns is magnified after development, and is varied by exposing dosage and line width of the pattern. The thinnest 65 nm wide line is achieved in the bulk fabrication. We also demonstrate a binary phase Fresnel lens array which is directly patterned in a cellulose acetate sheet. Because of its unique mechanical and optical properties, cellulose is a good candidate for a template material for soft imprinting lithography. In the surface nanofabrication, cellulose acetate thin film spin-coated on silicon wafers is employed as a new resist for e-beam lithography. We achieved 50 nm lines with 100 nm pitches, dots 50 nm in diameter, and single lines with the smallest width of 20 nm. As a new resist of e-beam lithography, cellulose acetate has high resolution comparable with conventional resists, while having several advantages such as low cost, long stock time and less harmfulness to human health.

  14. New secondary metabolites from bioactive extracts of the fungus Armillaria tabescens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ethyl acetate extracts of Armillaria tabescens (strain JNB-OZ344) mycelium showed significant fungistatic and bacteristatic activities against several major human pathogens including Candida albicans, Cryptococcus neoformans, Escherichia coli and Mycobacterium intracellulare. Chemical analysis of th...

  15. Acetic acid production from food wastes using yeast and acetic acid bacteria micro-aerobic fermentation.

    PubMed

    Li, Yang; He, Dongwei; Niu, Dongjie; Zhao, Youcai

    2015-05-01

    In this study, yeast and acetic acid bacteria strains were adopted to enhance the ethanol-type fermentation resulting to a volatile fatty acids yield of 30.22 g/L, and improve acetic acid production to 25.88 g/L, with food wastes as substrate. In contrast, only 12.81 g/L acetic acid can be obtained in the absence of strains. The parameters such as pH, oxidation reduction potential and volatile fatty acids were tested and the microbial diversity of different strains and activity of hydrolytic ferment were investigated to reveal the mechanism. The optimum pH and oxidation reduction potential for the acetic acid production were determined to be at 3.0-3.5 and -500 mV, respectively. Yeast can convert organic matters into ethanol, which is used by acetic acid bacteria to convert the organic wastes into acetic acid. The acetic acid thus obtained from food wastes micro-aerobic fermentation liquid could be extracted by distillation to get high-pure acetic acid.

  16. Diuretic Potential of Whole Plant Extracts of Pergularia daemia (Forsk.)

    PubMed Central

    Bhavin, Vyas; Ruchi, Vyas; DD, Santani

    2011-01-01

    The whole plant, Pergularia daemia (Family: Asclepediaceae), was extracted with 50% alcohol and a fresh batch of the plant material was successively extracted with petroleum ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol to determine its diuretic activity. The diuretic activity of the different extracts at a dose of 400 mg/Kg was assessed orally in rats with furosemide as a standard drug using Lipschitzs test. All extracts except the petroleum ether extract showed significant increase (p < 0.001) in urine output. Urinary electrolyte excretion was also affected by the extracts: the alcoholic, ethyl acetate and n-butanol extract caused an increase in the urinary excretion of sodium and potassium ions. These findings suggest that among the mentioned extracts, ethanolic has the maximum diuretic activity followed by n-butanol extract. PMID:24250415

  17. Ethyl acetate fraction of adlay bran ethanolic extract inhibits oncogene expression and suppresses DMH-induced preneoplastic lesions of the colon in F344 rats through an anti-inflammatory pathway.

    PubMed

    Chung, Cheng-Pei; Hsu, Hsin-Yi; Huang, Din-Wen; Hsu, Hsing-Hua; Lin, Ju-Tsui; Shih, Chun-Kuang; Chiang, Wenchang

    2010-07-14

    Adlay ( Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) is a grass crop and was reported to possess anti-inflammatory activity and an antiproliferative effect in cancer cell lines. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of the ethyl acetate fraction of an adlay bran ethanolic extract (ABE-Ea) on colon carcinogenesis in an animal model and investigate its mechanism. Male F344 rats received 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and consumed different doses of ABE-Ea. The medium-dose group (17.28 mg of ABE-Ea/day) exhibited the best suppressive effect on colon carcinogenesis and prevented preneoplastic mucin-depleted foci (MDF) formation. Moreover, RAS and Ets2 oncogenes were significantly down-regulated in this group compared to the negative control group, whereas Wee1, a gene involved in the cell cycle, was up-regulated. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression was significantly suppressed in all colons receiving the ABE-Ea, indicating that ABE-Ea delayed carcinogenesis by suppressing chronic inflammation. ABE-Ea included considerable a proportion of phenolic compounds, and ferulic acid was the major phenolic acid (5206 microg/g ABE-Ea) on the basis of HPLC analysis. Results from this study suggest that ABE-Ea suppressed DMH-indued preneoplastic lesions of the colon in F344 rats and that ferulic acid may be one of the active compounds.

  18. How to Show the Real Microbial Biodiversity? A Comparison of Seven DNA Extraction Methods for Bacterial Population Analyses in Matrices Containing Highly Charged Natural Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Kaden, Rene; Krolla-Sidenstein, Peter

    2015-10-20

    A DNA extraction that comprises the DNA of all available taxa in an ecosystem is an essential step in population analysis, especially for next generation sequencing applications. Many nanoparticles as well as naturally occurring clay minerals contain charged surfaces or edges that capture negatively charged DNA molecules after cell lysis within DNA extraction. Depending on the methodology of DNA extraction, this phenomenon causes a shift in detection of microbial taxa in ecosystems and a possible misinterpretation of microbial interactions. With the aim to describe microbial interactions and the bio-geo-chemical reactions during a clay alteration experiment, several methods for the detection of a high number of microbial taxa were examined in this study. Altogether, 13 different methods of commercially available DNA extraction kits provided by seven companies as well as the classical phenol-chloroform DNA extraction were compared. The amount and the quality of nucleic acid extracts were determined and compared to the amplifiable amount of DNA. The 16S rRNA gene fragments of several taxa were separated using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) to determine the number of different species and sequenced to get the information about what kind of species the microbial population consists of. A total number of 13 species was detected in the system. Up to nine taxa could be detected with commercially available DNA extraction kits while phenol-chloroform extraction lead to three detected species. In this paper, we describe how to combine several DNA extraction methods for the investigation of microbial community structures in clay.

  19. Anti-oxidant properties and polyphenolic profile screening of Vitis vinifera stems and leaves crude extracts grown in Perlis, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakaria, Nursyahda; Zulkifli, Razauden Mohamed; Akhir, Fazrena Nadia Md; Basar, Norazah

    2014-03-01

    Grape has become a fast growing agricultural sector in Malaysia producing between 0.62 kg to 2.03 kg waste per vinestock. This study aims to generate useful information on anti-oxidative properties as well as polyphenolic composition of grapevine waste. Stems and leaves of Vitis vinifera cultivated in Perlis, Malaysia were extracted using methanol, ethyl acetate and petroleum ether. Ethyl acetate stems extract exhibited highest total phenolic content. While in DPPH assay, methanolic stems extract show the highest antioxidant activities. This result indicates that total phenolic content in the extracts may not contribute directly to the antioxidant activities. Thin Layer Chromatograms of all crude extracts exhibited good separation under solvent system petroleum ether-ethyl acetate (2:3) resulted in detection of resveratrol in ethyl acetate stems crude extract.

  20. Effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation in an integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Chen, Yang-Qiu; Zhang, Hong-Jian; Tang, Lei; Wang, Ke; Zhang, Jian-Hua; Chen, Xu-Sheng; Mao, Zhong-Gui

    2014-09-01

    An integrated citric acid-methane fermentation process was proposed to solve the problem of extraction wastewater in citric acid fermentation process. Extraction wastewater was treated by anaerobic digestion and then recycled for the next batch of citric acid fermentation to eliminate wastewater discharge and reduce water resource consumption. Acetic acid as an intermediate product of methane fermentation was present in anaerobic digestion effluent. In this study, the effect of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation was investigated and results showed that lower concentration of acetic acid could promote Aspergillus niger growth and citric acid production. 5-Cyano-2,3-ditolyl tetrazolium chloride (CTC) staining was used to quantify the activity of A. niger cells, and the results suggested that when acetic acid concentration was above 8 mM at initial pH 4.5, the morphology of A. niger became uneven and the part of the cells' activity was significantly reduced, thereby resulting in deceasing of citric acid production. Effects of acetic acid on citric acid fermentation, as influenced by initial pH and cell number in inocula, were also examined. The result indicated that inhibition by acetic acid increased as initial pH declined and was rarely influenced by cell number in inocula.

  1. Synthesis of cellulose acetate and carboxymethylcellulose from sugarcane straw.

    PubMed

    Candido, R G; Gonçalves, A R

    2016-11-05

    Sugarcane straw (SCS) is a raw material with high potential for production of cellulose derivatives due to its morphology and structure. The proposal of this work was to synthesize cellulose acetate (CA) and carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) from sugarcane straw cellulose, and applied the CA in the preparation of a membrane. The cellulose extraction was carried out in four steps. Firstly, SCS was treated with H2SO4 (10% v/v) followed by NaOH (5% w/v) treatment. Subsequently, a chelating process was performed before ending the extraction process with chemical bleaching using H2O2 (5% v/v). The extracted cellulose was employed in the obtainment of CA and CMC. The CA presented a degree of substitution (DS) of 2.72. Its FTIR spectrum showed that practically all hydroxyl groups were replaced by acetate groups. The membrane synthesized from CA was dense and homogeneous. The presence of small particles on the top and bottom surfaces decreased the mechanical resistance of the membrane. The CMC presented a low DS (0.4) demonstrating the carboxymethylation reaction was not very effective due to the presence of lignin. These results proved that SCS can be utilized in the synthesis of CA and CMC.

  2. Photochemistry of 2-nitrobenzylidene acetals.

    PubMed

    Sebej, Peter; Solomek, Tomás; Hroudná, L'ubica; Brancová, Pavla; Klán, Petr

    2009-11-20

    Photolysis of dihydroxy compounds (diols) protected as 2-nitrobenzylidene acetals (ONBA) and subsequent acid- or base-catalyzed hydrolysis of the 2-nitrosobenzoic acid ester intermediates result in an efficient and high-yielding release of the substrates. We investigated the scope and limitations of ONBA photochemistry and expanded upon earlier described two-step procedures to show that the protected diols of many structural varieties can also be liberated in a one-pot procedure. In view of the fact that the acetals of nonsymmetrically substituted diols are converted into one of the corresponding 2-nitrosobenzoic acid ester isomers with moderate to high regioselectivity, the mechanism of their formation was studied using various experimental techniques. The experimental data were found to be in agreement with DFT-based quantum chemical calculations that showed the preferential cleavage occurs on the acetal C-O bond in the vicinity of more electron-withdrawing (or less electron-donating) groups. The study also revealed considerable complexity in the cleavage mechanism and that the structural variations in the substrate can significantly alter the reaction pathway. This deprotection strategy was found to be also applicable for 2-thioethanol when released from the corresponding monothioacetal in the presence of a reducing agent, such as ascorbic acid.

  3. Utilization of acetate by Beggiatoa.

    PubMed

    Burton, S D; Morita, R Y; Miller, W

    1966-03-01

    Burton, Sheril D. (Institute of Marine Science, University of Alaska, College), Richard Y. Morita, and Wayne Miller. Utilization of acetate by Beggiatoa. J. Bacteriol. 91:1192-1200. 1966.-A proposed system which would permit acetate incorporation into four-carbon compounds without the presence of key enzymes of the citric acid cycle or glyoxylate cycle is described. In this system, acetyl-coenzyme A (CoA) is condensed with glyoxylate to form malate, which, in turn, is converted to oxaloacetate. Oxaloacetate then reacts with glutamate to produce alpha-ketoglutarate, which is subsequently converted to isocitrate. Cleavage of isocitrate produces glyoxylate and succinate. Thus, the proposed system is similar to the glyoxylate bypass in that malate is produced from glyoxylate and acetyl-CoA, but differs from both the citric acid cycle and the glyoxylate bypass, since citrate and fumarate are not involved. Fumarase, aconitase, catalase, citritase, pyruvate kinase, enolase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, lactic dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, and condensing enzyme were not detectable in crude extracts of Beggiatoa. Succinate was oxidized by a soluble enzyme not associated with an electron-transport particle. Isocitrate was identified as the sole compound labeled when C(14)O(2) was added to a reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, CO(2) generating system (crystalline glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glucose-6-phosphate) in the presence of alpha-ketoglutarate.

  4. Reversible inactivation of the isocitrate dehydrogenase of Escherichia coli ML308 during growth on acetate.

    PubMed

    Bennett, P M; Holms, W H

    1975-03-01

    During aerobic growth of Escherichia coli ML308 on acetate as sole carbon source, the apparent synthesis of isocitrate dehydrogenase was repressed relative to cultures on other carbon sources, such as glucose, which do not employ the glyoxylate bypass as an anaplerotic sequence. When cells were removed from an acetate medium, or when compounds were added which made the operation of the glyoxylate bypass unnecessary, the activity of isocitrate dehydrogenase rapidly increased 3- to 4-fold but fell again on restoration to an acetate medium. Changes in activity were rapid and, furthermore, could be demonstrated in the absence of protein synthesis. It is thus improbable that the mechanism involved degradation or de novo synthesis of the enzyme protein. Oxaloacetate and glyoxylate showed concerted inhibition of isocitrate dehydrogenase which could be relieved by dialysis. Because extracts of low enzyme activity, derived from acetate-metabolizing cells, could not be stimulated by dialysis or by addition of a wide range of metabolites, it is unlikely that low molecular weight, freely dissociable effectors were responsible for stimulation or inhibition of activity. Control of isocitrate dehydrogenase permitted the efficient utilization of acetate as sole source of carbon and energy but perserved the capacity of the cell to respond rapidly to an improvement in nutritional conditions. A limited survey showed that the mechanism is common but not universal among strains of E. coli and occurs in at least one strain each of Klebsiella aerogenes, Salmonella typhimurium and Serratia marcescens.

  5. Inhibition of LDL oxidation and oxidized LDL-induced foam cell formation in RAW 264.7 cells show anti-atherogenic properties of a foliar methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis

    PubMed Central

    Nambiar, Sinjitha S.; Shetty, Nandini Prasad; Bhatt, Praveena; Neelwarne, Bhagyalakshmi

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oxidation of low density lipoproteins and their further uptake by macrophages is known to result in the formation of foam cells, which are critical in the initiation of atherosclerosis through activation of inflammatory signalling cascades. Thus, powerful dietary antioxidants are receiving attention for the reversal of such pathological states. Materials and Methods: Extracts of Scoparia dulcis have been used as tea and health drinks with various health promoting effects. In the present study, we examined the reactive oxygen scavenging potential as well as anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic efficacies, using leaf extracts obtained after successive extraction with various solvents. Results: A methanol extract showed potent antioxidant activity with an IC50 value of 570 μg/ml, caused hydrogen peroxide scavenging (28.9 µg/ml) and anti-inflammatory effects by improving human erythrocyte membrane stabilisation (about 86%). The methanol extract also efficiently inhibited lipid peroxidation and oxidation of low density lipoproteins, thus preventing foam cell formation in cultured RAW 264.7 cells. Furthermore, phytochemical screening of the extracts showed high accumulation of flavonoids. Conclusions: The foliar methanol extract of Scoparia dulcis has a strong anti-atherogenic potential and this property could be attributed maybe due to presence of flavonoids since HPLC analysis showed high concentrations of myricetin and rutin in the methanol extract. PMID:24991098

  6. Anti-inflammatory and chemopreventive effects of triterpene cinnamates and acetates from shea fat.

    PubMed

    Akihisa, Toshihiro; Kojima, Nobuo; Kikuchi, Takashi; Yasukawa, Ken; Tokuda, Harukuni; T Masters, Eliot; Manosroi, Aranya; Manosroi, Jiradej

    2010-01-01

    Four triterpene acetates, alpha-amyrin acetate (1a), beta-amyrin acetate (2a), lupeol acetate (3a), and butyrospermol acetate (4a), and four triterpene cinnamates, alpha-amyrin cinnamate (1c), beta-amyrin cinnamate (2c), lupeol cinnamate (3c), and butyrospermol cinnamate (4c), were isolated from the kernel fat (n-hexane extract) of the shea tree (Vitellaria paradoxa; Sapotaceae). Upon evaluation of these eight triterpene esters for inhibitory activity against 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate (TPA)-induced inflammation (1 microg/ear) in mice, all of the compounds tested exhibited marked anti-inflammatory activity, with ID50 values in the range of 0.15-0.75 micromol/ear, and among which compound 3c showed the highest activity with ID(50) of 0.15 micromol/ear. Compound 3c (10 mg/kg) further exhibited anti-inflammatory activity on rat hind paw edema induced by carrageenan, with the percentage of inflammation at 1, 3, and 5 h of 35.4, 41.5, and 45.5%, respectively. The eight triterpene esters were then evaluated for their inhibitory effects on Epstein-Barr virus early antigen (EBV-EA) in Raji cells as a primary screening test for inhibitors of tumor promoters. All the compounds showed moderate inhibitory effects. Furthermore, compound 3c exhibited inhibitory effect on skin tumor promotion in an in vivo two-stage carcinogenesis test using 7,12-dimethylbenz [a] anthracene (DMBA) as an initiator and TPA as a promoter. The biological activities of triterpene acetate and cinnamate esters, together with the exceptionally high levels of these triterpenes in shea fat, indicate that shea nuts and shea fat (shea butter) constitute a significant source of anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor promoting compounds.

  7. Use of acetate for enrichment of electrochemically active microorganisms and their 16S rDNA analyses.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jiyoung; Phung, Nguyet Thu; Chang, In Seop; Kim, Byung Hong; Sung, Ha Chin

    2003-06-27

    A fuel cell-type electrochemical device has been used to enrich microbes oxidizing acetate with concomitant electricity generation without using an electron mediator from activated sludge. The device generated a stable current of around 5 mA with complete oxidation of 5 mM acetate at the hydraulic retention time of 2.5 h after 4 weeks of enrichment. Over 70% of electrons available from acetate oxidation was recovered as current. Carbon monoxide or hydrogen did not influence acetate oxidation or current generation from the microbial fuel cell (MFC). Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis showed that DNA extracted from the acetate-enriched MFC had different 16S rDNA patterns from those of sludge or glucose+glutamate-enriched MFCs. Nearly complete 16S rDNA sequence analyses showed that diverse bacteria were enriched in the MFC fed with acetate. Electron microscopic observations showed biofilm developed on the electrode, but not microbial clumps observed in MFCs fed with complex fuel such as glucose and wastewater from a corn-processing factory.

  8. Recovery of very dilute acetic acid using ion exchange

    SciTech Connect

    Cloete, F.L.D.; Marais, A.P.

    1995-07-01

    Acetic and related acids occur in many industrial wastewaters, often mixed with several other classes of organic compounds. Acetic acid can be recovered from 1% solutions using weakly basic ion exchange resins. The acid is adsorbed by the free-base form of the resin, which can then be eluted using a slurry of lime to give a solution of calcium acetate. This solution could either be evaporated to crystallize calcium acetate or reacted with sulfuric acid to form acetic acid and gypsum. Laboratory tests of the proposed process gave product solutions of 15--20% acetic acid using pure 1% acetic acid as feed. Some measurements using a typical industrial effluent gave similar recoveries and showed that there was no initial fouling of the resins.

  9. In vitro antimalarial activity of medicinal plant extracts against Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed

    Bagavan, Asokan; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Kaushik, Naveen Kumar; Sahal, Dinkar

    2011-01-01

    Malaria is a major global public health problem, and the alarming spread of drug resistance and limited number of effective drugs now available underline how important it is to discover new antimalarial compounds. In the present study, ten plants were extracted with ethyl acetate and methanol and tested for their antimalarial activity against chloroquine (CQ)-sensitive (3D7) and CQ-resistant (Dd2 and INDO) strains of Plasmodium falciparum in culture using the fluorescence-based SYBR Green assay. Plant extracts showed moderate to good antiparasitic effects. Promising antiplasmodial activity was found in the extracts from two plants, Phyllanthus emblica leaf 50% inhibitory concentration (IC₅₀) 3D7: 7.25 μg/mL (ethyl acetate extract), 3.125 μg/mL (methanol extract), and Syzygium aromaticum flower bud, IC₅₀ 3D7:13 μg/mL, (ethyl acetate extract) and 6.25 μg/mL (methanol extract). Moderate activity (30-75 μg/mL) was found in the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Abrus precatorius (seed) and Gloriosa superba (leaf); leaf ethyl acetate extracts of Annona squamosa and flower of Musa paradisiaca. The above mentioned plant extracts were also found to be active against CQ-resistant strains (Dd2 and INDO). Cytotoxicity study with P. emblica leaf and S. aromaticum flower bud, extracts showed good therapeutic indices. These results demonstrate that leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of P. emblica and flower bud extract of S. aromaticum may serve as antimalarial agents even in their crude form. The isolation of compounds from P. emblica and S. aromaticum seems to be of special interest for further antimalarial studies.

  10. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the…

  11. Synergistic antibacterial activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Stefanović, Olgica D; Stanojević, Dragana D; Comić, Ljiljana R

    2012-01-01

    Synergistic activity of Salvia officinalis and Cichorium intybus extracts and commonly used antibiotics, amoxicillin and chloramphenicol, were evaluated. Interactions between plant extracts and antibiotics were tested by checkerboard method and interpreted as FIC index. Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and clinical isolates Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli and Proteus mirabilis were used. Salvia officinalis showed better synergistic capacity than Cichorium intybus. Synergistic interactions were observed between amoxicillin and acetone or ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis and between chloramphenicol and ethyl acetate extract of Salvia officinalis. In the presence of sub-inhibitory concentration (1/4 MIC to 1/32 MIC) of sage extracts, the MIC values of antibiotics were decreased by 2- to 10-fold. Synergism was observed against all test bacteria, except Escherichia coli. The combinations of acetone and ethyl acetate extract from Cichorium intybus and antibiotics resulted in additive and indifferent effects against tested bacteria.

  12. Effect of Helicteres isora root extracts on glucose tolerance in glucose-induced hyperglycemic rats.

    PubMed

    Venkatesh, Sama; Dayanand Reddy, G; Reddy, Y S R; Sathyavathy, D; Madhava Reddy, B

    2004-06-01

    The ethanol, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts of Helicteres isora root showed significant oral hypoglycemic activity on glucose loaded rats at a dose of 250 mg/kg. The butanol extract showed maximum antihyperglycemic activity and effect being comparable to that of glibenclamide.

  13. Genome shuffling in the ethanologenic yeast Candida krusei to improve acetic acid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wei, Pingying; Li, Zilong; He, Peng; Lin, Yuping; Jiang, Ning

    2008-02-01

    Genome shuffling was used to improve the acetic acid tolerance of an ethanologenic yeast, Candida krusei GL560. A mutant, S4-3, was isolated and selected after four rounds of genome shuffling. It was found that the mutant S4-3 had a higher viability in the YNBX (yeast nitrogen base/xylose) medium with acetic acid and grew better in the YPD (yeast extract, peptone and dextrose) medium [1% (w/v) yeast extract, 2% (w/v) peptone and 2% (w/v) glucose] with acetic acid than the parent strain GL560. The mutant S4-3 also improved its multiple stress tolerance to ethanol, H2O2, heat and freeze-thaw. Furthermore, S4-3 showed higher ethanol production than GL560 in EFM (ethanol fermentation medium) with or without acetic acid. The DNA content of S4-3 was similar to its parent strains in the genome shuffling. This suggested that gene exchange, as caused by homologous recombination, may have occurred during the process. Higher membrane integrity and intracellular catalase activity were two possible reasons for the higher acid-tolerance phenotype of S4-3. These results indicated that genome shuffling is a powerful means of rapidly improving the complex traits of non-haploid organisms, while still maintaining robust growth.

  14. Acaricidal activity of extracts from Adonis coerulea Maxim. against Psoroptes cuniculi in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Shang, Xiao-Fei; Miao, Xiao-Lou; Wang, Dong-Sheng; Li, Jian-Xi; Wang, Xue-Zhi; Yan, Zuo-Ting; Wang, Chun-Mei; Wang, Yu; He, Xi-Rui; Pan, Hu

    2013-07-01

    The acaricidal activity of Adonis coerulea extracts was investigated against Psoroptes cuniculi. The aqueous, methanol, acetic ether and petroleum ether extracts all showed marked acaricidal activity in vitro. Especially, the acetic ether extract possessed strong toxicity against mites in vitro with LT50 values 0.743 h, 2.730 h, 5.919 h and 22.536 h at concentrations of 500, 250, 125 and 62.5 mg/ml, respectively. At the same time, the acetic ether extract showed the best effectiveness topically to infested rabbits in vivo. After three times treatment, at the day 20, rabbits treated with A. coerulea extract were observed only small scabs or secretions in ear canal, but no mites. These findings suggested that as a potential insecticide, A. coerulea should be studied further to develop active components or a new acaricidal drug.

  15. Computerized image analysis for acetic acid induced intraepithelial lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wenjing; Ferris, Daron G.; Lieberman, Rich W.

    2008-03-01

    Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia (CIN) exhibits certain morphologic features that can be identified during a visual inspection exam. Immature and dysphasic cervical squamous epithelium turns white after application of acetic acid during the exam. The whitening process occurs visually over several minutes and subjectively discriminates between dysphasic and normal tissue. Digital imaging technologies allow us to assist the physician analyzing the acetic acid induced lesions (acetowhite region) in a fully automatic way. This paper reports a study designed to measure multiple parameters of the acetowhitening process from two images captured with a digital colposcope. One image is captured before the acetic acid application, and the other is captured after the acetic acid application. The spatial change of the acetowhitening is extracted using color and texture information in the post acetic acid image; the temporal change is extracted from the intensity and color changes between the post acetic acid and pre acetic acid images with an automatic alignment. The imaging and data analysis system has been evaluated with a total of 99 human subjects and demonstrate its potential to screening underserved women where access to skilled colposcopists is limited.

  16. Larvicidal activity of medicinal plant extracts against Anopheles subpictus & Culex tritaeniorhynchus

    PubMed Central

    Kamaraj, C.; Bagavan, A.; Elango, G.; Zahir, A. Abduz; Rajakumar, G.; Marimuthu, S.; Santhoshkumar, T.; Rahuman, A. Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquitoes transmit serious human diseases, causing millions of deaths every year and the development of resistance to chemical insecticides resulting in rebounding vectorial capacity. Plants may be alternative sources of mosquito control agents. The present study assessed the role of larvicidal activities of hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol dried leaf and bark extracts of Annona squamosa L., Chrysanthemum indicum L., and Tridax procumbens L. against the fourth instar larvae of malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi and Japanese encephalitis vector, Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: Larvicidal activities of three medicinal plant extracts were studied in the range of 4.69 to 1000 mg/l in the laboratory bioassays against early 4th instar larvae of An. subpictus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The mortality data were subjected to probit analysis to determine the lethal concentrations (LC50 and LC90) to kill 50 and 90 per cent of the treated larvae of the respective species. Results: All plant extracts showed moderate effects after 24 h of exposure; however, the highest toxic effect of bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate extract of C. indicum and leaf acetone extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of An. subpictus (LC50 = 93.80, 39.98 and 51.57 mg/l) and bark methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf methanol extract of C. indicum and leaf ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens against the larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50 =104.94, 42.29 and 69.16 mg/l) respectively. Interpretation & Conclusions: Our data suggest that the bark ethyl acetate and methanol extract of A. squamosa, leaf ethyl acetate and methanol extract of C. indicum, acetone and ethyl acetate extract of T. procumbens have the potential to be used as an ecofriendly approach for the control of the An. subpictus, and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. PMID:21808141

  17. Transformation of Lettuce with rol ABC Genes: Extracts Show Enhanced Antioxidant, Analgesic, Anti-Inflammatory, Antidepressant, and Anticoagulant Activities in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Hammad; Dilshad, Erum; Waheed, Mohammad Tahir; Mirza, Bushra

    2017-03-01

    Lettuce is an edible crop that is well known for dietary and antioxidant benefits. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of rol ABC genes on antioxidant and medicinal potential of lettuce by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Transgene integration and expression was confirmed through PCR and real-time RT-PCR, respectively. The transformed plants showed 91-102 % increase in total phenolic contents and 53-65 % increase in total flavonoid contents compared to untransformed plants. Total antioxidant capacity and total reducing power increased up to 112 and 133 % in transformed plants, respectively. Results of DPPH assay showed maximum 51 % increase, and lipid peroxidation assay exhibited 20 % increase in antioxidant activity of transformed plants compared to controls. Different in vivo assays were carried out in rats. The transgenic plants showed up to 80 % inhibition in both hot plate analgesic assay and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema test, while untransformed plants showed only 45 % inhibition. Antidepressant and anticoagulant potential of transformed plants was also significantly enhanced compared to untransformed plants. Taken together, the present work highlights the use of rol genes to enhance the secondary metabolite production in lettuce and improve its analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antidepressant, and anticoagulatory properties.

  18. Kallolide A acetate pyrazoline.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Escudero, Idaliz; Marrero, Jeffrey; Rodríguez, Abimael D

    2012-01-01

    IN THE CRYSTAL STRUCTURE OF KALLOLIDE A ACETATE PYRAZOLINE [SYSTEMATIC NAME: 7-methyl-16-oxo-4,10-bis-(prop-1-en-2-yl)-17,18-dioxa-14,15-diaza-tetra-cyclo-[9.4.2.1(6,9).0(1,12)]octa-deca-6,8,14-trien-5-yl acetate], C(23)H(28)N(2)O(5), there is a 12-member-ed carbon macrocyclic structure. In addition, there is a tris-ubstituted furan ring, an approximately planar γ-lactone ring [maximum deviation of 0.057 (3) Å] and a pyraz-oline ring, the latter in an envelope conformation. The pyrazoline and the γ-lactone rings are fused in a cis configuration. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by weak C-H⋯O inter-actions, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (001). An intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond is also present.

  19. Kallolide A acetate pyrazoline

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Escudero, Idaliz; Marrero, Jeffrey; Rodríguez, Abimael D.

    2012-01-01

    In the crystal structure of kallolide A acetate pyrazoline [systematic name: 7-methyl-16-oxo-4,10-bis­(prop-1-en-2-yl)-17,18-dioxa-14,15-diaza­tetra­cyclo­[9.4.2.16,9.01,12]octa­deca-6,8,14-trien-5-yl acetate], C23H28N2O5, there is a 12-member­ed carbon macrocyclic structure. In addition, there is a tris­ubstituted furan ring, an approximately planar γ-lactone ring [maximum deviation of 0.057 (3) Å] and a pyraz­oline ring, the latter in an envelope conformation. The pyrazoline and the γ-lactone rings are fused in a cis configuration. In the crystal, mol­ecules are linked by weak C—H⋯O inter­actions, forming a two-dimensional network parallel to (001). An intra­molecular C—H⋯O hydrogen bond is also present. PMID:22259545

  20. A mammalian acetate switch regulates stress erythropoiesis

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Min; Nagati, Jason S.; Xie, Jian; Li, Jiwen; Walters, Holly; Moon, Young-Ah; Gerard, Robert D.; Huang, Chou-Long; Comerford, Sarah A.; Hammer, Robert E.; Horton, Jay D.; Chen, Rui; Garcia, Joseph A.

    2014-01-01

    Endocrine erythropoietin (Epo), which is synthesized in the kidney or liver of adult mammals, controls erythrocyte production and is regulated by the stress-responsive transcription factor Hypoxia Inducible Factor 2 (HIF-2). We previously reported that the lysine acetyltransferase Cbp is required for HIF-2α acetylation and efficient HIF-2 dependent Epo induction during hypoxia. We now show these processes require acetate-dependent acetyl CoA synthetase 2 (Acss2). In Hep3B hepatoma cells and in Epo-generating organs of hypoxic or acutely anemic mice, acetate levels increase and Acss2 is required for HIF-2α acetylation, Cbp/HIF-2α complex formation and recruitment to the Epo enhancer, and efficient Epo induction. In acutely anemic mice, acetate supplementation augments stress erythropoiesis in an Acss2-dependent manner. In acquired and genetic chronic anemia mouse models, acetate supplementation also increases Epo expression and resting hematocrits. Thus, a mammalian stress-responsive acetate switch controls HIF-2 signaling and Epo induction during pathophysiological states marked by tissue hypoxia. PMID:25108527

  1. Comparative chemical and biochemical analysis of extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa.

    PubMed

    Sindi, Heba A; Marshall, Lisa J; Morgan, Michael R A

    2014-12-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa extracts have attracted attention because of potentially useful bioactivity. However, there have been no systematic studies of extraction efficiencies of H. sabdariffa. The nature of extracts used in different studies has varied considerably, making comparisons difficult. Therefore, a systematic study of extracts of H. sabdariffa made with different solvents was carried out using water, methanol, ethyl acetate and hexane in the presence/absence of formic acid, using different extraction times and temperatures. The extracts were analysed for total polyphenol content, antioxidant capacity using DPPH, FRAP and TEAC assays, and specific anthocyanins were determined using HPLC and LC-MS. The results showed the highest antioxidant capacities were obtained by extracting using water, with or without formic acid, for 10 min at 100°C. These extracts provided the highest concentrations of cyanidin 3-sambubioside and delphinidin 3-sambubioside. It will be important to use extraction conditions giving optimal extraction efficiencies for subsequent bioactivity experiments.

  2. Microwave-assisted extraction versus Soxhlet extraction to determine triterpene acids in olive skins.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Pastor, Ignacio; Fernandez-Hernandez, Antonia; Perez-Criado, Sergio; Rivas, Francisco; Martinez, Antonio; Garcia-Granados, Andres; Parra, Andres

    2017-03-01

    Microwave-assisted extraction is compared with a more classical technique, Soxhlet extraction, to determine the content of triterpene acids in olive skins. The samples used in their original unmilled state and milled were extracted with ethyl acetate or methanol as solvents. The optimized operating conditions (e.g., amount and type of solvent, and time and temperature of extractions) to attain the better extraction yields have been established. For the identification and quantitation of the target compounds, an ultra high performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry method was employed. The best results were achieved using the microwave-assisted extraction technique, which was much faster than the Soxhlet extraction method, and showed higher efficiency in the extraction of the triterpenic acids (oleanolic and maslinic).

  3. Acetate inhibition of chick bone cell proliferation and bone growth in vitro.

    PubMed

    Saitta, J C; Lipkin, E W; Howard, G A

    1989-06-01

    A hypothesis has been advanced that parenteral solutions as commonly formulated for use in clinical practice have a toxic effect on cell metabolism. A specific component of these solutions, sodium acetate, has been suggested to disrupt normal bone turnover and therefore to contribute to the osteopenia observed in patients receiving hemodialysis and parenteral nutrition (PN). We developed an in vitro model to test the hypothesis that sodium acetate at concentrations that are infused in PN solutions has a deleterious effect on bone metabolism. Osteoblasts and preosteoblasts from 16- to 17-day-old embryonic chick calvaria, and tibiae and femora from 10-day-old embryonic chicks were grown in BGJb medium (control) or in BGJb medium plus sodium acetate (5, 10, or 20 mM). Calvarial cell proliferation was quantified by direct cell counts as well as by incorporation of [3H]TdR into DNA as an index of cell proliferation. Calvarial cell alkaline phosphatase activity was quantified by the ability of extracts of the cultured cells to hydrolyze p-nitrophenyl phosphate to p-nitrophenol, and bone growth was determined by measuring final dry weight. Calvarial cell counts as well as DNA synthesis showed a dose-dependent decrease in the presence of sodium acetate (5-20 mM) compared with controls. [3H]TdR incorporation was decreased a mean 19% with 5 mM, 38% with 10 mM, and 63% with 20 mM acetate. Alkaline phosphatase activity per cell increased 48% with 5 mM, 140% with 10 mM, and 355% with 20 mM acetate. Cell viability as assessed by trypan blue exclusion was identical for test and control media (greater than 95%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  4. Acetate accumulation enhances mixed culture fermentation of biomass to lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Khor, Way Cern; Roume, Hugo; Coma, Marta; Vervaeren, Han; Rabaey, Korneel

    2016-10-01

    Lactic acid is a high-in-demand chemical, which can be produced through fermentation of lignocellulosic feedstock. However, fermentation of complex substrate produces a mixture of products at efficiencies too low to justify a production process. We hypothesized that the background acetic acid concentration plays a critical role in lactic acid yield; therefore, its retention via selective extraction of lactic acid or its addition would improve overall lactic acid production and eliminate net production of acetic acid. To test this hypothesis, we added 10 g/L of acetate to fermentation broth to investigate its effect on products composition and concentration and bacterial community evolution using several substrate-inoculum combinations. With rumen fluid inoculum, lactate concentrations increased by 80 ± 12 % (cornstarch, p < 0.05) and 16.7 ± 0.4 % (extruded grass, p < 0.05) while with pure culture inoculum (Lactobacillus delbrueckii and genetically modified (GM) Escherichia coli), a 4 to 23 % increase was observed. Using rumen fluid inoculum, the bacterial community was enriched within 8 days to >69 % lactic acid bacteria (LAB), predominantly Lactobacillaceae. Higher acetate concentration promoted a more diverse LAB population, especially on non-inoculated bottles. In subsequent tests, acetate was added in a semi-continuous percolation system with grass as substrate. These tests confirmed our findings producing lactate at concentrations 26 ± 5 % (p < 0.05) higher than the control reactor over 20 days operation. Overall, our work shows that recirculating acetate has the potential to boost lactic acid production from waste biomass to levels more attractive for application.

  5. The physicochemical property characterization of agar acetate.

    PubMed

    Xia, Kai; Liu, Xin; Zhao, Jingkun; Zhang, Xiaodong

    2014-09-22

    A series of agar acetates with different degree of substitution (DS) were prepared, and their properties were determined and analyzed. The results showed that the gelling temperature, the gel melting temperature, the gel strength, the gel hardness, the gel fracturability, the gel springiness and the solution apparent viscosity of agar acetates all decreased except that their gel cohesiveness increased with the increase of DS. The variation process of agar molecules in solution from coil to helix could be also observed by measuring solution optical rotation in a lower concentration at which even the solution could not form a gel. The gel skeleton structures of agar acetates were of porous network structures, and the pores became smaller and denser with the increase of DS. After acetylation, the water holding capacity of the agar was improved, but its thermal stability was lowered.

  6. Histological investigation of the effect of soybean (Glycine max) extracts on the collagen layer and estrogen receptors in the skin of female rats

    PubMed Central

    Uyar, Belkiz; Sivrikoz, Oya Nermin; Ozdemir, Ugur; Dasbasi, Teslima; Sacar, Handan

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of soybean extracts obtained using different extraction methods on the skin of female rats. METHOD: A total of 64 female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 8 equal groups. Various extracts were administered to the female rats by oral gavage for one month. The groups comprised carboxymethyl cellulose-free control, carboxymethyl cellulose-plus control, 100-mg/kg n-hexane extract, 200-mg/kg n-hexane extract, 100-mg/kg ethyl acetate extract, 200-mg/kg ethyl acetate extract, 100-mg/kg ethanol extract and 200-mg/kg ethanol extract groups. The thickness of the collagen layer and the number of estrogen receptor-positive cells were evaluated. RESULTS: All the extract-treated groups showed a statistically significant decrease in the number of estrogen receptor-positive cells compared with the control groups. Regarding the thickness of the collagen layer, only the 200-mg/kg ethyl acetate extract-treated group showed a significant increase compared with the control groups (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that oral intake of three different total soybean extracts might have positive estrogenic effects on the skin and that only a high-dose ethyl acetate extract can increase the expression of collagen, which may prove to be beneficial for postmenopausal facial skin. PMID:25627999

  7. Isolation of ethyl acetic based AGF bio-nutrient and its application on the growth of Capsicum annum L. plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hendrawan, Sonjaya, Yaya; Khoerunnisa, Fitri; Musthapa, Iqbal; Nurmala, Astri Rizki

    2015-12-01

    The study aimed to obtain the bionutrient derived from extraction of AGF leafs in ethyl acetic solvents and to explore its application on the plant growth of capsicum annum L. (curly red chili). Particularly, the fraction of secondary metabolites groups composed bionutrient was intensively elucidated by liquid vacuum chromatography technique. The characterization of secondary metabolites groups was conducted through several methods, i.e. thin layer chromatography, phytochemical screening, and FTIR spectroscopy. The AGF extracts based bionutrient then was applied on capsicum annum L. plants with dosage of 2 and 10 mL/L. The ethyl acetic solvent and commercial nutrient of Phonska and pesticide of curacron (EC 500) were selected as a blank and a positive control to evaluate the growth pattern of capsicum annum L., respectively. The result showed that the CF 1 dan CF2 of AGF extract contained alkaloid and terpenoid of secondary metabolite group, the CF 3, and CF 4 of AGF extracts were dominated by alkaloid, flavonoid, and terpenoid, while the CF 5 of AGF extract contained alkaloid, tannin and terpenoid groups. The CF 2 of AGF extract has the highest growth rate constant of 0.1702 week-1 with the number and heaviest mass of the yield of 82 pieces and 186.60, respectively. It was also showed the significant bio-pesticide activity that should be useful to support plant growth, indicating that AGF extract can be applied as both bio-nutrient and bio-pesticide.

  8. Acetal phosphatidic acids: novel platelet aggregating agents.

    PubMed

    Brammer, J P; Maguire, M H; Walaszek, E J; Wiley, R A

    1983-05-01

    induce platelet aggregation per se by direct action at the platelet membrane, and that the acetal function is of primary importance in their potent platelet-stimulating activity. Moreover, as the acetal phosphatidic acids are the major components of the smooth muscle-contracting acidic phospholipid tissue extract ;Darmstoff' (Vogt, 1949), their potent platelet-aggregating properties may be of physiological or pathological significance.

