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Sample records for acetate lactate ethanol

  1. Acetate Utilization in Lactococcus lactis Deficient in Lactate Dehydrogenase: a Rescue Pathway for Maintaining Redox Balance

    PubMed Central

    Hols, Pascal; Ramos, Ana; Hugenholtz, Jeroen; Delcour, Jean; de Vos, Willem M.; Santos, Helena; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    1999-01-01

    Acetate was shown to improve glucose fermentation in Lactococcus lactis deficient in lactate dehydrogenase. 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance studies using [2-13C]glucose and [2-13C]acetate as substrates demonstrated that acetate was exclusively converted to ethanol. This novel pathway provides an alternative route for NAD+ regeneration in the absence of lactate dehydrogenase. PMID:10464231

  2. Manufacturing Ethyl Acetate From Fermentation Ethanol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohatgi, Naresh K.; Ingham, John D.

    1991-01-01

    Conceptual process uses dilute product of fermentation instead of concentrated ethanol. Low-concentration ethanol, extracted by vacuum from fermentation tank, and acetic acid constitutes feedstock for catalytic reaction. Product of reaction goes through steps that increases ethyl acetate content to 93 percent by weight. To conserve energy, heat exchangers recycle waste heat to preheat process streams at various points.

  3. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, J.L.; Clausen, E.C.

    1992-12-22

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H[sub 2]O and/or CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate. 3 figs.

  4. Clostridiumm ljungdahlii, an anaerobic ethanol and acetate producing microorganism

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Clausen, Edgar C.

    1992-01-01

    A newly discovered microorganism was isolated in a biologically pure culture and designated Clostridium ljungdahlii, having the identifying characteristics of ATCC No. 49587. Cultured in an aqueous nutrient medium under anaerobic conditions, this microorganism is capable of producing ethanol and acetate from CO and H.sub.2 O and/or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 in synthesis gas. Under optimal growth conditions, the microorganism produces acetate in preference to ethanol. Conversely, under non-growth conditions, ethanol production is favored over acetate.

  5. Biological hydrogen sulfide production in an ethanol-lactate fed fluidized-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Nevatalo, Laura M; Mäkinen, Annukka E; Kaksonen, Anna H; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2010-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing fluidized-bed bioreactor (FBR) fed with ethanol-lactate mixture was operated at 35 degrees C for 540 days to assess mine wastewater treatment, biological hydrogen sulfide production capacity and acetate oxidation kinetics. During the mine wastewater treatment period with synthetic wastewater, the sulfate reduction rate was 62 mmol SO(4)(2-)L(-1)d(-1) and Fe and Zn precipitation rates were 11 mmol Fe L(-1)d(-1) and 1 mmol Zn L(-1)d(-1). After this, the hydrogen sulfide production was optimized, resulting in sulfate reduction rate of 100 mmol SO(4)(2-)L(-1)d(-1) and H(2)S production rate of 73.2 mmol H(2)SL(-1)d(-1). The limiting step in the H(2)S production was the rate of acetate oxidation, being 50 mmol acetate L(-1)d(-1). Therefore, FBR batch assays were designed to determine the acetate oxidation kinetics, and following kinetic parameters were obtained: K(m) of 63 micromol L(-1) and V(max) of 0.76 micromol acetate g VSS(-1)min(-1). The present study demonstrates high-rate hydrogen sulfide production and high-rate mine wastewater treatment with ethanol and lactate fed fluidized-bed bioreactor. PMID:19716290

  6. Ethanol and psychotropic drug interaction during pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Rawat, A K

    1981-09-01

    Prolonged maternal ethanol consumption for 8 days during pregnancy or for five days immediately after birth resulted in 30-46 per cent inhibition in the rate of chlorpromazine metabolism by the rat fetal and neonatal livers respectively. A significant increase in hepatic NADH/NAD and UDPG/UDPGA ratios was observed in suckling neonatal and maternal livers from the ethanol-fed group. Acute administration of ethanol with chlorpromazine led to about 60 per cent inhibition of the metabolism of chlorpromazine. This inhibitory effect of ethanol on the metabolism of chlorpromazine was largely abolished by preincubation of liver homogenates with pyrazole (2 mM). Lactate (10 mM) addition to liver homogenates resulted in a significant inhibition of chlorpromazine metabolism. It is suggested that maternal ethanol consumption during preganancy and lactation inhibits the hepatic metabolism of drugs such as chlorpromazine which require glucuronidation for their detoxification. This ethanol-mediated inhibition is largely exerted through the decrease in the NAD-dependent conversion of UDP-glucose (UDPG) to UDP-glucuronic acid, (UDPGA). PMID:21043245

  7. Production of lactate and acetate by Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens DSM 20004(T) in comparison with Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 20531(T).

    PubMed

    Slavica, Anita; Trontel, Antonija; Jelovac, Nuša; Kosovec, Željka; Šantek, Božidar; Novak, Srđan

    2015-05-20

    Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens DSM20004(T) is a d-lactate producer, with a portion of the d-lactate higher than 99.9% of total lactic acid produced. Acetate was identified as the second end-product that appeared at the end of the exponential growth phase in MRS medium when glucose concentration dropped to 38.41mM (6.92g/L). The acetate production was prolonged to the stationary phase, while the concentration of d-lactate remained constant. Other end-products were not identified by HPLC method. The known metabolic pathways of glucose fermentation in lactic acid bacteria do not produce the particular combination of these two end-products, but besides lactate and acetate also formate, ethanol and CO2 are produced. For comparison, the production of lactate and acetate by a d-/l-lactate producer Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 20531(T) was also investigated. This strain produced equimolar quantities of d- and l-lactate in the MRS medium. Acetate was produced only when initial concentration of glucose was 55.51mM (10g/L) and production started in the exponential phase when concentration of glucose dropped to 35.52mM (6.40g/L). Similar behavior was observed with the initial concentration of maltose of 29.21mM (10g/L). An unstructured mathematical model was established for the bioprocess simulation. PMID:25617683

  8. Potassium acetate and potassium lactate enhance the microbiological and physical properties of marinated catfish fillets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sodium or potassium salts such as lactate and acetate can be used to inhibit the growth of spoilage bacteria and food-borne pathogens, and thereby prolong the shelf-life of refrigerated seafood. However, minimal information is available regarding the combined effects of potassium salts (acetate and ...

  9. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of ethyl acetate and ethanol in rodents and humans.

    PubMed

    Crowell, S R; Smith, J N; Creim, J A; Faber, W; Teeguarden, J G

    2015-10-01

    A physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was developed and applied to a metabolic series approach for the ethyl series (i.e., ethyl acetate, ethanol, acetaldehyde, and acetate). This approach bases toxicity information on dosimetry analyses for metabolically linked compounds using pharmacokinetic data for each compound and toxicity data for parent or individual compounds. In vivo pharmacokinetic studies of ethyl acetate and ethanol were conducted in rats following IV and inhalation exposure. Regardless of route, ethyl acetate was rapidly converted to ethanol. Blood concentrations of ethyl acetate and ethanol following both IV bolus and infusion suggested linear kinetics across blood concentrations from 0.1 to 10 mM ethyl acetate and 0.01-0.8 mM ethanol. Metabolic parameters were optimized and evaluated based on available pharmacokinetic data. The respiratory bioavailability of ethyl acetate and ethanol were estimated from closed chamber inhalation studies and measured ventilation rates. The resulting ethyl series model successfully reproduces blood ethyl acetate and ethanol kinetics following IV administration and inhalation exposure in rats, and blood ethanol kinetics following inhalation exposure to ethanol in humans. The extrapolated human model was used to derive human equivalent concentrations for the occupational setting of 257-2120 ppm ethyl acetate and 72-517 ppm ethyl acetate for continuous exposure, corresponding to rat LOAELs of 350 and 1500 ppm. PMID:26297692

  10. Combined inactivation of the Clostridium cellulolyticum lactate and malate dehydrogenase genes substantially increases ethanol yield from cellulose and switchgrass fermentations

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yongchao; Tschaplinski, Timothy J; Engle, Nancy L; Hamilton, Choo Yieng; Rodriguez, Jr., Miguel; Liao, James C; Schadt, Christopher Warren; Guss, Adam M; Yang, Yunfeng; Graham, David E

    2012-01-01

    Background: The model bacterium Clostridium cellulolyticum efficiently hydrolyzes crystalline cellulose and hemicellulose, using cellulosomes to degrade lignocellulosic biomass. Although it imports and ferments both pentose and hexose sugars to produce a mixture of ethanol, acetate, lactate, H2 and CO2, the proportion of ethanol is low, which impedes its use in consolidated bioprocessing for biofuels. Therefore genetic engineering will likely be required to improve the ethanol yield. Random mutagenesis, plasmid transformation, and heterologous expression systems have previously been developed for C. cellulolyticum, but targeted mutagenesis has not been reported for this organism. Results: The first targeted gene inactivation system was developed for C. cellulolyticum, based on a mobile group II intron originating from the Lactococcus lactis L1.LtrB intron. This markerless mutagenesis system was used to disrupt both the paralogous L-lactate dehydrogenase (Ccel_2485; ldh) and L-malate dehydrogenase (Ccel_0137; mdh) genes, distinguishing the overlapping substrate specificities of these enzymes. Both mutations were then combined in a single strain. This double mutant produced 8.5-times more ethanol than wild-type cells growing on crystalline cellulose. Ethanol constituted 93% of the major fermentation products (by molarity), corresponding to a molar ratio of ethanol to organic acids of 15, versus 0.18 in wild-type cells. During growth on acid-pretreated switchgrass, the double mutant also produced four-times as much ethanol as wild-type cells. Detailed metabolomic analyses identified increased flux through the oxidative branch of the mutant s TCA pathway. Conclusions: The efficient intron-based gene inactivation system produced the first gene-targeted mutations in C. cellulolyticum. As a key component of the genetic toolbox for this bacterium, markerless targeted mutagenesis enables functional genomic research in C. cellulolyticum and rapid genetic engineering to

  11. Growth and antioxidant activity of Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans DSM 771 cultivated in acetate or lactate containing media.

    PubMed

    Pawłowska-Cwiek, Lucyna; Pado, Ryszard

    2007-01-01

    Three independent 28 or 32-day stationary cultures of Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans DSM 771 strain were carried out under anoxic conditions in acetate or lactate-containing media. The acids were the sole carbon and energy sources in these media. During cultivation the turbidity (for calculation of cell division index) and hydrogen sulfide contents were determined in culture broth and reduced glutathione and protein concentrations were assayed in culture broth supernatant. In these three successive cultures, the bacterium initially grew much faster on lactate than on acetate. However, after two weeks of culture this difference disappeared and in fact the growth rate was higher on acetate than on lactate. The level of H2S formed (product of the dissimilatory pathway of sulfate reduction) demonstrated that this pathway was more effective when lactate was a carbon source and the average H2S concentration was from over 3-fold to about 9-fold greater in lactate than in acetate cultures. Also GSH (glutathione, product of the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway) average level was about 2-fold higher in lactate-grown cultures. The high negative values of the correlation coefficients between GSH and O2 levels, especially during the first 4 days of cultivation, indicate that GSH is a very important antioxidizing extracellular agent of D. acetoxidans. The rapid increase in GSH level, preceding the release of H2S, indicates the metabolic priority of the assimilation pathway of sulfate reduction. For both carbon sources the highest coefficient of correlation was found between protein and H2S levels. These results suggest that hydrogen sulfide is bound by proteins (which contain cysteinyl residues) secreted by D. acetoxidans cells. Indicated way of H2S bounding could result in its accumulation. This coefficient of correlation increased gradually in the successive cultures. The ratio of H2S concentration to protein concentration increased gradually in the successive cultures

  12. Ethanol-induced activation of adenine nucleotide turnover. Evidence for a role of acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Puig, J.G.; Fox, I.H.

    1984-09-01

    Consumption of alcohol causes hyperuricemia by decreasing urate excretion and increasing its production. Our previous studies indicate that ethanol administration increases uric acid production by increasing ATP degradation to uric acid precursors. To test the hypothesis that ethanol-induced increased urate production results from acetate metabolism and enhanced adenosine triphosphate turnover, we gave intravenous sodium acetate, sodium chloride and ethanol (0.1 mmol/kg per min for 1 h) to five normal subjects. Acetate plasma levels increased from 0.04 +/- 0.01 mM (mean +/- SE) to peak values of 0.35 +/- 0.07 mM and to 0.08 +/- 0.01 mM during acetate and ethanol infusions, respectively. Urinary oxypurines increased to 223 +/- 13% and 316 +/- 44% of the base-line values during acetate and ethanol infusions, respectively. Urinary radioactivity from the adenine nucleotide pool labeled with (8-14C) adenine increased to 171 +/- 27% and to 128 +/- 8% of the base-line values after acetate and ethanol infusions. These data indicate that both ethanol and acetate increase purine nucleotide degradation by enhancing the turnover of the adenine nucleotide pool. They support the hypothesis that acetate metabolism contributes to the increased production of urate associated with ethanol intake.

  13. Acute effects of ethanol and acetate on glucose kinetics in normal subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Yki-Jaervinen, H.; Koivisto, V.A.; Ylikahri, R.; Taskinen, M.R. )

    1988-02-01

    The authors compared the effects of two ethanol doses on glucose kinetics and assessed the role of acetate as a mediator of ethanol-induced insulin resistance. Ten normal males were studied on four occasions, during which either a low or moderate ethanol, acetate, or saline dose was administered. Both ethanol doses similarly inhibited basal glucose production. The decrease in R{sub a} was matched by a comparable decrease in glucose utilization (R{sub d}), resulting in maintenance of normoglycemia. During hyperinsulinemia glucose disposal was lower in the moderate than the low-dose ethanol or saline studies. During acetate infusion, the blood acetate level was comparable with those in the ethanol studies. Acetate had no effect on glucose kinetics. In conclusion, (1) in overnight fasted subjects, ethanol does not cause hypoglycemia because its inhibitory effect on R{sub a} is counterbalanced by equal inhibition of R{sub d}; (2) basal R{sub a} and R{sub d} are maximally inhibited already by small ethanol doses, whereas inhibition of insulin-stimulated glucose disposal requires a moderate ethanol dose; and (3) acetate is not the mediator of ethanol-induced insulin resistance.

  14. [Elimination of succinate and acetate synthesis in recombinant Escherichia coli for D-lactate production].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Tian, Kangming; Zuo, Zhirui; Chen, Xianzhong; Shi, Guiyang; Singh, Suren; Wang, Zhengxiang

    2011-01-01

    When Escherichia coli CICIM B0013-030 (B0013, ack-pta, pps, pflB) was used for D-lactate production, succinate and acetate were the main byproducts (as much as 11.9 and 7.1% the amount of lactate respectively). In order to decrease the byproduct levels, we inactivated succinate and acetate synthesis in B0013-030. Two recombinant plasmids containing mutation cassettes of frdA::difGm and tdcDE::difGm respectively were constructed first. The mutation cassettes were used to delete the target genes on the chromosomal by Red recombination. Subsequently, the antibiotic resistance gene was excised from the chromosomal by Xer recombination. Thereby, mutants B0013-040B (B0013-030, frdA) and B0013-050B (B0013-040B, tdcDE) were produced. D-lactate producing abilities of the engineered strains were tested both in shake flasks and in bioreactors using two-phase fermentation (aerobic growth and anaerobic fermentation) with glucose as the sole carbon source. When fermentation was carried out in shake flasks, inactivation of frdA in B0013-030 to produce B0013-040B reduced succinate accumulation by 80.8%. When tested in a 7-liter bioreactor, B0013-040B accumulated 114.5 g/L D-lactate of over 99.9% optical purity. However, 1.0 g/L succinate and 5.4 g/L acetate still remained in the broth. Further inactivation of tdcD and tdcE genes in B0013-040B to produce B0013-050B decreased acetate and succinate accumulation to 0.4 g/L and 0.4 g/L respectively, and lactate titer was as much as 111.9 g/L (tested in the 7-liter bioreactor). In lightof the lower byproduct levels and high lactate production, strain B00 13-050B may prove useful for D-lactate production. PMID:21553488

  15. Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate in refrigerated sliced salmon

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological quality and lipid oxidation of fresh salmon slices treated by dipping in 2.5% (w/v) aqueous solution of sodium acetate (NaA), sodium lactate (NaL), or sodium citrate (NaC) and stored at 1 °C. The results revealed that these salts were efficient (P < 0.05) against the proliferation of various categories of spoilage microorganisms; including aerobic and psychrotrophic populations, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae. The general order of antibacterial activity of the different organic salts used was; sodium acetate > sodium lactate > sodium citrate. Lipid oxidation, as expressed by peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, was significantly (P < 0.05) delayed in NaA- and NaC-treated samples. The antioxidant activity followed the order: NaC > NaA > NaL. The shelf life of the treated products was extended by 4–7 days more than that of the control. Therefore, sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate can be utilized as safe organic preservatives for fish under refrigerated storage. PMID:17471315

  16. Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate

    DOEpatents

    Caimi, Perry G.; Chou, Yat-Chen; Franden, Mary Ann; Knoke, Kyle; Tao, Luan; Viitanen, Paul V.; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Yuying

    2010-09-28

    Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in medium comprising xylose and acetate.

  17. Increase in ethanol yield via elimination of lactate production in an ethanol-tolerant mutant of Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Ranjita; Prabhu, Sandeep; Lynd, Lee R; Guss, Adam M

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale production of lignocellulosic biofuel is a potential solution to sustainably meet global energy needs. One-step consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is a potentially advantageous approach for the production of biofuels, but requires an organism capable of hydrolyzing biomass to sugars and fermenting the sugars to ethanol at commercially viable titers and yields. Clostridium thermocellum, a thermophilic anaerobe, can ferment cellulosic biomass to ethanol and organic acids, but low yield, low titer, and ethanol sensitivity remain barriers to industrial production. Here, we deleted the hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase gene in ethanol tolerant strain of C. thermocellum adhE*(EA) in order to allow use of previously developed gene deletion tools, then deleted lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) to redirect carbon flux towards ethanol. Upon deletion of ldh, the adhE*(EA) ldh strain produced 30% more ethanol than wild type on minimal medium. The adhE*(EA) ldh strain retained tolerance to 5% v/v ethanol, resulting in an ethanol tolerant platform strain of C. thermocellum for future metabolic engineering efforts.

  18. Continuous Ethanol Production with a Membrane Bioreactor at High Acetic Acid Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Ylitervo, Päivi; Franzén, Carl Johan; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2014-01-01

    The release of inhibitory concentrations of acetic acid from lignocellulosic raw materials during hydrolysis is one of the main concerns for 2nd generation ethanol production. The undissociated form of acetic acid can enter the cell by diffusion through the plasma membrane and trigger several toxic effects, such as uncoupling and lowered intracellular pH. The effect of acetic acid on the ethanol production was investigated in continuous cultivations by adding medium containing 2.5 to 20.0 g·L−1 acetic acid at pH 5.0, at a dilution rate of 0.5 h−1. The cultivations were performed at both high (~25 g·L−1) and very high (100–200 g·L−1) yeast concentration by retaining the yeast cells inside the reactor by a cross-flow membrane in a membrane bioreactor. The yeast was able to steadily produce ethanol from 25 g·L−1 sucrose, at volumetric rates of 5–6 g·L−1·h−1 at acetic acid concentrations up to 15.0 g·L−1. However, the yeast continued to produce ethanol also at a concentration of 20 g·L−1 acetic acid but at a declining rate. The study thereby demonstrates the great potential of the membrane bioreactor for improving the robustness of the ethanol production based on lignocellulosic raw materials. PMID:25028956

  19. Direct Conversion of Cellulose into Ethyl Lactate in Supercritical Ethanol-Water Solutions.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lisha; Yang, Xiaokun; Tian, Elli; Lin, Hongfei

    2016-01-01

    Biomass-derived ethyl lactate is a green solvent with a growing market as the replacement for petroleum-derived toxic organic solvents. Here we report, for the first time, the production of ethyl lactate directly from cellulose with the mesoporous Zr-SBA-15 silicate catalyst in a supercritical mixture of ethanol and water. The relatively strong Lewis and weak Brønsted acid sites on the catalyst, as well as the surface hydrophobicity, were beneficial to the reaction and led to synergy during consecutive reactions, such as depolymerization, retro-aldol condensation, and esterification. Under the optimum reaction conditions, ∼33 % yield of ethyl lactate was produced from cellulose with the Zr-SBA-15 catalyst at 260 °C in supercritical 95:5 (w/w) ethanol/water. PMID:26685114

  20. Influence of maternal ethanol ingestion on copper utilization during gestation and lactation in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Baek, J.H.; Cerklewski, F.L.

    1986-03-05

    A factorial experiment was conducted to determine the influence of ethanol intake (30% of Kcal) on the utilization of copper (Cu) at two dietary levels of Cu during gestation and lactation in the rat. Cu levels in the liquid diet were adjusted to provide either 60% of the minimum requirement or a more than adequate intake. Both ethanol and low Cu depressed dam liver Cu, but the lowest concentration was produced when ethanol and low Cu were combined. Although only ethanol depressed pup liver Cu concentration, the effects observed in dams were reflected in pup Cu content of the metallothionein fraction eluted from a Sephadex G-75 column. Otherwise, neither the metallothionein content of maternal intestinal cells nor that of pup liver affected the outcome of ethanol-antagonized Cu utilization. Effects of ethanol on Cu status of dams and pups cannot be defined as a simple C deficiency even though liver iron was elevated because the ferroxidase activity of dam ceruloplasmin was enhanced rather than inhibited by ethanol which is in agreement with observations made in alcoholics. The authors results are more consistent with a possible enhancing effect of ethanol on biliary excretion of Cu. Exactly why ethanol would have this effect in dams is not defined by available data. In pups, however, maternal ethanol ingestion caused a 30% increase in pup plasma corticosterone, a steroid known to enhance loss of neonatal liver Cu by way of biliary excretion.

  1. Zymomonas with improved ethanol production in medium containing concentrated sugars and acetate

    DOEpatents

    Caimi, Perry G.; Chou, Yat-Chen; Franden, Mary Ann; Knoke, Kyle; Tao, Luan; Viitanen, Paul V.; Zhang, Min; Zhang, Yuying

    2011-03-01

    Through screening of a Zymomonas mutant library the himA gene was found to be involved in the inhibitory effect of acetate on Zymomonas performance. Xylose-utilizing Zymomonas strains further engineered to reduce activity of the himA gene were found to have increased ethanol production in comparison to a parental strain, when cultured in mixed-sugars medium comprising xylose, and, in particular, in the presence of acetate.

  2. Application of acetate, lactate, and fumarate as electron donors in microbial fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyliv, Oresta M.; Bilyy, Oleksandr I.; Ferensovych, Yaroslav P.; Hnatush, Svitlana O.

    2013-09-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that use bacteria as the catalysts to oxidize organic and inorganic matter and generate current. Up to now, several classes of extracellular electron transfer mechanisms have been elucidated for various microorganisms. Shewanellaceae and Geobacteraceae families include the most of model exoelectrogenic microorganisms. Desulfuromonas acetoxidans bacterium inhabits aquatic sedimental sulfur-containing environments and is philogenetically close to representatives of Geobacteraceae family. Two chamber microbial fuel cell (0.3 l volume) was constructed with application of D. acetoxidans IMV B-7384 as anode biocatalyst. Acetic, lactic and fumaric acids were separately applied as organic electron donors for bacterial growth in constructed MFC. Bacterial cultivation in MFC was held during twenty days. Lactate oxidation caused electric power production with the highest value up to 0.071 mW on 64 hour of D. acetoxidans IMV B-7384 growth. Addition of acetic and fumaric acids into bacterial growth medium caused maximal power production up to 0.075 and 0.074 mW respectively on the 40 hour of their growth. Increasing of incubation time up to twentieth day caused decrease of generated electric power till 0.018 mW, 0.042 mW and 0.047 mW under usage of lactic, acetic and fumaric acids respectively by investigated bacteria. Power generation by D. acetoxidans IMV B-7384 was more stabile and durable under application of acetic and fumaric acids as electron donors in constructed MFC, than under addition of lactic acid in the same concentration into the growth medium.

  3. Increasing Anaerobic Acetate Consumption and Ethanol Yields in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with NADPH-Specific Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    PubMed Central

    Henningsen, Brooks M.; Hon, Shuen; Covalla, Sean F.; Sonu, Carolina; Argyros, D. Aaron; Barrett, Trisha F.; Wiswall, Erin; Froehlich, Allan C.

    2015-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently been engineered to use acetate, a primary inhibitor in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as a cosubstrate during anaerobic ethanolic fermentation. However, the original metabolic pathway devised to convert acetate to ethanol uses NADH-specific acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase and quickly becomes constrained by limited NADH availability, even when glycerol formation is abolished. We present alcohol dehydrogenase as a novel target for anaerobic redox engineering of S. cerevisiae. Introduction of an NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (NADPH-ADH) not only reduces the NADH demand of the acetate-to-ethanol pathway but also allows the cell to effectively exchange NADPH for NADH during sugar fermentation. Unlike NADH, NADPH can be freely generated under anoxic conditions, via the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. We show that an industrial bioethanol strain engineered with the original pathway (expressing acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis and with deletions of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes GPD1 and GPD2) consumed 1.9 g liter−1 acetate during fermentation of 114 g liter−1 glucose. Combined with a decrease in glycerol production from 4.0 to 0.1 g liter−1, this increased the ethanol yield by 4% over that for the wild type. We provide evidence that acetate consumption in this strain is indeed limited by NADH availability. By introducing an NADPH-ADH from Entamoeba histolytica and with overexpression of ACS2 and ZWF1, we increased acetate consumption to 5.3 g liter−1 and raised the ethanol yield to 7% above the wild-type level. PMID:26386051

  4. Increasing anaerobic acetate consumption and ethanol yields in Saccharomyces cerevisiae with NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Henningsen, Brooks M; Hon, Shuen; Covalla, Sean F; Sonu, Carolina; Argyros, D Aaron; Barrett, Trisha F; Wiswall, Erin; Froehlich, Allan C; Zelle, Rintze M

    2015-12-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae has recently been engineered to use acetate, a primary inhibitor in lignocellulosic hydrolysates, as a cosubstrate during anaerobic ethanolic fermentation. However, the original metabolic pathway devised to convert acetate to ethanol uses NADH-specific acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and alcohol dehydrogenase and quickly becomes constrained by limited NADH availability, even when glycerol formation is abolished. We present alcohol dehydrogenase as a novel target for anaerobic redox engineering of S. cerevisiae. Introduction of an NADPH-specific alcohol dehydrogenase (NADPH-ADH) not only reduces the NADH demand of the acetate-to-ethanol pathway but also allows the cell to effectively exchange NADPH for NADH during sugar fermentation. Unlike NADH, NADPH can be freely generated under anoxic conditions, via the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway. We show that an industrial bioethanol strain engineered with the original pathway (expressing acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase from Bifidobacterium adolescentis and with deletions of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase genes GPD1 and GPD2) consumed 1.9 g liter(-1) acetate during fermentation of 114 g liter(-1) glucose. Combined with a decrease in glycerol production from 4.0 to 0.1 g liter(-1), this increased the ethanol yield by 4% over that for the wild type. We provide evidence that acetate consumption in this strain is indeed limited by NADH availability. By introducing an NADPH-ADH from Entamoeba histolytica and with overexpression of ACS2 and ZWF1, we increased acetate consumption to 5.3 g liter(-1) and raised the ethanol yield to 7% above the wild-type level. PMID:26386051

  5. Growth Inhibition of Enteric Bacteria by Vibrio cholerae in Nutrient Media Containing Lactate, Acetate, or Citrate1

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskaran, K.; Iyer, S. S.; Khan, A. W.; Vora, V. C.

    1974-01-01

    In cross-streak tests on nutrient agar containing lactate, acetate, or citrate, the growth of certain enteric bacteria was inhibited by themselves or by Vibrio cholerae, or by both. This mimicked the activity of bacteriocins, but the phenomenon was attributable to the accumulation of carbonate and increased alkalinity of the media. Images PMID:15830491

  6. Effects of sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives on the quality and sensory characteristics of hot-boned pork sausage patties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives were evaluated for their effects on color retention, microbial growth, and sensory attributes of hot-boned pork sausage patties. Treatments included: (a) sodium lactate (L), (b) buffered vinegar (V), (c) sodium lactate and vinegar mixture (LV), (d) control ...

  7. U(VI) Reduction in Sulfate-Reducing Subsurface Sediments Amended with Ethanol or Acetate

    PubMed Central

    Converse, Brandon J.; Wu, Tao; Findlay, Robert H.

    2013-01-01

    An experiment was conducted with subsurface sediments from Oak Ridge National Laboratory to determine the potential for reduction of U(VI) under sulfate-reducing conditions with either ethanol or acetate as the electron donor. The results showed extensive U(VI) reduction in sediments supplied with either electron donor, where geochemical and microbiological analyses demonstrated active sulfate reduction. PMID:23624470

  8. Screening and characterization of ethanol-tolerant and thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria from Chinese vinegar Pei.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Bai, Ye; Li, Dongsheng; Wang, Chao; Xu, Ning; Hu, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are important microorganisms in the vinegar industry. However, AAB have to tolerate the presence of ethanol and high temperatures, especially in submerged fermentation (SF), which inhibits AAB growth and acid yield. In this study, seven AAB that are tolerant to temperatures above 40 °C and ethanol concentrations above 10% (v/v) were isolated from Chinese vinegar Pei. All the isolated AAB belong to Acetobacter pasteurianus according to 16S rDNA analysis. Among all AAB, AAB4 produced the highest acid yield under high temperature and ethanol test conditions. At 4% ethanol and 30-40 °C temperatures, AAB4 maintained an alcohol-acid transform ratio of more than 90.5 %. High alcohol-acid transform ratio was still maintained even at higher temperatures, namely, 87.2, 77.1, 14.5 and 2.9% at 41, 42, 43 and 44 °C, respectively. At 30 °C and different initial ethanol concentrations (4-10%), the acid yield by AAB4 increased gradually, although the alcohol-acid transform ratio decreased to some extent. However, 46.5, 8.7 and 0.9% ratios were retained at ethanol concentrations of 11, 12 and 13%, respectively. When compared with AS1.41 (an AAB widely used in China) using a 10 L fermentor, AAB4 produced 42.0 g/L acetic acid at 37 °C with 10% ethanol, whereas AS1.41 almost stopped producing acetic acid. In conclusion, these traits suggest that AAB4 is a valuable strain for vinegar production in SF. PMID:26712629

  9. STABILITY OF MFI ZEOLITE-FILLED PDMS MEMBRANES DURING PERVAPORATIVE ETHANOL RECOVERY FROM AQUEOUS MIXTURES CONTAINING ACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervaporation is a potential process for recovering bioethanol produced from biomass fermentation. Fermentation broths contain ethanol, water, and a variety of other compounds, often including carboxylic acids. The effects of acetic acid on long-term pervaporation of aqueous et...

  10. Effect of fertirelin acetate or buserelin on conception rate at first or second insemination in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Chenault, J R

    1990-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if fertirelin acetate and buserelin, two GnRH agonists, improve conception rate when administered at the time of first or second AI in lactating dairy cows. The study consisted of a common protocol conducted at 10 commercial dairy farms. Approximately 150 cows within each dairy were assigned randomly in replicates to receive intramuscularly either no injection or injection of 25, 50, 75, or 100 micrograms fertirelin acetate or 10 micrograms buserelin immediately after AI. Cows were subjected to the reproductive management practices normal for each location. Cows at each location were palpated for pregnancy status at 35 to 60 d postinjection. No improvement in conception rate was detected in response to either agonist (control = 48%, fertirelin acetate = 41.5%, buserelin = 39.7%). Conception rate was unaffected by either days postpartum at injection or overall fertility of the individual herds. These observations do not support the routine use of doses of 25 to 100 micrograms fertirelin acetate or 10 micrograms buserelin at the time of first or second AI as a means to improve conception rate in lactating dairy cows. PMID:2111339

  11. Effects of trimetazidine in ethanol- and acetic acid-induced colitis: oxidant/anti-oxidant status.

    PubMed

    Girgin; Karaoglu; Tüzün; Erkus; Ozütemiz; Dinçer; Batur; Tanyalçin

    1999-11-01

    There is overwhelming evidence in favour of a significant role of reactive oxygen metabolites (ROM) in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in man and in experimental animal models. This study was undertaken to investigate the possible protective effects of pretreatment with trimetazidine (TMZ) on the oxidant-anti-oxidant balance in ethanol- and acetic acid-induced colonic damage in rats. TMZ was chosen because of its various cytoprotective features (preserving cellular ATP levels, limiting intracellular acidosis and limiting inorganic phosphate, Na(+) and Ca(2+) accumulation) and anti-oxy characteristics which were previously reported. A total of 80 rats were randomized into eight major groups each consisting of 10 animals. Animals in groups 1, 2 and 3 served as models of ethanol-induced colitis (0.25 ml of 30% (v/v) ethanol), while group 4 served as their control. Animals in groups 5, 6 and 7 served as models of acetic acid-induced colitis (1 ml of 4% (v/v) acetic acid), while group 8 served as their control. TMZ was administered 5 mg/kg by intrarectal (i.r.) and intraperitoneal (i.p.) routes to groups 1, 2, 5 and 6. Intraperitoneal administration of TMZ was used in order to evaluate its systemic effect while i.r. administration was used to determine its local effect. After decapitation, colon mucosa samples were obtained and evaluated macroscopically and microscopically. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities as markers for inflammation, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels as markers for oxidant stress and reduced glutathione (GSH) and oxidized glutathione (GSSG) levels as markers for anti-oxidant status were determined. Acute colitis was observed in macroscopic and microscopic evaluation in ethanol- and acetic acid-administered groups compared with controls (P = 0.000). The macroscopic and microscopic scores in colitis groups were correlated with MPO activities (r = 0.5365, P = 0.000 and r = 0.5499, P = 0.000, respectively). MDA

  12. ETHANOL, ACETIC ACID, AND WATER ADSORPTION FROM BINARY AND TERNARY LIQUID MIXTURES ON HIGH-SILICA ZEOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Adsorption isotherms were measured for ethanol, acetic acid, and water adsorbed on high-silica ZSM-5 zeolite powder from binary and ternary liquid mixtures at room temperature. Ethanol and water adsorption on two high-silica ZSM-5 zeolites with different aluminum contents and a h...

  13. Techno-economic Analysis for the Thermochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol via Acetic Acid Synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Yunhua; Jones, Susanne B.

    2009-04-01

    Biomass is a renewable energy resource that can be converted into liquid fuel suitable for transportation applications. As a widely available biomass form, lignocellulosic biomass can have a major impact on domestic transportation fuel supplies and thus help meet the Energy Independence and Security Act renewable energy goals (U.S. Congress 2007). This study performs a techno-economic analysis of the thermo chemical conversion of biomass to ethanol, through methanol and acetic acid, followed by hydrogenation of acetic acid to ethanol. The conversion of syngas to methanol and methanol to acetic acid are well-proven technologies with high conversions and yields. This study was undertaken to determine if this highly selective route to ethanol could provide an already established economically attractive route to ethanol. The feedstock was assumed to be wood chips at 2000 metric ton/day (dry basis). Two types of gasification technologies were evaluated: an indirectly-heated gasifier and a directly-heated oxygen-blown gasifier. Process models were developed and a cost analysis was performed. The carbon monoxide used for acetic acid synthesis from methanol and the hydrogen used for hydrogenation were assumed to be purchased and not derived from the gasifier. Analysis results show that ethanol selling prices are estimated to be $2.79/gallon and $2.81/gallon for the indirectly-heated gasifier and the directly-heated gasifier systems, respectively (1stQ 2008$, 10% ROI). These costs are above the ethanol market price for during the same time period ($1.50 - $2.50/gal). The co-production of acetic acid greatly improves the process economics as shown in the figure below. Here, 20% of the acetic acid is diverted from ethanol production and assumed to be sold as a co-product at the prevailing market prices ($0.40 - $0.60/lb acetic acid), resulting in competitive ethanol production costs.

  14. Effects of glucose, ethanol and acetic acid on regulation of ADH2 gene from Lachancea fermentati.

    PubMed

    Yaacob, Norhayati; Mohamad Ali, Mohd Shukuri; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Abdul Rahman, Nor Aini

    2016-01-01

    Background. Not all yeast alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2) are repressed by glucose, as reported in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pichia stipitis ADH2 is regulated by oxygen instead of glucose, whereas Kluyveromyces marxianus ADH2 is regulated by neither glucose nor ethanol. For this reason, ADH2 regulation of yeasts may be species dependent, leading to a different type of expression and fermentation efficiency. Lachancea fermentati is a highly efficient ethanol producer, fast-growing cells and adapted to fermentation-related stresses such as ethanol and organic acid, but the metabolic information regarding the regulation of glucose and ethanol production is still lacking. Methods. Our investigation started with the stimulation of ADH2 activity from S. cerevisiae and L. fermentati by glucose and ethanol induction in a glucose-repressed medium. The study also embarked on the retrospective analysis of ADH2 genomic and protein level through direct sequencing and sites identification. Based on the sequence generated, we demonstrated ADH2 gene expression highlighting the conserved NAD(P)-binding domain in the context of glucose fermentation and ethanol production. Results. An increase of ADH2 activity was observed in starved L. fermentati (LfeADH2) and S. cerevisiae (SceADH2) in response to 2% (w/v) glucose induction. These suggest that in the presence of glucose, ADH2 activity was activated instead of being repressed. An induction of 0.5% (v/v) ethanol also increased LfeADH2 activity, promoting ethanol resistance, whereas accumulating acetic acid at a later stage of fermentation stimulated ADH2 activity and enhanced glucose consumption rates. The lack in upper stream activating sequence (UAS) and TATA elements hindered the possibility of Adr1 binding to LfeADH2. Transcription factors such as SP1 and RAP1 observed in LfeADH2 sequence have been implicated in the regulation of many genes including ADH2. In glucose fermentation, L. fermentati exhibited a bell-shaped ADH2

  15. Effects of glucose, ethanol and acetic acid on regulation of ADH2 gene from Lachancea fermentati

    PubMed Central

    Yaacob, Norhayati; Salleh, Abu Bakar; Abdul Rahman, Nor Aini

    2016-01-01

    Background. Not all yeast alcohol dehydrogenase 2 (ADH2) are repressed by glucose, as reported in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Pichia stipitis ADH2 is regulated by oxygen instead of glucose, whereas Kluyveromyces marxianus ADH2 is regulated by neither glucose nor ethanol. For this reason, ADH2 regulation of yeasts may be species dependent, leading to a different type of expression and fermentation efficiency. Lachancea fermentati is a highly efficient ethanol producer, fast-growing cells and adapted to fermentation-related stresses such as ethanol and organic acid, but the metabolic information regarding the regulation of glucose and ethanol production is still lacking. Methods. Our investigation started with the stimulation of ADH2 activity from S. cerevisiae and L. fermentati by glucose and ethanol induction in a glucose-repressed medium. The study also embarked on the retrospective analysis of ADH2 genomic and protein level through direct sequencing and sites identification. Based on the sequence generated, we demonstrated ADH2 gene expression highlighting the conserved NAD(P)-binding domain in the context of glucose fermentation and ethanol production. Results. An increase of ADH2 activity was observed in starved L. fermentati (LfeADH2) and S. cerevisiae (SceADH2) in response to 2% (w/v) glucose induction. These suggest that in the presence of glucose, ADH2 activity was activated instead of being repressed. An induction of 0.5% (v/v) ethanol also increased LfeADH2 activity, promoting ethanol resistance, whereas accumulating acetic acid at a later stage of fermentation stimulated ADH2 activity and enhanced glucose consumption rates. The lack in upper stream activating sequence (UAS) and TATA elements hindered the possibility of Adr1 binding to LfeADH2. Transcription factors such as SP1 and RAP1 observed in LfeADH2 sequence have been implicated in the regulation of many genes including ADH2. In glucose fermentation, L. fermentati exhibited a bell-shaped ADH2

  16. Lactation

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Lactation is the most energy-efficient way to provide for the dietary needs of young mammals, their mother's milk being actively protective, immunomodulatory, and ideal for their needs. Intrauterine mammary gland development in the human female is already apparent by the end of the sixth week of gestation. During puberty and adolescence secretions of the anterior pituitary stimulate the maturation of the graafian follicles in the ovaries and stimulate the secretion of follicular estrogens, which stimulate development of the mammary ducts. Pregnancy has the most dramatic effect on the breast, but development of the glandular breast tissue and deposition of fat and connective tissue continue under the influence of cyclic sex-hormone stimulation. Many changes occur in the nipple and breast during pregnancy and at delivery as a prelude to lactation. Preparation of the breasts is so effective that lactation could commence even if pregnancy were discontinued at 16 weeks. Following birth, placental inhibition of milk synthesis is removed, and a woman's progesterone blood levels decline rapidly. The breasts fill with milk, which is a high-density, low-volume feed called colostrum until about 30 hours after birth. Because it is not the level of maternal hormones, but the efficiency of infant suckling and/or milk removal that governs the volume of milk produced in each breast, mothers who permit their infants to feed ad libitum commonly observe that they have large volumes of milk 24-48 hours after birth. The two maternal reflexes involved in lactation are the milk-production and milk-ejection reflex. A number of complementary reflexes are involved when the infant feeds: the rooting reflex (which programmes the infant to search for the nipple), the sucking reflex (rhythmic jaw action creating negative pressure and a peristaltic action of the tongue), and the swallowing reflex. The infant's instinctive actions need to be consolidated into learned behaviour in the postpartum

  17. Experimental and DFT studies of the conversion of ethanol and acetic acid on PtSn-based catalysts.

    PubMed

    Alcala, Rafael; Shabaker, John W; Huber, George W; Sanchez-Castillo, Marco A; Dumesic, James A

    2005-02-17

    Reaction kinetics studies were conducted for the conversions of ethanol and acetic acid over silica-supported Pt and Pt/Sn catalysts at temperatures from 500 to 600 K. Addition of Sn to Pt catalysts inhibits the decomposition of ethanol to CO, CH4, and C2H6, such that PtSn-based catalysts are active for dehydrogenation of ethanol to acetaldehyde. Furthermore, PtSn-based catalysts are selective for the conversion of acetic acid to ethanol, acetaldehyde, and ethyl acetate, whereas Pt catalysts lead mainly to decomposition products such as CH4 and CO. These results are interpreted using density functional theory (DFT) calculations for various adsorbed species and transition states on Pt(111) and Pt3Sn(111) surfaces. The Pt3Sn alloy slab was selected for DFT studies because results from in situ (119)Sn Mössbauer spectroscopy and CO adsorption microcalorimetry of silica-supported Pt/Sn catalysts indicate that Pt-Sn alloy is the major phase present. Accordingly, results from DFT calculations show that transition-state energies for C-O and C-C bond cleavage in ethanol-derived species increase by 25-60 kJ/mol on Pt3Sn(111) compared to Pt(111), whereas energies of transition states for dehydrogenation reactions increase by only 5-10 kJ/mol. Results from DFT calculations show that transition-state energies for CH3CO-OH bond cleavage increase by only 12 kJ/mol on Pt3Sn(111) compared to Pt(111). The suppression of C-C bond cleavage in ethanol and acetic acid upon addition of Sn to Pt is also confirmed by microcalorimetric and infrared spectroscopic measurements at 300 K of the interactions of ethanol and acetic acid with Pt and PtSn on a silica support that had been silylated to remove silanol groups. PMID:16851198

  18. Constructing a polyfunctional zeolite-encaged metal catalyst for the multistage oxidation of ethanol into ethyl acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Shakhtakhtinskii, T.N.; Aliev, A.M.; Kuliev, A.R.

    1995-08-01

    To construct an efficient polyfunctional catalyst for the given multistage reaction, the authors previously studied the catalysts HNaY, clinosorb, H-clinoptilolite, and H-mordenite in the reaction of esterification of ethanol with acetic acid; CuH-clinoptilolite, Cu-clinosorb, CuH-mordenite, and CuHNaY in the reaction of oxidative dehydration of ethanol; PdH-clinoptilolite, Pd-clinosorb, PdH-mordenite, and PdHNaY in the oxidation of ethanol; and CuPdH-clinoptilolite in the oxidative transformation of ethanol into ethyl acetate. The catalytic activity of these zeolites and other Pd- and Cu-containing zeolite catalysts, which the authors synthesized by the ion-exchange technique, was studied in a flow-circulating set-up.

  19. A DFT study on the Cu (1 1 1) surface for ethyl acetate synthesis from ethanol dehydrogenation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ruzhen; Zhang, Minhua; Yu, Yingzhe

    2012-07-01

    Copper-based catalysts have shown excellent catalytic performances. Despite extensive studies in the field, the microscopic mechanism of ethanol dehydrogenation to ethyl acetate (EA) on Cu-based catalysts remains controversial. Aiming to provide insight into the catalytic roles of Cu, density functional theory (DFT) calculations have been performed to study the elementary reactions involved in ethanol dehydrogenation to EA on Cu surfaces. In this work, the adsorption properties of ethanol, ethoxy, acetaldehyde, acetyl and EA on the Cu (1 1 1) catalyst surface were investigated. Based on two pathways, many transition states involved are located. The results show that the route proposed by Colley is more likely to happen.

  20. A green approach to ethyl acetate: quantitative conversion of ethanol through direct dehydrogenation in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Gaofeng; Chen, Tao; He, Lipeng; Pinnau, Ingo; Lai, Zhiping; Huang, Kuo-Wei

    2012-12-01

    Pincers do the trick: The conversion of ethanol to ethyl acetate and hydrogen was achieved using a pincer-Ru catalyst in a Pd-Ag membrane reactor. Near quantitative conversions and yields could be achieved without the need for acid or base promoters or hydrogen acceptors (see scheme). PMID:23136053

  1. Secondary. cap alpha. -deuterium kinetic isotope effects in solvolyses of ferrocenylmethyl acetate and benzoate in ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Sutic, D.; Asperger, S.; Borcic, S.

    1982-12-17

    Secondary ..cap alpha..-deuterium kinetic isotope effects (KIE) in solvolyses of ferrocenyldideuteriomethyl acetate and benzoate were determined in 96% (v/v) ethanol, at 25/sup 0/C, as k/sub H//k/sub D/ = 1.24 and 1.26, respectively. The KIEs were also determined in the presence of 0.1 mol dm/sup -3/ lithium perchlorate: the k/sub H//k/ sub D/ values were 1.23 and 1.22 for acetate and benzoate complexes, respectively. The maximum KIE for the C-O bond cleavage of a primary substrate is as large as, or larger than, that of secondary derivatives, which is estimated to be 1.23 per deuterium. The measured KIE of about 12% per D therefore represents a strongly reduced effect relative to its maximum. The solvolyses exhibit ''a special salt effect''. This effect indicates the presence of solvent-separated ion pairs and the return to tight pairs. As the maximum KIE is expected in solvolyses involving transformation of one type of ion pair into another, the strongly reduced ..cap alpha..-D KIE supports the structure involving direct participation of electrons that in the ground state are localized at the iron atom. The alkyl-oxygen cleavage is accompanied by 10-15% acyl-oxygen cleavage.

  2. The occurrence of Listeria monocytogens in retail ready-to-eat meat and poultry products related to the levels of Acetate and Lactate in the products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a psychrotrophic foodborne pathogen that has been isolated from ready-to-eat meat and poultry products (RTE meats). The purpose of this study was to quantify lactate and acetate levels in retail RTE meats that had been tested in a previous study for the presence of L. mono...

  3. Hepatic gluconeogenesis influences (13)C enrichment in lactate in human brain tumors during metabolism of [1,2-(13)C]acetate.

    PubMed

    Pichumani, Kumar; Mashimo, Tomoyuki; Vemireddy, Vamsidhara; Kovacs, Zoltan; Ratnakar, James; Mickey, Bruce; Malloy, Craig R; DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Bachoo, Robert M; Maher, Elizabeth A

    2016-07-01

    (13)C-enriched compounds are readily metabolized in human malignancies. Fragments of the tumor, acquired by biopsy or surgical resection, may be acid-extracted and (13)C NMR spectroscopy of metabolites such as glutamate, glutamine, 2-hydroxyglutarate, lactate and others provide a rich source of information about tumor metabolism in situ. Recently we observed (13)C-(13)C spin-spin coupling in (13)C NMR spectra of lactate in brain tumors removed from patients who were infused with [1,2-(13)C]acetate prior to the surgery. We found, in four patients, that infusion of (13)C-enriched acetate was associated with synthesis of (13)C-enriched glucose, detectable in plasma. (13)C labeled glucose derived from [1,2-(13)C]acetate metabolism in the liver and the brain pyruvate recycling in the tumor together lead to the production of the (13)C labeled lactate pool in the brain tumor. Their combined contribution to acetate metabolism in the brain tumors was less than 4.0%, significantly lower than the direct oxidation of acetate in the citric acid cycle in tumors. PMID:27020407

  4. Prenatal or lactational exposure of male rats to lead acetate. Effect on reproductive function

    SciTech Connect

    Thoreux-Manlay, A.; Pinon-Lataillade, G.; Coffigny, H.; Masse, R.; Soufir, J.C.

    1995-02-01

    Lead is an environmental pollutant which has received much attention, partly because of the particular sensitivity of children to this element. As regards the consequences of exposure to lead during fetal life or childhood, epidemiological studies have so far focused on its neuropsychological effects and little is known about the consequences of fetal or childhood exposure for reproduction. With respect to animals, the reproductive toxicity of lead in males exposed during prenatal life or the suckling period has only been considered in a few studies. Four such studies concerned the rat, the most current model of lead toxicity for male reproduction; two of studies considered the long term effects (i.e. during adulthood) of moderate in utero lead exposure, another covered the prenatal and neonatal periods and focused on the possible impact of lead intoxication on steriodogenesis before weaning, while the remaining study dealt with pituitary hormone level at the end of lead gavage in newborns. None of these investigations compared the effects of exposure during prenatal life to those of exposure via lactation, or the early effects (at about weaning time) to the long-term consequences during adulthood. Because of the paucity of data on these points, we conducted two experiments: in one, rats were exposed to lead prenatally, and in the other via maternal milk. In both cases male reproductive function at weaning and adulthood was examined. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  5. Influence of an acetate- and a lactate-based balanced infusion solution on acid base physiology and hemodynamics: an observational pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The current pilot study compares the impact of an intravenous infusion of Ringer’s lactate to an acetate-based solution with regard to acid–base balance. The study design included the variables of the Stewart approach and focused on the effective strong ion difference. Because adverse hemodynamic effects have been reported when using acetate buffered solutions in hemodialysis, hemodynamics were also evaluated. Methods Twenty-four women who had undergone abdominal gynecologic surgery and who had received either Ringer’s lactate (Strong Ion Difference 28 mmol/L; n = 12) or an acetate-based solution (Strong Ion Difference 36.8 mmol/L; n = 12) according to an established clinical protocol and its precursor were included in the investigation. After induction of general anesthesia, a set of acid–base variables, hemodynamic values and serum electrolytes was measured three times during the next 120 minutes. Results Patients received a mean dose of 4,054 ± 450 ml of either one or the other of the solutions. In terms of mean arterial blood pressure and norepinephrine requirements there were no differences to observe between the study groups. pH and serum HCO3- concentration decreased slightly but significantly only with Ringer’s lactate. In addition, the acetate-based solution kept the plasma effective strong ion difference more stable than Ringer’s lactate. Conclusions Both of the solutions provided hemodynamic stability. Concerning consistency of acid base parameters none of the solutions seemed to be inferior, either. Whether the slight advantages observed for the acetate-buffered solution in terms of stability of pH and plasma HCO3- are clinically relevant, needs to be investigated in a larger randomized controlled trial. PMID:22769740

  6. Kinetics of cytochrome P450 2E1-catalyzed oxidation of ethanol to acetic acid via acetaldehyde.

    PubMed

    Bell-Parikh, L C; Guengerich, F P

    1999-08-20

    The P450 2E1-catalyzed oxidation of ethanol to acetaldehyde is characterized by a kinetic deuterium isotope effect that increases K(m) with no effect on k(cat), and rate-limiting product release has been proposed to account for the lack of an isotope effect on k(cat) (Bell, L. C., and Guengerich, F. P. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 29643-29651). Acetaldehyde is also a substrate for P450 2E1 oxidation to acetic acid, and k(cat)/K(m) for this reaction is at least 1 order of magnitude greater than that for ethanol oxidation to acetaldehyde. Acetic acid accounts for 90% of the products generated from ethanol in a 10-min reaction, and the contribution of this second oxidation has been overlooked in many previous studies. The noncompetitive intermolecular kinetic hydrogen isotope effects on acetaldehyde oxidation to acetic acid ((H)(k(cat)/K(m))/(D)(k(cat)/K(m)) = 4.5, and (D)k(cat) = 1.5) are comparable with the isotope effects typically observed for ethanol oxidation to acetaldehyde, and k(cat) is similar for both reactions, suggesting a possible common catalytic mechanism. Rapid quench kinetic experiments indicate that acetic acid is formed rapidly from added acetaldehyde (approximately 450 min(-1)) with burst kinetics. Pulse-chase experiments reveal that, at a subsaturating concentration of ethanol, approximately 90% of the acetaldehyde intermediate is directly converted to acetic acid without dissociation from the enzyme active site. Competition experiments suggest that P450 2E1 binds acetic acid and acetaldehyde with relatively high K(d) values, which preclude simple tight binding as an explanation for rate-limiting product release. The existence of a rate-determining step between product formation and release is postulated. Also proposed is a conformational change in P450 2E1 occurring during the course of oxidation and the discrimination of P450 2E1 between acetaldehyde and its hydrated form, the gem-diol. This multistep P450 reaction is characterized by kinetic

  7. Density Functional Investigation of the Adsorption of Isooctane, Ethanol, and Acetic Acid on a Water-Covered Fe(100) Surface

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The presence of water in biofuels poses the question of how it affects the frictional performance of additives in fuels containing organic substances. To investigate the effect of water on the adsorption of molecules present in fuel and its additives we simulated within the framework of density functional theory the adsorption of ethanol, isooctane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane), and acetic acid on a bare and a water-covered Fe(100) surface. Van der Waals interactions are taken into account in our computations. In those molecules, where dispersion forces contribute significantly to the binding mechanism, the water layer has a stronger screening effect. Additionally, this effect can be enhanced by the presence of polar functional groups in the molecule. Thus, with the introduction of a water layer, the adsorption energy of isooctane and ethanol is reduced but it is increased in the case of the acetic acid. The adsorption configuration of ethanol is changed, while the one of acetic acid is moderately, and for isooctane only very slightly altered. Therefore, the effect of a water layer in the adsorption of organic molecules on an Fe(100) surface strongly depends on the type of bond and consequently, so do the tribological properties. PMID:25243045

  8. The use of nomegestrol acetate subdermal contraceptive implant, uniplant, during lactation.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aleem, H; Abol-Oyoun el-S, M; Shaaban, M M; el-Saeed, M; Shoukry, M; Makhlouf, A; Salem, H T

    1996-11-01

    Uniplant is a single contraceptive implant intended for one year use. It contains the progestogen nomegestrol acetate. The clinical performance and the effect of its use during the first postpartum year on breastfeeding performance and growth and health of the infants were studied and compared to the findings in a parallel group who used an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) in a prospective, non-randomized study. This was carried out in Assiut, Egypt. Two-hundred-forty fully breastfeeding mothers asking for initiation of contraception early postpartum were assigned according to their choices into either nomegestrol subdermal contraceptive implant (Uniplant) (120 women) or intrauterine contraceptive device (CuT 380A) (120 women). The mother and infant pairs were followed up at monthly intervals during the first three months and at two-month intervals thereafter up until the first birthday of the baby. No pregnancy occurred in the two groups. Amenorrhea was significantly more prolonged in the Uniplant group than in the IUD group. There were no significant differences in net continuation rates between the two groups (88.3 versus 92.4 per 100 women, respectively). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the number of breastfeeding episodes, time of weaning, and the cumulative rates of full and partial breastfeeding. There were no significant differences between the two groups in infant weight, weight gain per day, or in infant linear growth. There were no significant differences in the incidence of important health problems affecting the infants of the two groups. However, there were seven infant deaths, six of them were in the Uniplant group. Uniplant subdermal contraceptive implants can be offered as a new contraceptive option suitable for nursing mothers. PMID:8934061

  9. Synergistic Trap Response of the False Stable Fly and Little House Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) to Acetic Acid and Ethanol, Two Principal Sugar Fermentation Volatiles.

    PubMed

    Landolt, Peter J; Cha, Dong H; Zack, Richard S

    2015-10-01

    In an initial observation, large numbers of muscoid flies (Diptera) were captured as nontarget insects in traps baited with solutions of acetic acid plus ethanol. In subsequent field experiments, numbers of false stable fly Muscina stabulans (Fallén) and little house fly Fannia canicularis (L.) trapped with the combination of acetic acid plus ethanol were significantly higher than those trapped with either chemical alone, or in unbaited traps. Flies were trapped with acetic acid and ethanol that had been formulated in the water of the drowning solution of the trap, or dispensed from polypropylene vials with holes in the vial lids for diffusion of evaporated chemical. Numbers of both species of fly captured were greater with acetic acid and ethanol in glass McPhail traps, compared to four other similar wet trap designs. This combination of chemicals may be useful as an inexpensive and not unpleasant lure for monitoring or removing these two pest fly species. PMID:26314021

  10. High acetone-butanol-ethanol production in pH-stat co-feeding of acetate and glucose.

    PubMed

    Gao, Ming; Tashiro, Yukihiro; Wang, Qunhui; Sakai, Kenji; Sonomoto, Kenji

    2016-08-01

    We previously reported the metabolic analysis of butanol and acetone production from exogenous acetate by (13)C tracer experiments (Gao et al., RSC Adv., 5, 8486-8495, 2015). To clarify the influence of acetate on acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) production, we first performed an enzyme assay in Clostridium saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. Acetate addition was found to drastically increase the activities of key enzymes involved in the acetate uptake (phosphate acetyltransferase and CoA transferase), acetone formation (acetoacetate decarboxylase), and butanol formation (butanol dehydrogenase) pathways. Subsequently, supplementation of acetate during acidogenesis and early solventogenesis resulted in a significant increase in ABE production. To establish an efficient ABE production system using acetate as a co-substrate, several shot strategies were investigated in batch culture. Batch cultures with two substrate shots without pH control produced 14.20 g/L butanol and 23.27 g/L ABE with a maximum specific butanol production rate of 0.26 g/(g h). Furthermore, pH-controlled (at pH 5.5) batch cultures with two substrate shots resulted in not only improved acetate consumption but also a further increase in ABE production. Finally, we obtained 15.13 g/L butanol and 24.37 g/L ABE at the high specific butanol production rate of 0.34 g/(g h) using pH-stat co-feeding method. Thus, in this study, we established a high ABE production system using glucose and acetate as co-substrates in a pH-stat co-feeding system with C. saccharoperbutylacetonicum N1-4. PMID:26928043

  11. Ethanol and Acetic Acid Production from Carbon Monoxide in a Clostridium Strain in Batch and Continuous Gas-Fed Bioreactors

    PubMed Central

    Nalakath Abubackar, Haris; Veiga, María C.; Kennes, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The effect of different sources of nitrogen as well as their concentrations on the bioconversion of carbon monoxide to metabolic products such as acetic acid and ethanol by Clostridium autoethanogenum was studied. In a first set of assays, under batch conditions, either NH4Cl, trypticase soy broth or yeast extract (YE) were used as sources of nitrogen. The use of YE was found statistically significant (p < 0.05) on the product spectrum in such batch assays. In another set of experiments, three bioreactors were operated with continuous CO supply, in order to estimate the effect of running conditions on products and biomass formation. The bioreactors were operated under different conditions, i.e., EXP1 (pH = 5.75, YE 1g/L), EXP2 (pH = 4.75, YE 1 g/L) and EXP3 (pH = 5.75, YE 0.2 g/L). When compared to EXP2 and EXP3, it was found that EXP1 yielded the maximum biomass accumulation (302.4 mg/L) and products concentrations, i.e., acetic acid (2147.1 mg/L) and ethanol (352.6 mg/L). This can be attributed to the fact that the higher pH and higher YE concentration used in EXP1 stimulated cell growth and did, consequently, also enhance metabolite production. However, when ethanol is the desired end-product, as a biofuel, the lower pH used in EXP2 was more favourable for solventogenesis and yielded the highest ethanol/acetic acid ratio, reaching a value of 0.54. PMID:25608591

  12. Main and interaction effects of acetic acid, furfural, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid on growth and ethanol productivity of yeasts

    SciTech Connect

    Palmqvist, E.; Grage, H.; Meinander, N.Q.; Hahn-Haegerdal, B.

    1999-04-05

    The influence of the factors acetic acid, furfural, and p-hydroxybenzoic acid on the ethanol yield (Y{sub EtOH}) of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, bakers` yeast, S. cerevisiae ATCC 96581, and Candida shehatae NJ 23 was investigated using a 2{sup 3}-full factorial design with 3 centerpoints. The results indicated that acetic acid inhibited the fermentation by C. shehatae NJ 23 markedly more than by bakers` yeast, whereas no significant difference in tolerance towards the compounds was detected between the S. cerevisiae strains. Furfural and the lignin derived compound p-hydroxybenzoic acid did not affect any of the yeasts at the cell mass concentration used. The results indicated that the linear model was not adequate to describe the experimental data. Based on the results from the 2{sup 3}-full factorial experiment, an extended experiment was designed based on a central composite design to investigate the influence of the factors on the specific growth rate ({mu}), biomass yield (Y{sub x}), volumetric ethanol productivity (Q{sub EtOH}), and Y{sub EtOH}. Bakers` yeast was chosen in the extended experiment due to its better tolerance towards acetic acid, which makes it a more interesting organism for use in industrial fermentations of lignocellulosic hydrolysates.

  13. Effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Paederia foetida Linn. on acetic acid induced colitis in albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Das, Swarnamoni; Kanodia, Lalit; Mukherjee, Apurba; Hakim, Abdul

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of ethanolic extract of leaves of Paederia foetida on acetic acid induced colitis in albino rats. Materials and Methods: Ethanolic extract of Paederia foetida (EEPF) was prepared by percolation method. Acute toxicity test was done by using Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development guidelines. Albino rats were divided into four groups of five animals each. Groups A and B received 3% gum acacia. Groups C and D received EEPF 500 mg/kg body weight (BW) and 5-aminosalisylic acid 100 mg/kg BW respectively. Colitis was induced by transrectal administration of 4% acetic acid on 5th day. All animals were sacrificed after 48 h of colitis induction and distal 10 cm of the colon was dissected. Colon was weighed for disease activity index (DAI) and scored macroscopically and microscopically. Biochemical assessment of tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) was done in colonic tissue homogenate and malondialdehyde (MDA) was estimated in serum. Results: P. foetida showed significant (P < 0.05) reduction in DAI, macroscopic and microscopic lesion score as well as significant (P < 0.05) improvement in MPO, MDA, CAT, and SOD level as compared to Group B. Conclusions: The ethanolic extract of leaves of P. foetida showed significant amelioration of experimentally induced colitis, which may be attributed to its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant property. PMID:24130378

  14. Development of xylose-fermenting yeasts for ethanol production at high acetic acid concentrations

    SciTech Connect

    Mohandas, D.V.; Whelan, D.R.; Panchal, C.J.

    1995-12-31

    Mutants resistant to comparatively high levels of acetic acid were isolated from the xylose-fermenting yeasts Candida shehatae and Pichia Stipitis by adapting these cultures to increasing concentrations of acetic acid grown in shake-flask cultures. These mutants were tested for their ability to ferment xylose in presence of high acetic acid concentrations, in acid hydrolysates of wood, and in hardwood spent sulfite liquor, and compared with their wild-type counterparts and between themselves. The P. stipitis mutant exhibited faster fermentation times, better tolerance to acid hydrolysates, and tolerance to lower pH.

  15. ADSORPTION AND MEMBRANE SEPARATION MEASUREMENTS WITH MIXTURES OF ETHANOL, ACETIC ACID, AND WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Biomass fermentation produces ethanol and other renewable biofuels. Pervaporation using hydrophobic membranes is potentially a cost-effective means of removing biofuels from fermentation broths for small- to medium-scale applications. Silicalite-filled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)...

