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Sample records for acetate lactate pyruvate

  1. Effects of dichloroacetate on the metabolism of glucose, pyruvate, acetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate and palmitate in rat diaphragm and heart muscle in vitro and on extraction of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and free fatty acids by dog heart in vivo.

    PubMed

    McAllister, A; Allison, S P; Randle, P J

    1973-08-01

    1. The extractions of glucose, lactate, pyruvate and free fatty acids by dog heart in vivo were calculated from measurements of their arterial and coronary sinus blood concentration. Elevation of plasma free fatty acid concentrations by infusion of intralipid and heparin resulted in increased extraction of free fatty acids and diminished extractions of glucose, lactate and pyruvate by the heart. It is suggested that metabolism of free fatty acids by the heart in vivo, as in vitro, may impair utilization of these substrates. These effects of elevated plasma free fatty acid concentrations on extractions by the heart in vivo were reversed by injection of dichloroacetate, which also improved extraction of lactate and pyruvate by the heart in vivo in alloxan diabetes. 2. Sodium dichloroacetate increased glucose oxidation and pyruvate oxidation in hearts from fed normal or alloxan-diabetic rats perfused with glucose and insulin. Dichloroacetate inhibited oxidation of acetate and 3-hydroxybutyrate and partially reversed inhibitory effects of these substrates on the oxidation of glucose. In rat diaphragm muscle dichloroacetate inhibited oxidation of acetate, 3-hydroxybutyrate and palmitate and increased glucose oxidation and pyruvate oxidation in diaphragms from alloxan-diabetic rats. Dichloroacetate increased the rate of glycolysis in hearts perfused with glucose, insulin and acetate and evidence is given that this results from a lowering of the citrate concentration within the cell, with a consequent activation of phosphofructokinase. 3. In hearts from normal rats perfused with glucose and insulin, dichloroacetate increased cell concentrations of acetyl-CoA, acetylcarnitine and glutamate and lowered those of aspartate and malate. In perfusions with glucose, insulin and acetate, dichloroacetate lowered the cell citrate concentration without lowering the acetyl-CoA or acetylcarnitine concentrations. Measurements of specific radioactivities of acetyl-CoA, acetylcarnitine

  2. Propionate stimulates pyruvate oxidation in the presence of acetate

    PubMed Central

    Purmal, Colin; Kucejova, Blanka; Sherry, A. Dean; Burgess, Shawn C.; Malloy, Craig. R.

    2014-01-01

    Flux through pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) in the heart may be reduced by various forms of injury to the myocardium, or by oxidation of alternative substrates in normal heart tissue. It is important to distinguish these two mechanisms because imaging of flux through PDH based on the appearance of hyperpolarized (HP) [13C]bicarbonate derived from HP [1-13C]pyruvate has been proposed as a method for identifying viable myocardium. The efficacy of propionate for increasing PDH flux in the setting of PDH inhibition by an alternative substrate was studied using isotopomer analysis paired with exams using HP [1-13C]pyruvate. Hearts from C57/bl6 mice were supplied with acetate (2 mM) and glucose (8.25 mM). 13C NMR spectra were acquired in a cryogenically cooled probe at 14.1 Tesla. After addition of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate, 13C NMR signals from lactate, alanine, malate, and aspartate were easily detected, in addition to small signals from bicarbonate and CO2. The addition of propionate (2 mM) increased appearance of HP [13C]bicarbonate >30-fold without change in O2 consumption. Isotopomer analysis of extracts from the freeze-clamped hearts indicated that acetate was the preferred substrate for energy production, glucose contribution to energy production was minimal, and anaplerosis was stimulated in the presence of propionate. Under conditions where production of acetyl-CoA is dominated by the availability of an alternative substrate, acetate, propionate markedly stimulated PDH flux as detected by the appearance of hyperpolarized [13C]bicarbonate from metabolism of hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate. PMID:25320331

  3. An energy-conserving pyruvate-to-acetate pathway in Entamoeba histolytica. Pyruvate synthase and a new acetate thiokinase.

    PubMed

    Reeves, R E; Warren, L G; Susskind, B; Lo, H S

    1977-01-25

    Under anaerobic conditions, cells of Entamoeba histolytica grown with bacteria produce H2 and acetate while cells grown axenically produce neither. Aerobically, acetate is produced and O2 is consumed by amebae from either type of cells. Centrifuged extracts, 2.4 x 106 x g x min, from both types of cells contain pyruvate synthase (EC 1.2.7.1) and an acetate thiokinase which, together, form a system capable of converting pyruvate to acetate. Pyruvate synthase catalyzes the reaction: pyruvate + CoA leads to CO2 + acetyl-CoA + 2E. Electron acceptors which function with this enzyme are FAD, FMN, riboflavin, ferredoxin, and methyl viologen, but not NAD or NADP. The amebal acetate thiokinase catalyzes the reaction acetyl-CoA + ADP + Pi leads to acetate + ATP + CoA. For this apparently new enzyme we suggest the trivial name acetyl-CoA-synthetase (ADP-forming). Extracts from axenic amebae do not contain hydrogenase, but extracts from cells grown with bacteria do. It is postulated that in bacteria-grown amebae electrons generated at the pyruvate synthase step are utilized anaerobically to produce H2 via the hydrogenase and that the acetyl-CoA is converted to acetate in an energy-conserving step catalyzed by amebal acetyl-CoA synthetase. Aerobically, cells grown under either regimen may utilize the energy-conserving pyruvate-to-acetate pathway since O2 then serves as the ultimate electron acceptor. PMID:13076

  4. L-Lactate transport into rat heart mitochondria and reconstruction of the L-lactate/pyruvate shuttle.

    PubMed Central

    Valenti, Daniela; de Bari, Lidia; Atlante, Anna; Passarella, Salvatore

    2002-01-01

    In vitro reconstruction of the L-lactate/pyruvate shuttle has been performed, which allows NADH oxidation outside rat heart mitochondria. Such a shuttle occurs due to the combined action of the novel mitochondrial L-lactate/pyruvate antiporter, which differs from the monocarboxylate carrier, and the mitochondrial L-lactate dehydrogenase. The rate of L-lactate/pyruvate antiport proved to regulate the shuttle in vitro. PMID:11988081

  5. L-Lactate transport into rat heart mitochondria and reconstruction of the L-lactate/pyruvate shuttle.

    PubMed

    Valenti, Daniela; de Bari, Lidia; Atlante, Anna; Passarella, Salvatore

    2002-05-15

    In vitro reconstruction of the L-lactate/pyruvate shuttle has been performed, which allows NADH oxidation outside rat heart mitochondria. Such a shuttle occurs due to the combined action of the novel mitochondrial L-lactate/pyruvate antiporter, which differs from the monocarboxylate carrier, and the mitochondrial L-lactate dehydrogenase. The rate of L-lactate/pyruvate antiport proved to regulate the shuttle in vitro. PMID:11988081

  6. Utilization of Lactate Isomers by Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii: Regulatory Role for Intracellular Pyruvate

    PubMed Central

    Crow, Vaughan L.

    1986-01-01

    Five strains of Propionibacterium freudenreichii subsp. shermanii utilized the l-(+) isomer of lactate at a faster rate than they did the d-(−) isomer when grown with a mixture of lactate isomers under a variety of conditions. ATCC 9614, grown anaerobically in defined medium containing 160 mM dl-lactate, utilized only 4 and 15% of the d-(−)-lactate by the time 50 and 90%, respectively, of the l-(+)-lactate was used. The intracellular pyruvate concentration was high (>100 mM) in the initial stages of lactate utilization, when either dl-lactate or the l-(+) isomer was the starting substrate. The concentration of this intermediate dropped during dl-lactate fermentation such that when only d-(−)-lactate remained, the concentration was <20 mM. When only the d-(−) isomer was initially present, a similar relatively low concentration of intracellular pyruvate was present, even at the start of lactate utilization. The NAD+-independent lactate dehydrogenase activities in extracts showed different kinetic properties with regard to pyruvate inhibition, depending upon the lactate isomer present. Pyruvate gave a competitive inhibitor pattern with l-(+)-lactate and a mixed-type inhibitor pattern with d-(−)-lactate. It is suggested that these properties of the lactate dehydrogenases and the intracellular pyruvate concentrations explain the preferential use of the l-(+) isomer. PMID:16347134

  7. Mechanisms by which dichloroacetate lowers lactic acid levels: the kinetic interrelationships between lactate, pyruvate, alanine, and glucose.

    PubMed

    Jahoor, F; Zhang, X J; Frazer, E

    1994-01-01

    Dichloroacetate (DCA) is gaining use as an alternative to bicarbonate therapy in the treatment of lactic acidosis. To determine the mechanism(s) by which DCA lowers blood lactate levels, we studied its effect on the kinetic interrelationships between pyruvate, lactate, alanine, and glucose in the hindlimb of dogs during hormonal stimulation of pyruvate production (Ra) and its conversion to lactate. Three groups of dogs (n = 6) were infused with 1-13C-pyruvate to measure whole body pyruvate Ra, and pyruvate Ra and utilization (Rd) across the hindlimb during either a 4-hr infusion of saline (controls), or somatostatin, glucagon, and epinephrine (SGE), or SGE plus dichloroacetate (SGE + DCA). Pyruvate Ra was used as an index of rate of glycolysis and Rd as an index of pyruvate oxidation. In the controls, all kinetic parameters were constant during the saline infusion. Hindlimb pyruvate Ra and Rd were almost equal, and lactate release negligible. Compared to controls, SGE administration significantly increased (P < 0.05) wholebody pyruvate Ra (48.5 +/- 6.2 vs 33.6 +/- 2.4 mumol/kg/min) and blood lactate levels (P < 0.05). Hindlimb pyruvate Ra increased by approximately 150%, but Rd remained unchanged resulting in marked increases in lactate and alanine effluxes. Adding DCA to the SGE infusion significantly reduced wholebody pyruvate Ra (P < 0.05) and blood lactate levels (P < 0.01). In the hindlimb, however, there was no decrease in lactate output, despite a 91% increase in pyruvate utilization because pyruvate Ra also increased. These results suggest that during stimulation of rate of glycolysis, DCA lowers lactate levels by reducing the overall availability of pyruvate for lactate synthesis. This is accomplished by suppressing the rate of glycolysis in tissues other than skeletal muscle and stimulating pyruvate oxidation. PMID:7906882

  8. Involvement of Pyruvate Oxidase Activity and Acetate Production in the Survival of Lactobacillus plantarum during the Stationary Phase of Aerobic Growth▿ †

    PubMed Central

    Goffin, Philippe; Muscariello, Lidia; Lorquet, Frederique; Stukkens, Aline; Prozzi, Deborah; Sacco, Margherita; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Hols, Pascal

    2006-01-01

    In addition to the previously characterized pyruvate oxidase PoxB, the Lactobacillus plantarum genome encodes four predicted pyruvate oxidases (PoxC, PoxD, PoxE, and PoxF). Each pyruvate oxidase gene was individually inactivated, and only the knockout of poxF resulted in a decrease in pyruvate oxidase activity under the tested conditions. We show here that L. plantarum has two major pyruvate oxidases: PoxB and PoxF. Both are involved in lactate-to-acetate conversion in the early stationary phase of aerobic growth and are regulated by carbon catabolite repression. A strain devoid of pyruvate oxidase activity was constructed by knocking out the poxB and poxF genes. In this mutant, acetate production was strongly affected, with lactate remaining the major end product of either glucose or maltose fermentation. Notably, survival during the stationary phase appeared to be dramatically improved in the poxB poxF double mutant. PMID:17012588

  9. NH4(+) triggers the release of astrocytic lactate via mitochondrial pyruvate shunting.

    PubMed

    Lerchundi, Rodrigo; Fernández-Moncada, Ignacio; Contreras-Baeza, Yasna; Sotelo-Hitschfeld, Tamara; Mächler, Philipp; Wyss, Matthias T; Stobart, Jillian; Baeza-Lehnert, Felipe; Alegría, Karin; Weber, Bruno; Barros, L Felipe

    2015-09-01

    Neural activity is accompanied by a transient mismatch between local glucose and oxygen metabolism, a phenomenon of physiological and pathophysiological importance termed aerobic glycolysis. Previous studies have proposed glutamate and K(+) as the neuronal signals that trigger aerobic glycolysis in astrocytes. Here we used a panel of genetically encoded FRET sensors in vitro and in vivo to investigate the participation of NH4(+), a by-product of catabolism that is also released by active neurons. Astrocytes in mixed cortical cultures responded to physiological levels of NH4(+) with an acute rise in cytosolic lactate followed by lactate release into the extracellular space, as detected by a lactate-sniffer. An acute increase in astrocytic lactate was also observed in acute hippocampal slices exposed to NH4(+) and in the somatosensory cortex of anesthetized mice in response to i.v. NH4(+). Unexpectedly, NH4(+) had no effect on astrocytic glucose consumption. Parallel measurements showed simultaneous cytosolic pyruvate accumulation and NADH depletion, suggesting the involvement of mitochondria. An inhibitor-stop technique confirmed a strong inhibition of mitochondrial pyruvate uptake that can be explained by mitochondrial matrix acidification. These results show that physiological NH4(+) diverts the flux of pyruvate from mitochondria to lactate production and release. Considering that NH4(+) is produced stoichiometrically with glutamate during excitatory neurotransmission, we propose that NH4(+) behaves as an intercellular signal and that pyruvate shunting contributes to aerobic lactate production by astrocytes. PMID:26286989

  10. NH4+ triggers the release of astrocytic lactate via mitochondrial pyruvate shunting

    PubMed Central

    Lerchundi, Rodrigo; Fernández-Moncada, Ignacio; Contreras-Baeza, Yasna; Sotelo-Hitschfeld, Tamara; Mächler, Philipp; Wyss, Matthias T.; Stobart, Jillian; Baeza-Lehnert, Felipe; Alegría, Karin; Weber, Bruno; Barros, L. Felipe

    2015-01-01

    Neural activity is accompanied by a transient mismatch between local glucose and oxygen metabolism, a phenomenon of physiological and pathophysiological importance termed aerobic glycolysis. Previous studies have proposed glutamate and K+ as the neuronal signals that trigger aerobic glycolysis in astrocytes. Here we used a panel of genetically encoded FRET sensors in vitro and in vivo to investigate the participation of NH4+, a by-product of catabolism that is also released by active neurons. Astrocytes in mixed cortical cultures responded to physiological levels of NH4+ with an acute rise in cytosolic lactate followed by lactate release into the extracellular space, as detected by a lactate-sniffer. An acute increase in astrocytic lactate was also observed in acute hippocampal slices exposed to NH4+ and in the somatosensory cortex of anesthetized mice in response to i.v. NH4+. Unexpectedly, NH4+ had no effect on astrocytic glucose consumption. Parallel measurements showed simultaneous cytosolic pyruvate accumulation and NADH depletion, suggesting the involvement of mitochondria. An inhibitor-stop technique confirmed a strong inhibition of mitochondrial pyruvate uptake that can be explained by mitochondrial matrix acidification. These results show that physiological NH4+ diverts the flux of pyruvate from mitochondria to lactate production and release. Considering that NH4+ is produced stoichiometrically with glutamate during excitatory neurotransmission, we propose that NH4+ behaves as an intercellular signal and that pyruvate shunting contributes to aerobic lactate production by astrocytes. PMID:26286989

  11. Lactate dehydrogenase is the key enzyme for pneumococcal pyruvate metabolism and pneumococcal survival in blood.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Paula; Al-Bayati, Firas A Y; Andrew, Peter W; Neves, Ana Rute; Yesilkaya, Hasan

    2014-12-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a fermentative microorganism and causes serious diseases in humans, including otitis media, bacteremia, meningitis, and pneumonia. However, the mechanisms enabling pneumococcal survival in the host and causing disease in different tissues are incompletely understood. The available evidence indicates a strong link between the central metabolism and pneumococcal virulence. To further our knowledge on pneumococcal virulence, we investigated the role of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which converts pyruvate to lactate and is an essential enzyme for redox balance, in the pneumococcal central metabolism and virulence using an isogenic ldh mutant. Loss of LDH led to a dramatic reduction of the growth rate, pinpointing the key role of this enzyme in fermentative metabolism. The pattern of end products was altered, and lactate production was totally blocked. The fermentation profile was confirmed by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of glucose metabolism in nongrowing cell suspensions of the ldh mutant. In this strain, a bottleneck in the fermentative steps is evident from the accumulation of pyruvate, revealing LDH as the most efficient enzyme in pyruvate conversion. An increase in ethanol production was also observed, indicating that in the absence of LDH the redox balance is maintained through alcohol dehydrogenase activity. We also found that the absence of LDH renders the pneumococci avirulent after intravenous infection and leads to a significant reduction in virulence in a model of pneumonia that develops after intranasal infection, likely due to a decrease in energy generation and virulence gene expression. PMID:25245810

  12. Lactate Dehydrogenase Is the Key Enzyme for Pneumococcal Pyruvate Metabolism and Pneumococcal Survival in Blood

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Paula; Al-Bayati, Firas A. Y.; Andrew, Peter W.; Neves, Ana Rute

    2014-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a fermentative microorganism and causes serious diseases in humans, including otitis media, bacteremia, meningitis, and pneumonia. However, the mechanisms enabling pneumococcal survival in the host and causing disease in different tissues are incompletely understood. The available evidence indicates a strong link between the central metabolism and pneumococcal virulence. To further our knowledge on pneumococcal virulence, we investigated the role of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), which converts pyruvate to lactate and is an essential enzyme for redox balance, in the pneumococcal central metabolism and virulence using an isogenic ldh mutant. Loss of LDH led to a dramatic reduction of the growth rate, pinpointing the key role of this enzyme in fermentative metabolism. The pattern of end products was altered, and lactate production was totally blocked. The fermentation profile was confirmed by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) measurements of glucose metabolism in nongrowing cell suspensions of the ldh mutant. In this strain, a bottleneck in the fermentative steps is evident from the accumulation of pyruvate, revealing LDH as the most efficient enzyme in pyruvate conversion. An increase in ethanol production was also observed, indicating that in the absence of LDH the redox balance is maintained through alcohol dehydrogenase activity. We also found that the absence of LDH renders the pneumococci avirulent after intravenous infection and leads to a significant reduction in virulence in a model of pneumonia that develops after intranasal infection, likely due to a decrease in energy generation and virulence gene expression. PMID:25245810

  13. Pyruvate and Lactate Metabolism by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under Fermentation, Oxygen Limitation, and Fumarate Respiration Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Hill, Eric A.; Reed, Jennifer L.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2011-12-01

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe that derives energy by coupling organic matter oxidation to the reduction of wide range of electron acceptors. Here, we quantitatively assessed lactate and pyruvate metabolism of MR-1 under three distinct conditions: electron acceptor limited growth on lactate with O2; lactate with fumarate; and pyruvate fermentation. The latter does not support growth but provides energy for cell survival. Using physiological and genetic approaches combined with flux balance analysis, we showed that the proportion of ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation varied from 33% to 72.5% of that needed for growth depending on the electron acceptor nature and availability. While being indispensible for growth, respiration of fumarate does not contribute significantly to ATP generation and likely serves to remove formate, a product of pyruvate formate-lyase-catalyzed pyruvate disproportionation. Under both tested respiratory conditions S. oneidensis MR-1 carried out incomplete substrate oxidation, whereby the TCA cycle did not contribute significantly. Pyruvate dehydrogenase was not involved in lactate metabolism under O2 limitation but was required for anaerobic growth likely by supplying reducing equivalents for biosynthesis. The results suggest that pyruvate fermentation by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells represents a combination of substrate-level phosphorylation and respiration, where pyruvate serves as electron donor and electron acceptor. Pyruvate reduction to lactate at the expense of formate oxidation is catalyzed by recently described new type of oxidative NAD(P)H independent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld-II). The results further indicate that pyruvate reduction coupled to formate oxidation may be accompanied by proton motive force generation.

  14. Analysis of a pyruvic acid acetal-containing polysaccharide by the reductive-cleavage method.

    PubMed

    Zeller, S G; Gray, G R

    1991-04-24

    The applicability of the reductive-cleavage method to the analysis of polysaccharides bearing pyruvic acid acetals has been demonstrated. Direct reductive cleavage of fully methylated gum xanthan yielded the expected products, including 1,5-anhydro-4,6-O-[(S)-1-methoxycarbonylethylidene]-2,3-di-O-methy l-D- mannitol. The latter product was not observed when reductive cleavage was performed subsequent to reduction of ester groups in the fully methylated polysaccharide and mild hydrolysis to remove pyruvic acid acetal substituents. Instead, the latter experiment yielded 1,5-anhydro-2,3-di-O-methyl-D-mannitol, establishing the presence in the polysaccharide of terminal (nonreducing) D-mannopyranosyl groups bearing 4,6-O-(1-carboxyethylidene) substituents. The products of reductive cleavage were characterized, where appropriate, by comparison of the gas chromatographic retention times and chemical ionization- and electron ionization-mass spectra of their acetates to those of authentic standards. Alternatively, the products of reductive cleavage could be characterized without resort to comparison with authentic standards by analysis of the 1H-n.m.r. spectra of their benzoates, which were obtained in pure form by high-performance liquid chromatography. By either method of product characterization, this two-step procedure of analysis reveals the presence of pyruvic-acetal residues in polysaccharides and establishes both the identity of the sugar residue to which they are attached and their positions of attachment. PMID:1769016

  15. Pyruvate and Lactate Metabolism by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 under Fermentation, Oxygen Limitation, and Fumarate Respiration Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Hill, Eric A.; Reed, Jennifer L.; Konopka, Allan; Beliaev, Alex S.; Fredrickson, Jim K.

    2011-12-30

    Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 is a facultative anaerobe growing by coupling organic matter oxidation to reduction of wide range of electron acceptors. Here we quantitatively assessed lactate and pyruvate metabolism of these bacteria under three distinct conditions: electron acceptor limited growth on lactate with O2 and fumarate, and pyruvate fermentation, which does not sustain growth but allows cells to survive for prolonged period. Using physiological and genetic approaches combined with flux balance analysis, we showed that the proportion of ATP produced by substrate-level phosphorylation varied from 33% to 72.5% of all ATP needed for growth depending on the electron acceptor nature and availability. While being indispensible for growth, respiration of fumarate does not contribute much to ATP generation and likely serves to remove formate, a product of pyruvate formate-lyase-catalyzed pyruvate disproportionation. Under both tested respiratory conditions S. oneidensis MR-1 carried out incomplete substrate oxidation, and TCA cycle did not contribute significantly to substrate oxidation. Pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction was not involved in lactate metabolism under O2 limitation, however was important for anaerobic growth probably supplying reducing equivalents for biosynthesis. Unexpectedly, obtained results suggest that pyruvate fermentation by S. oneidensis MR-1 cells represents a combination between substrate-level phosphorylation and a respiratory process, where pyruvate serves as electron donor and electron acceptor. Pyruvate reduction to lactate at the expense of formate oxidation is catalyzed by recently described new type of oxidative NAD(P)H independent D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld-II). Based on involved enzymes localization we hypothesize that pyruvate reduction coupled to formate oxidation may be accompanied by proton motive force generation.

  16. Transport of lactate and pyruvate in the intraerythrocytic malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum.

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, J L; Saliba, K J; Kirk, K

    2001-01-01

    The mature, intraerythrocytic form of the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum, is reliant on glycolysis for its energetic requirements. It produces large quantities of lactic acid, which have to be removed from the parasite's cytosol to maintain the cell's integrity and metabolic viability. Here we show that the monocarboxylates lactate and pyruvate are both transported across the parasite's plasma membrane via a H(+)/monocarboxylate symport process that is saturable and inhibited by the bioflavonoid phloretin. The results provide direct evidence for the presence at the parasite surface of a H(+)-coupled monocarboxylate transporter with features in common with members of the MCT (monocarboxylate transporter) family of higher eukaryotes. PMID:11311136

  17. 3-Bromopyruvate antagonizes effects of lactate and pyruvate, synergizes with citrate and exerts novel anti-glioma effects.

    PubMed

    El Sayed, S M; El-Magd, R M Abou; Shishido, Y; Chung, S P; Diem, T H; Sakai, T; Watanabe, H; Kagami, S; Fukui, K

    2012-02-01

    Oxidative stress-energy depletion therapy using oxidative stress induced by D-amino acid oxidase (DAO) and energy depletion induced by 3-bromopyruvate (3BP) was reported recently (El Sayed et al., Cancer Gene Ther., 19, 1-18, 2012). Even in the presence of oxygen, cancer cells oxidize glucose preferentially to produce lactate (Warburg effect) which seems vital for cancer microenvironment and progression. 3BP is a closely related structure to lactate and pyruvate and may antagonize their effects as a novel mechanism of its action. Pyruvate exerted a potent H(2)O(2) scavenging effect to exogenous H(2)O(2), while lactate had no scavenging effect. 3BP induced H(2)O(2) production. Pyruvate protected against H(2)O(2)-induced C6 glioma cell death, 3BP-induced C6 glioma cell death but not against DAO/D-serine-induced cell death, while lactate had no protecting effect. Lactate and pyruvate protected against 3BP-induced C6 glioma cell death and energy depletion which were overcome with higher doses of 3BP. Lactate and pyruvate enhanced migratory power of C6 glioma which was blocked by 3BP. Pyruvate and lactate did not protect against C6 glioma cell death induced by other glycolytic inhibitors e.g. citrate (inhibitor of phosphofructokinase) and sodium fluoride (inhibitor of enolase). Serial doses of 3BP were synergistic with citrate in decreasing viability of C6 glioma cells and spheroids. Glycolysis subjected to double inhibition using 3BP with citrate depleted ATP, clonogenic power and migratory power of C6 glioma cells. 3BP induced a caspase-dependent cell death in C6 glioma. 3BP was powerful in decreasing viability of human glioblastoma multiforme cells (U373MG) and C6 glioma in a dose- and time-dependent manner. PMID:22318356

  18. Decreasing lactate level and increasing antibody production in Chinese Hamster Ovary cells (CHO) by reducing the expression of lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Meixia; Crawford, Yongping; Ng, Domingos; Tung, Jack; Pynn, Abigail F J; Meier, Angela; Yuk, Inn H; Vijayasankaran, Natarajan; Leach, Kimberly; Joly, John; Snedecor, Bradley; Shen, Amy

    2011-04-20

    Large-scale fed-batch cell culture processes of CHO cells are the standard platform for the clinical and commercial production of monoclonal antibodies. Lactate is one of the major by-products of CHO fed-batch culture. In pH-controlled bioreactors, accumulation of high levels of lactate is accompanied by high osmolality due to the addition of base to control pH of the cell culture medium, potentially leading to lower cell growth and lower therapeutic protein production during manufacturing. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of the substrate, pyruvate, into lactate and many factors including pyruvate concentration modulate LDH activity. Alternately, pyruvate can be converted to acetyl-CoA by pyruvate dehydrogenases (PDHs), to be metabolized in the TCA cycle. PDH activity is inhibited when phosphorylated by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDHKs). In this study, we knocked down the gene expression of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHa) and PDHKs to investigate the effect on lactate metabolism and protein production. We found that LDHa and PDHKs can be successfully downregulated simultaneously using a single targeting vector carrying small inhibitory RNAs (siRNA) for LDHa and PDHKs. Moreover, our fed-batch shake flask evaluation data using siRNA-mediated LDHa/PDHKs knockdown clones showed that downregulating LDHa and PDHKs in CHO cells expressing a therapeutic monoclonal antibody reduced lactate production, increased specific productivity and volumetric antibody production by approximately 90%, 75% and 68%, respectively, without appreciable impact on cell growth. Similar trends of lower lactate level and higher antibody productivity on average in siRNA clones were also observed from evaluations performed in bioreactors. PMID:21392546

  19. Lactate Contributes to Glyceroneogenesis and Glyconeogenesis in Skeletal Muscle by Reversal of Pyruvate Kinase.

    PubMed

    Jin, Eunsook S; Sherry, A Dean; Malloy, Craig R

    2015-12-18

    Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) generated from pyruvate is required for de novo synthesis of glycerol and glycogen in skeletal muscle. One possible pathway involves synthesis of PEP from the citric acid cycle intermediates via PEP carboxykinase, whereas another could involve reversal of pyruvate kinase (PK). Earlier studies have reported that reverse flux through PK can contribute carbon precursors for glycogen synthesis in muscle, but the physiological importance of this pathway remains uncertain especially in the setting of high plasma glucose. In addition, although PEP is a common intermediate for both glyconeogenesis and glyceroneogenesis, the importance of reverse PK in de novo glycerol synthesis has not been examined. Here we studied the contribution of reverse PK to synthesis of glycogen and the glycerol moiety of acylglycerols in skeletal muscle of animals with high plasma glucose. Rats received a single intraperitoneal bolus of glucose, glycerol, and lactate under a fed or fasted state. Only one of the three substrates was (13)C-labeled in each experiment. After 3 h of normal awake activity, the animals were sacrificed, and the contribution from each substrate to glycogen and the glycerol moiety of acylglycerols was evaluated. The fraction of (13)C labeling in glycogen and the glycerol moiety exceeded the possible contribution from either plasma glucose or muscle oxaloacetate. The reverse PK served as a common route for both glyconeogenesis and glyceroneogenesis in the skeletal muscle of rats with high plasma glucose. The activity of pyruvate carboxylase was low in muscle, and no PEP carboxykinase activity was detected. PMID:26491014

  20. n-Octyl gallate as inhibitor of pyruvate carboxylation and lactate gluconeogenesis.

    PubMed

    Eler, Gabrielle Jacklin; Santos, Israel Souza; de Moraes, Amarilis Giaretta; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Peralta, Rosane Marina; Bracht, Adelar

    2015-04-01

    The alkyl gallates are found in several natural and industrial products. In the latter products, these compounds are added mainly for preventing oxidation. In the present work, the potencies of methyl gallate, n-propyl gallate, n-pentyl gallate, and n-octyl gallate as inhibitors of pyruvate carboxylation and lactate gluconeogenesis were evaluated. Experiments were done with isolated mitochondria and the isolated perfused rat liver. The potency of the gallic acid esters as inhibitors of pyruvate carboxylation in isolated mitochondria obeyed the following decreasing sequence: n-octyl gallate > n-pentyl gallate > n-propyl gallate > methyl gallate. A similar sequence of decreasing potency for lactate gluconeogenesis inhibition in the perfused liver was found in terms of the portal venous concentration. Both actions correlate with the lipophilicity of the compounds. The effects are harmful at high concentrations. At appropriate concentrations, however, octyl gallate should act therapeutically because its inhibitory action on gluconeogenesis will contribute further to its proposed antihyperglycemic effects. PMID:25487712

  1. Crystallographic study on the interaction of L-lactate oxidase with pyruvate at 1.9 A resolution

    SciTech Connect

    Li Shujie; Umena, Yasufumi; Yorita, Kazuko; Matsuoka, Takeshi; Kita, Akiko; Fukui, Kiyoshi; Morimoto, Yukio . E-mail: morimoto@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp

    2007-07-13

    L-Lactate oxidase (LOX) from Aerococcus viridans catalyzes the oxidation of L-lactate to pyruvate by the molecular oxygen and belongs to a large family of 2-hydroxy acid-dependent flavoenzymes. To investigate the interaction of LOX with pyruvate in structural details and understand the chemical mechanism of flavin-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenation, the LOX-pyruvate complex was crystallized and the crystal structure of the complex has been solved at a resolution of 1.90 A. One pyruvate molecule bound to the active site and located near N5 position of FMN for subunits, A, B, and D in the asymmetric unit, were identified. The pyruvate molecule is stabilized by the interaction of its carboxylate group with the side-chain atoms of Tyr40, Arg181, His265, and Arg268, and of its keto-oxygen atom with the side-chain atoms of Tyr146, Tyr215, and His265. The {alpha}-carbon of pyruvate is found to be 3.13 A from the N5 atom of FMN at an angle of 105.4{sup o} from the flavin N5-N10 axis.

  2. Effects of anoxia, pyruvate, and lactate on distribution of N-13 glutamate in myocardium

    SciTech Connect

    Krivokapich, J.; Keen, R.E.; Barrio, J.R.; Douglas, A.; Watanabe, C.R.; Wittmer, S.; Shine, K.I.; Phelps, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine the effect of anoxia on the fate of N-13 labeled glutamate (glu) in myocardial tissue. Boluses of N-13-glu were injected arterially into isolated, arterially perfused rabbit interventricular septa under control conditions, during anoxia, and during perfusion with 2 mM pyruvate or lactate. In one set of experiments, time-activity curves were generated after the boluses. In another set of experiments, --0.1g of tissue was cut from the septum at 6 minutes after each injection. These samples were analyzed by reverse-phase HPLC. Under control conditions, glu accounted for 58% of the total N-13 radioactivity present in the sample and aspartate (asp), alanine (ala) and glutamine (gln) accounting for 20%, 16%, and 4%, respectively. During anoxia, the dominant change was an increase in ala to 40% of the N-13 radioactivity with an accompanying decrease in glu to 35%. Pyruvate perfusion produced a decrease in glu and increase in ala similar to the changes induced by anoxia. The changes due to lactate were in the same direction but less profound. Analysis of the time-activity curves revealed 2 components. The fraction of N-13 in the residual fraction was not different during anoxia as compared to control conditions. The t 1/2 of this fraction, however, became much shorter. The authors conclude that anoxia induces an increase in ala secondary to increased pyruvate availability. This is reflected in the time-activity curves as a faster washout of N-13 from the septa.

  3. Pyruvate Formate-Lyase Enables Efficient Growth of Escherichia coli on Acetate and Formate.

    PubMed

    Zelcbuch, Lior; Lindner, Steffen N; Zegman, Yonatan; Vainberg Slutskin, Ilya; Antonovsky, Niv; Gleizer, Shmuel; Milo, Ron; Bar-Even, Arren

    2016-05-01

    Pyruvate formate-lyase (PFL) is a ubiquitous enzyme that supports increased ATP yield during sugar fermentation. While the PFL reaction is known to be reversible in vitro, the ability of PFL to support microbial growth by condensing acetyl-CoA and formate in vivo has never been directly tested. Here, we employ Escherichia coli mutant strains that cannot assimilate acetate via the glyoxylate shunt and use carbon labeling experiments to unequivocally demonstrate PFL-dependent co-assimilation of acetate and formate. Moreover, PFL-dependent growth is faster than growth on acetate using the glyoxylate shunt. Hence, growth via the reverse activity of PFL could have substantial ecological and biotechnological significance. PMID:27093333

  4. Single sodium pyruvate ingestion modifies blood acid-base status and post-exercise lactate concentration in humans.

    PubMed

    Olek, Robert A; Kujach, Sylwester; Wnuk, Damian; Laskowski, Radoslaw

    2014-05-01

    This study examined the effect of a single sodium pyruvate ingestion on a blood acid-base status and exercise metabolism markers. Nine active, but non-specifically trained, male subjects participated in the double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. One hour prior to the exercise, subjects ingested either 0.1 g·kg(-1) of body mass of a sodium pyruvate or placebo. The capillary blood samples were obtained at rest, 60 min after ingestion, and then three and 15 min after completing the workout protocol to analyze acid-base status and lactate, pyruvate, alanine, glucose concentrations. The pulmonary gas exchange, minute ventilation and the heart rate were measured during the exercise at a constant power output, corresponding to ~90% VO2max. The blood pH, bicarbonate and the base excess were significantly higher after sodium pyruvate ingestion than in the placebo trial. The blood lactate concentration was not different after the ingestion, but the post-exercise was significantly higher in the pyruvate trial (12.9 ± 0.9 mM) than in the placebo trial (10.6 ± 0.3 mM, p < 0.05) and remained elevated (nonsignificant) after 15 min of recovery. The blood pyruvate, alanine and glucose concentrations, as well as the overall pulmonary gas exchange during the exercise were not affected by the pyruvate ingestion. In conclusion, the sodium pyruvate ingestion one hour before workout modified the blood acid-base status and the lactate production during the exercise. PMID:24841105

  5. Single Sodium Pyruvate Ingestion Modifies Blood Acid-Base Status and Post-Exercise Lactate Concentration in Humans

    PubMed Central

    Olek, Robert A.; Kujach, Sylwester; Wnuk, Damian; Laskowski, Radoslaw

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the effect of a single sodium pyruvate ingestion on a blood acid-base status and exercise metabolism markers. Nine active, but non-specifically trained, male subjects participated in the double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study. One hour prior to the exercise, subjects ingested either 0.1 g·kg−1 of body mass of a sodium pyruvate or placebo. The capillary blood samples were obtained at rest, 60 min after ingestion, and then three and 15 min after completing the workout protocol to analyze acid-base status and lactate, pyruvate, alanine, glucose concentrations. The pulmonary gas exchange, minute ventilation and the heart rate were measured during the exercise at a constant power output, corresponding to ~90% O2max. The blood pH, bicarbonate and the base excess were significantly higher after sodium pyruvate ingestion than in the placebo trial. The blood lactate concentration was not different after the ingestion, but the post-exercise was significantly higher in the pyruvate trial (12.9 ± 0.9 mM) than in the placebo trial (10.6 ± 0.3 mM, p < 0.05) and remained elevated (nonsignificant) after 15 min of recovery. The blood pyruvate, alanine and glucose concentrations, as well as the overall pulmonary gas exchange during the exercise were not affected by the pyruvate ingestion. In conclusion, the sodium pyruvate ingestion one hour before workout modified the blood acid-base status and the lactate production during the exercise. PMID:24841105

  6. Sources and sinks of formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids over central Amazonia. II - Wet season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Talbot, R. W.; Andreae, M. O.; Berresheim, H.; Jacob, D. J.; Beecher, K. M.

    1990-01-01

    Potential sources and sinks of formic, acetic, and pyruvic acids over the Amazon forest were investigated using a photochemical model and data collected on gas phase concentrations of these acids in the forest canopy, boundary layer, and free troposphere over the central Amazon Basin during the 1987 wet season. It was found that the atmospheric reactions previously suggested in the literature as sources of carboxylic acids (i.e., the gas phase decomposition of isoprene, the reaction between CH3CO3 and a peroxide, and aqueous phase oxidation of CH2O) appear to be too slow to explain the observed concentrations, suggesting that other atmospheric reactions, so far unidentified, could make a major contribution to the carboxylic acid budgets.

  7. Acetate Utilization in Lactococcus lactis Deficient in Lactate Dehydrogenase: a Rescue Pathway for Maintaining Redox Balance

    PubMed Central

    Hols, Pascal; Ramos, Ana; Hugenholtz, Jeroen; Delcour, Jean; de Vos, Willem M.; Santos, Helena; Kleerebezem, Michiel

    1999-01-01

    Acetate was shown to improve glucose fermentation in Lactococcus lactis deficient in lactate dehydrogenase. 13C and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance studies using [2-13C]glucose and [2-13C]acetate as substrates demonstrated that acetate was exclusively converted to ethanol. This novel pathway provides an alternative route for NAD+ regeneration in the absence of lactate dehydrogenase. PMID:10464231

  8. Temporal changes in the involvement of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in muscle lactate accumulation during lipopolysaccharide infusion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Alamdari, N; Constantin-Teodosiu, D; Murton, A J; Gardiner, S M; Bennett, T; Layfield, R; Greenhaff, P L

    2008-01-01

    A characteristic manifestation of sepsis is muscle lactate accumulation. This study examined any putative (causative) association between pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) inhibition and lactate accumulation in the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle of rats infused with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and explored the involvement of increased transcription of muscle-specific pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) isoenzymes. Conscious, male Sprague–Dawley rats were infused i.v. with saline (0.4 ml h−1, control) or LPS (150 μg kg−1 h−1) for 2 h, 6 h or 24 h (n = 6–8). Muscle lactate concentration was elevated after 2, 6 and 24 h LPS infusion. Muscle PDC activity was the same at 2 h and 6 h, but was 65% lower after 24 h of LPS infusion (P < 0.01), when there was a 47% decrease in acetylcarnitine concentration (P < 0.05), and a 24-fold increase in PDK4 mRNA expression (P < 0.001). These changes were preceded by marked increases in tumour necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 mRNA expression at 2 h. The findings indicate that the early (2 and 6 h) elevation in muscle lactate concentration during LPS infusion was not attributable to limited muscle oxygen availability or ATP production (evidenced by unchanged ATP and phosphocreatine (PCr) concentrations) or to PDC inhibition, whereas after 24 h, muscle lactate accumulation appears to have resulted from PDC activation status limiting pyruvate flux, most probably due to cytokine-mediated up-regulation of PDK4 transcription. PMID:18218678

  9. The effects of season and temperature on D-lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase and arginine kinase in the foot of Helix pomatia L.

    PubMed

    Wieser, W; Wright, E

    1979-04-01

    The effects of pH, season, environmental and experimental temperatures on the activities and kinetic parameters of D-lactate dehydrogenase, pyruvate kinase and arginine kinase from the foot of the pulmonate snail Helix pomatia were analyzed. Both in phosphate and Tris buffers D-lactate dehydrogenase was the enzyme with the most acid maximum, arginine kinase that with the most alkaline, whilst pyruvate kinase occupied an intermediate position. Pyruvate kinase activity, measured at 20 degrees C, was positively correlated with the environmental temperature at the moment of collecting the animal, whereas neither arginine kinase nor D-lactate dehydrogenase showed such a relationship. A seasonal study based on approximately 100 specimens established that arginine kinase activity remained the same throughout the year. Pyruvate kinase activity was slightly lower, and D-lactate dehydrogenase activity significantly higher, in winter than in summer animals. Snails subjected in spring to a short warm-up period before enzyme extraction showed extreme variability and some extraordinarily high values of pyruvate kinase activity, suggesting that either season or elevated temperature may have an immediate effect on the activity of this enzyme. Individual variability of all three enzymes ranges from 300 to 400%. The activities of pyruvate kinase and D-lactate dehydrogenase are strongly correlated in summer, forming a "constant-proportion-group", whereas in winter, with D-lactate dehydrogenase activity increasing and pyruvate kinase activity decreasing these two enzymes become "uncoupled". The Km value of pyruvate kinase is independent of experimental temperature between 10 and 25 degrees C, whereas that of D-lactate dehydrogenase and arginine kinase increases about three-fold within this range. Thus the temperature relationship of a single enzymic reaction cannot be used as an arguemnt for or against the occurrence of temperature compensation of whole animal metabolism. The

  10. Supersensitivity to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation evoked in cultured neonatal rat heart myocytes by L(+)-lactate and pyruvate.

    PubMed

    Wallukat, G; Wollenberger, A

    1993-02-01

    1. Cells from the ventricles of newborn rats were cultured for 8 days in flasks attached to a rocker apparatus to ensure an adequate oxygen supply. 2. The rocked cultures, which had previously been found to be low in lactate and subsensitive to the positive chronotropic action of the beta-adrenergic agonist isoprenaline (ISO; EC50 of (+/-)-ISO around 7 x 10(-7) M), became resensitized and even highly supersensitive to the catecholamine upon treatment with 3 mM L(+)-lactate or 1 mM pyruvate. 3. The resulting concentration-response curves were anomalous in that they extended over 8 log units, with a threshold at about 10(-13) M, but with little or no change in the height and the position of the maximum (at 10(-5) M). The EC50 values and 95% confidence intervals were 2.4 (1.9-3.0) and 5.4 (4.9-6.0) x 10(-11) M, respectively, for the lactate- and pyruvate-induced components of the chronotropic response to (+/-)-ISO. 4. The supersensitive portion of the ISO concentration-response curve was abolished by (-)-propranolol (10(-6) M), indicating that it was due to beta-adrenoceptor stimulation. 5. The cultured heart cells had to be incubated with L(+)-lactate or pyruvate for a minimum of 45 min before an increase in sensitivity to ISO became apparent. This latency was not due to a requirement for protein synthesis. 6. The adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) response to ISO was not noticeably altered by lactate, but (+/-)-ISO, which at 10(-8) M had no effect on the activation state of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), caused a significant increase in the activity of the enzyme following a 2-h exposure of the cells to 3 mM L(+)-lactate. 7. alpha-cyanocinnamate, an inhibitor of transmembrane transport of lactate and pyruvate, severely inhibited the utilization of L-[U-14C] lactate by the cultured cells at a concentration (5 microM) that eliminated the lactate-evoked potentiation of the chronotropic action of ISO without significantly affecting its unpotentiated action. 8

  11. Hepatic gluconeogenesis influences (13)C enrichment in lactate in human brain tumors during metabolism of [1,2-(13)C]acetate.

    PubMed

    Pichumani, Kumar; Mashimo, Tomoyuki; Vemireddy, Vamsidhara; Kovacs, Zoltan; Ratnakar, James; Mickey, Bruce; Malloy, Craig R; DeBerardinis, Ralph J; Bachoo, Robert M; Maher, Elizabeth A

    2016-07-01

    (13)C-enriched compounds are readily metabolized in human malignancies. Fragments of the tumor, acquired by biopsy or surgical resection, may be acid-extracted and (13)C NMR spectroscopy of metabolites such as glutamate, glutamine, 2-hydroxyglutarate, lactate and others provide a rich source of information about tumor metabolism in situ. Recently we observed (13)C-(13)C spin-spin coupling in (13)C NMR spectra of lactate in brain tumors removed from patients who were infused with [1,2-(13)C]acetate prior to the surgery. We found, in four patients, that infusion of (13)C-enriched acetate was associated with synthesis of (13)C-enriched glucose, detectable in plasma. (13)C labeled glucose derived from [1,2-(13)C]acetate metabolism in the liver and the brain pyruvate recycling in the tumor together lead to the production of the (13)C labeled lactate pool in the brain tumor. Their combined contribution to acetate metabolism in the brain tumors was less than 4.0%, significantly lower than the direct oxidation of acetate in the citric acid cycle in tumors. PMID:27020407

  12. Potassium acetate and potassium lactate enhance the microbiological and physical properties of marinated catfish fillets

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sodium or potassium salts such as lactate and acetate can be used to inhibit the growth of spoilage bacteria and food-borne pathogens, and thereby prolong the shelf-life of refrigerated seafood. However, minimal information is available regarding the combined effects of potassium salts (acetate and ...

  13. In vitro development of bovine one-cell embryos: Influence of glucose, lactate, pyruvate, amino acids and vitamins.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Y; First, N L

    1992-05-01

    To elucidate the effect of nutrient substrates on embryo development, in vitro fertilized bovine one-cell embryos were cultured in a medium similar to synthetic oviduct fluid (SOF) but without glucose and containing 3.3 mM lactate, 0.3 mM pyruvate and 3 mg/ml bovine serum albumin (BSA) at 39 degrees C in 5% CO(2) in air. Results indicated that addition of glucose was not only unnecessary, but it also had a deleterious effect on embryo development to the morula stage. Lactate supported embryo development up to the morula stage as well as pyruvate. Supplementation with 20 amino acids contained in basal medium Eagle's (BME) and minimum essential medium (MEM) improved development to the morula stage dramatically and increased the cell number compared with that of the controls. Addition of the vitamins from MEM to SOF had no beneficial effect. The SOF with amino acids did not increase the frequency of blastocysts 7 days after in-vitro fertilization but did increase the total number of cells compared with that of the controls. Frequency of blastocysts at Day 7 in SOF with amino acids was equivalent to that of co-culture although the total cell number was lower. These results demonstrate that a semi-chemically defined medium can successfully support the development of bovine embryos to the morula stage to a limited extent, but the medium lacks some nutrients or growth factors to fully support development through the blastocyst stage. PMID:16727096

  14. Dynamic 13C NMR analysis of pyruvate and lactate oxidation in the in vivo canine myocardium: evidence of reduced utilization with increased work.

    PubMed

    Rath, D P; Zhu, H; Tong, X; Jiang, Z; Hamlin, R L; Robitaille, P M

    1997-12-01

    In this work, substrate selection was monitored in the left ventricle of the canine myocardium by following pyruvate and lactate oxidation under in vivo conditions at basal and elevated workloads. These studies were conducted in the open chest model using dynamic 13C NMR techniques in the presence and absence of dichloroacetic acid (DCA), a well-known activator of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH). Following the infusion of (3-(13)C) pyruvate or (3-(13)C) lactate into the left anterior descending artery, highly variable 13C enrichments of glutamate, alanine, aspartate, and citrate were noted under low (RPP < 14,500 mmHg/min), intermediate (RPP = 15,000-25,000 mmHg/min), and high (RPP > 25,500 mmHg/min) rate pressure products (RPP). At low workloads, the myocardium typically oxidized the infused (3-(13)C) pyruvate or (3-(13)C) lactate and incorporated the labeled carbon into the glutamate pool as expected. However, in a few notable instances (n = 3), 13C-enriched pyruvate and lactate were unable to label the glutamate pool under in vivo conditions even at the lowest RPPs, indicating a lack of selection for these substrates by the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Nonetheless, the levels of glutamate C4 enrichment observed at low workloads could usually be enhanced by infusion of DCA. Importantly, 13C NMR extract analysis revealed that (3-(13)C) pyruvate or (3-(13)C) lactate labeling of the glutamate pool was reduced (< 20%) at high workloads in spite of increased DCA concentrations. PMID:9402190

  15. SU-E-QI-11: Measurement of Renal Pyruvate-To-Lactate Exchange with Hyperpolarized 13C MRI

    SciTech Connect

    Adamson, E; Johnson, K; Fain, S; Gordon, J

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Previous work [1] modeling the metabolic flux between hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate and [1-13C]lactate in magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) experiments failed to account for vascular signal artifacts. Here, we investigate a method to minimize the vascular signal and its impact on the fidelity of metabolic modeling. Methods: MRSI was simulated for renal metabolism in MATLAB both with and without bipolar gradients. The resulting data were fit to a two-site exchange model [1], and the effects of vascular partial volume artifacts on kinetic modeling were assessed. Bipolar gradients were then incorporated into a gradient echo sequence to validate the simulations experimentally. The degree of diffusion weighting (b = 32 s/mm{sup 2}) was determined empirically from 1H imaging of murine renal vascular signal. The method was then tested in vivo using MRSI with bipolar gradients following injection of hyperpolarized [1-{sup 13}C]pyruvate (∼80 mM at 20% polarization). Results: In simulations, vascular signal contaminated the renal metabolic signal at resolutions as high as 2 × 2 mm{sup 2} due to partial volume effects. The apparent exchange rate from pyruvate to lactate (k{sub p}) was underestimated in the presence of these artifacts due to contaminating pyruvate signal. Incorporation of bipolar gradients suppressed vascular signal and improved the accuracy of kp estimation. Experimentally, the in vivo results supported the ability of bipolar gradients to suppress vascular signal. The in vivo exchange rate increased, as predicted in simulations, from k{sub p} = 0.012 s-{sup 1} to k{sub p} = 0.020-{sup 1} after vascular signal suppression. Conclusion: We have demonstrated the limited accuracy of the two-site exchange model in the presence of vascular partial volume artifacts. The addition of bipolar gradients suppressed vascular signal and improved model accuracy in simulations. Bipolar gradients largely affected kp estimation in vivo. Currently

  16. Structure and gene cluster of the O-antigen of Escherichia coli O156 containing a pyruvic acid acetal.

    PubMed

    Duan, Zhifeng; Senchenkova, Sof'ya N; Guo, Xi; Perepelov, Andrei V; Shashkov, Alexander S; Liu, Bin; Knirel, Yuriy A

    2016-07-22

    The lipopolysaccharide of Escherichia coli O156 was degraded under mild acidic and alkaline conditions and the resulting polysaccharides were studied by sugar analysis and (1)H and (13)C NMR spectroscopy. The following structure of the pentasaccharide repeating unit of the O-polysaccharide was established: where Rpyr indicates R-configurated pyruvic acid acetal. Minor O-acetyl groups also were present and tentatively localized on the Gal residues. The gene cluster for biosynthesis of the O-antigen of E. coli O156 was analyzed and shown to be consistent with the O-polysaccharide structure. PMID:27177202

  17. Short-term prognostic value of perioperative coronary sinus-derived-serum cardiac troponin-I, creatine kinase-MB, lactate, pyruvate, and lactate-pyruvate ratio in adult patients undergoing open heart surgery

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Ujjwal Kumar; Sheil, Avneesh; Kapoor, Poonam Malhotra; Narang, Rajiv; Gharde, Parag; Malik, Vishwas; Kalaivani, Mani; Chaudhury, Arindam

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the release pattern of different cardiac metabolites and biomarkers directly from the coronary sinus (CS) and to establish the diagnostic discrimination limits of each marker protein and metabolites to evaluate perioperative myocardial injury in patients undergoing cardiac surgery under cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Patients and Methods: Sixty-eight patients undergoing first mitral and/or aortic valve replacements with/without coronary artery bypass grafting and Bentall procedure under CPB and blood cardioplegic arrest were studied. All cardiac metabolites and biomarkers were measured in serial CS-derived blood samples at pre-CPB, immediate post aortic declamping, 10 minutes post-CPB and 12 hrs post-CPB. Results: Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis of cardiac biomarkers indicated lactate-pyruvate ratio as the superior diagnostic discriminator of myocardial injury with an optimal “cut-off” value >10.8 immediately after aortic declamping (AUC, 0.92; 95% CI: 0.85-0.98). Lactate was the second best diagnostic discriminator of myocardial injury with an optimal “cut-off” value >2mmol/l at immediately after aortic declamping (AUC, 0.89; 95% CI: 0.80-0.96). Cardiac troponin-I was the third best diagnostic discriminator of myocardial injury with an optimal “cut-off” value >2.1ng/ml at immediately after aortic declamping (AUC, 0.88; 95% CI: 0.80-0.95). Creatine kinase-MB was the fourth best diagnostic discriminator of myocardial injury with an optimal “cut-off” value >58 log units/ml prior to decanulation (AUC, 0.85; 95% CI: 0.78-0.94). Conclusions: Measurable cardiac damage exists in all patients undergoing cardiac surgery under cardioplegic arrest. The degree of myocardial injury is more in patients with poor ventricular function and those requiring longer aortic clamp time. CS-derived lactate-pyruvate ratio, lactate, cTn-I served as superior diagnostic discriminators of peri-operative myocardial damage. PMID:27397448

  18. Age-related responses of right ventricle in swim-trained rats: changes in lactate and pyruvate contents and lactate dehydrogenase activity.

    PubMed

    Anitha, V; Asha Devi, S

    1996-09-18

    Age related changes in carbohydrate substrates such as, glucose, glycogen, pyruvic acid and lactic acid and the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and LDH isoenzyme profile were evaluated in the right ventricle (RV) of swim-trained rats of 6- (adult), 12- (middle-aged) and 18- (old) months-of-age. Moderate hypertrophy was seen in the heart and RV in response to training in all age groups with the 12 months exhibiting a significant increase. While resting levels of pyruvate and glucose in the RV showed small elevations in adult and middle-aged rats, lactic acid showed reductions in all ages. Glycogen supercompensation was seen in the RV of trained animals. These age-related alterations in RV were associated with decreases in blood lactic acid and glucose in the trained rats belonging to all ages. Total protein of the RV decreased with age and exercise increased the content. Total LDH and M4-LDH activities decreased with age. However, training increased their activities in all ages. These changes in the RV suggests that swimming activity produces adaptations (e.g. increased LDH and M4) in all age groups. Considering the degree of adaptations, it can be suggested that adult and middle-aged are suitable for initiating swim-training programs, but not in old age. PMID:8869911

  19. Identification and Characterization of a Bacterial Transport System for the Uptake of Pyruvate, Propionate, and Acetate in Corynebacterium glutamicum▿

    PubMed Central

    Jolkver, Elena; Emer, Denise; Ballan, Stefan; Krämer, Reinhard; Eikmanns, Bernhard J.; Marin, Kay

    2009-01-01

    The metabolism of monocarboxylic acids is of central importance for bacteria in their natural habitat as well as during biotechnological production. Although biosynthesis and degradation are well understood, the transport of such compounds is still a matter of discussion. Here we present the identification and characterization of a new transport system in Corynebacterium glutamicum with high affinity for acetate and propionate and with lower affinity for pyruvate. Biochemical analysis of this monocarboxylic acid transporter (MctC) revealed for the first time a quantitative discrimination of passive diffusion and active transport of acetate by bacterial cells. MctC is a secondary transporter and belongs to the class of sodium solute symporters, but it is driven by the electrochemical proton potential. The mctC gene is preceded by and cotranscribed with cg0952, a locus encoding a small membrane protein, and the transcription of the cg0952-mctC operon is under the control of the transcriptional regulators RamA and RamB. Both of these proteins directly bind to the promoter region of the operon; RamA is essential for expression and RamB exerts a slightly negative control on expression of the cg0952-mctC operon. mctC expression is induced in the presence of pyruvate and beneficial under substrate-limiting conditions for C. glutamicum. PMID:19028892

  20. Growth and antioxidant activity of Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans DSM 771 cultivated in acetate or lactate containing media.

    PubMed

    Pawłowska-Cwiek, Lucyna; Pado, Ryszard

    2007-01-01

    Three independent 28 or 32-day stationary cultures of Desulfotomaculum acetoxidans DSM 771 strain were carried out under anoxic conditions in acetate or lactate-containing media. The acids were the sole carbon and energy sources in these media. During cultivation the turbidity (for calculation of cell division index) and hydrogen sulfide contents were determined in culture broth and reduced glutathione and protein concentrations were assayed in culture broth supernatant. In these three successive cultures, the bacterium initially grew much faster on lactate than on acetate. However, after two weeks of culture this difference disappeared and in fact the growth rate was higher on acetate than on lactate. The level of H2S formed (product of the dissimilatory pathway of sulfate reduction) demonstrated that this pathway was more effective when lactate was a carbon source and the average H2S concentration was from over 3-fold to about 9-fold greater in lactate than in acetate cultures. Also GSH (glutathione, product of the assimilatory sulfate reduction pathway) average level was about 2-fold higher in lactate-grown cultures. The high negative values of the correlation coefficients between GSH and O2 levels, especially during the first 4 days of cultivation, indicate that GSH is a very important antioxidizing extracellular agent of D. acetoxidans. The rapid increase in GSH level, preceding the release of H2S, indicates the metabolic priority of the assimilation pathway of sulfate reduction. For both carbon sources the highest coefficient of correlation was found between protein and H2S levels. These results suggest that hydrogen sulfide is bound by proteins (which contain cysteinyl residues) secreted by D. acetoxidans cells. Indicated way of H2S bounding could result in its accumulation. This coefficient of correlation increased gradually in the successive cultures. The ratio of H2S concentration to protein concentration increased gradually in the successive cultures

  1. Improvement of Neuroenergetics by Hypertonic Lactate Therapy in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injury Is Dependent on Baseline Cerebral Lactate/Pyruvate Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Quintard, Hervé; Patet, Camille; Zerlauth, Jean-Baptiste; Suys, Tamarah; Bouzat, Pierre; Pellerin, Luc; Meuli, Reto; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Energy dysfunction is associated with worse prognosis after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Recent data suggest that hypertonic sodium lactate infusion (HL) improves energy metabolism after TBI. Here, we specifically examined whether the efficacy of HL (3h infusion, 30–40 μmol/kg/min) in improving brain energetics (using cerebral microdialysis [CMD] glucose as a main therapeutic end-point) was dependent on baseline cerebral metabolic state (assessed by CMD lactate/pyruvate ratio [LPR]) and cerebral blood flow (CBF, measured with perfusion computed tomography [PCT]). Using a prospective cohort of 24 severe TBI patients, we found CMD glucose increase during HL was significant only in the subgroup of patients with elevated CMD LPR >25 (n = 13; +0.13 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.08–0.19] mmol/L, p < 0.001; vs. +0.04 [–0.05–0.13] in those with normal LPR, p = 0.33, mixed-effects model). In contrast, CMD glucose increase was independent from baseline CBF (coefficient +0.13 [0.04–0.21] mmol/L when global CBF was <32.5 mL/100 g/min vs. +0.09 [0.04–0.14] mmol/L at normal CBF, both p < 0.005) and systemic glucose. Our data suggest that improvement of brain energetics upon HL seems predominantly dependent on baseline cerebral metabolic state and support the concept that CMD LPR – rather than CBF – could be used as a diagnostic indication for systemic lactate supplementation following TBI. PMID:26421521

  2. Chitosan promotes immune responses, ameliorates glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase and glutamic pyruvic transaminase, but enhances lactate dehydrogenase levels in normal mice in vivo

    PubMed Central

    YEH, MING-YANG; SHIH, YUNG-LUEN; CHUNG, HSUEH-YU; CHOU, JASON; LU, HSU-FENG; LIU, CHIA-HUI; LIU, JIA-YOU; HUANG, WEN-WEN; PENG, SHU-FEN; WU, LUNG-YUAN; CHUNG, JING-GUNG

    2016-01-01

    Chitosan, a naturally derived polymer, has been shown to possess antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory properties; however, little is known about the effect of chitosan on the immune responses and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT), glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities in normal mice. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether chitosan has an effect on the immune responses and GOT, GPT and LDH activities in mice in vivo. BALB/c mice were divided into four groups. The negative control group was treated with a normal diet; the positive control group was treated with a normal diet plus orally administered acetic acid and two treatment groups were treated with a normal diet plus orally administered chitosan in acetic acid at doses of 5 and 20 mg/kg, respectively, every other day for 24 days. Mice were weighed during the treatment, and following the treatment, blood was collected, and liver and spleen samples were isolated and weighted. The blood samples were used for measurement of white blood cell markers, and the spleen samples were used for analysis of phagocytosis, natural killer (NK) cell activity and cell proliferation using flow cytometry. The results indicated that chitosan did not markedly affect the body, liver and spleen weights at either dose. Chitosan increased the percentages of CD3 (T-cell marker), CD19 (B-cell marker), CD11b (monocytes) and Mac-3 (macrophages) when compared with the control group. However, chitosan did not affect the phagocytic activity of macrophages in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, although it decreased it in the peritoneal cavity. Treatment with 20 mg/kg chitosan led to a reduction in the cytotoxic activity of NK cells at an effector to target ratio of 25:1. Chitosan did not significantly promote B-cell proliferation in lipopolysaccharide-pretreated cells, but significantly decreased T-cell proliferation in concanavalin A-pretreated cells, and decreased the activity of

  3. [Elimination of succinate and acetate synthesis in recombinant Escherichia coli for D-lactate production].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li; Tian, Kangming; Zuo, Zhirui; Chen, Xianzhong; Shi, Guiyang; Singh, Suren; Wang, Zhengxiang

    2011-01-01

    When Escherichia coli CICIM B0013-030 (B0013, ack-pta, pps, pflB) was used for D-lactate production, succinate and acetate were the main byproducts (as much as 11.9 and 7.1% the amount of lactate respectively). In order to decrease the byproduct levels, we inactivated succinate and acetate synthesis in B0013-030. Two recombinant plasmids containing mutation cassettes of frdA::difGm and tdcDE::difGm respectively were constructed first. The mutation cassettes were used to delete the target genes on the chromosomal by Red recombination. Subsequently, the antibiotic resistance gene was excised from the chromosomal by Xer recombination. Thereby, mutants B0013-040B (B0013-030, frdA) and B0013-050B (B0013-040B, tdcDE) were produced. D-lactate producing abilities of the engineered strains were tested both in shake flasks and in bioreactors using two-phase fermentation (aerobic growth and anaerobic fermentation) with glucose as the sole carbon source. When fermentation was carried out in shake flasks, inactivation of frdA in B0013-030 to produce B0013-040B reduced succinate accumulation by 80.8%. When tested in a 7-liter bioreactor, B0013-040B accumulated 114.5 g/L D-lactate of over 99.9% optical purity. However, 1.0 g/L succinate and 5.4 g/L acetate still remained in the broth. Further inactivation of tdcD and tdcE genes in B0013-040B to produce B0013-050B decreased acetate and succinate accumulation to 0.4 g/L and 0.4 g/L respectively, and lactate titer was as much as 111.9 g/L (tested in the 7-liter bioreactor). In lightof the lower byproduct levels and high lactate production, strain B00 13-050B may prove useful for D-lactate production. PMID:21553488

  4. Lactate and Pyruvate Are Major Sources of Energy for Stallion Sperm with Dose Effects on Mitochondrial Function, Motility, and ROS Production.

    PubMed

    Darr, Christa R; Varner, Dickson D; Teague, Sheila; Cortopassi, Gino A; Datta, Sandipan; Meyers, Stuart A

    2016-08-01

    Stallion sperm rely primarily on oxidative phosphorylation for production of ATP used in sperm motility and metabolism. The objective of the study was to identify which substrates included in Biggers, Whitten, and Whittingham (BWW) media are key to optimal mitochondrial function through measurements of sperm motility parameters, mitochondrial oxygen consumption, and cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. It was expected that mitochondrial substrates, pyruvate and lactate, would support sperm motility and mitochondrial function better than the glycolytic substrate, glucose, due to direct utilization within the mitochondria. Measurements were performed after incubation in modified BWW media with varying concentrations of lactate, pyruvate, and glucose. The effects of media and duration of incubation on sperm motility, ROS production, and oxygen consumption were determined using a linear mixed-effects model. Duplicate ejaculates from four stallions were used in three separate experiments to determine the effects of substrate availability and concentration on sperm motility and mitochondrial function and the relationship of oxygen consumption with cellular ROS production. The present results indicate that lactate and pyruvate are the most important sources of energy for stallion sperm motility and velocity, and elicit a dose-dependent response. Additionally, lactate and pyruvate are ideal for maximal mitochondrial function, as sperm in these media operate at a very high level of their bioenergetic capability due to the high rate of energy metabolism. Moreover, we found that addition of glucose to the media is not necessary for short-term storage of equine sperm, and may even result in reduction of mitochondrial function. Finally, we have confirmed that ROS production can be the result of mitochondrial dysfunction as well as intense mitochondrial activity. PMID:27335066

  5. Antimicrobial and antioxidant effects of sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate in refrigerated sliced salmon

    PubMed Central

    Sallam, Khalid Ibrahim

    2007-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the microbiological quality and lipid oxidation of fresh salmon slices treated by dipping in 2.5% (w/v) aqueous solution of sodium acetate (NaA), sodium lactate (NaL), or sodium citrate (NaC) and stored at 1 °C. The results revealed that these salts were efficient (P < 0.05) against the proliferation of various categories of spoilage microorganisms; including aerobic and psychrotrophic populations, Pseudomonas spp., H2S-producing bacteria, lactic acid bacteria, and Enterobacteriaceae. The general order of antibacterial activity of the different organic salts used was; sodium acetate > sodium lactate > sodium citrate. Lipid oxidation, as expressed by peroxide value (PV) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) value, was significantly (P < 0.05) delayed in NaA- and NaC-treated samples. The antioxidant activity followed the order: NaC > NaA > NaL. The shelf life of the treated products was extended by 4–7 days more than that of the control. Therefore, sodium acetate, sodium lactate, and sodium citrate can be utilized as safe organic preservatives for fish under refrigerated storage. PMID:17471315

  6. Pyruvate Kinase M2 and Lactate Dehydrogenase A Are Overexpressed in Pancreatic Cancer and Correlate with Poor Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Mohammad, Goran Hamid; Olde Damink, S. W. M.; Malago, Massimo; Dhar, Dipok Kumar; Pereira, Stephen P.

    2016-01-01

    Pancreatic cancer has a 5-year survival rate of less than 4%. Despite advances in diagnostic technology, pancreatic cancer continues to be diagnosed at a late and incurable stage. Accurate biomarkers for early diagnosis and to predict treatment response are urgently needed. Since alteration of glucose metabolism is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells, we proposed that pyruvate kinase type M2 (M2PK) and lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) enzymes could represent novel diagnostic markers and potential therapeutic targets in pancreatic cancer. In 266 tissue sections from normal pancreas, pancreatic cystic neoplasms, pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and cancer, we evaluated the expression of PKM2, LDHA, Ki-67 and CD8+ by immunohistochemistry and correlated these markers with clinicopathological characteristics and patient survival. PKM2 and LDHA expression was also assessed by Western blot in 10 human pancreatic cancer cell lines. PKM2 expression increased progressively from cyst through PanIN to cancer, whereas LDHA was overexpressed throughout the carcinogenic process. All but one cell line showed high expression of both proteins. Patients with strong PKM2 and LDHA expression had significantly worse survival than those with weak PKM2 and/or LDHA expression (7.0 months vs. 27.9 months, respectively, p = 0.003, log rank test). The expression of both PKM2 and LDHA correlated directly with Ki-67 expression, and inversely with intratumoral CD8+ cell count. PKM2 was significantly overexpressed in poorly differentiated tumours and both PKM2 and LDHA were overexpressed in larger tumours. Multivariable analysis showed that combined expression of PKM2 and LDHA was an independent poor prognostic marker for survival. In conclusion, our results demonstrate a high expression pattern of two major glycolytic enzymes during pancreatic carcinogenesis, with increased expression in aggressive tumours and a significant adverse effect on survival. PMID:26989901

  7. Complete knockout of the lactate dehydrogenase A gene is lethal in pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1, 2, 3 down-regulated CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Yip, Shirley S M; Zhou, Meixia; Joly, John; Snedecor, Bradley; Shen, Amy; Crawford, Yongping

    2014-09-01

    Accumulation of high level of lactate can negatively impact cell growth during fed-batch culture process. In this study, we attempted to knockout the lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) gene in CHO cells in order to attenuate the lactate level. To prevent the potential deleterious effect of pyruvate accumulation, consequent to LDHA knockout, on cell culture, we chose a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1, 2, and 3 (PDHK1, 2, and 3) knockdown cell line in which to knock out LDHA alleles. Around 3,000 clones were screened to obtain 152 mutants. Only heterozygous mutants were identified. An attempt to knockout the remaining wild-type allele from one such heterozygote yielded only two mutants after screening 567 clones. One had an extra valine. Another evidenced a duplication event, possessing at lease one wild-type and two different frameshifted alleles. Both mutants still retained LDH activity. Together, our data strongly suggest that a complete knockout of LDHA is lethal in CHO cells, despite simultaneous down-regulation of PDHK1, 2, and 3. PMID:24841241

  8. Physiological and Transcriptional Characterization of Escherichia Coli Strains Lacking Interconversion of Phosphoenolpyruvate and Pyruvate When Glucose and Acetate are Coutilized

    PubMed Central

    Sabido, Andrea; Sigala, Juan Carlos; Hernández-Chávez, Georgina; Flores, Noemí; Gosset, Guillermo; Bolívar, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) is a precursor involved in the biosynthesis of aromatics and other valuable compounds in Escherichia coli. The PEP:carbohydrate phosphotransferase system (PTS) is the major glucose transport system and the largest PEP consumer. To increase intracellular PEP availability for aromatics production purposes, mutant strains of E. coli JM101 devoid of the ptsHIcrr operon (PB11 strain) have been previously generated. In this derivative, transport and growth rate on glucose decreased significantly. A laboratory evolved strain derived from PB11 that partially recovered its growth capacity on glucose was named PB12. In the present study, we blocked carbon skeletons interchange between PEP and pyruvate (PYR) in these ptsHIcrr− strains by deleting the pykA, pykF, and ppsA genes. The PB11 pykAF− ppsA− strain exhibited no growth on glucose or acetate alone, but it was viable when both substrates were consumed simultaneously. In contrast, the PB12 pykAF− ppsA− strain displayed a low growth rate on glucose or acetate alone, but in the mixture, growth was significantly improved. RT-qPCR expression analysis of PB11 pykAF− ppsA− growing with both carbon sources showed a downregulation of all central metabolic pathways compared with its parental PB11 strain. Under the same conditions, transcription of most of the genes in PB12 pykAF− ppsA− did not change, and few like aceBAK, sfcA, and poxB were overexpressed compared with PB12. We explored the aromatics production capabilities of both ptsHIcrr− pykAF− ppsA− strains and the engineered PB12 pykAF− ppsA− tyrR− pheAev2+/pJLBaroGfbrtktA enhanced the yield of aromatic compounds when coutilizing glucose and acetate compared with the control strain PB12 tyrR− pheAev2+/pJLBaroGfbrtktA. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2014;111: 1150–1160. © 2013 The Authors. Biotechnology and Bioengineering Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:24375081

  9. In boar sperm capacitation L-lactate and succinate, but not pyruvate and citrate, contribute to the mitochondrial membrane potential increase as monitored via safranine O fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Paventi, Gianluca; Lessard, Christian; Bailey, Janice L; Passarella, Salvatore

    2015-07-01

    Having ascertained using JC-1 as a probe that, in distinction with the controls, during capacitation boar sperm maintains high mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ), to gain some insight into the role of mitochondria in capacitation, we monitored ΔΨ generation due to externally added metabolites either in hypotonically-treated spermatozoa (HTS) or in intact cells by using safranine O as a probe. During capacitation, the addition to HTS of L-lactate and succinate but not those of pyruvate, citrate and ascorbate + TMPD resulted in increase of ΔΨ generation. Accordingly, the addition of L-lactate and succinate, but not that of citrate, to intact sperm resulted in ΔΨ generation increased in capacitation. PMID:25956060

  10. Differentiating inflamed and normal lungs by the apparent reaction rate constants of lactate dehydrogenase probed by hyperpolarized 13C labeled pyruvate

    PubMed Central

    Xu, He N.; Kadlececk, Stephen; Shaghaghi, Hoora; Zhao, Huaqing; Profka, Harilla; Pourfathi, Mehrdad; Rizi, Rahim

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinically translatable hyperpolarized (HP) 13C-NMR can probe in vivo enzymatic reactions, e.g., lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-catalyzed reaction by injecting HP 13C-pyruvate into the subject, which is converted to 13C labeled lactate by the enzyme. Parameters such as 13C-lactate signals and lactate-to-pyruvate signal ratio are commonly used for analyzing the HP 13C-NMR data. However, the biochemical/biological meaning of these parameters remains either unclear or dependent on experimental settings. It is preferable to quantify the reaction rate constants with a clearer physical meaning. Here we report the extraction of the kinetic parameters of the LDH reaction from HP 13C-NMR data and investigate if they can be potential predictors of lung inflammation. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats (12 controls, 14 treated) were used. One dose of bleomycin (2.5 U/kg) was administered intratracheally to the treatment group. The lungs were removed, perfused, and observed by the HP-NMR technique, where a HyperSense dynamic nuclear polarization system was used to generate the HP 13C-pyruvate for injecting into the lungs. A 20 mm 1H/13C dual-tuned coil in a 9.4-T Varian vertical bore NMR spectrometer was employed to acquire the 13C spectral data every 1 s over a time period of 300 s using a non-selective, 15-degree radiofrequency pulse. The apparent rate constants of the LDH reaction and their ratio were quantified by applying ratiometric fitting analysis to the time series data of 13C labeled pyruvate and lactate. Results The apparent forward rate constant kp=(3.67±3.31)×10−4 s−1, reverse rate constant kl=(4.95±2.90)×10−2 s−1, rate constant ratio kp/kl=(7.53±5.75)×10−3 for the control lungs; kp=(11.71±4.35)×10−4 s−1, kl=(9.89±3.89)×10−2 s−1, and kp/kl=(12.39±4.18)×10−3 for the inflamed lungs at the 7th day post treatment. Wilcoxon rank-sum test showed that the medians of these kinetic parameters of the 7-day cohort were significantly

  11. Determination of pyruvate and lactate as potential biomarkers of embryo viability in assisted reproduction by capillary electrophoresis with contactless conductivity detection.

    PubMed

    Mádr, Aleš; Celá, Andrea; Klejdus, Bořivoj; Pelcová, Marta; Crha, Igor; Žáková, Jana; Glatz, Zdeněk

    2015-06-01

    Human-assisted reproduction is increasing in importance due to the constantly rising number of couples suffering from infertility issue. A key step in in vitro fertilization is the proper assessment of embryo viability in order to select the embryo with the highest likelihood of resulting in a pregnancy. This study proposes a method based on CE with contactless conductivity detection for the determination of pyruvate and lactate in spent culture media used in human-assisted reproduction. A fused-silica capillary of 64.0 cm total length and 50 μm inner diameter was used. The inner capillary wall was modified by the coating of successive layers of the ionic polymers polybrene and dextran sulfate to reverse EOF. The BGE was composed of 10 mM MES/lithium hydroxide, pH 6.50. The sample was injected by pressure 50 mbar for 18 s, separation voltage was set to -24 kV, and capillary temperature to 15°C. The presented method requires only 2 μL of the culture medium, with LODs for pyruvate and lactate of 0.03 and 0.02 μM, respectively. The results demonstrated the method's suitability for the analysis of spent culture media to support embryo viability assessment by light microscopy, providing information about key metabolites of the energy metabolism of a developing embryo. PMID:25639526

  12. Altered Fermentative Metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Mutants Lacking Pyruvate Formate Lyase and Both Pyruvate Formate Lyase and Alcohol Dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Catalanotti, C.; Dubini, A.; Subramanian, V.; Yang, W. Q.; Magneschi, L.; Mus, F.; Seibert, M.; Posewitz, M. C.; Grossman, A. R.

    2012-02-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a unicellular green alga, often experiences hypoxic/anoxic soil conditions that activate fermentation metabolism. We isolated three Chlamydomonas mutants disrupted for the pyruvate formate lyase (PFL1) gene; the encoded PFL1 protein catalyzes a major fermentative pathway in wild-type Chlamydomonas cells. When the pfl1 mutants were subjected to dark fermentative conditions, they displayed an increased flux of pyruvate to lactate, elevated pyruvate decarboxylation, ethanol accumulation, diminished pyruvate oxidation by pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and lowered H2 production. The pfl1-1 mutant also accumulated high intracellular levels of lactate, succinate, alanine, malate, and fumarate. To further probe the system, we generated a double mutant (pfl1-1 adh1) that is unable to synthesize both formate and ethanol. This strain, like the pfl1 mutants, secreted lactate, but it also exhibited a significant increase in the levels of extracellular glycerol, acetate, and intracellular reduced sugars and a decrease in dark, fermentative H2 production. Whereas wild-type Chlamydomonas fermentation primarily produces formate and ethanol, the double mutant reroutes glycolytic carbon to lactate and glycerol. Although the metabolic adjustments observed in the mutants facilitate NADH reoxidation and sustained glycolysis under dark, anoxic conditions, the observed changes could not have been predicted given our current knowledge of the regulation of fermentation metabolism.

  13. Physiological roles of pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase and pyruvate formate-lyase in Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum JW/SL-YS485

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, Jilai; Olson, Daniel G.; Lanahan, Anthony A.; Tian, Liang; Murphy, Sean Jean-Loup; Lo, Jonathan; Lynd, Lee R.