  9. Microhydration of Neutral and Charged Acetic Acid.

    PubMed

    Krishnakumar, Parvathi; Maity, Dilip Kumar

    2017-01-19

    A systematic theoretical study has been carried out on the effect of sequential addition of water molecules to neutral and mono positively charged acetic acid molecules by applying first principle based electronic structure theory. Geometry, dipole moment, and polarizability of hydrated clusters of neutral and mono positively charged acetic acid of the type CH3COOH·nH2O (n = 1-8) and [CH3COOH·nH2O](+) (n = 1, 2) are calculated at the ωB97X-D/aug-cc-pVDZ level of theory. Free energies of formation of the hydrated acid clusters, at different temperatures and pressures are determined. Solvent stabilization energy and interaction energy are also calculated at the CCSD(T)/6-311++G(d,p) level of theory. It is observed that in the case of neutral acetic acid, proton transfer from the acid molecule to solvent water molecules does not occur even with eight water molecules and the acid molecule remains in the undissociated form. High-energy equilibrium structures showing dissociation of acetic acid are obtained in case of hexahydrated and larger hydrated clusters only. However, dissociation of mono positively charged acetic acid occurs with just two water molecules. Interestingly, it is noted that in the case of dissociation, calculated bond dipole moments of the dissociating bonds of acetic acid in microhydated clusters shows a characteristic feature. IR spectra of CH3COOH·nH2O (n = 1-8) and [CH3COOH·nH2O](+) (n = 1-3) clusters are simulated and compared with the available experimental data.

  10. Trehalose accumulation enhances tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Yoshiyama, Yoko; Tanaka, Koichi; Yoshiyama, Kohei; Hibi, Makoto; Ogawa, Jun; Shima, Jun

    2015-02-01

    Trehalose confers protection against various environmental stresses on yeast cells. In this study, trehalase gene deletion mutants that accumulate trehalose at high levels showed significant stress tolerance to acetic acid. The enhancement of trehalose accumulation can thus be considered a target in the breeding of acetic acid-tolerant yeast strains.

  11. Thermal decomposition of acetate: III. Catalysis by mineral surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Julie L. S.; Palmer, Donald A.; Barnes, H. L.; Drummond, S. E.

    1994-10-01

    The kinetics of thermal decarboxylation of aqueous solutions of acetic acid and sodium acetate were evaluated at 335 and 355°C in contact with various surfaces as potential catalysts. Quartz, fused quartz, calcite, natural pyrite, titanium oxide, and Au apparently do not catalyze aqueous decarboxylation reactions, in contrast to Pyrex, Ca-montmorillonite, Fe-bearing montmorillonite, hematite, synthetic pyrite, and magnetite. The dependence of the rate of acetic acid decarboxylation on the surface area of pyrite per unit solution volume was also studied. The results show that the decarboxylation of acetic acid and acetate is catalyzed heterogeneously, with the cleavage of the C-C bond occurring while the acetate molecule is adsorbed onto a surface. Entropies and enthalpies of activation obtained from these experiments are compatible with the isokinetic relationship established previously for acetic acid and acetate under similar experimental conditions, indicating the existence of a common rate-determining step. Experimental evidence indicates that oxidation of acetic acid can occur with hematite and defected magnetite. These oxidative decomposition reactions differ from the decarboxylation reaction in that CO 2 and polycondensates are produced instead of CO 2 and CH 4.

  12. Molecularly Characterized Solvent Extracts and Saponins from Polygonum hydropiper L. Show High Anti-Angiogenic, Anti-Tumor, Brine Shrimp, and Fibroblast NIH/3T3 Cell Line Cytotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Ayaz, Muhammad; Junaid, Muhammad; Ullah, Farhat; Sadiq, Abdul; Subhan, Fazal; Khan, Mir Azam; Ahmad, Waqar; Ali, Gowhar; Imran, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sajjad

    2016-01-01

    Polygonum hydropiper is used as anti-cancer and anti-rheumatic agent in folk medicine. This study was designed to investigate the anti-angiogenic, anti-tumor, and cytotoxic potentials of different solvent extracts and isolated saponins. Samples were analyzed using GC, Gas Chromatography–Mass Spectrometry (GC–MS) to identify major and bioactive compounds. Quantitation of antiangiogenesis for the plant's samples including methanolic extract (Ph.Cr), its subsequent fractions; n-hexane (Ph.Hex), chloroform (Ph.Chf), ethyl acetate (Ph.EtAc), n-Butanol (Ph.Bt), aqueous (Ph.Aq), saponins (Ph.Sp) were performed using the chick embryo chorioallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Potato disc anti-tumor assay was performed on Agrobacterium tumefaciens containing tumor inducing plasmid. Cytotoxicity was performed against Artemia salina and mouse embryonic fibroblast NIH/3T3 cell line following contact toxicity and MTT cells viability assays, respectively. The GC–MS analysis of Ph.Cr, Ph.Hex, Ph.Chf, Ph.Bt, and Ph.EtAc identified 126, 124, 153, 131, and 164 compounds, respectively. In anti-angiogenic assay, Ph.Chf, Ph.Sp, Ph.EtAc, and Ph.Cr exhibited highest activity with IC50 of 28.65, 19.21, 88.75, and 461.53 μg/ml, respectively. In anti-tumor assay, Ph.Sp, Ph.Chf, Ph.EtAc, and Ph.Cr were most potent with IC50 of 18.39, 73.81, 217.19, and 342.53 μg/ml, respectively. In MTT cells viability assay, Ph.Chf, Ph.EtAc, Ph.Sp were most active causing 79.00, 72.50, and 71.50% cytotoxicity, respectively, at 1000 μg/ml with the LD50 of 140, 160, and 175 μg/ml, respectively. In overall study, Ph.Chf and Ph.Sp have shown overwhelming results which signifies their potentials as sources of therapeutic agents against cancer. PMID:27065865

  13. Wound healing properties of ethyl acetate fraction of Moringa oleifera in normal human dermal fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Gothai, Sivapragasam; Arulselvan, Palanisamy; Tan, Woan Sean; Fakurazi, Sharida

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Wounds are the outcome of injuries to the skin that interrupt the soft tissue. Healing of a wound is a complex and long-drawn-out process of tissue repair and remodeling in response to injury. A large number of plants are used by folklore traditions for the treatment of cuts, wounds and burns. Moringa oleifera (MO) is an herb used as a traditional folk medicine for the treatment of various skin wounds and associated diseases. The underlying mechanisms of wound healing activity of ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves extract are completely unknown. Materials and Methods: In the current study, ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves was investigated for its efficacy on cell viability, proliferation and migration (wound closure rate) in human normal dermal fibroblast cells. Results: Results revealed that lower concentration (12.5 µg/ml, 25 µg/ml, and 50 µg/ml) of ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves showed remarkable proliferative and migratory effect on normal human dermal fibroblasts. Conclusion: This study suggested that ethyl acetate fraction of MO leaves might be a potential therapeutic agent for skin wound healing by promoting fibroblast proliferation and migration through increasing the wound closure rate corroborating its traditional use. PMID:27069722

  14. Improving the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells with acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Qian; Li, G. R.; Song, Jian; Zhao, Yulong; Qiang, Yinghuai; Gao, X. P.

    2016-12-01

    In an all-solid-state perovskite solar cell, methylammonium lead halide film is in charge of generating photo-excited electrons, thus its quality can directly influence the final photovoltaic performance of the solar cell. This paper accentuates a very simple chemical approach to improving the quality of a perovskite film with a suitable amount of acetic acid. With introduction of acetate ions, a homogeneous, continual and hole-free perovskite film comprised of high-crystallinity grains is obtained. UV-visible spectra, steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveal that the obtained perovskite film under the optimized conditions shows a higher light absorption, more efficient electron transport, and faster electron extraction to the adjoining electron transport layer. The features result in the optimized perovskite film can provide an improved short-circuit current. The corresponding solar cells with a planar configuration achieves an improved power conversion efficiency of 13.80%, and the highest power conversion efficiency in the photovoltaic measurements is up to 14.71%. The results not only provide a simple approach to optimizing perovskite films but also present a novel angle of view on fabricating high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  15. Improving the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells with acetate.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qian; Li, G R; Song, Jian; Zhao, Yulong; Qiang, Yinghuai; Gao, X P

    2016-12-09

    In an all-solid-state perovskite solar cell, methylammonium lead halide film is in charge of generating photo-excited electrons, thus its quality can directly influence the final photovoltaic performance of the solar cell. This paper accentuates a very simple chemical approach to improving the quality of a perovskite film with a suitable amount of acetic acid. With introduction of acetate ions, a homogeneous, continual and hole-free perovskite film comprised of high-crystallinity grains is obtained. UV-visible spectra, steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveal that the obtained perovskite film under the optimized conditions shows a higher light absorption, more efficient electron transport, and faster electron extraction to the adjoining electron transport layer. The features result in the optimized perovskite film can provide an improved short-circuit current. The corresponding solar cells with a planar configuration achieves an improved power conversion efficiency of 13.80%, and the highest power conversion efficiency in the photovoltaic measurements is up to 14.71%. The results not only provide a simple approach to optimizing perovskite films but also present a novel angle of view on fabricating high-performance perovskite solar cells.

  16. Improving the photovoltaic performance of perovskite solar cells with acetate

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Qian; Li, G. R.; Song, Jian; Zhao, Yulong; Qiang, Yinghuai; Gao, X. P.

    2016-01-01

    In an all-solid-state perovskite solar cell, methylammonium lead halide film is in charge of generating photo-excited electrons, thus its quality can directly influence the final photovoltaic performance of the solar cell. This paper accentuates a very simple chemical approach to improving the quality of a perovskite film with a suitable amount of acetic acid. With introduction of acetate ions, a homogeneous, continual and hole-free perovskite film comprised of high-crystallinity grains is obtained. UV-visible spectra, steady-state and time-resolved photoluminescence (PL) spectra reveal that the obtained perovskite film under the optimized conditions shows a higher light absorption, more efficient electron transport, and faster electron extraction to the adjoining electron transport layer. The features result in the optimized perovskite film can provide an improved short-circuit current. The corresponding solar cells with a planar configuration achieves an improved power conversion efficiency of 13.80%, and the highest power conversion efficiency in the photovoltaic measurements is up to 14.71%. The results not only provide a simple approach to optimizing perovskite films but also present a novel angle of view on fabricating high-performance perovskite solar cells. PMID:27934924

  17. White shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei immersed in seawater containing Sargassum hemiphyllum var. chinense powder and its extract showed increased immunity and resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus and white spot syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Huynh, Truong-Giang; Yeh, Su-Tuen; Lin, Yong-Chin; Shyu, Jeng-Feng; Chen, Li-Li; Chen, Jiann-Chu

    2011-08-01

    This study was to examine the immune response of white shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei and its resistance against Vibrio alginolyticus and WSSV when shrimp received the Sargassum hemiphyllum var. chinense powder and its hot-water extract. Both powder and extract showed activation of prophenoloxidase and generation of superoxide anion in the shrimp in vitro. The haemocyte count, phenoloxidase (PO) activity, respiratory burst, and lysozyme activity were examined after the shrimp were immersed in seawater containing S. hemiphyllum var. chinense powder or its extract at 0, 100, 300, and 500 mg L⁻¹ for 1, 3, and 5 h. These immune parameters of shrimp immersed in 300 and 500 mg L⁻¹ powder, and 100 and 300 mg L⁻¹ extract were significantly higher than those of control shrimp after 3 h, but slightly decreased after 5 h. In another experiment, shrimp immersed in seawater containing the powder or the extract at 0, 100, 300, and 500 mg L⁻¹ after 3 h were challenged with V. alginolyticus at 8 × 10⁵ colony-forming unit (cfu) shrimp⁻¹, or challenged with WSSV at 1 × 10⁵ copies shrimp⁻¹, and then placed in seawater. Survival rate of shrimp immersed in 500 mg L⁻¹ powder was significantly higher than that of control shrimp after 24-120 h in the V. alginolyticus-challenge test, and after 72 h in the WSSV-challenge test, respectively. Survival rate of shrimp immersed in 300 mg L⁻¹ extract was significantly higher than that of control shrimp after 72-120 h in both V. alginolyticus-challenge and WSSV-challenge tests. It was concluded that the shrimp immersed in seawater containing the powder at 500 mg L⁻¹, and the extract at 300 mg L⁻¹ had increased immunity and resistance against V. alginolyticus infection, and the shrimp that received extract at 300 mg L⁻¹ showed resistance against WSSV infection.

  18. Highly sensitive and specific time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay (TR-FIA) of cyproterone acetate and free cyproterone.

    PubMed

    Fiet, J; Giton, F; Boudi, A; Boudou, P; Vexiau, P; Galons, H; Raynaud, J P

    2000-12-31

    We have developed a non-isotopic TR-FIA for Cyproterone acetate and Cyproterone in plasma. Synthesis of the biotinylated tracers, biotinylated Cyproterone acetate, and Cyproterone, as well as the preparation of anti-Cyproterone acetate and anti-Cyproterone antisera are reported. The specificity of anti-Cyproterone acetate antiserum resulting from the coupling of link bridge (link bridge between steroid and BSA), on the 3-position on the steroid skeleton, allowed to carry out the Cyproterone acetate assay directly on extracted plasma (without chromatography). On the other hand Cyproterone assays require a purification step, including extraction plus chromatography, because the plasma Cyproterone acetate concentrations in Cyproterone acetate-treated women are 200 times higher than for Cyproterone. Theses plasma TR-FIA of Cyproterone acetate and Cyproterone presented the advantage of needing only small doses of radioactivity for recovery controls, and better practicability related to the only existing RIA described to date.

  19. Anglesite (PbSO 4) solubility in acetate solutions: The determination of stability constants for lead acetate complexes to 85°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giordano, Thomas H.

    1989-02-01

    Anglesite solubilities were determined at 25, 40, 55, 70, and 85°C in solutions with equal molal concentrations of acetic acid and sodium acetate (each ranging from 0.001 to 0.25 m) and at pH values near 4.6. Experiments were conducted using 1000 ml, externally heated glass reaction vessels, and lead concentrations were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry. For run conditions with free acetate concentrations less than about 0.01 m, measured a anglesite solubilities are less than or equal to 100 mg/l. Above free acetate concentrations of 0.01 m, measured anglesite solubilities rise sharply to concentrations near 1000 mg/l. Extracted from these solubility data, by a numerical successive linear extrapolation method, were stoichiometries and thermodynamic stability constants (ionic strength = 0) for the complexes Pb(CH 3COO) + and Pb(CH 3COO) 2. Log K1 and log K2 values for the formation reactions Pb + + CH 3COO - = PbCH 3COO + and Pb 2+ + 2CH 3COO - = Pb(CH 3COO) 2 respectively are log K1: (2.4±0.1, 25°C), (2.4±0.1, 40°C), (2.5±0.1, 55°C), (2.6±0.1, 70°C), (2.7±0.2, 85°C) and log K2: (3.4±0.4, 25°C), (3.6±0.2, 40°C), (3.8 ±0.2, 55°C), (4.0±0.2, 70°C), (4.3±0.2, 85°C). Lead hydrolysis was found to be significant in those experiments conducted at 70 and 85°C. However, hydrolyzed lead was not detected at 25, 40, and 55°C. PbOH + as percent of total observed lead ranged from 0.2 to 24% and 2 to 86% in those experiments at 70 and 85°C, respectively. Calculations of lead speciation in acetate solutions show that the equivalence point for PbCH 3COO + and Pb(CH 3COO) 2 shifts to lower acetate concentrations from 25 to 85°C. These speciation calculations also suggest that lead acetate complexes could be significant in high acetate formation waters. These waters typically contain at least 1,000 ppm acetate (0.017 molal as acetic acid). Furthermore, if these waters are not too acid and if concentrations of competing ligands are low, lead

  20. Antioxidant Activity and Gas Chromatographic-Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Extracts of the Marine Algae, Caulerpa peltata and Padina Gymnospora

    PubMed Central

    Murugan, Kavitha; Iyer, Vidhya V.

    2014-01-01

    The results of our previous investigations on extracts of selected marine algae showed that Caulerpa peltata and Padina gymnospora had more promising antiproliferative and antioxidant activities than Gelidiella acerosa and Sargassum wightii. Based on these results, the more active chloroform extract of C. peltata and ethyl acetate extract of P. gymnospora were further analyzed for their constituents by using gas chromatography in tandem with mass spectrometry. The GC-MS analysis (GC % peak area given in parentheses) showed that fucosterol (12.45%) and L-(+)-ascorbic acid 2, 6-dihexadecanoate (8.13%) were the major compounds present in P. gymnospora ethyl acetate extract. On the other hand, C. peltata chloroform extract had 1-heptacosanol (10.52%), hexacosanol acetate (9.28%), tetradecyl ester of chloroacetic acid (7.22%), Z,Z-6, 28-heptatriactontadien-2-one (6.77%) and 10, 13-dimethyl-methyl ester of tetradecanoic acid (5.34%) as major compounds. Also described in the report are the beta-carotene bleaching inhibitory and total reducing activities of the chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of C. peltata and P. gymnospora, respectively, relative to the other three extracts (aqueous, methanol, chloroform or ethyl acetate) of the two algae. PMID:25593390

  1. In vitro vasorelaxation mechanisms of bioactive compounds extracted from Hibiscus sabdariffa on rat thoracic aorta

    PubMed Central

    Sarr, Mamadou; Ngom, Saliou; Kane, Modou O; Wele, Alassane; Diop, Doudou; Sarr, Bocar; Gueye, Lamine; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Diallo, Aminata S

    2009-01-01

    Background In this study, we suggested characterizing the vasodilator effects and the phytochemical characteristics of a plant with food usage also used in traditional treatment of arterial high blood pressure in Senegal. Methods Vascular effects of crude extract of dried and powdered calyces of Hibiscus sabdariffa were evaluated on isolated thoracic aorta of male Wistar rats on organ chambers. The crude extract was also enriched by liquid-liquid extraction. The various cyclohexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, butanol extracts obtained as well as the residual marc were subjected to Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. The different methanolic eluate fractions were then analyzed by Thin Layer (TLC) and High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) and their vascular effects also evaluated. Results The H. Sabdariffa crude extract induced mainly endothelium-dependent relaxant effects. The endothelium-dependent relaxations result from NOS activation and those who not dependent to endothelium from activation of smooth muscle potassium channels. The phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of phenolic acids in the ethyl acetate extract and anthocyans in the butanolic extract. The biological efficiency of the various studied extracts, in term of vasorelaxant capacity, showed that: Butanol extract > Crude extract > Residual marc > Ethyl acetate extract. These results suggest that the strong activity of the butanolic extract is essentially due to the presence of anthocyans found in its fractions 43-67. Conclusion These results demonstrate the vasodilator potential of hibiscus sabdariffa and contribute to his valuation as therapeutic alternative. PMID:19883513

  2. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by the calcium hydroxide neutralization of acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by the calcium hydroxide neutralization of acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by the calcium hydroxide neutralization of acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by the calcium hydroxide neutralization of acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the...

  6. Pallidol hexa­acetate ethyl acetate monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Qinyong; Taylor, Dennis K.; Ng, Seik Weng; Tiekink, Edward R. T.

    2013-01-01

    The entire mol­ecule of pallidol hexa­acetate {systematic name: (±)-(4bR,5R,9bR,10R)-5,10-bis­[4-(acet­yloxy)phen­yl]-4b,5,9b,10-tetra­hydro­indeno­[2,1-a]indene-1,3,6,8-tetrayl tetra­acetate} is completed by the application of twofold rotational symmetry in the title ethyl acetate solvate, C40H34O12·C4H8O2. The ethyl acetate mol­ecule was highly disordered and was treated with the SQUEEZE routine [Spek (2009 ▶). Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]; the crystallographic data take into account the presence of the solvent. In pallidol hexa­acetate, the dihedral angle between the fused five-membered rings (r.m.s. deviation = 0.100 Å) is 54.73 (6)°, indicating a significant fold in the mol­ecule. Significant twists between residues are also evident as seen in the dihedral angle of 80.70 (5)° between the five-membered ring and the pendent benzene ring to which it is attached. Similarly, the acetate residues are twisted with respect to the benzene ring to which they are attached [C—O(carb­oxy)—C—C torsion angles = −70.24 (14), −114.43 (10) and −72.54 (13)°]. In the crystal, a three-dimensional architecture is sustained by C—H⋯O inter­actions which encompass channels in which the disordered ethyl acetate mol­ecules reside. PMID:24046702

  7. Citric acid cycle in the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum islandicum grown autotrophically, heterotrophically, and mixotrophically with acetate.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yajing; Holden, James F

    2006-06-01

    The hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrobaculum islandicum uses the citric acid cycle in the oxidative and reductive directions for heterotrophic and autotrophic growth, respectively, but the control of carbon flow is poorly understood. P. islandicum was grown at 95 degrees C autotrophically, heterotrophically, and mixotrophically with acetate, H2, and small amounts of yeast extract and with thiosulfate as the terminal electron acceptor. The autotrophic growth rates and maximum concentrations of cells were significantly lower than those in other media. The growth rates on H2 and 0.001% yeast extract with and without 0.05% acetate were the same, but the maximum concentration of cells was fourfold higher with acetate. There was no growth with acetate if 0.001% yeast extract was not present, and addition of H2 to acetate-containing medium greatly increased the growth rates and maximum concentrations of cells. P. islandicum cultures assimilated 14C-labeled acetate in the presence of H2 and yeast extract with an efficiency of 55%. The activities of 11 of 19 enzymes involved in the central metabolism of P. islandicum were regulated under the three different growth conditions. Pyruvate synthase and acetate:coenzyme A (CoA) ligase (ADP-forming) activities were detected only in heterotrophically grown cultures. Citrate synthase activity decreased in autotrophic and acetate-containing cultures compared to the activity in heterotrophic cultures. Acetylated citrate lyase, acetate:CoA ligase (AMP forming), and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase activities increased in autotrophic and acetate-containing cultures. Citrate lyase activity was higher than ATP citrate synthase activity in autotrophic cultures. These data suggest that citrate lyase and AMP-forming acetate:CoA ligase, but not ATP citrate synthase, work opposite citrate synthase to control the direction of carbon flow in the citric acid cycle.

  8. Antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Park, Anna; Ku, Taekyu; Yoo, Ilsou

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of mango (Mangifera indica) leaves were evaluated. Hydroalcoholic leaf extracts that were lyophilized were subsequently fermented with either Lactobacillus casei or effective microorganisms (EM) such as probiotic bacteria and/or other anaerobic organisms. Antioxidant properties were measured as a function of the mango leaf extract concentration in the fermentation broth. Tests for radical scavenging using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical showed higher antioxidant activity for Lactobacillus- and EM-fermented mango leaf extracts than for the synthetic antioxidant butylated hydroxytoluene. Antioxidant activity generally increased with increasing fermented extract concentration as did the fermented extracts' polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Fermented extracts reduced reactive oxygen species generation by lipopolysaccharide in RAW 264.7 cells when measured via fluorescence of dichlorodihydrofluorescein acetate treated cells using flow cytometry. RAW 264.7 cells also showed a concentration-dependent cytotoxic effect of the fermented extracts using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthialol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Inhibition of mushroom tyrosinase activity as well as nitrite scavenging by the fermented extracts increased as fermented extract concentrations increased. Tyrosinase activity was assayed with 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine as substrate. Nitrite scavenging was assessed via measurement of inhibition of chromophore production from nitrite-naphthylamine-sulfanilic acid mixtures. The antioxidant properties of fermented mango leaf extracts suggest the fermented extracts may be useful in developing health food and fermentation-based beauty products.

  9. Vesicles protect activated acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Todd, Zoe R; House, Christopher H

    2014-10-01

    Abstract Methyl thioacetate, or activated acetic acid, has been proposed to be central to the origin of life and an important energy currency molecule in early cellular evolution. We have investigated the hydrolysis of methyl thioacetate under various conditions. Its uncatalyzed rate of hydrolysis is about 3 orders of magnitude faster (K=0.00663 s(-1); 100°C, pH 7.5, concentration=0.33 mM) than published rates for its catalyzed production, making it unlikely to accumulate under prebiotic conditions. However, our experiments showed that methyl thioacetate was protected from hydrolysis when inside its own hydrophobic droplets. Further, we found that methyl thioacetate protection from hydrolysis was also possible in droplets of hexane and in the membranes of nonanoic acid vesicles. Thus, the hydrophobic regions of prebiotic vesicles and early cell membranes could have offered a refuge for this energetic molecule, increasing its lifetime in close proximity to the reactions for which it would be needed. This model of early energy storage evokes an additional critical function for the earliest cell membranes.

  10. Microwave-assisted extraction versus Soxhlet extraction in the analysis of 21 organochlorine pesticides in plants.

    PubMed

    Barriada-Pereira, M; Concha-Graña, E; González-Castro, M J; Muniategui-Lorenzo, S; López-Mahía, P; Prada-Rodríguez, D; Fernández-Fernández, E

    2003-08-01

    A method to determine 21 organochlorine pesticides in vegetation samples using microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) is described and compared with Soxhlet extraction. Samples were extracted with hexane-acetone (1:1, v/v) and the extracts were cleaned using solid-phase extraction with Florisil and alumine as adsorbents. Pesticides were eluted with hexane-ethyl acetate (80:20, v/v) and determined by gas chromatography and electron-capture detection. Recoveries obtained (75.5-132.7% for Soxhlet extraction and 81.5-108.4% for MAE) show that both methods are suitable for the determination of chlorinated pesticides in vegetation samples. The method using microwave energy was applied to grass samples from parks of A Coruña (N.W. Spain) and to vegetation from the contaminated industrial area of Torneiros (Pontevedra, N.W. Spain).

  11. Simultaneous production of acetic and gluconic acids by a thermotolerant Acetobacter strain during acetous fermentation in a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Mounir, Majid; Shafiei, Rasoul; Zarmehrkhorshid, Raziyeh; Hamouda, Allal; Ismaili Alaoui, Mustapha; Thonart, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    The activity of bacterial strains significantly influences the quality and the taste of vinegar. Previous studies of acetic acid bacteria have primarily focused on the ability of bacterial strains to produce high amounts of acetic acid. However, few studies have examined the production of gluconic acid during acetous fermentation at high temperatures. The production of vinegar at high temperatures by two strains of acetic acid bacteria isolated from apple and cactus fruits, namely AF01 and CV01, respectively, was evaluated in this study. The simultaneous production of gluconic and acetic acids was also examined in this study. Biochemical and molecular identification based on a 16s rDNA sequence analysis confirmed that these strains can be classified as Acetobacter pasteurianus. To assess the ability of the isolated strains to grow and produce acetic acid and gluconic acid at high temperatures, a semi-continuous fermentation was performed in a 20-L bioreactor. The two strains abundantly grew at a high temperature (41°C). At the end of the fermentation, the AF01 and CV01 strains yielded acetic acid concentrations of 7.64% (w/v) and 10.08% (w/v), respectively. Interestingly, CV01 was able to simultaneously produce acetic and gluconic acids during acetic fermentation, whereas AF01 mainly produced acetic acid. In addition, CV01 was less sensitive to ethanol depletion during semi-continuous fermentation. Finally, the enzymatic study showed that the two strains exhibited high ADH and ALDH enzyme activity at 38°C compared with the mesophilic reference strain LMG 1632, which was significantly susceptible to thermal inactivation.

  12. Viscosity of Mixtures of α-Tocopherol Acetate + Mesitylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szwajczaka, Elżbieta; Stagraczyński, Ryszard; Herba, Henryk; Świergielb, Jolanta; Jadżyn, Jan

    2009-08-01

    The paper presents results of the share viscosity measurements performed as a function of temperature and concentration for mixtures of α-tocopherol acetate (vitamine E acetate) and mesitylene, two liquids of essentially different viscosity (four order of magnitude difference at 280 K). The viscosity/ temperature dependence for pure α-tocopherol acetate as well as for the mixtures studied can be well described with the Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann equation. The viscosities of the mixtures exhibit a strong negative deviation from the rule of additive dependence on concentration and for increasing temperature the maximum value of the deviation shows an exponential decreasing.

  13. An in vitro evaluation of various Rosa damascena flower extracts as a natural antisolar agent.

    PubMed

    Tabrizi, H; Mortazavi, S A; Kamalinejad, M

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate ultraviolet (UV) absorption ability of various extracts of Rosa damascena flowers as an antisolar agent. Extracts were prepared using the following solvent mixtures: water:ethanol (50 : 50), ethyl acetate:ethanol (80 : 20) and ether. The hydroalcoholic and ethyl acetate:ethanol extracts were prepared by maceration, and ether extract was prepared by soxhletion. Preliminary studies on the extracts prepared confirmed the presence of flavonoids as the major components of all extracts. Next, the UV absorption spectra (in the range of 200-400 nm) of all extracts were obtained. Results show that all three extracts can effectively absorb UV radiation in the range of 200-400 nm. However, the range giving maximum absorption for the hydroalcoholic, ethyl acetate:ethanol and ether extracts were 200-320, 250-360 and 230-370 nm, respectively. In the next stage, extracts prepared were incorporated into an oil in water cream base (prepared based on preliminary studies), at two concentrations of 5 and 8%. The sun protection factor (SPF) of these creams were determined. Based on the findings, the hydroalcoholic extract seems to give the highest SPF among the three extracts evaluated, when incorporated to the cream base. On the other hand, by performing a few physicochemical tests on the prepared creams, cream containing 5% ether extract showed the most desirable appearance and stability among the creams investigated. The UV absorption ability of these extracts is suggested to be because of the presence of flavonoid compounds within the extracts. However, it should be noted that in order to obtain an effective suncare product with high SPF values, these extracts could be used along with other synthetic antisolar agents.

  14. Antifungal activity of different neem leaf extracts and the nimonol against some important human pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, D.A.; Hassanein, N.M.; Youssef, K.A.; Abou Zeid, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of aqueous, ethanolic and ethyl acetate extracts from neem leaves on growth of some human pathogens (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus terreus, Candida albicans and Microsporum gypseum) in vitro. Different concentrations (5, 10, 15 and 20%) prepared from these extracts inhibited the growth of the test pathogens and the effect gradually increased with concentration. The 20% ethyl acetate extract gave the strongest inhibition compared with the activity obtained by the same concentration of the other extracts. High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis of ethyl acetate extract showed the presence of a main component (nimonol) which was purified and chemically confirmed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopic analysis. The 20% ethyl acetate extract lost a part of its antifungal effect after pooling out the nimonol and this loss in activity was variable on test pathogens. The purified nimonol as a separate compound did not show any antifungal activity when assayed against all the six fungal pathogens. PMID:24031718

  15. Design of optimal solvent for extraction of bio–active ingredients from six varieties of Medicago sativa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Extensive research has been performed worldwide and important evidences were collected to show the immense potential of plants used in various traditional therapeutic systems. The aim of this work is to investigate the different extracting solvents in terms of the influence of their polarity on the extracting ability of bioactive molecules (phenolic compounds) from the M. sativa flowers. Results The total phenolic content of samples was determined using the Folin Ciocalteu (FC) procedure and their antioxidant activity was assayed through in vitro radical decomposing activity using the radical DPPH° assay (IUPAC name for DPPH is (phenyl)–(2,4,6–trinitrophenyl) iminoazanium). The results showed that water was better than methanol and acetic acid for extracting bioactive compounds, in particular for total phenolic compounds from the flowers of alfalfa. The average content of bioactive molecules in methanol extract was 263.5±1.02 mg GAE/100g of dry weight lyophilized extract. The total phenolic content of the tested plant extracts was highly correlated with the radical decomposing activity. However, all extracts were free–radical inhibitors, but the water extract was more potent than the acetic and the methanol ones. The order of inhibitor effectiveness (expressed by IC50) proved to be: water extract (0.924mg/mL) > acetic acid extract (0.154mg/mL) > methanol (0.079mg/mL). The profiles of each extract (fingerprint) were characterized by FT–MIR spectroscopy. Conclusions The present study compares the fingerprint of different extracts of the M. sativa flowers, collected from the wild flora of Romania. The total phenolic content of the tested plant extracts was highly correlated with the radical decomposing activity. The dependence of the extract composition on the solvent polarity (acetic acid vs. methanol vs. water) was revealed by UV–VIS spectrometry and Infrared fingerprint. PMID:23098128

  16. Stable carbon isotope discrimination in rice field soil during acetate turnover by syntrophic acetate oxidation or acetoclastic methanogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Ralf; Klose, Melanie

    2011-03-01

    Rice fields are an important source for the greenhouse gas methane. In Italian rice field soil CH 4 is produced either by hydrogenotrophic and acetoclastic methanogenesis, or by hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis and syntrophic acetate oxidation when temperatures are below and above about 40-45 °C, respectively. In order to see whether these acetate consumption pathways differently discriminate the stable carbon isotopes of acetate, we measured the δ 13C of total acetate and acetate-methyl as well as the δ 13C of CO 2 and CH 4 in rice field soil that had been pre-incubated at 45 °C and then shifted to different temperatures between 25 and 50 °C. Acetate transiently accumulated to about 6 mM, which is about one-third of the amount of CH 4 produced, irrespective of the incubation temperature and the CH 4 production pathway involved. However, the patterns of δ 13C of the CH 4 and CO 2 produced were different at low (25, 30, 35 °C) versus high (40, 45, 50 °C) temperatures. These patterns were consistent with CH 4 being exclusively formed by hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis at high temperatures, and by a combination of acetoclastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis at low temperatures. The patterns of δ 13C of total acetate and acetate-methyl were also different at high versus low temperatures, indicating the involvement of different pathways of production and consumption of acetate at the two temperature regimes. Isotope fractionation during consumption of the methyl group of acetate was more pronounced at low ( α = 1.010-1.025) than at high ( α = 1.0-1.01) temperatures indicating that acetoclastic methanogenesis exhibits a stronger isotope effect than syntrophic acetate oxidation. Small amounts of propionate also transiently accumulated and were analyzed for δ 13C. The δ 13C values slightly increased (by about 10‰) during production and consumption of propionate, but were not affected by incubation temperature. Collectively, our results showed distinct

  17. Investigation of biological activity of polar extracts isolated from Phlomis crinita Cav ssp. mauritanica Munby.

    PubMed

    Limem-Ben Amor, Ilef; Skandrani, Ines; Boubaker, Jihed; Ben Sghaïer, Mohamed; Neffati, Aicha; Bhouri, Wissem; Bouhlel, Ines; Chouchane, Nabil; Kilani, Soumaya; Guedon, Emmanuel; Ghoul, Mohamed; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2009-01-01

    The lyophilized infusion, the methanol, the ethyl acetate, and the total oligomer flavonoid (TOF)-enriched extracts prepared from the dried leaves of Phlomis crinita Cav. ssp. mauritanica Munby were investigated for the contents of flavonoids, tannins, coumarines and steroids. Antibacterial activity was investigated toward five bacterial strains. An inhibitory effect was observed against Staphyllococcus aureus and Enterococcus feacalis, and the minimal inhibitory concentrations ranged from 2.5 to 5 mg/mL of extract. The tested extracts exhibit an important free radical scavenging activity toward the 1,1-diphenyl 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical; with IC(50) values of 30.5, 6, 32, and 31.5 microg/mL, respectively, in the presence of lyophilized infusion, the TOF, the methanol, and the ethyl acetate extracts. Genotoxic and antigenotoxic properties of the different extracts were studied by using the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli PQ37. The lyophilized infusion and TOF extracts obtained from P. crinita ssp. mauritanica showed no genotoxicity, whereas methanol and ethyl acetate extracts are considered as marginally genotoxic. On the other hand, we showed that each extract inhibited the mutagenicity induced by aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) (10 microg/assay) and nifuroxazide (NF) (10 microg/assay). The ethyl acetate extract showed the strongest level of protection toward the genotoxicity induced by both directly and indirectly genotoxic NF and AFB1. These tests proved that the lyophilized infusion possesses an antiradical activity likewise, it showed no genotoxic effect; that is why we choose this extract to assess its antiulcerogenic activity by using an ethanol-induced ulcerogenesis model in the rat. This test demonstrates that 300 mg/kg of a P. crinita ssp. mauritanica lyophilized infusion was more effective than the reference compound, cimetidine.

  18. Screening antimicrobial activity of various extracts of Urtica dioica.

    PubMed

    Modarresi-Chahardehi, Amir; Ibrahim, Darah; Fariza-Sulaiman, Shaida; Mousavi, Leila

    2012-12-01

    Urtica dioica or stinging nettle is traditionally used as an herbal medicine in Western Asia. The current study represents the investigation of antimicrobial activity of U. dioica from nine crude extracts that were prepared using different organic solvents, obtained from two extraction methods: the Soxhlet extractor (Method I), which included the use of four solvents with ethyl acetate and hexane, or the sequential partitions (Method II) with a five solvent system (butanol). The antibacterial and antifungal activities of crude extracts were tested against 28 bacteria, three yeast strains and seven fungal isolates by the disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. Amoxicillin was used as positive control for bacteria strains, vancomycin for Streptococcus sp., miconazole nitrate (30 microg/mL) as positive control for fungi and yeast, and pure methanol (v/v) as negative control. The disc diffusion assay was used to determine the sensitivity of the samples, whilst the broth dilution method was used for the determination of the minimal inhibition concentration (MIC). The ethyl acetate and hexane extract from extraction method I (EA I and HE I) exhibited highest inhibition against some pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus cereus, MRSA and Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A selection of extracts that showed some activity was further tested for the MIC and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBC). MIC values of Bacillus subtilis and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) using butanol extract of extraction method II (BE II) were 8.33 and 16.33mg/mL, respectively; while the MIC value using ethyl acetate extract of extraction method II (EAE II) for Vibrio parahaemolyticus was 0.13mg/mL. Our study showed that 47.06% of extracts inhibited Gram-negative (8 out of 17), and 63.63% of extracts also inhibited Gram-positive bacteria (7 out of 11); besides, statistically the frequency of antimicrobial activity was 13.45% (35 out of 342) which in this among 21.71% belongs to

  19. Ultrasound-assisted dyeing of cellulose acetate.

    PubMed

    Udrescu, C; Ferrero, F; Periolatto, M

    2014-07-01

    The possibility of reducing the use of auxiliaries in conventional cellulose acetate dyeing with Disperse Red 50 using ultrasound technique was studied as an alternative to the standard procedure. Dyeing of cellulose acetate yarn was carried out by using either mechanical agitation alone, with and without auxiliaries, or coupling mechanical and ultrasound agitation in the bath where the temperature range was maintained between 60 and 80 °C. The best results of dyeing kinetics were obtained with ultrasound coupled with mechanical agitation without auxiliaries (90% of bath exhaustion value at 80 °C). Hence the corresponding half dyeing times, absorption rate constants according to Cegarra-Puente modified equation and ultrasound efficiency were calculated confirming the synergic effect of sonication on the dyeing kinetics. Moreover the apparent activation energies were also evaluated and the positive effect of ultrasound added to mechanical agitation was evidenced by the lower value (48 kJ/mol) in comparison with 112 and 169 kJ/mol for mechanical stirring alone with auxiliaries and without, respectively. Finally, the fastness tests gave good values for samples dyed with ultrasound technique even without auxiliaries. Moreover color measurements on dyed yarns showed that the color yield obtained by ultrasound-assisted dyeing at 80 °C of cellulose acetate without using additional chemicals into the dye bath reached the same value yielded by mechanical agitation, but with remarkably shorter time.

  20. Combining glucose and sodium acetate improves the growth of Neochloris oleoabundans under mixotrophic conditions.

    PubMed

    Silva, Helder Rodrigues; Prete, Cassio Egidio Cavenaghi; Zambrano, Freddy; de Mello, Victor Hugo; Tischer, Cesar Augusto; Andrade, Diva Souza

    2016-03-01

    Mixotrophic cultivation is a potential approach to produce microalgal biomass that can be used as raw materials for renewable biofuels and animal feed, although using a suitable, cost-effective organic carbon source is crucial. Here, we used a Box-Behnken design with three factors, the glucose and sodium acetate concentrations, and the percentage of Bold's basal medium (BBM), to evaluate the effects of different carbon sources on biomass productivity and the protein and lipid contents of Neochloris oleoabundans (UTEX#1185). When grow at optimal levels of these factors, 100 % BBM plus 7.5 g L(-1) each of glucose and sodium acetate, N. oleoabundans yielded 1.75 g L(-1) of dry biomass, with 4.88 ± 0.09 % N, 24.01 ± 0.29-30.5 ± 0.38 % protein, and 34.4 % ± 0.81 lipids. A nuclear magnetic resonance spectrum ((1)H-NMR) of a lipid extract showed that the free fatty acid content was 11.25 %. Thus, combining glucose and sodium acetate during the mixotrophic cultivation of N. oleoabundans can yield greater amounts of biomass, proteins, and lipids for biofuel production.

  1. Occupational triphenyltin acetate poisoning: a case report.

    PubMed Central

    Colosio, C; Tomasini, M; Cairoli, S; Foà, V; Minoia, C; Marinovich, M; Galli, C L

    1991-01-01

    A case of triphenyltin acetate (TPTA) poisoning is described. The patient, who had been exposed mainly to cutaneous absorption, showed acute stages of an urticarial eruption, signs of hepatic injury, slight glucose intolerance, and electroencephalographic abnormalities. Concomitant with the highest concentrations of tin in plasma and the peak of tin excretion in urine, neutrophils did not show the normal increase in actin polymerisation after stimulation with a chemotactic peptide (100 nM fMLP). The peak of urinary excretion of tin occurred between the fifth and the sixth day after poisoning; subsequently, the rate of excretion became slow, suggesting biphasic kinetics with the possibility of a cumulative trend. Images PMID:1825604

  2. [Analgesic activity of different nonvolatile extracts of Nepeta atlantica Ball and Nepeta Tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata (Desf.) Maire].