  16. The effect of flooding on the exchange of the volatile C2-compounds ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid between leaves of Amazonian floodplain tree species and the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottenberger, S.; Kleiss, B.; Kuhn, U.; Wolf, A.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Junk, W.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2008-08-01

    The effect of root inundation on the leaf emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid in relation to assimilation and transpiration was investigated with 2 3 years old tree seedlings of four Amazonian floodplain species by applying dynamic cuvette systems under greenhouse conditions. Emissions were monitored over a period of several days of inundation using a combination of Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and conventional techniques (HPLC, ion chromatography). Under non-flooded conditions, none of the species exhibited measurable emissions of any of the compounds, but rather low deposition of acetaldehyde and acetic acid was observed instead. Tree species specific variations in deposition velocities were largely due to variations in stomatal conductance. Flooding of the roots resulted in leaf emissions of ethanol and acetaldehyde by all species, while emissions of acetic acid were only observed from the species exhibiting the highest ethanol and acetaldehyde emission rates. All three compounds showed a similar diurnal emission profile, each displaying an emission burst in the morning, followed by a decline in the evening. This concurrent behavior supports the conclusion, that all three compounds emitted by the leaves are derived from ethanol produced in the roots by alcoholic fermentation, transported to the leaves with the transpiration stream and finally partly converted to acetaldehyde and acetic acid by enzymatic processes. Co-emissions and peaking in the early morning suggest that root ethanol, after transportation with the transpiration stream to the leaves and enzymatic oxidation to acetaldehyde and acetate, is the metabolic precursor for all compounds emitted, though we can not totally exclude other production pathways. Emission rates substantially varied among tree species, with maxima differing by up to two orders of magnitude (25 1700 nmol m-2 min-1 for ethanol and 5 500 nmol m-2 min-1 for acetaldehyde). Acetic acid emissions

  17. The effect of flooding on the exchange of the volatile C2-compounds ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid between leaves of Amazonian floodplain tree species and the atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rottenberger, S.; Kleiss, B.; Kuhn, U.; Wolf, A.; Piedade, M. T. F.; Junk, W.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2008-02-01

    The effect of root inundation on the leaf emissions of ethanol, acetaldehyde and acetic acid was investigated with 2-3 years old tree seedlings of four Amazonian floodplain species by applying dynamic cuvette systems under greenhouse conditions. Emissions were monitored over a period of several days of inundation using a combination of Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS) and conventional techniques (HPLC, ion chromatography). Under non-flooded conditions, none of the species exhibited significant emissions of any of the compounds. A slight deposition of acetaldehyde and acetic acid was mainly observed, instead. Tree species specific variations in deposition velocities were largely due to variations in stomatal conductance. Flooding of the roots resulted in leaf emissions of ethanol and acetaldehyde by all species, while emissions of acetic acid occurred only by the species exhibiting the highest ethanol and acetaldehyde emission rates. All three compounds showed a similar diurnal emission profile, each displaying an emission burst in the morning, followed by a decline in the evening. This concurrent behavior supports the conclusion, that all three compounds emitted by the leaves are derived from ethanol produced in the roots by alcoholic fermentation, transported to the leaves with the transpiration stream and finally partly converted to acetaldehyde and acetic acid by enzymatic processes. Co-emissions and peaking in the early morning confirmed that root ethanol, after transportation with the transpiration stream to the leaves and enzymatic oxidation to acetaldehyde and acetate, is the metabolic precursor for all compounds emitted. Emission rates substantially varied among tree species, with maxima differing by up to two orders of magnitude (3-200 nmol m-2 min-1 for ethanol and 5-500 nmol m-2 min-1 for acetaldehyde). Acetic acid emissions reached 12 nmol m-2 min-1. The observed differences in emission rates between the tree species are discussed

  18. The Key to Acetate: Metabolic Fluxes of Acetic Acid Bacteria under Cocoa Pulp Fermentation-Simulating Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Philipp; Frey, Lasse Jannis; Berger, Antje; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Hansen, Carl Erik

    2014-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role during cocoa fermentation, as their main product, acetate, is a major driver for the development of the desired cocoa flavors. Here, we investigated the specialized metabolism of these bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions. A carefully designed combination of parallel 13C isotope labeling experiments allowed the elucidation of intracellular fluxes in the complex environment of cocoa pulp, when lactate and ethanol were included as primary substrates among undefined ingredients. We demonstrate that AAB exhibit a functionally separated metabolism during coconsumption of two-carbon and three-carbon substrates. Acetate is almost exclusively derived from ethanol, while lactate serves for the formation of acetoin and biomass building blocks. Although this is suboptimal for cellular energetics, this allows maximized growth and conversion rates. The functional separation results from a lack of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzymes, typically present in bacteria to interconnect metabolism. In fact, gluconeogenesis is driven by pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Consequently, a balanced ratio of lactate and ethanol is important for the optimum performance of AAB. As lactate and ethanol are individually supplied by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the initial phase of cocoa fermentation, respectively, this underlines the importance of a well-balanced microbial consortium for a successful fermentation process. Indeed, AAB performed the best and produced the largest amounts of acetate in mixed culture experiments when lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were both present. PMID:24837393

  19. Electrochemical Partial Reforming of Ethanol into Ethyl Acetate Using Ultrathin Co3O4 Nanosheets as a Highly Selective Anode Catalyst

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Electrochemical partial reforming of organics provides an alternative strategy to produce valuable organic compounds while generating H2 under mild conditions. In this work, highly selective electrochemical reforming of ethanol into ethyl acetate is successfully achieved by using ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets with exposed (111) facets as an anode catalyst. Those nanosheets were synthesized by a one-pot, templateless hydrothermal method with the use of ammonia. NH3 was demonstrated critical to the overall formation of ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets. With abundant active sites on Co3O4 (111), the as-synthesized ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic activities toward water and ethanol oxidations in alkaline media. More importantly, over the Co3O4 nanosheets, the electrooxidation from ethanol to ethyl acetate was so selective that no other oxidation products were yielded. With such a high selectivity, an electrolyzer cell using Co3O4 nanosheets as the anode electrocatalyst and Ni–Mo nanopowders as the cathode electrocatalyst has been successfully built for ethanol reforming. The electrolyzer cell was readily driven by a 1.5 V battery to achieve the effective production of both H2 and ethyl acetate. After the bulk electrolysis, about 95% of ethanol was electrochemically reformed into ethyl acetate. This work opens up new opportunities in designing a material system for building unique devices to generate both hydrogen and high-value organics at room temperature by utilizing electric energy from renewable sources. PMID:27610415

  20. Electrochemical Partial Reforming of Ethanol into Ethyl Acetate Using Ultrathin Co3O4 Nanosheets as a Highly Selective Anode Catalyst.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lei; Qin, Qing; Zhao, Xiaojing; Xu, Chaofa; Hu, Chengyi; Mo, Shiguang; Wang, Yu Olivia; Lin, Shuichao; Tang, Zichao; Zheng, Nanfeng

    2016-08-24

    Electrochemical partial reforming of organics provides an alternative strategy to produce valuable organic compounds while generating H2 under mild conditions. In this work, highly selective electrochemical reforming of ethanol into ethyl acetate is successfully achieved by using ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets with exposed (111) facets as an anode catalyst. Those nanosheets were synthesized by a one-pot, templateless hydrothermal method with the use of ammonia. NH3 was demonstrated critical to the overall formation of ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets. With abundant active sites on Co3O4 (111), the as-synthesized ultrathin Co3O4 nanosheets exhibited enhanced electrocatalytic activities toward water and ethanol oxidations in alkaline media. More importantly, over the Co3O4 nanosheets, the electrooxidation from ethanol to ethyl acetate was so selective that no other oxidation products were yielded. With such a high selectivity, an electrolyzer cell using Co3O4 nanosheets as the anode electrocatalyst and Ni-Mo nanopowders as the cathode electrocatalyst has been successfully built for ethanol reforming. The electrolyzer cell was readily driven by a 1.5 V battery to achieve the effective production of both H2 and ethyl acetate. After the bulk electrolysis, about 95% of ethanol was electrochemically reformed into ethyl acetate. This work opens up new opportunities in designing a material system for building unique devices to generate both hydrogen and high-value organics at room temperature by utilizing electric energy from renewable sources. PMID:27610415

  1. Improved ethanol production from xylose in the presence of acetic acid by the overexpression of the HAA1 gene in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Sakihama, Yuri; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-03-01

    The hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass liberates sugars, primarily glucose and xylose, which are subsequently converted to ethanol by microbial fermentation. The rapid and efficient fermentation of xylose by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains is limited by weak acids generated during biomass pretreatment processes. In particular, acetic acid negatively affects cell growth, xylose fermentation rate, and ethanol production. The ability of S. cerevisiae to efficiently utilize xylose in the presence of acetic acid is an essential requirement for the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic hydrolysates. Here, an acetic acid-responsive transcriptional activator, HAA1, was overexpressed in a recombinant xylose-fermenting S. cerevisiae strain to yield BY4741X/HAA1. This strain exhibited improved cell growth and ethanol production from xylose under aerobic and oxygen limited conditions, respectively, in the presence of acetic acid. The HAA1p regulon enhanced transcript levels in BY4741X/HAA1. The disruption of PHO13, a p-nitrophenylphosphatase gene, in BY4741X/HAA1 led to further improvement in both yeast growth and the ability to ferment xylose, indicating that HAA1 overexpression and PHO13 deletion act by different mechanisms to enhance ethanol production. PMID:25282639

  2. A Thermodynamic Model for Acetate, Lactate, and Oxalate Complexation with Am(III), Th(IV), Np(V), and U(VI) Valid to High Ionic Strength

    SciTech Connect

    Bynaum, R.V.; Free, S.J.; Moore, R.C.

    1999-01-15

    The organic ligands acetate, lactate, oxalate and EDTA have been identified as components of wastes targeted for disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) located in Southeastern New Mexico. The presence of these ligands is of concern because complexation of the actinides with the ligands may increase dissolved actinide concentrations and impact chemical retardation during transport. The current work considers the complexation of Am(III), Th (IV), Np(V), and U(W) with two of the organic ligands, acetate and lactate, in NaCl media from dilute through high concentration. A thermodynamic model for actinide complexation with the organic ligands has been developed based on the Pitzer activity coefficient formalism and the Harvie-Moller-Weare, Felmy-Weare database for describing brine evaporite systems. The model was parameterized using first apparent stability constant data from the literature. Because of complexation of other metal ions (Fe, Mg, Ni, Pb, etc.) present in the WIPP disposal room with the organic ligands, preliminary results from model calculations indicate the organic ligands do not significantly increase dissolved actinide concentrations.

  3. Decreasing the Level of Ethyl Acetate in Ethanolic Fermentation Broths of Escherichia coli KO11 by Expression of Pseudomonas putida estZ Esterase†

    PubMed Central

    Hasona, Adnan; York, S. W.; Yomano, L. P.; Ingram, L. O.; Shanmugam, K. T.

    2002-01-01

    During the fermentation of sugars to ethanol relatively high levels of an undesirable coproduct, ethyl acetate, are also produced. With ethanologenic Escherichia coli strain KO11 as the biocatalyst, the level of ethyl acetate in beer containing 4.8% ethanol was 192 mg liter−1. Although the E. coli genome encodes several proteins with esterase activity, neither wild-type strains nor KO11 contained significant ethyl acetate esterase activity. A simple method was developed to rapidly screen bacterial colonies for the presence of esterases which hydrolyze ethyl acetate based on pH change. This method allowed identification of Pseudomonas putida NRRL B-18435 as a source of this activity and the cloning of a new esterase gene, estZ. Recombinant EstZ esterase was purified to near homogeneity and characterized. It belongs to family IV of lipolytic enzymes and contains the conserved catalytic triad of serine, aspartic acid, and histidine. As expected, this serine esterase was inhibited by phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride and the histidine reagent diethylpyrocarbonate. The native and subunit molecular weights of the recombinant protein were 36,000, indicating that the enzyme exists as a monomer. By using α-naphthyl acetate as a model substrate, optimal activity was observed at pH 7.5 and 40°C. The Km and Vmax for α-naphthyl acetate were 18 μM and 48.1 μmol · min−1 · mg of protein−1, respectively. Among the aliphatic esters tested, the highest activity was obtained with propyl acetate (96 μmol · min−1 · mg of protein−1), followed by ethyl acetate (66 μmol · min−1 · mg of protein−1). Expression of estZ in E. coli KO11 reduced the concentration of ethyl acetate in fermentation broth (4.8% ethanol) to less than 20 mg liter−1. PMID:12039716

  4. Proton Conducting Polymer Membrane Using The Ionic Liquid 2-Hydroxyethylammonium Lactate For Ethanol Fuel Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, L.; José, N. M.; Boaventura, J.; Iglesias, M.; Mattedi, S.

    2011-12-01

    In this work, there were developed a proton conducting polymer membrane using an ammonium based protic ionic liquid: 2-hydroxyethylamominum lactate for use in proton exchange fuel cells (PEMFC). This kind of ionic liquid has been proven to be biodegradable and they have potentially low toxicity besides low cost of preparation, simple synthesis and purification. The prepared membranes are hybrid organic-inorganic materials. The polymeric matrix is prepared with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mixed with tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) in a ratio of 70/30% in weight. Then, the eletrolytical mixture containing sodium monododecylsulfate (SDS) and the ionic liquid was introduced in the lattice near the gel point, there were used different proportions of the eletrolyte from 5 to 30% in weight. The prepared membranes were characterized using infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (DRX), termogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and conductivity and impedance measurements. The prepared materials are flexible, with good thermal and mechanical stability and with a great potential to be used as conducting membranes of fuel cells. The used mixture minimizes the lixiviation lost of the ionic liquid from the polymeric membrane and enhances the cell efficiency if compared with traditional synthetic membranes.

  5. Hypoglycemic Effect of Ethanol and Ethyl Acetate Extract of Phellinus baumii Fruiting Body in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Wen-Han; Wu, Fei-Hua; Yang, Yan; Wu, Na; Zhang, Jing-Song; Feng, Na; Tang, Chuan-Hong

    2015-01-01

    We investigated hypoglycemic effect of ethanol (EtOH) and ethyl acetate extract acetate (AcOEt) extracts in streptozotocin- (STZ-) induced diabetic mice. Our data showed the maximum inhibitory effect on the fasting plasma glucose (FPG) level was detected in STZ-induced diabetic mice administered with 400 mg/kg AcOEt extract of P. baumii. A lower glycated albumin (GA) level and a higher insulin level were observed in 400 mg/kg AcOEt and EtOH extract groups. Moreover, 400 mg/kg AcOEt and EtOH extract exhibited a stronger effect on increasing size and cell number of islets. The insulin expression level of β-cells and integrated optical density (IOD) value were significantly increased by the administration of 400 mg/kg AcOEt and EtOH extracts. Taken together, AcOEt and EtOH extracts of P. baumii fruiting body exhibited considerable hypoglycemic effect on STZ-induced diabetic mice. PMID:26221177

  6. Ethanol-induced increase in portal blood flow: Role of acetate and A sub 1 - and A sub 2 -adenosine receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Carmichael, F.J.; Saldivia, V.; Varghese, G.A.; Israel, Y.; Orrego, H. Univ. of Toronto, Ontario )

    1988-10-01

    The increase in portal blood flow induced by ethanol appears to be adenosine mediated. Acetate, which is released by the liver during ethanol metabolism, is known to increase adenosine levels in tissues and in blood. The effects of acetate on portal blood flow were investigated in rats using the microsphere technique. The intravenous infusion of acetate resulted in vasodilation of the preportal vasculature and in a dose-dependent increase in portal blood flow. This acetate-induced increase in portal blood flow was suppressed by the adenosine receptor blocker, 8-phenyltheophylline. Using the A{sub 1}-adenosine receptor agonist N-6-cyclohexyl adenosine and the A{sub 2}-agonist 5{prime}-N-ethylcarboxamido adenosine, we demonstrate that the effect of adenosine on the preportal vasculature is mediated by the A{sub 2}-subtype of adenosine receptors. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that the increase in portal blood flow after ethanol administration results from a preportal vasodilatory effect of adenosine formed from acetate metabolism in extrahepatic tissues.

  7. Vapor-liquid equilibrium measurements at 101. 32 kPa for binary mixtures of methyl acetate + ethanol or 1-propanol

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, J.: Susial, P.; de Alfonso, C. )

    1990-07-01

    This paper reports on isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium data at 101.32 {plus minus} 0.02 kPa for methyl acetate (1) + ethane (2) or + 1-propanol (2). The results are compared with those predicted by the UNIFAC and ASOG methods. The methyl acetate (1) + ethanol (2) system forms an azeotrope at 329.8 K and a molar concentration of x{sub 1} = 0.958. Both methods predict the vapor-phase compositions equally well, with overall mean errors of less than 5%.

  8. Upgrading oxygenated Fischer-Tropsch derivatives and one-step direct synthesis of ethyl acetate from ethanol - examples of the desirability of research on simple chemical compounds transformations.

    PubMed

    Klimkiewicz, Roman

    2014-01-01

    Oxygenates formed as by-products of Fischer-Tropsch syntheses can be transformed into other Fischer-Tropsch derived oxygenates instead of treating them as unwanted chemicals. One-step direct synthesis of ethyl acetate from ethanol is feasible with the use of some heterogeneous catalysts. Despite their apparent simplicity, both transformations are discussed as targeted fields of research. Furthermore, the two concepts are justified due to the environmental protection. Arguments regarding the Fischer-Tropsch process are focused on the opportunities of the utilization of undesirable by-products. The effective striving for their utilization can make the oxygenates the targeted products of this process. Arguments regarding the one-step direct synthesis of ethyl acetate underline the environmental protection and sustainability as a less waste-generating method but, above all, highlight the possibility of reducing the glycerol overproduction problem. The production of ethyl acetate from bioethanol and then transesterification of fats and oils with the use of ethyl acetate allows managing all the renewable raw materials. Thus, the process enables the biosynthesis of biodiesel without glycerine by-product and potentially would result in the increase in the demand for ethyl acetate. Graphical Abstract. PMID:25648719

  9. Hydroethanolic extract of Baccharis trimera promotes gastroprotection and healing of acute and chronic gastric ulcers induced by ethanol and acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Dos Reis Lívero, Francislaine Aparecida; da Silva, Luisa Mota; Ferreira, Daniele Maria; Galuppo, Larissa Favaretto; Borato, Debora Gasparin; Prando, Thiago Bruno Lima; Lourenço, Emerson Luiz Botelho; Strapasson, Regiane Lauriano Batista; Stefanello, Maria Élida Alves; Werner, Maria Fernanda de Paula; Acco, Alexandra

    2016-09-01

    Ethanol is a psychoactive substance highly consumed around the world whose health problems include gastric lesions. Baccharis trimera is used in folk medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders. However, few studies have evaluated its biological and toxic effects. To validate the popular use of B. trimera and elucidate its possible antiulcerogenic and cytotoxic mechanisms, a hydroethanolic extract of B. trimera (HEBT) was evaluated in models of gastric lesions. Rats and mice were used to evaluate the protective and antiulcerogenic effects of HEBT on gastric lesions induced by ethanol, acetic acid, and chronic ethanol consumption. The effects of HEBT were also evaluated in a pylorus ligature model and on gastrointestinal motility. The LD50 of HEBT in mice was additionally estimated. HEBT was analyzed by nuclear magnetic resonance, and a high-performance liquid chromatography fingerprint analysis was performed. Oral HEBT administration significantly reduced the lesion area and the oxidative stress induced by acute and chronic ethanol consumption. However, HEBT did not protect against gastric wall mucus depletion and did not alter gastric secretory volume, pH, or total acidity in the pylorus ligature model. Histologically, HEBT accelerated the healing of chronic gastric ulcers in rats, reflected by contractions of the ulcer base. Flavonoids and caffeoylquinic acids were detected in HEBT, which likely contributed to the therapeutic efficacy of HEBT, preventing or reversing ethanol- and acetic acid-induced ulcers, respectively. HEBT antiulcerogenic activity may be partially attributable to the inhibition of free radical generation and subsequent prevention of lipid peroxidation. Our results indicate that HEBT has both gastroprotective and curative activity in animal models, with no toxicity. PMID:27314669

  10. Homofermentative Lactate Production Cannot Sustain Anaerobic Growth of Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Possible Consequence of Energy-Dependent Lactate Export

    PubMed Central

    van Maris, Antonius J. A.; Winkler, Aaron A.; Porro, Danilo; van Dijken, Johannes P.; Pronk, Jack T.

    2004-01-01

    Due to a growing market for the biodegradable and renewable polymer polylactic acid, the world demand for lactic acid is rapidly increasing. The tolerance of yeasts to low pH can benefit the process economy of lactic acid production by minimizing the need for neutralizing agents. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK background) was engineered to a homofermentative lactate-producing yeast via deletion of the three genes encoding pyruvate decarboxylase and the introduction of a heterologous lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27). Like all pyruvate decarboxylase-negative S. cerevisiae strains, the engineered strain required small amounts of acetate for the synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A. Exposure of aerobic glucose-limited chemostat cultures to excess glucose resulted in the immediate appearance of lactate as the major fermentation product. Ethanol formation was absent. However, the engineered strain could not grow anaerobically, and lactate production was strongly stimulated by oxygen. In addition, under all conditions examined, lactate production by the engineered strain was slower than alcoholic fermentation by the wild type. Despite the equivalence of alcoholic fermentation and lactate fermentation with respect to redox balance and ATP generation, studies on oxygen-limited chemostat cultures showed that lactate production does not contribute to the ATP economy of the engineered yeast. This absence of net ATP production is probably due to a metabolic energy requirement (directly or indirectly in the form of ATP) for lactate export. PMID:15128549

  11. Development of an Alcohol Dehydrogenase Biosensor for Ethanol Determination with Toluidine Blue O Covalently Attached to a Cellulose Acetate Modified Electrode

    PubMed Central

    Alpat, Şenol; Telefoncu, Azmi

    2010-01-01

    In this work, a novel voltammetric ethanol biosensor was constructed using alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). Firstly, alcohol dehydrogenase was immobilized on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode modified by cellulose acetate (CA) bonded to toluidine blue O (TBO). Secondly, the surface was covered by a glutaraldehyde/bovine serum albumin (BSA) cross-linking procedure to provide a new voltammetric sensor for the ethanol determination. In order to fabricate the biosensor, a new electrode matrix containing insoluble Toluidine Blue O (TBO) was obtained from the process, and enzyme/coenzyme was combined on the biosensor surface. The influence of various experimental conditions was examined for the characterization of the optimum analytical performance. The developed biosensor exhibited sensitive and selective determination of ethanol and showed a linear response between 1 × 10−5 M and 4 × 10−4 M ethanol. A detection limit calculated as three times the signal-to-noise ratio was 5.0 × 10−6 M. At the end of the 20th day, the biosensor still retained 50% of its initial activity. PMID:22315566

  12. Modeling of breakthrough curves of single and quaternary mixtures of ethanol, glucose, glycerol and acetic acid adsorption onto a microporous hyper-cross-linked resin.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jingwei; Wu, Jinglan; Liu, Yanan; Zou, Fengxia; Wu, Jian; Li, Kechun; Chen, Yong; Xie, Jingjing; Ying, Hanjie

    2013-09-01

    The adsorption of quaternary mixtures of ethanol/glycerol/glucose/acetic acid onto a microporous hyper-cross-linked resin HD-01 was studied in fixed beds. A mass transport model based on film solid linear driving force and the competitive Langmuir isotherm equation for the equilibrium relationship was used to develop theoretical fixed bed breakthrough curves. It was observed that the outlet concentration of glucose and glycerol exceeded the inlet concentration (c/c0>1), which is an evidence of competitive adsorption. This phenomenon can be explained by the displacement of glucose and glycerol by ethanol molecules, owing to more intensive interactions with the resin surface. The model proposed was validated using experimental data and can be capable of foresee reasonably the breakthrough curve of specific component under different operating conditions. The results show that HD-01 is a promising adsorbent for recovery of ethanol from the fermentation broth due to its large capacity, high selectivity, and rapid adsorption rate. PMID:23819972

  13. Effects of dichloroacetate on the metabolism of glucose, pyruvate, acetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate and palmitate in rat diaphragm and heart muscle in vitro and on extraction of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and free fatty acids by dog heart in vivo.

    PubMed

    McAllister, A; Allison, S P; Randle, P J

    1973-08-01

    1. The extractions of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and free fatty acids by dog heart in vivo were calculated from measurements of their arterial and coronary sinus blood concentration. Elevation of plasma free fatty acid concentrations by infusion of intralipid and heparin resulted in increased extraction of free fatty acids and diminished extractions of glucose, lactate and pyruvate by the heart. It is suggested that metabolism of free fatty acids by the heart in vivo, as in vitro, may impair utilization of these substrates. These effects of elevated plasma free fatty acid concentrations on extractions by the heart in vivo were reversed by injection of dichloroacetate, which also improved extraction of lactate and pyruvate by the heart in vivo in alloxan diabetes. 2. Sodium dichloroacetate increased glucose oxidation and pyruvate oxidation in hearts from fed normal or alloxan-diabetic rats perfused with glucose and insulin. Dichloroacetate inhibited oxidation of acetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate and partially reversed inhibitory effects of these substrates on the oxidation of glucose. In rat diaphragm muscle dichloroacetate inhibited oxidation of acetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate and palmitate and increased glucose oxidation and pyruvate oxidation in diaphragms from alloxan-diabetic rats. Dichloroacetate increased the rate of glycolysis in hearts perfused with glucose, insulin and acetate and evidence is given that this results from a lowering of the citrate concentration within the cell, with a consequent activation of phosphofructokinase. 3. In hearts from normal rats perfused with glucose and insulin, dichloroacetate increased cell concentrations of acetyl-CoA, acetylcarnitine and glutamate and lowered those of aspartate and malate. In perfusions with glucose, insulin and acetate, dichloroacetate lowered the cell citrate concentration without lowering the acetyl-CoA or acetylcarnitine concentrations. Measurements of specific radioactivities of acetyl-CoA, acetylcarnitine

  14. STABILITY OF MFI ZEOLITE-FILLED PDMS MEMBRANES DURING PERVAPORATIVE ETHANOL RECOVERY FROM AQUEOUS MIXTURES CONTAINING ACETIC ACID

    EPA Science Inventory

    Pervaporation is potentially a cost-effective means of recovering biofuels, such as ethanol, from biomass fermentation broths for small- to medium-scale applications (~2 - 20 million liters per year). Hydrophobic zeolite-filled polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes have been sho...

  15. Application of Acetate Buffer in pH Adjustment of Mash and its Influence on Fuel Ethanol Fermentation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A 2M sodium acetate buffer at pH 4.2 was used to adjust pH of liquefied mashes in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) procedure. Although 5 mL of the buffer did not bring the pH values of the mashes (~100 mL) from a sorghum hybrid to 4.2, it kept the system stable (pH from 4.7 to ...

  16. Increased furfural tolerance due to overexpression of NADH-dependent oxidoreductase FucO in Escherichia coli strains engineered for the production of ethanol and lactate.

    PubMed

    Wang, X; Miller, E N; Yomano, L P; Zhang, X; Shanmugam, K T; Ingram, L O

    2011-08-01

    Furfural is an important fermentation inhibitor in hemicellulose sugar syrups derived from woody biomass. The metabolism of furfural by NADPH-dependent oxidoreductases, such as YqhD (low K(m) for NADPH), is proposed to inhibit the growth and fermentation of xylose in Escherichia coli by competing with biosynthesis for NADPH. The discovery that the NADH-dependent propanediol oxidoreductase (FucO) can reduce furfural provided a new approach to improve furfural tolerance. Strains that produced ethanol or lactate efficiently as primary products from xylose were developed. These strains included chromosomal mutations in yqhD expression that permitted the fermentation of xylose broths containing up to 10 mM furfural. Expression of fucO from plasmids was shown to increase furfural tolerance by 50% and to permit the fermentation of 15 mM furfural. Product yields with 15 mM furfural were equivalent to those of control strains without added furfural (85% to 90% of the theoretical maximum). These two defined genetic traits can be readily transferred to enteric biocatalysts designed to produce other products. A similar strategy that minimizes the depletion of NADPH pools by native detoxification enzymes may be generally useful for other inhibitory compounds in lignocellulosic sugar streams and with other organisms. PMID:21685167

  17. Vapor-phase esterification of acetic acid with ethanol catalyzed by a macroporous sulfonated styrene-divinylbenzene (20%) resin

    SciTech Connect

    Gimenez, J.; Costa, J.; Cervera, S.

    1987-02-01

    The kinetics of the vapor-phase (85-120/sup 0/C) esterification of acetic acid with ethyl alcohol, at atmospheric pressure, catalyzed by a macroporous sulfonated styrene-divinylbenzene (DVB;20%) resin, has been studied. A simple first-order model (r = kp/sub 1/) fits experimental kinetic data properly for a constant reactants ratio. Discussion by means of L-H-H-W models shows that the rate-controlling step is the surface reaction with a single-site mechanism. The apparent activation energy is 4000 cal/mol.

  18. Liberation of fermentable sugars from soybean hull biomass using ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate and their bioconversion to ethanol.

    PubMed

    da Cunha-Pereira, Fernanda; Rech, Rosane; Záchia Ayub, Marco Antônio; Pinheiro Dillon, Aldo; Dupont, Jairton

    2016-03-01

    Optimized hydrolysis of lignocellulosic waste biomass is essential to achieve the liberation of sugars to be used in fermentation process. Ionic liquids (ILs), a new class of solvents, have been tested in the pretreatment of cellulosic materials to improve the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the biomass. Optimized application of ILs on biomass is important to advance the use of this technology. In this research, we investigated the effects of using 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([bmim][Ac]) on the decomposition of soybean hull, an abundant cellulosic industrial waste. Reaction aspects of temperature, incubation time, IL concentration, and solid load were optimized before carrying out the enzymatic hydrolysis of this residue to liberate fermentable glucose. Optimal conditions were found to be 75°C, 165 min incubation time, 57% (mass fraction) of [bmim][Ac], and 12.5% solid loading. Pretreated soybean hull lost its crystallinity, which eased enzymatic hydrolysis, confirmed by Fourier Transform Infrared analysis. The enzymatic hydrolysis of the biomass using an enzyme complex from Penicillium echinulatum liberated 92% of glucose from the cellulose matrix. The hydrolysate was free of any toxic compounds, such as hydroxymethylfurfural and furfural. The obtained hydrolysate was tested for fermentation using Candida shehatae HM 52.2, which was able to convert glucose to ethanol at yields of 0.31. These results suggest the possible use of ILs for the pretreatment of some lignocellulosic waste materials, avoiding the formation of toxic compounds, to be used in second-generation ethanol production and other fermentation processes. © 2015 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:312-320, 2016. PMID:26588200

  19. Ethanolic extract of roots from Arctium lappa L. accelerates the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric ulcer in rats: Involvement of the antioxidant system.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Luisa Mota; Allemand, Alexandra; Mendes, Daniel Augusto G B; Dos Santos, Ana Cristina; André, Eunice; de Souza, Lauro Mera; Cipriani, Thales Ricardo; Dartora, Nessana; Marques, Maria Consuelo Andrade; Baggio, Cristiane Hatsuko; Werner, Maria Fernanda

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the curative efficacy of the ethanolic extract (EET) of roots from Arctium lappa (bardana) in healing of chronic gastric ulcers induced by 80% acetic acid in rats and additionally studies the possible mechanisms underlying this action. Oral administration of EET (1, 3, 10 and 30mg/kg) reduced the gastric lesion area in 29.2%, 41.4%, 59.3% and 38.5%, respectively, and at 10mg/kg promoted significant regeneration of the gastric mucosa, which was confirmed by proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry. EET (10mg/kg) treatment did not increase the gastric mucus content but restored the superoxide dismutase activity, prevented the reduction of glutathione levels, reduced lipid hydroperoxides levels, inhibited the myeloperoxidase activity and reduced the microvascular permeability. In addition, EET reduced the free radical generation and increased scavenging of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radicals in vitro. Furthermore, intraduodenal EET (10 and 30mg/kg) decreased volume and acidity of gastric secretion. Total phenolic compounds were high in EET (Folin-Ciocalteau assay) and the analysis by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed that the main compounds present in EET were a serie of hydroxycinnamoylquinic acid isomers. In conclusion, these data reveal that EET promotes regeneration of damaged gastric mucosa, probably through its antisecretory and antioxidative mechanisms. PMID:23036453

  20. Crystal structure of a mixed-ligand dinuclear Ba—Zn complex with 2-meth­oxy­ethanol having tri­phenyl­acetate and chloride bridges

    PubMed Central

    Utko, Józef; Sobocińska, Maria; Dobrzyńska, Danuta; Lis, Tadeusz

    2015-01-01

    The dinuclear barium–zinc complex, μ-chlorido-1:2κ2 Cl:Cl-chlorido-2κCl-bis­(2-meth­oxy­ethanol-1κO)bis­(2-meth­oxy­ethanol-1κ2 O,O′)bis­(μ-tri­phenyl­acetato-1:2κ2 O:O′)bariumzinc, [BaZn(C20H15O2)2Cl2(C3H8O2)4], has been synthesized by the reaction of barium tri­phenyl­acetate, anhydrous zinc chloride and 2-meth­oxy­ethanol in the presence of toluene. The barium and zinc metal cations in the dinuclear complex are linked via one chloride anion and carboxyl­ate O atoms of the tri­phenyl­acetate ligands, giving a Ba⋯Zn separation of 3.9335 (11) Å. The irregular nine-coordinate BaO8Cl coordination centres comprise eight O-atom donors, six of them from 2-meth­oxy­ethanol ligands (four from two bidentate O,O′-chelate inter­actions and two from monodentate inter­actions), two from bridging tri­phenyl­acetate ligands and one from a bridging Cl donor. The distorted tetra­hedral coordination sphere of zinc comprises two O-atom donors from the tri­phenyl­acetate ligands and two Cl donors (one bridging and one terminal). In the crystal, O—H⋯Cl, O—H⋯O and C—H⋯Cl inter­molecular inter­actions form a layered structure, lying parallel to (001). PMID:26279869

  1. Ethanol production by thermophilic bacteria: biochemical basis for ethanol and hydrogen tolerance in Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum

    SciTech Connect

    Lovitt, R.W.; Shen, G.J.; Zeikus, J.G.

    1988-06-01

    The metabolic and enzymatic bases for growth tolerance to ethanol (4%) and H/sub 2/ (2 atm (1 atm = 101.29 kPa)) fermentation products in Clostridium thermohydrosulfuricum were compared in a sensitive wild-type strain and an insensitive alcohol-adapted strain. In the wild-type strain, ethanol (4%) and H/sub 2/ (2 atm) inhibited glucose but not pyruvate fermentation parameters (growth and end product formation). Inhibition of glucose fermentation by ethanol (4%) in the wild-type strain was reversed by addition of acetone (1%), which lowered H/sub 2/ and ethanol production while increasing isopropanol and acetate production. Pulsing cells grown in continuous culture on glucose with 5% ethanol or 1 atm of H/sub 2/ significantly raised the NADH/NAD ratio in the wild-type strain but not in the alcohol-adapted strain. Analysis of key oxidoreductases demonstrated that the alcohol-adapted strain lacked detectable levels of reduced ferredoxin-linked NAD reductase and NAD-linked alcohol dehydrogenase activities which are present in the wild-type strain. Differences in the glucose fermentation product ratios of the two strains were related to differences in lactate dehydrogenase and hydrogenase levels and sensitivity of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase activity to NADH inhibition. A biochemical model is proposed which describes a common enzymatic mechanism for growth tolerance of thermoanaerobes to moderate concentrations of both ethanol and hydrogen.

  2. The Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Addition of Rosemary Extract, Sodium Acetate and Calcium Lactate Mixture on the Quality of Pre-cooked Hamburger Patties during Refrigerated Storage.

    PubMed

    Muhlisin; Kang, Sun Moon; Choi, Won Hee; Lee, Keun Taik; Cheong, Sung Hee; Lee, Sung Ki

    2013-01-01

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP; 30% CO2+70% N2 or 100% N2) and an additive mixture (500 ppm rosemary extract, 3,000 ppm sodium acetate and 1,500 ppm calcium lactate) on the quality of pre-cooked hamburger patties during storage at 5°C for 14 d was evaluated. The addition of the additive mixture reduced aerobic and anaerobic bacteria counts in both 30% CO2-MAP (30% CO2+70% N2) and 100% N2-MAP (p<0.05). The 30% CO2-MAP was more effective to suppress the microbial growth than 100% N2-MAP, moreover the 30% CO2-MAP combined with additive mixture resulted in the lowest bacterial counts. The hamburger patties with additive mixture showed lower CIE L* and CIE a*, and higher CIE b* than those with no additive mixture. The 30% CO2-MAP tended to decrease the TBARS during storage regardless of the addition of additives. The use of 30% CO2-MAP in combination with additives mixture was effective for maintaining the quality and extending the shelf-life of pre-cooked hamburger patties. PMID:25049716

  3. Asaia bogorensis gen. nov., sp. nov., an unusual acetic acid bacterium in the alpha-Proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Y; Katsura, K; Kawasaki, H; Widyastuti, Y; Saono, S; Seki, T; Uchimura, T; Komagata, K

    2000-03-01

    Eight Gram-negative, aerobic, rod-shaped and peritrichously flagellated strains were isolated from flowers of the orchid tree (Bauhinia purpurea) and of plumbago (Plumbago auriculata), and from fermented glutinous rice, all collected in Indonesia. The enrichment culture approach for acetic acid bacteria was employed, involving use of sorbitol medium at pH 3.5. All isolates grew well at pH 3.0 and 30 degrees C. They did not oxidize ethanol to acetic acid except for one strain that oxidized ethanol weakly, and 0.35% acetic acid inhibited their growth completely. However, they oxidized acetate and lactate to carbon dioxide and water. The isolates grew well on mannitol agar and on glutamate agar, and assimilated ammonium sulfate for growth on vitamin-free glucose medium. The isolates produced acid from D-glucose, D-fructose, L-sorbose, dulcitol and glycerol. The quinone system was Q-10. DNA base composition ranged from 59.3 to 61.0 mol% G + C. Studies of DNA relatedness showed that the isolates constitute a single species. Phylogenetic analysis based on their 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolates are located in the acetic acid bacteria lineage, but distant from the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, Acidomonas and Gluconacetobacter. On the basis of the above characteristics, the name Asaia bogorensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed for these isolates. The type strain is isolate 71T (= NRIC 0311T = JCM 10569T). PMID:10758893

  4. Lactate metabolism by pediococci isolated from cheese.

    PubMed

    Thomas, T D; McKay, L L; Morris, H A

    1985-04-01

    Pediococcus pentosaceus is commonly found among the adventitious microflora of Cheddar cheese. When this organism was incubated with L-(+)-lactate under anaerobic conditions, L-(+)-lactate was rapidly converted to D-(-)-lactate until racemic (DL) lactate was present. Under aerobic conditions this initial reaction was followed by a slower reaction resulting in the use of both lactate isomers and in the production of acetate and CO2. With intact cells the lactate oxidation system had an optimum pH of 5 to 6, depending on the initial lactate concentration. Cells grown anaerobically possessed lactate-oxidizing activity which increased two- to fourfold as sugar was exhausted from the medium. Aerobic growth further increased specific activities. Cheddar cheese was made with the deliberate addition of P. pentosaceus. When the resulting cheese was grated to expose a large surface area to O2, lactate was converted to acetate at a rate which depended on the density of pediococci in the cheese. The lactate oxidation system remained active in cheese which had been ripened for 6 months. PMID:4004222

  5. Effect of Oxygen on Glucose Metabolism: Utilization of Lactate in Staphylococcus Aureus as Revealed by In Vivo NMR Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Paula; Pinho, Mariana G.; Neves, Ana Rute

    2013-01-01

    The ability to successfully adapt to changing host conditions is crucial for full virulence of bacterial pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus has to cope with fluctuating oxygen concentrations during the course of infection. Hence, we studied the effect of oxygen on glucose metabolism in non-growing S. aureus COL-S cells by in vivo 13C-NMR. Glucose catabolism was probed at different oxygen concentrations in suspensions of cells grown aerobically (direct effects on metabolism) or anaerobically (transcriptional adjustment to oxygen deprivation). In aerobically-grown cells, the rate of glucose consumption diminished progressively with decreasing oxygen concentrations. Additionally, oxygen deprivation resulted in biphasic glucose consumption, with the second phase presenting a higher rate. The fructose-1,6-bisphosphate pool peaked while glucose was still abundant, but the transient maximum varied with the oxygen concentration. As oxygen became limiting mannitol/mannitol-1-phosphate were detected as products of glucose catabolism. Under anoxic conditions, accumulation of mannitol-1-phosphate ceased with the switch to higher glucose consumption rates, which implies the activation of a more efficient means by which NAD+ can be regenerated. The distribution of end-products deriving from glucose catabolism was dramatically affected by oxygen: acetate increased and lactate decreased with the oxygen concentration; ethanol was formed only anaerobically. Moreover, oxygen promoted the energetically favourable conversion of lactate into acetate, which was particularly noticeable under fully oxygenated conditions. Interestingly, under aerobiosis growing S. aureus cells also converted lactate to acetate, used simultaneously glucose and lactate as substrates for growth, and grew considerably well on lactate-medium. We propose that the efficient lactate catabolism may endow S. aureus with a metabolic advantage in its ecological niche. PMID:23472168

  6. Fermentation method producing ethanol

    DOEpatents

    Wang, Daniel I. C.; Dalal, Rajen

    1986-01-01

    Ethanol is the major end product of an anaerobic, thermophilic fermentation process using a mutant strain of bacterium Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum. This organism is capable of converting hexose and pentose carbohydrates to ethanol, acetic and lactic acids. Mutants of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum are capable of converting these substrates to ethanol in exceptionally high yield and with increased productivity. Both the mutant organism and the technique for its isolation are provided.

  7. Direct conversion of plant biomass to ethanol by engineered Caldicellulosiruptor bescii

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Daehwan; Cha, Minseok; Guss, Adam M.; Westpheling, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol is the most widely used renewable transportation biofuel in the United States, with the production of 13.3 billion gallons in 2012 [John UM (2013) Contribution of the Ethanol Industry to the Economy of the United States]. Despite considerable effort to produce fuels from lignocellulosic biomass, chemical pretreatment and the addition of saccharolytic enzymes before microbial bioconversion remain economic barriers to industrial deployment [Lynd LR, et al. (2008) Nat Biotechnol 26(2):169–172]. We began with the thermophilic, anaerobic, cellulolytic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, which efficiently uses unpretreated biomass, and engineered it to produce ethanol. Here we report the direct conversion of switchgrass, a nonfood, renewable feedstock, to ethanol without conventional pretreatment of the biomass. This process was accomplished by deletion of lactate dehydrogenase and heterologous expression of a Clostridium thermocellum bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Whereas wild-type C. bescii lacks the ability to make ethanol, 70% of the fermentation products in the engineered strain were ethanol [12.8 mM ethanol directly from 2% (wt/vol) switchgrass, a real-world substrate] with decreased production of acetate by 38% compared with wild-type. Direct conversion of biomass to ethanol represents a new paradigm for consolidated bioprocessing, offering the potential for carbon neutral, cost-effective, sustainable fuel production. PMID:24889625

  8. Direct Conversion of Plant Biomass to Ethanol by Engineered Caldicellulosiruptor bescii

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Daehwan; Cha, Minseok; Guss, Adam M; Westpheling, Janet

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol is the most widely used renewable transportation biofuel in the United States, with the production of 13.3 billion gallons in 2012 [John UM (2013) Contribution of the Ethanol Industry to the Economy of the United States]. Despite considerable effort to produce fuels from lignocellulosic biomass, chemical pretreatment and the addition of saccharolytic enzymes before microbial bioconversion remain economic barriers to industrial deployment [Lynd LR, et al. (2008) Nat Biotechnol 26(2):169-172]. We began with the thermophilic, anaerobic, cellulolytic bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor bescii, which efficiently uses unpretreated biomass, and engineered it to produce ethanol. Here we report the direct conversion of switchgrass, a nonfood, renewable feedstock, to ethanol without conventional pretreatment of the biomass. This process was accomplished by deletion of lactate dehydrogenase and heterologous expression of a Clostridium thermocellum bifunctional acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase. Whereas wild-type C. bescii lacks the ability to make ethanol, 70% of the fermentation products in the engineered strain were ethanol [12.8 mM ethanol directly from 2% (wt/vol) switchgrass, a real-world substrate] with decreased production of acetate by 38% compared with wild-type. Direct conversion of biomass to ethanol represents a new paradigm for consolidated bioprocessing, offering the potential for carbon neutral, cost-effective, sustainable fuel production.

  9. Fermentation of xylose to ethanol by genetically modified enteric bacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Tolan, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis describes the fermentation of D-xylose by wild type and recombinant Klebsiella planticola ATCC 33531 and Erwinia chrysanthemi B374. The recombinant strains bear multi-copy plasmids containing the pdc gene inserted from Zymomonas mobilis. Expression of the gene in K. planticola markedly increased the yield of ethanol, up to 1.3 mole/mole xylose, or 25.1 g/L. Concurrently, there were significant decreases in the yields of formation acetate, lactate, and butanediol. Transconjugant Klebsiella grew almost as fast as the wild type and tolerated up to 4% ethanol. The plasmid was retained by the cells during at least one batch culture, even in the absence of selective pressure by antibiotics to maintain the plasmid. The cells produced 31.6 g/L ethanol from 79.6 g/L of a D-glucose-D-xylose-L-arabinose mixture designed to simulate hydrolyzed hemicellulose. The physiology of the wild type K. planticola is described in more detail than in the original report of its isolation. E. chrysanthemi PDC transconjugants also produced ethanol in high yield (up to 1.45 mole/mole xylose). However, transconjugant E. chrysanthemi grew only 1/4 as rapidly as the wild type and tolerated only 2% ethanol. The plasmid PZM15 apparently exhibits pleiotropic effects when inserted into K. planticola and into E. chrysanthemi.

  10. Enhancing acetone biosynthesis and acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation performance by co-culturing Clostridium acetobutylicum/Saccharomyces cerevisiae integrated with exogenous acetate addition.

    PubMed

    Luo, Hongzhen; Ge, Laibing; Zhang, Jingshu; Ding, Jian; Chen, Rui; Shi, Zhongping

    2016-01-01

    Acetone is the major by-product in ABE fermentations, most researches focused on increasing butanol/acetone ratio by decreasing acetone biosynthesis. However, economics of ABE fermentation industry strongly relies on evaluating acetone as a valuable platform chemical. Therefore, a novel ABE fermentation strategy focusing on bio-acetone production by co-culturing Clostridium acetobutylicum/Saccharomyces cerevisiae with exogenous acetate addition was proposed. Experimental and theoretical analysis revealed the strategy could, enhance C. acetobutylicum survival oriented amino acids assimilation in the cells; control NADH regeneration rate at moderately lower level to enhance acetone synthesis but without sacrificing butanol production; enhance the utilization ability of C. acetobutylicum on glucose and direct most of extra consumed glucose into acetone/butanol synthesis routes. By implementing the strategy using synthetic or acetate fermentative supernatant, acetone concentrations increased to 8.27-8.55g/L from 5.86g/L of the control, while butanol concentrations also elevated to the higher levels of 13.91-14.23g/L from 11.63g/L simultaneously. PMID:26476171

  11. Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum strain deficient in acetate production

    SciTech Connect

    Rothstein, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    A mutant of Clostridium thermosaccharolyticum that is blocked in acetate production was isolated after treatment with nitrosoguanidine and selection for fluoroacetate resistance. The mutant produced more ethanol than the parent strain did.

  12. Isolation of acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria from biogas plants.

    PubMed

    Cibis, Katharina Gabriela; Gneipel, Armin; König, Helmut

    2016-02-20

    In this study, acetic, propionic and butyric acid-forming bacteria were isolated from thermophilic and mesophilic biogas plants (BGP) located in Germany. The fermenters were fed with maize silage and cattle or swine manure. Furthermore, pressurized laboratory fermenters digesting maize silage were sampled. Enrichment cultures for the isolation of acid-forming bacteria were grown in minimal medium supplemented with one of the following carbon sources: Na(+)-dl-lactate, succinate, ethanol, glycerol, glucose or a mixture of amino acids. These substrates could be converted by the isolates to acetic, propionic or butyric acid. In total, 49 isolates were obtained, which belonged to the phyla Firmicutes, Tenericutes or Thermotogae. According to 16S rRNA gene sequences, most isolates were related to Clostridium sporosphaeroides, Defluviitoga tunisiensis and Dendrosporobacter quercicolus. Acetic, propionic or butyric acid were produced in cultures of isolates affiliated to Bacillus thermoamylovorans, Clostridium aminovalericum, Clostridium cochlearium/Clostridium tetani, C. sporosphaeroides, D. quercicolus, Proteiniborus ethanoligenes, Selenomonas bovis and Tepidanaerobacter sp. Isolates related to Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum produced acetic, butyric and lactic acid, and isolates related to D. tunisiensis formed acetic acid. Specific primer sets targeting 16S rRNA gene sequences were designed and used for real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR). The isolates were physiologically characterized and their role in BGP discussed. PMID:26779817

  13. Major Role of NAD-Dependent Lactate Dehydrogenases in Aerobic Lactate Utilization in Lactobacillus plantarum during Early Stationary Phase

    PubMed Central

    Goffin, Philippe; Lorquet, Frédérique; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Hols, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    NAD-independent lactate dehydrogenases are commonly thought to be responsible for lactate utilization during the stationary phase of aerobic growth in Lactobacillus plantarum. To substantiate this view, we constructed single and double knockout mutants for the corresponding genes, loxD and loxL. Lactate-to-acetate conversion was not impaired in these strains, while it was completely blocked in mutants deficient in NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase activities, encoded by the ldhD and ldhL genes. We conclude that NAD-dependent but not NAD-independent lactate dehydrogenases are involved in this process. PMID:15375150

  14. Evidence for the generation of transaminase inhibitor(s) during ethanol metabolism by rat liver homogenates: a potential mechanism for alcohol toxicity.

    PubMed

    Solomon, L R

    1987-08-01

    Since ethanol consumption decreases hepatic aminotransferase activities in vivo, mechanisms of ethanol-mediated transaminase inhibition were explored in vitro using mitochondria-depleted rat liver homogenates. When homogenates were incubated at 37 degrees with 50 mM ethanol for 1 hr, alanine aminotransferase decreased by 20%, while aspartate aminotransferase was unchanged. After 2 hr, aspartate aminotransferase decreased by 20% and by 3 hr, alanine and aspartate aminotransferases were decreased by 31 and 23%, respectively. Levels of acetaldehyde generated during ethanol oxidation were 525 +/- 47 microM at 1 hr, 855 +/- 14 microM at 2 hr, and 1293 +/- 140 microM at 3 hr. Although inhibition of alcohol oxidation with methylpyrazole or cyanide markedly decreased ethanol-mediated transaminase inhibition, neither incubation with acetate nor generation of reducing equivalents by oxidation of lactate, malate, xylitol, or sorbitol altered the activity of either enzyme. However, semicarbazide, an aldehyde scavenger, prevented inhibition of both aminotransferases by ethanol. Moreover, incubation with 5 mM acetaldehyde for 1 hr inhibited alanine and aspartate aminotransferases by 36 and 26%, respectively. Cyanamide, an aldehyde dehydrogenase inhibitor, had little effect on ethanol-mediated transaminase inhibition. Thus, metabolism of ethanol by rat liver homogenates produces transaminase inhibition similar to that described in vivo and this effect requires acetaldehyde generation but not acetaldehyde oxidation. Since addition of pyridoxal 5'-phosphate to assay mixes did not reverse ethanol effects, aminotransferase inhibition does not result from displacement of vitamin B6 coenzymes. PMID:3663401

  15. Elimination of hydrogenase active site assembly blocks H2 production and increases ethanol yield in Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Ranjita; Zheng, Tianyong; Olson, Daniel G.; Lynd, Lee R.; Guss, Adam M.

    2015-02-01

    The native ability of Clostridium thermocellum to rapidly consume cellulose and produce ethanol makes it a leading candidate for a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) biofuel production strategy. C. thermocellum also synthesizes lactate, formate, acetate, H2, and amino acids that compete with ethanol production for carbon and electrons. Elimination of H2 production could redirect carbon flux towards ethanol production by making more electrons available for acetyl-CoA reduction to ethanol. C. thermocellum encodes four hydrogenases and rather than delete each individually, we targeted a hydrogenase maturase gene (hydG), involved in converting the three [FeFe] hydrogenase apoenzymes into holoenzymes. Further deletion of the [NiFe] hydrogenase (ech) resulted in a mutant that functionally lacks all four hydrogenases. H2 production in hydG ech was undetectable and ethanol yield increased nearly 2-fold compared to wild type. Interestingly, mutant growth improved upon the addition of acetate, which led to increased expression of genes related to sulfate metabolism, suggesting these mutants may use sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor to balance redox reactions. Genomic analysis of hydG revealed a mutation in adhE, resulting in a strain with both NADH- and NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase activities. While this same adhE mutation is found in ethanol tolerant C. thermocellum strain E50C, hydG and hydG ech are not more ethanol tolerant than wild type, illustrating the complicated interactions between redox balancing and ethanol tolerance in C. thermocellum. The dramatic increase in ethanol production here suggests that targeting protein post-translational modification is a promising new approach for inactivation of multiple enzymes simultaneously for metabolic engineering.

  16. Elimination of hydrogenase active site assembly blocks H2 production and increases ethanol yield in Clostridium thermocellum

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Biswas, Ranjita; Zheng, Tianyong; Olson, Daniel G.; Lynd, Lee R.; Guss, Adam M.

    2015-02-01

    The native ability of Clostridium thermocellum to rapidly consume cellulose and produce ethanol makes it a leading candidate for a consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) biofuel production strategy. C. thermocellum also synthesizes lactate, formate, acetate, H2, and amino acids that compete with ethanol production for carbon and electrons. Elimination of H2 production could redirect carbon flux towards ethanol production by making more electrons available for acetyl-CoA reduction to ethanol. C. thermocellum encodes four hydrogenases and rather than delete each individually, we targeted a hydrogenase maturase gene (hydG), involved in converting the three [FeFe] hydrogenase apoenzymes into holoenzymes. Further deletion of the [NiFe]more » hydrogenase (ech) resulted in a mutant that functionally lacks all four hydrogenases. H2 production in hydG ech was undetectable and ethanol yield increased nearly 2-fold compared to wild type. Interestingly, mutant growth improved upon the addition of acetate, which led to increased expression of genes related to sulfate metabolism, suggesting these mutants may use sulfate as a terminal electron acceptor to balance redox reactions. Genomic analysis of hydG revealed a mutation in adhE, resulting in a strain with both NADH- and NADPH-dependent alcohol dehydrogenase activities. While this same adhE mutation is found in ethanol tolerant C. thermocellum strain E50C, hydG and hydG ech are not more ethanol tolerant than wild type, illustrating the complicated interactions between redox balancing and ethanol tolerance in C. thermocellum. The dramatic increase in ethanol production here suggests that targeting protein post-translational modification is a promising new approach for inactivation of multiple enzymes simultaneously for metabolic engineering.« less

  17. Improved ethanol precipitation of DNA.

    PubMed

    Fregel, Rosa; González, Ana; Cabrera, Vicente M

    2010-04-01

    In this Short Communication, a shorter version of the standard DNA ethanol precipitation and purification protocol is described. It uses a mixture of 70% ethanol, 75 mM ammonium acetate and different concentrations of different carriers to perform DNA precipitation and washing in only one step. PMID:20336673

  18. Acetate Causes Alcohol Hangover Headache in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Maxwell, Christina R.; Spangenberg, Rebecca Jay; Hoek, Jan B.; Silberstein, Stephen D.; Oshinsky, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Background The mechanism of veisalgia cephalgia or hangover headache is unknown. Despite a lack of mechanistic studies, there are a number of theories positing congeners, dehydration, or the ethanol metabolite acetaldehyde as causes of hangover headache. Methods We used a chronic headache model to examine how pure ethanol produces increased sensitivity for nociceptive behaviors in normally hydrated rats. Results Ethanol initially decreased sensitivity to mechanical stimuli on the face (analgesia), followed 4 to 6 hours later by inflammatory pain. Inhibiting alcohol dehydrogenase extended the analgesia whereas inhibiting aldehyde dehydrogenase decreased analgesia. Neither treatment had nociceptive effects. Direct administration of acetate increased nociceptive behaviors suggesting that acetate, not acetaldehyde, accumulation results in hangover-like hypersensitivity in our model. Since adenosine accumulation is a result of acetate formation, we administered an adenosine antagonist that blocked hypersensitivity. Discussion Our study shows that acetate contributes to hangover headache. These findings provide insight into the mechanism of hangover headache and the mechanism of headache induction. PMID:21209842

  19. Kinetics of Ethyl Acetate Synthesis Catalyzed by Acidic Resins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Antunes, Bruno M.; Cardoso, Simao P.; Silva, Carlos M.; Portugal, Ines

    2011-01-01

    A low-cost experiment to carry out the second-order reversible reaction of acetic acid esterification with ethanol to produce ethyl acetate is presented to illustrate concepts of kinetics and reactor modeling. The reaction is performed in a batch reactor, and the acetic acid concentration is measured by acid-base titration versus time. The…

  20. Regulation of lactate dehydrogenase and change of fermentation products in streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, T; Carlsson, J

    1975-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans JC 2 produced mainly lactate as a fermentation product when grown in nitrogen-limited continuous culture in the presence of an excess of glucose and produced formate, acetate, and ethanol, but no lactate, under glucose-limited conditions. The levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in these cultures were of the same order of magnitude, and the activity of LDH was completely dependent on fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP). The intracellular level of FDP was high and the level of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) was low under the glucose-excess conditions. In the glucose-limited cultures, all glycolytic intermediates studied, except PEP, were low. S. mutans FIL, which had an FDP-independent LDH and similar levels of glycolytic intermediates as S. mutans JC2, produced mainly lactate under glucose-excess or under glucose-limited conditions. LDH of Streptococcus bovis ATCC 9809 was dependent on FDP for activity at a low concentration of pyruvate but had a significant activity without FDP at a high concentration of pyruvate. This strain also produced mainly lactate both under glucose-excess and glucose-limited conditions. The levels and characteristics of these LDHs were not changed by the culture conditions. These results indicate that changes in the intracellular level of FDP regulate LDH activity, which in turn influences the type of fermentation products produced by streptococci. PEP, adenosine 5'-monophosphate, adenosine 5'-diphosphate, and inorganic phosphate significantly inhibited LDH activity from S. mutans JC 2 and may also participate in the regulation of LDH activity in other streptococci. PMID:1176435

  1. Elimination of metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products increases ethanol yields in Clostridium thermocellum

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Papanek, Beth A.; Biswas, Ranjita; Rydzak, Thomas; Guss, Adam M.

    2015-09-12

    Clostridium thermocellum has the natural ability to convert cellulose to ethanol, making it a promising candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. To further improve its CBP capabilities, we study a mutant strain of C. thermocellum that was constructed (strain AG553; C. thermocellum Δhpt ΔhydG Δldh Δpfl Δpta-ack) to increase flux to ethanol by removing side product formation. Strain AG553 showed a two- to threefold increase in ethanol yield relative to the wild type on all substrates tested. On defined medium, strain AG553 exceeded 70% of theoretical ethanol yield on lower loadings of the model crystalline cellulosemore » Avicel, effectively eliminating formate, acetate, and lactate production and reducing H2 production by fivefold. On 5 g/L Avicel, strain AG553 reached an ethanol yield of 63.5% of the theoretical maximum compared with 19.9% by the wild type, and it showed similar yields on pretreated switchgrass and poplar. The elimination of organic acid production suggested that the strain might be capable of growth under higher substrate loadings in the absence of pH control. Final ethanol titer peaked at 73.4 mM in mutant AG553 on 20 g/L Avicel, at which point the pH decreased to a level that does not allow growth of C. thermocellum, likely due to CO2 accumulation. In comparison, the maximum titer of wild type C. thermocellum was 14.1 mM ethanol on 10 g/L Avicel. In conclusion, with the elimination of the metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products other than ethanol, AG553 is the best ethanol-yielding CBP strain to date and will serve as a platform strain for further metabolic engineering for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass.« less

  2. Elimination of metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products increases ethanol yields in Clostridium thermocellum.

    PubMed

    Papanek, Beth; Biswas, Ranjita; Rydzak, Thomas; Guss, Adam M

    2015-11-01

    Clostridium thermocellum has the natural ability to convert cellulose to ethanol, making it a promising candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. To further improve its CBP capabilities, a mutant strain of C. thermocellum was constructed (strain AG553; C. thermocellum Δhpt ΔhydG Δldh Δpfl Δpta-ack) to increase flux to ethanol by removing side product formation. Strain AG553 showed a two- to threefold increase in ethanol yield relative to the wild type on all substrates tested. On defined medium, strain AG553 exceeded 70% of theoretical ethanol yield on lower loadings of the model crystalline cellulose Avicel, effectively eliminating formate, acetate, and lactate production and reducing H2 production by fivefold. On 5 g/L Avicel, strain AG553 reached an ethanol yield of 63.5% of the theoretical maximum compared with 19.9% by the wild type, and it showed similar yields on pretreated switchgrass and poplar. The elimination of organic acid production suggested that the strain might be capable of growth under higher substrate loadings in the absence of pH control. Final ethanol titer peaked at 73.4mM in mutant AG553 on 20 g/L Avicel, at which point the pH decreased to a level that does not allow growth of C. thermocellum, likely due to CO2 accumulation. In comparison, the maximum titer of wild type C. thermocellum was 14.1mM ethanol on 10 g/L Avicel. With the elimination of the metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products other than ethanol, AG553 is the best ethanol-yielding CBP strain to date and will serve as a platform strain for further metabolic engineering for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:26369438

  3. Ammonium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium acetate ; CASRN 631 - 61 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  4. Vinyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Vinyl acetate ; CASRN 108 - 05 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  5. Ethyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl acetate ; CASRN 141 - 78 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  6. Phenylmercuric acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phenylmercuric acetate ; CASRN 62 - 38 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  7. Thallium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 30 , 2009 , the assessment summary for Thallium acetate is included in t

  8. Fermentation of D-xylose to ethanol by genetically modified Klebsiella planticola

    SciTech Connect

    Tolan, J.S.; Finn, R.K.

    1987-09-01

    D-Xylose is a plentiful pentose sugar derived from agricultural or forest residues. Enteric bacteria such as Klebsiella spp. ferment D-xylose to form mixed acids and butanediol in addition to ethanol. Thus, the ethanol yield is normally low. This report describes the fermentation of D-xylose by Klebsiella planticola ATCC 33531 bearing multicopy plasmids containing the pdc gene inserted from Zymomonas mobilis. Expression of the gene markedly increased the yield of ethanol to 1.3 mol/mol of xylose, or 25.1 g/liter. Concurrently, there were significant decreases in the yields of formate, acetate, lactate, and butanediol. Transconjugant Klebsiella spp. grew almost as fast as the wild type and tolerated up to 4% ethanol. The plasmid was retained by the cells during at least one batch culture, even in the absence of selective pressure by antibiotics to maintain the plasmid. Ethanol production was 31.6 g/liter from 79.6 g of mixed substrate per liter chosen to simulate hydrolyzed hemicellulose. The physiology of the wild-type of K. planticola is described in more detail than in the original report of its isolation.

  9. Growth of geobacter sulfurreducens with acetate in syntrophic cooperation with hydrogen-oxidizing anaerobic partners

    PubMed

    Cord-Ruwisch; Lovley; Schink

    1998-06-01

    Pure cultures of Geobacter sulfurreducens and other Fe(III)-reducing bacteria accumulated hydrogen to partial pressures of 5 to 70 Pa with acetate, butyrate, benzoate, ethanol, lactate, or glucose as the electron donor if electron release to an acceptor was limiting. G. sulfurreducens coupled acetate oxidation with electron transfer to an anaerobic partner bacterium in the absence of ferric iron or other electron acceptors. Cocultures of G. sulfurreducens and Wolinella succinogenes with nitrate as the electron acceptor degraded acetate efficiently and grew with doubling times of 6 to 8 h. The hydrogen partial pressures in these acetate-degrading cocultures were considerably lower, in the range of 0.02 to 0.04 Pa. From these values and the concentrations of the other reactants, it was calculated that in this cooperation the free energy change available to G. sulfurreducens should be about -53 kJ per mol of acetate oxidized, assuming complete conversion of acetate to CO2 and H2. However, growth yields (18.5 g of dry mass per mol of acetate for the coculture, about 14 g for G. sulfurreducens) indicated considerably higher energy gains. These yield data, measurement of hydrogen production rates, and calculation of the diffusive hydrogen flux indicated that electron transfer in these cocultures may not proceed exclusively via interspecies hydrogen transfer but may also proceed through an alternative carrier system with higher redox potential, e.g., a c-type cytochrome that was found to be excreted by G. sulfurreducens into the culture fluid. Syntrophic acetate degradation was also possible with G. sulfurreducens and Desulfovibrio desulfuricans CSN but only with nitrate as electron acceptor. These cultures produced cell yields of 4.5 g of dry mass per mol of acetate, to which both partners contributed at about equal rates. These results demonstrate that some Fe(III)-reducing bacteria can oxidize organic compounds under Fe(III) limitation with the production of hydrogen

  10. Evolutionary engineering of Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius for improved ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jiewen; Wu, Kang; Rao, Christopher V

    2016-10-01

    The ability to grow at high temperatures makes thermophiles attractive for many fermentation processes. In this work, we used evolutionary engineering to increase ethanol production in the thermophile Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius. This bacterium is a facultative anaerobe, grows at an optimal temperature of 60°C, and can ferment diverse carbohydrates. However, it natively performs mixed-acid fermentation. To improve ethanol productivity, we first eliminated lactate and formate production in two strains of G. thermoglucosidasius, 95A1 and C56-YS93. These deletion strains were generated by selection on spectinomycin, which represents, to the best of our knowledge, the first time this antibiotic has been shown to work with thermophiles. Both knockout strains, however, were unable to grow under microaerobic conditions. We were able to recover growth in G. thermoglucosidasius 95A1 by serial adaptation in the presence of acetic acid. The evolved 95A1 strain was able to efficiently produce ethanol during growth on glucose or cellobiose. Genome sequencing identified loss-of-function mutations in adenine phosphoribosyltransferase (aprt) and the stage III sporulation protein AA (spoIIIAA). Disruption of both genes improved ethanol production in the unadapted strains: however, the increase was significant only when aprt was deleted. In conclusion, we were able to engineer a strain of G. thermoglucosidasius to efficiently produce ethanol from glucose and cellobiose using a combination of metabolic engineering and evolutionary strategies. This work further establishes this thermophile as a platform organism for fuel and chemical production. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2016;113: 2156-2167. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27002479

  11. Resistance of Streptococcus bovis to acetic acid at low pH: Relationship between intracellular pH and anion accumulation

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, J.B. )

    1991-01-01

    Streptococcus bovis JB1, an acid-tolerant ruminal bacterium, was able to grown at pHs from 6.7 to 4.5, and 100 mM acetate had little effect on growth rate or proton motive force across the cell membrane. When S. bovis was grown in glucose-limited chemostats at pH 5.2, the addition of sodium acetate (as much as 100 mM) had little effect on the production of bacterial protein. At higher concentrations of sodium acetate (100 to 360 mM), production of bacterial protein declined, but this decrease could largely be explained by a shift in fermentation products (acetate, formate, and ethanol production to lactate production) and a decline in ATP production (3 ATP per glucose versus 2 ATP per glucose). Y{sub ATP} (grams of cells per mole at ATP) was not decreased significantly even by high concentrations of acetate. Cultures supplemented with 100 mM sodium acetate took up ({sup 14}C)acetate and ({sup 14}C)benzoate in accordance with the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and gave similar estimates of intracellular pH. As the extracellular pH declined, S. bovis allowed its intracellular pH to decrease and maintained a relatively constant pH gradient across the cell membrane (0.9 unit). The decrease in intracellular pH prevented S. bovis from accumulating large amounts of acetate anion. On the basis of these results it did not appear that acetate was acting as an uncoupler. The sensitivity of other bacteria to volatile fatty acids at low pH is explained most easily by a high transmembrane pH gradient and anion accumulation.