    2015-09-15

    We report that Thermoanaerobacter saccharolyticum is a thermophilic microorganism that has been engineered to produce ethanol at high titer (30–70 g/L) and greater than 90 % theoretical yield. However, few genes involved in pyruvate to ethanol production pathway have been unambiguously identified. In T. saccharolyticum, the products of six putative pfor gene clusters and one pfl gene may be responsible for the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. To gain insights into the physiological roles of PFOR and PFL, we studied the effect of deletions of several genes thought to encode these activities. We found that that pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase enzyme (PFOR) is encoded by the pforA gene and plays a key role in pyruvate dissimilation. We further demonstrated that pyruvate formate-lyase activity (PFL) is encoded by the pfl gene. Although the pfl gene is normally expressed at low levels, it is crucial for biosynthesis in T. saccharolyticum. In pforA deletion strains, pfl expression increased and was able to partially compensate for the loss of PFOR activity. Deletion of both pforA and pfl resulted in a strain that required acetate and formate for growth and produced lactate as the primary fermentation product, achieving 88 % theoretical lactate yield. PFOR encoded by Tsac_0046 and PFL encoded by Tsac_0628 are only two routes for converting pyruvate to acetyl-CoA in T. saccharolyticum. The physiological role of PFOR is pyruvate dissimilation, whereas that of PFL is supplying C1 units for biosynthesis.

  14. Application of acetate, lactate, and fumarate as electron donors in microbial fuel cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasyliv, Oresta M.; Bilyy, Oleksandr I.; Ferensovych, Yaroslav P.; Hnatush, Svitlana O.

    2013-09-01

    Microbial fuel cells (MFCs) are devices that use bacteria as the catalysts to oxidize organic and inorganic matter and generate current. Up to now, several classes of extracellular electron transfer mechanisms have been elucidated for various microorganisms. Shewanellaceae and Geobacteraceae families include the most of model exoelectrogenic microorganisms. Desulfuromonas acetoxidans bacterium inhabits aquatic sedimental sulfur-containing environments and is philogenetically close to representatives of Geobacteraceae family. Two chamber microbial fuel cell (0.3 l volume) was constructed with application of D. acetoxidans IMV B-7384 as anode biocatalyst. Acetic, lactic and fumaric acids were separately applied as organic electron donors for bacterial growth in constructed MFC. Bacterial cultivation in MFC was held during twenty days. Lactate oxidation caused electric power production with the highest value up to 0.071 mW on 64 hour of D. acetoxidans IMV B-7384 growth. Addition of acetic and fumaric acids into bacterial growth medium caused maximal power production up to 0.075 and 0.074 mW respectively on the 40 hour of their growth. Increasing of incubation time up to twentieth day caused decrease of generated electric power till 0.018 mW, 0.042 mW and 0.047 mW under usage of lactic, acetic and fumaric acids respectively by investigated bacteria. Power generation by D. acetoxidans IMV B-7384 was more stabile and durable under application of acetic and fumaric acids as electron donors in constructed MFC, than under addition of lactic acid in the same concentration into the growth medium.

  15. Lactate and the Lactate-to-Pyruvate Molar Ratio Cannot Be Used as Independent Biomarkers for Monitoring Brain Energetic Metabolism: A Microdialysis Study in Patients with Traumatic Brain Injuries

    PubMed Central

    Sahuquillo, Juan; Merino, Maria-Angels; Sánchez-Guerrero, Angela; Arikan, Fuat; Vidal-Jorge, Marian; Martínez-Valverde, Tamara; Rey, Anna; Riveiro, Marilyn; Poca, Maria-Antonia

    2014-01-01

    Background For decades, lactate has been considered an excellent biomarker for oxygen limitation and therefore of organ ischemia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the frequency of increased brain lactate levels and the LP ratio (LPR) in a cohort of patients with severe or moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) subjected to brain microdialysis monitoring to analyze the agreement between these two biomarkers and to indicate brain energy metabolism dysfunction. Methods Forty-six patients with an admission Glasgow coma scale score of ≤13 after resuscitation admitted to a dedicated 10-bed Neurotraumatology Intensive Care Unit were included, and 5305 verified samples of good microdialysis data were analyzed. Results Lactate levels were above 2.5 mmol/L in 56.9% of the samples. The relationships between lactate and the LPR could not be adequately modeled by any linear or non-linear model. Neither Cohen’s kappa nor Gwet’s statistic showed an acceptable agreement between both biomarkers to classify the samples in regard to normal or abnormal metabolism. The dataset was divided into four patterns defined by the lactate concentrations and the LPR. A potential interpretation for these patterns is suggested and discussed. Pattern 4 (low pyruvate levels) was found in 10.7% of the samples and was characterized by a significantly low concentration of brain glucose compared with the other groups. Conclusions Our study shows that metabolic abnormalities are frequent in the macroscopically normal brain in patients with traumatic brain injuries and a very poor agreement between lactate and the LPR when classifying metabolism. The concentration of lactate in the dialysates must be interpreted while taking into consideration the LPR to distinguish between anaerobic metabolism and aerobic hyperglycolysis. PMID:25025772

  16. Growth Inhibition of Enteric Bacteria by Vibrio cholerae in Nutrient Media Containing Lactate, Acetate, or Citrate1

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskaran, K.; Iyer, S. S.; Khan, A. W.; Vora, V. C.

    1974-01-01

    In cross-streak tests on nutrient agar containing lactate, acetate, or citrate, the growth of certain enteric bacteria was inhibited by themselves or by Vibrio cholerae, or by both. This mimicked the activity of bacteriocins, but the phenomenon was attributable to the accumulation of carbonate and increased alkalinity of the media. Images PMID:15830491

  17. Effects of sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives on the quality and sensory characteristics of hot-boned pork sausage patties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sodium lactate and acetic acid derivatives were evaluated for their effects on color retention, microbial growth, and sensory attributes of hot-boned pork sausage patties. Treatments included: (a) sodium lactate (L), (b) buffered vinegar (V), (c) sodium lactate and vinegar mixture (LV), (d) control ...

  18. The lactate dehydrogenase--reduced nicotinamide--adenine dinucleotide--pyruvate complex. Kinetics of pyruvate binding and quenching of coeznyme fluorescence.

    PubMed

    Südi, J

    1974-04-01

    The stopped-flow kinetic studies described in this and the following paper (Südi, 1974) demonstrate that a Haldane-type description of the reversible lactate dehydrogenase reaction presents an experimentally feasible task. Combined results of these two papers yield numerical values for the six rate constants defined by the following equilibrium scheme, where E represents lactate dehydrogenase: [Formula: see text] The experiments were carried out at pH8.4 at a relatively low temperature (6.3 degrees C) with the pig heart enzyme. Identification of the above two intermediates and determination of the corresponding rate constants actually involve four series of independent observations in these studies, since (a) the reaction can be followed in both directions, and (b) both the u.v. absorption and the fluorescence of the coenzymes are altered in the reaction, and it is shown that these two spectral changes do not occur simultaneously. Kinetic observations made in the reverse direction are reported in this paper. It is demonstrated that the fluorescence of NADH can no longer be observed in the ternary complex E(NADH) (Pyr). Even though the oxidation-reduction reaction rapidly follows the formation of this complex, the numerical values of k(-4) (8.33x10(5)m(-1).s(-1)) and k(+4) (222s(-1)) are easily obtained from a directly observed second-order reaction step in which fluorescent but not u.v.-absorbing material is disappearing. U.v.-absorption measurements do not clearly resolve the subsequent oxidation-reduction step from the dissociation of lactate. It is shown that this must be due partly to the instrumental dead time, and partly to a low transient concentration of E(NAD+) (Lac) in the two-step sequential reaction in which the detectable disappearance of u.v.-absorbing material takes place. It is estimated that about one-tenth of the total change in u.v. absorption is due to a ;burst reaction' in which E(NAD+) (Lac) is produced, and this estimation yields, from k

  19. Identification of the Elusive Pyruvate Reductase of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Chloroplasts.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Steven J; Taha, Hussein; Yeoman, Justin A; Iamshanova, Oksana; Chan, Kher Xing; Boehm, Marko; Behrends, Volker; Bundy, Jacob G; Bialek, Wojciech; Murray, James W; Nixon, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Under anoxic conditions the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii activates various fermentation pathways leading to the creation of formate, acetate, ethanol and small amounts of other metabolites including d-lactate and hydrogen. Progress has been made in identifying the enzymes involved in these pathways and their subcellular locations; however, the identity of the enzyme involved in reducing pyruvate to d-lactate has remained unclear. Based on sequence comparisons, enzyme activity measurements, X-ray crystallography, biochemical fractionation and analysis of knock-down mutants, we conclude that pyruvate reduction in the chloroplast is catalyzed by a tetrameric NAD(+)-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase encoded by Cre07.g324550. Its expression during aerobic growth supports a possible function as a 'lactate valve' for the export of lactate to the mitochondrion for oxidation by cytochrome-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenases and by glycolate dehydrogenase. We also present a revised spatial model of fermentation based on our immunochemical detection of the likely pyruvate decarboxylase, PDC3, in the cytoplasm. PMID:26574578

  20. Identification of the Elusive Pyruvate Reductase of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Chloroplasts

    PubMed Central

    Burgess, Steven J.; Taha, Hussein; Yeoman, Justin A.; Iamshanova, Oksana; Chan, Kher Xing; Boehm, Marko; Behrends, Volker; Bundy, Jacob G.; Bialek, Wojciech; Murray, James W.; Nixon, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Under anoxic conditions the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii activates various fermentation pathways leading to the creation of formate, acetate, ethanol and small amounts of other metabolites including d-lactate and hydrogen. Progress has been made in identifying the enzymes involved in these pathways and their subcellular locations; however, the identity of the enzyme involved in reducing pyruvate to d-lactate has remained unclear. Based on sequence comparisons, enzyme activity measurements, X-ray crystallography, biochemical fractionation and analysis of knock-down mutants, we conclude that pyruvate reduction in the chloroplast is catalyzed by a tetrameric NAD+-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenase encoded by Cre07.g324550. Its expression during aerobic growth supports a possible function as a ‘lactate valve’ for the export of lactate to the mitochondrion for oxidation by cytochrome-dependent d-lactate dehydrogenases and by glycolate dehydrogenase. We also present a revised spatial model of fermentation based on our immunochemical detection of the likely pyruvate decarboxylase, PDC3, in the cytoplasm. PMID:26574578

  1. Identification of a novel operon in Lactococcus lactis encoding three enzymes for lactic acid synthesis: phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Llanos, R M; Harris, C J; Hillier, A J; Davidson, B E

    1993-01-01

    The discovery of a novel multicistronic operon that encodes phosphofructokinase, pyruvate kinase, and lactate dehydrogenase in the lactic acid bacterium Lactococcus lactis is reported. The three genes in the operon, designated pfk, pyk, and ldh, contain 340, 502, and 325 codons, respectively. The intergenic distances are 87 bp between pfk and pyk and 117 bp between pyk and ldh. Plasmids containing pfk and pyk conferred phosphofructokinase and pyruvate kinase activity, respectively, on their host. The identity of ldh was established previously by the same approach (R. M. Llanos, A. J. Hillier, and B. E. Davidson, J. Bacteriol. 174:6956-6964, 1992). Each of the genes is preceded by a potential ribosome binding site. The operon is expressed in a 4.1-kb transcript. The 5' end of the transcript was determined to be a G nucleotide positioned 81 bp upstream from the pfk start codon. The pattern of codon usage within the operon is highly biased, with 11 unused amino acid codons. This degree of bias suggests that the operon is highly expressed. The three proteins encoded on the operon are key enzymes in the Embden-Meyerhoff pathway, the central pathway of energy production and lactic acid synthesis in L. lactis. For this reason, we have called the operon the las (lactic acid synthesis) operon. Images PMID:8478320

  2. Regulation of synthesis of pyruvate carboxylase in the photosynthetic bacterium Rhodobacter capsulatus.

    PubMed Central

    Yakunin, A F; Hallenbeck, P C

    1997-01-01

    The synthesis of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) was studied by using quantitative immunoblot analysis with an antibody raised against PC purified from Rhodobacter capsulatus and was found to vary 20-fold depending on the growth conditions. The PC content was high in cells grown on pyruvate or on carbon substrates metabolized via pyruvate (lactate, D-malate, glucose, or fructose) and low in cells grown on tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediates or substrates metabolized without intermediate formation of pyruvate (acetate or glutamate). Under dark aerobic growth conditions with lactate as a carbon source, the PC content was approximately twofold higher than that found under light anaerobic growth conditions. The results of incubation experiments demonstrate that PC synthesis is induced by pyruvate and repressed by TCA cycle intermediates, with negative control dominating over positive control. The content of PC in R. capsulatus cells was also directly related to the growth rate in continuous cultures. The analysis of intracellular levels of pyruvate and TCA cycle intermediates in cells grown under different conditions demonstrated that the content of PC is directly proportional to the ratio between pyruvate and C4 dicarboxylates. These results suggest that the regulation of PC synthesis by oxygen and its direct correlation with growth rate may reflect effects on the balance of intracellular pyruvate and C4 dicarboxylates. Thus, this important enzyme is potentially regulated both allosterically and at the level of synthesis. PMID:9045800

  3. Lactate Oxidation Coupled to Iron or Electrode Reduction by Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA▿

    PubMed Central

    Call, Douglas F.; Logan, Bruce E.

    2011-01-01

    Geobacter sulfurreducens PCA completely oxidized lactate and reduced iron or an electrode, producing pyruvate and acetate intermediates. Compared to the current produced by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, G. sulfurreducens PCA produced 10-times-higher current levels in lactate-fed microbial electrolysis cells. The kinetic and comparative analyses reported here suggest a prominent role of G. sulfurreducens strains in metal- and electrode-reducing communities supplied with lactate. PMID:22003020

  4. Altered Fermentative Metabolism in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii Mutants Lacking Pyruvate Formate Lyase and Both Pyruvate Formate Lyase and Alcohol Dehydrogenase[W

    PubMed Central

    Catalanotti, Claudia; Dubini, Alexandra; Subramanian, Venkataramanan; Yang, Wenqiang; Magneschi, Leonardo; Mus, Florence; Seibert, Michael; Posewitz, Matthew C.; Grossman, Arthur R.

    2012-01-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, a unicellular green alga, often experiences hypoxic/anoxic soil conditions that activate fermentation metabolism. We isolated three Chlamydomonas mutants disrupted for the pyruvate formate lyase (PFL1) gene; the encoded PFL1 protein catalyzes a major fermentative pathway in wild-type Chlamydomonas cells. When the pfl1 mutants were subjected to dark fermentative conditions, they displayed an increased flux of pyruvate to lactate, elevated pyruvate decarboxylation, ethanol accumulation, diminished pyruvate oxidation by pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase, and lowered H2 production. The pfl1-1 mutant also accumulated high intracellular levels of lactate, succinate, alanine, malate, and fumarate. To further probe the system, we generated a double mutant (pfl1-1 adh1) that is unable to synthesize both formate and ethanol. This strain, like the pfl1 mutants, secreted lactate, but it also exhibited a significant increase in the levels of extracellular glycerol, acetate, and intracellular reduced sugars and a decrease in dark, fermentative H2 production. Whereas wild-type Chlamydomonas fermentation primarily produces formate and ethanol, the double mutant reroutes glycolytic carbon to lactate and glycerol. Although the metabolic adjustments observed in the mutants facilitate NADH reoxidation and sustained glycolysis under dark, anoxic conditions, the observed changes could not have been predicted given our current knowledge of the regulation of fermentation metabolism. PMID:22353371

  5. Effect of fertirelin acetate or buserelin on conception rate at first or second insemination in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Chenault, J R

    1990-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if fertirelin acetate and buserelin, two GnRH agonists, improve conception rate when administered at the time of first or second AI in lactating dairy cows. The study consisted of a common protocol conducted at 10 commercial dairy farms. Approximately 150 cows within each dairy were assigned randomly in replicates to receive intramuscularly either no injection or injection of 25, 50, 75, or 100 micrograms fertirelin acetate or 10 micrograms buserelin immediately after AI. Cows were subjected to the reproductive management practices normal for each location. Cows at each location were palpated for pregnancy status at 35 to 60 d postinjection. No improvement in conception rate was detected in response to either agonist (control = 48%, fertirelin acetate = 41.5%, buserelin = 39.7%). Conception rate was unaffected by either days postpartum at injection or overall fertility of the individual herds. These observations do not support the routine use of doses of 25 to 100 micrograms fertirelin acetate or 10 micrograms buserelin at the time of first or second AI as a means to improve conception rate in lactating dairy cows. PMID:2111339

  6. Production of lactate and acetate by Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens DSM 20004(T) in comparison with Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 20531(T).

    PubMed

    Slavica, Anita; Trontel, Antonija; Jelovac, Nuša; Kosovec, Željka; Šantek, Božidar; Novak, Srđan

    2015-05-20

    Lactobacillus coryniformis subsp. torquens DSM20004(T) is a d-lactate producer, with a portion of the d-lactate higher than 99.9% of total lactic acid produced. Acetate was identified as the second end-product that appeared at the end of the exponential growth phase in MRS medium when glucose concentration dropped to 38.41mM (6.92g/L). The acetate production was prolonged to the stationary phase, while the concentration of d-lactate remained constant. Other end-products were not identified by HPLC method. The known metabolic pathways of glucose fermentation in lactic acid bacteria do not produce the particular combination of these two end-products, but besides lactate and acetate also formate, ethanol and CO2 are produced. For comparison, the production of lactate and acetate by a d-/l-lactate producer Lactobacillus amylovorus DSM 20531(T) was also investigated. This strain produced equimolar quantities of d- and l-lactate in the MRS medium. Acetate was produced only when initial concentration of glucose was 55.51mM (10g/L) and production started in the exponential phase when concentration of glucose dropped to 35.52mM (6.40g/L). Similar behavior was observed with the initial concentration of maltose of 29.21mM (10g/L). An unstructured mathematical model was established for the bioprocess simulation. PMID:25617683

  7. Ethyl pyruvate and ethyl lactate down-regulate the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and modulate expression of immune receptors.

    PubMed

    Hollenbach, Marcus; Hintersdorf, Anja; Huse, Klaus; Sack, Ulrich; Bigl, Marina; Groth, Marco; Santel, Thore; Buchold, Martin; Lindner, Inge; Otto, Andreas; Sicker, Dieter; Schellenberger, Wolfgang; Almendinger, Johannes; Pustowoit, Barbara; Birkemeyer, Claudia; Platzer, Mathias; Oerlecke, Ilka; Hemdan, Nasr; Birkenmeier, Gerd

    2008-09-01

    Esters of alpha-oxo-carbonic acids such as ethyl pyruvate (EP) have been demonstrated to exert inhibitory effects on the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines. So far, there is no information about effects, if any, of ethyl lactate (EL), an obviously inactive analogue of EP, on inflammatory immune responses. In the present study, we provide evidence that the anti-inflammatory action of alpha-oxo-carbonic acid esters is mediated by inhibition of glyoxalases (Glo), cytosolic enzymes that catalyse the conversion of alpha-oxo-aldehydes such as methylglyoxal (MGO) into the corresponding alpha-hydroxy acids using glutathione as a cofactor. In vitro enzyme activity measurements revealed the inhibition of human Glo1 by alpha-oxo-carbonic acid esters, whilst alpha-hydroxy-carbonic acid esters such as EL were not inhibitory. In contrast, both EP and EL were shown to suppress the Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6 and IL-8 from human immunocompetent cells, and modulated the expression of the immune receptors HLA-DR, CD14 and CD91 on human monocytes. Here, we show a crossing link between glyoxalases and the immune system. The results described herein introduce glyoxalases as a possible target for therapeutic approaches of immune suppression. PMID:18625205

  8. Physiological roles of pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase and pyruvate formate-lyase in Thermoanaerobacterium saccharolyticum JW/SL-YS485

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Zhou, Jilai; Olson, Daniel G.; Lanahan, Anthony A.; Tian, Liang; Murphy, Sean Jean-Loup; Lo, Jonathan; Lynd, Lee R.

    2015-09-15

    We report that Thermoanaerobacter saccharolyticum is a thermophilic microorganism that has been engineered to produce ethanol at high titer (30–70 g/L) and greater than 90 % theoretical yield. However, few genes involved in pyruvate to ethanol production pathway have been unambiguously identified. In T. saccharolyticum, the products of six putative pfor gene clusters and one pfl gene may be responsible for the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA. To gain insights into the physiological roles of PFOR and PFL, we studied the effect of deletions of several genes thought to encode these activities. We found that that pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase enzymemore » (PFOR) is encoded by the pforA gene and plays a key role in pyruvate dissimilation. We further demonstrated that pyruvate formate-lyase activity (PFL) is encoded by the pfl gene. Although the pfl gene is normally expressed at low levels, it is crucial for biosynthesis in T. saccharolyticum. In pforA deletion strains, pfl expression increased and was able to partially compensate for the loss of PFOR activity. Deletion of both pforA and pfl resulted in a strain that required acetate and formate for growth and produced lactate as the primary fermentation product, achieving 88 % theoretical lactate yield. PFOR encoded by Tsac_0046 and PFL encoded by Tsac_0628 are only two routes for converting pyruvate to acetyl-CoA in T. saccharolyticum. The physiological role of PFOR is pyruvate dissimilation, whereas that of PFL is supplying C1 units for biosynthesis.« less

  9. Molecular characterization of CcpA and involvement of this protein in transcriptional regulation of lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate formate-lyase in the ruminal bacterium Streptococcus bovis.

    PubMed

    Asanuma, Narito; Yoshii, Takahiro; Hino, Tsuneo

    2004-09-01

    A ccpA gene that encodes global catabolite control protein A (CcpA) in Streptococcus bovis was identified and characterized, and the involvement of CcpA in transcriptional control of a gene (ldh) encoding lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and a gene (pfl) encoding pyruvate formate-lyase (PFL) was examined. The ccpA gene was shown to be transcribed as a monocistronic operon. A catabolite-responsive element (cre) was found in the promoter region of ccpA, suggesting that ccpA transcription in S. bovis is autogenously regulated. CcpA required HPr that was phosphorylated at the serine residue at position 46 (HPr-[Ser-P]) for binding to the cre site, but glucose 6-phosphate, fructose 1,6-bisphosphate, and NADP had no effect on binding. Diauxic growth was observed when S. bovis was grown in a medium containing glucose and lactose, but it disappeared when ccpA was disrupted, which indicates that CcpA is involved in catabolite repression in S. bovis. The level of ccpA mRNA was higher when cells were grown on glucose than when they were grown on lactose, which was in line with the level of ldh mRNA. When cells were grown on glucose, the ldh mRNA level was lower but the pfl mRNA level was higher in a ccpA-disrupted mutant than in the parent strain, which suggests that ldh transcription is enhanced and pfl transcription is suppressed by CcpA. The ccpA-disrupted mutant produced less lactate and more formate than the parent, probably because the mutant had reduced LDH activity and elevated PFL activity. In the upper region of both ldh and pfl, a cre-like sequence was found, suggesting that the complex consisting of CcpA and HPr-[Ser-P] binds to the possible cre sites. Thus, CcpA appears to be involved in the global regulation of sugar utilization in S. bovis. PMID:15345406

  10. Lactation

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    Lactation is the most energy-efficient way to provide for the dietary needs of young mammals, their mother's milk being actively protective, immunomodulatory, and ideal for their needs. Intrauterine mammary gland development in the human female is already apparent by the end of the sixth week of gestation. During puberty and adolescence secretions of the anterior pituitary stimulate the maturation of the graafian follicles in the ovaries and stimulate the secretion of follicular estrogens, which stimulate development of the mammary ducts. Pregnancy has the most dramatic effect on the breast, but development of the glandular breast tissue and deposition of fat and connective tissue continue under the influence of cyclic sex-hormone stimulation. Many changes occur in the nipple and breast during pregnancy and at delivery as a prelude to lactation. Preparation of the breasts is so effective that lactation could commence even if pregnancy were discontinued at 16 weeks. Following birth, placental inhibition of milk synthesis is removed, and a woman's progesterone blood levels decline rapidly. The breasts fill with milk, which is a high-density, low-volume feed called colostrum until about 30 hours after birth. Because it is not the level of maternal hormones, but the efficiency of infant suckling and/or milk removal that governs the volume of milk produced in each breast, mothers who permit their infants to feed ad libitum commonly observe that they have large volumes of milk 24-48 hours after birth. The two maternal reflexes involved in lactation are the milk-production and milk-ejection reflex. A number of complementary reflexes are involved when the infant feeds: the rooting reflex (which programmes the infant to search for the nipple), the sucking reflex (rhythmic jaw action creating negative pressure and a peristaltic action of the tongue), and the swallowing reflex. The infant's instinctive actions need to be consolidated into learned behaviour in the postpartum

  11. Glucose metabolism and effect of acetate in ovine adipocytes.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y T; White, L S; Muir, L A

    1982-08-01

    Isolated ovine adipocytes were incubated in vitro with specifically labeled 14C-glucose in the presence or absence of acetate. The flux patterns of glucose carbon through major metabolic pathways were estimated. When glucose was added as the sole substrate, approximately equal portions of glucose carbon (10%) were oxidized to CO2 in the pentose phosphate pathway, in the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction and in the citrate cycle. Fifteen percent of the glucose carbon was incorporated into fatty acids and 43% was released as lactate and pyruvate. Addition of acetate to the medium increased glucose carbon uptake by 1.5-fold. Most of this increase was accounted for by a sevenfold increase in the activity of the pentose phosphate pathway. Acetate increased glucose carbon fluxes via pentose phosphate pathway to triose phosphates, from triose phosphate to pyruvate, into glyceride glycerol, into lactate and pyruvate and into pyruvate dehydrogenase and citrate cycle CO2. Glucose carbon incorporated into fatty acids was decreased 50% by acetate while, carbon fluxes through the phosphofructokinase-aldolase reactions were not significantly increased. Results of this study suggest that, when glucose is the sole substrate, the conversion of glucose to fatty acids in ovine adipocytes may not be limited by the maximum capacity of hexokinase, the pentose phosphate pathway or enzymes involved in the conversion of triose phosphates to pyruvate and of pyruvate to fatty acid. Acetate increased glucose utilization apparently by increasing activity of the pentose phosphate pathway as a result of enhanced NADPH utilization for fatty acid synthesis. PMID:7142048

  12. The occurrence of Listeria monocytogens in retail ready-to-eat meat and poultry products related to the levels of Acetate and Lactate in the products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Listeria monocytogenes is a psychrotrophic foodborne pathogen that has been isolated from ready-to-eat meat and poultry products (RTE meats). The purpose of this study was to quantify lactate and acetate levels in retail RTE meats that had been tested in a previous study for the presence of L. mono...

  13. Prenatal or lactational exposure of male rats to lead acetate. Effect on reproductive function

    SciTech Connect

    Thoreux-Manlay, A.; Pinon-Lataillade, G.; Coffigny, H.; Masse, R.; Soufir, J.C.

    1995-02-01

    Lead is an environmental pollutant which has received much attention, partly because of the particular sensitivity of children to this element. As regards the consequences of exposure to lead during fetal life or childhood, epidemiological studies have so far focused on its neuropsychological effects and little is known about the consequences of fetal or childhood exposure for reproduction. With respect to animals, the reproductive toxicity of lead in males exposed during prenatal life or the suckling period has only been considered in a few studies. Four such studies concerned the rat, the most current model of lead toxicity for male reproduction; two of studies considered the long term effects (i.e. during adulthood) of moderate in utero lead exposure, another covered the prenatal and neonatal periods and focused on the possible impact of lead intoxication on steriodogenesis before weaning, while the remaining study dealt with pituitary hormone level at the end of lead gavage in newborns. None of these investigations compared the effects of exposure during prenatal life to those of exposure via lactation, or the early effects (at about weaning time) to the long-term consequences during adulthood. Because of the paucity of data on these points, we conducted two experiments: in one, rats were exposed to lead prenatally, and in the other via maternal milk. In both cases male reproductive function at weaning and adulthood was examined. 12 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. Influence of an acetate- and a lactate-based balanced infusion solution on acid base physiology and hemodynamics: an observational pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The current pilot study compares the impact of an intravenous infusion of Ringer’s lactate to an acetate-based solution with regard to acid–base balance. The study design included the variables of the Stewart approach and focused on the effective strong ion difference. Because adverse hemodynamic effects have been reported when using acetate buffered solutions in hemodialysis, hemodynamics were also evaluated. Methods Twenty-four women who had undergone abdominal gynecologic surgery and who had received either Ringer’s lactate (Strong Ion Difference 28 mmol/L; n = 12) or an acetate-based solution (Strong Ion Difference 36.8 mmol/L; n = 12) according to an established clinical protocol and its precursor were included in the investigation. After induction of general anesthesia, a set of acid–base variables, hemodynamic values and serum electrolytes was measured three times during the next 120 minutes. Results Patients received a mean dose of 4,054 ± 450 ml of either one or the other of the solutions. In terms of mean arterial blood pressure and norepinephrine requirements there were no differences to observe between the study groups. pH and serum HCO3- concentration decreased slightly but significantly only with Ringer’s lactate. In addition, the acetate-based solution kept the plasma effective strong ion difference more stable than Ringer’s lactate. Conclusions Both of the solutions provided hemodynamic stability. Concerning consistency of acid base parameters none of the solutions seemed to be inferior, either. Whether the slight advantages observed for the acetate-buffered solution in terms of stability of pH and plasma HCO3- are clinically relevant, needs to be investigated in a larger randomized controlled trial. PMID:22769740

  15. Homofermentative Lactate Production Cannot Sustain Anaerobic Growth of Engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Possible Consequence of Energy-Dependent Lactate Export

    PubMed Central

    van Maris, Antonius J. A.; Winkler, Aaron A.; Porro, Danilo; van Dijken, Johannes P.; Pronk, Jack T.

    2004-01-01

    Due to a growing market for the biodegradable and renewable polymer polylactic acid, the world demand for lactic acid is rapidly increasing. The tolerance of yeasts to low pH can benefit the process economy of lactic acid production by minimizing the need for neutralizing agents. Saccharomyces cerevisiae (CEN.PK background) was engineered to a homofermentative lactate-producing yeast via deletion of the three genes encoding pyruvate decarboxylase and the introduction of a heterologous lactate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.27). Like all pyruvate decarboxylase-negative S. cerevisiae strains, the engineered strain required small amounts of acetate for the synthesis of cytosolic acetyl-coenzyme A. Exposure of aerobic glucose-limited chemostat cultures to excess glucose resulted in the immediate appearance of lactate as the major fermentation product. Ethanol formation was absent. However, the engineered strain could not grow anaerobically, and lactate production was strongly stimulated by oxygen. In addition, under all conditions examined, lactate production by the engineered strain was slower than alcoholic fermentation by the wild type. Despite the equivalence of alcoholic fermentation and lactate fermentation with respect to redox balance and ATP generation, studies on oxygen-limited chemostat cultures showed that lactate production does not contribute to the ATP economy of the engineered yeast. This absence of net ATP production is probably due to a metabolic energy requirement (directly or indirectly in the form of ATP) for lactate export. PMID:15128549

  16. The use of nomegestrol acetate subdermal contraceptive implant, uniplant, during lactation.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aleem, H; Abol-Oyoun el-S, M; Shaaban, M M; el-Saeed, M; Shoukry, M; Makhlouf, A; Salem, H T

    1996-11-01

    Uniplant is a single contraceptive implant intended for one year use. It contains the progestogen nomegestrol acetate. The clinical performance and the effect of its use during the first postpartum year on breastfeeding performance and growth and health of the infants were studied and compared to the findings in a parallel group who used an intrauterine contraceptive device (IUD) in a prospective, non-randomized study. This was carried out in Assiut, Egypt. Two-hundred-forty fully breastfeeding mothers asking for initiation of contraception early postpartum were assigned according to their choices into either nomegestrol subdermal contraceptive implant (Uniplant) (120 women) or intrauterine contraceptive device (CuT 380A) (120 women). The mother and infant pairs were followed up at monthly intervals during the first three months and at two-month intervals thereafter up until the first birthday of the baby. No pregnancy occurred in the two groups. Amenorrhea was significantly more prolonged in the Uniplant group than in the IUD group. There were no significant differences in net continuation rates between the two groups (88.3 versus 92.4 per 100 women, respectively). There were no significant differences between the two groups in the number of breastfeeding episodes, time of weaning, and the cumulative rates of full and partial breastfeeding. There were no significant differences between the two groups in infant weight, weight gain per day, or in infant linear growth. There were no significant differences in the incidence of important health problems affecting the infants of the two groups. However, there were seven infant deaths, six of them were in the Uniplant group. Uniplant subdermal contraceptive implants can be offered as a new contraceptive option suitable for nursing mothers. PMID:8934061

  17. A Thermodynamic Model for Acetate, Lactate, and Oxalate Complexation with Am(III), Th(IV), Np(V), and U(VI) Valid to High Ionic Strength

    SciTech Connect

    Bynaum, R.V.; Free, S.J.; Moore, R.C.

    1999-01-15

    The organic ligands acetate, lactate, oxalate and EDTA have been identified as components of wastes targeted for disposal in the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) located in Southeastern New Mexico. The presence of these ligands is of concern because complexation of the actinides with the ligands may increase dissolved actinide concentrations and impact chemical retardation during transport. The current work considers the complexation of Am(III), Th (IV), Np(V), and U(W) with two of the organic ligands, acetate and lactate, in NaCl media from dilute through high concentration. A thermodynamic model for actinide complexation with the organic ligands has been developed based on the Pitzer activity coefficient formalism and the Harvie-Moller-Weare, Felmy-Weare database for describing brine evaporite systems. The model was parameterized using first apparent stability constant data from the literature. Because of complexation of other metal ions (Fe, Mg, Ni, Pb, etc.) present in the WIPP disposal room with the organic ligands, preliminary results from model calculations indicate the organic ligands do not significantly increase dissolved actinide concentrations.

  18. Functional response of the isolated, perfused normoxic heart to pyruvate dehydrogenase activation by dichloroacetate and pyruvate

    PubMed Central

    Jaimes, Rafael; Kuzmiak-Glancy, Sarah; Brooks, Daina M.; Swift, Luther M.; Posnack, Nikki G.; Kay, Matthew W.

    2015-01-01

    Dichloroacetate (DCA) and pyruvate activate pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), a key enzyme that modulates glucose oxidation and mitochondrial NADH production. Both compounds improve recovery after ischemia in isolated hearts. However, the action of DCA and pyruvate in normoxic myocardium is incompletely understood. We measured the effect of DCA and pyruvate on contraction, mitochondrial redox state, and intracellular calcium cycling in isolated rat hearts during normoxic perfusion. Normalized epicardial NADH fluorescence (nNADH) and left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP) were measured before and after administering DCA (5 mM) or pyruvate (5 mM). Optical mapping of Rhod-2AM was used to measure cytosolic calcium kinetics. DCA maximally activated PDH, increasing the ratio of active to total PDH from 0.48±0.03 to 1.03 ±0.03. Pyruvate sub-maximally activated PDH to a ratio of 0.75±0.02. DCA and pyruvate increased LVDP. When glucose was the only exogenous fuel, pyruvate increased nNADH by 21.4±2.9 % while DCA reduced nNADH by 21.4±6.1 % and elevated the incidence of premature ventricular contractions (PVCs). When lactate, pyruvate, and glucose were provided together as exogenous fuels, nNADH increased with DCA, indicating that PDH activation with glucose as the only exogenous fuel depletes PDH substrate. Calcium transient time-to-peak was shortened by DCA and pyruvate and SR calcium re-uptake was 30 % longer. DCA and pyruvate increased SR calcium load in myocyte monolayers. Overall, during normoxia when glucose is the only exogenous fuel, DCA elevates SR calcium, increases LVDP and contractility, and diminishes mitochondrial NADH. Administering DCA with plasma levels of lactate and pyruvate mitigates the drop in mitochondrial NADH and prevents PVCs. PMID:26142699

  19. Pyruvate protects against experimental stroke via an anti-inflammatory mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qing; van Hoecke, Michael; Tang, Xiannan; Lee, Hokyou; Zheng, Zheng; Swanson, Raymond A.; Yenari, Midori A.

    2009-01-01

    Pyruvate, a key intermediate in glucose metabolism, was explored as a potential treatment in models of experimental stroke and inflammation. Pyruvate was administered to rodents after the onset of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Since the extent of inflammation is often proportional to the size of the infarct, we also studied a group of animals given lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to cause brain inflammation without cell death. Following MCAO, pyruvate did not affect physiological parameters but significantly reduced infarct volume, improved behavioral tests and reduced numbers of neutrophils, microglial and NF-kB activation. Animals given LPS showed increased microglial and NF-kB activation which was almost completely abolished by pyruvate. Lactate, a major metabolite of pyruvate, was increased after pyruvate administration. However, administration of lactate itself did not have any anti-inflammatory effects. Pyruvate protects against ischemia possibly by blocking inflammation, but lactate itself does not appear to explain pyruvate's anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:19635562

  20. The Key to Acetate: Metabolic Fluxes of Acetic Acid Bacteria under Cocoa Pulp Fermentation-Simulating Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Adler, Philipp; Frey, Lasse Jannis; Berger, Antje; Bolten, Christoph Josef; Hansen, Carl Erik

    2014-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) play an important role during cocoa fermentation, as their main product, acetate, is a major driver for the development of the desired cocoa flavors. Here, we investigated the specialized metabolism of these bacteria under cocoa pulp fermentation-simulating conditions. A carefully designed combination of parallel 13C isotope labeling experiments allowed the elucidation of intracellular fluxes in the complex environment of cocoa pulp, when lactate and ethanol were included as primary substrates among undefined ingredients. We demonstrate that AAB exhibit a functionally separated metabolism during coconsumption of two-carbon and three-carbon substrates. Acetate is almost exclusively derived from ethanol, while lactate serves for the formation of acetoin and biomass building blocks. Although this is suboptimal for cellular energetics, this allows maximized growth and conversion rates. The functional separation results from a lack of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and malic enzymes, typically present in bacteria to interconnect metabolism. In fact, gluconeogenesis is driven by pyruvate phosphate dikinase. Consequently, a balanced ratio of lactate and ethanol is important for the optimum performance of AAB. As lactate and ethanol are individually supplied by lactic acid bacteria and yeasts during the initial phase of cocoa fermentation, respectively, this underlines the importance of a well-balanced microbial consortium for a successful fermentation process. Indeed, AAB performed the best and produced the largest amounts of acetate in mixed culture experiments when lactic acid bacteria and yeasts were both present. PMID:24837393

  1. Production of pyruvate from mannitol by mannitol-assimilating pyruvate decarboxylase-negative Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shiori; Tanaka, Hideki; Hirayama, Makoto; Murata, Kousaku; Kawai, Shigeyuki

    2015-01-01

    Mannitol is contained in brown macroalgae up to 33% (w/w, dry weight), and thus is a promising carbon source for white biotechnology. However, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a key cell factory, is generally regarded to be unable to assimilate mannitol for growth. We have recently succeeded in producing S. cerevisiae that can assimilate mannitol through spontaneous mutations of Tup1-Cyc8, each of which constitutes a general corepressor complex. In this study, we demonstrate production of pyruvate from mannitol using this mannitol-assimilating S. cerevisiae through deletions of all 3 pyruvate decarboxylase genes. The resultant mannitol-assimilating pyruvate decarboxylase-negative strain produced 0.86 g/L pyruvate without use of acetate after cultivation for 4 days, with an overall yield of 0.77 g of pyruvate per g of mannitol (the theoretical yield was 79%). Although acetate was not needed for growth of this strain in mannitol-containing medium, addition of acetate had a significant beneficial effect on production of pyruvate. This is the first report of production of a valuable compound (other than ethanol) from mannitol using S. cerevisiae, and is an initial platform from which the productivity of pyruvate from mannitol can be improved. PMID:26588105

  2. Highly efficient L-lactate production using engineered Escherichia coli with dissimilar temperature optima for L-lactate formation and cell growth

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    L-Lactic acid, one of the most important chiral molecules and organic acids, is produced via pyruvate from carbohydrates in diverse microorganisms catalyzed by an NAD+-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase. Naturally, Escherichia coli does not produce L-lactate in noticeable amounts, but can catabolize it via a dehydrogenation reaction mediated by an FMN-dependent L-lactate dehydrogenase. In aims to make the E. coli strain to produce L-lactate, three L-lactate dehydrogenase genes from different bacteria were cloned and expressed. The L-lactate producing strains, 090B1 (B0013-070, ΔldhA::diflldD::Pldh-ldhLca), 090B2 (B0013-070, ΔldhA::diflldD::Pldh-ldhStrb) and 090B3 (B0013-070, ΔldhA::diflldD::Pldh-ldhBcoa) were developed from a previously developed D-lactate over-producing strain, E. coli strain B0013-070 (ack-ptappspflBdldpoxBadhEfrdA) by: (1) deleting ldhA to block D-lactate formation, (2) deleting lldD to block the conversion of L-lactate to pyruvate, and (3) expressing an L-lactate dehydrogenase (L-LDH) to convert pyruvate to L-lactate under the control of the ldhA promoter. Fermentation tests were carried out in a shaking flask and in a 25-l bioreactor. Strains 090B1, 090B2 or 090B3 were shown to metabolize glucose to L-lactate instead of D-lactate. However, L-lactate yield and cell growth rates were significantly different among the metabolically engineered strains which can be attributed to a variation between temperature optimum for cell growth and temperature optimum for enzymatic activity of individual L-LDH. In a temperature-shifting fermentation process (cells grown at 37°C and L-lactate formed at 42°C), E. coli 090B3 was able to produce 142.2 g/l of L-lactate with no more than 1.2 g/l of by-products (mainly acetate, pyruvate and succinate) accumulated. In conclusion, the production of lactate by E. coli is limited by the competition relationship between cell growth and lactate synthesis. Enzymatic properties, especially the thermodynamics of an L

  3. Mitochondrial pyruvate transport: a historical perspective and future research directions

    PubMed Central

    McCommis, Kyle S.; Finck, Brian N.

    2015-01-01

    Pyruvate is the end-product of glycolysis, a major substrate for oxidative metabolism, and a branching point for glucose, lactate, fatty acid and amino acid synthesis. The mitochondrial enzymes that metabolize pyruvate are physically separated from cytosolic pyruvate pools and rely on a membrane transport system to shuttle pyruvate across the impermeable inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM). Despite long-standing acceptance that transport of pyruvate into the mitochondrial matrix by a carrier-mediated process is required for the bulk of its metabolism, it has taken almost 40 years to determine the molecular identity of an IMM pyruvate carrier. Our current understanding is that two proteins, mitochondrial pyruvate carriers MPC1 and MPC2, form a hetero-oligomeric complex in the IMM to facilitate pyruvate transport. This step is required for mitochondrial pyruvate oxidation and carboxylation – critical reactions in intermediary metabolism that are dysregulated in several common diseases. The identification of these transporter constituents opens the door to the identification of novel compounds that modulate MPC activity, with potential utility for treating diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, neurodegenerative diseases, and other common causes of morbidity and mortality. The purpose of the present review is to detail the historical, current and future research investigations concerning mitochondrial pyruvate transport, and discuss the possible consequences of altered pyruvate transport in various metabolic tissues. PMID:25748677

  4. L-lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells.

    PubMed

    Spencer, T L; Lehninger, A L

    1976-02-15

    Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells were investigated with regard to their stability to transport L-lactate by measuring either the distribution of [14C]lactate or concomitant H+ ion movements. The movement of lactate was dependent on the pH difference across the cell membrane and was electroneutral, as evidenced by an observed 1:1 antiport for OH- ions or 1:1 symport with H+ ions. 2. Kinetic experiments showed that lactate transport was saturable, with an apparent Km of approx. 4.68 mM and a Vmax. as high as 680 nmol/min per mg of protein at pH 6.2 and 37 degrees C. 3. Lactate transport exhibited a high temperature dependence (activation energy = 139 kJ/mol). 4. Lactate transport was inhibited competitively by (a) a variety of other substituted monocarboxylic acids (e.g. pyruvate, Ki = 6.3 mM), which were themselves transported, (b) the non-transportable analogues alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (Ki = 0.5 mM), alpha-cyano-3-hydroxycinnamate (Ki = 2mM) and DL-p-hydroxyphenyl-lactate (Ki = 3.6 mM) and (c) the thiol-group reagent mersalyl (Ki = 125 muM). 5. Transport of simple monocarboxylic acids, including acetate and propionate, was insensitive to these inhibitors; they presumably cross the membrane by means of a different mechanism. 6. Experiments using saturating amounts of mersalyl as an "inhibitor stop" allowed measurements of the initial rates of net influx and of net efflux of [14C]lactate. Influx and efflux of lactate were judged to be symmetrical reactions in that they exhibited similar concentration dependence. 7. It is concluded that lactate transport in Ehrlich ascites-tumour cells is mediated by a carrier capable of transporting a number of other substituted monocarboxylic acids, but not unsubstituted short-chain aliphatic acids. PMID:7237

  5. /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ ratios method for detecting pyruvate carboxylation

    SciTech Connect

    Kelleher, J.K.; Bryan, B.M. III

    1985-11-15

    The pattern of oxidative metabolism of pyruvate may be assessed by comparing the steady-state /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from four isotopes in identical samples. The assay requires measuring the ratios of steady-state /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ production from two isotope pairs, (2-/sup 14/C)pyruvate:(3-/sup 14/C)pyruvate and (1-/sup 14/C)acetate:(2-/sup 14/C)acetate. These ratios are defined as the ''pyruvate /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ ratio'' and the ''acetate /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ ratio,'' respectively. If pyruvate is metabolized exclusively via pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), the two ratios will be identical. Alternatively, if any pyruvate enters the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle via pyruvate carboxylation (PC), the pyruvate /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ ratio will be less than the acetate /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ ratio. If pyruvate enters the TCA cycle only through PC (with oxaloacetate and fumarate in equilibrium) the pyruvate /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ ratio will approach a value of 1.0. An equation is presented for the quantitative evaluation of pyruvate oxidation by these two pathways. We have used this method to detect relative changes in the pattern of pyruvate metabolism in rat liver mitochondria produced by exposure to 1 mM octanoyl carnitine, a compound known to alter the PC:PDH activity ratio. The major advantages of the method are (i) that it provides a sensitive method for detecting pyruvate carboxylation at physiological pyruvate concentrations and (ii) that it provides a method for distinguishing between effects on pyruvate transport and effects on pyruvate oxidation.

  6. Metabolic analysis of Escherichia coli in the presence and absence of the carboxylating enzymes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase and pyruvate carboxylase

    SciTech Connect

    Gokarn, R.R.; Eiteman, M.A.; Altman, E.

    2000-05-01

    Fermentation patterns of Escherichia coli with and without the phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PPC) and pyruvate carboxylase (PYC) enzymes were compared under anaerobic conditions with glucose as a carbon source. Time profiles of glucose and fermentation product concentrations were determined and used to calculate metabolic fluxes through central carbon pathways during exponential cell growth. The presence of the Rhizobium etli pyc gene in E. coli (JCL1242/pTrc99A-pyc) restored the succinate producing ability of E. coli ppc null mutants (JCL1242), with PYC competing favorably with both pyruvate formate lyase and lactate dehydrogenase. Succinate formation was slightly greater by JCL1242/pTrc99a-pyc than by cells which overproduced PPC(JCL1242/pPC201, ppc{sup +}), even though PPC activity in cell extracts of JCL1242/pPC201 (ppc{sup +}) was 40-fold greater than PYC activity in extracts of JCL1242/pTrc99a-pyc. Flux calculations indicate that during anaerobic metabolism the pyc{sup +} strain had a 34% greater specific glucose consumption rate, a 37% greater specific rate of ATP formation, and a 6% greater specific growth rate compared to the ppc{sup +} strain. In light of the important position of pyruvate at the juncture of NADH-generating pathways and NADH-dissimilating branches, the results show that when PPC or PYC is expressed, the metabolic network adapts by altering the flux to lactate and the molar ratio of ethanol to acetate formation.

  7. Transport of pyruvate into mitochondria is involved in methylmercury toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jin-Yong; Ishida, Yosuke; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Naganuma, Akira; Hwang, Gi-Wook

    2016-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the overexpression of enzymes involved in the production of pyruvate, enolase 2 (Eno2) and D-lactate dehydrogenase (Dld3) renders yeast highly sensitive to methylmercury and that the promotion of intracellular pyruvate synthesis may be involved in intensifying the toxicity of methylmercury. In the present study, we showed that the addition of pyruvate to culture media in non-toxic concentrations significantly enhanced the sensitivity of yeast and human neuroblastoma cells to methylmercury. The results also suggested that methylmercury promoted the transport of pyruvate into mitochondria and that the increased pyruvate concentrations in mitochondria were involved in intensifying the toxicity of methylmercury without pyruvate being converted to acetyl-CoA. Furthermore, in human neuroblastoma cells, methylmercury treatment alone decreased the mitochondrial membrane potential, and the addition of pyruvate led to a further significant decrease. In addition, treatment with N-acetylcysteine (an antioxidant) significantly alleviated the toxicity of methylmercury and significantly inhibited the intensification of methylmercury toxicity by pyruvate. Based on these data, we hypothesize that methylmercury exerts its toxicity by raising the level of pyruvate in mitochondria and that mitochondrial dysfunction and increased levels of reactive oxygen species are involved in the action of pyruvate. PMID:26899208

  8. Microcolony formation by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa requires pyruvate and pyruvate fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Petrova, Olga E.; Schurr, Jill R.; Schurr, Michael J.; Sauer, Karin

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY A hallmark of the biofilm architecture is the presence of microcolonies. However, little is known about the underlying mechanisms governing microcolony formation. In the pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa, microcolony formation is dependent on the two-component regulator MifR, with mifR mutant biofilms exhibiting an overall thin structure lacking microcolonies, and overexpression of mifR resulting in hyper-microcolony formation. Using global transcriptomic and proteomic approaches, we demonstrate that microcolony formation is associated with stressful, oxygen-limiting but electron-rich conditions, as indicated by the activation of stress response mechanisms and anaerobic and fermentative processes, in particular pyruvate fermentation. Inactivation of genes involved in pyruvate utilization including uspK, acnA and ldhA abrogated microcolony formation in a manner similar to mifR inactivation. Moreover, depletion of pyruvate from the growth medium impaired biofilm and microcolony formation, while addition of pyruvate significantly increased microcolony formation. Addition of pyruvate to or expression of mifR in lactate dehydrogenase (ldhA) mutant biofilms did not restore microcolony formation while addition of pyruvate partly restored microcolony formation in mifR mutant biofilms. In contrast, expression of ldhA in mifR::Mar fully restored microcolony formation by this mutant strain. Our findings indicate the fermentative utilization of pyruvate to be a microcolony-specific adaptation of the P. aeruginosa biofilm environment. PMID:22931250

  9. Redirection of pyruvate flux toward desired metabolic pathways through substrate channeling between pyruvate kinase and pyruvate-converting enzymes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sujin; Bae, Sang-Jeong; Hahn, Ji-Sook

    2016-01-01

    Spatial organization of metabolic enzymes allows substrate channeling, which accelerates processing of intermediates. Here, we investigated the effect of substrate channeling on the flux partitioning at a metabolic branch point, focusing on pyruvate metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. As a platform strain for the channeling of pyruvate flux, PYK1-Coh-Myc strain was constructed in which PYK1 gene encoding pyruvate kinase is tagged with cohesin domain. By using high-affinity cohesin-dockerin interaction, the pyruvate-forming enzyme Pyk1 was tethered to heterologous pyruvate-converting enzymes, lactate dehydrogenase and α-acetolactate synthase, to produce lactic acid and 2,3-butanediol, respectively. Pyruvate flux was successfully redirected toward desired pathways, with a concomitant decrease in ethanol production even without genetic attenuation of the ethanol-producing pathway. This pyruvate channeling strategy led to an improvement of 2,3-butanediol production by 38%, while showing a limitation in improving lactic acid production due to a reduced activity of lactate dehydrogenase by dockerin tagging. PMID:27052099

  10. Phosphorylation site on yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlinger, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was purified to homogeneity from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Yeast cells were disrupted in a Manton-Gaulin laboratory homogenizer. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was purified by fractionation with polyethylene glycol, isoelectric precipitation, ultracentrifugation and chromatography on hydroxylapatite. Final purification of the yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was achieved by cation-exchange high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). No endogenous pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase activity was detected during the purification. However, the yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was phosphorylated and inactivated with purified pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase from bovine kidney. Tryptic digestion of the /sup 32/P-labeled complex yielded a single phosphopeptide which was purified to homogeniety. The tryptic digest was subjected to chromatography on a C-18 reverse phase HPLC column with a linear gradient of acetonitrile. Radioactive fractions were pooled, concentrated, and subjected to anion-exchange HPLC. The column was developed with a linear gradient of ammonium acetate. Final purification of the phosphopeptide was achieved by chromatography on a C-18 reverse phase HPLC column developed with a linear gradient of acetonitrile. The amino acid sequence of the homogeneous peptide was determined by manual modified Edman degradation.

  11. In vivo13C spectroscopy in the rat brain using hyperpolarized [1- 13C]pyruvate and [2- 13C]pyruvate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjańska, Małgorzata; Iltis, Isabelle; Shestov, Alexander A.; Deelchand, Dinesh K.; Nelson, Christopher; Uğurbil, Kâmil; Henry, Pierre-Gilles

    2010-10-01

    The low sensitivity of 13C spectroscopy can be enhanced using dynamic nuclear polarization. Detection of hyperpolarized [1- 13C]pyruvate and its metabolic products has been reported in kidney, liver, and muscle. In this work, the feasibility of measuring 13C signals of hyperpolarized 13C metabolic products in the rat brain in vivo following the injection of hyperpolarized [1- 13C]pyruvate and [2- 13C]pyruvate is investigated. Injection of [2- 13C]pyruvate led to the detection of [2- 13C]lactate, but no other downstream metabolites such as TCA cycle intermediates were detected. Injection of [1- 13C]pyruvate enabled the detection of both [1- 13C]lactate and [ 13C]bicarbonate. A metabolic model was used to fit the hyperpolarized 13C time courses obtained during infusion of [1- 13C]pyruvate and to determine the values of VPDH and VLDH.

  12. [Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency and cerebral malformations].

    PubMed

    Eirís, J; Alvarez-Moreno, A; Briones, P; Alonso-Alonso, C; Castro-Gago, M

    1996-10-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) deficiency is a major cause of primary lactic acidosis and severe global developmental delay. A deficiency of PDH E1 alpha, a subunit of the PDH complex is a prominent cause of congenital lactic acidosis. The E1 alpha cDNA and corresponding genomic DNA have been located in the short arm of the X-chromosome (Xp22-1). A isolated 'cerebral' lactic acidosis with cerebral dysgenesis is a recognized pattern of presentation of PDH deficiency. Here, we report clinical features, magnetic resonance, and biochemical studies of two females aged 6 months (case 1) and 26 months (case 2). Both had severe development delay, minor dysmorphic features, microcephaly, severe hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, cerebral atrophy, ventricular dilatation and increase in serum lactate levels without systemic acidosis. Urinary organic acid profile was compatible with PDH deficiency. Increased CSF lactate and pyruvate levels and reduced total PDH and PDH E1 activities in muscle and fibroblasts were observed in case 1. Otherwise, decreased total PDH activity in muscle but not in fibroblasts was seen in case 2. The PDH E1á gene was sequenced in the case 1 and a deletion in exon 7 was demonstrated. Dysmorphism with severe cerebral malformations in female patients merits a metabolic evaluation, including determination of lactate and pyruvate levels in CSF. PMID:8983728

  13. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase and Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase Expression in Non Small Cell Lung Cancer and Tumor-Associated Stroma1

    PubMed Central

    Koukourakis, Michael I; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Sivridis, Efthimios; Gatter, Kevin C; Harris, Adrian L; “Tumor and Angiogenesis Research Group”

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to acetyl-coenzyme A, which enters into the Krebs cycle, providing adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to the cell. PDH activity is under the control of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs). Under hypoxic conditions, conversion of pyruvate to lactate occurs, a reaction catalyzed by lactate dehydrogenase 5 (LDH5). In cancer cells, however, pyruvate is transformed to lactate occurs, regardless of the presence of oxygen (aerobic glycolysis/Warburg effect). Although hypoxic intratumoral conditions account for HIF1α stabilization and induction of anaerobic metabolism, recent data suggest that high pyruvate concentrations also result in HIF1α stabilization independently of hypoxia. In the present immunohistochemical study, we provide evidence that the PDH/PDK pathway is repressed in 73% of non small cell lung carcinomas, which may be a key reason for HIF1α stabilization and “aerobic glycolysis.” However, about half of PDH-deficient carcinomas are not able to switch on the HIF pathway, and patients harboring these tumors have an excellent postoperative outcome. A small subgroup of clinically aggressive tumors maintains a coherent PDH and HIF/LDH5 expression. In contrast to cancer cells, fibroblasts in the tumor-supporting stroma exhibit an intense PDH but reduced PDK1 expression favoring maximum PDH activity. This means that stroma may use lactic acid produced by tumor cells, preventing the creation of an intolerable intratumoral acidic environment at the same time. PMID:15736311

  14. Microbiosensor for the detection of acetate in electrode-respiring biofilms.

    PubMed

    Atci, Erhan; Babauta, Jerome T; Sultana, Sujala T; Beyenal, Haluk

    2016-07-15

    The goal of this work was to develop a microbiosensor to measure acetate concentration profiles inside biofilms in situ. The working principle of the microbiosensor was based on the correlation between the acetate concentration and the current generated during acetate oxidation by Geobacter sulfurreducens. The microbiosensor consisted of a 30-µm carbon microelectrode with an open tip as a working electrode, with G. sulfurreducens biofilm on the tip and a pseudo Ag/AgCl reference electrode, all enclosed in a glass outer case with a 30-µm tip diameter. The microbiosensor showed a linear response in the 0-1.6mM acetate concentration range with a 79±8µM limit of detection (S/N=2). We quantified the stirring effect and found it negligible. However, the interfering effect of alternative electron donors (lactate, formate, pyruvate, or hydrogen) was found to be significant. The usefulness of the acetate microbiosensor was demonstrated by measuring acetate concentration depth profiles within a G. sulfurreducens biofilm. The acetate concentration remained at bulk values throughout the biofilm when no current was passed, but it decreased from the bulk values to below the detection limit within 200µm when current was allowed to pass. The zero acetate concentration at the bottom of the biofilm showed that the biofilm was acetate-limited. PMID:27016913

  15. Mutants of Escherichia coli deficient in the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed Central

    Mat-Jan, F; Alam, K Y; Clark, D P

    1989-01-01

    Mutants of Escherichia coli deficient in the fermentative NAD-linked lactate dehydrogenase (ldh) have been isolated. These mutants showed no growth defects under anaerobic conditions unless present together with a defect in pyruvate formate lyase (pfl). Double mutants (pfl ldh) were unable to grow anaerobically on glucose or other sugars even when supplemented with acetate, whereas pfl mutants can do so. The ldh mutation was found to map at 30.5 min on the E. coli chromosome. The ldh mutant FMJ39 showed no detectable lactate dehydrogenase activity and produced no lactic acid from glucose under anaerobic conditions as estimated by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance measurements. We also found that in wild-type strains the fermentative lactate dehydrogenase was conjointly induced by anaerobic conditions and an acidic pH. Despite previous findings that phosphate concentrations affect the proportion of lactic acid produced during fermentation, we were unable to find any intrinsic effect of phosphate on lactate dehydrogenase activity, apart from the buffering effect of this ion. PMID:2644194

  16. Pyruvate kinase blood test

    MedlinePlus

    ... break down faster than normal, a condition called hemolytic anemia . This test helps diagnose pyruvate kinase deficiency (PKD) . ... Pa: Elsevier Saunders; 2011:chap 32. Gallagher PG. Hemolytic anemias: red cell membrane and metabolic defects In: Goldman ...

  17. Pyruvate ingestion for 7 days does not improve aerobic performance in well-trained individuals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, M. A.; Spriet, L. L.; Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    The purposes of the present studies were to test the hypotheses that lower dosages of oral pyruvate ingestion would increase blood pyruvate concentration and that the ingestion of a commonly recommended dosage of pyruvate (7 g) for 7 days would enhance performance during intense aerobic exercise in well-trained individuals. Nine recreationally active subjects (8 women, 1 man) consumed 7, 15, and 25 g of pyruvate and were monitored for a 4-h period to determine whether blood metabolites were altered. Pyruvate consumption failed to significantly elevate blood pyruvate, and it had no effect on indexes of carbohydrate (blood glucose, lactate) or lipid metabolism (blood glycerol, plasma free fatty acids). As a follow-up, we administered 7 g/day of either placebo or pyruvate, for a 1-wk period to seven, well-trained male cyclists (maximal oxygen consumption, 62.3 +/- 3.0 ml. kg(-1). min(-1)) in a randomized, double-blind, crossover trial. Subjects cycled at 74-80% of their maximal oxygen consumption until exhaustion. There was no difference in performance times between the two trials (placebo, 91 +/- 9 min; pyruvate, 88 +/- 8 min). Measured blood parameters (insulin, peptide C, glucose, lactate, glycerol, free fatty acids) were also unaffected. Our results indicate that oral pyruvate supplementation does not increase blood pyruvate content and does not enhance performance during intense exercise in well-trained cyclists.

  18. Comparative metabolic effects of acetate and dichloroacetate infusion in the anesthetized dog.

    PubMed

    Ward, R A; Wathen, R L; Harding, G B; Thompson, L C

    1985-07-01

    The comparative effects of acetate (10 mmol/h/kg) and dichloroacetate (DCA) (1 mmol/h/kg and 10 mmol/h/kg) on acid-base and intermediary metabolism were assessed using the fasted anesthetized dog, undergoing controlled ventilation, as a metabolic model. Infusion of acetate resulted in a marked metabolic alkalemia and a decline in PaO2, while DCA had minimal effects on acid-base state and oxygen consumption. Serum glucose decreased with both DCA and acetate infusion, although only significantly with the latter. At infusion rates of 10 mmol/h/kg, acetate caused marked decreases, while DCA caused marked increases, in serum potassium and phosphorus. Acetate and DCA also had opposing effects on lactate and citrate levels, the former caused increases and the latter decreases in both metabolites. Pyruvate levels decreased similarly in response to both infusates. Acetoacetate and beta-hydroxybutyrate levels increased significantly with both acetate and DCA infusions; however, the increases were much greater with acetate than with DCA infusion. Blood alanine levels decreased significantly during the infusion of both acetate and DCA, whereas, free fatty acids tended to increase with acetate infusion, remained unchanged with low dose DCA and fell significantly with high dose DCA. Plasma insulin levels were sustained during acetate infusion, but fell abruptly with termination of infusion. In contrast, insulin levels fell markedly with DCA infusion and remained depressed throughout the infusion and recovery periods. Blood levels of acetate and DCA rose markedly during infusion; however, while acetate levels decreased nearly to control values during the recovery period, DCA levels remained elevated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3925292

  19. Ethyl pyruvate protects against sepsis by regulating energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hongjun; Mao, Zhi; Zhao, Yan; Yin, Ting; Song, Qing; Pan, Liang; Hu, Xin; Hu, Jie; Zhou, Feihu

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethyl pyruvate (EP) is a derivative of pyruvic acid that has been demonstrated to be a potential scavenger of reactive oxygen species as well as an anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of EP and its role in regulating the energy metabolism in the livers of cecal-ligation-and-puncture-induced septic mice. Methods The animals were treated intraperitoneally with 0.2 mL of Ringer’s lactate solution or an equivalent volume of Ringer’s lactate solution containing EP immediately after cecal ligation and puncture. Each mouse in the Sham group was only subjected to a laparotomy. At 30-, 60-, 180-, and 360-minute time points, we measured the histopathological alterations of the intestines, and the plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α, and the total antioxidative capacity, malondialdehyde content, and lactate and lactate/pyruvate levels in livers. Furthermore, we detected the levels of adenosine triphosphate, total adenylate, and energy charge in the livers. Results Our results demonstrated that the administration of EP significantly improved the survival rate and reduced intestinal histological alterations. EP inhibited the plasma levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α and increased the IL-10 level. EP significantly inhibited the elevation of the malondialdehyde, lactate, and lactate/pyruvate levels and enhanced the total antioxidative capacity levels in the liver tissues. The downregulation of the adenosine triphosphate, total adenylate, and energy charge levels in the liver tissues was reversed in the septic mice treated with EP. Conclusion The results suggest that EP administration effectively modulates the energy metabolism, which may be an important component in treatment of sepsis. PMID:26966369

  20. Kinetic Properties of Pyruvate Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase of Intestinal Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Desulfovibrio piger Vib-7 and Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9.

    PubMed

    Kushkevych, Ivan V

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal sulfate-reducing bacteria reduce sulfate ions to hydrogen sulfide causing inflammatory bowel diseases of humans and animals. The bacteria consume lactate as electron donor which is oxidized to acetate via pyruvate in process of the dissimilatory sulfate reduction. Pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase activity and the kinetic properties of the enzyme from intestinal sulfate-reducing bacteria Desulfovibrio piger and Desulfomicrobium sp. have never been well-characterized and have not been yet studied. In this paper we present for the first time the specific activity of pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase and the kinetic properties of the enzyme in cell-free extracts of both D. piger Vib-7 and Desulfomicrobium sp. Rod-9 intestinal bacterial strains. Microbiological, biochemical, biophysical and statistical methods were used in this work. The optimal temperature (+35°C) and pH 8.5 for enzyme reaction were determined. The spectral analysis of the puri- fied pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase from the cell-free extracts was demonstrated. Analysis of the kinetic properties of the studied enzyme was carried out. Initial (instantaneous) reaction velocity (V0), maximum amount of the product of reaction (Pmax), the reaction time (half saturation period) and maximum velocity of the pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase reaction (V ) were defined. Michaelis constants (Km) of the enzyme reaction were calculated for both intestinal bacterial strains. The studies of the kinetic enzyme properties in the intestinal sulfate-reducing bacteria strains in detail can be prospects for clarifying the etiological role of these bacteria in the development of inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:26373169

  1. Effects of fasting on serial measurements of hyperpolarized [1-(13) C]pyruvate metabolism in tumors.

    PubMed

    Serrao, Eva M; Rodrigues, Tiago B; Gallagher, Ferdia A; Kettunen, Mikko I; Kennedy, Brett W C; Vowler, Sarah L; Burling, Keith A; Brindle, Kevin M

    2016-08-01

    Imaging of the metabolism of hyperpolarized [1-(13) C]pyruvate has shown considerable promise in preclinical studies in oncology, particularly for the assessment of early treatment response. The repeatability of measurements of (13) C label exchange between pyruvate and lactate was determined in a murine lymphoma model in fasted and non-fasted animals. The fasted state showed lower intra-individual variability, although the [1-(13) C]lactate/[1-(13) C]pyruvate signal ratio was significantly greater in fasted than in non-fasted mice, which may be explained by the higher tumor lactate concentrations in fasted animals. These results indicate that the fasted state may be preferable for the measurement of (13) C label exchange between pyruvate and lactate, as it reduces the variability and therefore should make it easier to detect the effects of therapy. © 2016 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27309986

  2. Effects of fasting on serial measurements of hyperpolarized [1‐13C]pyruvate metabolism in tumors

    PubMed Central

    Serrao, Eva M.; Rodrigues, Tiago B.; Gallagher, Ferdia A.; Kettunen, Mikko I.; Kennedy, Brett W. C.; Vowler, Sarah L.; Burling, Keith A.

    2016-01-01

    Imaging of the metabolism of hyperpolarized [1‐13C]pyruvate has shown considerable promise in preclinical studies in oncology, particularly for the assessment of early treatment response. The repeatability of measurements of 13C label exchange between pyruvate and lactate was determined in a murine lymphoma model in fasted and non‐fasted animals. The fasted state showed lower intra‐individual variability, although the [1‐13C]lactate/[1‐13C]pyruvate signal ratio was significantly greater in fasted than in non‐fasted mice, which may be explained by the higher tumor lactate concentrations in fasted animals. These results indicate that the fasted state may be preferable for the measurement of 13C label exchange between pyruvate and lactate, as it reduces the variability and therefore should make it easier to detect the effects of therapy. © 2016 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27309986

  3. Regulation of lactate dehydrogenase and change of fermentation products in streptococci.

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, T; Carlsson, J

    1975-01-01

    Streptococcus mutans JC 2 produced mainly lactate as a fermentation product when grown in nitrogen-limited continuous culture in the presence of an excess of glucose and produced formate, acetate, and ethanol, but no lactate, under glucose-limited conditions. The levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in these cultures were of the same order of magnitude, and the activity of LDH was completely dependent on fructose-1,6-diphosphate (FDP). The intracellular level of FDP was high and the level of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) was low under the glucose-excess conditions. In the glucose-limited cultures, all glycolytic intermediates studied, except PEP, were low. S. mutans FIL, which had an FDP-independent LDH and similar levels of glycolytic intermediates as S. mutans JC2, produced mainly lactate under glucose-excess or under glucose-limited conditions. LDH of Streptococcus bovis ATCC 9809 was dependent on FDP for activity at a low concentration of pyruvate but had a significant activity without FDP at a high concentration of pyruvate. This strain also produced mainly lactate both under glucose-excess and glucose-limited conditions. The levels and characteristics of these LDHs were not changed by the culture conditions. These results indicate that changes in the intracellular level of FDP regulate LDH activity, which in turn influences the type of fermentation products produced by streptococci. PEP, adenosine 5'-monophosphate, adenosine 5'-diphosphate, and inorganic phosphate significantly inhibited LDH activity from S. mutans JC 2 and may also participate in the regulation of LDH activity in other streptococci. PMID:1176435

  4. Expression and specificity profile of the major acetate transporter AcpA in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Sá-Pessoa, Joana; Amillis, Sotiris; Casal, Margarida; Diallinas, George

    2015-03-01

    AcpA has been previously characterized as a high-affinity transporter essential for the uptake and use of acetate as sole carbon source in Aspergillus nidulans. Here, we follow the expression profile of AcpA and define its substrate specificity. AcpA-mediated acetate transport is detected from the onset of conidiospore germination, peaks at the time of germ tube emergence, and drops to low basal levels in germlings and young mycelia, where a second acetate transporter is also becoming apparent. AcpA activity also responds to acetate presence in the growth medium, but is not subject to either carbon or nitrogen catabolite repression. Short-chain monocarboxylates (benzoate, formate, butyrate and propionate) inhibit AcpA-mediated acetate transport with apparent inhibition constants (Ki) of 16.89±2.12, 9.25±1.01, 12.06±3.29 and 1.44±0.13mM, respectively. AcpA is also shown not to be directly involved in ammonia export, as proposed for its Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologue Ady2p. In the second part of this work, we search for the unknown acetate transporter expressed in mycelia, and for other transporters that might contribute to acetate uptake. In silico analysis, genetic construction of relevant null mutants, and uptake assays, reveal that the closest AcpA homologue (AN1839), named AcpB, is the 'missing' secondary acetate transporter in mycelia. We also identify two major short-chain carboxylate (lactate, succinate, pyruvate and malate) transporters, named JenA (AN6095) and JenB (AN6703), which however are not involved in acetate uptake. This work establishes a framework for further exploiting acetate and carboxylate transport in filamentous ascomycetes. PMID:25708319

  5. A Genetically Encoded FRET Lactate Sensor and Its Use To Detect the Warburg Effect in Single Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    San Martín, Alejandro; Ceballo, Sebastián; Ruminot, Iván; Lerchundi, Rodrigo; Frommer, Wolf B.; Barros, Luis Felipe

    2013-01-01

    Lactate is shuttled between and inside cells, playing metabolic and signaling roles in healthy tissues. Lactate is also a harbinger of altered metabolism and participates in the pathogenesis of inflammation, hypoxia/ischemia, neurodegeneration and cancer. Many tumor cells show high rates of lactate production in the presence of oxygen, a phenomenon known as the Warburg effect, which has diagnostic and possibly therapeutic implications. In this article we introduce Laconic, a genetically-encoded Forster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET)-based lactate sensor designed on the bacterial transcription factor LldR. Laconic quantified lactate from 1 µM to 10 mM and was not affected by glucose, pyruvate, acetate, betahydroxybutyrate, glutamate, citrate, α-ketoglutarate, succinate, malate or oxalacetate at concentrations found in mammalian cytosol. Expressed in astrocytes, HEK cells and T98G glioma cells, the sensor allowed dynamic estimation of lactate levels in single cells. Used in combination with a blocker of the monocarboxylate transporter MCT, the sensor was capable of discriminating whether a cell is a net lactate producer or a net lactate consumer. Application of the MCT-block protocol showed that the basal rate of lactate production is 3–5 fold higher in T98G glioma cells than in normal astrocytes. In contrast, the rate of lactate accumulation in response to mitochondrial inhibition with sodium azide was 10 times lower in glioma than in astrocytes, consistent with defective tumor metabolism. A ratio between the rate of lactate production and the rate of azide-induced lactate accumulation, which can be estimated reversibly and in single cells, was identified as a highly sensitive parameter of the Warburg effect, with values of 4.1 ± 0.5 for T98G glioma cells and 0.07 ± 0.007 for astrocytes. In summary, this article describes a genetically-encoded sensor for lactate and its use to measure lactate concentration, lactate flux, and the Warburg effect in single

  6. Pyruvate modifies metabolic flux and nutrient sensing during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in an immature swine model

    PubMed Central

    Ledee, Dolena R.; Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly Priddy, Colleen M.; Olson, Aaron K.; Isern, Nancy; Robillard-Frayne, Isabelle; Des Rosiers, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides mechanical circulatory support for infants and children with postoperative cardiopulmonary failure. Nutritional support is mandatory during ECMO although specific actions for substrates on the heart have not been delineated. Prior work shows that enhancing pyruvate oxidation promotes successful weaning from ECMO. Accordingly, we tested the hypothesis that prolonged systemic pyruvate supplementation activates pyruvate oxidation in an immature swine model in vivo. Twelve male mixed-breed Yorkshire piglets (age 30–49 days) received systemic infusion of either normal saline (group C) or pyruvate (group P) during the final 6 h of 8 h of ECMO. Over the final hour, piglets received [2-13C] pyruvate, as a reference substrate for oxidation, and [13C6]-l-leucine, as an indicator for amino acid oxidation and protein synthesis. A significant increase in lactate and pyruvate concentrations occurred, along with an increase in the absolute concentration of the citric acid cycle intermediates. An increase in anaplerotic flux through pyruvate carboxylation in group P occurred compared with no change in pyruvate oxidation. Additionally, pyruvate promoted an increase in the phosphorylation state of several nutrient-sensitive enzymes, like AMP-activated protein kinase and acetyl CoA carboxylase, suggesting activation for fatty acid oxidation. Pyruvate also promoted O-GlcNAcylation through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway. In conclusion, although prolonged pyruvate supplementation did not alter pyruvate oxidation, it did elicit changes in nutrient- and energy-sensitive pathways. Therefore, the observed results support the further study of pyruvate and its downstream effect on cardiac function. PMID:25910802

  7. Ethyl Pyruvate Combats Human Leukemia Cells but Spares Normal Blood Cells.

    PubMed

    Birkenmeier, Gerd; Hemdan, Nasr Y A; Kurz, Susanne; Bigl, Marina; Pieroh, Philipp; Debebe, Tewodros; Buchold, Martin; Thieme, Rene; Wichmann, Gunnar; Dehghani, Faramarz

    2016-01-01

    Ethyl pyruvate, a known ROS scavenger and anti-inflammatory drug was found to combat leukemia cells. Tumor cell killing was achieved by concerted action of necrosis/apoptosis induction, ATP depletion, and inhibition of glycolytic and para-glycolytic enzymes. Ethyl lactate was less harmful to leukemia cells but was found to arrest cell cycle in the G0/G1 phase. Both, ethyl pyruvate and ethyl lactate were identified as new inhibitors of GSK-3β. Despite the strong effect of ethyl pyruvate on leukemia cells, human cognate blood cells were only marginally affected. The data were compiled by immune blotting, flow cytometry, enzyme activity assay and gene array analysis. Our results inform new mechanisms of ethyl pyruvate-induced cell death, offering thereby a new treatment regime with a high therapeutic window for leukemic tumors. PMID:27579985

  8. Glycolysis and the significance of lactate in traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Keri L. H.; Jalloh, Ibrahim; Hutchinson, Peter J.

    2015-01-01

    In traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients, elevation of the brain extracellular lactate concentration and the lactate/pyruvate ratio are well-recognized, and are associated statistically with unfavorable clinical outcome. Brain extracellular lactate was conventionally regarded as a waste product of glucose, when glucose is metabolized via glycolysis (Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway) to pyruvate, followed by conversion to lactate by the action of lactate dehydrogenase, and export of lactate into the extracellular fluid. In TBI, glycolytic lactate is ascribed to hypoxia or mitochondrial dysfunction, although the precise nature of the latter is incompletely understood. Seemingly in contrast to lactate's association with unfavorable outcome is a growing body of evidence that lactate can be beneficial. The idea that the brain can utilize lactate by feeding into the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle of neurons, first published two decades ago, has become known as the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle hypothesis. Direct evidence of brain utilization of lactate was first obtained 5 years ago in a cerebral microdialysis study in TBI patients, where administration of 13C-labeled lactate via the microdialysis catheter and simultaneous collection of the emerging microdialysates, with 13C NMR analysis, revealed 13C labeling in glutamine consistent with lactate utilization via the TCA cycle. This suggests that where neurons are too damaged to utilize the lactate produced from glucose by astrocytes, i.e., uncoupling of neuronal and glial metabolism, high extracellular levels of lactate would accumulate, explaining the association between high lactate and poor outcome. Recently, an intravenous exogenous lactate supplementation study in TBI patients revealed evidence for a beneficial effect judged by surrogate endpoints. Here we review the current state of knowledge about glycolysis and lactate in TBI, how it can be measured in patients, and whether it can be modulated to achieve better

  9. Genetics Home Reference: pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... control the activity of the complex: pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase turns on (activates) the complex, while pyruvate dehydrogenase ... binding protein (the PDHX gene), and pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase (the PDP1 gene) have been identified in people ...