    PubMed

    Bouidida, El Houcine; Alaoui, Katim; Cherrah, Yahia; Chammache, Malika; Il Idrissi, Abdelkader

    2008-01-01

    Different extracts of Nepeta atlantica Ball and Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata (Desf.) Maire contain mainly secondary metabolites with iridoïd lactonic and glucosidic type, also with triterpine lupan type.The aerial part of each species is crushed, then extracted in methanol by cold maceration, called global extracts. The global extracts will be extracted through various solvents: initially by hexane, then by dichloromethane, after that by ethyl acetate and at the end by buthanol. Each one of the obtained extracts will be used for the following trials: i) Tail flick trial on the rat for central morphine-like analgesic activity; ii) Koster trial on the mouse for peripheral analgesic activity. The evaluation of the central and peripheral analgesic activities for the pre-cited extracts was realized after optimal doses determination of the global extracts activities for both species.The peripheral analgesic activity test on the mouse showed that, for 60 mg/kg intra peritoneum (IP), the hexanic, dichloromethanic, ethyl acetate and butanic extracts have a protection power against abdominal cramp respectively around 89.78%, 81.73%, 70.9% et 69.05% for Nepeta atlantica Ball, and around 89.16%, 82.98%, 71.52% et 70.27% for Nepeta tuberosa L. ssp. reticulata.Central morphine-like analgesic activity on the rat showed that, for both spices under 60 mg/kg IP, the central analgesic activity effect is significantly for two extracts only: dichloromethane and ethyl acetate.

  3. Antioxidant and Anti-quorum Sensing Potential of Acer monspessulanum subsp. monspessulanum Extracts.

    PubMed

    Ceylan, Ozgur; Sahin, Mehtap Donmez; Akdamar, Gultekin

    2016-10-01

    In this study, anti-quorum sensing, and antioxidant activities, and chemical composition of Acer monspessulanum subsp. monspessulanum extracts were evaluated. Determination of the antioxidant activity was revealed by DPPH radical scavenging activity, the total phenolic content assay, and the β-carotene/linoleic acid assay. The detection of phenolic compounds was determined using RP-HPLC. Anti-quorum sensing activity and violacein inhibition activity were determined using Chromobacterium violaceum CV026 and C. violaceum ATCC 112 472, respectively. The determination of anti-swarming activity was carried out with Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01. In DPPH and total phenolic content assays, the water extract exhibited good antioxidant activity. In the β-carotene-linoleic acid assay, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts exhibited good lipid peroxidation inhibition activity, demonstrating 96.95 ± 0.03 % and 95.35 ± 0.00 % at 2.5 mg/mL concentrations, respectively. The predominant phenolic compounds of the extracts were determined as rutin, naringin, catechin hydrate, quercetin, and protocatechuic acid. Ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts were found to contain a high level of violacein inhibition and anti-quorum sensing activity. The ethanol extract also showed weak anti-swarming activity. In this first study that used Acer monspessulanum subsp. monspessulanum extracts, it was revealed that the water extract has antioxidant activity and the ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts have anti-quorum sensing activity depending on the phenolic compounds that it contained.

  4. Acetate fuels the cancer engine.

    PubMed

    Lyssiotis, Costas A; Cantley, Lewis C

    2014-12-18

    Cancer cells have distinctive nutrient demands to fuel growth and proliferation, including the disproportionate use of glucose, glutamine, and fatty acids. Comerford et al. and Mashimo et al. now demonstrate that several types of cancer are avid consumers of acetate, which facilitates macromolecular biosynthesis and histone modification.

  5. Anti-genotoxic and free-radical scavenging activities of extracts from (Tunisian) Myrtus communis.

    PubMed

    Hayder, N; Abdelwahed, A; Kilani, S; Ammar, R Ben; Mahmoud, A; Ghedira, K; Chekir-Ghedira, L

    2004-11-14

    The effect of extracts from leaves of Myrtus communis on the SOS reponse induced by Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) and Nifuroxazide was investigated in a bacterial assay system, i.e. the SOS chromotest with Escherichia coli PQ37. Aqueous extract, the total flavonoids oligomer fraction (TOF), hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts and essential oil obtained from M. communis significantly decreased the SOS response induced by AFB1 (10 microg/assay) and Nifuroxazide (20 microg/assay). Ethyl acetate and methanol extracts showed the strongest inhibition of the induction of the SOS response by the indirectly genotoxic AFB1. The methanol and aqueous extracts exhibited the highest level of protection towards the SOS-induced response by the directly genotoxic Nifuroxazide. In addition to anti-genotoxic activity, the aqueous extract, the TOF, and the ethyl acetate and methanol extracts showed an important free-radical scavenging activity towards the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical. These results suggest the future utilization of these extracts as additives in chemoprevention studies.

  6. Origins of blood acetate in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Buckley, B M; Williamson, D H

    1977-01-01

    A novel enzymimc cycling assay for the determination of acetate in biological material is described. Measurements of the acetate concentration in blood and liver samples from rats of various ages and nutritional states with this assay are reported. The contribution of the intestine, the liver and the rest of the body to maintaining the concentration of acetate in the circulation is examined. Evidence is presented that the gut flora constitute the main source of acetate in blood of fed adult rats, though endogenous production of acetate is of significance in other situations. The streptozotocin-diabetic rat has an elevated blood acetate concentration. PMID:597244

  7. A study of different analytical extraction methods for nondetrital heavy metals in aquatic sediments.

    PubMed

    Agemian, H; Chau, A S

    1977-01-01

    4.0 N HNO3-0.7 N HCl, 0.5 N HCl, 1 N hydroxylamine hydrochloride-25% acetic acid and 0.05 N EDTA were investiagted as extractants of nondetrital heavy metals from the sediments of the Rideau River. A comparison of these partial extraction methods with a total extraction method, showed that the 4.0 N HNO3-0.7 N HCl attacks the silicate crystal lattice considerably. 1 N hydroxylamine hydrochloride-25% acetic acid was found to be unsuitable for copper extraction. Both of the other two methods were suitable for the simultaneous extraction of Cd, Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni, Cr, Co, Mn, Fe, and Al from the organic adsorbed and precipitated phases of sediments. They both gave a measure of nondetrital heavy metals in sediments and are thus useful to environmental contamination studies.

  8. Evaluation of the analgesic activity of extracts of Miconia rubiginosa (Melastomataceae).

    PubMed

    Spessoto, M A; Ferreira, D S; Crotti, A E M; Silva, M L A; Cunha, W R

    2003-01-01

    The analgesic effects of the hexane, methylene chloride and ethanol extracts of Miconia rubiginosa were evaluated in mice and rats using the acetic acid-induced writhing and hot plate tests. The extracts (100, 200 and 300 mg/kg body wt.) and indomethacin (5 mg/kg body wt.) produced a significant (p < 0.05 and p < 0.01) inhibition of acetic acid-induced abdominal writhing. These same extracts (200 mg/kg body wt.) showed a significant (p < 0.05) antinociceptive effect, lower than that produced by morphine (4 mg/kg body wt.). The fractionation of the methylene chloride extract yielded ursolic and oleanoic acids as the major compounds. Using only gas chromatography, it was possible to identify the following triterpenes in the hexane extract: alpha-amyrin, beta-amyrin, lupeol and beta-sitosterol.

  9. Integrated Process for Production of Galangal Acetate, the "Wasabi-Like" Spicy Compound, and Analysis of Essential Oils of Rhizoma Alpinia officinarum (Hance) Farw.

    PubMed

    Lin, Li-Yun; Shen, Kun-Hung; Yeh, Xiang-Yü; Huang, Bou-Yü; Wang, Hui-Er; Chen, Kuan-Chou; Peng, Robert Y

    2016-06-01

    Rhizoma Alpinia officinarum (Hance) Farw, Zingiberaceae (AO), a ginger family herb exhibiting stimulant and a carminative bioactivity, is widely used in European and Asian countries as spicy condiment and medicinal uses. Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) is the main pungent taste of native Wasabi (Wasabia japonica). The cytotoxicity of AITC has been implicated in thymus, adrenals, and white blood cells. Considering food safety, apparently a safer substitute for wasabi is worthy commercialized. Previously, we found AO crude paste to be rather feasible for use as a "Wasabi-substitute" in fresh meat and cold salads. A process linking cold ethyl acetate (EtAc) extraction with silica gel adsorption and reversed phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) (mobile phase, 75% methanol) was used to isolate galangal acetate, the Wasabi-like taste constituent. AO contained abundant galangal acetate (3.84 ± 0.07%) compared to A. galangal (0.57 ± 0.16%), and as already confirmed by thin layer chromatography (TLC), gas chromatography (GC)/mass spectrometry (MS)/MS and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (NMR), galangal acetate was particularly thermally labile. The steam distilled essential oil (SDEO) of AO (0.14% on wet basis) contained 80 compounds (number of component, %): monoterpene hydrocarbon (21, 13.83%); oxygenated monoterpene (17, 27.08%); sesquiterpene hydrocarbon (20, 31.03%), and oxygenated sesquiterpene (20, 21.85%), respectively. However, no spicy wasabi-like constituent remained in SDEO. Alternatively, n-hexane, EtAc, and methanol extracts of AO all showed potent DPPH- and superoxide anion-scavenging activity. Conclusively, SDEO although contains 80 volatiles, galangal acetate is absent due to thermal instability. Galangal acetate exhibits pleasant "Wasabi-like taste" for which we have successively developed an integrated process for mass production.

  10. Acetate adaptation of clostridia tyrobutyricum for improved fermentation production of butyrate.

    PubMed

    Jaros, Adam M; Rova, Ulrika; Berglund, Kris A

    2013-12-01

    Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 is an acidogenic bacterium capable of utilizing xylose for the fermentation production of butyrate. Hot water extraction of hardwood lingocellulose is an efficient method of producing xylose where autohydrolysis of xylan is catalysed by acetate originating from acetyl groups present in hemicellulose. The presence of acetic acid in the hydrolysate might have a severe impact on the subsequent fermentations. In this study the fermentation kinetics of C. tyrobutyricum cultures after being classically adapted for growth at 26.3 g/L acetate equivalents were studied. Analysis of xylose batch fermentations found that even in the presence of high levels of acetate, acetate adapted strains had similar fermentation kinetics as the parental strain cultivated without acetate. The parental strain exposed to acetate at inhibitory conditions demonstrated a pronounced lag phase (over 100 hours) in growth and butyrate production as compared to the adapted strain (25 hour lag) or non-inhibited controls (0 lag). Additional insight into the metabolic pathway of xylose consumption was gained by determining the specific activity of the acetate kinase (AK) enzyme in adapted versus control batches. AK activity was reduced by 63% in the presence of inhibitory levels of acetate, whether or not the culture had been adapted.

  11. Carbon-isotopic analysis of dissolved acetate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelwicks, J. T.; Hayes, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Heating of dried, acetate-containing solids together with oxalic acid dihydrate conveniently releases acetic acid for purification by gas chromatography. For determination of the carbon-isotopic composition of total acetate, the acetate-containing zone of the chromatographic effluent can be routed directly to a combustion furnace coupled to a vacuum system allowing recovery, purification, and packaging of CO2 for mass-spectrometric analysis. For analysis of methyl carbon, acetic acid can be cryogenically trapped from the chromatographic effluent, then transferred to a tube containing excess NaOH. The tube is evacuated, sealed, and heated to 500 degrees C to produce methane by pyrolysis of sodium acetate. Subsequent combustion of the methane allows determination of the 13C content at the methyl position in the parent acetate. With typical blanks, the standard deviation of single analyses is less than 0.4% for acetate samples larger than 5 micromoles. A full treatment of uncertainties is outlined.

  12. Ozone decomposition in aqueous acetate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sehested, K.; Holcman, J.; Bjergbakke, E.; Hart, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    The acetate radical ion reacts with ozone with a rate constant of k = (1.5 +/- 0.5) x 10Z dmT mol s . The products from this reaction are CO2, HCHO, and O2 . By subsequent reaction of the peroxy radical with ozone the acetate radical ion is regenerated through the OH radical. A chain decomposition of ozone takes place. It terminates when the acetate radical ion reacts with oxygen forming the unreactive peroxy acetate radical. The chain is rather short as oxygen is developed, as a result of the ozone consumption. The inhibiting effect of acetate on the ozone decay is rationalized by OH scavenging by acetate and successive reaction of the acetate radical ion with oxygen. Some products from the bimolecular disappearance of the peroxy acetate radicals, however, react further with ozone, reducing the effectiveness of the stabilization.

  13. Carbon-isotopic analysis of dissolved acetate.

    PubMed

    Gelwicks, J T; Hayes, J M

    1990-01-01

    Heating of dried, acetate-containing solids together with oxalic acid dihydrate conveniently releases acetic acid for purification by gas chromatography. For determination of the carbon-isotopic composition of total acetate, the acetate-containing zone of the chromatographic effluent can be routed directly to a combustion furnace coupled to a vacuum system allowing recovery, purification, and packaging of CO2 for mass-spectrometric analysis. For analysis of methyl carbon, acetic acid can be cryogenically trapped from the chromatographic effluent, then transferred to a tube containing excess NaOH. The tube is evacuated, sealed, and heated to 500 degrees C to produce methane by pyrolysis of sodium acetate. Subsequent combustion of the methane allows determination of the 13C content at the methyl position in the parent acetate. With typical blanks, the standard deviation of single analyses is less than 0.4% for acetate samples larger than 5 micromoles. A full treatment of uncertainties is outlined.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3 or C2H3O2Na·3H2O, CAS Reg. No. 6131-90-4) is the sodium salt of acetic acid and occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues....

  15. Carbon isotope fractionation by sulfate-reducing bacteria using different pathways for the oxidation of acetate.

    PubMed

    Goevert, Dennis; Conrad, Ralf

    2008-11-01

    Acetate is a key intermediate in the anaerobic degradation of organic matter. In anoxic environments, available acetate is a competitive substrate for sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) and methane-producing archaea. Little is known about the fractionation of carbon isotopes by sulfate reducers. Therefore, we determined carbon isotope compositions in cultures of three acetate-utilizing SRB, Desulfobacter postgatei, Desulfobacter hydrogenophilus, and Desulfobacca acetoxidans. We found that these species showed strong differences in their isotope enrichment factors (epsilon) of acetate. During the consumption of acetate and sulfate, acetate was enriched in 13C by 19.3% per hundred in Desulfobacca acetoxidans. By contrast, both D. postgatei and D. hydrogenophilus showed a slight depletion of 13C resulting in epsilon(ac)-values of 1.8 and 1.5% per hundred, respectively. We suggest that the different isotope fractionation is due to the different metabolic pathways for acetate oxidation. The strongly fractionating Desulfobacca acetoxidans uses the acetyl-CoA/carbon monoxide dehydrogenase pathway, which is also used by acetoclastic methanogens that show a similar fractionation of acetate (epsilon(ac) = -21 to -27% per hundred). In contrast, Desulfobacter spp. oxidize acetate to CO2 via the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle and apparently did not discriminate against 13C. Our results suggestthat carbon isotope fractionation in environments with sulfate reduction will strongly depend on the composition of the sulfate-reducing bacterial community oxidizing acetate.

  16. Effect of different solvents extracts and mode of action of Loktanella spp. Gb03 on toxic dinoflagellate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hameed, Anmar; Usup, Gires; Ahmad, Asmat

    2016-11-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the algicidal activity of Loktanella sp. Gb-03 bacterial extracts against toxic dinoflagellate, using various polar and non-polar solvents. For this purpose, six different solvent extracts were prepared (i.e. methanol, ethyl acetate, hexane, chloroform, acetonitrile and water). Ratio of 1:100 (v:v) (extract to dinoflagellate culture) of each extract was used for preliminary algicidal activity screening against toxic dinoflagellate Coolia malaynesis. Dinoflagellate cells at the stationary phase (1.0 × 103 cells/ mL) were treated with 1% (v/v) of each extract by using 24-well microplate. The plates were then incubated for 24 hours at dinoflagellate culture condition (under a light intensity of 140 µmol m-2s-1 and 12:12 hours light:dark photoperiod). The result of algicidal activity screening showed that all 6 extracts from Loktanella sp. Gb-03 had different ranges of algicidal activity against the toxic dinoflagellates. Ethyl acetate extract showed the highest activity against C. malaynesis and also other harmful dinoflagellate (Alexandrium sp. Alexandrium leei, Alexandrium affine, Alexandrium tamiyavanichi, Alexandrium tamarense, Gambierdiscus belizeanus, and Ostreopsis). This study was the first to explore the algicidal activity of Loktanella sp. Gb-03 extracts against toxic dinoflagellate with ethyl acetate as the best solvent to extract algicidal active compounds.

  17. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  1. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  3. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It...

  5. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  8. 21 CFR 522.2476 - Trenbolone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... days. (A) 140 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each pellet containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate) per implant dose. (B) 140 mg trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting... 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (ii) Indications for use. For improved feed...

  9. 21 CFR 522.2476 - Trenbolone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... days. (A) 140 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each pellet containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate) per implant dose. (B) 140 mg trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting... 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (ii) Indications for use. For improved feed...

  10. Antimicrobial activity of plant extracts against sexually transmitted pathogens.

    PubMed

    Jadhav, Nutan; Kulkarni, Sangeeta; Mane, Arati; Kulkarni, Roshan; Palshetker, Aparna; Singh, Kamalinder; Joshi, Swati; Risbud, Arun; Kulkarni, Smita

    2015-01-01

    Comprehensive management of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) using vaginal or rectal microbicide-based intervention is one of the strategies for prevention of HIV infection. Herbal products have been used for treating STIs traditionally. Herein, we present in vitro activity of 10 plant extracts and their 34 fractions against three sexually transmitted/reproductive tract pathogens - Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Haemophilus ducreyi and Candida albicans. The plant parts were selected; the extracts/fractions were prepared and screened by disc diffusion method. The minimum inhibitory and minimum cidal concentrations were determined. The qualitative phytochemical analysis of selected extracts/fractions showing activity was performed. Of the extracts/fractions tested, three inhibited C. albicans, ten inhibited N. gonorrhoeae and five inhibited H. ducreyi growth. Our study demonstrated that Terminalia paniculata Roth. extracts/fractions inhibited growth of all three organisms. The ethyl acetate fraction of Syzygium cumini Linn. and Bridelia retusa (L.) Spreng. extracts was found to inhibit N. gonorrhoeae at lowest concentrations.

  11. Hydrogen fluoride capture by imidazolium acetate ionic liquid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaban, Vitaly

    2015-04-01

    Extraction of hydrofluoric acid (HF) from oils is a drastically important problem in petroleum industry, since HF causes quick corrosion of pipe lines and brings severe health problems to humanity. Some ionic liquids (ILs) constitute promising scavenger agents thanks to strong binding to polar compounds and tunability. PM7-MD simulations and hybrid density functional theory are employed here to consider HF capture ability of ILs. Discussing the effects and impacts of the cation and the anion separately and together, we evaluate performance of imidazolium acetate and outline systematic search guidelines for efficient adsorption and extraction of HF.

  12. Zuclopenthixol acetate for acute schizophrenia and similar serious mental illnesses

    PubMed Central

    Jayakody, Kaushadh; Gibson, Roger Carl; Kumar, Ajit; Gunadasa, Shalmini

    2014-01-01

    Background Medication used for acute aggression in psychiatry must have rapid onset of effect, low frequency of administration and low levels of adverse effects. Zuclopenthixol acetate is said to have these properties. Objectives To estimate the clinical effects of zuclopenthixol acetate for the management of acute aggression or violence thought to be due to serious mental illnesses, in comparison to other drugs used to treat similar conditions. Search methods We searched the Cochrane Schizophrenia’s Group Trials Register (July 2011). We supplemented this by citation searching and personal contact with authors and relevant pharmaceutical companies. Selection criteria All randomised clinical trials involving people thought to have serious mental illnesses comparing zuclopenthixol acetate with other drugs. Data collection and analysis Two review authors extracted and cross-checked data independently. We calculated fixed-effect relative risks (RR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for dichotomous data. We analysed by intention-to-treat. We used mean differences (MD) for continuous variables. Main results We found no data for the primary outcome, tranquillisation. Compared with haloperidol, zuclopenthixol acetate was no more sedating at two hours (n = 40, 1 RCT, RR 0.60, 95% CI 0.27 to 1.34). People given zuclopenthixol acetate were not at reduced risk of being given supplementary antipsychotics (n = 134, 3 RCTs, RR 1.49, 95% CI 0.97 to 2.30) although additional use of benzodiazepines was less (n = 50, 1 RCT, RR 0.03, 95% CI 0.00 to 0.47). People given zuclopenthixol acetate had fewer injections over seven days compared with those allocated to haloperidol IM (n = 70, 1 RCT, RR 0.39, 95% CI 0.18 to 0.84, NNT 4, CI 3 to 14). We found no data on more episodes of aggression or harm to self or others. One trial (n = 148) reported no significant difference in adverse effects for people receiving zuclopenthixol acetate compared with those allocated haloperidol at one, three

  13. Development of Acetic Acid Removal Technology for the UREX+Process

    SciTech Connect

    Robert M. Counce; Jack S. Watson

    2009-06-30

    It is imperative that acetic acid is removed from a waste stream in the UREX+process so that nitric acid can be recycled and possible interference with downstreatm steps can be avoidec. Acetic acid arises from acetohydrozamic acid (AHA), and is used to suppress plutonium in the first step of the UREX+process. Later, it is hydrolyzed into hydroxyl amine nitrate and acetic acid. Many common separation technologies were examined, and solvent extraction was determined to be the best choice under process conditions. Solvents already used in the UREX+ process were then tested to determine if they would be sufficient for the removal of acetic acid. The tributyl phosphage (TBP)-dodecane diluent, used in both UREX and NPEX, was determined to be a solvent system that gave sufficient distribution coefficients for acetic acid in addition to a high separation factor from nitric acid.

  14. Evaluation of the morphological changes of gastric mucosa induced by a low concentration of acetic acid using a rat model.

    PubMed

    Nakao, Ken-ichiro; Ro, Ayako; Kibayashi, Kazuhiko

    2014-02-01

    Oral ingestion of concentrated acetic acid causes corrosive injury of the gastrointestinal tract. To assess the effects of a low concentration of acetic acid on gastric mucosa, we examined the gastric mucosal changes in rats at 1 and 3 days after the injection of 5% or 25% acetic acid into the gastric lumen. The area of the gastric ulcerative lesions in the 25% acetic acid group was significantly larger than that in the 5% acetic acid group. The lesion area was reduced significantly at 3 days after injection in the 5% acetic acid group, whereas no significant difference in lesion area was observed at 1 and 3 days in the 25% acetic acid group. Histologically, corrosive necrosis was limited to the mucosal layer in the 5% acetic acid group, whereas necrosis extended throughout the gastric wall in the 25% acetic acid group. At 3 days post-injection, the 25% acetic acid group showed widespread persistent inflammation, whereas the 5% acetic acid group showed widespread appearance of fibroblasts indicative of a healing process. These results indicate that a low concentration of acetic acid damages the gastric mucosa and that the degree of mucosal damage depends on the concentration of acetic acid.

  15. Thermochemical properties of cellulose acetate blends with acetosolv and sawdust lignin: A comparative study.

    PubMed

    Peredo, Karol; Escobar, Danilo; Vega-Lara, Johana; Berg, Alex; Pereira, Miguel

    2016-02-01

    Sawdust (SD) and cotton-lignin blends (CLB) were acetylated and the effect of lignin type and content on thermoplastic properties of the acetate produced was studied. The lignin in samples did not significantly affect the degree of acetylation. An increase in acetyl groups of 1-3% was observed in acetylated SD (ASD) unlike acetylated CLB (ACLB). Thermogravimetric analysis showed two thermal degradation zones; one at 190-200°C and the other at 330-370°C. The early degradation in ASD corresponds to galactoglucomannans while that in ACLB corresponds to the low-molecular-weight lignin. The second degradation is due to decomposition of cellulose acetate and high-molecular-weight lignin. DSC analysis showed homogeneous behaviour in ASD with only one glass transition temperature (Tg) at 170-180°C, unlike ACLB that showed two Tgs at 170-180°C. Sawdust acetylation, taking advantage of its residual lignin, showed higher reactivity and miscibility as compared to the same material produced by adding previously extracted lignin on cotton.

  16. Ketotifen controlled release from cellulose acetate propionate and cellulose acetate butyrate membranes.

    PubMed

    Sobral, Manuela C C M; Sobral, Abilio J F N; Guthrie, J T; Gil, M H

    2008-02-01

    Ketotifen was immobilised in cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) membranes and in cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) membranes. The characteristics of each system were evaluated under a range of experimental conditions. The topography and uniformity of the membranes was assessed using scanning electron microscopy. The release characteristics associated with Ketotifen were monitored spectrophotometrically. The swelling capacity of the membranes was evaluated and attributed to the combined effects of diffusion and of complex dissociation, during swelling. The materials produced were able to provide controlled release of Ketotifen due to their controlled swelling behaviour and adequate release properties. The results showed that the release of Ketotifen from the CAB membranes is higher but the release from the CAP membranes is more uniform.

  17. Antigenotoxic activities of crude extracts from Acacia salicina leaves.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Hédi B; Boubaker, Jihed; Bouhlel, Inès; Mahmoud, Amor; Bernillon, Stéphane; Chibani, Jemni B; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2007-01-01

    For centuries, plants have been used in traditional medicines and there has been recent interest in the chemopreventive properties of compounds derived from plants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of extracts of Acacia salicina leaves on the genotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P) and nifuroxazide in the SOS Chromotest. Aqueous, total oligomers flavonoids (TOF)-enriched, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts were prepared from powdered Acacia leaves, and characterized qualitatively for the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and sterols. All the extracts significantly decreased the genotoxicity induced by 1 microg B(a)P (+S9) and 10 microg nifuroxazide (-S9). The TOF-enriched and methanol extracts decreased the SOS response induced by B(a)P to a greater extent, whereas the TOF-enriched and the ethyl acetate extracts exhibited increased activity against the SOS response produced by nifuroxazide. In addition, the aqueous, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts showed increased activity in scavenging the 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, while 100-300 microg/ml of all the test extracts were active in inhibiting O2-production in a xanthine/xanthine oxidase system. In contrast, only the petroleum ether extract was effective at inhibiting nitroblue tetrazolium reduction by the superoxide radical in a nonenzymatic O2- -generating system. The present study indicates that extracts of A. salicina leaves are a significant source of compounds with antigenotoxic and antioxidant activity (most likely phenolic compounds and sterols), and thus may be useful for chemoprevention.

  18. Wet in situ transesterification of microalgae using ethyl acetate as a co-solvent and reactant.

    PubMed

    Park, Jeongseok; Kim, Bora; Chang, Yong Keun; Lee, Jae W

    2017-04-01

    This study addresses wet in situ transesterification of microalgae for the production of biodiesel by introducing ethyl acetate as both reactant and co-solvent. Ethyl acetate and acid catalyst are mixed with wet microalgae in one pot and the mixture is heated for simultaneous lipid extraction and transesterification. As a single reactant and co-solvent, ethyl acetate can provide higher FAEE yield and more saccharification of carbohydrates than the case of binary ethanol and chloroform as a reactant and a co-solvent. The optimal yield was 97.8wt% at 114°C and 4.06M catalyst with 6.67mlEtOAC/g dried algae based on experimental results and response surface methodology (RSM). This wet in situ transesterification of microalgae using ethyl acetate doesn't require an additional co-solvent and it also promises more economic benefit as combining extraction and transesterification in a single process.

  19. Progress toward acetate supplementation therapy for Canavan disease: glyceryl triacetate administration increases acetate, but not N-acetylaspartate, levels in brain.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Raji; Arun, Peethambaran; Madhavarao, Chikkathur N; Moffett, John R; Namboodiri, M A Aryan

    2005-10-01

    Canavan disease (CD) is a fatal genetic neurodegenerative disorder caused by mutations in the gene for aspartoacylase, an enzyme that hydrolyzes N-acetylaspartate (NAA) into L-aspartate and acetate. Because aspartoacylase is localized in oligodendrocytes, and NAA-derived acetate is incorporated into myelin lipids, we hypothesize that an acetate deficiency in oligodendrocytes is responsible for the pathology in CD, and we propose acetate supplementation as a possible therapy. In our preclinical efforts toward this goal, we studied the effectiveness of orally administered glyceryl triacetate (GTA) and calcium acetate for increasing acetate levels in the murine brain. The concentrations of brain acetate and NAA were determined simultaneously after intragastric administration of GTA. We found that the acetate levels in brain were increased in a dose- and time-dependent manner, with a 17-fold increase observed at 1 to 2 h in 20- to 21-day-old mice at a dose of 5.8 g/kg GTA. NAA levels in the brain were not significantly increased under these conditions. Studies using mice at varying stages of development showed that the dose of GTA required to maintain similarly elevated acetate levels in the brain increased with age. Also, GTA was significantly more effective as an acetate source than calcium acetate. Chronic administration of GTA up to 25 days of age did not result in any overt pathology in the mice. Based on these results and the current Food and Drug Administration-approved use of GTA as a food additive, we propose that it is a potential candidate for use in acetate supplementation therapy for CD.

  20. Immunotoxicity of trenbolone acetate in Japanese quail

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Quinn, M.J.; McKernan, M.; Lavoie, E.T.; Ottinger, M.A.

    2007-01-01

    Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic androgen that is currently used as a growth promoter in many meat-exporting countries. Despite industry laboratories classifying trenbolone as nonteratogenic, data showed that embryonic exposure to this androgenic chemical altered development of the immune system in Japanese quail. Trenbolone is lipophilic, persistent, and released into the environment in manure used as soil fertilizer. This is the first study to date to assess this chemical's immunotoxic effects in an avian species. A one-time injection of trenbolone into yolks was administered to mimic maternal deposition, and subsequent effects on the development and function of the immune system were determined in chicks and adults. Development of the bursa of Fabricius, an organ responsible for development of the humoral arm of the immune system, was disrupted, as indicated by lower masse, and smaller and fewer follicles at day 1 of hatch. Morphological differences in the bursas persisted in adults, although no differences in either two measures of immune function were observed. Total numbers of circulating leukocytes were reduced and heterophil-lymphocyte ratios were elevated in chicks but not adults. This study shows that trenbolone acetate is teratogenic and immunotoxic in Japanese quail, and provides evidence that the quail immune system may be fairly resilient to embryonic endocrine-disrupting chemical-induced alterations following no further exposure posthatch.

  1. [Pharmacological properties in vitro of various extracts of Mimosa tenuiflora (tepescohuite)].

    PubMed

    Meckes-Lozoya, M; Lozoya, X; González, J L

    1990-01-01

    The in vitro biological effects of polar extracts of Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir. trunk bark (tepescohuite) were studied. Ethyl acetate extract, with a high tannin content, inhibited the growth of different microorganisms. Alkaloids were particularly abundant in the butanol extract and this product strongly inhibited the intestinal peristalsis and produced contraction of uterine and gastric strips of rat and guinea pig. Saponins were detected in butanol and methanol extracts producing hemolysis. The screenings performed showed the diversity of bioactive compounds present in this plant product.

  2. Efficacy of indigenous plant extracts on the malaria vector Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae)

    PubMed Central

    Elango, G.; Zahir, A. Abduz; Bagavan, A.; Kamaraj, C.; Rajakumar, G.; Santhoshkumar, T.; Marimuthu, S.; Rahuman, A. Abdul

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Mosquito control is facing a threat due to the emergence of resistance to synthetic insecticides. Insecticides of plant origin may serve as suitable alternative biocontrol techniques in the future. The purpose of the present study was to assess the ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of Andrographis paniculata, Eclipta prostrata and Tagetes erecta leaves tested for oviposition-deterrent, ovicidal and repellent activities against malaria vector, Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). Methods: The dried leaves of the three plants were powdered mechanically and extracted with ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol. One gram of crude extract was first dissolved in 100 ml of acetone (stock solution). From the stock solution, test solution concentrations of 31.21- 499.42 mg/l for oviposition- deterrence assay and repellency and 15.60 - 998.85 mg/l were used in ovicidal assay. The percentage oviposition- deterrence, hatching rate of eggs and protection time were calculated. One-way analysis of variance was used for the multiple concentration tests and for per cent mortality to determine significant treatment differences. Results: The percentage of effective oviposition repellency was highest at 499.42 mg/l and the lowest at 31.21 mg/l in ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta. The oviposition activity index (OAI) value of ethyl acetate, acetone and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta at 499.42 mg/l were -0.91, -0.93, -0.84, -0.84, -0.87, -0.82, -0.87, -0.89 and -0.87, respectively. Mortality (no egg hatchability) was 100 per cent with ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and T. erecta at 998.85 mg/l. The maximum adult repellent activity was observed at 499.42 mg/l in ethyl acetate extracts of A. paniculata, E. prostrata and methanol extracts of T. erecta, and the mean complete protection time ranged from 120 to 150 min with

  3. Distribution of furfuryl alcohol between water and butyl acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Veber, N.V.; Khisamotdinova, A.I.; Tabachova, S.I.

    1985-06-10

    This paper studies the distribution of furfuryl alcohol between water and butyl acetate, which has a comparatively low solubility in water (0.5 g in 100 ml of water), forming a heterogeneous azeotropic mixture. Butyl acetate is capable of giving a hydrogen bond at the carbonyl oxygen with hydroxyl compounds, which serves as the basis for its use as an extraction reagent. The distribution of furfuryl alcohol between water and butyl acetate was studied without salting out agents, and also in the presence of sodium chloride. The experiments were conducted with model solutions of freshly redistilled furfuryl alcohol by shaking equal volumes of the phases in a separatory funnel at 18-20 C. An analysis of furfuryl alcohol in experiments without salting out was performed by a titrimetric method. The results of the distribution of furfuryl alcohol without salting out agents are presented in a table. The distribution of furfuryl alcohol in butyl acetate in the presence of sodium chloride was studied in a smaller range of concentrations.

  4. Development of a new sample pre-treatment procedure based on pressurized liquid extraction for the determination of metals in edible seaweed.

    PubMed

    Moreda-Piñeiro, Jorge; Alonso-Rodríguez, Elia; López-Mahía, Purificación; Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad; Prada-Rodríguez, Darío; Moreda-Piñeiro, Antonio; Bermejo-Barrera, Pilar

    2007-08-13

    A new, simple, fast and automated method based on acetic acid-pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) has been developed for the simultaneous extraction of major and trace elements (As, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, K, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, Sr and Zn) from edible seaweeds. The target elements have been simultaneously determined by inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The influence of several extraction parameters (e.g. acetic acid concentration, extraction temperature, extraction time, pressure, number of cycles, particle size and diatomaceous earth (DE) mass/sample mass ratio) on the efficiency of metal leaching has been evaluated. The results showed that metal extraction efficiency depends on the mass ratio of the dispersing agent mass and the sample. The optimized procedure consisted of the following conditions: acetic acid (0.75 M) as an extracting solution, 5 min of extraction time, one extraction cycle at room temperature at a pressure of 10.3 MPa and addition of a dispersing agent (at a ratio of 5:1 over the sample mass). The leaching procedure was completed after 7 min (5 min extraction time plus 1 min purge time plus 1 min end relief time). Limits of detection and quantification and repeatability of the over all procedure have been assessed. Method validation was performed analysing two seaweed reference materials (NIES-03 Chlorella Kessleri and NIES-09 Sargasso). The developed extraction method has been applied to red (Dulse and Nori), green (Sea Lettuce) and brown (Kombu, Wakame and Sea Spaghetti) edible seaweeds.

  5. Transport and degradation of propyleneglycol and potassium acetate in the unsaturated zone.

    PubMed

    French, H K; Van der Zee, S E; Leijnse, A

    2001-05-01

    De-icing chemicals used during the winter season are potential pollutants for the groundwater underneath the new main airport of Norway. Several field experiments examining the transport and degradation of propyleneglycol (PG), potassium acetate (KAc) and non-reactive tracers were performed in a lysimeter trench under natural snowmelting conditions. Chemicals were applied underneath the snow cover and the transport in a heterogeneous coarse sandy soil was examined by extracting soil water from 30 or 40 suction cups placed at five depths between 0.4 and 2.4 m depth. Transport and degradation was analysed by spatial moment calculations. The de-icing chemicals showed the same basic displacement as chemically inactive tracers, an initial fast transport during the melting period followed by a period of stagnation throughout the summer season. PG seemed to be displaced to greater depths compared to non-reactive tracer after the first application. However, computer simulations of transport and degradation in a heterogeneous unsaturated soil showed that decreasing degradation constants with depth can generate a downward movement of the centre of mass without any flow occurring in the system. Potassium acetate showed some adsorption, with calculated retardation factors of approximately 1.3 and 1.2. The degradation rate constant for PG was calculated to be 0.015 day-1 in 1994 and increased to 0.047 day-1 in the second application made in 1995. The degradation rate constant for acetate was estimated to be 0.02 day-1. Increased manganese concentrations seem to be a good indicator of degradation of PG and Ac.

  6. Transport and degradation of propyleneglycol and potassium acetate in the unsaturated zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, H. K.; Van der Zee, S. E. A. T. M.; Leijnse, A.

    2001-05-01

    De-icing chemicals used during the winter season are potential pollutants for the groundwater underneath the new main airport of Norway. Several field experiments examining the transport and degradation of propyleneglycol (PG), potassium acetate (KAc) and non-reactive tracers were performed in a lysimeter trench under natural snowmelting conditions. Chemicals were applied underneath the snow cover and the transport in a heterogeneous coarse sandy soil was examined by extracting soil water from 30 or 40 suction cups placed at five depths between 0.4 and 2.4 m depth. Transport and degradation was analysed by spatial moment calculations. The de-icing chemicals showed the same basic displacement as chemically inactive tracers, an initial fast transport during the melting period followed by a period of stagnation throughout the summer season. PG seemed to be displaced to greater depths compared to non-reactive tracer after the first application. However, computer simulations of transport and degradation in a heterogeneous unsaturated soil showed that decreasing degradation constants with depth can generate a downward movement of the centre of mass without any flow occurring in the system. Potassium acetate showed some adsorption, with calculated retardation factors of approximately 1.3 and 1.2. The degradation rate constant for PG was calculated to be 0.015 day -1 in 1994 and increased to 0.047 day -1 in the second application made in 1995. The degradation rate constant for acetate was estimated to be 0.02 day -1. Increased manganese concentrations seem to be a good indicator of degradation of PG and Ac.

  7. Green Synthesis of Silver and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Using Euphorbia prostrata Extract Shows Shift from Apoptosis to G0/G1 Arrest followed by Necrotic Cell Death in Leishmania donovani

    PubMed Central

    Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Chauhan, Indira Singh; Bagavan, Asokan; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi; Shankar, Jai; Arjaria, Nidhi; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to synthesize silver (Ag) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) using green synthesis from aqueous leaf extract of Euphorbia prostrata as antileishmanial agents and to explore the underlying molecular mechanism of induced cell death. In vitro antileishmanial activity of synthesized NPs was tested against promastigotes of Leishmania donovani by alamarBlue and propidium iodide uptake assays. Antileishmanial activity of synthesized NPs on intracellular amastigotes was assessed by Giemsa staining. The leishmanicidal effect of synthesized Ag NPs was further confirmed by DNA fragmentation assay and by cell cycle progression and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the treated parasites. TEM analysis of the synthesized Ag NPs showed a spherical shape with an average size of 12.82 ± 2.50 nm, and in comparison to synthesized TiO2 NPs, synthesized Ag NPs were found to be most active against Leishmania parasites after 24 h exposure, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 14.94 μg/ml and 3.89 μg/ml in promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes, respectively. A significant increase in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle with a subsequent decrease in S (synthesis) and G2/M phases compared to controls was observed. The growth-inhibitory effect of synthesized Ag NPs was attributed to increased length of S phase. A decreased reactive oxygen species level was also observed, which could be responsible for the caspase-independent shift from apoptosis (G0/G1 arrest) to massive necrosis. High-molecular-weight DNA fragmentation as a positive consequence of necrotic cell death was also visualized. We also report that the unique trypanothione/trypanothione reductase (TR) system of Leishmania cells was significantly inhibited by synthesized Ag NPs. The green-synthesized Ag NPs may provide promising leads for the development of cost-effective and safer alternative treatment against visceral leishmaniasis. PMID:26033724

  8. Green Synthesis of Silver and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Using Euphorbia prostrata Extract Shows Shift from Apoptosis to G0/G1 Arrest followed by Necrotic Cell Death in Leishmania donovani.

    PubMed

    Zahir, Abdul Abduz; Chauhan, Indira Singh; Bagavan, Asokan; Kamaraj, Chinnaperumal; Elango, Gandhi; Shankar, Jai; Arjaria, Nidhi; Roopan, Selvaraj Mohana; Rahuman, Abdul Abdul; Singh, Neeloo

    2015-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to synthesize silver (Ag) and titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles (NPs) using green synthesis from aqueous leaf extract of Euphorbia prostrata as antileishmanial agents and to explore the underlying molecular mechanism of induced cell death. In vitro antileishmanial activity of synthesized NPs was tested against promastigotes of Leishmania donovani by alamarBlue and propidium iodide uptake assays. Antileishmanial activity of synthesized NPs on intracellular amastigotes was assessed by Giemsa staining. The leishmanicidal effect of synthesized Ag NPs was further confirmed by DNA fragmentation assay and by cell cycle progression and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of the treated parasites. TEM analysis of the synthesized Ag NPs showed a spherical shape with an average size of 12.82 ± 2.50 nm, and in comparison to synthesized TiO2 NPs, synthesized Ag NPs were found to be most active against Leishmania parasites after 24 h exposure, with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50) of 14.94 μg/ml and 3.89 μg/ml in promastigotes and intracellular amastigotes, respectively. A significant increase in G0/G1 phase of the cell cycle with a subsequent decrease in S (synthesis) and G2/M phases compared to controls was observed. The growth-inhibitory effect of synthesized Ag NPs was attributed to increased length of S phase. A decreased reactive oxygen species level was also observed, which could be responsible for the caspase-independent shift from apoptosis (G0/G1 arrest) to massive necrosis. High-molecular-weight DNA fragmentation as a positive consequence of necrotic cell death was also visualized. We also report that the unique trypanothione/trypanothione reductase (TR) system of Leishmania cells was significantly inhibited by synthesized Ag NPs. The green-synthesized Ag NPs may provide promising leads for the development of cost-effective and safer alternative treatment against visceral leishmaniasis.