  12. Resistance of Streptococcus bovis to acetic acid at low pH: relationship between intracellular pH and anion accumulation.

    PubMed Central

    Russell, J B

    1991-01-01

    Streptococcus bovis JB1, an acid-tolerant ruminal bacterium, was able to grow at pHs from 6.7 to 4.5, and 100 mM acetate had little effect on growth rate or proton motive force across the cell membrane. When S. bovis was grown in glucose-limited chemostats at pH 5.2, the addition of sodium acetate (as much as 100 mM) had little effect on the production of bacterial protein. At higher concentrations of sodium acetate (100 to 360 mM), production of bacterial protein declined, but this decrease could largely be explained by a shift in fermentation products (acetate, formate, and ethanol production to lactate production) and a decline in ATP production (3 ATP per glucose versus 2 ATP per glucose). YATP (grams of cells per mole of ATP) was not decreased significantly even by high concentrations of acetate. Cultures supplemented with 100 mM sodium acetate took up [14C]acetate and [14C]benzoate in accordance with the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation and gave similar estimates of intracellular pH. As the extracellular pH declined, S. bovis allowed its intracellular pH to decrease and maintained a relatively constant pH gradient across the cell membrane (0.9 unit). The decrease in intracellular pH prevented S. bovis from accumulating large amounts of acetate anion. On the basis of these results it did not appear that acetate was acting as an uncoupler. The sensitivity of other bacteria to volatile fatty acids at low pH is explained most easily by a high transmembrane pH gradient and anion accumulation. PMID:2036013

  13. Geobacter sulfurreducens sp. nov., a hydrogen- and acetate-oxidizing dissimilatory metal-reducing microorganism.

    PubMed Central

    Caccavo, F; Lonergan, D J; Lovley, D R; Davis, M; Stolz, J F; McInerney, M J

    1994-01-01

    A dissimilatory metal- and sulfur-reducing microorganism was isolated from surface sediments of a hydrocarbon-contaminated ditch in Norman, Okla. The isolate, which was designated strain PCA, was an obligately anaerobic, nonfermentative nonmotile, gram-negative rod. PCA grew in a defined medium with acetate as an electron donor and ferric PPi, ferric oxyhydroxide, ferric citrate, elemental sulfur, Co(III)-EDTA, fumarate, or malate as the sole electron acceptor. PCA also coupled the oxidation of hydrogen to the reduction of Fe(III) but did not reduce Fe(III) with sulfur, glucose, lactate, fumarate, propionate, butyrate, isobutyrate, isovalerate, succinate, yeast extract, phenol, benzoate, ethanol, propanol, or butanol as an electron donor. PCA did not reduce oxygen, Mn(IV), U(VI), nitrate, sulfate, sulfite, or thiosulfate with acetate as the electron donor. Cell suspensions of PCA exhibited dithionite-reduced minus air-oxidized difference spectra which were characteristic of c-type cytochromes. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA sequence placed PCA in the delta subgroup of the proteobacteria. Its closest known relative is Geobacter metallireducens. The ability to utilize either hydrogen or acetate as the sole electron donor for Fe(III) reduction makes strain PCA a unique addition to the relatively small group of respiratory metal-reducing microorganisms available in pure culture. A new species name, Geobacter sulfurreducens, is proposed. Images PMID:7527204

  14. Acetic acid removal from corn stover hydrolysate using ethyl acetate and the impact on Saccharomyces cerevisiae bioethanol fermentation.

    PubMed

    Aghazadeh, Mahdieh; Ladisch, Michael R; Engelberth, Abigail S

    2016-07-01

    Acetic acid is introduced into cellulose conversion processes as a consequence of composition of lignocellulose feedstocks, causing significant inhibition of adapted, genetically modified and wild-type S. cerevisiae in bioethanol fermentation. While adaptation or modification of yeast may reduce inhibition, the most effective approach is to remove the acetic acid prior to fermentation. This work addresses liquid-liquid extraction of acetic acid from biomass hydrolysate through a pathway that mitigates acetic acid inhibition while avoiding the negative effects of the extractant, which itself may exhibit inhibition. Candidate solvents were selected using simulation results from Aspen Plus™, based on their ability to extract acetic acid which was confirmed by experimentation. All solvents showed varying degrees of toxicity toward yeast, but the relative volatility of ethyl acetate enabled its use as simple vacuum evaporation could reduce small concentrations of aqueous ethyl acetate to minimally inhibitory levels. The toxicity threshold of ethyl acetate, in the presence of acetic acid, was found to be 10 g L(-1) . The fermentation was enhanced by extracting 90% of the acetic acid using ethyl acetate, followed by vacuum evaporation to remove 88% removal of residual ethyl acetate along with 10% of the broth. NRRL Y-1546 yeast was used to demonstrate a 13% increase in concentration, 14% in ethanol specific production rate, and 11% ethanol yield. This study demonstrated that extraction of acetic acid with ethyl acetate followed by evaporative removal of ethyl acetate from the raffinate phase has potential to significantly enhance ethanol fermentation in a corn stover bioethanol facility. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:929-937, 2016. PMID:27090191

  15. Increased Brain Lactate Concentrations Without Increased Lactate Oxidation During Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    De Feyter, Henk M.; Mason, Graeme F.; Shulman, Gerald I.; Rothman, Douglas L.; Petersen, Kitt Falk

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that brain metabolism of acetate is increased more than twofold during hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetic (T1D) subjects with hypoglycemia unawareness. These data support the hypothesis that upregulation of blood-brain barrier monocarboxylic acid (MCA) transport may contribute to the maintenance of brain energetics during hypoglycemia in subjects with hypoglycemia unawareness. Plasma lactate concentrations are ∼10-fold higher than acetate concentrations, making lactate the most likely alternative MCA as brain fuel. We therefore examined transport of [3-13C]lactate across the blood-brain barrier and its metabolism in the brains of T1D patients and nondiabetic control subjects during a hypoglycemic clamp using 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Brain lactate concentrations were more than fivefold higher (P < 0.05) during hypoglycemia in the T1D subjects compared with the control subjects. Surprisingly, we observed no increase in the oxidation of blood-borne lactate in the T1D subjects, as reflected by similar 13C fractional enrichments in brain glutamate and glutamine. Taken together, these data suggest that in addition to increased MCA transport at the blood-brain barrier, there may be additional metabolic adaptations that contribute to hypoglycemia unawareness in patients with T1D. PMID:23715622

  16. Polyhydroxybutyrate production from lactate using a mixed microbial culture.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yang; Marang, Leonie; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Muyzer, Gerard; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2011-09-01

    In this study we investigated the use of lactate and a lactate/acetate mixture for enrichment of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) producing mixed cultures. The mixed cultures were enriched in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) that established a feast-famine regime. The SBRs were operated under conditions that were previously shown to enable enrichment of a superior PHB producing strain on acetate (i.e., 12 h cycle length, 1 day SRT and 30°C). Two new mixed cultures were eventually enriched from activated sludge. The mixed culture enriched on lactate was dominated by a novel gammaproteobacterium. This enrichment can accumulate over 90 wt% PHB within 6 h, which is currently the best result reported for a bacterial culture in terms of the final PHB content and the biomass specific PHB production rate. The second mixed culture enriched on a mixture of acetate and lactate can produce up to 84 wt% PHB in just over 8 h. The predominant bacterial species in this culture were Plasticicumulans acidivorans and Thauera selenatis, which have both been reported to accumulate large amounts of PHB. The data suggest that P. acidivorans is a specialist on acetate conversion, whereas Thauera sp. is a specialist on lactate conversion. The main conclusion of this work is that the use of different substrates has a direct impact on microbial composition, but has no significant effect on the functionality of PHB production process. PMID:21455932

  17. Production of Butyrate from Lactate by a Newly Isolated Clostridium sp. BPY5.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yong; Hu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Jin, Hong; Xu, Zhancheng; Tang, Qinglan; Li, Xiangzhen

    2016-06-01

    Lactate-utilizing bacteria play important roles in the production of Chinese strong-flavored liquor (CSFL). However, the identity of these bacteria and their lactate-utilizing properties are largely unknown. Here, a lactate-utilizing, butyrate-producing bacterium BPY5 was isolated from an old fermentation pit for CSFL production. The isolate represented a novel species belonging to Clostridium cluster XIVa of family Lachnospiraceae based on phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences. Strain BPY5 could ferment lactate into butyrate as the major metabolic product. Butyrate was significantly formed at initial lactate concentration from 66 to 104 mM, but substantially declined when initial lactate exceeded 133 mM. At initial lactate concentration of 66 mM, lactate conversion was independent on initial pH from 5.5 to 7.0, but the conversion was completely inhibited when pH dropped below 4.8. Nevertheless, the inhibition on lactate conversion was largely relieved by the addition of acetate, suggesting that exogenous acetate could enhance lactate conversion at low pH condition. Additionally, lactate in CSFL-brewing wastewater was dramatically removed when inoculated with strain BPY5. These results implicate that the isolate may be applied for the industrial production of butyrate or the recovery of butyrate from lactate-containing wastewater. PMID:26842597

  18. Biological production of ethanol fom coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Research is continuing in an attempt to increase both the ethanol concentration and product ratio using C. ljungdahlii. The purpose of this report is to present data (acetate to ethanol) utilizing a medium prepared especially for C. ljungdahlii. Medium development studies are presented, as well as reactor studies with the new medium in batch reactors. Continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with cell recycle. The use of this new medium has resulted in significant improvements in cell concentration, ethanol concentration and product ratio.

  19. Lactation and reproduction*

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, A. M.; Hytten, F. E.; Black, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    The authors review the literature on the effect of lactation on fertility in the absence of contraception and on the effects of contraceptive measures on lactation. They examine data from several countries on the intervals between births and on the return of menstruation and ovulation after childbirth, comparing lactating with nonlactating women. They conclude that lactation is an inefficient contraceptive for the individual, but that in populations sustained lactation is associated with reduced fertility. Possible physiological mechanisms causing lactation amenorrhoea are discussed. Though much of the literature on the effect of contraceptives on lactation is inadequate, there is general agreement that the estrogen component of hormonal preparations has an adverse effect on lactation, but that progestins alone do not. Many questions remain. Is this effect seen in established lactation, or only in the puerperal period? Is it a direct pharmacological effect, or are pill-users the mothers least motivated to maintain breast-feeding? Does a close relationship exist between hormones given and lactation performance? The authors comment on some of the technical deficiencies of previous studies in this field and discuss practical possibilities of, and limitations to, obtaining adequate scientific information in the future. PMID:1084804

  20. Ethanol poisoning

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002644.htm Ethanol poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Ethanol poisoning is caused by drinking too much alcohol. ...

  1. Effects of a 3-day fast and of ethanol on splanchnic metabolism of FFA, amino acids, and carbohydrates in healthy young men.

    PubMed Central

    Wolfe, B M; Havel, J R; Marliss, E B; Kane, J P; Seymour, J; Ahuja, S P

    1976-01-01

    Splanchnic metabolism was studied to quantify changes underlying the fatty liver, hyperlipemia, and hypoglycemia produced by ethanol. Four subjects fasted for 15 h were compared with five subjects fasted for 69 h under basal conditions and during continuous intravenous infusion of sufficient ethanol to give a concentration of 3-5 mM in arterial blood plasma. Splanchnic storage of fatty acids was estimated from the difference between uptake of FFA and secretion of derived products. Basal values for splanchnic uptake of FFA were twofold higher after the 69-h fast while splanchnic storage of fatty acids and production of ketone bodies increased threefold. Values for basal secreation into the blood of triglycerides derived from FFA were similar in the two groups. In both nutritional states, the fraction of FFA taken up in the splanchnic region oxidized to ketone bodies and to CO2 fell when ethanol was given because of preferential oxidation of ethanol to acetate, and the fraction esterified rose. However, systemic transport and splanchnic uptake of FFA fell with ethanol in subjects fasted 15 h, so that neither storage of triglycerides in splanchnic tissues nor secretion into the blood increased. In subjects fasted 69 h, ethanol increased transport of FFA and splanchnic storage of fat. In all but one subject it also increased secretion of triglycerides into the blood. The concentration of glucose in blood fell during ethanol infusion in all five subjects undergoing the 69-h fast. Mean splanchnic glucose production was maintained at about one-half of the pre-ethanol value, despite virtual cessation of splanchnic uptake of lactate and of those amino acids that are metabolized via malate. Quantitative estimates of extrasplanchnic metabolism suggest that enhanced formation of alpha-glycerophosphate from glucose, in addition to impaired hepatic gluconeogenesis, may contribute to ethanol-induced hypoglycemia in man. PMID:176179

  2. Lactate Oxidation Coupled to Iron or Electrode Reduction by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA▿

    PubMed Central

    Call, Douglas F.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA completely oxidized lactate and reduced iron or an electrode, producing pyruvate and acetate intermediates. Compared to the current produced by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, G. sulfurreducens PCA produced 10-times-higher current levels in lactate-fed microbial electrolysis cells. The kinetic and comparative analyses reported here suggest a prominent role of G. sulfurreducens strains in metal- and electrode-reducing communities supplied with lactate. PMID:22003020

  3. Ethanol Basics

    SciTech Connect

    2015-01-30

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  4. Ethanol Production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter reviews the current process technologies for fuel ethanol production. In the US, almost all commercial fuel ethanol is produced from corn whereas cane sugar is used almost exclusively in Brazil. In Europe, two major types of feedstock considered for fuel ethanol production are be...

  5. Physiology of lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The breast changes in size, shape, and function during puberty, pregnancy, and lactation. The physiology of lactation is reviewed here. The breast is composed of fat and connective tissue that supports a tubuloalveolar structure. During development, anatomic changes involving new lobule formation an...

  6. Fuel ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-02-01

    This report discusses the Omnibus Trade and Competitiveness Act of 1988 which requires GAO to examine fuel ethanol imports from Central America and the Caribbean and their impact on the U.S. fuel ethanol industry. Ethanol is the alcohol in beverages, such as beer, wine, and whiskey. It can also be used as a fuel by blending with gasoline. It can be made from renewable resources, such as corn, wheat, grapes, and sugarcane, through a process of fermentation. This report finds that, given current sugar and gasoline prices, it is not economically feasible for Caribbean ethanol producers to meet the current local feedstock requirement.

  7. L-lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Spencer, T L; Lehninger, A L

    1976-02-15

    Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells were investigated with regard to their stability to transport L-lactate by measuring either the distribution of [14C]lactate or concomitant H+ ion movements. The movement of lactate was dependent on the pH difference across the cell membrane and was electroneutral, as evidenced by an observed 1:1 antiport for OH- ions or 1:1 symport with H+ ions. 2. Kinetic experiments showed that lactate transport was saturable, with an apparent Km of approx. 4.68 mM and a Vmax. as high as 680 nmol/min per mg of protein at pH 6.2 and 37 degrees C. 3. Lactate transport exhibited a high temperature dependence (activation energy = 139 kJ/mol). 4. Lactate transport was inhibited competitively by (a) a variety of other substituted monocarboxylic acids (e.g. pyruvate, Ki = 6.3 mM), which were themselves transported, (b) the non-transportable analogues alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (Ki = 0.5 mM), alpha-cyano-3-hydroxycinnamate (Ki = 2mM) and DL-p-hydroxyphenyl-lactate (Ki = 3.6 mM) and (c) the thiol-group reagent mersalyl (Ki = 125 muM). 5. Transport of simple monocarboxylic acids, including acetate and propionate, was insensitive to these inhibitors; they presumably cross the membrane by means of a different mechanism. 6. Experiments using saturating amounts of mersalyl as an "inhibitor stop" allowed measurements of the initial rates of net influx and of net efflux of [14C]lactate. Influx and efflux of lactate were judged to be symmetrical reactions in that they exhibited similar concentration dependence. 7. It is concluded that lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells is mediated by a carrier capable of transporting a number of other substituted monocarboxylic acids, but not unsubstituted short-chain aliphatic acids. PMID:7237

  8. [Psychopharmacotherapy in pregnancy and lactation. 2: Lactation].

    PubMed

    Lanczik, M; Knoche, M; Fritze, J

    1998-01-01

    Whilst the incidence of psychiatric disorders decreases during pregnancy, the risk during the postpartum period increases significantly, often leading to the necessity of psychopharmacological intervention during the puerperium, and subsequently during lactation and breast-feeding. The necessity for lithium prophylaxis in manic-depressive women after childbirth has been identified, and it is recommended that weaning rather than omission of psychopharmacological treatment is preferable during the puerperium. PMID:9522328

  9. Mechanisms of naturally evolved ethanol resistance in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed

    Fry, James D

    2014-11-15

    The decaying fruit in which Drosophila melanogaster feed and breed can contain ethanol in concentrations as high as 6-7%. In this cosmopolitan species, populations from temperate regions are consistently more resistant to ethanol poisoning than populations from the tropics, but little is known about the physiological basis of this difference. I show that when exposed to low levels of ethanol vapor, flies from a tropical African population accumulated 2-3 times more internal ethanol than flies from a European population, giving evidence that faster ethanol catabolism by European flies contributes to the resistance difference. Using lines differing only in the origin of their third chromosome, however, I show that faster ethanol elimination cannot fully explain the resistance difference, because relative to African third chromosomes, European third chromosomes confer substantially higher ethanol resistance, while having little effect on internal ethanol concentrations. European third chromosomes also confer higher resistance to acetic acid, a metabolic product of ethanol, than African third chromosomes, suggesting that the higher ethanol resistance conferred by the former might be due to increased resistance to deleterious effects of ethanol-derived acetic acid. In support of this hypothesis, when ethanol catabolism was blocked with an Alcohol dehydrogenase mutant, there was no difference in ethanol resistance between flies with European and African third chromosomes. PMID:25392459

  10. Production of Catalyst-Free Hyperpolarised Ethanol Aqueous Solution via Heterogeneous Hydrogenation with Parahydrogen

    PubMed Central

    Salnikov, Oleg G.; Kovtunov, Kirill V.; Koptyug, Igor V.

    2015-01-01

    An experimental approach for the production of catalyst-free hyperpolarised ethanol solution in water via heterogeneous hydrogenation of vinyl acetate with parahydrogen and the subsequent hydrolysis of ethyl acetate was demonstrated. For an efficient hydrogenation, liquid vinyl acetate was transferred to the gas phase by parahydrogen bubbling and almost completely converted to ethyl acetate with Rh/TiO2 catalyst. Subsequent dissolution of ethyl acetate gas in water containing OH− ions led to the formation of catalyst- and organic solvent-free hyperpolarised ethanol and sodium acetate. These results represent the first demonstration of catalyst- and organic solvent-free hyperpolarised ethanol production achieved by heterogeneous hydrogenation of vinyl acetate vapour with parahydrogen and the subsequent ethyl acetate hydrolysis. PMID:26349543

  11. Production of Catalyst-Free Hyperpolarised Ethanol Aqueous Solution via Heterogeneous Hydrogenation with Parahydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salnikov, Oleg G.; Kovtunov, Kirill V.; Koptyug, Igor V.

    2015-09-01

    An experimental approach for the production of catalyst-free hyperpolarised ethanol solution in water via heterogeneous hydrogenation of vinyl acetate with parahydrogen and the subsequent hydrolysis of ethyl acetate was demonstrated. For an efficient hydrogenation, liquid vinyl acetate was transferred to the gas phase by parahydrogen bubbling and almost completely converted to ethyl acetate with Rh/TiO2 catalyst. Subsequent dissolution of ethyl acetate gas in water containing OH- ions led to the formation of catalyst- and organic solvent-free hyperpolarised ethanol and sodium acetate. These results represent the first demonstration of catalyst- and organic solvent-free hyperpolarised ethanol production achieved by heterogeneous hydrogenation of vinyl acetate vapour with parahydrogen and the subsequent ethyl acetate hydrolysis.

  12. (14C)acetate assimilation by a type I obligate methylotroph, Methylococcus capsulatus.

    PubMed Central

    Patel, R N; Hoare, S L; Hoare, D S; Taylor, B F

    1977-01-01

    Methanol and formate oxidation supported the assimilation of [14C]acetate by cell suspensions of Methylococcus capsulatus; oxidation of other primary alcohols, except ethanol, did not. The extent of [1-14C]acetate assimilation supported by methanol oxidation was decreased in the presence of primary alcohols, except ethanol. Potassium cyanide (0.33 mM) completely inhibited the oxidation of formate and its stimulation of [1-14C]acetate assimilation. The amount of [1-14C]acetate assimilation supported by methanol oxidation was significantly inhibited by cyanide. PMID:412469

  13. Lactate Up-Regulates the Expression of Lactate Oxidation Complex-Related Genes in Left Ventricular Cardiac Tissue of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel-Costa, Daniele; da Cunha, Telma Fatima; Bechara, Luiz Roberto Grassmann; Fortunato, Rodrigo Soares; Bozi, Luiz Henrique Marchesi; Coelho, Marcele de Almeida; Barreto-Chaves, Maria Luiza; Brum, Patricia Chakur

    2015-01-01

    Background Besides its role as a fuel source in intermediary metabolism, lactate has been considered a signaling molecule modulating lactate-sensitive genes involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism. Even though the flux of lactate is significantly high in the heart, its role on regulation of cardiac genes regulating lactate oxidation has not been clarified yet. We tested the hypothesis that lactate would increase cardiac levels of reactive oxygen species and up-regulate the expression of genes related to lactate oxidation complex. Methods/Principal Findings Isolated hearts from male adult Wistar rats were perfused with control, lactate or acetate (20mM) added Krebs-Henseleit solution during 120 min in modified Langendorff apparatus. Reactive oxygen species (O2●-/H2O2) levels, and NADH and NADPH oxidase activities (in enriched microsomal or plasmatic membranes, respectively) were evaluated by fluorimetry while SOD and catalase activities were evaluated by spectrophotometry. mRNA levels of lactate oxidation complex and energetic enzymes MCT1, MCT4, HK, LDH, PDH, CS, PGC1α and COXIV were quantified by real time RT-PCR. Mitochondrial DNA levels were also evaluated. Hemodynamic parameters were acquired during the experiment. The key findings of this work were that lactate elevated cardiac NADH oxidase activity but not NADPH activity. This response was associated with increased cardiac O2●-/H2O2 levels and up-regulation of MCT1, MCT4, LDH and PGC1α with no changes in HK, PDH, CS, COXIV mRNA levels and mitochondrial DNA levels. Lactate increased NRF-2 nuclear expression and SOD activity probably as counter-regulatory responses to increased O2●-/H2O2. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for lactate-induced up-regulation of lactate oxidation complex associated with increased NADH oxidase activity and cardiac O2●-/H2O2 driving to an anti-oxidant response. These results unveil lactate as an important signaling molecule regulating components of

  14. Extractive fermentation of acetic acid

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, R.M.

    1991-12-31

    In this technoeconomic evaluation of the manufacture of acetic acid by fermentation, the use of the bacterium: Acetobacter suboxydans from the old vinegar process was compared with expected performance of the newer Clostridium thermoaceticum bacterium. Both systems were projected to operate as immobilized cells in a continuous, fluidized bed bioreactor, using solvent extraction to recover the product. Acetobacter metabolizes ethanol aerobically to produce acid at 100 g/L in a low pH medium. This ensures that the product is in the form of a concentrated extractable free acid, rather than as an unextractable salt. Unfortunately, yields from glucose by way of the ethanol fermentation are poor, but near the biological limits of the organisms involved. Conversely, C. thermoaceticum is a thermophilic anaerobe that operates at high fermentation rates on glucose at neutral pH to produce acetate salts directly in substantially quantitative yields. However, it is severely inhibited by product, which restricts concentration to a dilute 20 g/L. An improved Acetobacter system operating with recycled cells at 50 g/L appears capable of producing acid at $0.38/lb, as compared with a $0.29/lb price for synthetic acid. However, this system has only a limited margin for process improvement. The present Clostridium system cannot compete, since the required selling price would be $0.42/lb. However, if the organism could be adapted to tolerate higher product concentrations at acid pH, selling price could be reduced to $0.22/lb, or about 80% of the price of synthetic acid.

  15. Lactate: Friend or Foe.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mederic M; Rajasekaran, Sathish; Thomsen, Timothy W; Peterson, Andrew R

    2016-03-01

    Lactic acid has played an important role in the traditional theory of muscle fatigue and limitation of endurance exercise performance. It has been called a waste product of anaerobic metabolism and has been believed to be responsible for the uncomfortable "burn" of intense exercise and directly responsible for the metabolic acidosis of exercise, leading to decreased muscle contractility and ultimately cessation of exercise. Although this premise has been commonly taught, it is not supported by the scientific literature and has led to a great deal of confusion among the sports medicine and exercise science communities. This review will provide the sports medicine clinician with an understanding of contemporary lactate theories, including lactate's role in energy production, its contributions to metabolic acidosis, and its function as an energy substrate for a variety of tissues. Lactate threshold concepts will also be discussed, including a practical approach to understanding prediction of performance and monitoring of training progress based on these parameters. PMID:26972271

  16. Neoasaia chiangmaiensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel osmotolerant acetic acid bacterium in the alpha-Proteobacteria.

    PubMed

    Yukphan, Pattaraporn; Malimas, Taweesak; Potacharoen, Wanchern; Tanasupawat, Somboon; Tanticharoen, Morakot; Yamada, Yuzo

    2005-10-01

    An acetic acid bacterium, designated as isolate AC28(T), was isolated from a flower of red ginger (khing daeng in Thai; Alpinia purpurata) collected in Chiang Mai, Thailand, at pH 3.5 by use of a glucose/ethanol/acetic acid (0.3%, w/v) medium. A phylogenetic tree based on 16S rRNA gene sequences for 1,376 bases showed that isolate AC28(T) constituted a cluster along with the type strain of Kozakia baliensis. However, the isolate formed an independent cluster in a phylogenetic tree based on 16S-23S rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region sequences for 586 bases. Pair-wise sequence similarities of the isolate in 16S rRNA gene sequences for 1,457 bases were 93.0-88.3% to the type strains of Asaia, Kozakia, Swaminathania, Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Acidomonas, and Saccharibacter species. Restriction analysis of 16S-23S rDNA ITS regions discriminated isolate AC28(T) from the type strains of Asaia and Kozakia species. Cells were non-motile. Colonies were pink, shiny, and smooth. The isolate produced acetic acid from ethanol. Oxidation of acetate and lactate was negative. The isolate grew on glutamate agar and mannitol agar. Growth was positive on 30% D-glucose (w/v) and in the presence of 0.35% acetic acid (w/v), but not in the presence of 1.0% KNO(3) (w/v). Ammoniac nitrogen was hardly assimilated on a glucose medium or a mannitol medium. Production of dihydroxyacetone from glycerol was weakly positive. The isolate did not produce a levan-like polysaccharide on a sucrose medium. Major isoprenoid quinone was Q-10. DNA base composition was 63.1 mol% G+C. On the basis of the results obtained, Neoasaia gen. nov. was proposed with Neoasaia chiangmaiensis sp. nov. The type strain was isolate AC28(T) (=BCC 15763(T) =NBRC 101099(T)). PMID:16314684

  17. Recent Advances in Catalytic Conversion of Ethanol to Chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Junming; Wang, Yong

    2014-04-30

    With increased availability and decreased cost, ethanol is potentially a promising platform molecule for the production of a variety of value-added chemicals. In this review, we provide a detailed summary of recent advances in catalytic conversion of ethanol to a wide range of chemicals and fuels. We particularly focus on catalyst advances and fundamental understanding of reaction mechanisms involved in ethanol steam reforming (ESR) to produce hydrogen, ethanol conversion to hydrocarbons ranging from light olefins to longer chain alkenes/alkanes and aromatics, and ethanol conversion to other oxygenates including 1-butanol, acetaldehyde, acetone, diethyl ether, and ethyl acetate.

  18. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    Previous results have shown that the medium pH, the composition of the medium and concentration of medium constituents significantly affect the ratio of ethanol to acetate in the product stream when fermenting CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} in synthesis gas to products by Clostridium ljungdahlii. An additional batch study was carried out varying the agitation rate at pH 4, 4.5 and 5.0. It was speculated that increased agitation rates in combination with low pH might result in increased ethanol production while, at the same time, yielding higher cell concentrations which could eventually result in higher ethanol concentrations.

  19. Ethanol reassimilation and ethanol tolerance in Pitchia stipitis CBS 6054 as studied by [sup 13]C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Skoog, K.; Hahn-Haegerdal, B. ); Degn, H.; Jacobsen, H.S.; Jacobsen, J.P. )

    1992-08-01

    Ethanol reassimilation in Pichia stipitis CBS 6054 was studied by using continuous cultures, and the oxidation of [1-[sup 13]C] ethanol was monitored by in vivo and in vitro [sup 13]C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Acetate was formed when ethanol was reassimilated. The ATP/ADP ratio and the carbon dioxide production decreased, whereas the malate dehydrogenase activity increased, in ethanol-reassimilating cells. The results are discussed in terms of the low ethanol tolerance in P. stipitis compared with that in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  20. Elimination of metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products increases ethanol yields in Clostridium thermocellum

    SciTech Connect

    Papanek, Beth A.; Biswas, Ranjita; Rydzak, Thomas; Guss, Adam M.

    2015-09-12

    Clostridium thermocellum has the natural ability to convert cellulose to ethanol, making it a promising candidate for consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) of cellulosic biomass to biofuels. To further improve its CBP capabilities, we study a mutant strain of C. thermocellum that was constructed (strain AG553; C. thermocellum Δhpt ΔhydG Δldh Δpfl Δpta-ack) to increase flux to ethanol by removing side product formation. Strain AG553 showed a two- to threefold increase in ethanol yield relative to the wild type on all substrates tested. On defined medium, strain AG553 exceeded 70% of theoretical ethanol yield on lower loadings of the model crystalline cellulose Avicel, effectively eliminating formate, acetate, and lactate production and reducing H2 production by fivefold. On 5 g/L Avicel, strain AG553 reached an ethanol yield of 63.5% of the theoretical maximum compared with 19.9% by the wild type, and it showed similar yields on pretreated switchgrass and poplar. The elimination of organic acid production suggested that the strain might be capable of growth under higher substrate loadings in the absence of pH control. Final ethanol titer peaked at 73.4 mM in mutant AG553 on 20 g/L Avicel, at which point the pH decreased to a level that does not allow growth of C. thermocellum, likely due to CO2 accumulation. In comparison, the maximum titer of wild type C. thermocellum was 14.1 mM ethanol on 10 g/L Avicel. In conclusion, with the elimination of the metabolic pathways to all traditional fermentation products other than ethanol, AG553 is the best ethanol-yielding CBP strain to date and will serve as a platform strain for further metabolic engineering for the bioconversion of lignocellulosic biomass.

  1. Analysis of Metabolic Pathways and Fluxes in a Newly Discovered Thermophilic and Ethanol-Tolerant Geobacillus Strain

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yinjie J.; Sapra, Rajat; Joyner, Dominique; Hazen, Terry C.; Myers, Samuel; Reichmuth, David; Blanch, Harvey; Keasling, Jay D.

    2009-01-20

    A recently discovered thermophilic bacterium, Geobacillus thermoglucosidasius M10EXG, ferments a range of C5 (e.g., xylose) and C6 sugars (e.g., glucose) and istolerant to high ethanol concentrations (10percent, v/v). We have investigated the central metabolism of this bacterium using both in vitro enzyme assays and 13C-based flux analysis to provide insights into the physiological properties of this extremophile and explore its metabolism for bio-ethanol or other bioprocess applications. Our findings show that glucose metabolism in G. thermoglucosidasius M10EXG proceeds via glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, and the TCA cycle; the Entner?Doudoroff pathway and transhydrogenase activity were not detected. Anaplerotic reactions (including the glyoxylate shunt, pyruvate carboxylase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase) were active, but fluxes through those pathways could not be accuratelydetermined using amino acid labeling. When growth conditions were switched from aerobic to micro-aerobic conditions, fluxes (based on a normalized glucose uptake rate of 100 units (g DCW)-1 h-1) through the TCA cycle and oxidative pentose phosphate pathway were reduced from 64+-3 to 25+-2 and from 30+-2 to 19+-2, respectively. The carbon flux under micro-aerobic growth was directed formate. Under fully anerobic conditions, G. thermoglucosidasius M10EXG used a mixed acid fermentation process and exhibited a maximum ethanol yield of 0.38+-0.07 mol mol-1 glucose. In silico flux balance modeling demonstrates that lactate and acetate production from G. thermoglucosidasius M10EXG reduces the maximum ethanol yieldby approximately threefold, thus indicating that both pathways should be modified to maximize ethanol production.

  2. Ethanol production from rice hull using Pichia stipitis and optimization of acid pretreatment and detoxification processes.

    PubMed

    Germec, Mustafa; Kartal, Fatma Kubra; Bilgic, Merve; Ilgin, Merve; Ilhan, Eda; Güldali, Hazal; Isci, Aslı; Turhan, Irfan

    2016-07-01

    The goal of this study was to produce ethanol from rice hull hydrolysates (RHHs) using Pichia stipitis strains and to optimize dilute acid hydrolysis and detoxification processes by response surface methodology (RSM). The optimized conditions were found as 127.14°C, solid:liquid ratio of 1:10.44 (w/v), acid ratio of 2.52% (w/v), and hydrolysis time of 22.01 min. At these conditions, the fermentable sugar concentration was 21.87 g/L. Additionally, the nondetoxified RHH at optimized conditions contained 865.2 mg/L phenolics, 24.06 g/L fermentable sugar, no hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF), 1.62 g/L acetate, 0.36 g/L lactate, 1.89 g/L glucose, and 13.49 g/L fructose + xylose. Furthermore, RHH was detoxified with various methods and the best procedures were found to be neutralization with CaO or charcoal treatment in terms of the reduction of inhibitory compounds as compared to nondetoxified RHH. After detoxification procedures, the content of hydrolysates consisted of 557.2 and 203.1 mg/L phenolics, 19.7 and 21.60 g/L fermentable sugar, no HMF, 0.98 and 1.39 g/L acetate, 0 and 0.04 g/L lactate, 1.13 and 1.03 g/L glucose, and 8.46 and 12.09 g/L fructose + xylose, respectively. Moreover, the base-line mediums (control), and nondetoxified and detoxified hydrolysates were used to produce ethanol by using P. stipitis strains. The highest yields except that of base-line mediums were achieved using neutralization (35.69 and 38.33% by P. stipitis ATCC 58784 and ATCC 58785, respectively) and charcoal (37.55% by P. stipitis ATCC 58785) detoxification methods. Results showed that the rice hull can be utilized as a good feedstock for ethanol production using P. stipitis. © 2016 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 32:872-882, 2016. PMID:27071671

  3. Overexpression of acetyl-CoA synthetase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae increases acetic acid tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Jun; Holzwarth, Garrett; Penner, Michael H.; Patton-Vogt, Jana; Bakalinsky, Alan T.

    2015-01-01

    Acetic acid-mediated inhibition of the fermentation of lignocellulose-derived sugars impedes development of plant biomass as a source of renewable ethanol. In order to overcome this inhibition, the capacity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to synthesize acetyl-CoA from acetic acid was increased by overexpressing ACS2 encoding acetyl-coenzyme A synthetase. Overexpression of ACS2 resulted in higher resistance to acetic acid as measured by an increased growth rate and shorter lag phase relative to a wild-type control strain, suggesting that Acs2-mediated consumption of acetic acid during fermentation contributes to acetic acid detoxification. PMID:25673654

  4. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, Gerald Charles; Zoeller, Joseph Robert; Depew, Leslie Sharon

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  5. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-03-24

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  6. Optimizing on-farm pretreatment of perennial grasses for fuel ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Digman, Matthew F; Shinners, Kevin J; Casler, Michael D; Dien, Bruce S; Hatfield, Ronald D; Jung, Hans-Joachim G; Muck, Richard E; Weimer, Paul J

    2010-07-01

    Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) and reed canarygrass (Phalaris arundinacea L.) were pretreated under ambient temperature and pressure with sulfuric acid and calcium hydroxide in separate experiments. Chemical loadings from 0 to 100g (kg DM)(-1) and durations of anaerobic storage from 0 to 180days were investigated by way of a central composite design at two moisture contents (40% or 60% w.b.). Pretreated and untreated samples were fermented to ethanol by Saccharomyces cerevisiae D5A in the presence of a commercially available cellulase (Celluclast 1.5L) and beta-glucosidase (Novozyme 188). Xylose levels were also measured following fermentation because xylose is not metabolized by S. cerevisiae. After sulfuric acid pretreatment and anaerobic storage, conversion of cell wall glucose to ethanol for reed canarygrass ranged from 22% to 83% whereas switchgrass conversions ranged from 16% to 46%. Pretreatment duration had a positive effect on conversion but was mitigated with increased chemical loadings. Conversions after calcium hydroxide pretreatment and anaerobic storage ranged from 21% to 55% and 18% to 54% for reed canarygrass and switchgrass, respectively. The efficacy of lime pretreatment was found to be highly dependent on moisture content. Moreover, pretreatment duration was only found to be significant for reed canarygrass. Although significant levels of acetate and lactate were observed in the biomass after storage, S. cerevisiae was not found to be inhibited at a 10% solids loading. PMID:20202834

  7. Methods for increasing the production of ethanol from microbial fermentation

    DOEpatents

    Gaddy, James L.; Arora, Dinesh K.; Ko, Ching-Whan; Phillips, John Randall; Basu, Rahul; Wikstrom, Carl V.; Clausen, Edgar C.

    2007-10-23

    A stable continuous method for producing ethanol from the anaerobic bacterial fermentation of a gaseous substrate containing at least one reducing gas involves culturing a fermentation bioreactor anaerobic, acetogenic bacteria in a liquid nutrient medium; supplying the gaseous substrate to the bioreactor; and manipulating the bacteria in the bioreactor by reducing the redox potential, or increasing the NAD(P)H TO NAD(P) ratio, in the fermentation broth after the bacteria achieves a steady state and stable cell concentration in the bioreactor. The free acetic acid concentration in the bioreactor is maintained at less than 5 g/L free acid. This method allows ethanol to be produced in the fermentation broth in the bioreactor at a productivity greater than 10 g/L per day. Both ethanol and acetate are produced in a ratio of ethanol to acetate ranging from 1:1 to 20:1.

  8. Alcohol's effect on lactation.

    PubMed

    Mennella, J

    2001-01-01

    Although pregnant women are discouraged from drinking alcohol because of alcohol's detrimental effect on fetal development, the lore of many cultures encourages lactating women to drink alcohol to optimize breast milk production and infant nutrition. In contrast to this folklore, however, studies demonstrate that maternal alcohol consumption may slightly reduce milk production. Furthermore, some of the alcohol consumed by a lactating woman is transferred to her milk and thus consumed by the infant. This alcohol consumption may adversely affect the infant's sleep and gross motor development and influence early learning about alcohol. Based on this science, it would seem that the recommendation for a nursing mother to drink a glass of beer or wine shortly before nursing may actually be counterproductive. PMID:11810962

  9. Fuel grade ethanol by solvent extraction: Final subcontract report

    SciTech Connect

    Tedder, D.W.

    1987-04-01

    This report summarizes final results for ethanol recovery by solvent extraction and extractive distillation. At conclusion this work can be summarized as ethanol dehydration and recovery dilute fermentates is feasible using liquid/liquid extraction and extractive distillation. Compared to distillation, the economics are more attractive for less than 5 wt % ethanol. However, an economic bias in favor of SEED appears to exist even for 10 wt % feeds. It is of particular interest to consider the group extraction of ethanol and acetic acid followed by conversion to a mixture of ethanol and ethyl acetate. The latter species is a more valuable commodity and group extraction of inhibitory species is one feature of liquid/liquid extraction that is not easily accomodated using distillation. Upflow immobilized reactors offer the possibility of achieving high substrate conversion while also maintaining low metabolite concentrations. However, many questions remain to be answered with such a concept. 135 refs., 42 figs., 61 tabs.

  10. BTEX plume dynamics following an ethanol blend release: geochemical footprint and thermodynamic constraints on natural attenuation.

    PubMed

    Corseuil, Henry X; Monier, Amy L; Fernandes, Marilda; Schneider, Marcio R; Nunes, Cristina C; do Rosario, Mario; Alvarez, Pedro J J

    2011-04-15

    In this 10 year study, Brazilian gasoline (100 L, containing 24% ethanol by volume) was released to a sandy aquifer to evaluate the natural attenuation of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and total xylenes (BTEX) in the presence of ethanol. Groundwater concentrations of BTEX, ethanol, and degradation products (e.g., acetate and methane) were measured over the entire plume using an array of monitoring well clusters, to quantify changes in plume mass and region of influence. Ethanol biodegradation coincided with the development of methanogenic conditions while acetate (a common anaerobic metabolite) accumulated. The benzene plume expanded beyond the 30 m long monitored area and began to recede after 2.7 years, when ethanol had disappeared. Theoretical calculations suggest that the transient accumulation of acetate (up to 166 mg L(-1)) may have hindered the thermodynamic feasibility of benzene degradation under methanogenic conditions. Yet, benzene removal proceeded relatively fast compared to literature values (and faster than the alkylbenzenes present at this site) after acetate concentrations had decreased below inhibitory levels. Thus, site investigations of ethanol blend releases should consider monitoring acetate concentrations. Overall, this study shows that inhibitory effects of ethanol and acetate are relatively short-lived, and demonstrates that monitored natural attenuation can be a viable option to deal with ethanol blend releases. PMID:21410252

  11. Ethanol cytotoxic effect on trophoblast cells.

    PubMed

    Clave, S; Joya, X; Salat-Batlle, J; Garcia-Algar, O; Vall, O

    2014-03-01

    Prenatal ethanol exposure may cause both, altered fetal neurodevelopment and impaired placental function. These disturbances can lead to growth retardation, which is one of the most prevalent features in Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS). It is not known whether there is a specific pattern of cytotoxicity caused by ethanol that can be extrapolated to other cell types. The aim of this study was to determine the cytotoxic effects caused by sustained exposure of trophoblast cells to ethanol. The cytotoxic effect of sustained exposure to standard doses of ethanol on an in vitro human trophoblast cell line, JEG3, was examined. Viable cell count by exclusion method, total protein concentration, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity and activation of apoptotic markers (P-H2AX, caspase-3 and PARP-1) were determined. Sustained exposure to ethanol decreased viable cell count and total protein concentration. LDH activity did not increased in exposed cells but apoptotic markers were detected. In addition, there was a dose-dependent relationship between ethanol concentration and apoptotic pathways activation. Sustained ethanol exposure causes cellular cytotoxicity by apoptotic pathways induction as a result of DNA damage. This apoptotic induction may partially explain the altered function of placental cells and the damage previously detected in other tissues. PMID:24374569

  12. Overview on mechanisms of acetic acid resistance in acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Shao, Yanchun; Chen, Fusheng

    2015-02-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are a group of gram-negative or gram-variable bacteria which possess an obligate aerobic property with oxygen as the terminal electron acceptor, meanwhile transform ethanol and sugar to corresponding aldehydes, ketones and organic acids. Since the first genus Acetobacter of AAB was established in 1898, 16 AAB genera have been recorded so far. As the main producer of a world-wide condiment, vinegar, AAB have evolved an elegant adaptive system that enables them to survive and produce a high concentration of acetic acid. Some researches and reviews focused on mechanisms of acid resistance in enteric bacteria and made the mechanisms thoroughly understood, while a few investigations did in AAB. As the related technologies with proteome, transcriptome and genome were rapidly developed and applied to AAB research, some plausible mechanisms conferring acetic acid resistance in some AAB strains have been published. In this review, the related mechanisms of AAB against acetic acid with acetic acid assimilation, transportation systems, cell morphology and membrane compositions, adaptation response, and fermentation conditions will be described. Finally, a framework for future research for anti-acid AAB will be provided. PMID:25575804

  13. Loss of ethanol from vitreous humor in drowning death.

    PubMed

    Singer, Peter P; Jones, Graham R; Lewis, Russell; Johnson, Robert

    2007-10-01

    Two separate cases of drowning with extended periods underwater (2 and 4 weeks) are reported. The postmortem ethanol concentrations were 260 and 280 in central blood, 50 and 80 in vitreous, and 330 and 320 in urine (mg/100 mL) for cases 1 and 2, respectively. Determination of the urine 5-hydroxytryptophol/5-hydroxyindole-3-acetic acid ratios produced results of 713 and 41 pmol/nmol, respectively. The serotonin metabolite ratios support the explanation of diffusion of ethanol from the vitreous fluid into the surrounding water, rather than postmortem production of ethanol in blood, as the primary reason for the blood-vitreous ethanol differences. PMID:17988467

  14. Homofermentative Production of d- or l-Lactate in Metabolically Engineered Escherichia coli RR1

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Dong-Eun; Jung, Heung-Chae; Rhee, Joon-Shick; Pan, Jae-Gu

    1999-01-01

    We investigated metabolic engineering of fermentation pathways in Escherichia coli for production of optically pure d- or l-lactate. Several pta mutant strains were examined, and a pta mutant of E. coli RR1 which was deficient in the phosphotransacetylase of the Pta-AckA pathway was found to metabolize glucose to d-lactate and to produce a small amount of succinate by-product under anaerobic conditions. An additional mutation in ppc made the mutant produce d-lactate like a homofermentative lactic acid bacterium. When the pta ppc double mutant was grown to higher biomass concentrations under aerobic conditions before it shifted to the anaerobic phase of d-lactate production, more than 62.2 g of d-lactate per liter was produced in 60 h, and the volumetric productivity was 1.04 g/liter/h. To examine whether the blocked acetate flux could be reoriented to a nonindigenous l-lactate pathway, an l-lactate dehydrogenase gene from Lactobacillus casei was introduced into a pta ldhA strain which lacked phosphotransacetylase and d-lactate dehydrogenase. This recombinant strain was able to metabolize glucose to l-lactate as the major fermentation product, and up to 45 g of l-lactate per liter was produced in 67 h. These results demonstrate that the central fermentation metabolism of E. coli can be reoriented to the production of d-lactate, an indigenous fermentation product, or to the production of l-lactate, a nonindigenous fermentation product. PMID:10103226

  15. Hormonal contraception and lactation.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, J J

    1996-12-01

    Hormonal contraceptive measures can be used immediately postpartum if the patient so desires. Progestin-only contraceptives are preferable to estrogen-containing methods if initiated during the first six months after delivery. Progestin only contraceptives do not appear to affect milk volume, composition, or to cause deleterious effects in the infant. Ideally for women who desire a form of contraception in addition to lactation-induced amenorrhea, progestin-only methods should be started at six weeks postpartum if the woman is fully breastfeeding. Since contraception protection is provided by lactation amenorrhea, the six week delay will decrease infant exposure to exogenous hormones and decrease the incidence of irregular postpartum bleeding. Milk volume may decrease with the use of estrogen; however, no detrimental effects have been shown on infant growth or development. For women who are planning to gradually wean their infant, use of COCs may provide an easier transition to bottle-feeding. COCs should be used with caution by women who are not able to obtain supplemental milk. A decrease in milk volume can lead to earlier discontinuation of the hormonal contraceptive in an attempt to increase milk quantity. Supplementation is often needed, and then the woman ovulates again, possibly resulting in an unintended pregnancy. Many women are motivated immediately postpartum to accept contraception. For other women, lack of access to health care may provide barriers in obtaining adequate contraception later. In either case, there are adequate data to show no detriments of starting progestin-only contraceptives within days of delivery. Therefore, the best method for the patient should be employed to ensure adequate contraception while preserving optimal lactation. PMID:9025449

  16. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    Previously studies have shown the importance of both medium composition and concentration and medium pH on ethanol production of Clostridium ljungdahlii in fermenting CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} in synthesis gas. Four additional batch experiments involving medium composition and concentration were carried out in modified basal medium without yeast extract at pH 4.0. These experiments indicate that basal medium with only small amounts of B-vitamins can yield significant cell growth while yielding ethanol as the major product. Product ratios as high as 11.0 g ethanol per g acetate were obtained with half strength B-vitamins. Further experiments indicates that Ca-pantothenate may be necessary for the growth of C. ljungdahlii and that growth and ethanol production can occur simultaneously.

  17. Detection of activity in the conditioned medium of ethanol-treated HepG2 cells which stimulates collagen synthesis in IMR-90 cells.

    PubMed

    Inui, N; Kato, J; Kohgo, Y; Katsuki, S; Niitsu, Y

    1996-02-01

    Hepatic fibrosis often occurs in alcoholic liver diseases without accompanying tissue necrosis or inflammation. However, the precise mechanism of this fibrosis has not been fully clarified. In the present study, using the hepatoblastoma cell line HepG2 as a model for hepatocytes, we identified a factor that stimulates collagen synthesis of fibroblasts in a conditioned medium of HepG2 cells after treatment with ethanol. Type 1 procollagen peptide (PIC) in a culture of human fibroblast IMR-90 markedly increased after incubation with the conditioned medium of ethanol-treated HepG2 cells. The stimulating activity on the production of PIC by IMR-90 remained after the dialysis and evaporation of the conditioned medium of HepG2 cells, indicating this factor was not as volatile from low molecular substances such as acetaldehyde, acetate, or lactate. The activity of this factor diminished with heat or trypsin treatment. A gel chromatographic analysis disclosed that the molecular weight of this factor was approximately 8000 Da. These results suggest that a polypeptide factor secreted from HepG2 cells by treatment with ethanol stimulates collagen synthesis of fibroblasts. PMID:8659693

  18. A crucial role for ethanol-induced oxidative stress in controlling lineage commitment of mesenchymal stromal cells through Inhibition of Wnt / Beta-catenin Signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanisms by which chronic ethanol intake induces bone loss remain largely unclear. Especially in females, skeletal response to ethanol may vary depending on the physiologic status (viz. cycling, pregnancy, lactation). Nonetheless, ethanol-induced oxidative stress appears to be the key event le...

  19. A role for ethanol-induced oxidative stress in controlling lineage commitment of mesenchymal stromal cells through inhibition of wnt/beta-catenin signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The mechanisms by which chronic ethanol intake induces bone loss remain unclear. In females, the skeletal response to ethanol varies depending on physiologic status (viz. cycling, pregnancy, lactation). Ethanol-induced oxidative stress appears to be a key event leading to skeletal toxicity. In the c...

  20. Traits of selected Clostridium strains for syngas fermentation to ethanol.

    PubMed

    Martin, Michael E; Richter, Hanno; Saha, Surya; Angenent, Largus T

    2016-03-01

    Syngas fermentation is an anaerobic bioprocess that could become industrially relevant as a biorefinery platform for sustainable production of fuels and chemicals. An important prerequisite for commercialization is adequate performance of the biocatalyst (i.e., sufficiently high production rate, titer, selectivity, yield, and stability of the fermentation). Here, we compared the performance of three potential candidate Clostridium strains in syngas-to-ethanol conversion: Clostridium ljungdahlii PETC, C. ljungdahlii ERI-2, and Clostridium autoethanogenum JA1-1. Experiments were conducted in a two-stage, continuously fed syngas-fermentation system that had been optimized for stable ethanol production. The two C. ljungdahlii strains performed similar to each other but different from C. autoethanogenum. When the pH value was lowered from 5.5 to 4.5 to induce solventogenesis, the cell-specific carbon monoxide and hydrogen consumption (similar rate for all strains at pH 5.5), severely decreased in JA1-1, but hardly in PETC and ERI-2. Ethanol production in strains PETC and ERI-2 remained relatively stable while the rate of acetate production decreased, resulting in a high ethanol/acetate ratio, but lower overall productivities. With JA1-1, lowering the pH severely lowered rates of both ethanol and acetate production; and as a consequence, no pronounced shift to solventogenesis was observed. The highest overall ethanol production rate of 0.301 g · L(-1)  · h(-1) was achieved with PETC at pH 4.5 with a corresponding 19 g/L (1.9% w/v) ethanol concentration and a 5.5:1 ethanol/acetate molar ratio. A comparison of the genes relevant for ethanol metabolism revealed differences between C. ljungdahlii and C. autoethanogenum that, however, did not conclusively explain the different phenotypes. PMID:26331212

  1. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Due to the abundant supply of coal in the United States, significant research efforts have occurred over the past 15 years concerning the conversion of coal to liquid fuels. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have concentrated on a biological approach to coal liquefaction, starting with coal-derived synthesis gas as the raw material. Synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, H[sub 2], CO[sub 2], CH[sub 4] and sulfur gases, is first produced using traditional gasification techniques. The CO, CO[sub 2] and H[sub 2] are then converted to ethanol using a bacterial culture of Clostridium 1jungdahlii. Ethanol is the desired product if the resultant product stream is to be used as a liquid fuel. However, under normal operating conditions, the wild strain'' produces acetate in favor of ethanol in conjunction with growth in a 20:1 molar ratio. Research was performed to determine the conditions necessary to maximize not only the ratio of ethanol to acetate, but also to maximize the concentration of ethanol resulting in the product stream.

  2. Energy content of reduced-fat distillers grains for lactating dairy cows

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Byproducts of ethanol production have become an important source of nutrients for dairy cows in recent years but accurate energy values have yet to be determined. Eight Holstein and 8 Jersey multiparous, lactating cows were used to complete 56 energy balances to determine the energy content of redu...

  3. Highly efficient L-lactate production using engineered Escherichia coli with dissimilar temperature optima for L-lactate formation and cell growth

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    L-Lactic acid, one of the most important chiral molecules and organic acids, is produced via pyruvate from carbohydrates in diverse microorganisms catalyzed by an NAD+-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase. Naturally, Escherichia coli does not produce L-lactate in noticeable amounts, but can catabolize it via a dehydrogenation reaction mediated by an FMN-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase. In aims to make the E. coli strain to produce L-lactate, three L-lactate dehydrogenase genes from different bacteria were cloned and expressed. The L-lactate producing strains, 090B1 (B0013-070, ΔldhA::diflldD::Pldh-ldhLca), 090B2 (B0013-070, ΔldhA::diflldD::Pldh-ldhStrb) and 090B3 (B0013-070, ΔldhA::diflldD::Pldh-ldhBcoa) were developed from a previously developed D-lactate over-producing strain, E. coli strain B0013-070 (ack-ptappspflBdldpoxBadhEfrdA) by: (1) deleting ldhA to block D-lactate formation, (2) deleting lldD to block the conversion of L-lactate to pyruvate, and (3) expressing an L-lactate dehydrogenase (L-LDH) to convert pyruvate to L-lactate under the control of the ldhA promoter. Fermentation tests were carried out in a shaking flask and in a 25-l bioreactor. Strains 090B1, 090B2 or 090B3 were shown to metabolize glucose to L-lactate instead of D-lactate. However, L-lactate yield and cell growth rates were significantly different among the metabolically engineered strains which can be attributed to a variation between temperature optimum for cell growth and temperature optimum for enzymatic activity of individual L-LDH. In a temperature-shifting fermentation process (cells grown at 37°C and L-lactate formed at 42°C), E. coli 090B3 was able to produce 142.2 g/l of L-lactate with no more than 1.2 g/l of by-products (mainly acetate, pyruvate and succinate) accumulated. In conclusion, the production of lactate by E. coli is limited by the competition relationship between cell growth and lactate synthesis. Enzymatic properties, especially the thermodynamics of an L

  4. Simultaneous production of acetic and gluconic acids by a thermotolerant Acetobacter strain during acetous fermentation in a bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Mounir, Majid; Shafiei, Rasoul; Zarmehrkhorshid, Raziyeh; Hamouda, Allal; Ismaili Alaoui, Mustapha; Thonart, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    The activity of bacterial strains significantly influences the quality and the taste of vinegar. Previous studies of acetic acid bacteria have primarily focused on the ability of bacterial strains to produce high amounts of acetic acid. However, few studies have examined the production of gluconic acid during acetous fermentation at high temperatures. The production of vinegar at high temperatures by two strains of acetic acid bacteria isolated from apple and cactus fruits, namely AF01 and CV01, respectively, was evaluated in this study. The simultaneous production of gluconic and acetic acids was also examined in this study. Biochemical and molecular identification based on a 16s rDNA sequence analysis confirmed that these strains can be classified as Acetobacter pasteurianus. To assess the ability of the isolated strains to grow and produce acetic acid and gluconic acid at high temperatures, a semi-continuous fermentation was performed in a 20-L bioreactor. The two strains abundantly grew at a high temperature (41°C). At the end of the fermentation, the AF01 and CV01 strains yielded acetic acid concentrations of 7.64% (w/v) and 10.08% (w/v), respectively. Interestingly, CV01 was able to simultaneously produce acetic and gluconic acids during acetic fermentation, whereas AF01 mainly produced acetic acid. In addition, CV01 was less sensitive to ethanol depletion during semi-continuous fermentation. Finally, the enzymatic study showed that the two strains exhibited high ADH and ALDH enzyme activity at 38°C compared with the mesophilic reference strain LMG 1632, which was significantly susceptible to thermal inactivation. PMID:26253254

  5. Mutants of Escherichia coli deficient in the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Mat-Jan, F; Alam, K Y; Clark, D P

    1989-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli deficient in the fermentative NAD-linked lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) have been isolated. These mutants showed no growth defects under anaerobic conditions unless present together with a defect in pyruvate formate lyase (pfl). Double mutants (pfl ldh) were unable to grow anaerobically on glucose or other sugars even when supplemented with acetate, whereas pfl mutants can do so. The ldh mutation was found to map at 30.5 min on the E. coli chromosome. The ldh mutant FMJ39 showed no detectable lactate dehydrogenase activity and produced no lactic acid from glucose under anaerobic conditions as estimated by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. We also found that in wild-type strains the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase was conjointly induced by anaerobic conditions and an acidic pH. Despite previous findings that phosphate concentrations affect the proportion of lactic acid produced during fermentation, we were unable to find any intrinsic effect of phosphate on lactate dehydrogenase activity, apart from the buffering effect of this ion. PMID:2644194

  6. Lactate and lactate clearance in acute cardiac care patients

    PubMed Central

    Lazzeri, Chiara; Picariello, Claudio; Dini, Carlotta Sorini; Gensini, Gian Franco; Valente, Serafina

    2012-01-01

    Hyperlactataemia is commonly used as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in intensive care settings. Recent studies documented that serial lactate measurements over time (or lactate clearance), may be clinically more reliable than lactate absolute value for risk stratification in different pathological conditions. While the negative prognostic role of hyperlactataemia in several critical ill diseases (such as sepsis and trauma) is well established, data in patients with acute cardiac conditions (i.e. acute coronary syndromes) are scarce and controversial. The present paper provides an overview of the current available evidence on the clinical role of lactic acid levels and lactate clearance in acute cardiac settings (acute coronary syndromes, cardiogenic shock, cardiac surgery), focusing on its prognostic role. PMID:24062898

  7. Migraine in pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    David, Paru S; Kling, Juliana M; Starling, Amaal J

    2014-04-01

    Migraine headache is a significant health problem affecting women more than men. In women, the hormonal fluctuations seen during pregnancy and lactation can affect migraine frequency and magnitude. Understanding the evaluation of headache in pregnancy is important, especially given the increased risk of secondary headache conditions. Pregnancy and lactation can complicate treatment options for women with migraine because of the risk of certain medications to the fetus. This review includes details of the workup and then provides treatment options for migraine during pregnancy and lactation. PMID:24604057

  8. Determination of degradation products of squalamine lactate using LC/MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong-Jun; Kari, U Prasad; Noecker, Lincoln A; Jones, Stephen R; Sabo, Andrew M; McCormick, Timothy J; Johnston, Sean M

    2003-04-24

    Heat, acid and base stress methods were applied to study the stability of squalamine lactate. Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was used to analyze the degraded samples and tentative structural identifications were assigned based on their molecular weight measurements, reactivity and MS/MS fragmentation. Solid squalamine lactate generated a new amide, namely lactyl squalamide, when heated to 80 degrees C. Chemical structure for this new compound has been established by NMR and MS data interpretation and confirmed by direct comparison between the degradant and the synthesized compound. Squalamine lactate in pH 4 acetate buffer solution produced more degradants under stressed conditions. These degradants are formed due to the loss of the sulfate functionality. Squalamine lactate is stable in refrigerated conditions as well as in basic solution. PMID:12852451

  9. Maternal care alterations induced by repeated ethanol leads to heightened consumption of the drug and motor impairment during adolescence: a dose-response analysis.

    PubMed

    Ponce, Luciano F; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos; Spear, Norman E; Molina, Juan C

    2011-07-01

    Maternal ethanol exposure during lactation induces behavioral alterations in offspring, including disruptions in motor skills and heightened ethanol ingestion during adolescence. These behavioral outcomes appear to partially depend on ethanol-induced disruptions in maternal care. The present study assessed motor skills and ethanol intake in adolescent rats raised by dams that had been repeatedly given ethanol during lactation. Female rats (postpartum days [PDs] 3-13) were administered ethanol (0.5, 1.5, or 2.5 g/kg) or vehicle every other day and allowed to freely interact with their pups. During adolescence, the offspring were evaluated for motor coordination (accelerating rotarod test) and oral ethanol self administration. The lowest maternal ethanol dose (0.5 g/kg) mildly affected motor performance, whereas the higher doses (1.5 and 2.5 g/kg) resulted in motor coordination impairment and greater ethanol intake. Maternal care behavior was affected by ethanol in a dose-dependent fashion. These results indicate that early experience with ethanol during lactation, even when the drug dosage is kept relatively low, leads to long-term consequences in offspring. Dose-response effects on maternal care behavior (i.e., nest building, crouching) may underlie disruptions in motor development and greater ethanol intake resulting from these early ethanol experiences. PMID:21334354

  10. Syntrophic Degradation of Lactate in Methanogenic Co-cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Birte; Stahl, David

    2010-05-17

    In environments where the amount of the inorganic electron acceptors (oxygen, nitrate, sulfate, sulfur oroxidized metal ions (Fe3+;Mn4+) is insufficient for complete breakdown of organic matter, methane is formed as the major reduced end product. In such methanogenic environments organic acids are degraded by syntrophic associations of fermenting, acetogenic bacteria (e.g., sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) as"secondary fermenters") and methanogenic archaea. In these consortia, the conversion of lactate to acetate, CO2 and methane depends on the cooperating activities of both metabolically distinct microbial groups that are tightly linked by the need to maintain the exchanged metabolites (hydrogenandformate) at very low concentrations.

  11. Acetate Dependence of Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Comerford, Sarah A.; Huang, Zhiguang; Du, Xinlin; Wang, Yun; Cai, Ling; Witkiewicz, Agnes; Walters, Holly; Tantawy, Mohammed N.; Fu, Allie; Manning, H. Charles; Horton, Jay D.; Hammer, Robert E.; McKnight, Steven L.; Tu, Benjamin P.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Acetyl-CoA represents a central node of carbon metabolism that plays a key role in bioenergetics, cell proliferation and the regulation of gene expression. How highly glycolytic or hypoxic tumors are able to produce sufficient quantities of this metabolite to support cell growth and survival under nutrient-limiting conditions remains poorly understood. Here we show that the nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA synthetase enzyme, ACSS2, supplies a key source of acetyl-CoA for tumors by capturing acetate as a carbon source. Despite exhibiting no gross deficits in growth or development, adult mice lacking ACSS2 exhibit a significant reduction in tumor burden in two different models of hepatocellular carcinoma. ACSS2 is expressed in a large proportion of human tumors and its activity is responsible for the majority of cellular acetate uptake into both lipids and histones. These observations may qualify ACSS2 as a targetable metabolic vulnerability of a wide spectrum of tumors. PMID:25525877

  12. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biologic...