  10. Measurement of the acute metabolic response to hypoxia in rat tumours in vivo using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and hyperpolarised pyruvate

    PubMed Central

    Bluff, Joanne E.; Reynolds, Steven; Metcalf, Stephen; Alizadeh, Tooba; Kazan, Samira M.; Bucur, Adriana; Wholey, Emily G.; Bibby, Becky A.S.; Williams, Leigh; Paley, Martyn N.; Tozer, Gillian M.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To estimate the rate constant for pyruvate to lactate conversion in tumours in response to a hypoxic challenge, using hyperpolarised 13C1-pyruvate and magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Methods and materials Hypoxic inspired gas was used to manipulate rat P22 fibrosarcoma oxygen tension (pO2), confirmed by luminescence decay of oxygen-sensitive probes. Hyperpolarised 13C1-pyruvate was injected into the femoral vein of anaesthetised rats and slice-localised 13C magnetic resonance (MR) spectra acquired. Spectral integral versus time curves for pyruvate and lactate were fitted to a precursor-product model to estimate the rate constant for tumour conversion of pyruvate to lactate (kpl). Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and oxygen tension (ArtpO2) were monitored. Pyruvate and lactate concentrations were measured in freeze-clamped tumours. Results MABP, ArtpO2 and tumour pO2 decreased significantly during hypoxia. kpl increased significantly (p < 0.01) from 0.029 ± 0.002 s−1 to 0.049 ± 0.006 s−1 (mean ± SEM) when animals breathing air were switched to hypoxic conditions, whereas pyruvate and lactate concentrations were minimally affected by hypoxia. Both ArtpO2 and MABP influenced the estimate of kpl, with a strong negative correlation between kpl and the product of ArtpO2 and MABP under hypoxia. Conclusion The rate constant for pyruvate to lactate conversion, kpl, responds significantly to a rapid reduction in tumour oxygenation. PMID:25824978

  11. Phytogenic biosynthesis and emission of methyl acetate.

    PubMed

    Jardine, Kolby; Wegener, Frederik; Abrell, Leif; van Haren, Joost; Werner, Christiane

    2014-02-01

    Acetylation of plant metabolites fundamentally changes their volatility, solubility and activity as semiochemicals. Here we present a new technique termed dynamic (13) C-pulse chasing to track the fate of C1-3 carbon atoms of pyruvate into the biosynthesis and emission of methyl acetate (MA) and CO2 . (13) C-labelling of MA and CO2 branch emissions respond within minutes to changes in (13) C-positionally labelled pyruvate solutions fed through the transpiration stream. Strong (13) C-labelling of MA emissions occurred only under pyruvate-2-(13) C and pyruvate-2,3-(13) C feeding, but not pyruvate-1-(13) C feeding. In contrast, strong (13) CO2 emissions were only observed under pyruvate-1-(13) C feeding. These results demonstrate that MA (and other volatile and non-volatile metabolites) derive from the C2,3 atoms of pyruvate while the C1 atom undergoes decarboxylation. The latter is a non-mitochondrial source of CO2 in the light generally not considered in studies of CO2 sources and sinks. Within a tropical rainforest mesocosm, we also observed atmospheric concentrations of MA up to 0.6 ppbv that tracked light and temperature conditions. Moreover, signals partially attributed to MA were observed in ambient air within and above a tropical rainforest in the Amazon. Our study highlights the potential importance of acetyl coenzyme A (CoA) biosynthesis as a source of acetate esters and CO2 to the atmosphere. PMID:23862653

  12. Effects of eliminating pyruvate node pathways and of coexpression of heterogeneous carboxylation enzymes on succinate production by Enterobacter aerogenes.

    PubMed

    Tajima, Yoshinori; Yamamoto, Yoko; Fukui, Keita; Nishio, Yousuke; Hashiguchi, Kenichi; Usuda, Yoshihiro; Sode, Koji

    2015-02-01

    Lowering the pH in bacterium-based succinate fermentation is considered a feasible approach to reduce total production costs. Newly isolated Enterobacter aerogenes strain AJ110637, a rapid carbon source assimilator under weakly acidic (pH 5.0) conditions, was selected as a platform for succinate production. Our previous work showed that the ΔadhE/PCK strain, developed from AJ110637 with inactivated ethanol dehydrogenase and introduced Actinobacillus succinogenes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PCK), generated succinate as a major product of anaerobic mixed-acid fermentation from glucose under weakly acidic conditions (pH <6.2). To further improve the production of succinate by the ΔadhE/PCK strain, metabolically engineered strains were designed based on the elimination of pathways that produced undesirable products and the introduction of two carboxylation pathways from phosphoenolpyruvate and pyruvate to oxaloacetate. The highest production of succinate was observed with strain ES04/PCK+PYC, which had inactivated ethanol, lactate, acetate, and 2,3-butanediol pathways and coexpressed PCK and Corynebacterium glutamicum pyruvate carboxylase (PYC). This strain produced succinate from glucose with over 70% yield (gram per gram) without any measurable formation of ethanol, lactate, or 2,3-butanediol under weakly acidic conditions. The impact of lowering the pH from 7.0 to 5.5 on succinate production in this strain was evaluated under pH-controlled batch culture conditions and showed that the lower pH decreased the succinate titer but increased its yield. These findings can be applied to identify additional engineering targets to increase succinate production. PMID:25416770

  13. The Effect of Modified Atmosphere Packaging and Addition of Rosemary Extract, Sodium Acetate and Calcium Lactate Mixture on the Quality of Pre-cooked Hamburger Patties during Refrigerated Storage.

    PubMed

    Muhlisin; Kang, Sun Moon; Choi, Won Hee; Lee, Keun Taik; Cheong, Sung Hee; Lee, Sung Ki

    2013-01-01

    The effect of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP; 30% CO2+70% N2 or 100% N2) and an additive mixture (500 ppm rosemary extract, 3,000 ppm sodium acetate and 1,500 ppm calcium lactate) on the quality of pre-cooked hamburger patties during storage at 5°C for 14 d was evaluated. The addition of the additive mixture reduced aerobic and anaerobic bacteria counts in both 30% CO2-MAP (30% CO2+70% N2) and 100% N2-MAP (p<0.05). The 30% CO2-MAP was more effective to suppress the microbial growth than 100% N2-MAP, moreover the 30% CO2-MAP combined with additive mixture resulted in the lowest bacterial counts. The hamburger patties with additive mixture showed lower CIE L* and CIE a*, and higher CIE b* than those with no additive mixture. The 30% CO2-MAP tended to decrease the TBARS during storage regardless of the addition of additives. The use of 30% CO2-MAP in combination with additives mixture was effective for maintaining the quality and extending the shelf-life of pre-cooked hamburger patties. PMID:25049716

  14. Characterization of lactate dehydrogenase enzyme in seminal plasma of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica).

    PubMed

    Singh, R P; Sastry, K V H; Pandey, N K; Shit, N; Agrawal, R; Singh, K B; Mohan, Jag; Saxena, V K; Moudgal, R P

    2011-02-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase enzyme present in quail seminal plasma has been characterized. Polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and subsequently with LDH specific staining of seminal plasma revealed a single isozyme in quail semen. Studies on substrate inhibition, pH for optimum activity and inhibitor (urea) indicated the isozyme present in the quail semen has catalytic properties like LDH-1 viz. H-type. Furthermore, unlike other mammalian species, electrophoretic and kinetic investigations did not support the existence of semen specific LDH-X isozyme in quail semen. The effect of exogenous lactate and pyruvate on sperm metabolic activity was also studied. The addition of 1 mM lactate or pyruvate to quail semen increased sperm metabolic activity. Our results suggested that both pyruvate and lactate could be used by quail spermatozoa to maintain their basic functions. Since the H-type isozyme is important for conversion of lactate to pyruvate under anaerobic conditions it was postulated that exogenous lactate being converted into pyruvate via LDH present in semen may be used by sperm mitochondria to generate ATP. During conversion of lactate to pyruvate NADH is being generated that may be useful for maintaining sperm mitochondrial membrane potential. PMID:21074838

  15. Hyperpolarized 13C NMR observation of lactate kinetics in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Mo; Josan, Sonal; Mayer, Dirk; Hurd, Ralph E; Chung, Youngran; Bendahan, David; Spielman, Daniel M; Jue, Thomas

    2015-10-01

    The production of glycolytic end products, such as lactate, usually evokes a cellular shift from aerobic to anaerobic ATP generation and O2 insufficiency. In the classical view, muscle lactate must be exported to the liver for clearance. However, lactate also forms under well-oxygenated conditions, and this has led investigators to postulate lactate shuttling from non-oxidative to oxidative muscle fiber, where it can serve as a precursor. Indeed, the intracellular lactate shuttle and the glycogen shunt hypotheses expand the vision to include a dynamic mobilization and utilization of lactate during a muscle contraction cycle. Testing the tenability of these provocative ideas during a rapid contraction cycle has posed a technical challenge. The present study reports the use of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]lactate and [2-(13)C]pyruvate in dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) NMR experiments to measure the rapid pyruvate and lactate kinetics in rat muscle. With a 3 s temporal resolution, (13)C DNP NMR detects both [1-(13)C]lactate and [2-(13)C]pyruvate kinetics in muscle. Infusion of dichloroacetate stimulates pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and shifts the kinetics toward oxidative metabolism. Bicarbonate formation from [1-(13)C]lactate increases sharply and acetyl-l-carnitine, acetoacetate and glutamate levels also rise. Such a quick mobilization of pyruvate and lactate toward oxidative metabolism supports the postulated role of lactate in the glycogen shunt and the intracellular lactate shuttle models. The study thus introduces an innovative DNP approach to measure metabolite transients, which will help delineate the cellular and physiological role of lactate and glycolytic end products. PMID:26347554

  16. A novel aminoalcohol modifier for the enantioselective hydrogenation of ethyl pyruvate on Pt/alumina

    SciTech Connect

    Minder, B.; Mallat, T.; Baiker, A.

    1995-07-01

    A novel chiral modifier, (R)-2-(1-pyrrolidinyl)-1-(1-naphthyl) ethanol (PNE), has been synthesised and tested in the enantioselective hydrogenation of ethyl pyruvate over Pt/alumina. An enantiomeric excess in (R)-ethyl lactate of up to 75% was achieved. The influence of solvent, pressure, temperature, and concentrations of the components (reactant, modifier, catalyst) on the reaction rate and enantiodifferentiation was investigated. Among various polar and nonpolar solvents, acetic acid was found to be most suitable for reaching good enantioselectivity. Favorable reaction conditions are 1-10 bar hydrogen pressure, 0-25{degrees}C, and a catalyst loading {ge}15 g liter{sup -1}. The efficiency of PNE is demonstrated by the very low modifier:reactant molar ratio (1:30,000) which is required to obtain maximum enantioselectivity. The performance and stability of the aminoalcohol-type modifer are compared to those of cinchona alkaloids. At low hydrogen pressure, the enantiodifferentiation of PNE is comparable to that of 10,11-dihydrocinchonidine. 39 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Metabolic networks to generate pyruvate, PEP and ATP from glycerol in Pseudomonas fluorescens.

    PubMed

    Alhasawi, Azhar; Thomas, Sean C; Appanna, Vasu D

    2016-04-01

    Glycerol is a major by-product of the biodiesel industry. In this study we report on the metabolic networks involved in its transformation into pyruvate, phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and ATP. When the nutritionally-versatile Pseudomonas fluorescens was exposed to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in a mineral medium with glycerol as the sole carbon source, the microbe reconfigured its metabolism to generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) primarily via substrate-level phosphorylation (SLP). This alternative ATP-producing stratagem resulted in the synthesis of copious amounts of PEP and pyruvate. The production of these metabolites was mediated via the enhanced activities of such enzymes as pyruvate carboxylase (PC) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC). The high energy PEP was subsequently converted into ATP with the aid of pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK), phosphoenolpyruvate synthase (PEPS) and pyruvate kinase (PK) with the concomitant formation of pyruvate. The participation of the phospho-transfer enzymes like adenylate kinase (AK) and acetate kinase (ACK) ensured the efficiency of this O2-independent energy-generating machinery. The increased activity of glycerol dehydrogenase (GDH) in the stressed bacteria provided the necessary precursors to fuel this process. This H2O2-induced anaerobic life-style fortuitously evokes metabolic networks to an effective pathway that can be harnessed into the synthesis of ATP, PEP and pyruvate. The bioconversion of glycerol to pyruvate will offer interesting economic benefit. PMID:26920481

  18. Pyruvate Metabolism in Sarcina maxima

    PubMed Central

    Kupfer, Dorothy G.; Canale-Parola, E.

    1967-01-01

    The mechanisms of pyruvate cleavage and hydrogen production by Sarcina maxima were studied. It was found that a phosphoroclastic system for pyruvate oxidation, similar to that occurring in saccharolytic clostridia, is present in S. maxima. Cleavage of pyruvate by extracts of the latter organism resulted in the formation of acetyl phosphate, CO2, and electrons which were transferred to ferredoxin. Formate was not an intermediate in this system. Pyruvate oxidation was coupled with ferredoxin-dependent nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) reduction. A hydrogenase, active in particulate extracts of S. maxima, did not accept electrons from reduced ferredoxin. Formate was detected as a fermentation product when S. maxima was grown in media buffered with CaCO3. Whole cells and extracts degraded formate to H2 and CO2. The evidence suggests that electrons generated by ferredoxin-linked pyruvate oxidation by S. maxima are not used for H2 production, but that they serve for the reduction of NADP. Reduced NADP may be utilized by the organisms for synthesis of cell material. Production of H2 by S. maxima may occur through a pyruvate clastic system similar to that present in coliform bacteria. PMID:4383134

  19. Effect of lead acetate toxicity on experimental male albino rat

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nabil M; Eweis, Esam A; El-Beltagi, Hossam S; Abdel-Mobdy, Yasmin E

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of different doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60 of LD50) on body weight gain, blood picture, plasma protein profile and the function of liver, kidney and thyroid gland. Methods Male albino rats were divided into four groups, the first group represented the health control animals, while the second, third and fourth groups were ingested orally with sub lethal doses of lead acetate (1/20, 1/40 and 1/60) of the oral LD50, respectively. One dose was ingested every two days during the experimental period (14 weeks) including the adaptation time. Blood was collected and used for all analysis. Results The results showed that, the ingestion of Pb2+ induced significant stimulation in glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (ALT) and glutamic-oxalacetic transaminease (AST) activity. Also, total soluble protein and albumin contents of plasma were significantly decreased, while the content of globulin was changed by the Pb2+ treatments. The cholinesterase activity was inhibited, but the activities of alkaline and acid phosphates and lactate dehydrogenase were stimulated, while plasma glucose level was elevated as a result of lead acetate intoxication. In case of blood picture, Pb2+ ingestion reduced the contents of hemoglobin and RBCs count of intoxicated rat's blood and the plasma levels of T3, T4 and blood WBCs count were decreased. Conclusions It can be concluded that lead acetate has harmful effect on experimental male albino rats. Therefore, the present work advises people to prevent exposure to the lead compound to avoid injurious hazard risk. PMID:23569832

  20. Cardiac responses to induced lactate oxidation: NMR analysis of metabolic equilibria.

    PubMed

    Lewandowski, E D; Damico, L A; White, L T; Yu, X

    1995-07-01

    The role of lactate as a source of pyruvate oxidation in supporting cardiac work, energetics, and formation of oxidative metabolites was examined in normal myocardium. 13C- and 31P-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were acquired from isolated rabbit hearts supplied 2.5 mM [3-13C]lactate or [3-13C]pyruvate with or without stimulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) by dichloroacetate (DCA). Similar workloads determined by rate-pressure products were noted with pyruvate (21,700 +/- 2,400; mean +/- SE) and lactate (18,970 +/- 1,510). Oxygen consumption was similar in all four groups with means between 19.0 and 22.2 mumol.min-1.g dry weight-1 (SE = 1.6-2.0) as was the ratio of phosphocreatine to ATP with means between 1.8 and 2.1 (SE = 0.1-0.6). Intracellular pH, determined from 31P-NMR spectra, was essentially the same with pyruvate (7.06 +/- 0.02) and lactate (7.05 +/- 0.04). 13C enrichment of glutamate was higher with lactate (92%) than with pyruvate (70%). Pyruvate plus DCA induced no change in glutamate content at 9-10 mumol/g, but 13C enrichment increased to 83%, while lactate plus DCA maintained enrichment at 90%. Levels of alpha-ketoglutarate were lower with lactate (1.81 mumol/g) than with pyruvate (2.36 mumol/g). Lactate plus DCA elevated glutamate by 60% with a proportional increase in alpha-ketoglutarate. Thus the balance between glutamate and alpha-ketoglutarate was affected by substrate supply only and not by PDH activation. The results suggest that the equilibrium between alpha-ketoglutarate and glutamate is sensitive to cytosolic redox state, an important consideration for 13C-NMR analyses that rely on glutamate.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7631845

  1. Modeling non-linear kinetics of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C] pyruvate in the crystalloid-perfused rat heart.

    PubMed

    Mariotti, E; Orton, M R; Eerbeek, O; Ashruf, J F; Zuurbier, C J; Southworth, R; Eykyn, T R

    2016-04-01

    Hyperpolarized (13)C MR measurements have the potential to display non-linear kinetics. We have developed an approach to describe possible non-first-order kinetics of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C] pyruvate employing a system of differential equations that agrees with the principle of conservation of mass of the hyperpolarized signal. Simultaneous fitting to a second-order model for conversion of [1-(13)C] pyruvate to bicarbonate, lactate and alanine was well described in the isolated rat heart perfused with Krebs buffer containing glucose as sole energy substrate, or glucose supplemented with pyruvate. Second-order modeling yielded significantly improved fits of pyruvate-bicarbonate kinetics compared with the more traditionally used first-order model and suggested time-dependent decreases in pyruvate-bicarbonate flux. Second-order modeling gave time-dependent changes in forward and reverse reaction kinetics of pyruvate-lactate exchange and pyruvate-alanine exchange in both groups of hearts during the infusion of pyruvate; however, the fits were not significantly improved with respect to a traditional first-order model. The mechanism giving rise to second-order pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) kinetics was explored experimentally using surface fluorescence measurements of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced form (NADH) performed under the same conditions, demonstrating a significant increase of NADH during pyruvate infusion. This suggests a simultaneous depletion of available mitochondrial NAD(+) (the cofactor for PDH), consistent with the non-linear nature of the kinetics. NADH levels returned to baseline following cessation of the pyruvate infusion, suggesting this to be a transient effect. PMID:26777799

  2. Pyruvate modifies metabolic flux and nutrient sensing during extracorporeal membrane oxygenation in an immature swine model

    SciTech Connect

    Ledee, Dolena R.; Kajimoto, Masaki; O'Kelly-Priddy, Colleen M.; Olson, Aaron; Isern, Nancy G.; Robillard Frayne, Isabelle; Des Rosiers, Christine; Portman, Michael A.

    2015-07-01

    Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides mechanical circulatory support for infants and children with postoperative cardiopulmonary failure. Nutritional support is mandatory during ECMO, although specific actions for substrates on the heart have not been delineated. Prior work shows that enhancing pyruvate oxidation promotes successful weaning from ECMO. Accordingly, we closely examined the role of prolonged systemic pyruvate supplementation in modifying metabolic parameters during the unique conditions of ventricular unloading provided by ECMO. Twelve male mixed breed Yorkshire piglets (age 30-49 days) received systemic infusion of either normal saline (Group C) or pyruvate (Group P) during ECMO for 8 hours. Over the final hour piglets received [2-13C] pyruvate, and [13C6]-L-leucine, as an indicator for oxidation and protein synthesis. A significant increase in lactate and pyruvate concentrations occurred, along with an increase in the absolute concentration of all measured CAC intermediates. Group P showed greater anaplerotic flux through pyruvate carboxylation although pyruvate oxidation relative to citrate synthase flux was similar to Group C. The groups demonstrated similar leucine fractional contributions to acetyl-CoA and fractional protein synthesis rates. Pyruvate also promoted an increase in the phosphorylation state of several nutrient sensitive enzymes, such as AMPK and ACC, and promoted O-GlcNAcylation through the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP). In conclusion, prolonged pyruvate supplementation during ECMO modified anaplerotic pyruvate flux and elicited changes in important nutrient and energy sensitive pathways, while preserving protein synthesis. Therefore, the observed results support the further study of nutritional supplementation and its downstream effects on cardiac adaptation during ventricular unloading.

  3. Validation of the in vivo assessment of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity using hyperpolarised 13C MRS.

    PubMed

    Atherton, Helen J; Schroeder, Marie A; Dodd, Michael S; Heather, Lisa C; Carter, Emma E; Cochlin, Lowri E; Nagel, Simon; Sibson, Nicola R; Radda, George K; Clarke, Kieran; Tyler, Damian J

    2011-02-01

    Many diseases of the heart are characterised by changes in substrate utilisation, which is regulated in part by the activity of the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH). Consequently, there is much interest in the in vivo evaluation of PDH activity in a range of physiological and pathological states to obtain information on the metabolic mechanisms of cardiac diseases. Hyperpolarised [1-(13)C]pyruvate, detected using MRS, is a novel technique for the noninvasive evaluation of PDH flux. PDH flux has been assumed to directly reflect in vivo PDH activity, although to date this assumption remains unproven. Control animals and animals undergoing interventions known to modulate PDH activity, namely high fat feeding and dichloroacetate infusion, were used to investigate the relationship between in vivo hyperpolarised MRS measurements of PDH flux and ex vivo measurements of PDH enzyme activity (PDH(a)). Further, the plasma concentrations of pyruvate and other important metabolites were evaluated following pyruvate infusion to assess the metabolic consequences of pyruvate infusion during hyperpolarised MRS experiments. Hyperpolarised MRS measurements of PDH flux correlated significantly with ex vivo measurements of PDH(a), confirming that PDH activity influences directly the in vivo flux of hyperpolarised pyruvate through cardiac PDH. The maximum plasma concentration of pyruvate reached during hyperpolarised MRS experiments was approximately 250 µM, equivalent to physiological pyruvate concentrations reached during exercise or with dietary interventions. The concentrations of other metabolites, including lactate, glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate, did not vary during the 60 s following pyruvate infusion. Hence, during the 60-s data acquisition period, metabolism was minimally affected by pyruvate infusion. PMID:20799252

  4. Lactate Dehydrogenase Catalysis: Roles of Keto, Hydrated, and Enol Pyruvate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meany, J. E.

    2007-01-01

    Many carbonyl substrates of oxidoreductase enzymes undergo hydration and enolization so that these substrate systems are partitioned between keto, hydrated (gem-diol), and enol forms in aqueous solution. Some oxidoreductase enzymes are subject to inhibition by high concentrations of substrate. For such enzymes, two questions arise pertaining to…

  5. Robust hyperpolarized (13)C metabolic imaging with selective non-excitation of pyruvate (SNEP).

    PubMed

    Chen, Way Cherng; Teo, Xing Qi; Lee, Man Ying; Radda, George K; Lee, Philip

    2015-08-01

    In vivo metabolic imaging using hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate provides localized biochemical information and is particularly useful in detecting early disease changes, as well as monitoring disease progression and treatment response. However, a major limitation of hyperpolarized magnetization is its unrecoverable decay, due not only to T1 relaxation but also to radio-frequency (RF) excitation. RF excitation schemes used in metabolic imaging must therefore be able to utilize available hyperpolarized magnetization efficiently and robustly for the optimal detection of substrate and metabolite activities. In this work, a novel RF excitation scheme called selective non-excitation of pyruvate (SNEP) is presented. This excitation scheme involves the use of a spectral selective RF pulse to specifically exclude the excitation of [1-(13)C]pyruvate, while uniformly exciting the key metabolites of interest (namely [1-(13)C]lactate and [1-(13)C]alanine) and [1-(13)C]pyruvate-hydrate. By eliminating the loss of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate magnetization due to RF excitation, the signal from downstream metabolite pools is increased together with enhanced dynamic range. Simulation results, together with phantom measurements and in vivo experiments, demonstrated the improvement in signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the extension of the lifetime of the [1-(13)C]lactate and [1-(13)C]alanine pools when compared with conventional non-spectral selective (NS) excitation. SNEP has also been shown to perform comparably well with multi-band (MB) excitation, yet SNEP possesses distinct advantages, including ease of implementation, less stringent demands on gradient performance, increased robustness to frequency drifts and B0 inhomogeneity as well as easier quantification involving the use of [1-(13)C]pyruvate-hydrate as a proxy for the actual [1-(13)C] pyruvate signal. SNEP is therefore a promising alternative for robust hyperpolarized [1-(13)C]pyruvate metabolic imaging with high

  6. Lactate metabolism by pediococci isolated from cheese.

    PubMed

    Thomas, T D; McKay, L L; Morris, H A

    1985-04-01

    Pediococcus pentosaceus is commonly found among the adventitious microflora of Cheddar cheese. When this organism was incubated with L-(+)-lactate under anaerobic conditions, L-(+)-lactate was rapidly converted to D-(-)-lactate until racemic (DL) lactate was present. Under aerobic conditions this initial reaction was followed by a slower reaction resulting in the use of both lactate isomers and in the production of acetate and CO2. With intact cells the lactate oxidation system had an optimum pH of 5 to 6, depending on the initial lactate concentration. Cells grown anaerobically possessed lactate-oxidizing activity which increased two- to fourfold as sugar was exhausted from the medium. Aerobic growth further increased specific activities. Cheddar cheese was made with the deliberate addition of P. pentosaceus. When the resulting cheese was grated to expose a large surface area to O2, lactate was converted to acetate at a rate which depended on the density of pediococci in the cheese. The lactate oxidation system remained active in cheese which had been ripened for 6 months. PMID:4004222

  7. Regulation of Blood Glucose by Hypothalamic Pyruvate Metabolism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lam, Tony K. T.; Gutierrez-Juarez, Roger; Pocai, Alessandro; Rossetti, Luciano

    2005-08-01

    The brain keenly depends on glucose for energy, and mammalians have redundant systems to control glucose production. An increase in circulating glucose inhibits glucose production in the liver, but this negative feedback is impaired in type 2 diabetes. Here we report that a primary increase in hypothalamic glucose levels lowers blood glucose through inhibition of glucose production in rats. The effect of glucose requires its conversion to lactate followed by stimulation of pyruvate metabolism, which leads to activation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium channels. Thus, interventions designed to enhance the hypothalamic sensing of glucose may improve glucose homeostasis in diabetes.

  8. Pro-inflammatory Macrophages Sustain Pyruvate Oxidation through Pyruvate Dehydrogenase for the Synthesis of Itaconate and to Enable Cytokine Expression.

    PubMed

    Meiser, Johannes; Krämer, Lisa; Sapcariu, Sean C; Battello, Nadia; Ghelfi, Jenny; D'Herouel, Aymeric Fouquier; Skupin, Alexander; Hiller, Karsten

    2016-02-19

    Upon stimulation with Th1 cytokines or bacterial lipopolysaccharides, resting macrophages shift their phenotype toward a pro-inflammatory state as part of the innate immune response. LPS-activated macrophages undergo profound metabolic changes to adapt to these new physiological requirements. One key step to mediate this metabolic adaptation is the stabilization of HIF1α, which leads to increased glycolysis and lactate release, as well as decreased oxygen consumption. HIF1 abundance can result in the induction of the gene encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) via phosphorylation. Therefore, it has been speculated that pyruvate oxidation through PDH is decreased in pro-inflammatory macrophages. However, to answer this open question, an in-depth analysis of this metabolic branching point was so far lacking. In this work, we applied stable isotope-assisted metabolomics techniques and demonstrate that pyruvate oxidation is maintained in mature pro-inflammatory macrophages. Glucose-derived pyruvate is oxidized via PDH to generate citrate in the mitochondria. Citrate is used for the synthesis of the antimicrobial metabolite itaconate and for lipogenesis. An increased demand for these metabolites decreases citrate oxidation through the tricarboxylic acid cycle, whereas increased glutamine uptake serves to replenish the TCA cycle. Furthermore, we found that the PDH flux is maintained by unchanged PDK1 abundance, despite the presence of HIF1. By pharmacological intervention, we demonstrate that the PDH flux is an important node for M(LPS) macrophage activation. Therefore, PDH represents a metabolic intervention point that might become a research target for translational medicine to treat chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:26679997

  9. Pro-inflammatory Macrophages Sustain Pyruvate Oxidation through Pyruvate Dehydrogenase for the Synthesis of Itaconate and to Enable Cytokine Expression*

    PubMed Central

    Meiser, Johannes; Krämer, Lisa; Sapcariu, Sean C.; Battello, Nadia; Ghelfi, Jenny; D'Herouel, Aymeric Fouquier; Skupin, Alexander; Hiller, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Upon stimulation with Th1 cytokines or bacterial lipopolysaccharides, resting macrophages shift their phenotype toward a pro-inflammatory state as part of the innate immune response. LPS-activated macrophages undergo profound metabolic changes to adapt to these new physiological requirements. One key step to mediate this metabolic adaptation is the stabilization of HIF1α, which leads to increased glycolysis and lactate release, as well as decreased oxygen consumption. HIF1 abundance can result in the induction of the gene encoding pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1), which inhibits pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) via phosphorylation. Therefore, it has been speculated that pyruvate oxidation through PDH is decreased in pro-inflammatory macrophages. However, to answer this open question, an in-depth analysis of this metabolic branching point was so far lacking. In this work, we applied stable isotope-assisted metabolomics techniques and demonstrate that pyruvate oxidation is maintained in mature pro-inflammatory macrophages. Glucose-derived pyruvate is oxidized via PDH to generate citrate in the mitochondria. Citrate is used for the synthesis of the antimicrobial metabolite itaconate and for lipogenesis. An increased demand for these metabolites decreases citrate oxidation through the tricarboxylic acid cycle, whereas increased glutamine uptake serves to replenish the TCA cycle. Furthermore, we found that the PDH flux is maintained by unchanged PDK1 abundance, despite the presence of HIF1. By pharmacological intervention, we demonstrate that the PDH flux is an important node for M(LPS) macrophage activation. Therefore, PDH represents a metabolic intervention point that might become a research target for translational medicine to treat chronic inflammatory diseases. PMID:26679997

  10. Modeling of the pyruvate production with Escherichia coli in a fed-batch bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Zelić, B; Vasić-Racki, D; Wandrey, C; Takors, R

    2004-07-01

    A family of 10 competing, unstructured models has been developed to model cell growth, substrate consumption, and product formation of the pyruvate producing strain Escherichia coli YYC202 ldhA::Kan strain used in fed-batch processes. The strain is completely blocked in its ability to convert pyruvate into acetyl-CoA or acetate (using glucose as the carbon source) resulting in an acetate auxotrophy during growth in glucose minimal medium. Parameter estimation was carried out using data from fed-batch fermentation performed at constant glucose feed rates of q(VG)=10 mL h(-1). Acetate was fed according to the previously developed feeding strategy. While the model identification was realized by least-square fit, the model discrimination was based on the model selection criterion (MSC). The validation of model parameters was performed applying data from two different fed-batch experiments with glucose feed rate q(VG)=20 and 30 mL h(-1), respectively. Consequently, the most suitable model was identified that reflected the pyruvate and biomass curves adequately by considering a pyruvate inhibited growth (Jerusalimsky approach) and pyruvate inhibited product formation (described by modified Luedeking-Piret/Levenspiel term). PMID:15085423

  11. The primary pathway for lactate oxidation in Desulfovibrio vulgaris

    PubMed Central

    Vita, Nicolas; Valette, Odile; Brasseur, Gaël; Lignon, Sabrina; Denis, Yann; Ansaldi, Mireille; Dolla, Alain; Pieulle, Laetitia

    2015-01-01

    The ability to respire sulfate linked to lactate oxidation is a key metabolic signature of the Desulfovibrio genus. Lactate oxidation by these incomplete oxidizers generates reductants through lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR), with the latter catalyzing pyruvate conversion into acetyl-CoA. Acetyl-CoA is the source of substrate-level phosphorylation through the production of ATP. Here, we show that these crucial steps are performed by enzymes encoded by a nonacistronic transcriptional unit named now as operon luo (for lactate utilization operon). Using a combination of genetic and biochemical techniques, we assigned a physiological role to the operon genes DVU3027-28 and DVU3032-33. The growth of mutant Δ26-28 was highly disrupted on D-lactate, whereas the growth of mutant Δ32-33 was slower on L-lactate, which could be related to a decrease in the activity of D-lactate or L-lactate oxidase in the corresponding mutants. The DVU3027-28 and DVU3032-33 genes thus encode functional D-LDH and L-LDH enzymes, respectively. Scanning of the genome for lactate utilization revealed several lactate permease and dehydrogenase homologs. However, transcriptional compensation was not observed in any of the mutants except for lactate permease. Although there is a high degree of redundancy for lactate oxidase, it is not functionally efficient in LDH mutants. This result could be related to the identification of several operon enzymes, including LDHs, in the PFOR activity bands, suggesting the occurrence of a lactate-oxidizing supermolecular structure that can optimize the performance of lactate utilization in Desulfovibrio species. PMID:26167158

  12. Phosphorylation Status of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Distinguishes Metabolic Phenotypes of Cultured Rat Brain Astrocytes and Neurons

    PubMed Central

    HALIM, NADER D.; McFATE, THOMAS; MOHYELDIN, AHMED; OKAGAKI, PETER; KOROTCHKINA, LIOUBOV G; PATEL, MULCHAND S; JEOUNG, NAM HO; HARRIS, ROBERT A.; SCHELL, MICHAEL J.; VERMA, AJAY

    2010-01-01

    Glucose metabolism in nervous tissue has been proposed to occur in a compartmentalized manner with astrocytes contributing largely to glycolysis and neurons being the primary site of glucose oxidation. However, mammalian astrocytes and neurons both contain mitochondria and it remains unclear why in culture neurons oxidize glucose, lactate, and pyruvate to a much larger extent than astrocytes. The objective of this study was to determine whether pyruvate metabolism is differentially regulated in cultured neurons vs. astrocytes. Expression of all components of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC), the rate-limiting step for pyruvate entry into the Krebs cycle, was determined in cultured astrocytes and neurons. In addition, regulation of PDC enzymatic activity in the two cell types via protein phosphorylation was examined. We show that all components of the PDC are expressed in both cell types in culture but that PDC activity is kept strongly inhibited in astrocytes through phosphorylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase alpha subunit (PDHα). In contrast, neuronal PDC operates close to maximal levels with much lower levels of phosphorlyated PDHα. Dephosphorylation of astrocytic PDHα restores PDC activity and lowers lactate production. Our findings suggest that the glucose metabolism of astrocytes and neurons may be far more flexible than previously believed. PMID:20544852

  13. In vivo 13 carbon metabolic imaging at 3T with hyperpolarized 13C-1-pyruvate.

    PubMed

    Kohler, S J; Yen, Y; Wolber, J; Chen, A P; Albers, M J; Bok, R; Zhang, V; Tropp, J; Nelson, S; Vigneron, D B; Kurhanewicz, J; Hurd, R E

    2007-07-01

    We present for the first time dynamic spectra and spectroscopic images acquired in normal rats at 3T following the injection of (13)C-1-pyruvate that was hyperpolarized by the dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) method. Spectroscopic sampling was optimized for signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and for spectral resolution of (13)C-1-pyruvate and its metabolic products (13)C-1-alanine, (13)C-1-lactate, and (13)C-bicarbonate. Dynamic spectra in rats were collected with a temporal resolution of 3 s from a 90-mm axial slab using a dual (1)H-(13)C quadrature birdcage coil to observe the combined effects of metabolism, flow, and T(1) relaxation. In separate experiments, spectroscopic imaging data were obtained during a 17-s acquisition of a 20-mm axial slice centered on the rat kidney region to provide information on the spatial distribution of the metabolites. Conversion of pyruvate to lactate, alanine, and bicarbonate occurred within a minute of injection. Alanine was observed primarily in skeletal muscle and liver, while pyruvate, lactate, and bicarbonate concentrations were relatively high in the vasculature and kidneys. In contrast to earlier work at 1.5 T, bicarbonate was routinely observed in skeletal muscle as well as the kidney and vasculature. PMID:17659629

  14. Metabolic control analysis of L-lactate synthesis pathway in Rhizopus oryzae As 3.2686.

    PubMed

    Ke, Wei; Chang, Shu; Chen, Xiaoju; Luo, Shuizhong; Jiang, Shaotong; Yang, Peizhou; Wu, Xuefeng; Zheng, Zhi

    2015-11-01

    The relationship between the metabolic flux and the activities of the pyruvate branching enzymes of Rhizopus oryzae As 3.2686 during L-lactate fermentation was investigated using the perturbation method of aeration. The control coefficients for five enzymes, pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), pyruvate carboxylase (PC), pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), were calculated. Our results indicated significant correlations between PDH and PC, PDC and LDH, PDC and ADH, LDH and ADH, and PDC and PC. It also appeared that PDH, PC, and LDH strongly controlled the L-lactate flux; PDH and ADH strongly controlled the ethanol flux; while PDH and PC strongly controlled the acetyl coenzyme A flux and the oxaloacetate flux. Further, the flux control coefficient curves indicated that the control of the system gradually transferred from PDC to PC during the steady state. Therefore, PC was the key rate-limiting enzyme that controls the flux distribution. PMID:26288952

  15. Isolated tumoral pyruvate dehydrogenase can synthesize acetoin which inhibits pyruvate oxidation as well as other aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Baggetto, L G; Lehninger, A L

    1987-05-29

    Oxidation of 1 mM pyruvate by Ehrlich and AS30-D tumor mitochondria is inhibited by acetoin, an unusual and important metabolite of pyruvate utilization by cancer cells, by acetaldehyde, methylglyoxal and excess pyruvate. The respiratory inhibition is reversed by other substrates added to pyruvate and also by 0.5 mM ATP. Kinetic properties of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex isolated from these tumor mitochondria have been studied. This complex appears to be able to synthesize acetoin from acetaldehyde plus pyruvate and is competitively inhibited by acetoin. The role of a new regulatory pattern for tumoral pyruvate dehydrogenase is presented. PMID:3593337

  16. Impact of Perturbed Pyruvate Metabolism on Adipocyte Triglyceride Accumulation

    PubMed Central

    Si, Yaguang; Shi, Hai; Lee, Kyongbum

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to test the hypothesis that adipocyte TG accumulation could be altered by specifically perturbing pyruvate metabolism. We treated cultured 3T3-L1 adipocytes with chemical inhibitors of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and pyruvate carboxylase (PC), and characterized their global effects on intermediary metabolism using metabolic flux and isotopomer analysis. Inhibiting the enzymes over several days did not alter the adipocyte differentiation program as assessed by the expression levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. The main metabolic effects were to up-regulate intracellular lipolysis and decrease TG accumulation. Inhibiting PC also up-regulated glycolysis. Flux estimates indicated that the reduction in TG was due to decreased de novo fatty acid synthesis. Exogenous addition of free fatty acids dose-dependently increased the cellular TG level in the inhibitor-treated adipocytes, but not in untreated control cells. The results of this study support our hypothesis regarding the critical role of pyruvate reactions in TG synthesis. PMID:19683593

  17. [The mechanism of acetate assimilation in purple nonsulfur bacteria lacking the glyoxylate pathway: acetate assimilation in Rhodobacter sphaeroides cells].

    PubMed

    Filatova, L V; Berg, I A; Krasil'nikova, E N; Tsygankov, A A; Laurinavichene, T V; Ivanovskiĭ, R N

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of acetate assimilation in the purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides, which lacks the glyoxylate pathway, is studied. It is found that the growth of this bacterium in batch and continuous cultures and the assimilation of acetate in cell suspensions are not stimulated by bicarbonate. The consumption of acetate is accompanied by the excretion of glyoxylate and pyruvate into the medium, stimulated by glyoxylate and pyruvate, and inhibited by citramalate. The respiration of cells in the presence of acetate is stimulated by glyoxylate, pyruvate, citramalate, and mesaconate. These data suggest that the citramalate cycle may function in Rba. sphaeroides in the form of an anaplerotic pathway instead of the glyoxylate pathway. At the same time, the low ratio of fixation rates for bicarbonate and acetate exhibited by the Rba. sphaeroides cells (approximately 0.1), as well as the absence of the stimulatory effect of acetate on the fixation of bicarbonate in the presence of the Calvin cycle inhibitor iodoacetate, suggests that pyruvate synthase is not involved in acetate assimilation in the bacterium Rba. sphaeroides. PMID:16119843

  18. Cerebral extracellular lactate increase is predominantly nonischemic in patients with severe traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Sala, Nathalie; Suys, Tamarah; Zerlauth, Jean-Baptiste; Bouzat, Pierre; Messerer, Mahmoud; Bloch, Jocelyne; Levivier, Marc; Magistretti, Pierre J; Meuli, Reto; Oddo, Mauro

    2013-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that endogenous lactate is an important substrate for neurons. This study aimed to examine cerebral lactate metabolism and its relationship with brain perfusion in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). A prospective cohort of 24 patients with severe TBI monitored with cerebral microdialysis (CMD) and brain tissue oxygen tension (PbtO2) was studied. Brain lactate metabolism was assessed by quantification of elevated CMD lactate samples (>4 mmol/L); these were matched to CMD pyruvate and PbtO2 values and dichotomized as glycolytic (CMD pyruvate >119 μmol/L vs. low pyruvate) and hypoxic (PbtO2 <20 mm Hg vs. nonhypoxic). Using perfusion computed tomography (CT), brain perfusion was categorized as oligemic, normal, or hyperemic, and was compared with CMD and PbtO2 data. Samples with elevated CMD lactate were frequently observed (41±8%), and we found that brain lactate elevations were predominantly associated with glycolysis and normal PbtO2 (73±8%) rather than brain hypoxia (14±6%). Furthermore, glycolytic lactate was always associated with normal or hyperemic brain perfusion, whereas all episodes with hypoxic lactate were associated with diffuse oligemia. Our findings suggest predominant nonischemic cerebral extracellular lactate release after TBI and support the concept that lactate may be used as an energy substrate by the injured human brain. PMID:23963367

  19. Growth profile of Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans on pyruvate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans is a thermophilic anaerobic strain most widely known for its ability to produce hydrogen (H2) when grown on carbon monoxide (CO). Although relatively well studied, growth characterization on pyruvate has never been assessed. The present work fully characterizes growth of the bacterium on pyruvate as a sole carbon source. C. hydrogenoformans demonstrated a growth rate of 0.03 h-1, with pyruvate consumption ranging between 0.21 and 0.48 mol · g-1 volatile suspended solid · d-1. A lag phase was also observed when switching from pyruvate to CO. When grown simultaneously on pyruvate and CO, pyruvate consumption was initiated upon CO depletion. This was attributed to pyruvate oxidation inhibition by CO, and not to a diauxic phenomenom. The strain also showed homoacetogenic activity. PMID:24099169

  20. Speeding up the product release: a second-sphere contribution from Tyr191 to the reactivity of L-lactate oxidase revealed in crystallographic and kinetic studies of site-directed variants.

    PubMed

    Stoisser, Thomas; Klimacek, Mario; Wilson, David K; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2015-11-01

    Among α-hydroxy acid-oxidizing flavoenzymes l-lactate oxidase (LOX) is unique in featuring a second-sphere tyrosine (Tyr191 in Aerococcus viridans LOX; avLOX) at the binding site for the substrate's carboxylate group. Y191F, Y191L and Y191A variants of avLOX were constructed to affect a hydrogen-bond network connecting Tyr191 to the carboxylate of the bound ligand via the conserved Tyr40 and to examine consequent effects on enzymatic reactivity. Kinetic studies at 20 °C and pH 6.5 revealed that release of pyruvate product was decreased 4.7-fold (Y191F), 19-fold (Y191L) and 28-fold (Y191A) compared with wild-type enzyme (~ 141 s(-1)) and thus became mainly rate limiting for l-lactate oxidation by the variants at a steady-state under air-saturated conditions. In the Y191L and the Y191A variants, but not in the Y191F variant, l-lactate binding was also affected strongly by the site-directed substitution. Reduction of the flavin cofactor by l-lactate and its reoxidation by molecular oxygen were, however, comparatively weakly affected by the replacements of Tyr191. Unlike the related lactate monooxygenase, which prevents the fast dissociation of pyruvate to promote its oxidative decarboxylation by H2 O2 into acetate, CO2 and water as final reaction products, all avLOX variants retained their native oxidase activity where catalytic turnover results in the equivalent formation of H2O2. The 1.9 Å crystal structure of the Y191F variant bound with FMN and pyruvate revealed a strictly locally disruptive effect of the site-directed substitution. Product off-rates appear to be dictated by partitioning of residues including Tyr191 from an active-site lid loop into bulk solvent and modulation of the hydrogen bond strength that links Tyr40 with the pyruvate's carboxylate group. Overall, this study emphasizes the possibly high importance of contributions from second-sphere substrate-binding residues to the fine-tuning of reactivity in α-hydroxy acid-oxidizing flavoenzymes

  1. Accelerated utilization of lactate under the effect of hypoxen after intensive exercise.

    PubMed

    Grishina, E V; Khaustova, Ya V; Pogorelova, V G; Pogorelov, A G; Kuz'mich, M K; Maevskii, E I

    2008-02-01

    Administration of substrates of energy metabolism in combination with hypoxen (sulfur-containing oligoquinone) promoted the increase in blood lactate concentration during maximum exercise, accelerated lactate utilization, and reduced the lactate/pyruvate ratio during recovery. The in vivo effects are in line with hypoxen capacity to accelerate in vitro oxidation of exogenous NADH in mitochondria by the non-rotenone-dependent pathway realized with participation of cytochrome C. PMID:19023968

  2. Lactate does not activate NF-κB in oxidative tumor cells

    PubMed Central

    Van Hée, Vincent F.; Pérez-Escuredo, Jhudit; Cacace, Andrea; Copetti, Tamara; Sonveaux, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The lactate anion is currently emerging as an oncometabolite. Lactate, produced and exported by glycolytic and glutaminolytic cells in tumors, can be recycled as an oxidative fuel by oxidative tumors cells. Independently of hypoxia, it can also activate transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) in tumor and endothelial cells, promoting angiogenesis. These protumoral activities of lactate depend on lactate uptake, a process primarily facilitated by the inward, passive lactate-proton symporter monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1); the conversion of lactate and NAD+ to pyruvate, NADH and H+ by lactate dehydrogenase-1 (LDH-1); and a competition between pyruvate and α-ketoglutarate that inhibits prolylhydroxylases (PHDs). Endothelial cells do not primarily use lactate as an oxidative fuel but, rather, as a signaling agent. In addition to HIF-1, lactate can indeed activate transcription factor nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in these cells, through a mechanism not only depending on PHD inhibition but also on NADH alimenting NAD(P)H oxidases to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). While NF-κB activity in endothelial cells promotes angiogenesis, NF-κB activation in tumor cells is known to stimulate tumor progression by conferring resistance to apoptosis, stemness, pro-angiogenic and metastatic capabilities. In this study, we therefore tested whether exogenous lactate could activate NF-κB in oxidative tumor cells equipped for lactate signaling. We report that, precisely because they are oxidative, HeLa and SiHa human tumor cells do not activate NF-κB in response to lactate. Indeed, while lactate-derived pyruvate is well-known to inhibit PHDs in these cells, we found that NADH aliments oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) in mitochondria rather than NAD(P)H oxidases in the cytosol. These data were confirmed using oxidative human Cal27 and MCF7 tumor cells. This new information positions the malate-aspartate shuttle as a key player in the oxidative metabolism

  3. Analysis of hyperpolarized dynamic 13C lactate imaging in a transgenic mouse model of prostate cancer☆

    PubMed Central

    Lupo, Janine M.; Chen, Albert P.; Zierhut, Matthew L.; Bok, Robert A.; Cunningham, Charles H.; Kurhanewicz, John; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Nelson, Sarah J.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the application of an acquisition that selectively excites the [1-13C]lactate resonance and allows dynamic tracking of the conversion of 13C-lactate from hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate at a high spatial resolution. In order to characterize metabolic processes occurring in a mouse model of prostate cancer, 20 sequential 3D images of 13C-lactate were acquired 5 s apart using a pulse sequence that incorporated a spectral–spatial excitation pulse and a flyback echo-planar readout to track the time course of newly converted 13C-lactate after injection of prepolarized 13C-pyruvate. The maximum lactate signal (MLS), full-width half-maximum (FWHM), time to the peak 13C-lactate signal (TTP) and area under the dynamic curve were calculated from the dynamic images of 10 TRAMP mice and two wild-type controls. The regional variation in 13C-lactate associated with the injected pyruvate was demonstrated by the peak of the 13C-lactate signal occurring earlier in the kidney than in the tumor region. The intensity of the dynamic 13C-lactate curves also varied spatially within the tumor, illustrating the heterogeneity in metabolism that was most prominent in more advanced stages of disease development. The MLS was significantly higher in TRAMP mice that had advanced disease. PMID:19695815

  4. A hydrogenosome with pyruvate formate-lyase: anaerobic chytrid fungi use an alternative route for pyruvate catabolism.

    PubMed

    Akhmanova, A; Voncken, F G; Hosea, K M; Harhangi, H; Keltjens, J T; op den Camp, H J; Vogels, G D; Hackstein, J H

    1999-06-01

    The chytrid fungi Piromyces sp. E2 and Neocallimastix sp. L2 are obligatory amitochondriate anaerobes that possess hydrogenosomes. Hydrogenosomes are highly specialized organelles engaged in anaerobic carbon metabolism; they generate molecular hydrogen and ATP. Here, we show for the first time that chytrid hydrogenosomes use pyruvate formate-lyase (PFL) and not pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFO) for pyruvate catabolism, unlike all other hydrogenosomes studied to date. Chytrid PFLs are encoded by a multigene family and are abundantly expressed in Piromyces sp. E2 and Neocallimastix sp. L2. Western blotting after cellular fractionation, proteinase K protection assays and determinations of enzyme activities reveal that PFL is present in the hydrogenosomes of Piromyces sp. E2. The main route of the hydrogenosomal carbon metabolism involves PFL; the formation of equimolar amounts of formate and acetate by isolated hydrogenosomes excludes a significant contribution by PFO. Our data support the assumption that chytrid hydrogenosomes are unique and argue for a polyphyletic origin of these organelles. PMID:10361311

  5. Validation of the In Vivo Assessment of Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Activity Using Hyperpolarized 13C-Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Dodd, Michael S.; Heather, Lisa C.; Carter, Emma E.; Cochlin, Lowri E.; Nagel, Simon; Sibson, Nicola R.; Radda, George K.; Clarke, Kieran; Tyler, Damian J.

    2015-01-01

    Aim Many diseases of the heart are characterised by changes in substrate utilisation, which is in part regulated by the activity of the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH). Consequently, there is much interest in the in vivo evaluation of PDH activity in a range of physiological and pathological states to obtain information regarding the metabolic mechanisms of cardiac diseases. Hyperpolarized [1-13C]pyruvate, detected using MRS, is a novel technique for evaluating PDH flux non-invasively. PDH flux has been assumed to directly reflect in vivo PDH activity, although to date this assumption remains unproven. Methods Control animals and animals undergoing interventions known to modulate PDH activity, namely high fat feeding and dichloroacetate infusion, were used to investigate the relationship between in vivo hyperpolarized MRS measurements of PDH flux and ex vivo measurements of PDH enzyme activity (PDHa). Further, the plasma concentrations of pyruvate and other important metabolites were evaluated following pyruvate infusion to assess the metabolic consequences of the pyruvate infusion during hyperpolarized MRS experiments. Results Hyperpolarized MRS measurements of PDH flux significantly correlated with ex vivo measurements of PDHa, confirming that PDH activity directly influences the in vivo flux of hyperpolarized pyruvate through cardiac PDH. The maximum plasma concentration of pyruvate reached during hyperpolarized MRS experiments was ~250 μM, equivalent to physiological pyruvate concentrations reached during exercise or with dietary interventions. Concentrations of other metabolites, including lactate, glucose and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB), did not vary during the 60 s following pyruvate infusion. Hence, during the 60 s data acquisition period, metabolism was minimally affected by pyruvate infusion. PMID:20799252

  6. Pyruvate Formate Lyase Acts as a Formate Supplier for Metabolic Processes during Anaerobiosis in Staphylococcus aureus▿

    PubMed Central

    Leibig, Martina; Liebeke, Manuel; Mader, Diana; Lalk, Michael; Peschel, Andreas; Götz, Friedrich

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies demonstrated an upregulation of pyruvate formate lyase (Pfl) and NAD-dependent formate dehydrogenase (Fdh) in Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. To investigate their physiological role, we constructed fdh and pfl deletion mutants (Δfdh and Δpfl). Although formate dehydrogenase activity in the fdh mutant was lost, it showed little phenotypic alterations under oxygen-limited conditions. In contrast, the pfl mutant displayed pleiotropic effects and revealed the importance of formate production for anabolic metabolism. In the pfl mutant, no formate was produced, glucose consumption was delayed, and ethanol production was decreased, whereas acetate and lactate production were unaffected. All metabolic alterations could be restored by addition of formate or complementation of the Δpfl mutant. In compensation reactions, serine and threonine were consumed better by the Δpfl mutant than by the wild type, suggesting that their catabolism contributes to the refilling of formyl-tetrahydrofolate, which acts as a donor of formyl groups in, e.g., purine and protein biosynthesis. This notion was supported by reduced production of formylated peptides by the Δpfl mutant compared to that of the parental strain, as demonstrated by weaker formyl-peptide receptor 1 (FPR1)-mediated activation of leukocytes with the mutant. FPR1 stimulation could also be restored either by addition of formate or by complementation of the mutation. Furthermore, arginine consumption and arc operon transcription were increased in the Δpfl mutant. Unlike what occurred with the investigated anaerobic conditions, a biofilm is distinguished by nutrient, oxygen, and pH gradients, and we thus assume that Pfl plays a significant role in the anaerobic layer of a biofilm. Fdh might be critical in (micro)aerobic layers, as formate oxidation is correlated with the generation of NADH/H+, whose regeneration requires respiration. PMID:21169491

  7. Methanogenesis from acetate: a nonmethanogenic bacterium from an anaerobic acetate enrichment.

    PubMed

    Ward, D M; Mah, R A; Kaplan, I R

    1978-06-01

    A methanogenic acetate enrichment was initiated by inoculation of an acetate-mineral salts medium with domestic anaerobic digestor sludge and maintained by weekly transfer for 2 years. The enrichment culture contained a Methanosarcina and several obligately anaerobic nonmethanogenic bacteria. These latter organisms formed varying degrees of association with the Methanosarcina, ranging from the nutritionally fastidious gram-negative rod called the satellite bacterium to the nutritionally nonfastidious Eubacterium limosum. The satellite bacterium had growth requirements for amino acids, a peptide, a purine base, vitamin B12, and other B vitamins. Glucose, mannitol, starch, pyruvate, cysteine, lysine, leucine, isoleucine, arginine, and asparagine stimulated growth and hydrogen production. Acetate was neither incorporated nor metabolized by the satellite organism. Since acetate was the sole organic carbon source in the enrichment culture, organism(s) which metabolize acetate (such as the Methanosarcina) must produce substrates and growth factors for associated organisms which do not metabolize acetate. PMID:677881

  8. Challenges in diagnosing a metabolic disorder: error of pyruvate metabolism or drug induced?

    PubMed

    Mampilly, George Tomy; Mampilly, Tomy Kochuvareed; Christopher, Rita; Chandramohan, Neeradha; Janaki, Vijayalakshmy

    2014-06-01

    Certain drugs are known to cause metabolic changes resulting in altered metabolic profiles. We report here a case where a combination of antiepileptic drugs resulted in a profile that mimicked a metabolic disorder. A 16month-old female child on antiepileptic drugs (valproate and topiramate) was suspected to have the inherited metabolic disorder, dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase deficiency, based on clinical symptoms and metabolic profile showing hyperalaninemia, elevated branched-chain amino acids, and lactate-pyruvate ratio. Suspecting that the observed metabolic changes could have also arised from medication, current medication was weaned off and replaced with levetiracetam, clonazepam, and levocarnitine (supportive therapy). Metabolic profiling conducted after 47 days showed normal alanine, branched-chain amino acids, ornithine, and lactate-pyruvate ratio, suggesting that the earlier abnormalities could have been medication induced. We stress that metabolic changes resulting from chronic medication should be considered while interpreting a positive result when investigating an inherited metabolic disorder. PMID:23439713

  9. Biochemical and structural characterization of Cryptosporidium parvum Lactate dehydrogenase.

    PubMed

    Cook, William J; Senkovich, Olga; Hernandez, Agustin; Speed, Haley; Chattopadhyay, Debasish

    2015-03-01

    The protozoan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum causes waterborne diseases worldwide. There is no effective therapy for C. parvum infection. The parasite depends mainly on glycolysis for energy production. Lactate dehydrogenase is a major regulator of glycolysis. This paper describes the biochemical characterization of C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase and high resolution crystal structures of the apo-enzyme and four ternary complexes. The ternary complexes capture the enzyme bound to NAD/NADH or its 3-acetylpyridine analog in the cofactor binding pocket, while the substrate binding site is occupied by one of the following ligands: lactate, pyruvate or oxamate. The results reveal distinctive features of the parasitic enzyme. For example, C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase prefers the acetylpyridine analog of NADH as a cofactor. Moreover, it is slightly less sensitive to gossypol inhibition compared with mammalian lactate dehydrogenases and not inhibited by excess pyruvate. The active site loop and the antigenic loop in C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase are considerably different from those in the human counterpart. Structural features and enzymatic properties of C. parvum lactate dehydrogenase are similar to enzymes from related parasites. Structural comparison with malate dehydrogenase supports a common ancestry for the two genes. PMID:25542170

  10. Atmospheric measurements of pyruvic and formic acid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andreae, Meinrat O.; Li, Shao-Meng; Talbot, Robert W.

    1987-01-01

    Pyruvic acid, a product of the atmospheric oxidation of cresols and probably of isoprene, has been determined together with formic acid in atmospheric aerosols and rain as well as in the vapor phase. Both acids are present predominantly as vapor; only about 10-20 percent of the total atmospheric pyruvate and 1-2 percent of the total formate are in the particulate phase. The concentrations of pyruvic and formic acid are highly correlated, with typical formic-to-pyruvic ratios of 10-30 in the gas phase, 20-30 in rain, and 2-10 in aerosols. The gas-phase and rain ratios are comparable to those predicted to result from isoprene oxidation. Pyruvic acid levels were similar in the eastern United States (during summer) and the Amazon Basin, suggesting that natural processes, particularly the photochemical oxidation of isoprene, could account for most of the pyruvic acid present in the atmosphere.

  11. D-Lactate transport and metabolism in rat liver mitochondria.

    PubMed Central

    de Bari, Lidia; Atlante, Anna; Guaragnella, Nicoletta; Principato, Giovanni; Passarella, Salvatore

    2002-01-01

    In the present study we investigated whether isolated rat liver mitochondria can take up and metabolize D-lactate. We found the following: (1) externally added D-lactate causes oxygen uptake by mitochondria [P/O ratio (the ratio of mol of ATP synthesized to mol of oxygen atoms reduced to water during oxidative phosphorylation)=2] and membrane potential (Delta(psi)) generation in processes that are rotenone-insensitive, but inhibited by antimycin A and cyanide, and proton release from coupled mitochondria inhibited by alpha-cyanocinnamate, but not by phenylsuccinate; (2) the activity of the putative flavoprotein (D-lactate dehydrogenase) was detected in inside-out submitochondrial particles, but not in mitochondria and mitoplasts, as it is localized in the matrix phase of the mitochondrial inner membrane; (3) three novel separate translocators exist to mediate D-lactate traffic across the mitochondrial inner membrane: the D-lactate/H(+) symporter, which was investigated by measuring fluorimetrically the rate of endogenous flavin reduction, the D-lactate/oxoacid antiporter (which mediates both the D-lactate/pyruvate and D-lactate/oxaloacetate exchanges) and D-lactate/malate antiporter studied by monitoring photometrically the appearance of the D-lactate counteranions outside mitochondria. The D-lactate translocators, in the light of their different inhibition profiles separate from the monocarboxylate carrier, were found to differ from each other in the V(max) values and in the inhibition and pH profiles and were shown to regulate mitochondrial D-lactate metabolism in vitro. The D-lactate translocators and the D-lactate dehydrogenase could account for the removal of the toxic methylglyoxal from cytosol, as well as for D-lactate-dependent gluconeogenesis. PMID:11955284

  12. Mitochondrial pyruvate carrier in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Štáfková, Jitka; Mach, Jan; Biran, Marc; Verner, Zdeněk; Bringaud, Frédéric; Tachezy, Jan

    2016-05-01

    Pyruvate is a key product of glycolysis that regulates the energy metabolism of cells. In Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of sleeping sickness, the fate of pyruvate varies dramatically during the parasite life cycle. In bloodstream forms, pyruvate is mainly excreted, whereas in tsetse fly forms, pyruvate is metabolized in mitochondria yielding additional ATP molecules. The character of the molecular machinery that mediates pyruvate transport across mitochondrial membrane was elusive until the recent discovery of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) in yeast and mammals. Here, we characterized pyruvate import into mitochondrion of T. brucei. We identified mpc1 and mpc2 homologs in the T. brucei genome with attributes of MPC protein family and we demonstrated that both proteins are present in the mitochondrial membrane of the parasite. Investigations of mpc1 or mpc2 gene knock-out cells proved that T. brucei MPC1/2 proteins facilitate mitochondrial pyruvate transport. Interestingly, MPC is expressed not only in procyclic trypanosomes with fully activated mitochondria but also in bloodstream trypanosomes in which most of pyruvate is excreted. Moreover, MPC appears to be essential for bloodstream forms, supporting the recently emerging picture that the functions of mitochondria in bloodstream forms are more diverse than it was originally thought. PMID:26748989

  13. Major Role of NAD-Dependent Lactate Dehydrogenases in Aerobic Lactate Utilization in Lactobacillus plantarum during Early Stationary Phase

    PubMed Central

    Goffin, Philippe; Lorquet, Frédérique; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Hols, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    NAD-independent lactate dehydrogenases are commonly thought to be responsible for lactate utilization during the stationary phase of aerobic growth in Lactobacillus plantarum. To substantiate this view, we constructed single and double knockout mutants for the corresponding genes, loxD and loxL. Lactate-to-acetate conversion was not impaired in these strains, while it was completely blocked in mutants deficient in NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase activities, encoded by the ldhD and ldhL genes. We conclude that NAD-dependent but not NAD-independent lactate dehydrogenases are involved in this process. PMID:15375150

  14. Propionate Increases Hepatic Pyruvate Cycling and Anaplerosis and Alters Mitochondrial Metabolism*

    PubMed Central

    Perry, Rachel J.; Borders, Candace B.; Cline, Gary W.; Zhang, Xian-Man; Alves, Tiago C.; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Rothman, Douglas L.; Kibbey, Richard G.; Shulman, Gerald I.

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, pyruvate kinase (PK) plays a key role in regulating the balance between glycolysis and gluconeogenesis; however, in vivo regulation of PK flux by gluconeogenic hormones and substrates is poorly understood. To this end, we developed a novel NMR-liquid chromatography/tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to directly assess pyruvate cycling relative to mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism (VPyr-Cyc/VMito) in vivo using [3-13C]lactate as a tracer. Using this approach, VPyr-Cyc/VMito was only 6% in overnight fasted rats. In contrast, when propionate was infused simultaneously at doses previously used as a tracer, it increased VPyr-Cyc/VMito by 20–30-fold, increased hepatic TCA metabolite concentrations 2–3-fold, and increased endogenous glucose production rates by 20–100%. The physiologic stimuli, glucagon and epinephrine, both increased hepatic glucose production, but only glucagon suppressed VPyr-Cyc/VMito. These data show that under fasting conditions, when hepatic gluconeogenesis is stimulated, pyruvate recycling is relatively low in liver compared with VMito flux and that liver metabolism, in particular pyruvate cycling, is sensitive to propionate making it an unsuitable tracer to assess hepatic glycolytic, gluconeogenic, and mitochondrial metabolism in vivo. PMID:27002151

  15. Targeting Tumor Metabolism for Cancer Treatment: Is Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinases (PDKs) a Viable Anticancer Target?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen; Zhang, Shao-Lin; Hu, Xiaohui; Tam, Kin Yip

    2015-01-01

    Cancer remains a lethal threat to global lives. Development of novel anticancer therapeutics is still a challenge to scientists in the field of biomedicine. In cancer cells, the metabolic features are significantly different from those of normal ones, which are hallmarks of several malignancies. Recent studies brought atypical cellular metabolism, such as aerobic glycolysis or the Warburg effect, into the scientific limelight. Targeting these altered metabolic pathways in cancer cells presents a promising therapeutic strategy. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDKs), key enzymes in the pathway of glucose metabolism, could inactivate the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) by phosphorylating it and preserving the substrates pyruvate, lactate and alanine for gluconeogenesis. Overexpression of PDKs could block the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to satisfy high oxygen demand in cancer cells, while inhibition of PDKs could upregulate the activity of PDC and rectify the balance between the demand and supply of oxygen, which could lead to cancer cell death. Thus, inhibitors targeting PDKs represent a promising strategy for cancer treatment by acting on glycolytic tumors while showing minimal side effects on the oxidative healthy organs. This review considers the role of PDKs as regulator of PDC that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate in mitochondrion. It is concluded that PDKs are solid therapeutic targets. Inhibition of PDKs could be an attractive therapeutic approach for the development of anti-cancer drugs. PMID:26681918

  16. Propionate Increases Hepatic Pyruvate Cycling and Anaplerosis and Alters Mitochondrial Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Perry, Rachel J; Borders, Candace B; Cline, Gary W; Zhang, Xian-Man; Alves, Tiago C; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Rothman, Douglas L; Kibbey, Richard G; Shulman, Gerald I

    2016-06-01

    In mammals, pyruvate kinase (PK) plays a key role in regulating the balance between glycolysis and gluconeogenesis; however, in vivo regulation of PK flux by gluconeogenic hormones and substrates is poorly understood. To this end, we developed a novel NMR-liquid chromatography/tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method to directly assess pyruvate cycling relative to mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism (VPyr-Cyc/VMito) in vivo using [3-(13)C]lactate as a tracer. Using this approach, VPyr-Cyc/VMito was only 6% in overnight fasted rats. In contrast, when propionate was infused simultaneously at doses previously used as a tracer, it increased VPyr-Cyc/VMito by 20-30-fold, increased hepatic TCA metabolite concentrations 2-3-fold, and increased endogenous glucose production rates by 20-100%. The physiologic stimuli, glucagon and epinephrine, both increased hepatic glucose production, but only glucagon suppressed VPyr-Cyc/VMito These data show that under fasting conditions, when hepatic gluconeogenesis is stimulated, pyruvate recycling is relatively low in liver compared with VMito flux and that liver metabolism, in particular pyruvate cycling, is sensitive to propionate making it an unsuitable tracer to assess hepatic glycolytic, gluconeogenic, and mitochondrial metabolism in vivo. PMID:27002151

  17. Quantitative analysis of intermediary metabolism in hepatocytes incubated in the presence and absence of glucagon with a substrate mixture containing glucose, ribose, fructose, alanine and acetate.

    PubMed Central

    Rabkin, M; Blum, J J

    1985-01-01

    Hepatocytes were isolated from the livers of fed rats and incubated, in the presence and absence of 100 nM-glucagon, with a substrate mixture containing glucose (10 mM), fructose (4 mM), alanine (3.5 mM), acetate (1.25 mM), and ribose (1 mM). In any given incubation one substrate was labelled with 14C. Incorporation of 14C into glucose, glycogen, CO2, lactate, alanine, glutamate, lipid glycerol and fatty acids was measured after 20 and 40 min of incubation under quasi-steady-state conditions [Borowitz, Stein & Blum (1977) J. Biol. Chem. 252, 1589-1605]. These data and the measured O2 consumption were analysed with the aid of a structural metabolic model incorporating all reactions of the glycolytic, gluconeogenic, and pentose phosphate pathways, and associated mitochondrial and cytosolic reactions. A considerable excess of experimental measurements over independent flux parameters and a number of independent measurements of changes in metabolite concentrations allowed for a stringent test of the model. A satisfactory fit to the data was obtained for each condition. Significant findings included: control cells were glycogenic and glucagon-treated cells glycogenolytic during the second interval; an ordered (last in, first out) model of glycogen degradation [Devos & Hers (1979) Eur. J. Biochem. 99, 161-167] was required in order to fit the experimental data; the pentose shunt contributed approx. 15% of the carbon for gluconeogenesis in both control and glucagon-treated cells; net flux through the lower Embden-Meyerhof pathway was in the glycolytic direction except during the 20-40 min interval in glucagon-treated cells; the increased gluconeogenesis in response to glucagon was correlated with a decreased pyruvate kinase flux and lactate output; fluxes through pyruvate kinase, pyruvate carboxylase, and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase were not coordinately controlled; Krebs cycle activity did not change with glucagon treatment; flux through the malic enzyme was

  18. The effect of exogenous substrate concentrations on true and apparent metabolism of hyperpolarized pyruvate in the isolated perfused lung.

    PubMed

    Kadlecek, Stephen; Shaghaghi, Hoora; Siddiqui, Sarmad; Profka, Harrilla; Pourfathi, Mehrdad; Rizi, Rahim

    2014-12-01

    Although relatively metabolically inactive, the lung has an important role in maintaining systemic glycolytic intermediate and cytosolic redox balance. Failure to perform this function appropriately may lead to lung disease progression, including systemic aspects of these disorders. In this study, we experimentally probe the response of the isolated, perfused organ to varying glycolytic intermediate (pyruvate and lactate) concentrations, and the effect on the apparent metabolism of hyperpolarized 1-(13)C pyruvate. Twenty-four separate conditions were studied, from sub-physiological to super-physiological concentrations of each metabolite. A three-compartment model is developed, which accurately matches the full range of experiments and includes a full account of evolution of agent concentration and polarization. The model is then refined using a series of approximations which are shown to be applicable to cases of physiological relevance, and which facilitate an intuitive understanding of the saturation and scaling behavior. Perturbations of the model assumptions are used to determine the sensitivity to input parameter estimates, and finally the model is used to examine the relationship between measurements accessible by NMR and the underlying physiological parameters of interest. Based on the observed scaling of lactate labeling with lactate and pyruvate concentrations, we conclude that the level of hyperpolarized lactate signal in the lung is primarily determined by the rate at which NAD(+) is reduced to NADH. Further, although weak dependences on other factors are predicted, the modeled NAD(+) reduction rate is largely governed by the intracellular lactate pool size. Conditions affecting the lactate pool can therefore be expected to display the highest contrast in hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate imaging. The work is intended to serve as a basis both to interpret the signal dynamics of hyperpolarized measurements in the normal lung and to understand the cause of

  19. Microbial Community Dynamics of Lactate Enriched Hanford Groundwaters

    SciTech Connect

    Mosher, Jennifer J.; Drake, Meghan M.; Carroll, Susan L.; Yang, Zamin K.; Schadt, Christopher W.; Brown, Stephen D.; Podar, Mircea; Hazen, Terry C.; Arkin, Adam P.; Phelps, Tommy J.; Palumbo, Anthony V.; Faybishenko, Boris A.; Elias, Dwayne A.

    2010-05-01

    The Department of Energy site at Hanford, WA, has been historically impacted by U and Cr from the nuclear weapons industry. In an attempt to stimulate microbial remediation of these metals, in-situ lactate enrichment experiments are ongoing. In order to bridge the gap from the laboratory to the field, we inoculated triplicate anaerobic, continuous-flow glass reactors with groundwater collected from well Hanford 100-H in order to obtain a stable, enriched community while selecting for metal-reducing bacteria. Each reactor was fed from a single carboy containing defined media with 30 mM lactate at a rate of 0.223 ml/min under continuous nitrogen flow at 9 ml/min. Cell counts, organic acids, gDNA (for qPCR and pyrosequencing) and gases were sampled during the experiment. Cell counts remained low (less than 1x107 cells/ml) during the first two weeks of the experiment, but by day 20, had reached a density greater than 1x108 cells/ml. Metabolite analysis showed a decrease in the lactate concentrations over time. Pyruvate concentrations ranged from 20-40 uM the first week of the experiment then was undetectable after day 10. Likewise, formate appeared in the reactors during the first week with concentrations of 1.48-1.65 mM at day 7 then the concentrations decreased to 0.69-0.95 on day 10 and were undetectable on day 15. Acetate was present in low amounts on day 3 (0.15-0.33 mM) and steadily increased to 3.35-5.22 mM over time. Similarly, carbon dioxide was present in low concentrations early on and increased to 0.28-0.35 mM as the experiment progressed. We also were able to detect low amounts of methane (10-20 uM) during the first week of the experiment, but by day 10 the methane was undetectable. From these results and pyrosequencing analysis, we conclude that a shift in the microbial community dynamics occurred over time to eventually form a stable and enriched microbial community. Comprehensive investigations such as these allow for the examination of not only which

  20. Genetics Home Reference: pyruvate kinase deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... National (UK) Information Centre for Metabolic Diseases National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD): Pyruvate Kinase Deficiency Genetic Testing Registry (1 link) Pyruvate kinase deficiency of red cells Scientific articles on PubMed (1 link) PubMed OMIM (1 link) ...

  1. Protective effects of ethyl pyruvate in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity

    PubMed Central

    Kelle, Ilker; Akkoc, Hasan; Tunik, Selcuk; Nergiz, Yusuf; Erdinc, Meral; Erdinc, Levent

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of ethyl pyruvate on changes in renal functions and oxidative stress related renal injury caused by cisplatin (cis-dichlorodiammine platinum-II; CDDP). Male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups (n = 8): (1) control group (1 ml Ringer's lactate solution i.p.); (2) ethyl pyruvate (EP) group (50 mg/kg Ringer's EP solution (REPS) i.p.); (3) cisplatin group (a single dose of cisplatin (5 mg/kg, i.p.); and (4) cisplatin + EP group (a single dose of cisplatin (5 mg/kg, i.p.) + REPS 50 mg/kg/day, i.p.) for five days. At the sixth day, kidneys of rats were mounted to a Langendorff apparatus. Renal perfusion pressures were recorded. Blood samples were taken for serum urea, creatinine, total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS) and oxidative stres index (OSI) evaluations. Kidney tissues were obtained for malondialdehyde (MDA) analyses and histopathological examination. Perfusion pressures, serum urea, creatinine, TOS, OSI and tissue MDA levels were found significantly higher, whereas TAS was notably lower in cisplatin group. Histopathological examination showed apparent renal paranchymal injury in cisplatin group. In cisplatin + REPS group, perfusion pressures, serum urea, creatinine and tissue MDA levels were decreased. Moreover, EP co-administration provided less inflammatory cell infiltration, tubular dilatation, whereas TOS, TAS and OSI improved significantly versus cisplatin group. These findings show that EP has protective effects against cisplatin nephrotoxicity. PMID:26019553

  2. Metabolism of D-lactate and structurally related organic acids in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Husic, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    During the initial minutes of anaerobiosis, /sup 14/C-labeled D-lactate, derived from the photosynthetic sugar phosphate pool, accumulated in the unicellular green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. The production of the D-isomer of lactate by algae is in contrast to plant and mammalian cells in which L-lactate is formed. After initial lactate formation, Chlamydomonas exhibits a mixed-acid type fermentation, thereby avoiding lactate accumulation and enabling the cells to tolerate extended periods of anaerobiosis. A pyruvate reductase which catalyzes the formation of D-lactate in Chlamydomonas was partially purified and characterized. Lactate produced anaerobically was metabolized only when Chlamydomonas cells were returned to aerobic conditions, and reoxidation of the D-lactate was apparently catalyzed by a mitochondrial membrane-bound dehydrogenase, rather than by the soluble pyruvate reductase. Mutants of Chlamydomonas, deficient in mitochondrial respiration, were used to demonstrate that lactate metabolism was linked to the mitochondrial electron transport chain. In addition, the oxidation of glycolate, a structural analog of lactate, was also linked to mitochondrial electron transport in vivo.

  3. Modeling non‐linear kinetics of hyperpolarized [1‐13C] pyruvate in the crystalloid‐perfused rat heart

    PubMed Central

    Mariotti, E.; Orton, M. R.; Eerbeek, O.; Ashruf, J. F.; Zuurbier, C. J.; Southworth, R.