  9. Phenolic Extracts from Wild Olive Leaves and Their Potential as Edible Oils Antioxidants

    PubMed Central

    Lafka, Theodora-Ioanna; Lazou, Andriana E.; Sinanoglou, Vassilia J.; Lazos, Evangelos S.

    2013-01-01

    The kinetics solid-liquid extraction of phenolics from wild olive leaves was elaborated using different mathematical models (Peleg, second order, Elovich, and power law model). As solvents, methanol, ethanol, ethanol:water 1:1, n-propanol, isopropanol and ethyl acetate were used. The second order model best described the solvent extraction process, followed by the Elovich model. The most effective solvent was ethanol with optimum phenol extraction conditions 180 min, solvent to sample ratio 5:1 v/w and pH 2. Ethanol extract exhibited the highest antiradical activity among solvent and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) extracts, which in addition showed the highest antioxidant capacity compared to synthetic and natural food antioxidants such as BHT, ascorbyl palmitate and vitamin E. Antioxidant potential of SFE extract was quite high, although its phenolic potential was not. Leaf extracts were proven to be good protectors for olive and sunflower oils at levels of 150 ppm. PMID:28239093

  10. Heterogeneous Reactions of Acetic Acid with Oxide Surfaces: Effects of Mineralogy and Relative Humidity.

    PubMed

    Tang, Mingjin; Larish, Whitney A; Fang, Yuan; Gankanda, Aruni; Grassian, Vicki H

    2016-07-21

    We have investigated the heterogeneous uptake of gaseous acetic acid on different oxides including γ-Al2O3, SiO2, and CaO under a range of relative humidity conditions. Under dry conditions, the uptake of acetic acid leads to the formation of both acetate and molecularly adsorbed acetic acid on γ-Al2O3 and CaO and only molecularly adsorbed acetic acid on SiO2. More importantly, under the conditions of this study, dimers are the major form for molecularly adsorbed acetic acid on all three particle surfaces investigated, even at low acetic acid pressures under which monomers are the dominant species in the gas phase. We have also determined saturation surface coverages for acetic acid adsorption on these three oxides under dry conditions as well as Langmuir adsorption constants in some cases. Kinetic analysis shows that the reaction rate of acetic acid increases by a factor of 3-5 for γ-Al2O3 when relative humidity increases from 0% to 15%, whereas for SiO2 particles, acetic acid and water are found to compete for surface adsorption sites.

  11. Isolation and characterization of esters of indole-3-acetic acid from the liquid endosperm of the horse chestnut (Aesculus species)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Domagalski, W.; Schulze, A.; Bandurski, R. S.

    1987-01-01

    Esters of indole-3-acetic acid were extracted and purified from the liquid endosperm of immature fruits of various species of the horse chestnut (Aesculus parviflora, A. baumanni, A. pavia rubra, and A. pavia humulis). The liquid endosperm contained, at least 12 chromatographically distinct esters. One of these compounds was purified and characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and myo-inositol. A second compound was found to be an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and the disaccharide rutinose (glucosyl-rhamnose). A third compound was partially characterized as an ester of indole-3-acetic acid and a desoxyaminohexose.

  12. Bioassay guided isolation and identification of anti-Acanthamoeba compounds from Tunisian olive leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Sifaoui, Ines; López-Arencibia, Atteneri; Ticona, Juan Carlos; Martín-Navarro, Carmen M; Reyes-Batlle, María; Mejri, Mondher; Lorenzo-Morales, Jacob; Jiménez, Antonio Ignacio; Valladares, Basilio; Lopez-Bazzocchi, Isabel; Abderabba, Manef; Piñero, José E

    2014-11-01

    Pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains are causative agents of Granulomatous Amoebic Encephalitis (GAE) and Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK) worldwide. The existence of the cyst stage complicates Acanthamoeba therapy as it is highly resistant to antibiotics and physical agents. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of Limouni olive leaf cultivar against the trophozoite stage of Acanthamoeba. The ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of this variety were tested against Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff. The ethyl acetate extract of olive leaf was the most active showing an IC50 of 5.11±0.71μg/ml of dry extract. Bio-guided fractionation of this extract was conducted and led to the identification of three active compounds namely oleanolic and maslinic acids and oleuropein which could be used for the development of novel therapeutic approaches against Acanthamoeba infections.

  13. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae) extracts

    PubMed Central

    Sim, K. S.; Nurestri, A. M. Sri; Norhanom, A. W.

    2010-01-01

    The leaves of Pereskia grandifolia Haw. (Cactaceae), commonly known as “Jarum Tujuh Bilah” in Malaysia, have been traditionally used as natural remedy in folk medicine by the locals. In the present study, the antioxidant potential of P. grandifolia crude methanol and its fractionated extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and water) have been investigated, employing three different established testing systems, such as scavenging activity on 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radicals, reducing power assay and β-carotene method. The total phenolic content of the P. grandifolia extracts was also assessed by the Folin-Ciocalteau’s method. The ethyl acetate extract showed significantly the highest total phenolic content, DPPH scavenging ability and antioxidant activity in β-carotene bleaching assay while the hexane extract possessed significantly strongest reducing power. The data obtained in these testing systems clearly establish the antioxidant potency of P. grandifolia. As such, this is the first report on the antioxidant activities of P. grandifolia. PMID:20931088

  14. Antioxidant properties and xanthine oxidase inhibitory effects of Tamus communis L. root extracts.

    PubMed

    Boumerfeg, Sabah; Baghiani, Abderrahmane; Messaoudi, Dalila; Khennouf, Seddik; Arrar, Lekhmici

    2009-02-01

    This study was conducted to search for xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitors from the root extracts of Tamus communis L. traditionally used in folk medicine in Algeria. Root extracts with different solvents were screened for purified milk xanthine oxidase inhibition. The root extracts (methanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate) and proteins, obtained in distilled water, inhibited bovine, sheep and human milk XO from three species in a concentration-dependent manner, with an additional superoxide scavenging capacity, which reached its highest level with ethyl acetate extract (IC(50) = 0.15, 0.04 and 0.09 g/L) for bovine XO, sheep XO and human XO, respectively. The antioxidant potential was confirmed with the non-enzymatic method, total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) assay, which showed that the Tamus communis L. extracts have a potential antioxidant activity in the same order obtained by using the reduction of cytochrome c, an enzymatic method, in which the antioxidant activity followed a decreasing order: ethyl acetate extract > chloroform extract > protein.

  15. Distribution coefficients of purine alkaloids in water-ammonium sulfate-alkyl acetate-dialkyl phthalate systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korenman, Ya. I.; Krivosheeva, O. A.; Mokshina, N. Ya.

    2012-12-01

    The distribution of purine alkaloids (caffeine, theobromine, theophylline) was studied in the systems: alkyl acetates-dialkyl phtalate-salting-out agent (ammonium sulfate). The quantitative characteristics of the extraction-distribution coefficients ( D) and the degree of extraction ( R, %) are calculated. The relationships between the distribution coefficients of alkaloids and the length of the hydrocarbon radical in the molecule of alkyl acetate (dialkyl phtalate) are determined. The possibility of predicting the distribution coefficients is demonstrated.

  16. Electromigration of a heteroconjugated imidazole-acetate complex in ACN.

    PubMed

    Porras, Simo P; Jussila, Matti

    2007-10-01

    ACN is an extremely poor hydrogen bond donor and therefore the anions dissolved in it are solvated mainly by other hydrogen bond donors (e.g. uncharged acids) possibly present in the solution. Under properly selected experimental conditions stabilization via hydrogen bonding can be used for separation in CE as has been demonstrated for uncharged acids by several authors. Electromigration based on heteroconjugation can be of importance, e.g. when aqueous separation medium cannot be used due to stability reasons. It also allows CE to be used as a tool for solution chemistry measurements, if the required physicochemical properties of the studied system are known or they can be predicted with sufficient accuracy by existing theories. In the present work we showed that also an uncharged base can stabilize an anion via hydrogen bonding in ACN. In the setup imidazole was chosen as a model base and acetate ion as complexing anion in equimolar acetic acid-acetate buffer. The resulted hydrogen-bonded imidazole-acetate complex (i.e. heteroconjugate) possesses a charge and can thus migrate in CE. It was shown that the studied complexation in ACN is sensitive to competition by other hydrogen bond donors such as water and methanol. On the other hand, acetone, which is a poor hydrogen bond donor, did not have much effect on the complexation. To take the effect of ionic strength on mobility into account, mobilities of the imidazole-acetate complex measured at various ionic strengths were corrected to zero ionic strength by the aid of conductivity equation. A fit of the 1:1 binding isotherm to the ionic strength corrected mobility versus acetate concentration data led to rather good correlation. However, x-reciprocal linear transformation of the binding isotherm showed nonlinearity, which could be partly explained by homoconjugation of acetic acid and acetate ion. Since the homoconjugation constant for acetic acid under present experimental conditions was not available, theoretical

  17. Treatment of biomass gasification wastewaters using liquid-liquid extraction

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, N.E.

    1981-09-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) investigated liquid-liquid extraction as a treatment method for biomass gasification wastewaters (BGW). Distribution coefficients for chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal were determined for the following solvents: methylisobutyl ketone (MIBK), n-butyl acetate, n-butanol, MIBK/n-butyl acetate (50:50 vol), MIBK/n-butanol (50:50 vol), tri-butyl phosphate, tri-n-octyl phosphine oxide (TOPO)/MIBK (10:90 wt), TOPO/kerosene (10:90 wt), kerosene, and toluene. The best distribution coefficient of 1.3 was given by n-butanol. Chemical analysis of the wastewater by gas chromatography (GC) showed acetic acid and propionic acid concentrations of about 4000 mg/1. Methanol, ethanol, and acetone were identified in trace amounts. These five compounds accounted for 45% of the measured COD of 29,000 mg/1. Because of the presence of carboxylic acids, pH was expected to affect extraction of the wastewater. At low pH the acids should be in the acidic form, which increased extraction by MIBK. Extraction by n-butanol was increased at high pH, where the acids should be in the ionic form.

  18. Selection of a Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Strain with a Decreased Ability To Produce Acetic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Margolles, Abelardo

    2012-01-01

    We have characterized a new strain, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CECT 7953, obtained by random UV mutagenesis, which produces less acetic acid than the wild type (CECT 7954) in three different experimental settings: De Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth without sodium acetate, resting cells, and skim milk. Genome sequencing revealed a single Phe-Ser substitution in the acetate kinase gene product that seems to be responsible for the strain's reduced acid production. Accordingly, acetate kinase specific activity was lower in the low acetate producer. Strain CECT 7953 produced less acetate, less ethanol, and more yoghourt-related volatile compounds in skim milk than the wild type did. Thus, CECT 7953 shows promising potential for the development of dairy products fermented exclusively by a bifidobacterial strain. PMID:22389372

  19. Selection of a Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strain with a decreased ability to produce acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Margolles, Abelardo; Sánchez, Borja

    2012-05-01

    We have characterized a new strain, Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis CECT 7953, obtained by random UV mutagenesis, which produces less acetic acid than the wild type (CECT 7954) in three different experimental settings: De Man-Rogosa-Sharpe broth without sodium acetate, resting cells, and skim milk. Genome sequencing revealed a single Phe-Ser substitution in the acetate kinase gene product that seems to be responsible for the strain's reduced acid production. Accordingly, acetate kinase specific activity was lower in the low acetate producer. Strain CECT 7953 produced less acetate, less ethanol, and more yoghourt-related volatile compounds in skim milk than the wild type did. Thus, CECT 7953 shows promising potential for the development of dairy products fermented exclusively by a bifidobacterial strain.

  20. Simultaneous acetic acid separation and monosaccharide concentration by reverse osmosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Fanglei; Wang, Cunwen; Wei, Jiang

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the feasibility and efficiency of simultaneous acetic acid separation and sugar concentration in model lignocellulosic hydrolyzates by reverse osmosis. The effects of operation parameters such as pH, temperature, pressure and feed concentration on the solute retentions were examined with a synthetic xylose–glucose–acetic acid model solution. Results showed that the monosaccharides were almost completely rejected at above 20 bar, while the acetic acid retention increased with the increase in pH and pressure, and decreased with the temperature increase. The maximum separation factors of acetic acid over xylose and glucose reached as high as 211.5 and 228.4 at pH 2.93 (the initial pH of model lignocellulosic hydrolyzates), 40 °C and 20 bar. Furthermore, the concentration and diafiltration process were employed at optimal operation conditions. Consequently, a high sugar concentration and a beneficially lower acetic acid concentration were simultaneously achieved by reverse osmosis.

  1. Hydrogen production by fermentation using acetic acid and lactic acid.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Nishimura, Yasuhiko

    2007-03-01

    Microbial hydrogen production from sho-chu post-distillation slurry solution (slurry solution) containing large amounts of organic acids was investigated. The highest hydrogen producer, Clostridium diolis JPCC H-3, was isolated from natural environment and produced hydrogen at 6.03+/-0.15 ml from 5 ml slurry solution in 30 h. Interestingly, the concentration of acetic acid and lactic acid in the slurry solution decreased during hydrogen production. The substrates for hydrogen production by C. diolis JPCC H-3, in particular organic acids, were investigated in an artificial medium. No hydrogen was produced from acetic acid, propionic acid, succinic acid, or citric acid on their own. Hydrogen and butyric acid were produced from a mixture of acetic acid and lactic acid, showing that C. diolis. JPCC H-3 could produce hydrogen from acetic acid and lactic acid. Furthermore, calculation of the Gibbs free energy strongly suggests that this reaction would proceed. In this paper, we describe for the first time microbial hydrogen production from acetic acid and lactic acid by fermentation.

  2. Vacuum Ultraviolet and Infrared Spectra of Condensed Methyl Acetate on Cold Astrochemical Dust Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivaraman, B.; Nair, B. G.; Lo, J.-I.; Kundu, S.; Davis, D.; Prabhudesai, V.; Raja Sekhar, B. N.; Mason, N. J.; Cheng, B.-M.; Krishnakumar, E.

    2013-12-01

    Following the recent report of the first identification of methyl acetate (CH3COOCH3) in the interstellar medium (ISM), we have carried out vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) and infrared (IR) spectroscopy studies on methyl acetate from 10 K until sublimation in an ultrahigh vacuum chamber simulating astrochemical conditions. We present the first VUV and IR spectra of methyl acetate relevant to ISM conditions. Spectral signatures clearly showed molecular reorientation to have started in the ice by annealing the amorphous ice formed at 10 K. An irreversible phase change from amorphous to crystalline methyl acetate ice was found to occur between 110 K and 120 K.

  3. Enzymatic production of glycerol acetate from glycerol.

    PubMed

    Oh, Seokhyeon; Park, Chulhwan

    2015-02-01

    In this study, we report the enzymatic production of glycerol acetate from glycerol and methyl acetate. Lipases are essential for the catalysis of this reaction. To find the optimum conditions for glycerol acetate production, sequential experiments were designed. Type of lipase, lipase concentration, molar ratio of reactants, reaction temperature and solvents were investigated for the optimum conversion of glycerol to glycerol acetate. As the result of lipase screening, Novozym 435 (Immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B) was turned out to be the optimal lipase for the reaction. Under the optimal conditions (2.5 g/L of Novozym 435, 1:40 molar ratio of glycerol to methyl acetate, 40 °C and tert-butanol as the solvent), glycerol acetate production was achieved in 95.00% conversion.

  4. Microbiosensor for the detection of acetate in electrode-respiring biofilms

    PubMed Central

    Atci, Erhan; Babauta, Jerome T.; Sultana, Sujala T.; Beyenal, Haluk

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this work was to develop a microbiosensor to measure acetate concentration profiles inside biofilms in situ. The working principle of the microbiosensor was based on the correlation between the acetate concentration and the current generated during acetate oxidation by Geobacter sulfurreducens. The microbiosensor consisted of a 30-μm carbon microelectrode with an open tip as a working electrode, with G. sulfurreducens biofilm on the tip and a pseudo Ag/AgCl reference electrode, all enclosed in a glass outer case with a 30-μm tip diameter. The microbiosensor showed a linear response in the 0–1.6 mM acetate concentration range with a 79 ± 8 μM limit of detection (S/N=2). We quantified the stirring effect and found it negligible. However, the interfering effect of alternative electron donors (lactate, formate, pyruvate, or hydrogen) was found to be significant. The usefulness of the acetate microbiosensor was demonstrated by measuring acetate concentration depth profiles within a G. sulfurreducens biofilm. The acetate concentration remained at bulk values throughout the biofilm when no current was passed, but it decreased from the bulk values to below the detection limit within 200 μm when current was allowed to pass. The zero acetate concentration at the bottom of the biofilm showed that the biofilm was acetate-limited. PMID:27016913

  5. Acetylation of cellulose nanowhiskers with vinyl acetate under moderate conditions.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Nihat Sami; Tingaut, Philippe; Ozmen, Nilgül; Henry, Nathan; Harper, David; Dadmun, Mark; Sèbe, Gilles

    2009-10-08

    A novel and straightforward method for the surface acetylation of cellulose nanowhiskers by transesterification of vinyl acetate is proposed. The reaction of vinyl acetate with the hydroxyl groups of cellulose nanowhiskers obtained from cotton linters was examined with potassium carbonate as catalyst. Results indicate that during the first stage of the reaction, only the surface of the nanowhiskers was modified, while their dimensions and crystallinity remained unchanged. With increasing reaction time, diffusion mechanisms controlled the rate, leading to nanowhiskers with higher levels of acetylation, smaller dimensions, and lower crystallinity. In THF, a solvent of low polarity, the suspensions from modified nanowhiskers showed improved stability with increased acetylation.

  6. Characterization of acetic acid bacteria in "traditional balsamic vinegar".

    PubMed

    Gullo, Maria; Caggia, Cinzia; De Vero, Luciana; Giudici, Paolo

    2006-02-01

    This study evaluated the glucose tolerance of acetic acid bacteria strains isolated from Traditional Balsamic Vinegar. The results showed that the greatest hurdle to acetic acid bacteria growth is the high sugar concentration, since the majority of the isolated strains are inhibited by 25% of glucose. Sugar tolerance is an important technological trait because Traditional Balsamic Vinegar is made with concentrated cooked must. On the contrary, ethanol concentration of the cooked and fermented must is less significant for acetic acid bacteria growth. A tentative identification of the isolated strains was done by 16S-23S-5S rDNA PCR/RFLP technique and the isolated strains were clustered: 32 strains belong to Gluconacetobacter xylinus group, two strains to Acetobacter pasteurianus group and one to Acetobacter aceti.

  7. Functionalization of cellulose acetate fibers with engineered cutinases.

    PubMed

    Matamá, Teresa; Araújo, Rita; Gübitz, Georg M; Casal, Margarida; Cavaco-Paulo, Artur

    2010-01-01

    In the present work, we describe for the first time the specific role of cutinase on surface modification of cellulose acetate fibers. Cutinase exhibits acetyl esterase activity on diacetate and triacetate of 0.010 U and 0.007 U, respectively. An increase on the hydroxyl groups at the fiber surface of 25% for diacetate and 317% for triacetate, after a 24 h treatment, is estimated by an indirect assay. Aiming at further improvement of cutinase affinity toward cellulose acetate, chimeric cutinases are genetically engineered by fusing the 3'-end coding sequence with a bacterial or a fungal carbohydrate-binding module and varying the linker DNA sequence. A comparative analysis of these genetic constructions is presented showing that, the superficial regeneration of cellulose hydrophilicity and reactivity on highly substituted cellulose acetates is achieved by chimeric cutinases.

  8. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation...

  12. In Vitro Pharmacological Activities and GC-MS Analysis of Different Solvent Extracts of Lantana camara Leaves Collected from Tropical Region of Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Sinniah, Uma Rani; Akhtar, Mohd Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of different solvents (ethyl acetate, methanol, acetone, and chloroform) on the extraction of phytoconstituents from Lantana camara leaves and their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Further, GC-MS analysis was carried out to identify the bioactive chemical constituents occurring in the active extract. The results revealed the presence of various phytocompounds in the extracts. The methanol solvent recovered higher extractable compounds (14.4% of yield) and contained the highest phenolic (92.8 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (26.5 mg RE/g) content. DPPH radical scavenging assay showed the IC50 value of 165, 200, 245, and 440 μg/mL for methanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, and chloroform extracts, respectively. The hydroxyl scavenging activity test showed the IC50 value of 110, 240, 300, and 510 μg/mL for methanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, and chloroform extracts, respectively. Gram negative bacterial pathogens (E. coli and K. pneumoniae) were more susceptible to all extracts compared to Gram positive bacteria (M. luteus, B. subtilis, and S. aureus). Methanol extract had the highest inhibition activity against all the tested microbes. Moreover, methanolic extract of L. camara contained 32 bioactive components as revealed by GC-MS study. The identified major compounds included hexadecanoic acid (5.197%), phytol (4.528%), caryophyllene oxide (4.605%), and 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- (3.751%).

  13. Comparisons between conventional, ultrasound-assisted and microwave-assisted methods for extraction of anthraquinones from Heterophyllaea pustulata Hook f. (Rubiaceae).

    PubMed

    Barrera Vázquez, M F; Comini, L R; Martini, R E; Núñez Montoya, S C; Bottini, S; Cabrera, J L

    2014-03-01

    This work reports a comparative study about extraction methods used to obtain anthraquinones (AQs) from stems and leaves of Heterophyllae pustulata Hook (Rubiáceae). One of the conventional procedures used to extract these metabolites from a vegetable matrix is by successive Soxhlet extractions with solvents of increasing polarity: starting with hexane to eliminate chlorophylls and fatty components, following by benzene and finally ethyl acetate. However, this technique shows a low extraction yield of total AQs, and consumes large quantities of solvent and time. Ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) have been investigated as alternative methods to extract these compounds, using the same sequence of solvents. It was found that UAE increases the extraction yield of total AQs and reduces the time and amount of solvent used. Nevertheless, the combination UAE with benzene, plus MAE with ethyl acetate at a constant power of 900 W showed the best results. A higher yield of total AQs was obtained in less time and using the same amount of solvent that UAE. The optimal conditions for this latter procedure were UAE with benzene at 50 °C during 60 min, followed by MAE at 900 W during 15 min using ethyl acetate as extraction solvent.

  14. In Vitro Pharmacological Activities and GC-MS Analysis of Different Solvent Extracts of Lantana camara Leaves Collected from Tropical Region of Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Swamy, Mallappa Kumara; Akhtar, Mohd. Sayeed

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of different solvents (ethyl acetate, methanol, acetone, and chloroform) on the extraction of phytoconstituents from Lantana camara leaves and their antioxidant and antibacterial activities. Further, GC-MS analysis was carried out to identify the bioactive chemical constituents occurring in the active extract. The results revealed the presence of various phytocompounds in the extracts. The methanol solvent recovered higher extractable compounds (14.4% of yield) and contained the highest phenolic (92.8 mg GAE/g) and flavonoid (26.5 mg RE/g) content. DPPH radical scavenging assay showed the IC50 value of 165, 200, 245, and 440 μg/mL for methanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, and chloroform extracts, respectively. The hydroxyl scavenging activity test showed the IC50 value of 110, 240, 300, and 510 μg/mL for methanol, ethyl acetate, acetone, and chloroform extracts, respectively. Gram negative bacterial pathogens (E. coli and K. pneumoniae) were more susceptible to all extracts compared to Gram positive bacteria (M. luteus, B. subtilis, and S. aureus). Methanol extract had the highest inhibition activity against all the tested microbes. Moreover, methanolic extract of L. camara contained 32 bioactive components as revealed by GC-MS study. The identified major compounds included hexadecanoic acid (5.197%), phytol (4.528%), caryophyllene oxide (4.605%), and 9,12,15-octadecatrienoic acid, methyl ester, (Z,Z,Z)- (3.751%). PMID:26783409

  15. Effects of UV-ozone irradiation on copper doped nickel acetate and its applicability to perovskite solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeongmo; Lee, Hee Ryung; Kim, Hyeong Pil; Lin, Tengda; Kanwat, Anil; Mohd Yusoff, Abd. Rashid Bin; Jang, Jin

    2016-04-01

    The effects of UV-ozone (UVO) irradiation on copper-doped nickel acetate and its applicability to perovskite solar cells were investigated. UVO irradiation of copper-doped nickel acetate significantly increased the electrical conductivity (from 4.28 × 10-4 S cm-1 to 5.66 × 10-2 S cm-1), which is due to the increased carrier concentration (from 3.53 × 1013 cm-3 to 2.41 × 1016 cm-3), and the charge extraction efficiency was enhanced, leading to better compatibility with the hole transport layer. By UVO irradiation, the work function was increased from 4.95 eV to 5.33 eV by the surface dipole formation, which effectively reduced the interface barrier between the hole transport layer and the MAPbI3 light absorbing layer. UVO Irradiation of the underlying layer also allows the MAPbI3 precursors to form better morphology with highly arranged crystallinity. Compared to the cells using non-irradiated copper doped nickel acetate, UVO-irradiated copper-doped nickel acetate devices showed an enhanced open-circuit voltage (3% increase), short circuit current (16% increase), fill factor (5% increase), showing an enhanced power conversion efficiency of 12.2% (21% increase).The effects of UV-ozone (UVO) irradiation on copper-doped nickel acetate and its applicability to perovskite solar cells were investigated. UVO irradiation of copper-doped nickel acetate significantly increased the electrical conductivity (from 4.28 × 10-4 S cm-1 to 5.66 × 10-2 S cm-1), which is due to the increased carrier concentration (from 3.53 × 1013 cm-3 to 2.41 × 1016 cm-3), and the charge extraction efficiency was enhanced, leading to better compatibility with the hole transport layer. By UVO irradiation, the work function was increased from 4.95 eV to 5.33 eV by the surface dipole formation, which effectively reduced the interface barrier between the hole transport layer and the MAPbI3 light absorbing layer. UVO Irradiation of the underlying layer also allows the MAPbI3 precursors to form

  16. Phytochemical analysis of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus leaf extracts for their antibacterial and antioxidant potential.

    PubMed

    Malahubban, M; Alimon, A R; Sazili, A Q; Fakurazi, S; Zakry, F A

    2013-09-01

    Leaves of Andrographis paniculata and Orthosiphon stamineus were extracted with water, ethanol, methanol and chloroform to assess their potential as antibacterial and antioxidant agents. High performance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the methanolic extracts of A. paniculata and O. stamineus leaves gave the highest amounts of andrographolide and rosmarinic acid, respectively. These leaf extracts exhibited antimicrobial and antioxidant activities and, at the highest concentration tested (200 mg/mL), showed greater inhibitory effects against the Gram positive bacteria Bacillus cereus and Staphylococcus aureus than 10% acetic acid. Andrographis paniculata and O. stamineus methanolic and ethanolic leaf extracts also showed the strongest antioxidant activity as compared with the other extracts tested. The bioactive compounds present in these leaf extracts have the potential to be developed into natural antibacterial and antioxidant agents that may have applications in animal and human health.

  17. Acetal-linked polymeric prodrug micelles for enhanced curcumin delivery.

    PubMed

    Li, Man; Gao, Min; Fu, Yunlan; Chen, Chao; Meng, Xuan; Fan, Aiping; Kong, Deling; Wang, Zheng; Zhao, Yanjun

    2016-04-01

    On-demand curcumin delivery via stimuli-responsive micellar nanocarriers holds promise for addressing its solubility and stability problem. Polymer-curcumin prodrug conjugate micelle is one of such nanosystems. The diversity of linker and conjugation chemistry enabled the generation and optimization of different curcumin micelles with tunable stimuli-responsiveness and delivery efficiency. The aim of the current work was to generate and assess acetal-linked polymeric micelles to enrich the pH-responsive curcumin delivery platforms. Curcumin was slightly modified prior to conjugating to amphiphilic methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly(lactic acid) (mPEG-PLA) copolymer via an acetal bond, whereas an ester bond-linked conjugate was used as the control. The acetal-containing micelles showed a hydrodynamic diameter of 91.1 ± 2.9(nm) and the accompanying core size of 63.5 ± 7.1 (nm) with a zeta potential of -10.9 ± 0.7(mV). Both control and pH-labile micelles displayed similar critical micelle concentration at 1.6 μM. The acetal-containing nanocarriers exhibited a pH-dependent drug release behavior, which was faster at lower pH values. The cytotoxicity study in HepG2 cells revealed a significantly lower IC50 at 51.7 ± 9.0(μM) for acetal-linked micelles in contrast to the control at 103.0 ± 17.8(μM), but the polymer residue showed no cytotoxicity upon drug release. The acetal-linked micellar nanocarrier could be a useful addition to the spectrum of currently available stimuli-responsive curcumin nano-formulations.

  18. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3 or C2H3O2Na·3H2O, CAS Reg. No. 6131-90-4) is the sodium salt of acetic acid and occurs naturally in plant...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3 or C2H3O2Na·3H2O, CAS Reg. No. 6131-90-4) is the sodium salt of acetic acid and occurs naturally in plant...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3 or C2H3O2Na·3H2O, CAS Reg. No. 6131-90-4) is the sodium salt of acetic acid and occurs naturally in plant...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3 or C2H3O2Na·3H2O, CAS Reg. No. 6131-90-4) is the sodium salt of acetic acid and occurs naturally in plant...

  2. Chemical constituents and anti-inflammatory activities of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark extracts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huan-Li; Gan, Xiao-Qing; Fan, Qing-Fei; Yang, Jing-Jing; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Hua-Bin; Song, Qi-Shi

    2017-04-06

    In this study, 44 compounds in the petroleum ether extract of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark, a traditional Dai herbal medicine, were identified by GC-MS. Major components included 3(2H)-benzofuranone, asarinin and (dimethoxymethyl)-3-methoxy-benzene. A total of 18 compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of Maqian bark by column chromatography and identified by chemical and spectral analyses. Rhoifoline B, zanthoxyline dimethoxy derivative, N-nortidine, nitidine, decarine are the major alkaloids. Both the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts showed significant inhibition on NO production, which imply anti-inflammatory activity, in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells without cell toxicity. Decarine is the major anti-inflammatory constituent with NO IC50 values of 48.43 μM on RAW264.7 cells. The petroleum ether extract, the ethyl acetate extract and decarine showed anti-inflammatory activities through inhibiting TNF-α and IL-1β production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated THP-1 cells without cell toxicity too. Decarine showed anti-inflammatory activity on human colon cells by reducing IL-6 and IL-8 production in TNF-α+IL-1β-induced Caco-2 cells. These results support the use of Maqian bark as a remedy for enteritis and colitis recorded by Dai medicine in China, and elucidate the major pharmacological compounds in Maqian bark.

  3. Chemical constituents and anti-inflammatory activities of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark extracts

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huan-li; Gan, Xiao-qing; Fan, Qing-fei; Yang, Jing-jing; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Hua-bin; Song, Qi-shi

    2017-01-01

    In this study, 44 compounds in the petroleum ether extract of Maqian (Zanthoxylum myriacanthum var. pubescens) bark, a traditional Dai herbal medicine, were identified by GC-MS. Major components included 3(2H)-benzofuranone, asarinin and (dimethoxymethyl)-3-methoxy-benzene. A total of 18 compounds were isolated from the ethyl acetate extracts of Maqian bark by column chromatography and identified by chemical and spectral analyses. Rhoifoline B, zanthoxyline dimethoxy derivative, N-nortidine, nitidine, decarine are the major alkaloids. Both the petroleum ether and ethyl acetate extracts showed significant inhibition on NO production, which imply anti-inflammatory activity, in lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW 264.7 cells without cell toxicity. Decarine is the major anti-inflammatory constituent with NO IC50 values of 48.43 μM on RAW264.7 cells. The petroleum ether extract, the ethyl acetate extract and decarine showed anti-inflammatory activities through inhibiting TNF-α and IL-1β production in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated THP-1 cells without cell toxicity too. Decarine showed anti-inflammatory activity on human colon cells by reducing IL-6 and IL-8 production in TNF-α+IL-1β-induced Caco-2 cells. These results support the use of Maqian bark as a remedy for enteritis and colitis recorded by Dai medicine in China, and elucidate the major pharmacological compounds in Maqian bark. PMID:28383530

  4. Antioxidant activity of extracts from Euryale ferox seed.

    PubMed

    Lee, Si Eun; Ju, Eun Mi; Kim, Jeong Hee

    2002-05-31

    Euryale ferox has been widely used in traditional oriental medicine to treat a variety of illness. However, very little is known about the cellular actions by which this plant mediates its therapeutic effects. Various aspects of antioxidant activity were evaluated in total extracts and fractions derived from Euryale ferox. Total extracts (IC50 5.6 microg/ml) showed relatively high level radical scavenging activity toward 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and also enhanced viability of Chinese hamster lung fibroblast (V79-4) cells under exposure to oxidative agents. Upon further fractionation, the highest levels of DPPH radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibitory activities were found in the ethyl acetate and butanol fractions. The ethyl acetate fractions, the butanol fractions, and total extracts of Euryale ferox also dose-dependently enhanced the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase in V79-4 cells. Of these three antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidase activity was most strongly induced. Taken together, our findings show that Euryale ferox contains a significant antioxidant activity and that specific components in the ethyl acetate and butanol fractions may play an important role in mediating these antioxidant properties.

  5. Implication of limonene and linalyl acetate in cytotoxicity induced by bergamot essential oil in human neuroblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Russo, Rossella; Ciociaro, Antonella; Berliocchi, Laura; Cassiano, Maria Gilda Valentina; Rombolà, Laura; Ragusa, Salvatore; Bagetta, Giacinto; Blandini, Fabio; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana

    2013-09-01

    Bergamot (Citrus bergamia, Risso et Poiteau) essential oil (BEO) is a widely used plant extract showing anxiolytic, analgesic and neuroprotective effects in rodents; also, BEO activates multiple death pathways in cancer cells. Despite detailed knowledge of its chemical composition, the constituent/s responsible for these pharmacological activities remain largely unknown. Aim of the present study was to identify the components of BEO implicated in cell death. To this end, limonene, linalyl acetate, linalool, γ-terpinene, β-pinene and bergapten were individually tested in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cultures at concentrations comparable with those found in cytotoxic dilutions of BEO. None of the tested compounds elicited cell death. However, significant cytotoxicity was observed when cells were cotreated with limonene and linalyl acetate whereas no other associations were effective. Only cotreatment, but not the single exposure to limonene and linalyl acetate, replicated distinctive morphological and biochemical changes induced by BEO, including caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage, DNA fragmentation, cell shrinkage, cytoskeletal alterations, together with necrotic and apoptotic cell death. Collectively, our findings suggest a major role for a combined action of these monoterpenes in cancer cell death induced by BEO.

  6. Biological activities of extracts from cultivated Granadilla Passiflora alata.

    PubMed

    Vasic, Sava M; Stefanovic, Olgica D; Licina, Braho Z; Radojevic, Ivana D; Comic, Ljiljana R

    2012-01-01

    Research conducted in this study showed the influence of ethanol, acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of the outgrowth of cultivated Passiflora alata on microorganisms, as well as the antioxidant activity and the concentrations of total phenols, flavonoids and tannins. In vitro antimicrobial activities of extracts were studied on 27 species of microorganisms, of which 17 species of bacteria and 10 species of fungi. The strongest antimicrobial activity was detected on G+ bacteria while the activities on other species were moderate. Ethyl acetate extract showed the strongest effect. The concentrations of total phenols were examined by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the obtained values ranged from 14.04 to 34.22 mg GA/g. By using aluminium chloride method, the concentrations of flavonoids were obtained and the values ranged from 33.19 to 62.30 mg RU/g. In determining the amount of tannins we used the method with buthanol-HCl reagent and the obtained value was 5.1 % of dry matter. The efficiency of antioxidation, which we identified through the reduction of DPPH, was in the range from 808.69 to 1107.79 µg/ml for a particular IC50, and AAI values were between 0.07 and 0.10. The best parameters were shown by ethanol extract. All data were statistically analyzed. Overall, extracts showed potential for further investigation and use.

  7. Biological activities of extracts from cultivated Granadilla Passiflora alata

    PubMed Central

    Vasic, Sava M.; Stefanovic, Olgica D.; Licina, Braho Z.; Radojevic, Ivana D.; Comic, Ljiljana R.

    2012-01-01

    Research conducted in this study showed the influence of ethanol, acetone and ethyl acetate extracts of the outgrowth of cultivated Passiflora alata on microorganisms, as well as the antioxidant activity and the concentrations of total phenols, flavonoids and tannins. In vitro antimicrobial activities of extracts were studied on 27 species of microorganisms, of which 17 species of bacteria and 10 species of fungi. The strongest antimicrobial activity was detected on G+ bacteria while the activities on other species were moderate. Ethyl acetate extract showed the strongest effect. The concentrations of total phenols were examined by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent and the obtained values ranged from 14.04 to 34.22 mg GA/g. By using aluminium chloride method, the concentrations of flavonoids were obtained and the values ranged from 33.19 to 62.30 mg RU/g. In determining the amount of tannins we used the method with buthanol-HCl reagent and the obtained value was 5.1 % of dry matter. The efficiency of antioxidation, which we identified through the reduction of DPPH, was in the range from 808.69 to 1107.79 µg/ml for a particular IC50, and AAI values were between 0.07 and 0.10. The best parameters were shown by ethanol extract. All data were statistically analyzed. Overall, extracts showed potential for further investigation and use. PMID:27385958

  8. Ameliorating effects of aged garlic extracts against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity and cognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In vitro antioxidant activities and neuron-like PC12 cell protective effects of solvent fractions from aged garlic extracts were investigated to evaluate their anti-amnesic functions. Ethyl acetate fractions of aged garlic had higher total phenolics than other fractions. Methods Antioxidant activities of ethyl acetate fractions from aged garlic were examined using 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) diammonium salt (ABTS) and malondialdehyde (MDA) inhibitory effect using mouse whole brain homogenates. Levels of cellular oxidative stress as reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation were measured using 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCF-DA). PC12 cell viability was investigated by 3-[4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) and lactate dehydtrogenase (LDH) assay. The learning and memory impairment in institute of cancer research (ICR) mice was induced by neurotoxic amyloid beta protein (Aβ) to investigate in vivo anti-amnesic effects of aged garlic extracts by using Y-maze and passive avoidance tests. Results We discovered that ethyl acetate fractions showed the highest ABTS radical scavenging activity and MDA inhibitory effect. Intracellular ROS accumulation resulting from Aβ treatment in PC12 cells was significantly reduced when ethyl acetate fractions were presented in the medium compare to PC12 cells which was only treated with Aβ only. Ethyl acetate fractions from aged garlic extracts showed protection against Aβ-induced neurotoxicity. Pre-administration with aged garlic extracts attenuated Aβ-induced learning and memory deficits in both in vivo tests. Conclusions Our findings suggest that aged garlic extracts with antioxidant activities may improve cognitive impairment against Aβ-induced neuronal deficit, and possess a wide range of beneficial activities for neurodegenerative disorders, notably Alzheimer's disease (AD). PMID:24134394

  9. Acetate oxidation by syntrophic association between Geobacter sulfurreducens and a hydrogen-utilizing exoelectrogen.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Zen-ichiro; Okabe, Satoshi

    2013-08-01

    Anodic microbial communities in acetate-fed microbial fuel cells (MFCs) were analyzed using stable-isotope probing of 16S rRNA genes followed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. The results revealed that Geobacter sulfurreducens and Hydrogenophaga sp. predominated in the anodic biofilm. Although the predominance of Geobacter sp. as acetoclastic exoelectrogens in acetate-fed MFC systems has been often reported, the ecophysiological role of Hydrogenophaga sp. is unknown. Therefore, we isolated and characterized a bacterium closely related to Hydrogenophaga sp. (designated strain AR20). The newly isolated strain AR20 could use molecular hydrogen (H2), but not acetate, with carbon electrode as the electron acceptor, indicating that the strain AR20 was a hydrogenotrophic exoelectrogen. This evidence raises a hypothesis that acetate was oxidized by G. sulfurreducens in syntrophic cooperation with the strain AR20 as a hydrogen-consuming partner in the acetate-fed MFC. To prove this hypothesis, G. sulfurreducens strain PCA was cocultivated with the strain AR20 in the acetate-fed MFC without any dissolved electron acceptors. In the coculture MFC of G. sulfurreducens and strain AR20, current generation and acetate degradation were the highest, and the growth of strain AR20 was observed. No current generation, acetate degradation and cell growth occurred in the strain AR20 pure culture MFC. These results show for the first time that G. sulfurreducens can oxidize acetate in syntrophic cooperation with the isolated Hydrogenophaga sp. strain AR20, with electrode as the electron acceptor.

  10. Stability and interface properties of thin cellulose ester films adsorbed from acetone and ethyl acetate solutions.

    PubMed

    Amim, Jorge; Kosaka, Priscila M; Petri, Denise F S; Maia, Francisco C B; Miranda, Paulo B

    2009-04-15

    Stability and interface properties of cellulose acetate propionate (CAP) and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) films adsorbed from acetone or ethyl acetate onto Si wafers have been investigated by means of contact angle measurements and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Surface energy (gamma(S)(total)) values determined for CAP adsorbed from acetone are larger than those from ethyl acetate. In the case of CAB films adsorbed from ethyl acetate and acetone were similar. Dewetting was observed by AFM only for CAP films prepared from ethyl acetate. Positive values of effective Hamaker constant (A(eff)) were found only for CAP prepared from ethyl acetate, corroborating with dewetting phenomena observed by AFM. On the contrary, negative values of A(eff) were determined for CAP and CAB prepared from acetone and for CAB prepared from ethyl acetate, corroborating with experimental observations. Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectra indicated that CAP and CAB films prepared from ethyl acetate present more alkyl groups oriented perpendicularly to the polymer-air interface than those films prepared from acetone. Such preferential orientation corroborates with macroscopic contact angle measurements. Moreover, SFG spectra showed that acetone binds strongly to Si wafers, creating a new surface for CAP and CAB films.