  13. Genetic dissection of acetic acid tolerance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Geng, Peng; Xiao, Yin; Hu, Yun; Sun, Haiye; Xue, Wei; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Gui-Yang

    2016-09-01

    Dissection of the hereditary architecture underlying Saccharomyces cerevisiae tolerance to acetic acid is essential for ethanol fermentation. In this work, a genomics approach was used to dissect hereditary variations in acetic acid tolerance between two phenotypically different strains. A total of 160 segregants derived from these two strains were obtained. Phenotypic analysis indicated that the acetic acid tolerance displayed a normal distribution in these segregants, and suggested that the acetic acid tolerant traits were controlled by multiple quantitative trait loci (QTLs). Thus, 220 SSR markers covering the whole genome were used to detect QTLs of acetic acid tolerant traits. As a result, three QTLs were located on chromosomes 9, 12, and 16, respectively, which explained 38.8-65.9 % of the range of phenotypic variation. Furthermore, twelve genes of the candidates fell into the three QTL regions by integrating the QTL analysis with candidates of acetic acid tolerant genes. These results provided a novel avenue to obtain more robust strains. PMID:27430512

  14. Lactate levels with glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Kahlon, Arunpreet Singh; Alexander, Mariam; Kahlon, Arundeep; Wright, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    A 37-year-old woman with known glioblastoma multiforme was admitted for treatment of new deep vein thrombosis. Anion gap and plasma lactate levels were found to be elevated. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a stable, advanced glioblastoma multiforme. All causes of lactic acidosis, including infections and medications, were ruled out. Aggressive tumors have been shown to produce lactate levels in minute quantities in their microenvironment, which helps them metastasize and evade immune response and even radiation. PMID:27365883

  15. Lactate levels with glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Kahlon, Arunpreet Singh; Alexander, Mariam; Kahlon, Arundeep

    2016-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman with known glioblastoma multiforme was admitted for treatment of new deep vein thrombosis. Anion gap and plasma lactate levels were found to be elevated. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a stable, advanced glioblastoma multiforme. All causes of lactic acidosis, including infections and medications, were ruled out. Aggressive tumors have been shown to produce lactate levels in minute quantities in their microenvironment, which helps them metastasize and evade immune response and even radiation. PMID:27365883

  16. Maternal lead exposure during lactation persistently impairs testicular development and steroidogenesis in male offspring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Ji, Yan-Li; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Xian-Feng; Ning, Huan; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Cheng; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Ying; Meng, Xiu-Hong; Xu, De-Xiang

    2013-12-01

    Lead (Pb) is a testicular toxicant. In the present study, we investigated the effects of maternal Pb exposure during lactation on testicular development and steroidogenesis in male offspring. Maternal mice were exposed to different concentration of lead acetate (200 or 2000 ppm) through drinking water from postnatal day (PND) 0 to PND21. As expected, a high concentration of Pb was measured in the kidneys and liver of pups whose mothers were exposed to Pb during lactation. In addition, maternal Pb exposure during lactation elevated, to a less extent, Pb content in testes of weaning pups. Testis weight in weaning pups was significantly decreased when maternal mice were exposed to Pb during lactation. The level of serum and testicular T was reduced in Pb-exposed pups. The expression of P450scc, P450(17α) and 17β-HSD, key enzymes for T synthesis, was down-regulated in testes of weaning pups whose mothers were exposed to Pb during lactation. Interestingly, the level of serum and testicular T remained decreased in adult offspring whose mothers were exposed to Pb during lactation. Importantly, the number of spermatozoa was significantly reduced in Pb-exposed male offspring. Taken together, these results suggest that Pb could be transported from dams to pups through milk. Maternal Pb exposure during lactation persistently disrupts testicular development and steroidogenesis in male offspring. PMID:22806249

  17. Glucose metabolism and effect of acetate in ovine adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y T; White, L S; Muir, L A

    1982-08-01

    Isolated ovine adipocytes were incubated in vitro with specifically labeled 14C-glucose in the presence or absence of acetate. The flux patterns of glucose carbon through major metabolic pathways were estimated. When glucose was added as the sole substrate, approximately equal portions of glucose carbon (10%) were oxidized to CO2 in the pentose phosphate pathway, in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction and in the citrate cycle. Fifteen percent of the glucose carbon was incorporated into fatty acids and 43% was released as lactate and pyruvate. Addition of acetate to the medium increased glucose carbon uptake by 1.5-fold. Most of this increase was accounted for by a sevenfold increase in the activity of the pentose phosphate pathway. Acetate increased glucose carbon fluxes via pentose phosphate pathway to triose phosphates, from triose phosphate to pyruvate, into glyceride glycerol, into lactate and pyruvate and into pyruvate dehydrogenase and citrate cycle CO2. Glucose carbon incorporated into fatty acids was decreased 50% by acetate while, carbon fluxes through the phosphofructokinase-aldolase reactions were not significantly increased. Results of this study suggest that, when glucose is the sole substrate, the conversion of glucose to fatty acids in ovine adipocytes may not be limited by the maximum capacity of hexokinase, the pentose phosphate pathway or enzymes involved in the conversion of triose phosphates to pyruvate and of pyruvate to fatty acid. Acetate increased glucose utilization apparently by increasing activity of the pentose phosphate pathway as a result of enhanced NADPH utilization for fatty acid synthesis. PMID:7142048

  18. Lactating Adenoma of the Breast.

    PubMed

    Barco Nebreda, Israel; Vidal, M Carmen; Fraile, Manel; Canales, Lydia; González, Clarisa; Giménez, Nuria; García-Fernández, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Lactating adenoma is an uncommon breast palpable lesion occurring in pregnancy or lactation. Although it is a benign condition, it often requires core biopsy or even surgery to exclude malignancy. As with other solid lesions in pregnancy and lactation, lactating adenoma needs an accurate evaluation in order to ensure its benign nature. Work-up must include both imaging and histologic findings. Ultrasound evaluation remains the first step in assessing the features of the lesion. Some authors consider magnetic resonance imaging as a useful tool in cases of inconclusive evaluation after ultrasound and histologic exam in an attempt to avoid surgery. Most lactating adenomas resolve spontaneously, whereas others persist or even increase in size and must be removed. The authors present a case of a 35-year-old woman at 6 months postpartum with a lactating adenoma in her right breast. After surgical removal, breastfeeding was perfectly continued within the next 24 hours, which highlights the fact that breast surgery is most often compatible with breastfeeding. PMID:27197575

  19. Characterization of acetic acid bacteria in "traditional balsamic vinegar".

    PubMed

    Gullo, Maria; Caggia, Cinzia; De Vero, Luciana; Giudici, Paolo

    2006-02-01

    This study evaluated the glucose tolerance of acetic acid bacteria strains isolated from Traditional Balsamic Vinegar. The results showed that the greatest hurdle to acetic acid bacteria growth is the high sugar concentration, since the majority of the isolated strains are inhibited by 25% of glucose. Sugar tolerance is an important technological trait because Traditional Balsamic Vinegar is made with concentrated cooked must. On the contrary, ethanol concentration of the cooked and fermented must is less significant for acetic acid bacteria growth. A tentative identification of the isolated strains was done by 16S-23S-5S rDNA PCR/RFLP technique and the isolated strains were clustered: 32 strains belong to Gluconacetobacter xylinus group, two strains to Acetobacter pasteurianus group and one to Acetobacter aceti. PMID:16214251

  20. Lactate and Acrylate Metabolism by Megasphaera elsdenii under Batch and Steady-State Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Rupal; Altman, Elliot

    2012-01-01

    The growth of Megasphaera elsdenii on lactate with acrylate and acrylate analogues was studied under batch and steady-state conditions. Under batch conditions, lactate was converted to acetate and propionate, and acrylate was converted into propionate. Acrylate analogues 2-methyl propenoate and 3-butenoate containing a terminal double bond were similarly converted into their respective saturated acids (isobutyrate and butyrate), while crotonate and lactate analogues 3-hydroxybutyrate and (R)-2-hydroxybutyrate were not metabolized. Under carbon-limited steady-state conditions, lactate was converted to acetate and butyrate with no propionate formed. As the acrylate concentration in the feed was increased, butyrate and hydrogen formation decreased and propionate was increasingly generated, while the calculated ATP yield was unchanged. M. elsdenii metabolism differs substantially under batch and steady-state conditions. The results support the conclusion that propionate is not formed during lactate-limited steady-state growth because of the absence of this substrate to drive the formation of lactyl coenzyme A (CoA) via propionyl-CoA transferase. Acrylate and acrylate analogues are reduced under both batch and steady-state growth conditions after first being converted to thioesters via propionyl-CoA transferase. Our findings demonstrate the central role that CoA transferase activity plays in the utilization of acids by M. elsdenii and allows us to propose a modified acrylate pathway for M. elsdenii. PMID:23023753

  1. Thermoanaerobacter pentosaceus sp. nov., an anaerobic, extremely thermophilic, high ethanol-yielding bacterium isolated from household waste.

    PubMed

    Tomás, Ana Faria; Karakashev, Dimitar; Angelidaki, Irini

    2013-07-01

    An extremely thermophilic, xylanolytic, spore-forming and strictly anaerobic bacterium, strain DTU01(T), was isolated from a continuously stirred tank reactor fed with xylose and household waste. Cells stained Gram-negative and were rod-shaped (0.5-2 µm in length). Spores were terminal with a diameter of approximately 0.5 µm. Optimal growth occurred at 70 °C and pH 7, with a maximum growth rate of 0.1 h(-1). DNA G+C content was 34.2 mol%. Strain DTU01(T) could ferment arabinose, cellobiose, fructose, galactose, glucose, lactose, mannitol, mannose, melibiose, pectin, starch, sucrose, xylan, yeast extract and xylose, but not cellulose, Avicel, inositol, inulin, glycerol, rhamnose, acetate, lactate, ethanol, butanol or peptone. Ethanol was the major fermentation product and a maximum yield of 1.39 mol ethanol per mol xylose was achieved when sulfite was added to the cultivation medium. Thiosulfate, but not sulfate, nitrate or nitrite, could be used as electron acceptor. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity, strain DTU01(T) was shown to be closely related to Thermoanaerobacter mathranii A3(T), Thermoanaerobacter italicus Ab9(T) and Thermoanaerobacter thermocopriae JT3-3(T), with 98-99 % similarity. Despite this, the physiological and phylogenetic differences (DNA G+C content, substrate utilization, electron acceptors, phylogenetic distance and isolation site) allow for the proposal of strain DTU01(T) as a representative of a novel species within the genus Thermoanaerobacter, for which the name Thermoanaerobacter pentosaceus sp. nov. is proposed, with the type strain DTU01(T) ( = DSM 25963(T) = KCTC 4529(T) = VKM B-2752(T) = CECT 8142(T)). PMID:23178727

  2. Improvement of acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae using a zinc-finger-based artificial transcription factor and identification of novel genes involved in acetic acid tolerance.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cui; Wei, Xiaowen; Sun, Cuihuan; Zhang, Fei; Xu, Jianren; Zhao, Xinqing; Bai, Fengwu

    2015-03-01

    Acetic acid is present in cellulosic hydrolysate as a potent inhibitor, and the superior acetic acid tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ensures good cell viability and efficient ethanol production when cellulosic raw materials are used as substrates. In this study, a mutant strain of S. cerevisiae ATCC4126 (Sc4126-M01) with improved acetic acid tolerance was obtained through screening strains transformed with an artificial zinc finger protein transcription factor (ZFP-TF) library. Further analysis indicated that improved acetic acid tolerance was associated with improved catalase (CAT) activity. The ZFP coding sequence associated with the improved phenotype was identified, and real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that three of the possible genes involved in the enhanced acetic acid tolerance regulated by this ZFP-TF, namely YFL040W, QDR3, and IKS1, showed decreased transcription levels in Sc4126-M01 in the presence of acetic acid, compared to those in the control strain. Sc4126-M01 mutants having QDR3 and IKS1 deletion (ΔQDR3 and ΔIKS1) exhibited higher acetic acid tolerance than the wild-type strain under acetic acid treatment. Glucose consumption rate and ethanol productivity in the presence of 5 g/L acetic acid were improved in the ΔQDR3 mutant compared to the wild-type strain. Our studies demonstrated that the synthetic ZFP-TF library can be used to improve acetic acid tolerance of S. cerevisiae and that the employment of an artificial transcription factor can facilitate the exploration of novel functional genes involved in stress tolerance of S. cerevisiae. PMID:25698512

  3. Biological production of ethanol fom coal. [Quarterly report], December 22, 1991--March 21, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Research is continuing in an attempt to increase both the ethanol concentration and product ratio using C. ljungdahlii. The purpose of this report is to present data (acetate to ethanol) utilizing a medium prepared especially for C. ljungdahlii. Medium development studies are presented, as well as reactor studies with the new medium in batch reactors. Continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with cell recycle. The use of this new medium has resulted in significant improvements in cell concentration, ethanol concentration and product ratio.

  4. Microbiosensor for the detection of acetate in electrode-respiring biofilms.

    PubMed

    Atci, Erhan; Babauta, Jerome T; Sultana, Sujala T; Beyenal, Haluk

    2016-07-15

    The goal of this work was to develop a microbiosensor to measure acetate concentration profiles inside biofilms in situ. The working principle of the microbiosensor was based on the correlation between the acetate concentration and the current generated during acetate oxidation by Geobacter sulfurreducens. The microbiosensor consisted of a 30-µm carbon microelectrode with an open tip as a working electrode, with G. sulfurreducens biofilm on the tip and a pseudo Ag/AgCl reference electrode, all enclosed in a glass outer case with a 30-µm tip diameter. The microbiosensor showed a linear response in the 0-1.6mM acetate concentration range with a 79±8µM limit of detection (S/N=2). We quantified the stirring effect and found it negligible. However, the interfering effect of alternative electron donors (lactate, formate, pyruvate, or hydrogen) was found to be significant. The usefulness of the acetate microbiosensor was demonstrated by measuring acetate concentration depth profiles within a G. sulfurreducens biofilm. The acetate concentration remained at bulk values throughout the biofilm when no current was passed, but it decreased from the bulk values to below the detection limit within 200µm when current was allowed to pass. The zero acetate concentration at the bottom of the biofilm showed that the biofilm was acetate-limited. PMID:27016913

  5. Nutritional aspects of human lactation*

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, A. M.; Black, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the incidence and duration of breast-feeding in various countries, the volume and composition of breast milk, the health and nutrition of breast-fed babies as judged by growth and morbidity, maternal nutritional requirements during lactation, and the effect of prolonged lactation on maternal health. It appears that lactation can be as well sustained by impoverished as by affluent mothers, and that even in communities where malnutrition is common the average growth of infants is satisfactory up to the age of about 3 months on a diet of breast milk alone. Breast milk appears to have specific anti-infective properties, but prolonged breast-feeding will not prevent infections among older infants reared in a poor environment. The authors believe that breast-feeding is the best form of nutrition for the young infant and deplore its decline in modern industrial societies. The recommendations of various FAO/WHO Expert Groups on nutritional intakes during lactation are summarized. The need for an increased daily energy intake of 4.2 MJ (1 000 kcal) is questioned, and an increase of 2.5 MJ (600 kcal) is suggested. Data on the effect of prolonged lactation on the health of the mother are scanty; body weight appears to be maintained even among poorly nourished mothers. The authors stress the need for well-planned and technically adequate studies of the material and psychological factors involved in breast feeding. PMID:816479

  6. Midtrimester abortion by ethacridine lactate.

    PubMed

    Goswami, B K; Raha, A; Gupta, A; Mukherjee, K

    1982-07-01

    This article discusses a clinical trial with the abortifacient agent ethacridine lactate as it was used for midtrimester abortion in Calcutta during the period January-July 1980. Results are then compared with intraamniotic hypertonic saline. 130 subjects were divided into 2 groups--Group 1 (60 women) were terminated with ethacridine lactate and group 2 (70 women) were terminated with saline. In cases where the patient complained of pain, analgesia was administered. In both groups, the largest concentration of women fell in the age groups 16-20 and 21-25. Similarly, single women were the largest representation in both groups although the saline group included more widows. Ethacridine lactate can be administered earlier in the 2nd trimester than saline. With it, expulsion occurred within 36 hours in 56.6% of the cases as compared with 22.9% in group 2. Both groups required the same amount of assistance with oxytocin. In group 1, there were only 3 cases (5%) of minor complications whereas in group 2, 19 cases (27.1%) developed complications. This alone strongly recommends ethacridine lactate as the preferred abortifacient. The success rate was 98%. Thus, ethacridine lactate appears to be a safe and effective agent for pregnancy termination during the 2nd trimester. PMID:7142727

  7. Acamprosate {monocalcium bis(3-acetamidopropane-1-sulfonate)} reduces ethanol-drinking behavior in rats and glutamate-induced toxicity in ethanol-exposed primary rat cortical neuronal cultures.

    PubMed

    Oka, Michiko; Hirouchi, Masaaki; Tamura, Masaru; Sugahara, Seishi; Oyama, Tatsuya

    2013-10-15

    Acamprosate, the calcium salt of bis(3-acetamidopropane-1-sulfonate), contributes to the maintenance of abstinence in alcohol-dependent patients, but its mechanism of action in the central nervous system is unclear. Here, we report the effect of acamprosate on ethanol-drinking behavior in standard laboratory Wistar rats, including voluntary ethanol consumption and the ethanol-deprivation effect. After forced ethanol consumption arranged by the provision of only one drinking bottle containing 10% ethanol, the rats were given a choice between two drinking bottles, one containing water and the other containing 10% ethanol. In rats selected for high ethanol preference, repeated oral administration of acamprosate diminished voluntary ethanol drinking. After three months of continuous access to two bottles, rats were deprived of ethanol for three days and then presented with two bottles again. After ethanol deprivation, ethanol preference was increased, and the increase was largely abolished by acamprosate. After exposure of primary neuronal cultures of rat cerebral cortex to ethanol for four days, neurotoxicity, as measured by the extracellular leakage of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), was induced by incubation with glutamate for 1h followed by incubation in the absence of ethanol for 24h. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor blocker 5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo[a,d]-cyclohepten-5,10-imine, the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 antagonist 6-methyl-2-(phenylethynyl)pyridine and the voltage-gated calcium-channel blocker nifedipine all inhibited glutamate-induced LDH leakage from ethanol-exposed neurons. Acamprosate inhibited the glutamate-induced LDH leakage from ethanol-exposed neurons more strongly than that from intact neurons. In conclusion, acamprosate showed effective reduction of drinking behavior in rats and protected ethanol-exposed neurons by multiple blocking of glutamate signaling. PMID:24012782

  8. [Plasma clearance of ethanol and its excretion in the milk of rural women who consume pulque].

    PubMed

    Argote-Espinosa, R M; Flores-Huerta, S; Hernández-Montes, H; Villalpando-Hernández, S

    1992-01-01

    Women from rural areas of the central plateau of Mexico drink during pregnancy and lactation a mild alcoholic beverage called pulque as a galactogogue. Ethanol present in milk could have a harmful effect on growth and development of breast-fed children. The purpose of this study was to quantify the ethanol consumed as pulque by eleven lactating rural women as well as its clearance rate in blood and milk. Mothers were separated in two groups depending upon the ethanol ingested in a single dose of pulque 0.21 +/- 0.08 g/kg of body weight (group A) and 0.44 +/- 0.11 g/kg (group B). Maximal concentration of ethanol was reached in milk at 60 minutes and almost equaled that in plasma. Both groups showed a similar clearance pattern regardless of the volume of pulque ingested. Clearance rates between groups were different: ethanol concentration in milk at 60 min were 8.4 +/- 3.0 mg/dL for group A and 26.2 +/- 7.0 mg/dL for group B. Two hours later ethanol levels were 3.6 +/- 3.4 mg/dL and 23.3 +/- 9.4 mg/dL respectively. Clearance rates were slower in mothers showing the highest concentration of ethanol in milk. The present data demonstrate that there is no differential elimination of ethanol in maternal blood and milk following ingestion of a moderate amount of pulque during lactation. The amount of ethanol received by infants through milk is relatively low and therefore it is unlikely to have harmful effects on them. Pulque consumption adds about 350 kcal/day to the customary dietary intake of these lactating women. PMID:1523347

  9. Severe lactic acidosis in a diabetic patient after ethanol abuse and floor cleaner intake.

    PubMed

    Hendrikx, Jeroen J M A; Lagas, Jurjen S; Daling, Ratana; Hooijberg, Jan Hendrik; Schellens, Jan H M; Beijnen, Jos H; Brandjes, Desiderius P M; Huitema, Alwin D R

    2014-11-01

    An intoxication with drugs, ethanol or cleaning solvents may cause a complex clinical scenario if multiple agents have been ingested simultaneously. The situation can become even more complex in patients with (multiple) co-morbidities. A 59-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus (without treatment two weeks before the intoxication) intentionally ingested a substantial amount of ethanol along with ~750 mL of laminate floor cleaner containing citric acid. The patient was admitted with severe metabolic acidosis (both ketoacidosis and lactic acidosis, with serum lactate levels of 22 mM). He was treated with sodium bicarbonate, insulin and thiamine after which he recovered within two days. Diabetic ketoacidosis and lactic acidosis aggravated due to ethanol intoxication, thiamine deficiency and citrate. The high lactate levels were explained by excessive lactate formation caused by the combination of untreated diabetes mellitus, thiamine deficiency and ethanol abuse. Metabolic acidosis in diabetes is multi-factorial, and the clinical situation may be further complicated, when ingestion of ethanol and toxic agents are involved. Here, we reported a patient in whom diabetic ketoacidosis was accompanied by severe lactic acidosis as a result of citric acid and mainly ethanol ingestion and a possible thiamine deficiency. In the presence of lactic acidosis in diabetic ketoacidosis, physicians need to consider thiamine deficiency and ingestion of ethanol or other toxins. PMID:24717115

  10. Production and Utilization of Ethanol by the Homoacetogen Acetobacterium woodii.

    PubMed

    Buschhorn, H; Dürre, P; Gottschalk, G

    1989-07-01

    Acetobacterium woodii formed ethanol as a fermentation product in addition to acetate when the phosphate concentration of the medium was between 0.2 and 8.4 mM. Considerable amounts of alanine were also found (2 to 11 mM). Supplementation with phosphate caused a shift to acetate as the only end product. Ethanol could also serve as a substrate for A. woodii. The fermentation yielded predominantly acetate and was strictly dependent on high bicarbonate concentrations. 1-Propanol, 1-butanol, and 1-pentanol were converted to the corresponding fatty acids but allowed only marginal growth. A. wieringae and A. carbinolicum grown under identical conditions were also able to form ethanol, and A. wieringae could use ethanol as a substrate, too. Alcohol dehydrogenase and acetaldehyde dehydrogenase activities were determined in A. woodii. Activity stains of polyacrylamide gels with crude extracts allowed the detection of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase but not of alcohol dehydrogenase. Trace amounts of methane were detected during growth of A. woodii on glucose and ethanol. PMID:16347978

  11. Antipsychotics in pregnancy and lactation

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Girish N.; Desai, Geetha; Chandra, Prabha S.

    2015-01-01

    Research on psychotropic medications during pregnancy and lactation is limited as often involves complex ethical issues. Information on safety of psychotropic drugs during these critical phases is either inconclusive or undetermined. Many women with severe mental illness have unplanned pregnancies and require antipsychotic medication during pregnancy and lactation. Multiple issues have to be considered while choosing safe treatments for pregnant and lactating women and the best approach is to individualize the treatment. Medication should be guided primarily by its safety data and by the psychiatric history of the patient. Important issues to be kept in mind include pre-pregnancy counseling for all women, including planning pregnancies; folate supplementation, discussion with patient and family regarding options, and active liaison with obstetricians, ultrasonologists and pediatricians. Whenever possible, non-pharmacological approaches should be used in addition. PMID:26330648

  12. Lactational infertility in family planning.

    PubMed

    Short, R V

    1993-04-01

    The contraceptive effect of breast-feeding is the single most important determinant of human population growth rates in traditional societies without access to modern forms of contraception; lactational amenorrhoea is Nature's contraceptive. Even today, breast-feeding still prevents more pregnancies than all modern forms of contraception in many developing countries. Afferent neural inputs from the nipple pass via the spinal cord to the hypothalamus, where they cause a local release of beta endorphin. This acts to depress GnRH secretion, thereby inhibiting pituitary gonadotrophin secretion, ovarian follicular development, ovulation and menstruation. The hypothalamic beta endorphin release also inhibits dopamine production, resulting in increased pituitary prolactin secretion. The higher the suckling frequency, the more beta endorphin that is released and hence the longer the duration of lactational amenorrhoea. Lactational amenorrhoea can be relied up to give over 98% contraceptive protection to breast-feeding women in the first 6 months postpartum, regardless of their nutritional status or the time of first supplement introduction to the baby. This is because the first postpartum menstruation usually precedes the first ovulation during these early months. Once menstruation has resumed, lactation's contraceptive effect can no longer be relied upon, even though the woman continues to breast-feed. In breast-feeding women whose amenorrhoea extends beyond 6 months, there is an increasing tendency for the first ovulation to precede the first menstruation, thereby decreasing the reliability of lactational amenorrhoea as a contraceptive. Nevertheless, many women who continue to breast-feed may still have up to 1-2 years of good contraceptive protection from prolonged lactational amenorrhoea.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8489757

  13. Comparative metabolic effects of acetate and dichloroacetate infusion in the anesthetized dog.

    PubMed

    Ward, R A; Wathen, R L; Harding, G B; Thompson, L C

    1985-07-01

    The comparative effects of acetate (10 mmol/h/kg) and dichloroacetate (DCA) (1 mmol/h/kg and 10 mmol/h/kg) on acid-base and intermediary metabolism were assessed using the fasted anesthetized dog, undergoing controlled ventilation, as a metabolic model. Infusion of acetate resulted in a marked metabolic alkalemia and a decline in PaO2, while DCA had minimal effects on acid-base state and oxygen consumption. Serum glucose decreased with both DCA and acetate infusion, although only significantly with the latter. At infusion rates of 10 mmol/h/kg, acetate caused marked decreases, while DCA caused marked increases, in serum potassium and phosphorus. Acetate and DCA also had opposing effects on lactate and citrate levels, the former caused increases and the latter decreases in both metabolites. Pyruvate levels decreased similarly in response to both infusates. Acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate levels increased significantly with both acetate and DCA infusions; however, the increases were much greater with acetate than with DCA infusion. Blood alanine levels decreased significantly during the infusion of both acetate and DCA, whereas, free fatty acids tended to increase with acetate infusion, remained unchanged with low dose DCA and fell significantly with high dose DCA. Plasma insulin levels were sustained during acetate infusion, but fell abruptly with termination of infusion. In contrast, insulin levels fell markedly with DCA infusion and remained depressed throughout the infusion and recovery periods. Blood levels of acetate and DCA rose markedly during infusion; however, while acetate levels decreased nearly to control values during the recovery period, DCA levels remained elevated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3925292

  14. Body fat mobilization in early lactation influences methane production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bielak, A; Derno, M; Tuchscherer, A; Hammon, H M; Susenbeth, A; Kuhla, B

    2016-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acids mobilized during early lactation of dairy cows are increasingly used as energy substrate at the expense of acetate. As the synthesis of acetate in the rumen is closely linked to methane (CH4) production, we hypothesized that decreased acetate utilization would result in lower ruminal acetate levels and thus CH4 production. Twenty heifers were sampled for blood, rumen fluid and milk, and CH4 production was measured in respiration chambers in week -4, +5, +13 and +42 relative to first parturition. Based on plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration determined in week +5, animals were grouped to the ten highest (HM; NEFA > 580 μmol) and ten lowest (LM; NEFA < 580 μmol) mobilizing cows. Dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield and ruminal short-chain fatty acids did not differ between groups, but CH4/DMI was lower in HM cows in week +5. There was a negative regression between plasma NEFA and plasma acetate, between plasma NEFA and CH4/DMI and between plasma cholecystokinin and CH4/DMI in week +5. Our data show for the first time that fat mobilization of the host in early lactation is inversely related with ruminal CH4 production and that this effect is not attributed to different DMI. PMID:27306038

  15. Body fat mobilization in early lactation influences methane production of dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Bielak, A.; Derno, M.; Tuchscherer, A.; Hammon, H. M.; Susenbeth, A.; Kuhla, B.

    2016-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acids mobilized during early lactation of dairy cows are increasingly used as energy substrate at the expense of acetate. As the synthesis of acetate in the rumen is closely linked to methane (CH4) production, we hypothesized that decreased acetate utilization would result in lower ruminal acetate levels and thus CH4 production. Twenty heifers were sampled for blood, rumen fluid and milk, and CH4 production was measured in respiration chambers in week −4, +5, +13 and +42 relative to first parturition. Based on plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration determined in week +5, animals were grouped to the ten highest (HM; NEFA > 580 μmol) and ten lowest (LM; NEFA < 580 μmol) mobilizing cows. Dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield and ruminal short-chain fatty acids did not differ between groups, but CH4/DMI was lower in HM cows in week +5. There was a negative regression between plasma NEFA and plasma acetate, between plasma NEFA and CH4/DMI and between plasma cholecystokinin and CH4/DMI in week +5. Our data show for the first time that fat mobilization of the host in early lactation is inversely related with ruminal CH4 production and that this effect is not attributed to different DMI. PMID:27306038

  16. [Nomegestrol acetate: clinical pharmacology].

    PubMed

    Lello, S

    2009-10-01

    Progestogens are used in clinical practice in some conditions. Their effects depend on their chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, with important differences among various progestogens. Generally, progestins are classified according to their parent molecule, of which often they keep some features. Derivatives of 19-nor-progesterone are characterized by high selectivity of action on progestin receptor. In particular, nomegestrol acetate (NomAc) shows an important progestational potency, neutral gluco-lipid profile, and antigonadotropic activity. It is used for treating menstrual cycle disorders and for hormone replacement therapy in menopause in association with an estrogen. In future, thanks to its antigonadotropic activity, NomAc will be used in estroprogestin combinations in fertile women, thus taking advantage of its tolerability profile and obtaining numerous non-contraceptive benefits as well. PMID:19749678

  17. Lipid-enhanced ethanol production from xylose by Pachysolen tannophilus

    SciTech Connect

    Dekker, R.F.H.

    1986-04-01

    A number of different yeasts are now recognized as being capable of fermenting the pentose sugar, D-xylose, into ethanol. The most prominent among these are Pachysolen tannophilus and several Candida species. D-Xylose is found principally in lignocellulosic materials where it occurs as the main constitutent of the hemicellulosic xylans (1,4-..beta..-D-heteroxylans). With the exception of Candida XF-217, the conversion yields of xylose into ethanol for most yeasts were generally low (less than 70% of theoretical when grown on at least 50 g/l xylose). The low ethanol yields are attributable to a number of factors: 1) fermentation was not performed under conditions that maximize ethanol formation; 2) ethanol was not the major fermentation end-product, (e.g., acetic acid xylitol, and arabinitol are also known products, 3) ethanol toxicity; 4) ethanol is assimilated when the substrate becomes limiting; 4.8 and 5) osmotic sensitivity to high substrate levels, i.e. substrate inhibition. Attempts to increase ethanol yields of yeasts by adding exogenous lipids (e.g., oleic and linoleic acids, or ergosterol or its ester, lipid mixtures, or protein-lipid mixtures) to nutrient medium have succeeded in improving ethanol yields and also in reducing fermentation times. These lipids, when added to the nutrient medium, were incorporated into the yeast's cellular membrane. The protective action of these lipids was to alleviate the inhibitory effect of ethanol which then allowed the cells to tolerate higher ethanol levels. This communication reports on improved ethanol yields arising from the fermentation of xylose by a Pachysolen tannophilus strain when grown semi-aerobically in the presence of exogenous-added lipids. 17 references.

  18. Enhanced ethanol catabolism in orphan nuclear receptor SHP-null mice.

    PubMed

    Park, Jung Eun; Lee, Mikang; Mifflin, Ryan; Lee, Yoon Kwang

    2016-05-15

    Deficiency of the orphan nuclear hormone receptor small heterodimer partner (SHP, NR0B2) protects mice from diet-induced hepatic steatosis, in part, via repression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ2 (Pparg2) gene expression. Alcoholic fatty liver diseases (AFLD) share many common pathophysiological features with non-AFLD. To study the role of SHP and PPARγ2 in AFLD, we used a strategy of chronic ethanol feeding plus a single binge ethanol feeding to challenge wild-type (WT) and SHP-null (SHP(-/-)) mice with ethanol. The ethanol feeding induced liver fat accumulation and mRNA expression of hepatic Pparg2 in WT mice, which suggests that a high level of PPARγ2 is a common driving force for fat accumulation induced by ethanol or a high-fat diet. Interestingly, ethanol-fed SHP(-/-) mice displayed hepatic fat accumulation similar to that of ethanol-fed WT mice, even though their Pparg2 expression level remained lower. Mortality of SHP(-/-) mice after ethanol binge feeding was significantly reduced and their acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (Aldh2) mRNA level was higher than that of their WT counterparts. After an intoxicating dose of ethanol, SHP(-/-) mice exhibited faster blood ethanol clearance and earlier wake-up time than WT mice. Higher blood acetate, the end product of ethanol metabolism, and lower acetaldehyde levels were evident in the ethanol-challenged SHP(-/-) than WT mice. Ethanol-induced inflammatory responses and lipid peroxidation were also lower in SHP(-/-) mice. The current data show faster ethanol catabolism and extra fat storage through conversion of acetate to acetyl-CoA before its release into the circulation in this ethanol-feeding model in SHP(-/-) mice. PMID:26968209

  19. Ethanol Basics (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol is a widely-used, domestically-produced renewable fuel made from corn and other plant materials. More than 96% of gasoline sold in the United States contains ethanol. Learn more about this alternative fuel in the Ethanol Basics Fact Sheet, produced by the U.S. Department of Energy's Clean Cities program.

  20. 21 CFR 582.5311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5311 Ferrous lactate. (a) Product. Ferrous lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prepared by reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction of lactic acid.... (1996), pp. 154 to 155, which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction of lactic acid with iron... to 155, which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part...

  3. Improved Acetic Acid Resistance in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by Overexpression of the WHI2 Gene Identified through Inverse Metabolic Engineering.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yingying; Stabryla, Lisa; Wei, Na

    2016-01-01

    Development of acetic acid-resistant Saccharomyces cerevisiae is important for economically viable production of biofuels from lignocellulosic biomass, but the goal remains a critical challenge due to limited information on effective genetic perturbation targets for improving acetic acid resistance in the yeast. This study employed a genomic-library-based inverse metabolic engineering approach to successfully identify a novel gene target, WHI2 (encoding a cytoplasmatic globular scaffold protein), which elicited improved acetic acid resistance in S. cerevisiae. Overexpression of WHI2 significantly improved glucose and/or xylose fermentation under acetic acid stress in engineered yeast. The WHI2-overexpressing strain had 5-times-higher specific ethanol productivity than the control in glucose fermentation with acetic acid. Analysis of the expression of WHI2 gene products (including protein and transcript) determined that acetic acid induced endogenous expression of Whi2 in S. cerevisiae. Meanwhile, the whi2Δ mutant strain had substantially higher susceptibility to acetic acid than the wild type, suggesting the important role of Whi2 in the acetic acid response in S. cerevisiae. Additionally, overexpression of WHI2 and of a cognate phosphatase gene, PSR1, had a synergistic effect in improving acetic acid resistance, suggesting that Whi2 might function in combination with Psr1 to elicit the acetic acid resistance mechanism. These results improve our understanding of the yeast response to acetic acid stress and provide a new strategy to breed acetic acid-resistant yeast strains for renewable biofuel production. PMID:26826231

  4. The short-chain fatty acid acetate reduces appetite via a central homeostatic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Frost, Gary; Sleeth, Michelle L; Sahuri-Arisoylu, Meliz; Lizarbe, Blanca; Cerdan, Sebastian; Brody, Leigh; Anastasovska, Jelena; Ghourab, Samar; Hankir, Mohammed; Zhang, Shuai; Carling, David; Swann, Jonathan R; Gibson, Glenn; Viardot, Alexander; Morrison, Douglas; Louise Thomas, E; Bell, Jimmy D

    2014-01-01

    Increased intake of dietary carbohydrate that is fermented in the colon by the microbiota has been reported to decrease body weight, although the mechanism remains unclear. Here we use in vivo(11)C-acetate and PET-CT scanning to show that colonic acetate crosses the blood-brain barrier and is taken up by the brain. Intraperitoneal acetate results in appetite suppression and hypothalamic neuronal activation patterning. We also show that acetate administration is associated with activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and changes in the expression profiles of regulatory neuropeptides that favour appetite suppression. Furthermore, we demonstrate through (13)C high-resolution magic-angle-spinning that (13)C acetate from fermentation of (13)C-labelled carbohydrate in the colon increases hypothalamic (13)C acetate above baseline levels. Hypothalamic (13)C acetate regionally increases the (13)C labelling of the glutamate-glutamine and GABA neuroglial cycles, with hypothalamic (13)C lactate reaching higher levels than the 'remaining brain'. These observations suggest that acetate has a direct role in central appetite regulation. PMID:24781306

  5. The short-chain fatty acid acetate reduces appetite via a central homeostatic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Gary; Sleeth, Michelle L.; Sahuri-Arisoylu, Meliz; Lizarbe, Blanca; Cerdan, Sebastian; Brody, Leigh; Anastasovska, Jelena; Ghourab, Samar; Hankir, Mohammed; Zhang, Shuai; Carling, David; Swann, Jonathan R.; Gibson, Glenn; Viardot, Alexander; Morrison, Douglas; Louise Thomas, E; Bell, Jimmy D.

    2014-01-01

    Increased intake of dietary carbohydrate that is fermented in the colon by the microbiota has been reported to decrease body weight, although the mechanism remains unclear. Here we use in vivo11C-acetate and PET-CT scanning to show that colonic acetate crosses the blood–brain barrier and is taken up by the brain. Intraperitoneal acetate results in appetite suppression and hypothalamic neuronal activation patterning. We also show that acetate administration is associated with activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and changes in the expression profiles of regulatory neuropeptides that favour appetite suppression. Furthermore, we demonstrate through 13C high-resolution magic-angle-spinning that 13C acetate from fermentation of 13C-labelled carbohydrate in the colon increases hypothalamic 13C acetate above baseline levels. Hypothalamic 13C acetate regionally increases the 13C labelling of the glutamate–glutamine and GABA neuroglial cycles, with hypothalamic 13C lactate reaching higher levels than the ‘remaining brain’. These observations suggest that acetate has a direct role in central appetite regulation. PMID:24781306

  6. First-pass gastric mucosal metabolism of ethanol is negligible in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, T; DeMaster, E G; Furne, J K; Springfield, J; Levitt, M D

    1992-01-01

    Ethanol metabolism by gastric alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) is thought to be an important determinant of peripheral ethanol time-concentration curves (AUCs) in rats and humans. We quantitated this metabolism in rats by measuring the gastric absorption of oral ethanol (0.25 g/kg) and the gastric venous-arterial (V-A) difference of ethanol versus ethanol metabolites (acetate, acetaldehyde, and bicarbonate). Over 1 h, approximately 20% of the ethanol was absorbed from the stomach and 70% was emptied into the duodenum. The gastric V-A difference of ethanol metabolites was less than 4% of that of ethanol. Thus, gastric metabolism accounted for less than 1% (less than 4% of 20% absorbed) of the dose. This negligible metabolism was predictable from the low affinity of gastric ADH for ethanol. In contrast, gastric ADH has a high affinity for octanol, and 66% of this compound was metabolized during gastric absorption. Evidence supporting gastric metabolism of ethanol largely derives from the lower AUCs observed after oral than after intravenous administration; however, we observed increasingly higher AUCs with increasingly rapid portal vein infusions of identical ethanol doses. We conclude that gastric metabolism of ethanol is negligible in the rat, and differences in AUCs ascribed to gastric metabolism may reflect differences in ethanol absorption. PMID:1601990

  7. Is lactation nature's contraceptive? Data from Samoa.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, M H

    1992-01-01

    Data from a Samoan menstruation study suggest that lactation, even intensive on-demand lactation, does not inhibit menstruation or conception. This paper explores the applied and theoretical implications of continuing to accept lactation as a universally effective fertility control mechanism. Such thinking can have disastrous implications for family planning programs, and it keeps us from challenging long-held assumptions about lactation's role in population growth in early populations. PMID:1514124

  8. An in vitro model of the horse gut microbiome enables identification of lactate-utilizing bacteria that differentially respond to starch induction.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Amy S; Black, Samuel J; Blanchard, Jeffrey L

    2013-01-01

    Laminitis is a chronic, crippling disease triggered by the sudden influx of dietary starch. Starch reaches the hindgut resulting in enrichment of lactic acid bacteria, lactate accumulation, and acidification of the gut contents. Bacterial products enter the bloodstream and precipitate systemic inflammation. Hindgut lactate levels are normally low because specific bacterial groups convert lactate to short chain fatty acids. Why this mechanism fails when lactate levels rapidly rise, and why some hindgut communities can recover is unknown. Fecal samples from three adult horses eating identical diets provided bacterial communities for this in vitro study. Triplicate microcosms of fecal slurries were enriched with lactate and/or starch. Metabolic products (short chain fatty acids, headspace gases, and hydrogen sulfide) were measured and microbial community compositions determined using Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing over 12-hour intervals. We report that patterns of change in short chain fatty acid levels and pH in our in vitro system are similar to those seen in in vivo laminitis induction models. Community differences between microcosms with disparate abilities to clear excess lactate suggest profiles conferring resistance of starch-induction conditions. Where lactate levels recover following starch induction conditions, propionate and acetate levels rise correspondingly and taxa related to Megasphaeraelsdenii reach levels exceeding 70% relative abundance. In lactate and control cultures, taxa related to Veillonellamontpellierensis are enriched as lactate levels fall. Understanding these community differences and factors promoting the growth of specific lactate utilizing taxa may be useful to prevent acidosis under starch-induction conditions. PMID:24098591

  9. Evaluation of the tolerance of acetic acid and 2-furaldehyde on the growth of Pichia stipitis and its respiratory deficient.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Muñiz, B; Rasgado-Mellado, J; Solis-Pacheco, J; Nolasco-Hipólito, C; Domínguez-González, J M; Aguilar-Uscanga, M G

    2014-10-01

    The use of lignocellulosic residues for ethanol production is limited by toxic compounds in fermenting yeasts present in diluted acid hydrolysates like acetic acid and 2-furaldehyde. The respiratory deficient phenotype gives the cell the ability to resist several toxic compounds. So the aim of this work was to evaluate the tolerance to toxic compounds present in lignocellulosic hydrolysates like acetic acid and 2-furaldehyde in Pichia stipitis and its respiratory deficient strains. The respiratory deficient phenotype was induced by exposure to chemical agents such as acriflavine, acrylamide and rhodamine; 23 strains were obtained. The selection criterion was based on increasing specific ethanol yield (g ethanol g(-1) biomass) with acetic acid and furaldehyde tolerance. The screening showed that P. stipitis NRRL Y-7124 ACL 2-1RD (lacking cytochrome c), obtained using acrylamide, presented the highest specific ethanol production rate (1.82 g g(-1 )h(-1)). Meanwhile, the ACF8-3RD strain showed the highest acetic acid tolerance (7.80 g L(-1)) and the RHO2-3RD strain was able to tolerate up to 1.5 g L(-1) 2-furaldehyde with a growth and ethanol production inhibition of 23 and 22 %, respectively. The use of respiratory deficient yeast phenotype is a strategy for ethanol production improvement in a medium with toxic compounds such as hydrolysed sugarcane bagasse amongst others. PMID:24700134

  10. Induction of the acetamidase of Aspergillus nidulans by acetate metabolism.

    PubMed

    Hynes, M J

    1977-09-01

    Growth tests and enzyme determinations strongly suggest that the acetamidase of Aspergillus nidulans is induced by a product of acetate metabolism rather than the substrate, acetamide. The cis-dominant mutation, amdI9, which is closely linked to amdS, the structural gene for the acetamidase, results in greatly increased sensitivity to induction by acetate metabolism. Propionate, L-threonine, and ethanol also result in acetamidase induction. Mutations in the facA, facB, and facC genes, which lead to low levels of acetyl-coenzyme A synthase, are epistatic to the amdI9 mutation for strong growth on acetamide medium and abolish acetamide and propionamide induction of the acetamidase and isocitrate lyase enzymes. Acetate, L-threonine, and ethanol, however, can induce these enzymes in strains containing facA and facC lesions but not in strains containing a facB lesion. The evidence suggests that acetamidase and isocitrate lyase may be induced by a similar mechanism. PMID:19418

  11. The origin and evolution of lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of mammary glands are the defining morphological feature of mammals, and a successful lactation is crucial to mammalian reproductive strategies. Among mammalian species, the nature of lactation and the composition of milk vary greatly. The evolution of lactation and its diversity amon...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 582.1207 Section 582.1207 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Product. Calcium lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  13. Fermentation of sugars in orange peel hydrolysates to ethanol by recombinant Escherichia coli KO11

    SciTech Connect

    Grohmann, K.; Cameron, R.G.; Buslig, B.S.

    1995-12-31

    The conversion of monosaccharides in orange peel hydrolysates to ethanol by recombinant Escherichia coli KO11 has been investigated in pH-controlled batch fermentations at 32 and 37{degrees}C. pH values and concentration of peel hydrolysate were varied to determine approximate optimal conditions and limitations of these fermentations. Very high yields of ethanol were achieved by this microorganism at reasonable ethanol concentrations (28-48 g/L). The pH range between 5.8 and 6.2 appears to be optimal. The microorganism can convert all major monosaccharides in orange peel hydrolysates to ethanol and to smaller amounts of acetic and lactic acids. Acetic acid is coproduced in equimolar amounts with ethanol by catabolism of salts of galacturonic acid.

  14. EXTRACTION AND ELECTROSPINNING OF ZEIN EXTRACTED FROM CORN GLUTEN MEAL USING ACETIC ACID

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It has been demonstrated that zein fibers can be produced using the electrospinning technique. Fibers electrospun from acetic acid solution under suitable conditions provide fibers with a more consistent morphology (round 0.5-2.0 micro fibers) compared to fibers produced from aqueous ethanol soluti...

  15. Acetate production from whey lactose using co-immobilized cells of homolactic and homoacetic bacteria in a fibrous-bed bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.; Yang, S.T.

    1998-11-20

    Acetate was produced from whey lactose in batch and fed-batch fermentations using co-immobilized cells of Clostridium formicoaceticum and Lactococcus lactis. The cells were immobilized in a spirally wound fibrous sheet packed in a 0.45-L column reactor, with liquid circulated through a 5-L stirred-tank fermentor. Industrial-grade nitrogen sources, including corn steep liquor, casein hydrolysate, and yeast hydrolysate, were studied as inexpensive nutrient supplements to whey permeate and acid whey. Supplementation with either 2.5% (v/v) corn steep liquor or 1.5 g/L casein hydrolysate was adequate for the cocultured fermentation. The overall acetic acid yield from lactose was 0.9 g/g, and the productivity was 0.25 g/(L h). Both lactate and acetate at high concentrations inhibited the homoacetic fermentation. To overcome these inhibitions, fed-batch fermentations were used to keep lactate concentration low and to adapt cells to high-concentration acetate. The final acetate concentration obtained in the fed-batch fermentations were used to keep lactate concentration low and to adapt cells to high-concentration acetate. The final acetate concentration obtained in the fed-batch fermentation was 75 g/L, which was the highest acetate concentration ever produced by C. formicoaceticum. Even at this high acetate concentration, the overall productivity was 0.18 g/(L h) based on the total medium volume and 1.23 g/(L h) based on the fibrous-bed reactor volume. The cells isolated from the fibrous-bed bioreactor at the end of this study were more tolerant to acetic acid than the original culture used to seed the bioreactor, indicating that adaptation and natural selection of acetate-tolerant strains occurred. This cocultured fermentation process could be used to produce a low-cost acetate deicer from whey permeate and acid whey.

  16. Characterization of Two Tetrachloroethene-Reducing, Acetate-Oxidizing Anaerobic Bacteria and Their Description as Desulfuromonas michiganensis sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Youlboong; Ritalahti, Kirsti M.; Sanford, Robert A.; Urbance, John W.; Flynn, Shannon J.; Tiedje, James M.; Löffler, Frank E.

    2003-01-01

    Two tetrachlorethene (PCE)-dechlorinating populations, designated strains BB1 and BRS1, were isolated from pristine river sediment and chloroethene-contaminated aquifer material, respectively. PCE-to-cis-1,2-dichloroethene-dechlorinating activity could be transferred in defined basal salts medium with acetate as the electron donor and PCE as the electron acceptor. Taxonomic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing placed both isolates within the Desulfuromonas cluster in the δ subdivision of the Proteobacteria. PCE was dechlorinated at rates of at least 139 nmol min−1 mg of protein−1 at pH values between 7.0 and 7.5 and temperatures between 25 and 30°C. Dechlorination also occurred at 10°C. The electron donors that supported dechlorination included acetate, lactate, pyruvate, succinate, malate, and fumarate but not hydrogen, formate, ethanol, propionate, or sulfide. Growth occurred with malate or fumarate alone, whereas oxidation of the other electron donors depended strictly on the presence of fumarate, malate, ferric iron, sulfur, PCE, or TCE as an electron acceptor. Nitrate, sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate, and other chlorinated compounds were not used as electron acceptors. Sulfite had a strong inhibitory effect on growth and dechlorination. Alternate electron acceptors (e.g., fumarate or ferric iron) did not inhibit PCE dechlorination and were consumed concomitantly. The putative fumarate, PCE, and ferric iron reductases were induced by their respective substrates and were not constitutively present. Sulfide was required for growth. Both strains tolerated high concentrations of PCE, and dechlorination occurred in the presence of free-phase PCE (dense non-aqueous-phase liquids). Repeated growth with acetate and fumarate as substrates yielded a BB1 variant that had lost the ability to dechlorinate PCE. Due to the 16S rRNA gene sequence differences with the closest relatives and the unique phenotypic characteristics, we propose that the new isolates are

  17. Autophagy and ethanol neurotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Excessive ethanol exposure is detrimental to the brain. The developing brain is particularly vulnerable to ethanol such that prenatal ethanol exposure causes fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Neuronal loss in the brain is the most devastating consequence and is associated with mental retardation and other behavioral deficits observed in FASD. Since alcohol consumption during pregnancy has not declined, it is imperative to elucidate the underlying mechanisms and develop effective therapeutic strategies. One cellular mechanism that acts as a protective response for the central nervous system (CNS) is autophagy. Autophagy regulates lysosomal turnover of organelles and proteins within cells, and is involved in cell differentiation, survival, metabolism, and immunity. We have recently shown that ethanol activates autophagy in the developing brain. The autophagic preconditioning alleviates ethanol-induced neuron apoptosis, whereas inhibition of autophagy potentiates ethanol-stimulated reactive oxygen species (ROS) and exacerbates ethanol-induced neuroapoptosis. The expression of genes encoding proteins required for autophagy in the CNS is developmentally regulated; their levels are much lower during an ethanol-sensitive period than during an ethanol-resistant period. Ethanol may stimulate autophagy through multiple mechanisms; these include induction of oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress, modulation of MTOR and AMPK signaling, alterations in BCL2 family proteins, and disruption of intracellular calcium (Ca2+) homeostasis. This review discusses the most recent evidence regarding the involvement of autophagy in ethanol-mediated neurotoxicity as well as the potential therapeutic approach of targeting autophagic pathways. PMID:25484085

  18. Metabolic control analysis of L-lactate synthesis pathway in Rhizopus oryzae As 3.2686.

    PubMed

    Ke, Wei; Chang, Shu; Chen, Xiaoju; Luo, Shuizhong; Jiang, Shaotong; Yang, Peizhou; Wu, Xuefeng; Zheng, Zhi

    2015-11-01

    The relationship between the metabolic flux and the activities of the pyruvate branching enzymes of Rhizopus oryzae As 3.2686 during L-lactate fermentation was investigated using the perturbation method of aeration. The control coefficients for five enzymes, pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), pyruvate carboxylase (PC), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), were calculated. Our results indicated significant correlations between PDH and PC, PDC and LDH, PDC and ADH, LDH and ADH, and PDC and PC. It also appeared that PDH, PC, and LDH strongly controlled the L-lactate flux; PDH and ADH strongly controlled the ethanol flux; while PDH and PC strongly controlled the acetyl coenzyme A flux and the oxaloacetate flux. Further, the flux control coefficient curves indicated that the control of the system gradually transferred from PDC to PC during the steady state. Therefore, PC was the key rate-limiting enzyme that controls the flux distribution. PMID:26288952

  19. Candida zemplinina Can Reduce Acetic Acid Produced by Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Sweet Wine Fermentations

    PubMed Central

    Rantsiou, Kalliopi; Dolci, Paola; Giacosa, Simone; Torchio, Fabrizio; Tofalo, Rosanna; Torriani, Sandra; Suzzi, Giovanna; Rolle, Luca

    2012-01-01

    In this study we investigated the possibility of using Candida zemplinina, as a partner of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in mixed fermentations of must with a high sugar content, in order to reduce its acetic acid production. Thirty-five C. zemplinina strains, which were isolated from different geographic regions, were molecularly characterized, and their fermentation performances were determined. Five genetically different strains were selected for mixed fermentations with S. cerevisiae. Two types of inoculation were carried out: coinoculation and sequential inoculation. A balance between the two species was generally observed for the first 6 days, after which the levels of C. zemplinina started to decrease. Relevant differences were observed concerning the consumption of sugars, the ethanol and glycerol content, and acetic acid production, depending on which strain was used and which type of inoculation was performed. Sequential inoculation led to the reduction of about half of the acetic acid content compared to the pure S. cerevisiae fermentation, but the ethanol and glycerol amounts were also low. A coinoculation with selected combinations of S. cerevisiae and C. zemplinina resulted in a decrease of ∼0.3 g of acetic acid/liter, while maintaining high ethanol and glycerol levels. This study demonstrates that mixed S. cerevisiae and C. zemplinina fermentation could be applied in sweet wine fermentation to reduce the production of acetic acid, connected to the S. cerevisiae osmotic stress response. PMID:22247148

  20. 200th anniversary of lactate research in muscle.

    PubMed

    Gladden, L Bruce

    2008-07-01

    This year, 2008, marks the bicentennial of research into lactate metabolism in muscle. Berzelius linked lactate accumulation to exercise in 1807/1808 when he noted the presence of lactate in the muscles of "hunted stags." Today, the exact mechanism of intramuscular lactate oxidation and the relationship of lactate dehydrogenase to mitochondria remain unresolved as animated debate surrounds the intracellular lactate shuttle. PMID:18580290

  1. Metabolism of (2-14C)acetate and its use in assessing hepatic Krebs cycle activity and gluconeogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Schumann, W.C.; Magnusson, I.; Chandramouli, V.; Kumaran, K.; Wahren, J.; Landau, B.R. )

    1991-04-15

    To examine the fate of the carbons of acetate and to evaluate the usefulness of labeled acetate in assessing intrahepatic metabolic processes during gluconeogenesis, (2-14C)acetate, (2-14C)ethanol, and (1-14C)ethanol were infused into normal subjects fasted 60 h and given phenyl acetate. Distributions of 14C in the carbons of blood glucose and glutamate from urinary phenylacetylglutamine were determined. With (2-14C)acetate and (2-14C)ethanol, carbon 1 of glucose had about twice as much 14C as carbon 3. Carbon 2 of glutamate had about twice as much 14C as carbon 1 and one-half to one-third as much as carbon 4. There was only a small amount in carbon 5. These distributions are incompatible with the metabolism of (2-14C)acetate being primarily in liver. Therefore, (2-14C)acetate cannot be used to study Krebs cycle metabolism in liver and in relationship to gluconeogenesis, as has been done. The distributions can be explained by: (a) fixation of 14CO2 from (2-14C)acetate in the formation of the 14C-labeled glucose and glutamate in liver and (b) the formation of 14C-labeled glutamate in a second site, proposed to be muscle. (1,3-14C)Acetone formation from the (2-14C)acetate does not contribute to the distributions, as evidenced by the absence of 14C in carbons 2-4 of glutamate after (1-14C)ethanol administration.

  2. Effects of hormonal and nonhormonal contraceptives on lactation and incidence of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Zacharias, S; Aguilera, E; Assenzo, J R; Zanartu, J

    1986-03-01

    From June 1974 to June 1976, 665 women who had given birth to full-term infants and who were willing to nurse the infant were admitted to this study. At three to six weeks postpartum, subjects chose which of four study groups to join. One-hundred-forty-three mothers chose Group I, exclusive lactation with no contraception; 109 chose Group II, lactation and intrauterine contraception (IUD); 228 chose Group III, lactation and an intramuscular injection of 150 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera Sterile Aqueous Suspension, DMPA) given every three months; and 185 chose Group IV, lactation and one tablet of 0.6 mg Clogestone Acetate given daily. Mother and child were examined monthly until the child's spontaneous weaning, the mother's dropout, or the study's close in 1979. Mothers from Group I (exclusive lactation) were dropped from study when they requested and were prescribed a contraceptive. During the first six months of study, the percent of mothers who dropped out of Groups I, II, III, and IV for personal or medical reasons was 28.0, 16.5, 11.4, and 27.1, respectively. Pregnancies began to occur in the sixth month postpartum. Overall, pregnancies occurred in 6% of mothers in exclusive lactation, 3% of mothers protected by an IUD, and 8% of mothers protected by Clogestone. No pregnancies occurred in the 228 women receiving DMPA. Some mothers in the Clogestone or DMPA groups were still breast-feeding their children two or three times a day at the study's close, at which time the child was three or more years of age. No ill effects were observed in growth and development of these children during the study. The DMPA group had the most mothers who were breast-feeding for more than 20 months. PMID:2941236

  3. A crucial role for ethanol-induced oxidative stress in controlling lineage commitment of mesenchymal stromal cells through inhibition of wnt/beta-catenin signaling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Female skeletal responses to ethanol may vary depending on the physiologic status (viz. cycling, pregnancy, lactation). Nonetheless, ethanol-induced oxidative stress appears to be the key event leading to skeletal toxicity. In the current study, we chronically infused EtOH-containing liquid diets ...

  4. Point of Care Measurement of Lactate.

    PubMed

    Di Mauro, Francesca Miranda; Schoeffler, Gretchen Lee

    2016-03-01

    Lactate is generated as a consequence of anaerobic glycolysis by all tissues of the body. Increased l-lactate, the isoform produced by most mammals, reflects increased anaerobic metabolism secondary to tissue hypoperfusion or tissue hypoxia in most clinical situations, and is called type A lactic acidosis. The utility of lactate measurement and serial lactate monitoring in veterinary patients has been demonstrated in multiple studies. Blood lactate concentration is significantly elevated in many disease processes including septic peritonitis, immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, Babesiosis, trauma, gastric dilation and volvulus, and intracranial disease. Lactate clearance can be used to assess response to fluid therapy, cardiovascular therapeutics, and blood product transfusion in patients affected by type A lactic acidosis. Lactate concentration in peritoneal, pericardial, and synovial fluid can also be used as a diagnostic tool. Point of care analyzers such as the Lactate Pro, Lactate Scout, Accutrend, iSTAT, and Lactate Plus have been shown to be accurate lactate measurement instruments in small animal patients. PMID:27451047

  5. A Genetically Encoded FRET Lactate Sensor and Its Use To Detect the Warburg Effect in Single Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    San Martín, Alejandro; Ceballo, Sebastián; Ruminot, Iván; Lerchundi, Rodrigo; Frommer, Wolf B.; Barros, Luis Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Lactate is shuttled between and inside cells, playing metabolic and signaling roles in healthy tissues. Lactate is also a harbinger of altered metabolism and participates in the pathogenesis of inflammation, hypoxia/ischemia, neurodegeneration and cancer. Many tumor cells show high rates of lactate production in the presence of oxygen, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect, which has diagnostic and possibly therapeutic implications. In this article we introduce Laconic, a genetically-encoded Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-based lactate sensor designed on the bacterial transcription factor LldR. Laconic quantified lactate from 1 µM to 10 mM and was not affected by glucose, pyruvate, acetate, betahydroxybutyrate, glutamate, citrate, α-ketoglutarate, succinate, malate or oxalacetate at concentrations found in mammalian cytosol. Expressed in astrocytes, HEK cells and T98G glioma cells, the sensor allowed dynamic estimation of lactate levels in single cells. Used in combination with a blocker of the monocarboxylate transporter MCT, the sensor was capable of discriminating whether a cell is a net lactate producer or a net lactate consumer. Application of the MCT-block protocol showed that the basal rate of lactate production is 3–5 fold higher in T98G glioma cells than in normal astrocytes. In contrast, the rate of lactate accumulation in response to mitochondrial inhibition with sodium azide was 10 times lower in glioma than in astrocytes, consistent with defective tumor metabolism. A ratio between the rate of lactate production and the rate of azide-induced lactate accumulation, which can be estimated reversibly and in single cells, was identified as a highly sensitive parameter of the Warburg effect, with values of 4.1 ± 0.5 for T98G glioma cells and 0.07 ± 0.007 for astrocytes. In summary, this article describes a genetically-encoded sensor for lactate and its use to measure lactate concentration, lactate flux, and the Warburg effect in single

  6. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by the calcium hydroxide neutralization of acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets...

  7. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    A batch kinetic study involving Clostridium lungdahlii in a mineral medium was carried out in order to provide baseline data for the effects of nutrients on product ratio and kinetics. The use of this minimal medium containing vitamins, minerals, select amino acids and salts showed both a lower maximum specific growth rate and a lower maximum specific uptake rate than found when using a complex medium supplemented with 0.01% yeast extract. At the same time, the product ratio was improved slightly in favor of ethanol over acetate. Future experiments will measure the effects of ammonia and phosphate limitation on product ratio and process kinetics.

  8. Biological carbon monoxide conversion to acetate production by mixed culture.

    PubMed

    Nam, Chul Woo; Jung, Kyung A; Park, Jong Moon

    2016-07-01

    To utilize waste CO for mixed culture gas fermentation, carbon sources (CO, CO2) and pH were optimized in the batch system to find out the center point and boundary of response surface method (RSM) for higher acetate (HAc) production (center points: 25% CO, 40% CO2, and pH 8). The concentrations of CO and CO2, and pH had significant effects on acetate production, but the pH was the most significant on the HAc production. The optimum condition for HAc production in the gas fermentation was 20.81% CO, 41.38% CO2, 37.81% N2, and pH 7.18. The continuous gas fermentation under the optimum condition obtained 1.66g/L of cell DW, 23.6g/L HAc, 3.11g/L propionate, and 3.42g/L ethanol. PMID:27035481

  9. Acetic acid bacteria spoilage of bottled red wine -- a review.

    PubMed

    Bartowsky, Eveline J; Henschke, Paul A

    2008-06-30

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are ubiquitous organisms that are well adapted to sugar and ethanol rich environments. This family of Gram-positive bacteria are well known for their ability to produce acetic acid, the main constituent in vinegar. The oxidation of ethanol through acetaldehyde to acetic acid is well understood and characterised. AAB form part of the complex natural microbial flora of grapes and wine, however their presence is less desirable than the lactic acid bacteria and yeast. Even though AAB were described by Pasteur in the 1850s, wine associated AAB are still difficult to cultivate on artificial laboratory media and until more recently, their taxonomy has not been well characterised. Wine is at most risk of spoilage during production and the presence of these strictly aerobic bacteria in grape must and during wine maturation can be controlled by eliminating, or at least limiting oxygen, an essential growth factor. However, a new risk, spoilage of wine by AAB after packaging, has only recently been reported. As wine is not always sterile filtered prior to bottling, especially red wine, it often has a small resident bacterial population (<10(3) cfu/mL), which under conducive conditions might proliferate. Bottled red wines, sealed with natural cork closures, and stored in a vertical upright position may develop spoilage by acetic acid bacteria. This spoilage is evident as a distinct deposit of bacterial biofilm in the neck of the bottle at the interface of the wine and the headspace of air, and is accompanied with vinegar, sherry, bruised apple, nutty, and solvent like off-aromas, depending on the degree of spoilage. This review focuses on the wine associated AAB species, the aroma and flavour changes in wine due to AAB metabolism, discusses the importance of oxygen ingress into the bottle and presents a hypothesis for the mechanism of spoilage of bottled red wine. PMID:18237809

  10. Ethanol and neuronal metabolism.

    PubMed

    Mandel, P; Ledig, M; M'Paria, J R

    1980-01-01

    The effect of ethanol on membrane enzymes (Na+, K+ and Mg2+ ATPases, 5'-nucleotidase, adenylate cyclase) alcohol dehydrogenase, aldehyde dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase were studied in nerve cells (established cell lines, primary cultures of chick and rat brain) cultured in the presence of 100 mM ethanol, and in total rat brain, following various ethanol treatments of the rats (20% ethanol as the sole liquid source, intraperitoneal injection). The results show a difference between neuronal and glial cells. Most of the observed changes in enzymatic activities returned rapidly to control values when ethanol was withdrawn from the culture medium or from the diet. Alcohol dehydrogenase was more stimulated by ethanol than aldehyde dehydrogenase; therefore acetaldehyde may be accumulated. The inhibition of superoxide dismutase activity may allow an accumulation of cytotoxic O2- radicals in nervous tissue and may explain the polymorphism of lesions brought about by alcohol intoxication. PMID:6264495

  11. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Nielsen, Anne K.; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Homøe, Preben; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms. PMID:26155378

  12. Expression and specificity profile of the major acetate transporter AcpA in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Sá-Pessoa, Joana; Amillis, Sotiris; Casal, Margarida; Diallinas, George

    2015-03-01

    AcpA has been previously characterized as a high-affinity transporter essential for the uptake and use of acetate as sole carbon source in Aspergillus nidulans. Here, we follow the expression profile of AcpA and define its substrate specificity. AcpA-mediated acetate transport is detected from the onset of conidiospore germination, peaks at the time of germ tube emergence, and drops to low basal levels in germlings and young mycelia, where a second acetate transporter is also becoming apparent. AcpA activity also responds to acetate presence in the growth medium, but is not subject to either carbon or nitrogen catabolite repression. Short-chain monocarboxylates (benzoate, formate, butyrate and propionate) inhibit AcpA-mediated acetate transport with apparent inhibition constants (Ki) of 16.89±2.12, 9.25±1.01, 12.06±3.29 and 1.44±0.13mM, respectively. AcpA is also shown not to be directly involved in ammonia export, as proposed for its Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologue Ady2p. In the second part of this work, we search for the unknown acetate transporter expressed in mycelia, and for other transporters that might contribute to acetate uptake. In silico analysis, genetic construction of relevant null mutants, and uptake assays, reveal that the closest AcpA homologue (AN1839), named AcpB, is the 'missing' secondary acetate transporter in mycelia. We also identify two major short-chain carboxylate (lactate, succinate, pyruvate and malate) transporters, named JenA (AN6095) and JenB (AN6703), which however are not involved in acetate uptake. This work establishes a framework for further exploiting acetate and carboxylate transport in filamentous ascomycetes. PMID:25708319

  13. Lactate metabolism in the fetal rabbit lung

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, M.J.; Brown, D.J.; Dooley, M.