    2016-01-01

    Hyperpolarized 13C MR measurements have the potential to display non‐linear kinetics. We have developed an approach to describe possible non‐first‐order kinetics of hyperpolarized [1‐13C] pyruvate employing a system of differential equations that agrees with the principle of conservation of mass of the hyperpolarized signal. Simultaneous fitting to a second‐order model for conversion of [1‐13C] pyruvate to bicarbonate, lactate and alanine was well described in the isolated rat heart perfused with Krebs buffer containing glucose as sole energy substrate, or glucose supplemented with pyruvate. Second‐order modeling yielded significantly improved fits of pyruvate–bicarbonate kinetics compared with the more traditionally used first‐order model and suggested time‐dependent decreases in pyruvate–bicarbonate flux. Second‐order modeling gave time‐dependent changes in forward and reverse reaction kinetics of pyruvate–lactate exchange and pyruvate–alanine exchange in both groups of hearts during the infusion of pyruvate; however, the fits were not significantly improved with respect to a traditional first‐order model. The mechanism giving rise to second‐order pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) kinetics was explored experimentally using surface fluorescence measurements of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide reduced form (NADH) performed under the same conditions, demonstrating a significant increase of NADH during pyruvate infusion. This suggests a simultaneous depletion of available mitochondrial NAD+ (the cofactor for PDH), consistent with the non‐linear nature of the kinetics. NADH levels returned to baseline following cessation of the pyruvate infusion, suggesting this to be a transient effect. © 2016 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26777799

  4. The metabolic fate of lactate in renal cortical tubules

    PubMed Central

    Janssens, Peter; Hems, Reg; Ross, Brian

    1980-01-01

    1. Isolated kidney cortex tubules prepared from fed rats and incubated with near-physiological concentrations of [14C]lactate decrease the specific radioactivity of the added lactate. This effect may be attributable to at least two mechanisms; formation of lactate from endogenous precursors, or entry of unlabelled carbon into the lactate pool as a result of substrate cycling, via phosphoenolpyruvate, pyruvate and oxaloacetate, together with equilibration of the oxaloacetate pool with malate and fumarate. Such substrate cycling could occur within a single cell, or between two populations of different cells, one glycolytic and the other gluconeogenic. These possibilities have been investigated by using metabolic inhibitors or alternative metabolic substrates. 2. Tubules from fed rats produced a fall in specific radioactivity of 14.4% when incubated for 40min with 2mm-lactate alone. A mathematical treatment of this result is presented, which allows the rate of fall in specific radioactivity to be expressed as the addition of unlabelled lactate to the pool. This corresponds to a rate of formation of unlabelled lactate of 121±22μmol/h per g dry wt., a rate close to that of gluconeogenesis. In tubules from fasting rats, there was no reduction of the specific radioactivity of lactate, indicating that fasting for 24h suppresses production of unlabelled-lactate carbon. 3. Addition of 2mm-fumarate resulted in a significantly greater decrease in the specific radioactivity of lactate, but aspartate (2mm), malate (2mm) and glucose (5mm) were without effect. Total inhibition of gluconeogenesis with 3-mercaptopicolinate did not prevent the fall in specific radioactivity of lactate observed in tubules from fed-rat kidney, thereby excluding significant activity of the substrate cycle pyruvate→oxaloacetate→phosphoenolpyruvate→pyruvate. 4. The capacity of pyruvate kinase under the test conditions in tubules prepared from kidneys of fed or starved rats was at least ten times

  5. The effect of pyruvate decarboxylase gene knockout in Saccharomyces cerevisiae on L-lactic acid production.

    PubMed

    Ishida, Nobuhiro; Saitoh, Satoshi; Onishi, Toru; Tokuhiro, Kenro; Nagamori, Eiji; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko; Takahashi, Haruo

    2006-05-01

    A plant- and crop-based renewable plastic, poly-lactic acid (PLA), is receiving attention as a new material for a sustainable society in place of petroleum-based plastics. We constructed a metabolically engineered Saccharomyces cerevisiae that has both pyruvate decarboxylase genes (PDC1 and PDC5) disrupted in the genetic background to express two copies of the bovine L-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) gene. With this recombinant, the yield of lactate was 82.3 g/liter, up to 81.5% of the glucose being transformed into lactic acid on neutralizing cultivation, although pdc1 pdc5 double disruption led to ineffective decreases in cell growth and fermentation speed. This strain showed lactate productivity improvement as much as 1.5 times higher than the previous strain. This production yield is the highest value for a lactic acid-producing yeast yet reported. PMID:16717415

  6. Identification of lactate dehydrogenase as a mammalian pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ)-binding protein

    PubMed Central

    Akagawa, Mitsugu; Minematsu, Kenji; Shibata, Takahiro; Kondo, Tatsuhiko; Ishii, Takeshi; Uchida, Koji

    2016-01-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a redox-active o-quinone, is an important nutrient involved in numerous physiological and biochemical processes in mammals. Despite such beneficial functions, the underlying molecular mechanisms remain to be established. In the present study, using PQQ-immobilized Sepharose beads as a probe, we examined the presence of protein(s) that are capable of binding PQQ in mouse NIH/3T3 fibroblasts and identified five cellular proteins, including l-lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) A chain, as potential mammalian PQQ-binding proteins. In vitro studies using a purified rabbit muscle LDH show that PQQ inhibits the formation of lactate from pyruvate in the presence of NADH (forward reaction), whereas it enhances the conversion of lactate to pyruvate in the presence of NAD+ (reverse reaction). The molecular mechanism underlying PQQ-mediated regulation of LDH activity is attributed to the oxidation of NADH to NAD+ by PQQ. Indeed, the PQQ-bound LDH oxidizes NADH, generating NAD+, and significantly catalyzes the conversion of lactate to pyruvate. Furthermore, PQQ attenuates cellular lactate release and increases intracellular ATP levels in the NIH/3T3 fibroblasts. Our results suggest that PQQ, modulating LDH activity to facilitate pyruvate formation through its redox-cycling activity, may be involved in the enhanced energy production via mitochondrial TCA cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. PMID:27230956

  7. Ammonium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ammonium acetate ; CASRN 631 - 61 - 8 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic

  8. Vinyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Vinyl acetate ; CASRN 108 - 05 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  9. Ethyl acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Ethyl acetate ; CASRN 141 - 78 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Eff

  10. Phenylmercuric acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Phenylmercuric acetate ; CASRN 62 - 38 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinog

  11. Thallium acetate

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Jump to main content . Integrated Risk Information System Recent Additions | Contact Us Search : All EPA IRIS • You are here : EPA Home • Research • Environmental Assessment • IRIS • IRIS Summaries Redirect Page As of September 30 , 2009 , the assessment summary for Thallium acetate is included in t

  12. Acute porcine renal metabolic effect of endogastric soft drink administration assessed with hyperpolarized [1‐13c]pyruvate

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Esben Søvsø Szocska; Kjærgaard, Uffe; Bertelsen, Lotte Bonde; Ringgaard, Steffen; Stødkilde‐Jørgensen, Hans

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Our aim was to determine the quantitative reproducibility of metabolic breakdown products in the kidney following intravenous injection of hyperpolarized [1‐13C]pyruvate and secondly to investigate the metabolic effect on the pyruvate metabolism of oral sucrose load using dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization. By this technique, metabolic alterations in several different metabolic related diseases and their metabolic treatment responses can be accessed. Methods In four healthy pigs the lactate‐to‐pyruvate, alanine‐to‐pyruvate and bicarbonate‐to‐pyruvate ratio was measured following administration of regular cola and consecutive injections of hyperpolarized [1‐13C]pyruvate four times within an hour. Results The overall lactate‐to‐pyruvate metabolic profile changed significantly over one hour following an acute sucrose load leading to a significant rise in blood glucose. Conclusion The reproducibility of hyperpolarized magnetic resonance spectroscopy in the healthy pig kidney demonstrated a repeatability of more than 94% for all metabolites and, furthermore, that the pyruvate to lactate conversion and the blood glucose level is elevated following endogastric sucrose administration. Magn Reson Med 74:558–563, 2015. © 2015 The Authors Magnetic Resonance in Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial‐NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made. PMID:26014387

  13. The progression from a lower to a higher invasive stage of bladder cancer is associated with severe alterations in glucose and pyruvate metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Conde, Vanessa R.; Oliveira, Pedro F.; Ramalhosa, Elsa; Pereira, José A.; Alves, Marco G.; Silva, Branca M.

    2015-07-01

    Cancer cells present a particular metabolic behavior. We hypothesized that the progression of bladder cancer could be accompanied by changes in cells glycolytic profile. We studied two human bladder cancer cells, RT4 and TCCSUP, in which the latter represents a more invasive stage. The levels of glucose, pyruvate, alanine and lactate in the extracellular media were measured by Proton Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. The protein expression levels of glucose transporters 1 (GLUT1) and 3 (GLUT3), monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4), phosphofructokinase-1 (PFK1), glutamic-pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were determined. Our data showed that glucose consumption and GLUT3 levels were similar in both cell lines, but TCCSUP cells displayed lower levels of GLUT1 and PFK expression. An increase in pyruvate consumption, concordant with the higher levels of lactate and alanine production, was also detected in TCCSUP cells. Moreover, TCCSUP cells presented lower protein expression levels of GPT and LDH. These results illustrate that bladder cancer progression is associated with alterations in cells glycolytic profile, namely the switch from glucose to pyruvate consumption in the more aggressive stage. This may be useful to develop new therapies and to identify biomarkers for cancer progression. - Highlights: • Metabolic phenotype of less and high invasive bladder cancer cells was studied. • Bladder cancer progression involves alterations in cells glycolytic profile. • More invasive bladder cancer cells switch from glucose to pyruvate consumption. • Our results may help to identify metabolic biomarkers of bladder cancer progression.

  14. Pyruvate kinase and the "high ATP syndrome".

    PubMed Central

    Staal, G E; Jansen, G; Roos, D

    1984-01-01

    The erythrocytes of a patient with the so-called "high ATP syndrome" were characterized by a high ATP content and low 2,3-diphosphoglycerate level. The pyruvate kinase activity was specifically increased (about twice the normal level). After separation of the erythrocytes according to age by discontinuous Percoll density centrifugation, the pyruvate kinase activity was found to be increased in all Percoll fractions. Pyruvate kinase of the patient's cells was characterized by a decreased K0.5 for the substrate phosphoenolpyruvate and no inhibition by ATP. The Michaelis constant (Km) value for ADP, the nucleotide specificity, the thermostability, pH optimum, and immunological specific activity were normal. It is concluded that the high pyruvate kinase activity is due to a shift in the R(elaxed) in equilibrium T(ight) equilibrium to the R(elaxed) form. PMID:6736249

  15. New insights into Escherichia coli metabolism: carbon scavenging, acetate metabolism and carbon recycling responses during growth on glycerol

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Glycerol has enhanced its biotechnological importance since it is a byproduct of biodiesel synthesis. A study of Escherichia coli physiology during growth on glycerol was performed combining transcriptional-proteomic analysis as well as kinetic and stoichiometric evaluations in the strain JM101 and certain derivatives with important inactivated genes. Results Transcriptional and proteomic analysis of metabolic central genes of strain JM101 growing on glycerol, revealed important changes not only in the synthesis of MglB, LamB and MalE proteins, but also in the overexpression of carbon scavenging genes: lamB, malE, mglB, mglC, galP and glk and some members of the RpoS regulon (pfkA, pfkB, fbaA, fbaB, pgi, poxB, acs, actP and acnA). Inactivation of rpoS had an important effect on stoichiometric parameters and growth adaptation on glycerol. The observed overexpression of poxB, pta, acs genes, glyoxylate shunt genes (aceA, aceB, glcB and glcC) and actP, suggested a possible carbon flux deviation into the PoxB, Acs and glyoxylate shunt. In this scenario acetate synthesized from pyruvate with PoxB was apparently reutilized via Acs and the glyoxylate shunt enzymes. In agreement, no acetate was detected when growing on glycerol, this strain was also capable of glycerol and acetate coutilization when growing in mineral media and derivatives carrying inactivated poxB or pckA genes, accumulated acetate. Tryptophanase A (TnaA) was synthesized at high levels and indole was produced by this enzyme, in strain JM101 growing on glycerol. Additionally, in the isogenic derivative with the inactivated tnaA gene, no indole was detected and acetate and lactate were accumulated. A high efficiency aromatic compounds production capability was detected in JM101 carrying pJLBaroGfbrtktA, when growing on glycerol, as compared to glucose. Conclusions The overexpression of several carbon scavenging, acetate metabolism genes and the absence of acetate accumulation occurred in JM101

  16. L-Lactate protects neurons against excitotoxicity: implication of an ATP-mediated signaling cascade.

    PubMed

    Jourdain, P; Allaman, I; Rothenfusser, K; Fiumelli, H; Marquet, P; Magistretti, P J

    2016-01-01

    Converging experimental data indicate a neuroprotective action of L-Lactate. Using Digital Holographic Microscopy, we observe that transient application of glutamate (100 μM; 2 min) elicits a NMDA-dependent death in 65% of mouse cortical neurons in culture. In the presence of L-Lactate (or Pyruvate), the percentage of neuronal death decreases to 32%. UK5099, a blocker of the Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier, fully prevents L-Lactate-mediated neuroprotection. In addition, L-Lactate-induced neuroprotection is not only inhibited by probenicid and carbenoxolone, two blockers of ATP channel pannexins, but also abolished by apyrase, an enzyme degrading ATP, suggesting that ATP produced by the Lactate/Pyruvate pathway is released to act on purinergic receptors in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Finally, pharmacological approaches support the involvement of the P2Y receptors associated to the PI3-kinase pathway, leading to activation of KATP channels. This set of results indicates that L-Lactate acts as a signalling molecule for neuroprotection against excitotoxicity through coordinated cellular pathways involving ATP production, release and activation of a P2Y/KATP cascade. PMID:26893204

  17. L-Lactate protects neurons against excitotoxicity: implication of an ATP-mediated signaling cascade

    PubMed Central

    Jourdain, P.; Allaman, I.; Rothenfusser, K.; Fiumelli, H.; Marquet, P.; Magistretti, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Converging experimental data indicate a neuroprotective action of L-Lactate. Using Digital Holographic Microscopy, we observe that transient application of glutamate (100 μM; 2 min) elicits a NMDA-dependent death in 65% of mouse cortical neurons in culture. In the presence of L-Lactate (or Pyruvate), the percentage of neuronal death decreases to 32%. UK5099, a blocker of the Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier, fully prevents L-Lactate-mediated neuroprotection. In addition, L-Lactate-induced neuroprotection is not only inhibited by probenicid and carbenoxolone, two blockers of ATP channel pannexins, but also abolished by apyrase, an enzyme degrading ATP, suggesting that ATP produced by the Lactate/Pyruvate pathway is released to act on purinergic receptors in an autocrine/paracrine manner. Finally, pharmacological approaches support the involvement of the P2Y receptors associated to the PI3-kinase pathway, leading to activation of KATP channels. This set of results indicates that L-Lactate acts as a signalling molecule for neuroprotection against excitotoxicity through coordinated cellular pathways involving ATP production, release and activation of a P2Y/KATP cascade. PMID:26893204

  18. The effect of monosaccharide sugars and pyruvate on the differentiation and metabolism of sheep granulosa cells in vitro.

    PubMed

    Campbell, B K; Onions, V; Kendall, N R; Guo, L; Scaramuzzi, R J

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of three monosaccharides or pyruvate on the ability of gonadotrophins to induce cellular proliferation and differentiation of cultured sheep granulosa cells. Lactate production and levels of mRNA expression for the glucose transporters SLC2A1, SLC2A4, SLC2A5 and SLC2A8 were also determined. No energy source in the culture media reduced cell number (50%) and oestradiol (E(2)) production. Dose and type of monosaccharide had a highly significant (P<0.001) effect on FSH-induced differentiation of the granulosa cells, and there was a highly significant interaction (P<0.001). Glucose supported higher levels of E(2) production than fructose, which was in turn higher than galactose (P<0.001). In contrast, pyruvate at low doses supported similar levels of E(2) production as glucose, but higher doses were markedly inhibitory to E(2) production (P<0.001). Cells responded positively to insulin (P<0.001) in the presence of all three monosaccharides. Glucose and the high doses of fructose resulted in the accumulation of lactate (P<0.001), but pyruvate, galactose and the low dose of fructose resulted in low lactate production. SLC2A5 expression was not detected and SLC2A8 expression was not affected, but SLC2A1 and SLC2A4 expression was depressed (P<0.05) by culture in the presence of fructose and glucose. These data show that glucose, metabolised under anoxic conditions to lactate, is the preferred energy substrate to support the gonadotrophin-induced differentiation of ovine granulosa cells in vitro, and that fructose and pyruvate, but not galactose, are alternative energy substrates despite marked differences in the way these substrates are metabolised. PMID:20634389

  19. The use of dynamic nuclear polarization 13C-pyruvate MRS in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Gutte, Henrik; Hansen, Adam Espe; Johannesen, Helle Hjorth; Clemmensen, Andreas Ettrup; Ardenkjær-Larsen, Jan Henrik; Nielsen, Carsten Haagen; Kjær, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been an immense development of new targeted anti-cancer drugs. For practicing precision medicine, a sensitive method imaging for non-invasive, assessment of early treatment response and for assisting in developing new drugs is warranted. Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) is a potent technique for non-invasive in vivo investigation of tissue chemistry and cellular metabolism. Hyperpolarization by Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (DNP) is capable of creating solutions of molecules with polarized nuclear spins in a range of biological molecules and has enabled the real-time investigation of in vivo metabolism. The development of this new method has been demonstrated to enhance the nuclear polarization more than 10,000-fold, thereby significantly increasing the sensitivity of the MRS with a spatial resolution to the millimeters and a temporal resolution at the subsecond range. Furthermore, the method enables measuring kinetics of conversion of substrates into cell metabolites and can be integrated with anatomical proton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Many nuclei and substrates have been hyperpolarized using the DNP method. Currently, the most widely used compound is 13C-pyruvate due to favoring technicalities. Intravenous injection of the hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate results in appearance of 13C-lactate, 13C-alanine and 13C-bicarbonate resonance peaks depending on the tissue, disease and the metabolic state probed. In cancer, the lactate level is increased due to increased glycolysis. The use of DNP enhanced 13C-pyruvate has in preclinical studies shown to be a sensitive method for detecting cancer and for assessment of early treatment response in a variety of cancers. Recently, a first-in-man 31-patient study was conducted with the primary objective to assess the safety of hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate in healthy subjects and prostate cancer patients. The study showed an elevated 13C-lactate/13C-pyruvate ratio in regions of biopsy

  20. MCT1 modulates cancer cell pyruvate export and growth of tumors that co-express MCT1 and MCT4

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Candice Sun; Graham, Nicholas A.; Gu, Wen; Camacho, Carolina Espindola; Mah, Vei; Maresh, Erin L.; Alavi, Mohammed; Bagryanova, Lora; Krotee, Pascal A. L.; Gardner, Brian K.; Behbahan, Iman Saramipoor; Horvath, Steve; Chia, David; Mellinghoff, Ingo K.; Hurvitz, Sara A.; Dubinett, Steven M.; Critchlow, Susan E.; Kurdistani, Siavash K.; Goodglick, Lee; Braas, Daniel; Graeber, Thomas G.; Christofk, Heather R.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Monocarboxylate Transporter 1 (MCT1) inhibition is thought to block tumor growth through disruption of lactate transport and glycolysis. Here we show MCT1 inhibition impairs proliferation of glycolytic breast cancer cells co-expressing MCT1 and MCT4 via disruption of pyruvate rather than lactate export. MCT1 expression is elevated in glycolytic breast tumors, and high MCT1 expression predicts poor prognosis in breast and lung cancer patients. Acute MCT1 inhibition reduces pyruvate export but does not consistently alter lactate transport or glycolytic flux in breast cancer cells that co-express MCT1 and MCT4. Despite the lack of glycolysis impairment, MCT1 loss-of-function decreases breast cancer cell proliferation and blocks growth of mammary fat pad xenograft tumors. Our data suggest MCT1 expression is elevated in glycolytic cancers to promote pyruvate export, which when inhibited enhances oxidative metabolism and reduces proliferation. This study presents an alternative molecular consequence of MCT1 inhibitors further supporting their use as anti-cancer therapeutics. PMID:26876179

  1. A comparison of quantitative methods for clinical imaging with hyperpolarized (13)C-pyruvate.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Charlie J; McLean, Mary A; Schulte, Rolf F; Robb, Fraser J; Gill, Andrew B; McGlashan, Nicholas; Graves, Martin J; Schwaiger, Markus; Lomas, David J; Brindle, Kevin M; Gallagher, Ferdia A

    2016-04-01

    Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enables the metabolism of hyperpolarized (13)C-labelled molecules, such as the conversion of [1-(13)C]pyruvate to [1-(13)C]lactate, to be dynamically and non-invasively imaged in tissue. Imaging of this exchange reaction in animal models has been shown to detect early treatment response and correlate with tumour grade. The first human DNP study has recently been completed, and, for widespread clinical translation, simple and reliable methods are necessary to accurately probe the reaction in patients. However, there is currently no consensus on the most appropriate method to quantify this exchange reaction. In this study, an in vitro system was used to compare several kinetic models, as well as simple model-free methods. Experiments were performed using a clinical hyperpolarizer, a human 3 T MR system, and spectroscopic imaging sequences. The quantitative methods were compared in vivo by using subcutaneous breast tumours in rats to examine the effect of pyruvate inflow. The two-way kinetic model was the most accurate method for characterizing the exchange reaction in vitro, and the incorporation of a Heaviside step inflow profile was best able to describe the in vivo data. The lactate time-to-peak and the lactate-to-pyruvate area under the curve ratio were simple model-free approaches that accurately represented the full reaction, with the time-to-peak method performing indistinguishably from the best kinetic model. Finally, extracting data from a single pixel was a robust and reliable surrogate of the whole region of interest. This work has identified appropriate quantitative methods for future work in the analysis of human hyperpolarized (13)C data. PMID:27414749

  2. Competition between acetate and oleate for the formation of malonyl-CoA and mitochondrial acetyl-CoA in the perfused rat heart

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Fang; Kasumov, Takhar; Jobbins, Kathryn A.; Minkler, Paul E.; Anderson, Vernon E.; Kerner, Janos; Hoppel, Charles L.; Brunengraber, Henri

    2007-01-01

    We previously showed that in the perfused rat heart, the capacity of n-fatty acids to generate mitochondrial acetyl-CoA decreases as their chain length increases. In the present study, we investigated whether the oxidation of a long-chain fatty acid, oleate, is inhibited by short-chain fatty acids, acetate or propionate (which do and do not generate mitochondrial acetyl-CoA, respectively). We perfused rat hearts with buffer containing 4 mM glucose, 0.2 mM pyruvate, 1 mM lactate, and various concentrations of either (i) [U-13C]acetate, (ii) [U-13C]acetate plus [1-13C]oleate, or (iii) unlabeled propionate plus [1-13C]oleate. Using mass isotopomer analysis, we determined the contributions of the labeled substrates to the acetyl moiety of citrate (a probe of mitochondrial acetyl-CoA) and to malonyl-CoA. We found that acetate, even at low concentration, markedly inhibits the oxidation of [1-13C]oleate in the heart, without change in malonyl-CoA concentration. We also found that propionate, at a concentration higher than 1 mM, decreases (i) the contribution of [1-13C]oleate to mitochondrial acetyl-CoA, and (ii) malonyl-CoA concentration. The inhibition by acetate or propionate of acetyl-CoA production from oleate probably results from a competition for mitochondrial CoA between the CoA-utilizing enzymes. PMID:17020764

  3. Role of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 4 (PDHK4) in glucose homoeostasis during starvation

    PubMed Central

    Jeoung, Nam Ho; Wu, Pengfei; Joshi, Mandar A.; Jaskiewicz, Jerzy; Bock, Cheryl B.; Depaoli-Roach, Anna A.; Harris, Robert A.

    2006-01-01

    The PDC (pyruvate dehydrogenase complex) is strongly inhibited by phosphorylation during starvation to conserve substrates for gluconeogenesis. The role of PDHK4 (pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 4) in regulation of PDC by this mechanism was investigated with PDHK4−/− mice (homozygous PDHK4 knockout mice). Starvation lowers blood glucose more in mice lacking PDHK4 than in wild-type mice. The activity state of PDC (percentage dephosphorylated and active) is greater in kidney, gastrocnemius muscle, diaphragm and heart but not in the liver of starved PDHK4−/− mice. Intermediates of the gluconeogenic pathway are lower in concentration in the liver of starved PDHK4−/− mice, consistent with a lower rate of gluconeogenesis due to a substrate supply limitation. The concentration of gluconeogenic substrates is lower in the blood of starved PDHK4−/− mice, consistent with reduced formation in peripheral tissues. Isolated diaphragms from starved PDHK4−/− mice accumulate less lactate and pyruvate because of a faster rate of pyruvate oxidation and a reduced rate of glycolysis. BCAAs (branched chain amino acids) are higher in the blood in starved PDHK4−/− mice, consistent with lower blood alanine levels and the importance of BCAAs as a source of amino groups for alanine formation. Non-esterified fatty acids are also elevated more in the blood of starved PDHK4−/− mice, consistent with lower rates of fatty acid oxidation due to increased rates of glucose and pyruvate oxidation due to greater PDC activity. Up-regulation of PDHK4 in tissues other than the liver is clearly important during starvation for regulation of PDC activity and glucose homoeostasis. PMID:16606348

  4. Non-invasive differentiation of benign renal tumors from clear cell renal cell carcinomas using clinically translatable hyperpolarized 13C pyruvate magnetic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, Renuka; Van Criekinge, Mark; DeLos Santos, Justin; Keshari, Kayvan R.; Wilson, David M.; Peehl, Donna; Kurhanewicz, John; Wang, Zhen J.

    2016-01-01

    Localized renal tumors are increasingly detected incidentally at imaging. Conventional imaging cannot reliably differentiate the 20% of these tumors that are benign from malignant renal cell carcinomas (RCCs), leading to unnecessary surgical resection and resulting morbidity associated with surgery. Here, we investigated hyperpolarized 13C pyruvate metabolism in live patient-derived renal tumor tissue slices using a novel magnetic resonance (MR) -compatible bioreactor platform. We demonstrated for the first time that clear cell RCCs (ccRCCs), which account for 70–80% of all RCCs, have increased lactate production as well as rapid lactate efflux compared to benign renal tumors. This difference is attributed to increased lactate dehydrogenase A and monocarboxylate transporter 4 expression in ccRCCs. This distinctive metabolic phenotype can be used to differentiate RCCs from benign renal tumors using clinically translatable hyperpolarized 13C pyruvate MR. PMID:27227168

  5. Laboratory Prototype of Bioreactor for Oxidation of Toxic D-Lactate Using Yeast Cells Overproducing D-Lactate Cytochrome c Oxidoreductase

    PubMed Central

    Karkovska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    D-lactate is a natural component of many fermented foods like yogurts, sour milk, cheeses, and pickles vegetable products. D-lactate in high concentrations is toxic for children and people with short bowel syndrome and provokes encephalopathy. These facts convincingly demonstrate a need for effective tools for the D-lactate removal from some food products. The main idea of investigation is focused on application of recombinant thermotolerant methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha “tr6,” overproducing D-lactate: cytochrome c oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.2.4, D-lactate cytochrome c oxidoreductase, D-lactate dehydrogenase (cytochrome), DLDH). In addition to 6-fold overexpression of DLDH under a strong constitutive promoter (prAOX), the strain of H. polymorpha “tr6” (gcr1 catX/Δcyb2, prAOX_DLDH) is characterized by impairment in glucose repression of AOX promoter, devoid of catalase and L-lactate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activities. Overexpression of DLDH coupling with the deletion of L-lactate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity opens possibility for usage of the strain as a base for construction of bioreactor for removing D-lactate from fermented products due to oxidation to nontoxic pyruvate. A laboratory prototype of column-type bioreactor for removing a toxic D-lactate from model solution based on permeabilized cells of the H. polymorpha “tr6” and alginate gel was constructed and efficiency of this process was tested. PMID:27446952

  6. Laboratory Prototype of Bioreactor for Oxidation of Toxic D-Lactate Using Yeast Cells Overproducing D-Lactate Cytochrome c Oxidoreductase.

    PubMed

    Karkovska, Maria; Smutok, Oleh; Gonchar, Mykhailo

    2016-01-01

    D-lactate is a natural component of many fermented foods like yogurts, sour milk, cheeses, and pickles vegetable products. D-lactate in high concentrations is toxic for children and people with short bowel syndrome and provokes encephalopathy. These facts convincingly demonstrate a need for effective tools for the D-lactate removal from some food products. The main idea of investigation is focused on application of recombinant thermotolerant methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha "tr6," overproducing D-lactate: cytochrome c oxidoreductase (EC 1.1.2.4, D-lactate cytochrome c oxidoreductase, D-lactate dehydrogenase (cytochrome), DLDH). In addition to 6-fold overexpression of DLDH under a strong constitutive promoter (prAOX), the strain of H. polymorpha "tr6" (gcr1 catX/Δcyb2, prAOX_DLDH) is characterized by impairment in glucose repression of AOX promoter, devoid of catalase and L-lactate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activities. Overexpression of DLDH coupling with the deletion of L-lactate-cytochrome c oxidoreductase activity opens possibility for usage of the strain as a base for construction of bioreactor for removing D-lactate from fermented products due to oxidation to nontoxic pyruvate. A laboratory prototype of column-type bioreactor for removing a toxic D-lactate from model solution based on permeabilized cells of the H. polymorpha "tr6" and alginate gel was constructed and efficiency of this process was tested. PMID:27446952

  7. Probing lactate secretion in tumours with hyperpolarised NMR.

    PubMed

    Durst, Markus; Koellisch, Ulrich; Daniele, Valeria; Steiger, Katja; Schwaiger, Markus; Haase, Axel; Menzel, Marion I; Schulte, Rolf F; Aime, Silvio; Reineri, Francesca

    2016-08-01

    Most tumours exhibit a high rate of glycolysis and predominantly produce energy by lactic acid fermentation. To maintain energy production and prevent toxicity, the lactate generated needs to be rapidly transported out of the cell. This is achieved by monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs), which therefore play an essential role in cancer metabolism and development. In vivo experiments were performed on eight male Fisher F344 rats bearing a subcutaneous mammary carcinoma after injection of hyperpolarised [1-(13) C]pyruvate. A Gd(III)DO3A complex that binds to pyruvate and its metabolites was used to efficiently destroy the extracellular magnetisation after hyperpolarised lactate had been formed. Moreover, a pulse sequence including a frequency-selective saturation pulse was designed so that the pyruvate magnetisation could be destroyed to exclude effects arising from further conversion. Given this preparation, metabolite transport out of the cell manifested as additional decay and apparent cell membrane transporter rates could thus be obtained using a reference measurement without a relaxation agent. In addition to slice-selective spectra, spatially resolved maps of apparent membrane transporter activity were acquired using a single-shot spiral gradient readout. A considerable increase in decay rate was detected for lactate, indicating rapid transport out of the cell. The alanine signal was unaltered, which corresponds to a slower efflux rate. This technique could allow for better understanding of tumour metabolism and progression, and enable treatment response measurements for MCT-targeted cancer therapies. Moreover, it provides vital insights into the signal kinetics of hyperpolarised [1-(13) C]pyruvate examinations. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27348729

  8. Steady-state and transient-state analysis of growth and metabolite production in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain with reduced pyruvate-decarboxylase activity

    SciTech Connect

    Flikweert, M.T.; Kuyper, M.; Maris, A.J.A. van; Koetter, P.; Dijken, J.P. van; Pronk, J.T.

    1999-07-01

    Pyruvate decarboxylase is a key enzyme in the production of low-molecular-weight byproducts (ethanol, acetate) in biomass-directed applications of Saccharomyces cerevisiae. To investigate whether decreased expression levels of pyruvate decarboxylase can reduce byproduct formation, the PDC2 gene, which encodes a positive regulator of pyruvate-decarboxylase synthesis, was inactivated in the prototrophic strain S. cerevisiae CEN.PK113-7D. This caused a 3--4-fold reduction of pyruvate-decarboxylase activity in glucose-limited, aerobic chemostat cultures grown at a dilution rate of 0.10 h{sup {minus}1}. Upon exposure of such cultures to a 50 mM glucose pulse, ethanol and acetate were the major byproducts formed by the wild type. In the pdc2{Delta} strain, formation of ethanol and acetate was reduced by 60--70%. In contrast to the wild type, the pdc2{Delta} strain produced substantial amounts of pyruvate after a glucose pulse. Nevertheless, its overall byproduct formation was ca. 50% lower. The specific rate of glucose consumption after a glucose pulse to pdc2{Delta} cultures was about 40% lower than in wild-type cultures.

  9. Metabolic fate of lactate after vigorous activity in the leopard frog, Rana pipiens.

    PubMed

    Fournier, P A; Guderley, H

    1992-02-01

    Although the ability of isolated frog muscle to synthesize glycogen from lactate has long been known, it has never been demonstrated that this metabolic activity occurs in the intact frog. Our results clearly indicate that lactate glycogenesis in frog muscle occurs to a significant extent in vivo. During recovery from strenuous exercise, most of the lactate accumulated by frogs seems to be recycled into muscle glycogen because the lactate that disappears during recovery could account nearly stoichiometrically for the glycogen that accumulates in muscle. Furthermore, the decrease in body lactate and the increase in muscle glycogen follow corresponding time courses, suggesting a precursor-product relationship between lactate and glycogen. During recovery from intense exercise, hepatectomized and normal frogs have nearly identical extents of lactate elimination and glycogen synthesis. This suggests that muscle is the main tissue responsible for the recycling of lactate into muscle glycogen and that liver plays a negligible role in lactate disposal. The negligible hepatic contribution to lactate recycling results in part from the liver's incapacity to produce glucose from lactate. In support of this proposition, we show that frog liver perfused in vitro is unable to incorporate any detectable labeled lactate into glucose despite its excellent physiological integrity. Changes in dietary status, training state, season at which the experiments were done, exercise status, and composition of the perfusion media (pH, hormonal composition, physiological saline vs. culture medium) did not give rise to lactate gluconeogenesis. Because frog liver contains all the regulatory enzymes of the gluconeogenic pathway, its inability to synthesize glucose from lactate is not due to an absence of pyruvate carboxylase. A limited ability for lactate uptake may explain why frog liver cannot produce glucose from lactate. PMID:1539733

  10. Tetrahydrofolate enzyme levels in Acetobacterium woodii and their implication in the synthesis of acetate from CO2.

    PubMed Central

    Tanner, R S; Wolfe, R S; Ljungdahl, L G

    1978-01-01

    Acetate synthesis from CO2 by Acetobacterium woodii may occur as in homoacetate-fermenting clostridia, as indicated by high levels of enzymes of the tetrahydrofolate pathway and by pyruvate-dependent formation of acetate from methyl-B12 and methyltetrahydrofolate. PMID:659361

  11. Tetrahydrofolate enzyme levels in Acetobacterium woodii and their implication in the synthesis of acetate from CO2.

    PubMed

    Tanner, R S; Wolfe, R S; Ljungdahl, L G

    1978-05-01

    Acetate synthesis from CO2 by Acetobacterium woodii may occur as in homoacetate-fermenting clostridia, as indicated by high levels of enzymes of the tetrahydrofolate pathway and by pyruvate-dependent formation of acetate from methyl-B12 and methyltetrahydrofolate. PMID:659361

  12. The anti-tumour agent lonidamine is a potent inhibitor of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier and plasma membrane monocarboxylate transporters.

    PubMed

    Nancolas, Bethany; Guo, Lili; Zhou, Rong; Nath, Kavindra; Nelson, David S; Leeper, Dennis B; Blair, Ian A; Glickson, Jerry D; Halestrap, Andrew P

    2016-04-01

    Lonidamine (LND) is an anti-tumour drug particularly effective at selectively sensitizing tumours to chemotherapy, hyperthermia and radiotherapy, although its precise mode of action remains unclear. It has been reported to perturb the bioenergetics of cells by inhibiting glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration, whereas indirect evidence suggests it may also inhibitL-lactic acid efflux from cells mediated by members of the proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family and also pyruvate uptake into the mitochondria by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC). In the present study, we test these possibilities directly. We demonstrate that LND potently inhibits MPC activity in isolated rat liver mitochondria (Ki2.5 μM) and co-operatively inhibitsL-lactate transport by MCT1, MCT2 and MCT4 expressed inXenopus laevisoocytes withK0.5and Hill coefficient values of 36-40 μM and 1.65-1.85 respectively. In rat heart mitochondria LND inhibited the MPC with similar potency and uncoupled oxidation of pyruvate was inhibited more effectively (IC50∼ 7 μM) than other substrates including glutamate (IC50∼ 20 μM). In isolated DB-1 melanoma cells 1-10 μM LND increasedL-lactate output, consistent with MPC inhibition, but higher concentrations (150 μM) decreasedL-lactate output whereas increasing intracellular [L-lactate] > 5-fold, consistent with MCT inhibition. We conclude that MPC inhibition is the most sensitive anti-tumour target for LND, with additional inhibitory effects on MCT-mediatedL-lactic acid efflux and glutamine/glutamate oxidation. Together these actions can account for published data on the selective tumour effects of LND onL-lactate, intracellular pH (pHi) and ATP levels that can be partially mimicked by the established MPC and MCT inhibitor α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate (CHC). PMID:26831515

  13. The anti-tumour agent lonidamine is a potent inhibitor of the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier and plasma membrane monocarboxylate transporters

    PubMed Central

    Nancolas, Bethany; Guo, Lili; Zhou, Rong; Nath, Kavindra; Nelson, David S.; Leeper, Dennis B.; Blair, Ian A.; Glickson, Jerry D.; Halestrap, Andrew P.

    2016-01-01

    Lonidamine (LND) is an anti-tumour drug particularly effective at selectively sensitising tumours to chemotherapy, hyperthermia and radiotherapy, although its precise mode of action remains unclear. It has been reported to perturb the bioenergetics of cells by inhibiting glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration, while indirect evidence suggests it may also inhibit L-lactic acid efflux from cells mediated by members of the proton-linked monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) family and also pyruvate uptake into the mitochondria by the mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC). Here we test these possibilities directly. We demonstrate that LND potently inhibits MPC activity in isolated rat liver mitochondria (Ki 2.5 μM) and cooperatively inhibits L-lactate transport by MCT1, MCT2 and MCT4 expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes with K0.5 and Hill Coefficient values of 36–40 μM and 1.65–1.85. In rat heart mitochondria LND inhibited the MPC with similar potency and uncoupled oxidation of pyruvate was inhibited more effectively (IC50 ~7 μM) than other substrates including glutamate (IC50 ~20 μM). In isolated DB-1 melanoma cells 1–10 μM LND increased L-lactate output, consistent with MPC inhibition, but higher concentrations (150 μM) decreased L-lactate output while increasing intracellular [L-lactate] > five-fold, consistent with MCT inhibition. We conclude that MPC inhibition is the most sensitive anti-tumour target for LND, with additional inhibitory effects on MCT-mediated L-lactic acid efflux and glutamine/glutamate oxidation. Together these actions can account for published data on the selective tumour effects of LND on L-lactate, intracellular pH (pHi) and ATP levels that can be partially mimicked by the established MPC and MCT inhibitor α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate. PMID:26831515

  14. Partial reconstruction of in vitro gluconeogenesis arising from mitochondrial l-lactate uptake/metabolism and oxaloacetate export via novel L-lactate translocators.

    PubMed Central

    De Bari, Lidia; Atlante, Anna; Valenti, Daniela; Passarella, Salvatore

    2004-01-01

    In the light of the occurrence of L-lactate dehydrogenase inside the mitochondrial matrix, we looked at whether isolated rat liver mitochondria can take up and metabolize L-lactate, and provide oxaloacetate outside mitochondria, thus contributing to a partial reconstruction of gluconeogenesis in vitro. We found that: (1) L-lactate (10 mM), added to mitochondria in the presence of a cocktail of glycolysis/gluconeogenesis enzymes and cofactors, can lead to synthesis of glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate at a rate of about 7 nmol/min per mg mitochondrial protein. (2) Three novel translocators exist to mediate L-lactate traffic across the inner mitochondrial membrane. An L-lactate/H+ symporter was identified by measuring fluorimetrically the rate of endogenous pyridine nucleotide reduction. Consistently, L-lactate oxidation was found to occur with P/O ratio=3 (where P/O ratio is the ratio of mol of ATP synthesized to mol of oxygen atoms reduced to water during oxidative phosphorylation) and with generation of membrane potential. Proton uptake, which occurred as a result of addition of L-lactate to RLM together with electron flow inhibitors, and mitochondrial swelling in ammonium L-lactate solutions were also monitored. L-Lactate/oxaloacetate and L-lactate/pyruvate anti-porters were identified by monitoring photometrically the appearance of L-lactate counter-anions outside mitochondria. These L-lactate translocators, which are distinct from the monocarboxylate carrier, were found to differ from each other in V(max) values and in inhibition and pH profiles, and proved to regulate mitochondrial L-lactate metabolism in vitro. The role of lactate/mitochondria interactions in gluconeogenesis is discussed. PMID:14960150

  15. Lactate Racemization as a Rescue Pathway for Supplying d-Lactate to the Cell Wall Biosynthesis Machinery in Lactobacillus plantarum

    PubMed Central

    Goffin, Philippe; Deghorain, Marie; Mainardi, Jean-Luc; Tytgat, Isabelle; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Hols, Pascal

    2005-01-01

    Lactobacillus plantarum is a lactic acid bacterium that produces d- and l-lactate using stereospecific NAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenases (LdhD and LdhL, respectively). However, reduction of glycolytic pyruvate by LdhD is not the only pathway for d-lactate production since a mutant defective in this activity still produces both lactate isomers (T. Ferain, J. N. Hobbs, Jr., J. Richardson, N. Bernard, D. Garmyn, P. Hols, N. E. Allen, and J. Delcour, J. Bacteriol. 178:5431-5437, 1996). Production of d-lactate in this species has been shown to be connected to cell wall biosynthesis through its incorporation as the last residue of the muramoyl-pentadepsipeptide peptidoglycan precursor. This particular feature leads to natural resistance to high concentrations of vancomycin. In the present study, we show that L. plantarum possesses two pathways for d-lactate production: the LdhD enzyme and a lactate racemase, whose expression requires l-lactate. We report the cloning of a six-gene operon, which is involved in lactate racemization activity and is positively regulated by l-lactate. Deletion of this operon in an L. plantarum strain that is devoid of LdhD activity leads to the exclusive production of l-lactate. As a consequence, peptidoglycan biosynthesis is affected, and growth of this mutant is d-lactate dependent. We also show that the growth defect can be partially restored by expression of the d-alanyl-d-alanine-forming Ddl ligase from Lactococcus lactis, or by supplementation with various d-2-hydroxy acids but not d-2-amino acids, leading to variable vancomycin resistance levels. This suggests that L. plantarum is unable to efficiently synthesize peptidoglycan precursors ending in d-alanine and that the cell wall biosynthesis machinery in this species is specifically dedicated to the production of peptidoglycan precursors ending in d-lactate. In this context, the lactate racemase could thus provide the bacterium with a rescue pathway for d-lactate production upon

  16. Effect of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency on L-lysine production with Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Blombach, Bastian; Schreiner, Mark E; Moch, Matthias; Oldiges, Marco; Eikmanns, Bernhard J

    2007-09-01

    Intracellular precursor supply is a critical factor for amino acid productivity of Corynebacterium glutamicum. To test for the effect of improved pyruvate availability on L-lysine production, we deleted the aceE gene encoding the E1p enzyme of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) in the L-lysine-producer C. glutamicum DM1729 and characterised the resulting strain DM1729-BB1 for growth and L-lysine production. Compared to the host strain, C. glutamicum DM1729-BB1 showed no PDHC activity, was acetate auxotrophic and, after complete consumption of the available carbon sources glucose and acetate, showed a more than 50% lower substrate-specific biomass yield (0.14 vs 0.33 mol C/mol C), an about fourfold higher biomass-specific L-lysine yield (5.27 vs 1.23 mmol/g cell dry weight) and a more than 40% higher substrate-specific L-lysine yield (0.13 vs 0.09 mol C/mol C). Overexpression of the pyruvate carboxylase or diaminopimelate dehydrogenase genes in C. glutamicum DM1729-BB1 resulted in a further increase in the biomass-specific L-lysine yield by 6 and 56%, respectively. In addition to L-lysine, significant amounts of pyruvate, L-alanine and L-valine were produced by C. glutamicum DM1729-BB1 and its derivatives, suggesting a surplus of precursor availability and a further potential to improve L-lysine production by engineering the L-lysine biosynthetic pathway. PMID:17333167

  17. Increased Brain Lactate Concentrations Without Increased Lactate Oxidation During Hypoglycemia in Type 1 Diabetic Individuals

    PubMed Central

    De Feyter, Henk M.; Mason, Graeme F.; Shulman, Gerald I.; Rothman, Douglas L.; Petersen, Kitt Falk

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported that brain metabolism of acetate is increased more than twofold during hypoglycemia in type 1 diabetic (T1D) subjects with hypoglycemia unawareness. These data support the hypothesis that upregulation of blood-brain barrier monocarboxylic acid (MCA) transport may contribute to the maintenance of brain energetics during hypoglycemia in subjects with hypoglycemia unawareness. Plasma lactate concentrations are ∼10-fold higher than acetate concentrations, making lactate the most likely alternative MCA as brain fuel. We therefore examined transport of [3-13C]lactate across the blood-brain barrier and its metabolism in the brains of T1D patients and nondiabetic control subjects during a hypoglycemic clamp using 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Brain lactate concentrations were more than fivefold higher (P < 0.05) during hypoglycemia in the T1D subjects compared with the control subjects. Surprisingly, we observed no increase in the oxidation of blood-borne lactate in the T1D subjects, as reflected by similar 13C fractional enrichments in brain glutamate and glutamine. Taken together, these data suggest that in addition to increased MCA transport at the blood-brain barrier, there may be additional metabolic adaptations that contribute to hypoglycemia unawareness in patients with T1D. PMID:23715622

  18. Polyhydroxybutyrate production from lactate using a mixed microbial culture.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Yang; Marang, Leonie; Kleerebezem, Robbert; Muyzer, Gerard; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M

    2011-09-01

    In this study we investigated the use of lactate and a lactate/acetate mixture for enrichment of poly-3-hydroxybutyrate (PHB) producing mixed cultures. The mixed cultures were enriched in sequencing batch reactors (SBR) that established a feast-famine regime. The SBRs were operated under conditions that were previously shown to enable enrichment of a superior PHB producing strain on acetate (i.e., 12 h cycle length, 1 day SRT and 30°C). Two new mixed cultures were eventually enriched from activated sludge. The mixed culture enriched on lactate was dominated by a novel gammaproteobacterium. This enrichment can accumulate over 90 wt% PHB within 6 h, which is currently the best result reported for a bacterial culture in terms of the final PHB content and the biomass specific PHB production rate. The second mixed culture enriched on a mixture of acetate and lactate can produce up to 84 wt% PHB in just over 8 h. The predominant bacterial species in this culture were Plasticicumulans acidivorans and Thauera selenatis, which have both been reported to accumulate large amounts of PHB. The data suggest that P. acidivorans is a specialist on acetate conversion, whereas Thauera sp. is a specialist on lactate conversion. The main conclusion of this work is that the use of different substrates has a direct impact on microbial composition, but has no significant effect on the functionality of PHB production process. PMID:21455932

  19. Pyruvate:Ferredoxin Oxidoreductase Is Coupled to Light-independent Hydrogen Production in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii*

    PubMed Central

    Noth, Jens; Krawietz, Danuta; Hemschemeier, Anja; Happe, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    In anaerobiosis, the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii evolves molecular hydrogen (H2) as one of several fermentation products. H2 is generated mostly by the [Fe-Fe]-hydrogenase HYDA1, which uses plant type ferredoxin PETF/FDX1 (PETF) as an electron donor. Dark fermentation of the alga is mainly of the mixed acid type, because formate, ethanol, and acetate are generated by a pyruvate:formate lyase pathway similar to Escherichia coli. However, C. reinhardtii also possesses the pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase PFR1, which, like pyruvate:formate lyase and HYDA1, is localized in the chloroplast. PFR1 has long been suggested to be responsible for the low but significant H2 accumulation in the dark because the catalytic mechanism of pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase involves the reduction of ferredoxin. With the aim of proving the biochemical feasibility of the postulated reaction, we have heterologously expressed the PFR1 gene in E. coli. Purified recombinant PFR1 is able to transfer electrons from pyruvate to HYDA1, using the ferredoxins PETF and FDX2 as electron carriers. The high reactivity of PFR1 toward oxaloacetate indicates that in vivo, fermentation might also be coupled to an anaerobically active glyoxylate cycle. Our results suggest that C. reinhardtii employs a clostridial type H2 production pathway in the dark, especially because C. reinhardtii PFR1 was also able to allow H2 evolution in reaction mixtures containing Clostridium acetobutylicum 2[4Fe-4S]-ferredoxin and [Fe-Fe]-hydrogenase HYDA. PMID:23258532

  20. Production of Butyrate from Lactate by a Newly Isolated Clostridium sp. BPY5.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yong; Hu, Xiaohong; Zhu, Xiaoyu; Jin, Hong; Xu, Zhancheng; Tang, Qinglan; Li, Xiangzhen

    2016-06-01

    Lactate-utilizing bacteria play important roles in the production of Chinese strong-flavored liquor (CSFL). However, the identity of these bacteria and their lactate-utilizing properties are largely unknown. Here, a lactate-utilizing, butyrate-producing bacterium BPY5 was isolated from an old fermentation pit for CSFL production. The isolate represented a novel species belonging to Clostridium cluster XIVa of family Lachnospiraceae based on phylogenetic analysis using 16S rRNA gene sequences. Strain BPY5 could ferment lactate into butyrate as the major metabolic product. Butyrate was significantly formed at initial lactate concentration from 66 to 104 mM, but substantially declined when initial lactate exceeded 133 mM. At initial lactate concentration of 66 mM, lactate conversion was independent on initial pH from 5.5 to 7.0, but the conversion was completely inhibited when pH dropped below 4.8. Nevertheless, the inhibition on lactate conversion was largely relieved by the addition of acetate, suggesting that exogenous acetate could enhance lactate conversion at low pH condition. Additionally, lactate in CSFL-brewing wastewater was dramatically removed when inoculated with strain BPY5. These results implicate that the isolate may be applied for the industrial production of butyrate or the recovery of butyrate from lactate-containing wastewater. PMID:26842597

  1. Skeletal muscle lactate overproduction during metformin intoxication: An animal study with reverse microdialysis.

    PubMed

    Protti, Alessandro; Properzi, Paolo; Magnoni, Sandra; Santini, Alessandro; Langer, Thomas; Guenzani, Silvia; Ferrero, Stefano; Bassani, Giulia; Stocchetti, Nino; Gattinoni, Luciano

    2016-07-25

    Lactic acidosis during metformin intoxication is classically mainly attributed to diminished lactate clearance through liver gluconeogenesis. Here we studied 6 healthy, sedated and mechanically ventilated pigs to clarify whether high dose of metformin also increases skeletal muscle lactate production. Each animal had two microdialysis catheters inserted in gluteus muscles, one per side. One catheter was infused with saline (control) while the other one was infused with metformin diluted in saline (1M), both at a rate of 0.3μl/min. Dialysate lactate concentration and lactate-to-pyruvate ratio, a marker of the balance between anaerobic glycolysis and aerobic (mitochondrial) metabolism, were measured every 3h, for 12h. Continuous infusion of metformin caused a progressive rise in dialysate lactate level (p=0.007) and lactate-to-pyruvate ratio (p<0.001) compared to that of saline, as for mitochondrial "poisoning". These findings suggest that skeletal muscle lactate overproduction contributes to the development of metformin-induced lactic acidosis. PMID:27178268

  2. The Pyruvate-Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Node

    PubMed Central

    Bücker, René; Heroven, Ann Kathrin; Becker, Judith; Dersch, Petra; Wittmann, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    Despite our increasing knowledge of the specific pathogenicity factors in bacteria, the contribution of metabolic processes to virulence is largely unknown. Here, we elucidate a tight connection between pathogenicity and core metabolism in the enteric pathogen Yersinia pseudotuberculosis by integrated transcriptome and [13C]fluxome analysis of the wild type and virulence-regulator mutants. During aerobic growth on glucose, Y. pseudotuberculosis reveals an unusual flux distribution with a high level of secreted pyruvate. The absence of the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulators RovA, CsrA, and Crp strongly perturbs the fluxes of carbon core metabolism at the level of pyruvate metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and these perturbations are accompanied by transcriptional changes in the corresponding enzymes. Knock-outs of regulators of this metabolic branch point and of its central enzyme, pyruvate kinase (ΔpykF), result in mutants with significantly reduced virulence in an oral mouse infection model. In summary, our work identifies the pyruvate-TCA cycle node as a focal point for controlling the host colonization and virulence of Yersinia. PMID:25164818

  3. A mimic of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huanyu; Breslow, Ronald

    2010-10-15

    Pyruvic acid undergo decarboxylation catalyzed by a hydrophobic thiazolium salt and reacts with a hydrophobic analog of lipoic acid to form a hydrophobic acylthioester that reacts with aniline to form acetanilide in water, but only in the presence of a hydrophobically modified polyaziridine that acts to gather the reactants just as the enzyme complex does. PMID:20826089

  4. BACTERIAL EXPRESSION, PURIFICATION, AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a very large multi-component structure that catalyzes decarboxylation of pyruvate, yielding CO2, NADH, and acetyl-CoA as products. The decarboxylation reaction is catalyzed by pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1). The PDC occupies a key position in intermediary met...

  5. Pyruvate formate-lyase is essential for fumarate-independent anaerobic glycerol utilization in the Enterococcus faecalis strain W11.

    PubMed

    Doi, Yuki; Ikegami, Yuki

    2014-07-01

    Although anaerobic glycerol metabolism in Enterococcus faecalis requires exogenous fumarate for NADH oxidation, E. faecalis strain W11 can metabolize glycerol in the absence of oxygen without exogenous fumarate. In this study, metabolic end product analyses and reporter assays probing the expression of enzymes involved in pyruvate metabolism were performed to investigate this fumarate-independent anaerobic metabolism of glycerol in W11. Under aerobic conditions, the metabolic end products of W11 cultured with glycerol were similar to those of W11 cultured with glucose. However, when W11 was cultured anaerobically, most of the glucose was converted to l-lactate, but glycerol was converted to ethanol and formate. During anaerobic culture with glycerol, the expression of the l-lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase E1αβ genes in W11 was downregulated, whereas the expression of the pyruvate formate-lyase (Pfl) and aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase genes was upregulated. These changes in the expression levels caused the change in the composition of end products. A pflB gene disruptant (Δpfl mutant) of W11 could barely utilize glycerol under anaerobic conditions, but the growth of the Δpfl mutant cultured with either glucose or dihydroxyacetone (DHA) under anaerobic conditions was the same as that of W11. Glucose metabolism and DHA generates one NADH molecule per pyruvate molecule, whereas glycerol metabolism in the dehydrogenation pathway generates two NADH molecules per pyruvate molecule. These findings demonstrate that NADH generated from anaerobic glycerol metabolism in the absence of fumarate is oxidized through the Pfl-ethanol fermentation pathway. Thus, Pfl is essential to avoid the accumulation of excess NADH during fumarate-independent anaerobic glycerol metabolism. PMID:24769696

  6. Pyruvate Formate-Lyase Is Essential for Fumarate-Independent Anaerobic Glycerol Utilization in the Enterococcus faecalis Strain W11

    PubMed Central

    Ikegami, Yuki

    2014-01-01

    Although anaerobic glycerol metabolism in Enterococcus faecalis requires exogenous fumarate for NADH oxidation, E. faecalis strain W11 can metabolize glycerol in the absence of oxygen without exogenous fumarate. In this study, metabolic end product analyses and reporter assays probing the expression of enzymes involved in pyruvate metabolism were performed to investigate this fumarate-independent anaerobic metabolism of glycerol in W11. Under aerobic conditions, the metabolic end products of W11 cultured with glycerol were similar to those of W11 cultured with glucose. However, when W11 was cultured anaerobically, most of the glucose was converted to l-lactate, but glycerol was converted to ethanol and formate. During anaerobic culture with glycerol, the expression of the l-lactate dehydrogenase and pyruvate dehydrogenase E1αβ genes in W11 was downregulated, whereas the expression of the pyruvate formate-lyase (Pfl) and aldehyde/alcohol dehydrogenase genes was upregulated. These changes in the expression levels caused the change in the composition of end products. A pflB gene disruptant (Δpfl mutant) of W11 could barely utilize glycerol under anaerobic conditions, but the growth of the Δpfl mutant cultured with either glucose or dihydroxyacetone (DHA) under anaerobic conditions was the same as that of W11. Glucose metabolism and DHA generates one NADH molecule per pyruvate molecule, whereas glycerol metabolism in the dehydrogenation pathway generates two NADH molecules per pyruvate molecule. These findings demonstrate that NADH generated from anaerobic glycerol metabolism in the absence of fumarate is oxidized through the Pfl-ethanol fermentation pathway. Thus, Pfl is essential to avoid the accumulation of excess NADH during fumarate-independent anaerobic glycerol metabolism. PMID:24769696

  7. D-lactate metabolism in the alga, Chlamydomonas Reinhardtii

    SciTech Connect

    Husic, D.W.; Tolbert, N.E.

    1986-05-01

    (/sup 14/C)D-lactate rapidly accumulates in Chlamydomonas cells under anaerobic conditions from the sugar-phosphate pools which are labeled during photosynthesis with /sup 14/CO/sub 2/. A soluble D-lactate dehydrogenase (30 ..mu..mol NADH oxidized/h/mg Chl), which functions only in the direction of pyruvate reduction, has been partially purified and characterized. The D-lactate is reoxidized in Chlamydomonas by a mitochondrial membrane-bound dehydrogenase. This enzyme is known in the plant literature as glycolate dehydrogenase, an enzyme of the oxidative photosynthetic carbon (C/sub 2/) cycle. This dehydrogenase may be linked to the mitochondrial electron transport chain, although the direct electron acceptor is unknown. Therefore, D-lactate accumulation may be, in part, due to the shut down of electron transport during anaerobiosis. In vivo chase experiments have shown that the D-lactate turns over rapidly when algal cells, which have been grown with air levels of CO/sub 2/ (0.04%), are returned to aerobic conditions in the light. Such turnover is not observed in cells which had been grown with 1 to 5% CO/sub 2/. Cells grown with high CO/sub 2/ have lower levels of glycolate dehydrogenase activity. They are currently using mutants of Chlamydomonas deficient in mitochondrial respiration to study the role of D-lactate oxidation in these algae.

  8. A novel mode of lactate metabolism in strictly anaerobic bacteria.

    PubMed

    Weghoff, Marie Charlotte; Bertsch, Johannes; Müller, Volker

    2015-03-01

    Lactate is a common substrate for major groups of strictly anaerobic bacteria, but the biochemistry and bioenergetics of lactate oxidation is obscure. The high redox potential of the pyruvate/lactate pair of E0 ' = -190 mV excludes direct NAD(+) reduction (E0 ' = -320 mV). To identify the hitherto unknown electron acceptor, we have purified the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from the strictly anaerobic, acetogenic bacterium Acetobacterium woodii. The LDH forms a stable complex with an electron-transferring flavoprotein (Etf) that exhibited NAD(+) reduction only when reduced ferredoxin (Fd(2-) ) was present. Biochemical analyses revealed that the LDH/Etf complex of A. woodii uses flavin-based electron confurcation to drive endergonic lactate oxidation with NAD(+) as oxidant at the expense of simultaneous exergonic electron flow from reduced ferredoxin (E0 ' ≈ -500 mV) to NAD(+) according to: lactate + Fd(2-)  + 2 NAD(+)  → pyruvate + Fd + 2 NADH. The reduced Fd(2-) is regenerated from NADH by a sequence of events that involves conversion of chemical (ATP) to electrochemical ( Δ μ ˜ Na + ) and finally redox energy (Fd(2-) from NADH) via reversed electron transport catalysed by the Rnf complex. Inspection of genomes revealed that this metabolic scenario for lactate oxidation may also apply to many other anaerobes. PMID:24762045

  9. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex: metabolic link to ischemic brain injury and target of oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Martin, Erica; Rosenthal, Robert E; Fiskum, Gary

    The mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) is a mitochondrial matrix enzyme complex (greater than 7 million Daltons) that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to form acetyl CoA, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (the reduced form, NADH), and CO(2). This reaction constitutes the bridge between anaerobic and aerobic cerebral energy metabolism. PDHC enzyme activity and immunoreactivity are lost in selectively vulnerable neurons after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. Evidence from experiments carried out in vitro suggests that reperfusion-dependent loss of activity is caused by oxidative protein modifications. Impaired enzyme activity may explain the reduced cerebral glucose and oxygen consumption that occurs after cerebral ischemia. This hypothesis is supported by the hyperoxidation of mitochondrial electron transport chain components and NAD(H) that occurs during reperfusion, indicating that NADH production, rather than utilization, is rate limiting. Additional support comes from the findings that immediate postischemic administration of acetyl-L-carnitine both reduces brain lactate/pyruvate ratios and improves neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest in animals. As acetyl-L-carnitine is converted to acetyl CoA, the product of the PDHC reaction, it follows that impaired production of NADH is due to reduced activity of either PDHC or one or more steps in glycolysis. Impaired cerebral energy metabolism and PDHC activity are associated also with neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, suggesting that this enzyme is an important link in the pathophysiology of both acute brain injury and chronic neurodegeneration. PMID:15562436

  10. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex: Metabolic Link to Ischemic Brain Injury and Target of Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Erica; Rosenthal, Robert E.; Fiskum, Gary

    2008-01-01

    The mammalian pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) is a mitochondrial matrix enzyme complex (greater than 7 million Daltons) that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to form acetyl CoA, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (the reduced form, NADH), and CO2. This reaction constitutes the bridge between anaerobic and aerobic cerebral energy metabolism. PDHC enzyme activity and immunoreactivity are lost in selectively vulnerable neurons after cerebral ischemia and reperfusion. Evidence from experiments carried out in vitro suggests that reperfusion-dependent loss of activity is caused by oxidative protein modifications. Impaired enzyme activity may explain the reduced cerebral glucose and oxygen consumption that occurs after cerebral ischemia. This hypothesis is supported by the hyperoxidation of mitochondrial electron transport chain components and NAD(H) that occurs during reperfusion, indicating that NADH production, rather than utilization, is rate limiting. Additional support comes from the findings that immediate postischemic administration of acetyl-l-carnitine both reduces brain lactate/pyruvate ratios and improves neurologic outcome after cardiac arrest in animals. As acetyl-l-carnitine is converted to acetyl CoA, the product of the PDHC reaction, it follows that impaired production of NADH is due to reduced activity of either PDHC or one or more steps in glycolysis. Impaired cerebral energy metabolism and PDHC activity are associated also with neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease and Wernicke-Korsakoff syndrome, suggesting that this enzyme is an important link in the pathophysiology of both acute brain injury and chronic neurodegeneration. PMID:15562436

  11. Hepatic metabolic response of Holstein cows in early and mid lactation is altered by nutrient supply and lipopolysaccharide in vitro.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M; Bequette, B J; Moyes, K M

    2015-10-01

    The metabolic response of the liver during periods of inflammation is poorly understood. The objective of this study was to characterize the effects of nutrient supply and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge on hepatic intermediate metabolism of early- and mid-lactation cows by employing gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with stable isotope tracer. Twelve multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows in early (n = 6; 12 ± 4.2 d in milk) and mid (n = 6; 115 ± 13.5 d in milk) lactation were used for this study. Liver biopsies were performed on all cows. Liver slices (40-60 mg) were incubated in a 37°C water bath for 2 h with either control (phosphate buffered saline), pyruvate (PYR; 1mM unlabeled pyruvate and 1mM [(13)C3]pyruvate), pyruvate + propionate (PYR+PRO; 1mM unlabeled pyruvate, 1mM [(13)C3]pyruvate, and 2mM sodium propionate), or pyruvate + AA (PYR+AA; 1mM unlabeled pyruvate, 1mM [(13)C3]pyruvate, and 2mM AA solution), and LPS (0.0 or 0.2 μg/mL) was added to flasks per treatment. Enrichment of isotopomers in metabolic equilibrium with Krebs cycle intermediates was assessed. Pyruvate fluxes and the enzymatic activity of pyruvate carboxylase (PC) versus pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) and phosphoenol pyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) were calculated. Media were analyzed for concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), glucose, and haptoglobin. Data were analyzed as randomized block (stage of lactation) design in a factorial arrangement of nutrient treatments by LPS dose. Challenge with LPS increased the mRNA abundance of TNF-α, haptoglobin, and serum amyloid A 2, and the concentration of TNF-α in media. Challenge with LPS increased mRNA abundance of PC but reduced the enrichment of (13)C1[M1] and (13)C2[M2]alanine and tended to reduce the enzymatic activity of PEPCK. Incubation with PYR+PRO and PYR+AA increased the flux of pyruvate to acetyl CoA. However, only PYR+PRO increased the enzymatic activity of PEPCK and PDH versus PC and decreased the mRNA abundance

  12. Lactation and reproduction*

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, A. M.; Hytten, F. E.; Black, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    The authors review the literature on the effect of lactation on fertility in the absence of contraception and on the effects of contraceptive measures on lactation. They examine data from several countries on the intervals between births and on the return of menstruation and ovulation after childbirth, comparing lactating with nonlactating women. They conclude that lactation is an inefficient contraceptive for the individual, but that in populations sustained lactation is associated with reduced fertility. Possible physiological mechanisms causing lactation amenorrhoea are discussed. Though much of the literature on the effect of contraceptives on lactation is inadequate, there is general agreement that the estrogen component of hormonal preparations has an adverse effect on lactation, but that progestins alone do not. Many questions remain. Is this effect seen in established lactation, or only in the puerperal period? Is it a direct pharmacological effect, or are pill-users the mothers least motivated to maintain breast-feeding? Does a close relationship exist between hormones given and lactation performance? The authors comment on some of the technical deficiencies of previous studies in this field and discuss practical possibilities of, and limitations to, obtaining adequate scientific information in the future. PMID:1084804

  13. Characterization and Functional Analysis of the poxB Gene, Which Encodes Pyruvate Oxidase in Lactobacillus plantarum

    PubMed Central

    Lorquet, Frédérique; Goffin, Philippe; Muscariello, Lidia; Baudry, Jean-Bernard; Ladero, Victor; Sacco, Margherita; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Hols, Pascal

    2004-01-01

    The pyruvate oxidase gene (poxB) from Lactobacillus plantarum Lp80 was cloned and characterized. Northern blot and primer extension analyses revealed that transcription of poxB is monocistronic and under the control of a vegetative promoter. poxB mRNA expression was strongly induced by aeration and was repressed by glucose. Moreover, Northern blotting performed at different stages of growth showed that poxB expression is maximal in the early stationary phase when glucose is exhausted. Primer extension and in vivo footprint analyses revealed that glucose repression of poxB is mediated by CcpA binding to the cre site identified in the promoter region. The functional role of the PoxB enzyme was studied by using gene overexpression and knockout in order to evaluate its implications for acetate production. Constitutive overproduction of PoxB in L. plantarum revealed the predominant role of pyruvate oxidase in the control of acetate production under aerobic conditions. The ΔpoxB mutant strain exhibited a moderate (20 to 25%) decrease in acetate production when it was grown on glucose as the carbon source, and residual pyruvate oxidase activity that was between 20 and 85% of the wild-type activity was observed with glucose limitation (0.2% glucose). In contrast, when the organism was grown on maltose, the poxB mutation resulted in a large (60 to 80%) decrease in acetate production. In agreement with the latter observation, the level of residual pyruvate oxidase activity with maltose limitation (0.2% maltose) was less than 10% of the wild-type level of activity. PMID:15175288

  14. Mixed glucose and lactate uptake by Corynebacterium glutamicum through metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Neuner, Andreas; Heinzle, Elmar

    2011-03-01

    The Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 lysC(fbr) strain was engineered to grow fast on racemic mixtures of lactate and to secrete lysine during growth on lactate as well as on mixtures of lactate and glucose. The wild-type C. glutamicum only grows well on L-lactate. Overexpression of D-lactate dehydrogenase (dld) achieved by exchanging the native promoter of the dld gene for the stronger promoter of the sod gene encoding superoxide dismutase in C. glutamicum resulted in a duplication of biomass yield and faster growth without any secretion of lysine. Elementary mode analysis was applied to identify potential targets for lysine production from lactate as well as from mixtures of lactate and glucose. Two targets for overexpression were pyruvate carboxylase and malic enzyme. The overexpression of these genes using again the sod promoter resulted in growth-associated production of lysine with lactate as sole carbon source with a carbon yield of 9% and a yield of 15% during growth on a lactate-glucose mixture. Both substrates were taken up simultaneously with a slight preference for lactate. As surmised from the elementary mode analysis, deletion of glucose-6-phosphate isomerase resulted in a decreased production of lysine on the mixed substrate. Elementary mode analysis together with suitable objective functions has been found a very useful tool guiding the design of strains producing lysine on mixed substrates. PMID:21370474

  15. Lactate Contribution to the Tumor Microenvironment: Mechanisms, Effects on Immune Cells and Therapeutic Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Garcia, Susana; Moreno-Altamirano, María Maximina B.; Prado-Garcia, Heriberto; Sánchez-García, Francisco Javier

    2016-01-01

    Malignant transformation of cells leads to enhanced glucose uptake and the conversion of a larger fraction of pyruvate into lactate, even under normoxic conditions; this phenomenon of aerobic glycolysis is largely known as the Warburg effect. This metabolic reprograming serves to generate biosynthetic precursors, thus facilitating the survival of rapidly proliferating malignant cells. Extracellular lactate directs the metabolic reprograming of tumor cells, thereby serving as an additional selective pressure. Besides tumor cells, stromal cells are another source of lactate production in the tumor microenvironment, whose role in both tumor growth and the antitumor immune response is the subject of intense research. In this review, we provide an integral perspective of the relationship between lactate and the overall tumor microenvironment, from lactate structure to metabolic pathways for its synthesis, receptors, signaling pathways, lactate-producing cells, lactate-responding cells, and how all contribute to the tumor outcome. We discuss the role of lactate as an immunosuppressor molecule that contributes to tumor evasion and we explore the possibility of targeting lactate metabolism for cancer treatment, as well as of using lactate as a prognostic biomarker. PMID:26909082

  16. In Vivo Evidence for a Lactate Gradient from Astrocytes to Neurons.

    PubMed

    Mächler, Philipp; Wyss, Matthias T; Elsayed, Maha; Stobart, Jillian; Gutierrez, Robin; von Faber-Castell, Alexandra; Kaelin, Vincens; Zuend, Marc; San Martín, Alejandro; Romero-Gómez, Ignacio; Baeza-Lehnert, Felipe; Lengacher, Sylvain; Schneider, Bernard L; Aebischer, Patrick; Magistretti, Pierre J; Barros, L Felipe; Weber, Bruno

    2016-01-12

    Investigating lactate dynamics in brain tissue is challenging, partly because in vivo data at cellular resolution are not available. We monitored lactate in cortical astrocytes and neurons of mice using the genetically encoded FRET sensor Laconic in combination with two-photon microscopy. An intravenous lactate injection rapidly increased the Laconic signal in both astrocytes and neurons, demonstrating high lactate permeability across tissue. The signal increase was significantly smaller in astrocytes, pointing to higher basal lactate levels in these cells, confirmed by a one-point calibration protocol. Trans-acceleration of the monocarboxylate transporter with pyruvate was able to reduce intracellular lactate in astrocytes but not in neurons. Collectively, these data provide in vivo evidence for a lactate gradient from astrocytes to neurons. This gradient is a prerequisite for a carrier-mediated lactate flux from astrocytes to neurons and thus supports the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle model, in which astrocyte-derived lactate acts as an energy substrate for neurons. PMID:26698914

  17. Metabolic and Histologic Effects of Sodium Pyruvate Treatment in the Rat after Cortical Contusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Fukushima, Masamichi; Lee, Stefan M.; Moro, Nobuhiro; Hovda, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract This study determined the effects of intraperitoneal sodium pyruvate (SP) treatment on the levels of circulating fuels and on cerebral microdialysis levels of glucose (MDglc), lactate (MDlac), and pyruvate (MDpyr), and the effects of SP treatment on neuropathology after left cortical contusion injury (CCI) in rats. SP injection (1000 mg/kg) 5 min after sham injury (Sham-SP) or CCI (CCI-SP) significantly increased arterial pyruvate (p < 0.005) and lactate (p < 0.001) compared to that of saline-treated rats with CCI (CCI-Sal). Serum glucose also increased significantly in CCI-SP compared to that in CCI-Sal rats (p < 0.05), but not in Sham-SP rats. MDpyr was not altered after CCI-Sal, whereas MDlac levels within the cerebral cortex significantly increased bilaterally (p < 0.05) and those for MDglc decreased bilaterally (p < 0.05). MDpyr levels increased significantly in both Sham-SP and CCI-SP rats (p < 0.05 vs. CCI-Sal) and were higher in left/injured cortex of the CCI-SP group (p < 0.05 vs. sham-SP). In CCI-SP rats the contralateral MDlac decreased below CCI-Sal levels (p < 0.05) and the ipsilateral MDglc levels exceeded those of CCI-Sal rats (p < 0.05). Rats with a single low (500 mg/kg) or high dose (1000 mg/kg) SP treatment had fewer damaged cortical cells 6 h post-CCI than did saline-treated rats (p < 0.05), but three hourly injections of SP (1000 mg/kg) were needed to significantly reduce contusion volume 2 weeks after CCI. Thus, a single intraperitoneal SP treatment increases circulating levels of three potential brain fuels, attenuates a CCI-induced reduction in extracellular glucose while increasing extracellular levels of pyruvate, but not lactate, and can attenuate cortical cell damage occurring within 6 h of injury. Enduring (2 week) neuronal protection was achieved only with multiple SP treatments within the first 2 h post-CCI, perhaps reflecting the need for additional fuel throughout the

  18. A comparison of quantitative methods for clinical imaging with hyperpolarized 13C‐pyruvate

    PubMed Central

    Daniels, Charlie J.; McLean, Mary A.; Schulte, Rolf F.; Robb, Fraser J.; Gill, Andrew B.; McGlashan, Nicholas; Graves, Martin J.; Schwaiger, Markus; Lomas, David J.; Brindle, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) enables the metabolism of hyperpolarized 13C‐labelled molecules, such as the conversion of [1‐13C]pyruvate to [1‐13C]lactate, to be dynamically and non‐invasively imaged in tissue. Imaging of this exchange reaction in animal models has been shown to detect early treatment response and correlate with tumour grade. The first human DNP study has recently been completed, and, for widespread clinical translation, simple and reliable methods are necessary to accurately probe the reaction in patients. However, there is currently no consensus on the most appropriate method to quantify this exchange reaction. In this study, an in vitro system was used to compare several kinetic models, as well as simple model‐free methods. Experiments were performed using a clinical hyperpolarizer, a human 3 T MR system, and spectroscopic imaging sequences. The quantitative methods were compared in vivo by using subcutaneous breast tumours in rats to examine the effect of pyruvate inflow. The two‐way kinetic model was the most accurate method for characterizing the exchange reaction in vitro, and the incorporation of a Heaviside step inflow profile was best able to describe the in vivo data. The lactate time‐to‐peak and the lactate‐to‐pyruvate area under the curve ratio were simple model‐free approaches that accurately represented the full reaction, with the time‐to‐peak method performing indistinguishably from the best kinetic model. Finally, extracting data from a single pixel was a robust and reliable surrogate of the whole region of interest. This work has identified appropriate quantitative methods for future work in the analysis of human hyperpolarized 13C data. © 2016 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:27414749

  19. Metabolic imaging of acute and chronic infarction in the perfused rat heart using hyperpolarised [1-13C]pyruvate.

    PubMed

    Ball, Daniel R; Cruickshank, Rachel; Carr, Carolyn A; Stuckey, Daniel J; Lee, Philip; Clarke, Kieran; Tyler, Damian J

    2013-11-01

    Hyperpolarised (13)C MRI can be used to generate metabolic images of the heart in vivo. However, there have been no similar studies performed in the isolated perfused heart. Therefore, the aim of this study was to develop a method for the creation of (13)C metabolite maps of the perfused rat heart and to demonstrate the technique in a study of acute and chronic myocardial infarction. Male Wistar rat hearts were isolated, perfused and imaged before and after occlusion of the left anterior descending (LAD) coronary artery, creating an acute infarct group. In addition, a chronic infarct group was generated from hearts which had their LAD coronary artery occluded in vivo. Four weeks later, hearts were excised, perfused and imaged to generate metabolic maps of infused pyruvate and its metabolites lactate and bicarbonate. Myocardial perfusion and energetics were assessed by first-pass perfusion imaging and (31)P MRS, respectively. In both acute and chronically infarcted hearts, perfusion was reduced to the infarct region, as revealed by reduced gadolinium influx and lower signal intensity in the hyperpolarised pyruvate images. In the acute infarct region, there were significant alterations in the lactate (increased) and bicarbonate (decreased) signal ratios. In the chronically infarcted region, there was a significant reduction in both bicarbonate and lactate signals. (31)P-derived energetics revealed a significant decrease between control and chronic infarcted hearts. Significant decreases in contractile function between control and both acute and chronic infracted hearts were also seen. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that hyperpolarised pyruvate can detect reduced perfusion in the rat heart following both acute and chronic infarction. Changes in lactate and bicarbonate ratios indicate increased anaerobic metabolism in the acute infarct, which is not observed in the chronic infarct. Thus, this study has successfully demonstrated a novel imaging approach to assess

  20. Biosynthesis of the halogenated auxin, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid.

    PubMed

    Tivendale, Nathan D; Davidson, Sandra E; Davies, Noel W; Smith, Jason A; Dalmais, Marion; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid I; Quittenden, Laura J; Sutton, Lily; Bala, Raj K; Le Signor, Christine; Thompson, Richard; Horne, James; Reid, James B; Ross, John J

    2012-07-01

    Seeds of several agriculturally important legumes are rich sources of the only halogenated plant hormone, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid. However, the biosynthesis of this auxin is poorly understood. Here, we show that in pea (Pisum sativum) seeds, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid is synthesized via the novel intermediate 4-chloroindole-3-pyruvic acid, which is produced from 4-chlorotryptophan by two aminotransferases, TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED1 and TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED2. We characterize a tar2 mutant, obtained by Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes, the seeds of which contain dramatically reduced 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid levels as they mature. We also show that the widespread auxin, indole-3-acetic acid, is synthesized by a parallel pathway in pea. PMID:22573801

  1. Dichloroacetate increases glucose use and decreases lactate in developing rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.L.; Hatch, J.P.; Prihoda, T.J. )

    1990-12-01

    Dichloroacetate (DCA) activates pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) by inhibiting PDH kinase. Neutralized DCA (100 mg/kg) or saline was intravenously administered to 20 to 25-day-old rats (50-75g). Fifteen minutes later a mixture of {sup 6-14}C glucose and {sup 3}H fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was administered intravenously and the animals were sacrificed by microwave irradiation (2450 MHz, 8.0 kW, 0.6-0.8 sec) after 2 or 5 min. Brain regional rates of glucose use and metabolite levels were determined. DCA-treated rats had increased rates of glucose use in all regions studied (cortex, thalamus, striatum, and brain stem), with an average increase of 41%. Lactate levels were lower in all regions, by an average of 35%. There were no significant changes in levels of ATP, creatine phosphate, or glycogen in any brain region. Blood levels of lactate did not differ significantly between the DCA- and the saline-treated groups. Blood glucose levels were higher in the DCA group. In rats sacrificed by freeze-blowing, DCA treatment caused lower brain levels of both lactate and pyruvate. These results cannot be explained by any systemic effect of DCA. Rather, it appears that in the immature rat, DCA treatment results in activation of brain PDH, increased metabolism of brain pyruvate and lactate, and a resulting increase in brain glycolytic rate.