  11. Screening of plant extracts for anthelmintic activity against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius auratus).

    PubMed

    Huang, Ai-Guo; Yi, Yang-Lei; Ling, Fei; Lu, Lin; Zhang, Qi-Zhong; Wang, Gao-Xue

    2013-12-01

    With the aim of finding natural anthelmintic agents against Dactylogyrus intermedius (Monogenea) in goldfish (Carassius auratus), 26 plants were screened for antiparasitic properties using in vivo anthelmintic efficacy assay. The results showed that Caesalpinia sappan, Lysima chiachristinae, Cuscuta chinensis, Artemisia argyi, and Eupatorium fortunei were found to have 100% anthelmintic efficacy at 125, 150, 225, 300, and 500 mg L(-1) after 48 h of exposure. Crude extract of the five plants were further partitioned with petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water to obtain anthelmintically active fractions with various polarity. Among these fractions tested, the ethyl acetate extract of L. chiachristinae was found to be the most effective with a 50% effective concentration (EC50) value of 5.1 mg/L after 48 h of exposure. This was followed by ethyl acetate extract of C. chinensis (48 h-EC50 = 8.5 mg L(-1)), chloroform extracts of C. sappan (48 h-EC50 = 15.6 mg L(-1)), methanol extract of C. chinensis (48 h-EC50 = 15.9 mg L(-1)), and chloroform and petroleum ether extract of L. chiachristinae (EC50 values of 17.2 and 21.1 mg/L, respectively), suggesting that these plants, as well as the active fractions, provide potential sources of botanic drugs for the control of D. intermedius in aquaculture.

  12. Electrospun cellulose acetate membrane for size separating and antibacterial screening of crude polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Chumpol, Jiraporn; Siri, Sineenat

    2016-12-01

    This study aims to produce electrospun cellulose acetate (CA) membrane as the alternative supporting medium for a separation of crude polysaccharides by electrophoresis and a screening of their antibacterial activity. Among the tested conditions of fabrication, electrospun CA membrane at 57% porosity showed the best separation of each polysaccharide from the standard mixture and the crude extract of Aloe vera via electrophoresis. As compared with the commercial CA membrane, the produced electrospun CA membrane demonstrated more separated spots of polysaccharides. The antibacterial activity of the electrophoretic polysaccharide was also determined against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus as the inhibition zone after the bacterial culture agar was overlaid on the membrane and incubated for 24 h. The results of this study suggested the potential application of electrospun CA membrane combining with electrophoresis as a simple method for separating crude polysaccharides and screening for their antibacterial activity.

  13. Monitoring the emission of volatile organic compounds from flowers of Jasminum sambac using solid-phase micro-extraction fibers and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry detection.

    PubMed

    Pragadheesh, Vppalayam Shanmugam; Yadav, Anju; Chanotiya, Chandan Singh; Rout, Prasanta Kumar; Uniyal, Girish Chandra

    2011-09-01

    Solid-phase micro-extraction (SPME) was studied as a solvent free alternative method for the extraction and characterization of volatile compounds in intact and plucked flowers of Jasminum sambac at different day time intervals using gas chromatography (GC-FID) and gas chromatography-quadrupole mass spectrometry. The analytes identified included alcohols, esters, phenolic compounds, and terpenoids. The main constituents identified in the flower aroma using different fibers were cis-3-hexenyl acetate, (E)-beta-ocimene, linalool, benzyl acetate, and (E,E)-alpha-farnesene. The benzyl acetate proportion decreased from morning to afternoon and then increased in evening collections. PDMS fiber showed a high proportion of (E,E)-alpha-farnesene in jasmine floral aroma. Among other constituents identified, cis-3-hexenyl acetate, linalool, and benzyl acetate were major aroma contributors in plucked and living flowers extracts using PDMS/DVB, Carboxen/PDMS, and DVB/Carboxen/PDMS fibers. PDMS/DVB recorded the highest emission for benzyl acetate while the (E)-beta-ocimene proportion was highest in DVB/Carboxen/PDMS when compared with the rest. The highest linalool content, with increasing proportion from morning to noon, was found using mixed coating fibers. Almost negligible volatile adsorption was recorded for the polyacrylate fiber for intact flower aroma, whereas it was most effective for benzyl acetate, followed by indole under plucked conditions. Moreover, the highest amounts extracted, evaluated from the sum of peak areas, were achieved using Carboxen/PDMS, and DVB/Carboxen/PDMS. Introduction of a rapid, and solvent free SPME method for the analysis of multicomponent volatiles can be successfully employed to monitor the extraction and characterization of flower aroma constituents.

  14. Inhibition of microbial pathogens using fruit and vegetable peel extracts.

    PubMed

    Rakholiya, Kalpna; Kaneria, Mital; Chanda, Sumitra

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present work is to evaluate the antimicrobial potency of some vegetable and fruit peels. The extraction was done by individual cold percolation method using various solvents with increasing polarity (Hexane, ethyl acetate, acetone, methanol and aqueous). The antimicrobial activity was done by agar well diffusion assay against five Gram positive bacteria, five Gram negative bacteria and four fungi. All extracts demonstrated varied level of antimicrobial activity. The peel extracts showed highest zone of inhibition against Gram negative bacteria as compared to Gram positive bacteria and fungi. Amongst studied peel extracts Citrus limon followed by Manilkara zapota and Carica papaya showed good antimicrobial activity indicating its potency as a promising source of natural antimicrobics. The results confirm the belief that agro waste can be therapeutically used.

  15. Advanced treatment of sodium acetate in water by ozone oxidation.

    PubMed

    Yang, De-Min; Yuan, Jian-Mei

    2014-02-01

    Ozone oxidation is an advanced oxidation process for treatment of organic and inorganic wastewater. In this paper, sodium acetate (according to chemical oxygen demand [COD]) was selected as the model pollutant in water, and the degradation efficiencies and mechanism of sodium acetate in water by ozone oxidation were investigated. The results showed that the ozone oxidation was an effective treatment technology for advanced treatment of sodium acetate in water; the COD removal rate obtained the maximum value of 45.89% from sodium acetate solution when the pH value was 10.82, ozone concentration was 100 mg/L, reaction time was 30 minutes, and reaction temperature was 25 degrees C. The COD removal rate increased first and decreased subsequently with the bicarbonate (HCO3-) concentration from 0 to 200 mg/L, the largest decline being 20.35%. The COD removal rate declined by 25.38% with the carbonate (CO3(2-)) concentration from 0 to 200 mg/L; CO3(2-) has a more obvious scavenging effect to inhibit the formation of hydroxyl free radicals than HCO3-. Calcium chloride (CaCl2) and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) could enhance the COD removal rate greatly; they could reach 77.35 and 96.53%, respectively, after a reaction time of 30 minutes, which was increased by 31.46 and 50.64%, respectively, compared with only ozone oxidation. It was proved that the main ozone oxidation product of sodium acetate was carbon dioxide (CO2), and the degradation of sodium acetate in the ozone oxidation process followed the mechanism of hydroxyl free radicals.

  16. Thermodynamic modeling of neptunium(V)-acetate complexation in concentrated NaCl media

    SciTech Connect

    Novak, C.F.; Borkowski, M.; Choppin, G.R.

    1995-09-01

    The complexation of neptunium(V), Np(V), with the acetate anion, Ac{sup -}, was measured in sodium chloride media to high concentration using an extraction technique. The data were interpreted using the thermodynamic formalism of Pitzer, which is valid to high electrolyte concentrations. A consistent model for the deprotonation constants of acetic acid in NaCl and NaClO{sub 4} media was developed. For the concentrations of acetate expected in a waste repository, only the neutral complex NpO{sub 2}Ac(aq) was important in describing the interactions between the neptunyl ion and acetate. The thermodynamic stability constant log {beta}{sup 0}{sub 101} for the reaction NpO{sub 2}{sup +} + Ac{sup -} {leftrightarrow} NpO{sub 2}Ac was calculated to be 1.46{plus_minus}0.11. This weak complexing behavior between the neptunyl ion and acetate indicates that acetate will not significantly enhance dissolved Np(V) concentrations in ground waters associated with nuclear waste repositories that may contain acetate.

  17. Pest-managing activities of plant extracts and anthraquinones from Cassia nigricans from Burkina Faso.

    PubMed

    Georges, Kambou; Jayaprakasam, Bolleddula; Dalavoy, Sanjeev S; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2008-04-01

    Insecticidal activity of eight plants collected from Burkina Faso was studied using mosquito (Ochlerotatus triseriatus), Helicoverpa zea and Heliothis virescens larvae and adult white fly (Bemisia tabaci). The n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of Pseudocedrela kotschyi, Strophantus hispidus, Securidaca longepedunculata, Sapium grahamii, Swartzia madagascariensis, Cassia nigricans, Jatropha curcas and Datura innoxia were used in this study. Extracts were tested at 250 microg/mL concentration. All three extracts of C. nigricans, J. curcas (skin and seeds) and D. innoxia exhibited 100% mortality on fourth instar mosquito (O. triseriatus) larvae. In addition, the n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of S. hispidus, S. longepedunculata, S. grahamii showed 100% mortality. The ethyl acetate extract of S. madagascariensis was the most active on adult white fly and exhibited 80% mortality. Extracts of all other plants exhibited 30-50% mortality on B. tabaci. In the antifeedant assays against H. zea and H. virescens, the MeOH extracts of C. nigricans, S. madagascarensis and S. hispidus were more effective against H. zea as indicated by 74% larval weight reduction as compared to the control. Since C. nigricans is commonly used in West Africa to protect grain storage from insects, we have characterized the insecticidal components present in its extract. Bioassay directed isolation of C. nigricans leaf extract yielded anthraquinones emodin, citreorosein, and emodic acid and a flavonoid, luteolin. Emodin, the most abundant and active anthraquinone in C. nigricans showed approximately 85% mortality on mosquito larvae Anopheles gambiaea and adult B. tabaci at 50 and 25 microg/mL, respectively, in 24 h. These results suggest that the extract of C. nigricans has the potential to be used as an organic approach to manage some of the agricultural pests.

  18. Antifungal activity of Cynara scolymus L. extracts.

    PubMed

    Zhu, X F; Zhang, H X; Lo, R

    2005-01-01

    Chloroform, ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Cynara scolymus L. leaves, heads and stems were tested for their antifungal activity using the agar-well diffusion assay technique. The leaves extracts and the ethanol fractions were found to be the most effective extract against all the tested organisms.

  19. Electron transfer induced fragmentation of acetic acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira da Silva, F.; Meneses, G.; Almeida, D.; Limão-Vieira, P.

    2014-04-01

    We present negative ion formation driven by electron transfer in atom (K) molecule (acetic acid) collisions. Acetic acid has been found in the interstellar medium, is also considered a biological related compound and as such studying low energy electron interactions will bring new insights as far as induced chemistry is concerned.

  20. Improvement of acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a zinc-finger-based artificial transcription factor and identification of novel genes involved in acetic acid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cui; Wei, Xiaowen; Sun, Cuihuan; Zhang, Fei; Xu, Jianren; Zhao, Xinqing; Bai, Fengwu

    2015-03-01

    Acetic acid is present in cellulosic hydrolysate as a potent inhibitor, and the superior acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ensures good cell viability and efficient ethanol production when cellulosic raw materials are used as substrates. In this study, a mutant strain of S. cerevisiae ATCC4126 (Sc4126-M01) with improved acetic acid tolerance was obtained through screening strains transformed with an artificial zinc finger protein transcription factor (ZFP-TF) library. Further analysis indicated that improved acetic acid tolerance was associated with improved catalase (CAT) activity. The ZFP coding sequence associated with the improved phenotype was identified, and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that three of the possible genes involved in the enhanced acetic acid tolerance regulated by this ZFP-TF, namely YFL040W, QDR3, and IKS1, showed decreased transcription levels in Sc4126-M01 in the presence of acetic acid, compared to those in the control strain. Sc4126-M01 mutants having QDR3 and IKS1 deletion (ΔQDR3 and ΔIKS1) exhibited higher acetic acid tolerance than the wild-type strain under acetic acid treatment. Glucose consumption rate and ethanol productivity in the presence of 5 g/L acetic acid were improved in the ΔQDR3 mutant compared to the wild-type strain. Our studies demonstrated that the synthetic ZFP-TF library can be used to improve acetic acid tolerance of S. cerevisiae and that the employment of an artificial transcription factor can facilitate the exploration of novel functional genes involved in stress tolerance of S. cerevisiae.

  1. Phytochemical analysis with the antioxidant and aldose reductase inhibitory capacities of Tephrosia humilis aerial parts' extracts.

    PubMed

    Plioukas, Michael; Gabrieli, Chrysi; Lazari, Diamanto; Kokkalou, Eugene

    2016-06-01

    The aerial parts of Tephrosia humilis were tested about their antioxidant potential, their ability to inhibit the aldose/aldehyde reductase enzymes and their phenolic content. The plant material was exhaustively extracted with petroleum ether, dichloromethane and methanol, consecutively. The concentrated methanol extract was re-extracted, successively, with diethyl ether, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. All extracts showed significant antioxidant capacity, but the most effective was the ethyl acetate extract. As about the aldose reductase inhibition, all fractions, except the aqueous, were strong inhibitors of the enzyme, with the n-butanolic and ethyl acetate fractions to inhibit the enzyme above 75%. These findings provide support to the ethnopharmacological usage of the plant as antioxidant and validate its potential to act against the long-term diabetic complications. The phytochemical analysis showed the presence of 1,4-dihydroxy-3,4-(epoxyethano)-5-cyclohexene(1), cleroindicin E(2), lupeol(3), methyl p-coumarate(4), methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate(5), prunin(6), 5,7,2',5'-tetrahydroxyflavanone 7-rutinoside(7), protocatechuic acid(8), luteolin 7-glucoside(9), apigenin(10), naringin(11), rhoifolin(12) and luteolin 7-glucuronate(13).

  2. Cysticidal activity of extracts and isolated compounds from Teloxys graveolens: In vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Palomares-Alonso, Francisca; Rojas-Tomé, Irma Susana; Juárez Rocha, Victorino; Palencia Hernández, Guadalupe; González-Maciel, Angélica; Ramos-Morales, Andrea; Santiago-Reyes, Rosalba; González-Hernández, Iliana Elvira; Jung-Cook, Helgi

    2015-09-01

    In the search of new alternatives for neurocysticercosis treatment, the cysticidal activity of organic extracts of Teloxys graveolens was evaluated. The in vitro activity of hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts against Taenia crassiceps cysts was tested and the selectivity index relative to human fibroblasts was determined. Subsequently, the in vivo efficacy of the methanolic extract at doses of 200 and 500 mg/kg in the murine cysticercosis model was evaluated. The ultrastructural effects in vitro and in vivo of the methanolic extract were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy. Additionally, a bioassay-guided fractionation for the isolation of the cysticidal components was performed. Our in vitro findings revealed that all extracts exhibited good cysticidal activity with EC50 values from 44.8 to 67.1 µg/mL. Although the ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts displayed low cytotoxicity, the methanolic extract was the most selective. The methanolic extract also showed in vivo efficacy which was similar to that obtained with ABZ. Significant alterations were found on the germinal layer of the cysts, with a high accumulation of granules of glycogen and vacuoles. The bioguided fractionation of methanolic extract led to the isolation of three flavonoids: chrysin, pinocembrin and pinostrobin; among them, pinocembrin was the compound that displayed cysticidal activity. This is the first study which reveals that T. graveolens could be a potential source for cysticidal and non-toxic compounds.

  3. Acaricidal activity of different extracts from Syzygium cumini L. Skeels (Pomposia) against Tetranychus urticae Koch

    PubMed Central

    Afify, Abd El-Moneim MR; El-Beltagi, Hossam S; Fayed, Sayed A; Shalaby, Emad A

    2011-01-01

    Objective To investigate the acaricidal activity of different extracts from Syzygium cumini (S. cumini) (Pomposia) againsst Tetranychus urticae Koch (T. urticae) and the biochemical changes in antioxidants enzymes. Methods Six extracts of S. cumini (Pomposia) at concentrations of 75, 150 and 300µg/mL were used to control T. urticae (Koch). Results The ethanol extract showed the most efficient acaricidal activity agent against T. urticae (98.5%) followed by hexane extract (94.0%), ether and ethyl acetate extract (90.0%). The LC50 values of the promising extract were 85.0, 101.0, 102.0 and 98.0µg/mL, respectively. The activities of enzymes including ascorbate peroxidase (APX), peroxidase (POD), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) in susceptible mites were increased. The activities of all antioxidant enzymes reach the maximum value in mites at LC50 with ethanol and ethyl acetate extracts, respectively. Conclusions The extract of S. cumini has acaricidal acivity against T. urticae, and the ethanol extract is the most efficient. PMID:23569793

  4. Rapid metal extractability tests from polluted mining soils by ultrasound probe sonication and microwave-assisted extraction systems.

    PubMed

    García-Salgado, Sara; Quijano, M Ángeles

    2016-12-01

    Ultrasonic probe sonication (UPS) and microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) were used for rapid single extraction of Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn from soils polluted by former mining activities (Mónica Mine, Bustarviejo, NW Madrid, Spain), using 0.01 mol L(-1) calcium chloride (CaCl2), 0.43 mol L(-1) acetic acid (CH3COOH), and 0.05 mol L(-1) ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) at pH 7 as extracting agents. The optimum extraction conditions by UPS consisted of an extraction time of 2 min for both CaCl2 and EDTA extractions and 15 min for CH3COOH extraction, at 30% ultrasound (US) amplitude, whereas in the case of MAE, they consisted of 5 min at 50 °C for both CaCl2 and EDTA extractions and 15 min at 120 °C for CH3COOH extraction. Extractable concentrations were determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The proposed methods were compared with a reduced version of the corresponding single extraction procedures proposed by the Standards, Measurements and Testing Programme (SM&T). The results obtained showed a great variability on extraction percentages, depending on the metal, the total concentration level and the soil sample, reaching high values in some areas. However, the correlation analysis showed that total concentration is the most relevant factor for element extractability in these soil samples. From the results obtained, the application of the accelerated extraction procedures, such as MAE and UPS, could be considered a useful approach to evaluate rapidly the extractability of the metals studied.

  5. Phytochemical screening of Nepeta cataria extracts and their in vitro inhibitory effects on free radicals and carbohydrate-metabolising enzymes.

    PubMed

    Naguib, Abdel Moneam Mohamed; Ebrahim, Mohamed Elsayed; Aly, Hanan Farouk; Metawaa, Hemaia Mohamed; Mahmoud, Ahlam Hosni; Mahmoud, Ebtissam A; Ebrahim, Faten Mohamed

    2012-01-01

    This research was performed to investigate in vitro the biological activities of successive as well as 70% ethanol extracts of Nepeta cataria on some biochemical parameters including oxidative markers and carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzyme activities (α-amylase, β-galactosidase and α-glucosidase). Powdered N. cataria and its successive extracts were screened for their phytochemical constituents. Tests for tannins, carbohydrates, glycosides and flavonoids were positive in ethanolic extract, but those for steroids and terpenoids were positive in petroleum ether and chloroform extracts. Also, different extracts were chromatographically investigated. The results obtained demonstrated that different successive extracts of N. cataria exhibited an inhibitory effect on oxidative stress indices and carbohydrate-hydrolysing enzymes. It is observed that 70% ethanol, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts showed, respectively, the most potent inhibitory activities, while ethyl acetate and ethanol successive extracts appeared with moderate or low reducing activities.

  6. Evaluation of in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity for different extracts of Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. root bark

    PubMed Central

    Ganga Rao, B.; Umamaheswara Rao, P.; Sambasiva Rao, E.; Mallikarjuna Rao, T.; Praneeth. D, V. S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the in-vitro antibacterial activity and anti-inflammatory activity of orally administered different extracts (Hydro-alcoholic, methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane) of Rauvolfia tetraphylla (R. tetraphylla) root bark in Carrageenan induced acute inflammation in rats. Methods In-vitro antibacterial activity was evaluated for extracts against four Gram positive and four Gram negative bacteria by using cylinder plate assay. Hydro-alcoholic extract (70% v/v ethanol) at 200, 400 and 800 mg/kg doses and methanolic, ethyl acetate and hexane extracts at doses 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg were tested for anti-inflammatory activity in Carrageenan induced rat paw oedema model and paw thickness was measured every one hour up to 6 hrs. Results All extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark showed good zone of inhibition against tested bacterial strains. In Carrageenan induced inflammation model, hydro-alcoholic and methanolic extract of R. tetraphylla root bark at three different doses produced significant (P<0.001) reduction when compared to vehicle treated control group and hexane, ethyl acetate extracts. Conclusions In the present study extracts of R. tetraphylla root bark shows good in-vitro antibacterial activity and in-vivo anti-inflammatory activity in rats. PMID:23569853

  7. Effect of manganese ions on ethanol fermentation by xylose isomerase expressing Saccharomyces cerevisiae under acetic acid stress.

    PubMed

    Ko, Ja Kyong; Um, Youngsoon; Lee, Sun-Mi

    2016-12-01

    The efficient fermentation of lignocellulosic hydrolysates in the presence of inhibitors is highly desirable for bioethanol production. Among the inhibitors, acetic acid released during the pretreatment of lignocellulose negatively affects the fermentation performance of biofuel producing organisms. In this study, we evaluated the inhibitory effects of acetic acid on glucose and xylose fermentation by a high performance engineered strain of xylose utilizing Saccharomyces cerevisiae, SXA-R2P-E, harboring a xylose isomerase based pathway. The presence of acetic acid severely decreased the xylose fermentation performance of this strain. However, the acetic acid stress was alleviated by metal ion supplementation resulting in a 52% increased ethanol production rate under 2g/L of acetic acid stress. This study shows the inhibitory effect of acetic acid on an engineered isomerase-based xylose utilizing strain and suggests a simple but effective method to improve the co-fermentation performance under acetic acid stress for efficient bioethanol production.

  8. Microbiological and toxicological effects of Perla black bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) extracts: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Lara-Díaz, Víctor Javier; Gaytán-Ramos, Angel A; Dávalos-Balderas, Alfredo José; Santos-Guzmán, Jesús; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito David; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Barbosa-Quintana, Alvaro; Sanson, Misu; López-Reyes, Alberto Gabriel; Moreno-Cuevas, Jorge E

    2009-02-01

    We investigated the microbiological and toxicological effects of three Perla black bean extracts on the growth and culture of selected pathogenic microorganisms, the toxicity over Vero cell lines and an in vivo rat model. Three different solvents were used to obtain Perla black bean extracts. All three Perla black bean extracts were tested for antibacterial and antiparasitic activity and further analysed for intrinsic cytotoxicity (IC(50)). Methanol Perla black bean extract was used for acute toxicity test in rats, with the up-and-down doping method. All Perla black bean extracts inhibited bacterial growth. Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Listeria monocytogenes showed inhibition, while Escherichia coli and Enterobacter aerogenes did not. Acidified water and acetic acid Perla black bean extract were tested in parasites. The best IC(50) was observed for Giardia lamblia, while higher concentrations were active against Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis. The Vero cells toxicity levels (IC(50)) for methanol, acidified water and acetic acid Perla black bean extract were [mean +/- S.D. (95% CI)]: 275 +/- 6.2 (267.9-282.0), 390 +/- 4.6 (384.8-395.2) and 209 +/- 3.39 (205.6-212.4) microg/ml, respectively. In vivo acute toxicity assays did not show changes in absolute organ weights, gross and histological examinations of selected tissues or functional tests. The acetic acid and methanol Perla black bean extract proved to exhibit strong antibacterial activity and the acidified water Perla black bean extract exerted parasiticidal effects against Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba hystolitica and Trichomonas vaginalis. The three Perla black bean extracts assayed over Vero cells showed very low toxicity and the methanol Perla black bean extract in vivo did not cause toxicity.

  9. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-06-01

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15–150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method.

  10. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue

    PubMed Central

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15–150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method. PMID:27282822

  11. Depomedroxyprogesterone acetate for hot flashes.

    PubMed

    Barton, Debra; Loprinzi, Charles; Quella, Susan; Sloan, Jeff; Pruthi, Sandya; Novotny, Paul

    2002-12-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of a long-acting preparation of medroxyprogesterone acetate for hot flash management, 3 men receiving androgen ablation therapy for prostate cancer and 15 women with a history of breast cancer were treated as part of clinical practice with three biweekly intramuscular injections of 500 mg depomedroxyprogesterone. A review of hot flash diaries and patient charts were completed to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of these injections for managing hot flashes. Treatment was associated with an approximate 90% decrease in hot flashes (95% CI 82-97%). Daily hot flash frequency decreased from a mean of 10.9 on the first day of treatment (95% CI 8.0-13.8 hot flashes per day) to a mean of 1.1 hot flashes 6 weeks later (95% CI 0.5-1.8 hot flashes) and to a mean of 0.7 hot flashes 12 weeks following therapy initiation (95% CI 0.1-1.2). Improvement in the hot flashes remained for months after discontinuing the injections in many patients. Reported side effects were minimal. This experience suggests that treatment with depomedroxyprogesterone may be an effective and well-tolerated option for the treatment of hot flashes.

  12. Effect of sludge age on methanogenic and glycogen accumulating organisms in an aerobic granular sludge process fed with methanol and acetate

    PubMed Central

    Pronk, M; Abbas, B; Kleerebezem, R; van Loosdrecht, M C M

    2015-01-01

    The influence of sludge age on granular sludge formation and microbial population dynamics in a methanol- and acetate-fed aerobic granular sludge system operated at 35°C was investigated. During anaerobic feeding of the reactor, methanol was initially converted to methane by methylotrophic methanogens. These methanogens were able to withstand the relatively long aeration periods. Lowering the anaerobic solid retention time (SRT) from 17 to 8 days enabled selective removal of the methanogens and prevented unwanted methane formation. In absence of methanogens, methanol was converted aerobically, while granule formation remained stable. At high SRT values (51 days), γ-Proteobacteria were responsible for acetate removal through anaerobic uptake and subsequent aerobic growth on storage polymers formed [so called metabolism of glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAO)]. When lowering the SRT (24 days), Defluviicoccus-related organisms (cluster II) belonging to the α-Proteobacteria outcompeted acetate consuming γ-Proteobacteria at 35°C. DNA from the Defluviicoccus-related organisms in cluster II was not extracted by the standard DNA extraction method but with liquid nitrogen, which showed to be more effective. Remarkably, the two GAO types of organisms grew separately in two clearly different types of granules. This work further highlights the potential of aerobic granular sludge systems to effectively influence the microbial communities through sludge age control in order to optimize the wastewater treatment processes. PMID:26059251

  13. GC-MS and GC-MS/MS measurement of ibuprofen in 10-μL aliquots of human plasma and mice serum using [α-methylo-(2)H3]ibuprofen after ethyl acetate extraction and pentafluorobenzyl bromide derivatization: Discovery of a collision energy-dependent H/D isotope effect and pharmacokinetic application to inhaled ibuprofen-arginine in mice.

    PubMed

    Tsikas, Dimitrios; Kayacelebi, Arslan Arinc; Hanff, Erik; Mitschke, Anja; Beckmann, Bibiana; Tillmann, Hanns-Christian; Gutzki, Frank-Mathias; Müller, Meike; Bernasconi, Corrado

    2017-02-01

    GC-MS and GC-MS/MS methods were developed and validated for the quantitative determination of ibuprofen (d0-ibuprofen), a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), in human plasma using α-methyl-(2)H3-4-(isobutyl)phenylacetic acid (d3-ibuprofen) as internal standard. Plasma (10μL) was diluted with acetate buffer (80μL, 1M, pH 4.9) and d0- and d3-ibuprofen were extracted with ethyl acetate (2×500μL). After solvent evaporation d0- and d3-ibuprofen were derivatized in anhydrous acetonitrile by using pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) bromide and N,N-diisopropylethylamine as the base catalyst. Under electron-capture negative-ion chemical ionization (ECNICI), the PFB esters of d0- and d3-ibuprofen readily ionize to form their carboxylate anions [M-PFB](-) at m/z 205 and m/z 208, respectively. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of m/z 205 and m/z 208 resulted in the formation of the anions at m/z 161 and m/z 164, respectively, due to neutral loss of CO2 (44 Da). A collision energy-dependent H/D isotope effect was observed, which involves abstraction/elimination of H(-) from d0-ibuprofen and D(-) from d3-ibuprofen and is minimum at a CE value of 5eV. Quantitative GC-MS determination was performed by selected-ion monitoring of m/z 205 and m/z 208. Quantitative GC-MS/MS determination was performed by selected-reaction monitoring of the mass transitions m/z 205 to m/z 161 for d0-ibuprofen and m/z 208 to m/z 164 for d3-ibuprofen. In a therapeutically relevant concentration range (0-1000μM) d0-ibuprofen added to human plasma was determined with accuracy (recovery, %) and imprecision (relative standard deviation, %) ranging between 93.7 and 110%, and between 0.8 and 4.9%, respectively. GC-MS (y) and GC-MS/MS (x) yielded almost identical results (y=4.00+0.988x, r(2)=0.9991). In incubation mixtures of arachidonic acid (10μM), d3-ibuprofen (10μM) or d0-ibuprofen (10μM) with ovine cyclooxygenase (COX) isoforms 1 and 2, the concentration of d3-ibuprofen and d0-ibuprofen did not

  14. Enhancement of chemotactic response to sodium acetate in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Matsuura, Tetsuya; Oda, Takayuki; Hayashi, Genta; Sugisaki, Daisuke; Ichinose, Mitsuyuki

    2010-08-01

    In this study, we investigated the chemotactic response of a wild-type (N2) nematode (Caenorhabditis elegans) to a water-soluble attractant, sodium acetate, after pre-exposure to the chemical. The chemotactic response to 1.0 M sodium acetate of the non-exposed control nematodes was lower than that of the nematodes that were pre-exposed to 1.0 M sodium acetate for 90 min (p < 0.05). The increase in the response to sodium acetate was observed up to 6 hr, but not at 12 hr after exposure. To clarify the mechanism of this enhancement of the chemotactic response, several mutants were used. The chemotactic response of pre-exposed tph-1 and bas-1 mutants, whose main defect was serotonin secretion, was enhanced in comparison with that of the control mutants (p < 0.01). However, cat-1 and cat-2 mutants, which are respectively defective in serotonin and dopamine secretion and dopamine secretion only, showed no enhancement of the chemotactic response to sodium acetate, even when pre-exposed to this chemical. When the cat-1 and cat-2 mutants were pre-exposed to sodium acetate and bred in the presence of 40 mM dopamine, these mutants showed enhanced chemotactic response to sodium acetate (p < 0.05). These results suggest that the enhancement of chemotactic response to sodium acetate after pre-exposure to this chemical is modulated by dopaminergic neurotransmission.

  15. Predominant contribution of syntrophic acetate oxidation to thermophilic methane formation at high acetate concentrations.

    PubMed

    Hao, Li-Ping; Lü, Fan; He, Pin-Jing; Li, Lei; Shao, Li-Ming

    2011-01-15

    To quantify the contribution of syntrophic acetate oxidation to thermophilic anaerobic methanogenesis under the stressed condition induced by acidification, the methanogenic conversion process of 100 mmol/L acetate was monitored simultaneously by using isotopic tracing and selective inhibition techniques, supplemented with the analysis of unculturable microorganisms. Both quantitative methods demonstrated that, in the presence of aceticlastic and hydrogenotrophic methanogens, a large percentage of methane (up to 89%) was initially derived from CO(2) reduction, indicating the predominant contribution of the syntrophic acetate oxidation pathway to acetate degradation at high acid concentrations. A temporal decrease of the fraction of hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis from more than 60% to less than 40% reflected the gradual prevalence of the aceticlastic methanogenesis pathway along with the reduction of acetate. This apparent discrimination of acetate methanization pathways highlighted the importance of the syntrophic acetate-oxidizing bacteria to initialize methanogenesis from high organic loadings.

  16. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of iridoid glycosides extract of Lamiophlomis rotata (Benth.) Kudo.

    PubMed

    Li, Maoxing; Shang, Xiaofei; Zhang, Ruxue; Jia, Zhengping; Fan, Pengcheng; Ying, Qiang; Wei, Lili

    2010-04-01

    Lamiophlomis rotata (Benth.) Kudo is a perennial herb (Labiatae) used as the Tibetan traditional medicine with the effects of alleviating pain, detumescence, hemostasis, promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis and reinforcing marrow. In this study, we investigated the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities of iridoid glycosides extract of L. rotata (IGLR) in mice. Our results showed that the iridoid glycosides extract could decrease acetic-acid-induced writhings times and formalin-induced lickings times, inhibit carrageenan-induced hind paw edema and xylene-induced ear swelling, and suppress peritoneal capillary permeability and leukocyte infiltration also induced by acetic acid in mice. All of these results suggested that the iridoid glycosides extract possesses the significant antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities.

  17. Acetate ester production by Chinese yellow rice wine yeast overexpressing the alcohol acetyltransferase-encoding gene ATF2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, J; Zhang, C; Qi, Y; Dai, L; Ma, H; Guo, X; Xiao, D

    2014-11-27

    Acetate ester, which are produced by fermenting yeast cells in an enzyme-catalyzed intracellular reaction, are responsible for the fruity character of fermented alcoholic beverages such as Chinese yellow rice wine. Alcohol acetyltransferase (AATase) is currently believed to be the key enzyme responsible for the production of acetate ester. In order to determine the precise role of the ATF2 gene in acetate ester production, an ATF2 gene encoding a type of AATase was overexpressed and the ability of the mutant to form acetate esters (including ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, and isobutyl acetate) was investigated. The results showed that after 5 days of fermentation, the concentrations of ethyl acetate, isoamyl acetate, and isobutyl acetate in yellow rice wines fermented with EY2 (pUC-PIA2K) increased to 137.79 mg/L (an approximate 4.9-fold increase relative to the parent cell RY1), 26.68 mg/L, and 7.60 mg/L, respectively. This study confirms that the ATF2 gene plays an important role in the production of acetate ester production during Chinese yellow rice wine fermentation, thereby offering prospects for the development of yellow rice wine yeast starter strains with optimized ester-producing capabilities.

  18. Thermal decarboxylation of acetate. Part I. The kinetics and mechanism of reaction in aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmer, Donald A.; Drummond, S. E.

    1986-05-01

    In an effort to understand the kinetics of the thermal decarboxylation of acetate and the role of catalysis, a series of laboratory experiments were conducted to measure the rate constants for the decomposition of acetate (acetic acid and sodium acetate) in the presence of titanium, silica, stainless steel, gold, and magnetite. Activation energies for decarboxylation of acetic acid and acetate ion range from about 8 kcal mol -1 in stainless steel vessels to 69 kcal mol -1 in silica tubes. Extrapolated rate constants at 100°C for acetic acid differ by more than fourteen orders of magnitude between the experiments conducted in stainless steel and the catalytically least active titanium vessels. Gold and titanium were the least active catalysts for the acetic acid substrate, while stainless steel, silica, and magnetite showed marked catalytic effects. Methane and carbon dioxide were the predominant reaction products of most of these experiments, although mass spectrometric analyses of the gas phase revealed concentrations of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons (apparent mass range from 29 to 56) amounting to as much as 55 mole percent of the total volatile products, depending on the catalyst. The reactions were generally first order in acetic acid or acetate ion, except for those involving the acid over silica and magnetite which were zero order. These results and the observed effects of variations in surface area are rationalized in terms of changes in the mode of surface catalysis. The mechanistic assignment is simplified by the existence of three unique straight lines on an isokinetic plot ( i.e., activation enthalpy versus activation entropy) which fit all the respective first- and zeroorder reactions. The results described here provide the nucleus for the discussion in Part II of the role of acetate in the primary migration of methane and the transportation of metals in hydrothermal solutions.

  19. Bauhinia variegata Leaf Extracts Exhibit Considerable Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticancer Activities

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Amita; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Shashank; Saxena, Ajit K.; Pandey, Abhay K.

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the phytochemical profiling, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts. The reducing sugar, anthraquinone, and saponins were observed in polar extracts, while terpenoids and alkaloids were present in nonpolar and ethanol extracts. Total flavonoid contents in various extracts were found in the range of 11–222.67 mg QE/g. In disc diffusion assays, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions exhibited considerable inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Several other extracts also showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of E. coli, Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of potential extracts were found between 3.5 and 28.40 mg/mL. The lowest MBC (3.5 mg/mL) was recorded for ethanol extract against Pseudomonas spp. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was compared with standard antioxidants. Dose dependent response was observed in reducing power of extracts. Polar extracts demonstrated appreciable metal ion chelating activity at lower concentrations (10–40 μg/mL). Many extracts showed significant antioxidant response in beta carotene bleaching assay. AQ fraction of B. variegata showed pronounced cytotoxic effect against DU-145, HOP-62, IGR-OV-1, MCF-7, and THP-1 human cancer cell lines with 90–99% cell growth inhibitory activity. Ethyl acetate fraction also produced considerable cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and THP-1 cell lines. The study demonstrates notable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities in B. variegata leaf extracts. PMID:24093108

  20. Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts exhibit considerable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Amita; Sharma, Amit Kumar; Kumar, Shashank; Saxena, Ajit K; Pandey, Abhay K

    2013-01-01

    The present study reports the phytochemical profiling, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities of Bauhinia variegata leaf extracts. The reducing sugar, anthraquinone, and saponins were observed in polar extracts, while terpenoids and alkaloids were present in nonpolar and ethanol extracts. Total flavonoid contents in various extracts were found in the range of 11-222.67 mg QE/g. In disc diffusion assays, petroleum ether and chloroform fractions exhibited considerable inhibition against Klebsiella pneumoniae. Several other extracts also showed antibacterial activity against pathogenic strains of E. coli, Proteus spp. and Pseudomonas spp. Minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) values of potential extracts were found between 3.5 and 28.40 mg/mL. The lowest MBC (3.5 mg/mL) was recorded for ethanol extract against Pseudomonas spp. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was compared with standard antioxidants. Dose dependent response was observed in reducing power of extracts. Polar extracts demonstrated appreciable metal ion chelating activity at lower concentrations (10-40 μg/mL). Many extracts showed significant antioxidant response in beta carotene bleaching assay. AQ fraction of B. variegata showed pronounced cytotoxic effect against DU-145, HOP-62, IGR-OV-1, MCF-7, and THP-1 human cancer cell lines with 90-99% cell growth inhibitory activity. Ethyl acetate fraction also produced considerable cytotoxicity against MCF-7 and THP-1 cell lines. The study demonstrates notable antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities in B. variegata leaf extracts.

  1. Phytochemical and antimicrobial activities of the wild mango-Irvingia gabonensis extracts and fractions.

    PubMed

    Fadare, D A; Ajaiyeoba, E O

    2008-06-01

    Crude methanol extracts obtained from the leaf, stem bark and root of the wild mango, Irvingia gabonensis, were screened for antimicrobial properties by agar well diffusion method at three different concentrations (100 mg/ml, 50 mg/ml and 25 mg/ml) against six human pathogenic microorganisms consisting of four bacteria and two fungi. The hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol fractions of the leaf and root methanol extracts were also subjected to the same assay at concentrations of 100 mg/ml-5mg/ml. Gentamicin and Tioconazole were used as positive and methanol as negative controls. Significant inhibitory activities were exhibited by the leaf and root extracts. The crude methanol extract of the root displayed the highest activity at a concentration of 100 mg/ml. It had a diameter of zone of inhibition of 19.7mm while the reference drug had 19.3mm on Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the most sensitive bacteria. The fungi used in this study were also very sensitive to the leaf extract. All the active extracts and fractions exhibited concentration-dependent activities against all the test organisms. Diameter of zones of inhibition ranges from 10.0-30.0 mm. The stem bark was inactive against all the studied organisms. The most active fraction was the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of the leaf which showed a comparable antimicrobial activity against the organisms at concentrations 100 mg/ml and 50 mg/ml comparable to the reference standard drug Gentamicin and Tioconazole. The ethyl acetate soluble fractions of leaf and root were found to show the highest activity. At a concentration of 5 mg/ml, the root ethyl acetate fraction inhibited the growth of all the bacteria tested. The phytochemical screening of the plant materials revealed the presence oftannins, saponins, alkaloids and anthraquinones and the absence of cardiac glycosides. Thin layer chromatography indicated the presence of phenolic compounds.

  2. Effects of Nidus Vespae extract and chemical fractions on the growth and acidogenicity of oral microorganisms.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Jin; Liu, Yuan; Zuo, Yu Ling; Li, Ji Yao; Ye, Ling; Zhou, Xue Dong

    2006-09-01

    Nidus Vespae is the honeycomb of Polistes Olivaceous (De Geer), P. Japonicus Saussure, and Parapolybiavaria Fabricius. It is known to have a number of pharmacological effects, including antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, anti-virus, anti-tumor and anesthetic properties. The present study evaluated the antimicrobial activity and acid inhibition properties of extracts and chemical fractions of Nidus Vespae. The raw material was first extracted using 95% ethanol/water. Subsequent fractions were prepared from this extract using cyclohexane/ethyl acetate, petroleum ether/ethyl acetate, and chloroform/methanol. For the antimicrobial activity assays, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) were determined using the microdilution method. The chloroform/methanol (Chl/MeOH) fraction showed the highest antibacterial activities with a MIC of 8-16mg/ml and an MBC of 16-32mg/ml. In addition, the extract and chemical fractions of Nidus Vespae showed a remarkable capacity for inhibiting the acid production of common oral bacteria at sub-MIC concentrations. Sub-MIC levels of the petroleum ether/ethyl acetate fraction significantly inhibited acid production by Streptococcus mutans ATCC 25175. The significant antiacidogenic activity demonstrated by Nidus Vespae shows it to be a promising source of novel anticariogenic agents.