    1986-05-01

    Lactate is frequently overlooked as a potential substrate for the fetal lung, even though it is present in the fetal circulation in concentrations as high as 8 mM. These high concentrations, coupled with the relatively low levels of glucose in the fetal blood, may indicate that lactate can substitute for glucose in pulmonary energy generation and phospholipid synthesis. A series of experiments was therefore undertaken in order to investigate the role of lactate in perinatal pulmonary development. Explants from 30 day gestation fetal rabbit lungs were incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer supplemented with 3 mM (U-/sup 14/C)-glucose and varying levels of lactate. In the absence of medium lactate, fetal rabbit lung explants were capable of producing lactate at a rate of approximately 200 etamoles/mg protein/hour. The addition of lactate to the bathing medium immediately reduced net lactate production and above 4 mM, fetal rabbit lung explants became net utilizers of lactate. Media lactate concentrations of 2.5 mM, 5 mM and 10 mM also decreased glucose incorporation into total tissue disaturated phosphatidylcholine by approximately 20%, 35%, and 45%, respectively. Glucose incorporation into surfactant phosphatidylcholine was also reduced by approximately 50%, when lactate was present in the incubation medium at a concentration of 5 mM. Additional experiments also revealed that fetal lung lactate dehydrogenase activity was almost twice that found in the adult rabbit lung. These data indicate that lactate may be an important carbon source for the developing lung and could be a significant component in the manufacture of surfactant phosphatidylcholine during late gestation.

  14. Ethanol immunosuppression in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Kaplan, D.R.

    1986-03-01

    Ethanol in concentrations equivalent to levels achieved by the ingestion of moderate to large amounts of alcoholic beverages has been shown to inhibit mitogen and anti-CD3 stimulated human T lymphocyte proliferation. This inhibition was monophasic suggesting that ethanol affected a single limiting component of T cell proliferation. In experiments designed to test the effect of ethanol on various aspects of proliferation, it was demonstrated that ethanol inhibited the capacity of exogenously supplied interleukin 2 to stimulate proliferation of T cells that had previously acquired interleukin 2 receptors in a monophasic, dose-dependent manner. Moreover, there was no suppression of interleukin 2 production or interleukin 2 receptor acquisition. Thus, ethanol was shown to mediate immunosuppression by a mechanism specific to one component of proliferation. Additive inhibition of T cell proliferation was seen with ethanol plus cyclosporin A which inhibits interleukin 2 production. The level of inhibition with 250 ng/ml cyclosporin A alone was equivalent to the level seen with 62 ng/ml cyclosporin A plus 20 mM (94 mg%) ethanol. Ethanol also suppressed an immune effector mechanism. NK cytotoxicity was depressed in a monophasic, dose-dependent manner. Thus, ethanol might be considered as a possible adjunct in immunosuppressive therapy.

  15. ESTRADIOL PROTECTS AGAINST ETHANOL-INDUCED BONE LOSS BY INHIBITING UP REGULATION OF RANKL IN OSTEOBLASTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactation-induced bone loss is promptly restored in the post-weaning period by a process of anabolic rebuilding, the endocrine and molecular basis of which still remains enigmatic. Ethanol (EtOH) consumption during this post-weaning period prevents the recovery of bone density and may be a significa...

  16. Biological production of ethanol from coal. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    Due to the abundant supply of coal in the United States, significant research efforts have occurred over the past 15 years concerning the conversion of coal to liquid fuels. Researchers at the University of Arkansas have concentrated on a biological approach to coal liquefaction, starting with coal-derived synthesis gas as the raw material. Synthesis gas, a mixture of CO, H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4} and sulfur gases, is first produced using traditional gasification techniques. The CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} are then converted to ethanol using a bacterial culture of Clostridium 1jungdahlii. Ethanol is the desired product if the resultant product stream is to be used as a liquid fuel. However, under normal operating conditions, the ``wild strain`` produces acetate in favor of ethanol in conjunction with growth in a 20:1 molar ratio. Research was performed to determine the conditions necessary to maximize not only the ratio of ethanol to acetate, but also to maximize the concentration of ethanol resulting in the product stream.

  17. Change in the plasmid copy number in acetic acid bacteria in response to growth phase and acetic acid concentration.

    PubMed

    Akasaka, Naoki; Astuti, Wiwik; Ishii, Yuri; Hidese, Ryota; Sakoda, Hisao; Fujiwara, Shinsuke

    2015-06-01

    Plasmids pGE1 (2.5 kb), pGE2 (7.2 kb), and pGE3 (5.5 kb) were isolated from Gluconacetobacter europaeus KGMA0119, and sequence analyses revealed they harbored 3, 8, and 4 genes, respectively. Plasmid copy numbers (PCNs) were determined by real-time quantitative PCR at different stages of bacterial growth. When KGMA0119 was cultured in medium containing 0.4% ethanol and 0.5% acetic acid, PCN of pGE1 increased from 7 copies/genome in the logarithmic phase to a maximum of 12 copies/genome at the beginning of the stationary phase, before decreasing to 4 copies/genome in the late stationary phase. PCNs for pGE2 and pGE3 were maintained at 1-3 copies/genome during all phases of growth. Under a higher concentration of ethanol (3.2%) the PCN for pGE1 was slightly lower in all the growth stages, and those of pGE2 and pGE3 were unchanged. In the presence of 1.0% acetic acid, PCNs were higher for pGE1 (10 copies/genome) and pGE3 (6 copies/genome) during the logarithmic phase. Numbers for pGE2 did not change, indicating that pGE1 and pGE3 increase their PCNs in response to acetic acid. Plasmids pBE2 and pBE3 were constructed by ligating linearized pGE2 and pGE3 into pBR322. Both plasmids were replicable in Escherichia coli, Acetobacter pasteurianus and G. europaeus, highlighting their suitability as vectors for acetic acid bacteria. PMID:25575969

  18. Epidermal growth factor precursor in mouse lactating mammary gland alveolar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.F.; Teng, C.T.; Pentecost, B.T.; DiAugustine, R.P. )

    1989-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that high levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) occur in human and rodent milk and that oral administration of this polypeptide stimulates rodent gastrointestinal development. It is not known whether EGF in milk originates from cells of the lactating mammary gland or is sequestered from an extramammary source. In the present study, prepro-EGF mRNA (approximately 4.7 kilobases) was detected in the CD-1 mouse mammary gland throughout the period of lactation; by comparison, negligible levels of this EGF transcript were found in the gland during pregnancy. Low levels of EGF immunoreactivity (4-5 ng/g wet wt tissue) were extracted from lactating (day 18) mammary glands with dilute acetic acid. Immunolocalization was evident with antisera to either EGF or two other regions of the EGF precursor in essentially all alveolar cells of the lactating gland. The most prominent staining with antiserum to EGF was observed along the luminal borders of cells; this pattern of cellular staining required proteolytic pretreatment of tissue sections. Western blot analyses of cell membranes isolated from the day 16 lactating mammary gland revealed an EGF-immunoreactive band at about 145K, which was equivalent in size to the EGF precursor found in mouse kidney cell membranes. Despite these findings, labeling of lactating mammary gland mince with L-(35S)methionine and cysteine for up to 4 h did not reveal any specific bands in immunoprecipitates. These cumulative findings suggest that the precursor form of EGF occurs in alveolar cells of lactating mammary gland and that this protein is translocated to the cell membrane.

  19. Exogenous lactate supply affects lactate kinetics of rainbow trout, not swimming performance

    PubMed Central

    Omlin, Teye; Langevin, Karolanne

    2014-01-01

    Intense swimming causes circulatory lactate accumulation in rainbow trout because lactate disposal (Rd) is not stimulated as strongly as lactate appearance (Ra). This mismatch suggests that maximal Rd is limited by tissue capacity to metabolize lactate. This study uses exogenous lactate to investigate what constrains maximal Rd and minimal Ra. Our goals were to determine how exogenous lactate affects: 1) Ra and Rd of lactate under baseline conditions or during graded swimming, and 2) exercise performance (critical swimming speed, Ucrit) and energetics (cost of transport, COT). Results show that exogenous lactate allows swimming trout to boost maximal Rd lactate by 40% and reach impressive rates of 56 μmol·kg−1·min−1. This shows that the metabolic capacity of tissues for lactate disposal is not responsible for setting the highest Rd normally observed after intense swimming. Baseline endogenous Ra (resting in normoxic water) is not significantly reduced by exogenous lactate supply. Therefore, trout have an obligatory need to produce lactate, either as a fuel for oxidative tissues and/or from organs relying on glycolysis. Exogenous lactate does not affect Ucrit or COT, probably because it acts as a substitute for glucose and lipids rather than extra fuel. We conclude that the observed 40% increase in Rd lactate is made possible by accelerating lactate entry into oxidative tissues via monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). This observation together with the weak expression of MCTs and the phenomenon of white muscle lactate retention show that lactate metabolism of rainbow trout is significantly constrained by transmembrane transport. PMID:25121611

  20. Nitrate addition to groundwater impacted by ethanol-blended fuel accelerates ethanol removal and mitigates the associated metabolic flux dilution and inhibition of BTEX biodegradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corseuil, Henry Xavier; Gomez, Diego E.; Schambeck, Cássio Moraes; Ramos, Débora Toledo; Alvarez, Pedro J. J.

    2015-03-01

    A comparison of two controlled ethanol-blended fuel releases under monitored natural attenuation (MNA) versus nitrate biostimulation (NB) illustrates the potential benefits of augmenting the electron acceptor pool with nitrate to accelerate ethanol removal and thus mitigate its inhibitory effects on BTEX biodegradation. Groundwater concentrations of ethanol and BTEX were measured 2 m downgradient of the source zones. In both field experiments, initial source-zone BTEX concentrations represented less than 5% of the dissolved total organic carbon (TOC) associated with the release, and measurable BTEX degradation occurred only after the ethanol fraction in the multicomponent substrate mixture decreased sharply. However, ethanol removal was faster in the nitrate amended plot (1.4 years) than under natural attenuation conditions (3.0 years), which led to faster BTEX degradation. This reflects, in part, that an abundant substrate (ethanol) can dilute the metabolic flux of target pollutants (BTEX) whose biodegradation rate eventually increases with its relative abundance after ethanol is preferentially consumed. The fate and transport of ethanol and benzene were accurately simulated in both releases using RT3D with our general substrate interaction module (GSIM) that considers metabolic flux dilution. Since source zone benzene concentrations are relatively low compared to those of ethanol (or its degradation byproduct, acetate), our simulations imply that the initial focus of cleanup efforts (after free-product recovery) should be to stimulate the degradation of ethanol (e.g., by nitrate addition) to decrease its fraction in the mixture and speed up BTEX biodegradation.

  1. Lipase-mediated conversion of vegetable oils into biodiesel using ethyl acetate as acyl acceptor.

    PubMed

    Modi, Mukesh Kumar; Reddy, J R C; Rao, B V S K; Prasad, R B N

    2007-04-01

    Ethyl acetate was explored as an acyl acceptor for immobilized lipase-catalyzed preparation of biodiesel from the crude oils of Jatropha curcas (jatropha), Pongamia pinnata (karanj) and Helianthus annuus (sunflower). The optimum reaction conditions for interesterification of the oils with ethyl acetate were 10% of Novozym-435 (immobilized Candida antarctica lipase B) based on oil weight, ethyl acetate to oil molar ratio of 11:1 and the reaction period of 12h at 50 degrees C. The maximum yield of ethyl esters was 91.3%, 90% and 92.7% with crude jatropha, karanj and sunflower oils, respectively under the above optimum conditions. Reusability of the lipase over repeated cycles in interesterification and ethanolysis was also investigated under standard reaction conditions. The relative activity of lipase could be well maintained over twelve repeated cycles with ethyl acetate while it reached to zero by 6th cycle when ethanol was used as an acyl acceptor. PMID:16822671

  2. Amperometric lactate biosensor for flow injection analysis based on a screen-printed carbon electrode containing Meldola's Blue-Reinecke salt, coated with lactate dehydrogenase and NAD+.

    PubMed

    Piano, M; Serban, S; Pittson, R; Drago, G A; Hart, J P

    2010-06-30

    A biosensor for the measurement of lactate in serum has been developed, which is based on a screen-printed carbon electrode, modified with Meldola's Blue-Reinecke Salt (MBRS-SPCE), coated with the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase NAD(+) dependent (from Porcine heart), and NAD(+). A cellulose acetate layer was deposited on the top of the device to act as a permselective membrane. The biosensor was incorporated into a commercially available, thin-layer, amperometric flow cell operated at a potential of only +0.05 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The mobile phase consisted of 0.2 M phosphate buffer pH 10 containing 0.1 M potassium chloride solution; a flow rate of 0.8 ml min(-1) was used throughout the investigation. The biosensor response was linear over the range 0.55-10 mM lactate; the former represents the detection limit. The precision of the system was determined by carrying out 10 repeat injections of 10 mM l(+)lactic acid standard; the calculated coefficient of variation was 4.28%. It was demonstrated that this biosensor system could be applied to the direct measurement of lactate in serum without pre-treatment; therefore, this would allow high throughput-analysis, at low cost, for this clinically important analyte. PMID:20685431

  3. 21 CFR 184.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 184.1207 Section 184.1207 Food... GRAS § 184.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Calcium lactate (C6H10CaO6.xH2O, where x is any integer up to 5, CAS Reg. No. 814-80-2) is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid with...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 184.1207 Section 184.1207 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Calcium lactate (C6H10CaO6.xH2O, where... lactic acid with calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 184.1207 Section 184.1207 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Calcium lactate (C6H10CaO6.xH2O, where... lactic acid with calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications...

  6. 21 CFR 184.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium lactate. 184.1207 Section 184.1207 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Calcium lactate (C6H10CaO6.xH2O, where x is any... calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  7. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and is prepared commercially...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  12. Cerebral Lactate Metabolism After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Patet, Camille; Suys, Tamarah; Carteron, Laurent; Oddo, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral energy dysfunction has emerged as an important determinant of prognosis following traumatic brain injury (TBI). A number of studies using cerebral microdialysis, positron emission tomography, and jugular bulb oximetry to explore cerebral metabolism in patients with TBI have demonstrated a critical decrease in the availability of the main energy substrate of brain cells (i.e., glucose). Energy dysfunction induces adaptations of cerebral metabolism that include the utilization of alternative energy resources that the brain constitutively has, such as lactate. Two decades of experimental and human investigations have convincingly shown that lactate stands as a major actor of cerebral metabolism. Glutamate-induced activation of glycolysis stimulates lactate production from glucose in astrocytes, with subsequent lactate transfer to neurons (astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle). Lactate is not only used as an extra energy substrate but also acts as a signaling molecule and regulator of systemic and brain glucose use in the cerebral circulation. In animal models of brain injury (e.g., TBI, stroke), supplementation with exogenous lactate exerts significant neuroprotection. Here, we summarize the main clinical studies showing the pivotal role of lactate and cerebral lactate metabolism after TBI. We also review pilot interventional studies that examined exogenous lactate supplementation in patients with TBI and found hypertonic lactate infusions had several beneficial properties on the injured brain, including decrease of brain edema, improvement of neuroenergetics via a "cerebral glucose-sparing effect," and increase of cerebral blood flow. Hypertonic lactate represents a promising area of therapeutic investigation; however, larger studies are needed to further examine mechanisms of action and impact on outcome. PMID:26898683

  13. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... lactic acid with calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 184.1207 Section 184.1207 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Calcium lactate (C6H10CaO6.xH2O,...

  18. Monitoring electron donor metabolism under variable electron acceptor conditions using 13C-labeled lactate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bill, M.; Conrad, M. E.; Yang, L.; Beller, H. R.; Brodie, E. L.

    2010-12-01

    Three sets of flow-through columns constructed with aquifer sediment from Hanford (WA) were used to study reduction of Cr(VI) to poorly soluble Cr(III) under denitrifying, sulfate-reducing/fermentative, and iron-reducing conditions with lactate as the electron donor. In order to understand the relationship between electron donors and biomarkers, and to determine the differences in carbon isotope fractionation resulting from different microbial metabolic processes, we monitored the variation in carbon isotopes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), in total organic carbon (TOC), and in lactate, acetate and propionate. The greatest enrichment in 13C in columns was observed under denitrifying conditions. The δ13C of DIC increased by ~1750 to ~2000‰ fifteen days after supplementation of natural abundance lactate with a 13C-labeled lactate tracer (for an influent δ13C of ~2250‰ for the lactate) indicating almost complete oxidation of the electron donor. The denitrifying columns were among the most active columns and had the highest cell counts and the denitrification rate was highly correlated with Cr(VI) reduction rate. δ13C values of DIC ranged from ~540 to ~1170‰ for iron-reducing conditions. The lower enrichment in iron columns was related to the lower biological activity observed with lower yields of RNA and cell numbers in the column effluents. The carbon isotope shift in the sulfate-reducing ~198 to ~1960‰ for sulfate-reducing conditions reflecting the lower levels of the lactate in these columns. Additionally, in two of the sulfate columns, almost complete fermentation of the lactate occurred, producing acetate and propionate with the labeled carbon signature, but relatively smaller amounts of inorganic carbon. For all electron-accepting conditions, TOC yielded similar δ13C values as lactate stock solutions. Differences in C use efficiency, metabolic rate or metabolic pathway contributed to the differing TOC δ13C to DIC δ13C ratios between treatments

  19. Lactation amenorrhea in Saudi women.

    PubMed Central

    Madani, K A; Khashoggi, R H; al-Nowaisser, A A; Nasrat, H A; Khalil, M H

    1994-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The study aimed to investigate some aspects of breast feeding, namely-lactation amenorrhea, the average interval between pregnancies, and the extent of knowledge that an average Saudi woman has about breast feeding. DESIGN--This was a cross sectional study in which a pretested questionnaire was used to collect the information. SETTING--The study was conducted in the Taif area between January and April of 1990. Seventy nine primary health care centres participated. PARTICIPANTS--Altogether 1019 of 2400 women contacted who agreed to participate and met the criteria were studied. Eligible subjects were defined as Saudi women, between 16 and 40 years old, who came with their infants for vaccination, and had delivered between one week and 12 months previously. Each mother had at least one other child. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULT--At birth, the percentage of infants who were initially breast fed was 98% but within three days of delivery over two thirds (68.9%) of the mothers gave other supplementary liquids to their infants. At the time of interview more than half (55.1%) of mothers had lactation amenorrhea. The mean (SD) lactation amenorrhea period and birth interval were 5.95 (5) and 26.8 (14.1) months, respectively. Mothers obtained information on breast feeding mainly from their doctors and television. Within families, husbands had the primary role in encouraging their wives to breast feed, followed by the mother and then by the mother in law. It was found that a high percentage (94.2%) of women had breast fed their previous child. CONCLUSION--The lack of adequate information on breast feeding and the short interval between births are local problems which should be considered by the health authorities. PMID:8051529

  20. Hemichannel-mediated release of lactate.

    PubMed

    Karagiannis, Anastassios; Sylantyev, Sergiy; Hadjihambi, Anna; Hosford, Patrick S; Kasparov, Sergey; Gourine, Alexander V

    2016-07-01

    In the central nervous system lactate contributes to the extracellular pool of readily available energy substrates and may also function as a signaling molecule which mediates communication between glial cells and neurons. Monocarboxylate transporters are believed to provide the main pathway for lactate transport across the membranes. Here we tested the hypothesis that lactate could also be released via opening of pannexin and/or functional connexin hemichannels. In acute slices prepared from the brainstem, hippocampus, hypothalamus and cortex of adult rats, enzymatic amperometric biosensors detected significant tonic lactate release inhibited by compounds, which block pannexin/connexin hemichannels and facilitated by lowering extracellular [Ca(2+)] or increased PCO2 Enhanced lactate release triggered by hypoxia was reduced by ∼50% by either connexin or monocarboxylate transporter blockers. Stimulation of Schaffer collateral fibers triggered lactate release in CA1 area of the hippocampus, which was facilitated in conditions of low extracellular [Ca(2+)], markedly reduced by blockade of connexin hemichannels and abolished by lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor oxamate. These results indicate that lactate transport across the membranes may occur via mechanisms other than monocarboxylate transporters. In the central nervous system, hemichannels may function as a conduit of lactate release, and this mechanism is recruited during hypoxia and periods of enhanced neuronal activity. PMID:26661210

  1. Functional expression of the lactate permease Jen1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed Central

    Soares-Silva, Isabel; Schuller, Dorit; Andrade, Raquel P; Baltazar, Fátima; Cássio, Fernanda; Casal, Margarida

    2003-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the activity for the lactate-proton symporter is dependent on JEN1 gene expression. Pichia pastoris was transformed with an integrative plasmid containing the JEN1 gene. After 24 h of methanol induction, Northern and Western blotting analyses indicated the expression of JEN1 in the transformants. Lactate permease activity was obtained in P. pastoris cells with a V (max) of 2.1 nmol x s(-1) x mg of dry weight(-1). Reconstitution of the lactate permease activity was achieved by fusing plasma membranes of P. pastoris methanol-induced cells with Escherichia coli liposomes containing cytochrome c oxidase, as proton-motive force. These assays in reconstituted heterologous P. pastoris membrane vesicles demonstrate that S. cerevisiae Jen1p is a functional lactate transporter. Moreover, a S. cerevisiae strain deleted in the JEN1 gene was transformed with a centromeric plasmid containing JEN1 under the control of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase constitutive promotor. Constitutive JEN1 expression and lactic acid uptake were observed in cells grown on either glucose and/or acetic acid. The highest V (max) (0.84 nmol x s(-1) x mg of dry weight(-1)) was obtained in acetic acid-grown cells. Thus overexpression of the S. cerevisiae JEN1 gene in both S. cerevisiae and P. pastoris cells resulted in increased activity of lactate transport when compared with the data previously reported in lactic acid-grown cells of native S. cerevisiae strains. Jen1p is the only S. cerevisiae secondary porter characterized so far by heterologous expression in P. pastoris at both the cell and the membrane-vesicle levels. PMID:12962538

  2. Peat: home to novel syntrophic species that feed acetate- and hydrogen-scavenging methanogens.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Oliver; Hink, Linda; Horn, Marcus A; Drake, Harold L

    2016-08-01

    Syntrophic bacteria drive the anaerobic degradation of certain fermentation products (e.g., butyrate, ethanol, propionate) to intermediary substrates (e.g., H2, formate, acetate) that yield methane at the ecosystem level. However, little is known about the in situ activities and identities of these syntrophs in peatlands, ecosystems that produce significant quantities of methane. The consumption of butyrate, ethanol or propionate by anoxic peat slurries at 5 and 15 °C yielded methane and CO2 as the sole accumulating products, indicating that the intermediates H2, formate and acetate were scavenged effectively by syntrophic methanogenic consortia. 16S rRNA stable isotope probing identified novel species/strains of Pelobacter and Syntrophomonas that syntrophically oxidized ethanol and butyrate, respectively. Propionate was syntrophically oxidized by novel species of Syntrophobacter and Smithella, genera that use different propionate-oxidizing pathways. Taxa not known for a syntrophic metabolism may have been involved in the oxidation of butyrate (Telmatospirillum-related) and propionate (unclassified Bacteroidetes and unclassified Fibrobacteres). Gibbs free energies (ΔGs) for syntrophic oxidations of ethanol and butyrate were more favorable than ΔGs for syntrophic oxidation of propionate. As a result of the thermodynamic constraints, acetate transiently accumulated in ethanol and butyrate treatments but not in propionate treatments. Aceticlastic methanogens (Methanosarcina, Methanosaeta) appeared to outnumber hydrogenotrophic methanogens (Methanocella, Methanoregula), reinforcing the likely importance of aceticlastic methanogenesis to the overall production of methane. ΔGs for acetogenesis from H2 to CO2 approximated to -20 kJ mol(-1) when acetate concentrations were low, indicating that acetogens may have contributed to the flow of carbon and reductant towards methane. PMID:26771931

  3. Adaptive laboratory evolution of ethanologenic Zymomonas mobilis strain tolerant to furfural and acetic acid inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Shui, Zong-Xia; Qin, Han; Wu, Bo; Ruan, Zhi-yong; Wang, Lu-shang; Tan, Fu-Rong; Wang, Jing-Li; Tang, Xiao-Yu; Dai, Li-Chun; Hu, Guo-Quan; He, Ming-Xiong

    2015-07-01

    Furfural and acetic acid from lignocellulosic hydrolysates are the prevalent inhibitors to Zymomonas mobilis during cellulosic ethanol production. Developing a strain tolerant to furfural or acetic acid inhibitors is difficul by using rational engineering strategies due to poor understanding of their underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, strategy of adaptive laboratory evolution (ALE) was used for development of a furfural and acetic acid-tolerant strain. After three round evolution, four evolved mutants (ZMA7-2, ZMA7-3, ZMF3-2, and ZMF3-3) that showed higher growth capacity were successfully obtained via ALE method. Based on the results of profiling of cell growth, glucose utilization, ethanol yield, and activity of key enzymes, two desired strains, ZMA7-2 and ZMF3-3, were achieved, which showed higher tolerance under 7 g/l acetic acid and 3 g/l furfural stress condition. Especially, it is the first report of Z. mobilis strain that could tolerate higher furfural. The best strain, Z. mobilis ZMF3-3, has showed 94.84% theoretical ethanol yield under 3-g/l furfural stress condition, and the theoretical ethanol yield of ZM4 is only 9.89%. Our study also demonstrated that ALE method might also be used as a powerful metabolic engineering tool for metabolic engineering in Z. mobilis. Furthermore, the two best strains could be used as novel host for further metabolic engineering in cellulosic ethanol or future biorefinery. Importantly, the two strains may also be used as novel-tolerant model organisms for the genetic mechanism on the "omics" level, which will provide some useful information for inverse metabolic engineering. PMID:25935346

  4. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may...

  5. Effect of chronic ethanol administration on disposition of ethanol and its metabolites in rat.

    PubMed

    Kozawa, Shuji; Yukawa, Nobuhiro; Liu, Jinyao; Shimamoto, Akiko; Kakizaki, Eiji; Fujimiya, Tatsuya

    2007-03-01

    We studied the effects of chronic alcohol intake on the disposition of alcohol and its metabolites in the rat. We used male Wistar rats for all of the experiments in this study. Using a pair-feeding process, rats were fed a liquid diet containing alcohol or without alcohol for 6 weeks. Ethanol solutions (0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 g/kg body weight [BW]) were administered as a bolus, intravenously. We then measured blood ethanol and acetate concentrations. Simultaneous multiline fitting was performed using mean blood alcohol concentration (BAC)-time curves fitted to the one-compartment open model with parallel first-order and Michaelis-Menten elimination kinetics. At low doses (0.5, 1.0, and 1.5 g/kgBW), no differences were observed between the alcohol group and the control group with respect to ethanol elimination rate, area under the curve of ethanol (AUC(EtOH)), and mean residence time of ethanol (MRT(EtOH)). At higher doses (2.0 g/kgBW), ethanol elimination rate in the alcohol group was significantly higher than in the control group (P<.5%). These findings were also substantiated by corresponding changes in AUC(EtOH) and MRT(EtOH). At low doses, no differences were observed between the alcohol group and the control group with respect to plateau concentration of acetate (AcT) (concentration of steady state=C(ss)AcT), area under the curve of AcT (AUC(AcT)), and mean residence time of AcT (MRT(AcT)). However, at higher doses, although there were no differences in C(ss)AcT, both AUC(AcT) and MRT(AcT) were significantly lower in the alcohol group when compared to the control group (P<.5%). Chronic alcohol consumption increases ethanol oxidation and AcT metabolism in rats, as observed at high blood alcohol concentrations (BACs). These effects were observed at BACs of 3.5-4.5 mg/ml, and were not observed at lower doses. Thus, with general alcohol consumption, interindividual differences and intra-individual changes in alcohol metabolism may not take into account increased

  6. Reversible lactic acidosis associated with repeated intravenous infusions of sorbitol and ethanol.

    PubMed Central

    Batstone, G. F.; Alberti, K. G.; Dewar, A. K.

    1977-01-01

    Infusions of fructose or sorbitol are used commonly in parenteral nutrition and may cause lactic acidosis. A case is reported in whom blood lactate concentration was monitored frequently over a 5-day period during intravenous feeding with a sorbitol-ethanol-amino acid mixture. During the first five infusions blood lactate rose only moderately, but with the final infusion lactate rose to 11-1 mmol/l and the patient had a severe metabolic acidosis. In retrospect the patient had shown deterioration in renal and hepatic function tests during the preceding 24 hr. On terminating the infusions the blood lactate concentration fell rapidly. It is suggested that great care should be exercised when using such infusions in ill patients and acid base status and renal and hepatic function should be monitored frequently. PMID:22069

  7. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nabil M; Eweis, Esam A; El-Beltagi, Hossam S; Abdel-Mobdy, Yasmin E

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland. Methods Male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first group represented the health control animals, while the second, third and fourth groups were ingested orally with sub lethal doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60) of the oral LD50, respectively. One dose was ingested every two days during the experimental period (14 weeks) including the adaptation time. Blood was collected and used for all analysis. Results The results showed that, the ingestion of Pb2+ induced significant stimulation in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST) activity. Also, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were significantly decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb2+ treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates and lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated, while plasma glucose level was elevated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. In case of blood picture, Pb2+ ingestion reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBCs count of intoxicated rat's blood and the plasma levels of T3, T4 and blood WBCs count were decreased. Conclusions It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk. PMID:23569832

  8. Acetic Acid Detection Threshold in Synthetic Wine Samples of a Portable Electronic Nose

    PubMed Central

    Macías, Miguel Macías; Manso, Antonio García; Orellana, Carlos Javier García; Velasco, Horacio Manuel González; Caballero, Ramón Gallardo; Chamizo, Juan Carlos Peguero

    2013-01-01

    Wine quality is related to its intrinsic visual, taste, or aroma characteristics and is reflected in the price paid for that wine. One of the most important wine faults is the excessive concentration of acetic acid which can cause a wine to take on vinegar aromas and reduce its varietal character. Thereby it is very important for the wine industry to have methods, like electronic noses, for real-time monitoring the excessive concentration of acetic acid in wines. However, aroma characterization of alcoholic beverages with sensor array electronic noses is a difficult challenge due to the masking effect of ethanol. In this work, in order to detect the presence of acetic acid in synthetic wine samples (aqueous ethanol solution at 10% v/v) we use a detection unit which consists of a commercial electronic nose and a HSS32 auto sampler, in combination with a neural network classifier (MLP). To find the characteristic vector representative of the sample that we want to classify, first we select the sensors, and the section of the sensors response curves, where the probability of detecting the presence of acetic acid will be higher, and then we apply Principal Component Analysis (PCA) such that each sensor response curve is represented by the coefficients of its first principal components. Results show that the PEN3 electronic nose is able to detect and discriminate wine samples doped with acetic acid in concentrations equal or greater than 2 g/L. PMID:23262483

  9. Acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar: phenotypic traits relevant for starter cultures selection.

    PubMed

    Gullo, Maria; Giudici, Paolo

    2008-06-30

    This review focuses on acetic acid bacteria in traditional balsamic vinegar process. Although several studies are available on acetic acid bacteria ecology, metabolism and nutritional requirements, their activity as well as their technological traits in homemade vinegars as traditional balsamic vinegar is not well known. The basic technology to oxidise cooked grape must to produce traditional balsamic vinegar is performed by the so called "seed-vinegar" that is a microbiologically undefined starter culture obtained from spontaneous acetification of previous raw material. Selected starter cultures are the main technological improvement in order to innovate traditional balsamic vinegar production but until now they are rarely applied. To develop acetic acid bacteria starter cultures, selection criteria have to take in account composition of raw material, acetic acid bacteria metabolic activities, applied technology and desired characteristics of the final product. For traditional balsamic vinegar, significative phenotypical traits of acetic acid bacteria have been highlighted. Basic traits are: ethanol preferred and efficient oxidation, fast rate of acetic acid production, tolerance to high concentration of acetic acid, no overoxidation and low pH resistance. Specific traits are tolerance to high sugar concentration and to a wide temperature range. Gluconacetobacter europaeus and Acetobacter malorum strains can be evaluated to develop selected starter cultures since they show one or more suitable characters. PMID:18177968

  10. Studies on the mechanism of synthesis of ethyl acetate in Kluyveromyces marxianus DSM 5422.

    PubMed

    Löser, Christian; Urit, Thanet; Keil, Peter; Bley, Thomas

    2015-02-01

    Kluyveromyces marxianus converts whey-borne sugar into ethyl acetate, an environmentally friendly solvent with many applications. K. marxianus DSM 5422 presumably synthesizes ethyl acetate from acetyl-SCoA. Iron limitation as a trigger for this synthesis is explained by a diminished aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase activity (both enzymes depend on iron) causing diversion of acetyl-SCoA from the tricarboxic acid cycle to ester synthesis. Copper limitation as another trigger for ester synthesis in this yeast refers to involvement of the electron transport chain (all ETC complexes depend on iron and complex IV requires copper). This hypothesis was checked by using several ETC inhibitors. Malonate was ineffective but carboxin partially inhibited complex II and initiated ester synthesis. Antimycin A and cyanide as complexes III and IV inhibitors initiated ester synthesis only at moderate levels while higher concentrations disrupted all respiration and caused ethanol formation. A restricted supply of oxygen (the terminal electron acceptor) also initiated some ester synthesis but primarily forced ethanol production. A switch from aerobic to anaerobic conditions nearly stopped ester synthesis and induced ethanol formation. Iron-limited ester formation was compared with anaerobic ethanol production; the ester yield was lower than the ethanol yield but a higher market price, a reduced number of process stages, a faster process, and decreased expenses for product recovery by stripping favor biotechnological ester production. PMID:25487884

  11. Dehydrate ethanol without distillation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-10-01

    Usina da Pedra (Serrana, state of Sao Paulo, Brazil) produces 60 million gal/yr of ethanol in 180 operating days. Until this year, the plant made 96 vol.% ethanol that is used as automotive fuel, and absolute ethanol (99.5 vol. %), which is blended with gasoline. Water is the remainder in both products. The ethanol is produced from the fermentation of sugar cane, and distilled with benzene. Benzene lowers the boiling point of the ethanol-water mixture and ties up the water. In May, Usina da Pedra installed a process that dehydrates ethanol by adsorption, not distillation. A vapor-phase process containing molecular sieves, handles throughputs as high as 160,000 acfh and has a maximum capacity of 70 million gal/yr. In addition to generating safer products, the energy savings gained by switching from distillation to adsorption are significant. The adsorptive system requires input of only 2,900 Btu per gallon of ethanol; one-third the energy consumed by distillation systems that employ benzene or cyclohexane.

  12. Best Prediction of Yields for Long Lactations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactation records of any length now can be processed with the selection index methods known as best prediction (BP). Previous programs were limited to the 305-day standard used since 1935. Best prediction was implemented in 1998 to calculate lactation records in USDA genetic evaluations, replacing t...

  13. Lactation associated with herpes zoster pectoralis.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, S K; Girgla, H S

    1976-05-01

    The phenomenon of lactation associated with herpes zoster is unexpected. To our knowledge such an association has been reported only once. A case is reported in whom spontaneous lactation occurred in the ipsilateral breast following herpes zoster. It is believed to have resulted from stimulation of the intercostal nerve endings supplying the overlying skin of the breast. PMID:945354

  14. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid with sodium hydroxide. (b)...

  15. Inhibition of net calcium efflux from bone by ethanol in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Ramp, W.K.; Demaree, D.N.

    1984-02-01

    Ethanol administered to animals is known to cause hypocalcemia. This investigation was undertaken to evaluate direct early effects of ethanol on the net fluxes of Ca/sup 2 +/ and inorganic phosphate (P/sub i/) into or out of bone using tibiae from 13-day-old chick embryos and 8-day-old sucking rats in vitro. When chick bones were incubated with ethanol in the medium (10 ..mu..l/ml), net Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux was decreased 19, 22, 27, and 31% at 2, 4, 6, and 8 h, respectively. Metabolically inhibited bones showed a net influx rather than efflux of Ca/sup 2 +/ and were not further affected by ethanol. The ethanol had no consistent effect on net P/sub i/ efflux and slightly reduced lactate production. At three doses of ethanol (3, 10, and 30 ..mu..l/ml of medium) the reduction of Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux was dose related in both chick and rat bones. Ethanol completely inhibited parathyroid hormone-stimulated, net Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux from chick bones, even at ethanol levels that by themselves did not affect Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that the hypocalcemia in ethanol-treated animals may be due in part to inhibition of net Ca/sup 2 +/ efflux from bone.

  16. Brain lactate kinetics: Modeling evidence for neuronal lactate uptake upon activation.

    PubMed

    Aubert, Agnès; Costalat, Robert; Magistretti, Pierre J; Pellerin, Luc

    2005-11-01

    A critical issue in brain energy metabolism is whether lactate produced within the brain by astrocytes is taken up and metabolized by neurons upon activation. Although there is ample evidence that neurons can efficiently use lactate as an energy substrate, at least in vitro, few experimental data exist to indicate that it is indeed the case in vivo. To address this question, we used a modeling approach to determine which mechanisms are necessary to explain typical brain lactate kinetics observed upon activation. On the basis of a previously validated model that takes into account the compartmentalization of energy metabolism, we developed a mathematical model of brain lactate kinetics, which was applied to published data describing the changes in extracellular lactate levels upon activation. Results show that the initial dip in the extracellular lactate concentration observed at the onset of stimulation can only be satisfactorily explained by a rapid uptake within an intraparenchymal cellular compartment. In contrast, neither blood flow increase, nor extracellular pH variation can be major causes of the lactate initial dip, whereas tissue lactate diffusion only tends to reduce its amplitude. The kinetic properties of monocarboxylate transporter isoforms strongly suggest that neurons represent the most likely compartment for activation-induced lactate uptake and that neuronal lactate utilization occurring early after activation onset is responsible for the initial dip in brain lactate levels observed in both animals and humans. PMID:16260743

  17. Epithelial cell proliferation arrest induced by lactate and acetate from Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium breve.

    PubMed

    Matsuki, Takahiro; Pédron, Thierry; Regnault, Béatrice; Mulet, Céline; Hara, Taeko; Sansonetti, Philippe J

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to identify and characterize how symbiotic bacteria of the gut microbiota affect the molecular and cellular mechanisms of epithelial homeostasis, intestinal epithelial cells were co-cultured with either Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium as bona fide symbionts to examine potential gene modulations. In addition to genes involved in the innate immune response, genes encoding check-point molecules controlling the cell cycle were among the most modulated in the course of these interactions. In the m-ICcl2 murine cell line, genes encoding cyclin E1 and cyclin D1 were strongly down regulated by L. casei and B. breve respectively. Cell proliferation arrest was accordingly confirmed. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were the effectors of this modulation, alone or in conjunction with the acidic pH they generated. These results demonstrate that the production of SCFAs, a characteristic of these symbiotic microorganisms, is potentially an essential regulatory effector of epithelial proliferation in the gut. PMID:23646174

  18. Epithelial Cell Proliferation Arrest Induced by Lactate and Acetate from Lactobacillus casei and Bifidobacterium breve

    PubMed Central

    Regnault, Béatrice; Mulet, Céline; Hara, Taeko; Sansonetti, Philippe J.

    2013-01-01

    In an attempt to identify and characterize how symbiotic bacteria of the gut microbiota affect the molecular and cellular mechanisms of epithelial homeostasis, intestinal epithelial cells were co-cultured with either Lactobacillus or Bifidobacterium as bona fide symbionts to examine potential gene modulations. In addition to genes involved in the innate immune response, genes encoding check-point molecules controlling the cell cycle were among the most modulated in the course of these interactions. In the m-ICcl2 murine cell line, genes encoding cyclin E1 and cyclin D1 were strongly down regulated by L. casei and B. breve respectively. Cell proliferation arrest was accordingly confirmed. Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) were the effectors of this modulation, alone or in conjunction with the acidic pH they generated. These results demonstrate that the production of SCFAs, a characteristic of these symbiotic microorganisms, is potentially an essential regulatory effector of epithelial proliferation in the gut. PMID:23646174

  19. Desmopressin Acetate in Intracranial Haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Kapapa, Thomas; Röhrer, Stefan; Struve, Sabine; Petscher, Matthias; König, Ralph; Wirtz, Christian Rainer; Woischneck, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The secondary increase in the size of intracranial haematomas as a result of spontaneous haemorrhage or trauma is of particular relevance in the event of prior intake of platelet aggregation inhibitors. We describe the effect of desmopressin acetate as a means of temporarily stabilising the platelet function. Patients and Methods. The platelet function was analysed in 10 patients who had received single (N = 4) or multiple (N = 6) doses of acetylsalicylic acid and 3 patients (control group) who had not taken acetylsalicylic acid. All subjects had suffered intracranial haemorrhage. Analysis was performed before, half an hour and three hours after administration of desmopressin acetate. Statistical analysis was performed by applying a level of significance of P ≤ 0.05. Results. (1) Platelet function returned to normal 30 minutes after administration of desmopressin acetate. (2) The platelet function worsened again after three hours. (3) There were no complications related to electrolytes or fluid balance. Conclusion. Desmopressin acetate can stabilise the platelet function in neurosurgical patients who have received acetylsalicylic acid prior to surgery without causing transfusion-related side effects or a loss of time. The effect is, however, limited and influenced by the frequency of drug intake. Further controls are needed in neurosurgical patients. PMID:25610644

  20. Further Improvement of the Robust Recombinant Saccharomyces Yeast for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Nancy, W. Y.; Adamec, Jiri; Mosier, Nathan, S.; Sedlak, Miroslav

    2011-04-07

    Since 1980, the PI's laboratory at Purdue University has been at the forefront in developing recombinant Saccharomyces yeast for cellulosic ethanol production. Their innovation enabled them to successfully develop the recombinant Saccharomyces yeast strain 424A(LNH-ST) that has been validated by scientists in industry, universities, and National Laboratories. Strain 424A(LNH-ST) has also been used by a company to produce cellulosic ethanol since 2004. Nevertheless, this strain still needs improvement, particularly to achieve high ethanol titer when cellulosic biomass hydrolysates are used for ethanol production. In this project, we were able to carry out a total genetic overhaul of our yeast by carrying out nine different tasks to improve our 424A(LNH-ST) strain. Through these tasks we enabled the yeast to co-ferment arabinose together with other four sugars generally present in all cellulosic biomass. Thus 424A(LNH-ST) can now ferment all five sugars, glucose, xylose, mannose, galactose and arabinose present in any cellulosic biomass. We also successfully used adaptation techniques and direct genetic improvements to develop improved 424A(LNH-ST) strains that are more resistant to acetic acid or ethanol. These are the most significant inhibitors of those commonly present in cellulosic hydrolysates that prevent 424A(LNH-ST) from producing high concentrations of cellulosic ethanol. The acetic acid resistant strain has 89% better xylose utilization in the presence of acetic acid and 25% better overall ethanol yield. The ethanol resistant strain has 250% better ethanol volumetric productivity. The three tasks for improving the main metabolic pathways have all been successfully completed but the impact of these improvements was less dramatic. This demonstrates our yeast already has effective metabolic systems for co-fermenting cellulosic sugars. However, our attempt to improve the yeast to transport xylose and arabinose more efficiently had only limited success. Thus

  1. Further Improvement of the Robust Recombinant Saccharomyces Yeast for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Nancy W. Y.; Adamec, Jiri; Mosier, Nathan, S.; Sedlak, Miroslav

    2011-04-09

    Since 1980, the PI’s laboratory at Purdue University has been at the forefront in developing recombinant Saccharomyces yeast for cellulosic ethanol production. Their innovation enabled them to successfully develop the recombinant Saccharomyces yeast strain 424A(LNH-ST) that has been validated by scientists in industry, universities, and National Laboratories. Strain 424A(LNH-ST) has also been used by a company to produce cellulosic ethanol since 2004. Nevertheless, this strain still needs improvement, particularly to achieve high ethanol titer when cellulosic biomass hydrolysates are used for ethanol production. In this project, we were able to carry out a total genetic overhaul of our yeast by carrying out nine different tasks to improve our 424A(LNH-ST) strain. Through these tasks we enabled the yeast to co-ferment arabinose together with other four sugars generally present in all cellulosic biomass. Thus 424A(LNH-ST) can now ferment all five sugars, glucose, xylose, mannose, galactose and arabinose present in any cellulosic biomass. We also successfully used adaptation techniques and direct genetic improvements to develop improved 424A(LNH-ST) strains that are more resistant to acetic acid or ethanol. These are the most significant inhibitors of those commonly present in cellulosic hydrolysates that prevent 424A(LNH-ST) from producing high concentrations of cellulosic ethanol. The acetic acid resistant strain has 89% better xylose utilization in the presence of acetic acid and 25% better overall ethanol yield. The ethanol resistant strain has 250% better ethanol volumetric productivity. The three tasks for improving the main metabolic pathways have all been successfully completed but the impact of these improvements was less dramatic. This demonstrates our yeast already has effective metabolic systems for co-fermenting cellulosic sugars. However, our attempt to improve the yeast to transport xylose and arabinose more efficiently had only limited success. Thus

  2. Ethanol and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Sun, A Y; Ingelman-Sundberg, M; Neve, E; Matsumoto, H; Nishitani, Y; Minowa, Y; Fukui, Y; Bailey, S M; Patel, V B; Cunningham, C C; Zima, T; Fialova, L; Mikulikova, L; Popov, P; Malbohan, I; Janebova, M; Nespor, K; Sun, G Y

    2001-05-01

    This article represents the proceedings of a workshop at the 2000 ISBRA Meeting in Yokohama, Japan. The chair was Albert Y. Sun. The presentations were (1) Ethanol-inducible cytochrome P-4502E1 in alcoholic liver disease, by Magnus Ingelman-Sundberg and Etienne Neve; (2) Regulation of NF-kappaB by ethanol, by H. Matsumoto, Y. Nishitani, Y. Minowa, and Y. Fukui; (3) Chronic ethanol consumption increases concentration of oxidized proteins in rat liver, by Shannon M. Bailey, Vinood B. Patel, and Carol C. Cunningham; (4) Antiphospholipids antibodies and oxidized modified low-density lipoprotein in chronic alcoholic patients, by Tomas Zima, Lenka Fialova, Ludmila Mikulikova, Ptr Popov, Ivan Malbohan, Marta Janebova, and Karel Nespor; and (5) Amelioration of ethanol-induced damage by polyphenols, by Albert Y. Sun and Grace Y. Sun. PMID:11391077

  3. Process for producing ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Lantero, O.J.; Fish, J.J.

    1993-07-27

    A process is described for producing ethanol from raw materials containing a high dry solid mash level having fermentable sugars or constituents which can be converted into sugars, comprising the steps of: (a) liquefaction of the raw materials in the presence of an alpha amylase to obtain liquefied mash; (b) saccharification of the liquefied mash in the presence of a glucoamylase to obtain hydrolysed starch and sugars; (c) fermentation of the hydrolysed starch and sugars by yeast to obtain ethanol; and (d) recovering the obtained ethanol, wherein an acid fungal protease is introduced to the liquefied mash during the saccharification and/or to the hydrolysed starch and sugars during the fermentation, thereby increasing the rate of production of ethanol as compared to a substantially similar process conducted without the introduction of the protease.

  4. Biofuel Ethanol Transport Risk

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ethanol production has increased rapidly over the last 10 years and many communities lack awareness of the increased and growing extent of biofuel transportation through their jurisdictions. These communities and their emergency responders may not have the information and resour...

  5. Zinc, magnesium, and calcium ion supplementation confers tolerance to acetic acid stress in industrial Saccharomyces cerevisiae utilizing xylose.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Ku Syahidah Ku; Sakamoto, Takatoshi; Hasunuma, Tomohisa; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Kondo, Akihiko

    2014-12-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a potential substrate for ethanol production. However, pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials produces inhibitory compounds such as acetic acid, which negatively affect ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Supplementation of the medium with three metal ions (Zn(2+) , Mg(2+) , and Ca(2+) ) increased the tolerance of S. cerevisiae toward acetic acid compared to the absence of the ions. Ethanol production from xylose was most improved (by 34%) when the medium was supplemented with 2 mM Ca(2+) , followed by supplementation with 3.5 mM Mg(2+) (29% improvement), and 180 μM Zn(2+) (26% improvement). Higher ethanol production was linked to high cell viability in the presence of metal ions. Comparative transcriptomics between the supplemented cultures and the control suggested that improved cell viability resulted from the induction of genes controlling the cell wall and membrane. Only one gene, FIT2, was found to be up-regulated in common between the three metal ions. Also up-regulation of HXT1 and TKL1 might enhance xylose consumption in the presence of acetic acid. Thus, the addition of ionic nutrients is a simple and cost-effective method to improve the acetic acid tolerance of S. cerevisiae. PMID:24924214

  6. Reductive opening of carbohydrate phenylsulfonylethylidene (PSE) acetals.

    PubMed

    Chéry, Florence; Cabianca, Elena; Tatibouët, Arnaud; De Lucchi, Ottorino; Lindhorst, Thisbe K; Rollin, Patrick

    2015-11-19

    The phenylsulfonylethylidene (PSE) acetal is a relatively new protecting group in carbohydrate chemistry. However, carbohydrate-derived phenylsulfonylethylidene (PSE) acetals show a different behavior in reductive desulfonylation than simple symmetrical acetals. Here we have investigated various SET-type reaction conditions in order to open PSE acetals regioselectively and to produce chiral ω-hydroxyethenyl ethers. Whereas sodium amalgam leads to a mixture of regioisomeric vinyl ethers besides the ethylidene acetal, samarium iodide is suited for regioselective ring opening. This is shown with seven different carbohydrate PSE acetals, both of the 1,3-dioxane and the 1,3-dioxolane type. PMID:26469209

  7. Ethanol production from lignocellulose

    DOEpatents

    Ingram, Lonnie O.; Wood, Brent E.

    2001-01-01

    This invention presents a method of improving enzymatic degradation of lignocellulose, as in the production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, through the use of ultrasonic treatment. The invention shows that ultrasonic treatment reduces cellulase requirements by 1/3 to 1/2. With the cost of enzymes being a major problem in the cost-effective production of ethanol from lignocellulosic material, this invention presents a significant improvement over presently available methods.

  8. In vitro antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect, on oleic acid-induced hepatic steatosis, of fractions and subfractions from oat (Avena sativa L.) ethanol extract

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Oats (Avena sativa L.) were extracted with 80% aqueous ethanol and the extract was successively isolated by liquid-liquid partition to yield n-hexane, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water layers. Among these extractions the ethyl acetate (EA) layer exhibited the highest total phenolic content (TPC), t...

  9. Development of Biocomposites with Antioxidant Activity Based on Red Onion Extract and Acetate Cellulose.

    PubMed

    de Dicastillo, Carol López; Navarro, Rosa; Guarda, Abel; Galotto, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant biocomposites have been successfully developed from cellulose acetate, eco-friendly triethyl citrate plasticizer and onion extract as a source of natural antioxidants. First, an onion extraction process was optimized to obtain the extract with highest antioxidant power. Extracts under absolute ethanol and ethanol 85% were the extracts with the highest antioxidant activity, which were the characterized through different methods, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate)), that measure radical scavenger activity, and polyphenolic and flavonoid content. Afterwards, the extract was incorporated in cellulose acetate as polymer matrix owing to develop an active material intended to oxidative sensitive food products packaging. Different concentrations of onion extract and plasticizer were statistically studied by using response surface methodology in order to analyze the influence of both factors on the release of active compounds and therefore the antioxidant activity of these materials. PMID:26783842

  10. Development of Biocomposites with Antioxidant Activity Based on Red Onion Extract and Acetate Cellulose

    PubMed Central

    López de Dicastillo, Carol; Navarro, Rosa; Guarda, Abel; Galotto, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidant biocomposites have been successfully developed from cellulose acetate, eco-friendly triethyl citrate plasticizer and onion extract as a source of natural antioxidants. First, an onion extraction process was optimized to obtain the extract with highest antioxidant power. Extracts under absolute ethanol and ethanol 85% were the extracts with the highest antioxidant activity, which were the characterized through different methods, DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ABTS (2,2ʹ-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonate)), that measure radical scavenger activity, and polyphenolic and flavonoid content. Afterwards, the extract was incorporated in cellulose acetate as polymer matrix owing to develop an active material intended to oxidative sensitive food products packaging. Different concentrations of onion extract and plasticizer were statistically studied by using response surface methodology in order to analyze the influence of both factors on the release of active compounds and therefore the antioxidant activity of these materials. PMID:26783842

  11. Biological production of ethanol from coal. [Quarterly report], September 22, 1990--December 21, 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-31

    Previous results have shown that the medium pH, the composition of the medium and concentration of medium constituents significantly affect the ratio of ethanol to acetate in the product stream when fermenting CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} in synthesis gas to products by Clostridium ljungdahlii. An additional batch study was carried out varying the agitation rate at pH 4, 4.5 and 5.0. It was speculated that increased agitation rates in combination with low pH might result in increased ethanol production while, at the same time, yielding higher cell concentrations which could eventually result in higher ethanol concentrations.

  12. Current trends in lactate metabolism: introduction.

    PubMed

    Gladden, L Bruce

    2008-03-01

    In September 2006, at the Integrative Physiology of Exercise meeting in Indianapolis, IN, a symposium entitled "Current Trends in Lactate Metabolism" was presented. This short paper introduces two papers from that symposium. The first paper by L. Bruce Gladden briefly summarizes key pieces of evidence that support the cell-to-cell lactate shuttle, a concept that is no longer an hypothesis but that, instead, is now an established theory that provides the context for discussions of whole body metabolism. Gladden also offers a critical appraisal of the intracellular lactate shuttle and evaluates an ongoing controversy relative to the role of lactate in acid-base balance. In the second paper, Hashimoto and Brooks provide their evidence in support of the intracellular lactate shuttle and a lactate oxidation complex in the inner mitochondrial membrane. They also postulate that lactate is a cell-signaling molecule, "lactormone," that can upregulate gene and protein expression. Both papers have been updated since their original presentations and represent the current state of knowledge. PMID:18379209

  13. Etiology and therapeutic approach to elevated lactate

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Lars W.; Mackenhauer, Julie; Roberts, Jonathan C.; Berg, Katherine M.; Cocchi, Michael N.; Donnino, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Lactate levels are commonly evaluated in acutely ill patients. Although most commonly used in the context of evaluating shock, lactate can be elevated for many reasons. While tissue hypoperfusion is probably the most common cause of elevation, many other etiologies or contributing factors exist. Clinicians need to be aware of the many potential causes of lactate elevation as the clinical and prognostic importance of an elevated lactate varies widely by disease state. Moreover, specific therapy may need to be tailored to the underlying cause of elevation. The current review is based on a comprehensive PubMed search and contains an overview of the pathophysiology of lactate elevation followed by an in-depth look at the varied etiologies, including medication-related causes. The strengths and weaknesses of lactate as a diagnostic/prognostic tool and its potential use as a clinical endpoint of resuscitation will be discussed. The review ends with some general recommendations on management of patients with elevated lactate. PMID:24079682

  14. Lactate as a Biomarker for Sleep

    PubMed Central

    Naylor, Erik; Aillon, Daniel V.; Barrett, Brian S.; Wilson, George S.; Johnson, David A.; Johnson, Donna A.; Harmon, Hans P.; Gabbert, Seth; Petillo, Peter A.

    2012-01-01

    Study Objectives: An ideal biomarker for sleep should change rapidly with sleep onset, remain at a detectably differential level throughout the sleep period, and exhibit a rapid change with waking. Currently, no molecular marker has been identified that exhibits all three properties. This study examined three substances (lactate, glucose, and glutamate) for suitability as a sleep biomarker. Design: Using amperometric biosensor technology in conjunction with electroencephalograph (EEG) and electromyograph (EMG) monitoring, extracellular concentrations of lactate and glucose (Cohort 1) as well as lactate and glutamate (Cohort 2) were recorded over multiple sleep/wake cycles. Patients or Participants: There were 12 C57Bl/6J male mice (3-5 mo old). Interventions: Sleep and waking transitions were identified using EEG recordings. Extracellular concentrations of lactate, glucose, and glutamate were evaluated before and during transition events as well as during extended sleep and during a 6-h sleep deprivation period. Measurements and Results: Rapid and sustained increases in cortical lactate concentration (approximately 15 μM/min) were immediately observed upon waking and during rapid eye movement sleep. Elevated lactate concentration was also maintained throughout a 6-h period of continuous waking. A persistent and sustained decline in lactate concentration was measured during nonrapid eye movement sleep. Glutamate exhibited similar patterns, but with a much slower rise and decline (approximately 0.03 μM/min). Glucose concentration changes did not demonstrate a clear correlation with either sleep or wake. Conclusions: These findings indicate that extracellular lactate concentration is a reliable sleep/wake biomarker and can be used independently of the EEG signal. Citation: Naylor E; Aillon DV; Barrett BS; Wilson GS; Johnson DA; Johnson DA; Harmon HP; Gabbert S; Petillo PA. Lactate as a biomarker for sleep. SLEEP 2012;35(9):1209-1222. PMID:22942499

  15. 21 CFR 522.533 - Deslorelin acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Deslorelin acetate. (a) Specifications. Each implant contains 2.1 milligrams deslorelin acetate. (b) Sponsor.... One implant per mare. (ii) Indications for use. For inducing ovulation within 48 hours in...

  16. Carbon-isotopic analysis of dissolved acetate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gelwicks, J. T.; Hayes, J. M.

    1990-01-01

    Heating of dried, acetate-containing solids together with oxalic acid dihydrate conveniently releases acetic acid for purification by gas chromatography. For determination of the carbon-isotopic composition of total acetate, the acetate-containing zone of the chromatographic effluent can be routed directly to a combustion furnace coupled to a vacuum system allowing recovery, purification, and packaging of CO2 for mass-spectrometric analysis. For analysis of methyl carbon, acetic acid can be cryogenically trapped from the chromatographic effluent, then transferred to a tube containing excess NaOH. The tube is evacuated, sealed, and heated to 500 degrees C to produce methane by pyrolysis of sodium acetate. Subsequent combustion of the methane allows determination of the 13C content at the methyl position in the parent acetate. With typical blanks, the standard deviation of single analyses is less than 0.4% for acetate samples larger than 5 micromoles. A full treatment of uncertainties is outlined.

  17. Ozone decomposition in aqueous acetate solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Sehested, K.; Holcman, J.; Bjergbakke, E.; Hart, E.J.

    1987-01-01

    The acetate radical ion reacts with ozone with a rate constant of k = (1.5 +/- 0.5) x 10Z dmT mol s . The products from this reaction are CO2, HCHO, and O2 . By subsequent reaction of the peroxy radical with ozone the acetate radical ion is regenerated through the OH radical. A chain decomposition of ozone takes place. It terminates when the acetate radical ion reacts with oxygen forming the unreactive peroxy acetate radical. The chain is rather short as oxygen is developed, as a result of the ozone consumption. The inhibiting effect of acetate on the ozone decay is rationalized by OH scavenging by acetate and successive reaction of the acetate radical ion with oxygen. Some products from the bimolecular disappearance of the peroxy acetate radicals, however, react further with ozone, reducing the effectiveness of the stabilization.

  18. Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Phase 2, technology development, annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C.; Gaddy, J.L.

    1995-07-01

    Oil refineries discharge large volumes of H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} from cracking, coking, and hydrotreating operations. This program seeks to develop a biological process for converting these waste gases into ethanol, which can be blended with gasoline to reduce emissions. Production of ethanol from all 194 US refineries would save 450 billion BTU annually, would reduce crude oil imports by 110 million barrels/year and emissions by 19 million tons/year. Phase II efforts has yielded at least 3 cultures (Clostridium ljungdahlii, Isolate O-52, Isolate C-01) which are able to produce commercially viable concentrations of ethanol from CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} in petroleum waste gas. Single continuous stirred tank reactor studies have shown that 15-20 g/L of ethanol can be produced, with less than 5 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Culture and reactor optimization in Phase III should yield even higher ethanol concentrations and minimal acetic acid. Product recovery studies showed that ethanol is best recovered in a multi-step process involving solvent extraction/distillation to azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation, or direct distillation to the azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation. Projections show that the ethanol facility for a typical refinery would require an investment of about $30 million, which would be returned in less than 2 years.

  19. Lactational mastitis caused by Streptococcus lactarius.

    PubMed

    Tena, Daniel; Fernández, Cristina; López-Garrido, Beatriz; Pérez-Balsalobre, Mercedes; Losa, Cristina; Medina-Pascual, María José; Sáez-Nieto, Juan Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Human infections caused by Streptococcus lactarius have not been previously reported. In the present report, we describe a lactational mastitis caused by this organism. The infection occurred in a 28-year-old breast-feeding female, with a 10-days history of moderate pain on the right breast. The patient was cured after antibiotic treatment with levofloxacin for 21 days. Our case shows that S. lactarius should be considered as a cause of lactational mastitis. The introduction of molecular microbiology techniques can be extremely useful for knowing the implication of streptococci in lactational mastitis. PMID:27220606

  20. Optimization of VFAs and ethanol production with waste sludge used as the denitrification carbon source.

    PubMed

    Guo, Liang; Zhang, Jiawen; Yin, Li; Zhao, Yangguo; Gao, Mengchun; She, Zonglian

    2015-01-01

    An acidification metabolite such as volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ethanol could be used as denitrification carbon sources for solving the difficult problem of carbon source shortages and low nitrogen removal efficiency. A proper control of environmental factors could be essential for obtaining the optimal contents of VFAs and ethanol. In this study, suspended solids (SS), oxidation reduction potential (ORP) and shaking rate were chosen to investigate the interactive effects on VFAs and ethanol production with waste sludge. It was indicated that T-VFA yield could be enhanced at lower ORP and shaking rate. Changing the SS, ORP and shaking rate could influence the distribution of acetic, propionic, butyric, valeric acids and ethanol. The optimal conditions for VFAs and ethanol production used as a denitrification carbon source were predicted by analyzing response surface methodology (RSM). PMID:26465305

  1. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3 or C2H3O2Na·3H2O, CAS Reg. No. 6131-90-4) is the sodium salt of acetic acid and occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues....

  2. Yeast tolerance to the ionic liquid 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate.

    PubMed

    Sitepu, Irnayuli R; Shi, Shuang; Simmons, Blake A; Singer, Steven W; Boundy-Mills, Kyria; Simmons, Christopher W

    2014-12-01

    Lignocellulosic plant biomass is the target feedstock for production of second-generation biofuels. Ionic liquid (IL) pretreatment can enhance deconstruction of lignocellulosic biomass into sugars that can be fermented to ethanol. Although biomass is typically washed following IL pretreatment, small quantities of residual IL can inhibit fermentative microorganisms downstream, such as the widely used ethanologenic yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The aim of this study was to identify yeasts tolerant to the IL 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, one of the top performing ILs known for biomass pretreatment. One hundred and sixty eight strains spanning the Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla were selected for screening, with emphasis on yeasts within or closely related to the Saccharomyces genus and those tolerant to saline environments. Based on growth in media containing 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate, tolerance to IL levels ranging 1-5% was observed for 80 strains. The effect of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate concentration on maximum cell density and growth rate was quantified to rank tolerance. The most tolerant yeasts included strains from the genera Clavispora, Debaryomyces, Galactomyces, Hyphopichia, Kazachstania, Meyerozyma, Naumovozyma, Wickerhamomyces, Yarrowia, and Zygoascus. These yeasts included species known to degrade plant cell wall polysaccharides and those capable of ethanol fermentation. These yeasts warrant further investigation for use in saccharification and fermentation of IL-pretreated lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol or other products. PMID:25348480

  3. Kinetics of the Methanogenic Fermentation of Acetate

    PubMed Central

    Fukuzaki, Satoshi; Nishio, Naomichi; Nagai, Shiro

    1990-01-01

    Inhibition of the fermentation of acetate to methane and carbon dioxide by acetate was analyzed with an acetate-acclimatized sludge and with Methanosarcina barkeri Fusaro under mesophilic conditions. A second-order substrate inhibition model, qch4 = qmS/[Ks + S + (S2/Ki)], where S was the concentration of undissociated acetic acid, not ionized acetic acid, could be applicable in both cases. The analysis resulted in substrate saturation constants, Ks, of 4.0 μM for the acclimatized sludge and 104 μM for M. barkeri. The threshold concentrations of undissociated acetic acid when no further acetate utilization was observed were 0.078 μM (pH 7.50) for the acclimatized sludge and 4.43 μM (pH 7.45) for M. barkeri. These kinetic results suggested that the concentration of undissociated acetic acid became a key factor governing the actual threshold acetate concentration for acetate utilization and that the acclimatized sludge in which Methanothrix spp. appeared dominant could utilize acetate better and survive at a lower concentration of undissociated acetic acid than could M. barkeri. Images PMID:16348323

  4. 21 CFR 522.2476 - Trenbolone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... days. (A) 140 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each pellet containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate) per implant dose. (B) 140 mg trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting... 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (ii) Indications for use. For improved feed...

  5. 21 CFR 522.2476 - Trenbolone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... days. (A) 140 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each pellet containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate) per implant dose. (B) 140 mg trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting... 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (ii) Indications for use. For improved feed...

  6. 21 CFR 522.2476 - Trenbolone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... days. (A) 140 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each pellet containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate) per implant dose. (B) 140 mg trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting... 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (ii) Indications for use. For improved feed...