  2. Structure, function and regulation of pyruvate carboxylase.

    PubMed Central

    Jitrapakdee, S; Wallace, J C

    1999-01-01

    Pyruvate carboxylase (PC; EC 6.4.1.1), a member of the biotin-dependent enzyme family, catalyses the ATP-dependent carboxylation of pyruvate to oxaloacetate. PC has been found in a wide variety of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In mammals, PC plays a crucial role in gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis, in the biosynthesis of neurotransmitter substances, and in glucose-induced insulin secretion by pancreatic islets. The reaction catalysed by PC and the physical properties of the enzyme have been studied extensively. Although no high-resolution three-dimensional structure has yet been determined by X-ray crystallography, structural studies of PC have been conducted by electron microscopy, by limited proteolysis, and by cloning and sequencing of genes and cDNA encoding the enzyme. Most well characterized forms of active PC consist of four identical subunits arranged in a tetrahedron-like structure. Each subunit contains three functional domains: the biotin carboxylation domain, the transcarboxylation domain and the biotin carboxyl carrier domain. Different physiological conditions, including diabetes, hyperthyroidism, genetic obesity and postnatal development, increase the level of PC expression through transcriptional and translational mechanisms, whereas insulin inhibits PC expression. Glucocorticoids, glucagon and catecholamines cause an increase in PC activity or in the rate of pyruvate carboxylation in the short term. Molecular defects of PC in humans have recently been associated with four point mutations within the structural region of the PC gene, namely Val145-->Ala, Arg451-->Cys, Ala610-->Thr and Met743-->Thr. PMID:10229653

  3. Linalyl Acetate Is Metabolized by Pseudomonas incognita with the Acetoxy Group Intact

    PubMed Central

    Renganathan, V.; Madyastha, K. Madhava

    1983-01-01

    Metabolism of linalyl acetate by Pseudomonas incognita isolated by enrichment culture on the acyclic monoterpene alcohol linalool was studied. Biodegradation of linalyl acetate by this strain resulted in the formation of linalool, linalool-8-carboxylic acid, oleuropeic acid, and Δ5-4-acetoxy-4-methyl hexenoic acid. Cells adapted to linalyl acetate metabolized linalyl acetate-8-aldehyde to linalool-8-carboxylic acid, linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid, Δ5-4-acetoxy-4-methyl hexenoic acid, and geraniol-8-carboxylic acid. Resting cell suspensions previously grown with linalyl acetate oxidized linalyl acetate-8-aldehyde to linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid, Δ5-4-acetoxy-4-methyl hexenoic acid, and pyruvic acid. The crude cell-free extract (10,000 g of supernatant), obtained from the sonicate of linalyl acetate-grown cells, was shown to contain enzyme systems responsible for the formation of linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid and linalool-8-carboxylic acid from linalyl acetate. The same supernatant contained NAD-linked alcohol and aldehyde dehydrogenases involved in the formation of linalyl acetate-8-aldehyde and linalyl acetate-8-carboxylic acid, respectively. On the basis of various metabolites isolated from the culture medium, resting cell experiments, growth and manometric studies carried out with the isolated metabolites as well as related synthetic analogs, and the preliminary enzymatic studies performed with the cell-free extract, a probable pathway for the microbial degradation of linalyl acetate with the acetoxy group intact is suggested. PMID:16346182

  4. Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis in Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, M.; Riov, J.; Sharon, A.

    1998-01-01

    We characterized the biosynthesis of indole-3-acetic acid by the mycoherbicide Colletotrichum gloeosporioides f. sp. aeschynomene. Auxin production was tryptophan dependent. Compounds from the indole-3-acetamide and indole-3-pyruvic acid pathways were detected in culture filtrates. Feeding experiments and in vitro assay confirmed the presence of both pathways. Indole-3-acetamide was the major pathway utilized by the fungus to produce indole-3-acetic acid in culture. PMID:9835603

  5. 13C-NMR study of acetate assimilation in Thermoproteus neutrophilus.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, S; Paalme, T; Vilu, R; Fuchs, G

    1989-12-22

    Acetate assimilation into amino acids and the functioning of central biosynthetic pathways in the extremely thermophilic anaerobic archaebacterium Thermoproteus neutrophilus was investigated using 13C NMR as the method for determination of the labelling patterns. Acetate was assimilated via reductive carboxylation of acetyl-CoA to pyruvate and pyruvate conversion to phosphoenolpyruvate which was further carboxylated to oxaloacetate. 2-Oxoglutarate was mainly formed via citrate. However, the labelling patterns of glutamic acid and alanine were in agreement with the concurrent synthesis of about 15% 2-oxoglutarate and 5% pyruvate through the reductive citric acid cycle. A scrambling phenomenon occurring in aspartate and all amino acids derived through oxaloacetate was observed. The labelling patterns of amino acids were in agreement with their standard biosynthetic pathways, with two remarkable exceptions: isoleucine was synthesized via the citramalate pathway and lysine was synthesized via the 2-aminoadipate pathway which has previously been reported only in eukaryotic microorganisms. PMID:2514097

  6. Physiology of lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The breast changes in size, shape, and function during puberty, pregnancy, and lactation. The physiology of lactation is reviewed here. The breast is composed of fat and connective tissue that supports a tubuloalveolar structure. During development, anatomic changes involving new lobule formation an...

  7. Fast volumetric imaging of ethanol metabolism in rat liver with hyperpolarized [1-13C]-pyruvate

    PubMed Central

    Josan, Sonal; Spielman, Daniel; Yen, Yi-Fen; Hurd, Ralph; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Mayer, Dirk

    2012-01-01

    Rapid, volumetric imaging of hyperpolarized 13C compounds allows the real time measurement of metabolic activity and can be useful in distinguishing between normal and diseased tissues. This work extends a fast 2D under-sampled spiral magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) sequence to provide volumetric coverage, acquiring a 16×16×12 matrix with a nominal 5 mm isotropic resolution in 4.5 s. The rapid acquisition enables a high temporal resolution for dynamic imaging. This dynamic 3D MRSI method was used to investigate hyperpolarized [1-13C]-pyruvate metabolism modulated by the administration of ethanol in rat liver. A significant increase in the pyruvate to lactate conversion was observed in the liver due to the greater availability of NADH from ethanol metabolism. PMID:22331837

  8. MRI with hyperpolarised [1-13C]pyruvate detects advanced pancreatic preneoplasia prior to invasive disease in a mouse model

    PubMed Central

    Serrao, Eva M; Kettunen, Mikko I; Rodrigues, Tiago B; Dzien, Piotr; Wright, Alan J; Gopinathan, Aarthi; Gallagher, Ferdia A; Lewis, David Y; Frese, Kristopher K; Almeida, Jaime; Howat, William J; Tuveson, David A; Brindle, Kevin M

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Pancreatic cancer (PCa) is treatable by surgery when detected at an early stage. Non-invasive imaging methods able to detect both established tumours and their precursor lesions are needed to select patients for surgery. We investigated here whether pancreatic preneoplasia could be detected prior to the development of invasive cancers in genetically engineered mouse models of PCa using metabolic imaging. Design The concentrations of alanine and lactate and the activities of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were measured in extracts prepared from the pancreas of animals at different stages of disease progression; from pancreatitis, through tissue with predominantly low-grade and then high-grade pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia and then tumour. 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (13C-MRSI) was used to measure non-invasively changes in 13C labelling of alanine and lactate with disease progression, following injection of hyperpolarised [1-13C]pyruvate. Results Progressive decreases in the alanine/lactate concentration ratio and ALT/LDH activity ratio with disease progression were accompanied by a corresponding decrease in the [1-13C]alanine/[1-13C]lactate signal ratio observed in 13C-MRSI images of the pancreas. Conclusions Metabolic imaging with hyperpolarised [1-13C]pyruvate enables detection and monitoring of the progression of PCa precursor lesions. Translation of this MRI technique to the clinic has the potential to improve the management of patients at high risk of developing PCa. PMID:26347531

  9. Experimental evidence of phosphoenolpyruvate resynthesis from pyruvate in illuminated leaves.

    PubMed

    Tcherkez, Guillaume; Mahé, Aline; Boex-Fontvieille, Edouard; Gout, Elisabeth; Guérard, Florence; Bligny, Richard

    2011-09-01

    Day respiration is the cornerstone of nitrogen assimilation since it provides carbon skeletons to primary metabolism for glutamate (Glu) and glutamine synthesis. However, recent studies have suggested that the tricarboxylic acid pathway is rate limiting and mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenation is partly inhibited in the light. Pyruvate may serve as a carbon source for amino acid (e.g. alanine) or fatty acid synthesis, but pyruvate metabolism is not well documented, and neither is the possible resynthesis of phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). Here, we examined the capacity of pyruvate to convert back to PEP using (13)C and (2)H labeling in illuminated cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) leaves. We show that the intramolecular labeling pattern in Glu, 2-oxoglutarate, and malate after (13)C-3-pyruvate feeding was consistent with (13)C redistribution from PEP via the PEP-carboxylase reaction. Furthermore, the deuterium loss in Glu after (2)H(3)-(13)C-3-pyruvate feeding suggests that conversion to PEP and back to pyruvate washed out (2)H atoms to the solvent. Our results demonstrate that in cocklebur leaves, PEP resynthesis occurred as a flux from pyruvate, approximately 0.5‰ of the net CO(2) assimilation rate. This is likely to involve pyruvate inorganic phosphate dikinase and the fundamental importance of this flux for PEP and inorganic phosphate homeostasis is discussed. PMID:21730197

  10. 21 CFR 862.1650 - Pyruvate kinase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862... to pyruvate kinase deficiency or of acute leukemias. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  11. 21 CFR 862.1650 - Pyruvate kinase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862... to pyruvate kinase deficiency or of acute leukemias. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  12. 21 CFR 862.1650 - Pyruvate kinase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862... to pyruvate kinase deficiency or of acute leukemias. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1650 - Pyruvate kinase test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems § 862... to pyruvate kinase deficiency or of acute leukemias. (b) Classification. Class I (general...

  14. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex from Chloroplasts of Pisum sativum L 1

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Michael; Randall, Douglas D.

    1979-01-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is associated with intact chloroplasts and mitochondria of 9-day-old Pisum sativum L. seedlings. The ratio of the mitochondrial complex to the chloroplast complex activities is about 3 to 1. Maximal rates observed for chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity ranged from 6 to 9 micromoles of NADH produced per milligram of chlorophyll per hour. Osmotic rupture of pea chloroplasts released 88% of the complex activity, indicating that chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex is a stromal complex. The pH optimum for chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex was between 7.8 and 8.2, whereas the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex had a pH optimum between 7.3 and 7.7. Chloroplast pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity was specific for pyruvate, dependent upon coenzyme A and NAD and partially dependent upon Mg2+ and thiamine pyrophosphate. Chloroplast-associated pyruvate dehydrogenase complex provides a direct link between pyruvate metabolism and chloroplast fatty acid biosynthesis by providing the substrate, acetyl-CoA, necessary for membrane development in young plants. Images PMID:16661100

  15. Liver specific pyruvate kinase in pheasants Phasianus colchicus.

    PubMed

    Guderley, H; Jacques, L

    1987-01-01

    While in chickens, the existence of a liver form of pyruvate kinase is controversial, the liver form of pyruvate kinase in pheasants, murres and puffins is electrophoretically distinct from that in muscle, brain, kidney, lung and small intestine. Although the forms in lungs, muscle, heart, brain and small intestine could not be reliably separated by electrophoresis, the functional characteristics of the lung and muscle forms of pyruvate kinase in the pheasant are distinct and can be classified as K and M isozymes respectively. Our data suggest that these birds possess at least three distinct isozymes of pyruvate kinase. PMID:3609446

  16. Plant cytosolic pyruvate kinase: a kinetic study.

    PubMed

    Podestá, F E; Plaxton, W C

    1992-11-20

    The kinetic properties of cytosolic pyruvate kinase (PKc) from germinating castor oil seeds (COS) have been investigated. From experiments in which the free Mg2+ concentration was varied at constant levels of either the complexed or free forms of the substrates it was determined that the true substrates are the free forms of both phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) and ADP. This conclusion is corroborated by the quenching of intrinsic PKC tryptophan fluorescence by free PEP and ADP. Mg2+ is bound as the free bivalent cation but is likely released as MgATP. The fluorescence data, substrate interaction kinetics, and pattern of inhibition by products and substrate analogues (adenosine 5'-O-(2-thiodiphosphate) for ADP and phenyl phosphate for PEP) are compatible with a sequential, compulsory-ordered, Tri-Bi type kinetic reaction mechanism. PEP is the leading substrate, and pyruvate the last product to abandon the enzyme. The dissociation constant and limiting Km for free PEP (8.2 to 22 and 38 microM, respectively) and the limiting Km for free ADP (2.9 microM) are considerably lower than those reported for the non-plant enzyme. The results indicate that COS PKc exists naturally in an activated state, similar to the fructose 1,6-bisphosphate-activated yeast enzyme. This deduction is consistent with a previous study (F.E. Podestá and W.C. Plaxton (1991) Biochem. J. 279, 495-501) that failed to identify any allosteric activators for the COS PKc, but which proposed a regulatory mechanism based upon ATP levels and pH-dependent alterations in the enzyme's response to various metabolite inhibitors. As plant phosphofructokinases display potent inhibition by PEP, the overall rate of glycolytic flux from hexose 6-phosphate to pyruvate in the plant cytosol will ultimately depend upon variations in PEP levels brought about by the regulation of PKc. PMID:1445948

  17. Characterization of Desulfitobacterium chlororespirans sp. nov., which grows by coupling the oxidation of lactate to the reductive dechlorination of 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoate.

    PubMed Central

    Sanford, R A; Cole, J R; Löffler, F E; Tiedje, J M

    1996-01-01

    Strain Co23, an anaerobic spore-forming microorganism, was enriched and isolated from a compost soil on the basis of its ability to grow with 2,3-dichlorophenol (DCP) as its electron acceptor, ortho chlorines were removed from polysubstituted phenols but not from monohalophenols. Growth by chlororespiration was indicated by a growth yield of 3.24 g of cells per mol of reducing equivalents (as 2[H]) from lactate oxidation to acetate in the presence of 3-chloro-4-hydroxybenzoate but no growth in the absence of the halogenated electron acceptor. Other indicators of chlororespiration were the fraction of electrons from the electron donor used for dechlorination (0.67) and the H2 threshold concentration of < 1.0 ppm. Additional electron donors utilized for reductive dehalogenation were pyruvate, formate, butyrate, crotonate, and H2. Pyruvate supported homoacetogenic growth in the absence of an electron acceptor. Strain Co23 also used sulfite, thiosulfate, and sulfur as electron acceptors for growth, but it did not use sulfate, nitrate or fumarate. The temperature optimum for growth was 37 degrees C; however, the rates of dechlorination were optimum at 45 degrees C and activity persisted to temperatures as high as 55 degrees C. The 16S rRNA sequence was determined, and strain Co23 was found to be related to Desulfitobacterium dehalogenans JW/IU DC1 and Desulfitobacterium strain PCE1, with sequence similarities of 97.2 and 96.8%, respectively. The phylogenetic and physiological properties exhibited by strain Co23 place it into a new species designated Desulfitobacterium chlororespirans. PMID:8837437

  18. A thioredoxin fusion protein of VanH, a D-lactate dehydrogenase from Enterococcus faecium: cloning, expression, purification, kinetic analysis, and crystallization.

    PubMed Central

    Stoll, V. S.; Manohar, A. V.; Gillon, W.; MacFarlane, E. L.; Hynes, R. C.; Pai, E. F.

    1998-01-01

    The gene encoding the vancomycin resistance protein VanH from Enterococcus faecium, a D-lactate dehydrogenase, has been cloned into a thioredoxin expression system (pTRxFus) and expressed as a fusion protein. The use of several other expression systems yielded only inclusion bodies from which no functional protein could be recovered. Experiments to remove the thioredoxin moiety by enterokinase cleavage at the engineered recognition site under a variety of conditions resulted in nonspecific proteolysis and inactivation of the protein. The intact fusion protein was, therefore, used for kinetic studies and crystallization trials. It has been purified to greater than 90% homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation followed by phenyl Sepharose chromatography. Based on k(cat)/KM for pyruvate, it is 20% as active as native VanH. Michaelis constants for NADPH, NADH, and pyruvate, of approximately 3.5 microM, 19.0 microM, and 1.5 mM, respectively, were comparable to those reported for the native VanH (Bugg TDH et al., 1991, Biochemistry 30:10408-10415). Like native VanH, maximum activity of the fusion protein requires the presence of an anion (phosphate or acetate), however, in addition, a strongly reducing environment is needed for optimal efficacy. Competitive inhibition constants for ADP-ribose, NAD+, and oxamate have also been determined. Crystallization by hanging drop vapor diffusion produced two different crystal forms, one hexagonal and the other tetragonal. Flash-frozen crystals of the tetragonal form diffracted to 3.0 A resolution at a synchrotron radiation source. PMID:9605319

  19. Pyruvate kinase M2 at a glance

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Weiwei; Lu, Zhimin

    2015-01-01

    Reprogrammed metabolism is a key feature of cancer cells. The pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) isoform, which is commonly upregulated in many human cancers, has been recently shown to play a crucial role in metabolism reprogramming, gene transcription and cell cycle progression. In this Cell Science at a glance article and accompanying poster, we provide a brief overview of recent advances in understanding the mechanisms underlying the regulation of PKM2 expression, enzymatic activity, metabolic functions and subcellular location. We highlight the instrumental role of the non-metabolic functions of PKM2 in tumorigenesis and evaluate the potential to target PKM2 for cancer treatment. PMID:25770102

  20. Hyperpolarized (13)C MR imaging detects no lactate production in mutant IDH1 gliomas: Implications for diagnosis and response monitoring.

    PubMed

    Chaumeil, Myriam M; Radoul, Marina; Najac, Chloé; Eriksson, Pia; Viswanath, Pavithra; Blough, Michael D; Chesnelong, Charles; Luchman, H Artee; Cairncross, J Gregory; Ronen, Sabrina M

    2016-01-01

    Metabolic imaging of brain tumors using (13)C Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS) of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C] pyruvate is a promising neuroimaging strategy which, after a decade of preclinical success in glioblastoma (GBM) models, is now entering clinical trials in multiple centers. Typically, the presence of GBM has been associated with elevated hyperpolarized [1-(13)C] lactate produced from [1-(13)C] pyruvate, and response to therapy has been associated with a drop in hyperpolarized [1-(13)C] lactate. However, to date, lower grade gliomas had not been investigated using this approach. The most prevalent mutation in lower grade gliomas is the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutation, which, in addition to initiating tumor development, also induces metabolic reprogramming. In particular, mutant IDH1 gliomas are associated with low levels of lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) and monocarboxylate transporters 1 and 4 (MCT1, MCT4), three proteins involved in pyruvate metabolism to lactate. We therefore investigated the potential of (13)C MRS of hyperpolarized [1-(13)C] pyruvate for detection of mutant IDH1 gliomas and for monitoring of their therapeutic response. We studied patient-derived mutant IDH1 glioma cells that underexpress LDHA, MCT1 and MCT4, and wild-type IDH1 GBM cells that express high levels of these proteins. Mutant IDH1 cells and tumors produced significantly less hyperpolarized [1-(13)C] lactate compared to GBM, consistent with their metabolic reprogramming. Furthermore, hyperpolarized [1-(13)C] lactate production was not affected by chemotherapeutic treatment with temozolomide (TMZ) in mutant IDH1 tumors, in contrast to previous reports in GBM. Our results demonstrate the unusual metabolic imaging profile of mutant IDH1 gliomas, which, when combined with other clinically available imaging methods, could be used to detect the presence of the IDH1 mutation in vivo. PMID:27437179

  1. Ethyl pyruvate protects colonic anastomosis from ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Unal, B; Karabeyoglu, M; Huner, T; Canbay, E; Eroglu, A; Yildirim, O; Dolapci, M; Bilgihan, A; Cengiz, O

    2009-03-01

    Ethyl pyruvate is a simple derivative in Ca(+2)- and K(+)-containing balanced salt solution of pyruvate to avoid the problems associated with the instability of pyruvate in solution. It has been shown to ameliorate the effects of ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in many organs. It has also been shown that I/R injury delays the healing of colonic anastomosis. In this study, the effect of ethyl pyruvate on the healing of colon anastomosis and anastomotic strength after I/R injury was investigated. Anastomosis of the colon was performed in 32 adult male Wistar albino rats divided into 4 groups of 8 individuals: (1) sham-operated control group (group 1); (2) 30 minutes of intestinal I/R by superior mesenteric artery occlusion (group 2); (3) I/R+ ethyl pyruvate (group 3), ethyl pyruvate was administered as a 50-mg/kg/d single dose; and (4) I/R+ ethyl pyruvate (group 4), ethyl pyruvate administration was repeatedly (every 6 hours) at the same dose (50 mg/kg). On the fifth postoperative day, animals were killed. Perianastomotic tissue hydroxyproline contents and anastomotic bursting pressures were measured in all groups. When the anastomotic bursting pressures and tissue hydroxyproline contents were compared, it was found that they were decreased in group 2 when compared with groups 1, 3, and 4 (P < .05). Both anastomotic bursting pressure (P = .005) and hydroxyproline content (P < .001) levels were found to be significantly increased with ethyl pyruvate administration when compared with group 2. When ethyl pyruvate administration doses were compared, a significant difference was not observed (P > .05). Ethyl pyruvate significantly prevents the delaying effect of I/R injury on anastomotic strength and healing independent from doses of administration. PMID:19064591

  2. Expression of Lactate Dehydrogenase in Aspergillus niger for L-Lactic Acid Production

    PubMed Central

    Dave, Khyati K.; Punekar, Narayan S.

    2015-01-01

    Different engineered organisms have been used to produce L-lactate. Poor yields of lactate at low pH and expensive downstream processing remain as bottlenecks. Aspergillus niger is a prolific citrate producer and a remarkably acid tolerant fungus. Neither a functional lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from nor lactate production by A. niger is reported. Its genome was also investigated for the presence of a functional ldh. The endogenous A. niger citrate synthase promoter relevant to A. niger acidogenic metabolism was employed to drive constitutive expression of mouse lactate dehydrogenase (mldhA). An appraisal of different branches of the A. niger pyruvate node guided the choice of mldhA for heterologous expression. A high copy number transformant C12 strain, displaying highest LDH specific activity, was analyzed under different growth conditions. The C12 strain produced 7.7 g/l of extracellular L-lactate from 60 g/l of glucose, in non-neutralizing minimal media. Significantly, lactate and citrate accumulated under two different growth conditions. Already an established acidogenic platform, A. niger now promises to be a valuable host for lactate production. PMID:26683313

  3. [Psychopharmacotherapy in pregnancy and lactation. 2: Lactation].

    PubMed

    Lanczik, M; Knoche, M; Fritze, J

    1998-01-01

    Whilst the incidence of psychiatric disorders decreases during pregnancy, the risk during the postpartum period increases significantly, often leading to the necessity of psychopharmacological intervention during the puerperium, and subsequently during lactation and breast-feeding. The necessity for lithium prophylaxis in manic-depressive women after childbirth has been identified, and it is recommended that weaning rather than omission of psychopharmacological treatment is preferable during the puerperium. PMID:9522328

  4. Lactate dehydrogenase is not a mitochondrial enzyme in human and mouse vastus lateralis muscle

    PubMed Central

    Rasmussen, Hans N; van Hall, Gerrit; Rasmussen, Ulla F

    2002-01-01

    The presence of lactate dehydrogenase in skeletal muscle mitochondria was investigated to clarify whether lactate is a possible substrate for mitochondrial respiration. Mitochondria were prepared from 100 mg samples of human and mouse vastus lateralis muscle. All fractions from the preparation procedure were assayed for marker enzymes and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). The mitochondrial fraction contained no LDH activity (detection limit ∼0.05 % of the tissue activity) and the distribution of LDH activity among the fractions paralleled that of pyruvate kinase, i.e. LDH was fractionated as a cytoplasmic enzyme. Respiratory experiments with the mitochondrial fraction also indicated the absence of LDH. Lactate did not cause respiration, nor did it affect the respiration of pyruvate + malate. The major part of the native cytochrome c was retained in the isolated mitochondria, which, furthermore, showed high specific rates of state 3 respiration. This excluded artificial loss from the mitochondria of all activity of a possible LDH. It was concluded that skeletal muscle mitochondria are devoid of LDH and unable to metabolize lactate. PMID:12042361

  5. Stereoselective titanium-mediated aldol reactions of a chiral lactate-derived ethyl ketone with ketones.

    PubMed

    Alcoberro, Sandra; Gómez-Palomino, Alejandro; Solà, Ricard; Romea, Pedro; Urpí, Fèlix; Font-Bardia, Mercè

    2014-01-17

    Aldol reactions of titanium enolates of lactate-derived ethyl ketone 1 with other ketones proceed in a very efficient and stereocontrolled manner provided that a further equivalent of TiCl4 is added to the reacting mixture. The scope of these reactions encompasses simple ketones such as acetone or cyclohexanone as well as other ketones that contain potential chelating groups such as pyruvate esters or α- and β-hydroxy ketones. PMID:24372372

  6. Phosphorylation-dephosphorylation of yeast pyruvate dehydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Uhlinger, D.J.; Reed, L.J.

    1986-05-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) was purified to homogeneity from baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). No pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) kinase activity was detected at any stage of the purification. However, the purified PDC was phosphorylated and inactivated by purified PDH kinase from bovine kidney mitochondria, Mg/sup 2 +/, and (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP. The protein-bound radioactivity was localized in the PDH ..cap alpha.. subunit. The phosphorylated, inactivated PDC was dephosphorylated and reactivated with purified bovine PDH phosphatase, Mg/sup 2 +/, and Ca/sup 2 +/. From a tryptic digest of phosphorylated yeast PDC a radioactive peptide was isolated by anion and reverse phase HPLC. The sequence of this tetradecapeptide is Tyr-Gly-Gly-His-Ser(P)-Met-Ser-Asp-Pro-Gly-Thr-Thr-Tyr-Arg. This sequence is very similar to the sequence of a tryptic phosphopeptide derived from the ..cap alpha.. subunit of bovine kidney and heart PDH: Tyr-His-Gly-His-Ser(P)-Met-Ser-Asp-Pro-Gly-Val-Ser-Tyr-Arg.

  7. Postischemic hyperoxia reduces hippocampal pyruvate dehydrogenase activity

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Erica M.; Rosenthal, Robert E.; Kristian, Tibor; Fiskum, Gary

    2008-01-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) is a mitochondrial matrix enzyme that catalyzes the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate and represents the sole bridge between anaerobic and aerobic cerebral energy metabolism. Previous studies demonstrating loss of PDHC enzyme activity and immunoreactivity during reperfusion after cerebral ischemia suggest that oxidative modifications are involved. This study tested the hypothesis that hyperoxic reperfusion exacerbates loss of PDHC enzyme activity, possibly due to tyrosine nitration or S-nitrosation. We used a clinically relevant canine ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest model in which, after resuscitation and ventilation on either 100% O2 (hyperoxic) or 21–30% O2 (normoxic), animals were sacrificed at 2 h reperfusion and the brains removed for enzyme activity and immunoreactivity measurements. Animals resuscitated under hyperoxic conditions exhibited decreased PDHC activity and elevated 3-nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity in the hippocampus but not the cortex, compared to nonischemic controls. These measures were unchanged in normoxic animals. In vitro exposure of purified PDHC to peroxynitrite resulted in a dose-dependent loss of activity and increased nitrotyrosine immunoreactivity. These results support the hypothesis that oxidative stress contributes to loss of hippocampal PDHC activity during cerebral ischemia and reperfusion and suggest that PDHC is a target of peroxynitrite. PMID:16716897

  8. Accelerated Lactate Dehydrogenase Activity Potentiates Osteoclastogenesis via NFATc1 Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin Man; Kwon, So Hyun; Lee, Seoung Hoon; Lee, Soo Young; Jeong, Daewon

    2016-01-01

    Osteoclasts seem to be metabolic active during their differentiation and bone-resorptive activation. However, the functional role of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), a tetrameric enzyme consisting of an A and/or B subunit that catalyzes interconversion of pyruvate to lactate, in RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation is not known. In this study, RANKL treatment induced gradual gene expression and activation of the LDH A2B2 isotype during osteoclast differentiation as well as the LDH A1B3 and B4 isotypes during osteoclast maturation after pre-osteoclast formation. Glucose consumption and lactate production in growth media were accelerated during osteoclast differentiation, together with enhanced expression of H+-lactate co-transporter and increased extracellular acidification, demonstrating that glycolytic metabolism was stimulated during differentiation. Further, oxygen consumption via mitochondria was stimulated during osteoclast differentiation. On the contrary, depletion of LDH-A or LDH-B subunit suppressed both glycolytic and mitochondrial metabolism, resulting in reduced mature osteoclast formation via decreased osteoclast precursor fusion and down-regulation of the osteoclastogenic critical transcription factor NFATc1 and its target genes. Collectively, our findings suggest that RANKL-induced LDH activation stimulates glycolytic and mitochondrial respiratory metabolism, facilitating mature osteoclast formation via osteoclast precursor fusion and NFATc1 signaling. PMID:27077737

  9. Ability of lactate and pyruvate to stimulate aerobic growth of campylobacter in media supplemented with fumarate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Campylobacter spp. are human, foodborne, and bacterial pathogens that are frequently isolated from live poultry and processed poultry products. These pathogens are classified as microaerophiles; therefore, Campylobacter cultures are generally grown in atmospheres with reduced oxygen levels and elev...

  10. Gluconeogenesis in Leishmania mexicana: contribution of glycerol kinase, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, and pyruvate phosphate dikinase.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Contreras, Dayana; Hamilton, Nicklas

    2014-11-21

    Gluconeogenesis is an active pathway in Leishmania amastigotes and is essential for their survival within the mammalian cells. However, our knowledge about this pathway in trypanosomatids is very limited. We investigated the role of glycerol kinase (GK), phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and pyruvate phosphate dikinase (PPDK) in gluconeogenesis by generating the respective Leishmania mexicana Δgk, Δpepck, and Δppdk null mutants. Our results demonstrated that indeed GK, PEPCK, and PPDK are key players in the gluconeogenesis pathway in Leishmania, although stage-specific differences in their contribution to this pathway were found. GK participates in the entry of glycerol in promastigotes and amastigotes; PEPCK participates in the entry of aspartate in promastigotes, and PPDK is involved in the entry of alanine in amastigotes. Furthermore, the majority of alanine enters into the pathway via decarboxylation of pyruvate in promastigotes, whereas pathway redundancy is suggested for the entry of aspartate in amastigotes. Interestingly, we also found that l-lactate, an abundant glucogenic precursor in mammals, was used by Leishmania amastigotes to synthesize mannogen, entering the pathway through PPDK. On the basis of these new results, we propose a revision in the current model of gluconeogenesis in Leishmania, emphasizing the differences between amastigotes and promastigotes. This work underlines the importance of studying the trypanosomatid intracellular life cycle stages to gain a better understanding of the pathologies caused in humans. PMID:25288791

  11. Treatment of pyruvate carboxylase deficiency with high doses of citrate and aspartate.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, A; Kahler, S G; Kishnani, P S; Artigas-Lopez, M; Pappu, A S; Steiner, R; Millington, D S; Van Hove, J L

    1999-12-01

    A patient with severe pyruvate carboxylase deficiency presented at age 11 weeks with metabolic decompensation after routine immunization. She was comatose, had severe lactic acidemia (22 mM) and ketosis, low aspartate and glutamate, elevated citrulline and proline, and mild hyperammonemia. Head magnetic resonance imaging showed subdural hematomas and mild generalized brain atrophy. Biotin-unresponsive pyruvate carboxylase deficiency was diagnosed. To provide oxaloacetate, she was treated with high-dose citrate (7.5 mol/kg(-1)/day(-1)), aspartate (10 mmol/kg(-1)/day(-1)), and continuous drip feeding. Lactate and ketones diminished dramatically, and plasma amino acids normalized, except for arginine, which required supplementation. In the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), glutamine remained low and lysine elevated, showing the treatment had not normalized brain chemistry. Metabolic decompensations, triggered by infections or fasting, diminished after the first year. They were characterized by severe lactic and ketoacidosis, hypernatremia, and a tendency to hypoglycemia. At age 3(1/2) years she has profound mental retardation, spasticity, and grand mal and myoclonic seizures only partially controlled by anticonvulsants. The new treatment regimen has helped maintain metabolic control, but the neurological outcome is still poor. PMID:10588840

  12. Lactate Up-Regulates the Expression of Lactate Oxidation Complex-Related Genes in Left Ventricular Cardiac Tissue of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gabriel-Costa, Daniele; da Cunha, Telma Fatima; Bechara, Luiz Roberto Grassmann; Fortunato, Rodrigo Soares; Bozi, Luiz Henrique Marchesi; Coelho, Marcele de Almeida; Barreto-Chaves, Maria Luiza; Brum, Patricia Chakur

    2015-01-01

    Background Besides its role as a fuel source in intermediary metabolism, lactate has been considered a signaling molecule modulating lactate-sensitive genes involved in the regulation of skeletal muscle metabolism. Even though the flux of lactate is significantly high in the heart, its role on regulation of cardiac genes regulating lactate oxidation has not been clarified yet. We tested the hypothesis that lactate would increase cardiac levels of reactive oxygen species and up-regulate the expression of genes related to lactate oxidation complex. Methods/Principal Findings Isolated hearts from male adult Wistar rats were perfused with control, lactate or acetate (20mM) added Krebs-Henseleit solution during 120 min in modified Langendorff apparatus. Reactive oxygen species (O2●-/H2O2) levels, and NADH and NADPH oxidase activities (in enriched microsomal or plasmatic membranes, respectively) were evaluated by fluorimetry while SOD and catalase activities were evaluated by spectrophotometry. mRNA levels of lactate oxidation complex and energetic enzymes MCT1, MCT4, HK, LDH, PDH, CS, PGC1α and COXIV were quantified by real time RT-PCR. Mitochondrial DNA levels were also evaluated. Hemodynamic parameters were acquired during the experiment. The key findings of this work were that lactate elevated cardiac NADH oxidase activity but not NADPH activity. This response was associated with increased cardiac O2●-/H2O2 levels and up-regulation of MCT1, MCT4, LDH and PGC1α with no changes in HK, PDH, CS, COXIV mRNA levels and mitochondrial DNA levels. Lactate increased NRF-2 nuclear expression and SOD activity probably as counter-regulatory responses to increased O2●-/H2O2. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for lactate-induced up-regulation of lactate oxidation complex associated with increased NADH oxidase activity and cardiac O2●-/H2O2 driving to an anti-oxidant response. These results unveil lactate as an important signaling molecule regulating components of

  13. A monomeric form of pyruvate kinase in human pyruvate kinase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Adachi, K; Ghory, P K; Asakura, T; Schwartz, E

    1977-01-01

    A mutant pyruvate kinase (ATP:pyruvate 2-O-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.40) from human erythrocytes which is easily separated into monomers and dimers by gel chromatography is described. Tht mutant enzyme shows almost the same pH optimum and thermostability as normal enzyme, but has a decreased stability on shaking with air, a decreased Km for phosphoenolpyruvate and a loss of allosteric properties. The apparent Km values for phosphoenolpyruvate of tetramers and monomers were the same. The tetrameric enzyme was slightly activated by fructose-1,6-diphosphate but the monomeric form was not. The tetrameric enzyme was found to dissociate spontaneously to dimeric and monomeric forms. PMID:15247

  14. [Dark metabolism of acetate in Rhodospirillum rubrum cells, grown under photoheterotropic conditions].

    PubMed

    Berg, I A; Krasil'nikova, E N; Ivanovskiĭ, R N

    2000-01-01

    The mechanism of the dark assimilation of acetate in the photoheterotrophically grown nonsulfur bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum was studied. Both in the light and in the dark, acetate assimilation in Rsp. rubrum cells, which lack the glyoxylate pathway, was accompanied by the excretion of glyoxylate into the growth medium. The assimilation of propionate was accompanied by the excretion of pyruvate. Acetate assimilation was found to be stimulated by bicarbonate, pyruvate, the C4-dicarboxylic acids of the Krebs cycle, and glyoxylate, but not by propionate. These data implied that the citramalate (CM) cycle in Rsp. rubrum cells grown aerobically in the dark can function as an anaplerotic pathway. This supposition was confirmed by respiration measurements. The respiration of cells oxidizing acetate depended on the presence of CO2 in the medium. The fact that the intermediates of the CM cycle (citramalate and mesaconate) markedly inhibited acetate assimilation but had almost no effect on cell respiration indicative that citramalate and mesaconate are intermediates of the acetate assimilation pathway. The inhibition of acetate assimilation and cell respiration by itaconate was due to its inhibitory effect on propionyl-CoA carboxylase, an enzyme of the CM cycle. The addition of 5 mM itaconate to extracts of Rsp. rubrum cells inhibited the activity of this enzyme by 85%. The data obtained suggest that the CM cycle continues to function in Rsp. rubrum cells that have been grown anaerobically in the light and then transferred to the dark and incubated aerobically. PMID:10808482

  15. Structural Studies of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciszak, Ewa; Korotchkina, Lioubov G.; Dominiak, Paulina; Sidhu, Sukhdeep; Patel, Mulchand S.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Human pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) catalyzes the irreversible decarboxylation of pyruvate in the presence of Mg(2+) and thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) followed by the rate-limiting reductive acetylation of the lipoyl moiety linked to dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase. The three-dimensional structure of human E1 is elucidated using the methods of macromolecular X-ray crystallography. The structure is an alpha, alpha', beta and beta' tetramer with the protein units being in the tetrahedral arrangement. Each 361-residue alpha-subunit and 329-residue beta-subunit is composed of a beta-sheet core surrounded by alpha-helical domains. Each subunit is in extensive contact with all the three subunits involving TPP and magnesium cofactors, and potassium ions. The two binding sites for TPP are at the alpha-beta' and alpha'-beta interfaces, each involving a magnesium ion and Phe6l, His63, Tyr89, and Met200 from the alpha-subunit (or alpha'-subunit), and Met81 Phe85, His128 from the beta-subunit (or beta'-subunit). K+ ions are nestled between two beta-sheets and the end of an alpha-helix in each beta-subunit, where they are coordinated by four carbonyl oxygen groups from Ile12, Ala160, Asp163, and Asnl65, and a water molecule. The catalytic C2 carbon of thiazolium ring in this structure forms a 3.2 A contact with a water molecule involved in a series of H-bonds with other water molecules, and indirectly with amino acids including those involved in the catalysis and regulation of the enzyme.

  16. Conformational Dynamics and Allostery in Pyruvate Kinase.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Katherine A; Zhu, Shaolong; Liuni, Peter; Peng, Fen; Kessans, Sarah A; Wilson, Derek J; Dobson, Renwick C J

    2016-04-22

    Pyruvate kinase catalyzes the final step in glycolysis and is allosterically regulated to control flux through the pathway. Two models are proposed to explain how Escherichia coli pyruvate kinase type 1 is allosterically regulated: the "domain rotation model" suggests that both the domains within the monomer and the monomers within the tetramer reorient with respect to one another; the "rigid body reorientation model" proposes only a reorientation of the monomers within the tetramer causing rigidification of the active site. To test these hypotheses and elucidate the conformational and dynamic changes that drive allostery, we performed time-resolved electrospray ionization mass spectrometry coupled to hydrogen-deuterium exchange studies followed by mutagenic analysis to test the activation mechanism. Global exchange experiments, supported by thermostability studies, demonstrate that fructose 1,6-bisphosphate binding to the allosteric domain causes a shift toward a globally more dynamic ensemble of conformations. Mapping deuterium exchange to peptides within the enzyme highlight site-specific regions with altered conformational dynamics, many of which increase in conformational flexibility. Based upon these and mutagenic studies, we propose an allosteric mechanism whereby the binding of fructose 1,6-bisphosphate destabilizes an α-helix that bridges the allosteric and active site domains within the monomeric unit. This destabilizes the β-strands within the (β/α)8-barrel domain and the linked active site loops that are responsible for substrate binding. Our data are consistent with the domain rotation model but inconsistent with the rigid body reorientation model given the increased flexibility at the interdomain interface, and we can for the first time explain how fructose 1,6-bisphosphate affects the active site. PMID:26879751

  17. Evolution of D-lactate dehydrogenase activity from glycerol dehydrogenase and its utility for D-lactate production from lignocellulose.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qingzhao; Ingram, Lonnie O; Shanmugam, K T

    2011-11-22

    Lactic acid, an attractive, renewable chemical for production of biobased plastics (polylactic acid, PLA), is currently commercially produced from food-based sources of sugar. Pure optical isomers of lactate needed for PLA are typically produced by microbial fermentation of sugars at temperatures below 40 °C. Bacillus coagulans produces L(+)-lactate as a primary fermentation product and grows optimally at 50 °C and pH 5, conditions that are optimal for activity of commercial fungal cellulases. This strain was engineered to produce D(-)-lactate by deleting the native ldh (L-lactate dehydrogenase) and alsS (acetolactate synthase) genes to impede anaerobic growth, followed by growth-based selection to isolate suppressor mutants that restored growth. One of these, strain QZ19, produced about 90 g L(-1) of optically pure D(-)-lactic acid from glucose in < 48 h. The new source of D-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) activity was identified as a mutated form of glycerol dehydrogenase (GlyDH; D121N and F245S) that was produced at high levels as a result of a third mutation (insertion sequence). Although the native GlyDH had no detectable activity with pyruvate, the mutated GlyDH had a D-LDH specific activity of 0.8 μmoles min(-1) (mg protein)(-1). By using QZ19 for simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of cellulose to D-lactate (50 °C and pH 5.0), the cellulase usage could be reduced to 1/3 that required for equivalent fermentations by mesophilic lactic acid bacteria. Together, the native B. coagulans and the QZ19 derivative can be used to produce either L(+) or D(-) optical isomers of lactic acid (respectively) at high titers and yields from nonfood carbohydrates. PMID:22065761

  18. Enzymatic Kinetic Properties of the Lactate Dehydrogenase Isoenzyme C4 of the Plateau Pika (Ochotona curzoniae)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Lian; Wei, Dengbang; Li, Xiao; Xu, Lina; Wei, Linna

    2016-01-01

    Testis-specific lactate dehydrogenase (LDH-C4) is one of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) isozymes that catalyze the terminal reaction of pyruvate to lactate in the glycolytic pathway. LDH-C4 in mammals was previously thought to be expressed only in spermatozoa and testis and not in other tissues. Plateau pika (Ochotona curzoniae) belongs to the genus Ochotona of the Ochotonidea family. It is a hypoxia-tolerant species living in remote mountain areas at altitudes of 3000–5000 m above sea level on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau. Surprisingly, Ldh-c is expressed not only in its testis and sperm, but also in somatic tissues of plateau pika. To shed light on the function of LDH-C4 in somatic cells, Ldh-a, Ldh-b, and Ldh-c of plateau pika were subcloned into bacterial expression vectors. The pure enzymes of Lactate Dehydrogenase A4 (LDH-A4), Lactate Dehydrogenase B4 (LDH-B4), and LDH-C4 were prepared by a series of expression and purification processes, and the three enzymes were identified by the method of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). The enzymatic kinetics properties of these enzymes were studied by Lineweaver-Burk double-reciprocal plots. The results showed the Michaelis constant (Km) of LDH-C4 for pyruvate and lactate was 0.052 and 4.934 mmol/L, respectively, with an approximate 90 times higher affinity of LDH-C4 for pyruvate than for lactate. At relatively high concentrations of lactate, the inhibition constant (Ki) of the LDH isoenzymes varied: LDH-A4 (Ki = 26.900 mmol/L), LDH-B4 (Ki = 23.800 mmol/L), and LDH-C4 (Ki = 65.500 mmol/L). These data suggest that inhibition of lactate by LDH-A4 and LDH-B4 were stronger than LDH-C4. In light of the enzymatic kinetics properties, we suggest that the plateau pika can reduce reliance on oxygen supply and enhance its adaptation to the hypoxic environments due to increased anaerobic glycolysis by LDH-C4. PMID:26751442

  19. Lactate: Friend or Foe.

    PubMed

    Hall, Mederic M; Rajasekaran, Sathish; Thomsen, Timothy W; Peterson, Andrew R

    2016-03-01

    Lactic acid has played an important role in the traditional theory of muscle fatigue and limitation of endurance exercise performance. It has been called a waste product of anaerobic metabolism and has been believed to be responsible for the uncomfortable "burn" of intense exercise and directly responsible for the metabolic acidosis of exercise, leading to decreased muscle contractility and ultimately cessation of exercise. Although this premise has been commonly taught, it is not supported by the scientific literature and has led to a great deal of confusion among the sports medicine and exercise science communities. This review will provide the sports medicine clinician with an understanding of contemporary lactate theories, including lactate's role in energy production, its contributions to metabolic acidosis, and its function as an energy substrate for a variety of tissues. Lactate threshold concepts will also be discussed, including a practical approach to understanding prediction of performance and monitoring of training progress based on these parameters. PMID:26972271

  20. Neuronal pyruvate carboxylation supports formation of transmitter glutamate.

    PubMed

    Hassel, B; Brâthe, A

    2000-02-15

    Release of transmitter glutamate implies a drain of alpha-ketoglutarate from neurons, because glutamate, which is formed from alpha-ketoglutarate, is taken up by astrocytes. It is generally believed that this drain is compensated by uptake of glutamine from astrocytes, because neurons are considered incapable of de novo synthesis of tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, which requires pyruvate carboxylation. Here we show that cultured cerebellar granule neurons form releasable [(14)C]glutamate from H(14)CO(3)(-) and [1-(14)C]pyruvate via pyruvate carboxylation, probably mediated by malic enzyme. The activity of pyruvate carboxylation was calculated to be approximately one-third of the pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in neurons. Furthermore, intrastriatal injection of NaH(14)CO(3) or [1-(14)C]pyruvate labeled glutamate better than glutamine, showing that pyruvate carboxylation occurs in neurons in vivo. This means that neurons themselves to a large extent may support their release of glutamate, and thus entails a revision of the current view of glial-neuronal interactions and the importance of the glutamine cycle. PMID:10662824

  1. Activation of Cytosolic Pyruvate Kinase by Polyethylene Glycol.

    PubMed Central

    Podesta, F. E.; Plaxton, W. C.

    1993-01-01

    Homogeneous cytosolic pyruvate kinase from endosperm of germinating castor oil (Ricinus communis L. cv Hale) seeds was potently activated by polyethylene glycol. The addition of 5% (w/v) polyethylene glycol to the pyruvate kinase reaction mixture caused a 2.6-fold increase in maximal velocity and 12.5- and 2-fold reductions in Km values for phosphoenolpyruvate and ADP, respectively. Glycerol, ethylene glycol, and bovine serum albumin also enhanced pyruvate kinase activity, albeit to a lesser extent than polyethylene glycol. The addition of 5% (w/v) polyethylene glycol to the elution buffer during high-performance gel filtration chromatography of purified cytosolic pyruvate kinase helped to stabilize the active heterotetrameric native structure of the enzyme. A higher degree of inhibition by MgATP, but lower sensitivity to the inhibitors 3-phosphoglycerate and fructose- 1,6-bisphosphate, was also observed in the presence of 5% (w/v) polyethylene glycol. It is concluded that (a) plant cytosolic pyruvate kinase activity and regulation, like that of other regulatory pyruvate kinases, is modified by extreme dilution in the assay medium, probably as a result of deaggregation of the native tetrameric enzyme, and (b) ATP is probably the major metabolic effector of germinating castor endosperm cytosolic pyruvate kinase in vivo. PMID:12231936

  2. Activation of Cytosolic Pyruvate Kinase by Polyethylene Glycol.

    PubMed

    Podesta, F. E.; Plaxton, W. C.

    1993-09-01

    Homogeneous cytosolic pyruvate kinase from endosperm of germinating castor oil (Ricinus communis L. cv Hale) seeds was potently activated by polyethylene glycol. The addition of 5% (w/v) polyethylene glycol to the pyruvate kinase reaction mixture caused a 2.6-fold increase in maximal velocity and 12.5- and 2-fold reductions in Km values for phosphoenolpyruvate and ADP, respectively. Glycerol, ethylene glycol, and bovine serum albumin also enhanced pyruvate kinase activity, albeit to a lesser extent than polyethylene glycol. The addition of 5% (w/v) polyethylene glycol to the elution buffer during high-performance gel filtration chromatography of purified cytosolic pyruvate kinase helped to stabilize the active heterotetrameric native structure of the enzyme. A higher degree of inhibition by MgATP, but lower sensitivity to the inhibitors 3-phosphoglycerate and fructose- 1,6-bisphosphate, was also observed in the presence of 5% (w/v) polyethylene glycol. It is concluded that (a) plant cytosolic pyruvate kinase activity and regulation, like that of other regulatory pyruvate kinases, is modified by extreme dilution in the assay medium, probably as a result of deaggregation of the native tetrameric enzyme, and (b) ATP is probably the major metabolic effector of germinating castor endosperm cytosolic pyruvate kinase in vivo. PMID:12231936

  3. Decarboxylation of Pyruvate to Acetaldehyde for Ethanol Production by Hyperthermophiles

    PubMed Central

    Eram, Mohammad S.; Ma, Kesen

    2013-01-01

    Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC encoded by pdc) is a thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP)-containing enzyme responsible for the conversion of pyruvate to acetaldehyde in many mesophilic organisms. However, no pdc/PDC homolog has yet been found in fully sequenced genomes and proteomes of hyper/thermophiles. The only PDC activity reported in hyperthermophiles was a bifunctional, TPP- and CoA-dependent pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR)/PDC enzyme from the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus. Another enzyme known to be involved in catalysis of acetaldehyde production from pyruvate is CoA-acetylating acetaldehyde dehydrogenase (AcDH encoded by mhpF and adhE). Pyruvate is oxidized into acetyl-CoA by either POR or pyruvate formate lyase (PFL), and AcDH catalyzes the reduction of acetyl-CoA to acetaldehyde in mesophilic organisms. AcDH is present in some mesophilic (such as clostridia) and thermophilic bacteria (e.g., Geobacillus and Thermoanaerobacter). However, no AcDH gene or protein homologs could be found in the released genomes and proteomes of hyperthermophiles. Moreover, no such activity was detectable from the cell-free extracts of different hyperthermophiles under different assay conditions. In conclusion, no commonly-known PDCs was found in hyperthermophiles. Instead of the commonly-known PDC, it appears that at least one multifunctional enzyme is responsible for catalyzing the non-oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetaldehyde in hyperthermophiles. PMID:24970182

  4. Lactate Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (LATEST) Imaging in vivo A Biomarker for LDH Activity

    PubMed Central

    DeBrosse, Catherine; Nanga, Ravi Prakash Reddy; Bagga, Puneet; Nath, Kavindra; Haris, Mohammad; Marincola, Francesco; Schnall, Mitchell D.; Hariharan, Hari; Reddy, Ravinder

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive imaging of lactate is of enormous significance in cancer and metabolic disorders where glycolysis dominates. Here, for the first time, we describe a chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method (LATEST), based on the exchange between lactate hydroxyl proton and bulk water protons to image lactate with high spatial resolution. We demonstrate the feasibility of imaging lactate with LATEST in lactate phantoms under physiological conditions, in a mouse model of lymphoma tumors, and in skeletal muscle of healthy human subjects pre- and post-exercise. The method is validated by measuring LATEST changes in lymphoma tumors pre- and post-infusion of pyruvate and correlating them with lactate determined from multiple quantum filtered proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (SEL-MQC 1H-MRS). Similarly, dynamic LATEST changes in exercising human skeletal muscle are correlated with lactate determined from SEL-MQC 1H-MRS. The LATEST method does not involve injection of radioactive isotopes or labeled metabolites. It has over two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity compared to conventional 1H-MRS. It is anticipated that this technique will have a wide range of applications including diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic response of cancer, diabetes, cardiac, and musculoskeletal diseases. The advantages of LATEST over existing methods and its potential challenges are discussed. PMID:26794265

  5. Warburg-like Glycolysis and Lactate Shuttle in Mouse Decidua during Early Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Ru-Juan; Gu, Xiao-Wei; Qi, Qian-Rong; Wang, Tong-Song; Zhao, Xu-Yu; Liu, Ji-Long; Yang, Zeng-Ming

    2015-08-28

    Decidualization is an essential process of maternal endometrial stromal cells to support pregnancy. Although it is known that enhanced glucose influx is critical for decidualization, the underlying mechanism in regulating glucose metabolism in decidua remains insufficiently understood. Here, we demonstrate that aerobic glycolysis-related genes and factors are all substantially induced during decidualization, indicating the existence of Warburg-like glycolysis in decidua. In vitro, progesterone activates hypoxia-inducible factor 1α (Hif1α) and c-Myc through Pi3k-Akt signaling pathway to maintain aerobic glycolysis in decidualizing cells. Knocking down of pyruvate kinase M2 (Pkm2) attenuates the induction of decidual marker gene. Decidual formation in vivo is also impaired by glycolysis inhibitor 3-bromopyruvate. Besides, lactate exporter monocarboxylate transporter 4 (Mct4) is induced in newly formed decidual cells, whereas lactate importer Mct1 and proliferation marker Ki-67 are complementarily located in the surrounding undifferentiated cells, which are supposed to consume lactate for proliferation. Hif1α activation is required for lactate-dependent proliferation of the undifferentiated cells. Inhibition of lactate flux leads to compromised decidualization and decelerated lactate-dependent proliferation. In summary, we reveal that Warburg-like glycolysis and local lactate shuttle are activated in decidua and play important roles for supporting early pregnancy. PMID:26178372

  6. Lactate Chemical Exchange Saturation Transfer (LATEST) Imaging in vivo A Biomarker for LDH Activity.

    PubMed

    DeBrosse, Catherine; Nanga, Ravi Prakash Reddy; Bagga, Puneet; Nath, Kavindra; Haris, Mohammad; Marincola, Francesco; Schnall, Mitchell D; Hariharan, Hari; Reddy, Ravinder

    2016-01-01

    Non-invasive imaging of lactate is of enormous significance in cancer and metabolic disorders where glycolysis dominates. Here, for the first time, we describe a chemical exchange saturation transfer (CEST) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) method (LATEST), based on the exchange between lactate hydroxyl proton and bulk water protons to image lactate with high spatial resolution. We demonstrate the feasibility of imaging lactate with LATEST in lactate phantoms under physiological conditions, in a mouse model of lymphoma tumors, and in skeletal muscle of healthy human subjects pre- and post-exercise. The method is validated by measuring LATEST changes in lymphoma tumors pre- and post-infusion of pyruvate and correlating them with lactate determined from multiple quantum filtered proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (SEL-MQC (1)H-MRS). Similarly, dynamic LATEST changes in exercising human skeletal muscle are correlated with lactate determined from SEL-MQC (1)H-MRS. The LATEST method does not involve injection of radioactive isotopes or labeled metabolites. It has over two orders of magnitude higher sensitivity compared to conventional (1)H-MRS. It is anticipated that this technique will have a wide range of applications including diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic response of cancer, diabetes, cardiac, and musculoskeletal diseases. The advantages of LATEST over existing methods and its potential challenges are discussed. PMID:26794265

  7. Regional and systemic oxygen delivery/uptake relations and lactate flux in hyperdynamic, endotoxin-treated dogs.

    PubMed

    Curtis, S E; Cain, S M

    1992-02-01

    Pathologic oxygen supply dependency (PO2SD) may be etiologic in multisystem organ failure (MSOF) and has been related to mortality in sepsis. Although elevated lactate levels are generally assumed to be a marker of anaerobiosis in these patients, endotoxin may increase serum lactate by inactivation of pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), unrelated to tissue PO2. We hypothesized that regional lactate flux may correlate poorly with local oxygen delivery in sepsis. This study examined both the whole-body (WB) and regional (isolated hind limb L and gut G) responses to endotoxin infusion in terms of oxygen delivery, oxygen uptake, and lactate flux in 12 pentobarbital-anesthetized dogs. To separate hypoxia-induced lactate production from that related to inactivation of PDH by endotoxin, half the dogs received dichloroacetate (DCA), a PDH activator. After endotoxin and volume resuscitation, each animal had low systemic vascular resistance with normal to high cardiac output. Despite adequate oxygen delivery to WB, L, and G, arterial lactate levels rose significantly. A 30-min hypoxic challenge (12% FIO2) did not increase lactate levels but did increase WB O2 uptake. DCA normalized lactate levels without influencing oxygen delivery and uptake relations. These data show that lactate levels in endotoxic states may be a poor marker of tissue hypoxia and may be more related to PDH activity. PMID:1736740

  8. Regulation of cell growth and apoptosis through lactate dehydrogenase C over-expression in Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Fu, Tuo; Zhang, Cunchao; Jing, Yu; Jiang, Cheng; Li, Zhenhua; Wang, Shengyu; Ma, Kai; Zhang, Dapeng; Hou, Sheng; Dai, Jianxin; Kou, Geng; Wang, Hao

    2016-06-01

    Lactate has long been credited as a by-product, which jeopardizes cell growth and productivity when accumulated over a certain concentration during the manufacturing process of therapeutic recombinant proteins by Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. A number of efforts to decrease the lactate concentration have been developed; however, the accumulation of lactate is still a critical issue by the late stage of fed-batch culture. Therefore, a lactate-tolerant cell line was developed through over-expression of lactate dehydrogenase C (LDH-C). In fed-batch culture, sodium lactate or sodium pyruvate was supplemented into the culture medium to simulate the environment of lactate accumulation, and LDH-C over-expression increased the highest viable cell density by over 30 and 50 %, respectively, on day 5, meanwhile the viability was also improved significantly since day 5 compared with that of the control. The percentages of cells suffering early and late apoptosis decreased by 3.2 to 12.5 and 2.0 to 4.3 %, respectively, from day 6 onwards in the fed-batch culture when 40 mM sodium pyruvate was added compared to the control. The results were confirmed by mitochondrial membrane potential assay. In addition, the expression of cleaved caspases 3 and 7 decreased in cells over-expressing LDH-C, suggesting the mitochondrial pathway was involved in the LDH-C regulated anti-apoptosis. In conclusion, a novel cell line with higher lactate tolerance, lowered lactate production, and alleviated apoptosis response was developed by over-expression of LDH-C, which may potentially represent an efficient and labor-saving approach in generating recombinant proteins. PMID:26841889

  9. Mechanism of Decarboxylation of Pyruvic Acid in the Presence of Hydrogen Peroxide.

    PubMed

    Lopalco, Antonio; Dalwadi, Gautam; Niu, Sida; Schowen, Richard L; Douglas, Justin; Stella, Valentino J

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this work was to probe the rate and mechanism of rapid decarboxylation of pyruvic acid in the presence of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to acetic acid and carbon dioxide over the pH range 2-9 at 25 °C, utilizing UV spectrophotometry, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), and proton and carbon nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometry ((1)H, (13)C-NMR). Changes in UV absorbance at 220 nm were used to determine the kinetics as the reaction was too fast to follow by HPLC or NMR in much of the pH range. The rate constants for the reaction were determined in the presence of molar excess of H2O2 resulting in pseudo first-order kinetics. No buffer catalysis was observed. The calculated second-order rate constants for the reaction followed a sigmoidal shape with pH-independent regions below pH 3 and above pH 7 but increased between pH 4 and 6. Between pH 4 and 9, the results were in agreement with a change from rate-determining nucleophilic attack of the deprotonated peroxide species, HOO(-), on the α-carbonyl group followed by rapid decarboxylation at pH values below 6 to rate-determining decarboxylation above pH 7. The addition of H2O2 to ethyl pyruvate was also characterized. PMID:26422524

  10. Energy Landscape of the Michaelis Complex of Lactate Dehydrogenase: Relationship to Catalytic Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) catalyzes the interconversion between pyruvate and lactate with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) as a cofactor. Using isotope-edited difference Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy on the “live” reaction mixture (LDH·NADH·pyruvate ⇌ LDH·NAD+·lactate) for the wild-type protein and a mutant with an impaired catalytic efficiency, a set of interconverting conformational substates within the pyruvate side of the Michaelis complex tied to chemical activity is revealed. The important structural features of these substates include (1) electronic orbital overlap between pyruvate’s C2=O bond and the nicotinamide ring of NADH, as shown from the observation of a delocalized vibrational mode involving motions from both moieties, and (2) a characteristic hydrogen bond distance between the pyruvate C2=O group and active site residues, as shown by the observation of at least four C2=O stretch bands indicating varying degrees of C2=O bond polarization. These structural features form a critical part of the expected reaction coordinate along the reaction path, and the ability to quantitatively determine them as well as the substate population ratios in the Michaelis complex provides a unique opportunity to probe the structure–activity relationship in LDH catalysis. The various substates have a strong variance in their propensity toward on enzyme chemistry. Our results suggest a physical mechanism for understanding the LDH-catalyzed chemistry in which the bulk of the rate enhancement can be viewed as arising from a stochastic search through an available phase space that, in the enzyme system, involves a restricted ensemble of more reactive conformational substates as compared to the same chemistry in solution. PMID:24576110

  11. Regulation of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and glucose metabolism in post-ischaemic myocardium.

    PubMed

    Schöder, H; Knight, R J; Kofoed, K F; Schelbert, H R; Buxton, D B

    1998-02-27

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is regulated both by covalent modification and through modulation of the active enzyme by metabolites. In the isolated heart, post-ischaemic inhibition of PDH, leading to uncoupling of glycolysis and glucose oxidation and a decrease in cardiac efficiency, has been described. In vivo, post-ischaemic reperfusion leads to metabolic abnormalities consistent with PDH inhibition, but the effects of ischaemia/reperfusion on PDH are not well characterized. We therefore investigated PDH regulation following transient ischaemia in vivo. In 33 open-chest dogs, the left anterior descending (LAD) was occluded for 20 min followed by 4 h reperfusion. In 17 dogs, dichloroacetate (DCA) was injected prior to reperfusion, while 16 dogs served as controls. In dogs without DCA, glucose oxidation and lactate uptake were lower in reperfused than in remote tissue, suggesting reduced flux through PDH. However, percent active and total PDH measured in myocardial biopsies were similar in both territories, excluding covalent enzyme modification or loss of functional enzyme. DCA activated PDH activity similarly in both regions and abolished differences in glucose oxidation and lactate uptake. Thus, decreased PDH flux in reperfused myocardium does not result from covalent modification or loss of total enzyme activity, but more likely from metabolite inhibition of the active enzyme. DCA leads to essentially complete activation of PDH, increases overall glucose utilization and abolishes post-ischaemic inhibition of glucose oxidation. PMID:9545535

  12. 21 CFR 862.1655 - Pyruvic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... measure pyruvic acid (an intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrate) in plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the evaluation of electrolyte metabolism and in the diagnosis...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1655 - Pyruvic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... measure pyruvic acid (an intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrate) in plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the evaluation of electrolyte metabolism and in the diagnosis...

  14. 21 CFR 862.1655 - Pyruvic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... measure pyruvic acid (an intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrate) in plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the evaluation of electrolyte metabolism and in the diagnosis...

  15. 21 CFR 862.1655 - Pyruvic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... measure pyruvic acid (an intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrate) in plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the evaluation of electrolyte metabolism and in the diagnosis...

  16. 21 CFR 862.1655 - Pyruvic acid test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... measure pyruvic acid (an intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrate) in plasma. Measurements obtained by this device are used in the evaluation of electrolyte metabolism and in the diagnosis...

  17. Genetic analysis of the pyruvate decarboxylase reaction in yeast glycolysis.

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, H D; Zimmermann, F K

    1982-01-01

    Six different pyruvate decarboxylase mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae were isolated. They belong to two unlinked complementation groups. Evidence is presented that one group is affected in a structural gene. The fact that five of the six mutants had residual pyruvate decarboxylase activity provided the opportunity for an intensive physiological characterization. It was shown that the loss of enzyme activity in vitro is reflected in a lower fermentation rate, an increased pyruvate secretion, and slower growth on a 2% glucose medium. The different effects of antimycin A on leaky mutants grown on ethanol versus the same mutants grown on glucose support the view that glucose induces some of the glycolytic enzymes, especially pyruvate decarboxylase. PMID:7050079

  18. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, Gerald Charles; Zoeller, Joseph Robert; Depew, Leslie Sharon

    1998-01-01

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  19. Preparation of vinyl acetate

    DOEpatents

    Tustin, G.C.; Zoeller, J.R.; Depew, L.S.

    1998-03-24

    This invention pertains to the preparation of vinyl acetate by contacting a mixture of hydrogen and ketene with a heterogeneous catalyst containing a transition metal to produce acetaldehyde, which is then reacted with ketene in the presence of an acid catalyst to produce vinyl acetate.

  20. [The role of lactate besides the lactic acidosis].

    PubMed

    Brucculeri, S; Urso, C; Caimi, G

    2013-01-01

    Lactic acidosis (LA) is the most common form of metabolic acidosis defined by values of lactate greater than 5 mmol / l and by a pH <7.34. The pathogenesis of LA involves hypoxic (type A) and non hypoxic (type B) causes which are often coexisting. Lactic acidosis is usual in hospitalized population especially in subjects in intensive care units, in which lactate levels on admission could be predictors of mortality even in the absence of organ dysfunction or shock. The outcome is mainly dependent on the cardiovascular effects of acidosis. In subjects with cardiogenic shock, the increased lactate/pyruvate ratio, detectable at onset, is correladed with mortality. An early assessment of blood and tissue lactate levels could play a role in the therapeutic management as well as in outcome. LA could be a unfavorable prognostic factor in cancer. The lactate would act also as "signal molecule" and as a promoting factor in angiogenesis and tumor progression. In the presence of risk factors for LA the role of metformin may be overrated. Despite the doctrinal progress to understand the pathogenesis and pathophysiology, there is not univocal consensus on the therapeutic treatment of LA. The identification and the attempt to remove the cause of acidosis are main aims; treatment with sodium bicarbonate is a matter of debate as the data on the cardiovascular effects and mortality are unclear. The therapy with carbicarb, dichloroacetate or THAM has shown no specific advantages in terms of mortality. In experimental models of LA and shock the use of sodium-hydrogen exchanger-1 (NHE1) selective inhibitors reduces cell damage and inflammatory cytokines synthesis; it also improves cardiac performance and decreases mortality. PMID:23868642

  1. Pathogenic mechanisms underlying X-linked Charcot-Marie-Tooth neuropathy (CMTX6) in patients with a pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 3 mutation.

    PubMed

    Perez-Siles, Gonzalo; Ly, Carolyn; Grant, Adrienne; Drew, Alexander P; Yiu, Eppie M; Ryan, Monique M; Chuang, David T; Tso, Shih-Chia; Nicholson, Garth A; Kennerson, Marina L

    2016-10-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT) is the most common inherited peripheral neuropathy. An X-linked form of CMT (CMTX6) is caused by a missense mutation (R158H) in the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase isoenzyme 3 (PDK3) gene. PDK3 is one of 4 isoenzymes that negatively regulate the activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) by reversible phosphorylation of its first catalytic component pyruvate dehydrogenase (designated as E1). Mitochondrial PDC catalyses the oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA and links glycolysis to the energy-producing Krebs cycle. We have previously shown the R158H mutation confers PDK3 enzyme hyperactivity. In this study we demonstrate that the increased PDK3 activity in patient fibroblasts (PDK3(R158H)) leads to the attenuation of PDC through hyper-phosphorylation of E1 at selected serine residues. This hyper-phosphorylation can be reversed by treating the PDK3(R158H) fibroblasts with the PDK inhibitor dichloroacetate (DCA). In the patient cells, down-regulation of PDC leads to increased lactate, decreased ATP and alteration of the mitochondrial network. Our findings highlight the potential to develop specific drug targeting of the mutant PDK3 as a therapeutic approach to treating CMTX6. PMID:27388934

  2. Pyruvate Protects Pathogenic Spirochetes from H2O2 Killing

    PubMed Central

    Troxell, Bryan; Zhang, Jun-Jie; Bourret, Travis J.; Zeng, Melody Yue; Blum, Janice; Gherardini, Frank; Hassan, Hosni M.; Yang, X. Frank

    2014-01-01

    Pathogenic spirochetes cause clinically relevant diseases in humans and animals, such as Lyme disease and leptospirosis. The causative agent of Lyme disease, Borrelia burgdorferi, and the causative agent of leptospirosis, Leptospria interrogans, encounter reactive oxygen species (ROS) during their enzootic cycles. This report demonstrated that physiologically relevant concentrations of pyruvate, a potent H2O2 scavenger, and provided passive protection to B. burgdorferi and L. interrogans against H2O2. When extracellular pyruvate was absent, both spirochetes were sensitive to a low dose of H2O2 (≈0.6 µM per h) generated by glucose oxidase (GOX). Despite encoding a functional catalase, L. interrogans was more sensitive than B. burgdorferi to H2O2 generated by GOX, which may be due to the inherent resistance of B. burgdorferi because of the virtual absence of intracellular iron. In B. burgdorferi, the nucleotide excision repair (NER) and the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) pathways were important for survival during H2O2 challenge since deletion of the uvrB or the mutS genes enhanced its sensitivity to H2O2 killing; however, the presence of pyruvate fully protected ΔuvrB and ΔmutS from H2O2 killing further demonstrating the importance of pyruvate in protection. These findings demonstrated that pyruvate, in addition to its classical role in central carbon metabolism, serves as an important H2O2 scavenger for pathogenic spirochetes. Furthermore, pyruvate reduced ROS generated by human neutrophils in response to the Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) agonist zymosan. In addition, pyruvate reduced neutrophil-derived ROS in response to B. burgdorferi, which also activates host expression through TLR2 signaling. Thus, pathogenic spirochetes may exploit the metabolite pyruvate, present in blood and tissues, to survive H2O2 generated by the host antibacterial response generated during infection. PMID:24392147

  3. Pyruvate kinase: function, regulation and role in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Israelsen, William J.; Vander Heiden, Matthew G.

    2015-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase is an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of phosphoenolpyruvate and ADP to pyruvate and ATP in glycolysis and plays a role in regulating cell metabolism. There are four mammalian pyruvate kinase isoforms with unique tissue expression patterns and regulatory properties. The M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2) supports anabolic metabolism and is expressed both in cancer and normal tissue. The enzymatic activity of PKM2 is allosterically regulated by both intracellular signaling pathways and metabolites; PKM2 thus integrates signaling and metabolic inputs to modulate glucose metabolism according to the needs of the cell. Recent advances have increased our understanding of metabolic regulation by pyruvate kinase, raised new questions, and suggested the possibility of non-canonical PKM2 functions to regulate gene expression and cell cycle progression via protein-protein interactions and protein kinase activity. Here we review the structure, function, and regulation of pyruvate kinase and discuss how these properties enable regulation of PKM2 for cell proliferation and tumor growth. PMID:26277545

  4. Enantioselective hydrogenation. III. Methyl pyruvate hydrogenation catalyzed by alkaloid-modified iridium

    SciTech Connect

    Simons, K.E.; Johnston, P.; Plum, H.; Wells, P.B.; Ibbotson, A.

    1994-12-01

    Enantioselective hydrogenation of methyl pyruvate, MeCOCOOMe to methyl lactate, MeCH(OH)COOMe, is catalyzed in solution at room temperature by supported iridium catalysts modified with cinchona alkaloids. Modification with cinchonidine or quinine yields R-lactate in excess, whereas modification with cinchonine or quinidine favors S-lactate formation. Ir/SiO{sub 2} catalysts (20%) calcined at 393 to 573 K and reduced at 523 to 593 K were highly active for racemic hydrogenation in the absence of a modifier (rates typically 1.8 mol h{sup -1} g{sub cat}{sup -1}) and were comparably active when modified with cinchonidine but gave an enantiomeric excess of about 30%. Use of higher calcination or reduction temperatures led to substantially inferior activity and selectivity. The high rates recorded for both racemic and enantioselective reactions are dependent on the catalysts being activated before use by a procedure involving exposure of the catalyst to air after the initial reduction. Use of a Cl-free precursor gave an Ir/SiO{sub 2} catalyst (20%) of superior activity but inferior enantioselectivity. Ir/CaCO{sub 3} (5%) was more active for racemic hydrogenation than for enantioselective hydrogenation, but provided the highest value of the enantiomeric excess 39%. Kinematics of reaction are reported. Exchange of H for D in 10,11-dihydrocinchonidine at room temperature over Ir/CaCO{sub 3} occurred in the quinoline moiety but not in the quinuclidine ring system, indicating that the alkaloid was adsorbed to the Ir surface via the interaction of its {pi}-electron system. For both silica-supported and calcium carbonate-supported Ir, the presence of chloride ion in the catalyst was advantageous for the achievement of enantioselectivity. 25 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  5. Yeast cell-based analysis of human lactate dehydrogenase isoforms.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Lulu Ahmed; Tachikawa, Hiroyuki; Gao, Xiao-Dong; Nakanishi, Hideki

    2015-12-01

    Human lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) has attracted attention as a potential target for cancer therapy and contraception. In this study, we reconstituted human lactic acid fermentation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, with the goal of constructing a yeast cell-based LDH assay system. pdc null mutant yeast (mutated in the endogenous pyruvate decarboxylase genes) are unable to perform alcoholic fermentation; when grown in the presence of an electron transport chain inhibitor, pdc null strains exhibit a growth defect. We found that introduction of the human gene encoding LDHA complemented the pdc growth defect; this complementation depended on LDHA catalytic activity. Similarly, introduction of the human LDHC complemented the pdc growth defect, even though LDHC did not generate lactate at the levels seen with LDHA. In contrast, the human LDHB did not complement the yeast pdc null mutant, although LDHB did generate lactate in yeast cells. Expression of LDHB as a red fluorescent protein (RFP) fusion yielded blebs in yeast, whereas LDHA-RFP and LDHC-RFP fusion proteins exhibited cytosolic distribution. Thus, LDHB exhibits several unique features when expressed in yeast cells. Because yeast cells are amenable to genetic analysis and cell-based high-throughput screening, our pdc/LDH strains are expected to be of use for versatile analyses of human LDH. PMID:26126931

  6. Lactate and Adenosine Triphosphate in the Extender Enhance the Cryosurvival of Rat Epididymal Sperm

    PubMed Central

    Yamashiro, Hideaki; Toyomizu, Masaaki; Kikusato, Motoi; Toyama, Natsuki; Sugimura, Satoshi; Hoshino, Yumi; Abe, Hiroyuki; Moisyadi, Stefan; Sato, Eimei

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the cryosurvival of rat epididymal sperm preserved in raffinose–modified Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate–egg yolk extender supplemented with various energy-yielding substrates (glucose, pyruvate, lactate, and ATP) and assessed the effect on sperm oxygen consumption. The incubation of sperm at 37 °C for 10 min in lactate-free extender decreased sperm motility and oxygen consumption before and after thawing compared with those of sperm in glucose- and pyruvate-free mediums. We then focused on the effect of supplementing the extender with lactate (0, 10.79, 21.58, 32.37, and 43.16 mM) and found that sperm frozen and thawed in extender supplemented with 32.37 mM lactate exhibited the highest motility. When we supplemented extender containing 32.37 mM lactate with ATP (0, 0.92, 1.85, 3.70, and 5.55 mM), sperm frozen and thawed in the extender supplemented with 1.85 mM ATP exhibited considerably higher motility and viability than those of sperm frozen and thawed in ATP-free extender. These results provide the first evidence that supplementation of the raffinose-modified Krebs–Ringer bicarbonate–egg yolk extender with 32.37 mM lactate and 1.85 mM ATP increases of number of motile sperm before freezing and enhances the cryosurvival of rat sperm. These supplements to the extender may enhance sperm cryosurvival by improving the metabolic capacity of sperm before freezing. PMID:20353689

  7. Depletion of lactate by dichloroacetate reduces cardiac efficiency after hemorrhagic shock.

    PubMed

    Barbee, R W; Kline, J A; Watts, J A

    2000-08-01

    We have demonstrated previously that dichloroacetate (DCA) treatment in rodents ameliorates, via activation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, the cardiovascular depression observed after hemorrhagic shock. To explore the mechanism of this effect, we administered DCA in a large animal model of hemorrhagic shock. Mongrel hounds were anesthetized with 1.5% isoflurane and were measured for hemodynamics, myocardial contractility, and myocardial substrate utilization. They were hemorrhaged to a mean arterial pressure of 35 mm Hg for 90 min or until arterial lactate levels reached 7.0 mM (1137 +/- 47 mL or 49 +/- 2% total blood volume). Animals were chosen at random to receive DCA dissolved in water or an equal volume of saline at the onset of resuscitation. Two-thirds of the shed blood volume was returned immediately after giving an equivalent volume of saline. Two hours after the onset of resuscitation, mean arterial pressure was not different between DCA and control groups (79 +/- 3 vs. 82 +/- 3 mm Hg, respectively). Arterial lactate levels were significantly reduced by DCA (0.5 +/- 0.06 vs. 2.0 +/- 0.2 mM). However, DCA treatment was associated with a decreased stroke volume index (0.56 +/- 0.06 vs. 0.82 +/- 0.08 mL/kg/beat) and a decreased myocardial efficiency (19 vs. 41 L x mm Hg/mL/100 g tissue). During resuscitation by DCA, myocardial lactate consumption was reduced (21.4 +/- 3.7 vs. 70.7 +/- 16.3 micromole/min/100 g tissue) despite a three-fold increase in myocardial pyruvate dehydrogenase activity, while free fatty acid levels actually began to rise. Although increased lactate oxidation should be beneficial during resuscitation, we propose that DCA treatment led to a deprivation of myocardial lactate supply, which reduced net myocardial lactate oxidation, thus compromising myocardial function during resuscitation from hemorrhagic shock. PMID:10947168

  8. Development of an enzymatic assay system of D-lactate using D-lactate dehydrogenase and a UV-LED fluorescent spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Ming; Chen, Shih-Ming; Chien, Po-Jen; Yu, Han-Yin

    2015-12-10

    In this study, we aimed to develop a new enzymatic assay system of d-lactate with good precision, accuracy, and sensitivity for the determination of D-lactate concentrations in rat serum. D-Lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) was utilized to catalyze D-lactate and NAD(+) to pyruvate and NADH, respectively. The generated NADH was excited by using a 340-nm UV-light-emitting diode (LED), and the fluorescence at 491 nm was detected to determine the concentration of D-lactate in rat serum. The optics, consisting of the sample cuvette, were set on three-dimensional stages to receive the most intensive fluorescence signal into the spectrometer. The optimal conditions of the D-LDH reaction were pH 8.5 and 25 °C for 90 min. The results showed that the new D-lactate assay system had good linearity (R(2)=0.9964) in the calibration range from 5 to 150 μM. Intra-day and inter-day accuracies were in the range of 103.96-109.09% and 102.84-104.59%, respectively, and the intra-day and inter-day precision was 4.28-6.82% and 4.04-12.40%, respectively. Finally, serum D-lactate concentrations determined by the proposed enzymatic assay system were compared with those obtained by a conventional HPLC method. The newly developed D-lactate assay system could detect 10-15 samples in 90 min, whereas the HPLC method could detect only one sample over the same time period. PMID:26265307

  9. Identification of lactate. Analytical methods of pharmacopoeias with DBH in respect to environmental and economical concern, Part 4.