  3. Antinociceptive Activity of Ethanol Extract from Duguetia chrysocarpa Maas (Annonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva; Araújo, Edigênia Cavalcante da Cruz; Ribeiro, Luciano Augusto de Araújo; de Lima, Julianeli Tolentino; Nunes, Xirley Pereira; Lúcio, Ana Sílvia Suassuna Carneiro; Agra, Maria de Fátima; Barbosa Filho, José Maria

    2012-01-01

    The ethanol extract from the fruits of Duguetia chrysocarpa was evaluated for its antinociceptive activity in chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice. The intraperitoneal administration of the ethanol extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight) showed a dose-dependent inhibition of acetic-acid-induced abdominal writhes. The extract also produced a significant inhibition of both phases of the formalin test in all doses tested and increased the reaction time in hot-plate test at dose of 200 mg/kg. The data obtained suggest that the antinociceptive effect of the extract may be mediated via both peripheral and central mechanisms. The phytochemical investigation yielded the isolation of the benzenoid derivative 3-methoxy-4-ethoxy benzoic acid which is being reported for the first time in this genus. PMID:22645460

  4. Antinociceptive activity of ethanol extract from Duguetia chrysocarpa Maas (Annonaceae).

    PubMed

    Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva; Araújo, Edigênia Cavalcante da Cruz; Ribeiro, Luciano Augusto de Araújo; de Lima, Julianeli Tolentino; Nunes, Xirley Pereira; Lúcio, Ana Sílvia Suassuna Carneiro; Agra, Maria de Fátima; Barbosa Filho, José Maria

    2012-01-01

    The ethanol extract from the fruits of Duguetia chrysocarpa was evaluated for its antinociceptive activity in chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice. The intraperitoneal administration of the ethanol extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight) showed a dose-dependent inhibition of acetic-acid-induced abdominal writhes. The extract also produced a significant inhibition of both phases of the formalin test in all doses tested and increased the reaction time in hot-plate test at dose of 200 mg/kg. The data obtained suggest that the antinociceptive effect of the extract may be mediated via both peripheral and central mechanisms. The phytochemical investigation yielded the isolation of the benzenoid derivative 3-methoxy-4-ethoxy benzoic acid which is being reported for the first time in this genus.

  5. Conversion to eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy

    PubMed Central

    French, Jacqueline; Jacobson, Mercedes P.; Pazdera, Ladislav; Gough, Mallory; Cheng, Hailong; Grinnell, Todd; Blum, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) monotherapy. Methods: This post hoc pooled analysis of 2 randomized double-blind studies (093-045 and -046) included adults with partial-onset seizures medically uncontrolled by 1 or 2 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Following the baseline period (8 weeks), eligible patients were randomized 2:1 to receive ESL 1,600 mg or 1,200 mg once daily for 18 weeks; the primary endpoint was study exit by meeting predefined exit criteria (signifying worsening seizure control). In each study, treatment was considered effective if the upper 95% confidence limit for exit rate was lower than the historical control threshold (65.3%). Results: Pooled exit rates were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 20.6% (95% confidence interval: 15.6%–26.8%); ESL 1,200 mg = 30.8% (23.0%–40.5%). Use of 2 baseline AEDs or rescue medication, US location, epilepsy duration ≥20 years, and higher maximum baseline seizure frequency were associated with higher exit risks. Median percent reductions in standardized seizure frequency between baseline and the 18-week double-blind period were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 43.2%; ESL 1,200 mg = 35.7%; baseline carbamazepine use was associated with smaller reductions. Safety profiles were similar between ESL doses. Conclusions: Exit rates for ESL monotherapy (1,600 mg and 1,200 mg once daily) were lower than the historical control threshold, irrespective of baseline AED use and region, with no additional safety concerns identified. Clinical factors and location clearly influence treatment responses in conversion-to-monotherapy trials. Classification of evidence: This pooled analysis provides Class IV evidence that for adults with medically uncontrolled partial-onset seizures, ESL monotherapy is well tolerated and effective. PMID:26911639

  6. Synthesis of 4-nitrophenyl acetate using molecular sieve-immobilized lipase from Bacillus coagulans.

    PubMed

    Raghuvanshi, Shilpa; Gupta, Reena

    2009-03-01

    Extracellular lipase from Bacillus coagulans BTS-3 was immobilized on (3 A x 1.5 mm) molecular sieve. The molecular sieve showed approximately 68.48% binding efficiency for lipase (specific activity 55 IU mg(-1)). The immobilized enzyme achieved approx 90% conversion of acetic acid and 4-nitrophenol (100 mM each) into 4-nitrophenyl acetate in n-heptane at 65 degrees C in 3 h. When alkane of C-chain length other than n-heptane was used as the organic solvent, the conversion of 4-nitrophenol and acetic acid was found to decrease. About 88.6% conversion of the reactants into ester was achieved when reactants were used at molar ratio of 1:1. The immobilized lipase brought about conversion of approximately 58% for esterification of 4-nitrophenol and acetic acid into 4-nitrophenyl acetate at a temperature of 65 degrees C after reuse for 5 cycles.

  7. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  8. High-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry validation of medroxyprogesterone acetate in products of pork origin and serum.

    PubMed

    Giannetti, Luigi; Barchi, Daniela; Fiorucci, Fulvia; Gennuso, Elisa; Sanna, Patrizia; Pallagrosi, Marco; Neri, Bruno

    2005-08-01

    Different extraction and purification methods are described here to determine medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in pork meat and serum. Spiked samples are investigated over the concentration range of MPA 0.5-20 ng/g. Pork meat tissues are subjected to extraction using organic solvent, and pork serum is simply diluted with acetate buffer. Clean-up is performed using solid-phase extraction on a C18 cartridge, and MPA is eluted with ethanol. Aliquots are injected into a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system. MPA content is determined on the basis of m/z 387-327 and 387-123 transitions.

  9. Ethyl acetate extract from Asparagus cochinchinensis exerts anti‑inflammatory effects in LPS‑stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage cells by regulating COX‑2/iNOS, inflammatory cytokine expression, MAP kinase pathways, the cell cycle and anti-oxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hyun Ah; Koh, Eun Kyoung; Sung, Ji Eun; Kim, Ji Eun; Song, Sung Hwa; Kim, Dong Seob; Son, Hong Joo; Lee, Chung Yeoul; Lee, Hee Seob; Bae, Chang Joon; Hwang, Dae Youn

    2017-04-01

    Asparagus cochinchinesis (A. cochinchinesis) is a medicine traditionally used to treat fever, cough, kidney disease, breast cancer, inflammatory disease and brain disease in northeast Asian countries. Although numerous studies of the anti‑inflammatory effects of A. cochinchinesis have been conducted, the underlying mechanisms of such effects in macrophages remain to be demonstrated. To investigate the mechanism of suppressive effects on the inflammatory response in macrophages, alterations of the nitric oxide (NO) level, the cell viability, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase‑2 (COX‑2) expression levels, inflammatory cytokine expression, the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, cell cycle arrest and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were measured in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated RAW264.7 cells following treatment with ethyl acetate extract from A. cochinchinesis root (EaEAC). RAW264.7 cells pretreated two different concentrations of EaEAC prior to LPS treatment exhibited no significant toxicity. The concentration of NO was significantly decreased in the EaEAC + LPS treated group compared with the vehicle + LPS treated group. A similar decrease in mRNA transcript level of COX‑2, iNOS, pro-inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor‑α and interleukin (IL)‑1β] and anti‑inflammatory cytokines (IL‑6 and IL‑10) was detected in the EaEAC + LPS treated group compared with the vehicle + LPS treated group, although the decrease rate varied. Enhancement of the phosphorylation of MAPK family members following LPS treatment was partially rescued in the EaEAC pretreated group, and the cell cycle was arrested at the G2/M phase. Furthermore, the EaEAC pretreated group exhibited a reduced level of ROS generation compared with the vehicle + LPS treated group. Taken together, these results suggest that EaEAC suppresses inflammatory responses through inhibition of NO production, COX‑2 expression

  10. Identification of Indole-3-Acetic Acid in the Basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune 1

    PubMed Central

    Epstein, Ephraim; Miles, Philip G.

    1967-01-01

    Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) was detected in the ether extracts of culture filtrates of indigotin-producing strains of the basidiomycete Schizophyllum commune. Several solvents, known to give distinctly different RF values for IAA, and 3 location reagents gave identical results with synthetic IAA and IAA found in the extract. Confirmation was obtained by the Avena straight growth test, split pea test, and ultraviolet absorption spectrum. PMID:16656596

  11. Evaluation of four protein extraction methods for proteomic analysis of mango peel.

    PubMed

    Liao, D J; Lu, X P; Chen, H S; Lu, Y; Mo, Z Y

    2016-08-30

    The peel of mango (Mangifera indica L.) is a special plant tissue that contains many compounds that interfere with protein extraction. A successful separation with Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) is the key step for proteomic analysis. To evaluate the efficiencies of mango peel protein extraction for 2-DE, four extraction methods were tested: 1) 2-D clean-up kit, 2) trichloroacetic acid/acetone precipitation, 3) phenol extraction, 4) phenol with methanol/ammonium acetate precipitation. The results showed that the phenol with methanol/ammonium acetate precipitation produced the best quality protein extraction and separation. Proteins were separated in 30-70 and >70 kDa ranges better than with the other methods. Acidic proteins had better resolution with fewer horizontal and vertical streaks. Sixteen proteins were identified by maxtrix-assisted laser desorption/ ionisation time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/ TOF-MS/MS). The result demonstrated that each of these four methods can be used to prepare mango peel proteins. The phenol with methanol/ ammonium acetate precipitation was the best choice for proteomic analysis of mango peel.

  12. Antioxidant and antibacterial activities on foodborne pathogens of Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. (Moraceae) leaves extracts.

    PubMed

    Loizzo, M R; Tundis, R; Chandrika, U G; Abeysekera, A M; Menichini, F; Frega, N G

    2010-06-01

    Total water extract, ethyl acetate, and aqueous fractions from the leaves of Artocarpus heterophyllus were evaluated for phenolic content, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities against some foodborne pathogens such as E. coli, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella enterica, Bacillus cereus, Enterococcus faecalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs) of extract and fractions determined by the agar dilution method were ranged from 221.9 microg/mL for ethyl acetate fraction to 488.1 microg/mL for total extract. In the agar diffusion method the diameters of inhibition were 12.2 for the total extract, 10.7 and 11.5 for ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions, respectively. A. heterophyllus showed significant antioxidant activity tested in different in vitro systems (DPPH, ABTS, FRAP, and Fe(2+) chelating activity assay). In particular, in DPPH assay A. heterophyllus total extract exhibited a strong antiradical activity with an IC(50) value of 73.5 microg/mL while aqueous fraction exerted the highest activity in FRAP assay (IC(50) value of 72.0 microg/mL). The total phenols content by Folin-Ciocalteau method was determined with the purpose of testing its relationship with the antioxidant and antibacterial activities.

  13. Determination of volatile fatty acids in wastewater by solvent extraction and gas chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkhize, Nontando T.; Msagati, Titus A. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.; Momba, Maggy

    The purpose of this study was to develop a liquid-liquid extraction method for the analysis of volatile fatty acids collected at the elutriation units of Unit 3, 4 and 5 at Johannesburg Water-Northern Works Wastewater Treatment Plant. Liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) method employing dichloromethane (DCM) and methyl-tert-butyl-ether (MTBE) as extracting solvents was used during the quantitative analysis of volatile fatty acids namely acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, isovaleric and heptanoic acid. The detection of the extracts was by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer operating under electron ionization mode (GC-EI-MS). The results showed that MTBE was a better extraction solvent than DCM as it gave much higher recoveries (>5 folds). On the other hand, the overall reactor performance for all the three units in the period when the samples were collected, which was measured by the ratio of propionic to acetic acid was good since the ratio o did not exceed 1.4 with the exception of the samples collected on the 3rd of October where the ratio exceeded 1.4 significantly. The concentration of acetic acid, another indicator for the reactor performance in all three units was way below 800 mg/L thus the digester balance was on par.

  14. Efficacy of Acetic Acid against Listeria monocytogenes Attached to Poultry Skin during Refrigerated Storage.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Fandos, Elena; Herrera, Barbara

    2014-09-11

    This work evaluates the effect of acetic acid dipping on the growth of L. monocytogenes on poultry legs stored at 4 °C for eight days. Fresh inoculated chicken legs were dipped into either a 1% or 2% acetic acid solution (v/v) or distilled water (control). Changes in mesophiles, psychrotrophs, Enterobacteriaceae counts and sensorial characteristics (odor, color, texture and overall appearance) were also evaluated. The shelf life of the samples washed with acetic acid was extended by at least two days over the control samples washed with distilled water. L. monocytogenes counts before decontamination were 5.57 log UFC/g, and after treatment with 2% acetic acid (Day 0), L. monocytogenes counts were 4.47 log UFC/g. Legs washed with 2% acetic acid showed a significant (p < 0.05) inhibitory effect on L. monocytogenes compared to control legs, with a decrease of about 1.31 log units after eight days of storage. Sensory quality was not adversely affected by acetic acid. This study demonstrates that while acetic acid did reduce populations of L. monocytogenes on meat, it did not completely inactivate the pathogen. The application of acetic acid may be used as an additional hurdle contributing to extend the shelf life of raw poultry and reducing populations of L. monocytogenes.

  15. Evaluation of cytotoxicity and anticarcinogenic potential of Mentha leaf extracts.

    PubMed

    Jain, Deepika; Pathak, Neelam; Khan, Saba; Raghuram, Gorantla Venkata; Bhargava, Arpit; Samarth, Ravindra; Mishra, Pradyumna Kumar

    2011-03-01

    We examined the possible molecular mechanisms underlying the cytotoxicity and anticarcinogenic potential of Mentha leaf extracts (petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol, and water extracts) on 6 human cancer (HeLa, MCF-7, Jurkat, T24, HT-29, MIAPaCa-2) and normal (IMR-90, HEK-293) cell lines. Of all the extracts tested, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of M piperita showed significant dose- and time-dependent anticarcinogenic activity leading to G1 cell cycle arrest and mitochondrial-mediated apoptosis, perturbation of oxidative balance, upregulation of Bax gene, elevated expression of p53 and p21 in the treated cells, acquisition of senescence phenotype, while inducing pro-inflammatory cytokines response. Our results provide the first evidence of direct anticarcinogenic activity of Mentha leaf extracts. Further, bioassay-directed isolation of the active constituents might provide basis for mechanistic and translational studies for designing novel anticancer drugs to be used alone or as adjuvant for prevention of tumor progression and/or treatment of human malignancies.

  16. Dynamic changes of carbon isotope apparent fractionation factor to describe transition to syntrophic acetate oxidation during cellulose and acetate methanization.

    PubMed

    Vavilin, Vasily A; Rytov, Sergey V

    2017-05-01

    To identify predominant metabolic pathway for cellulose methanization new equations that take into account dynamics of 13C are added to the basic model of cellulose methanization. The correct stoichiometry of hydrolysis, acidogenesis, acetogenesis and methanogenesis steps including biomass is considered. Using experimental data by Laukenmann et al. [Identification of methanogenic pathway in anaerobic digesters using stable carbon isotopes. Eng. Life Sci. 2010;10:1-6], who reported about the importance of ace`tate oxidation during mesophilic cellulose methanization, the model confirmed that, at high biomass concentration of acetate oxidizers, the carbon isotope fractionation factor amounts to about 1.085. The same model, suggested firstly for cellulose degradation, was used to describe, secondly, changes in, and in methane and carbon dioxide during mesophylic acetate methanization measured by Grossin-Debattista [Fractionnements isotopiques (13C/12C) engendres par la methanogenese: apports pour la comprehension des processus de biodegradation lors de la digestion anaerobie [doctoral thesis]. 2011. Bordeaux: Universite Bordeaux-1;2011. Available from: http://ori-oai.u-bordeaux1.fr/pdf/2011/GROSSIN-DEBATTISTA_JULIEN_2011.pdf . French].The model showed that under various ammonium concentrations, at dominating acetoclastic methanogenesis, the value decreases over time to a low level (1.016), while at dominating syntrophic acetate oxidation, coupled with hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, slightly increases, reaching 1.060 at the end of incubation.

  17. Covalent interaction of chloroacetic and acetic acids with cholesterol.

    PubMed

    Bhat, H K; Ansari, G A

    1989-01-01

    The covalent interaction of chloroacetic acid with rat liver lipids was studied in vivo. Rats were given a single oral dose (8.75 mg/kg, 50 microCi) of 1-[14C]chloroacetic acid and sacrificed after 24 hours. Lipids extracted from the livers were separated into neutral lipids and phospholipids by solid-phase extraction using sep-pak silica cartridges. The neutral lipid fraction was further fractionated by preparative thin-layer chromatography followed by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The fraction corresponding to the retention time of standard cholesteryl chloroacetate gave a pseudomolecular ion peak at m/z 480/482 ratio: (3:1) on ammonia chemical ionization mass spectrometry, and the fragmentation pattern was found to be similar to that of the standard sample. Under similar conditions, acetic acid resulted in the formation of cholesteryl acetate. The effect of such conjugation reactions on the cell membrane and their contribution to toxicity is presently unknown.

  18. C-13 Stable Isotope Probing of Biostimulation Experiments to Identify Acetate Utilizers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, P. R.; Tan, H.; Kerkhof, L.; McGuinness, L.; Peacock, A.; Long, P. E.

    2011-12-01

    In order to determine which microorganisms take up acetate during biostimulation and how the uptake of acetate by specific organisms, especially Geobacter species, changes over time, a 120-day column biostimulation experiment was performed. A total of eight columns were loaded with Rifle sediments and operated under continuous flow conditions using Rifle groundwater, amended with 3 mM C-12 acetate. At regular time intervals, C-12 acetate flow into a specific column was switched to C-13 acetate. That column was then operated under C-13 acetate amendment for 36 hours before it was sacrificed for detailed geochemical and microbiological analyses. Column operation started under iron reduction (based on the measured Fe(II) in the column effluent), while sulfate reduction (based on removal of sulfate between influent and outflow), was noted at about 25 days of operation. The microbial characterization consisted of phospholipid fatty acid analysis (PLFA) and stable isotope probing (SIP). All microbial characterization was done to differentiate between the C-12 and C-13 incorporation into the biomass. Results showed that there was a differentiation between the community that was taking up acetate actively throughout the 120 days of operation and the overall microbial community. Of interest was that the fraction of Geobacter population remained fairly constant throughout the duration of the experiment, as well as its acetate uptake. Results also showed that of the acetate incorporated into the overall biomass, about 40% was incorporated into Geobacter biomass. These results are key for the proper numerical simulations of biostimulation via acetate amendment and the biostimulation of Geobacter.

  19. Fragrance material review on 4-methylbenzyl acetate.

    PubMed

    McGinty, D; Letizia, C S; Api, A M

    2012-09-01

    A toxicologic and dermatologic review of 4-methylbenzyl acetate when used as a fragrance ingredient is presented. 4-Methylbenzyl acetate is a member of the fragrance structural group Aryl Alkyl Alcohol Simple Acid Esters (AAASAE). The AAASAE fragrance ingredients are prepared by reacting an aryl alkyl alcohol with a simple carboxylic acid (a chain of 1-4 carbons) to generate formate, acetate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate and carbonate esters. This review contains a detailed summary of all available toxicology and dermatology papers that are related to this individual fragrance ingredient and is not intended as a stand-alone document. Available data for 4-methylbenzyl acetate were evaluated, then summarized, and includes: physical properties, skin irritation, skin sensitization, and elicitation data. A safety assessment of the entire AAASAE will be published simultaneously with this document. Please refer to Belsito et al. (2012) for an overall assessment of the safe use of this material and all AAASAE in fragrances.

  20. Phytochemicals from Kigelia pinnata leaves show antioxidant and anticancer potential on human cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Atolani, Olubunmi; Olatunji, Gabriel A; Fabiyi, Oluwatoyin Adenike; Adeniji, Adekunle J; Ogbole, Omonike O

    2013-10-01

    Studies suggest that the traditional applications of Kigelia pinnata leaves have beneficial effects against oxidative stress-mediated diseases and cancers. The pulverized dried leaves of K. pinnata were extracted with hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol sequentially, and the crude extracts were fractionated by silica gel column chromatography with solvent gradient of increasing polarity. 3-hydro-4,8-phytene, trans-phytol, (9Z,12Z)-methyl octadeca-9,12-dienoate, and two oil fractions were obtained. The chemical compositions of chromatographic fractions were determined using gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. The structure elucidations of the isolated compounds were based on FTIR, MS, and NMR spectral data analyses. These along with the crude extracts were examined for their antioxidant activities using ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging, and 2,2-azinobis(3-ethyl-benzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) assays. Total phenolic contents were also determined. The crude extracts and purified compounds were evaluated on the rhabdomyosarcoma human cancer cell for their cytotoxicity using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) cell viability assays. The methanol extract was richer in phenolics and was most potent as antioxidant and cytotoxic agent among all the substances tested. Among the fractions and pure compounds, the two oil fractions showed more cytotoxicity potency, with IC50s of 143.4±0.5 and 147.9±1.3 ng/mL, which is more significant than the reference standard, cyclophosphamide (165.6±1.0 ng/mL). 3-hydro-4,8-phytene showed lower antioxidant and cytotoxicity potential (IC50=1818±5.2 μg/mL and 171.7±0.8 ng/mL, respectively). Trans-phytol did not show a high cytotoxic power (IC50=769.8±4.3 ng/mL). The comparatively high cytotoxicity index of (9Z, 12Z)-methyl octadeca-9,12-dienoate (IC50=153.3±0.1 ng/mL) indicated that it may be one of the principal cytotoxic agent in

  1. Olive leaf extract inhibits lead poisoning-induced brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Shengqing; Cui, Wenhui; He, Jiujun; Wang, Zhenfu; Yang, Xiaolu

    2013-01-01

    Olive leaves have an antioxidant capacity, and olive leaf extract can protect the blood, spleen and hippocampus in lead-poisoned mice. However, little is known about the effects of olive leaf extract on lead-induced brain injury. This study was designed to determine whether olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury, and whether this effect is associated with antioxidant capacity. First, we established a mouse model of lead poisoning by continuous intragastric administration of lead acetate for 30 days. Two hours after successful model establishment, lead-poisoned mice were given olive leaf extract at doses of 250, 500 or 1 000 mg/kg daily by intragastric administration for 50 days. Under the transmission electron microscope, olive leaf extract attenuated neuronal and capillary injury and reduced damage to organelles and the matrix around the capillaries in the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex in the lead-poisoned mice. Olive leaf extract at a dose of 1 000 mg/kg had the greatest protective effect. Spectrophotometry showed that olive leaf extract significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, while it reduced malondialdehyde content, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining revealed that olive leaf extract dose-dependently decreased Bax protein expression in the cerebral cortex of lead-poisoned mice. Our findings indicate that olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury by increasing antioxidant capacity and reducing apoptosis. PMID:25206510

  2. Phytochemical screening and in vitro bioactivities of the extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Apu, Apurba Sarker; Liza, Mahmuda Sultana; Jamaluddin, A.T.M.; Howlader, Md. Amran; Saha, Repon Kumer; Rizwan, Farhana; Nasrin, Nishat

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the bioactivities of crude n-hexane, ethyl acetate and methanol extracts of aerial part of Boerhavia diffusa Linn. (B. diffusa) and its phytochemical analysis. Methods The identification of phytoconstituents and assay of antioxidant, thrombolytic, cytotoxic, antimicrobial activities were conducted using specific standard in vitro procedures. Results The results showed that the plant extracts were a rich source of phytoconstituents. Methanol extract showed higher antioxidant, thrombolytic activity and less cytotoxic activity than those of n-hexane and ethyl acetate extracts of B. diffusa. Among the bioactivities, antioxidant activity was the most notable compared to the positive control and thus could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidant. In case of antimicrobial screening, crude extracts of the plant showed remarkable antibacterial activity against tested microorganisms. All the extracts showed significant inhibitory activity against Candida albicuns, at a concentration of 1000 µg/disc. Conclusions The present findings suggest that, the plant widely available in Bangladesh, could be a prominent source of medicinally important natural compounds. PMID:23569993

  3. Biofunctional Activities of Equisetum ramosissimum Extract: Protective Effects against Oxidation, Melanoma, and Melanogenesis.

    PubMed

    Li, Pin-Hui; Chiu, Yu-Pin; Shih, Chieh-Chih; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Ibeto, Laura Kaodichi; Huang, Shu-Hung; Chiu, Chien Chih; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang; Chang, Yaw-Nan; Wang, Hui-Min David

    2016-01-01

    Equisetum ramosissimum, a genus of Equisetaceae, is a medicinal plant that can be separated into ethyl acetate (EA), dichloromethane (DM), n-hexane (Hex), methanol (MeOH), and water extracts. EA extract was known to have potent antioxidative properties, reducing power, DPPH scavenging activity, and metal ion chelating activity. This study compared these five extracts in terms of their inhibiting effects on three human malignant melanomas: A375, A375.S2, and A2058. MTT assay presented the notion that both EA and DM extracts inhibited melanoma growth but did not affect the viabilities of normal dermal keratinocytes (HaCaT) or fibroblasts. Western blot analyses showed that both EA and DM extracts induced overexpression of caspase proteins in all three melanomas. To determine their roles in melanogenesis, this study analyzed their in vitro suppressive effects on mushroom tyrosinase. All extracts except for water revealed moderate suppressive effects. None of the extracts affected B16-F10 cells proliferation. EA extract inhibited cellular melanin production whereas DM extract unexpectedly enhanced cellular pigmentation in B16-F10 cells. Data for modulations of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1, and tyrosinase-related protein 2 showed that EA extract inhibited protein expression mentioned above whereas DM extract had the opposite effect. Overall, the experiments indicated that the biofunctional activities of EA extract contained in food and cosmetics protect against oxidation, melanoma, and melanin production.

  4. Biofunctional Activities of Equisetum ramosissimum Extract: Protective Effects against Oxidation, Melanoma, and Melanogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pin-Hui; Chiu, Yu-Pin; Shih, Chieh-Chih; Wen, Zhi-Hong; Ibeto, Laura Kaodichi; Huang, Shu-Hung; Chiu, Chien Chih; Ma, Dik-Lung; Leung, Chung-Hang; Chang, Yaw-Nan; Wang, Hui-Min David

    2016-01-01

    Equisetum ramosissimum, a genus of Equisetaceae, is a medicinal plant that can be separated into ethyl acetate (EA), dichloromethane (DM), n-hexane (Hex), methanol (MeOH), and water extracts. EA extract was known to have potent antioxidative properties, reducing power, DPPH scavenging activity, and metal ion chelating activity. This study compared these five extracts in terms of their inhibiting effects on three human malignant melanomas: A375, A375.S2, and A2058. MTT assay presented the notion that both EA and DM extracts inhibited melanoma growth but did not affect the viabilities of normal dermal keratinocytes (HaCaT) or fibroblasts. Western blot analyses showed that both EA and DM extracts induced overexpression of caspase proteins in all three melanomas. To determine their roles in melanogenesis, this study analyzed their in vitro suppressive effects on mushroom tyrosinase. All extracts except for water revealed moderate suppressive effects. None of the extracts affected B16-F10 cells proliferation. EA extract inhibited cellular melanin production whereas DM extract unexpectedly enhanced cellular pigmentation in B16-F10 cells. Data for modulations of microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related protein 1, and tyrosinase-related protein 2 showed that EA extract inhibited protein expression mentioned above whereas DM extract had the opposite effect. Overall, the experiments indicated that the biofunctional activities of EA extract contained in food and cosmetics protect against oxidation, melanoma, and melanin production. PMID:27403230

  5. [Experimental study of proflavine acetate phototransformation processes].

    PubMed

    Zholdakova, Z I; Sinitsyna, O O; Lebedev, A T; Kharchevnikova, N V

    2009-01-01

    Changes in proflavine acetate phototransformation processes upon exposure to visible-range irradiation were studied by high performance liquid chromatography. Proflavine acetate was offered as a photosensitizer during photodynamic water disinfection. Dye transformation products upon time-varying exposure to irradiation were identified. By using structure-activity relationships and information from toxicity databases, the authors evaluated the hazard of the identified products and identified the most hazardous ones.

  6. Use of the metabolic tracer carbon-11-acetate for evaluation of regional myocardial perfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Chan, S.Y.; Brunken, R.C.; Phelps, M.E.; Schelbert, H.R. )

    1991-04-01

    The high first-pass myocardial extraction fraction of carbon-11-acetate suggests that its initial uptake depends on blood flow. Accordingly, regional uptake of {sup 11}C-acetate at 4 min was compared to regional perfusion determined with nitrogen-13-ammonia in 119 segments in 15 patients with stable coronary artery disease by two methods. A close correlation was observed between initial relative myocardial concentrations (segmental activity normalized to maximal activity) of both tracers (11C-acetate = 0.88; 13N-ammonia + 0.079; s.e.e. = 0.064, r = 0.94, p less than 0.001). Furthermore, segmental net extractions (E.F), as calculated from the input function and segmental activities, of the two tracers correlated closely by E.FC-11 = 0.55E.FN-13 + 0.080 (s.e.e. = 0.045, r = 0.87, p less than 0.001). These relationships indicate that initial regional myocardial uptake of {sup 11}C-acetate reflects perfusion and that {sup 11}C-acetate permits near simultaneous evaluation of regional oxidative metabolism and of regional myocardial perfusion.

  7. Evaluation of lanthanide salts as alternative stains to uranyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Hosogi, Naoki; Nishioka, Hideo; Nakakoshi, Masamichi

    2015-12-01

    Uranyl acetate (UAc) has been generally used not only as a superb staining reagent for ultrathin sections of plastic-embedded biological materials, but also as high-contrast negative stains for biological macromolecules such as particles of protein or virus. However, the use and purchase of radioactive UAc have been restricted. In this study, we determine the performance of ytterbium triacetate, lutetium triacetate, samarium triacetate and gadolinium triacetate as new staining reagents for biological electron microscopy. We observed chemically fixed spinach (Spinacia oleracea) leaves stained with these reagents. Ultrathin sections were stained with these reagents. Some of them were counterstained with lead citrate. The transmission electron microscopy contrast of spinach organelles was evaluated in sections exposed to the conventional stain and new stains. We show acetate salts of samarium, gadolinium, ytterbium and lutetium could be excellent substitutes for UAc for thin section staining and for negative staining. In addition, each reagent showed appreciable negative-staining effects.

  8. Growth Inhibition and Apoptosis Induction of Essential Oils and Extracts of Nepeta cataria L. on Human Prostatic and Breast Cancer Cell Lines.

    PubMed

    Emami, Seyed Ahmad; Asili, Javad; Hossein Nia, Shima; Yazdian-Robati, Rezvan; Sahranavard, Mehrdad; Tayarani-Najaran, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Nepeta cataria L. has been used in traditional medicine of some countries. Here the cytotoxic and apoptogenic activity of methanol extracts, n-hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol, and acqueous extracts and the essential oil obtained from the aerial parts of the plant were evaluated with PC3, DU-145 and MCF-7 cell lines. Cell viability, histograms of PI stained fragmented DNA in apoptotic cells and Western blot analysis of proteins involved in the cascade of apoptosis were compared in all samples. Thirty components were identified as volatile, representing 99.7% of essential oil composition after GC-MS analysis of the oil obtained from aerial parts of the N. cataria by hydro-distillation. The major oil components of the essential oil were nepetalactone stereoisomers. Comparing IC50 values showed estrogen receptor positive PC3 cells were more sensitive to the cytotoxic effects of N. cataria in comparison with low hormone-receptor presenting DU-145 cells. Among multiple extracts and essential oils of the plant, only the ethyl acetate extract could significantly decrease cell viability in PC3 cells, in a concentration dependent manner. Ethyl acetate extract of N. cataria treated cells showed a sub-G1 peak in PC3 cells in a concentration dependent manner that indicates the involvement of an apoptotic process in ethyl acetate extract-induced cell death. Western blotting analysis showed that in PC3 cells treated with ethyl acetate (48 h) caspase 3 and PARP were cleaved to active forms. Overall, the results suggest that further analytical elucidation of N. cataria in respect to finding new cytotoxic chemicals with anti-tumor activity is warranted.

  9. Insecticidal effects of extracts of Humulus lupulus (hops) L. cones and its principal component, xanthohumol.

    PubMed

    Aydin, T; Bayrak, N; Baran, E; Cakir, A

    2017-03-23

    Insecticidal effects of the dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, acetone, ethanol and methanol extracts of Humulus lupulus (hops) L. cones and its principal components, xanthohumol was investigated on five stored pests, Sitophilus granarius (L.), Sitophilus oryzae (L.), Acanthoscelides obtectus (Say.), Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) and Lasioderma serricorne (F.). The mortality of adults of the insects treated with 2, 5, 5, 10 and 20 mg ml̠-1 concentrations of the extracts and xanthuhumol was counted after 24, 48, 72, 96 and 120 h. In order to determine the toxic effects of the substances tested against all tested insects, durations for 50% mortality of the adults, and LD50 values were also determined in the first 48 h by probit analysis. Our results also showed that xanthohumol was more toxic against the pests in comparison with the extracts applications. LD50 values for xanthohumol were found to be low dose as compared with the extracts. Xanthohumol was more toxic against S. granarius (L.) with 6.8 µg of LD50 value. Among the extracts, methanol extract was less effective than other extracts against all tested insects. The ethyl acetate extract of H. lupulus cones was the most effective extract against the tested pests. The quantitative amounts of xanthohumol in the extracts were determined using a high-performance liquid chromatography. The quantitative data indicated that amount of xanthohumol in the extracts increased with increase of polarity of the solvents used from methanol to dichloromethane. The methanol extract contained the high amount of xanthohumol with 5.74 g/100 g extract (0.46 g/100 g plant sample).

  10. The influence of surface oxygen and hydroxyl groups on the dehydrogenation of ethylene, acetic acid and hydrogenated vinyl acetate on pure Pd(1 0 0): A DFT study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yanping; Dong, Xiuqin; Yu, Yingzhe; Zhang, Minhua

    2016-12-01

    On the basis of a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type mechanism, the dehydrogenation of ethylene, acetic acid and hydrogenated vinyl acetate (VAH) on pure Pd(1 0 0) with surface oxygen atoms (Os) and hydroxyl groups (OHs) was studied with density functional theory (DFT) method. Our calculation results show that both Os and OHs can consistently reduce the activation energies of dehydrogenation of ethylene, acetic acid and VAH to some degree with only one exception that OHs somehow increase the activation energy of VAH. Based on Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism, the three dehydrogenation reactions in presence of surface Os and OHs are almost consistently favored, compared with the corresponding processes on clean Pd(1 0 0) surfaces, and thus a Langmuir-Hinshelwood-type mechanism may not be excluded beforehand when investigating the microscopic performance of the oxygen-assisted vinyl acetate synthesis on Pd(1 0 0) catalysts.

  11. Antibacterial, antidiarrhoeal, and cytotoxic activities of methanol extract and its fractions of Caesalpinia bonducella (L.) Roxb leaves

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Caesalpinia bonducella is an important medicinal plant for its traditional uses against different types of diseases. Therefore, the present study investigated the antimicrobial, antidiarrhoeal, and cytotoxic activities of the methanol extract and ethyl acetate, chloroform, and petroleum ether (pet. ether) fractions of C. bonducella leaves. Methods The antibacterial potentialities of methanol extract and its fractions of C. bonducella leaves were investigated by the disc diffusion method against four gram-positive and five gram-negative bacteria at 300, 500 and 800 μg/disc. Kanamycin (30 μg/disc) was used as the standard drug. Antidiarrhoeal activities of leaf extracts were evaluated at two doses (200 and 400 mg/kg) and compared with loperamide in a castor oil-induced diarrhoeal model in rat. The fractions were subjected to a brine shrimp lethality test to evaluate their cytotoxicity. Results The methanol extract and other three fractions exhibited better activities at higher concentrations. Amongst, the chloroform fraction showed maximum activity at all three concentrations (300, 500, and 800 μg/disc) against almost all bacteria. S. aureus and P. aeruginosa showed better sensitivities to all extracts at all three concentrations excluding the pet. ether fraction. Bacillus megaterium and Klebsiella spp. were two bacteria amongst nine that showed lowest sensitivity to the extracts. Maximum zone of inhibition (25-mm) was obtained by the methanol extract at an 800 μg/disc concentration against S. aureus. In the antidiarrhoeal test, all fractions exhibited dose-dependent actions, which were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Ethyl acetate fraction exerted maximum inhibition (51.11%) against defecation, whereas 57.75% inhibition was obtained for loperamide. Moderate cytotoxicity was found for the methanol extract and its three fractions compared with the standard drug vincristine sulfate in the brine shrimp bioassay. In the present study, the LC

  12. Rapid electrophoresis and quantitation of haemoglobins on cellulose acetate

    PubMed Central

    Marengo-Rowe, A. J.

    1965-01-01

    A rapid and reproducible electrophoretic method for the separation and quantitation of haemoglobins on cellulose acetate is described. The accuracy of the method and its possible sources of error are discussed. The normal range for haemoglobin A2 by this method is 1% to 3% of the total haemoglobin concentration. Blood samples from 32 thalassaemic patients showed haemoglobin A2 values of 3·5% to 7%. Images PMID:5844210

  13. Effect of Tocopheryl Acetate on Maternal Cigarette Smoke Exposed Swiss Albino Mice Inbred Fetus

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Janardan; Shamal, SN; Supriya, K; Srivastava, Mona; More, RS

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Cigarette smoking is worldwide problem which can be correlated with teratogenicity. Tocopheryl acetate plays as an antioxidant against the oxidative stress evolved by cigarette smoke exposure during pregnancy. Aim To study the effect of maternal exposure to cigarette smoke and Tocopheryl acetate on fetuses of mice. Materials and Methods Pregnant mice randomly assigned to different groups (Group I (control), Group II (Tocopheryl acetate), Group III(soyabean oil used as vehicle for Tocopheryl acetate), Group IV (Cigarette smoke Exposed), Group V (Cigarette smoke exposed plus Tocopheryl acetate) and Group VI(Cigarette smoke exposed plus soyabean oil) were exposed to cigarette smoke 3 times a day for 20 minutes each time and Tocopheryl acetate with dose of 200mg/kg/day in 0.3ml of soyabean oil as vehicle orally through oral gavage from the 5th day of gestation to 15th day. Results Cigarette smoke exposed mice showed significant fetal weight loss, resorption, placental anomalies, severe growth retardation, venous congestion, haemorrhage, limbs defects and enphalocele. Negligible abnormalities were seen among the control and Tocopheryl acetate group. Cigarette smoke exposed group with Tocopheryl acetate exhibited weight gain among the fetus as well as no gross abnormalities. The oxidative stress was significantly increased by increasing Malondialdehyde (MDA) 293±81.57 μmol/mg (p<0.0001) and decreasing Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) 1.43 ± 0.23mg/ml, (p<0.0001) Reduced Glutathione (GR) 0.017±0.002mg/ml, (p<0.01) and Catalase (CAT) 0.248±0.005mg/ml, (p<0.0001). Tocopheryl acetate induced group significantly maintained the oxidative stress with all p <0.0001. Conclusion It can be concluded that Tocopheryl acetate may have an ameliorating effect on the cigarette smoke during pregnancy on fetus. PMID:27891325

  14. Evaluation of some aromatic plant extracts for mosquito larvicidal potential against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, M; Senthilkumar, A; Venkatesalu, V

    2015-04-01

    In the present investigation, larvicidal potential of hexane, choloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone, and methanol extracts of seven aromatic plants, viz., Blumea mollis, Chloroxylon swietenia, Clausena anisata, Feronia limnonia, Lantana camera, Plectranthus amboinicus, and Tagetes erecta were screened against Culex quinquefasciatus, Aedes aegypti, and Anopheles stephensi. The larval mortality was observed after 12 and 24 h of exposure period. The results revealed that all the extracts showed varied levels of larvicidal activity against the mosquito species tested. However, the ethyl acetate extract of Chloroxylon swietenia showed the remarkable larvicidal activity against C. quinquefasciatus, Ae. aegypti, and An. stephensi. After 12 h of exposure period, the larvicidal activity was LC50 = 194.22 and LC90 = 458.83 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus), LC50 = 173.04 and LC90 = 442.73 ppm (Ae. aegypti), and LC50 = 167.28 and LC90 = 433.07 ppm (An. stephensi), and the larvicidal activity after 24-h exposure period was LC50 = 94.12 and LC90 = 249.83 ppm (C. quinquefasciatus), LC50 = 80.58 and LC90 = 200.96 ppm (Ae. aegypti), and LC50 = 76.24 and LC90 = 194.51 ppm (An. stephensi). The larvicidal potential of other plant extracts were in order of ethyl acetate extract of Clausena anisata > methanol extract of P. amboinicus > acetone extract of F. limonia > methanol extract of T. erecta > methanol extract of B. mollis > and methanol extract of L. camera. The results of the present study offer a possible way for further investigations to find out the active molecule responsible for the activity.