  7. 21 CFR 522.2476 - Trenbolone acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... days. (A) 140 milligrams (mg) trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting of 7 pellets, each pellet containing 20 mg trenbolone acetate) per implant dose. (B) 140 mg trenbolone acetate (one implant consisting... 29 mg tylosin tartrate) per implant dose. (ii) Indications for use. For improved feed...

  8. 21 CFR 582.6185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium acetate. 582.6185 Section 582.6185 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Calcium acetate. (a) Product. Calcium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  9. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It...

  11. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  12. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acetic acid. 582.1005 Section 582.1005 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1005 Acetic acid. (a) Product. Acetic acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  18. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  19. 21 CFR 582.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 582.1721 Section 582.1721 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Product. Sodium acetate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is...

  20. Acet-oxy-γ-valerolactone.

    PubMed

    Tristram, Cameron; Gainsford, Graeme J; Hinkley, Simon

    2013-06-01

    Levulinyl cellulose esters have been produced as an effective renewable binder for architectural coatings. The title compound, C7H10O4 (systematic name: 2-methyl-5-oxo-tetra-hydro-furan-2-yl acetate), assigned as the esterifying species, was isolated and crystallized to confirm the structure. In the crystal, the mol-ecules pack in layers parallel to (102) utilizing weak C-H⋯O inter-actions. PMID:23795112

  1. Effect of Yeast Extract and Vitamin B(12) on Ethanol Production from Cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B.

    PubMed

    Sato, K; Goto, S; Yonemura, S; Sekine, K; Okuma, E; Takagi, Y; Hon-Nami, K; Saiki, T

    1992-02-01

    Addition to media of yeast extract, a vitamin mixture containing vitamin B(12), biotin, pyridoxamine, and p-aminobenzoic acid, or vitamin B(12) alone enhanced formation of ethanol but decreased lactate production in the fermentation of cellulose by Clostridium thermocellum I-1-B. A similar effect was not observed with C. thermocellum ATCC 27405 and JW20. PMID:16348657

  2. Ethanol and volatile fatty acid production from lignocellulse by Clostridium cellulolyticum

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rice straw and grape pomace are two lignocellulosic substrates that are common in California. Clostridium cellulolyticum is capable of producing glycosyl hydrolase enzymes as well as fermentation products including ethanol and acetate. In this study, the potential of using C. cellulolyticum for etha...

  3. Minocycline reduces ethanol drinking.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, R G; Hewetson, A; George, C M; Syapin, P J; Bergeson, S E

    2011-06-01

    Alcoholism is a disease characterized by continued alcohol consumption despite recurring negative consequences. Thus, medications that reduce the drive to consume alcohol can be beneficial in treating alcoholism. The neurobiological systems that regulate alcohol consumption are complex and not fully understood. Currently, medications are available to treat alcoholism that act either by causing accumulation of a toxic metabolite of ethanol, or by targeting specific transmitter receptors. The purpose of our study was to investigate a new potential therapeutic pathway, neuroimmune interactions, for effects on ethanol consumption. We hypothesized that neuroimmune activity of brain glia may have a role in drinking. We utilized minocycline, a second generation tetracycline antibiotic that has immune modulatory actions, to test our hypothesis because it is known to suppress microglia, and to a lesser extent astroglia, activity following many types of insults to the brain. Treatment with 50mg/kg minocycline significantly reduced ethanol intake in male and female C57Bl/6J mice using a free choice voluntary drinking model. Saline injections did not alter ethanol intake. Minocycline had little effect on water intake or body weight change. The underlying mechanism whereby minocycline reduced ethanol intake requires further study. The results suggest that drugs that alter neuroimmune pathways may represent a new approach to developing additional therapies to treat alcoholism. PMID:21397005

  4. Safety of dermatologic medications in pregnancy and lactation: Part II. Lactation.

    PubMed

    Butler, Daniel C; Heller, Misha M; Murase, Jenny E

    2014-03-01

    Dermatologists are frequently faced with questions from women who are breastfeeding about the safety of commonly prescribed topical and systemic medications during lactation. Safety data in lactation, particularly regarding medications that are unique to dermatology, are limited and can be difficult to locate. We have consolidated the available safety data in a single reference guide for clinicians. We review literature pertaining to the safety of common dermatologic therapies in lactation and offer recommendations based on the available evidence. PMID:24528912

  5. Zinc Insufficiency Mediates Ethanol-Induced Alveolar Macrophage Dysfunction in the Pregnant Female Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Konomi, Juna V.; Harris, Frank L.; Ping, Xiao-Du; Gauthier, Theresa W.; Brown, Lou Ann S.

    2015-01-01

    Aims: (a) Establish the minimum number of weeks of chronic ethanol ingestion needed to perturb zinc homeostasis, (b) Examine intracellular zinc status in the alveolar macrophages (AMs) when ethanol ingestion is combined with pregnancy, (c) Investigate whether in vitro zinc treatment reverses the effects of ethanol ingestion on the AM. Methods: C57BL/6 female mice were fed a liquid diet (±25% ethanol-derived calories) during preconception and pregnancy. The control group was pair-fed to the ethanol group. In the isolated AMs, we measured intracellular AM zinc levels, zinc transporter expression, alternative activation and phagocytic index. Zinc acetate was added to some cells prior to analysis. Results: Intracellular zinc levels in the AM decreased within 3 weeks of ethanol ingestion. After ethanol ingestion prior to and during pregnancy, zinc transporter expression and intracellular zinc levels were decreased in the AMs when compared with controls. Bacterial clearance was decreased because the AMs were alternatively activated. In vitro additions of zinc reversed these effects of ethanol. Conclusion: Ethanol ingestion prior to and during pregnancy perturbed AM zinc balance resulting in impaired bacterial clearance, but these effects were ameliorated by in vitro zinc treatments. PMID:25371044

  6. Microbial physiology-based model of ethanol metabolism in subsurface sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Qusheng; Roden, Eric E.

    2011-07-01

    A biogeochemical reaction model was developed based on microbial physiology to simulate ethanol metabolism and its influence on the chemistry of anoxic subsurface environments. The model accounts for potential microbial metabolisms that degrade ethanol, including those that oxidize ethanol directly or syntrophically by reducing different electron acceptors. Out of the potential metabolisms, those that are active in the environment can be inferred by fitting the model to experimental observations. This approach was applied to a batch sediment slurry experiment that examined ethanol metabolism in uranium-contaminated aquifer sediments from Area 2 at the U.S. Department of Energy Field Research Center in Oak Ridge, TN. According to the simulation results, complete ethanol oxidation by denitrification, incomplete ethanol oxidation by ferric iron reduction, ethanol fermentation to acetate and H 2, hydrogenotrophic sulfate reduction, and acetoclastic methanogenesis: all contributed significantly to the degradation of ethanol in the aquifer sediments. The assemblage of the active metabolisms provides a frame work to explore how ethanol amendment impacts the chemistry of the environment, including the occurrence and levels of uranium. The results can also be applied to explore how diverse microbial metabolisms impact the progress and efficacy of bioremediation strategies.

  7. Regulated and unregulated emissions from an internal combustion engine operating on ethanol-containing fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulopoulos, S. G.; Samaras, D. P.; Philippopoulos, C. J.

    In the present work, the effect of ethanol addition to gasoline on regulated and unregulated emissions is studied. A 4-cylinder OPEL 1.6 L internal combustion engine equipped with a hydraulic brake dynamometer was used in all the experiments. For exhaust emissions treatment a typical three-way catalyst was used. Among the various compounds detected in exhaust emissions, the following ones were monitored at engine and catalyst outlet: methane, hexane, ethylene, acetaldehyde, acetone, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, acetic acid and ethanol. Addition of ethanol in the fuel up to 10% w/w had as a result an increase in the Reid vapour pressure of the fuel, which indicates indirectly increased evaporative emissions, while carbon monoxide tailpipe emissions were decreased. For ethanol-containing fuels, acetaldehyde emissions were appreciably increased (up to 100%), especially for fuel containing 3% w/w ethanol. In contrast, aromatics emissions were decreased by ethanol addition to gasoline. Methane and ethanol were the most resistant compounds to oxidation while ethylene was the most degradable compound over the catalyst. Ethylene, methane and acetaldehyde were the main compounds present at engine exhaust while methane, acetaldehyde and ethanol were the main compounds in tailpipe emissions for ethanol fuels after the catalyst operation.

  8. Ethanol induces calcium influx via the Cch1-Mid1 transporter in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Courchesne, William E; Vlasek, Christopher; Klukovich, Rachel; Coffee, Sara

    2011-05-01

    Yeast suffers from a variety of environmental stresses, such as osmotic pressure and ethanol produced during fermentation. Since calcium ions are protective for high concentrations of ethanol, we investigated whether Ca(2+) flux occurs in response to ethanol stress. We find that exposure of yeast to ethanol induces a rise in the cytoplasmic concentration of Ca(2+). The response is enhanced in cells shifted to high-osmotic media containing proline, galactose, sorbitol, or mannitol. Suspension of cells in proline and galactose-containing media increases the Ca(2+) levels in the cytoplasm independent of ethanol exposure. The enhanced ability for ethanol to induce Ca(2+) flux after the hypertonic shift is transient, decreasing rapidly over a period of seconds to minutes. There is partial recovery of the response after zymolyase treatment, suggesting that cell wall integrity affects the ethanol-induced Ca(2+) flux. Acetate inhibits the Ca(2+) accumulation elicited by the ethanol/osmotic stress. The Ca(2+) flux is primarily via the Cch1 Ca(2+) influx channel because strains carrying deletions of the cch1 and mid1 genes show greater than 90% reduction in Ca(2+) flux. Furthermore, a functional Cch1 channel reduced growth inhibition by ethanol. PMID:21259000

  9. Genetics Home Reference: lactate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... dehydrogenase-B pieces (subunits) of the lactate dehydrogenase enzyme. This enzyme is found throughout the body and is important ... cells. There are five different forms of this enzyme, each made up of four protein subunits. Various ...

  10. Phyllodes Tumor in a Lactating Breast

    PubMed Central

    Murthy, Sudha S.; Raju, K. V. V. N.; Nair, Haripreetha G.

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumor is attributed to a small fraction of primary tumors of the breast. Such tumors occur rarely in pregnancy and lactation. We report a case of a 25-year-old lactating mother presenting with a lump in the left breast. Core needle biopsy was opined as phyllodes tumor with lactational changes, and subsequent wide local excision confirmed the diagnosis of benign phyllodes tumor with lactational changes. The characteristic gross and microscopic findings of a well-circumscribed lesion with leaf-like fibroepithelial growth pattern and typical nonuniform or diffuse stromal proliferation with periductal accentuation even in the absence of mitotic figures can help clinch the diagnosis. Benign phyllodes is known for its recurrence and requires wide excision and close follow-up. It is vital to identify these lesions even on limited biopsies as therapeutic options differ. This case is presented for its rarity and the diagnostic challenge it poses in limited biopsy. PMID:27081326

  11. Phyllodes Tumor in a Lactating Breast.

    PubMed

    Murthy, Sudha S; Raju, K V V N; Nair, Haripreetha G

    2016-01-01

    Phyllodes tumor is attributed to a small fraction of primary tumors of the breast. Such tumors occur rarely in pregnancy and lactation. We report a case of a 25-year-old lactating mother presenting with a lump in the left breast. Core needle biopsy was opined as phyllodes tumor with lactational changes, and subsequent wide local excision confirmed the diagnosis of benign phyllodes tumor with lactational changes. The characteristic gross and microscopic findings of a well-circumscribed lesion with leaf-like fibroepithelial growth pattern and typical nonuniform or diffuse stromal proliferation with periductal accentuation even in the absence of mitotic figures can help clinch the diagnosis. Benign phyllodes is known for its recurrence and requires wide excision and close follow-up. It is vital to identify these lesions even on limited biopsies as therapeutic options differ. This case is presented for its rarity and the diagnostic challenge it poses in limited biopsy. PMID:27081326

  12. Regulation of bone mineral loss during lactation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brommage, R.; Deluca, H. F.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of varyng dietary calcium and phosphorous levels, vitamin D deficiency, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pregnancy on bone mineral loss during lactation in rats are studied. The experimental procedures and evaluations are described. The femur ash weight of lactating and nonlactating rats are calculated. The data reveals that a decrease in dietary calcium of 0.02 percent results in an increased loss of bone mineral, an increase in calcium to 1.4 percent does not lessen bone mineral loss, and bone mineral loss in vitamin D deficient rats is independent of calcium levels. It is observed that changes in dietary phosphorous level, oophorectomy, adrenalectomy, and simultaneous pragnancy do not reduce bone mineral loss during lactation. The analysis of various hormones to determine the mechanism that triggers bone mineral loss during lactation is presented.

  13. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... lactic acid with iron filings, reaction of ferrous chloride with sodium lactate, or reaction of ferrous...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave....

  14. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... lactic acid with iron filings, reaction of ferrous chloride with sodium lactate, or reaction of ferrous...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave....

  15. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... lactic acid with iron filings, reaction of ferrous chloride with sodium lactate, or reaction of ferrous...) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are available from the National Academy Press, 2101 Constitution Ave....

  16. Efficiency of Energy Utilization by Lactating Alpine Goats

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thirty-six lactating Alpine does (50.5 ± 1.2 kg BW) were used to determine the effect of stage of lactation on energy utilization. Twelve does were assigned for measurement periods in early, mid-, and late lactation (28-35, 91-98, and 189 to 196 d of lactation). For six does of each group, after m...

  17. Propionate stimulates pyruvate oxidation in the presence of acetate

    PubMed Central

    Purmal, Colin; Kucejova, Blanka; Sherry, A. Dean; Burgess, Shawn C.; Malloy, Craig. R.

    2014-01-01

    Flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in the heart may be reduced by various forms of injury to the myocardium, or by oxidation of alternative substrates in normal heart tissue. It is important to distinguish these two mechanisms because imaging of flux through PDH based on the appearance of hyperpolarized (HP) [13C]bicarbonate derived from HP [1-13C]pyruvate has been proposed as a method for identifying viable myocardium. The efficacy of propionate for increasing PDH flux in the setting of PDH inhibition by an alternative substrate was studied using isotopomer analysis paired with exams using HP [1-13C]pyruvate. Hearts from C57/bl6 mice were supplied with acetate (2 mM) and glucose (8.25 mM). 13C NMR spectra were acquired in a cryogenically cooled probe at 14.1 Tesla. After addition of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate, 13C NMR signals from lactate, alanine, malate, and aspartate were easily detected, in addition to small signals from bicarbonate and CO2. The addition of propionate (2 mM) increased appearance of HP [13C]bicarbonate >30-fold without change in O2 consumption. Isotopomer analysis of extracts from the freeze-clamped hearts indicated that acetate was the preferred substrate for energy production, glucose contribution to energy production was minimal, and anaplerosis was stimulated in the presence of propionate. Under conditions where production of acetyl-CoA is dominated by the availability of an alternative substrate, acetate, propionate markedly stimulated PDH flux as detected by the appearance of hyperpolarized [13C]bicarbonate from metabolism of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate. PMID:25320331

  18. Feulgen staining of mammalian tissues fixed in picro-formol-acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Dutt, M K

    1975-01-01

    The paper describes a highly satisfactory method for in situ localization of DNA in tissues fixed in picro-formol-acetic acid or picro-formol-acetic-chromic acid mixtures following a technique in the Feulgen procedure as devised by the author. Mammalian tissues fixed in these fixatives can be hydrolysed in 6N HCl at 35 degrees C for 10 min, rinsed in water, stained with Schiff reagent after exposing the sections under UV light for 10 min, washed in water, dehydrated through a graduated series of ethanol, cleared in xylol and mounted in DPX. Sections of tissues fixed in picro-formol-acetic-chromic acid mixtures after acid hydrolysis when stained with an aqueous solution of basic fuchsin are also found to be very satisfactory for in situ localization of DNA. PMID:55054

  19. Oleanolic acid ethanol monosolvate

    PubMed Central

    Froelich, Anna; Gzella, Andrzej K.

    2010-01-01

    Crystals of the title compound (systematic name: 3β-hy­droxy­olean-12-en-28-oic acid ethanol monosolvate), C30H48O3·C2H5OH, were obtained from unsuccessful co-crystallization trials. The asymmetric unit contains two symmetry-independent oleanolic acid mol­ecules, as well as two ethanol solvent mol­ecules. Inter­molecular O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds stabilize the crystal packing. In the oleanolic acid mol­ecules, ring C has a slightly distorted envelope conformation, while rings A, B, D and E adopt chair conformations and rings D and E are cis-fused. Both independent ethanol mol­ecules are orientationally disordered [occupancy ratios of 0.742 (8):0.258 (8) and 0.632 (12):0.368 (12). PMID:21588987

  20. Lactation: historical patterns and potential for manipulation.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, D G

    1993-10-01

    The advent of biotechnology has made data on undomesticated mammals relevant to dairy science. Such data indicate the potential of lactation for modification, reveal genetic material available for use through bioengineering, help distinguish adaptive features from historical artifacts, and clarify limits on lactational diversity that date from early evolution. Evolutionary analysis indicates that a complex degree of lactation preceded divergence of the extant mammalian lineages during the Mesozoic Era. Although aspects of monotreme lactation appear to be ancestral for extant mammals, the marsupials and eutherians exhibit divergent specializations. Evidence is consistent with the idea that protolacteal glands evolved by combining features of skin gland populations into a new functional complex. Secretions of these ancestral glands may have had antimicrobial properties that protected the eggs or hatchlings and organic components that supplemented offspring nutrition. Following development of highly nutritious milks, evolution produced diversity in milk composition and function, milk output, length of lactation, mammary gland anatomy, and contributions of lactation to offspring nutrition. Certain marsupials are specialized in terms of functional independence and temporal plasticity of mammary tissues. Mammalian diversity indicates that artificial selection and physiological manipulation of domestic artiodactyls has only modestly exploited the potential of mammary glands as a nutritional source for humans. PMID:8227641

  1. Clinical use of lactate monitoring in critically ill patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Increased blood lactate levels (hyperlactataemia) are common in critically ill patients. Although frequently used to diagnose inadequate tissue oxygenation, other processes not related to tissue oxygenation may increase lactate levels. Especially in critically ill patients, increased glycolysis may be an important cause of hyperlactataemia. Nevertheless, the presence of increased lactate levels has important implications for the morbidity and mortality of the hyperlactataemic patients. Although the term lactic acidosis is frequently used, a significant relationship between lactate and pH only exists at higher lactate levels. The term lactate associated acidosis is therefore more appropriate. Two recent studies have underscored the importance of monitoring lactate levels and adjust treatment to the change in lactate levels in early resuscitation. As lactate levels can be measured rapidly at the bedside from various sources, structured lactate measurements should be incorporated in resuscitation protocols. PMID:23663301

  2. Lactivibrio alcoholicus gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, mesophilic, lactate-, alcohol-, carbohydrate- and amino-acid-degrading bacterium in the phylum Synergistetes.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yan-Ling; Hanada, Satoshi; Kamagata, Yoichi; Guo, Rong-Bo; Sekiguchi, Yuji

    2014-06-01

    A mesophilic, obligately anaerobic, lactate-, alcohol-, carbohydrate- and amino-acid- degrading bacterium, designated strain 7WAY-8-7(T), was isolated from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating high-strength organic wastewater from isomerized sugar production processes. Cells of strain 7WAY-8-7(T) were motile, curved rods (0.7-1.0×5.0-8.0 µm). Spore formation was not observed. The strain grew optimally at 37 °C (range for growth was 25-40 °C) and pH 7.0 (pH 6.0-7.5), and could grow fermentatively on yeast extract, glucose, ribose, xylose, malate, tryptone, pyruvate, fumarate, Casamino acids, serine and cysteine. The main end-products of glucose fermentation were acetate and hydrogen. In co-culture with the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanospirillum hungatei DSM 864(T), strain 7WAY-8-7(T) could utilize lactate, glycerol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, L-glutamate, alanine, leucine, isoleucine, valine, histidine, asparagine, glutamine, arginine, lysine, threonine, 2-oxoglutarate, aspartate and methionine. A Stickland reaction was not observed with some pairs of amino acids. Yeast extract was required for growth. Nitrate, sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite and Fe (III) were not used as terminal electron acceptors. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 61.4 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the isolate belongs to the uncultured environmental clone clade (called 'PD-UASB-13' in the Greengenes database) in the bacterial phylum Synergistetes, showing less than 90% sequence similarity with closely related described species such as Aminivibrio pyruvatiphilus and Aminobacterium colombiense (89.7% and 88.7%, respectively). The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(13 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0), C(18 : 1), C(19 : 1), C(20 : 1) and C(21 : 1). A novel genus and species, Lactivibrio alcoholicus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate strain 7WAY-8-7(T) ( = JCM 17151(T

  3. Ethanol from sweet sorghum

    SciTech Connect

    Polack, J.A.; Day, D,F.

    1980-08-01

    Sweet sorghum has long been of interest to sugar farmers and sugar processors. The thought has been that one could plant the sweet sorghum on fallow land and harvest it and process it in September, before the start of the regular sugar cane griding season. Several disadvantages have prevented its use in sugar production, but these seem much less of a problem if ethanol is to be produced. The DOE has targeted sweet sorghum as a prime crop for ethanol production, and the planting of 14 million new acres in sweet sorghum is the underlying assumption in a DOE plant to produce 11 billion gallons of alcohol fuel by the year 2000.

  4. Ethanol Impacts on BTEX Plumes

    EPA Science Inventory

    The impacts of ethanol on benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes (BTEX) are beginning to become established through laboratory, modeling and field research. Usage of ethanol, which increased due to federal mandates, drives interest and potential impacts on BTEX. Through co...

  5. Ethanol photo-oxidation on a rutile TiO2(110) single crystal surface.

    PubMed

    Nadeem, A M; Muir, J M R; Connelly, K A; Adamson, B T; Metson, B J; Idriss, H

    2011-05-01

    The reaction of ethanol has been studied on the surface of rutile TiO(2)(110) by Temperature Programmed Desorption (TPD), online mass spectrometry under UV excitation and photoelectron spectroscopy while the adsorption energies of the molecular and dissociative modes of ethanol were computed using the DFT/GGA method. The most stable configuration is the dissociative adsorption in line with experimental results at room temperature. At 0.5 ML coverage the adsorption energy was found equal to 80 kJ mol(-1) for the dissociative mode (ethoxide, CH(3)CH(2)O(a) + H(a)) followed by the molecular mode (67 kJ mol(-1)). The orientation of the ethoxides along the [001] or [110] direction had minor effect on the adsorption energy although affected differently the Ti and O surface atomic positions. TPD after ethanol adsorption at 300 K indicated two main reactions: dehydration to ethylene and dehydrogenation to acetaldehyde. Pre-dosing the surface with ethanol at 300 K followed by exposure to UV resulted in the formation of acetaldehyde and hydrogen. The amount of acetaldehyde could be directly linked to the presence of gas phase O(2) in the vacuum chamber. The order of this photo-catalytic reaction with respect to O(2) was found to be 0.5. Part of acetaldehyde further reacted with O(2) under UV excitation to give surface acetate species. Because the rate of photo-oxidation of acetates (acetic acid) was slower than that of ethoxides (ethanol), the surface ended up by being covered with large amounts of acetates. A reaction mechanism for acetaldehyde, hydrogen and acetate formation under UV excitation is proposed. PMID:21225073

  6. Biotreatment of Cr(VI) contaminated waters by sulphate reducing bacteria fed with ethanol.

    PubMed

    Pagnanelli, F; Viggi, C Cruz; Cibati, A; Uccelletti, D; Toro, L; Palleschi, C

    2012-01-15

    Biological treatment of Cr(VI) contaminated waters was performed in fixed bed reactors inoculated with SRB (sulphate-reducing bacteria) growing on ethanol. Treatment efficiency was evaluated by checking chemical abatement of Cr(VI) and by ecotoxicological tests using the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. A preliminary comparison between ethanol and lactate was performed, denoting that using ethanol, the same values of final sulphate abatement were obtained. In addition ethanol showed to be a substrate more competitive than lactate in kinetic terms. Fixed bed column reactors were continuously fed with a solution containing sulphates (3 g L(-1)), ethanol (1.5 g L(-1)) and Cr(VI) (50 mg L(-1)). At steady state the column inoculated with SRB removed 65 ± 5% of sulphate and 95 ± 5% of chromium. Bioactive removal mechanisms predominated over biosorption. Diminution of Cr(VI) toxicity was assessed by using the nematode C. elegans as a test organism showing that the survival of nematodes was 20% in the presence of the untreated influent and raised up to 53% when the nematodes were exposed to the treated effluent. PMID:22104763

  7. Production, transport, and metabolism of ethanol in eastern cottonwood

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, R.C.

    1991-01-01

    In plant tissues, the production of acetaldehyde and ethanol are usually thought to occur as a mechanism to allow tolerance of hypoxic conditions. Acetaldehyde and ethanol were found to be common in vascular cambium and the transpiration stream of trees. Ethanol concentrations in the vascular cambium of Populus deltoides were not changed by placing logs from nonflooded trees in a pure oxygen environment for as long as 96 h, but increased by almost 3 orders of magnitude when exposed to low external pO[sub 2]s. Ethanol is present in the xylem sap of flooded and nonflooded trees. Because of the constitutive presence of alcohol dehydrogenase in the mature leaves of woody plants, it was hypothesized that the leaves and shoots of trees had the ability to metabolize ethanol supplied by the transpiration stream. 1-[[sup 14]C]ethanol was supplied to excised leaves and shoots of Populus deltoides Bartr. in short- and long-term experiments. Greater than 99% of the radiolabel was incorporated into plant tissue in short-term experiments, with more than 95% of the label remaining in plant tissue after 24 h. Very little label reached the leaf mesophyll cells of excised shoots, as revealed by autoradiography. Radiolabel appeared primarily in the water- and chloroform-soluble fractions in short-term experiments, while in long-term experiments, label was also incorporated into protein. When labelled ethanol was supplied to excised petioles in a 5 min pulse, 41% of the label was incorporated into organic acids. Some label was also incorporated into amino acids, protein, and the chloroform-soluble fraction, with very little appearing in neutral sugars, starch, or the insoluble pellet. Labelled organic acids were separated by HPLC, and were comprised of acetate, isocitrate, [alpha]-ketoglutarate, and succinate. There was no apparent incorporation of label into phosphorylated compounds.

  8. Microbial Community Dynamics of Lactate Enriched Hanford Groundwaters

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, Jennifer J.; Drake, Meghan M.; Carroll, Susan L.; Yang, Zamin K.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Brown, Stephen D.; Podar, Mircea; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2010-05-01

    The Department of Energy site at Hanford, WA, has been historically impacted by U and Cr from the nuclear weapons industry. In an attempt to stimulate microbial remediation of these metals, in-situ lactate enrichment experiments are ongoing. In order to bridge the gap from the laboratory to the field, we inoculated triplicate anaerobic, continuous-flow glass reactors with groundwater collected from well Hanford 100-H in order to obtain a stable, enriched community while selecting for metal-reducing bacteria. Each reactor was fed from a single carboy containing defined media with 30 mM lactate at a rate of 0.223 ml/min under continuous nitrogen flow at 9 ml/min. Cell counts, organic acids, gDNA (for qPCR and pyrosequencing) and gases were sampled during the experiment. Cell counts remained low (less than 1x107 cells/ml) during the first two weeks of the experiment, but by day 20, had reached a density greater than 1x108 cells/ml. Metabolite analysis showed a decrease in the lactate concentrations over time. Pyruvate concentrations ranged from 20-40 uM the first week of the experiment then was undetectable after day 10. Likewise, formate appeared in the reactors during the first week with concentrations of 1.48-1.65 mM at day 7 then the concentrations decreased to 0.69-0.95 on day 10 and were undetectable on day 15. Acetate was present in low amounts on day 3 (0.15-0.33 mM) and steadily increased to 3.35-5.22 mM over time. Similarly, carbon dioxide was present in low concentrations early on and increased to 0.28-0.35 mM as the experiment progressed. We also were able to detect low amounts of methane (10-20 uM) during the first week of the experiment, but by day 10 the methane was undetectable. From these results and pyrosequencing analysis, we conclude that a shift in the microbial community dynamics occurred over time to eventually form a stable and enriched microbial community. Comprehensive investigations such as these allow for the examination of not only which

  9. Synthesis and characterization of cyclic acetal based degradable hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Kaihara, Sachiko; Matsumura, Shuichi; Fisher, John P

    2008-01-01

    While many synthetic, hydrolytically degradable hydrogels have been developed for biomedical applications, there are only a few examples whose polymer backbone does not form acidic products upon degradation. In order to address this concern, we proposed to develop a hydrogel based on a cyclic acetal unit that produces diols and propanals upon hydrolytic degradation. In particular, we proposed the fabrication of hydrogels formed by the free radical polymerization of two diacrylate monomers, 5-ethyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-beta,beta-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-2-ethanol diacrylate (EHD), a cyclic acetal having two acryl groups, and poly(ethylene glycol)diacrylate (PEGDA). However, the hydrophobicity of the EHD monomer inhibits hydrogel fabrication. Therefore this work develops a strategy to form hydrogels with a co-monomer system, one of which is hydrophobic, and subsequently describes the properties of the resulting hydrogel. Using benzoyl peroxide as an initiator and N,N-dimethyl-p-toluidine as an accelerator, the EHD and PEGDA monomers were reacted in an acetone/water co-solvent system. The chemical structure of the resulting EH-PEG [5-ethyl-5-(hydroxymethyl)-beta,beta-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane-2-ethanol-co-PEG] hydrogel was then characterized by FT-IR. Physicochemical properties of the EH-PEG hydrogel, including swelling degree, sol fraction, and contact angle, were determined so as to characterize the properties of these materials and ultimately investigate their use in drug delivery and tissue engineering applications. Results showed that EH-PEG hydrogel may be formed using the co-solvent system. Further results indicated that swelling degree is dependent upon initiator concentration, monomer concentration, and molar ratios of monomers, while sol fraction significantly depended on initiator concentration and monomer concentration, only. These results demonstrate the ability to fabricate hydrogels using EHD and PEGDA system as well as to control the properties of the resulting

  10. Ethanol Myths Fact Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-27

    Ethanol is a clean, renewable fuel that is helping to reduce our nation’s dependence on oil and can offer additional economic and environmental benefits in the future. This fact sheet is intended to address some common misconceptions about this important alternative fuel.

  11. In vitro anti oxidant activity and acute oral toxicity of Terminalia paniculata bark ethanolic extract on Sprague Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Mopuri, Ramgopal; Meriga, Balaji

    2014-01-01

    Objective To ensure the safety and evaluate the anti oxidant activity of Terminalia paniculata (T. paniculata) ethanolic extract in Sprague Dawley rats. Methods The solvent extracts (hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol) of T. paniculata were subjected to phytochemical analysis and their DPPH radical scavenging activity was assayed. The oral acute toxicity was evaluated using ethanolic extract of T. paniculata. Results Ethyl acetate and ethanolic extracts showed more phytochemicals, whereas highest DPPH scavenging activity was found in ethanolic extract. In an acute toxicity study, T. paniculata ethanolic extract was orally administered (1 000 mg/kg body weight) to rats and observed for 72 h for any toxic symptoms and the dose was continued up to 14 d. On the 15th day rats were sacrificed and blood samples were collected from control and test animals and analyzed for some biochemical parameters. We did not observe any behavioral changes in test groups in comparison with their controls. Also, there were no significant alterations in biochemical, hematological (hemoglobin content and blood cells count) and liver function parameters such as serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, total proteins, albumin and bilirubin levels between T. paniculata ethanolic extract treated and normal control groups. Conclusions Together our results demonstrated that T. paniculata ethanolic possessed potent antioxidant activity and it was safer and non toxic to rats even at higher doses and therefore could be well considered for further investigation for its medicinal and therapeutic efficacy. PMID:25182554

  12. The effect of ethanol on cell properties and steroid 1-en-dehydrogenation biotransformation of Arthrobacter simplex.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jianmei; Ning, Jing; Wang, Yanxia; Cheng, Yongxin; Zheng, Yu; Shen, Yanbing; Wang, Min

    2014-01-01

    Resting cells of Arthrobacter simplex with 1-en-dehydrogenation ability were prepared and treated by ethanol at subinhibitory concentrations (4%-15%, v/v), then added into the ethanol-free system containing low concentration of cortisone acetate (1 g L(-1)) to produce prednisone acetate by C1,2 dehydrogenation reaction. Results showed that, within the range of ethanol concentration, the initial conversion rate was varied significantly with the concentration of ethanol and the maximum was obtained at 8% (v/v) ethanol, which was increased by 32.6% compared with the control. A series of cell features closely relevant to biotransformation efficiency were further analyzed. It indicated that ethanol acting on cell wall and membrane could be used as a mediator to enhance cell permeability, which facilitated the penetration of substrate across cell barrier within a short time, resulting in the elevated initial conversation rate. The observation of fatty acids composition suggested that the increased unsaturated fatty acids, especially cis-isomers, in the presence of ethanol led to the disorganization of the native arrangement of lipids and thus increased cell permeability. Our findings demonstrated that another facilitation of ethanol was to promote substrate transport into cells by permeabilization, which would provide the guidance in the practical application of organic solvents in steroid biotransformation. PMID:24919522

  13. Glycolysis and the significance of lactate in traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Keri L. H.; Jalloh, Ibrahim; Hutchinson, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    In traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients, elevation of the brain extracellular lactate concentration and the lactate/pyruvate ratio are well-recognized, and are associated statistically with unfavorable clinical outcome. Brain extracellular lactate was conventionally regarded as a waste product of glucose, when glucose is metabolized via glycolysis (Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway) to pyruvate, followed by conversion to lactate by the action of lactate dehydrogenase, and export of lactate into the extracellular fluid. In TBI, glycolytic lactate is ascribed to hypoxia or mitochondrial dysfunction, although the precise nature of the latter is incompletely understood. Seemingly in contrast to lactate's association with unfavorable outcome is a growing body of evidence that lactate can be beneficial. The idea that the brain can utilize lactate by feeding into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle of neurons, first published two decades ago, has become known as the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis. Direct evidence of brain utilization of lactate was first obtained 5 years ago in a cerebral microdialysis study in TBI patients, where administration of 13C-labeled lactate via the microdialysis catheter and simultaneous collection of the emerging microdialysates, with 13C NMR analysis, revealed 13C labeling in glutamine consistent with lactate utilization via the TCA cycle. This suggests that where neurons are too damaged to utilize the lactate produced from glucose by astrocytes, i.e., uncoupling of neuronal and glial metabolism, high extracellular levels of lactate would accumulate, explaining the association between high lactate and poor outcome. Recently, an intravenous exogenous lactate supplementation study in TBI patients revealed evidence for a beneficial effect judged by surrogate endpoints. Here we review the current state of knowledge about glycolysis and lactate in TBI, how it can be measured in patients, and whether it can be modulated to achieve better

  14. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    SciTech Connect

    Jeff Dahlberg, Ph D; Ed Wolfrum, Ph D

    2010-06-30

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called "dedicated bioenergy crops" including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  15. Sorghum to Ethanol Research

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlberg, Jeff; Wolfrum, Ed

    2010-06-30

    The development of a robust source of renewable transportation fuel will require a large amount of biomass feedstocks. It is generally accepted that in addition to agricultural and forestry residues, we will need crops grown specifically for subsequent conversion into fuels. There has been a lot of research on several of these so-called dedicated bioenergy crops including switchgrass, miscanthus, sugarcane, and poplar. It is likely that all of these crops will end up playing a role as feedstocks, depending on local environmental and market conditions. Many different types of sorghum have been grown to produce syrup, grain, and animal feed for many years. It has several features that may make it as compelling as other crops mentioned above as a renewable, sustainable biomass feedstock; however, very little work has been done to investigate sorghum as a dedicated bioenergy crop. The goal of this project was to investigate the feasibility of using sorghum biomass to produce ethanol. The work performed included a detailed examination of the agronomics and composition of a large number of sorghum varieties, laboratory experiments to convert sorghum to ethanol, and economic and life-cycle analyses of the sorghum-to-ethanol process. This work showed that sorghum has a very wide range of composition, which depended on the specific sorghum cultivar as well as the growing conditions. The results of laboratory- and pilot-scale experiments indicated that a typical high-biomass sorghum variety performed very similarly to corn stover during the multi-step process required to convert biomass feedstocks to ethanol; yields of ethanol for sorghum were very similar to the corn stover used as a control in these experiments. Based on multi-year agronomic data and theoretical ethanol production, sorghum can achieve more than 1,300 gallons of ethanol per acre given the correct genetics and environment. In summary, sorghum may be a compelling dedicated bioenergy crop that could help

  16. Ethanol and other oxygenateds from low grade carbonaceous resources

    SciTech Connect

    Joo, O.S.; Jung, K.D.; Han, S.H.

    1995-12-31

    Anhydrous ethanol and other oxygenates of C2 up can be produced quite competitively from low grade carbonaceous resources in high yield via gasification, methanol synthesis, carbonylation of methanol an hydrogenation consecutively. Gas phase carbonylation of methanol to form methyl acetate is the key step for the whole process. Methyl acetate can be produced very selectively in one step gas phase reaction on a fixed bed column reactor with GHSV over 5,000. The consecutive hydrogenation of methyl or ethyl acetate produce anhydrous ethanol in high purity. It is also attempted to co-produce methanol and DME in IGCC, in which low grade carbonaceous resources are used as energy sources, and the surplus power and pre-power gas can be stored in liquid form of methanol and DME during base load time. Further integration of C2 up oxygenate production with IGCC can improve its economics. The attempt of above extensive technology integration can generate significant industrial profitability as well as reduce the environmental complication related with massive energy consumption.

  17. Ethanol and Volatile Fatty Acid Production from Lignocellulose by Clostridium cellulolyticum

    PubMed Central

    Williams, K.; Zheng, Y.; McGarvey, J.; Fan, Z.; Zhang, R.

    2013-01-01

    Clostridium cellulolyticum is capable of producing glycosyl hydrolase enzymes as well as fermentation products including ethanol and acetate. In this study, the potential of using C. cellulolyticum for ethanol and volatile fatty acid production from straw and grape pomace was examined. For rice straw, the effects of alkaline pretreatment and substrate sterilization prior to fermentation on products yields were also investigated. Effects of alkaline pretreatment and necessity for subsequent washing were tested for two types of grape pomace. For rice straw, the highest ethanol yield was 0.16 g/gVS from the straw pretreated with 10% sodium hydroxide loading at 121°C for 1 hour. Sterilization of the straw prior to fermentation was found to be not significant for ethanol production. Sterilization appeared to decrease native acetogen populations in the rice straw, resulting in lower acetic acid yields. The highest ethanol yield from grape pomace was of 0.09 g/gVS from the pretreated pomace. Pomace type (red or white) and washing were found to be not significant. Ethanol yields by C. cellulolyticum were lower than those from yeast in a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation system, but overall conversion of cellulose and hemicellulose was high, between 68 and 79%. PMID:25969767

  18. Voluntary exercise during pregnancy and lactation and its effect on lactational performance in mice.

    PubMed

    Karasawa, K; Suwa, J; Kimura, S

    1981-01-01

    The amount of voluntary exercise during pregnancy and lactation and its effect on the lactational performance in mice were investigated. Female mice were housed in exercise cages with treadwheels during periods of growth, pregnancy and lactation and the amounts of exercise were measured. It was observed that growing female mice exercised voluntarily at a level of approximately 5,000 rotations (diameter of treadwheel; 13.5 cm) per day during the 4-week growth period. After conception, the amount of exercise gradually decreased and in late pregnancy running activity decreased markedly. Throughout the lactational period dams exercised lightly. As indices of lactational performance, the body weights of pups nursed in litters of 8, milk yield and cellular development of abdominal-inguinal mammary glands were examined. There were no significant differences in the final body weights of pups, milk yield per day or development of mammary glands between exercise and non-exercise groups. PMID:7328442

  19. Biological production of ethanol from coal

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-05-01

    Research is continuing in attempting to increase both the ethanol concentration and product ratio (acetate to ethanol) from the C. ljungdahlii fermentation. Both batch and continuous reactors are being used for this purpose. The purpose of this report is four-fold. First, the data presented in PETC Report No. 2-4-91 (June--September, 1991) are analyzed and interpreted using normalized specific growth and production rates. This technique eliminates experimental variation due to differences in inoculum history. Secondly, the effects of the sulfur gases H{sub 2}S and COS on the performance of C. ljungdahlii are presented and discussed. Although these are preliminary results, they illustrate the tolerance of the bacterium to low levels of sulfur gases. Thirdly, the results of continuous stirred tank reactor studies are presented, where cell and product concentrations are shown as a function of agitation rate and gas flow rate. Finally, additional data are presented showing the performance of C. ljungdahlii in a CSTR with cell recycle.

  20. Mechanistic aspects of the ethanol steam reforming reaction for hydrogen production on Pt, Ni, and PtNi catalysts supported on gamma-Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Sanchez, Maria Cruz; Navarro Yerga, Rufino M; Kondarides, Dimitris I; Verykios, Xenophon E; Fierro, Jose Luis G

    2010-03-25

    Mechanistic aspects of ethanol steam reforming on Pt, Ni, and PtNi catalysts supported on gamma-Al(2)O(3) are investigated from the analysis of adsorbed species and gas phase products formed on catalysts during temperature-programmed desorption of ethanol and during ethanol steam reforming reaction. DRIFTS-MS analyses of ethanol decomposition and ethanol steam reforming reactions show that PtNi and Ni catalysts are more stable than the Pt monometallic counterpart. Ethanol TPD results on Ni, Pt, and NiPt catalysts point to ethanol dehydrogenation and acetaldehyde decomposition as the first reaction pathways of ethanol steam reforming over the studied catalysts. The active sites responsible for the acetaldehyde decomposition are easily deactivated in the first minutes on-stream by carbon deposits. For Ni and PtNi catalysts, a second reaction pathway, consisting in the decomposition of acetate intermediates formed over the surface of alumina support, becomes the main reaction pathway operating in steam reforming of ethanol once the acetaldehyde decomposition pathway is deactivated. Taking into account the differences observed in the mechanism of ethanol decomposition, the better stability observed for PtNi catalyst is proposed to be related with a cooperative effect between Pt and Ni activities together with the enhanced ability of Ni to gasify the methyl groups formed by decomposition of acetate species. On the contrary, monometallic catalysts are believed to dehydrogenate these methyl groups forming coke that leads to deactivation of metal particles. PMID:19824680

  1. Comparison of Field Groundwater Biostimulation Experiments Using Polylactate and Lactate Solutions at the Chromium-Contaminated Hanford 100-H Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hazen, T. C.; Faybishenko, B.; Beller, H. R.; Brodie, E. L.; Sonnenthal, E. L.; Steefel, C.; Larsen, J.; Conrad, M. E.; Bill, M.; Christensen, J. N.; Brown, S. T.; Joyner, D.; Borglin, S. E.; Geller, J. T.; Chakraborty, R.; Nico, P. S.; Long, P. E.; Newcomer, D. R.; Arntzen, E.

    2011-12-01

    of acetate and propionate, the evolution of 13C in bicarbonate, and the rate of sulfate reduction. In contrast to the slow-release HRC injections, no long-term effects of biostimulation and Cr bioreduction were observed in groundwater after the lactate injections. The presentation will address these patterns of the geochemical, δ13C of DIC, and biomass changes in groundwater before and after the polylactate and lactate injections.

  2. Unusal pattern of product inhibition: batch acetic acid fermentation

    SciTech Connect

    Bar, R.; Gainer, J.L.; Kirwan, D.J.

    1987-04-20

    The limited tolerance of microorganisms to their metabolic products results in inhibited growth and product formation. The relationship between the specific growth rate, micro, and the concentration of an inhibitory product has been described by a number of mathematical models. In most cases, micro was found to be inversely proportional to the product concentration and invariably the rate of substrate utilization followed the same pattern. In this communication, the authors report a rather unusual case in which the formation rate of a product, acetic acid, increased with a decreasing growth rate of the microorganism, Acetobacter aceti. Apparently, a similar behavior was mentioned in a review report with respect to Clostridium thermocellum in a batch culture but was not published in the freely circulating literature. The fermentation of ethanol to acetic acid, C/sub 2/H/sub 5/OH + O/sub 2/ = CH/sub 3/COOH + H/sub 2/O is clearly one of the oldest known fermentations. Because of its association with the commercial production of vinegar it has been a subject of extensive but rather technically oriented studies. Suprisingly, the uncommon uncoupling between the inhibited microbial growth and the product formation appears to have been unnoticed. 13 references.

  3. Direct-fed microbials containing lactate-producing bacteria influence ruminal fermentation but not lactate utilization in steers fed a high-concentrate diet.

    PubMed

    Kenney, N M; Vanzant, E S; Harmon, D L; McLeod, K R

    2015-05-01

    Direct-fed microbials (DFM) have been shown to improve gain and growth efficiency and also modulate ruminal fermentation. In Exp. 1,72 beef steers were used to compare a lactate-producing bacterial (LAB) DFM consisting primarily of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Enterococcus faecium,and a lactate-producing and lactate-utilizing (LAB/LU) DFM consisting primarily of L. acidophilus and Propionibacterium both fed at 10(9) cfu/d. Steers were fed a corn-based finishing diet for 153 d and then slaughtered for collection of carcass characteristics. In Exp. 2, 12 ruminally cannulated steers were fed acorn-based finishing diet and treated with 10(9) cfu/d of LAB DFM. Rumen fluid was sampled on d 14 and 28 over a 12-h period. Steers were ruminally dosed with a 2-L solution of neutralized DL-lactate (0.56 M)and Cr-EDTA (13.22 M) 3 h postfeeding on d 15 and 29. Ruminal samples were collected at 10- and 20-minintervals for the first and second hour postdosing. No differences (P ≥ 0.14) between control (CON) and LAB for DMI, ADG, growth efficiency, or carcass characteristics were observed. Dry matter intake was greater (P = 0.04) for LAB/LU than LAB from d 0 to 28 but did not differ (P ≥ 0.29) thereafter. Average daily gain was greater (P = 0.04) and efficiency tended(P = 0.06) to be greater for LAB than LAB/LU over the entire 153 d. In Exp. 2, total VFA concentration and molar proportions of butyrate were unaffected(P ≥ 0.24). Molar proportions of acetate exhibited a DFM by hour interaction (P = 0.04); however, on average, molar proportion of acetate was 4.4% greater for DFM. Conversely, DFM did not affect the molar proportion of propionate (P = 0.39). On average,molar proportions of propionate tended to increase(P = 0.07), and acetate tended to decrease (P = 0.07)across days. Mean daily ruminal pH was similar for CON on d 14 and 28, whereas mean pH increased from d 14 to 28 for DFM (DFM × day; P = 0.08).Minimum pH remained unchanged for CON over time but increased from d

  4. [Interference of ethylene glycol on lactate assays].

    PubMed

    Graïne, H; Toumi, K; Roullier, V; Capeau, J; Lefèvre, G

    2007-01-01

    Ethylene glycol is broken down to three main organic acids: glycolic acid, glyoxylic acid and oxalic acid which cause severe metabolic acidosis. Effect of these three acids on lactate assays was evaluated in five blood gas analysers and two clinical chemistry analysers. For all systems, no influence of oxalic acid on lactate results could be demonstrated. No interference of glycolic acid could be observed on lactate assay performed with Rapid Lab 1265 (R: 104,9 +/- 12,1%), Vitros 950 (R: 105,7 +/- 5,3 %) and Architect ci8200 (R: 104,9 +/- 4,7%), but on the contrary, CCX 4, OMNI S, ABL 725 and 825 demonstrated a concentration-dependent interference. No interference of glyoxylic acid could be observed with Vitros 950, but a positive interference could be observed with ABL 725 and 825, OMNI S, CCX4 and Architect ci8200 A linear relationship between apparent lactate concentration found with ABL 725 and 825, OMNI S, CCX 4, and glyoxylic acid could be observed (0,94 < r < 0,99), a weaker interference being observed with Rapid Lab 1265 and Architect ci 8200. Our results demonstrated that in case of ethylene glycol poisoning, cautious interpretation of lactate assay should be done, since wrong results of lactacidemia could lead to misdiagnostic and delay patient treatment. PMID:17627925

  5. Lactate Stimulates IL-4 and IL-13 Production in Activated HuT-78 T Lymphocytes Through a Process That Involves Monocarboxylate Transporters and Protein Hyperacetylation.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Waldemar; Ciszewski, Wojciech; Kania, Katarzyna; Dastych, Jarosław

    2016-05-01

    Mucosal cells of the gastrointestinal and female reproductive tract are constantly exposed to l- and d-lactate of bacterial origin. These compounds not only protect the host from pathogen colonization but also modulate the activity of mucosal immune cells, thereby playing an important role in inflammatory host responses. In this study, we demonstrated that exposure of anti-CD3/CD28 or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA)/ionomycin-activated HuT-78 T lymphocyte cells to 10-20 mM d-lactate significantly increased IL-4 and IL-13 production. Interestingly, the d-lactate isomer, exclusively produced locally by gut or cervicovaginal microbiota, was found to be more potent than the l-isomer. Interestingly, neither of the strong histone deacetylase inhibitors [structurally similar butyrate and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA)] was as effective in the stimulation of IL-13 production as d-lactate. Lactate transport through monocarboxylate transporters was required for lactate-enhanced IL-13 production in a manner that was not hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1-dependent. Furthermore, lactate treatment increased the acetylation of GATA-3, a critical regulator of Th1/Th2 differentiation and resulted in H3 and H4 histone hyperacetylation state, which is a characteristic feature of transcriptionally active chromatin. Both lactate isomers also enhanced IL4 and IL13 promoter-driven activity of reporter constructs in murine and human cells. Together, these findings demonstrate that a local millimolar concentration of l- or d-lactate may play an important role in the modulation of inflammation-mediated processes. PMID:27119568

  6. Understanding Palladium Acetate from a User Perspective.

    PubMed

    Carole, William A; Colacot, Thomas J

    2016-06-01

    The behavior of palladium acetate is reviewed with respect to its synthesis, characterization, structure (in both solution and solid state), and activation pathways. In addition, comparisons of catalytic activities between pure palladium acetate and two common byproducts, Pd3 (OAc)5 (NO2 ) and polymeric [Pd(OAc)2 ]n , typically present in commercially available material are reviewed. Hence, this minireview serves as a concise guide for the users of palladium acetate from both academia and industry. PMID:27125630

  7. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation...

  8. 21 CFR 184.1005 - Acetic acid.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acetic acid. 184.1005 Section 184.1005 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1005 Acetic acid. (a) Acetic acid (C2H4O2, CAS Reg. No. 64-19-7) is known as ethanoic acid. It occurs naturally in plant and animal tissues. It is produced by fermentation...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1721 - Sodium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sodium sulfate and sodium bicarbonate. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium acetate. 184.1721 Section 184.1721 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1721 Sodium acetate. (a) Sodium acetate (C2H3O2Na, CAS Reg. No. 127-09-3...

  12. Mutants of Saccharomyces Cerevisiae with Defects in Acetate Metabolism: Isolation and Characterization of Acn(-) Mutants

    PubMed Central

    McCammon, M. T.

    1996-01-01

    The two carbon compounds, ethanol and acetate, can be oxidatively metabolized as well as assimilated into carbohydrate in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The distribution of acetate metabolic enzymes among several cellular compartments, mitochondria, peroxisomes, and cytoplasm makes it an intriguing system to study complex metabolic interactions. To investigate the complex process of carbon catabolism and assimilation, mutants unable to grow on acetate were isolated. One hundred five Acn(-) (``ACetate Nonutilizing'') mutants were sorted into 21 complementation groups with an additional 20 single mutants. Five of the groups have defects in TCA cycle enzymes: MDH1, CIT1, ACO1, IDH1, and IDH2. A defect in RTG2, involved in the retrograde communication between the mitochondrion and the nucleus, was also identified. Four genes encode enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle and gluconeogenesis: ICL1, MLS1, MDH2, and PCK1. Five other genes appear to be defective in regulating metabolic activity since elevated levels of enzymes in several metabolic pathways, including the glyoxylate cycle, gluconeogenesis, and acetyl-CoA metabolism, were detected in these mutants: ACN8, ACN9, ACN17, ACN18, and ACN42. In summary, this analysis has identified at least 22 and as many as 41 different genes involved in acetate metabolism. PMID:8878673

  13. Acetic acid bacteria: A group of bacteria with versatile biotechnological applications.

    PubMed

    Saichana, Natsaran; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Adachi, Osao; Frébort, Ivo; Frebortova, Jitka

    2015-11-01

    Acetic acid bacteria are gram-negative obligate aerobic bacteria assigned to the family Acetobacteraceae of Alphaproteobacteria. They are members of the genera Acetobacter, Gluconobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Acidomonas, Asaia, Kozakia, Swaminathania, Saccharibacter, Neoasaia, Granulibacter, Tanticharoenia, Ameyamaea, Neokomagataea, and Komagataeibacter. Many strains of Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter have been known to possess high acetic acid fermentation ability as well as the acetic acid and ethanol resistance, which are considered to be useful features for industrial production of acetic acid and vinegar, the commercial product. On the other hand, Gluconobacter strains have the ability to perform oxidative fermentation of various sugars, sugar alcohols, and sugar acids leading to the formation of several valuable products. Thermotolerant strains of acetic acid bacteria were isolated in order to serve as the new strains of choice for industrial fermentations, in which the cooling costs for maintaining optimum growth and production temperature in the fermentation vessels could be significantly reduced. Genetic modifications by adaptation and genetic engineering were also applied to improve their properties, such as productivity and heat resistance. PMID:25485864

  14. [Relevance of lactate determination in sports medicine].

    PubMed

    Schwaberger, G; Pessenhofer, H; Schmid, P

    1985-05-31

    In the last years increasing attention has been paid to specific changes of muscle metabolism during physical exertion in the diagnosis of physical performance. Lactate resp. lactic acid, being the terminal product of anaerobic glycolysis, has gained a central position in that field of sports medicine. Measuring lactate concentration level in arterialized capillary blood (drawn from the earlobe) one can investigate both the onset of anaerobic-lactic energy production during increasing work load (aerobic-anaerobic transition) and the maximal amount of anaerobic energy formation during short periods of exhausting work. In this way, using suitable work load protocols, the aerobic capacity (endurance capacity) on the one hand and the anaerobic capacity on the other hand can be determined. Therefore the most prominent components of energy production in working muscle and physical performance in general are accessible by measurement of blood lactate concentration level. PMID:4036145

  15. Elevated Lactate Secondary to Gastrointestinal Beriberi.

    PubMed

    Duca, James; Lum, Corey J; Lo, Angela M

    2016-01-01

    Thiamine deficiency usually occurs with prolonged nutritional deficiency and is almost universally identified with Wernicke's encephalopathy or beriberi. It is also, however, a rare cause of elevated lactate and gastroenterological symptoms. This case report describes a 30-year-old man with 2 weeks of gastroenterological symptoms and intermittent oral intake, who was found to have an elevated lactate level. Neurological exam was normal and an extensive workup was negative, but after being treated with thiamine, his lactate level improved overnight and all of his symptoms resolved. Thiamine levels returned low at 44 nmol/L (normal 78-185 nmol/L). Lack of recognition of this phenomenon, while rare, can lead to unnecessary tests and procedures and increased morbidity and mortality. PMID:25876741

  16. Water dispersible microbicidal cellulose acetate phthalate film

    PubMed Central

    Neurath, A Robert; Strick, Nathan; Li, Yun-Yao

    2003-01-01

    Background Cellulose acetate phthalate (CAP) has been used for several decades in the pharmaceutical industry for enteric film coating of oral tablets and capsules. Micronized CAP, available commercially as "Aquateric" and containing additional ingredients required for micronization, used for tablet coating from water dispersions, was shown to adsorb and inactivate the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1), herpesviruses (HSV) and other sexually transmitted disease (STD) pathogens. Earlier studies indicate that a gel formulation of micronized CAP has a potential as a topical microbicide for prevention of STDs including the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The objective of endeavors described here was to develop a water dispersible CAP film amenable to inexpensive industrial mass production. Methods CAP and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) were dissolved in different organic solvent mixtures, poured into dishes, and the solvents evaporated. Graded quantities of a resulting selected film were mixed for 5 min at 37°C with HIV-1, HSV and other STD pathogens, respectively. Residual infectivity of the treated viruses and bacteria was determined. Results The prerequisites for producing CAP films which are soft, flexible and dispersible in water, resulting in smooth gels, are combining CAP with HPC (other cellulose derivatives are unsuitable), and casting from organic solvent mixtures containing ≈50 to ≈65% ethanol (EtOH). The films are ≈100 µ thick and have a textured surface with alternating protrusions and depressions revealed by scanning electron microscopy. The films, before complete conversion into a gel, rapidly inactivated HIV-1 and HSV and reduced the infectivity of non-viral STD pathogens >1,000-fold. Conclusions Soft pliable CAP-HPC composite films can be generated by casting from organic solvent mixtures containing EtOH. The films rapidly reduce the infectivity of several STD pathogens, including HIV-1. They are converted into gels and thus do not

  17. [Induction of lactation in cattle after short-term hormonal treatment].

    PubMed

    Manunta, G; Naitana, S

    1981-01-30

    In wintertime 7 nonpregnant cows (3 nonlactating and 4 milk secreting less than 3 liter/day) and 3 heifers were treated:day 1 cloprostenol (530 microgram); day 2 progesterone capronate (0,25/Kg); days 3 to 5 progesterone (0,25 mg/Kg)+ estradiol valerianate (0,01 mg/Kg) and reserpine (0,01 mg/Kg); days 6 to 8 progesterone (0,25 mg/Kg) + estradiol (0,2 mg/Kg) and reserpine (0,01 mg/Kg); day 9 betametasone acetate (0,2 mg/Kg) and phosphate (0,55 mg/Kg); days 9 to 16 estradiol (0,0075 mg/Kg). 9 days later the treatment started again. In all the period (5/12-25/2) the animals where machine milked. 2 lactating nonpregnant cows where kept as control. The milk secretion started in nonlactating animals but the peak daily milk yield was 3 liter about only. In lactating animals the yield no increased. The second treatment (and the first in lactating cows) induced secreting less milk with more fat and protein. The low milk yields was associated to a season's negative effect. PMID:6786306

  18. Potential biofuel additive from renewable sources--Kinetic study of formation of butyl acetate by heterogeneously catalyzed transesterification of ethyl acetate with butanol.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sami H; Al-Rashed, Osama; Azeez, Fadhel A; Merchant, Sabiha Q

    2011-11-01

    Butyl acetate holds great potential as a sustainable biofuel additive. Heterogeneously catalyzed transesterification of biobutanol and bioethylacetate can produce butyl acetate. This route is eco-friendly and offers several advantages over the commonly used Fischer Esterification. The Amberlite IR 120- and Amberlyst 15-catalyzed transesterification is studied in a batch reactor over a range of catalyst loading (6-12 wt.%), alcohol to ester feed ratio (1:3 to 3:1), and temperature (303.15-333.15K). A butanol mole fraction of 0.2 in the feed is found to be optimum. Amberlite IR 120 promotes faster kinetics under these conditions. The transesterifications studied are slightly exothermic. The moles of solvent sorbed per gram of catalyst decreases (ethanol>butanol>ethyl acetate>butyl acetate) with decrease in solubility parameter. The dual site models, the Langmuir Hinshelwood and Popken models, are the most successful in correlating the kinetics over Amberlite IR 120 and Amberlyst 15, respectively. PMID:21908187

  19. Positron scattering from vinyl acetate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiari, L.; Zecca, A.; Blanco, F.; García, G.; Brunger, M. J.

    2014-09-01

    Using a Beer-Lambert attenuation approach, we report measured total cross sections (TCSs) for positron scattering from vinyl acetate (C4H6O2) in the incident positron energy range 0.15-50 eV. In addition, we also report an independent atom model with screening corrected additivity rule computation results for the TCSs, differential and integral elastic cross sections, the positronium formation cross section and inelastic integral cross sections. The energy range of these calculations is 1-1000 eV. While there is a reasonable qualitative correspondence between measurement and calculation for the TCSs, in terms of the energy dependence of those cross sections, the theory was found to be a factor of ˜2 larger in magnitude at the lower energies, even after the measured data were corrected for the forward angle scattering effect.

  20. Metabolic Imaging: A link between Lactate Dehydrogenase A, Lactate and Tumor Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Sunitha B.; Vider, Jelena; Russell, James; Blasberg, Ronald; Koutcher, Jason A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We compared the metabolic profiles and the association between LDH-A expression and lactate production in two isogenic murine breast cancer cell lines and tumors (67NR and 4T1). These cell lines were derived from a single mammary tumor and have different growth and metabolic phenotypes. Experimental Design LDH-A expression, lactate concentration, glucose utilization and oxygen consumption were measured in cells, and the potential relationship between tumor lactate levels (measured by magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI)) and tumor glucose utilization (measured by [18F] 2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose positron emission tomography ([18F]FDG-PET)) was assessed in orthotopic breast tumors derived from these cell lines. Results We show a substantial difference in LDH-A expression between 67NR and 4T1 cells under normoxia and hypoxia. We also show that small orthotopic 4T1 tumors generate tenfold more lactate than corresponding 67NR tumors. The high lactate levels in small primary 4T1 tumors are associated with intense pimonidazole staining (a hypoxia indicator). Less intense hypoxia staining was observed in the larger 67NR tumors, and is consistent with the gradual increase and plateau of lactate concentration in enlarging 67NR tumors. Conclusions Lactate-MRSI has a greater dynamic range than [18F]FDG-PET and may be a more sensitive measure with which to evaluate the aggressive and metastatic potential of primary breast tumors. PMID:21844011

  1. The Effectiveness of Lactation Consultants and Lactation Counselors on Breastfeeding Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Sanjay; Patel, Shveta

    2016-08-01

    Breastfeeding for all infants starting at birth and continuing until at least 6 months of age has been recommended by the World Health Organization and the American Academy of Pediatrics. The health benefits to infants and mothers have been demonstrated in many studies. Dedicated lactation specialists may play a role in providing education and support to pregnant women and new mothers wishing to breastfeed to improve breastfeeding outcomes. The objective of this review was to assess if lactation education or support programs using lactation consultants or lactation counselors would improve rates of initiation and duration of any breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding compared with usual practice. A systematic literature review of the evidence was conducted using electronic databases. The review was limited to randomized trials and yielded 16 studies with 5084 participants. It was found that breastfeeding interventions using lactation consultants and counselors increase the number of women initiating breastfeeding (odds ratio [OR] for any initiation vs not initiating breastfeeding = 1.35; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.10-1.67). The interventions improve any breastfeeding rates (OR for any breastfeeding up to 1 month vs not breastfeeding = 1.49; 95% CI, 1.09-2.04). In addition, there were beneficial effects on exclusive breastfeeding rates (OR for exclusive breastfeeding up to 1 month vs not exclusive breastfeeding = 1.71; 95% CI, 1.20-2.44). Most of the evidence would suggest developing and improving postpartum support programs incorporating lactation consultants and lactation counselors. PMID:26644419

  2. Lactate dehydrogenase is the key enzyme for pneumococcal pyruvate metabolism and pneumococcal survival in blood.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Paula; Al-Bayati, Firas A Y; Andrew, Peter W; Neves, Ana Rute; Yesilkaya, Hasan

    2014-12-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a fermentative microorganism and causes serious diseases in humans, including otitis media, bacteremia, meningitis, and pneumonia. However, the mechanisms enabling pneumococcal survival in the host and causing disease in different tissues are incompletely understood. The available evidence indicates a strong link between the central metabolism and pneumococcal virulence. To further our knowledge on pneumococcal virulence, we investigated the role of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which converts pyruvate to lactate and is an essential enzyme for redox balance, in the pneumococcal central metabolism and virulence using an isogenic ldh mutant. Loss of LDH led to a dramatic reduction of the growth rate, pinpointing the key role of this enzyme in fermentative metabolism. The pattern of end products was altered, and lactate production was totally blocked. The fermentation profile was confirmed by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of glucose metabolism in nongrowing cell suspensions of the ldh mutant. In this strain, a bottleneck in the fermentative steps is evident from the accumulation of pyruvate, revealing LDH as the most efficient enzyme in pyruvate conversion. An increase in ethanol production was also observed, indicating that in the absence of LDH the redox balance is maintained through alcohol dehydrogenase activity. We also found that the absence of LDH renders the pneumococci avirulent after intravenous infection and leads to a significant reduction in virulence in a model of pneumonia that develops after intranasal infection, likely due to a decrease in energy generation and virulence gene expression. PMID:25245810

  3. Lactate Dehydrogenase Is the Key Enzyme for Pneumococcal Pyruvate Metabolism and Pneumococcal Survival in Blood

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Paula; Al-Bayati, Firas A. Y.; Andrew, Peter W.; Neves, Ana Rute

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a fermentative microorganism and causes serious diseases in humans, including otitis media, bacteremia, meningitis, and pneumonia. However, the mechanisms enabling pneumococcal survival in the host and causing disease in different tissues are incompletely understood. The available evidence indicates a strong link between the central metabolism and pneumococcal virulence. To further our knowledge on pneumococcal virulence, we investigated the role of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which converts pyruvate to lactate and is an essential enzyme for redox balance, in the pneumococcal central metabolism and virulence using an isogenic ldh mutant. Loss of LDH led to a dramatic reduction of the growth rate, pinpointing the key role of this enzyme in fermentative metabolism. The pattern of end products was altered, and lactate production was totally blocked. The fermentation profile was confirmed by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of glucose metabolism in nongrowing cell suspensions of the ldh mutant. In this strain, a bottleneck in the fermentative steps is evident from the accumulation of pyruvate, revealing LDH as the most efficient enzyme in pyruvate conversion. An increase in ethanol production was also observed, indicating that in the absence of LDH the redox balance is maintained through alcohol dehydrogenase activity. We also found that the absence of LDH renders the pneumococci avirulent after intravenous infection and leads to a significant reduction in virulence in a model of pneumonia that develops after intranasal infection, likely due to a decrease in energy generation and virulence gene expression. PMID:25245810

  4. Diet for a Healthy Lactating Woman.

    PubMed

    Kolasa, Kathryn M; Firnhaber, Gina; Haven, Kelley

    2015-12-01

    The nutrient and caloric requirements for lactation are set by the Institute of Medicine. The dietary pattern to meet those needs is found in the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Only deficiency states for selected nutrients and/or prolonged inadequate caloric intake appear to affect the volume and quality of breast milk. Other dietary concerns of lactating women include "dieting" to return to prepregnancy weight; low maternal intake of selected nutrients due to health conditions or food choices; need for supplementation of calcium, vitamin D, and fatty acids; and use of non-nutritive sweeteners, caffeine, herbal supplements, and alcohol. PMID:26398295

  5. Calcium metabolism in pregnancy and lactation

    PubMed Central

    White, C P

    2009-01-01

    Homeostatic adaptation to maternal calcium metabolism is a prerequisite for optimal delivery of sufficient calcium to the fetus and neonate during pregnancy and lactation, respectively. This article outlines the major adaptations known to occur and the physiological regulators likely to be principally involved. Importantly, different adaptive responses are used in pregnancy and lactation. The rarity of calcium disorders in pregnancy underscores the successful implementation of these adaptations in most women. For those few women with either pre-existing or pregnancy-acquired disorders of calcium metabolism, a knowledge of normal physiology is essential to understand the implications for managing these disorders in pregnant women.