    PubMed

    Hilp, M

    2001-07-01

    The identification of lactate according to Ph. Eur. 1997 and DAB 2000 uses the oxidation of lactic acid to pyruvic acid by boiling with bromine water in sulphuric acid. Acetaldehyde arising by decarboxylation is detected according to Legal applying a time consuming and troublesome procedure. 1,3-Dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DBH) as well as potassium bromate can replace elemental bromine. Lactic acid and all lactates of Ph. Eur. 1997 and DAB 2000 can be identified better and faster using lactate oxidase (LOD, test strip system Accusport). According to DAB 2000 the base of ethacridine lactate has to be separated. This is no longer necessary, if an enzymatic identification is applied. PMID:11487973

  10. Indole-3-acetic acid biosynthetic pathways in the basidiomycetous yeast Rhodosporidium paludigenum.

    PubMed

    Nutaratat, Pumin; Srisuk, Nantana; Arunrattiyakorn, Panarat; Limtong, Savitree

    2016-07-01

    Microorganisms produce plant growth regulators, such as auxins, cytokinins and gibberellins, to promote plant growth. Auxins are a group of compounds with an indole ring that have a positive effect on plant growth. Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) is a plant growth hormone classified as an indole derivative of the auxin family. IAA biosynthesis pathways have been reported and widely studied in several groups of bacteria. Only a few studies on IAA biosynthesis pathways have been conducted in yeast. This study aimed to investigate IAA biosynthesis pathways in a basidiomycetous yeast (Rhodosporidium paludigenum DMKU-RP301). Investigations were performed both with and without a tryptophan supplement. Indole compound intermediates were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Indole-3-lactic acid and indole-3-ethanol were found as a result of the enzymatic reduction of indole-3-pyruvic acid and indole-3-acetaldehyde, in IAA biosynthesis via an indole-3-pyruvic acid pathway. In addition, we also found indole-3-pyruvic acid in culture supernatants determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Identification of tryptophan aminotransferase activity supports indole-3-pyruvic acid-routed IAA biosynthesis in R. paludigenum DMKU-RP301. We hence concluded that R. paludigenum DMKU-RP301 produces IAA through an indole-3-pyruvic acid pathway. PMID:26899734

  11. Alcohol's effect on lactation.

    PubMed

    Mennella, J

    2001-01-01

    Although pregnant women are discouraged from drinking alcohol because of alcohol's detrimental effect on fetal development, the lore of many cultures encourages lactating women to drink alcohol to optimize breast milk production and infant nutrition. In contrast to this folklore, however, studies demonstrate that maternal alcohol consumption may slightly reduce milk production. Furthermore, some of the alcohol consumed by a lactating woman is transferred to her milk and thus consumed by the infant. This alcohol consumption may adversely affect the infant's sleep and gross motor development and influence early learning about alcohol. Based on this science, it would seem that the recommendation for a nursing mother to drink a glass of beer or wine shortly before nursing may actually be counterproductive. PMID:11810962

  12. Alteration of interaction between astrocytes and neurons in different stages of diabetes: a nuclear magnetic resonance study using [1-(13)C]glucose and [2-(13)C]acetate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Na; Zhao, Liang-Cai; Zheng, Yong-Quan; Dong, Min-Jian; Su, Yongchao; Chen, Wei-Jian; Hu, Zi-Long; Yang, Yun-Jun; Gao, Hong-Chang

    2015-01-01

    Increasing evidence has shown that the brain is a site of diabetic end-organ damage. This study investigates cerebral metabolism and the interactions between astrocytes and neurons at different stages of diabetes to identify the potential pathogenesis of diabetic encephalopathy. [1-(13)C]glucose or [2-(13)C]acetate is infused into 1- and 15-week diabetic rats, the brain extracts of which are analyzed by using (1)H and (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The (13)C-labeling pattern and enrichment of cerebral metabolites are also investigated. The increased (13)C incorporation in the glutamine, glutamate, and γ-aminobutyric acid carbons from [2-(13)C]acetate suggests that the astrocytic mitochondrial metabolism is enhanced in 1-week diabetic rats. By contrast, the decreased labeling from [1-(13)C]glucose reflected that the neuronal mitochondrial metabolism is impaired. As diabetes developed to 15 weeks, glutamine and glutamate concentrations significantly decreased. The increased labeling of glutamine C4 but unchanged labeling of glutamate C4 from [2-(13)C]acetate suggests decreased astrocyte supply to the neurons. In addition, the enhanced pyruvate recycling pathway manifested by the increased lactate C2 enrichment in 1-week diabetic rats is weakened in 15-week diabetic rats. Our study demonstrates the overall metabolism disturbances, changes in specific metabolic pathways, and interaction between astrocytes and neurons during the onset and development of diabetes. These results contribute to the mechanistic understanding of diabetes pathogenesis and evolution. PMID:25048983

  13. Characterization of Two Tetrachloroethene-Reducing, Acetate-Oxidizing Anaerobic Bacteria and Their Description as Desulfuromonas michiganensis sp. nov.

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Youlboong; Ritalahti, Kirsti M.; Sanford, Robert A.; Urbance, John W.; Flynn, Shannon J.; Tiedje, James M.; Löffler, Frank E.

    2003-01-01

    Two tetrachlorethene (PCE)-dechlorinating populations, designated strains BB1 and BRS1, were isolated from pristine river sediment and chloroethene-contaminated aquifer material, respectively. PCE-to-cis-1,2-dichloroethene-dechlorinating activity could be transferred in defined basal salts medium with acetate as the electron donor and PCE as the electron acceptor. Taxonomic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing placed both isolates within the Desulfuromonas cluster in the δ subdivision of the Proteobacteria. PCE was dechlorinated at rates of at least 139 nmol min−1 mg of protein−1 at pH values between 7.0 and 7.5 and temperatures between 25 and 30°C. Dechlorination also occurred at 10°C. The electron donors that supported dechlorination included acetate, lactate, pyruvate, succinate, malate, and fumarate but not hydrogen, formate, ethanol, propionate, or sulfide. Growth occurred with malate or fumarate alone, whereas oxidation of the other electron donors depended strictly on the presence of fumarate, malate, ferric iron, sulfur, PCE, or TCE as an electron acceptor. Nitrate, sulfate, sulfite, thiosulfate, and other chlorinated compounds were not used as electron acceptors. Sulfite had a strong inhibitory effect on growth and dechlorination. Alternate electron acceptors (e.g., fumarate or ferric iron) did not inhibit PCE dechlorination and were consumed concomitantly. The putative fumarate, PCE, and ferric iron reductases were induced by their respective substrates and were not constitutively present. Sulfide was required for growth. Both strains tolerated high concentrations of PCE, and dechlorination occurred in the presence of free-phase PCE (dense non-aqueous-phase liquids). Repeated growth with acetate and fumarate as substrates yielded a BB1 variant that had lost the ability to dechlorinate PCE. Due to the 16S rRNA gene sequence differences with the closest relatives and the unique phenotypic characteristics, we propose that the new isolates are

  14. Lactate as a Metabolite and a Regulator in the Central Nervous System.

    PubMed

    Proia, Patrizia; Di Liegro, Carlo Maria; Schiera, Gabriella; Fricano, Anna; Di Liegro, Italia

    2016-01-01

    More than two hundred years after its discovery, lactate still remains an intriguing molecule. Considered for a long time as a waste product of metabolism and the culprit behind muscular fatigue, it was then recognized as an important fuel for many cells. In particular, in the nervous system, it has been proposed that lactate, released by astrocytes in response to neuronal activation, is taken up by neurons, oxidized to pyruvate and used for synthesizing acetyl-CoA to be used for the tricarboxylic acid cycle. More recently, in addition to this metabolic role, the discovery of a specific receptor prompted a reconsideration of its role, and lactate is now seen as a sort of hormone, even involved in processes as complex as memory formation and neuroprotection. As a matter of fact, exercise offers many benefits for our organisms, and seems to delay brain aging and neurodegeneration. Now, exercise induces the production and release of lactate into the blood which can reach the liver, the heart, and also the brain. Can lactate be a beneficial molecule produced during exercise, and offer neuroprotection? In this review, we summarize what we have known on lactate, discussing the roles that have been attributed to this molecule over time. PMID:27598136

  15. Oxamate Improves Glycemic Control and Insulin Sensitivity via Inhibition of Tissue Lactate Production in db/db Mice

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Weiran; Zheng, Yijia; Zhang, Shanshan; Yan, Li; Cheng, Hua; Wu, Muchao

    2016-01-01

    Oxamate (OXA) is a pyruvate analogue that directly inhibits the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH)-catalyzed conversion process of pyruvate into lactate. Earlier and recent studies have shown elevated blood lactate levels among insulin-resistant and type 2 diabetes subjects and that blood lactate levels independently predicted the development of incident diabetes. To explore the potential of OXA in the treatment of diabetes, db/db mice were treated with OXA in vivo. Treatment of OXA (350–750 mg/kg of body weight) for 12 weeks was shown to decrease body weight gain and blood glucose and HbA1c levels and improve insulin secretion, the morphology of pancreatic islets, and insulin sensitivity in db/db mice. Meanwhile, OXA reduced the lactate production of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle and serum lactate levels and decreased serum levels of TG, FFA, CRP, IL-6, and TNF-α in db/db mice. The PCR array showed that OXA downregulated the expression of Tnf, Il6, leptin, Cxcr3, Map2k1, and Ikbkb, and upregulated the expression of Irs2, Nfkbia, and Pde3b in the skeletal muscle of db/db mice. Interestingly, LDH-A expression increased in the islet cells of db/db mice, and both treatment of OXA and pioglitazone decreased LDH-A expression, which might be related to the improvement of insulin secretion. Taken together, increased lactate production of adipose tissue and skeletal muscle may be at least partially responsible for insulin resistance and diabetes in db/db mice. OXA improved glycemic control and insulin sensitivity in db/db mice primarily via inhibition of tissue lactate production. Oxamic acid derivatives may be a potential drug for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. PMID:26938239

  16. Inflammation increases pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4) expression via the Jun N-Terminal Kinase (JNK) pathway in C2C12 cells.

    PubMed

    Park, Hana; Jeoung, Nam Ho

    2016-01-22

    Chronic inflammation augments the deleterious effects of several diseases, particularly diabetes, cancer, and sepsis. It is also involved in the process of metabolic shift from glucose oxidation to lactate production. Although several studies suggest that the change in activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) is a major factor causing this metabolic change, the exact mechanism of the inflammatory state remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on the expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 (PDK4), which is strongly associated with inactivation of the PDC in C2C12 myoblasts. In C2C12 myoblasts, LPS exposure led to increased PDK4 mRNA and protein expression levels as well as lactate production in culture medium. However, the expression levels of other PDK isoenzymes (PDK1 - 3) remained unchanged. Additionally, we observed that LPS treatment induced phosphorylation of Jun N-Terminal Kinases (JNK). To confirm the role of JNK, we inhibited the JNK pathway and observed that PDK4 expression and lactate production were decreased, but p38 and ERK were not significantly changed. Taken together, our results suggest that LPS induces PDK4 expression and alters glucose metabolism via the JNK pathway. PMID:26740179

  17. Achromobacter denitrificans Strain YD35 Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Controls NADH Production To Allow Tolerance to Extremely High Nitrite Levels

    PubMed Central

    Doi, Yuki; Shimizu, Motoyuki; Fujita, Tomoya; Nakamura, Akira; Takizawa, Noboru

    2014-01-01

    We identified the extremely nitrite-tolerant bacterium Achromobacter denitrificans YD35 that can grow in complex medium containing 100 mM nitrite (NO2−) under aerobic conditions. Nitrite induced global proteomic changes and upregulated tricarboxylate (TCA) cycle enzymes as well as antioxidant proteins in YD35. Transposon mutagenesis generated NO2−-hypersensitive mutants of YD35 that had mutations at genes for aconitate hydratase and α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase in the TCA cycle and a pyruvate dehydrogenase (Pdh) E1 component, indicating the importance of TCA cycle metabolism to NO2− tolerance. A mutant in which the pdh gene cluster was disrupted (Δpdh mutant) could not grow in the presence of 100 mM NO2−. Nitrite decreased the cellular NADH/NAD+ ratio and the cellular ATP level. These defects were more severe in the Δpdh mutant, indicating that Pdh contributes to upregulating cellular NADH and ATP and NO2−-tolerant growth. Exogenous acetate, which generates acetyl coenzyme A and then is metabolized by the TCA cycle, compensated for these defects caused by disruption of the pdh gene cluster and those caused by NO2−. These findings demonstrate a link between NO2− tolerance and pyruvate/acetate metabolism through the TCA cycle. The TCA cycle mechanism in YD35 enhances NADH production, and we consider that this contributes to a novel NO2−-tolerating mechanism in this strain. PMID:24413603

  18. Improved membrane filtration method incorporating catalase and sodium pyruvate for detection of chlorine-stressed coliform bacteria.

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, J P; Bissonnette, G K

    1990-01-01

    In vitro pure culture studies were conducted on three different strains of Escherichia coli (K-12, EPA 00244, and SWEI) to determine the effect of chlorination on catalase activity. In each case, stationary-phase cells exhibited significant (P less than 0.001) reductions in enzyme activity following exposure to chlorine. Mean differences in activity between control and chlorine-stressed cells ranged from 8.8 to 20.3 U/mg of protein for E. coli SWEI and EPA 00244, respectively. Following initial enzyme studies, resuscitation experiments utilizing the membrane filtration technique were conducted on chlorinated sewage effluent. Five different amendments, including catalase (1,000 U per plate), heat-inactivated catalase (1,000-U per plate), sodium pyruvate (0.05%), a catalase-sodium pyruvate combination (1,500 U/0.01%), and acetic acid (0.05%), were tested for the ability to enhance detection of chlorine-stressed cells on M-fecal coliform (M-FC), mT7, M-Endo, and tryptone-glucose-yeast extract (TGY) media. Significant (P less than 0.001) increases in recovery of fecal coliforms on M-FC, total coliforms on mT7 and M-Endo, and total heterotrophs on TGY were obtained on plates containing catalase, pyruvate, or the combination of these compounds. Supplementation with heat-inactivated catalase and acetic acid did not improve recovery of chlorine-stressed cells compared with recovery on nonamended media. Subsequent analysis of colonies from plates containing compounds which enhanced recovery indicated coliform verification percentages of greater than 80% on M-FC, greater than 90% on mT7, and greater than 94% on M-Endo media. These data suggest that the addition of peroxide-degrading compounds to various standard recovery media may improve detection of both coliform and heterotrophic bacteria in chlorinated waters. PMID:2268162

  19. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 contributes to the recirculation of gluconeogenic precursors during postexercise glycogen recovery

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Eric A. F.; MacPherson, Rebecca E. K.; LeBlanc, Paul J.; Roy, Brian D.; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Harris, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    During recovery from glycogen-depleting exercise, there is a shift from carbohydrate oxidation to glycogen resynthesis. The activity of the pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) complex may decrease to reduce oxidation of carbohydrates in favor of increasing gluconeogenic recycling of carbohydrate-derived substrates for this process. The precise mechanism behind this has yet to be elucidated; however, research examining mRNA content has suggested that the less-abundant pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK4) may reduce PDH activation during exercise recovery. To investigate this, skeletal muscle and liver of wild-type (WT) and PDK4-knockout (PDK4-KO) mice were analyzed at rest (Rest), after exercise to exhaustion (Exh), and after 2 h of recovery with ad libitum feeding (Rec). Although there were no differences in exercise tolerance between genotypes, caloric consumption was doubled by PDK4-KO mice during Rec. Because of this, PDK4-KO mice at Rec supercompensated muscle glycogen to 120% of resting stores. Therefore, an extra group of PDK4-KO mice were pair-fed (PF) with WT mice during Rec for comparison. PF mice fully replenished muscle glycogen but recovered only 50% of liver glycogen stores. Concentrations of muscle lactate and alanine were also lower in PF than in WT mice, indicating that this decrease may lead to a potential reduction of recycled gluconeogenic substrates, due to oxidation of their carbohydrate precursors in skeletal muscle, leading to observed reductions in hepatic glucose and glycogen concentrations. Because of the impairments seen in PF PDK4-KO mice, these results suggest a role for PDK4 in regulating the PDH complex in muscle and promoting gluconeogenic precursor recirculation during recovery from exhaustive exercise. PMID:24305065

  20. Multiphase Chemistry of Pyruvic Acid Under Atmospherically Relevant Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaida, V.; Monod, A.; Doussin, J. F.; Reed Harris, A. E.; Griffith, E. C.; Kroll, J. A.; Rapf, R.

    2014-12-01

    Chemistry in the natural environment proceeds in multiple phases and is subject to effects from atmospheric constituents and conditions. This presentation will use pyruvic acid as a case study to demonstrate the complexity of atmospheric multiphase chemistry. The photophysics and photochemistry of pyruvic acid proceeds on different potential energy surfaces with different reaction mechanisms, rates, and products in gas versus the aqueous phase. While the gas phase reaction generally decreases the complexity of products, the aqueous chemistry creates higher molecular weight, surface-active compounds. The studies presented involve a combination of laboratory studies that focus on the photochemistry of pyruvic acid in both the gas and aqueous phases. Further, experiments in an environmental simulation chamber (CESAM) that follow the photochemistry chemistry of pyruvic acid under atmospherically relevant conditions will be presented to highlight the effect of pressure, oxygen, relative humidity, and phase on the photochemistry of pyruvic acid. The results provide new input for atmospheric chemistry models that is required to better describe the behavior of α-keto acids in the environment.

  1. Reactivity landscape of pyruvate under simulated hydrothermal vent conditions

    PubMed Central

    Novikov, Yehor; Copley, Shelley D.

    2013-01-01

    Pyruvate is an important “hub” metabolite that is a precursor for amino acids, sugars, cofactors, and lipids in extant metabolic networks. Pyruvate has been produced under simulated hydrothermal vent conditions from alkyl thiols and carbon monoxide in the presence of transition metal sulfides at 250 °C [Cody GD et al. (2000) Science 289(5483):1337–1340], so it is plausible that pyruvate was formed in hydrothermal systems on the early earth. We report here that pyruvate reacts readily in the presence of transition metal sulfide minerals under simulated hydrothermal vent fluids at more moderate temperatures (25–110 °C) that are more conducive to survival of biogenic molecules. We found that pyruvate partitions among five reaction pathways at rates that depend upon the nature of the mineral present; the concentrations of H2S, H2, and NH4Cl; and the temperature. In most cases, high yields of one or two primary products are found due to preferential acceleration of certain pathways. Reactions observed include reduction of ketones to alcohols and aldol condensation, both reactions that are common in extant metabolic networks. We also observed reductive amination to form alanine and reduction to form propionic acid. Amino acids and fatty acids formed by analogous processes may have been important components of a protometabolic network that allowed the emergence of life. PMID:23872841

  2. Reactivity landscape of pyruvate under simulated hydrothermal vent conditions.

    PubMed

    Novikov, Yehor; Copley, Shelley D

    2013-08-13

    Pyruvate is an important "hub" metabolite that is a precursor for amino acids, sugars, cofactors, and lipids in extant metabolic networks. Pyruvate has been produced under simulated hydrothermal vent conditions from alkyl thiols and carbon monoxide in the presence of transition metal sulfides at 250 °C [Cody GD et al. (2000) Science 289(5483):1337-1340], so it is plausible that pyruvate was formed in hydrothermal systems on the early earth. We report here that pyruvate reacts readily in the presence of transition metal sulfide minerals under simulated hydrothermal vent fluids at more moderate temperatures (25-110 °C) that are more conducive to survival of biogenic molecules. We found that pyruvate partitions among five reaction pathways at rates that depend upon the nature of the mineral present; the concentrations of H2S, H2, and NH4Cl; and the temperature. In most cases, high yields of one or two primary products are found due to preferential acceleration of certain pathways. Reactions observed include reduction of ketones to alcohols and aldol condensation, both reactions that are common in extant metabolic networks. We also observed reductive amination to form alanine and reduction to form propionic acid. Amino acids and fatty acids formed by analogous processes may have been important components of a protometabolic network that allowed the emergence of life. PMID:23872841

  3. Reduction of d-lactate content in sauerkraut using starter cultures of recombinant Leuconostoc mesenteroides expressing the ldhL gene.

    PubMed

    Jin, Qing; Li, Ling; Moon, Jin Seok; Cho, Seung Kee; Kim, Yu Jin; Lee, Soo Jin; Han, Nam Soo

    2016-05-01

    The d-form of lactate, which causes metabolic stress upon excessive dietary intake, is mainly produced by Leuconostoc sp., the predominant species in sauerkraut. To shift the metabolic flux of d-lactate from pyruvate to l-lactate, we expressed the l-lactate dehydrogenase (ldhL) gene in Leuconostoc mesenteroides ATCC 8293. The ldhL gene from Lactobacillus plantarum was introduced into L. mesenteroides using the shuttle vectors pLeuCM and pLeuCM42. To elevate the expression level of ldhL in L. mesenteroides, the nucleotides for pyruvate kinase promoter were fused to ldhL and cloned into above vectors to construct pLC18pkL and pLC42pkL. As results, introduction of pLC42pkL in L. mesenteroides significantly improved both l-LDH activity and l-lactate productivity during fermentation, decreasing the d-/l-lactate ratio. When used as a starter culture for sauerkraut fermentation, recombinant L. mesenteroides harboring pLC42pkL increased l-lactate concentration and decreased d-lactate concentration compared to the wild type strain. We newly developed a recombinant L. mesenteroides which has high l-lactate dehydrogenase activity and applied this strain to minimize the harmful effect of d-lactate during the sauerkraut fermentation. To the best of our knowledge, we demonstrate for the first time the effective use of recombinant Leuconostoc sp. for quality improvement of fermented foods. PMID:26472127

  4. Homofermentative Production of d- or l-Lactate in Metabolically Engineered Escherichia coli RR1

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Dong-Eun; Jung, Heung-Chae; Rhee, Joon-Shick; Pan, Jae-Gu

    1999-01-01

    We investigated metabolic engineering of fermentation pathways in Escherichia coli for production of optically pure d- or l-lactate. Several pta mutant strains were examined, and a pta mutant of E. coli RR1 which was deficient in the phosphotransacetylase of the Pta-AckA pathway was found to metabolize glucose to d-lactate and to produce a small amount of succinate by-product under anaerobic conditions. An additional mutation in ppc made the mutant produce d-lactate like a homofermentative lactic acid bacterium. When the pta ppc double mutant was grown to higher biomass concentrations under aerobic conditions before it shifted to the anaerobic phase of d-lactate production, more than 62.2 g of d-lactate per liter was produced in 60 h, and the volumetric productivity was 1.04 g/liter/h. To examine whether the blocked acetate flux could be reoriented to a nonindigenous l-lactate pathway, an l-lactate dehydrogenase gene from Lactobacillus casei was introduced into a pta ldhA strain which lacked phosphotransacetylase and d-lactate dehydrogenase. This recombinant strain was able to metabolize glucose to l-lactate as the major fermentation product, and up to 45 g of l-lactate per liter was produced in 67 h. These results demonstrate that the central fermentation metabolism of E. coli can be reoriented to the production of d-lactate, an indigenous fermentation product, or to the production of l-lactate, a nonindigenous fermentation product. PMID:10103226

  5. Hormonal contraception and lactation.

    PubMed

    Kelsey, J J

    1996-12-01

    Hormonal contraceptive measures can be used immediately postpartum if the patient so desires. Progestin-only contraceptives are preferable to estrogen-containing methods if initiated during the first six months after delivery. Progestin only contraceptives do not appear to affect milk volume, composition, or to cause deleterious effects in the infant. Ideally for women who desire a form of contraception in addition to lactation-induced amenorrhea, progestin-only methods should be started at six weeks postpartum if the woman is fully breastfeeding. Since contraception protection is provided by lactation amenorrhea, the six week delay will decrease infant exposure to exogenous hormones and decrease the incidence of irregular postpartum bleeding. Milk volume may decrease with the use of estrogen; however, no detrimental effects have been shown on infant growth or development. For women who are planning to gradually wean their infant, use of COCs may provide an easier transition to bottle-feeding. COCs should be used with caution by women who are not able to obtain supplemental milk. A decrease in milk volume can lead to earlier discontinuation of the hormonal contraceptive in an attempt to increase milk quantity. Supplementation is often needed, and then the woman ovulates again, possibly resulting in an unintended pregnancy. Many women are motivated immediately postpartum to accept contraception. For other women, lack of access to health care may provide barriers in obtaining adequate contraception later. In either case, there are adequate data to show no detriments of starting progestin-only contraceptives within days of delivery. Therefore, the best method for the patient should be employed to ensure adequate contraception while preserving optimal lactation. PMID:9025449

  6. Biosynthesis of the Halogenated Auxin, 4-Chloroindole-3-Acetic Acid1[W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Tivendale, Nathan D.; Davidson, Sandra E.; Davies, Noel W.; Smith, Jason A.; Dalmais, Marion; Bendahmane, Abdelhafid I.; Quittenden, Laura J.; Sutton, Lily; Bala, Raj K.; Le Signor, Christine; Thompson, Richard; Horne, James; Reid, James B.; Ross, John J.

    2012-01-01

    Seeds of several agriculturally important legumes are rich sources of the only halogenated plant hormone, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid. However, the biosynthesis of this auxin is poorly understood. Here, we show that in pea (Pisum sativum) seeds, 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid is synthesized via the novel intermediate 4-chloroindole-3-pyruvic acid, which is produced from 4-chlorotryptophan by two aminotransferases, TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED1 and TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE RELATED2. We characterize a tar2 mutant, obtained by Targeting Induced Local Lesions in Genomes, the seeds of which contain dramatically reduced 4-chloroindole-3-acetic acid levels as they mature. We also show that the widespread auxin, indole-3-acetic acid, is synthesized by a parallel pathway in pea. PMID:22573801

  7. Conversion of inactive (phosphorylated) pyruvate dehydrogenase complex into active complex by the phosphate reaction in heart mitochondria is inhibited by alloxan-diabetes or starvation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Hutson, N J; Kerbey, A L; Randle, P J; Sugden, P H

    1978-08-01

    1. The conversion of inactive (phosphorylated) pyruvate dehydrogenase complex into active (dephosphorylated) complex by pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate phosphatase is inhibited in heart mitochondria prepared from alloxan-diabetic or 48h-starved rats, in mitochondria prepared from acetate-perfused rat hearts and in mitochondria prepared from normal rat hearts incubated with respiratory substrates for 6 min (as compared with 1 min). 2. This conclusion is based on experiments with isolated intact mitochondria in which the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase reaction was inhibited by pyruvate or ATP depletion (by using oligomycin and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone), and in experiments in which the rate of conversion of inactive complex into active complex by the phosphatase was measured in extracts of mitochondria. The inhibition of the phosphatase reaction was seen with constant concentrations of Ca2+ and Mg2+ (activators of the phosphatase). The phosphatase reaction in these mitochondrial extracts was not inhibited when an excess of exogenous pig heart pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate was used as substrate. It is concluded that this inhibition is due to some factor(s) associated with the substrate (pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate complex) and not to inhibition of the phosphatase as such. 3. This conclusion was verified by isolating pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphate complex, free of phosphatase, from hearts of control and diabetic rats an from heart mitochondria incubed for 1min (control) or 6min with respiratory substrates. The rates of re-activation of the inactive complexes were then measured with preparations of ox heart or rat heart phosphatase. The rates were lower (relative to controls) with inactive complex from hearts of diabetic rats or from heart mitochondria incubated for 6min with respiratory substrates. 4. The incorporation of 32Pi into inactive complex took 6min to complete in rat heart mitocondria. The extent of incorporation was consistent with

  8. Ethyl Pyruvate Emerges as a Safe and Fast Acting Agent against Trypanosoma brucei by Targeting Pyruvate Kinase Activity

    PubMed Central

    Worku, Netsanet; Stich, August; Daugschies, Arwid; Wenzel, Iris; Kurz, Randy; Thieme, Rene; Kurz, Susanne; Birkenmeier, Gerd

    2015-01-01

    Background Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) also called sleeping sickness is an infectious disease in humans caused by an extracellular protozoan parasite. The disease, if left untreated, results in 100% mortality. Currently available drugs are full of severe drawbacks and fail to escape the fast development of trypanosoma resistance. Due to similarities in cell metabolism between cancerous tumors and trypanosoma cells, some of the current registered drugs against HAT have also been tested in cancer chemotherapy. Here we demonstrate for the first time that the simple ester, ethyl pyruvate, comprises such properties. Results The current study covers the efficacy and corresponding target evaluation of ethyl pyruvate on T. brucei cell lines using a combination of biochemical techniques including cell proliferation assays, enzyme kinetics, phasecontrast microscopic video imaging and ex vivo toxicity tests. We have shown that ethyl pyruvate effectively kills trypanosomes most probably by net ATP depletion through inhibition of pyruvate kinase (Ki = 3.0±0.29 mM). The potential of ethyl pyruvate as a trypanocidal compound is also strengthened by its fast acting property, killing cells within three hours post exposure. This has been demonstrated using video imaging of live cells as well as concentration and time dependency experiments. Most importantly, ethyl pyruvate produces minimal side effects in human red cells and is known to easily cross the blood-brain-barrier. This makes it a promising candidate for effective treatment of the two clinical stages of sleeping sickness. Trypanosome drug-resistance tests indicate irreversible cell death and a low incidence of resistance development under experimental conditions. Conclusion Our results present ethyl pyruvate as a safe and fast acting trypanocidal compound and show that it inhibits the enzyme pyruvate kinase. Competitive inhibition of this enzyme was found to cause ATP depletion and cell death. Due to its ability to

  9. A detailed investigation of the properties of lactate dehydrogenase in which the 'Essential' cysteine-165 is modified by thioalkylation.

    PubMed Central

    Bloxham, D P; Sharma, R P; Wilton, D C

    1979-01-01

    The reaction of pig heart lactate dehydrogenase with methyl methanethiosulphonate resulted in the modification of one thiol group per protomer, and this was located at cysteine-165 in the enzyme sequence. On reduction, both the thiomethylation of cysteine-165 and any changes in kinetic properties of the enzyme were completely reversed. Cysteine-165 has been considered essential for catalytic activity; however, cysteine-165-thiomethylated dehydrogenase possessed full catalytic activity, although the affinity of the enzyme for carbonyl-or hydroxy-containing substrates was markedly decreased. The nicotinamide nucleotide-binding capacity was unaffected, as judged by the formation of fluorescent complexes with NADH. The enzyme-mediated activation of NAD+, as judged by sulphite addition, was unaffected in thiomethylated lactate dehydrogenase. However, the affinity of oxamate for the enzyme--NADH complex was decreased by 100-fold and it was calculated that this constituted a net increase of 10.4 kJ/mol in the activation energy for binding. Thiomethylated lactate dehydrogenase was able to form an abortive adduct between NAD+ and fluoropyruvate. However, the equilibrium constant for adduct formation between pyruvate and NAD+ was too low to demonstrate this complex at reasonable pyruvate concentrations. A conformational change in the protein structure on selective thiomethylation was revealed by the decreased thermostability of the modified enzyme. The alteration of lactate dehydrogenase catalytic properties on modification depended on the bulk of the reagent used, since thioethylation resulted in an increase in Km for pyruvate (13.5 +/- 3.5 mm) and an 85% decrease in maximum catalytic activity. The implications of all these findings for the catalytic mechanism of lactate dehydrogenase are discussed. PMID:36072

  10. Uranyl nitrate inhibits lactate gluconeogenesis in isolated human and mouse renal proximal tubules: A {sup 13}C-NMR study

    SciTech Connect

    Renault, Sophie; Faiz, Hassan; Gadet, Rudy; Ferrier, Bernard; Martin, Guy; Baverel, Gabriel; Conjard-Duplany, Agnes

    2010-01-01

    As part of a study on uranium nephrotoxicity, we investigated the effect of uranyl nitrate in isolated human and mouse kidney cortex tubules metabolizing the physiological substrate lactate. In the millimolar range, uranyl nitrate reduced lactate removal and gluconeogenesis and the cellular ATP level in a dose-dependent fashion. After incubation in phosphate-free Krebs-Henseleit medium with 5 mM L-[1-{sup 13}C]-, or L-[2-{sup 13}C]-, or L-[3-{sup 13}C]lactate, substrate utilization and product formation were measured by enzymatic and NMR spectroscopic methods. In the presence of 3 mM uranyl nitrate, glucose production and the intracellular ATP content were significantly reduced in both human and mouse tubules. Combination of enzymatic and NMR measurements with a mathematical model of lactate metabolism revealed an inhibition of fluxes through lactate dehydrogenase and the gluconeogenic enzymes in the presence of 3 mM uranyl nitrate; in human and mouse tubules, fluxes were lowered by 20% and 14% (lactate dehydrogenase), 27% and 32% (pyruvate carboxylase), 35% and 36% (phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase), and 39% and 45% (glucose-6-phosphatase), respectively. These results indicate that natural uranium is an inhibitor of renal lactate gluconeogenesis in both humans and mice.

  11. [The mechanism of acetate assimilation in purple nonsulfur bacteria lacking the glyoxylate pathway: enzymes of the citramalate cycle in Rhodobacter sphaeroides].

    PubMed

    Filatova, L V; Berg, I A; Krasil'nikova, E N; Ivanovskiĭ, R N

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of acetate assimilation by the purple nonsulfur bacterium Rhodobacter sphaeroides, which lacks the glyoxylate shortcut, has been studied. In a previous work, proceeding from data on acetate assimilation by Rba. sphaeroides cell suspensions, a suggestion was made regarding the operation, in this bacterium, of the citramalate cycle. This cycle was earlier found in Rhodospirillum rubrum in the form of an anaplerotic reaction sequence that operates during growth on acetate instead of the glyoxylate shortcut, which is not present in the latter bacterium. The present work considers the enzymes responsible for acetate assimilation in Rba. sphaeroides. It is shown that this bacterium possesses the key enzymes of the citramalate cycle: citramalate synthase, which catalyzes condensation of acetyl-CoA and pyruvate and, as a result, forms citramalate, and 3-methylmalyl-CoA lyase, which catalyzes the cleavage of 3-methylmalyl-CoA to glyoxylate and propionyl-CoA. The regeneration of pyruvate, which is the acetyl-CoA acceptor in the citramalate cycle, involves propionyl-CoA and occurs via the following reaction sequence: propionyl-CoA (+ CO2) --> methylmalonyl-CoA --> succinyl-CoA --> succinate --> fumarate --> malate --> oxalacetate (- CO2) --> phosphoenolpyruvate --> pyruvate. The independence of the cell growth and the acetate assimilation of CO2 is due to the accumulation of CO2/HCO3- (released during acetate assimilation) in cells to a level sufficient for the effective operation of propionyl-CoA carboxylase. PMID:16119844

  12. Oxygen Relieves the CO2 and Acetate Dependency of Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533

    PubMed Central

    Hertzberger, Rosanne Y.; Pridmore, R. David; Gysler, Christof; Kleerebezem, Michiel; Teixeira de Mattos, M. Joost

    2013-01-01

    Oxygen relieves the CO2 and acetate dependency of Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533. The probiotic Lactobacillus johnsonii NCC 533 is relatively sensitive to oxidative stress; the presence of oxygen causes a lower biomass yield due to early growth stagnation. We show however that oxygen can also be beneficial to this organism as it relieves the requirement for acetate and CO2 during growth. Both on agar- and liquid-media, anaerobic growth of L. johnsonii NCC 533 requires CO2 supplementation of the gas phase. Switching off the CO2 supply induces growth arrest and cell death. The presence of molecular oxygen overcomes the CO2 dependency. Analogously, L. johnsonii NCC 533 strictly requires media with acetate to sustain anaerobic growth, although supplementation at a level that is 100-fold lower (120 microM) than the concentration in regular growth medium for lactobacilli already suffices for normal growth. Analogous to the CO2 requirement, oxygen supply relieves this acetate-dependency for growth. The L. johnsonii NCC 533 genome indicates that this organism lacks genes coding for pyruvate formate lyase (PFL) and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH), both CO2 and acetyl-CoA producing systems. Therefore, C1- and C2- compound production is predicted to largely depend on pyruvate oxidase activity (POX). This proposed role of POX in C2/C1-generation is corroborated by the observation that in a POX deficient mutant of L. johnsonii NCC 533, oxygen is not able to overcome acetate dependency nor does it relieve the CO2 dependency. PMID:23468944

  13. Intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of calcium pyruvate in the TNBS model of rat colitis: Comparison with ethyl pyruvate.

    PubMed

    Algieri, F; Rodriguez-Nogales, A; Garrido-Mesa, J; Camuesco, D; Vezza, T; Garrido-Mesa, N; Utrilla, P; Rodriguez-Cabezas, M E; Pischel, I; Galvez, J

    2016-03-01

    Pyruvate is a key intermediate of the carbohydrate metabolism with endogenous scavenger properties. However, it cannot be used in clinics due to its instability. Ethyl pyruvate (EP) has shown better stability as well as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Calcium pyruvate monohydrate (CPM) is another stable pyruvate derivative that could also provide the benefits from calcium, fundamental for bone health. Considering everything, we propose CPM as a therapeutic strategy to treat diseases with an immune component in which there is also a significant dysregulation of the skeletal homeostasis. This could be applicable to inflammatory bowel disease, which is characterized by over-production of pro-inflammatory mediators, including cytokines and reactive oxygen and nitrogen metabolites that induces intestinal mucosal damage and chronic inflammation, and extra-intestinal symptoms like osteopenia and osteoporosis. The effects of CPM and EP (20, 40 and 100mg/kg) were evaluated on the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) model of colitis in rats, after a 7-day oral treatment, with main focus on colonic histology and inflammatory mediators. Both pyruvates showed intestinal anti-inflammatory effects in the TNBS-induced colitis. They were evident both histologically, with a recovery of the mucosal cytoarchitecture and a reduction of the neutrophil infiltration, and through the profile of inflammatory mediators (IL-1, IL-6, IL-17, IL-23, iNOS). However, CPM appeared to be more effective than ethyl pyruvate. In conclusion, CPM exerts intestinal anti-inflammatory effect on the TNBS-induced colitis in rats, although further experiments are needed to explore its beneficial effects on bone health and osteoporosis. PMID:26774455

  14. Gluconeogenesis is associated with high rates of tricarboxylic acid and pyruvate cycling in fasting northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Champagne, Cory D; Houser, Dorian S; Fowler, Melinda A; Costa, Daniel P; Crocker, Daniel E

    2012-08-01

    Animals that endure prolonged periods of food deprivation preserve vital organ function by sparing protein from catabolism. Much of this protein sparing is achieved by reducing metabolic rate and suppressing gluconeogenesis while fasting. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris) endure prolonged fasts of up to 3 mo at multiple life stages. During these fasts, elephant seals maintain high levels of activity and energy expenditure associated with breeding, reproduction, lactation, and development while maintaining rates of glucose production typical of a postabsorptive mammal. Therefore, we investigated how fasting elephant seals meet the requirements of glucose-dependent tissues while suppressing protein catabolism by measuring the contribution of glycogenolysis, glycerol, and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) to endogenous glucose production (EGP) during their natural 2-mo postweaning fast. Additionally, pathway flux rates associated with the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle were measured specifically, flux through phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and pyruvate cycling. The rate of glucose production decreased during the fast (F(1,13) = 5.7, P = 0.04) but remained similar to that of postabsorptive mammals. The fractional contributions of glycogen, glycerol, and PEP did not change with fasting; PEP was the primary gluconeogenic precursor and accounted for ∼95% of EGP. This large contribution of PEP to glucose production occurred without substantial protein loss. Fluxes through the TCA cycle, PEPCK, and pyruvate cycling were higher than reported in other species and were the most energetically costly component of hepatic carbohydrate metabolism. The active pyruvate recycling fluxes detected in elephant seals may serve to rectify gluconeogeneic PEP production during restricted anaplerotic inflow in these fasting-adapted animals. PMID:22673783

  15. Staphylococcus aureus lactate- and malate-quinone oxidoreductases contribute to nitric oxide resistance and virulence.

    PubMed

    Spahich, Nicole A; Vitko, Nicholas P; Thurlow, Lance R; Temple, Brenda; Richardson, Anthony R

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a Gram-positive pathogen that resists many facets of innate immunity including nitric oxide (NO·). Staphylococcus aureus NO-resistance stems from its ability to evoke a metabolic state that circumvents the negative effects of reactive nitrogen species. The combination of l-lactate and peptides promotes S. aureus growth at moderate NO-levels, however, neither nutrient alone suffices. Here, we investigate the staphylococcal malate-quinone and l-lactate-quinone oxidoreductases (Mqo and Lqo), both of which are critical during NO-stress for the combined utilization of peptides and l-lactate. We address the specific contributions of Lqo-mediated l-lactate utilization and Mqo-dependent amino acid consumption during NO-stress. We show that Lqo conversion of l-lactate to pyruvate is required for the formation of ATP, an essential energy source for peptide utilization. Thus, both Lqo and Mqo are essential for growth under these conditions making them attractive candidates for targeted therapeutics. Accordingly, we exploited a modelled Mqo/Lqo structure to define the catalytic and substrate-binding residues.We also compare the S. aureus Mqo/Lqo enzymes to their close relatives throughout the staphylococci and explore the substrate specificities of each enzyme. This study provides the initial characterization of the mechanism of action and the immunometabolic roles for a newly defined staphylococcal enzyme family. PMID:26851155

  16. Pyruvate kinase and aspartate-glutamate carrier distributions reveal key metabolic links between neurons and glia in retina

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Ken J.; Du, Jianhai; Sloat, Stephanie R.; Contreras, Laura; Linton, Jonathan D.; Turner, Sally J.; Sadilek, Martin; Hurley, James B.

    2014-01-01

    Symbiotic relationships between neurons and glia must adapt to structures, functions, and metabolic roles of the tissues they are in. We show here that Müller glia in retinas have specific enzyme deficiencies that can enhance their ability to synthesize Gln. The metabolic cost of these deficiencies is that they impair the Müller cell’s ability to metabolize Glc. We show here that the cells can compensate for this deficiency by using metabolites produced by neurons. Müller glia are deficient for pyruvate kinase (PK) and for aspartate/glutamate carrier 1 (AGC1), a key component of the malate-aspartate shuttle. In contrast, photoreceptor neurons express AGC1 and the M2 isoform of pyruvate kinase, which is commonly associated with aerobic glycolysis in tumors, proliferating cells, and some other cell types. Our findings reveal a previously unidentified type of metabolic relationship between neurons and glia. Müller glia compensate for their unique metabolic adaptations by using lactate and aspartate from neurons as surrogates for their missing PK and AGC1. PMID:25313047

  17. Physiological increases in lactate inhibit intracellular calcium transients, acidify myocytes and decrease force in term pregnant rat myometrium.

    PubMed

    Hanley, Jacqui-Ann; Weeks, Andrew; Wray, Susan

    2015-10-15

    Lactate is increased in myometrial capillary blood from women in slow or non-progressive labour (dystocia), suggesting that it is detrimental to uterine contractions. There are, however, no studies of the effect of lactate on the myometrium. We therefore investigated its effects and mechanism of action on myometrial strips from term pregnant rats. The effects on spontaneous and oxytocin-induced contractility in response to sodium lactate and other weak acids (1-20 mM) were studied. In some experiments, simultaneous force and intracellular Ca(2+) or pH (pH(i)) were measured with Indo-1 or Carboxy-SNARF, respectively. Statistical differences were tested using non-parametric tests. Lactate significantly decreased spontaneous contractility with an EC50 of 3.9 mM. Propionate, butyrate and pyruvate also reduced contractions with similar potency. The effects of lactate were reduced in the presence of oxytocin but remained significant. Lactate decreased pH(i) and nulling the decrease in pH(i) abolished its effects. We also show that lactate inhibited Ca(2+) transients, with these changes mirroring those produced on force. If Ca(2+) entry was enhanced by depolarization (high KCl) or applying the Ca(2+) channel agonist, Bay K 4644, the effects of lactate were abolished. Taken together, these data show that lactate in the physiological range potently decreases myometrial contractility as a result of its inhibition of Ca(2+) transients, which can be attributed to the induced acidification. The present study suggests that the accumulation of extracellular lactate will reduce myometrial contractions and could therefore contribute to labour dystocia. PMID:26223765

  18. Simultaneous hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate MRI and 18F-FDG-PET in cancer (hyperPET): feasibility of a new imaging concept using a clinical PET/MRI scanner

    PubMed Central

    Gutte, Henrik; Hansen, Adam E; Henriksen, Sarah T; Johannesen, Helle H; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan; Vignaud, Alexandre; Hansen, Anders E; Børresen, Betina; Klausen, Thomas L; Wittekind, Anne-Mette N; Gillings, Nic; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Clemmensen, Andreas; Højgaard, Liselotte; Kjær, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate, for the first time, the feasibility of a new imaging concept - combined hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate magnetic resonance spectroscopic imaging (MRSI) and 18F-FDG-PET imaging. This procedure was performed in a clinical PET/MRI scanner with a canine cancer patient. We have named this concept hyper PET. Intravenous injection of the hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate results in an increase of 13C-lactate, 13C-alanine and 13C-CO2 (13C-HCO3) resonance peaks relative to the tissue, disease and the metabolic state probed. Accordingly, with dynamic nuclear polarization (DNP) and use of 13C-pyruvate it is now possible to directly study the Warburg Effect through the rate of conversion of 13C-pyruvate to 13C-lactate. In this study, we combined it with 18F-FDG-PET that studies uptake of glucose in the cells. A canine cancer patient with a histology verified local recurrence of a liposarcoma on the right forepaw was imaged using a combined PET/MR clinical scanner. PET was performed as a single-bed, 10 min acquisition, 107 min post injection of 310 MBq 18F-FDG. 13C-chemical shift imaging (CSI) was performed just after FDG-PET and 30 s post injection of 23 mL hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate. Peak heights of 13C-pyruvate and 13C-lactate were quantified using a general linear model. Anatomic 1H-MRI included axial and coronal T1 vibe, coronal T2-tse and axial T1-tse with fat saturation following gadolinium injection. In the tumor we found clearly increased 13C-lactate production, which also corresponded to high 18F-FDG uptake on PET. This is in agreement with the fact that glycolysis and production of lactate are increased in tumor cells compared to normal cells. Yet, most interestingly, also in the muscle of the forepaw of the dog high 18F-FDG uptake was observed. This was due to activity in these muscles prior to anesthesia, which was not accompanied by a similarly high 13C-lactate production. Accordingly, this clearly demonstrates how the Warburg Effect directly

  19. Crystal structure of pyruvate decarboxylase from Zymobacter palmae

    PubMed Central

    Buddrus, Lisa; Andrews, Emma S. V.; Leak, David J.; Danson, Michael J.; Arcus, Vickery L.; Crennell, Susan J.

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC; EC 4.1.1.1) is a thiamine pyrophosphate- and Mg2+ ion-dependent enzyme that catalyses the non-oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide. It is rare in bacteria, but is a key enzyme in homofermentative metabolism, where ethanol is the major product. Here, the previously unreported crystal structure of the bacterial pyruvate decarboxylase from Zymobacter palmae is presented. The crystals were shown to diffract to 2.15 Å resolution. They belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 204.56, b = 177.39, c = 244.55 Å and R r.i.m. = 0.175 (0.714 in the highest resolution bin). The structure was solved by molecular replacement using PDB entry 2vbi as a model and the final R values were R work = 0.186 (0.271 in the highest resolution bin) and R free = 0.220 (0.300 in the highest resolution bin). Each of the six tetramers is a dimer of dimers, with each monomer sharing its thiamine pyrophosphate across the dimer interface, and some contain ethylene glycol mimicking the substrate pyruvate in the active site. Comparison with other bacterial PDCs shows a correlation of higher thermostability with greater tetramer interface area and number of interactions. PMID:27599861

  20. Crystal structure of pyruvate decarboxylase from Zymobacter palmae.

    PubMed

    Buddrus, Lisa; Andrews, Emma S V; Leak, David J; Danson, Michael J; Arcus, Vickery L; Crennell, Susan J

    2016-09-01

    Pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC; EC 4.1.1.1) is a thiamine pyrophosphate- and Mg(2+) ion-dependent enzyme that catalyses the non-oxidative decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetaldehyde and carbon dioxide. It is rare in bacteria, but is a key enzyme in homofermentative metabolism, where ethanol is the major product. Here, the previously unreported crystal structure of the bacterial pyruvate decarboxylase from Zymobacter palmae is presented. The crystals were shown to diffract to 2.15 Å resolution. They belonged to space group P21, with unit-cell parameters a = 204.56, b = 177.39, c = 244.55 Å and Rr.i.m. = 0.175 (0.714 in the highest resolution bin). The structure was solved by molecular replacement using PDB entry 2vbi as a model and the final R values were Rwork = 0.186 (0.271 in the highest resolution bin) and Rfree = 0.220 (0.300 in the highest resolution bin). Each of the six tetramers is a dimer of dimers, with each monomer sharing its thiamine pyrophosphate across the dimer interface, and some contain ethylene glycol mimicking the substrate pyruvate in the active site. Comparison with other bacterial PDCs shows a correlation of higher thermostability with greater tetramer interface area and number of interactions. PMID:27599861

  1. Evolution of the functional properties of pyruvate kinase isozymes: pyruvate kinase L from Rana pipiens.

    PubMed

    Fournier, P; Guderley, H

    1986-01-01

    The regulatory properties of type L pyruvate kinase from Rana pipiens are intermediate between those of the mammalian K and L isozymes. As with mammalian type L, the levels of the frog isozyme are affected by the animal's nutritional state. The mammalian and amphibian isozymes show similar sensitivities to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate activation and amino acid inhibition. By contrast, the frog L isozyme shares several properties of the K class: i.e. irreversible inactivation by oxidized glutathione and lack of response to a cyclic AMP stimulated phosphorylation. Furthermore, as for some mammalian K isozymes, frog type L shows a high PEP affinity and a low cooperativity of PEP binding. Insofar as the properties of this present day enzyme reflect those of its counterpart in the amphibian ancestor of higher vertebrates, our results suggest that at its first expression, the type L resembled the type K. Many important regulatory properties of the L isozyme, especially the sensitivity to phosphorylation, were acquired more recently perhaps in association with an increased importance of constant blood glucose. PMID:3489743

  2. IDH1 Mutation Induces Reprogramming of Pyruvate Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo-Garcia, Jose L; Viswanath, Pavithra; Eriksson, Pia; Cai, Larry; Radoul, Marina; Chaumeil, Myriam M; Blough, Michael; Luchman, H Artee; Weiss, Samuel; Cairncross, J Gregory; Phillips, Joanna J; Pieper, Russell O; Ronen, Sabrina M

    2015-08-01

    Mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) catalyzes the production of 2-hydroxyglutarate but also elicits additional metabolic changes. Levels of both glutamate and pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity have been shown to be affected in U87 glioblastoma cells or normal human astrocyte (NHA) cells expressing mutant IDH1, as compared with cells expressing wild-type IDH1. In this study, we show how these phenomena are linked through the effects of IDH1 mutation, which also reprograms pyruvate metabolism. Reduced PDH activity in U87 glioblastoma and NHA IDH1 mutant cells was associated with relative increases in PDH inhibitory phosphorylation, expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-3, and levels of hypoxia inducible factor-1α. PDH activity was monitored in these cells by hyperpolarized (13)C-magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((13)C-MRS), which revealed a reduction in metabolism of hyperpolarized 2-(13)C-pyruvate to 5-(13)C-glutamate, relative to cells expressing wild-type IDH1. (13)C-MRS also revealed a reduction in glucose flux to glutamate in IDH1 mutant cells. Notably, pharmacological activation of PDH by cell exposure to dichloroacetate (DCA) increased production of hyperpolarized 5-(13)C-glutamate in IDH1 mutant cells. Furthermore, DCA treatment also abrogated the clonogenic advantage conferred by IDH1 mutation. Using patient-derived mutant IDH1 neurosphere models, we showed that PDH activity was essential for cell proliferation. Taken together, our results established that the IDH1 mutation induces an MRS-detectable reprogramming of pyruvate metabolism, which is essential for cell proliferation and clonogenicity, with immediate therapeutic implications. PMID:26045167

  3. Activation and inhibition of pyruvate carboxylase from Rhizobium etli.

    PubMed

    Zeczycki, Tonya N; Menefee, Ann L; Jitrapakdee, Sarawut; Wallace, John C; Attwood, Paul V; St Maurice, Martin; Cleland, W Wallace

    2011-11-15

    While crystallographic structures of the R. etli pyruvate carboxylase (PC) holoenzyme revealed the location and probable positioning of the essential activator, Mg(2+), and nonessential activator, acetyl-CoA, an understanding of how they affect catalysis remains unclear. The current steady-state kinetic investigation indicates that both acetyl-CoA and Mg(2+) assist in coupling the MgATP-dependent carboxylation of biotin in the biotin carboxylase (BC) domain with pyruvate carboxylation in the carboxyl transferase (CT) domain. Initial velocity plots of free Mg(2+) vs pyruvate were nonlinear at low concentrations of Mg(2+) and a nearly complete loss of coupling between the BC and CT domain reactions was observed in the absence of acetyl-CoA. Increasing concentrations of free Mg(2+) also resulted in a decrease in the K(a) for acetyl-CoA. Acetyl phosphate was determined to be a suitable phosphoryl donor for the catalytic phosphorylation of MgADP, while phosphonoacetate inhibited both the phosphorylation of MgADP by carbamoyl phosphate (K(i) = 0.026 mM) and pyruvate carboxylation (K(i) = 2.5 mM). In conjunction with crystal structures of T882A R. etli PC mutant cocrystallized with phosphonoacetate and MgADP, computational docking studies suggest that phosphonoacetate could coordinate to one of two Mg(2+) metal centers in the BC domain active site. Based on the pH profiles, inhibition studies, and initial velocity patterns, possible mechanisms for the activation, regulation, and coordination of catalysis between the two spatially distinct active sites in pyruvate carboxylase from R. etli by acetyl-CoA and Mg(2+) are described. PMID:21958066

  4. A Catalyzing Phantom for Reproducible Dynamic Conversion of Hyperpolarized [1-13C]-Pyruvate

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Christopher M.; Lee, Jaehyuk; Ramirez, Marc S.; Schellingerhout, Dawid; Millward, Steven; Bankson, James A.

    2013-01-01

    In vivo real time spectroscopic imaging of hyperpolarized 13C labeled metabolites shows substantial promise for the assessment of physiological processes that were previously inaccessible. However, reliable and reproducible methods of measurement are necessary to maximize the effectiveness of imaging biomarkers that may one day guide personalized care for diseases such as cancer. Animal models of human disease serve as poor reference standards due to the complexity, heterogeneity, and transient nature of advancing disease. In this study, we describe the reproducible conversion of hyperpolarized [1-13C]-pyruvate to [1-13C]-lactate using a novel synthetic enzyme phantom system. The rate of reaction can be controlled and tuned to mimic normal or pathologic conditions of varying degree. Variations observed in the use of this phantom compare favorably against within-group variations observed in recent animal studies. This novel phantom system provides crucial capabilities as a reference standard for the optimization, comparison, and certification of quantitative imaging strategies for hyperpolarized tracers. PMID:23977006

  5. Hypoxic repression of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity is necessary for metabolic reprogramming and growth of model tumours

    PubMed Central

    Golias, Tereza; Papandreou, Ioanna; Sun, Ramon; Kumar, Bhavna; Brown, Nicole V.; Swanson, Benjamin J.; Pai, Reetesh; Jaitin, Diego; Le, Quynh-Thu; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Denko, Nicholas C.

    2016-01-01

    Tumour cells fulfil the bioenergetic and biosynthetic needs of proliferation using the available environmental metabolites. Metabolic adaptation to hypoxia causes decreased mitochondrial function and increased lactate production. This work examines the biological importance of the hypoxia-inducible inhibitory phosphorylations on the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1α subunit. Pancreatic cancer cell lines were genetically manipulated to alter the net phosphorylation of PDH E1α through reduced kinase expression or enhanced phosphatase expression. The modified cells were tested for hypoxic changes in phosphorylated E1α, mitochondrial metabolism and growth as xenografted tumours. Even though there are four PDHK genes, PDHK1 is essential for inhibitory PDH phosphorylation of E1α at serine 232, is partially responsible for modification of serines 293 and 300, and these phosphorylations are necessary for model tumour growth. In order to determine the clinical relevance, a cohort of head and neck cancer patient biopsies was examined for phosphorylated E1α and expression of PDHK1. Patients with detectable 232 phosphorylation or expression of PDHK1 tend to have worse clinical outcome. These data show that PDHK1 activity is unique and non-redundant in the family of PHDK enzymes and a PDHK1 specific inhibitor would therefore have anti-cancer activity with reduced chance of side effects from inhibition of other PDHKs. PMID:27498883

  6. Hypoxic repression of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity is necessary for metabolic reprogramming and growth of model tumours.

    PubMed

    Golias, Tereza; Papandreou, Ioanna; Sun, Ramon; Kumar, Bhavna; Brown, Nicole V; Swanson, Benjamin J; Pai, Reetesh; Jaitin, Diego; Le, Quynh-Thu; Teknos, Theodoros N; Denko, Nicholas C

    2016-01-01

    Tumour cells fulfil the bioenergetic and biosynthetic needs of proliferation using the available environmental metabolites. Metabolic adaptation to hypoxia causes decreased mitochondrial function and increased lactate production. This work examines the biological importance of the hypoxia-inducible inhibitory phosphorylations on the pyruvate dehydrogenase E1α subunit. Pancreatic cancer cell lines were genetically manipulated to alter the net phosphorylation of PDH E1α through reduced kinase expression or enhanced phosphatase expression. The modified cells were tested for hypoxic changes in phosphorylated E1α, mitochondrial metabolism and growth as xenografted tumours. Even though there are four PDHK genes, PDHK1 is essential for inhibitory PDH phosphorylation of E1α at serine 232, is partially responsible for modification of serines 293 and 300, and these phosphorylations are necessary for model tumour growth. In order to determine the clinical relevance, a cohort of head and neck cancer patient biopsies was examined for phosphorylated E1α and expression of PDHK1. Patients with detectable 232 phosphorylation or expression of PDHK1 tend to have worse clinical outcome. These data show that PDHK1 activity is unique and non-redundant in the family of PHDK enzymes and a PDHK1 specific inhibitor would therefore have anti-cancer activity with reduced chance of side effects from inhibition of other PDHKs. PMID:27498883

  7. Pyruvate dehydrogenase activity and quantity decreases after coronary artery bypass grafting: a prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, Lars W.; Liu, Xiaowen; Peng, Teng J.; Giberson, Tyler A.; Khabbaz, Kamal R.; Donnino, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) is a key gatekeeper enzyme in aerobic metabolism. The main purpose of this study was to determine if PDH activity is affected by major stress in the form of coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) which has previously been used as a model of critical illness. Methods We conducted a prospective, observational study of patients undergoing CABG at an urban, tertiary care hospital. We included adult patients undergoing CABG with or without concomitant valve surgery. Measurements of PDH activity and quantity and thiamine were obtained prior to surgery, at the completion of surgery, and 6 hours post-surgery. Results Fourteen patients were enrolled (age: 67 ± 10 years, 21 % female). Study subjects had a mean 41.7 % (SD: 27.7) reduction in PDH activity after surgery and a mean 32.0% (SD: 31.4) reduction 6 hours after surgery (p < 0.001). Eight patients were thiamine deficient (≤ 7 nmol/L) after surgery compared to none prior to surgery (p = 0.002). Thiamine level was a significantly associated with PDH quantity at all time points (p = 0.01). Post-surgery lactate levels were inversely correlated with post-surgery thiamine levels (r = −0.58 and p = 0.04). Conclusion The stress of major surgery causes decreased PDH activity and quantity, and depletion of thiamine levels. PMID:25526377

  8. SH2 domain-containing phosphatase 1 regulates pyruvate kinase M2 in hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Tai, Wei-Tien; Hung, Man-Hsin; Chu, Pei-Yi; Chen, Yao-Li; Chen, Li-Ju; Tsai, Ming-Hsien; Chen, Min-Husan; Shiau, Chung-Wai; Boo, Yin-Pin; Chen, Kuen-Feng

    2016-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) is known to promote tumourigenesis through dimer formation of p-PKM2Y105. Here, we investigated whether SH2-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase 1 (SHP-1) decreases p-PKM2Y105 expression and, thus, determines the sensitivity of sorafenib through inhibiting the nuclear-related function of PKM2. Immunoprecipitation and immunoblot confirmed the effect of SHP-1 on PKM2Y105 dephosphorylation. Lactate production was assayed in cells and tumor samples to determine whether sorafenib reversed the Warburg effect. Clinical hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tumor samples were assessed for PKM2 expression. SHP-1 directly dephosphorylated PKM2 at Y105 and further decreased the proliferative activity of PKM2; similar effects were found in sorafenib-treated HCC cells. PKM2 was also found to determine the sensitivity of targeted drugs, such as sorafenib, brivanib, and sunitinib, by SHP-1 activation. Significant sphere-forming activity was found in HCC cells stably expressing PKM2. Clinical findings suggest that PKM2 acts as a predicting factor of early recurrence in patients with HCC, particularly those without known risk factors (63.6%). SHP-1 dephosphorylates PKM2 at Y105 to inhibit nuclear function of PKM2 and determines the efficacy of targeted drugs. Targeting PKM2 by SHP-1 might provide new therapeutic insights for patients with HCC. PMID:26959741

  9. Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase 1 (PDP1) null mutation produces a lethal infantile phenotype.

    PubMed

    Cameron, J M; Maj, M; Levandovskiy, V; Barnett, C P; Blaser, S; Mackay, N; Raiman, J; Feigenbaum, A; Schulze, A; Robinson, B H

    2009-04-01

    Pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase deficiency has previously only been confirmed at the molecular level in two brothers and two breeds of dog with exercise intolerance. A female patient, who died at 6 months, presented with lactic acidemia in the neonatal period with serum lactate levels ranging from 2.5 to 17 mM. Failure of dichloroacetate to activate the PDH complex in skin fibroblasts was evident, but not in early passages. A homozygous c.277G > T (p.E93X) nonsense mutation in the PDP1 gene was identified in genomic DNA and immunoblotting showed a complete absence of PDP1 protein in mitochondria. Native PDHC activity could be restored by the addition of either recombinant PDP1 or PDP2. This highlights the role of PDP2, the second phosphatase isoform, in PDP1-deficient patients for the first time. We conclude that the severity of the clinical course associated with PDP1 deficiency can be quite variable depending on the exact nature of the molecular defect. PMID:19184109

  10. Lactate and lactate clearance in acute cardiac care patients

    PubMed Central

    Lazzeri, Chiara; Picariello, Claudio; Dini, Carlotta Sorini; Gensini, Gian Franco; Valente, Serafina

    2012-01-01

    Hyperlactataemia is commonly used as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in intensive care settings. Recent studies documented that serial lactate measurements over time (or lactate clearance), may be clinically more reliable than lactate absolute value for risk stratification in different pathological conditions. While the negative prognostic role of hyperlactataemia in several critical ill diseases (such as sepsis and trauma) is well established, data in patients with acute cardiac conditions (i.e. acute coronary syndromes) are scarce and controversial. The present paper provides an overview of the current available evidence on the clinical role of lactic acid levels and lactate clearance in acute cardiac settings (acute coronary syndromes, cardiogenic shock, cardiac surgery), focusing on its prognostic role. PMID:24062898

  11. Genomic reconstruction of Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 metabolism reveals previously uncharacterized machinery for lactate utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Pinchuk, Grigoriy E.; Rodionov, Dmitry A.; Yang, Chen; Li, Xiaoqing; Osterman, Andrei L.; Dervyn, Etienne; Geydebrekht, Oleg V.; Reed, Samantha B.; Romine, Margaret F.; Collart, Frank R.; Scott, J.; Fredrickson, Jim K.; Beliaev, Alex S.

    2009-02-24

    The ability to utilize lactate as a sole source of carbon and energy is one of the key metabolic signatures of Shewanellae, a diverse group of dissimilatory metal reducing bacteria commonly found in aquatic and sedimentary environments. Nonetheless, homology searches failed to recognize orthologs of previously described bacterial D- or L-lactate oxidizing enzymes (Escherichia coli genes dld and lldD) in any of the 13 analyzed genomes of Shewanella spp. Using comparative genomic techniques, we identified a conserved chromosomal gene cluster in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 (locus tag: SO1522-SO1518) containing lactate permease and candidate genes for both D- and L-lactate dehydrogenase enzymes. The predicted D-LDH gene (dldD, SO1521) is a distant homolog of FAD-dependent lactate dehydrogenase from yeast, whereas the predicted L-LDH is encoded by three genes with previously unknown functions (lldEGF, SO1520-19-18). Through a combination of genetic and biochemical techniques, we experimentally confirmed the predicted physiological role of these novel genes in S. oneidensis MR-1 and carried out successful functional validation studies in Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis. We conclusively showed that dldD and lldEFG encode fully functional D-and L-LDH enzymes, which catalyze the oxidation of the respective lactate stereoisomers to pyruvate. Notably, the S. oneidensis MR-1 LldEFG enzyme is the first described example of a multi-subunit lactate oxidase. Comparative analysis of >400 bacterial species revealed the presence of LldEFG and Dld in a broad range of diverse species accentuating the potential importance of these previously unknown proteins in microbial metabolism.

  12. Molecular and biochemical characterization of bifunctional pyruvate decarboxylases and pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductases from Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga hypogea.

    PubMed

    Eram, Mohammad S; Wong, Alton; Oduaran, Erica; Ma, Kesen

    2015-12-01

    Hyperthermophilic bacteria Thermotoga maritima and Thermotoga hypogea produce ethanol as a metabolic end product, which is resulted from acetaldehyde reduction catalysed by an alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH). However, the enzyme that is involved in the production of acetaldehyde from pyruvate is not well characterized. An oxygen sensitive and coenzyme A-dependent pyruvate decarboxylase (PDC) activity was found to be present in cell free extracts of T. maritima and T. hypogea. Both enzymes were purified and found to have pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (POR) activity, indicating their bifunctionality. Both PDC and POR activities from each of the purified enzymes were characterized in regards to their optimal assay conditions including pH dependency, oxygen sensitivity, thermal stability, temperature dependency and kinetic parameters. The close relatedness of the PORs that was shown by sequence analysis could be an indication of the presence of such bifunctionality in other hyperthermophilic bacteria. This is the first report of a bifunctional PDC/POR enzyme in hyperthermophilic bacteria. The PDC and the previously reported ADHs are most likely the key enzymes catalysing the production of ethanol from pyruvate in bacterial hyperthermophiles. PMID:26032540

  13. Migraine in pregnancy and lactation.

    PubMed

    David, Paru S; Kling, Juliana M; Starling, Amaal J

    2014-04-01

    Migraine headache is a significant health problem affecting women more than men. In women, the hormonal fluctuations seen during pregnancy and lactation can affect migraine frequency and magnitude. Understanding the evaluation of headache in pregnancy is important, especially given the increased risk of secondary headache conditions. Pregnancy and lactation can complicate treatment options for women with migraine because of the risk of certain medications to the fetus. This review includes details of the workup and then provides treatment options for migraine during pregnancy and lactation. PMID:24604057

  14. Metabolism of hyperpolarized [1-(13) C]pyruvate through alternate pathways in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Jin, Eunsook S; Moreno, Karlos X; Wang, Jian-Xiong; Fidelino, Leila; Merritt, Matthew E; Sherry, A Dean; Malloy, Craig R

    2016-04-01

    The source of hyperpolarized (HP) [(13) C]bicarbonate in the liver during metabolism of HP [1-(13) C]pyruvate is uncertain and likely changes with physiology. Multiple processes including decarboxylation through pyruvate dehydrogenase or pyruvate carboxylase followed by subsequent decarboxylation via phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (gluconeogenesis) could play a role. Here we tested which metabolic fate of pyruvate contributed to the appearance of HP [(13) C]bicarbonate during metabolism of HP [1-(13) C]pyruvate by the liver in rats after 21 h of fasting compared to rats with free access to food. The (13) C NMR of HP [(13) C]bicarbonate was observed in the liver of fed rats, but not in fasted rats where pyruvate carboxylation and gluconeogenesis was active. To further explore the relative fluxes through pyruvate carboxylase versus pyruvate dehydrogenase in the liver under typical conditions of hyperpolarization studies, separate parallel experiments were performed with rats given non-hyperpolarized [2,3-(13) C]pyruvate. (13) C NMR analysis of glutamate isolated from the liver of rats revealed that flux from injected pyruvate through pyruvate dehydrogenase was dominant under fed conditions whereas flux through pyruvate carboxylase dominated under fasted conditions. The NMR signal of HP [(13) C]bicarbonate does not parallel pyruvate carboxylase activity followed by subsequent decarboxylation reaction leading to glucose production. In the liver of healthy well-fed rats, the appearance of HP [(13) C]bicarbonate exclusively reflects decarboxylation of HP [1-(13) C]pyruvate via pyruvate dehydrogenase. © 2016 The Authors. NMR in Biomedicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26836042

  15. Determination of degradation products of squalamine lactate using LC/MS.

    PubMed

    Li, Cong-Jun; Kari, U Prasad; Noecker, Lincoln A; Jones, Stephen R; Sabo, Andrew M; McCormick, Timothy J; Johnston, Sean M

    2003-04-24

    Heat, acid and base stress methods were applied to study the stability of squalamine lactate. Liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry was used to analyze the degraded samples and tentative structural identifications were assigned based on their molecular weight measurements, reactivity and MS/MS fragmentation. Solid squalamine lactate generated a new amide, namely lactyl squalamide, when heated to 80 degrees C. Chemical structure for this new compound has been established by NMR and MS data interpretation and confirmed by direct comparison between the degradant and the synthesized compound. Squalamine lactate in pH 4 acetate buffer solution produced more degradants under stressed conditions. These degradants are formed due to the loss of the sulfate functionality. Squalamine lactate is stable in refrigerated conditions as well as in basic solution. PMID:12852451

  16. Influence of lactose and lactate on growth and β-galactosidase activity of potential probiotic Propionibacterium acidipropionici.

    PubMed

    Zárate, Gabriela; Chaia, Adriana Pérez

    2012-02-01

    Dairy propionibacteria are microorganisms of interest for their role as starters in cheese technology and as well as their functions as probiotics. Previous studies have demonstrated that Propionibacterium acidipropionici metabolize lactose by a β-galactosidase that resists the gastrointestinal transit and the manufacture of a Swiss-type cheese, so that could be considered for their inclusion in a probiotic product assigned to intolerant individuals. In the present work we studied the effect of the sequential addition of lactose and lactate as first or second energy sources on the growth and β-galactosidase activity of P. acidipropionici Q4. The highest β-galactosidase activity was observed in a medium containing only lactate whereas higher final biomass was obtained in a medium with lactose. When lactate was used by this strain as a second energy source, a marked increase of the intracellular pyruvate level was observed, followed by lactate consumption and increase of specific β-galactosidase activity whereas lactose consumption became negligible. On the contrary, when lactose was provided as second energy source, lactic acid stopped to be metabolized, a decrease of the intracellular pyruvate concentration was observed and β-galactosidase activity sharply returned to a value that resembled the observed during the growth on lactose alone. Results suggest that the relative concentration of each substrate in the culture medium and the intracellular pyruvate level were decisive for both the choice of the energetic substrate and the β-galactosidase activity in propionibacteria. This information should be useful to decide the most appropriate vehicle to deliver propionibacteria to the host in order to obtain the highest β-galactosidase activity. PMID:22202442

  17. Targeting lactate dehydrogenase-A inhibits tumorigenesis and tumor progression in mouse models of lung cancer and impacts tumor initiating cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Han; Hanai, Jun-ichi; Ren, Jian-Guo; Kats, Lev; Burgess, Kerri; Bhargava, Parul; Signoretti, Sabina; Billiard, Julia; Duffy, Kevin J.; Grant, Aaron; Wang, Xiaoen; Lorkiewicz, Pawel K.; Schatzman, Sabrina; Bousamra, Michael; Lane, Andrew N.; Higashi, Richard M.; Fan, Teresa W.M.; Pandolfi, Pier Paolo; Sukhatme, Vikas P.; Seth, Pankaj

    2014-01-01

    Summary The lactate dehydrogenase-A (LDH-A) enzyme catalyzes the inter-conversion of pyruvate and lactate, is upregulated in human cancers and is associated with aggressive tumor outcomes. Here we use a novel inducible murine model and demonstrate that inactivation of LDH-A in mouse models of NSCLC driven by oncogenic K-RAS or EGFR leads to decreased tumorigenesis and disease regression in established tumors. We also show that abrogation of LDH-A results in reprogramming of pyruvate metabolism, with decreased lactic fermentation in vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo. This was accompanied by re-activation of mitochondrial function in vitro but not in vivo or ex vivo. Finally, using a specific small molecule LDH-A inhibitor, we demonstrated that LDH-A is essential for cancer initiating cell survival and proliferation. Thus, LDH-A can be a viable therapeutic target for NSCLC including cancer stem cell-dependent drug resistant tumors. PMID:24726384

  18. Relationship between lactate and glutamine metabolism in vitro by the kidney: differences between dog and rat and importance of alanine synthesis in the dog.

    PubMed

    Lemieux, G; Vinay, P; Baverel, G; Brière, R; Gougoux, A

    1979-10-01

    Interaction between lactate (1 or 5 mM) and glutamine (1 or 5 mM) metabolism was studied with renal cortical slices incubated at a pH of 7.0 and obtained from acidotic (ammonium chloride) dogs and rats. The effect of aminooxyacetate (0.2 mM), dichloroacetate (3 mM), and fluoroacetate (0.05 mM) was also studied. Significant differences were observed between dog and rat. In the dog, lactate had no effect on glutamine uptake and vice versa, but gluconeogenesis increased. Ammonia production, however, decreased by 13 to 21%, whereas a significant increase in alanine production was noted. In the rat, glutamine extraction and ammonia production dropped by 33% with 5 mM lactate. In contrast to the observation in the dog, no production of alanine was noted, but significant accumulation of glutamate took place. Amino-oxyacetate inhibited alanine production in the dog and reestablished ammoniagenesis, and it led to a marked decrement in the uptake of lactate and glucose production in both species. Dichloroacetate in the dog resulted in a reduction in pyruvate, alanine, glucose, and ammonia production while glutamate accumulation was observed. In both species, fluoroacetate stimulated glutamine uptake and ammonia production. With lactate alone, fluoroacetate decreased lactate uptake and glucose production. With both lactate and glutamine in the medium, fluoroacetate prevented any effect of lactate on ammoniagenesis. The present study demonstrates that lactate has a modest depressing effect on renal ammonia production by dog slices through increased synthesis of alanine and redistribution of nitrogen from glutamine. In the rat, the depressing effect of lactate on ammonia production in the alanine amino-transferase deficient kidney occurs through accumulation of glutamate. The data also reveal that oxidation of lactate to carbon dioxide is greater in the dog than it is in the rat, but that gluconeogenesis from lactate is more important in the rat. PMID:548591

  19. Syntrophic Degradation of Lactate in Methanogenic Co-cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Birte; Stahl, David

    2010-05-17

    In environments where the amount of the inorganic electron acceptors (oxygen, nitrate, sulfate, sulfur oroxidized metal ions (Fe3+;Mn4+) is insufficient for complete breakdown of organic matter, methane is formed as the major reduced end product. In such methanogenic environments organic acids are degraded by syntrophic associations of fermenting, acetogenic bacteria (e.g., sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) as"secondary fermenters") and methanogenic archaea. In these consortia, the conversion of lactate to acetate, CO2 and methane depends on the cooperating activities of both metabolically distinct microbial groups that are tightly linked by the need to maintain the exchanged metabolites (hydrogenandformate) at very low concentrations.

  20. Acetate Dependence of Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Comerford, Sarah A.; Huang, Zhiguang; Du, Xinlin; Wang, Yun; Cai, Ling; Witkiewicz, Agnes; Walters, Holly; Tantawy, Mohammed N.; Fu, Allie; Manning, H. Charles; Horton, Jay D.; Hammer, Robert E.; McKnight, Steven L.; Tu, Benjamin P.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Acetyl-CoA represents a central node of carbon metabolism that plays a key role in bioenergetics, cell proliferation and the regulation of gene expression. How highly glycolytic or hypoxic tumors are able to produce sufficient quantities of this metabolite to support cell growth and survival under nutrient-limiting conditions remains poorly understood. Here we show that the nucleocytosolic acetyl-CoA synthetase enzyme, ACSS2, supplies a key source of acetyl-CoA for tumors by capturing acetate as a carbon source. Despite exhibiting no gross deficits in growth or development, adult mice lacking ACSS2 exhibit a significant reduction in tumor burden in two different models of hepatocellular carcinoma. ACSS2 is expressed in a large proportion of human tumors and its activity is responsible for the majority of cellular acetate uptake into both lipids and histones. These observations may qualify ACSS2 as a targetable metabolic vulnerability of a wide spectrum of tumors. PMID:25525877

  1. Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter describes the taxonomic classification of Lactate dehydrogenase-elevating virus (LDV). Included are: host, genome, classification, morphology, physicochemical and physical properties, nucleic acid, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, geographic range, phylogenetic properties, biologic...