  15. Feasibility study on chemometric discrimination of roasted Arabica coffees by solvent extraction and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Niya; Fu, Yucheng; Lim, Loong-Tak

    2011-04-13

    In this feasibility study, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and chemometric analysis were adopted to discriminate coffees from different geographical origins and of different roasting degrees. Roasted coffee grounds were extracted using two methods: (1) solvent alone (dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, hexane, acetone, ethanol, or acetic acid) and (2) coextraction using a mixture of equal volume of the solvent and water. Experiment results showed that the coextraction method resulted in cleaner extract and provided a greater amount of spectral information, which was important for sample discrimination. Principal component analysis of infrared spectra of ethyl acetate extracts for dark and medium roast coffees showed separated clusters according to their geographical origins and roast degrees. Classification models based on soft independent modeling of class analogy analysis were used to classify different coffee samples. Coffees from four different countries, which were roasted to dark, were 100% correctly classified when ethyl acetate was used as a solvent. The FTIR-chemometric technique developed here may serve as a rapid tool for discriminating geographical origin of roasted coffees. Future studies involving green coffee beans and the use of larger sample size are needed to further validate the robustness of this technique.

  16. Efficient preparation of incensole and incensole acetate, and quantification of these bioactive diterpenes in Boswellia papyrifera by a RP-DAD-HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Paul, Michael; Jauch, Johann

    2012-03-01

    Incensole and incensole acetate, found in incense, are encouraging potent bioactive diterpenic cembrenoids, inhibiting Nuclear Factor-kappaB activation. Furthermore, incensole acetate elicits psycho-activity in mice by activating the TRPV3 channels in the brain. Starting from crude extracts of the incense species Boswellia papyrifera Hochst., a convenient procedure for the efficient large-scale synthesis of incensole and its acetate is presented. Additionally, a reversed-phase, diode-array-detection, high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-DAD-HPLC) method for the quantification of incensole and incensole acetate is reported, indicating that these two compounds are typical biomarkers for B. papyrifera.

  17. Choline acetate enhanced the catalytic performance of Candida rogusa lipase in AOT reverse micelles.

    PubMed

    Xue, Luyan; Zhao, Yin; Yu, Lijie; Sun, Yanwen; Yan, Keqian; Li, Ying; Huang, Xirong; Qu, Yinbo

    2013-05-01

    Choline acetate is an ionic liquid composed of a kosmotropic anion and a chaotropic cation. According to Hofmeister series, a kosmotropic anion and/or a chaotropic cation could stabilize an enzyme, thereby facilitating the retention of the catalytic activity of the enzyme. In this work, we first report the influence of choline acetate on the activity and stability of lipase in AOT/water/isooctane reverse micelles. The indicator reaction is the lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of 4-nitrophenyl butyrate. The results show that a low level of choline acetate does not affect the microstructure of the AOT reverse micelles, but the ionic liquid can improve the catalytic efficiency of lipase. Fluorescence spectra show that a high level of choline acetate has an impact on the conformation of lipase, so the activation is mainly due to the influence of choline acetate on the nucleophilicity of water. Infrared spectra demonstrate that choline acetate can form stronger hydrogen bonds with water surrounding lipase, and therefore enhance the nucleophilicity of the water, which makes it easier to attack the acyl enzyme intermediate, thereby increasing the activity of the lipase-catalyzed hydrolysis of the ester. A study on the stability of lipase in AOT reverse micelles indicates that the ionic liquid is able to maintain the activity of lipase to a certain extent. The effect of choline acetate is consistent with that predicted based on Hofmeister series.

  18. Antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of clove essential oil and eugenyl acetate produced by enzymatic esterification.

    PubMed

    Vanin, Adriana B; Orlando, Tainara; Piazza, Suelen P; Puton, Bruna M S; Cansian, Rogério L; Oliveira, Debora; Paroul, Natalia

    2014-10-01

    This work reports the maximization of eugenyl acetate production by esterification of essential oil of clove in a solvent-free system using Novozym 435 as catalyst. The antimicrobial and antioxidant activities of clove essential oil and eugenyl acetate produced were determined. The conditions that maximized eugenyl acetate production were 60 °C, essential oil of clove to acetic anhydride ratio of 1:5, 150 rpm, and 10 wt% of enzyme, with a conversion of 99.87 %. A kinetic study was performed to assess the influence of substrates' molar ratio, enzyme concentration, and temperature on product yield. Results show that an excess of anhydride, enzyme concentration of 5.5 wt%, 50 °C, and essential oil of clove to acetic anhydride ratio of 1:5 afforded nearly a complete conversion after 2 h of reaction. Comparing the antibacterial activity of the essential oil of clove before and after esterification, we observed a decrease in the antimicrobial activity of eugenyl acetate, particularly with regard to minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). Both eugenyl acetate and clove essential oil were most effective to the gram-negative than gram-positive bacteria group. The results showed a high antioxidant potential for essential oil before and particularly after the esterification reaction thus becoming an option for the formulation of new antioxidant products.

  19. Chemical composition, antioxidant and antigenotoxic activities of different fractions of Gentiana asclepiadea L. roots extract

    PubMed Central

    Mihailovic, Vladimir; Matic, Sanja; Mišic, Danijela; Solujic, Slavica; Stanic, Snežana; Katanic, Jelena; Mladenovic, Milan; Stankovic, Nevena

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant and antigenotoxic activities of chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol fractions obtained from Gentiana asclepiadea L. roots methanolic extract. The main secondary metabolites sweroside, swertiamarin and gentiopicrine were quantified in G. asclepiadea root extracts using HPLC-DAD analysis. Amount of total phenols, flavonoids, flavonols and gallotannins was also determined. The antigenotoxic potential of extracts from roots of G. asclepiadea was assessed using the standard in vivo procedure for the detection of sex linked recessive lethal mutations in Drosophila melanogaster males treated with ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). The results showed that the most abundant secoiridoid in G. asclepiadea roots was gentiopicrine and its content in the n-butanol fraction (442.89 mg/g) was the highest. Among all extracts, ethyl acetate fraction showed the highest antioxidant activity, as well as total phenolics (146.64 GAE/g), flavonoids (44.62 RUE/g), flavonols (22.71 RUE/g) and gallotannins (0.99 mg GAE/g) content. All the fractions showed antioxidant activity using in vitro model systems and the results have been correlated with total phenolics, flavonoids, flavonols and gallotannins content. In addition to antioxidant activity, G. asclepiadea root extract fractions possess an antigenotoxic effect against DNA damage induced by alkylation with EMS. The antioxidant activity exhibited by G. asclepiadea depended on the phenolic compounds content of the tested extracts, while there was no significant difference in the antigenotoxic potential between fractions. PMID:26622219

  20. Antioxidant and α-glucosidase inhibitory activities of cucurbit fruit vegetables and identification of active and major constituents from phenolic-rich extracts of Lagenaria siceraria and Sechium edule.

    PubMed

    Sulaiman, Shaida Fariza; Ooi, Kheng Leong; Supriatno

    2013-10-23

    Antioxidant and α-glucosidase activities and total phenolic contents (TPC) in sequential extracts of dried pulps from seven cucurbit fruit vegetables were determined for the first time. The highest TPC and metal chelating activity were obtained from the chloroform extracts of Luffa acutangula (28.04 ± 0.37 mg GAE/g extract) and Benincasa hispida (EC50 = 0.44 ± 0.03 mg/mL), respectively. The ethyl acetate extract of Sechium edule showed the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical scavenging activity (951.73 ± 29.14 mM TE/g extract). The highest reducing and anti-α-glucosidase activities were shown by the methanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Momordica charantia (692.56 ± 43.38 mM AscAE/g extract; 66.64 ± 2.94%, respectively). The highest correlation (r = 0.99) was observed between the TPC and DPPH values of S. edule. Although caffeic acid was quantified as the major constituent in the methanol extract of Lagenaria siceraria , isoquercetin was found to be the main contributor to the activities. Gallic acid was identified as both the main and most active antioxidant constituent in the ethyl acetate extract of S. edule.

  1. Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

  2. Doped with Sodium Acetate and Metallic Sodium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tada, Satoki; Isoda, Yukihiro; Udono, Haruhiko; Fujiu, Hirofumi; Kumagai, Shunji; Shinohara, Yoshikazu

    2014-06-01

    We have investigated the thermoelectric properties of p-type Na-doped Mg2 Si0.25Sn0.75 solid solutions prepared by liquid-solid reaction and hot-pressing methods. Na was introduced into Mg2Si0.25Sn0.75 by using either sodium acetate (CH3COONa) or metallic sodium (2 N). The samples doped with sodium acetate consisted of phases with antifluorite structure and a small amount of MgO as revealed by x-ray diffraction, whereas the sample doped with metallic sodium contained the Sn, MgO, and Mg2SiSn phases. The hole concentrations of Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 doped by sodium acetate and metallic sodium were 1.84 × 1025 m-3 and 1.22 × 1025 m-3, respectively, resulting in resistivities of 4.96 × 10-5 Ω m (sodium acetate) and 1.09 × 10-5 Ω m (metallic sodium). The Seebeck coefficients were 198 μV K-1 (sodium acetate) and 241 μV K-1 (metallic sodium). The figures of merit for Mg1.975Na0.025Si0.25Sn0.75 were 0.40 × 10-3 K-1 (sodium acetate) and 0.25 × 10-3 K-1 (metallic sodium) at 400 K. Thus, sodium acetate is a suitable Na dopant for Mg2Si1- x Sn x .

  3. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  4. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  5. What Do Maps Show?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geological Survey (Dept. of Interior), Reston, VA.

    This curriculum packet, appropriate for grades 4-8, features a teaching poster which shows different types of maps (different views of Salt Lake City, Utah), as well as three reproducible maps and reproducible activity sheets which complement the maps. The poster provides teacher background, including step-by-step lesson plans for four geography…

  6. Show Me the Way

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dicks, Matthew J.

    2005-01-01

    Because today's students have grown up steeped in video games and the Internet, most of them expect feedback, and usually gratification, very soon after they expend effort on a task. Teachers can get quick feedback to students by showing them videotapes of their learning performances. The author, a 3rd grade teacher describes how the seemingly…

  7. Chemistry Game Shows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Susan; Muzyka, Jennifer

    2002-04-01

    We present a technological improvement to the use of game shows to help students review for tests. Our approach uses HTML files interpreted with a browser on a computer attached to an LCD projector. The HTML files can be easily modified for use of the game in a variety of courses.

  8. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  9. Talk Show Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  10. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  11. Isolation of residual lignin from softwood kraft pulp. Advantages of the acetic acid acidolysis method.

    PubMed

    Lachenal, Dominique; Mortha, Gérard; Sevillano, Rose-Marie; Zaroubine, Michail

    2004-01-01

    Lignin in kraft pulp was extracted by enzymatic hydrolysis of the carbohydrates, acidolysis with dioxane-water-HCl (conventional method), and acidolysis with acetic acid-water-ZnCl2. The latter method was shown to extract lignin with a better yield than for conventional acidolysis and with a much lower content in impurities than for enzymatic hydrolysis. It was confirmed by 13C NMR analysis of the lignin samples that conventional hydrolysis modified the lignin polymer, causing the cleavage of some aryl-ether linkages. The cleavage was also observed on a model compound submitted to the same extraction conditions. In that respect, the acetic acid-water-ZnCl2 method was less damaging and consequently more suitable for analytical purposes.

  12. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR PROTACTINIUM

    DOEpatents

    Hyde, E.K.; Katzin, L.I.; Wolf, M.J.

    1961-04-01

    A process is described for separating protactinium from thorium present together as the nitrates in a 0.1 to 10 N nitric acid solution. The separation is carried out by extraction with an aliphatic alcohol, ketone, and/or ester having at least six carbon atoms, such as n-amyl acetate, 2-ethyl hexanol, and diisopropyl ketone.

  13. 21 CFR 177.1350 - Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. 177.1350... Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1350 Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers. Ethylene-vinyl acetate... with the following prescribed conditions: (a)(1) Ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymers consist of...

  14. Acetic acid pretreatment improves the hardness of cooked potato slices.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wenlin; Shehzad, Hussain; Yan, Shoulei; Li, Jie; Wang, Qingzhang

    2017-08-01

    The effects of acetic acid pretreatment on the texture of cooked potato slices were investigated in this work. Potato slices were pretreated with acetic acid immersion (AAI), distilled water immersion (DWI), or no immersion (NI). Subsequently, the cell wall material of the pretreated samples was isolated and fractioned to evaluate changes in the monosaccharide content and molar mass (MM), and the hardness and microscopic structure of the potato slices in different pretreatments before and after cooking were determined. The results showed that the highest firmness was obtained with more intact structure of the cell wall for cooked potato slices with AAI pretreatment. Furthermore, the MM and sugar ratio demonstrated that the AAI pretreated potato slices contained a higher content of the small molecular polysaccharides of cell walls, especially in the hemicellulose fraction. This work may provide a reference for potato processing.

  15. Bacteria contributing to behaviour of radiocarbon in sodium acetate.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Nobuyoshi; Uchida, Shigeo

    2011-07-01

    An acetate-utilising bacterium was isolated and identified from deionised water that was used for flooding of paddy soils in this study's batch culture experiments. Bacteria in the deionised water samples formed colonies on agar plates containing [1,2-(14)C] sodium acetate, and the autoradiograms showed that all the colonies were positive for (14)C utilisation. Then one of the acetate-utilising bacteria was isolated. The isolate was characterised by phylogenetic analysis, cell morphology, Gram staining and growth at 30 °C. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA sequencing showed that the isolate belonged to the genus Burkholderia. The bacterium was gram-negative rods and grew at 30 °C under aerobic conditions. Based on these characteristics, the isolate was identified as Burkholderia gladioli. Because B. gladioli is often found in soil, water and the rhizosphere, attention must be paid to the relationships between bacteria and the behaviour of (14)C to for the safety assessment of geological disposal of transuranic waste.

  16. Tested Demonstrations: Buffer Capacity of Various Acetic Acid-Sodium Acetate Systems: A Lecture Experiment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donahue, Craig J.; Panek, Mary G.

    1985-01-01

    Background information and procedures are provided for a lecture experiment which uses indicators to illustrate the concept of differing buffer capacities by titrating acetic acid/sodium acetate buffers with 1.0 molar hydrochloric acid and 1.0 molar sodium hydroxide. A table with data used to plot the titration curve is included. (JN)

  17. Acetylation of Starch with Vinyl Acetate in Imidazolium Ionic Liquids and Characterization of Acetate Distribution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starch was acetylated with vinyl acetate in different 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium (BMIM) salts as solvent in effort to produce starches with different acetylation patterns. Overall degree of substitution was much higher for basic anions such as acetate and dicyanimide (dca) than for neutral anions ...

  18. Ice-structuring mechanism for zirconium acetate.

    PubMed

    Deville, Sylvain; Viazzi, Céline; Guizard, Christian

    2012-10-23

    The control of ice nucleation and growth is critical in many natural and engineering situations. However, very few compounds are able to interact directly with the surface of ice crystals. Ice-structuring proteins, found in certain fish, plants, and insects, bind to the surface of ice, thereby controlling their growth. We recently revealed the ice-structuring properties of zirconium acetate, which are similar to those of ice-structuring proteins. Because zirconium acetate is a salt and therefore different from proteins having ice-structuring properties, its ice-structuring mechanism remains unelucidated. Here we investigate this ice-structuring mechanism through the role of the concentration of zirconium acetate and the ice crystal growth velocity. We then explore other compounds presenting similar functional groups (acetate, hydroxyl, or carboxylic groups). On the basis of these results, we propose that zirconium acetate adopts a hydroxy-bridged polymer structure that can bind to the surface of the ice crystals through hydrogen bonding, thereby slowing down the ice crystal growth.

  19. Acetate Dissimilation and Assimilation in Mycobacterium tuberculosis Depend on Carbon Availability

    PubMed Central

    Rücker, Nadine; Billig, Sandra; Bücker, René; Jahn, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Mycobacterium tuberculosis persists inside granulomas in the human lung. Analysis of the metabolic composition of granulomas from guinea pigs revealed that one of the organic acids accumulating in the course of infection is acetate (B. S. Somashekar, A. G. Amin, C. D. Rithner, J. Troudt, R. Basaraba, A. Izzo, D. C. Crick, and D. Chatterjee, J Proteome Res 10:4186–4195, 2011, doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/pr2003352), which might result either from metabolism of the pathogen or might be provided by the host itself. Our studies characterize a metabolic pathway by which M. tuberculosis generates acetate in the cause of fatty acid catabolism. The acetate formation depends on the enzymatic activities of Pta and AckA. Using actyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) as a substrate, acetyl-phosphate is generated and finally dephosphorylated to acetate, which is secreted into the medium. Knockout mutants lacking either the pta or ackA gene showed significantly reduced acetate production when grown on fatty acids. This effect is even more pronounced when the glyoxylate shunt is blocked, resulting in higher acetate levels released to the medium. The secretion of acetate was followed by an assimilation of the metabolite when other carbon substrates became limiting. Our data indicate that during acetate assimilation, the Pta-AckA pathway acts in concert with another enzymatic reaction, namely, the acetyl-CoA synthetase (Acs) reaction. Thus, acetate metabolism might possess a dual function, mediating an overflow reaction to release excess carbon units and resumption of acetate as a carbon substrate. IMPORTANCE During infection, host-derived lipid components present the major carbon source at the infection site. β-Oxidation of fatty acids results in the formation of acetyl-CoA. In this study, we demonstrate that consumption of fatty acids by Mycobacterium tuberculosis activates an overflow mechanism, causing the pathogen to release excess carbon intermediates as acetate. The Pta

  20. Modification of wheat starch with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures I. Thermophysical and pasting properties.

    PubMed

    Subarić, Drago; Ačkar, Durđica; Babić, Jurislav; Sakač, Nikola; Jozinović, Antun

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the influence of modification with succinic acid/acetic anhydride and azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixtures on thermophysical and pasting properties of wheat starch. Starch was isolated from two wheat varieties and modified with mixtures of succinic acid and acetic anhydride, and azelaic acid and acetic anhydride in 4, 6 and 8 % (w/w). Thermophysical, pasting properties, swelling power, solubility and amylose content of modified starches were determined. The results showed that modifications with mixtures of afore mentioned dicarboxylic acids with acetic anhydride decreased gelatinisation and pasting temperatures. Gelatinisation enthalpy of Golubica starch increased, while of Srpanjka starch decreased by modifications. Retrogradation after 7 and 14 day-storage at 4 °C decreased after modifications of both starches. Maximum, hot and cold paste viscosity of both starches increased, while stability during shearing at high temperatures decreased. % setback of starches modified with azelaic acid/acetic anhydride mixture decreased. Swelling power and solubility of both starches increased by both modifications.

  1. Acetate biostimulation as an effective treatment for cleaning up alkaline soil highly contaminated with Cr(VI).

    PubMed

    Lara, Paloma; Morett, Enrique; Juárez, Katy

    2016-08-15

    Stimulation of microbial reduction of Cr(VI) to the less toxic and less soluble Cr(III) through electron donor addition has been regarded as a promising approach for the remediation of chromium-contaminated soil and groundwater sites. However, each site presents different challenges; local physicochemical characteristics and indigenous microbial communities influence the effectiveness of the biostimulation processes. Here, we show microcosm assays stimulation of microbial reduction of Cr(VI) in highly alkaline and saline soil samples from a long-term contaminated site in Guanajuato, Mexico. Acetate was effective promoting anaerobic microbial reduction of 15 mM of Cr(VI) in 25 days accompanied by an increase in pH from 9 to 10. Our analyses showed the presence of Halomonas, Herbaspirillum, Nesterenkonia/Arthrobacter, and Bacillus species in the soil sample collected. Moreover, from biostimulated soil samples, it was possible to isolate Halomonas spp. strains able to grow at 32 mM of Cr(VI). Additionally, we found that polluted groundwater has bacterial species different to those found in soil samples with the ability to resist and reduce chromate using acetate and yeast extract as electron donors.

  2. Endophytic fungi associated with Sudanese medicinal plants show cytotoxic and antibiotic potential.

    PubMed

    Khiralla, Afra; Mohamed, Ietidal E; Tzanova, Tzvetomira; Schohn, Hervé; Slezack-Deschaumes, Sophie; Hehn, Alain; André, Philippe; Carre, Gaëlle; Spina, Rosella; Lobstein, Annelise; Yagi, Sakina; Laurain-Mattar, Dominique

    2016-06-01

    In this study, we isolated 15 endophytic fungi from five Sudanese medicinal plants. Each fungal endophytic strain was identified by sequencing of internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions of rDNA. Ethyl acetate extracts were prepared from each endophyte cultivated in vitro and tested for their respective antibacterial activities and antiproliferative activities against human cancer cells. Antibacterial screening was carried out against two bacterial strains: Gram-negative Escherichia coli and Gram-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, by the broth dilution method. Cell viability was evaluated by the MTT procedure after exposure of MCF7 breast cancer cells and HT29 or HCT116 human colon adenocarcinoma cells to each endophytic extract. Of interest, Byssochlamys spectabilis isolated from Euphorbia prostata showed cytotoxicity (IC50 = 1.51 ± 0.2 μg mL(-1)) against MCF7 cells, but had a low effect against HT29 or HCT116 cells (IC50 > 20 μg mL(-1)). Cladosporium cladosporioides 2, isolated from Vernonia amygdalina leaves, showed antiproliferative activities against MCF7 cells (IC50 = 10.5 ± 1.5 μg mL(-1)) only. On the other hand, B. spectabilis and Alternaria sp. extract had antibacterial activities against the S. aureus strain. The findings of this work revealed that endophytic fungi associated with medicinal plants from Sudan could be considered as an attractive source of new therapeutic compounds.

  3. Antinociceptive effect of aqueous extracts from the bark of Croton guatemalensis Lotsy in mice.

    PubMed

    Del Carmen, Rejón-Orantes José; Willam, Hernández Macías John; Del Carmen, Grajales Morales Azucena; Nataly, Jiménez-García; Stefany, Coutiño Ochoa Samantha; Anahi, Cañas Avalos; Domingo, Parcero Torres Jorge; Leonardo, Gordillo Páez; Miguel, Pérez de la Mora

    2016-01-01

    Croton guatemalensis Lotsy (CGL), known as "copalchi" in Chiapas, Mexico, is used for the treatment of fever, abdominal pain and malaria and also as a remedy for chills and for treating rheumatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether aqueous extracts from the bark of this plant possesses indeed antinociceptive properties by using two different animal models of nociception, the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the hot plate model. The results showed that i.p. administration of this extract (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) 30 min prior testing had significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid-induced writhing test and that the reduction of writhings (85.5 % as compared to the control) at the highest dose tested is similar to that exhibited by dipyrone (250 mg/kg). This effect was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, suggesting that the endogenous opioid system does not underlie the antinociceptive effects of CGL in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. No effects were however observed in the hot-plate model. Our results indicate that aqueous extracts from Croton guatemalensis bark contain pharmacologically active constituents endowed with antinociceptive activity. It is suggested that cyclooxygenase inhibition might be at least partially involved in the antinociceptive effects of this extract.

  4. Antinociceptive effect of aqueous extracts from the bark of Croton guatemalensis Lotsy in mice

    PubMed Central

    del Carmen, Rejón-Orantes José; Willam, Hernández Macías John; del Carmen, Grajales Morales Azucena; Nataly, Jiménez-García; Stefany, Coutiño Ochoa Samantha; Anahi, Cañas Avalos; Domingo, Parcero Torres Jorge; Leonardo, Gordillo Páez; Miguel, Pérez de la Mora

    2016-01-01

    Croton guatemalensis Lotsy (CGL), known as “copalchi” in Chiapas, Mexico, is used for the treatment of fever, abdominal pain and malaria and also as a remedy for chills and for treating rheumatism. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether aqueous extracts from the bark of this plant possesses indeed antinociceptive properties by using two different animal models of nociception, the acetic acid-induced writhing test and the hot plate model. The results showed that i.p. administration of this extract (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) 30 min prior testing had significant dose-dependent antinociceptive effects in the acetic acid-induced writhing test and that the reduction of writhings (85.5 % as compared to the control) at the highest dose tested is similar to that exhibited by dipyrone (250 mg/kg). This effect was not reversed by naloxone, a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist, suggesting that the endogenous opioid system does not underlie the antinociceptive effects of CGL in the acetic acid-induced writhing test. No effects were however observed in the hot-plate model. Our results indicate that aqueous extracts from Croton guatemalensis bark contain pharmacologically active constituents endowed with antinociceptive activity. It is suggested that cyclooxygenase inhibition might be at least partially involved in the antinociceptive effects of this extract. PMID:27051428

  5. Combustion process and nitrogen oxides emission of Shenmu coal added with sodium acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Yang Weijuan; Zhou Junhu; Liu Maosheng; Zhou Zhijun; Liu Jianzhong; Cen Kefa

    2007-09-15

    Shenmu bituminous coal with 4% sodium acetate added was used to investigate the characteristics of combustion and nitrogen oxide (NOx) release in a fixed bed reactor heated by a tube furnace. The composition of the flue gas was analyzed to investigate the effects of sodium acetate on the combustion process and NOx emission. The experiments were carried out in a partial reductive atmosphere and a strong oxidative atmosphere. The O{sub 2} valley value in the partial reductive atmosphere was reduced by the added sodium acetate. Sodium acetate accelerated the combustion and shortened the combustion process. The experimental results showed that the emissions of NO, NO{sub 2}, and N{sub 2}O were affected by the reacting atmosphere and the combustion temperature. In the strong oxidative atmosphere, sodium acetate resulted in a slight NOx reduction. In the partial reductive atmosphere, sodium acetate reduced both the peak value of NO concentration and the total NO emission significantly. An over 30% NOx reduction efficiency was achieved at 900{sup o}C in the partial reductive atmosphere, which decreased with the increase in temperature. Sodium acetate was decomposed into hydrocarbon radicals and sodium hydroxide, which can both reduce NOx emissions due to their special reactions with the nitrogen component. 17 refs., 11 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Beneficial Effect of Acetic Acid on the Xylose Utilization and Bacterial Cellulose Production by Gluconacetobacter xylinus.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Yan; Huang, Chao; Guo, Hai-Jun; Xiong, Lian; Luo, Jun; Wang, Bo; Chen, Xue-Fang; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Xin-De

    2014-09-01

    In this work, acetic acid was found as one promising substrate to improve xylose utilization by Gluconacetobacter xylinus CH001. Also, with the help of adding acetic acid into medium, the bacterial cellulose (BC) production by G. xylinus was increased significantly. In the medium containing 3 g l(-1) acetic acid, the optimal xylose concentration for BC production was 20 g l(-1). In the medium containing 20 g l(-1) xylose, the xylose utilization and BC production by G. xylinus were stimulated by acetic acid within certain concentration. The highest BC yield (1.35 ± 0.06 g l(-1)) was obtained in the medium containing 20 g l(-1) xylose and 3 g l(-1) acetic acid after 14 days. This value was 6.17-fold higher than the yield (0.21 ± 0.01 g l(-1)) in the medium only containing 20 g l(-1) xylose. The results analyzed by FE-SEM, FTIR, and XRD showed that acetic acid affected little on the microscopic morphology and physicochemical characteristics of BC. Base on the phenomenon observed, lignocellulosic acid hydrolysates (xylose and acetic acid are main carbon sources present in it) could be considered as one potential substrate for BC production.

  7. Lepidium meyenii (Maca) reversed the lead acetate induced -- damage on reproductive function in male rats.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Julio; Riqueros, Marissa I; Gasco, Manuel; Yucra, Sandra; Miranda, Sara; Gonzales, Gustavo F

    2006-07-01

    Rats were treated with 0, 8, 16 and 24 mg/kg of lead acetate (LA) (i.p.) for 35 days with or without Maca. Maca was co-administrated orally from day 18 to day 35. The lengths of stages of the seminiferous epithelium were assessed by transillumination. Also, sex organ weights, testicular and epididymal sperm count, sperm motility, daily sperm production, sperm transit rate and serum testosterone levels were measured. Lead acetate treatment resulted in a dose-response reduction of lengths of stages VIII and IX-XI, and serum testosterone levels. However, rats treated with 8 and 16 mg/kg but not 24 mg/kg of lead acetate showed a low number of testicular spermatids, low daily sperm production (DSP) and low epididymal sperm count. Administration of Maca to rats treated with lead acetate resulted in higher lengths of stages VIII and IX-XI with respect to lead acetate-treated rats. Moreover, treatment with Maca to lead acetate-treated rats resulted in lengths of stages VIII and IX-XI similar to the control group. Maca administration also reduced the deleterious effect on DSP caused by lead acetate treatment. Maca prevented LA-induced spermatogenic disruption in rats and it may become in a potential treatment of male infertility associated with lead exposure.

  8. Acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar: phenotypic traits relevant for starter cultures selection.

    PubMed

    Gullo, Maria; Giudici, Paolo

    2008-06-30

    This review focuses on acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar process. Although several studies are available on acetic acid bacteria ecology, metabolism and nutritional requirements, their activity as well as their technological traits in homemade vinegars as traditional balsamic vinegar is not well known. The basic technology to oxidise cooked grape must to produce traditional balsamic vinegar is performed by the so called "seed-vinegar" that is a microbiologically undefined starter culture obtained from spontaneous acetification of previous raw material. Selected starter cultures are the main technological improvement in order to innovate traditional balsamic vinegar production but until now they are rarely applied. To develop acetic acid bacteria starter cultures, selection criteria have to take in account composition of raw material, acetic acid bacteria metabolic activities, applied technology and desired characteristics of the final product. For traditional balsamic vinegar, significative phenotypical traits of acetic acid bacteria have been highlighted. Basic traits are: ethanol preferred and efficient oxidation, fast rate of acetic acid production, tolerance to high concentration of acetic acid, no overoxidation and low pH resistance. Specific traits are tolerance to high sugar concentration and to a wide temperature range. Gluconacetobacter europaeus and Acetobacter malorum strains can be evaluated to develop selected starter cultures since they show one or more suitable characters.

  9. Development of nanofibrous cellulose acetate/gelatin skin substitutes for variety wound treatment applications.

    PubMed

    Vatankhah, Elham; Prabhakaran, Molamma P; Jin, Guorui; Mobarakeh, Laleh Ghasemi; Ramakrishna, Seeram

    2014-02-01

    The major component of fibrous extracellular matrix of dermis is composed of a complex combination of proteins and polysaccharides. Electrospun cellulose acetate/gelatin might be an effective simulator of the structure and composition of native skin and during this study, we electrospun cellulose acetate/gelatin membranes in various compositions and their performance as a scaffold for either skin tissue engineering or as a wound dressing was evaluated. Skin treatment products, whether tissue-engineered scaffolds or wound dressings, should be sufficiently hydrophilic to allow for gas and fluid exchange and absorb excess exudates while controlling the fluid loss. However, a wound dressing should be easily removable without causing tissue damage and a tissue-engineered scaffold should be able to adhere to the wound, and support cell proliferation during skin regeneration. We showed that these distinct adherency features are feasible just by changing the composition of cellulose acetate and gelatin in composite cellulose acetate/gelatin scaffolds. High proliferation of human dermal fibroblasts on electrospun cellulose acetate/gelatin 25:75 confirmed the capability of cellulose acetate/gelatin 25:75 nanofibers as a tissue-engineered scaffold, while the electrospun cellulose acetate/gelatin 75:25 can be a potential low-adherent wound dressing.

  10. Acetic acid in aged vinegar affects molecular targets for thrombus disease management.

    PubMed

    Jing, Li; Yanyan, Zhang; Junfeng, Fan

    2015-08-01

    To elucidate the mechanism underlying the action of dietary vinegar on antithrombotic activity, acetic acid, the main acidic component of dietary vinegar, was used to determine antiplatelet and fibrinolytic activity. The results revealed that acetic acid significantly inhibits adenosine diphosphate (ADP)-, collagen-, thrombin-, and arachidonic acid (AA)-induced platelet aggregation. Acetic acid (2.00 mM) reduced AA-induced platelet aggregation to approximately 36.82 ± 1.31%, and vinegar (0.12 mL L(-1)) reduced the platelet aggregation induced by AA to 30.25 ± 1.34%. Further studies revealed that acetic acid exerts its effects by inhibiting cyclooxygenase-1 and the formation of thromboxane-A2. Organic acids including acetic acid, formic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, and malic acid also showed fibrinolytic activity; specifically, the fibrinolytic activity of acetic acid amounted to 1.866 IU urokinase per mL. Acetic acid exerted its fibrinolytic activity by activating plasminogen during fibrin crossing, thus leading to crosslinked fibrin degradation by the activated plasmin. These results suggest that organic acids in dietary vinegar play important roles in the prevention and cure of cardiovascular diseases.

  11. Propionate stimulates pyruvate oxidation in the presence of acetate

    PubMed Central

    Purmal, Colin; Kucejova, Blanka; Sherry, A. Dean; Burgess, Shawn C.; Malloy, Craig. R.

    2014-01-01

    Flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in the heart may be reduced by various forms of injury to the myocardium, or by oxidation of alternative substrates in normal heart tissue. It is important to distinguish these two mechanisms because imaging of flux through PDH based on the appearance of hyperpolarized (HP) [13C]bicarbonate derived from HP [1-13C]pyruvate has been proposed as a method for identifying viable myocardium. The efficacy of propionate for increasing PDH flux in the setting of PDH inhibition by an alternative substrate was studied using isotopomer analysis paired with exams using HP [1-13C]pyruvate. Hearts from C57/bl6 mice were supplied with acetate (2 mM) and glucose (8.25 mM). 13C NMR spectra were acquired in a cryogenically cooled probe at 14.1 Tesla. After addition of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate, 13C NMR signals from lactate, alanine, malate, and aspartate were easily detected, in addition to small signals from bicarbonate and CO2. The addition of propionate (2 mM) increased appearance of HP [13C]bicarbonate >30-fold without change in O2 consumption. Isotopomer analysis of extracts from the freeze-clamped hearts indicated that acetate was the preferred substrate for energy production, glucose contribution to energy production was minimal, and anaplerosis was stimulated in the presence of propionate. Under conditions where production of acetyl-CoA is dominated by the availability of an alternative substrate, acetate, propionate markedly stimulated PDH flux as detected by the appearance of hyperpolarized [13C]bicarbonate from metabolism of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate. PMID:25320331

  12. Propionate stimulates pyruvate oxidation in the presence of acetate.

    PubMed

    Purmal, Colin; Kucejova, Blanka; Sherry, A Dean; Burgess, Shawn C; Malloy, Craig R; Merritt, Matthew E

    2014-10-15

    Flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in the heart may be reduced by various forms of injury to the myocardium, or by oxidation of alternative substrates in normal heart tissue. It is important to distinguish these two mechanisms because imaging of flux through PDH based on the appearance of hyperpolarized (HP) [(13)C]bicarbonate derived from HP [1-(13)C]pyruvate has been proposed as a method for identifying viable myocardium. The efficacy of propionate for increasing PDH flux in the setting of PDH inhibition by an alternative substrate was studied using isotopomer analysis paired with exams using HP [1-(13)C]pyruvate. Hearts from C57/bl6 mice were supplied with acetate (2 mM) and glucose (8.25 mM). (13)C NMR spectra were acquired in a cryogenically cooled probe at 14.1 Tesla. After addition of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate, (13)C NMR signals from lactate, alanine, malate, and aspartate were easily detected, in addition to small signals from bicarbonate and CO2. The addition of propionate (2 mM) increased appearance of HP [(13)C]bicarbonate >30-fold without change in O2 consumption. Isotopomer analysis of extracts from the freeze-clamped hearts indicated that acetate was the preferred substrate for energy production, glucose contribution to energy production was minimal, and anaplerosis was stimulated in the presence of propionate. Under conditions where production of acetyl-CoA is dominated by the availability of an alternative substrate, acetate, propionate markedly stimulated PDH flux as detected by the appearance of hyperpolarized [(13)C]bicarbonate from metabolism of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate.

  13. Reactivity and reaction intermediates for acetic acid adsorbed on CeO2(111)

    SciTech Connect

    Calaza, Florencia C.; Chen, Tsung -Liang; Mullins, David R.; Xu, Ye; Steven H. Overbury

    2015-05-02

    Adsorption and reaction of acetic acid on a CeO2(1 1 1) surface was studied by a combination of ultra-highvacuum based methods including temperature desorption spectroscopy (TPD), soft X-ray photoelectronspectroscopy (sXPS), near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and reflection absorption IRspectroscopy (RAIRS), together with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. TPD shows that thedesorption products are strongly dependent upon the initial oxidation state of the CeO2 surface, includingselectivity between acetone and acetaldehyde products. The combination of sXPS and NEXAFS demon-strate that acetate forms upon adsorption at low temperature and is stable to above 500 K, above whichpoint ketene, acetone and acetic acid desorb. Furthermore, DFT and RAIRS show that below 500 K, bridge bondedacetate coexists with a moiety formed by adsorption of an acetate at an oxygen vacancy, formed bywater desorption.

  14. Reactivity and reaction intermediates for acetic acid adsorbed on CeO2(111)

    DOE PAGES

    Calaza, Florencia C.; Chen, Tsung -Liang; Mullins, David R.; ...

    2015-05-02

    Adsorption and reaction of acetic acid on a CeO2(1 1 1) surface was studied by a combination of ultra-highvacuum based methods including temperature desorption spectroscopy (TPD), soft X-ray photoelectronspectroscopy (sXPS), near edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy (NEXAFS) and reflection absorption IRspectroscopy (RAIRS), together with density functional theory (DFT) calculations. TPD shows that thedesorption products are strongly dependent upon the initial oxidation state of the CeO2 surface, includingselectivity between acetone and acetaldehyde products. The combination of sXPS and NEXAFS demon-strate that acetate forms upon adsorption at low temperature and is stable to above 500 K, above whichpoint ketene, acetone and acetic acidmore » desorb. Furthermore, DFT and RAIRS show that below 500 K, bridge bondedacetate coexists with a moiety formed by adsorption of an acetate at an oxygen vacancy, formed bywater desorption.« less

  15. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show.

  16. Dynamic Protonation Equilibrium of Solvated Acetic Acid

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, Wei; Frigato, Tomaso; Straatsma, TP; Helms, Volkhard H.

    2007-04-13

    For the first time, the dynamic protonation equilibrium between an amino acid side chain analogue and bulk water as well as the diffusion properties of the excess proton were successfully reproduced through unbiased computer simulations. During a 50 ns Q-HOP MD simulation, two different regimes of proton transfer were observed. Extended phases of frequent proton swapping between acetic acid and nearby water were separated by phases where the proton freely diffuses in the simulation box until it is captured again by acetic acid. The pKa of acetic acid was calculated around 3.0 based on the relative population of protonated and deprotonated states and the diffusion coefficient of excess proton was computed from the average mean squared displacement in the simulation. Both calculated values agree well with the experimental measurements.

  17. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre.

  18. Pathways of acetate, propionate, and butyrate formation by the human fecal microbial flora.

    PubMed

    Miller, T L; Wolin, M J

    1996-05-01

    The pathways of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA; acetate, propionate, and butyrate) formation from glucose were determined for the human fecal microbial communities of two subjects. The pathways were identified by radioisotope analysis of the SCFA and CO2 obtained after incubation of fecal suspensions with glucose under 20% CO2 with [1-14C]glucose, [3,4-14C]glucose, or 14CO2. Acetate was chemically degraded to learn the labeling of the methyl and carboxyl carbons. The labeling of CO2 and acetate showed that the major route of glucose catabolism was the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway, with production of CO2 from pyruvate carboxyl carbon. Labeling of the methyl and carboxyl carbons of acetate by 14CO2 or [3,4-14C]glucose proved that acetate was formed from CO2 by the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. CO2 reduction accounted for about one-third of the acetate formed by suspensions from subject 1 and about one-fourth of the acetate formed by suspensions from subject 2. Propionate was formed by a CO2 fixation pathway, and butyrate was formed by classical routes of acetyl-S coenzyme A condensation. The amount of CO2 formed from [1-14C] glucose and acetate labeling patterns obtained with the other 14C precursors indicated that the Entner-Doudoroff, transketolase-transaldolase, and heterolactic pathways were not significant. Fermentation of cabbage cellulose by subject 1 followed the same pathways as were used for glucose. The results with suspensions from subject 2 suggested that some radioactive acetate was formed from the C-3 of glucose by the Bifidobacterium pathway.

  19. Computational insights into CdSe quantum dots' interactions with acetate ligands.

    PubMed

    Tamukong, Patrick K; Peiris, Wadumesthrige D N; Kilina, Svetlana

    2016-07-27

    Using density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT (TDDFT), we investigate the effects of carboxylate groups on the electronic and optical properties of CdSe quantum dots (QDs). We specifically focus on the mechanisms of the binding of the acetate anion to the QD surface with and without excess of Cd(2+) cations. Our calculations show that the most stable ligated conformations are those where an acetate is attached to extra Cd(2+) ion forming a [Cd(2+)(CH3COO(-))] at the QD's surface, while also accompanied by an acetate attached nearby at the surface balancing the overall neutral charge of the system. In contrast, formation of a neutral metal-acetate complex [Cd(2+)(CH3COO(-))2] at the QD surface is found to be the least energetically preferable. A strength of the QD-ligand interaction depends on the solvent, the facet of the QD to which the ligands are attached, and the binding mode - with the bridging mode found to be the most stable conformation for both acetate and cadmium acetate ligands. The cadmium acetate ligands introduce electron trap states at the edge of the conduction band - unoccupied orbitals predominately localized on Cd(2+) ion - that are extremely sensitive to the ligand position and the solvent polarity. Polar solvents like acetonitrile delocalize the electronic density over the entire system and, thus, eliminate trap states. As a result, mixed passivation of the CdSe QDs by pairs of cadmium acetate and acetate ligands provides optimal optical properties with minimal contributions of the ligand-related trap states and optically bright lowest energy transitions.

  20. Isolation and Characterization of Acetate-Utilizing Anaerobes from a Freshwater Sediment.

    PubMed

    Scholten, J.C.M.; Stams, A.J.M.