  6. Genome-guided analysis of physiological and morphological traits of the fermentative acetate oxidizer Thermacetogenium phaeum

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Thermacetogenium phaeum is a thermophilic strictly anaerobic bacterium oxidizing acetate to CO2 in syntrophic association with a methanogenic partner. It can also grow in pure culture, e.g., by fermentation of methanol to acetate. The key enzymes of homoacetate fermentation (Wood-Ljungdahl pathway) are used both in acetate oxidation and acetate formation. The obvious reversibility of this pathway in this organism is of specific interest since syntrophic acetate oxidation operates close to the energetic limitations of microbial life. Results The genome of Th. phaeum is organized on a single circular chromosome and has a total size of 2,939,057 bp. It comprises 3.215 open reading frames of which 75% could be assigned to a gene function. The G+C content is 53.88 mol%. Many CRISPR sequences were found, indicating heavy phage attack in the past. A complete gene set for a phage was found in the genome, and indications of phage action could also be observed in culture. The genome contained all genes required for CO2 reduction through the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, including two formyl tetrahydrofolate ligases, three carbon monoxide dehydrogenases, one formate hydrogenlyase complex, three further formate dehydrogenases, and three further hydrogenases. The bacterium contains a menaquinone MQ-7. No indications of cytochromes or Rnf complexes could be found in the genome. Conclusions The information obtained from the genome sequence indicates that Th. phaeum differs basically from the three homoacetogenic bacteria sequenced so far, i.e., the sodium ion-dependent Acetobacterium woodii, the ethanol-producing Clostridium ljungdahlii, and the cytochrome-containing Moorella thermoacetica. The specific enzyme outfit of Th. phaeum obviously allows ATP formation both in acetate formation and acetate oxidation. PMID:23259483

  7. High-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry validation of medroxyprogesterone acetate in products of pork origin and serum.

    PubMed

    Giannetti, Luigi; Barchi, Daniela; Fiorucci, Fulvia; Gennuso, Elisa; Sanna, Patrizia; Pallagrosi, Marco; Neri, Bruno

    2005-08-01

    Different extraction and purification methods are described here to determine medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) in pork meat and serum. Spiked samples are investigated over the concentration range of MPA 0.5-20 ng/g. Pork meat tissues are subjected to extraction using organic solvent, and pork serum is simply diluted with acetate buffer. Clean-up is performed using solid-phase extraction on a C18 cartridge, and MPA is eluted with ethanol. Aliquots are injected into a high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system. MPA content is determined on the basis of m/z 387-327 and 387-123 transitions. PMID:16176642

  8. Innovative inexpensive ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Mackek, S. )

    1991-03-01

    New Energy Company of Indiana which produces 70 million gallons of ethanol per year, avoids the headaches often associated with organic by-products by creating an efficient and profitable sideline business. This paper reports that stretching across 55 acres in South Bend, Ind., New Energy's plant is the largest in the U.S. built specifically for fuel alcohol. The $186-million complex is a dramatic advance in the art of producing ethanol and its co-products. As the demand grows in the coming years for fuel alcohol-proven as an octane booster and a clean-burning alternative fuel. New Energy looks forward to increase production and profits. At the company's six-year-old plant, fuel alcohol is made from 26 million bushels a year of No. 2 yellow dent corn. Left at the bottom of the first column, after the alcohol has been boiled off, is stillage that contains more than 90% of the corn's protein and fat content, and virtually all of its vitamins and minerals, along with the yeast used to make the ethanol. While technically a waste product of the fuel alcohol process, this material's quantity and organic content not only make it difficult and costly to dispose, but its nutritional quality makes it an excellent candidate to be further processed into animal feed.

  9. Xylose fermentation to ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    McMillan, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The past several years have seen tremendous progress in the understanding of xylose metabolism and in the identification, characterization, and development of strains with improved xylose fermentation characteristics. A survey of the numerous microorganisms capable of directly fermenting xylose to ethanol indicates that wild-type yeast and recombinant bacteria offer the best overall performance in terms of high yield, final ethanol concentration, and volumetric productivity. The best performing bacteria, yeast, and fungi can achieve yields greater than 0.4 g/g and final ethanol concentrations approaching 5%. Productivities remain low for most yeast and particularly for fungi, but volumetric productivities exceeding 1.0 g/L-h have been reported for xylose-fermenting bacteria. In terms of wild-type microorganisms, strains of the yeast Pichia stipitis show the most promise in the short term for direct high-yield fermentation of xylose without byproduct formation. Of the recombinant xylose-fermenting microorganisms developed, recombinant E. coli ATTC 11303 (pLOI297) exhibits the most favorable performance characteristics reported to date.

  10. Binge ethanol exposure in late gestation induces ethanol aversion in the dam but enhances ethanol intake in the offspring and affects their postnatal learning about ethanol

    PubMed Central

    Chotro, M. Gabriela; Arias, Carlos; Spear, Norman E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies show that exposure to 1 or 2 g/kg ethanol during the last days of gestation increases ethanol acceptance in infant rats. We tested whether prenatal exposure to 3 g/kg, a relatively high ethanol dose, generates an aversion to ethanol in both the dam and offspring, and whether this prenatal experience affects the expression of learning derived from ethanol exposure postnatally. The answer was uncertain, since postnatal administration of a 3 g/kg ethanol dose induces an aversion to ethanol after postnatal day 10 but increases ethanol acceptance when administered during the first postnatal week. In the present study pregnant rats received intragastric administrations of water or ethanol (3 g/kg) on gestation days 17-20. On postnatal days 7-8 or 10-11 the offspring were administered water or ethanol (3 g/kg). Intake of ethanol and water, locomotor activity in an open-field and ethanol odor preference were evaluated in the pups, while the mothers were evaluated in terms of ethanol intake. Results indicated an aversion to ethanol in dams that had been administered ethanol during gestation, despite a general increase in ethanol intake observed in their pups relative to controls. The prenatal ethanol exposure also potentiated the increase in ethanol intake observed after intoxication on postnatal days 7-8. Ethanol intoxication on postnatal days 10-11 reduced ethanol consumption; this ethanol aversion was still evident in infant rats exposed prenatally to ethanol despite their general increase in ethanol intake. No effects of prenatal ethanol exposure were observed in terms of motor activity or odor preference. It is concluded that prenatal exposure to ethanol, even in a dose that induces ethanol aversion in the gestating dam, increases ethanol intake in infant rats and that this experience modulates age-related differences in subsequent postnatal learning about ethanol. PMID:19801275

  11. Biological production of ethanol from coal. [Quarterly report], December 22, 1990--March 21, 1991

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-31

    Previously studies have shown the importance of both medium composition and concentration and medium pH on ethanol production of Clostridium ljungdahlii in fermenting CO, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} in synthesis gas. Four additional batch experiments involving medium composition and concentration were carried out in modified basal medium without yeast extract at pH 4.0. These experiments indicate that basal medium with only small amounts of B-vitamins can yield significant cell growth while yielding ethanol as the major product. Product ratios as high as 11.0 g ethanol per g acetate were obtained with half strength B-vitamins. Further experiments indicates that Ca-pantothenate may be necessary for the growth of C. ljungdahlii and that growth and ethanol production can occur simultaneously.

  12. Ethanol determination in frozen fruit pulps: an application of quantitative nuclear magnetic resonance.

    PubMed

    da Silva Nunes, Wilian; de Oliveira, Caroline Silva; Alcantara, Glaucia Braz

    2016-04-01

    This study reports the chemical composition of five types of industrial frozen fruit pulps (acerola, cashew, grape, passion fruit and pineapple fruit pulps) and compares them with homemade pulps at two different stages of ripening. The fruit pulps were characterized by analyzing their metabolic profiles and determining their ethanol content using quantitative Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (qNMR). In addition, principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to extract more information from the NMR data. We detected ethanol in all industrial and homemade pulps; and acetic acid in cashew, grape and passion fruit industrial and homemade pulps. The ethanol content in some industrial pulps is above the level recommended by regulatory agencies and is near the levels of some post-ripened homemade pulps. This study demonstrates that qNMR can be used to rapidly detect ethanol content in frozen fruit pulps and food derivatives. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26578064

  13. Lipids and Oxidative Stress Associated with Ethanol-Induced Neurological Damage

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    The excessive intake of alcohol is a serious public health problem, especially given the severe damage provoked by chronic or prenatal exposure to alcohol that affects many physiological processes, such as memory, motor function, and cognitive abilities. This damage is related to the ethanol oxidation in the brain. The metabolism of ethanol to acetaldehyde and then to acetate is associated with the production of reactive oxygen species that accentuate the oxidative state of cells. This metabolism of ethanol can induce the oxidation of the fatty acids in phospholipids, and the bioactive aldehydes produced are known to be associated with neurotoxicity and neurodegeneration. As such, here we will review the role of lipids in the neuronal damage induced by ethanol-related oxidative stress and the role that lipids play in the related compensatory or defense mechanisms. PMID:26949445

  14. Biofilm formation and ethanol inhibition by bacterial contaminants of biofuel fermentation.

    PubMed

    Rich, Joseph O; Leathers, Timothy D; Bischoff, Kenneth M; Anderson, Amber M; Nunnally, Melinda S

    2015-11-01

    Bacterial contaminants can inhibit ethanol production in biofuel fermentations, and even result in stuck fermentations. Contaminants may persist in production facilities by forming recalcitrant biofilms. A two-year longitudinal study was conducted of bacterial contaminants from a Midwestern dry grind corn fuel ethanol facility. Among eight sites sampled in the facility, the combined liquefaction stream and yeast propagation tank were consistently contaminated, leading to contamination of early fermentation tanks. Among 768 contaminants isolated, 92% were identified as Lactobacillus sp., with the most abundant species being Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus mucosae, and Lactobacillus fermentum. Seven percent of total isolates showed the ability to form biofilms in pure cultures, and 22% showed the capacity to significantly inhibit ethanol production. However, these traits were not correlated. Ethanol inhibition appeared to be related to acetic acid production by contaminants, particularly by obligately heterofermentative species such as L. fermentum and L. mucosae. PMID:26255598

  15. Antinociceptive Activity of Ethanol Extract from Duguetia chrysocarpa Maas (Annonaceae)

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva; Araújo, Edigênia Cavalcante da Cruz; Ribeiro, Luciano Augusto de Araújo; de Lima, Julianeli Tolentino; Nunes, Xirley Pereira; Lúcio, Ana Sílvia Suassuna Carneiro; Agra, Maria de Fátima; Barbosa Filho, José Maria

    2012-01-01

    The ethanol extract from the fruits of Duguetia chrysocarpa was evaluated for its antinociceptive activity in chemical and thermal models of nociception in mice. The intraperitoneal administration of the ethanol extract (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg body weight) showed a dose-dependent inhibition of acetic-acid-induced abdominal writhes. The extract also produced a significant inhibition of both phases of the formalin test in all doses tested and increased the reaction time in hot-plate test at dose of 200 mg/kg. The data obtained suggest that the antinociceptive effect of the extract may be mediated via both peripheral and central mechanisms. The phytochemical investigation yielded the isolation of the benzenoid derivative 3-methoxy-4-ethoxy benzoic acid which is being reported for the first time in this genus. PMID:22645460

  16. Phytochemical and Pharmacological Investigation of Ethanol Extract of Cissampelos pareira.

    PubMed

    Reza, H M; Shohel, M; Aziz, Sadia B; Pinaz, Farzana I; Uddin, M F; Al-Amin, M; Khan, I N; Jain, Preeti

    2014-09-01

    In this study, the ethanol extract of Cissampelos pareira has been evaluated. The extract was tested for analgesic properties using both hot plate and acetic acid-induced writhing methods. Antiinflammatory effect was investigated using two different doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg body weight on Evans rats by carrageenan-induced paw edema test. The antipyretic activity was evaluated using Brewer's yeast-induced pyrexia in Wistar rats. The phytochemical screening of the extract of Cissampelos pareira exhibited the presence of several phytochemical compounds including saponins, gums and carbohydrates, reducing sugars, alkaloids and terpenoids. Ethanol extract of Cissampelos pareira exhibited significant analgesic, antiinflammatory and antipyretic activity in a dose-dependent manner. The results obtained from these studies confirm its therapeutic value against diseases caused by various pain and fever. PMID:25425762

  17. Photocatalyzed oxidation of ethanol and acetaldehyde in humidified air

    SciTech Connect

    Sauer, M.L.; Ollis, D.F.

    1996-02-01

    Photocatalysis is considered as a potential air treatment and purification technology. Photocatalyzed oxidation of ethanol and acetaldehyde in humidified air was carried out to establish a first complete kinetic model for a photocatalyzed multispecies network. Two photocatalysts were examined in a batch, recirculation reactor, near-UV illuminated TiO{sub 2} (anatase) coated (i) on the surface of a nonporous quartz glass plate and (ii) on a porous ceramic honeycomb monolith. The former contained only illuminated (active) surfaces, the latter consisted of substantial {open_quotes}dark{close_quotes} surfaces coated with a thin layer of illuminated (active) catalyst. Ethanol was photooxidized to acetaldehyde and formaldehyde intermediates, and eventually to carbon dioxide and water products. The catalyst and monolith surfaces adsorbed appreciable fractions of the trace ethanol, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, carbon dioxide and water present. Ethanol, acetaldehyde, and carbon dioxide adsorption isotherms were measured on both catalysts; the formaldehyde adsorption isotherms were assumed identical to those of acetaldehyde. On the fully illuminated glass plate reactor, all four species were accounted for, and closure of a transient carbon mass balance was demonstrated. Completion of a transient carbon mass balance on the monolith reactor required inclusion of additional reaction intermediates (acetic and formic acids), which appear to reversibly accumulate on only the dark surfaces. The ethanol and acetaldehyde photocatalyzed oxidation kinetic networks were modeled using Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate forms combined with adsorption isotherms for reactant, intermediates, and product CO{sub 2}. For both the quartz plate and monolith catalysts, satisfactory kinetic models were developed to predict the entire time course of ethanol and acetaldehyde multicomponent batch conversions. 43 refs., 16 figs.

  18. The synthesis of n-caproate from lactate: a new efficient process for medium-chain carboxylates production

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Xiaoyu; Tao, Yong; Liang, Cheng; Li, Xiangzhen; Wei, Na; Zhang, Wenjie; Zhou, Yan; Yang, Yanfei; Bo, Tao

    2015-01-01

    A unique microbiome that metabolizes lactate rather than ethanol for n-caproate production was obtained from a fermentation pit used for the production of Chinese strong-flavour liquor (CSFL). The microbiome was able to produce n-caproate at concentrations as high as 23.41 g/L at a maximum rate of 2.97 g/L/d in batch trials without in-line extraction. Compared with previous work using ethanol as the electron donor, the n-caproate concentration increased by 82.89%. High-throughput sequencing analysis showed that the microbiome was dominated by a Clostridium cluster IV, which accounted for 79.07% of total reads. A new process for n-caproate production was proposed, lactate oxidation coupled to chain elongation, which revealed new insight into the well-studied lactate conversion and carbon chain elongation. In addition, these findings indicated a new synthesis mechanism of n-caproate in CSFL. We believe that this efficient process will provide a promising opportunity for the innovation of waste recovery as well as for n-caproate biosynthesis. PMID:26403516

  19. Production of ethanol and xylitol from corn cobs by yeasts.

    PubMed

    Latif, F; Rajoka, M I

    2001-03-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Candida tropicalis were used separately and as co-culture for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of 5-20% (w/v) dry corn cobs. A maximal ethanol concentration of 27, 23, 21 g/l (w/v) from 200 g/l (w/v) dry corn cobs was obtained by S. cerevisiae, C. tropicalis and the co-culture, respectively, after 96 h of fermentation. However, theoretical yields of 82%, 71% and 63% were observed from 50 g/l dry corn cobs for the above cultures, respectively. Maximal xylitol concentration of 21, 20 and 15 g/l from 200 g/l (w/v) dry corn cobs was obtained by C. tropicalis, co-culture, and S. cerevisiae, respectively. Maximum theoretical yields of 79.0%, 77.0% and 58% were observed from 50 g/l of corn cobs, respectively. The volumetric productivities for ethanol and xylitol increased with the increase in substrate concentration, whereas, yield decreased. Glycerol and acetic acid were formed as minor by-products. S. cerevisiae and C. tropicalis resulted in better product yields (0.42 and 0.36 g/g) for ethanol and (0.52 and 0.71 g/g) for xylitol, respectively, whereas, the co-culture showed moderate level of ethanol (0.32 g/g) and almost maximal levels of xylitol (0.69 g/g). PMID:11211076

  20. Novel Membrane Based Process for Producing Lactate Esters

    SciTech Connect

    1999-02-01

    Lactate Esters from Renewable Carbohydrate Feedstocks can Replace Petroleum-Derived Solvents. Lactate esters are versatile solvents that are biodegradable, nontoxic, and applicable to a wide range of industrial and consumer uses.

  1. LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Research News From NIH LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation Past Issues / Summer 2006 ... Javascript on. Photo: Comstock LactMed, a free online database with information on drugs and lactation, is one ...

  2. LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH LactMed: New NLM Database on Drugs and Lactation Past ... milk, infant levels in blood, potential effects in breast-feeding infants and on lactation itself. The American Academy ...

  3. Ethanol production via fungal decomposition and fermentation of biomass. Phase II (FY 1981) annual progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Antonopoulos, A. A.; Wene, E. G.

    1981-10-01

    This program has as its main goal the isolation and development of Fusarium strains that can efficiently and economically decompose plant polysaccharides to pentoses and hexoses and ferment them to ethanol for fuel purposes. During Phase II (FY 1981) of this program, more than 800 new Fusarium isolates were isolated and screened. All showed cellulolytic activity. The Fusarium mutant ANL 3-72181 (derived after uv exposure of ANL 22 isolate) produced 2.45 iu cellulase after 14 days. This cellulase activity was achieved in the presence of 0.7 mg/mL extracellular protein. In separate tests, the use of both proteose peptone and yeast extract with 1% cellulose increased the production of extracellular protein three times over that on cellulose alone. Initial fermentation by Fusarium strains on 1% glucose produced up to 4.2 mg/mL ethanol in 48 hours. All Fusarium isolates and mutants found during this period were screened for xylose fermentation. Ethanol production during early experimentation required from 120 to 144 hours to yield 4.0 to 4.5 mg/mL ethanol from 1% xylose solutions. Through continuous selection of isolates, this time was reduced to 66 hours. By recycling Fusarium cell mass, fermentations of 1% xylose yielded 4.0 to 4.3 mg/mL ethanol in 48 hours. Consecutive fermentations of 2% xylose produced an average of 8.1 mg/mL ethanol in 48 hours. Fermentation of a 4.5% xylose + 2% glucose solution produced 21 mg/mL ethanol and 0.8 mg/mL acetic acid, while fermentation of a 7% xylose + 2% glucose solution yielded 25.5 mg/mL ethanol and 0.85 mg/mL acetic acid; these fermentations were aerated at a rate of 0.03 v/v-min.

  4. Phytochemical screening and anticonvulsant studies of ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii on laboratory animals

    PubMed Central

    Aliyu, Musa Mumammad; Musa, Abdullahi Isma'il; Kamal, Muhammad Ja'afar; Mohammed, Magaji Garba

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the phytochemical properties and the anticonvulsant potential of the ethyl acetate soluble fraction of ethanol leaf extract of Globimetula braunii, a plant used in ethnomedicine for the treatment of epilepsy. Methods The phytochemical screening was carried out using standard protocol while the anticonvulsant activity was studied using maximal electroshock test in chicks, pentylenetetrazole and 4-aminopyridine-induced seizures in mice. Results The preliminary phytochemical screening carried out on the crude ethanol extract revealed the presence of saponins, carbohydrates, flavonoids, tannins, anthraquinones and steroids. Similarly, tannins, flavonoids and steroids/terpenes were found to be present in the ethyl acetate fraction. In the pharmacological screening, 150 mg/kg of the fraction protected 83.33% of animals against pentylenetetrazole-induced seizure in mice whereas sodium valproate a standard anti-epileptic drug offered 100% protection. In the 4-aminopyridine-induced seizure model, the fraction produced a significant (P<0.05) increase in the mean onset of seizure in unprotected animals. The fraction did not exhibit a significant activity against maximal electroshock convulsion. The median lethal dose of the fraction was found to be 1 261.91 mg/kg. Conclusions These results suggest that the ethyl acetate fraction of Globimetula braunii leaves extract possesses psychoactive compound that may be useful in the management of petit mal epilepsy and lend credence to the ethnomedical use of the plant in the management of epilepsy. PMID:25182552

  5. Enzymes involved in vinyl acetate decomposition by Pseudomonas fluorescens PCM 2123 strain.

    PubMed

    Szczyrba, Elżbieta; Greń, Izabela; Bartelmus, Grażyna

    2014-03-01

    Esterases are widely used in food processing industry, but there is little information concerning enzymes involved in decompositions of esters contributing to pollution of environment. Vinyl acetate (an ester of vinyl alcohol and acetic acid) is a representative of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in decomposition, of which hydrolyses and oxidoreductases are mainly involved. Their activities under periodically changing conditions of environment are essential for the removal of dangerous VOCs. Esterase and alcohol/aldehyde dehydrogenase activities were determined in crude cell extract from Pseudomonas fluorescens PMC 2123 after vinyl acetate induction. All examined enzymes exhibit their highest activity at 30-35 °C and pH 7.0-7.5. Esterase preferably hydrolyzed ester bonds with short fatty chains without plain differences for C2 or C4. Comparison of Km values for alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases for acetaldehyde suggested that this metabolite was preferentially oxidized than reduced. Activity of alcohol dehydrogenase reducing acetaldehyde to ethanol suggested that one mechanism of defense against the elevated concentration of toxic acetaldehyde could be its temporary reduction to ethanol. Esterase activity was inhibited by phenylmethanesulfonyl fluoride, while β-mercaptoethanol, dithiothreitol, and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid had no inhibitor effect. From among metal ions, only Mg(2+) and Fe(2+) stimulated the cleavage of ester bond. PMID:23913099

  6. 21 CFR 556.380 - Melengestrol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Melengestrol acetate. 556.380 Section 556.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.380 Melengestrol acetate. A tolerance of 25 parts...

  7. 21 CFR 556.380 - Melengestrol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Melengestrol acetate. 556.380 Section 556.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.380 Melengestrol acetate. A tolerance of 25 parts...

  8. 21 CFR 556.380 - Melengestrol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Melengestrol acetate. 556.380 Section 556.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.380 Melengestrol acetate. A tolerance of 25 parts...

  9. 21 CFR 556.380 - Melengestrol acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Melengestrol acetate. 556.380 Section 556.380 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Tolerances for Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.380 Melengestrol acetate. A tolerance of 25 parts...

  10. 21 CFR 173.228 - Ethyl acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 1 (Ethyl Acetate; p. 372, 3d Ed., 1981), which are... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethyl acetate. 173.228 Section 173.228 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  11. In vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanolic fractions of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Following claims that some plants have antimicrobial activities against infectious microbes, the in vitro antimicrobial activities of different solvent fractions of ethanolic extract of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta were evaluated against eight standard bacteria and clinical isolates. Methods The solvent partitioning protocol involving ethanol, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water, was used to extract various fractions of dried pulverized Cryptolepis sanguinolenta roots. Qualitative phyto-constituents screening was performed on the ethanol extract, chloroform fraction and the water fraction. The Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method was employed to ascertain the antibiogram of the test organisms while the agar diffusion method was used to investigate the antimicrobial properties of the crude plant extracts. The microplate dilution method aided in finding the MICs while the MBCs were obtained by the method of Nester and friends. The SPSS 16.0 version was used to analyze the percentages of inhibitions and bactericidal activities. Results The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, reducing sugars, polyuronides, anthocyanosides and triterpenes. The ethanol extract inhibited 5 out of 8 (62.5%) of the standard organisms and 6 out of 8 (75%) clinical isolates. The petroleum ether fraction inhibited 4 out of 8 (50%) of the standard microbes and 1 out of 8 (12.5%) clinical isolates. It was also observed that the chloroform fraction inhibited the growth of all the organisms (100%). Average inhibition zones of 14.0 ± 1.0 mm to 24.67 ± 0.58 mm was seen in the ethyl acetate fraction which halted the growth of 3 (37.5%) of the standard organisms. Inhibition of 7 (87.5%) of standard strains and 6 (75%) of clinical isolates were observed in the water fraction. The chloroform fraction exhibited bactericidal activity against all the test organisms while the remaining fractions showed varying degrees of bacteriostatic activity

  12. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 73.165 Section 73.165 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 582.1207 Section 582.1207 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose...

  14. ENERGY REQUIREMENTS DURING PREGNANCY AND LACTATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To estimate the energy requirements of pregnant and lactating women consistent with optimal pregnancy outcome and adequate milk production. Design: Total energy cost of pregnancy was estimated using the factorial approach from pregnancy-induced increments in basal metabolic rate measured...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 582.5311 Section 582.5311 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  16. 21 CFR 582.5311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ferrous lactate. 582.5311 Section 582.5311 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or...

  17. Microbial production of lactate-containing polyesters

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jung Eun; Choi, So Young; Shin, Jae Ho; Park, Si Jae; Lee, Sang Yup

    2013-01-01

    Due to our increasing concerns on environmental problems and limited fossil resources, biobased production of chemicals and materials through biorefinery has been attracting much attention. Optimization of the metabolic performance of microorganisms, the key biocatalysts for the efficient production of the desired target bioproducts, has been achieved by metabolic engineering. Metabolic engineering allowed more efficient production of polyhydroxyalkanoates, a family of microbial polyesters. More recently, non-natural polyesters containing lactate as a monomer have also been produced by one-step fermentation of engineered bacteria. Systems metabolic engineering integrating traditional metabolic engineering with systems biology, synthetic biology, protein/enzyme engineering through directed evolution and structural design, and evolutionary engineering, enabled microorganisms to efficiently produce natural and non-natural products. Here, we review the strategies for the metabolic engineering of microorganisms for the in vivo biosynthesis of lactate-containing polyesters and for the optimization of whole cell metabolism to efficiently produce lactate-containing polyesters. Also, major problems to be solved to further enhance the production of lactate-containing polyesters are discussed. PMID:23718266

  18. Biomonitoring Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Lactating Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Breast milk is a valuable biological specimen for biomonitoring lipid-soluble polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). The goal of this project was to determine the levels of PBDEs in breast milk of lactating women from the Seacoast region of New Hampshire and to examine potential relationships betw...

  19. Studying Reliability Using Identical Handheld Lactate Analyzers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Mark T.; Stavrianeas, Stasinos

    2008-01-01

    Accusport analyzers were used to generate lactate performance curves in an investigative laboratory activity emphasizing the importance of reliable instrumentation. Both the calibration and testing phases of the exercise provided students with a hands-on opportunity to use laboratory-grade instrumentation while allowing for meaningful connections…

  20. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) Uses and restrictions. Ferrous lactate may...

  1. 21 CFR 73.165 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies are... availability of this material at NARA, call 202-741-6030, or go to: http://www.archives.gov/federal_register/code_of_federal_regulations/ibr_locations.html. (c) Uses and restrictions. Ferrous lactate may...

  2. Coproduction of ethanol and glycerol.

    PubMed

    Gong, C S; Du, J X; Cao, N J; Tsao, G T

    2000-01-01

    Ethanol and glycerol are both metabolic products of yeasts. There are occasions when coproduction of both is considered desirable in industrial operations. In this article, we describe the potential of integrating the two processes. A LORRE Y8 yeast culture isolated from molasses is capable of efficient glycerol production from glucose, and a yeast Culture 1400 is an excellent producer of ethanol. By controlling the process conditions, the ratio of ethanol and glycerol production can be varied. PMID:10849818

  3. [Effect of byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates on ethanol fermentation by Issatchenkia orientalis].

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengqin; Liu, Yaqiong; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Yuanyuan; Xie, Hui; Song, Andong

    2014-05-01

    Byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates, namely sodium formate (1 to 5 g/L), sodium acetic (2.5 to 8.0 g/L), furfural (0.2-2 g/L), 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF, 1 to 1.0 g/L) or vanillin (0.5 to 2 g/L) were used to evaluate their effects on ethanol fermentation by Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1 using single factor test and the response surface central composite experiment. Results showed that most of the byproducts had no obvious inhibition on the production of ethanol, except for the addition of 2 g/L vanillin or 1 g/L of 5-HMF, which reduced the ethanol production by 20.38% and 11.2%, respectively. However, high concentration of some byproducts in lignocellulose hydrolysates, such as sodium formate (1 to 5 g/L), sodium acetic (2.5 to 8.0 g/L), furfural (0.2 to 2 g/L) and vanillin (0.5 to 2 g/L) inhibited the growth of I. orientalis HN-1 significantly. Compared with the control, the dry cell weight of I. orientalis HN-1 decreased by 25.04% to 37.02%, 28.83% to 43.82%, 20.06% to 37.60% and 26.39% to 52.64%, respectively, when the above components were added into the fermentation broth and the fermentation lasted for 36 h. No significant interaction effect of the various inhibitors (sodium formate, sodium acetic, furfural and vanillin) except for vanillin single factor on the ethanol production was observed based on the central composite experiments. The concentrations of byproducts in most lignocellulose hydrolysates were below the initial inhibition concentration on ethanol production by Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1, which indicated that Issatchenkia orientalis HN-1 can be used for ethanol production from lignocellulose hydrolysates. PMID:25118399

  4. Ethanol from municipal cellulosic wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, A. J., Jr.; Timbario, T. J.; Mulloney, J. A., Jr.

    This paper addresses the use of municipal cellulosic wastes as a feedstock for producing ethanol fuels, and describes the application of enzymatic hydrolysis technology for their production. The concept incorporates recent process technology developments within the framework of an existing industry familiar with large-scale ethanol fermentation (the brewing industry). Preliminary indications are that the cost of producing ethanol via enzymatic hydrolysis in an existing plant with minimal facility modifications (low capital investment) can be significantly less than that of ethanol from grain fermentation.

  5. ETHANOL-INDUCED INHIBITION OF ANABOLIC BONE REBUILDING IN POST-WEANING RATS INVOLVES INCREASED OXIDATIVE STRESS AND TNF-ALPHA IN RATS FED VIA TOTAL ENTERAL NUTRITION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Lactation-induced bone loss is promptly restored in the post-weaning period by a process of anabolic rebuilding, the endocrine and molecular basis of which still remains enigmatic. Ethanol (EtOH) consumption during this post-weaning period prevents the recovery of bone density and may be a significa...

  6. Efficient conversion of xylose to ethanol by stress-tolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus BUNL-21.

    PubMed

    Nitiyon, Sukanya; Keo-Oudone, Chansom; Murata, Masayuki; Lertwattanasakul, Noppon; Limtong, Savitree; Kosaka, Tomoyuki; Yamada, Mamoru

    2016-01-01

    The fermentation ability of thermotolerant Kluyveromyces marxianus BUNL-21 isolated in Laos was investigated. Comparison with thermotolerant K. marxianus DMKU3-1042 as one of the most thermotolerant yeasts isolated previously revealed that the strain possesses stronger ability for conversion of xylose to ethanol, resistance to 2-deoxyglucose in the case of pentose, and tolerance to various stresses including high temperature and hydrogen peroxide. K. marxianus BUNL-21 was found to have ethanol fermentation activity from xylose that is slightly lower and much higher than that of Scheffersomyces stipitis (Pichia stipitis) at 30 °C and at higher temperatures, respectively. The lower ethanol production seems to be due to large accumulation of acetic acid. The possible mechanism of acetic acid accumulation is discussed. In addition, it was found that both K. marxianus strains produced ethanol in the presence of 10 mM hydroxymethylfurfural or furfural, at a level almost equivalent to that in their absence. Therefore, K. marxianus BUNL-21 is a highly competent yeast for high-temperature ethanol fermentation with lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:27026881

  7. Efficient production of ethanol from crude glycerol by a Klebsiella pneumoniae mutant strain.

    PubMed

    Oh, Baek-Rock; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Heo, Sun-Yeon; Hong, Won-Kyung; Luo, Lian Hua; Joe, Min-ho; Park, Don-Hee; Kim, Chul Ho

    2011-02-01

    A mutant strain of Klebsiella pneumoniae, termed GEM167, was obtained by γ irradiation, in which glycerol metabolism was dramatically affected on exposure to γ rays. Levels of metabolites of the glycerol reductive pathway, 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) and 3-hydroxypropionic acid (3-HP), were decreased in the GEM167 strain compared to a control strain, whereas the levels of metabolites derived from the oxidative pathway, 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD), ethanol, lactate, and succinate, were increased. Notably, ethanol production from glycerol was greatly enhanced upon fermentation by the mutant strain, to a maximum production level of 21.5 g/l, with a productivity of 0.93 g/l/h. Ethanol production level was further improved to 25.0 g/l upon overexpression of Zymomonas mobilis pdc and adhII genes encoding pyruvate decarboxylase (Pdc) and aldehyde dehydrogenase (Adh), respectively in the mutant strain GEM167. PMID:21186120

  8. L-Lactate transport into rat heart mitochondria and reconstruction of the L-lactate/pyruvate shuttle.

    PubMed Central

    Valenti, Daniela; de Bari, Lidia; Atlante, Anna; Passarella, Salvatore

    2002-01-01

    In vitro reconstruction of the L-lactate/pyruvate shuttle has been performed, which allows NADH oxidation outside rat heart mitochondria. Such a shuttle occurs due to the combined action of the novel mitochondrial L-lactate/pyruvate antiporter, which differs from the monocarboxylate carrier, and the mitochondrial L-lactate dehydrogenase. The rate of L-lactate/pyruvate antiport proved to regulate the shuttle in vitro. PMID:11988081

  9. L-Lactate transport into rat heart mitochondria and reconstruction of the L-lactate/pyruvate shuttle.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Daniela; de Bari, Lidia; Atlante, Anna; Passarella, Salvatore

    2002-05-15

    In vitro reconstruction of the L-lactate/pyruvate shuttle has been performed, which allows NADH oxidation outside rat heart mitochondria. Such a shuttle occurs due to the combined action of the novel mitochondrial L-lactate/pyruvate antiporter, which differs from the monocarboxylate carrier, and the mitochondrial L-lactate dehydrogenase. The rate of L-lactate/pyruvate antiport proved to regulate the shuttle in vitro. PMID:11988081

  10. Electrochemical and biochemical analysis of ethanol fermentation of zymomonas mobilis KCCM11336.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Bo Young; Hwang, Tae Sik; Park, Doo Hyun

    2009-07-01

    An electrochemical bioreactor (ECB) composed of a cathode compartment and an air anode was used in this study to characterize the ethanol fermentation of Zymomonas mobilis. The cathode and air anode were constructed of modified graphite felt with neutral red (NR) and a modified porous carbon plate with cellulose acetate and porous ceramic membrane, respectively. The air anode operates as a catalyst to generate protons and electrons from water. The growth and ethanol production of Z. mobilis were 50% higher in the ECB than were observed under anoxic nitrogen conditions. Ethanol production by growing cells and the crude enzyme of Z. mobilis were significantly lower under aerobic conditions than under other conditions. The growing cells and crude enzyme of Z. mobilis did not catalyze ethanol production from pyruvate and acetaldehyde. The membrane fraction of crude enzyme catalyzed ethanol production from glucose, but the soluble fraction did not. NADH was oxidized to NAD+ in association with H2O2 reduction, via the catalysis of crude enzyme. Our results suggested that NADH/NAD+ balance may be a critical factor for ethanol producton from glucose in the metabolism of Z. mobilis, and that the metabolic activity of both growing cells and crude enzyme for ethanol fermentation may be induced in the presence of glucose. PMID:19652513

  11. Denatured ethanol release into gasoline residuals, Part 2: fate and transport.

    PubMed

    Freitas, Juliana G; Barker, James F

    2013-05-01

    When denatured ethanol (E95) is spilled in a site with previous gasoline contamination, it modifies the source distribution (Part 1). But it can also impact the transport and fate of hydrocarbons in the groundwater. Ethanol could cause an increase in dissolved concentrations and more persistent plumes due to cosolvency and decreased hydrocarbon biodegradation rates. To investigate these possibilities, two controlled releases were performed: first of E10 (gasoline with 10% ethanol) and one year later of E95 on top of the gasoline. Groundwater concentrations were monitored above and below the water table in multilevel wells. Soil cores and vapor samples were also collected over a period of approximately 400 days. Surprisingly, ethanol transport was very limited; at wells located 2.3m downgradient from the mid-point of the release trench, the maximum concentration measured was around 2400 mg/L. After 392 days, only 3% of the ethanol released migrated past 2.3 m, and no ethanol remained in the source. The processes that caused ethanol loss were likely volatilization, aerobic biodegradation in the unsaturated zone, and anaerobic biodegradation. Evidence that biodegradation was significant in the source zone includes increased CO2 concentrations in the vapor and the presence of biodegradation products (acetate concentrations up to 2300 mg/L). The position of the dissolved hydrocarbon plumes was slightly shifted, but the concentrations and mass flux remained within the same range as before the spill, indicating that cosolvency was not significant. Hydrocarbons in the groundwater were significantly biodegraded, with more than 63% of the mass being removed in 7.5m, even when ethanol was present in the groundwater. The impacts of ethanol on the hydrocarbon transport and fate were minimal, largely due to the separation of ethanol and hydrocarbons in the source (Part 1). PMID:23375213

  12. Acetate production from lactose by Clostridium thermolacticum and hydrogen-scavenging microorganisms in continuous culture--effect of hydrogen partial pressure.

    PubMed

    Collet, Christophe; Gaudard, Olivier; Péringer, Paul; Schwitzguébel, Jean-Paul

    2005-08-22

    The effect of the addition of hydrogen-consuming microorganisms on the metabolism of Clostridium thermolacticum was studied. By growing this bacterium in continuous culture at 58 degrees C, on 29 mmol lactose l(-1) (10 gl(-1)) in the feed, with the H2-consuming microorganisms Methanothermobacter thermoautotrophicus and Moorella thermoautotrophica, the volumetric productivity of acetate was increased up to 3.9 mmol l(-1)h(-1) at a dilution rate of 0.058 h(-1). This was about three times higher than the maximal acetate volumetric productivity quantified when C. thermolacticum was cultivated alone. In the consortium, C. thermolacticum was the only species able to metabolize lactose; it produced not only acetate, but also hydrogen, carbon dioxide and lactate. The other species of the consortium were growing on these by-products. Meth. thermoautotrophicus played an important role as a very efficient hydrogen scavenger and decreased the hydrogen partial pressure drastically: hydrogen was converted to methane. Moor. thermoautotrophica converted lactate as well as hydrogen and carbon dioxide into acetate. As a consequence, lactose was efficiently consumed and the only organic product in the liquid phase was acetate. PMID:15992956

  13. Flocculating Zymomonas mobilis is a promising host to be engineered for fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ning; Bai, Yun; Liu, Chen-Guang; Zhao, Xin-Qing; Xu, Jian-Feng; Bai, Feng-Wu

    2014-03-01

    Whereas Saccharomyces cerevisiae uses the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway to metabolize glucose, Zymomonas mobilis uses the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway. Employing the ED pathway, 50% less ATP is produced, which could lead to less biomass being accumulated during fermentation and an improved yield of ethanol. Moreover, Z. mobilis cells, which have a high specific surface area, consume glucose faster than S. cerevisiae, which could improve ethanol productivity. We performed ethanol fermentations using these two species under comparable conditions to validate these speculations. Increases of 3.5 and 3.3% in ethanol yield, and 58.1 and 77.8% in ethanol productivity, were observed in ethanol fermentations using Z. mobilis ZM4 in media containing ∼100 and 200 g/L glucose, respectively. Furthermore, ethanol fermentation bythe flocculating Z. mobilis ZM401 was explored. Although no significant difference was observed in ethanol yield and productivity, the flocculation of the bacterial species enabled biomass recovery by cost-effective sedimentation, instead of centrifugation with intensive capital investment and energy consumption. In addition, tolerance to inhibitory byproducts released during biomass pretreatment, particularly acetic acid and vanillin, was improved. These experimental results indicate that Z. mobilis, particularly its flocculating strain, is superior to S. cerevisiae as a host to be engineered for fuel ethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass. PMID:24357469

  14. The Role of Monocarboxylate Transporters and Their Chaperone CD147 in Lactate Efflux Inhibition and the Anticancer Effects of Terminalia chebula in Neuroblastoma Cell Line N2-A

    PubMed Central

    Messeha, S. S.; Zarmouh, N. O.; Taka, E.; Gendy, S. G.; Shokry, G. R.; Kolta, M. G.; Soliman, K. F. A.

    2016-01-01

    Aims In the presence of oxygen, most of the synthesized pyruvate during glycolysis in the cancer cell of solid tumors is released away from the mitochondria to form lactate (Warburg Effect). To maintain cell homeostasis, lactate is transported across the cell membrane by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). The major aim of the current investigation is to identify novel compounds that inhibit lactate efflux that may lead to identifying effective targets for cancer treatment. Study Design In this study, 900 ethanol plant extracts were screened for their lactate efflux inhibition using neuroblastoma (N2-A) cell line. Additionally, we investigated the mechanism of inhibition for the most potent plant extract regarding monocarboxylate transporters expression, and consequences effects on viability, growth, and apoptosis. Methodology The potency of lactate efflux inhibition of ethanol plant extracts was evaluated in N2-A cells by measuring extracellular lactate levels. Caspase 3- activity and acridine orange/ethidium bromide staining were performed to assess the apoptotic effect. The antiproliferative effect was measured using WST assay. Western blotting was performed to quantify protein expression of MCTs and their chaperone CD147 in treated cells lysates. Results Terminalia chebula plant extract was the most potent lactate efflux inhibitor in N2-A cells among the 900 - tested plant extracts. The results obtained show that extract of Terminalia chebula fruits (TCE) significantly (P = 0.05) reduced the expression of the MCT1, MCT3, MCT4 and the chaperone CD147. The plant extract was more potent (IC50 of 3.59 ± 0.26 μg/ml) than the MCT standard inhibitor phloretin (IC50 76.54 ± 3.19 μg/ml). The extract also showed more potency and selective cytotoxicity in cancer cells than DI-TNC1 primary cell line (IC50 7.37 ± 0.28 vs. 17.35 ± 0.19 μg/ml). Moreover, TCE Inhibited N2-A cell growth (IG50 = 5.20 ± 0.30 μg/ml) and induced apoptosis at the 7.5 μg/ml concentration

  15. Coagulation of chitin and cellulose from 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ionic-liquid solutions using carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    Barber, Patrick S; Griggs, Chris S; Gurau, Gabriela; Liu, Zhen; Li, Shan; Li, Zengxi; Lu, Xingmei; Zhang, Suojiang; Rogers, Robin D

    2013-11-18

    Chemisorption of carbon dioxide by 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate ([C2 mim][OAc]) provides a route to coagulate chitin and cellulose from [C2 mim][OAc] solutions without the use of high-boiling antisolvents (e.g., water or ethanol). The use of CO2 chemisorption as an alternative coagulating process has the potential to provide an economical and energy-efficient method for recycling the ionic liquid. PMID:24115399

  16. Improvement of robustness and ethanol production of ethanologenic Saccharomyces cerevisiae under co-stress of heat and inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Lu, Ying; Cheng, Yan-Fei; He, Xiu-Ping; Guo, Xue-Na; Zhang, Bo-Run

    2012-01-01

    Bioethanol is an attractive alternative to fossil fuels. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is the most important ethanol producer. However, yeast cells are challenged by various environmental stresses during the industrial process of ethanol production. The robustness under heat, acetic acid, and furfural stresses was improved for ethanologenic S. cerevisiae in this work using genome shuffling. Recombinant yeast strain R32 could grow at 45°C, and resist 0.55% (v/v) acetic acid and 0.3% (v/v) furfural at 40°C. When ethanol fermentation was conducted at temperatures ranging from 30 to 42°C, recombinant strain R32 always gave high ethanol production. After 42 h of fermentation at 42°C, 187.6 ± 1.4 g/l glucose was utilized by recombinant strain R32 to produce 81.4 ± 2.7 g/l ethanol, which were respectively 3.4 and 4.1 times those of CE25. After 36 h of fermentation at 40°C with 0.5% (v/v) acetic acid, 194.4 ± 1.2 g/l glucose in the medium was utilized by recombinant strain R32 to produce 84.2 ± 4.6 g/l of ethanol. The extent of glucose utilization and ethanol concentration of recombinant strain R32 were 6.3 and 7.9 times those of strain CE25. The ethanol concentration produced by recombinant strain R32 was 8.9 times that of strain CE25 after fermentation for 48 h under 0.2% (v/v) furfural stress at 40°C. The strong physiological robustness and fitness of yeast strain R32 support its potential application for industrial production of bioethanol from renewable resources such as lignocelluloses. PMID:21698486

  17. D-Lactate transport and metabolism in rat liver mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    de Bari, Lidia; Atlante, Anna; Guaragnella, Nicoletta; Principato, Giovanni; Passarella, Salvatore

    2002-01-01

    In the present study we investigated whether isolated rat liver mitochondria can take up and metabolize D-lactate. We found the following: (1) externally added D-lactate causes oxygen uptake by mitochondria [P/O ratio (the ratio of mol of ATP synthesized to mol of oxygen atoms reduced to water during oxidative phosphorylation)=2] and membrane potential (Delta(psi)) generation in processes that are rotenone-insensitive, but inhibited by antimycin A and cyanide, and proton release from coupled mitochondria inhibited by alpha-cyanocinnamate, but not by phenylsuccinate; (2) the activity of the putative flavoprotein (D-lactate dehydrogenase) was detected in inside-out submitochondrial particles, but not in mitochondria and mitoplasts, as it is localized in the matrix phase of the mitochondrial inner membrane; (3) three novel separate translocators exist to mediate D-lactate traffic across the mitochondrial inner membrane: the D-lactate/H(+) symporter, which was investigated by measuring fluorimetrically the rate of endogenous flavin reduction, the D-lactate/oxoacid antiporter (which mediates both the D-lactate/pyruvate and D-lactate/oxaloacetate exchanges) and D-lactate/malate antiporter studied by monitoring photometrically the appearance of the D-lactate counteranions outside mitochondria. The D-lactate translocators, in the light of their different inhibition profiles separate from the monocarboxylate carrier, were found to differ from each other in the V(max) values and in the inhibition and pH profiles and were shown to regulate mitochondrial D-lactate metabolism in vitro. The D-lactate translocators and the D-lactate dehydrogenase could account for the removal of the toxic methylglyoxal from cytosol, as well as for D-lactate-dependent gluconeogenesis. PMID:11955284

  18. Effect of lactation number, year, and season of initiation of lactation on milk yield of cows hormonally induced into lactation and treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin.

    PubMed

    Mellado, M; Antonio-Chirino, E; Meza-Herrera, C; Veliz, F G; Arevalo, J R; Mellado, J; de Santiago, A

    2011-09-01

    Records representing data from 1,500 barren Holstein cows over an 8-yr period from a large commercial dairy farm in northern Mexico were analyzed to determine the effects of lactation number and season and year of initiation of lactation on milk production of cows induced hormonally into lactation and treated with recombinant bovine somatotropin (rbST) throughout lactation. Peak and 305-d milk yields were also assessed as predictors of total milk yield in cows induced into lactation. A significant quadratic relationship was found between 305-d milk yield and number of lactation [7,607±145 and 9,548±181 kg for first- and ≥6-lactation cows, respectively; mean ± standard error of the mean (SEM)] with the highest production occurring in the fifth lactation. Total milk yields of cows with ≤2 lactations were approximately 4,500 kg less than milk yields of adult cows (the overall average ± standard milk yield was 13,544±5,491 kg per lactation and the average lactation length was 454±154 d). Moreover, 305-d milk production was depressed in cows induced into lactation in spring (8,804±153 kg; mean ± SEM) and summer (8,724±163 kg) than in fall (9,079±151 kg) and winter (9,085±143 kg). Partial regression coefficients for 305-d milk yield and peak milk yield indicated an increment of 157 kg of milk per lactation per 1-kg increase in peak milk yield (r(2)=0.69). Neither peak milk yield (r(2)=0.18) nor 305-d milk yield (r(2)=0.29) was accurate for predicting total milk yield per lactation. Year, parity, and season effects had significant influence on milk yield of cows induced into lactation and treated with rbST throughout lactation, and peak milk yield can assist in the prediction of 305-d milk yield but not total milk yield. This study also showed that hormonal induction of lactation in barren high-yielding cows is a reliable, practical, and affordable technique in countries where rbST treatment and prolonged steroid administration of dairy cows are legally

  19. Evaluation of CNS activities of ethanol extract of roots and rhizomes of Cyperus rotundus in mice.

    PubMed

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Dutta, Santanu; Sarkar, Abhijit

    2009-01-01

    The ethanol extract of Cyperus rotundus (EECR) was tested for possible pharmacological effects on experimental animals. EECR significantly potentiated the sleeping time of mice induced by standard hypnotics, viz. pentobarbitone sodium, diazepam, and meprobamate in a dose dependent manner. EECR showed significant analgesic properties as evidenced by the significant reduction in the number of writhes and stretches induced in mice by 1.2% acetic acid solution. It also potentiated analgesia induced by morphine and pethidine in mice. Pretreatment with EECR caused significant protection against strychnine and leptazol-induced convulsions. The behavioral studies on mice indicate CNS depressant activity of the ethanol extract of C. rotundus. PMID:19894649

  20. CNS activities of ethanol extract of aerial parts of Hygrophila difformis in mice.

    PubMed

    Pal, Dilipkumar; Samanta, Krishanu

    2011-01-01

    The ethanol extract of aerial parts of Hygrophila difformis (EEHD) was tested for possible pharmacological effects on experimental animals. EEHD significantly potentiated the sleeping time of mice induced by standard hypnotics, viz. pentobarbital sodium, diazepam, and meprobamate in a dose dependent manner. EEHD showed significant analgesic properties as evidenced by the significant reduction in the number of writhes and stretches induced in mice by 1.2% acetic acid solution. It also potentiated analgesia induced by morphine and pethidine in mice. Pretreatment with EEHD caused significant protection against strychnine and leptazol-induced convulsions. The behavioral studies on mice indicate CNS depressant activity of the ethanol extract of H. difformis. PMID:21485704

  1. Use of a flor velum yeast for modulating colour, ethanol and major aroma compound contents in red wine.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Juan; Moreno-García, Jaime; López-Muñoz, Beatriz; Mauricio, Juan Carlos; García-Martínez, Teresa

    2016-12-15

    The most important and negative effect of the global warming for winemakers in warm and sunny regions is the observed lag between industrial and phenolic grape ripeness, so only it is possible to obtain an acceptable colour when the ethanol content of wine is high. By contrast, the actual market trends are to low ethanol content wines. Flor yeast growing a short time under velum conditions, decreases the ethanol and volatile acidity contents, has a favorable effect on the colour and astringency and significantly changes the wine content in 1-propanol, isobutanol, acetaldehyde, 1,1-diethoxiethane and ethyl lactate. The Principal Component Analysis of six enological parameters or five aroma compounds allows to classify the wines subjected to different velum formation conditions. The obtained results in two tasting sessions suggest that the flor yeast helps to modulate the ethanol, astringency and colour and supports a new biotechnological perspective for red winemakers. PMID:27451159

  2. Use of radiolabeled acetate to evaluate the rate of clearance of cerebral oxidative metabolites

    SciTech Connect

    Lear, J.L.; Kasliwal, R.; Duryea, R.A.

    1994-05-01

    Radiolabel derived from glucose (GLC) has been shown to have different cerebral retention kinetics than radiolabel derived from deoxyglucose (DG). In particular, activated structures with high metabolic rates have more rapid loss of GLC-derived radiolabel than DG-derived radiolabel. Because GLC-derived radiolabel can be lost from the brain glycolytically through lactate or oxidatively through CO{sub 2}, the cause of the difference between GLC and FDG is uncertain. We investigated the isolated oxidative pathway using radiolabeled acetate, which is only metabolized through the Krebs cycle. Male albino rats were anesthetized with halothane and femoral vein and artery catheters were placed. The rats were allowed to awaken for two hours prior to the studies. 100 uCi of {sup 14}C-acetate was administered as a 30 second IV infusion to each rat. Arterial samples were obtained at regular intervals. Groups of rats were killed at 5, 10, 15, 30, and 60 minutes. Brains were rapidly removed, sectioned, and used to produce autoradiograms. The extracted and retained radiolabel was calculated as the brain concentration at time of death divided by the integral of the arterial tracer concentration. No detectable loss of radiolabel was found over the initial 10 minutes. Thereafter the rate of loss gradually increased reaching a maximum of 1.2% per minute by 60 minutes. This corresponds to a k4 rate constant of 0.012 min{sup -1}. The rate of loss of oxidative metabolites from rat brain was found to be very slow. This probably results from exchange of radiolabel with amino acid pools as the tracer is metabolized through the Krebs cycle. Therefore in conditions were glycolysis is increased out of proportion to oxidation and cerebral lactate concentration rises, radiolabel loss through lactate efflux can be a substantial fraction of overall loss.

  3. Best prediction of yields for long lactations.

    PubMed

    Cole, J B; Null, D J; Vanraden, P M

    2009-04-01

    Lactation records of any reasonable length now can be processed with the selection index method known as best prediction (BP). Previous prediction programs were limited to the 305-d standard used since 1935. Best prediction was implemented in 1998 to calculate lactation records in USDA genetic evaluations, replacing the test interval method used since 1969 to calculate lactation records. Best prediction is more complex but also more accurate, particularly when testing is less frequent. Programs were reorganized to output better graphics, give users simpler access to options, and provide additional output, such as BP of daily yields. Test-day data for 6 breeds were extracted from the national dairy database, and lactation lengths were required to be > or =500 d (Ayrshire, Milking Shorthorn) or > or =800 d (all others). Average yield and SD at any day in milk (DIM) were estimated by fitting 3-parameter Wood's curves (milk, fat, protein) and 4-parameter exponential functions (somatic cell score) to means and SD of 15- (< or =300 DIM) and 30-d (>300 DIM) intervals. Correlations among TD yields were estimated using an autoregressive matrix to account for biological changes and an identity matrix to model daily measurement error. Autoregressive parameters (r) were estimated separately for first (r = 0.998) and later parities (r = 0.995). These r values were slightly larger than previous estimates due to the inclusion of the identity matrix. Correlations between traits were modified so that correlations between somatic cell score and other traits may be nonzero. The new lactation curves and correlation functions were validated by extracting TD data from the national database, estimating 305-d yields using the original and new programs, and correlating those results. Daily BP of yield were validated using daily milk weights from on-farm meters in university research herds. Correlations ranged from 0.900 to 0.988 for 305-d milk yield. High correlations ranged from 0.844 to

  4. Mustard bran in lactating dairy cow diets.

    PubMed

    Maiga, H A; Bauer, M L; Dahlen, C R; Badaruddin, M; Scholljegerdes, E J

    2011-06-01

    Two trials using lactating Holstein cows were conducted to evaluate effects of a diet containing oriental mustard bran on dry matter intake (DMI), milk production, milk components, and organoleptic properties. In experiment 1, 34 lactating cows (24 multiparous and 10 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 50 d) were used in a switchback design to determine the lactational response and organoleptic quality of milk when the diet contained 8% oriental mustard bran (MB) versus a control diet (CON). Mustard bran replaced a portion of soybean meal and all the beet pulp in the CON diet. Milk yields were greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, no differences were found in DMI, 3.5% fat- (FCM) or solids-corrected milk. Milk components and components production were not affected by treatment. Milk organoleptic qualities were not affected by diet. In experiment 2, 22 lactating cows (16 multiparous and 6 primiparous; days in milk ≥ 21 d) were assigned randomly within parity to receive MB or CON from wk 4 to 19 postpartum in a randomized complete block design. Cows were fed CON wk 1 to 3 postpartum. The MB diet contained the same ingredients as the CON, except sunflower seed and a portion of soybean meal were replaced with mustard bran. Milk and components data were collected during wk 3 postpartum and used as covariates to adjust treatment means. Intake was greater for cows fed the MB diet; however, daily milk, 3.5% FCM, and solids-corrected milk yields were not different between diets. Milk components and component yields were not affected by treatment. Milk urea concentration was less for cows fed the MB diet. Although cows fed the MB diet had greater DMI, this was not translated into a higher milk 3.5% FCM/DMI production efficiency ratio. During experiment 2, many cows fed MB experienced minor to severe hemolysis with bloody urine. This hemolysis believed to be caused by the S-methyl-cysteine sulfoxide contained in mustard bran could have affected milk production efficiency

  5. Lactate and short chain fatty acids produced by microbial fermentation downregulate proinflammatory responses in intestinal epithelial cells and myeloid cells.

    PubMed

    Iraporda, Carolina; Errea, Agustina; Romanin, David E; Cayet, Delphine; Pereyra, Elba; Pignataro, Omar; Sirard, Jean Claude; Garrote, Graciela L; Abraham, Analía G; Rumbo, Martín

    2015-10-01

    The use of short chain fatty acids to modulate gastrointestinal inflammatory conditions such as ulcerative colitis has produced encouraging results either in animal models or also in clinical trials. Identifying the key cellular and molecular targets of this activity will contribute to establish the appropriate combinations/targeting strategies to maximize the efficacy of anti-inflammatory interventions. In the present work, we evaluated in vitro the interaction of lactate, acetate, propionate and butyrate on cells relevant for innate immune response of the gastrointestinal tract. All molecules tested regulate the production of proinflammatory cytokines by TLR-4 and TLR-5 activated intestinal epithelial cells in a dose response manner. Furthermore SCFAs and lactate modulate cytokine secretion of TLR-activated bone marrow derived macrophages and also TLR-dependent CD40 upregulation in bone marrow derived dendritic in a dose-dependent manner. Butyrate and propionate have been effective at concentrations of 1 to 5mM whereas acetate and lactate produced modulatory effects at concentrations higher than 20-50mM in different assays. Our results indicate that in concentrations similar to found in large bowel lumen, all SCFAs tested and lactate can modulate activity of relevant sentinel cell types activated by TLR signals. Modulatory activity was not inhibited by pertussis toxin treatment indicating that the effects are not related to Gi signaling. The use of these molecules in combined or separately as intervention strategy in conditions where epithelial or myeloid cells are main triggers of the inflammatory situation seems appropriate. PMID:26101138

  6. Effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay on neutral detergent fiber digestion, nitrogen utilization efficiency, and lactational performance by dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Christensen, R G; Yang, S Y; Eun, J-S; Young, A J; Hall, J O; MacAdam, J W

    2015-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine effects of feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diets in comparison with an alfalfa hay-based diet on N utilization efficiency, ruminal fermentation, and lactational performance by mid-lactation dairy cows. Nine multiparous lactating Holstein cows (131 ± 22.6 d in milk), 3 of which were rumen fistulated, were fed 3 experimental diets in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design with 3 periods of 14 d of adaptation and 7 d of data and sample collection. Within squares, cows were randomly assigned to diets as follows: alfalfa hay-based diet (AHT), alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diet (ABT), and birdsfoot trefoil hay-based diet (BT). Intakes of dry matter and crude protein were similar across treatments, whereas ABT and BT diets resulted in decreased fiber intake compared with AHT. Feeding BT tended to increase neutral detergent fiber digestibility compared with AHT and ABT. Milk yield tended to increase for cows consuming ABT or BT diets. Milk true protein concentration and yield were greater for cows consuming ABT relative to those fed AHT. Concentration of total volatile fatty acids tended to increase by cows fed BT compared with those fed AHT and ABT. Feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay in a total mixed ration resulted in a tendency to decrease acetate proportion, but it tended to increase propionate proportion, leading to a tendency to decrease acetate-to-propionate ratio. Whereas concentration of ammonia-N was similar across treatments, cows offered BT exhibited greater microbial protein yield relative to those fed AHT and ABT. Cows offered birdsfoot trefoil hay diets secreted more milk N than AHT, resulting in improved N utilization efficiency for milk N. The positive effects due to feeding birdsfoot trefoil hay were attributed to enhanced neutral detergent fiber digestion, and thus it could replace alfalfa hay in high-forage dairy diets while improving N utilization efficiencies and maintaining lactational performance

  7. ["Candidatus contubernalis alkalaceticum," an obligately syntrophic alkaliphilic bacterium capable of anaerobic acetate oxidation in a coculture with Desulfonatronum cooperativum].