  2. Lactate levels with glioblastoma multiforme.

    PubMed

    Kahlon, Arunpreet Singh; Alexander, Mariam; Kahlon, Arundeep; Wright, Jonathan

    2016-07-01

    A 37-year-old woman with known glioblastoma multiforme was admitted for treatment of new deep vein thrombosis. Anion gap and plasma lactate levels were found to be elevated. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a stable, advanced glioblastoma multiforme. All causes of lactic acidosis, including infections and medications, were ruled out. Aggressive tumors have been shown to produce lactate levels in minute quantities in their microenvironment, which helps them metastasize and evade immune response and even radiation. PMID:27365883

  3. Lactate levels with glioblastoma multiforme

    PubMed Central

    Kahlon, Arunpreet Singh; Alexander, Mariam; Kahlon, Arundeep

    2016-01-01

    A 37-year-old woman with known glioblastoma multiforme was admitted for treatment of new deep vein thrombosis. Anion gap and plasma lactate levels were found to be elevated. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain showed a stable, advanced glioblastoma multiforme. All causes of lactic acidosis, including infections and medications, were ruled out. Aggressive tumors have been shown to produce lactate levels in minute quantities in their microenvironment, which helps them metastasize and evade immune response and even radiation. PMID:27365883

  4. Lactate promotes glioma migration by TGF-β2–dependent regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-2

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, Fusun; Leukel, Petra; Doerfelt, Anett; Beier, Christoph P.; Dettmer, Katja; Oefner, Peter J.; Kastenberger, Michael; Kreutz, Marina; Nickl-Jockschat, Thomas; Bogdahn, Ulrich; Bosserhoff, Anja-Katrin; Hau, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Lactate dehydrogenase type A (LDH-A) is a key metabolic enzyme catalyzing pyruvate into lactate and is excessively expressed by tumor cells. Transforming growth factor-β2 (TGF-β2) is a key regulator of invasion in high-grade gliomas, partially by inducing a mesenchymal phenotype and by remodeling the extracellular matrix. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that lactate metabolism regulates TGF-β2–mediated migration of glioma cells. Small interfering RNA directed against LDH-A (siLDH-A) suppresses, and lactate induces, TGF-β2 expression, suggesting that lactate metabolism is strongly associated with TGF-β2 in glioma cells. Here we demonstrate that TGF-β2 enhances expression, secretion, and activation of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and induces the cell surface expression of integrin αvβ3 receptors. In spheroid and Boyden chamber migration assays, inhibition of MMP-2 activity using a specific MMP-2 inhibitor and blocking of integrin αvβ3 abrogated glioma cell migration stimulated by TGF-β2. Furthermore, siLDH-A inhibited MMP2 activity, leading to inhibition of glioma migration. Taken together, we define an LDH-A–induced and TGF-β2–coordinated regulatory cascade of transcriptional regulation of MMP-2 and integrin αvβ3. This novel interaction between lactate metabolism and TGF-β2 might constitute a crucial mechanism for glioma migration. PMID:19033423

  5. Aerobic Production and Utilization of Lactate Satisfy Increased Energy Demands Upon Neuronal Activation in Hippocampal Slices and Provide Neuroprotection Against Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Schurr, Avital; Gozal, Evelyne

    2012-01-01

    Ever since it was shown for the first time that lactate can support neuronal function in vitro as a sole oxidative energy substrate, investigators in the field of neuroenergetics have been debating the role, if any, of this glycolytic product in cerebral energy metabolism. Our experiments employed the rat hippocampal slice preparation with electrophysiological and biochemical methodologies. The data generated by these experiments (a) support the hypothesis that lactate, not pyruvate, is the end-product of cerebral aerobic glycolysis; (b) indicate that lactate plays a major and crucial role in affording neural tissue to respond adequately to glutamate excitation and to recover unscathed post-excitation; (c) suggest that neural tissue activation is accompanied by aerobic lactate and NADH production, the latter being produced when the former is converted to pyruvate by mitochondrial lactate dehydrogenase (mLDH); (d) imply that NADH can be utilized as an endogenous scavenger of reactive oxygen species (ROS) to provide neuroprotection against ROS-induced neuronal damage. PMID:22275901

  6. Antitumor activity of 7-aminocarboxycoumarin derivatives, a new class of potent inhibitors of lactate influx but not efflux.

    PubMed

    Draoui, Nihed; Schicke, Olivier; Seront, Emmanuel; Bouzin, Caroline; Sonveaux, Pierre; Riant, Olivier; Feron, Olivier

    2014-06-01

    High lactate concentration in tumors is associated with bad prognosis. Lactate is released by glycolytic cells in tumors and recaptured by oxidative cancer cells to feed the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle after conversion into pyruvate. Monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) mediate these fluxes of proton-linked lactate and represent attractive targets to interrupt lactate shuttle and to inhibit tumor growth. Here, we investigated the properties of 7-aminocarboxycoumarins (7ACC) developed to selectively interfere with lactate fluxes in the lactate-rich tumor microenvironment. The pharmacologic properties of two compounds of this family, including their effects on lactate influx and efflux and antitumor activity, were investigated using human cancer cell lines and mouse xenograft models. Contrary to the reference MCT1 inhibitor AR-C155858, 7ACC unexpectedly inhibited lactate influx but not efflux in tumor cells expressing MCT1 and MCT4 transporters. 7ACC delayed the growth of cervix SiHa tumors, colorectal HCT116 tumors, and orthoptopic MCF-7 breast tumors. MCT target engagement was confirmed by the lack of activity of 7ACC on bladder UM-UC-3 carcinoma that does not express functional MCT. 7ACC also inhibited SiHa tumor relapse after treatment with cisplatin. Finally, we found that contrary to AR-C155858, 7ACC did not prevent the cell entry of the substrate-mimetic drug 3-bromopyruvate (3BP) through MCT1, and contributed to the inhibition of tumor relapse after 3BP treatment. In conclusion, our results indicate that 7ACC selectively affects a single part of the MCT symporter translocation cycle, leading to strict inhibition of lactate influx. This singular activity is associated with antitumor effects less prone to resistance and side effects. PMID:24672058

  7. Maternal lead exposure during lactation persistently impairs testicular development and steroidogenesis in male offspring.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Ji, Yan-Li; Wang, Qun; Zhao, Xian-Feng; Ning, Huan; Liu, Ping; Zhang, Cheng; Yu, Tao; Zhang, Ying; Meng, Xiu-Hong; Xu, De-Xiang

    2013-12-01

    Lead (Pb) is a testicular toxicant. In the present study, we investigated the effects of maternal Pb exposure during lactation on testicular development and steroidogenesis in male offspring. Maternal mice were exposed to different concentration of lead acetate (200 or 2000 ppm) through drinking water from postnatal day (PND) 0 to PND21. As expected, a high concentration of Pb was measured in the kidneys and liver of pups whose mothers were exposed to Pb during lactation. In addition, maternal Pb exposure during lactation elevated, to a less extent, Pb content in testes of weaning pups. Testis weight in weaning pups was significantly decreased when maternal mice were exposed to Pb during lactation. The level of serum and testicular T was reduced in Pb-exposed pups. The expression of P450scc, P450(17α) and 17β-HSD, key enzymes for T synthesis, was down-regulated in testes of weaning pups whose mothers were exposed to Pb during lactation. Interestingly, the level of serum and testicular T remained decreased in adult offspring whose mothers were exposed to Pb during lactation. Importantly, the number of spermatozoa was significantly reduced in Pb-exposed male offspring. Taken together, these results suggest that Pb could be transported from dams to pups through milk. Maternal Pb exposure during lactation persistently disrupts testicular development and steroidogenesis in male offspring. PMID:22806249

  8. Lactating Adenoma of the Breast.

    PubMed

    Barco Nebreda, Israel; Vidal, M Carmen; Fraile, Manel; Canales, Lydia; González, Clarisa; Giménez, Nuria; García-Fernández, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    Lactating adenoma is an uncommon breast palpable lesion occurring in pregnancy or lactation. Although it is a benign condition, it often requires core biopsy or even surgery to exclude malignancy. As with other solid lesions in pregnancy and lactation, lactating adenoma needs an accurate evaluation in order to ensure its benign nature. Work-up must include both imaging and histologic findings. Ultrasound evaluation remains the first step in assessing the features of the lesion. Some authors consider magnetic resonance imaging as a useful tool in cases of inconclusive evaluation after ultrasound and histologic exam in an attempt to avoid surgery. Most lactating adenomas resolve spontaneously, whereas others persist or even increase in size and must be removed. The authors present a case of a 35-year-old woman at 6 months postpartum with a lactating adenoma in her right breast. After surgical removal, breastfeeding was perfectly continued within the next 24 hours, which highlights the fact that breast surgery is most often compatible with breastfeeding. PMID:27197575

  9. The Arabidopsis YUCCA1 Flavin Monooxygenase Functions in the Indole-3-Pyruvic Acid Branch of Auxin Biosynthesis[W

    PubMed Central

    Stepanova, Anna N.; Yun, Jeonga; Robles, Linda M.; Novak, Ondrej; He, Wenrong; Guo, Hongwei; Ljung, Karin; Alonso, Jose M.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of auxins on plant growth and development have been known for more than 100 years, yet our understanding of how plants synthesize this essential plant hormone is still fragmentary at best. Gene loss- and gain-of-function studies have conclusively implicated three gene families, CYTOCHROME P450 79B2/B3 (CYP79B2/B3), YUCCA (YUC), and TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS1/TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE-RELATED (TAA1/TAR), in the production of this hormone in the reference plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Each of these three gene families is believed to represent independent routes of auxin biosynthesis. Using a combination of pharmacological, genetic, and biochemical approaches, we examined the possible relationships between the auxin biosynthetic pathways defined by these three gene families. Our findings clearly indicate that TAA1/TARs and YUCs function in a common linear biosynthetic pathway that is genetically distinct from the CYP79B2/B3 route. In the redefined TAA1-YUC auxin biosynthetic pathway, TAA1/TARs are required for the production of indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) from Trp, whereas YUCs are likely to function downstream. These results, together with the extensive genetic analysis of four pyruvate decarboxylases, the putative downstream components of the TAA1 pathway, strongly suggest that the enzymatic reactions involved in indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) production via IPyA are different than those previously postulated, and a new and testable model for how IAA is produced in plants is needed. PMID:22108406

  10. Acetate and CO2 assimilation by Methanothrix concilii.

    PubMed

    Ekiel, I; Sprott, G D; Patel, G B

    1985-06-01

    Biosynthetic pathways in Methanothrix concilii, a recently isolated aceticlastic methanogen, were studied by 13C-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Labeling patterns of amino acids, lipids, and carbohydrates were determined. Similar to other methanogens, acetate was carboxylated to pyruvate, which was further converted to amino acids by various biosynthetic pathways. The origin of carbon atoms in glutamate, proline, and arginine clearly showed that an incomplete tricarboxylic acid cycle operating in the oxidative direction was used for their biosynthesis. Isoleucine was synthesized via citramalate, which is a typical route for methanogens. As with Methanosarcina barkeri, an extensive exchange of the label between the carboxyl group of acetate and CO2 was observed. Lipids predominantly contained diphytanyl chains, the labeling of which indicated that biosynthesis proceeded through mevalonic acid. Labeling of the C-1,6 of glucose from [2-13C]acetate is consistent with a glucogenic route for carbohydrate biosynthesis. Except for the different origins of the methyl group of methionine, the metabolic properties of Methanothrix concilii are closely related to those of Methanosarcina barkeri. PMID:3922956

  11. Isoenzymes of Pyruvate Kinase in Etioplasts and Chloroplasts 1

    PubMed Central

    Ireland, Robert J.; Deluca, Vincenzo; Dennis, David T.

    1979-01-01

    Isoenzymes of pyruvate kinase from green leaves of castor bean and etiolated leaves of pea plants have been separated by ion filtration chromatography. One of the isoenzymes is localized in the plastid, whereas the other is in the cytosol. The cytosolic enzyme has a pH optimum from pH 7 to pH 9, and is able to utilize nucleotides other than ADP as the phosphoryl acceptor. The plastid enzyme has a much sharper optimum at pH 8, and is less efficient at using alternative nucleotides. The plastic pyruvate kinase, unlike the cytosolic enzyme, requires the presence of dithiothreitol or 2-mercaptoethanol during isolation and storage to stabilize the activity. PMID:16660835

  12. d-Lactate Dehydrogenase Gene (ldhD) Inactivation and Resulting Metabolic Effects in the Lactobacillus johnsonii Strains La1 and N312

    PubMed Central

    Lapierre, Luciane; Germond, Jacques-Edouard; Ott, Andreas; Delley, Michele; Mollet, Beat

    1999-01-01

    Lactobacillus johnsonii La1, a probiotic bacterium with demonstrated health effects, grows in milk, where it ferments lactose to d- and l-lactate in a 60:40% ratio. The d-lactate dehydrogenase (D-LDH) gene (ldhD) of this strain was isolated, and an in vitro-truncated copy of that gene was used to inactivate the genomic copy in two strains, La1 and N312, by gene replacement. For that, an 8-bp deletion was generated within the cloned ldhD gene to inactivate its function. The plasmid containing the altered ldhD was transferred to L. johnsonii via conjugative comobilization with Lactococcus lactis carrying pAMβ1. Crossover integrations of the plasmid at the genomic ldhD site were selected, and appropriate resolution of the cointegrate structures resulted in mutants that had lost the plasmid and in which the original ldhD was replaced by the truncated copy. These mutants completely lacked D-LDH activity. Nevertheless, the lower remaining L-LDH activity of the cells was sufficient to reroute most of the accumulating pyruvate to l-lactate. Only a marginal increase in production of the secondary end products acetaldehyde, diacetyl, and acetoin was observed. It can be concluded that in L. johnsonii D- and L-LDH are present in substantial excess for their role to eliminate pyruvate and regenerate NAD+ and that accumulated pyruvate is therefore not easily redirected in high amounts to secondary metabolic routes. PMID:10473408

  13. Siblings with severe pyruvate kinase deficiency and a complex genotype.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Robert D; Yaish, Hassan M; Nussenzveig, Roberto H; Agarwal, Archana M

    2016-09-01

    Siblings presented as neonates with severe jaundice and transfusion-dependent hemolytic anemia. Next-generation sequencing revealed both to have three heterozygous mutations in the gene encoding erythrocyte pyruvate kinase (PKLR), plus a heterozygous splice mutation in the beta-spectrin gene (SPTB). In addition, both have a different 5th mutation in a gene encoding other erythrocyte membrane proteins. The asymptomatic parents and all three asymptomatic siblings have different sets of these mutations. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27354418

  14. Lactate and Acrylate Metabolism by Megasphaera elsdenii under Batch and Steady-State Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Prabhu, Rupal; Altman, Elliot

    2012-01-01

    The growth of Megasphaera elsdenii on lactate with acrylate and acrylate analogues was studied under batch and steady-state conditions. Under batch conditions, lactate was converted to acetate and propionate, and acrylate was converted into propionate. Acrylate analogues 2-methyl propenoate and 3-butenoate containing a terminal double bond were similarly converted into their respective saturated acids (isobutyrate and butyrate), while crotonate and lactate analogues 3-hydroxybutyrate and (R)-2-hydroxybutyrate were not metabolized. Under carbon-limited steady-state conditions, lactate was converted to acetate and butyrate with no propionate formed. As the acrylate concentration in the feed was increased, butyrate and hydrogen formation decreased and propionate was increasingly generated, while the calculated ATP yield was unchanged. M. elsdenii metabolism differs substantially under batch and steady-state conditions. The results support the conclusion that propionate is not formed during lactate-limited steady-state growth because of the absence of this substrate to drive the formation of lactyl coenzyme A (CoA) via propionyl-CoA transferase. Acrylate and acrylate analogues are reduced under both batch and steady-state growth conditions after first being converted to thioesters via propionyl-CoA transferase. Our findings demonstrate the central role that CoA transferase activity plays in the utilization of acids by M. elsdenii and allows us to propose a modified acrylate pathway for M. elsdenii. PMID:23023753

  15. Direct Evidence of Catalytic Heterogeneity in Lactate Dehydrogenase by Temperature Jump Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Protein conformational heterogeneity and dynamics are known to play an important role in enzyme catalysis, but their influence has been difficult to observe directly. We have studied the effects of heterogeneity in the catalytic reaction of pig heart lactate dehydrogenase using isotope edited infrared spectroscopy, laser-induced temperature jump relaxation, and kinetic modeling. The isotope edited infrared spectrum reveals the presence of multiple reactive conformations of pyruvate bound to the enzyme, with three major reactive populations having substrate C2 carbonyl stretches at 1686, 1679, and 1674 cm–1, respectively. The temperature jump relaxation measurements and kinetic modeling indicate that these substates form a heterogeneous branched reaction pathway, and each substate catalyzes the conversion of pyruvate to lactate with a different rate. Furthermore, the rate of hydride transfer is inversely correlated with the frequency of the C2 carbonyl stretch (the rate increases as the frequency decreases), consistent with the relationship between the frequency of this mode and the polarization of the bond, which determines its reactivity toward hydride transfer. The enzyme does not appear to be optimized to use the fastest pathway preferentially but rather accesses multiple pathways in a search process that often selects slower ones. These results provide further support for a dynamic view of enzyme catalysis where the role of the enzyme is not just to bring reactants together but also to guide the conformational search for chemically competent interactions. PMID:25149276

  16. Lactate is a possible mediator of the glucose effect on platelet inhibition.

    PubMed

    Kobzar, Gennadi; Mardla, Vilja; Samel, Nigulas

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Glucose has been found to impair the inhibition of platelets with aspirin and alter the basal activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in platelets. The aim of this work was to study the effects of glucose on the inhibitory pathways in activated platelets. A short-term incubation of glucose impaired the inhibition of platelet aggregation induced by agents activating an NOS-dependent pathway, such as l-arginine, adenosine and α-tocopherol. However, glucose had no effect on the inhibition induced by iloprost and BW245C, agents that activate the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling pathway. Potassium lactate attenuated the effects of the same inhibitors as glucose did. The inhibitors of glucose transport prevented the effect of glucose. Dichloroacetate, known to prevent the conversion of pyruvate to lactate and to decrease lactate in platelets, significantly attenuated the effect of glucose in platelets. The data support the suggestion that the effect of glucose on the inhibition of platelets by agents activating an NOS-dependent pathway is mediated by glucose metabolite lactate. PMID:23909711

  17. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and pyruvate carboxylase in developing rat liver

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, F. J.; Hanson, R. W.

    1967-01-01

    1. Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase and pyruvate carboxylase were measured in foetal, newborn and adult rat liver extracts by a radiochemical assay involving the fixation of [14C]bicarbonate. 2. Pyruvate-carboxylase activity in both foetal and adult liver occurs mainly in mitochondrial and nuclear fractions, with about 10% of the activity in the cytoplasm. 3. Similar studies of the intracellular distribution of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase show that more than 90% of the activity is in the cytoplasm. However, in the 17-day foetal liver about 90% of the activity is in mitochondria and nuclei. 4. Pyruvate-carboxylase activity in both particulate and soluble fractions is very low in the 17-day foetal liver and increases to near adult levels before birth. 5. Phosphoenolpyruvate-carboxykinase activity in the soluble cell fraction increases 25-fold in the first 2 days after birth. This same enzyme in the mitochondria has considerable activity in the foetal and adult liver and is lower in the newborn. 6. Kinetic and other studies on the properties of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase have shown no differences between the soluble and mitochondrial enzymes. 7. It is suggested that the appearance of the soluble phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase at birth initiates the rapid increase in overall gluconeogenesis at this stage. PMID:6049928

  18. Biosynthesis of pyruvic acid from glucose by Blastobotrys adeninivorans.

    PubMed

    Kamzolova, Svetlana V; Morgunov, Igor G

    2016-09-01

    The ability of taxonomically different yeasts to synthesize pyruvic acid (PA) from glucose was studied. The study showed that many yeasts are able to produce PA from glucose under the condition of growth limitation by thiamine. This ability was found in the yeast Blastobotrys adeninivorans for the first time. The production (oversynthesis) of PA in this yeast can be explained by disturbance in the function of thiamine-dependent pyruvate dehydrogenase. Namely, the partial inhibition of this enzyme brings about the excretion of PA from the yeast cells. Due to incomplete inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase, the formation of acetyl-CoA continues, although at a lower level, maintaining the synthesis of α-ketoglutaric acid (KGA) in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. KGA is no longer oxidized in the TCA cycle, because thiamine limitation inhibits α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase. As a result, KGA is excreted from the yeast cells as a byproduct of PA oversynthesis. Furthermore, the increased level of KGA in the yeast cells inhibits NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase in the TCA cycle and enhances the production and excretion of citric acid, another byproduct of PA oversynthesis. During cultivation in a fermentor, the strain Blastobotrys adeninivorans VKM Y-2677 produced 43.2 g l(-1) PA from glucose with a product yield (YPA) of 0.77 g PA/g glucose. The proportion of PA to byproducts was 18:1 for KGA and 8:1 for citric acid. PMID:27221290

  19. Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency: molecular basis for intrafamilial heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Fujii, T; Van Coster, R N; Old, S E; Medori, R; Winter, S; Gubits, R M; Matthews, P M; Brown, R M; Brown, G K; Dahl, H H

    1994-07-01

    Two half-brothers and their mother had symptomatic pyruvate dehydrogenase complex deficiency. The infants had severe congenital lactic acidosis, seizures, and apneic spells and died at the ages 3 and 4 months. The mother was less symptomatic with mental retardation, truncal ataxia, and dysarthria. The residual pyruvate dehydrogenase activities in cultured skin fibroblasts from the 2 infants and their mother were 7, 15, and 10% of control values. Immunoblot analysis showed negligible amounts of E1 alpha and E1 beta subunits of the complex. Northern blot analysis for the E1 alpha subunit showed normal results. In the 2 sons, complementary DNA sequence analysis revealed a cytosine to thymine mutation in exon 4, resulting in a change of arginine 127 to tryptophan in the E1 alpha subunit. Restriction enzyme analysis of the polymerase chain reaction product representing exon 4 of the E1 alpha gene revealed that the mother was a heterozygotes. Complementary DNA restriction analysis and methylation analysis of the X chromosome DXS255 loci revealed skewed activation of the mutant allele, consistent with the deficient pyruvate dehydrogenase activity in the mother's fibroblasts. The milder maternal phenotype is consistent with variable X-inactivation patterns in different organs of female heterozygotes. PMID:8024267

  20. Spinach pyruvate kinase isoforms: partial purification and regulatory properties

    SciTech Connect

    Baysdorfer, C.; Bassham, J.A.

    1984-02-01

    Pyruvate kinase from spinach (Spinacea oleracea L.) leaves consists of two isoforms, separable by blue agarose chromatography. Both isoforms share similar pH profiles and substrate and alternate nucleotide K/sub m/ values. In addition, both isoforms are inhibited by oxalate and ATP and activated by AMP. The isoforms differ in their response to three key metabolites; citrate, aspartate, and glutamate. The first isoform is similar to previously reported plant pyruvate kinases in its sensitivity to citrate inhibition. The K/sub i/ for this inhibition is 1.2 millimolar citrate. The second isoform is not affected by citrate but is regulated by aspartate and glutamate. Aspartate is an activator with a K/sub a/ of 0.05 millimolar, and glutamate is an inhibitor with a K/sub i/ of 0.68 millimolar. A pyruvate kinase with these properties has not been previously reported. Based on these considerations, the authors suggest that the activity of the first isoform is regulated by respiratory metabolism. The second isoform, in contrast, may be regulated by the demand for carbon skeletons for use in ammonia assimilation.

  1. [Different properties of pyruvate kinase from rabbit and hare muscles].

    PubMed

    Strumilo, S; Tylicki, A

    2015-01-01

    Some catalytic and kinetic properties of pyruvate kinase (PK, EC 2.7.1.40) isolated from the heart and skeletal muscles of rabbits and hares with a 9-16-fold purification were studied. The initial specific activity of the enzyme in hare heart homogenates was 66% and in skeletal muscles 25% as high as in respective rabbit tissues. Temperature optimums and thermostability of PK from hare tissues were higher as compared with those in rabbits. From the comparison of K(M) (S0.5) values it follows that hare skeletal muscle PK exhibits a highest affinity to phosphoenol pyruvate, but lowest to ADP, as compared with rabbit skeletal muscle PK. Moreover, PK from both hare tissues exhibits a positive kinetic cooperativity (Hill coefficient > 1.35) of the phosphoenol pyruvate and ADP binding sites. In contrast to PK from rabbit tissues, the enzyme from the hare heart and muscles PK is presented by its allosteric isoform which might by advantageous under extreme conditions of the hare's habitation. PMID:26027383

  2. Developmental changes in the pyruvate kinase isozymes of coho salmon.

    PubMed

    Guderley, H E; Cardenas, J M

    1979-04-01

    Pyruvate kinase exists as two major isozymes in coho salmon. As in mammals and birds, one form is present in the early embryo and maintains a wide tissue distribution in adults. This salmonid type K shows anodal migration during electrophoresis at pH 7.5. The appearence of functional musculature in the developing embryos. In adult animals this second form is the only pyruvate kinase in muscle. Brain, kidney, liver and gill contain primarily the type K pyruvate kinase while heart contains both major forms along with three intermediate forms which presumably constitute a hybrid set. Since there is no additional isozyme restricted to gluconeogenic tissues, we conclude that a type L isozyme has not developed in these animals. The two major isozymes are immunologically distincy. Both forms are dubject to fructose 1,6-bisphosphate activation of phosphoenolpyruvate binding, but the magnitude of the effect is small. The affinities for phosphoenolpyruvate are similar, but salmon type K has hyperbolic saturation curves with this substrate and type M has sigmoidal saturation curves. While the immunological data indicates considerable divergence in structure, the kinetic parameters of the two forms have remained relatively similar. PMID:469475

  3. Loss of Mitochondrial Pyruvate Carrier 2 in the Liver Leads to Defects in Gluconeogenesis and Compensation via Pyruvate-Alanine Cycling.

    PubMed

    McCommis, Kyle S; Chen, Zhouji; Fu, Xiaorong; McDonald, William G; Colca, Jerry R; Kletzien, Rolf F; Burgess, Shawn C; Finck, Brian N

    2015-10-01

    Pyruvate transport across the inner mitochondrial membrane is believed to be a prerequisite for gluconeogenesis in hepatocytes, which is important for the maintenance of normoglycemia during prolonged food deprivation but also contributes to hyperglycemia in diabetes. To determine the requirement for mitochondrial pyruvate import in gluconeogenesis, mice with liver-specific deletion of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier 2 (LS-Mpc2(-/-)) were generated. Loss of MPC2 impaired, but did not completely abolish, hepatocyte conversion of labeled pyruvate to TCA cycle intermediates and glucose. Unbiased metabolomic analyses of livers from fasted LS-Mpc2(-/-) mice suggested that alterations in amino acid metabolism, including pyruvate-alanine cycling, might compensate for the loss of MPC2. Indeed, inhibition of pyruvate-alanine transamination further reduced mitochondrial pyruvate metabolism and glucose production by LS-Mpc2(-/-) hepatocytes. These data demonstrate an important role for MPC2 in controlling hepatic gluconeogenesis and illuminate a compensatory mechanism for circumventing a block in mitochondrial pyruvate import. PMID:26344101

  4. Asp295 stabilizes the active-site loop structure of pyruvate dehydrogenase, facilitating phosphorylation of Ser292 by pyruvate dehydrogenase-kinase

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have developed an invitro system for detailed analysis of reversible phosphorylation of the plant mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, comprising recombinant Arabidopsis thaliana a2b2-hetero tetrameric pyruvate dehydrogenase (E1) plus A.thaliana E1-kinase (AtPDK). Upon addition of MgATP...

  5. Lactivibrio alcoholicus gen. nov., sp. nov., an anaerobic, mesophilic, lactate-, alcohol-, carbohydrate- and amino-acid-degrading bacterium in the phylum Synergistetes.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Yan-Ling; Hanada, Satoshi; Kamagata, Yoichi; Guo, Rong-Bo; Sekiguchi, Yuji

    2014-06-01

    A mesophilic, obligately anaerobic, lactate-, alcohol-, carbohydrate- and amino-acid- degrading bacterium, designated strain 7WAY-8-7(T), was isolated from an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor treating high-strength organic wastewater from isomerized sugar production processes. Cells of strain 7WAY-8-7(T) were motile, curved rods (0.7-1.0×5.0-8.0 µm). Spore formation was not observed. The strain grew optimally at 37 °C (range for growth was 25-40 °C) and pH 7.0 (pH 6.0-7.5), and could grow fermentatively on yeast extract, glucose, ribose, xylose, malate, tryptone, pyruvate, fumarate, Casamino acids, serine and cysteine. The main end-products of glucose fermentation were acetate and hydrogen. In co-culture with the hydrogenotrophic methanogen Methanospirillum hungatei DSM 864(T), strain 7WAY-8-7(T) could utilize lactate, glycerol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 1-butanol, L-glutamate, alanine, leucine, isoleucine, valine, histidine, asparagine, glutamine, arginine, lysine, threonine, 2-oxoglutarate, aspartate and methionine. A Stickland reaction was not observed with some pairs of amino acids. Yeast extract was required for growth. Nitrate, sulfate, thiosulfate, elemental sulfur, sulfite and Fe (III) were not used as terminal electron acceptors. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 61.4 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis revealed that the isolate belongs to the uncultured environmental clone clade (called 'PD-UASB-13' in the Greengenes database) in the bacterial phylum Synergistetes, showing less than 90% sequence similarity with closely related described species such as Aminivibrio pyruvatiphilus and Aminobacterium colombiense (89.7% and 88.7%, respectively). The major cellular fatty acids were iso-C(13 : 0), iso-C(15 : 0), anteiso-C(15 : 0), C(18 : 1), C(19 : 1), C(20 : 1) and C(21 : 1). A novel genus and species, Lactivibrio alcoholicus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed to accommodate strain 7WAY-8-7(T) ( = JCM 17151(T

  6. Nutritional aspects of human lactation*

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, A. M.; Black, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature on the incidence and duration of breast-feeding in various countries, the volume and composition of breast milk, the health and nutrition of breast-fed babies as judged by growth and morbidity, maternal nutritional requirements during lactation, and the effect of prolonged lactation on maternal health. It appears that lactation can be as well sustained by impoverished as by affluent mothers, and that even in communities where malnutrition is common the average growth of infants is satisfactory up to the age of about 3 months on a diet of breast milk alone. Breast milk appears to have specific anti-infective properties, but prolonged breast-feeding will not prevent infections among older infants reared in a poor environment. The authors believe that breast-feeding is the best form of nutrition for the young infant and deplore its decline in modern industrial societies. The recommendations of various FAO/WHO Expert Groups on nutritional intakes during lactation are summarized. The need for an increased daily energy intake of 4.2 MJ (1 000 kcal) is questioned, and an increase of 2.5 MJ (600 kcal) is suggested. Data on the effect of prolonged lactation on the health of the mother are scanty; body weight appears to be maintained even among poorly nourished mothers. The authors stress the need for well-planned and technically adequate studies of the material and psychological factors involved in breast feeding. PMID:816479

  7. Midtrimester abortion by ethacridine lactate.

    PubMed

    Goswami, B K; Raha, A; Gupta, A; Mukherjee, K

    1982-07-01

    This article discusses a clinical trial with the abortifacient agent ethacridine lactate as it was used for midtrimester abortion in Calcutta during the period January-July 1980. Results are then compared with intraamniotic hypertonic saline. 130 subjects were divided into 2 groups--Group 1 (60 women) were terminated with ethacridine lactate and group 2 (70 women) were terminated with saline. In cases where the patient complained of pain, analgesia was administered. In both groups, the largest concentration of women fell in the age groups 16-20 and 21-25. Similarly, single women were the largest representation in both groups although the saline group included more widows. Ethacridine lactate can be administered earlier in the 2nd trimester than saline. With it, expulsion occurred within 36 hours in 56.6% of the cases as compared with 22.9% in group 2. Both groups required the same amount of assistance with oxytocin. In group 1, there were only 3 cases (5%) of minor complications whereas in group 2, 19 cases (27.1%) developed complications. This alone strongly recommends ethacridine lactate as the preferred abortifacient. The success rate was 98%. Thus, ethacridine lactate appears to be a safe and effective agent for pregnancy termination during the 2nd trimester. PMID:7142727

  8. Fine Tuning of the Lactate and Diacetyl Production through Promoter Engineering in Lactococcus lactis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Tingting; Kong, Jian; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Chenchen; Hu, Shumin

    2012-01-01

    Lactococcus lactis is a well-studied bacterium widely used in dairy fermentation and capable of producing metabolites with organoleptic and nutritional characteristics. For fine tuning of the distribution of glycolytic flux at the pyruvate branch from lactate to diacetyl and balancing the production of the two metabolites under aerobic conditions, a constitutive promoter library was constructed by randomizing the promoter sequence of the H2O-forming NADH oxidase gene in L. lactis. The library consisted of 30 promoters covering a wide range of activities from 7,000 to 380,000 relative fluorescence units using a green fluorescent protein as reporter. Eleven typical promoters of the library were selected for the constitutive expression of the H2O-forming NADH oxidase gene in L. lactis, and the NADH oxidase activity increased from 9.43 to 58.17-fold of the wild-type strain in small steps of activity change under aerobic conditions. Meanwhile, the lactate yield decreased from 21.15±0.08 mM to 9.94±0.07 mM, and the corresponding diacetyl production increased from 1.07±0.03 mM to 4.16±0.06 mM with the intracellular NADH/NAD+ ratios varying from 0.711±0.005 to 0.383±0.003. The results indicated that the reduced pyruvate to lactate flux was rerouted to the diacetyl with an almost linear flux variation via altered NADH/NAD+ ratios. Therefore, we provided a novel strategy to precisely control the pyruvate distribution for fine tuning of the lactate and diacetyl production through promoter engineering in L. lactis. Interestingly, the increased H2O-forming NADH oxidase activity led to 76.95% lower H2O2 concentration in the recombinant strain than that of the wild-type strain after 24 h of aerated cultivation. The viable cells were significantly elevated by four orders of magnitude within 28 days of storage at 4°C, suggesting that the increased enzyme activity could eliminate H2O2 accumulation and prolong cell survival. PMID:22558426

  9. Reactions upstream of glycerate-1,3-bisphosphate drive Corynebacterium glutamicum (D)-lactate productivity under oxygen deprivation.

    PubMed

    Tsuge, Yota; Yamamoto, Shougo; Suda, Masako; Inui, Masayuki; Yukawa, Hideaki

    2013-08-01

    We previously demonstrated the simplicity of oxygen-deprived Corynebacterium glutamicum to produce D-lactate, a primary building block of next-generation biodegradable plastics, at very high optical purity by introducing heterologous D-ldhA gene from Lactobacillus delbrueckii. Here, we independently evaluated the effects of overexpressing each of genes encoding the ten glycolytic enzymes on D-lactate production in C. glutamicum. We consequently show that while the reactions catalyzed by glucokinase (GLK), glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), phosphofructokinase (PFK), triosephosphate isomerase (TPI), and bisphosphate aldolase had positive effects on D-lactate productivity by increasing 98, 39, 15, 13, and 10 %, respectively, in 10 h reactions in minimal salts medium, the reaction catalyzed by pyruvate kinase had large negative effect by decreasing 70 %. The other glycolytic enzymes did not affect D-lactate productivity when each of encoding genes was overexpressed. It is noteworthy that all reactions associated with positive effects are located upstream of glycerate-1,3-bisphosphate in the glycolytic pathway. The D-lactate yield also increased by especially overexpressing TPI encoding gene up to 94.5 %. Interestingly, overexpression of PFK encoding gene reduced the yield of succinate, one of the main by-products of D-lactate production, by 52 %, whereas overexpression of GAPDH encoding gene increased succinate yield by 26 %. Overexpression of GLK encoding gene markedly increased the yield of dihydroxyacetone and glycerol by 10- and 5.8-fold in exchange with decreasing the D-lactate yield. The effect of overexpressing glycolytic genes was also evaluated in 80 h long-term reactions. The variety of effects of overexpressing each of genes encoding the ten glycolytic enzymes on D-lactate production is discussed. PMID:23712891

  10. Antipsychotics in pregnancy and lactation

    PubMed Central

    Babu, Girish N.; Desai, Geetha; Chandra, Prabha S.

    2015-01-01

    Research on psychotropic medications during pregnancy and lactation is limited as often involves complex ethical issues. Information on safety of psychotropic drugs during these critical phases is either inconclusive or undetermined. Many women with severe mental illness have unplanned pregnancies and require antipsychotic medication during pregnancy and lactation. Multiple issues have to be considered while choosing safe treatments for pregnant and lactating women and the best approach is to individualize the treatment. Medication should be guided primarily by its safety data and by the psychiatric history of the patient. Important issues to be kept in mind include pre-pregnancy counseling for all women, including planning pregnancies; folate supplementation, discussion with patient and family regarding options, and active liaison with obstetricians, ultrasonologists and pediatricians. Whenever possible, non-pharmacological approaches should be used in addition. PMID:26330648

  11. Metabolic Response to Heat Stress in Late-Pregnant and Early Lactation Dairy Cows: Implications to Liver-Muscle Crosstalk

    PubMed Central

    Eslamizad, Mehdi; Weitzel, Joachim; Kuhla, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Climate changes lead to rising temperatures during summer periods and dramatic economic losses in dairy production. Modern high-yielding dairy cows experience severe metabolic stress during the transition period between late gestation and early lactation to meet the high energy and nutrient requirements of the fetus or the mammary gland, and additional thermal stress during this time has adverse implications on metabolism and welfare. The mechanisms enabling metabolic adaptation to heat apart from the decline in feed intake and milk yield are not fully elucidated yet. To distinguish between feed intake and heat stress related effects, German Holstein dairy cows were first kept at thermoneutral conditions at 15°C followed by exposure to heat-stressed (HS) at 28°C or pair-feeding (PF) at 15°C for 6 days; in late-pregnancy and again in early lactation. Liver and muscle biopsies and plasma samples were taken to assess major metabolic pathway regulation using real-time PCR and Western Blot. The results indicate that during heat stress, late pregnant cows activate Cahill but reduce Cori cycling, prevent increase in skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation, and utilize increased amounts of pyruvate for gluconeogenesis, without altering ureagenesis despite reduced plane of nutrition. These homeorhetic adaptations are employed to reduce endogenous heat production while diverting amino acids to the growing fetus. Metabolic adaptation to heat stress in early lactation involves increased long-chain fatty acid degradation in muscle peroxisomes, allowance for muscle glucose utilization but diminished hepatic use of amino acid-derived pyruvate for gluconeogenesis and reduced peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and ATP production in liver of HS compared to PF cows in early lactation. Consequently, metabolic adaptation to heat stress and reduced feed intake differ between late pregnancy and early lactation of dairy cows to maintain energy supply for fetus development or milk production

  12. Metabolic Response to Heat Stress in Late-Pregnant and Early Lactation Dairy Cows: Implications to Liver-Muscle Crosstalk.

    PubMed

    Koch, Franziska; Lamp, Ole; Eslamizad, Mehdi; Weitzel, Joachim; Kuhla, Björn

    2016-01-01

    Climate changes lead to rising temperatures during summer periods and dramatic economic losses in dairy production. Modern high-yielding dairy cows experience severe metabolic stress during the transition period between late gestation and early lactation to meet the high energy and nutrient requirements of the fetus or the mammary gland, and additional thermal stress during this time has adverse implications on metabolism and welfare. The mechanisms enabling metabolic adaptation to heat apart from the decline in feed intake and milk yield are not fully elucidated yet. To distinguish between feed intake and heat stress related effects, German Holstein dairy cows were first kept at thermoneutral conditions at 15°C followed by exposure to heat-stressed (HS) at 28°C or pair-feeding (PF) at 15°C for 6 days; in late-pregnancy and again in early lactation. Liver and muscle biopsies and plasma samples were taken to assess major metabolic pathway regulation using real-time PCR and Western Blot. The results indicate that during heat stress, late pregnant cows activate Cahill but reduce Cori cycling, prevent increase in skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation, and utilize increased amounts of pyruvate for gluconeogenesis, without altering ureagenesis despite reduced plane of nutrition. These homeorhetic adaptations are employed to reduce endogenous heat production while diverting amino acids to the growing fetus. Metabolic adaptation to heat stress in early lactation involves increased long-chain fatty acid degradation in muscle peroxisomes, allowance for muscle glucose utilization but diminished hepatic use of amino acid-derived pyruvate for gluconeogenesis and reduced peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation and ATP production in liver of HS compared to PF cows in early lactation. Consequently, metabolic adaptation to heat stress and reduced feed intake differ between late pregnancy and early lactation of dairy cows to maintain energy supply for fetus development or milk production

  13. Lactational infertility in family planning.

    PubMed

    Short, R V

    1993-04-01

    The contraceptive effect of breast-feeding is the single most important determinant of human population growth rates in traditional societies without access to modern forms of contraception; lactational amenorrhoea is Nature's contraceptive. Even today, breast-feeding still prevents more pregnancies than all modern forms of contraception in many developing countries. Afferent neural inputs from the nipple pass via the spinal cord to the hypothalamus, where they cause a local release of beta endorphin. This acts to depress GnRH secretion, thereby inhibiting pituitary gonadotrophin secretion, ovarian follicular development, ovulation and menstruation. The hypothalamic beta endorphin release also inhibits dopamine production, resulting in increased pituitary prolactin secretion. The higher the suckling frequency, the more beta endorphin that is released and hence the longer the duration of lactational amenorrhoea. Lactational amenorrhoea can be relied up to give over 98% contraceptive protection to breast-feeding women in the first 6 months postpartum, regardless of their nutritional status or the time of first supplement introduction to the baby. This is because the first postpartum menstruation usually precedes the first ovulation during these early months. Once menstruation has resumed, lactation's contraceptive effect can no longer be relied upon, even though the woman continues to breast-feed. In breast-feeding women whose amenorrhoea extends beyond 6 months, there is an increasing tendency for the first ovulation to precede the first menstruation, thereby decreasing the reliability of lactational amenorrhoea as a contraceptive. Nevertheless, many women who continue to breast-feed may still have up to 1-2 years of good contraceptive protection from prolonged lactational amenorrhoea.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8489757

  14. Superior Cardiac Function Via Anaplerotic Pyruvate in the Immature Swine Heart After Cardiopulmonary Bypass and Reperfusion

    SciTech Connect

    Olson, Aaron; Hyyti, Outi M.; Cohen, Gordon A.; Ning, Xue-Han; Sadilek, Martin; Isern, Nancy G.; Portman, Michael A.

    2008-12-01

    Pyruvate produces inotropic responses in the adult reperfused heart. Pyruvate oxidation and anaplerotic entry into the citric acid cycle (CAC) via carboxylation are linked to stimulation of contractile function. The goals of this study were to determine if these metabolic pathways operate and are maintained in the developing myocardium after reperfusion. Immature male swine (age 10-18 days) were subjected to cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Intracoronary infusion of [2]-13C-pyruvate (to achieve a final concentration of 8 mM) was given for 35 minutes starting either during weaning (Group I), after discontinuation (Group II) or without (Control) CPB. Hemodynamic data was collected. 13C NMR spectroscopy was used to determine the fraction of pyruvate entering the CAC via pyruvate carboxylation (PC) to total CAC entry (PC plus decarboxlyation via pyruvate dehydrogenase). Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine total glutamate enrichment.

  15. Body fat mobilization in early lactation influences methane production of dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Bielak, A; Derno, M; Tuchscherer, A; Hammon, H M; Susenbeth, A; Kuhla, B

    2016-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acids mobilized during early lactation of dairy cows are increasingly used as energy substrate at the expense of acetate. As the synthesis of acetate in the rumen is closely linked to methane (CH4) production, we hypothesized that decreased acetate utilization would result in lower ruminal acetate levels and thus CH4 production. Twenty heifers were sampled for blood, rumen fluid and milk, and CH4 production was measured in respiration chambers in week -4, +5, +13 and +42 relative to first parturition. Based on plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration determined in week +5, animals were grouped to the ten highest (HM; NEFA > 580 μmol) and ten lowest (LM; NEFA < 580 μmol) mobilizing cows. Dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield and ruminal short-chain fatty acids did not differ between groups, but CH4/DMI was lower in HM cows in week +5. There was a negative regression between plasma NEFA and plasma acetate, between plasma NEFA and CH4/DMI and between plasma cholecystokinin and CH4/DMI in week +5. Our data show for the first time that fat mobilization of the host in early lactation is inversely related with ruminal CH4 production and that this effect is not attributed to different DMI. PMID:27306038

  16. Body fat mobilization in early lactation influences methane production of dairy cows

    PubMed Central

    Bielak, A.; Derno, M.; Tuchscherer, A.; Hammon, H. M.; Susenbeth, A.; Kuhla, B.

    2016-01-01

    Long-chain fatty acids mobilized during early lactation of dairy cows are increasingly used as energy substrate at the expense of acetate. As the synthesis of acetate in the rumen is closely linked to methane (CH4) production, we hypothesized that decreased acetate utilization would result in lower ruminal acetate levels and thus CH4 production. Twenty heifers were sampled for blood, rumen fluid and milk, and CH4 production was measured in respiration chambers in week −4, +5, +13 and +42 relative to first parturition. Based on plasma non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration determined in week +5, animals were grouped to the ten highest (HM; NEFA > 580 μmol) and ten lowest (LM; NEFA < 580 μmol) mobilizing cows. Dry matter intake (DMI), milk yield and ruminal short-chain fatty acids did not differ between groups, but CH4/DMI was lower in HM cows in week +5. There was a negative regression between plasma NEFA and plasma acetate, between plasma NEFA and CH4/DMI and between plasma cholecystokinin and CH4/DMI in week +5. Our data show for the first time that fat mobilization of the host in early lactation is inversely related with ruminal CH4 production and that this effect is not attributed to different DMI. PMID:27306038

  17. Biological hydrogen sulfide production in an ethanol-lactate fed fluidized-bed bioreactor.

    PubMed

    Nevatalo, Laura M; Mäkinen, Annukka E; Kaksonen, Anna H; Puhakka, Jaakko A

    2010-01-01

    Sulfate-reducing fluidized-bed bioreactor (FBR) fed with ethanol-lactate mixture was operated at 35 degrees C for 540 days to assess mine wastewater treatment, biological hydrogen sulfide production capacity and acetate oxidation kinetics. During the mine wastewater treatment period with synthetic wastewater, the sulfate reduction rate was 62 mmol SO(4)(2-)L(-1)d(-1) and Fe and Zn precipitation rates were 11 mmol Fe L(-1)d(-1) and 1 mmol Zn L(-1)d(-1). After this, the hydrogen sulfide production was optimized, resulting in sulfate reduction rate of 100 mmol SO(4)(2-)L(-1)d(-1) and H(2)S production rate of 73.2 mmol H(2)SL(-1)d(-1). The limiting step in the H(2)S production was the rate of acetate oxidation, being 50 mmol acetate L(-1)d(-1). Therefore, FBR batch assays were designed to determine the acetate oxidation kinetics, and following kinetic parameters were obtained: K(m) of 63 micromol L(-1) and V(max) of 0.76 micromol acetate g VSS(-1)min(-1). The present study demonstrates high-rate hydrogen sulfide production and high-rate mine wastewater treatment with ethanol and lactate fed fluidized-bed bioreactor. PMID:19716290

  18. [Nomegestrol acetate: clinical pharmacology].

    PubMed

    Lello, S

    2009-10-01

    Progestogens are used in clinical practice in some conditions. Their effects depend on their chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, with important differences among various progestogens. Generally, progestins are classified according to their parent molecule, of which often they keep some features. Derivatives of 19-nor-progesterone are characterized by high selectivity of action on progestin receptor. In particular, nomegestrol acetate (NomAc) shows an important progestational potency, neutral gluco-lipid profile, and antigonadotropic activity. It is used for treating menstrual cycle disorders and for hormone replacement therapy in menopause in association with an estrogen. In future, thanks to its antigonadotropic activity, NomAc will be used in estroprogestin combinations in fertile women, thus taking advantage of its tolerability profile and obtaining numerous non-contraceptive benefits as well. PMID:19749678

  19. Lactate promotes PGE2 synthesis and gluconeogenesis in monocytes to benefit the growth of inflammation-associated colorectal tumor

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Libin; Zhou, Yuxin; Yao, Jing; Qiao, Chen; Ni, Ting; Guo, Ruichen; Guo, Qinglong; Lu, Na

    2015-01-01

    Reprogramming energy metabolism, such as enhanced glycolysis, is an Achilles' heel in cancer treatment. Most studies have been performed on isolated cancer cells. Here, we studied the energy-transfer mechanism in inflammatory tumor microenvironment. We found that human THP-1 monocytes took up lactate secreted from tumor cells through monocarboxylate transporter 1. In THP-1 monocytes, the oxidation product of lactate, pyruvate competed with the substrate of proline hydroxylase and inhibited its activity, resulting in the stabilization of HIF-1α under normoxia. Mechanistically, activated hypoxia-inducible factor 1-α in THP-1 monocytes promoted the transcriptions of prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2 and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase, which were the key enzyme of prostaglandin E2 synthesis and gluconeogenesis, respectively, and promote the growth of human colon cancer HCT116 cells. Interestingly, lactate could not accelerate the growth of colon cancer directly in vivo. Instead, the human monocytic cells affected by lactate would play critical roles to ‘feed’ the colon cancer cells. Thus, recycling of lactate for glucose regeneration was reported in cancer metabolism. The anabolic metabolism of monocytes in inflammatory tumor microenvironment may be a critical event during tumor development, allowing accelerated tumor growth. PMID:25938544

  20. The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex of Corynebacterium glutamicum: an attractive target for metabolic engineering.

    PubMed

    Eikmanns, Bernhard J; Blombach, Bastian

    2014-12-20

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) catalyzes the oxidative thiamine pyrophosphate-dependent decarboxylation of pyruvate to acetyl-CoA and CO2. Since pyruvate is a key metabolite of the central metabolism and also the precursor for several relevant biotechnological products, metabolic engineering of this multienzyme complex is a promising strategy to improve microbial production processes. This review summarizes the current knowledge and achievements on metabolic engineering approaches to tailor the PDHC of Corynebacterium glutamicum for the bio-based production of l-valine, 2-ketosiovalerate, pyruvate, succinate and isobutanol and to improve l-lysine production. PMID:24486441

  1. Heterogeneous expression of protein and mRNA in pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Wexler, I D; Kerr, D S; Ho, L; Lusk, M M; Pepin, R A; Javed, A A; Mole, J E; Jesse, B W; Thekkumkara, T J; Pons, G

    1988-01-01

    Deficiency of pyruvate dehydrogenase [pyruvate:lipoamide 2-oxidoreductase (decarboxylating and acceptor-acetylating), EC 1.2.4.1], the first component of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, is associated with lactic acidosis and central nervous system dysfunction. Using both specific antibodies to pyruvate dehydrogenase and cDNAs coding for its two alpha and beta subunits, we characterized pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency in 11 patients. Three different patterns were found on immunologic and RNA blot analyses. (i) Seven patients had immunologically detectable crossreactive material for the alpha and beta proteins of pyruvate dehydrogenase. (ii) Two patients had no detectable crossreactive protein for either the alpha or beta subunit but had normal amounts of mRNA for both alpha and beta subunits. (iii) The remaining two patients also had no detectable crossreactive protein but had diminished amounts of mRNA for the alpha subunit of pyruvate dehydrogenase only. These results indicate that loss of pyruvate dehydrogenase activity may be associated with either absent or catalytically inactive proteins, and in those cases in which this enzyme is absent, mRNA for one of the subunits may also be missing. When mRNA for one of the subunits is lacking, both protein subunits are absent, suggesting that a mutation affecting the expression of one of the subunit proteins causes the remaining uncomplexed subunit to be unstable. The results show that several different mutations account for the molecular heterogeneity of pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency. Images PMID:3140238

  2. 21 CFR 582.5311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5311 Ferrous lactate. (a) Product. Ferrous lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... prepared by reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction of lactic acid.... (1996), pp. 154 to 155, which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1311 - Ferrous lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... reacting calcium lactate or sodium lactate with ferrous sulfate, direct reaction of lactic acid with iron... to 155, which is incorporated by reference in accordance with 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part...

  5. Kinetic modeling of hyperpolarized 13C 1-pyruvate metabolism in normal rats and TRAMP mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zierhut, Matthew L.; Yen, Yi-Fen; Chen, Albert P.; Bok, Robert; Albers, Mark J.; Zhang, Vickie; Tropp, Jim; Park, Ilwoo; Vigneron, Daniel B.; Kurhanewicz, John; Hurd, Ralph E.; Nelson, Sarah J.

    2010-01-01

    PurposeTo investigate metabolic exchange between 13C 1-pyruvate, 13C 1-lactate, and 13C 1-alanine in pre-clinical model systems using kinetic modeling of dynamic hyperpolarized 13C spectroscopic data and to examine the relationship between fitted parameters and dose-response. Materials and methodsDynamic 13C spectroscopy data were acquired in normal rats, wild type mice, and mice with transgenic prostate tumors (TRAMP) either within a single slice or using a one-dimensional echo-planar spectroscopic imaging (1D-EPSI) encoding technique. Rate constants were estimated by fitting a set of exponential equations to the dynamic data. Variations in fitted parameters were used to determine model robustness in 15 mm slices centered on normal rat kidneys. Parameter values were used to investigate differences in metabolism between and within TRAMP and wild type mice. ResultsThe kinetic model was shown here to be robust when fitting data from a rat given similar doses. In normal rats, Michaelis-Menten kinetics were able to describe the dose-response of the fitted exchange rate constants with a 13.65% and 16.75% scaled fitting error (SFE) for kpyr→lac and kpyr→ala, respectively. In TRAMP mice, kpyr→lac increased an average of 94% after up to 23 days of disease progression, whether the mice were untreated or treated with casodex. Parameters estimated from dynamic 13C 1D-EPSI data were able to differentiate anatomical structures within both wild type and TRAMP mice. ConclusionsThe metabolic parameters estimated using this approach may be useful for in vivo monitoring of tumor progression and treatment efficacy, as well as to distinguish between various tissues based on metabolic activity.

  6. Molecular cloning, expression and characterization of pyridoxamine–pyruvate aminotransferase

    PubMed Central

    Yoshikane, Yu; Yokochi, Nana; Ohnishi, Kouhei; Hayashi, Hideyuki; Yagi, Toshiharu

    2006-01-01

    Pyridoxamine–pyruvate aminotransferase is a PLP (pyridoxal 5′-phosphate) (a coenzyme form of vitamin B6)-independent aminotransferase which catalyses a reversible transamination reaction between pyridoxamine and pyruvate to form pyridoxal and L-alanine. The gene encoding the enzyme has been identified, cloned and overexpressed for the first time. The mlr6806 gene on the chromosome of a symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacterium, Mesorhizobium loti, encoded the enzyme, which consists of 393 amino acid residues. The primary sequence was identical with those of archaeal aspartate aminotransferase and rat serine–pyruvate aminotransferase, which are PLP-dependent aminotransferases. The results of fold-type analysis and the consensus amino acid residues found around the active-site lysine residue identified in the present study showed that the enzyme could be classified into class V aminotransferases of fold type I or the AT IV subfamily of the α family of the PLP-dependent enzymes. Analyses of the absorption and CD spectra of the wild-type and point-mutated enzymes showed that Lys197 was essential for the enzyme activity, and was the active-site lysine residue that corresponded to that found in the PLP-dependent aminotransferases, as had been suggested previously [Hodsdon, Kolb, Snell and Cole (1978) Biochem. J. 169, 429–432]. The Kd value for pyridoxal determined by means of CD was 100-fold lower than the Km value for it, suggesting that Schiff base formation between pyridoxal and the active-site lysine residue is partially rate determining in the catalysis of pyridoxal. The active-site structure and evolutionary aspects of the enzyme are discussed. PMID:16545075

  7. The short-chain fatty acid acetate reduces appetite via a central homeostatic mechanism.

    PubMed

    Frost, Gary; Sleeth, Michelle L; Sahuri-Arisoylu, Meliz; Lizarbe, Blanca; Cerdan, Sebastian; Brody, Leigh; Anastasovska, Jelena; Ghourab, Samar; Hankir, Mohammed; Zhang, Shuai; Carling, David; Swann, Jonathan R; Gibson, Glenn; Viardot, Alexander; Morrison, Douglas; Louise Thomas, E; Bell, Jimmy D

    2014-01-01

    Increased intake of dietary carbohydrate that is fermented in the colon by the microbiota has been reported to decrease body weight, although the mechanism remains unclear. Here we use in vivo(11)C-acetate and PET-CT scanning to show that colonic acetate crosses the blood-brain barrier and is taken up by the brain. Intraperitoneal acetate results in appetite suppression and hypothalamic neuronal activation patterning. We also show that acetate administration is associated with activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and changes in the expression profiles of regulatory neuropeptides that favour appetite suppression. Furthermore, we demonstrate through (13)C high-resolution magic-angle-spinning that (13)C acetate from fermentation of (13)C-labelled carbohydrate in the colon increases hypothalamic (13)C acetate above baseline levels. Hypothalamic (13)C acetate regionally increases the (13)C labelling of the glutamate-glutamine and GABA neuroglial cycles, with hypothalamic (13)C lactate reaching higher levels than the 'remaining brain'. These observations suggest that acetate has a direct role in central appetite regulation. PMID:24781306

  8. The short-chain fatty acid acetate reduces appetite via a central homeostatic mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Frost, Gary; Sleeth, Michelle L.; Sahuri-Arisoylu, Meliz; Lizarbe, Blanca; Cerdan, Sebastian; Brody, Leigh; Anastasovska, Jelena; Ghourab, Samar; Hankir, Mohammed; Zhang, Shuai; Carling, David; Swann, Jonathan R.; Gibson, Glenn; Viardot, Alexander; Morrison, Douglas; Louise Thomas, E; Bell, Jimmy D.

    2014-01-01

    Increased intake of dietary carbohydrate that is fermented in the colon by the microbiota has been reported to decrease body weight, although the mechanism remains unclear. Here we use in vivo11C-acetate and PET-CT scanning to show that colonic acetate crosses the blood–brain barrier and is taken up by the brain. Intraperitoneal acetate results in appetite suppression and hypothalamic neuronal activation patterning. We also show that acetate administration is associated with activation of acetyl-CoA carboxylase and changes in the expression profiles of regulatory neuropeptides that favour appetite suppression. Furthermore, we demonstrate through 13C high-resolution magic-angle-spinning that 13C acetate from fermentation of 13C-labelled carbohydrate in the colon increases hypothalamic 13C acetate above baseline levels. Hypothalamic 13C acetate regionally increases the 13C labelling of the glutamate–glutamine and GABA neuroglial cycles, with hypothalamic 13C lactate reaching higher levels than the ‘remaining brain’. These observations suggest that acetate has a direct role in central appetite regulation. PMID:24781306

  9. Half-sandwich rhodium(III) transfer hydrogenation catalysts: Reduction of NAD(+) and pyruvate, and antiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Soldevila-Barreda, Joan J; Habtemariam, Abraha; Romero-Canelón, Isolda; Sadler, Peter J

    2015-12-01

    Organometallic complexes have the potential to behave as catalytic drugs. We investigate here Rh(III) complexes of general formula [(Cp(x))Rh(N,N')(Cl)], where N,N' is ethylenediamine (en), 2,2'-bipyridine (bpy), 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) or N-(2-aminoethyl)-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzenesulfonamide (TfEn), and Cp(x) is pentamethylcyclopentadienyl (Cp*), 1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetramethylcyclopentadienyl (Cp(xPh)) or 1-biphenyl-2,3,4,5-tetramethyl cyclopentadienyl (Cp(xPhPh)). These complexes can reduce NAD(+) to NADH using formate as a hydride source under biologically-relevant conditions. The catalytic activity decreased in the order of N,N-chelated ligand bpy > phen > en with Cp* as the η(5)-donor. The en complexes (1-3) became more active with extension to the Cp(X) ring, whereas the activity of the phen (7-9) and bpy (4-6) compounds decreased. [Cp*Rh(bpy)Cl](+) (4) showed the highest catalytic activity, with a TOF of 37.4±2h(-1). Fast hydrolysis of the chlorido complexes 1-10 was observed by (1)H NMR (<10min at 310K). The pKa* values for the aqua adducts were determined to be ca. 8-10. Complexes 1-9 also catalysed the reduction of pyruvate to lactate using formate as the hydride donor. The efficiency of the transfer hydrogenation reactions was highly dependent on the nature of the chelating ligand and the Cp(x) ring. Competition reactions between NAD(+) and pyruvate for reduction by formate catalysed by 4 showed a preference for reduction of NAD(+). The antiproliferative activity of complex 3 towards A2780 human ovarian cancer cells increased by up to 50% when administered in combination with non-toxic doses of formate, suggesting that transfer hydrogenation can induce reductive stress in cancer cells. PMID:26601938

  10. Is lactation nature's contraceptive? Data from Samoa.

    PubMed

    Fitzgerald, M H

    1992-01-01

    Data from a Samoan menstruation study suggest that lactation, even intensive on-demand lactation, does not inhibit menstruation or conception. This paper explores the applied and theoretical implications of continuing to accept lactation as a universally effective fertility control mechanism. Such thinking can have disastrous implications for family planning programs, and it keeps us from challenging long-held assumptions about lactation's role in population growth in early populations. PMID:1514124

  11. An in vitro model of the horse gut microbiome enables identification of lactate-utilizing bacteria that differentially respond to starch induction.

    PubMed

    Biddle, Amy S; Black, Samuel J; Blanchard, Jeffrey L

    2013-01-01

    Laminitis is a chronic, crippling disease triggered by the sudden influx of dietary starch. Starch reaches the hindgut resulting in enrichment of lactic acid bacteria, lactate accumulation, and acidification of the gut contents. Bacterial products enter the bloodstream and precipitate systemic inflammation. Hindgut lactate levels are normally low because specific bacterial groups convert lactate to short chain fatty acids. Why this mechanism fails when lactate levels rapidly rise, and why some hindgut communities can recover is unknown. Fecal samples from three adult horses eating identical diets provided bacterial communities for this in vitro study. Triplicate microcosms of fecal slurries were enriched with lactate and/or starch. Metabolic products (short chain fatty acids, headspace gases, and hydrogen sulfide) were measured and microbial community compositions determined using Illumina 16S rRNA sequencing over 12-hour intervals. We report that patterns of change in short chain fatty acid levels and pH in our in vitro system are similar to those seen in in vivo laminitis induction models. Community differences between microcosms with disparate abilities to clear excess lactate suggest profiles conferring resistance of starch-induction conditions. Where lactate levels recover following starch induction conditions, propionate and acetate levels rise correspondingly and taxa related to Megasphaeraelsdenii reach levels exceeding 70% relative abundance. In lactate and control cultures, taxa related to Veillonellamontpellierensis are enriched as lactate levels fall. Understanding these community differences and factors promoting the growth of specific lactate utilizing taxa may be useful to prevent acidosis under starch-induction conditions. PMID:24098591

  12. The origin and evolution of lactation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of mammary glands are the defining morphological feature of mammals, and a successful lactation is crucial to mammalian reproductive strategies. Among mammalian species, the nature of lactation and the composition of milk vary greatly. The evolution of lactation and its diversity amon...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 582.1207 Section 582.1207 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Product. Calcium lactate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  14. Acetate production from whey lactose using co-immobilized cells of homolactic and homoacetic bacteria in a fibrous-bed bioreactor

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y.; Yang, S.T.

    1998-11-20

    Acetate was produced from whey lactose in batch and fed-batch fermentations using co-immobilized cells of Clostridium formicoaceticum and Lactococcus lactis. The cells were immobilized in a spirally wound fibrous sheet packed in a 0.45-L column reactor, with liquid circulated through a 5-L stirred-tank fermentor. Industrial-grade nitrogen sources, including corn steep liquor, casein hydrolysate, and yeast hydrolysate, were studied as inexpensive nutrient supplements to whey permeate and acid whey. Supplementation with either 2.5% (v/v) corn steep liquor or 1.5 g/L casein hydrolysate was adequate for the cocultured fermentation. The overall acetic acid yield from lactose was 0.9 g/g, and the productivity was 0.25 g/(L h). Both lactate and acetate at high concentrations inhibited the homoacetic fermentation. To overcome these inhibitions, fed-batch fermentations were used to keep lactate concentration low and to adapt cells to high-concentration acetate. The final acetate concentration obtained in the fed-batch fermentations were used to keep lactate concentration low and to adapt cells to high-concentration acetate. The final acetate concentration obtained in the fed-batch fermentation was 75 g/L, which was the highest acetate concentration ever produced by C. formicoaceticum. Even at this high acetate concentration, the overall productivity was 0.18 g/(L h) based on the total medium volume and 1.23 g/(L h) based on the fibrous-bed reactor volume. The cells isolated from the fibrous-bed bioreactor at the end of this study were more tolerant to acetic acid than the original culture used to seed the bioreactor, indicating that adaptation and natural selection of acetate-tolerant strains occurred. This cocultured fermentation process could be used to produce a low-cost acetate deicer from whey permeate and acid whey.

  15. 200th anniversary of lactate research in muscle.

    PubMed

    Gladden, L Bruce

    2008-07-01

    This year, 2008, marks the bicentennial of research into lactate metabolism in muscle. Berzelius linked lactate accumulation to exercise in 1807/1808 when he noted the presence of lactate in the muscles of "hunted stags." Today, the exact mechanism of intramuscular lactate oxidation and the relationship of lactate dehydrogenase to mitochondria remain unresolved as animated debate surrounds the intracellular lactate shuttle. PMID:18580290

  16. Pyruvate kinase M2 is a phosphotyrosine-binding protein

    SciTech Connect

    Christofk, H.R.; Vander Heiden, M.G.; Wu, N.; Asara, J.M.; Cantley, L.C.

    2008-06-03

    Growth factors stimulate cells to take up excess nutrients and to use them for anabolic processes. The biochemical mechanism by which this is accomplished is not fully understood but it is initiated by phosphorylation of signalling proteins on tyrosine residues. Using a novel proteomic screen for phosphotyrosine-binding proteins, we have made the observation that an enzyme involved in glycolysis, the human M2 (fetal) isoform of pyruvate kinase (PKM2), binds directly and selectively to tyrosine-phosphorylated peptides. We show that binding of phosphotyrosine peptides to PKM2 results in release of the allosteric activator fructose-1,6-bisphosphate, leading to inhibition of PKM2 enzymatic activity. We also provide evidence that this regulation of PKM2 by phosphotyrosine signalling diverts glucose metabolites from energy production to anabolic processes when cells are stimulated by certain growth factors. Collectively, our results indicate that expression of this phosphotyrosine-binding form of pyruvate kinase is critical for rapid growth in cancer cells.

  17. Phenylbutyrate Therapy for Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Complex Deficiency and Lactic Acidosis

    PubMed Central

    Ferriero, Rosa; Manco, Giuseppe; Lamantea, Eleonora; Nusco, Edoardo; Ferrante, Mariella I.; Sordino, Paolo; Stacpoole, Peter W.; Lee, Brendan; Zeviani, Massimo; Brunetti-Pierri, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Lactic acidosis is a build-up of lactic acid in the blood and tissues, which can be due to several inborn errors of metabolism as well as nongenetic conditions. Deficiency of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) is the most common genetic disorder leading to lactic acidosis. Phosphorylation of specific serine residues of the E1α subunit of PDHC by pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) inactivates the enzyme, whereas dephosphorylation restores PDHC activity. We found that phenylbutyrate enhances PDHC enzymatic activity in vitro and in vivo by increasing the proportion of unphosphorylated enzyme through inhibition of PDK. Phenylbutyrate given to C57B6/L wild-type mice results in a significant increase in PDHC enzyme activity and a reduction of phosphorylated E1α in brain, muscle, and liver compared to saline-treated mice. By means of recombinant enzymes, we showed that phenylbutyrate prevents phosphorylation of E1α through binding and inhibition of PDK, providing a molecular explanation for the effect of phenylbutyrate on PDHC activity. Phenylbutyrate increases PDHC activity in fibroblasts from PDHC-deficient patients harboring various molecular defects and corrects the morphological, locomotor, and biochemical abnormalities in the noam631 zebrafish model of PDHC deficiency. In mice, phenylbutyrate prevents systemic lactic acidosis induced by partial hepatectomy. Because phenylbutyrate is already approved for human use in other diseases, the findings of this study have the potential to be rapidly translated for treatment of patients with PDHC deficiency and other forms of primary and secondary lactic acidosis. PMID:23467562

  18. Effects of hormonal and nonhormonal contraceptives on lactation and incidence of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Zacharias, S; Aguilera, E; Assenzo, J R; Zanartu, J

    1986-03-01

    From June 1974 to June 1976, 665 women who had given birth to full-term infants and who were willing to nurse the infant were admitted to this study. At three to six weeks postpartum, subjects chose which of four study groups to join. One-hundred-forty-three mothers chose Group I, exclusive lactation with no contraception; 109 chose Group II, lactation and intrauterine contraception (IUD); 228 chose Group III, lactation and an intramuscular injection of 150 mg medroxyprogesterone acetate (Depo-Provera Sterile Aqueous Suspension, DMPA) given every three months; and 185 chose Group IV, lactation and one tablet of 0.6 mg Clogestone Acetate given daily. Mother and child were examined monthly until the child's spontaneous weaning, the mother's dropout, or the study's close in 1979. Mothers from Group I (exclusive lactation) were dropped from study when they requested and were prescribed a contraceptive. During the first six months of study, the percent of mothers who dropped out of Groups I, II, III, and IV for personal or medical reasons was 28.0, 16.5, 11.4, and 27.1, respectively. Pregnancies began to occur in the sixth month postpartum. Overall, pregnancies occurred in 6% of mothers in exclusive lactation, 3% of mothers protected by an IUD, and 8% of mothers protected by Clogestone. No pregnancies occurred in the 228 women receiving DMPA. Some mothers in the Clogestone or DMPA groups were still breast-feeding their children two or three times a day at the study's close, at which time the child was three or more years of age. No ill effects were observed in growth and development of these children during the study. The DMPA group had the most mothers who were breast-feeding for more than 20 months. PMID:2941236

  19. The lactate paradox revisited in lowlanders during acclimatization to 4100 m and in high-altitude natives

    PubMed Central

    van Hall, G; Lundby, C; Araoz, M; Calbet, J A L; Sander, M; Saltin, B

    2009-01-01

    Chronic hypoxia has been proposed to induce a closer coupling in human skeletal muscle between ATP utilization and production in both lowlanders (LN) acclimatizing to high altitude and high-altitude natives (HAN), linked with an improved match between pyruvate availability and its use in mitochondrial respiration. This should result in less lactate being formed during exercise in spite of the hypoxaemia. To test this hypothesis six LN (22–31 years old) were studied during 15 min warm up followed by an incremental bicycle exercise to exhaustion at sea level, during acute hypoxia and after 2 and 8 weeks at 4100 m above sea level (El Alto, Bolivia). In addition, eight HAN (26–37 years old) were studied with a similar exercise protocol at altitude. The leg net lactate release, and the arterial and muscle lactate concentrations were elevated during the exercise in LN in acute hypoxia and remained at this higher level during the acclimatization period. HAN had similar high values; however, at the moment of exhaustion their muscle lactate, ADP and IMP content and Cr/PCr ratio were higher than in LN. In conclusion, sea-level residents in the course of acclimatization to high altitude did not exhibit a reduced capacity for the active muscle to produce lactate. Thus, the lactate paradox concept could not be demonstrated. High-altitude natives from the Andes actually exhibit a higher anaerobic energy production than lowlanders after 8 weeks of acclimatization reflected by an increased muscle lactate accumulation and enhanced adenine nucleotide breakdown. PMID:19139048

  20. Lactate Dehydrogenase in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Something Old, Something New

    PubMed Central

    Faloppi, Luca; Bianconi, Maristella; Memeo, Riccardo; Casadei Gardini, Andrea; Giampieri, Riccardo; Bittoni, Alessandro; Andrikou, Kalliopi; Del Prete, Michela; Cascinu, Stefano; Scartozzi, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver tumour (80–90%) and represents more than 5.7% of all cancers. Although in recent years the therapeutic options for these patients have increased, clinical results are yet unsatisfactory and the prognosis remains dismal. Clinical or molecular criteria allowing a more accurate selection of patients are in fact largely lacking. Lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) is a glycolytic key enzyme in the conversion of pyruvate to lactate under anaerobic conditions. In preclinical models, upregulation of LDH has been suggested to ensure both an efficient anaerobic/glycolytic metabolism and a reduced dependence on oxygen under hypoxic conditions in tumour cells. Data from several analyses on different tumour types seem to suggest that LDH levels may be a significant prognostic factor. The role of LDH in HCC has been investigated by different authors in heterogeneous populations of patients. It has been tested as a potential biomarker in retrospective, small, and nonfocused studies in patients undergoing surgery, transarterial chemoembolization (TACE), and systemic therapy. In the major part of these studies, high LDH serum levels seem to predict a poorer outcome. We have reviewed literature in this setting trying to resume basis for future studies validating the role of LDH in this disease. PMID:27314036

  1. Expression of Plasmodium falciparum lactate dehydrogenase in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bzik, D J; Fox, B A; Gonyer, K

    1993-05-01

    A Plasmodium falciparum gene is described which encodes lactate dehydrogenase activity (P. falciparum LDH). The P. falciparum LDH gene contains no introns and is present in a single copy on chromosome 13. P. falciparum LDH was expressed in all asexual blood stages as a 1.6-kb mRNA. The predicted 316 amino acid protein coding region of P. falciparum LDH was inserted into the prokaryotic expression vector pKK223-3 and a 33-kDa protein having LDH activity was synthesized in Escherichia coli. P. falciparum LDH primary structure displays high amino acid similarity (50-57%) to vertebrate and bacterial LDH, but lacks the amino terminal extension observed in all vertebrate LDH. The majority of amino acid residues implicated in substrate and coenzyme binding and catalysis of other LDH are well conserved in P. falciparum LDH. However, several notable differences in amino acid composition were observed. P. falciparum LDH contained several distinctive single amino acid insertions and deletions compared to other LDH enzymes, and most remarkably, it contained a novel insertion of 5 amino acids within the conserved mobile loop region near arginine residue 109, a residue which is known to make contact with pyruvate in the ternary complex of other LDH. These results suggest that novel features of P. falciparum LDH primary structure may be correlated with previously characterized and distinctive kinetic, biochemical, immunochemical, and electrophoretic properties of P. falciparum LDH. PMID:8515777

  2. Conformational Heterogeneity in the Michaelis Complex of Lactate Dehydrogenase: An Analysis of Vibrational Spectroscopy Using Markov and Hidden Markov Models.

    PubMed

    Pan, Xiaoliang; Schwartz, Steven D

    2016-07-14

    Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) catalyzes the interconversion of pyruvate and lactate. Recent isotope-edited IR spectroscopy suggests that conformational heterogeneity exists within the Michaelis complex of LDH, and this heterogeneity affects the propensity toward the on-enzyme chemical step for each Michaelis substate. By combining molecular dynamics simulations with Markov and hidden Markov models, we obtained a detailed kinetic network of the substates of the Michaelis complex of LDH. The ensemble-average electric fields exerted onto the vibrational probe were calculated to provide a direct comparison with the vibrational spectroscopy. Structural features of the Michaelis substates were also analyzed on atomistic scales. Our work not only clearly demonstrates the conformational heterogeneity in the Michaelis complex of LDH and its coupling to the reactivities of the substates, but it also suggests a methodology to simultaneously resolve kinetics and structures on atomistic scales, which can be directly compared with the vibrational spectroscopy. PMID:27347759

  3. [The role of lactate acidosis in the development and treatment of various neurologic syndromes in children and adolescents].

    PubMed

    Arveladze, G A; Geladze, N M; Sanikidze, T B; Khachapuridze, N S; Bakhtadze, S Z

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to detect the role of lactate acidosis, also to find the share of mitochondrial insufficiency in development of various neurologic syndromes in children and adolescents. The detection of cellular energetic metabolism and acid based imbalance is also important for finding the specific method of management. We have studied 200 patients with various degree of neurodevelopment delay with epilepsy and epileptic syndromes, headache, vertigo, early strokes, floppy infant syndrome, atrophy of ophthalmic nerve, cataracta, neurosensory deafness, systemic myopathy, cerebral palsy. In 27% of cases with various ages we have detected lactate acidosis and increase level of pyruvate. Mitochondrial insufficiency was seen in 8% of cases which gives us opportunity to find the specific method of treatment in this group of patients. Each patient with neurological symptoms requires correction of parameters of energetic and oxidative metabolism. PMID:25802453

  4. Point of Care Measurement of Lactate.

    PubMed

    Di Mauro, Francesca Miranda; Schoeffler, Gretchen Lee

    2016-03-01

    Lactate is generated as a consequence of anaerobic glycolysis by all tissues of the body. Increased l-lactate, the isoform produced by most mammals, reflects increased anaerobic metabolism secondary to tissue hypoperfusion or tissue hypoxia in most clinical situations, and is called type A lactic acidosis. The utility of lactate measurement and serial lactate monitoring in veterinary patients has been demonstrated in multiple studies. Blood lactate concentration is significantly elevated in many disease processes including septic peritonitis, immune-mediated hemolytic anemia, Babesiosis, trauma, gastric dilation and volvulus, and intracranial disease. Lactate clearance can be used to assess response to fluid therapy, cardiovascular therapeutics, and blood product transfusion in patients affected by type A lactic acidosis. Lactate concentration in peritoneal, pericardial, and synovial fluid can also be used as a diagnostic tool. Point of care analyzers such as the Lactate Pro, Lactate Scout, Accutrend, iSTAT, and Lactate Plus have been shown to be accurate lactate measurement instruments in small animal patients. PMID:27451047

  5. Comparison of fumerate-pyruvate media and beef extract media for aerobically culturing Campylobacter species

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Media supplemented with fumarate, pyruvate, and a vitamin-mineral solution or with beef extract were compared for the ability to support aerobic growth of Campylobacter. Basal broth composed of tryptose, yeast extract, bicarbonate, and agar was supplemented with 30 mM fumarate, 100 mM pyruvate, and ...

  6. Pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase: intracellular site of synthesis in maize leaf cells

    SciTech Connect

    Gee, S.L.; Ruzin, S.; Bassham, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    Pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase is synthesized in non-green leaf cells of the maize mutant iojap. Since iojap plastids lack ribosomes, it is concluded that the site of the synthesis of pyruvate orthophosphate dikinase in maize leaf cells is on ribosomes in the cytoplasm.

  7. Effect of bicarbonate concentration on aerobic growth of campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) concentration on aerobic growth of Campylobacter in a fumarate-pyruvate medium. Fumarate-pyruvate broth medium was supplemented with 0.00 to 0.10% NaHCO3 and inoculated with Campylobacter coli 33559, Campyloba...