    2000-12-01

    Acetate-degrading anaerobic microorganisms in freshwater sediment were quantified by the most probable number technique. From the highest dilutions a methanogenic, a sulfate-reducing, and a nitrate-reducing microorganism were isolated with acetate as substrate. The methanogen (culture AMPB-Zg) was non-motile and rod-shaped with blunted ends (0.5-1 mm x 3-4 mm long). Doubling times with acetate at 30-35 degrees C were 5.6-8.1 days. The methanogen grew only on acetate. Analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence showed that AMPB-Zg is closely related to Methanosaeta concilii. The isolated sulfate-reducing bacterium (strain ASRB-Zg) was rod-shaped with pointed ends (0.5-0.7 mm x 1.5-3.5 mm long), weakly motile, spore forming, and gram positive. At the optimum growth temperature of 30 degrees C the doubling times with acetate were 3.9-5.3 days. The bacterium grew on a range of organic acids, such as acetate, butyrate, fumarate, and benzoate, but did not grow autotrophically with H2, CO2, and sulfate. The closest relative of strain ASRB-Zg is Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans. The nitrate-reducing bacterium (strain ANRB-Zg) was rod-shaped (0.5-0.7 mm x 0.7-1 mm long), weakly motile, and gram negative. Optimum growth with acetate occurred at 20-25 degrees C. The bacterium grew on a range of organic substrates, such as acetate, butyrate, lactate, and glucose, and did grow autotrophically with H2, CO2, and oxygen but not with nitrate. In the presence of acetate and nitrate, thiosulfate was oxidized to sulfate. Phylogenetically, the closest relative of strain ANRB-Zg is Variovorax paradoxus.

  1. Effects of agarwood extracts on the central nervous system in mice.

    PubMed

    Okugawa, H; Ueda, R; Matsumoto, K; Kawanishi, K; Kato, A

    1993-02-01

    Agarwood (Jinkoh in Japanese) is an Oriental medicine for use as a sedative. Neuropharmacological studies have been conducted with the extracts of petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, and water from agarwood (Aquilaria sp.; probably Aquilaria malaccensis Benth.) in mice. The benzene extract showed a reducing effect in spontaneous motility, a prolonging effect on hexobarbiturate-induced sleeping time, a hypothermic effect in terms of rectal temperature, and a suppressive effect on acetic acid-writhing by oral administration. Fr. 1 of the three fractions which were obtained from the benzene extract by column chromatography was found to produce more positive effects on these neuropharmacological tests than the original benzene extract. These facts suggest that the benzene extractable compounds of agarwood possess potent central nervous system depressant activities.

  2. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  3. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of extracts of fresh fruiting bodies of Pleurotus sajor-caju (Fr.) Singer.

    PubMed

    Kanagasabapathy, G; Malek, S N A; Kuppusamy, U R; Vikineswary, S

    2011-03-23

    The chemical composition and in vitro antioxidant activity of aqueous butanol and ethyl acetate extracts of Pleurotus sajor-caju were investigated in this study. Twenty-two compounds comprising methyl esters, hydrocarbon fatty acids, ethyl esters, and sterols were identified in ethyl acetate extracts, while cinnamic acid, nicotinamide, benzeneacetamide, and 4-hydroxybenzaldyhde were identified in butanol extracts by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and NMR analysis. The antioxidant activity was determined by a β-carotene bleaching method, ferric reducing antioxidant power, trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation assays, while the total phenolic content in P. sajor-caju was assessed by Folin-Ciocalteau's method. The aqueous and butanol extracts exhibited the highest antioxidant activity, corresponding to the total phenolic content. The subfractions from the ethyl acetate extract (EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4), however, showed moderate antioxidant activity. The regular consumption of P. sajor-caju as a part of our diet may render nutritional and nutraceuticals benefits for good health.

  4. Evaporation kinetics of acetic acid-water solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duffey, K.; Wong, N.; Saykally, R.; Cohen, R. C.

    2012-12-01

    The transport of water molecules across vapor-liquid interfaces in the atmosphere is a crucial step in the formation and evolution of cloud droplets. Despite decades of study, the effects of solutes on the mechanism and rate of evaporation and condensation remain poorly characterized. The present work aims to determine the effect of atmospherically-relevant solutes on the evaporation rate of water. In our experiments, we create a train of micron-sized droplets and measure their temperature via Raman thermometry as they undergo evaporation without condensation. Analysis of the cooling rate yields the evaporation coefficient (γ). Previous work has shown that inorganic salts have little effect on γ, with surface-adsorbing anions causing a slight reduction in the coefficient from that measured for pure water. Organic acids are ubiquitous in aqueous aerosol and have been shown to disrupt the surface structure of water. Here we describe measurements of the evaporation rate of acetic acid solutions, showing that acetic acid reduces γ to a larger extent than inorganic ions, and that γ decreases with increasing acetic acid concentration.

  5. Role of sulfur during acetate oxidation in biological anodes.

    PubMed

    Dutta, Paritam K; Keller, Jürg; Yuan, Zhiguo; Rozendal, René A; Rabaey, Korneel

    2009-05-15

    The treatment of wastewater containing sulfides in bioelec-trochemical systems (BES) causes deposition of sulfur on the anode as a result of a solely electrochemical process. In this study, we investigate whether microorganisms can use this sulfur, ratherthan the anode or soluble sulfate, as an electron acceptor for the oxidation of acetate. Our results indicate that microorganisms use electrodeposited sulfur as preferable electron acceptor over the anode and sulfate and produce sulfide irrespective of electrochemical conditions. Bioelectrochemical and biological sulfide generation pathways were studied under different electrochemical conditions. The obtained results show that the sulfide generation rate at open circuit condition (anode potential -235 +/- 5 mV versus standard hydrogen electrode, SHE)was higher in comparison to the electrochemical sulfide generation even at a lower potential of -275 mV (vs SHE), confirming that sulfide is produced through biological processes without any current generation. However, during closed circuit operation, the overall Coulombic efficiency (97% +/- 2%) is not affected as the produced sulfide (originating from the reduction of deposited sulfur) is spontaneously reoxidized to sulfur when a favorable potential is maintained. This confirms the mediator role of sulfur during acetate oxidation in BES. A diagrammatic representation of the mechanism is proposed to characterize the interactions between acetate oxidation and sulfur conversions on the anode.

  6. Effect of celery (Apium graveolens) extracts on some biochemical parameters of oxidative stress in mice treated with carbon tetrachloride.

    PubMed

    Popović, Mira; Kaurinović, Biljana; Trivić, Svetlana; Mimica-Dukić, Neda; Bursać, Marija

    2006-07-01

    Extracts of celery leaves and roots in ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water were evaporated to dryness and dissolved in 50% ethanol to make 10% (w[sol ]v) solutions. The potential protective action of the extracts was assessed by the corresponding in vitro and in vivo tests. In the in vitro experiments crude methanol extracts were tested as potential scavengers of free OH* and DPPH* radicals, as well as inhibitors of liposomal peroxidation (LPx). Analogous experiments were also carried out with the extracts of celery root, for comparison. The results obtained show that both the extracts of root and leaves are good scavengers of OH* and DPPH* radicals and reduce LPx intensity in liposomes, which points to their protective (antioxidant) activity. In vivo experiments were concerned with antioxidant systems (activities of GSHPx, GSHR, Px, CAT, XOD, GSH content and intensity of LPx) in liver homogenate and blood of mice after their treatment with extracts of celery leaves, or in combination with CCl4. On the basis of the results obtained it can be concluded that the examined extracts showed a certain protective effect. Of all the extracts the n-butanol extract showed the highest protective effect. Combined treatments with CCl4 and extracts showed both positive and negative synergism - inducing or suppressing the impact of CCl4 alone. The differences observed in the action of particular extracts are probably due to the different contents of flavonoids and some other antioxidant compounds.

  7. Antinociceptive Activity of an Ethanol Extract of Justicia spicigera.

    PubMed

    Zapata-Morales, Juan Ramón; Alonso-Castro, Angel Josabad; Domínguez, Fabiola; Carranza-Álvarez, Candy; Castellanos, Luis Manuel Orozco; Martínez-Medina, Rosa María; Pérez-Urizar, José

    2016-06-01

    Preclinical Research The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antinociceptive and sedative activity of an ethanol extract of Justicia spicigera an evergreen used in Mexican traditional medicine for the relief of pain, wounds, fever and inflammation. At 200 mg/kg po, the maximum dose examined, the ethanol extract of J. spicigera (JSE) had analgesic activity in mice in the acetic acid writhing test, the second phase of the formalin test and the tail flick test that was similar in efficacy to the NSAID, naproxen (150 mg/kg po). JSE was inactive in the hot plate test and and the ketamine-induced sleeping time test; it had no sedative effects. These results show that the ethanol extract from the leaves of J. spicigera has antinociceptive effects in mice without inducing sedation. Drug Dev Res 77 : 180-186, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nabil M; Eweis, Esam A; El-Beltagi, Hossam S; Abdel-Mobdy, Yasmin E

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland. Methods Male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first group represented the health control animals, while the second, third and fourth groups were ingested orally with sub lethal doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60) of the oral LD50, respectively. One dose was ingested every two days during the experimental period (14 weeks) including the adaptation time. Blood was collected and used for all analysis. Results The results showed that, the ingestion of Pb2+ induced significant stimulation in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST) activity. Also, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were significantly decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb2+ treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates and lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated, while plasma glucose level was elevated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. In case of blood picture, Pb2+ ingestion reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBCs count of intoxicated rat's blood and the plasma levels of T3, T4 and blood WBCs count were decreased. Conclusions It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk. PMID:23569832

  9. Phytochemical and Antibacterial Investigations of the Extracts and Fractions from the Stem Bark of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne and Effect on Ultrastructure of Staphylococcus aureus Induced by Hydroalcoholic Extract

    PubMed Central

    Dimech, Gustavo Santiago; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Ferreira, Magda Assunção; de Oliveira, Anne Gabrielle Vasconcelos; Carvalho, Maria da Conceição; Ximenes, Eulália Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of different extracts and fractions obtained from Hymenaea stigonocarpa stem barks. The cyclohexanic, ethyl acetate, ethanol, aqueous, and hydroalcoholic extracts were obtained by maceration. The hydroalcoholic extract was partitioned, which resulted in the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. All extracts and fractions were subjected to phytochemical screening and evaluation of total phenol and tannin contents. An HPLC-DAD and ultrastructural alterations analysis were performed. Terpenes and coumarins were detected in the cyclohexanic extract. Flavonoids and condensed tannins were present in the other extracts and fractions. The extracts with the highest contents of tannins, ethanol (EE), hydroalcoholic (HE), and aqueous fraction (AF) showed also the highest antimicrobial activity. The MIC values ranged from 64 to 526 µg/mL. The chromatographic fingerprints suggest the presence of astilbin and other flavonoids in EE and HE. Presence of the thick cell wall, undulating outer layer, abnormal septa, and leakage of the cytoplasmic contents and absence of cell wall and cell lyses were the main alterations observed on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 33591 after treatment with the Hymenaea stigonocarpa hydroalcoholic extract. The presence of phenolic compounds like flavonoids and tannins is possibly the reason for the antimicrobial activity. PMID:24396311

  10. Phytochemical and antibacterial investigations of the extracts and fractions from the stem bark of Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne and effect on ultrastructure of Staphylococcus aureus induced by hydroalcoholic extract.

    PubMed

    Dimech, Gustavo Santiago; Soares, Luiz Alberto Lira; Ferreira, Magda Assunção; de Oliveira, Anne Gabrielle Vasconcelos; Carvalho, Maria da Conceição; Ximenes, Eulália Azevedo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial activity of different extracts and fractions obtained from Hymenaea stigonocarpa stem barks. The cyclohexanic, ethyl acetate, ethanol, aqueous, and hydroalcoholic extracts were obtained by maceration. The hydroalcoholic extract was partitioned, which resulted in the ethyl acetate and aqueous fractions. All extracts and fractions were subjected to phytochemical screening and evaluation of total phenol and tannin contents. An HPLC-DAD and ultrastructural alterations analysis were performed. Terpenes and coumarins were detected in the cyclohexanic extract. Flavonoids and condensed tannins were present in the other extracts and fractions. The extracts with the highest contents of tannins, ethanol (EE), hydroalcoholic (HE), and aqueous fraction (AF) showed also the highest antimicrobial activity. The MIC values ranged from 64 to 526 µg/mL. The chromatographic fingerprints suggest the presence of astilbin and other flavonoids in EE and HE. Presence of the thick cell wall, undulating outer layer, abnormal septa, and leakage of the cytoplasmic contents and absence of cell wall and cell lyses were the main alterations observed on Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 33591 after treatment with the Hymenaea stigonocarpa hydroalcoholic extract. The presence of phenolic compounds like flavonoids and tannins is possibly the reason for the antimicrobial activity.

  11. Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Stretched View Showing 'Victoria'

    This pair of images from the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity served as initial confirmation that the two-year-old rover is within sight of 'Victoria Crater,' which it has been approaching for more than a year. Engineers on the rover team were unsure whether Opportunity would make it as far as Victoria, but scientists hoped for the chance to study such a large crater with their roving geologist. Victoria Crater is 800 meters (nearly half a mile) in diameter, about six times wider than 'Endurance Crater,' where Opportunity spent several months in 2004 examining rock layers affected by ancient water.

    When scientists using orbital data calculated that they should be able to detect Victoria's rim in rover images, they scrutinized frames taken in the direction of the crater by the panoramic camera. To positively characterize the subtle horizon profile of the crater and some of the features leading up to it, researchers created a vertically-stretched image (top) from a mosaic of regular frames from the panoramic camera (bottom), taken on Opportunity's 804th Martian day (April 29, 2006).

    The stretched image makes mild nearby dunes look like more threatening peaks, but that is only a result of the exaggerated vertical dimension. This vertical stretch technique was first applied to Viking Lander 2 panoramas by Philip Stooke, of the University of Western Ontario, Canada, to help locate the lander with respect to orbiter images. Vertically stretching the image allows features to be more readily identified by the Mars Exploration Rover science team.

    The bright white dot near the horizon to the right of center (barely visible without labeling or zoom-in) is thought to be a light-toned outcrop on the far wall of the crater, suggesting that the rover can see over the low rim of Victoria. In figure 1, the northeast and southeast rims are labeled

  12. Antioxidant activity and phenol content of extracts of bark, stems, and young and mature leaves from Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth) O. Berg.

    PubMed

    Habermann, E; Imatomi, M; Pontes, F C; Gualtieri, S C J

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are a group of plant secondary metabolites known to have a variety of bioactivities, including the ability to function as antioxidants. Because of the side effects of the use of synthetic substances, the search for natural and less toxic compounds has increased significantly. This study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant activity and phenol content of hexane, ethyl acetate, and aqueous extracts of the bark (suber) and stems as well as the young and mature leaves of Blepharocalyx salicifolius. The extracts were obtained by extraction with organic solvents and subsequent fractionation by chromatographic partition coefficient. Preliminary tests for the presence of antioxidants were performed using bioautography in thin-layer chromatography. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method, and the phenol content of the extracts was quantified using the Folin-Ciocalteu technique. The results showed that 9 of the 12 extracts evaluated displayed very strong antioxidant activity and three displayed moderate activity. Aqueous extracts of the young leaves and bark and the ethyl acetate extract of the young leaves showed the highest levels of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (TPC). A correlation was observed between TPC and antioxidant activity index (AAI) with a correlation coefficient (r2) of 0.7999. Thus, the high phenol content of B. salicifolius extracts and its correlation with antioxidant activity provide substrates for further studies.

  13. Physicochemical, morphological, thermal and IR spectral changes in the properties of waxy rice starch modified with vinyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Kalita, Dipankar; Kaushik, Neelima; Mahanta, Charu L

    2014-10-01

    Waxy rice starch was modified with vinyl acetate at levels of 4, 6, 8, and 10 % with degree of substitution of 0.021, 0.023, 0.032 and 0.056. The modified starches were studied for physicochemical, morphological, thermal and infra red spectral properties. Waxy starch acetates had high water holding capacity and did not sediment. Scanning electron microscopy revealed surface damage of the granules and their fusion. X ray diffractography showed that crystalline peak intensity had increased on acetylation. Differential scanning calorimetry studies showed changes in thermal properties. While gelatinization temperatures of modified starches were higher than the native starch, their transition enthalpies were lower than the native starch. IR spectra of the starch acetates did not show the peak typical for acetyl group. Thus, modification of waxy rice starch with vinyl acetate caused changes in the starch properties. The high water holding capacity of starch acetates can be exploited for specific applications.

  14. Acetylation of barnyardgrass starch with acetic anhydride under iodine catalysis.

    PubMed

    Bartz, Josiane; Goebel, Jorge Tiago; Giovanaz, Marcos Antônio; Zavareze, Elessandra da Rosa; Schirmer, Manoel Artigas; Dias, Alvaro Renato Guerra

    2015-07-01

    Barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli) is an invasive plant that is difficult to control and is found in abundance as part of the waste of the paddy industry. In this study, barnyardgrass starch was extracted and studied to obtain a novel starch with potential food and non-food applications. We report some of the physicochemical, functional and morphological properties as well as the effect of modifying this starch with acetic anhydride by catalysis with 1, 5 or 10mM of iodine. The extent of the introduction of acetyl groups increased with increasing iodine levels as catalyst. The shape of the granules remained unaltered, but there were low levels of surface corrosion and the overall relative crystallinity decreased. The pasting temperature, enthalpy and other gelatinisation temperatures were reduced by the modification. There was an increase in the viscosity of the pastes, except for the peak viscosity, which was strongly reduced in 10mM iodine.

  15. Acetate in mixotrophic growth medium affects photosystem II in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and protects against photoinhibition.

    PubMed

    Roach, Thomas; Sedoud, Arezki; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja

    2013-10-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is a photoautotrophic green alga, which can be grown mixotrophically in acetate-supplemented media (Tris-acetate-phosphate). We show that acetate has a direct effect on photosystem II (PSII). As a consequence, Tris-acetate-phosphate-grown mixotrophic C. reinhardtii cultures are less susceptible to photoinhibition than photoautotrophic cultures when subjected to high light. Spin-trapping electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy showed that thylakoids from mixotrophic C. reinhardtii produced less (1)O2 than those from photoautotrophic cultures. The same was observed in vivo by measuring DanePy oxalate fluorescence quenching. Photoinhibition can be induced by the production of (1)O2 originating from charge recombination events in photosystem II, which are governed by the midpoint potentials (Em) of the quinone electron acceptors. Thermoluminescence indicated that the Em of the primary quinone acceptor (QA/QA(-)) of mixotrophic cells was stabilised while the Em of the secondary quinone acceptor (QB/QB(-)) was destabilised, therefore favouring direct non-radiative charge recombination events that do not lead to (1)O2 production. Acetate treatment of photosystem II-enriched membrane fragments from spinach led to the same thermoluminescence shifts as observed in C. reinhardtii, showing that acetate exhibits a direct effect on photosystem II independent from the metabolic state of a cell. A change in the environment of the non-heme iron of acetate-treated photosystem II particles was detected by low temperature electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. We hypothesise that acetate replaces the bicarbonate associated to the non-heme iron and changes the environment of QA and QB affecting photosystem II charge recombination events and photoinhibition.

  16. Molecular biology and genetics of the acetate-utilizing methanogenic bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Gunsalus, R.P.

    1991-01-01

    Acetate conversion to methane and C0{sub 2} by the methanogenic archaebacteria is a primary rate limiting step in anaerobic biodegradative processes in nature. However, the genetic study of these organisms has not been experimentally tractable due to the inability to grow and plate the organisms as single cells, and to extract high molecular weight DNA and RNA without shearing. The acetate-utilizing species, Methanosarcina thermolphila TM-1, is being used for the proposed genetic and molecular studies because, unlike previously described acetotrophic methanosarcina that have a thick heteropolysaccharide cell wall, this species can be cultured in a unicellular form that has a protein cell wall lacking the heteropolysaccharide layer. These cells can be gently disrupted to obtain protoplasts or lysed to yield intact genomic DNA and RNA. Experiments are in progress to develop a gene transfer system in this bacterial species. Methods are being developed and refined for the efficient plating of M. thermophila on defined media, for chemical mutagenesis, and for the isolation of mutants defective in acetate utilization. Chromosomal DNA libraries have been constructed from M. thermophila and are being used to clone genes involved in the acetate utilization pathway (e.g. carbon monoxide dehydrogenase). Once cloned, analysis of the molecular mechanisms responsible for their regulatory control will be performed. These studies should aid our understanding of the pathway for acetate utilization in M. thermophila and serve as a model for elucidating regulatory mechanisms in the acetotrophic methanogens.

  17. Antinociceptive, antiinflammatory and acute toxicity effects of Salvia leriifolia Benth seed extract in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Hosseinzadeh, Hossein; Haddadkhodaparast, Mohammad H; Arash, Ali R

    2003-04-01

    The antinociceptive and antiinflammatory effects as well as the acute toxicity of Salvia leriifolia aqueous seed extract were studied in mice and rats. Antinociceptive activity was assessed using the hot-plate and tail flick tests. The effect on acute inflammation was studied using vascular permeability increased by acetic acid and xylene-induced ear oedema in mice. The activity against chronic inflammation was assessed using the cotton pellet test in rats. The LD(50) of the extract was found to be 19.5 g/kg (i.p.) in mice. The aqueous seed extract showed significant and dose-dependent (1.25-10 g/kg) antinociceptive activity over 7 h, and was inhibited by naloxone pretreatment. Significant and dose-dependent (2.5-10 g/kg) activity was observed against acute inflammation induced by acetic acid and in the xylene ear oedema test. In the chronic inflammation test the extract (2.5-5 g/kg) showed significant and dose-dependent antiinflammatory activity. The aqueous seed extract of S. leriifolia may therefore have supraspinal antinociceptive effects which may be mediated by opioid receptors, and showed considerable effects against acute and chronic inflammation.

  18. Antimicrobial Activity of Croton macrostachyus Stem Bark Extracts against Several Human Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Obey, Jackie K.; von Wright, Atte; Orjala, Jimmy; Kauhanen, Jussi; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina

    2016-01-01

    In Kenya, leaves and roots from Croton macrostachyus are used as a traditional medicine for infectious diseases such as typhoid and measles, but reports on possible antimicrobial activity of stem bark do not exist. In this study, the antibacterial and antifungal effects of methanol, ethyl acetate and butanol extracts, and purified lupeol of C. macrostachyus stem bark were determined against important human gram-negative pathogens Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and Enterobacter aerogenes, gram-positive Listeria monocytogenes, and a fungus Candida albicans. The most promising broad scale antimicrobial activity against all the studied pathogens was shown by the ethyl acetate extract. The ethyl acetate extract induced the zone of inhibition between 10.1 ± 0.6 mm and 16.0 ± 1.2 mm against S. typhi, E. coli, K. pneumoniae, E. aerogenes, and L. monocytogenes with weaker antimicrobial activity against C. albicans (zone of inhibition: 5.6 ± 1.0 mm). The antibiotic controls (amoxicillin, ciprofloxacin, ampicillin, benzylpenicillin, clotrimazole, and cefotaxime) showed antimicrobial activity with zones of inhibition within 13.4 ± 0.7–22.1 ± 0.9 mm. The ethyl acetate extract had MIC in the range of 125–250 mg/mL against all the studied bacteria and against C. albicans MIC was 500 mg/mL. The present results give scientific evidence and support the traditional use of C. macrostachyus stem bark as a source for antimicrobials. We show that C. macrostachyus stem bark lupeol is a promising antimicrobial agent against several important human pathogens. PMID:27293897

  19. Controllable immobilization of naringinase on electrospun cellulose acetate nanofibers and their application to juice debittering.

    PubMed

    Huang, Weijuan; Zhan, Yingfei; Shi, Xiaowen; Chen, Jiajia; Deng, Hongbing; Du, Yumin

    2017-05-01

    Electrospinning is a facile method to fabricate nanofibers, in terms of their high specific surface area and porous structure. Electrospun nanofibrous mats are excellent candidates for immobilization of enzymes. In this study, a simple route based on electrospinning and layer-by-layer (LBL) self-assembly processes has been developed to prepared naringinase/alginate multilayer coated electrospun cellulose acetate nanofibers. The content of immobilized naringinase could be tuned by adjusting the number of multilayers. XPS results indicated that naringinase was successfully immobilized on cellulose acetate nanofibers. SEM images showed the nanofibers maintain their sharp but became rougher after multilayer coating. Besides, the surface area of electrospun cellulose acetate nanofibers decreased and mesopores reduced. The major bitter components of grapefruit juice are naringin and limonin, naringin could be slightly removed by hydrolysis with naringinase and limonin might be removed by adsorption with cellulose acetate nanofibers.

  20. Megestrol acetate in cachexia and anorexia

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Shing-shing; Schuster, Michael W

    2006-01-01

    The aim is to review major clinical trials that have used megestrol acetate (MA) in the treatment of cachexia across several disease states. A review of general usage and potential side-effects are discussed. A theory that the newly approved nanocrystal formation of MA can better deliver this potent medication for treatment will also be reviewed. PMID:17722275

  1. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Solvents, Lubricants, Release Agents and...

  2. Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, Gerald Charles; Zoeller, Joseph Robert; Depew, Leslie Sharon

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85.degree. and 200.degree. C. and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

  3. Process for the preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-02-17

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting within a contact zone a mixture of ketene and acetaldehyde with an acid catalyst at about one bar pressure and between about 85 and 200 C and removing the reaction products from the contact zone.

  4. [Hormonal desexing of boars with chlormadinone acetate].

    PubMed

    Busch, W; Hagelschuer, H; Gränz, G; Richter, G; Werner, K

    1979-01-01

    Chloromadinone acetate produces a dependable desexualising effect on boar by contant administration in feed rations of 30 mg per die over 70 days. Sexual odour thus can be widely eliminated. Other aspects studied in a group of 107 boars are body weight development, sexual behaviour, slaughter yield, and skin quality.

  5. Heat Bonding of Irradiated Ethylene Vinyl Acetate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slack, D. H.

    1986-01-01

    Reliable method now available for joining parts of this difficult-tobond material. Heating fixture encircles ethylene vinyl acetate multiplesocket part, providing heat to it and to tubes inserted in it. Fixtures specially designed to match parts to be bonded. Tube-and-socket bonds made with this technique subjected to tensile tests. Bond strengths of 50 percent that of base material obtained consistently.

  6. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of...

  7. Corrosion of stainless steel during acetate production

    SciTech Connect

    Qi, J.S.; Lester, G.C.

    1996-07-01

    Corrosion of types 304, 304L, 316, and 316L stainless steel (SS) during the esterification of acetic acid and alcohol or glycol ether was investigated. The catalyst for this reaction, sulfuric acid or para-toluene sulfonic acid (PTSA), was shown to cause more corrosion on reactor equipment than CH{sub 3}COOH under the process conditions commonly practiced in industry. The corrosive action of the catalyst occurred only in the presence of water. Thus, for the batch processes, corrosion occurred mostly during the initial stage of esterification, where water produced by the reaction created an aqueous environment. After water was distilled off, the corrosion rate declined to a negligible value. The corrosion inhibitor copper sulfate, often used in industrial acetate processes, was found to work well for a low-temperature process (< 95 C) such as in production of butyl acetate, but it accelerated corrosion in the glycol ether acetate processes where temperatures were > 108 C. Process conditions that imparted low corrosion rates were determined.

  8. Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyer, William V.; Sicker, Ron; Brown, Dan; Eustace, John

    2015-01-01

    Increment 45 - 46 Science Symposium presentation of Advanced Colloids Experiment (ACE-T1) to RPO. The purpose of this event is for Principal Investigators to present their science objectives, testing approach, and measurement methods to agency scientists, managers, and other investigators.

  9. 21 CFR 522.533 - Deslorelin acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Deslorelin acetate. 522.533 Section 522.533 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  10. 21 CFR 522.1073 - Gonadorelin acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Gonadorelin acetate. 522.1073 Section 522.1073 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  11. 21 CFR 522.1073 - Gonadorelin acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Gonadorelin acetate. 522.1073 Section 522.1073 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS IMPLANTATION OR INJECTABLE DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS §...

  12. Synthesis of Cellulose Acetate from Cotton Byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton burr and cottonseed hull are relatively inexpensive cotton byproducts. In an effort to derive greater value out of these natural renewable materials, we have succeeded in converting part of them into cellulose acetate without prior chemical breakdown or physical separation of cellulose, ligni...

  13. Inhibition of microglial activation by elderberry extracts and its phenolic components

    PubMed Central

    Simonyi, Agnes; Chen, Zihong; Jiang, Jinghua; Zong, Yijia; Chuang, Dennis Y.; Gu, Zezong; Lu, Chi-Hua; Fritsche, Kevin L.; Greenlief, C. Michael; Rottinghaus, George E.; Thomas, Andrew L.; Lubahn, Dennis B.; Sun, Grace Y.

    2015-01-01

    Aims Elderberry (Sambucus spp.) is one of the oldest medicinal plants noted for its cardiovascular, anti-inflammatory, and immune-stimulatory properties. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of the American elderberry (Sambucus nigra subsp. canadensis) pomace as well as some of the anthocyanins (cyanidin chloride and cyanidin 3-O-glucoside) and flavonols (quercetin and rutin) in bv-2 mouse microglial cells. Main methods The bv-2 cells were pretreated with elderberry pomace (extracted with ethanol or ethyl acetate) or its anthocyanins and flavonols and stimulated by either lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or interferon-γ (IFNγ). Reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production (indicating oxidative stress and inflammatory response) were measured using the ROS detection reagent DCF-DA and the Griess reaction, respectively. Key findings Analysis of total monomeric anthocyanin (as cyanidin 3-O-glucoside equivalents) indicated five-fold higher amount in the freeze-dried ethanol extract as compared to that of the oven-dried extract; anthocyanin was not detected in the ethyl acetate extracts. Elderberry ethanol extracts (freeze-dried or oven-dried) showed higher anti-oxidant activities and better ability to inhibit LPS or IFNγ-induced NO production as compared with the ethyl acetate extracts. The phenolic compounds strongly inhibited LPS or IFNγ-induced ROS production, but except for quercetin, they were relatively poor in inhibiting NO production. Significance These results demonstrated difference in anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects of elderberry extracts depending on solvents used. Results further identified quercetin as the most active component in suppressing oxidative stress and inflammatory responses on microglial cells. PMID:25744406

  14. Dispersion in the presence of acetic acid or ammonia confers gliadin-like characteristics to the glutenin in wheat gluten.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Tetsuya; Kitabatake, Naofumi; Tani, Fumito

    2015-02-01

    Spray-dried gluten has unique properties and is commercially available in the food industry worldwide. In this study, we examined the viscoelastic properties of gluten powder prepared by dispersion in the presence of acetic acid or an ammonia solvent and then followed by lyophilization instead of a spray drying. Mixograph measurements showed that the acid- and ammonia-treated gluten powders had marked decreases in the time to peak dough resistance when compared with the control gluten powder. The integrals of the dough resistance and bandwidth for 3 min after peak dough resistance decreased in both treated gluten powders. Similar phenomena were observed when gliadin was supplemented to gluten powders. Basic and acidic conditions were applied to the acid- and ammonia-treated gluten powders, respectively, and the viscoelastic behaviors were found to depend on the pH in the gluten dispersion just before lyophilization. These behaviors suggest that gluten may assume a reversible change in viscoelasticity by a fluctuation in pH during gluten dispersion. SDS-PAGE showed that the extractable proteins substantially increased in some polymeric glutenins including the low molecular weight-glutenin subunit (LMW-GS) when the ammonia-treated gluten powder was extracted with 70% ethanol. In contrast, the extractable proteins markedly increased in many polymeric glutenins including the high molecular weight-glutenin subunit and/or the LMW-GS when the acid-treated gluten powder was extracted with 70% ethanol. It thus follows that the extractability of polymeric glutenin to ethanol increases similarly to gliadin when gluten is exposed to an acidic or a basic pH condition; therefore, glutenin adopts gliadin-like characteristics.

  15. A Highly Pure Sub-Fraction of Shallot Extract With Potent in vitro Anti-Angiogenic Activity.

    PubMed

    Famil Samavati, Shima; Mohammadi-Motlagh, Hamid-Reza; Mostafaie, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that various extracts of Persian shallot (Allium hirtifolium) have anti- angiogenic effects. This study has been undertaken to isolate and identify the major effective anti- angiogeneic sub-fraction of shallot. After preparation of the 50% hydroalcoholic extract of shallot bulbs, the extract was successively fractionated into n- hexane, ethyl acetate, n- butanol and aqueous fractions. Anti-angiogenesis activity of fractions was examined by in vitro angiogenesis assay. The ethyl acetate fraction which had the most anti-angiogenesis activity was further fractionated to four sub- fractions by thin layer chromatography (TLC), silica gel column chromatography and then analyzed by High Performance TLC (HPTLC) with ethyl acetate-methanol- water as the solvent system. Our results showed that one of the four sub- fractions, as the major band in HPTLC, had the most anti- angiogenic activity. Purification and characterization of the major anti- angiogenic compound/compounds of shallot's extract may constitute one means by which diets rich in shallot confer protection against cancer and finally introduce new agents with pharmacological activities in shallot as a potential candidate in cancer therapy.

  16. Bioactive Compounds and Biological Activities of Jatropha curcas L. Kernel Meal Extract

    PubMed Central

    Oskoueian, Ehsan; Abdullah, Norhani; Ahmad, Syahida; Saad, Wan Zuhainis; Omar, Abdul Rahman; Ho, Yin Wan

    2011-01-01

    Defatted Jatropha curcas L. (J. curcas) seed kernels contained a high percentage of crude protein (61.8%) and relatively little acid detergent fiber (4.8%) and neutral detergent fiber (9.7%). Spectrophotometric analysis of the methanolic extract showed the presence of phenolics, flavonoids and saponins with values of 3.9, 0.4 and 19.0 mg/g DM, respectively. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses showed the presence of gallic acid and pyrogallol (phenolics), rutin and myricetin (flavonoids) and daidzein (isoflavonoid). The amount of phorbol esters in the methanolic extract estimated by HPLC was 3.0 ± 0.1 mg/g DM. Other metabolites detected by GC-MS include: 2-(hydroxymethyl)-2 nitro-1,3-propanediol, β-sitosterol, 2-furancarboxaldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethy) and acetic acid in the methanolic extract; 2-furancarboxaldehyde, 5-(hydroxymethy), acetic acid and furfural (2-furancarboxaldehyde) in the hot water extract. Methanolic and hot water extracts of kernel meal showed antimicrobial activity against both Gram positive and Gram negative pathogenic bacteria (inhibition range: 0–1.63 cm) at the concentrations of 1 and 1.5 mg/disc. Methanolic extract exhibited antioxidant activities that are higher than hot water extract and comparable to β-carotene. The extracts tended to scavenge the free radicals in the reduction of ferric ion (Fe3+) to ferrous ion (Fe2+). Cytotoxicity assay results indicated the potential of methanolic extract as a source of anticancer therapeutic agents toward breast cancer cells. PMID:22016638

  17. Thermal decarboxylation of acetic acid: Implications for origin of natural gas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kharaka, Y.K.; Carothers, W.W.; Rosenbauer, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Laboratory experiments on the thermal decarboxylation of solutions of acetic acid at 200??C and 300??C were carried out in hydrothermal equipment allowing for on-line sampling of both the gas and liquid phases for chemical and stable-carbon-isotope analyses. The solutions had ambient pH values between 2.5 and 7.1; pH values and the concentrations of the various acetate species at the conditions of the experiments were computed using a chemical model. Results show that the concentrations of acetic acid, and not total acetate in solution, control the reaction rates which follow a first order equation based on decreasing concentrations of acetic acid with time. The decarboxylation rates at 200??C (1.81 ?? 10-8 per second) and 300??C (8.17 ?? 10-8 per second) and the extrapolated rates at lower temperatures are relatively high. The activation energy of decarboxylation is only 8.1 kcal/mole. These high decarboxylation rates, together with the distribution of short-chained aliphatic acid anions in formation waters, support the hypothesis that acid anions are precursors for an important portion of natural gas. Results of the ??13C values of CO2, CH4, and total acetate show a reasonably constant fractionation factor of about 20 permil between CO2 and CH4 at 300??C. The ??13C values of CO2 and CH4 are initially low and become higher as decarboxylation increases. ?? 1983.

  18. Photorespiration participates in the assimilation of acetate in Chlorella sorokiniana under high light.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiujun; Huang, Aiyou; Gu, Wenhui; Zang, Zhengrong; Pan, Guanghua; Gao, Shan; He, Linwen; Zhang, Baoyu; Niu, Jianfeng; Lin, Apeng; Wang, Guangce

    2016-02-01

    The development of microalgae on an industrial scale largely depends on the economic feasibility of mass production. High light induces productive suspensions during cultivation in a tubular photobioreactor. Herein, we report that high light, which inhibited the growth of Chlorella sorokiniana under autotrophic conditions, enhanced the growth of this alga in the presence of acetate. We compared pigments, proteomics and the metabolic flux ratio in C. sorokiniana cultivated under high light (HL) and under low light (LL) in the presence of acetate. Our results showed that high light induced the synthesis of xanthophyll and suppressed the synthesis of chlorophylls. Acetate in the medium was exhausted much more rapidly in HL than in LL. The data obtained from LC-MS/MS indicated that high light enhanced photorespiration, the Calvin cycle and the glyoxylate cycle of mixotrophic C. sorokiniana. The results of metabolic flux ratio analysis showed that the majority of the assimilated carbon derived from supplemented acetate, and photorespiratory glyoxylate could enter the glyoxylate cycle. Based on these data, we conclude that photorespiration provides glyoxylate to speed up the glyoxylate cycle, and releases acetate-derived CO2 for the Calvin cycle. Thus, photorespiration connects the glyoxylate cycle and the Calvin cycle, and participates in the assimilation of supplemented acetate in C. sorokiniana under high light.

  19. Leuprolide acetate induces structural and functional recovery of injured spinal cord in rats

    PubMed Central

    Díaz Galindo, Carmen; Gómez-González, Beatriz; Salinas, Eva; Calderón-Vallejo, Denisse; Hernández-Jasso, Irma; Bautista, Eduardo; Quintanar, J Luis

    2015-01-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and its synthetic analog leuprolide acetate, a GnRH agonist, have neurotrophic properties. This study was designed to determine whether administration of leuprolide acetate can improve locomotor behavior, gait, micturition reflex, spinal cord morphology and the amount of microglia in the lesion epicenter after spinal cord injury in rats. Rats with spinal cord compression injury were administered leuprolide acetate or saline solution for 5 weeks. At the 5th week, leuprolide acetate-treated rats showed locomotor activity recovery by 38%, had improvement in kinematic gait and exhibited voiding reflex recovery by 60%, as compared with the 1st week. By contrast, saline solution-treated rats showed locomotor activity recovery only by 7%, but voiding reflex did not recover. More importantly, leuprolide acetate treatment reduced microglial immunological reaction and induced a trend towards greater area of white and gray matter in the spinal cord. Therefore, leuprolide acetate has great potential to repair spinal cord injury. PMID:26807118

  20. Leuprolide acetate induces structural and functional recovery of injured spinal cord in rats.

    PubMed

    Díaz Galindo, Carmen; Gómez-González, Beatriz; Salinas, Eva; Calderón-Vallejo, Denisse; Hernández-Jasso, Irma; Bautista, Eduardo; Quintanar, J Luis

    2015-11-01

    Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) and its synthetic analog leuprolide acetate, a GnRH agonist, have neurotrophic properties. This study was designed to determine whether administration of leuprolide acetate can improve locomotor behavior, gait, micturition reflex, spinal cord morphology and the amount of microglia in the lesion epicenter after spinal cord injury in rats. Rats with spinal cord compression injury were administered leuprolide acetate or saline solution for 5 weeks. At the 5(th) week, leuprolide acetate-treated rats showed locomotor activity recovery by 38%, had improvement in kinematic gait and exhibited voiding reflex recovery by 60%, as compared with the 1(st) week. By contrast, saline solution-treated rats showed locomotor activity recovery only by 7%, but voiding reflex did not recover. More importantly, leuprolide acetate treatment reduced microglial immunological reaction and induced a trend towards greater area of white and gray matter in the spinal cord. Therefore, leuprolide acetate has great potential to repair spinal cord injury.

  1. Pressurized fluid extraction of essential oil from Lavandula hybrida using a modified supercritical fluid extractor and a central composite design for optimization.

    PubMed

    Kamali, Hossein; Jalilvand, Mohammad Reza; Aminimoghadamfarouj, Noushin

    2012-06-01

    Essential oil components were extracted from lavandin (Lavandula hybrida) flowers using pressurized fluid extraction. A central composite design was used to optimize the effective extraction variables. The chemical composition of extracted samples was analyzed by a gas chromatograph-flame ionization detector column. For achieving 100% extraction yield, the temperature, pressure, extraction time, and the solvent flow rate were adjusted at 90.6°C, 63 bar, 30.4 min, and 0.2 mL/min, respectively. The results showed that pressurized fluid extraction is a practical technique for separation of constituents such as 1,8-cineole (8.1%), linalool (34.1%), linalyl acetate (30.5%), and camphor (7.3%) from lavandin to be applied in the food, fragrance, pharmaceutical, and natural biocides industries.

  2. The antimicrobial effect of acetic acid--an alternative to common local antiseptics?

    PubMed

    Ryssel, H; Kloeters, O; Germann, G; Schäfer, Th; Wiedemann, G; Oehlbauer, M

    2009-08-01

    Acetic acid has been commonly used in medicine for more than 6000 years for the disinfection of wounds and especially as an antiseptic agent in the treatment and prophylaxis of the plague. The main goal of this study was to prove the suitability of acetic acid, in low concentration of 3%, as a local antiseptic agent, especially for use in salvage procedures in problematic infections caused by organisms such as Proteus vulgaris, Acinetobacter baumannii or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. This study was designed to compare the in vitro antimicrobial effect of acetic acid with those of common local antiseptics such as povidone-iodine 11% (Betais