    PubMed

    Zhilina, T N; Zavarzina, D G; Kolganova, T V; Turova, T P; Zavarzin, G A

    2005-01-01

    From the silty sediments of the Khadyn soda lake (Tuva), a binary sulfidogenic bacterial association capable of syntrophic acetate oxidation at pH 10.0 was isolated. An obligately syntrophic, gram-positive, spore-forming alkaliphilic rod-shaped bacterium performs acetate oxidation in a syntrophic association with a hydrogenotrophic, alkaliphilic sulfate-reducing bacterium; the latter organism was previously isolated and characterized as the new species Desulfonatronum cooperativum. Other sulfate-reducing bacteria of the genera Desulfonatronum and Desulfonatronovibrio can also act as the hydrogenotrophic partner. Apart from acetate, the syntrophic culture can oxidize ethanol, propanol, isopropanol, serine, fructose, and isobutyric acid. Selective amplification of 16S rRNA gene fragments of the acetate-utilizing syntrophic component of the binary culture was performed; it was found to cluster with clones of uncultured gram-positive bacteria within the family Syntrophomonadaceae. The acetate-oxidizing bacterium is thus the first representative of this cluster obtained in a laboratory culture. Based on its phylogenetic position, the new acetate-oxidizing syntrophic bacterium is proposed to be assigned, in a Candidate status, to a new genus and species: "Candidatus Contubernalis alkalaceticum." PMID:16400991

  8. The pharmacology of nomegestrol acetate.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Xiangyan; Seeger, Harald; Mueck, Alfred O

    2012-04-01

    Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) is a 19-norprogesterone derivative with high biological activity at the progesterone receptor, a weak anti-androgenic effect, but with no binding to estrogen, glucocorticoid or mineralocorticoid receptors. At dosages of 1.5mg/day or more, NOMAC effectively suppresses gonadotropic activity and ovulation in women of reproductive age. Hemostasis, lipids and carbohydrate metabolism remain largely unchanged. In normal and cancerous human breast cells, NOMAC has shown favorable effects on estrogen metabolism. Like natural progesterone (but in contrast to some other synthetic progestogens), it does not appear stimulate the proliferation of cancerous breast cells. While there has been some experience of the use of NOMAC in combination with estrogens as a hormone replacement therapy, most of the data on the compound are reported in the context of its inclusion as a component of a new contraceptive pill comprising 2.5mg NOMAC combined with 1.5mg estradiol. Because of its strong endometrial efficacy, and due to its high antigonadotropic activity and long elimination half-life (about 50h), the contraceptive efficacy of the new pill is maintained even when dosages are missed. Furthermore, for the first time with a monophasic 24/4 regimen containing estradiol, cyclical stability can be achieved comparable with that obtained using pills containing ethinyl estradiol and progestogens like levonorgestrel or drospirenone. The addition of NOMAC to estradiol means that the beneficial effects of estrogen are not lost, which is of especial importance in relation to the cardiovascular system. On the basis both of its pharmacology and of studies performed during the development of the NOMAC/estradiol pill, involving some 4000 women in total, good long-term tolerability can be expected for NOMAC, although its safety profile is still to be fully ascertained, as the clinical endpoint studies are yet to be completed. PMID:22364709

  9. Conversion to eslicarbazepine acetate monotherapy

    PubMed Central

    French, Jacqueline; Jacobson, Mercedes P.; Pazdera, Ladislav; Gough, Mallory; Cheng, Hailong; Grinnell, Todd; Blum, David

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To assess the efficacy and safety of eslicarbazepine acetate (ESL) monotherapy. Methods: This post hoc pooled analysis of 2 randomized double-blind studies (093-045 and -046) included adults with partial-onset seizures medically uncontrolled by 1 or 2 antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Following the baseline period (8 weeks), eligible patients were randomized 2:1 to receive ESL 1,600 mg or 1,200 mg once daily for 18 weeks; the primary endpoint was study exit by meeting predefined exit criteria (signifying worsening seizure control). In each study, treatment was considered effective if the upper 95% confidence limit for exit rate was lower than the historical control threshold (65.3%). Results: Pooled exit rates were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 20.6% (95% confidence interval: 15.6%–26.8%); ESL 1,200 mg = 30.8% (23.0%–40.5%). Use of 2 baseline AEDs or rescue medication, US location, epilepsy duration ≥20 years, and higher maximum baseline seizure frequency were associated with higher exit risks. Median percent reductions in standardized seizure frequency between baseline and the 18-week double-blind period were as follows: ESL 1,600 mg = 43.2%; ESL 1,200 mg = 35.7%; baseline carbamazepine use was associated with smaller reductions. Safety profiles were similar between ESL doses. Conclusions: Exit rates for ESL monotherapy (1,600 mg and 1,200 mg once daily) were lower than the historical control threshold, irrespective of baseline AED use and region, with no additional safety concerns identified. Clinical factors and location clearly influence treatment responses in conversion-to-monotherapy trials. Classification of evidence: This pooled analysis provides Class IV evidence that for adults with medically uncontrolled partial-onset seizures, ESL monotherapy is well tolerated and effective. PMID:26911639

  10. Alternanthera sessilis Red Ethyl Acetate Fraction Exhibits Antidiabetic Potential on Obese Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Kok Keong; Kim, Kah Hwi

    2013-01-01

    The antidiabetic potential of Alternanthera sessilis Red was investigated using the obese type 2 diabetic rats induced by high fat diet and streptozotocin. Three fractions (hexane, ethyl acetate, and water) were obtained from the crude ethanol extract of Alternanthera sessilis Red. Alternanthera sessilis Red ethyl acetate fraction (ASEAF) was found to possess the most potent antihyperglycemic effect through oral glucose tolerance test. The ASEAF was subsequently given to the diabetic rats for two weeks. It was found that two-week administration of ASEAF reduces the fasting blood glucose level, triglyceride level, and free fatty acid level of the rats. ASEAF-treated diabetic rats showed higher pancreatic insulin content and pancreatic total superoxide dismutase activity compared to the untreated diabetic rats. Also, the insulin sensitivity indexes suggested that ASEAF ameliorates the insulin resistant state of the diabetic rats. In conclusion, ASEAF could be developed into a potential antidiabetic agent for the management of type 2 diabetes. PMID:23606892

  11. The energetics of lactation in cooperatively breeding meerkats Suricata suricatta.

    PubMed

    Scantlebury, M; Russell, A F; McIlrath, G M; Speakman, J R; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2002-10-22

    Species may become obligate cooperative breeders when parents are unable to raise their offspring unassisted. We measured the daily energy expenditure of mothers, helpers and offspring during peak lactation in cooperatively breeding meerkats Suricata suricatta using the doubly labelled water technique. Lactating mothers expended more energy per day than allo-lactating subordinate females, non-lactating females or suckling offspring. Metabolizable energy intakes of lactating mothers were calculated from isotope-based estimates of offspring milk energy intake, and were not significantly different from the previously suggested maximal limit for mammals. Allo-lactating females were the only category of animals that lost weight during the period of study, probably because they spent more time babysitting than non-lactating females. Daily energy expenditure (DEE) of lactating mothers increased with litter size but decreased with the number of helpers. Calculations show that for every 10 helpers, even in the absence of allo-lactators, mothers are able to reduce their DEE during peak lactation by an amount equivalent to the energy cost of one pup. These results indicate that helpers have beneficial energetic consequences for lactating mothers in an obligate cooperatively breeding mammal. PMID:12396490

  12. The energetics of lactation in cooperatively breeding meerkats Suricata suricatta.

    PubMed Central

    Scantlebury, M; Russell, A F; McIlrath, G M; Speakman, J R; Clutton-Brock, T H

    2002-01-01

    Species may become obligate cooperative breeders when parents are unable to raise their offspring unassisted. We measured the daily energy expenditure of mothers, helpers and offspring during peak lactation in cooperatively breeding meerkats Suricata suricatta using the doubly labelled water technique. Lactating mothers expended more energy per day than allo-lactating subordinate females, non-lactating females or suckling offspring. Metabolizable energy intakes of lactating mothers were calculated from isotope-based estimates of offspring milk energy intake, and were not significantly different from the previously suggested maximal limit for mammals. Allo-lactating females were the only category of animals that lost weight during the period of study, probably because they spent more time babysitting than non-lactating females. Daily energy expenditure (DEE) of lactating mothers increased with litter size but decreased with the number of helpers. Calculations show that for every 10 helpers, even in the absence of allo-lactators, mothers are able to reduce their DEE during peak lactation by an amount equivalent to the energy cost of one pup. These results indicate that helpers have beneficial energetic consequences for lactating mothers in an obligate cooperatively breeding mammal. PMID:12396490

  13. The effect of dietary energy source during mid to late lactation on liver triglyceride and lactation performance of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Vazquez-Añon, M; Bertics, S J; Grummer, R R

    1997-10-01

    Control [1.61 Mcal of net energy for lactation (NEL)/kg of dry matter (DM)], high grain (1.70 Mcal of NEL)/kg of DM), or high fat [1.70 Mcal of NEL/kg of DM with 2.3% tallow (DM basis)] diets were fed to 43 cows (150 +/- 3.1 d in milk) during mid to late lactation to determine effects on performance characteristics, metabolic parameters, or both during mid to late lactation, the dry period, and the first 100 d of the next lactation. All cows received identical diets during the dry period and during early lactation. Increasing the energy density of the diets during mid to late lactation increased DM intake (DMI), plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration, milk production, and milk protein yield. Compared with the high grain diets, fat supplementation decreased DMI and the percentage of milk protein but increased plasma nonesterified fatty acid concentration without causing elevation of liver triglyceride at the end of mid to late lactation. Increased energy density of the diets did not affect body condition score during mid to late lactation. There were no residual effects for any of the treatments on DMI, lactation performance, or body weight in the subsequent lactation. However, energy supplementation during mid to late lactation increased liver triglyceride content after calving. Compared with high fat diets, high grain diets fed during mid to late lactation increased plasma beta-hydroxy-butyrate concentration in the subsequent lactation. High energy diets fed during mid to late lactation may influence lipid metabolism during the following lactation. PMID:9361222

  14. Direct synthesis of ethanol from dimethyl ether and syngas over combined H-Mordenite and Cu/ZnO catalysts.

    PubMed

    Li, Xingang; San, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Yi; Ichii, Takashi; Meng, Ming; Tan, Yisheng; Tsubaki, Noritatsu

    2010-10-25

    Ethanol was directly synthesized from dimethyl ether (DME) and syngas with the combined H-Mordenite and Cu/ZnO catalysts that were separately loaded in a dual-catalyst bed reactor. Methyl acetate (MA) was formed by DME carbonylation over the H-Mordenite catalyst. Thereafter, ethanol and methanol were produced by MA hydrogenation over the Cu/ZnO catalyst. With the reactant gas containing 1.0% DME, the optimized temperature for the reaction was at 493 K to reach 100% conversion. In the products, the yield of methanol and ethanol could reach 46.3% and 42.2%, respectively, with a small amount of MA, ethyl acetate, and CO(2). This process is environmentally friendly as the main byproduct methanol can be recycled to DME by a dehydration reaction. In contrast, for the physically mixed catalysts, the low conversion of DME and high selectivity of methanol were observed. PMID:20715046

  15. Ethanol Coproducts for Livestock Diets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Rapid growth of the ethanol industry in the United States has generated large quantities of ethanol coproducts, primarily distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), available as a feedstuff for livestock. These coproducts are often added to livestock diets as a source of protein and energy. The...

  16. PRODUCTION OF ETHANOL FROM GRAIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    World ethanol production and use of ethanol as motor fuel is increasing. In the United States, 6.3 billion gallons (24 billion liters) of new annual production capacity was planned or under construction in 2007, in addition to annual production capacity of 6.1 billion gallons (23 billion liters) fr...

  17. Atmospheric chemistry: Ethanol and ozone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madronich, Sasha

    2014-06-01

    Ethanol has been heralded as a cleaner fuel for cars than gasoline. An analysis of air quality data suggests that a switch from ethanol to gasoline use in São Paulo in response to changing prices led unexpectedly to lower local levels of ozone pollution.

  18. Ethanolic fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn-Haegerdal, B.

    1996-12-31

    This minireview discusses various factors which require consideration for the ethanolic fermentation of lignocellulose hydrolysates. The production of an alternative transportation fuel requires pretreatment of the biomass and detoxification to enhance the fermentability. Recombinant DNA technology makes it possible to engineer new microorganisms for efficient ethanol production from all sugars present in the hydrolysates. 60 refs.

  19. The South Dakota Ethanol Industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As the need for biorenewable fuels increases, the ethanol industry in the U.S. continues to thrive and grow. The same is true here in South Dakota as well. In fact, South Dakota has been a leader in ethanol production for years, and will continue to be for years to come. This industry is making a...

  20. Lactation Biology Symposium: circadian clocks as mediators of the homeorhetic response to lactation.

    PubMed

    Casey, T M; Plaut, K

    2012-03-01

    The transition from pregnancy to lactation is the most stressful period in the life of a cow. During this transition, homeorhetic adaptations are coordinated across almost every organ and are marked by changes in hormones and metabolism to accommodate the increased energetic demands of lactation. Recent data from our laboratory showed that changes in circadian clocks occur in multiple tissues during the transition period in rats and indicate that the circadian system coordinates changes in the physiology of the dam needed to support lactation. Circadian rhythms coordinate the timing of physiological processes and synchronize these processes with the environment of the animal. Circadian rhythms are generated by molecular circadian clocks located in the hypothalamus (the master clock) and peripherally in every organ of the body. The master clock receives environmental and physiological cues and, in turn, synchronizes internal physiology by coordinating endocrine rhythms and metabolism through peripheral clocks. The effect of the circadian clock on lactation may be inferred by the photoperiod effect on milk production, which is accompanied by coordinated changes in the endocrine system and metabolic capacity of the dam to respond to changes in day length. We have shown that bovine mammary epithelial cells possess a functional clock that can be synchronized by external stimuli, and the expression of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like gene, a positive limb of the core clock, is responsive to prolactin in bovine mammary explants. Others showed that 7% of genes expressed in breasts of lactating women had circadian patterns of expression, and we report that the diurnal variation of composition of bovine milk is associated with changes in expression of mammary core clock genes. Together these studies indicate that the circadian system coordinates the metabolic and hormonal changes needed to initiate and sustain lactation, and we believe that the

  1. Transparent poly(vinyl acetate)-silica gels by a sol-gel process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, Anna B.; Klein, Lisa C.

    1993-12-01

    Rod shaped silica-poly(vinyl acetate) (PVAc) gels have been prepared by a sol gel process. In situ polymerization of tetraethoxysilane (TEOS) was accomplished in the presence of low molecular weight PVAc by dissolving various amounts of PVAc in a mixture of TEOS, ethanol, water and hydrochloric acid (HCl). Gelation of this mixture was carried out between room temperature and slightly above. Silica-PVAc rods recovered from cylindrical molds were homogeneous and transparent. Gels with weight percents of PVAc ranging from 2% to 50% were prepared. Silica-PVAc gels have higher flexure strengths, less brittle character and improved water durability in comparison with pure sol- gel silica.

  2. The primary pathway for lactate oxidation in Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Vita, Nicolas; Valette, Odile; Brasseur, Gaël; Lignon, Sabrina; Denis, Yann; Ansaldi, Mireille; Dolla, Alain; Pieulle, Laetitia

    2015-01-01

    The ability to respire sulfate linked to lactate oxidation is a key metabolic signature of the Desulfovibrio genus. Lactate oxidation by these incomplete oxidizers generates reductants through lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), with the latter catalyzing pyruvate conversion into acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA is the source of substrate-level phosphorylation through the production of ATP. Here, we show that these crucial steps are performed by enzymes encoded by a nonacistronic transcriptional unit named now as operon luo (for lactate utilization operon). Using a combination of genetic and biochemical techniques, we assigned a physiological role to the operon genes DVU3027-28 and DVU3032-33. The growth of mutant Δ26-28 was highly disrupted on D-lactate, whereas the growth of mutant Δ32-33 was slower on L-lactate, which could be related to a decrease in the activity of D-lactate or L-lactate oxidase in the corresponding mutants. The DVU3027-28 and DVU3032-33 genes thus encode functional D-LDH and L-LDH enzymes, respectively. Scanning of the genome for lactate utilization revealed several lactate permease and dehydrogenase homologs. However, transcriptional compensation was not observed in any of the mutants except for lactate permease. Although there is a high degree of redundancy for lactate oxidase, it is not functionally efficient in LDH mutants. This result could be related to the identification of several operon enzymes, including LDHs, in the PFOR activity bands, suggesting the occurrence of a lactate-oxidizing supermolecular structure that can optimize the performance of lactate utilization in Desulfovibrio species. PMID:26167158

  3. Chronic pain management in pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    Coluzzi, F; Valensise, H; Sacco, M; Allegri, M

    2014-02-01

    During pregnancy most of women will experience some kind of pain, either as a result of a pre-existing condition (low back pain, headache, fibromyalgia, and rheumatoid arthritis) or as a direct consequence of pregnancy (weight gain, postural changes, pelvic floor dysfunction, hormonal factors). However, chronic pain management during pregnancy and lactation remains a challenge for clinicians and pregnant women are at risk of undertreatment for painful conditions, because of fear about use of drugs during pregnancy. Few analgesic drugs have been demonstrated to be absolutely contraindicated during pregnancy and breastfeeding, but studies in pregnant women are not available for most of pain medications. The aim of this paper is to review the safety profile in pregnancy or lactation of the commonly prescribed pain medications and non-pharmacological treatments. In addition to the conventional classifications from the Food and Drug Administration and the American Academy of Paediatrics, authors analyzed the currently available clinical data from literature. PMID:23857445

  4. Lipid Transport in the Lactating Mammary Gland

    PubMed Central

    McManaman, James L.

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian cells depend on phospholipid (PL) and fatty acid (FA) transport to maintain membrane structure and organization, and to fuel and regulate cellular functions. In mammary glands of lactating animals, copious milk secretion, including large quantities of lipid in some species, requires adaptation and integration of PL and FA synthesis and transport processes to meet secretion demands. At present few details exist about how these processes are regulated within the mammary gland. However, recent advances in our understanding of the structural and molecular biology of membrane systems and cellular lipid trafficking provide insights into the mechanisms underlying the regulation and integration of PL and FA transport processes the lactating mammary gland. This review discusses the PL and FA transport processes required to maintain the structural integrity and organization of the mammary gland and support its secretory functions within the context of current molecular and cellular models of their regulation. PMID:24567110

  5. Identification and characterization of thermotolerant acetic acid bacteria strains isolated from coconut water vinegar in Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Perumpuli, P A B N; Watanabe, Taisuke; Toyama, Hirohide

    2014-01-01

    From the pellicle formed on top of brewing coconut water vinegar in Sri Lanka, three Acetobacter strains (SL13E-2, SL13E-3, and SL13E-4) that grow at 42 °C and four Gluconobacter strains (SL13-5, SL13-6, SL13-7, and SL13-8) grow at 37 °C were identified as Acetobacter pasteurianus and Gluconobacter frateurii, respectively. Acetic acid production by the isolated Acetobacter strains was examined. All three strains gave 4% acetic acid from 6% initial ethanol at 37 °C, and 2.5% acetic acid from 4% initial ethanol at 40 °C. Compared with the two other strains, SL13E-4 showed both slower growth and slower acetic acid production. As well as the thermotolerant SKU1108 strain, the activities of the alcohol dehydrogenase and the aldehyde dehydrogenase of SL13E-2 and SL13E-4 were more stable than those of the mesophilic strain. The isolated strains were used to produce coconut water vinegar at higher temperatures than typically used for vinegar production. PMID:25036846

  6. Cellulosic ethanol production via consolidated bioprocessing at 75 °C by engineered Caldicellulosiruptor bescii

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Chung, Daehwan; Cha, Minseok; Snyder, Elise N.; Elkins, James G.; Guss, Adam M.; Westpheling, Janet

    2015-10-06

    In this paper, we report that the C. bescii genome does not encode an acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase or an acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and no ethanol production is detected in this strain. The recent introduction of an NADH-dependent AdhE from C. thermocellum (Fig. 1a) in an ldh mutant of this strain resulted in production of ethanol from un-pretreated switchgrass, but the thermolability of the C. thermocellum AdhE at the optimum growth temperature of C. bescii (78 °C) meant that ethanol was not produced above 65 °C. The adhB and adhE genes from Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus 39E, an anaerobic thermophile that produces ethanol as amore » major fermentation product at 70 °C, were cloned and expressed in an ldh deletion mutant of C. bescii. The engineered strains produced ethanol at 75 °C, near the ethanol boiling point. The AdhB expressing strain produced ethanol (1.4 mM on Avicel, 0.4 mM on switchgrass) as well as acetate (13.0 mM on Avicel, 15.7 mM on switchgrass). The AdhE expressing strain produced more ethanol (2.3 mM on Avicel, 1.6 mM on switchgrass) and reduced levels of acetate (12.3 mM on Avicel, 15.1 mM on switchgrass). These engineered strains produce cellulosic ethanol at the highest temperature of any microorganism to date. In addition, the addition of 40 mM MOPS to the growth medium increased the maximal growth yield of C. bescii by approximately twofold. In conclusion, the utilization of thermostable enzymes will be critical to achieving high temperature CBP in bacteria such as C. bescii. The ability to produce ethanol at 75 °C, near its boiling point, raises the possibility that process optimization could allow in situ product removal of this end product to mitigate ethanol toxicity.« less

  7. Cellulosic ethanol production via consolidated bioprocessing at 75 °C by engineered Caldicellulosiruptor bescii

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, Daehwan; Cha, Minseok; Snyder, Elise N.; Elkins, James G.; Guss, Adam M.; Westpheling, Janet

    2015-10-06

    In this paper, we report that the C. bescii genome does not encode an acetaldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase or an acetaldehyde dehydrogenase and no ethanol production is detected in this strain. The recent introduction of an NADH-dependent AdhE from C. thermocellum (Fig. 1a) in an ldh mutant of this strain resulted in production of ethanol from un-pretreated switchgrass, but the thermolability of the C. thermocellum AdhE at the optimum growth temperature of C. bescii (78 °C) meant that ethanol was not produced above 65 °C. The adhB and adhE genes from Thermoanaerobacter pseudethanolicus 39E, an anaerobic thermophile that produces ethanol as a major fermentation product at 70 °C, were cloned and expressed in an ldh deletion mutant of C. bescii. The engineered strains produced ethanol at 75 °C, near the ethanol boiling point. The AdhB expressing strain produced ethanol (1.4 mM on Avicel, 0.4 mM on switchgrass) as well as acetate (13.0 mM on Avicel, 15.7 mM on switchgrass). The AdhE expressing strain produced more ethanol (2.3 mM on Avicel, 1.6 mM on switchgrass) and reduced levels of acetate (12.3 mM on Avicel, 15.1 mM on switchgrass). These engineered strains produce cellulosic ethanol at the highest temperature of any microorganism to date. In addition, the addition of 40 mM MOPS to the growth medium increased the maximal growth yield of C. bescii by approximately twofold. In conclusion, the utilization of thermostable enzymes will be critical to achieving high temperature CBP in bacteria such as C. bescii. The ability to produce ethanol at 75 °C, near its boiling point, raises the possibility that process optimization could allow in situ product removal of this end product to mitigate ethanol toxicity.

  8. Spectrophotometric determination of ethacridine lactate in infusion

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Pritam S.; Surana, S. J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: A simple, rapid, selective, accurate, and precise UV spectrophotometric method has been developed for the estimation of ethacridine lactate from bulk and pharmaceutical formulation. Materials and Methods: Appropriate aliquot portions of stock standard solution of ethacridine lactate were transferred into five separate 10 ml volumetric flasks, and the volume was adjusted to the mark with double distilled water to obtain concentrations of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, 1.0, and 1.2 μg/ml. The λmax of ethacridine lactate in double distill water was found to be 271 nm with an apparent molar absorptivity of 59.781 × 103 l/mol cm. The drug follows linearity in the concentration range 2–12 μg/ml with a correlation coefficient value of 0.998. Results: The proposed method was applied to pharmaceutical formulation and % amount of drug estimated 99.71% was found to be in good agreement with the label claim. The accuracy of the method was checked by recovery experiment performed at three different levels, i.e., 80%, 100%, and 120%. The % recovery was found to be in the range 99.26–100.25%. The low values of % RSD are indicative of the accuracy and reproducibility of the method. The precision of the method was studied as intraday, interday variations and repeatability. The % RSD value less than 2 indicates that the method is precise. Ruggedness of the proposed method was studied with the help of two analysts. Conclusion: The results indicated that the method could be used for the routine estimation of ethacridine lactate from tablet formulations. PMID:23781454

  9. Peafowl lactate dehydrogenase: problem of isoenzyme identification.

    PubMed

    Rose, R G; Wilson, A C

    1966-09-16

    Peafowl, like other vertebrates, contain multiple forms of lactate dehydrogenase. The electrophoretic properties of the peafowl isoenzymes are unusual in that the isoenzyme from heart tissue can be either more or less anodic than that of muscle, depending on the pH. This finding focuses attention on the problem of isoenzyme identification. It is suggested that isoenzymes be identified on the basis of properties that are chemically and biologically more significant than electrophoretic mobility. PMID:5917779

  10. Analgesic properties of the aqueous and ethanol extracts of the leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (Crassulaceae).

    PubMed

    Nguelefack, T B; Fotio, A L; Watcho, P; Wansi, S L; Dimo, T; Kamanyi, A

    2004-05-01

    The aqueous and ethanol extracts of the dry leaves of Kalanchoe crenata (300 and 600 mg/kg) were evaluated for their analgesic properties on the pain induced by acetic acid, formalin and heat in mice and by pressure on rats. The ethanol extract of K. crenata at a dose of 600 mg/kg produced an inhibition of 61.13% on pain induced by acetic acid and 50.13% for that induced by formalin. An inhibition of 67.18% was observed on pain induced by heat 45 min after the administration of the extract. The aqueous extract administered at a dose of 600 mg/kg produced a maximum effect of 25% on pain induced by pressure. These activities were similar to those produced by a paracetamol-codeine association, while indomethacin exhibited a protective effect only against the writhing test. Our results suggest that the leaves of K. crenata could be a source of analgesic compounds. PMID:15173998

  11. Mafenide acetate allergy presenting as recurrent chondritis.

    PubMed

    Pickus, Evan J; Lionelli, Gerald T; Charles, E Woodall; Korentager, Richard A

    2002-02-01

    Acute chondritis has a strong predilection for recurrence. Mafenide acetate has been implicated in causing reactions that mimic this condition; however, these hypersensitivity reactions lack fever, fluctuance, and pain. The authors report a case of mafenide acetate allergy presenting as recurrent chondritis in a patient who had previously been treated successfully for this condition. In this patient, the allergic response resolved within 3 days after cessation of mafenide acetate. If unappreciated, it may have led to unnecessary operative intervention. Therefore, auricular edema and erythema, without fever, fluctuance, and pain, must be recognized by surgeons as a possible mafenide acetate allergy and must be considered in the differential diagnosis for patients who present with recurrent acute suppurative chondritis. PMID:11910229

  12. Recent advances in nitrogen-fixing acetic acid bacteria.

    PubMed

    Pedraza, Raúl O

    2008-06-30

    Nitrogen is an essential plant nutrient, widely applied as N-fertilizer to improve yield of agriculturally important crops. An interesting alternative to avoid or reduce the use of N-fertilizers could be the exploitation of plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB), capable of enhancing growth and yield of many plant species, several of agronomic and ecological significance. PGPB belong to diverse genera, including Azospirillum, Azotobacter, Herbaspirillum, Bacillus, Burkholderia, Pseudomonas, Rhizobium, and Gluconacetobacter, among others. They are capable of promoting plant growth through different mechanisms including (in some cases), the biological nitrogen fixation (BNF), the enzymatic reduction of the atmospheric dinitrogen (N(2)) to ammonia, catalyzed by nitrogenase. Aerobic bacteria able to oxidize ethanol to acetic acid in neutral or acid media are candidates of belonging to the family Acetobacteraceae. At present, this family has been divided into ten genera: Acetobacter, Gluconacetobacter, Gluconobacter, Acidomonas, Asaia, Kozakia, Saccharibacter, Swaminathania, Neoasaia, and Granulibacter. Among them, only three genera include N(2)-fixing species: Gluconacetobacter, Swaminathania and Acetobacter. The first N(2)-fixing acetic acid bacterium (AAB) was described in Brazil. It was found inside tissues of the sugarcane plant, and first named as Acetobacter diazotrophicus, but then renamed as Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus. Later, two new species within the genus Gluconacetobacter, associated to coffee plants, were described in Mexico: G. johannae and G. azotocaptans. A salt-tolerant bacterium named Swaminathania salitolerans was found associated to wild rice plants. Recently, N(2)-fixing Acetobacter peroxydans and Acetobacter nitrogenifigens, associated with rice plants and Kombucha tea, respectively, were described in India. In this paper, recent advances involving nitrogen-fixing AAB are presented. Their natural habitats, physiological and genetic aspects

  13. Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol: in oral contraception.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lily P H; Plosker, Greg L

    2012-10-01

    Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol is a combined oral contraceptive with approval in many countries. This fixed-dose combination tablet contains nomegestrol acetate, a highly selective progestogen, and estradiol, a natural estrogen. It is the first monophasic combined oral contraceptive to contain estradiol, and is taken in 28-day cycles, consisting of 24 active therapy days with 4 placebo days (i.e. 24/4-day cycles). In two large, 1-year, randomized, open-label, multicentre, phase III trials in healthy adult women (aged 18-50 years), nomegestrol acetate/estradiol was at least as effective as drospirenone/ethinylestradiol as contraceptive therapy, as the pregnancy rates in women aged 18-35 years (primary efficacy population) in terms of the Pearl Index (primary endpoint) were numerically lower with nomegestrol acetate/estradiol, although the between-group difference was not statistically significant. In both trials, nomegestrol acetate/estradiol was given in a 24/4-day cycle, and drospirenone/ethinylestradiol was given in a 21/7-day cycle. The criteria for using condoms in case of forgotten doses were less stringent in the nomegestrol acetate/estradiol group than in the drospirenone/ethinylestradiol group. Nomegestrol acetate/estradiol therapy for up to 1 year was generally well tolerated in healthy adult women, with an acceptable tolerability profile in line with that expected for a combined oral contraceptive. The most commonly reported adverse events were acne and abnormal withdrawal bleeding (most often shorter, lighter or absent periods). Overall, compared with drospirenone/ethinylestradiol, nomegestrol acetate/estradiol appeared to be associated with less favourable acne-related outcomes, and shorter, lighter or absent periods. PMID:22950535

  14. Characterization of Lactate Sensors Based on Lactate Oxidase and Palladium Benzoporphyrin Immobilized in Hydrogels.

    PubMed

    Andrus, Liam P; Unruh, Rachel; Wisniewski, Natalie A; McShane, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    An optical biosensor for lactate detection is described. By encapsulating enzyme-phosphor sensing molecules within permeable hydrogel materials, lactate-sensitive emission lifetimes were achieved. The relative amount of monomer was varied to compare three homo- and co-polymer materials: poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) and two copolymers of pHEMA and poly(acrylamide) (pAam). Diffusion analysis demonstrated the ability to control lactate transport by varying the hydrogel composition, while having a minimal effect on oxygen diffusion. Sensors displayed the desired dose-variable response to lactate challenges, highlighting the tunable, diffusion-controlled nature of the sensing platform. Short-term repeated exposure tests revealed enhanced stability for sensors comprising hydrogels with acrylamide additives; after an initial "break-in" period, signal retention was 100% for 15 repeated cycles. Finally, because this study describes the modification of a previously developed glucose sensor for lactate analysis, it demonstrates the potential for mix-and-match enzyme-phosphor-hydrogel sensing for use in future multi-analyte sensors. PMID:26198251

  15. Characterization of Lactate Sensors Based on Lactate Oxidase and Palladium Benzoporphyrin Immobilized in Hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Andrus, Liam P.; Unruh, Rachel; Wisniewski, Natalie A.; McShane, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    An optical biosensor for lactate detection is described. By encapsulating enzyme-phosphor sensing molecules within permeable hydrogel materials, lactate-sensitive emission lifetimes were achieved. The relative amount of monomer was varied to compare three homo- and co-polymer materials: poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (pHEMA) and two copolymers of pHEMA and poly(acrylamide) (pAam). Diffusion analysis demonstrated the ability to control lactate transport by varying the hydrogel composition, while having a minimal effect on oxygen diffusion. Sensors displayed the desired dose-variable response to lactate challenges, highlighting the tunable, diffusion-controlled nature of the sensing platform. Short-term repeated exposure tests revealed enhanced stability for sensors comprising hydrogels with acrylamide additives; after an initial “break-in” period, signal retention was 100% for 15 repeated cycles. Finally, because this study describes the modification of a previously developed glucose sensor for lactate analysis, it demonstrates the potential for mix-and-match enzyme-phosphor-hydrogel sensing for use in future multi-analyte sensors. PMID:26198251

  16. Methanogenesis from acetate: a nonmethanogenic bacterium from an anaerobic acetate enrichment.

    PubMed

    Ward, D M; Mah, R A; Kaplan, I R

    1978-06-01

    A methanogenic acetate enrichment was initiated by inoculation of an acetate-mineral salts medium with domestic anaerobic digestor sludge and maintained by weekly transfer for 2 years. The enrichment culture contained a Methanosarcina and several obligately anaerobic nonmethanogenic bacteria. These latter organisms formed varying degrees of association with the Methanosarcina, ranging from the nutritionally fastidious gram-negative rod called the satellite bacterium to the nutritionally nonfastidious Eubacterium limosum. The satellite bacterium had growth requirements for amino acids, a peptide, a purine base, vitamin B12, and other B vitamins. Glucose, mannitol, starch, pyruvate, cysteine, lysine, leucine, isoleucine, arginine, and asparagine stimulated growth and hydrogen production. Acetate was neither incorporated nor metabolized by the satellite organism. Since acetate was the sole organic carbon source in the enrichment culture, organism(s) which metabolize acetate (such as the Methanosarcina) must produce substrates and growth factors for associated organisms which do not metabolize acetate. PMID:677881

  17. Potassium sorbate reduces production of ethanol and 2 esters in corn silage.

    PubMed

    Hafner, Sasha D; Franco, Roberta B; Kung, Limin; Rotz, C Alan; Mitloehner, Frank

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of biological and chemical silage additives on the production of volatile organic compounds (VOC; methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, methyl acetate, and ethyl acetate) within corn silage. Recent work has shown that silage VOC can contribute to poor air quality and reduce feed intake. Silage additives may reduce VOC production in silage by inhibiting the activity of bacteria or yeasts that produce them. We produced corn silage in 18.9-L bucket silos using the following treatments: (1) control (distilled water); (2) Lactobacillus buchneri 40788, with 400,000 cfu/g of wet forage; (3) Lactobacillus plantarum MTD1, with 100,000 cfu/g; (4) a commercial buffered propionic acid-based preservative (68% propionic acid, containing ammonium and sodium propionate and acetic, benzoic, and sorbic acids) at a concentration of 1 g/kg of wet forage (0.1%); (5) a low dose of potassium sorbate at a concentration of 91 mg/kg of wet forage (0.0091%); (6) a high dose of potassium sorbate at a concentration of 1g/kg of wet forage (0.1%); and (7) a mixture of L. plantarum MTD1 (100,000 cfu/g) and a low dose of potassium sorbate (91 mg/kg). Volatile organic compound concentrations within silage were measured after ensiling and sample storage using a headspace gas chromatography method. The high dose of potassium sorbate was the only treatment that inhibited the production of multiple VOC. Compared with the control response, it reduced ethanol by 58%, ethyl acetate by 46%, and methyl acetate by 24%, but did not clearly affect production of methanol or 1-propanol. The effect of this additive on ethanol production was consistent with results from a small number of earlier studies. A low dose of this additive does not appear to be effective. Although it did reduce methanol production by 24%, it increased ethanol production by more than 2-fold and did not reduce the ethyl acetate concentration. All other treatments increased ethanol production

  18. Photocatalytic direct conversion of ethanol to 1,1- diethoxyethane over noble-metal-loaded TiO2 nanotubes and nanorods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hongxia; Wu, Yupeng; Li, Li; Zhu, Zhenping

    2015-04-13

    As one of the most important biomass platform molecules, ethanol needs to have its product chain chemically extended to meet future demands in renewable fuels and chemicals. Additionally, chemical conversion of ethanol under mild and green conditions is still a major challenge. In this work, ethanol is directly converted into 1,1-diethoxyethane (DEE) and H2 under mild photocatalytic conditions over platinum-loaded TiO2 nanotubes and nanorods. The reaction follows a tandem dehydrogenation-acetalization mechanism, in which ethanol is first dehydrogenated into acetaldehyde and H(+) ion by photogenerated holes, and then acetalization between acetaldehyde and ethanol proceeds through promotion by H(+) ions formed in real time. Excess H(+) ions are simultaneously reduced into H2 by photogenerated electrons. This photocatalytic process has a very high reaction rate over nanosized tubular and rod-like TiO2 photocatalysts, reaching 157.7 mmol g(-1)  h(-1) in relatively low photocatalyst feeding. More importantly, the reaction is highly selective, with a nearly stoichiometric conversion of reacted ethanol into DEE. This photocatalytic dehydrogenation CO coupling of ethanol is a new green approach to the direct efficient conversion of ethanol into DEE and provides a promising channel for sustainable bioethanol applications. PMID:25755072

  19. Extended lactation in dairy cows: effects of milking frequency, calving season and nutrition on lactation persistency and milk quality.

    PubMed

    Sorensen, Annette; Muir, D Donald; Knight, Christopher H

    2008-02-01

    Twelve spring-calving and twelve winter-calving cows were managed for extended lactation cycles of 18-months duration, with the former group then completing a second extended lactation. Half of the cows were fed according to standard management practice for the herd; the other half received supplementary concentrate from week 9 of lactation onwards. Commencing at the same time, half of the udder of each cow was subjected to increased milking frequency (thrice daily rather than twice daily). Lactation persistency (and hence total milk yield) was significantly increased by frequent milking. Winter calving cows and supplemented cows also exhibited better persistency, but this was only evident up until the point of re-breeding, at around lactation week 33. Milk composition was measured in the spring-calving cows in both their first and second extended lactations. Composition altered during the course of the lactation, protein and fat percentages increasing and lactose percentage decreasing, irrespective of treatment. The quality of the milk for processing into cheese, fermented products, heat-treated products and cream liqueurs was assessed by calculation of casein number (casein protein as a proportion of total protein). Processing quality declined across the course of lactation in those groups that showed poor persistency but not in those that maintained a persistent lactation. Milk hygienic quality (somatic cell counts) showed parallel changes. Body condition score increased during the course of lactation but was not affected by supplementation; none of the cows became excessively fat. All cows remained healthy throughout the extended lactations and the majority (33/36) re-bred successfully. By demonstrating that lactation persistency is plastic and can be improved by simple management interventions, the results lend support to the economic arguments in favour of extended lactation cycles. The likely welfare benefits of extended lactation are also discussed. PMID

  20. Fourier transform infrared study on hydrogen bonding species of carboxylic acids in supercritical carbon dioxide with ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Morio; Iwai, Yoshio; Nakajima, Taro; Arai, Yasuhiko

    1999-05-06

    Supercritical fluid extraction has been given much attention recently as one of the new separation technologies in the chemical industry. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy has been used to determine the equilibrium constants of the dimerization for carboxylic acid (acetic acid or palmitic acid) and the amount of hydrogen bonding species between carboxylic acid and ethanol in supercritical CO{sub 2}. Experiments were carried out at 308.2--313.2 K and 10.0--20.0 MPa. The noticeable band was the C{double_bond}O stretching band for carboxylic acid. In the binary system (supercritical CO{sub 2} + carboxylic acid), the equilibrium constants of the dimerization between the carboxylic acid monomer and dimer decrease with increasing pressure and temperature. The equilibrium constants of palmitic acid are larger than those of acetic acid. In a ternary system (supercritical CO{sub 2} + carboxylic acid + ethanol), the amount of hydrogen bonding species between carboxylic acid and ethanol in supercritical CO{sub 2} increases with the increasing mole fraction of added ethanol. Furthermore, the authors confirm that the solubility enhancement by ethanol used as an entrainer in supercritical CO{sub 2} related to the amount of hydrogen bonding species between carboxylic acid and ethanol.

  1. Impacts of an ethanol-blended fuel release on groundwater and fate of produced methane: Simulation of field observations

    PubMed Central

    Bekins, Barbara A.; Mackay, Douglas M.; de Sieyes, Nicholas R.; Wilson, John T.; Feris, Kevin P.; Wood, Isaac A.; Scow, Kate M.

    2014-01-01

    In a field experiment at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) designed to mimic the impact of a small-volume release of E10 (10% ethanol and 90% conventional gasoline), two plumes were created by injecting extracted groundwater spiked with benzene, toluene, and o-xylene, abbreviated BToX (No-Ethanol Lane) and BToX plus ethanol (With-Ethanol Lane) for 283 days. We developed a reactive transport model to understand processes controlling the fate of ethanol and BToX. The model was calibrated to the extensive field dataset and accounted for concentrations of sulfate, iron, acetate, and methane along with iron-reducing bacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria, fermentative bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. The benzene plume was about 4.5 times longer in the With-Ethanol Lane than in the No-Ethanol Lane. Matching this different behavior in the two lanes required inhibiting benzene degradation in the presence of ethanol. Inclusion of iron reduction with negligible growth of iron-reducers was required to reproduce the observed constant degradation rate of benzene. Modeling suggested that vertical dispersion and diffusion of sulfate from an adjacent aquitard were important sources of sulfate in the aquifer. Matching of methane data required incorporating initial fermentation of ethanol to acetate, methane loss by outgassing, and methane oxidation coupled to sulfate and iron reduction. Simulation of microbial growth using dual Monod kinetics, and including inhibition by more favorable electron acceptors, generally resulted in reasonable yields for microbial growth of 0.01-0.05. PMID:24678130

  2. Impacts of an ethanol-blended fuel release on groundwater and fate of produced methane: simulation of field observations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasa, Ehsan; Bekins, Barbara A.; Mackay, Douglas M.; de Sieyes, Nicholas R.; Wilson, John T.; Feris, Kevin P.; Wood, Isaac A.; Scow, Kate M.

    2013-01-01

    In a field experiment at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) designed to mimic the impact of a small-volume release of E10 (10% ethanol and 90% conventional gasoline), two plumes were created by injecting extracted groundwater spiked with benzene, toluene, and o-xylene, abbreviated BToX (No-Ethanol Lane) and BToX plus ethanol (With-Ethanol Lane) for 283 days. We developed a reactive transport model to understand processes controlling the fate of ethanol and BToX. The model was calibrated to the extensive field dataset and accounted for concentrations of sulfate, iron, acetate, and methane along with iron-reducing bacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria, fermentative bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. The benzene plume was about 4.5 times longer in the With-Ethanol Lane than in the No-Ethanol Lane. Matching this different behavior in the two lanes required inhibiting benzene degradation in the presence of ethanol. Inclusion of iron reduction with negligible growth of iron-reducers was required to reproduce the observed constant degradation rate of benzene. Modeling suggested that vertical dispersion and diffusion of sulfate from an adjacent aquitard were important sources of sulfate in the aquifer. Matching of methane data required incorporating initial fermentation of ethanol to acetate, methane loss by outgassing, and methane oxidation coupled to sulfate and iron reduction. Simulation of microbial growth using dual Monod kinetics, and including inhibition by more favorable electron acceptors, generally resulted in reasonable yields for microbial growth of 0.01-0.05.

  3. Impacts of an ethanol-blended fuel release on groundwater and fate of produced methane: Simulation of field observations.

    PubMed

    Rasa, Ehsan; Bekins, Barbara A; Mackay, Douglas M; de Sieyes, Nicholas R; Wilson, John T; Feris, Kevin P; Wood, Isaac A; Scow, Kate M

    2013-08-01

    In a field experiment at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) designed to mimic the impact of a small-volume release of E10 (10% ethanol and 90% conventional gasoline), two plumes were created by injecting extracted groundwater spiked with benzene, toluene, and o-xylene, abbreviated BToX (No-Ethanol Lane) and BToX plus ethanol (With-Ethanol Lane) for 283 days. We developed a reactive transport model to understand processes controlling the fate of ethanol and BToX. The model was calibrated to the extensive field dataset and accounted for concentrations of sulfate, iron, acetate, and methane along with iron-reducing bacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria, fermentative bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. The benzene plume was about 4.5 times longer in the With-Ethanol Lane than in the No-Ethanol Lane. Matching this different behavior in the two lanes required inhibiting benzene degradation in the presence of ethanol. Inclusion of iron reduction with negligible growth of iron-reducers was required to reproduce the observed constant degradation rate of benzene. Modeling suggested that vertical dispersion and diffusion of sulfate from an adjacent aquitard were important sources of sulfate in the aquifer. Matching of methane data required incorporating initial fermentation of ethanol to acetate, methane loss by outgassing, and methane oxidation coupled to sulfate and iron reduction. Simulation of microbial growth using dual Monod kinetics, and including inhibition by more favorable electron acceptors, generally resulted in reasonable yields for microbial growth of 0.01-0.05. PMID:24678130

  4. Impacts of an ethanol-blended fuel release on groundwater and fate of produced methane: Simulation of field observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasa, Ehsan; Bekins, Barbara A.; Mackay, Douglas M.; Sieyes, Nicholas R.; Wilson, John T.; Feris, Kevin P.; Wood, Isaac A.; Scow, Kate M.

    2013-08-01

    In a field experiment at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB) designed to mimic the impact of a small-volume release of E10 (10% ethanol and 90% conventional gasoline), two plumes were created by injecting extracted groundwater spiked with benzene, toluene, and o-xylene, abbreviated BToX (no-ethanol lane) and BToX plus ethanol (with-ethanol lane) for 283 days. We developed a reactive transport model to understand processes controlling the fate of ethanol and BToX. The model was calibrated to the extensive field data set and accounted for concentrations of sulfate, iron, acetate, and methane along with iron-reducing bacteria, sulfate-reducing bacteria, fermentative bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. The benzene plume was about 4.5 times longer in the with-ethanol lane than in the no-ethanol lane. Matching this different behavior in the two lanes required inhibiting benzene degradation in the presence of ethanol. Inclusion of iron reduction with negligible growth of iron reducers was required to reproduce the observed constant degradation rate of benzene. Modeling suggested that vertical dispersion and diffusion of sulfate from an adjacent aquitard were important sources of sulfate in the aquifer. Matching of methane data required incorporating initial fermentation of ethanol to acetate, methane loss by outgassing, and methane oxidation coupled to sulfate and iron reduction. Simulation of microbial growth using dual Monod kinetics, and including inhibition by more favorable electron acceptors, generally resulted in reasonable yields for microbial growth of 0.01-0.05.

  5. Effects of acetic acid and lactic acid on the growth of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in a minimal medium.

    PubMed

    Narendranath, N V; Thomas, K C; Ingledew, W M

    2001-03-01

    Specific growth rates (mu) of two strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae decreased exponentially (R2 > 0.9) as the concentrations of acetic acid or lactic acid were increased in minimal media at 30 degrees C. Moreover, the length of the lag phase of each growth curve (h) increased exponentially as increasing concentrations of acetic or lactic acid were added to the media. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of acetic acid for yeast growth was 0.6% w/v (100 mM) and that of lactic acid was 2.5% w/v (278 mM) for both strains of yeast. However, acetic acid at concentrations as low as 0.05-0.1% w/v and lactic acid at concentrations of 0.2-0.8% w/v begin to stress the yeasts as seen by reduced growth rates and decreased rates of glucose consumption and ethanol production as the concentration of acetic or lactic acid in the media was raised. In the presence of increasing acetic acid, all the glucose in the medium was eventually consumed even though the rates of consumption differed. However, this was not observed in the presence of increasing lactic acid where glucose consumption was extremely protracted even at a concentration of 0.6% w/v (66 mM). A response surface central composite design was used to evaluate the interaction between acetic and lactic acids on the specific growth rate of both yeast strains at 30 degrees C. The data were analysed using the General Linear Models (GLM) procedure. From the analysis, the interaction between acetic acid and lactic acid was statistically significant (P < or = 0.001), i.e., the inhibitory effect of the two acids present together in a medium is highly synergistic. PMID:11420658

  6. Lactate Produced by Glycogenolysis in Astrocytes Regulates Memory Processing

    PubMed Central

    Newman, Lori A.; Korol, Donna L.; Gold, Paul E.

    2011-01-01

    When administered either systemically or centrally, glucose is a potent enhancer of memory processes. Measures of glucose levels in extracellular fluid in the rat hippocampus during memory tests reveal that these levels are dynamic, decreasing in response to memory tasks and loads; exogenous glucose blocks these decreases and enhances memory. The present experiments test the hypothesis that glucose enhancement of memory is mediated by glycogen storage and then metabolism to lactate in astrocytes, which provide lactate to neurons as an energy substrate. Sensitive bioprobes were used to measure brain glucose and lactate levels in 1-sec samples. Extracellular glucose decreased and lactate increased while rats performed a spatial working memory task. Intrahippocampal infusions of lactate enhanced memory in this task. In addition, pharmacological inhibition of astrocytic glycogenolysis impaired memory and this impairment was reversed by administration of lactate or glucose, both of which can provide lactate to neurons in the absence of glycogenolysis. Pharmacological block of the monocarboxylate transporter responsible for lactate uptake into neurons also impaired memory and this impairment was not reversed by either glucose or lactate. These findings support the view that astrocytes regulate memory formation by controlling the provision of lactate to support neuronal functions. PMID:22180782

  7. Brain lactate metabolism: the discoveries and the controversies

    PubMed Central

    Dienel, Gerald A

    2012-01-01

    Potential roles for lactate in the energetics of brain activation have changed radically during the past three decades, shifting from waste product to supplemental fuel and signaling molecule. Current models for lactate transport and metabolism involving cellular responses to excitatory neurotransmission are highly debated, owing, in part, to discordant results obtained in different experimental systems and conditions. Major conclusions drawn from tabular data summarizing results obtained in many laboratories are as follows: Glutamate-stimulated glycolysis is not an inherent property of all astrocyte cultures. Synaptosomes from the adult brain and many preparations of cultured neurons have high capacities to increase glucose transport, glycolysis, and glucose-supported respiration, and pathway rates are stimulated by glutamate and compounds that enhance metabolic demand. Lactate accumulation in activated tissue is a minor fraction of glucose metabolized and does not reflect pathway fluxes. Brain activation in subjects with low plasma lactate causes outward, brain-to-blood lactate gradients, and lactate is quickly released in substantial amounts. Lactate utilization by the adult brain increases during lactate infusions and strenuous exercise that markedly increase blood lactate levels. Lactate can be an ‘opportunistic', glucose-sparing substrate when present in high amounts, but most evidence supports glucose as the major fuel for normal, activated brain. PMID:22186669

  8. Intestinal calcium absorption of women during lactation and after weaning.

    PubMed

    Kalkwarf, H J; Specker, B L; Heubi, J E; Vieira, N E; Yergey, A L

    1996-04-01

    We investigated whether intestinal calcium absorption and serum 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (calcitriol) concentrations are higher in women during lactation and after weaning to compensate for calcium lost in breast milk. Measurements were obtained at 4.6 mo postpartum in 24 lactating women and 24 nonlactating women, at 9.6 mo postpartum in 24 lactating women (2.6 mo after complete weaning) and 24 nonlactating women. One-half of the women in each group were randomly assigned to receive 1 g supplemental Ca/d as calcium carbonate. Fractional calcium absorption was measured by using stable isotopic tracers 42Ca and 44Ca. Fractional absorption was 0.32+/-0.02 (+/-SEM) in both lactating and nonlactating women, but was higher in lactating women after weaning (0.37+/-0.02) compared with nonlactating postpartum control subjects (0.31+/-0.02). These effects were independent of calcium intake. Changes in serum calcitriol paralleled changes in fractional absorption. There were no differences in calcitriol concentrations between lactating and nonlactating women, but calcitriol was greater in women after weaning compared with postpartum control subjects. Lactating women who had resumed menses had higher fractional absorption and serum calcitriol than did lactating women who had not. Serum calcium and phosphorus concentrations were greater in lactating compared with nonlactating women; there were no differences between groups after weaning. We conclude that lactation stimulates increases in fractional calcium absorption and serum calcitriol, but the responses are only apparent after weaning or the resumption of menses. PMID:8599316

  9. Toxicokinetics/Toxicodynamics of γ-Hydroxybutyrate-Ethanol Intoxication: Evaluation of Potential Treatment Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Morse, Bridget L.

    2013-01-01

    γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB), a common drug of abuse, is often coingested with ethanol. Increasing renal clearance via monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) inhibition represents a potential therapeutic strategy in GHB overdose, as does inhibition of GABAB receptors. In this study, we investigate toxicokinetic/toxicodynamic interactions between GHB-ethanol and efficacy of treatment options for GHB-ethanol intoxication in rats. Sedation was assessed using the endpoint of return-to-righting reflex. Respiration was assessed using plethysmography. Coadministration of 2.0 g/kg ethanol i.v. with 600 mg/kg GHB i.v. increased sleep time compared with GHB alone. Administration of ethanol to steady-state concentrations of 0.1–0.2% and 0.3–0.4% (w/v) did not affect toxicokinetics of 600 mg/kg GHB i.v., or respiratory rate, but did result in significantly lower peak tidal volumes compared with GHB alone. Oral administration of 2.5 g/kg ethanol had no significant effect on toxicokinetics of 1500 mg/kg orally administered GHB. Pretreatment with specific receptor inhibitors indicated no effect of GABAA receptor inhibition on sleep time or respiratory depression in GHB-ethanol intoxication. GABAB receptor inhibition partially prevented sedation and completely prevented respiratory depression. Ethanol increased fatality when administered at 0.1–0.2% (4 of 10) and 0.3–0.4% (9 of 10) versus 1500 mg/kg GHB i.v. alone (0 of 10). Treatment with the MCT inhibitor, l-lactate, significantly decreased sleep time after GHB-ethanol and decreased fatality at 0.1–0.2% (0 of 10) and 0.3–0.4% ethanol (5 of 10). Treatment with a GABAB receptor antagonist completely prevented fatality at 0.3–0.4% (0 of 10). These data indicate that ethanol potentiates the sedative and respiratory depressant effects of GHB, increasing the risk of fatality. MCT and GABAB receptor inhibition represent potentially effective treatments in GHB-ethanol intoxication. PMID:23814094

  10. Toxicokinetics/Toxicodynamics of γ-hydroxybutyrate-ethanol intoxication: evaluation of potential treatment strategies.

    PubMed

    Morse, Bridget L; Morris, Marilyn E

    2013-09-01

    γ-Hydroxybutyrate (GHB), a common drug of abuse, is often coingested with ethanol. Increasing renal clearance via monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) inhibition represents a potential therapeutic strategy in GHB overdose, as does inhibition of GABAB receptors. In this study, we investigate toxicokinetic/toxicodynamic interactions between GHB-ethanol and efficacy of treatment options for GHB-ethanol intoxication in rats. Sedation was assessed using the endpoint of return-to-righting reflex. Respiration was assessed using plethysmography. Coadministration of 2.0 g/kg ethanol i.v. with 600 mg/kg GHB i.v. increased sleep time compared with GHB alone. Administration of ethanol to steady-state concentrations of 0.1-0.2% and 0.3-0.4% (w/v) did not affect toxicokinetics of 600 mg/kg GHB i.v., or respiratory rate, but did result in significantly lower peak tidal volumes compared with GHB alone. Oral administration of 2.5 g/kg ethanol had no significant effect on toxicokinetics of 1500 mg/kg orally administered GHB. Pretreatment with specific receptor inhibitors indicated no effect of GABAA receptor inhibition on sleep time or respiratory depression in GHB-ethanol intoxication. GABAB receptor inhibition partially prevented sedation and completely prevented respiratory depression. Ethanol increased fatality when administered at 0.1-0.2% (4 of 10) and 0.3-0.4% (9 of 10) versus 1500 mg/kg GHB i.v. alone (0 of 10). Treatment with the MCT inhibitor, l-lactate, significantly decreased sleep time after GHB-ethanol and decreased fatality at 0.1-0.2% (0 of 10) and 0.3-0.4% ethanol (5 of 10). Treatment with a GABAB receptor antagonist completely prevented fatality at 0.3-0.4% (0 of 10). These data indicate that ethanol potentiates the sedative and respiratory depressant effects of GHB, increasing the risk of fatality. MCT and GABAB receptor inhibition represent potentially effective treatments in GHB-ethanol intoxication. PMID:23814094

  11. Solvent extraction of organic acids from stillage for its re-use in ethanol production process.

    PubMed

    Castro, G A; Caicedo, L A; Alméciga-Díaz, C J; Sanchez, O F

    2010-06-01

    Stillage re-use in the fermentation stage in ethanol production is a technique used for the reduction of water and fermentation nutrients consumption. However, the inhibitory effect on yeast growth of the by-products and feed components that remains in stillage increases with re-use and reduces the number of possible recycles. Several methods such as ultrafiltration, electrodialysis and advanced oxidation processes have been used in stillage treatment prior its re-use in the fermentation stage. Nevertheless, few studies evaluating the effect of solvent extraction as a stillage treatment option have been performed. In this work, the inhibitory effect of serial stillage recycling over ethanol and biomass production was determined, using acetic acid as a monitoring compound during the fermentation and solvent extraction process. Raw palm oil methyl ester showed the highest acetic acid extraction from the aqueous phase, presenting a distribution coefficient of 3.10 for a 1:1 aqueous phase mixture:solvent ratio. Re-using stillage without treatment allowed up to three recycles with an ethanol production of 53.7 +/- 2.0 g L(-1), which was reduced 25% in the fifth recycle. Alternatively, treated stillage allowed up to five recycles with an ethanol final concentration of 54.7 +/- 1.3 g L(- 1). These results show that reduction of acetic acid concentration by an extraction process with raw palm oil methyl ester before re-using stillage improves the number of recycles without a major effect on ethanol production. The proposed process generates a palm oil methyl ester that contains organic acids, among other by-products, that could be used for product recovery and as an alternative fuel. PMID:19748936

  12. Quantitative DEMS study of ethanol oxidation: effect of surface structure and Sn surface modification.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Ehab; Abd-El-Latif, Abd-El-Aziz A; Ilsley, Richard; Attard, Gary; Baltruschat, Helmut

    2012-12-14

    Using the dual thin layer flow through cell, a semi-quantitative analysis of the volatile products during the electrooxidation of adsorbed and bulk solution of 0.01 M ethanol at polycrystalline platinum, smooth, roughened and Sn modified Pt(11,1,1), Pt(311) electrodes has been done by on-line differential electrochemical mass spectroscopy (DEMS). In addition to the current efficiency of CO(2), that of acetaldehyde was determined as a function of the flow rate. At polycrystalline platinum, ethanol oxidation produces only acetaldehyde; the amount of acetaldehyde further oxidized to acetic acid is negligible due to convection conditions. For comparison and for calibration purposes, i-propanol oxidation was examined for which acetone is the only oxidation product. At Pt(11,1,1), the main oxidation product is acetaldehyde. At Pt(311), in addition to acetaldehyde, acetic acid was also formed. Surface modification with Sn did not increase the reactivity of Pt(11,1,1) instead it led to inhibition of the ethanol oxidation. In the case of Pt(311), the onset potential of oxidation was shifted negatively by 0.2 V in the presence of Sn. The results of the potentiostatic measurements showed that this shift is not associated with the production of CO(2); rather acetic acid and acetaldehyde are the main oxidation products. PMID:23108295

  13. Reaction of ethanol on oxidized and metallic cobalt surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyman, Matthew P.; Vohs, John M.

    2011-02-01

    The reaction of ethanol on metallic and oxidized cobalt surfaces was studied using temperature programmed desorption (TPD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) in order to determine the dependence of the reaction pathways on the cobalt oxidation state. The primary reaction for ethoxide species on metallic cobalt surfaces was decarbonylation producing CO, H 2 and carbon. This reaction was facile and occurred below 400 K. In contrast, CoO x surfaces which predominantly contained Co 2+ were selective for the dehydrogenation of ethoxide groups to produce acetaldehyde at 400 K. A fraction of the acetaldehyde molecules produced by this pathway were further oxidized to acetate which decomposed to produce CO 2 at 495 K. More highly oxidized Co surfaces that contained both CO 2+ and Co 3+ were active for the complete oxidation of ethanol producing CO, CO 2, and H 2O as the primary products. The insights that these results provide for understanding the mechanism of the steam reforming of ethanol on cobalt catalysts is discussed.

  14. Metabolic Engineering of Fusarium oxysporum to Improve Its Ethanol-Producing Capability

    PubMed Central

    Anasontzis, George E.; Kourtoglou, Elisavet; Villas-Boâs, Silas G.; Hatzinikolaou, Dimitris G.; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is one of the few filamentous fungi capable of fermenting ethanol directly from plant cell wall biomass. It has the enzymatic toolbox necessary to break down biomass to its monosaccharides and, under anaerobic and microaerobic conditions, ferments them to ethanol. Although these traits could enable its use in consolidated processes and thus bypass some of the bottlenecks encountered in ethanol production from lignocellulosic material when Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used—namely its inability to degrade lignocellulose and to consume pentoses—two major disadvantages of F. oxysporum compared to the yeast—its low growth rate and low ethanol productivity—hinder the further development of this process. We had previously identified phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase, two major enzymes of glucose catabolism and the pentose phosphate pathway, as possible bottlenecks in the metabolism of the fungus and we had reported the effect of their constitutive production on the growth characteristics of the fungus. In this study, we investigated the effect of their constitutive production on ethanol productivity under anaerobic conditions. We report an increase in ethanol yield and a concomitant decrease in acetic acid production. Metabolomics analysis revealed that the genetic modifications applied did not simply accelerate the metabolic rate of the microorganism; they also affected the relative concentrations of the various metabolites suggesting an increased channeling toward the chorismate pathway, an activation of the γ-aminobutyric acid shunt, and an excess in NADPH regeneration. PMID:27199958

  15. Determination of ethanol in wine by titrimetric and spectrophotometric dichromate methods: collaborative study.

    PubMed

    Pilone, G J

    1985-01-01

    A dichromate-spectrophotometric method for the determination of ethanol in wine was compared in a collaborative, matched pair study with the AOAC dichromate-titrimetric method, 11.008-11.011. Both methods require distillation of the sample into dichromate. The titrimetric method measures ethanol by titrating the excess dichromate with ferrous ammonium sulfate after conversion of ethanol to acetic acid; the spectrophotometric method directly measures the reduced dichromate formed after oxidation. In addition to comparing the 2 methods, the collaborative study also compared the use of 2 types of assemblies for obtaining the ethanol distillate: the Scott-type, which is used in 11.008-11.011, and the electric Kirk-type. Results of the collaborative study indicated that the repeatability and reproducibility of the official titrimetric method were generally far superior to those of the spectrophotometric method; therefore, adoption of the spectrophotometric method is not recommended. Comparison of titrimetric method results obtained using the 2 types of stills indicated that repeatability and reproducibility were somewhat better when Scott apparatus was used, but measurements using Kirk-type compared well in the range of ethanol concentrations found in table and fortified wines. The Kirk-type distillation apparatus has been adopted official first action as an alternative to Scott apparatus in the dichromate oxidation method for ethanol in wine, 11.008-11.011. PMID:3988696

  16. Metabolic Engineering of Fusarium oxysporum to Improve Its Ethanol-Producing Capability.

    PubMed

    Anasontzis, George E; Kourtoglou, Elisavet; Villas-Boâs, Silas G; Hatzinikolaou, Dimitris G; Christakopoulos, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Fusarium oxysporum is one of the few filamentous fungi capable of fermenting ethanol directly from plant cell wall biomass. It has the enzymatic toolbox necessary to break down biomass to its monosaccharides and, under anaerobic and microaerobic conditions, ferments them to ethanol. Although these traits could enable its use in consolidated processes and thus bypass some of the bottlenecks encountered in ethanol production from lignocellulosic material when Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used-namely its inability to degrade lignocellulose and to consume pentoses-two major disadvantages of F. oxysporum compared to the yeast-its low growth rate and low ethanol productivity-hinder the further development of this process. We had previously identified phosphoglucomutase and transaldolase, two major enzymes of glucose catabolism and the pentose phosphate pathway, as possible bottlenecks in the metabolism of the fungus and we had reported the effect of their constitutive production on the growth characteristics of the fungus. In this study, we investigated the effect of their constitutive production on ethanol productivity under anaerobic conditions. We report an increase in ethanol yield and a concomitant decrease in acetic acid production. Metabolomics analysis revealed that the genetic modifications applied did not simply accelerate the metabolic rate of the microorganism; they also affected the relative concentrations of the various metabolites suggesting an increased channeling toward the chorismate pathway, an activation of the γ-aminobutyric acid shunt, and an excess in NADPH regeneration. PMID:27199958

  17. Adrenocortical suppression in cats given megestrol acetate.

    PubMed

    Chastain, C B; Graham, C L; Nichols, C E

    1981-12-01

    Megestrol acetate was given orally to 8 cats at a dose of 2.5 mg every other day for 2 weeks and to 8 cats at a dose of 5.0 mg every day for 2 weeks. Four cats were designated nontreated controls. Pre-ACTH-stimulated plasma concentrations of cortisol (hydrocortisone) and ACTH-stimulated cortisol and tolerance to large-dose glucose infusion (IV) were determined on each of the 20 cats given megestrol acetate. Cats were restrained with acepromazine maleate and ketamine hydrochloride during blood sample collection and large-dose glucose infusion. Adrenocortical function and tolerance to large-dose glucose infusion were reevaluated for 4 weeks--after 1st and 2nd weeks of megestrol acetate treatment of the treated groups, and after 1st and 2nd weeks when treatment was stopped (ie, experiment weeks 3 and 4). Each week a cat from the control group and 2 cats from the 2 treated groups were selected to determine the changes occurring during the experiment for that week; after collection of plasma samples, each week's 5 selected cats were euthanatized and necropsied. Significant impairment of adrenocortical function and alteration of adrenocortical morphology occurred with both treated groups. The most severe adrenocortical alterations occurred in the cats 1 week after megestrol acetate was no longer given (ie, experiment week 3). Megestrol acetate-induced adrenocortical suppression contributed to the death of 1 cat. It was concluded that if stress occurs to cats on treatment or soon after treatment with megestrol acetate, glucocorticoids should be supplemented. The effects of megestrol acetate on glucose tolerance were overshadowed by the unforeseen intolerance caused by chemical restraint with acepromazine maleate and ketamine hydrochloride. PMID:6280517

  18. Environmental Releases in the Fuel Ethanol Industry

    EPA Science Inventory

    Corn ethanol is the largest produced alternate biofuel in the United States. More than 13 billion gallons of ethanol were produced in 2010. The projected corn ethanol production is 15 billion gallons by 2015. With increased production of ethanol, the environmental releases from e...

  19. Acetate Transport and Utilization in the Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Deelchand, Dinesh K.; Shestov, Alexander A.; Koski, Dee M.; Uğurbil, Kâmil; Henry, Pierre-Gilles

    2009-01-01

    Acetate, a glial-specific substrate, is an attractive alternative to glucose for the study of neuronal-glial interactions. The present study investigates the kinetics of acetate uptake and utilization in the rat brain in vivo during infusion of [2-13C]acetate using NMR spectroscopy. When plasma acetate concentration was increased, the rate of brain acetate utilization (CMRace) increased progressively and reached close to saturation for plasma acetate concentration > 2-3 mM, whereas brain acetate concentration continued to increase. The Michaelis-Menten constant for brain acetate utilization ( KMutil=0.01±0.14mM) was much smaller than for acetate transport through the blood-brain barrier ( KMt=4.18±0.83mM). The maximum transport capacity of acetate through the blood-brain barrier ( Vmaxt=0.96±0.18μmol/g/min) was nearly two-fold higher than the maximum rate of brain acetate utilization ( Vmaxutil=0.50±0.08μmol/g/min). We conclude that, under our experimental conditions, brain acetate utilization is saturated when plasma acetate concentrations increase above 2-3 mM. At such high plasma acetate concentration, the rate-limiting step for glial acetate metabolism is not the blood-brain barrier, but occurs after entry of acetate into the brain. PMID:19393008

  20. NEUROENDOCRINE ACTIONS AND REGULATION OF HYPOTHALAMIC NEUROPEPTIDE Y DURING LACTATION

    PubMed Central

    Crowley, W,R.; Ramoz, G.; Torto, R.; Keefe, K.A.; Wang, J. J.; Kalra, S. P.

    2007-01-01

    The expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and its co-messenger, agouti-related peptide (AgRP), in arcuate neurons of the hypothalamus is increased during lactation in rats. Our research has been addressing the questions of the physiological actions of these peptides during lactation and the physiological signals associated with lactation that result in increased expression of their genes. Our studies indicate that NPY and AgRP exert pleiotropic actions during lactation that help integrate neuroendocrine regulation of energy balance with controls over anterior and posterior pituitary hormone secretion. Further, reciprocal signaling to the NPY/AgRP system by leptin and ghrelin is responsible for the changes in expression of these hypothalamic peptides in lactating animals, and thus, may contribute to regulation of food intake and the various neuroendocrine adaptations of lactation. PMID:17241697