  8. Differential resuscitative effect of pyruvate and its analogues on VBNC (viable but non-culturable) Salmonella.

    PubMed

    Morishige, Yuta; Fujimori, Ko; Amano, Fumio

    2013-01-01

    An environmental isolate of Salmonella Enteritidis (SE), grown to the logarithmic phase, rapidly lost culturability by the addition of 3 mM H2O2 to cultures grown in Luria-Bertani (LB) medium; however, some H2O2-treated bacteria regained their culturability in M9 minimal medium, if sodium pyruvate was present at at least 0.3 mM. In addition, most pyruvate analogues, such as bromopyruvate or phenylpyruvate, did not show restoration activity similar to that of pyruvate, except in the case of α-ketobutyrate. Further analysis of the mechanism underlying the resuscitation by pyruvate revealed that although many of the bacteria showed respiratory activity on CTC (5-cyano-2,3-di-(p-tolyl) tetrazolium chloride) reduction with or without pyruvate, the biosynthesis of DNA and protein synthesis were quite different in the presence or absence of pyruvate, i.e., pyruvate endowed the cells with the ability to incorporate much more radio-label into precursors during the resuscitation process. These results suggest that pyruvate is one of the key molecules working in the resuscitation process by taking bacteria from the non-culturable state to the growing and colony-forming state by triggering the synthesis of macromolecules such as DNA and protein. PMID:23595023

  9. Cloning, nucleotide sequence, and transcriptional analysis of the Pediococcus acidilactici L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene.

    PubMed Central

    Garmyn, D; Ferain, T; Bernard, N; Hols, P; Delcour, J

    1995-01-01

    Recombinant plasmids containing the Pediococcus acidilactici L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenase gene (ldhL) were isolated by complementing for growth under anaerobiosis of an Escherichia coli lactate dehydrogenase-pyruvate formate lyase double mutant. The nucleotide sequence of the ldhL gene predicted a protein of 323 amino acids showing significant similarity with other bacterial L-(+)-lactate dehydrogenases and especially with that of Lactobacillus plantarum. The ldhL transcription start points in P. acidilactici were defined by primer extension, and the promoter sequence was identified as TCAAT-(17 bp)-TATAAT. This sequence is closely related to the consensus sequence of vegetative promoters from gram-positive bacteria as well as from E. coli. Northern analysis of P. acidilactici RNA showed a 1.1-kb ldhL transcript whose abundance is growth rate regulated. These data, together with the presence of a putative rho-independent transcriptional terminator, suggest that ldhL is expressed as a monocistronic transcript in P. acidilactici. PMID:7887607

  10. Integrated Metabolomics Study of the Milk of Heat-stressed Lactating Dairy Cows

    PubMed Central

    Tian, He; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Weiyu; Cheng, Jianbo; Li, Songli; Zhang, Yangdong; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) damages the global dairy industry by reducing milk yields and quality, harming health, and damaging the reproduction of dairy cows, causing huge economic losses each year. However, an understanding of the physiological mechanism of HS lactating dairy cows remains elusive. Here, a metabolomics study using LC-MS and 1H NMR spectroscopy was performed to analyze the metabolomic differences in the milk between HS-free and HS dairy cows, and discover diagnostic biomarkers and changes in the metabolic pathway. A total of 53 discriminating metabolites were significantly up- or down-regulated in the HS group compared with the HS-free group (P < 0.05). These biomarkers were involved in pathways of carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid, and gut microbiome-derived metabolism. Comparing these potential biomarkers with previously identified HS candidate biomarkers in plasma, significant correlations between the levels of lactate, pyruvate, creatine, acetone, β-hydroxybutyrate, trimethylamine, oleic acid, linoleic acid, lysophosphatidylcholine 16:0, and phosphatidylcholine 42:2 in milk and plasma were found, indicating that the blood-milk barrier became leaky and the levels of these 10 biomarkers in milk can reflect HS-induced metabolomic alterations in blood. These novel findings can support more in-depth research to elucidate the milk-based changes in metabolic pathways in HS lactating dairy cows. PMID:27048914

  11. Metabolic engineering of CHO cells to alter lactate metabolism during fed-batch cultures.

    PubMed

    Toussaint, Cécile; Henry, Olivier; Durocher, Yves

    2016-01-10

    Recombinant yeast pyruvate carboxylase (PYC2) expression was previously shown to be an effective metabolic engineering strategy for reducing lactate formation in a number of relevant mammalian cell lines, but, in the case of CHO cells, did not consistently lead to significant improvement in terms of cell growth, product titer and energy metabolism efficiency. In the present study, we report on the establishment of a PYC2-expressing CHO cell line producing a monoclonal antibody and displaying a significantly altered lactate metabolism compared to its parental line. All clones exhibiting strong PYC2 expression were shown to experience a significant and systematic metabolic shift toward lactate consumption, as well as a prolonged exponential growth phase leading to an increased maximum cell concentration and volumetric product titer. Of salient interest, PYC2-expressing CHO cells were shown to maintain a highly efficient metabolism in fed-batch cultures, even when exposed to high glucose levels, thereby alleviating the need of controlling nutrient at low levels and the potential negative impact of such strategy on product glycosylation. In bioreactor operated in fed-batch mode, the higher maximum cell density achieved with the PYC2 clone led to a net gain (20%) in final volumetric productivity. PMID:26603123

  12. Adiposity and fat metabolism in lactating and fasting northern elephant seals.

    PubMed

    Crocker, Daniel E; Champagne, Cory D; Fowler, Melinda A; Houser, Dorian S

    2014-01-01

    Several taxa of animals fast completely from food and water during energy-intensive periods such as lactation, breeding, and development. In elephant seals, these behaviors are sustained by high adiposity, high rates of fat mobilization, and reduced oxidation of carbohydrates and proteins. Adiposity and the regulation of lipolysis directly affect lactation energetics, milk composition, and mating success. Long-term fasting induces changes in regulation of lipolysis and lipid metabolism that influence fatty acid (FA) availability and the onset of insulin resistance. Hypoinsulinemia and elevated circulating FAs are also associated with several unique features of carbohydrate metabolism, including elevated plasma glucose, gluconeogenesis, and Cori cycle activity as well as high rates of pyruvate and tricarboxylic acid cycling. Glucose-lactate pools and triacylglycerol-FA cycles may be linked via glyceroneogenesis and this may be an important pathway influencing both fat and carbohydrate metabolism. Together, these features allow a sustained, high intensity, fat-based metabolism without substantial accumulation of ketoacids. PMID:24425723

  13. Integrated Metabolomics Study of the Milk of Heat-stressed Lactating Dairy Cows.

    PubMed

    Tian, He; Zheng, Nan; Wang, Weiyu; Cheng, Jianbo; Li, Songli; Zhang, Yangdong; Wang, Jiaqi

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress (HS) damages the global dairy industry by reducing milk yields and quality, harming health, and damaging the reproduction of dairy cows, causing huge economic losses each year. However, an understanding of the physiological mechanism of HS lactating dairy cows remains elusive. Here, a metabolomics study using LC-MS and (1)H NMR spectroscopy was performed to analyze the metabolomic differences in the milk between HS-free and HS dairy cows, and discover diagnostic biomarkers and changes in the metabolic pathway. A total of 53 discriminating metabolites were significantly up- or down-regulated in the HS group compared with the HS-free group (P < 0.05). These biomarkers were involved in pathways of carbohydrate, amino acid, lipid, and gut microbiome-derived metabolism. Comparing these potential biomarkers with previously identified HS candidate biomarkers in plasma, significant correlations between the levels of lactate, pyruvate, creatine, acetone, β-hydroxybutyrate, trimethylamine, oleic acid, linoleic acid, lysophosphatidylcholine 16:0, and phosphatidylcholine 42:2 in milk and plasma were found, indicating that the blood-milk barrier became leaky and the levels of these 10 biomarkers in milk can reflect HS-induced metabolomic alterations in blood. These novel findings can support more in-depth research to elucidate the milk-based changes in metabolic pathways in HS lactating dairy cows. PMID:27048914

  14. Adiposity and Fat Metabolism in Lactating and Fasting Northern Elephant Seals12

    PubMed Central

    Crocker, Daniel E.; Champagne, Cory D.; Fowler, Melinda A.; Houser, Dorian S.

    2014-01-01

    Several taxa of animals fast completely from food and water during energy-intensive periods such as lactation, breeding, and development. In elephant seals, these behaviors are sustained by high adiposity, high rates of fat mobilization, and reduced oxidation of carbohydrates and proteins. Adiposity and the regulation of lipolysis directly affect lactation energetics, milk composition, and mating success. Long-term fasting induces changes in regulation of lipolysis and lipid metabolism that influence fatty acid (FA) availability and the onset of insulin resistance. Hypoinsulinemia and elevated circulating FAs are also associated with several unique features of carbohydrate metabolism, including elevated plasma glucose, gluconeogenesis, and Cori cycle activity as well as high rates of pyruvate and tricarboxylic acid cycling. Glucose-lactate pools and triacylglycerol-FA cycles may be linked via glyceroneogenesis and this may be an important pathway influencing both fat and carbohydrate metabolism. Together, these features allow a sustained, high intensity, fat-based metabolism without substantial accumulation of ketoacids. PMID:24425723

  15. Myristica fragrans Suppresses Tumor Growth and Metabolism by Inhibiting Lactate Dehydrogenase A.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Yeong; Choi, Hee-Jung; Park, Mi-Ju; Jung, Yeon-Seop; Lee, Syng-Ook; Kim, Keuk-Jun; Choi, Jung-Hye; Chung, Tae-Wook; Ha, Ki-Tae

    2016-01-01

    Most cancer cells predominantly produce ATP by maintaining a high rate of lactate fermentation, rather than by maintaining a comparatively low rate of tricarboxylic acid cycle, i.e., Warburg's effect. In the pathway, the pyruvate produced by glycolysis is converted to lactic acid by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Here, we demonstrated that water extracts from the seeds of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (MF) inhibit the in vitro enzymatic activity of LDH. MF effectively suppressed cell growth and the overall Warburg effect in HT29 human colon cancer cells. Although the expression of LDH-A was not changed by MF, both lactate production and LDH activity were decreased in MF-treated cells under both normoxic and hypoxic conditions. In addition, intracellular ATP levels were also decreased by MF treatment, and the uptake of glucose was also reduced by MF treatment. Furthermore, the experiment on tumor growth in the in vivo mice model revealed that MF effectively reduced the growth of allotransplanted Lewis lung carcinoma cells. Taken together, these results suggest that MF effectively inhibits cancer growth and metabolism by inhibiting the activity of LDH, a major enzyme responsible for regulating cancer metabolism. These results implicate MF as a potential candidate for development into a novel drug against cancer through inhibition of LDH activity. PMID:27430914

  16. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt of acetic acid. It may be produced by the calcium hydroxide neutralization of acetic acid. (b) The ingredient meets...

  17. Improvement of isobutanol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by increasing mitochondrial import of pyruvate through mitochondrial pyruvate carrier.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Hee; Kim, Sujin; Hahn, Ji-Sook

    2016-09-01

    Subcellular compartmentalization of the biosynthetic enzymes is one of the limiting factors for isobutanol production in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Previously, it has been shown that mitochondrial compartmentalization of the biosynthetic pathway through re-locating cytosolic Ehrlich pathway enzymes into the mitochondria can increase isobutanol production. In this study, we improved mitochondrial isobutanol production by increasing mitochondrial pool of pyruvate, a key substrate for isobutanol production. Mitochondrial isobutanol biosynthetic pathway was introduced into bat1Δald6Δlpd1Δ strain, where genes involved in competing pathways were deleted, and MPC1, MPC2, and MPC3 genes encoding the subunits of mitochondrial pyruvate carrier (MPC) hetero-oligomeric complex were overexpressed with different combinations. Overexpression of Mpc1 and Mpc3 forming high-affinity MPCOX was more effective in improving isobutanol production than overexpression of Mpc1 and Mpc2 forming low-affinity MPCFERM. The final engineered strain overexpressing MPCOX produced 330.9 mg/L isobutanol from 20 g/L glucose, exhibiting about 22-fold increase in production compared to wild type. PMID:27225475

  18. Evidence That Does Not Support Pyruvate Kinase M2 (PKM2)-catalyzed Reaction as a Rate-limiting Step in Cancer Cell Glycolysis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Jiansheng; Dai, Chunyan; Hu, Xun

    2016-04-22

    It has been recognized that the rate-limiting function of pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) in glycolysis plays an important role in distributing glycolytic intermediates for anabolic and catabolic purposes in cancer cells. However, after analysis of the catalytic capacity of PKM2 relative to other glycolytic enzymes, the regulation range of PKM2 activity, metabolic flux control, and thermodynamics, we suggest that the PKM2-catalyzed reaction is not a rate-limiting step in cancer cell glycolysis. Hexokinase and phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK1), the first and third enzyme along the pathway, are rate-limiting enzymes that limit the overall glycolytic rate, whereas PKM2 and lactate dehydrogenase, the last two enzymes in the pathway, are for the fast removal of upstream intermediates to prevent the obstruction of the pathway. The argument is in accordance with the catalytic capacity of glycolytic enzymes, regulation range of enzyme activities, metabolic flux control, and thermodynamics. PMID:26917721

  19. A chemically modified carbon paste electrode with d-lactate dehydrogenase and alanine aminotranferase enzyme sequences for d-lactic acid analysis.

    PubMed

    Shu, H C; Wu, N P

    2001-04-12

    An amperometric biosensor was constructed for the analysis of d-lactic acid based on immobilizing d-lactate dehydrogenase(d-LDH), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), NAD(+), a redox polymer and polyethylenimine in carbon paste. The effect of addition of ALT in the paste, using enzyme sequences of ALT/d-LDH, was insignificant for d-lactic acid analysis. The responses of d-lactic acid in ALT/d-LDH paste electrode are the same as those in d-LDH paste electrode. However, the interference effect of pyruvate in the sample can be substantially reduced if sodium glutamate was applied in the carrier solution. When ALT immobilized in control porous glass as an immobilized enzyme reactor (IMER) was mounted in flow injection analysis system with the d-LDH paste electrode as detector for d-lactate analysis, the interference of the pyruvate can be significantly eliminated. The adverse effect of pyruvate in the samples for d-lactic acid analysis was reduced more effectively in ALT IMER with d-LDH electrode than in ALT/d-LDH electrode. PMID:18968259

  20. Inhibition of monocarboxylate transporter 2 in the retrotrapezoid nucleus in rats – a test of the astrocyte-neuron lactate-shuttle hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Erlichman, J.S.; Hewitt, Amy; Damon, Tracey L.; Hart, Michael; Kurascz, Jennifer; Li, A.; Leiter, J.C.

    2009-01-01

    The astrocyte-neuronal lactate shuttle hypothesis (ANLSH) posits that lactate released from astrocytes into the extracellular space is metabolized by neurons. The lactate released should alter extracellular pH (pHe), and changes in pH in central chemosensory regions of the brainstem stimulate ventilation. Therefore, we assessed the impact of disrupting the lactate shuttle by administering 100 microM α-cyano-4-hydroxy-cinnamate (4-CIN), a dose that blocks the neuronal monocarboxylate transporter (MCT2), but not the astrocytic MCTs (MCT1 and MCT4). Administration of 4-CIN focally in the retrotrapezoid nucleus (RTN), a medullary central chemosensory nucleus, increased ventilation and decreased pHe in intact animals. In medullary brain slices, 4-CIN reduced astrocytic intracellular pH (pHi) slightly, but alkalinized neuronal pHi. Nonetheless, pHi fell significantly in both cell types when they were treated with exogenous lactate, although 100 microM 4-CIN significantly reduced the magnitude of the acidosis in neurons, but not astrocytes. Finally, 4-CIN treatment increased the uptake of a fluorescent 2-deoxy-d-glucose analogue in neurons, but did not alter the uptake rate of this 2-deoxy-d-glucose analogue in astrocytes. These data confirm the existence of an astrocyte to neuron lactate shuttle in intact animals in the RTN, and lactate derived from astrocytes forms part of the central chemosensory stimulus for ventilation in this nucleus. When the lactate shuttle was disrupted by treatment with 4-CIN, neurons increased the uptake of glucose. Thus, neurons seem to metabolize a combination of glucose and lactate (and other substances such as pyruvate) depending, in part, on the availability of each of these particular substrates. PMID:18463242

  1. Carbohydrate metabolism during prolonged exercise and recovery: interactions between pyruvate dehydrogenase, fatty acids, and amino acids.

    PubMed

    Mourtzakis, Marina; Saltin, Bengt; Graham, Terry; Pilegaard, Henriette

    2006-06-01

    During prolonged exercise, carbohydrate oxidation may result from decreased pyruvate production and increased fatty acid supply and ultimately lead to reduced pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) activity. Pyruvate also interacts with the amino acids alanine, glutamine, and glutamate, whereby the decline in pyruvate production could affect tricarboxycylic acid cycle flux as well as gluconeogenesis. To enhance our understanding of these interactions, we studied the time course of changes in substrate utilization in six men who cycled at 44+/-1% peak oxygen consumption (mean+/-SE) until exhaustion (exhaustion at 3 h 23 min+/-11 min). Femoral arterial and venous blood, blood flow measurements, and muscle samples were obtained hourly during exercise and recovery (3 h). Carbohydrate oxidation peaked at 30 min of exercise and subsequently decreased for the remainder of the exercise bout (P<0.05). PDH activity peaked at 2 h of exercise, whereas pyruvate production peaked at 1 h of exercise and was reduced (approximately 30%) thereafter, suggesting that pyruvate availability primarily accounted for reduced carbohydrate oxidation. Increased free fatty acid uptake (P<0.05) was also associated with decreasing PDH activity (P<0.05) and increased PDH kinase 4 mRNA (P<0.05) during exercise and recovery. At 1 h of exercise, pyruvate production was greatest and was closely linked to glutamate, which was the predominant amino acid taken up during exercise and recovery. Alanine and glutamine were also associated with pyruvate metabolism, and they comprised approximately 68% of total amino-acid release during exercise and recovery. Thus reduced pyruvate production was primarily associated with reduced carbohydrate oxidation, whereas the greatest production of pyruvate was related to glutamate, glutamine, and alanine metabolism in early exercise. PMID:16424076

  2. Pyruvate Dehydrogenase Kinase-mediated Glycolytic Metabolic Shift in the Dorsal Root Ganglion Drives Painful Diabetic Neuropathy.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Md Habibur; Jha, Mithilesh Kumar; Kim, Jong-Heon; Nam, Youngpyo; Lee, Maan Gee; Go, Younghoon; Harris, Robert A; Park, Dong Ho; Kook, Hyun; Lee, In-Kyu; Suk, Kyoungho

    2016-03-11

    The dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is a highly vulnerable site in diabetic neuropathy. Under diabetic conditions, the DRG is subjected to tissue ischemia or lower ambient oxygen tension that leads to aberrant metabolic functions. Metabolic dysfunctions have been documented to play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of diverse pain hypersensitivities. However, the contribution of diabetes-induced metabolic dysfunctions in the DRG to the pathogenesis of painful diabetic neuropathy remains ill-explored. In this study, we report that pyruvate dehydrogenase kinases (PDK2 and PDK4), key regulatory enzymes in glucose metabolism, mediate glycolytic metabolic shift in the DRG leading to painful diabetic neuropathy. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes substantially enhanced the expression and activity of the PDKs in the DRG, and the genetic ablation of Pdk2 and Pdk4 attenuated the hyperglycemia-induced pain hypersensitivity. Mechanistically, Pdk2/4 deficiency inhibited the diabetes-induced lactate surge, expression of pain-related ion channels, activation of satellite glial cells, and infiltration of macrophages in the DRG, in addition to reducing central sensitization and neuroinflammation hallmarks in the spinal cord, which probably accounts for the attenuated pain hypersensitivity. Pdk2/4-deficient mice were partly resistant to the diabetes-induced loss of peripheral nerve structure and function. Furthermore, in the experiments using DRG neuron cultures, lactic acid treatment enhanced the expression of the ion channels and compromised cell viability. Finally, the pharmacological inhibition of DRG PDKs or lactic acid production substantially attenuated diabetes-induced pain hypersensitivity. Taken together, PDK2/4 induction and the subsequent lactate surge induce the metabolic shift in the diabetic DRG, thereby contributing to the pathogenesis of painful diabetic neuropathy. PMID:26769971

  3. Antibiofilm Properties of Acetic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Bjarnsholt, Thomas; Alhede, Morten; Jensen, Peter Østrup; Nielsen, Anne K.; Johansen, Helle Krogh; Homøe, Preben; Høiby, Niels; Givskov, Michael; Kirketerp-Møller, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms are known to be extremely tolerant toward antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents. These biofilms cause the persistence of chronic infections. Since antibiotics rarely resolve these infections, the only effective treatment of chronic infections is surgical removal of the infected implant, tissue, or organ and thereby the biofilm. Acetic acid is known for its antimicrobial effect on bacteria in general, but has never been thoroughly tested for its efficacy against bacterial biofilms. In this article, we describe complete eradication of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative biofilms using acetic acid both as a liquid and as a dry salt. In addition, we present our clinical experience of acetic acid treatment of chronic wounds. In conclusion, we here present the first comprehensive in vitro and in vivo testing of acetic acid against bacterial biofilms. PMID:26155378

  4. Conformational flexibility related to enzyme activity: evidence for a dynamic active-site gatekeeper function of Tyr(215) in Aerococcus viridans lactate oxidase.

    PubMed

    Stoisser, Thomas; Brunsteiner, Michael; Wilson, David K; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    L-Lactate oxidase (LOX) belongs to a large family of flavoenzymes that catalyze oxidation of α-hydroxy acids. How in these enzymes the protein structure controls reactivity presents an important but elusive problem. LOX contains a prominent tyrosine in the substrate binding pocket (Tyr(215) in Aerococcus viridans LOX) that is partially responsible for securing a flexible loop which sequesters the active site. To characterize the role of Tyr(215), effects of substitutions of the tyrosine (Y215F, Y215H) were analyzed kinetically, crystallographically and by molecular dynamics simulations. Enzyme variants showed slowed flavin reduction and oxidation by up to 33-fold. Pyruvate release was also decelerated and in Y215F, it was the slowest step overall. A 2.6-Å crystal structure of Y215F in complex with pyruvate shows the hydrogen bond between the phenolic hydroxyl and the keto oxygen in pyruvate is replaced with a potentially stronger hydrophobic interaction between the phenylalanine and the methyl group of pyruvate. Residues 200 through 215 or 216 appear to be disordered in two of the eight monomers in the asymmetric unit suggesting that they function as a lid controlling substrate entry and product exit from the active site. Substitutions of Tyr(215) can thus lead to a kinetic bottleneck in product release. PMID:27302031

  5. Conformational flexibility related to enzyme activity: evidence for a dynamic active-site gatekeeper function of Tyr215 in Aerococcus viridans lactate oxidase

    PubMed Central

    Stoisser, Thomas; Brunsteiner, Michael; Wilson, David K.; Nidetzky, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    L-Lactate oxidase (LOX) belongs to a large family of flavoenzymes that catalyze oxidation of α-hydroxy acids. How in these enzymes the protein structure controls reactivity presents an important but elusive problem. LOX contains a prominent tyrosine in the substrate binding pocket (Tyr215 in Aerococcus viridans LOX) that is partially responsible for securing a flexible loop which sequesters the active site. To characterize the role of Tyr215, effects of substitutions of the tyrosine (Y215F, Y215H) were analyzed kinetically, crystallographically and by molecular dynamics simulations. Enzyme variants showed slowed flavin reduction and oxidation by up to 33-fold. Pyruvate release was also decelerated and in Y215F, it was the slowest step overall. A 2.6-Å crystal structure of Y215F in complex with pyruvate shows the hydrogen bond between the phenolic hydroxyl and the keto oxygen in pyruvate is replaced with a potentially stronger hydrophobic interaction between the phenylalanine and the methyl group of pyruvate. Residues 200 through 215 or 216 appear to be disordered in two of the eight monomers in the asymmetric unit suggesting that they function as a lid controlling substrate entry and product exit from the active site. Substitutions of Tyr215 can thus lead to a kinetic bottleneck in product release. PMID:27302031

  6. Short communication: Amino acid supplementation and stage of lactation alter apparent utilization of nutrients by blood neutrophils from lactating dairy cows in vitro.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M; Elsasser, T H; Juengst, L; Qu, Y; Bequette, B J; Moyes, K M

    2016-05-01

    , coding for the enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase α 1, tended to increase with AA supplementation. Due to the lower concentration of tumor necrosis factor-α in media coupled with a downregulation of several proinflammatory genes, we concluded that AA, rather than Gln, alter the inflammatory response of bovine blood PMN. Independent from Gln, blood PMN from cows in early lactation may use certain AA as their primary carbon source for energy than cows in later lactation. Evaluating cows during the early postpartum period will provide additional information on the effect of stage of lactation and nutrient supplementation on PMN function. PMID:26971158

  7. Lactate metabolism in the fetal rabbit lung

    SciTech Connect

    Engle, M.J.; Brown, D.J.; Dooley, M.

    1986-05-01

    Lactate is frequently overlooked as a potential substrate for the fetal lung, even though it is present in the fetal circulation in concentrations as high as 8 mM. These high concentrations, coupled with the relatively low levels of glucose in the fetal blood, may indicate that lactate can substitute for glucose in pulmonary energy generation and phospholipid synthesis. A series of experiments was therefore undertaken in order to investigate the role of lactate in perinatal pulmonary development. Explants from 30 day gestation fetal rabbit lungs were incubated in Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate buffer supplemented with 3 mM (U-/sup 14/C)-glucose and varying levels of lactate. In the absence of medium lactate, fetal rabbit lung explants were capable of producing lactate at a rate of approximately 200 etamoles/mg protein/hour. The addition of lactate to the bathing medium immediately reduced net lactate production and above 4 mM, fetal rabbit lung explants became net utilizers of lactate. Media lactate concentrations of 2.5 mM, 5 mM and 10 mM also decreased glucose incorporation into total tissue disaturated phosphatidylcholine by approximately 20%, 35%, and 45%, respectively. Glucose incorporation into surfactant phosphatidylcholine was also reduced by approximately 50%, when lactate was present in the incubation medium at a concentration of 5 mM. Additional experiments also revealed that fetal lung lactate dehydrogenase activity was almost twice that found in the adult rabbit lung. These data indicate that lactate may be an important carbon source for the developing lung and could be a significant component in the manufacture of surfactant phosphatidylcholine during late gestation.

  8. Diminution of Hepatic Response to 7, 12-dimethylbenz(α)anthracene by Ethyl Acetate Fraction of Acacia catechu Willd. through Modulation of Xenobiotic and Anti-Oxidative Enzymes in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rakesh; Kaur, Rajbir; Singh, Amrit Pal; Arora, Saroj

    2014-01-01

    Background Liver is the primary metabolizing site of body and is prone to damage by exogenous as well as endogenous intoxicants. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons such as 7, 12- dimethylbenz(α)anthracene (DMBA) is an exogenous hepatotoxin, which is well known for modulating phase I, II and anti-oxidative enzymes of liver. Plants contain plethora of polyphenolic compounds which can reverse the damaging effect of various xenobiotics. The present study investigated protective role of the ethyl acetate fraction of Acacia catechu Willd. (EAF) against DMBA induced alteration in hepatic metabolizing and anti-oxidative enzymes in rats. Methodology and Principal Findings The rats were subjected to hepatic damage by treating with DMBA for 7 weeks on alternative days and treatment schedule was terminated at the end of 14 weeks. The rats were euthanized at the end of protocol and livers were homogenized. The liver homogenates were used to analyse phase I (NADPH-cytochrome P450 reducatse, NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase, cytochrome P420, cytochrome b5), phase II (glutathione-S-transferase, DT diaphorase and γ-Glutamyl transpeptidase) and antioxidative enzymes (catalase, superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, glutathione reductase, guiacol peroxidase and lactate dehydrogenase). Furthermore, other oxidative stress parameters (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes and reduced glutathione) and liver marker enzymes (serum glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase, serum glutamic pyruvic transaminase and alkaline phosphatase) were also studied. The DMBA induced significant changes in activity of hepatic enzymes that was reversed by treatment with three dose levels of EAF. Conclusion It is concluded that EAF affords hepato-protection against DMBA in rats through modulation of phase I, II and anti-oxidative enzymes. PMID:24587216

  9. A biochemical and genetic study of Leishmania donovani pyruvate kinase.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Will; Isea, Raúl; Rodriguez, Evelyn; Ramirez, Jose Luis

    2008-11-15

    Here we present a biochemical and molecular biology study of the enzyme pyruvate kinase (PYK) from the parasitic protozoa Leishmania donovani. The PYK gene was cloned, mutagenised and over expressed and its kinetic parameters determined. Like in other kinetoplastids, L. donovani PYK is allosterically stimulated by the effector fructose 2,6 biphosphate and not by fructose 1,6 biphosphate. When the putative effector binding site of L. donovani PYK was mutagenised, we obtained two mutants with extreme kinetic behavior: Lys453Leu, which retained a sigmoidal kinetics and was little affected by the effector; and His480Gln, which deployed a hyperbolic kinetics that was not changed by the addition of the effector. Molecular Dynamics (MD) studies revealed that the mutations not only altered the effector binding site of L. donovani PYK but also changed the folding of its domain C. PMID:18725273

  10. Parkin Regulates the Activity of Pyruvate Kinase M2*

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kun; Li, Fanzhou; Han, Haichao; Chen, Yue; Mao, Zebin; Luo, Jianyuan; Zhao, Yingming; Zheng, Bin; Gu, Wei; Zhao, Wenhui

    2016-01-01

    Parkin, a ubiquitin E3 ligase, is mutated in most cases of autosomal recessive early onset Parkinson disease. It was discovered that Parkin is also mutated in glioblastoma and other human malignancies and that it inhibits tumor cell growth. Here, we identified pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) as a unique substrate for parkin through biochemical purification. We found that parkin interacts with PKM2 both in vitro and in vivo, and this interaction dramatically increases during glucose starvation. Ubiquitylation of PKM2 by parkin does not affect its stability but decreases its enzymatic activity. Parkin regulates the glycolysis pathway and affects the cell metabolism. Our studies revealed the novel important roles of parkin in tumor cell metabolism and provided new insight for therapy of Parkinson disease. PMID:26975375

  11. Parkin Regulates the Activity of Pyruvate Kinase M2.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kun; Li, Fanzhou; Han, Haichao; Chen, Yue; Mao, Zebin; Luo, Jianyuan; Zhao, Yingming; Zheng, Bin; Gu, Wei; Zhao, Wenhui

    2016-05-01

    Parkin, a ubiquitin E3 ligase, is mutated in most cases of autosomal recessive early onset Parkinson disease. It was discovered that Parkin is also mutated in glioblastoma and other human malignancies and that it inhibits tumor cell growth. Here, we identified pyruvate kinase M2 (PKM2) as a unique substrate for parkin through biochemical purification. We found that parkin interacts with PKM2 both in vitro and in vivo, and this interaction dramatically increases during glucose starvation. Ubiquitylation of PKM2 by parkin does not affect its stability but decreases its enzymatic activity. Parkin regulates the glycolysis pathway and affects the cell metabolism. Our studies revealed the novel important roles of parkin in tumor cell metabolism and provided new insight for therapy of Parkinson disease. PMID:26975375

  12. Transformation linked decrease of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex in human epidermis.

    PubMed

    Eboli, M L; Pasquini, A

    1994-10-14

    Epidermis exhibits glycolytic features peculiar to cancer cells. The activity of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex, both active (PDHa) and total (PDHt) forms, has been investigated and compared in epidermis and epidermal carcinomas from human source. Low or undetectable PDHa is found in either normal and neoplastic tissue. PDHt is unchanged in human epidermis between the second and seventh decades of life but is dramatically decreased following neoplastic transformation (0.107 and 0.026 units/g fresh tissue for epidermis and epidermal carcinoma, respectively). As PDH plays a key role in mitochondrial carbohydrate metabolism, the decrease of total enzymic capacity found in tumors suggest that different mechanisms regulate PDH expression and, in turn, glycolytic mechanisms of epidermis and cancer cells. PMID:7954343

  13. Light regulation of pyruvate allocation into primary and secondary carbon metabolism in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jardine, K.; Werner, C.; Wegener, F.; Meyers, K.; Abrell, L.

    2012-12-01

    While plant metabolic processes are known to exert a large influence on climate and air quality through the emission of CO2 and volatile organic compounds (VOCs), controls over the allocation of assimilated carbon to these important components of the global carbon cycle are poorly understood. In plants, pyruvate lies at the heart of carbon metabolism by acting as a key product of photosynthesis and glycolysis and as a substrate used in respiratory and secondary biosynthetic pathways (e.g. VOCs). It is now well recognized that light has a strong inhibitory effect on mitochondrial respiration and recent studies have shown this contributes to an accumulation of pyruvate. However, little is known about the impact(s) this has on biosynthetic processes including VOCs and how the different carbon atoms within pyruvate are utilized. In this study, we quantified diurnal VOC and CO2 fluxes from intact branches of a Mediterranean shrub (Halimium halimifolium) under controlled light conditions. In addition, we utilized positionally specific 13C-labeled pyruvate branch feeding together with stable isotope analysis to trace the partitioning of C1, C2, and C3 carbon atoms of pyruvate into VOCs and CO2 emissions in the light and in the dark. In the light, we found high emission rates of a large array of VOC including volatile isoprenoids, oxygenated VOCs, green leaf volatiles, aromatics, sulfides, and nitrogen containing VOCs. In addition, elevated 13C-VOC emissions were stimulated by pyruvate-2-13C and pyruvate-2,3-13C but not pyruvate-1-13C while the opposite was the case for 13CO2 emissions (respiration). Moreover, we found that in the dark, 13C-VOC emissions dramatically declined while 13CO2 emissions were strongly stimulated. Our observations suggest that in the light, H. halimifolium dedicates a high pyruvate flux through secondary biosynthetic pathways including the pyruvate dehydrogenase bypass, mevalonic acid, MEP/DOXP, shikimic acid, and fatty acid pathways, which are

  14. Purification and characterization of cytosolic pyruvate kinase from banana fruit.

    PubMed Central

    Turner, W L; Plaxton, W C

    2000-01-01

    Cytosolic pyruvate kinase (PK(c)) from ripened banana (Musa cavendishii L.) fruits has been purified 543-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity and a final specific activity of 59.7 micromol of pyruvate produced/min per mg of protein. SDS/PAGE and gel-filtration FPLC of the final preparation indicated that this enzyme exists as a 240 kDa homotetramer composed of subunits of 57 kDa. Although the enzyme displayed a pH optimum of 6.9, optimal efficiency in substrate utilization [in terms of V(max)/K(m) for phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP) or ADP] was equivalent at pH 6.9 and 7.5. PK(c) activity was absolutely dependent upon the presence of a bivalent and a univalent cation, with Mg(2+) and K(+) respectively fulfilling this requirement. Hyperbolic saturation kinetics were observed for the binding of PEP, ADP, Mg(2+) and K(+) (K(m) values of 0.098, 0.12, 0.27 and 0.91 mM respectively). Although the enzyme utilized UDP, IDP, GDP and CDP as alternative nucleotides, ADP was the preferred substrate. L-Glutamate and MgATP were the most effective inhibitors, whereas L-aspartate functioned as an activator by reversing the inhibition of PK(c) by L-glutamate. The allosteric features of banana PK(c) are compared with those of banana PEP carboxylase [Law and Plaxton (1995) Biochem. J. 307, 807-816]. A model is presented which highlights the roles of cytosolic pH, MgATP, L-glutamate and L-aspartate in the co-ordinate control of the PEP branchpoint in ripening bananas. PMID:11104698

  15. The Crystal Structure of Toxoplasma gondii Pyruvate Kinase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Bakszt, R.; Wernimont, A; Allali-Hassani, A; Mok, M; Hills, T; Hui, R; Pizarro, J

    2010-01-01

    Pyruvate kinase (PK), which catalyzes the final step in glycolysis converting phosphoenolpyruvate to pyruvate, is a central metabolic regulator in most organisms. Consequently PK represents an attractive therapeutic target in cancer and human pathogens, like Apicomplexans. The phylum Aplicomplexa, a group of exclusively parasitic organisms, includes the genera Plasmodium, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma, the etiological agents of malaria, cryptosporidiosis and toxoplasmosis respectively. Toxoplasma gondii infection causes a mild illness and is a very common infection affecting nearly one third of the world's population. We have determined the crystal structure of the PK1 enzyme from T. gondii, with the B domain in the open and closed conformations. We have also characterized its enzymatic activity and confirmed glucose-6-phosphate as its allosteric activator. This is the first description of a PK enzyme in a closed inactive conformation without any bound substrate. Comparison of the two tetrameric TgPK1 structures indicates a reorientation of the monomers with a concomitant change in the buried surface among adjacent monomers. The change in the buried surface was associated with significant B domain movements in one of the interacting monomers. We hypothesize that a loop in the interface between the A and B domains plays an important role linking the position of the B domain to the buried surface among monomers through two {alpha}-helices. The proposed model links the catalytic cycle of the enzyme with its domain movements and highlights the contribution of the interface between adjacent subunits. In addition, an unusual ordered conformation was observed in one of the allosteric binding domains and it is related to a specific apicomplexan insertion. The sequence and structural particularity would explain the atypical activation by a mono-phosphorylated sugar. The sum of peculiarities raises this enzyme as an emerging target for drug discovery.

  16. Epidermal growth factor precursor in mouse lactating mammary gland alveolar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, C.F.; Teng, C.T.; Pentecost, B.T.; DiAugustine, R.P. )

    1989-07-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that high levels of epidermal growth factor (EGF) occur in human and rodent milk and that oral administration of this polypeptide stimulates rodent gastrointestinal development. It is not known whether EGF in milk originates from cells of the lactating mammary gland or is sequestered from an extramammary source. In the present study, prepro-EGF mRNA (approximately 4.7 kilobases) was detected in the CD-1 mouse mammary gland throughout the period of lactation; by comparison, negligible levels of this EGF transcript were found in the gland during pregnancy. Low levels of EGF immunoreactivity (4-5 ng/g wet wt tissue) were extracted from lactating (day 18) mammary glands with dilute acetic acid. Immunolocalization was evident with antisera to either EGF or two other regions of the EGF precursor in essentially all alveolar cells of the lactating gland. The most prominent staining with antiserum to EGF was observed along the luminal borders of cells; this pattern of cellular staining required proteolytic pretreatment of tissue sections. Western blot analyses of cell membranes isolated from the day 16 lactating mammary gland revealed an EGF-immunoreactive band at about 145K, which was equivalent in size to the EGF precursor found in mouse kidney cell membranes. Despite these findings, labeling of lactating mammary gland mince with L-(35S)methionine and cysteine for up to 4 h did not reveal any specific bands in immunoprecipitates. These cumulative findings suggest that the precursor form of EGF occurs in alveolar cells of lactating mammary gland and that this protein is translocated to the cell membrane.

  17. Exogenous lactate supply affects lactate kinetics of rainbow trout, not swimming performance

    PubMed Central

    Omlin, Teye; Langevin, Karolanne

    2014-01-01

    Intense swimming causes circulatory lactate accumulation in rainbow trout because lactate disposal (Rd) is not stimulated as strongly as lactate appearance (Ra). This mismatch suggests that maximal Rd is limited by tissue capacity to metabolize lactate. This study uses exogenous lactate to investigate what constrains maximal Rd and minimal Ra. Our goals were to determine how exogenous lactate affects: 1) Ra and Rd of lactate under baseline conditions or during graded swimming, and 2) exercise performance (critical swimming speed, Ucrit) and energetics (cost of transport, COT). Results show that exogenous lactate allows swimming trout to boost maximal Rd lactate by 40% and reach impressive rates of 56 μmol·kg−1·min−1. This shows that the metabolic capacity of tissues for lactate disposal is not responsible for setting the highest Rd normally observed after intense swimming. Baseline endogenous Ra (resting in normoxic water) is not significantly reduced by exogenous lactate supply. Therefore, trout have an obligatory need to produce lactate, either as a fuel for oxidative tissues and/or from organs relying on glycolysis. Exogenous lactate does not affect Ucrit or COT, probably because it acts as a substitute for glucose and lipids rather than extra fuel. We conclude that the observed 40% increase in Rd lactate is made possible by accelerating lactate entry into oxidative tissues via monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs). This observation together with the weak expression of MCTs and the phenomenon of white muscle lactate retention show that lactate metabolism of rainbow trout is significantly constrained by transmembrane transport. PMID:25121611

  18. Profound Hypoglycemia in Starved, Ghrelin-deficient Mice Is Caused by Decreased Gluconeogenesis and Reversed by Lactate or Fatty Acids*

    PubMed Central

    Li, Robert Lin; Sherbet, Daniel P.; Elsbernd, Benjamin L.; Goldstein, Joseph L.; Brown, Michael S.; Zhao, Tong-Jin

    2012-01-01

    When mice are subjected to 7-day calorie restriction (40% of normal food intake), body fat disappears, but blood glucose is maintained as long as the animals produce ghrelin, an octanoylated peptide that stimulates growth hormone secretion. Mice can be rendered ghrelin-deficient by knock-out of the gene encoding either ghrelin O-acyltransferase, which attaches the required octanoate, or ghrelin itself. Calorie-restricted, fat-depleted ghrelin O-acyltransferase or ghrelin knock-out mice fail to show the normal increase in growth hormone and become profoundly hypoglycemic when fasted for 18–23 h. Glucose production in Goat−/− mice was reduced by 60% when compared with similarly treated WT mice. Plasma lactate and pyruvate were also low. Injection of lactate, pyruvate, alanine, or a fatty acid restored blood glucose in Goat−/− mice. Thus, when body fat is reduced by calorie restriction, ghrelin stimulates growth hormone secretion, which allows maintenance of glucose production, even when food intake is eliminated. In humans with anorexia nervosa or kwashiorkor, ghrelin and growth hormone are known to be elevated, just as they are in fat-depleted mice. We suggest that these two hormones prolong survival in starved humans as they do in mice. PMID:22474325

  19. PDK-1 regulates lactate production in hypoxia and is associated with poor prognosis in head and neck squamous cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wigfield, S M; Winter, S C; Giatromanolaki, A; Taylor, J; Koukourakis, M L; Harris, A L

    2008-01-01

    Here we describe the expression and function of a HIF-1-regulated protein pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-1 (PDK-1) in head and neck squamous cancer (HNSCC). Using RNAi to downregulate hypoxia-inducible PDK-1, we found that lactate and pyruvate excretion after 16–48 h of hypoxia was suppressed to normoxic levels. This indicates that PDK-1 plays an important role in maintaining glycolysis. Knockdown had no effect on proliferation or survival under hypoxia. The immunohistochemical expression of PDK-1 was assessed in 140 cases of HNSCC. PDK-1 expression was not expressed in normal tissues but was upregulated in HNSCC and found to be predominantly cytoplasmic with occasional strong focal nuclear expression. It was strongly related to poor outcome (P=0.005 split by median). These results indicate that HIF regulation of PDK-1 has a key role in maintaining lactate production in human cancer and that the investigation of PDK-1 inhibitors should be investigated for antitumour effects. PMID:18542064

  20. Effect of Oxygen on Glucose Metabolism: Utilization of Lactate in Staphylococcus Aureus as Revealed by In Vivo NMR Studies

    PubMed Central

    Gaspar, Paula; Pinho, Mariana G.; Neves, Ana Rute

    2013-01-01

    The ability to successfully adapt to changing host conditions is crucial for full virulence of bacterial pathogens. Staphylococcus aureus has to cope with fluctuating oxygen concentrations during the course of infection. Hence, we studied the effect of oxygen on glucose metabolism in non-growing S. aureus COL-S cells by in vivo 13C-NMR. Glucose catabolism was probed at different oxygen concentrations in suspensions of cells grown aerobically (direct effects on metabolism) or anaerobically (transcriptional adjustment to oxygen deprivation). In aerobically-grown cells, the rate of glucose consumption diminished progressively with decreasing oxygen concentrations. Additionally, oxygen deprivation resulted in biphasic glucose consumption, with the second phase presenting a higher rate. The fructose-1,6-bisphosphate pool peaked while glucose was still abundant, but the transient maximum varied with the oxygen concentration. As oxygen became limiting mannitol/mannitol-1-phosphate were detected as products of glucose catabolism. Under anoxic conditions, accumulation of mannitol-1-phosphate ceased with the switch to higher glucose consumption rates, which implies the activation of a more efficient means by which NAD+ can be regenerated. The distribution of end-products deriving from glucose catabolism was dramatically affected by oxygen: acetate increased and lactate decreased with the oxygen concentration; ethanol was formed only anaerobically. Moreover, oxygen promoted the energetically favourable conversion of lactate into acetate, which was particularly noticeable under fully oxygenated conditions. Interestingly, under aerobiosis growing S. aureus cells also converted lactate to acetate, used simultaneously glucose and lactate as substrates for growth, and grew considerably well on lactate-medium. We propose that the efficient lactate catabolism may endow S. aureus with a metabolic advantage in its ecological niche. PMID:23472168

  1. Specific inhibition by synthetic analogs of pyruvate reveals that the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction is essential for metabolism and viability of glioblastoma cells.

    PubMed

    Bunik, Victoria I; Artiukhov, Artem; Kazantsev, Alexey; Goncalves, Renata; Daloso, Danilo; Oppermann, Henry; Kulakovskaya, Elena; Lukashev, Nikolay; Fernie, Alisdair; Brand, Martin; Gaunitz, Frank

    2015-11-24

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) and its phosphorylation are considered essential for oncotransformation, but it is unclear whether cancer cells require PDHC to be functional or silenced. We used specific inhibition of PDHC by synthetic structural analogs of pyruvate to resolve this question. With isolated and intramitochondrial PDHC, acetyl phosphinate (AcPH, KiAcPH = 0.1 μM) was a much more potent competitive inhibitor than the methyl ester of acetyl phosphonate (AcPMe, KiAcPMe = 40 μM). When preincubated with the complex, AcPH also irreversibly inactivated PDHC. Pyruvate prevented, but did not reverse the inactivation. The pyruvate analogs did not significantly inhibit other 2-oxo acid dehydrogenases. Different cell lines were exposed to the inhibitors and a membrane-permeable precursor of AcPMe, dimethyl acetyl phosphonate, which did not inhibit isolated PDHC. Using an ATP-based assay, dependence of cellular viability on the concentration of the pyruvate analogs was followed. The highest toxicity of the membrane-permeable precursor suggested that the cellular action of charged AcPH and AcPMe requires monocarboxylate transporters. The relevant cell-specific transcripts extracted from Gene Expression Omnibus database indicated that cell lines with higher expression of monocarboxylate transporters and PDHC components were more sensitive to the PDHC inhibitors. Prior to a detectable antiproliferative action, AcPH significantly changed metabolic profiles of the investigated glioblastoma cell lines. We conclude that catalytic transformation of pyruvate by pyruvate dehydrogenase is essential for the metabolism and viability of glioblastoma cell lines, although metabolic heterogeneity causes different cellular sensitivities and/or abilities to cope with PDHC inhibition. PMID:26503465

  2. Specific inhibition by synthetic analogs of pyruvate reveals that the pyruvate dehydrogenase reaction is essential for metabolism and viability of glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Bunik, Victoria I.; Artiukhov, Artem; Kazantsev, Alexey; Goncalves, Renata; Daloso, Danilo; Oppermann, Henry; Kulakovskaya, Elena; Lukashev, Nikolay; Fernie, Alisdair; Brand, Martin; Gaunitz, Frank

    2015-01-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDHC) and its phosphorylation are considered essential for oncotransformation, but it is unclear whether cancer cells require PDHC to be functional or silenced. We used specific inhibition of PDHC by synthetic structural analogs of pyruvate to resolve this question. With isolated and intramitochondrial PDHC, acetyl phosphinate (AcPH, KiAcPH = 0.1 μM) was a much more potent competitive inhibitor than the methyl ester of acetyl phosphonate (AcPMe, KiAcPMe = 40 μM). When preincubated with the complex, AcPH also irreversibly inactivated PDHC. Pyruvate prevented, but did not reverse the inactivation. The pyruvate analogs did not significantly inhibit other 2-oxo acid dehydrogenases. Different cell lines were exposed to the inhibitors and a membrane-permeable precursor of AcPMe, dimethyl acetyl phosphonate, which did not inhibit isolated PDHC. Using an ATP-based assay, dependence of cellular viability on the concentration of the pyruvate analogs was followed. The highest toxicity of the membrane-permeable precursor suggested that the cellular action of charged AcPH and AcPMe requires monocarboxylate transporters. The relevant cell-specific transcripts extracted from Gene Expression Omnibus database indicated that cell lines with higher expression of monocarboxylate transporters and PDHC components were more sensitive to the PDHC inhibitors. Prior to a detectable antiproliferative action, AcPH significantly changed metabolic profiles of the investigated glioblastoma cell lines. We conclude that catalytic transformation of pyruvate by pyruvate dehydrogenase is essential for the metabolism and viability of glioblastoma cell lines, although metabolic heterogeneity causes different cellular sensitivities and/or abilities to cope with PDHC inhibition. PMID:26503465

  3. Pyruvate metabolism: A therapeutic opportunity in radiation-induced skin injury

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Hyun; Kang, Jeong Wook; Lee, Dong Won; Oh, Sang Ho; Lee, Yun-Sil; Lee, Eun-Jung; Cho, Jaeho

    2015-05-08

    Ionizing radiation is used to treat a range of cancers. Despite recent technological progress, radiation therapy can damage the skin at the administration site. The specific molecular mechanisms involved in this effect have not been fully characterized. In this study, the effects of pyruvate, on radiation-induced skin injury were investigated, including the role of the pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 (PDK2) signaling pathway. Next generation sequencing (NGS) identified a wide range of gene expression differences between the control and irradiated mice, including reduced expression of PDK2. This was confirmed using Q-PCR. Cell culture studies demonstrated that PDK2 overexpression and a high cellular pyruvate concentration inhibited radiation-induced cytokine expression. Immunohistochemical studies demonstrated radiation-induced skin thickening and gene expression changes. Oral pyruvate treatment markedly downregulated radiation-induced changes in skin thickness and inflammatory cytokine expression. These findings indicated that regulation of the pyruvate metabolic pathway could provide an effective approach to the control of radiation-induced skin damage. - Highlights: • The effects of radiation on skin thickness in mice. • Next generation sequencing revealed that radiation inhibited pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 2 expression. • PDK2 inhibited irradiation-induced cytokine gene expression. • Oral pyruvate treatment markedly downregulated radiation-induced changes in skin thickness.

  4. Structural Basis for "Flip-Flop" Action of Human Pyruvate Dehydrogenase

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ciszak, Ewa; Korotchkina, Lioubov; Dominiak, Paulina; Sidhu, Sukhdeep; Patel, Mulchand

    2003-01-01

    The derivative of vitamin B1, thiamin pyrophosphate is a cofactor of pyruvate dehydrogenase, a component enzyme of the mitochondrial pyruvate dehydrogenase multienzyme complex that plays a major role in directing energy metabolism in the cell. This cofactor is used to cleave the C(sup alpha)-C(=O) bond of pyruvate followed by reductive acetyl transfer to lipoyl-dihydrolipoamide acetyltransferase. In alpha(sub 2)beta(sub 2)-tetrameric human pyruvate dehydrogenase, there are two cofactor binding sites, each of them being a center of independently conducted, although highly coordinated enzymatic reactions. The dynamic nonequivalence of two, otherwise chemically equivalent, catalytic sites can now be understood based on the recently determined crystal structure of the holo-form of human pyruvate dehydrogenase at 1.95A resolution. The structure of pyruvate dehydrogenase was determined using a combination of MAD phasing and molecular replacement followed by rounds of torsion-angles molecular-dynamics simulated-annealing refinement. The final pyruvate dehydrogenase structure included coordinates for all protein amino acids two cofactor molecules, two magnesium and two potassium ions, and 742 water molecules. The structure was refined to R = 0.202 and R(sub free) = 0.244. Our structural analysis of the enzyme folding and domain assembly identified a simple mechanism of this protein motion required for the conduct of catalytic action.

  5. Pyruvic acid levels in serum and saliva: A new course for oral cancer screening?

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Manohara A; Prasad, KVV; Trivedi, Dheeraj; Rajeev, BR; Battur, Hemanth

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Cancerous cells show increased glycolysis rate. This will increase overall levels of pyruvate as it is one of the end products of glycolysis. The present on-going study is to estimate the levels of pyruvate in saliva and serum among healthy and oral cancer subjects. Settings and Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional comparative study. Methodology: A total of 50 subjects among healthy and oral cancer subjects were selected based on clinical and histological criteria. Saliva and serum samples were collected and subjected to pyruvate level estimation using biochemical analysis. Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analysis and Mann-Whitney test were used to find the statistical difference between the two independent groups. Results: Serum pyruvic acid levels of the healthy group were 1.09 ± 0.14 and for oral cancer, it was 2.95 ± 0.59 and salivary level were 3.49 ± 0.47 and 1.32 ± 0.10 respectively. Mann-Whitney test showed statistically significant difference in serum and salivary pyruvate level in between two groups (P < 0.000 respectively). Conclusion: The present study showed noticeable variation in the level of pyruvic acid among healthy and oral cancer subjects. This generates the hypothesis that estimation of the pyruvic acid can be a new tool to screening of the cancer. PMID:27194870

  6. Targeting Pyruvate Carboxylase Reduces Gluconeogenesis and Adiposity and Improves Insulin Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kumashiro, Naoki; Beddow, Sara A.; Vatner, Daniel F.; Majumdar, Sachin K.; Cantley, Jennifer L.; Guebre-Egziabher, Fitsum; Fat, Ioana; Guigni, Blas; Jurczak, Michael J.; Birkenfeld, Andreas L.; Kahn, Mario; Perler, Bryce K.; Puchowicz, Michelle A.; Manchem, Vara Prasad; Bhanot, Sanjay; Still, Christopher D.; Gerhard, Glenn S.; Petersen, Kitt Falk; Cline, Gary W.; Shulman, Gerald I.; Samuel, Varman T.

    2013-01-01

    We measured the mRNA and protein expression of the key gluconeogenic enzymes in human liver biopsy specimens and found that only hepatic pyruvate carboxylase protein levels related strongly with glycemia. We assessed the role of pyruvate carboxylase in regulating glucose and lipid metabolism in rats through a loss-of-function approach using a specific antisense oligonucleotide (ASO) to decrease expression predominantly in liver and adipose tissue. Pyruvate carboxylase ASO reduced plasma glucose concentrations and the rate of endogenous glucose production in vivo. Interestingly, pyruvate carboxylase ASO also reduced adiposity, plasma lipid concentrations, and hepatic steatosis in high fat–fed rats and improved hepatic insulin sensitivity. Pyruvate carboxylase ASO had similar effects in Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats. Pyruvate carboxylase ASO did not alter de novo fatty acid synthesis, lipolysis, or hepatocyte fatty acid oxidation. In contrast, the lipid phenotype was attributed to a decrease in hepatic and adipose glycerol synthesis, which is important for fatty acid esterification when dietary fat is in excess. Tissue-specific inhibition of pyruvate carboxylase is a potential therapeutic approach for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, hepatic insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. PMID:23423574

  7. Decomposition of Pyruvic Acid on the Ground-State Potential Energy Surface.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Gabriel

    2016-01-21

    A potential energy surface is reported for isomerization and decomposition of gas-phase pyruvic acid (CH3C(O)C(O)OH) in its ground electronic state. Consistent with previous works, the lowest energy pathway for pyruvic acid decomposition is identified as decarboxylation to produce hydroxymethylcarbene (CH3COH), with overall barrier of 43 kcal mol(-1). This study discovers that pyruvic acid can also isomerize to the α-lactone form with a barrier of only 36 kcal mol(-1), from which CO elimination can occur at 49 kcal mol(-1) above pyruvic acid. An additional novel channel is identified for the tautomerisation of pyruvic acid to the enol form, via a double H-shift mechanism. The barrier for this process is 51 kcal mol(-1), which is around 20 kcal mol(-1) lower than the barrier for conventional keto-enol tautomerization via a 1,3-H shift transition state. Rate coefficients are calculated for pyruvic acid decomposition through RRKM theory/master equation simulations at 800-2000 K and 1 atm, showing good agreement with the available experimental data. The dissociation of vibrationally excited pyruvic acid produced through photoexcitation and subsequent internal conversion to the ground state is also modeled under tropospheric conditions and is seen to produce appreciable quantities of CO (∼1-4%) in addition to CH3COH via the dominant CO2 loss channel. PMID:26587666

  8. Amperometric lactate biosensor for flow injection analysis based on a screen-printed carbon electrode containing Meldola's Blue-Reinecke salt, coated with lactate dehydrogenase and NAD+.

    PubMed

    Piano, M; Serban, S; Pittson, R; Drago, G A; Hart, J P

    2010-06-30

    A biosensor for the measurement of lactate in serum has been developed, which is based on a screen-printed carbon electrode, modified with Meldola's Blue-Reinecke Salt (MBRS-SPCE), coated with the enzyme lactate dehydrogenase NAD(+) dependent (from Porcine heart), and NAD(+). A cellulose acetate layer was deposited on the top of the device to act as a permselective membrane. The biosensor was incorporated into a commercially available, thin-layer, amperometric flow cell operated at a potential of only +0.05 V vs. Ag/AgCl. The mobile phase consisted of 0.2 M phosphate buffer pH 10 containing 0.1 M potassium chloride solution; a flow rate of 0.8 ml min(-1) was used throughout the investigation. The biosensor response was linear over the range 0.55-10 mM lactate; the former represents the detection limit. The precision of the system was determined by carrying out 10 repeat injections of 10 mM l(+)lactic acid standard; the calculated coefficient of variation was 4.28%. It was demonstrated that this biosensor system could be applied to the direct measurement of lactate in serum without pre-treatment; therefore, this would allow high throughput-analysis, at low cost, for this clinically important analyte. PMID:20685431

  9. 21 CFR 184.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 184.1207 Section 184.1207 Food... GRAS § 184.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Calcium lactate (C6H10CaO6.xH2O, where x is any integer up to 5, CAS Reg. No. 814-80-2) is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid with...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 184.1207 Section 184.1207 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Calcium lactate (C6H10CaO6.xH2O, where... lactic acid with calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications...

  11. 21 CFR 184.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 184.1207 Section 184.1207 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Calcium lactate (C6H10CaO6.xH2O, where... lactic acid with calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium lactate. 184.1207 Section 184.1207 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Calcium lactate (C6H10CaO6.xH2O, where x is any... calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of the Food...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  14. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and is prepared commercially...

  15. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  16. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1639 - Potassium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Potassium lactate. 184.1639 Section 184.1639 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1639 Potassium lactate. (a) Potassium lactate (C3H5O3K, CAS Reg. No. 996-31-6) is the potassium salt of lactic acid. It is a hydroscopic, white, odorless solid and...

  18. Cerebral Lactate Metabolism After Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Patet, Camille; Suys, Tamarah; Carteron, Laurent; Oddo, Mauro

    2016-04-01

    Cerebral energy dysfunction has emerged as an important determinant of prognosis following traumatic brain injury (TBI). A number of studies using cerebral microdialysis, positron emission tomography, and jugular bulb oximetry to explore cerebral metabolism in patients with TBI have demonstrated a critical decrease in the availability of the main energy substrate of brain cells (i.e., glucose). Energy dysfunction induces adaptations of cerebral metabolism that include the utilization of alternative energy resources that the brain constitutively has, such as lactate. Two decades of experimental and human investigations have convincingly shown that lactate stands as a major actor of cerebral metabolism. Glutamate-induced activation of glycolysis stimulates lactate production from glucose in astrocytes, with subsequent lactate transfer to neurons (astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle). Lactate is not only used as an extra energy substrate but also acts as a signaling molecule and regulator of systemic and brain glucose use in the cerebral circulation. In animal models of brain injury (e.g., TBI, stroke), supplementation with exogenous lactate exerts significant neuroprotection. Here, we summarize the main clinical studies showing the pivotal role of lactate and cerebral lactate metabolism after TBI. We also review pilot interventional studies that examined exogenous lactate supplementation in patients with TBI and found hypertonic lactate infusions had several beneficial properties on the injured brain, including decrease of brain edema, improvement of neuroenergetics via a "cerebral glucose-sparing effect," and increase of cerebral blood flow. Hypertonic lactate represents a promising area of therapeutic investigation; however, larger studies are needed to further examine mechanisms of action and impact on outcome. PMID:26898683

  19. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1768 - Sodium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sodium lactate. 184.1768 Section 184.1768 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1768 Sodium lactate. (a) Sodium lactate (C3H5O3Na, CAS Reg. No. 72-17-3) is the sodium salt of lactic acid. It is prepared commercially by the neutralization of lactic acid...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1207 - Calcium lactate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... lactic acid with calcium carbonate or calcium hydroxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications of... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Calcium lactate. 184.1207 Section 184.1207 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1207 Calcium lactate. (a) Calcium lactate (C6H10CaO6.xH2O,...

  4. Monitoring electron donor metabolism under variable electron acceptor conditions using 13C-labeled lactate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bill, M.; Conrad, M. E.; Yang, L.; Beller, H. R.; Brodie, E. L.

    2010-12-01

    Three sets of flow-through columns constructed with aquifer sediment from Hanford (WA) were used to study reduction of Cr(VI) to poorly soluble Cr(III) under denitrifying, sulfate-reducing/fermentative, and iron-reducing conditions with lactate as the electron donor. In order to understand the relationship between electron donors and biomarkers, and to determine the differences in carbon isotope fractionation resulting from different microbial metabolic processes, we monitored the variation in carbon isotopes in dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC), in total organic carbon (TOC), and in lactate, acetate and propionate. The greatest enrichment in 13C in columns was observed under denitrifying conditions. The δ13C of DIC increased by ~1750 to ~2000‰ fifteen days after supplementation of natural abundance lactate with a 13C-labeled lactate tracer (for an influent δ13C of ~2250‰ for the lactate) indicating almost complete oxidation of the electron donor. The denitrifying columns were among the most active columns and had the highest cell counts and the denitrification rate was highly correlated with Cr(VI) reduction rate. δ13C values of DIC ranged from ~540 to ~1170‰ for iron-reducing conditions. The lower enrichment in iron columns was related to the lower biological activity observed with lower yields of RNA and cell numbers in the column effluents. The carbon isotope shift in the sulfate-reducing ~198 to ~1960‰ for sulfate-reducing conditions reflecting the lower levels of the lactate in these columns. Additionally, in two of the sulfate columns, almost complete fermentation of the lactate occurred, producing acetate and propionate with the labeled carbon signature, but relatively smaller amounts of inorganic carbon. For all electron-accepting conditions, TOC yielded similar δ13C values as lactate stock solutions. Differences in C use efficiency, metabolic rate or metabolic pathway contributed to the differing TOC δ13C to DIC δ13C ratios between treatments

  5. Lactation amenorrhea in Saudi women.

    PubMed Central

    Madani, K A; Khashoggi, R H; al-Nowaisser, A A; Nasrat, H A; Khalil, M H

    1994-01-01

    STUDY OBJECTIVE--The study aimed to investigate some aspects of breast feeding, namely-lactation amenorrhea, the average interval between pregnancies, and the extent of knowledge that an average Saudi woman has about breast feeding. DESIGN--This was a cross sectional study in which a pretested questionnaire was used to collect the information. SETTING--The study was conducted in the Taif area between January and April of 1990. Seventy nine primary health care centres participated. PARTICIPANTS--Altogether 1019 of 2400 women contacted who agreed to participate and met the criteria were studied. Eligible subjects were defined as Saudi women, between 16 and 40 years old, who came with their infants for vaccination, and had delivered between one week and 12 months previously. Each mother had at least one other child. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULT--At birth, the percentage of infants who were initially breast fed was 98% but within three days of delivery over two thirds (68.9%) of the mothers gave other supplementary liquids to their infants. At the time of interview more than half (55.1%) of mothers had lactation amenorrhea. The mean (SD) lactation amenorrhea period and birth interval were 5.95 (5) and 26.8 (14.1) months, respectively. Mothers obtained information on breast feeding mainly from their doctors and television. Within families, husbands had the primary role in encouraging their wives to breast feed, followed by the mother and then by the mother in law. It was found that a high percentage (94.2%) of women had breast fed their previous child. CONCLUSION--The lack of adequate information on breast feeding and the short interval between births are local problems which should be considered by the health authorities. PMID:8051529

  6. Factors Altering Pyruvate Excretion in a Glycogen Storage Mutant of the Cyanobacterium, Synechococcus PCC7942.

    PubMed

    Benson, Phoebe J; Purcell-Meyerink, Diane; Hocart, Charles H; Truong, Thy T; James, Gabriel O; Rourke, Loraine; Djordjevic, Michael A; Blackburn, Susan I; Price, G D

    2016-01-01

    Interest in the production of carbon commodities from photosynthetically fixed CO2 has focused attention on cyanobacteria as a target for metabolic engineering and pathway investigation. We investigated the redirection of carbon flux in the model cyanobacterial species, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, under nitrogen deprivation, for optimized production of the industrially desirable compound, pyruvate. Under nitrogen limited conditions, excess carbon is naturally stored as the multi-branched polysaccharide, glycogen, but a block in glycogen synthesis, via knockout mutation in the gene encoding ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (glgC), results in the accumulation of the organic acids, pyruvate and 2-oxoglutarate, as overflow excretions into the extracellular media. The ΔglgC strain, under 48 h of N-deprivation was shown to excrete pyruvate for the first time in this strain. Additionally, by increasing culture pH, to pH 10, it was possible to substantially elevate excretion of pyruvate, suggesting the involvement of an unknown substrate/proton symporter for export. The ΔglgC mutant was also engineered to express foreign transporters for glucose and sucrose, and then grown photomixotrophically with exogenous organic carbon supply, as added 5 mM glucose or sucrose during N- deprivation. Under these conditions we observed a fourfold increase in extracellular pyruvate excretion when glucose was added, and a smaller increase with added sucrose. Although the magnitude of pyruvate excretion did not correlate with the capacity of the ΔglgC strain for bicarbonate-dependent photosynthetic O2 evolution, or with light intensity, there was, however, a positive correlation observed between the density of the starter culture prior to N-deprivation and the final extracellular pyruvate concentration. The factors that contribute to enhancement of pyruvate excretion are discussed, as well as consideration of whether the source of carbon for pyruvate excretion might be derived from

  7. Factors Altering Pyruvate Excretion in a Glycogen Storage Mutant of the Cyanobacterium, Synechococcus PCC7942

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Phoebe J.; Purcell-Meyerink, Diane; Hocart, Charles H.; Truong, Thy T.; James, Gabriel O.; Rourke, Loraine; Djordjevic, Michael A.; Blackburn, Susan I.; Price, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    Interest in the production of carbon commodities from photosynthetically fixed CO2 has focused attention on cyanobacteria as a target for metabolic engineering and pathway investigation. We investigated the redirection of carbon flux in the model cyanobacterial species, Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942, under nitrogen deprivation, for optimized production of the industrially desirable compound, pyruvate. Under nitrogen limited conditions, excess carbon is naturally stored as the multi-branched polysaccharide, glycogen, but a block in glycogen synthesis, via knockout mutation in the gene encoding ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (glgC), results in the accumulation of the organic acids, pyruvate and 2-oxoglutarate, as overflow excretions into the extracellular media. The ΔglgC strain, under 48 h of N-deprivation was shown to excrete pyruvate for the first time in this strain. Additionally, by increasing culture pH, to pH 10, it was possible to substantially elevate excretion of pyruvate, suggesting the involvement of an unknown substrate/proton symporter for export. The ΔglgC mutant was also engineered to express foreign transporters for glucose and sucrose, and then grown photomixotrophically with exogenous organic carbon supply, as added 5 mM glucose or sucrose during N- deprivation. Under these conditions we observed a fourfold increase in extracellular pyruvate excretion when glucose was added, and a smaller increase with added sucrose. Although the magnitude of pyruvate excretion did not correlate with the capacity of the ΔglgC strain for bicarbonate-dependent photosynthetic O2 evolution, or with light intensity, there was, however, a positive correlation observed between the density of the starter culture prior to N-deprivation and the final extracellular pyruvate concentration. The factors that contribute to enhancement of pyruvate excretion are discussed, as well as consideration of whether the source of carbon for pyruvate excretion might be derived from

  8. Induction of pyruvate carboxylase apoenzyme and holoenzyme in 3T3-L1 cells during differentiation

    PubMed Central

    Freytag, Svend O.; Utter, Merton F.

    1980-01-01

    The specific activity of pyruvate carboxylase [pyruvate:carbon-dioxide ligase (ADP-forming); EC 6.4.1.1] in 3T3-L1 cells increases approximately 20-fold when these cells differentiate to an adipocyte-like form [Mackall, J. C. & Lane, M. D. (1977) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 79, 720-725]. A specific antibody to the purified rat liver enzyme quantitatively precipitated pyruvate carboxylase from 3T3-L1 crude homogenates. Use of this immunological technique permitted us to demonstrate that the increase in pyruvate carboxylase activity is due to an increase in the intracellular concentration of the enzyme. The content of pyruvate carboxylase in differentiated 3T3-L1 cells is sufficiently high (1-2% of total protein) that the increase in this large protein (subunit Mr = 130,000) can be visualized when 3T3-L1 crude extracts are subjected to electrophoresis on sodium dodecyl sulfate/polyacrylamide gels. When 3T3-L1 cells differentiated in the presence of avidin, they contained less than 5% of the pyruvate carboxylase activity of cells that differentiated in the absence of avidin. However, the immunoprecipitable pyruvate carboxylase content of the avidin-treated cells was essentially the same as that of cells that differentiated without avidin. Full activity of the enzyme was rapidly restored in the avidin-treated cells upon the addition of excess biotin. The recovery of activity was closely correlated with the incorporation of [14C]biotin into immunoprecipitable pyruvate carboxylase. The rapidity with which the activity was restored and the insensitivity of the process to inhibitors of protein synthesis strongly suggest that the apoenzyme of pyruvate carboxylase accumulates during differentiation in the presence of avidin. Images PMID:6929488

  9. Genetic, Genomic, and Transcriptomic Studies of Pyruvate Metabolism in Methanosarcina barkeri Fusaro

    PubMed Central

    López Muñoz, Madeline M.; Schönheit, Peter

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pyruvate, a central intermediate in the carbon fixation pathway of methanogenic archaea, is rarely used as an energy source by these organisms. The sole exception to this rule is a genetically uncharacterized Methanosarcina barkeri mutant capable of using pyruvate as a sole energy and carbon source (the Pyr+ phenotype). Here, we provide evidence that suggests that the Pyr+ mutant is able to metabolize pyruvate by overexpressing pyruvate ferredoxin oxidoreductase (por) and mutating genes involved in central carbon metabolism. Genomic analysis showed that the Pyr+ strain has two mutations localized to Mbar_A1588, the biotin protein ligase subunit of the pyruvate carboxylase (pyc) operon, and Mbar_A2165, a putative transcriptional regulator. Mutants expressing the Mbar_A1588 mutation showed no growth defect compared to the wild type (WT), yet the strains lacked pyc activity. Recreation of the Mbar_A2165 mutation resulted in a 2-fold increase of Por activity and gene expression, suggesting a role in por transcriptional regulation. Further transcriptomic analysis revealed that Pyr+ strains also overexpress the gene encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, indicating the presence of a previously uncharacterized route for synthesizing oxaloacetate in M. barkeri and explaining the unimpaired growth in the absence of Pyc. Surprisingly, stringent repression of the por operon was lethal, even when the media were supplemented with pyruvate and/or Casamino Acids, suggesting that por plays an unidentified essential function in M. barkeri. IMPORTANCE The work presented here reveals a complex interaction between anabolic and catabolic pathways involving pyruvate metabolism in Methanosarcina barkeri Fusaro. Among the unexpected findings were an essential role for the enzyme pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase and an alternate pathway for synthesis of oxaloacetate. These results clarify the mechanism of methanogenic catabolism of pyruvate and expand our understanding of

  10. Hemichannel-mediated release of lactate.

    PubMed

    Karagiannis, Anastassios; Sylantyev, Sergiy; Hadjihambi, Anna; Hosford, Patrick S; Kasparov, Sergey; Gourine, Alexander V

    2016-07-01

    In the central nervous system lactate contributes to the extracellular pool of readily available energy substrates and may also function as a signaling molecule which mediates communication between glial cells and neurons. Monocarboxylate transporters are believed to provide the main pathway for lactate transport across the membranes. Here we tested the hypothesis that lactate could also be released via opening of pannexin and/or functional connexin hemichannels. In acute slices prepared from the brainstem, hippocampus, hypothalamus and cortex of adult rats, enzymatic amperometric biosensors detected significant tonic lactate release inhibited by compounds, which block pannexin/connexin hemichannels and facilitated by lowering extracellular [Ca(2+)] or increased PCO2 Enhanced lactate release triggered by hypoxia was reduced by ∼50% by either connexin or monocarboxylate transporter blockers. Stimulation of Schaffer collateral fibers triggered lactate release in CA1 area of the hippocampus, which was facilitated in conditions of low extracellular [Ca(2+)], markedly reduced by blockade of connexin hemichannels and abolished by lactate dehydrogenase inhibitor oxamate. These results indicate that lactate transport across the membranes may occur via mechanisms other than monocarboxylate transporters. In the central nervous system, hemichannels may function as a conduit of lactate release, and this mechanism is recruited during hypoxia and periods of enhanced neuronal activity. PMID:26661210

  11. Functional expression of the lactate permease Jen1p of Saccharomyces cerevisiae in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed Central

    Soares-Silva, Isabel; Schuller, Dorit; Andrade, Raquel P; Baltazar, Fátima; Cássio, Fernanda; Casal, Margarida

    2003-01-01

    In Saccharomyces cerevisiae the activity for the lactate-proton symporter is dependent on JEN1 gene expression. Pichia pastoris was transformed with an integrative plasmid containing the JEN1 gene. After 24 h of methanol induction, Northern and Western blotting analyses indicated the expression of JEN1 in the transformants. Lactate permease activity was obtained in P. pastoris cells with a V (max) of 2.1 nmol x s(-1) x mg of dry weight(-1). Reconstitution of the lactate permease activity was achieved by fusing plasma membranes of P. pastoris methanol-induced cells with Escherichia coli liposomes containing cytochrome c oxidase, as proton-motive force. These assays in reconstituted heterologous P. pastoris membrane vesicles demonstrate that S. cerevisiae Jen1p is a functional lactate transporter. Moreover, a S. cerevisiae strain deleted in the JEN1 gene was transformed with a centromeric plasmid containing JEN1 under the control of the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase constitutive promotor. Constitutive JEN1 expression and lactic acid uptake were observed in cells grown on either glucose and/or acetic acid. The highest V (max) (0.84 nmol x s(-1) x mg of dry weight(-1)) was obtained in acetic acid-grown cells. Thus overexpression of the S. cerevisiae JEN1 gene in both S. cerevisiae and P. pastoris cells resulted in increased activity of lactate transport when compared with the data previously reported in lactic acid-grown cells of native S. cerevisiae strains. Jen1p is the only S. cerevisiae secondary porter characterized so far by heterologous expression in P. pastoris at both the cell and the membrane-vesicle levels. PMID:12962538

  12. Enforced ATP futile cycling increases specific productivity and yield of anaerobic lactate production in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Hädicke, Oliver; Bettenbrock, Katja; Klamt, Steffen

    2015-10-01

    The manipulation of cofactor pools such as ATP or NAD(P)H has for long been recognized as key targets for metabolic engineering of microorganisms to improve yields and productivities of biotechnological processes. Several works in the past have shown that enforcing ATP futile cycling may enhance the synthesis of certain products under aerobic conditions. However, case studies demonstrating that ATP wasting may also have beneficial effects for anaerobic production processes are scarce. Taking lactic acid as an economically relevant product, we demonstrate that induction of ATP futile cycling in Escherichia coli leads to increased yields and specific production rates under anaerobic conditions, even in the case where lactate is already produced with high yields. Specifically, we constructed a high lactate producer strain KBM10111 (= MG1655 ΔadhE::Cam ΔackA-pta) and implemented an IPTG-inducible overexpression of ppsA encoding for PEP synthase which, together with pyruvate kinase, gives rise to an ATP consuming cycle. Under induction of ppsA, KBM10111 exhibits a 25% higher specific lactate productivity as well as an 8% higher lactate yield. Furthermore, the specific substrate uptake rate was increased by 14%. However, trade-offs between specific and volumetric productivities must be considered when ATP wasting strategies are used to shift substrate conversion from biomass to product synthesis and we discuss potential solutions to design optimal processes. In summary, enforced ATP futile cycling has great potential to optimize a variety of production processes and our study demonstrates that this holds true also for anaerobic processes. PMID:25899755

  13. Triiodothyronine activates lactate oxidation without impairing fatty acid oxidation and improves weaning from extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

    SciTech Connect

    Kajimoto, Masaki; Ledee, Dolena R.; Xu, Chun; Kajimoto, Hidemi; Isern, Nancy G.; Portman, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides a rescue for children with severe cardiac failure. We previously showed that triiodothyronine (T3) improves cardiac function by modulating pyruvate oxidation during weaning. This study was focused on fatty acid (FA) metabolism modulated by T3 for weaning from ECMO after cardiac injury. Methods: Nineteen immature piglets (9.1-15.3 kg) were separated into 3 groups with ECMO (6.5 hours) and wean: normal circulation (Group-C);transient coronary occlusion (10 minutes) followed by ECMO (Group-IR); and IR with T3 supplementation (Group-IR-T3). 13-Carbon labeled lactate, medium-chain and long-chain FAs were infused as oxidative substrates. Substrate fractional contribution to the citric acid cycle (FC) was analyzed by 13-Carbon nuclear magnetic resonance. Results: ECMO depressed circulating T3 levels to 40% baseline at 4 hours and were restored in Group-IR-T3. Group-IR decreased cardiac power, which was not fully restorable and 2 pigs were lost because of weaning failure. Group-IR also depressed FC-lactate, while the excellent contractile function and energy efficiency in Group-IR-T3 occurred along with a marked FC-lactate increase and [ATP]/[ADP] without either decreasing FC-FAs or elevating myocardial oxygen consumption over Group-C or -IR. Conclusions: T3 releases inhibition of lactate oxidation following ischemia-reperfusion injury without impairing FA oxidation. These findings indicate that T3 depression during ECMO is maladaptive, and that restoring levels improves metabolic flux and enhances contractile function during weaning.

  14. 21 CFR 184.1185 - Calcium acetate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Calcium acetate. 184.1185 Section 184.1185 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1185 Calcium acetate. (a) Calcium acetate (Ca (C2H3O2)2, CAS Reg. No. 62-54-4), also known as acetate of lime or vinegar salts, is the calcium salt o